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Sample records for future directions based

  1. Function-Based Intervention: Accomplishments and Future Directions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Umbreit, John; Ferro, Jolenea B.

    2015-01-01

    The field of function-based intervention has changed the way behavioral support is provided to students with challenging behavior. Our goal is to identify and describe some key findings and practices that have facilitated this progress. We also pinpoint some areas for future research that are likely to contribute to further progress.

  2. Future directions for the development of Chlamydomonas-based vaccines.

    PubMed

    Rosales-Mendoza, Sergio

    2013-09-01

    Besides serving as a valuable model in biological sciences, Chamydomonas reinhardtii has been used during the last decade in the biotechnology arena to establish models for the low cost production of vaccines. Antigens from various pathogens including Plasmodium falciparum, foot and mouth disease virus, Staphylococcus aureus, classical swine fever virus (CSFV) as well as some auto-antigens, have been produced in C. reinhardtii. Although some of them have been functionally characterized with promising results, this review identifies future directions for the advancement in the exploitation of this robust and safe vaccine production platform. The present analysis reflects that important immunological implications exist for this system and remain unexplored, including the possible adjuvant effects of algae biomolecules, the effect of bioencapsulation on immunogenicity and the possible development of whole-cell vaccines as an approach to trigger cytotoxic immune responses. Recently described molecular strategies that aim to optimize the expression of nuclear-encoded target antigens are also discussed. PMID:24053395

  3. Future directions of accelerator-based NP and HEP facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Roser, T.

    2011-07-24

    Progress in particle and nuclear physics has been closely connected to the progress in accelerator technologies - a connection that is highly beneficial to both fields. This paper presents a review of the present and future facilities and accelerator technologies that will push the frontiers of high-energy particle interactions and high intensity secondary particle beams.

  4. Discovery of nutritional biomarkers: future directions based on omics technologies.

    PubMed

    Odriozola, Leticia; Corrales, Fernado J

    2015-07-01

    Understanding the interactions between food and human biology is of utmost importance to facilitate the development of more efficient nutritional interventions that might improve our wellness status and future health outcomes by reducing risk factors for non-transmittable chronic diseases, such as cardiovascular diseases, cancer, obesity and metabolic syndrome. Dissection of the molecular mechanisms that mediate the physiological effects of diets and bioactive compounds is one of the main goals of current nutritional investigation and the food industry as might lead to the discovery of novel biomarkers. It is widely recognized that the availability of robust nutritional biomarkers represents a bottleneck that delays the innovation process of the food industry. In this regard, omics sciences have opened up new avenues of research and opportunities in nutrition. Advances in mass spectrometry, nuclear magnetic resonance, next generation sequencing and microarray technologies allow massive genome, gene expression, proteomic and metabolomic profiling, obtaining a global and in-depth analysis of physiological/pathological scenarios. For this reason, omics platforms are most suitable for the discovery and characterization of novel nutritional markers that will define the nutritional status of both individuals and populations in the near future, and to identify the nutritional bioactive compounds responsible for the health outcomes.

  5. School-Based Performance Awards: Research Findings and Future Directions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelley, Carolyn; Heneman, Herbert, III; Milanowski, Anthony

    This paper synthesizes research on how motivation influenced teachers at two school-based performance award (SBPA) programs in Kentucky and in North Carolina. The research was conducted between 1995 and 1998 by the Consortium for Policy Research in Education. SBPA programs provide teachers and other school staff with pay bonuses for the…

  6. Mass spectrometry-based proteomics: existing capabilities and future directions

    SciTech Connect

    Angel, Thomas E.; Aryal, Uma K.; Hengel, Shawna M.; Baker, Erin Shammel; Kelly, Ryan T.; Robinson, Errol W.; Smith, Richard D.

    2012-05-21

    Mass spectrometry-based proteomics provides a means for identification, characterization, and quantification of biomolecules that are integral components of the processes essential for life. Characterization of proteins present in a biological system at the proteome and sub-proteomes (e.g., the phosphoproteome, proteoglycome, or degradome/peptidome) levels provides a foundation for understanding fundamental aspects as well as potentially a range of translational applications. Emerging technologies such as ion mobility separations coupled with mass spectrometry and microchip-based - proteome measurements combined with continued enhancement of MS instrumentation and separation techniques, such as reversed phase liquid chromatography and potentially capillary electrophoresis, show great promise for both broad undirected as well as targeted measurements and will be critical for e.g., the proteome-wide characterization of post translational modifications and identification, or the verification, and validation of potential biomarkers of disease. MS-based proteomics is also increasingly demonstrating great potential for contributing to our understanding of the dynamics, reactions, and roles proteins and peptides play advancing our understanding of biology on a system wide level for a wide range of applications, from investigations of microbial communities, bioremediation, and human health and disease states alike.

  7. Roughness-Based Superhydrophobic Surfaces: Fundamentals and Future Directions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patankar, Neelesh

    2011-11-01

    Superhydrophobicity of rough surfaces has attracted global interest through the past decade. There are naturally occurring instances of such surfaces, e.g., lotus leaves, which led to the popular term ``lotus effect.'' Numerous applications in wide ranging areas such as drag reduction, self-cleaning, heat exchangers, energy conversion, condensation, anti-icing, textile, desalination, etc., are being explored by researchers worldwide. The signature configuration for superhydrophobicity has been ``bead-like'' drops on rough surfaces that roll-off easily. This becomes possible if the liquid does not impale the roughness grooves, and if the contact angle hysteresis is low. Finding appropriate surface roughness is therefore necessary. A thermodynamic framework to enable analysis of this problem will be presented. It will be noted that the success of rough superhydrophobic substrates relies on the presence of gas pockets in the roughness grooves underneath the liquid. These gas pockets could be those of air from the surrounding environment. Current design strategies rely on the availability of air. However, if the rough substrates are fully submerged in the liquid then the trapped air in the roughness grooves may not be sustained. A design approach based on sustaining a vapor phase of the liquid itself in the roughness grooves, instead of relying on the presence of air, will be presented. The resulting surfaces, referred to as vapor stabilizing substrates, are deemed to be robust against wetting transition even if no air is present. Applications of this approach include low drag surfaces, nucleate boiling at dramatically low superheats, among others. The concept can be generalized to other transitions on the phase diagram, thus enabling the design of rough surfaces for phase manipulation in general.

  8. Evidence base and future research directions in the management of low back pain

    PubMed Central

    Abbott, Allan

    2016-01-01

    Low back pain (LBP) is a prevalent and costly condition. Awareness of valid and reliable patient history taking, physical examination and clinical testing is important for diagnostic accuracy. Stratified care which targets treatment to patient subgroups based on key characteristics is reliant upon accurate diagnostics. Models of stratified care that can potentially improve treatment effects include prognostic risk profiling for persistent LBP, likely response to specific treatment based on clinical prediction models or suspected underlying causal mechanisms. The focus of this editorial is to highlight current research status and future directions for LBP diagnostics and stratified care. PMID:27004162

  9. Agent-Based Modeling of Chronic Diseases: A Narrative Review and Future Research Directions.

    PubMed

    Li, Yan; Lawley, Mark A; Siscovick, David S; Zhang, Donglan; Pagán, José A

    2016-01-01

    The United States is experiencing an epidemic of chronic disease. As the US population ages, health care providers and policy makers urgently need decision models that provide systematic, credible prediction regarding the prevention and treatment of chronic diseases to improve population health management and medical decision-making. Agent-based modeling is a promising systems science approach that can model complex interactions and processes related to chronic health conditions, such as adaptive behaviors, feedback loops, and contextual effects. This article introduces agent-based modeling by providing a narrative review of agent-based models of chronic disease and identifying the characteristics of various chronic health conditions that must be taken into account to build effective clinical- and policy-relevant models. We also identify barriers to adopting agent-based models to study chronic diseases. Finally, we discuss future research directions of agent-based modeling applied to problems related to specific chronic health conditions. PMID:27236380

  10. Agent-Based Modeling of Chronic Diseases: A Narrative Review and Future Research Directions

    PubMed Central

    Lawley, Mark A.; Siscovick, David S.; Zhang, Donglan; Pagán, José A.

    2016-01-01

    The United States is experiencing an epidemic of chronic disease. As the US population ages, health care providers and policy makers urgently need decision models that provide systematic, credible prediction regarding the prevention and treatment of chronic diseases to improve population health management and medical decision-making. Agent-based modeling is a promising systems science approach that can model complex interactions and processes related to chronic health conditions, such as adaptive behaviors, feedback loops, and contextual effects. This article introduces agent-based modeling by providing a narrative review of agent-based models of chronic disease and identifying the characteristics of various chronic health conditions that must be taken into account to build effective clinical- and policy-relevant models. We also identify barriers to adopting agent-based models to study chronic diseases. Finally, we discuss future research directions of agent-based modeling applied to problems related to specific chronic health conditions. PMID:27236380

  11. Conclusions: Future Directions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobson, Harvey K.

    1978-01-01

    Various aspects of the institutional evaluation process are discussed including: pitfalls to avoid, choice of indicators, audience, accountability, futures research, technological change, program termination, data sources, longitudinal data, political aspects, advertising, marketing, and internal v external evaluators. (Author/SF)

  12. Pathways: lessons learned and future directions for school-based interventions among American Indians

    PubMed Central

    Gittelsohn, Joel; Davis, Sally M.; Steckler, Allan; Ethelbah, Becky; Clay, Theresa; Metcalfe, Lauve; Rock, Bonnie Holy

    2016-01-01

    Background Pathways, a multicenter study to test the effect of a school-based program to prevent obesity in American Indian children, yielded many benefits and encountered many challenges. This paper explores what we have learned from this study and examines possible future directions. Methods Information presented in this paper is based on formative research, study results, and discussions with staff and investigators. Results Some of the lessons learned relate to having a strong relationship with the tribes, how best to engage the communities, the importance of formative research and achieving standardization in culturally diverse settings, how to incorporate cultural information into curricula, and the importance of family involvement. One of the strengths of the study was the collaborative process that teamed American Indian and non-American Indian investigators and staff. Researchers recognized that they must work in cooperation with research participants including their schools and communities to address challenges, to ensure accurate findings and analyses, and to share benefits. Conclusions The lessons learned from Pathways offer valuable insights for researchers into successful approaches to the challenges inherent in research in American Indian communities, particularly in schools, and how to maximize the benefits of such a study. © 2003 American Health Foundation and Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. PMID:14636815

  13. Conclusions and Future Directions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lillibridge, Fred

    2012-01-01

    Benchmarking, when done properly, offers a lot of promise for higher education units that want to improve how they do business. It is clear that much is known, but still more needs to be learned before it reaches its full potential as a useful tool. Readers of this issue of "New Directions for Institutional Research" have been treated to useful…

  14. Probiotics: future directions.

    PubMed

    Vanderhoof, J A

    2001-06-01

    Clinical studies have shown that certain probiotics may be useful in treating a variety of diarrheal disorders, including rotavirus diarrhea, antibiotic-associated diarrhea, Clostridium difficile diarrhea, and traveler's diarrhea. New data suggest that probiotics might be useful in controlling inflammatory diseases, treating and preventing allergic diseases, preventing cancer, and stimulating the immune system, which may reduce the incidence of respiratory disease. Different modes of administering probiotics are currently being investigated, which may ultimately lead to the widespread use of probiotics in functional foods. It is important that such practices be directed by carefully controlled clinical studies published in peer-reviewed journals.

  15. Membrane-based processes for wastewater nutrient recovery: Technology, challenges, and future direction.

    PubMed

    Xie, Ming; Shon, Ho Kyong; Gray, Stephen R; Elimelech, Menachem

    2016-02-01

    Wastewater nutrient recovery holds promise for more sustainable water and agricultural industries. We critically review three emerging membrane processes - forward osmosis (FO), membrane distillation (MD) and electrodialysis (ED) - that can advance wastewater nutrient recovery. Challenges associated with wastewater nutrient recovery were identified. The advantages and challenges of applying FO, MD, and ED technologies to wastewater nutrient recovery are discussed, and directions for future research and development are identified. Emphasis is given to exploration of the unique mass transfer properties of these membrane processes in the context of wastewater nutrient recovery. We highlight that hybridising these membrane processes with existing nutrient precipitation process will lead to better management of and more diverse pathways for near complete nutrient recovery in wastewater treatment facilities. PMID:26674549

  16. Computer-based learning for ESRD patient education: current status and future directions.

    PubMed

    Chambers, J K; Frisby, A J

    1995-07-01

    Computer use in everyday life has expanded human potential in virtually every possible arena. In health care, computer technology affects direct clinical care through diagnostics, treatment, monitoring, and documentation processes. Patient care systems use computer technology to manage billing, scheduling, and multiple other administrative functions. Computer technology for education of health care professionals has been primarily in selected undergraduate, graduate, and professional degree programs. Computer-based continuing education for health care professionals has been available for at least a decade, but computer-based patient education is just now beginning to emerge as a learning option. This article describes examples of patient education programs using different types of hardware and software and explores potential areas for further development of this area for end-stage renal disease patients and families. Computer technology is not a replacement for professional involvement in patient education, but rather offers a new arena of media to enhance and expand current teaching and learning resources. Computer-based learning is characterized by features representative of many highly regarded principles of adult education. Further, instructional design concepts used for program development are fundamentally sound for patient education.

  17. Home-based clinical video teleconferencing care: Clinical considerations and future directions.

    PubMed

    Morland, Leslie A; Poizner, Jeffrey M; Williams, Kathryn E; Masino, Tonya T; Thorp, Steven R

    2015-01-01

    Clinical video teleconferencing (CVT) is a treatment delivery modality that can be used to provide services to clinical populations that experience barriers to accessing mental health care. Recently, home-based CVT (HBCVT) has been developed in order to deliver treatment via CVT to patients in their homes. A number of clinical considerations, including the appropriate clinical population and individual patient factors, need to be taken into account when delivering CVT. Particular challenges can exist when setting up the home environment for HBCVT. Concerns about maintaining patient privacy while living in shared spaces, ensuring adequate CVT technology in the patient's home, and conducting risk management remotely are important to consider when delivering treatment via CVT. Since treatments delivered via CVT are often conducted across state lines, novel ethical and legal issues such as privacy laws, licensing of providers, prescribing practices, and insurance reimbursements need to be addressed when conducting services via these modalities. Future research on HBCVT will provide researchers and clinicians with information regarding which patients are most appropriate for treatment delivered via this modality and help further develop evidence for the cost-effectiveness of CVT and HBCVT clinical practice guidelines.

  18. Biologically Based Methods for Pest Management in Agriculture under Changing Climates: Challenges and Future Directions

    PubMed Central

    Chidawanyika, Frank; Mudavanhu, Pride; Nyamukondiwa, Casper

    2012-01-01

    The current changes in global climatic regimes present a significant societal challenge, affecting in all likelihood insect physiology, biochemistry, biogeography and population dynamics. With the increasing resistance of many insect pest species to chemical insecticides and an increasing organic food market, pest control strategies are slowly shifting towards more sustainable, ecologically sound and economically viable options. Biologically based pest management strategies present such opportunities through predation or parasitism of pests and plant direct or indirect defense mechanisms that can all be important components of sustainable integrated pest management programs. Inevitably, the efficacy of biological control systems is highly dependent on natural enemy-prey interactions, which will likely be modified by changing climates. Therefore, knowledge of how insect pests and their natural enemies respond to climate variation is of fundamental importance in understanding biological insect pest management under global climate change. Here, we discuss biological control, its challenges under climate change scenarios and how increased global temperatures will require adaptive management strategies to cope with changing status of insects and their natural enemies. PMID:26466733

  19. Innovations and Future Directions for Early Numeracy Curriculum-Based Measurement: Commentary on the Special Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Methe, Scott A.; Hojnoski, Robin; Clarke, Ben; Owens, Brittany B.; Lilley, Patricia K.; Politylo, Bethany C.; White, Kara M.; Marcotte, Amanda M.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this extended commentary article is to frame the set of studies in the first of two issues and recommend areas of inquiry for future research. This special series issue features studies examining the technical qualities of formative assessment procedures that were developed to inform intervention. This article intends to emphasize…

  20. Developing Initiatives for Home-Based Child Care: Current Research and Future Directions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porter, Toni; Paulsell, Diane

    2011-01-01

    Home-based child care accounts for a significant share of the child care supply in the United States, especially for infants and toddlers. A synthesis of the home-based care research literature and information about recent home-based care quality initiatives points to a critical need for more systematic efforts to develop and test quality…

  1. School-Based Prevention of Depression and Anxiety in Australia: Current State and Future Directions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nehmy, Thomas J.

    2010-01-01

    Depression and anxiety constitute an enormous public health burden in Australia, and as such primary prevention is an important focus for school-based prevention efforts. The focus of the current literature review is school-based prevention programmes for depression and anxiety in Australia. Most prevention studies to date would be better…

  2. Systematic review of couple-based HIV intervention and prevention studies: advantages, gaps, and future directions.

    PubMed

    Jiwatram-Negrón, Tina; El-Bassel, Nabila

    2014-10-01

    We conducted a systematic review of couple-based HIV biobehavioral (skills-building, VCT, and adherence) and biomedical (ART, circumcision) prevention and intervention studies designed to reduce sexual- and drug-risk behaviors and HIV transmission and acquisition. Of the 11,162 papers identified in the search, 93 peer-reviewed papers met the inclusion criteria and yielded a total of 33 studies conducted globally. Biobehavioral couple-based prevention and intervention studies have been efficacious in reducing sexual- and drug-risk behaviors, increasing access to HIV testing and care, and improving adherence. Biomedical couple-based studies were found to reduce HIV incidence among HIV-negative sex partners and viral load among HIV-positive partners. Despite much progress, couple-based HIV prevention and intervention studies remain limited; a number of methodological gaps exist and studies focusing on MSM, people who inject drugs, and sex workers are scarce.

  3. Systematic Review of Couple-Based HIV Intervention and Prevention Studies: Advantages, Gaps, and Future Directions

    PubMed Central

    El-Bassel, Nabila

    2015-01-01

    We conducted a systematic review of couple-based HIV biobehavioral (skills-building, VCT, and adherence) and biomedical (ART, circumcision) prevention and intervention studies designed to reduce sexual-and drug-risk behaviors and HIV transmission and acquisition. Of the 11,162 papers identified in the search, 93 peer-reviewed papers met the inclusion criteria and yielded a total of 33 studies conducted globally. Biobehavioral couple-based prevention and intervention studies have been efficacious in reducing sexual- and drug-risk behaviors, increasing access to HIV testing and care, and improving adherence. Biomedical couple-based studies were found to reduce HIV incidence among HIV-negative sex partners and viral load among HIV-positive partners. Despite much progress, couple-based HIV prevention and intervention studies remain limited; a number of methodological gaps exist and studies focusing on MSM, people who inject drugs, and sex workers are scarce. PMID:24980246

  4. Standards-Based Reform in the United States: History, Research, and Future Directions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, Laura S.; Stecher, Brian M.; Yuan, Kun

    2008-01-01

    Although becoming widespread, especially in view of No Child Left Behind (NCLB) and without a universally-accepted definition, most discussions of standards-based reforms (SBR) include certain commonalities, including: (1) Academic expectations for students; (2) Alignment of key elements of the educational system to promote attainment of these…

  5. Management of Child and Adolescent Eating Disorders: The Current Evidence Base and Future Directions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gowers, Simon; Bryant-Waugh, Rachel

    2004-01-01

    Although eating disorders in children and adolescents remain a serious cause of morbidity and mortality, the evidence base for effective interventions is surprisingly weak. The adult literature is growing steadily, but this is mainly with regard to psychological therapies for bulimia nervosa and to some extent in the field of pharmacotherapy. This…

  6. Phenomenological and evidence based research in ego state therapy: recognized and unrecognized successes and future directions.

    PubMed

    Hageman, Joan H; Frederick, Claire

    2013-07-01

    The status of research in ego state therapy is examined against the backdrop of 20th and 21st century developments in the philosophy of science and the emerging recognition of the subjective as a vital element in all science. Attention is paid to the phenomenological method because until recently phenomenological studies have been the basis for the standards of care and training in ego state therapy as well as in many aspects of hypnotically facilitated psychotherapy. The importance of bringing an end to the "science wars" through the integration of the subjective and the objective, of phenomenological studies and evidence-based studies in ego state therapy and hypnosis research, is proposed.

  7. Evidence-based Medicine in Facial Plastic Surgery: Current State and Future Directions.

    PubMed

    Dedhia, Raj; Hsieh, Tsung-Yen; Tollefson, Travis T; Ishii, Lisa E

    2016-08-01

    Evidence-based medicine (EBM) encompasses the evaluation and application of best available evidence, incorporation of clinical experience, and emphasis on patient preference and values. Different scales are used to rate levels of evidence. Translating available data for interventions to clinical practice guidelines requires an assessment of both the quality of evidence and the strength of recommendation. Essential to the practice of EBM is evaluating the effectiveness of an intervention through outcome measures. This article discusses principles essential to EBM, resources commonly used in EBM practice, and the strengths and limitations of EBM in facial plastic and reconstructive surgery.

  8. Evidence-based Medicine in Facial Plastic Surgery: Current State and Future Directions.

    PubMed

    Dedhia, Raj; Hsieh, Tsung-Yen; Tollefson, Travis T; Ishii, Lisa E

    2016-08-01

    Evidence-based medicine (EBM) encompasses the evaluation and application of best available evidence, incorporation of clinical experience, and emphasis on patient preference and values. Different scales are used to rate levels of evidence. Translating available data for interventions to clinical practice guidelines requires an assessment of both the quality of evidence and the strength of recommendation. Essential to the practice of EBM is evaluating the effectiveness of an intervention through outcome measures. This article discusses principles essential to EBM, resources commonly used in EBM practice, and the strengths and limitations of EBM in facial plastic and reconstructive surgery. PMID:27400841

  9. Future directions in cancer prevention.

    PubMed

    Umar, Asad; Dunn, Barbara K; Greenwald, Peter

    2012-12-01

    Prevention of cancer remains the most promising strategy for reducing both its incidence and the mortality due to this disease. For more than four decades, findings from epidemiology, basic research and clinical trials have informed the development of lifestyle and medical approaches to cancer prevention. These include selective oestrogen receptor modulators and aromatase inhibitors for breast cancer, the 5-α-reductase inhibitors finasteride and dutasteride for prostate cancer, and the development of vaccines for viruses that are associated with specific cancers. Future directions include genetic, proteomic and other molecular approaches for identifying pathways that are associated with cancer initiation and development, as well as refining the search for immunologically modifiable causes of cancer. PMID:23151603

  10. Future directions of electron crystallography.

    PubMed

    Fujiyoshi, Yoshinori

    2013-01-01

    In biological science, there are still many interesting and fundamental yet difficult questions, such as those in neuroscience, remaining to be answered. Structural and functional studies of membrane proteins, which are key molecules of signal transduction in neural and other cells, are essential for understanding the molecular mechanisms of many fundamental biological processes. Technological and instrumental advancements of electron microscopy have facilitated comprehension of structural studies of biological components, such as membrane proteins. While X-ray crystallography has been the main method of structure analysis of proteins including membrane proteins, electron crystallography is now an established technique to analyze structures of membrane proteins in the lipid bilayer, which is close to their natural biological environment. By utilizing cryo-electron microscopes with helium-cooled specimen stages, structures of membrane proteins were analyzed at a resolution better than 3 Å. Such high-resolution structural analysis of membrane proteins by electron crystallography opens up the new research field of structural physiology. Considering the fact that the structures of integral membrane proteins in their native membrane environment without artifacts from crystal contacts are critical in understanding their physiological functions, electron crystallography will continue to be an important technology for structural analysis. In this chapter, I will present several examples to highlight important advantages and to suggest future directions of this technique.

  11. Future Directions in Computer Use.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masterson, Julie J.

    1995-01-01

    Trends that may impact future uses of the computer in speech-language pathology and audiology are addressed. These include broadened training applications, development of cross-platform computers, hardware and software developments in speech processing and recognition and in expert systems, and developments in telecommunications and distance…

  12. Research Needs and Future Directions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The food safety challenges facing the growers, processors and consumers of fresh and fresh cut produce are complex and multi-faceted. Established and ongoing research has given new insights into the ways in which produce can be contaminated at any step in the supply chain. The goal of future researc...

  13. Future Directions in Solar Physics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rabin, Douglas

    2010-01-01

    I will discuss scientific opportunities for space-based solar physics instruments in the coming decade and their synergy with major new ground-based telescopes. l will also discuss ( pow small satellites may complement larger solar physics missions.

  14. Future directions in VLBI technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitney, A. R.

    Three technology areas are examined to measure their impact on VLBI and the capa bilities that may be offered to VLBI practioners in the near future: VLBI Standard Interface: An international committee has recently agr eed on a standard interface definition for all future VLBI data systems. This s hould, at long last, allow interoperability between various VLBI data systems. New Recording Technologies: Courtesy of large investments by the co mputer industry, moderately priced high-data rate digital recorders that may be suitable for VLBI are on the near horizon. Small arrays of these machines, appr opriately interfaced, promise to support 1-8 Gbps recording over the next few ye ars at an attractive price. e-VLBI: With the advent of optical fiber being laid at a prodigious rate, real-time (or near-real time) VLBI on an international scale is close to b eing a technical possibility. However, questions remain about costs to lease th e necessary bandwidth and to lay the 'last mile' of fiber to remote antennas.

  15. Future direction in airline marketing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colussy, D. A.

    1972-01-01

    The rapid growth and broadening of the air travel market, coupled with a more sophisticated consumer, will dramatically change airline marketing over the next decade. Discussed is the direction this change is likely to take and its implications for companies within the industry. New conceptualization approaches are required if the full potential of this expanding market is to be fully realized. Marketing strategies are developed that will enable various elements of the travel industry to compete not only against each other but also with other products that are competing for the consumer's discretionary income.

  16. Tick vaccines: current status and future directions.

    PubMed

    de la Fuente, José; Contreras, Marinela

    2015-01-01

    Ticks and tick-borne diseases are a growing problem affecting human and animal health worldwide. Traditional control methods, based primarily on chemical acaricides, have proven not to be sustainable because of the selection of acaricide-resistant ticks. Tick vaccines appear to be a promising and effective alternative for control of tick infestations and pathogen transmission. The purpose of this review is to summarize previous tick vaccine development and performance and formulate critical issues and recommendations for future directions for the development of improved and effective tick vaccines. The development of effective screening platforms and algorithms using omics approaches focused on relevant biological processes will allow the discovery of new tick-protective antigens. Future vaccines will likely combine tick antigens with different protective mechanisms alone or pathogen-derived antigens. The application of tick vaccines as a part of integrated control strategies will ultimately result in the control of tick-borne diseases. PMID:26289976

  17. Future Directions in Rock Magnetism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirt, A. M.

    2015-12-01

    Rock magnetism explains how a rock becomes magnetized and retains its magnetization over geologic time intervals. A wealth of information has been collected on the magnetic properties of constituent minerals. Rock magnetic methods are amongst the most sensitive in detecting iron minerals in natural or synthetic materials. However, several fundamental topics are still inadequately understood. These include the theories of multi-domain magnetism and the depositional or post-depositional acquisition of magnetism in sediments. A serious problem in working with natural materials is the variability of physical properties due to differences in composition and grain size, and interactions between grains. Great advances have been made in the synthesis of iron nanoparticles, thus controlled systems offer a key to gaining new insights into the role that physical parameters play in bulk magnetization behavior. Better models can be constructed in a system when only a few physical factors play a role. Information from these types of studies provides the basis for a better understanding of natural systems. For example, they clarify how environmental conditions affect iron mineralogy and the role of diagenetic processes in the acquisition of remanence in a sediment, and they explain conditions that lead to the growth of ferromagnetic minerals in relation to remagnetization. Experimental results have advanced our understanding of the single-crystal anisotropy of minerals and how these contribute to the total anisotropy in a rock. The combination of deformation experiments and their effects on magnetic anisotropy can provide new insights into ferromagnetic textures, which may play a role in the deflection of remanence in inclination flattening. Future progress in these fields will depend on a closer alliance between experiment, theory and modeling.

  18. Future directions of ecosystem science

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Baron, Jill; Galvin, Kathleen A.

    1990-01-01

    , and global--have not replaced one another (Clark and Holling 1985). Instead, the effects are superimposed, creating what some perceive as impending global environmental crisis (Clark 1989, MacNeill 1989, WCED 1987). Public demands are developing for economic, political, social, and environmental efforts directed toward creating a state of global sustainability.

  19. Community-Based Review of Research Across Diverse Community Contexts: Key Characteristics, Critical Issues, and Future Directions.

    PubMed

    Shore, Nancy; Ford, Angela; Wat, Eric; Brayboy, Missy; Isaacs, Mei-Ling; Park, Alice; Strelnick, Hal; Seifer, Sarena D

    2015-07-01

    A growing number of community-based organizations and community-academic partnerships are implementing processes to determine whether and how health research is conducted in their communities. These community-based research review processes (CRPs) can provide individual and community-level ethics protections, enhance the cultural relevance of study designs and competence of researchers, build community and academic research capacity, and shape research agendas that benefit diverse communities. To better understand how they are organized and function, representatives of 9 CRPs from across the United States convened in 2012 for a working meeting. In this article, we articulated and analyzed the models presented, offered guidance to communities that seek to establish a CRP, and made recommendations for future research, practice, and policy.

  20. Web-based interventions for ulcerative colitis and Crohn’s disease: systematic review and future directions

    PubMed Central

    Stiles-Shields, Colleen; Keefer, Laurie

    2015-01-01

    Behavioral intervention technologies (BITs), the application of psychological and behavioral interventions through the use of technology, provide the opportunity for clinicians to deliver care through a means that overcomes a number of treatment barriers. Web-based interventions are a subset of BITs developing as promising alternatives to face-to-face delivery of treatments and monitoring for patients with ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn’s disease (CD). A systematic review of literature resulted in five empirical studies of web-based interventions for UC and CD. Additionally, an informal search of a popular search engine yielded limited, currently available, web-based interventions for patients with UC and CD. Despite being an ideal population for the development and dissemination of online interventions, patients with UC and CD have far less treatment options compared to other behavioral health concerns. However, given the growing body of research involving web-based interventions for other conditions, researchers and clinicians targeting UC and CD management and treatment have the benefit of being able to utilize the BIT model, an existing conceptual framework for the development of web-based interventions for both conditions. The BIT model is presented and applied to the treatment of UC and CD, as well as a technology development program, Purple, and usability guidelines to guide clinical researchers in the future development, evaluation, and dissemination of BITs for patients with UC and CD. PMID:26005356

  1. The far future of exoplanet direct characterization.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Jean; Léger, Alain; Fridlund, Malcolm; White, Glenn J; Eiroa, Carlos; Henning, Thomas; Herbst, Tom; Lammer, Helmut; Liseau, René; Paresce, Francesco; Penny, Alan; Quirrenbach, Andreas; Röttgering, Huub; Selsis, Franck; Beichman, Charles; Danchi, William; Kaltenegger, Lisa; Lunine, Jonathan; Stam, Daphne; Tinetti, Giovanna

    2010-01-01

    We describe future steps in the direct characterization of habitable exoplanets subsequent to medium and large mission projects currently underway and investigate the benefits of spectroscopic and direct imaging approaches. We show that, after third- and fourth-generation missions have been conducted over the course of the next 100 years, a significant amount of time will lapse before we will have the capability to observe directly the morphology of extrasolar organisms.

  2. The far future of exoplanet direct characterization.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Jean; Léger, Alain; Fridlund, Malcolm; White, Glenn J; Eiroa, Carlos; Henning, Thomas; Herbst, Tom; Lammer, Helmut; Liseau, René; Paresce, Francesco; Penny, Alan; Quirrenbach, Andreas; Röttgering, Huub; Selsis, Franck; Beichman, Charles; Danchi, William; Kaltenegger, Lisa; Lunine, Jonathan; Stam, Daphne; Tinetti, Giovanna

    2010-01-01

    We describe future steps in the direct characterization of habitable exoplanets subsequent to medium and large mission projects currently underway and investigate the benefits of spectroscopic and direct imaging approaches. We show that, after third- and fourth-generation missions have been conducted over the course of the next 100 years, a significant amount of time will lapse before we will have the capability to observe directly the morphology of extrasolar organisms. PMID:20307188

  3. Biomarkers in Pediatric ARDS: Future Directions

    PubMed Central

    Orwoll, Benjamin E.; Sapru, Anil

    2016-01-01

    Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is common among mechanically ventilated children and accompanies up to 30% of all pediatric intensive care unit deaths. Though ARDS diagnosis is based on clinical criteria, biological markers of acute lung damage have been extensively studied in adults and children. Biomarkers of inflammation, alveolar epithelial and capillary endothelial disruption, disordered coagulation, and associated derangements measured in the circulation and other body fluids, such as bronchoalveolar lavage, have improved our understanding of pathobiology of ARDS. The biochemical signature of ARDS has been increasingly well described in adult populations, and this has led to the identification of molecular phenotypes to augment clinical classifications. However, there is a paucity of data from pediatric ARDS (pARDS) patients. Biomarkers and molecular phenotypes have the potential to identify patients at high risk of poor outcomes, and perhaps inform the development of targeted therapies for specific groups of patients. Additionally, because of the lower incidence of and mortality from ARDS in pediatric patients relative to adults and lack of robust clinical predictors of outcome, there is an ongoing interest in biological markers as surrogate outcome measures. The recent definition of pARDS provides additional impetus for the measurement of established and novel biomarkers in future pediatric studies in order to further characterize this disease process. This chapter will review the currently available literature and discuss potential future directions for investigation into biomarkers in ARDS among children. PMID:27313995

  4. Future directions in interventional pediatric radiology.

    PubMed

    Chait, P

    1997-06-01

    In conclusion, the explosion of interventional radiology and its impact on the pediatric patient have resulted in a completely new approach to the subspecialty of interventional pediatric radiology. The interventional radiologist has become an integral part of the management of patients and has become directly involved in the day-to-day care of patients. The use of interventional MR imaging recently has been described in clinical trial. Open-configuration magnets that allow full access to the patient and are equipped with instrument tracking systems provide an interactive environment in which biopsies, endoscopic procedures, and minimally invasive interventions or surgeries are performed. In addition, thermal ablation and image-based control of energy deposition also can be performed. Among these procedures, noninvasive MR-guided focused ultrasound ablation has the most promising future and may replace some conventional surgery. The merging of new and exciting technologies including MR, ultrasound, CT, and fluoroscopy into an environment in which both surgical and interventional radiologic procedures can be performed with image guidance is the basis of the operating room of the future. The role of the interventional radiologist as both the imager and interventionalist is central to this procedural environment; however, the interventional radiologist must accept all the responsibilities of imaging, therapy, patient care, and associated complications. PMID:9168878

  5. Dacryocystorhinostomy: History, evolution and future directions

    PubMed Central

    Yakopson, Vladimir S.; Flanagan, Joseph C.; Ahn, Daniel; Luo, Betsy P.

    2010-01-01

    Dacryocystorhinostomy (DCR) is a procedure of choice for nasolacrimal duct obstruction and chronic dacryostenosis in the setting of patent canaliculi and a functional lacrimal pump. Two major approaches are utilized: external, via a transcutaneous incision and endonasal endoscopically guided. The surgery has a high success rate via both approaches. We review the history, evolution, current techniques, complications and future directions of DCR. PMID:23960901

  6. Geospatial Brokering - Challenges and Future Directions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, C. E.

    2012-12-01

    An important feature of many brokers is to facilitate straightforward human access to scientific data while maintaining programmatic access to it for system solutions. Standards-based protocols are critical for this, and there are a number of protocols to choose from. In this discussion, we will present a web application solution that leverages certain protocols - e.g., OGC CSW, REST, and OpenSearch - to provide programmatic as well as human access to geospatial resources. We will also discuss managing resources to reduce duplication yet increase discoverability, federated search solutions, and architectures that combine human-friendly interfaces with powerful underlying data management. The changing requirements witnessed in brokering solutions over time, our recent experience participating in the EarthCube brokering hack-a-thon, and evolving interoperability standards provide insight to future technological and philosophical directions planned for geospatial broker solutions. There has been much change over the past decade, but with the unprecedented data collaboration of recent years, in many ways the challenges and opportunities are just beginning.

  7. Genetic Psychophysiology: advances, problems, and future directions

    PubMed Central

    Anokhin, Andrey P.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of historical advances and the current state of genetic psychophysiology, a rapidly developing interdisciplinary research linking genetics, brain, and human behavior, discusses methodological problems, and outlines future directions of research. The main goals of genetic psychophysiology are to elucidate the neural pathways and mechanisms mediating genetic influences on cognition and emotion, identify intermediate brain-based phenotypes for psychopathology, and provide a functional characterization of genes being discovered by large association studies of behavioral phenotypes. Since the initiation of this neurogenetic approach to human individual differences in the 1970s, numerous twin and family studies have provided strong evidence for heritability of diverse aspects of brain function including resting-state brain oscillations, functional connectivity, and event-related neural activity in a variety of cognitive and emotion processing tasks, as well as peripheral psychophysiological responses. These data indicate large differences in the presence and strength of genetic influences across measures and domains, permitting the selection of heritable characteristics for gene finding studies. More recently, candidate gene association studies began to implicate specific genetic variants in different aspects of neurocognition. However, great caution is needed in pursuing this line of research due to its demonstrated proneness to generate false-positive findings. Recent developments in methods for physiological signal analysis, hemodynamic imaging, and genomic technologies offer new exciting opportunities for the investigation of the interplay between genetic and environmental factors in the development of individual differences in behavior, both normal and abnormal. PMID:24739435

  8. Regenerative nanomedicine: current perspectives and future directions

    PubMed Central

    Chaudhury, Koel; Kumar, Vishu; Kandasamy, Jayaprakash; RoyChoudhury, Sourav

    2014-01-01

    Nanotechnology has considerably accelerated the growth of regenerative medicine in recent years. Application of nanotechnology in regenerative medicine has revolutionized the designing of grafts and scaffolds which has resulted in new grafts/scaffold systems having significantly enhanced cellular and tissue regenerative properties. Since the cell–cell and cell-matrix interaction in biological systems takes place at the nanoscale level, the application of nanotechnology gives an edge in modifying the cellular function and/or matrix function in a more desired way to mimic the native tissue/organ. In this review, we focus on the nanotechnology-based recent advances and trends in regenerative medicine and discussed under individual organ systems including bone, cartilage, nerve, skin, teeth, myocardium, liver and eye. Recent studies that are related to the design of various types of nanostructured scaffolds and incorporation of nanomaterials into the matrices are reported. We have also documented reports where these materials and matrices have been compared for their better biocompatibility and efficacy in supporting the damaged tissue. In addition to the recent developments, future directions and possible challenges in translating the findings from bench to bedside are outlined. PMID:25214780

  9. Innovations and Future Directions for Early Numeracy Curriculum-Based Measurement: Commentary on the Special Series, Part 2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Methe, Scott A.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this extended commentary article is to frame the set of studies in the first of two issues and recommend areas of inquiry for future research. This special series issue features studies examining the technical qualities of formative assessment procedures that were developed to inform intervention. This article intends to emphasize…

  10. Alzheimer disease: current concepts & future directions.

    PubMed

    Musiek, Erik S; Schindler, Suzanne E

    2013-01-01

    Alzheimer disease (AD) is the most common cause of dementia in individuals over age 65, and is expected to cause a major public health crisis as the number of older Americans rapidly expands in the next three decades. Herein, we review current strategies for diagnosis and management of AD, and discuss ongoing clinical research and future therapeutic directions in the battle against this devastating disease.

  11. Standards-Based Classroom Assessments of English Proficiency: A Review of Issues, Current Developments, and Future Directions for Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Llosa, Lorena

    2011-01-01

    With the United States' adoption of a standards-based approach to education, most attention has focused on the large-scale, high-stakes assessments intended to measure students' mastery of standards for accountability purposes. Less attention has been paid to the role of standards-based assessments in the classroom. The purpose of this paper is to…

  12. Directed Evolution: Past, Present and Future

    PubMed Central

    Cobb, Ryan E.; Chao, Ran; Zhao, Huimin

    2015-01-01

    Directed evolution, the laboratory process by which biological entities with desired traits are created through iterative rounds of genetic diversification and library screening or selection, has become one of the most useful and widespread tools in basic and applied biology. From its roots in classical strain engineering and adaptive evolution, modern directed evolution came of age twenty years ago with the demonstration of repeated rounds of PCR-driven random mutagenesis and activity screening to improve protein properties. Since then, numerous techniques have been developed that have enabled the evolution of virtually any protein, pathway, network or entire organism of interest. Here we recount some of the major milestones in the history of directed evolution, highlight the most promising recent developments in the field, and discuss the future challenges and opportunities that lie ahead. PMID:25733775

  13. Chapter 9: Pedagogical Content Knowing for Model-Based Instruction in Physical Education and Future Directions for Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lund, Jacalyn L.; Metzler, Michael W.; Gurvitch, Rachel

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this chapter is to advance the concept of pedagogical content knowledge in a manner that would better align it with the integrative type of knowledge needed by teachers at all three stages (preservice teachers, induction teachers, and cooperating teachers), allowing them to use model-based instruction (MBI) most effectively in…

  14. The Role of School-Based Extracurricular Activities in Adolescent Development: A Comprehensive Review and Future Directions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feldman, Amy F.; Matjasko, Jennifer L.

    2005-01-01

    This article reviews the contemporary literature on school-based activity participation, focusing on patterns of participation, academic achievement, substance use, sexual activity, psychological adjustment, delinquency, and young adult outcomes. Also, the authors discuss possible mediators and moderators of extracurricular activity participation…

  15. Systematic review of catheter-based intra-arterial therapies in hepatocellular carcinoma: state of the art and future directions

    PubMed Central

    Duran, R; Chapiro, J; Schernthaner, R E

    2015-01-01

    Intra-arterial therapies (IATs) play a pivotal role in the management of patients with primary and secondary liver malignancies. The unique advantages of these treatments are their ability to selectively deliver a high dose of anticancer treatment while preserving healthy liver tissue. The proven efficacy of these catheter-based locoregional therapies in a highly systemic chemoresistant cancer such as hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), along with the minimally invasive nature of these treatments, quickly yielded wide acceptance in the medical community and revolutionized the field of Interventional Oncology. In this article, we describe the clinical rationale and background of catheter-based IATs. We provide an overview of clinical achievements of these treatments alone and in combination with sorafenib in patients with HCC. PMID:25978585

  16. Clinical Decision Support-based Quality Measurement (CDS-QM) Framework: Prototype Implementation, Evaluation, and Future Directions

    PubMed Central

    Kukhareva, Polina V; Kawamoto, Kensaku; Shields, David E; Barfuss, Darryl T; Halley, Anne M; Tippetts, Tyler J; Warner, Phillip B; Bray, Bruce E; Staes, Catherine J

    2014-01-01

    Electronic quality measurement (QM) and clinical decision support (CDS) are closely related but are typically implemented independently, resulting in significant duplication of effort. While it seems intuitive that technical approaches could be re-used across these two related use cases, such reuse is seldom reported in the literature, especially for standards-based approaches. Therefore, we evaluated the feasibility of using a standards-based CDS framework aligned with anticipated EHR certification criteria to implement electronic QM. The CDS-QM framework was used to automate a complex national quality measure (SCIP-VTE-2) at an academic healthcare system which had previously relied on time-consuming manual chart abstractions. Compared with 305 manually-reviewed reference cases, the recall of automated measurement was 100%. The precision was 96.3% (CI:92.6%-98.5%) for ascertaining the denominator and 96.2% (CI:92.3%-98.4%) for the numerator. We therefore validated that a standards-based CDS-QM framework can successfully enable automated QM, and we identified benefits and challenges with this approach. PMID:25954389

  17. Inductive Output Tubes -- Status and Future Direction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bohlen, Heinz

    2002-08-01

    Invented in 1938, at the same time as the klystron, it took the Inductive Output Tube (IOT) more than 40 years to surface as a useful device. Its progress after that event was rapid. Though plagued by teething problems in the beginning, it has since replaced the klystron as a TV amplifier in UHF, and it holds its own against the solid-state competition in that application. The IOT also shows much promise as a high-power amplifier, but early developments in this direction have remained solitary events so far. The paper discusses the causes and the potential of the device for future high-power applications.

  18. Immunotherapy for advanced melanoma: future directions.

    PubMed

    Valpione, Sara; Campana, Luca G

    2016-02-01

    As calculated by the meta-analysis of Korn et al., the prognosis of metastatic melanoma in the pretarget and immunological therapy era was poor, with a median survival of 6.2 and a 1-year life expectancy of 25.5%. Nowadays, significant advances in melanoma treatment have been gained, and immunotherapy is one of the promising approaches to get to durable responses and survival improvement. The aim of the present review is to highlight the recent innovations in melanoma immunotherapy and to propose a critical perspective of the future directions of this enthralling oncology subspecialty.

  19. State of the art and future directions of scaffold-based bone engineering from a biomaterials perspective.

    PubMed

    Hutmacher, Dietmar Werner; Schantz, Jan Thorsten; Lam, Christopher Xu Fu; Tan, Kim Cheng; Lim, Thiam Chye

    2007-01-01

    Scaffold-based bone tissue engineering aims to repair/regenerate bone defects. Such a treatment concept involves seeding autologous osteogenic cells throughout a biodegradable scaffold to create a scaffold-cell hybrid that may be called a tissue-engineered construct (TEC). A variety of materials and scaffolding fabrication techniques for bone tissue engineering have been investigated over the past two decades. This review aims to discuss the advances in bone engineering from a scaffold material point of view. In the first part the reader is introduced to the basic principles of bone engineering. The important properties of the biomaterials and the scaffold design in the making of tissue engineered bone constructs are discussed in detail, with special emphasis placed on the new material developments, namely composites made of synthetic polymers and calcium phosphates. Advantages and limitations of these materials are analysed along with various architectural parameters of scaffolds important for bone tissue engineering, e.g. porosity, pore size, interconnectivity and pore-wall microstructures. PMID:18038415

  20. State of the art and future directions of scaffold-based bone engineering from a biomaterials perspective.

    PubMed

    Hutmacher, Dietmar Werner; Schantz, Jan Thorsten; Lam, Christopher Xu Fu; Tan, Kim Cheng; Lim, Thiam Chye

    2007-01-01

    Scaffold-based bone tissue engineering aims to repair/regenerate bone defects. Such a treatment concept involves seeding autologous osteogenic cells throughout a biodegradable scaffold to create a scaffold-cell hybrid that may be called a tissue-engineered construct (TEC). A variety of materials and scaffolding fabrication techniques for bone tissue engineering have been investigated over the past two decades. This review aims to discuss the advances in bone engineering from a scaffold material point of view. In the first part the reader is introduced to the basic principles of bone engineering. The important properties of the biomaterials and the scaffold design in the making of tissue engineered bone constructs are discussed in detail, with special emphasis placed on the new material developments, namely composites made of synthetic polymers and calcium phosphates. Advantages and limitations of these materials are analysed along with various architectural parameters of scaffolds important for bone tissue engineering, e.g. porosity, pore size, interconnectivity and pore-wall microstructures.

  1. Future Directions for Astronomical Image Display

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mandel, Eric

    1997-01-01

    In our "Future Directions for Astronomical Image Display" project, the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory (SAO) and the National Optical Astronomy Observatories (NOAO) will evolve our existing image display software into a fully extensible, cross-platform image display server that can run stand-alone or be integrated seamlessly into astronomical analysis systems. We will build a Plug-in Image Extension (PIE) server for astronomy, consisting of a modular image display engine that can be customized using "plug-in" technology. We will create plug-ins that reproduce all the current functionality of SAOtng. We also will devise a messaging system and a set of distributed, shared data objects to support integrating the PIE server into astronomical analysis systems. Finally, we will migrate our PIE server, plug-ins, and messaging software from Unix and the X Window System to a platform-independent architecture that utilizes cross-platform technology such as Tcl/Tk or Java.

  2. Bioorthogonal Chemistry: Recent Progress and Future Directions

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Reyna K. V.; Lin, Qing

    2010-01-01

    The ability to use covalent chemistry to label biomolecules selectively in their native habitats has greatly enhanced our understanding of biomolecular dynamics and function beyond what is possible with the genetic tools alone. To attain the exquisite selectivity essential in the covalent approach in a complex biological environment, a “bottom-up” two-step strategy has achieved many successes recently. In this approach, a bioorthogonal chemical functionality is built into the basic life’s building blocks―amino acids, nucleosides, lipids, and sugars―as well as secondary metabolites; after their incorporation into the biomolecules, an array of biophysical probes are selectively appended to the chemically tagged biomolecules via a suitable bioorthogonal reaction. While much has been accomplished in the expansion of unnatural building blocks carrying unique chemical moieties for all major classes of biomolecules, the dearth of robust bioorthogonal reactions has limited both the scope and utility of this promising approach. Here we summarize the recent progress in the development of bioorthogonal reactions and their applications in various biological systems. A major emphasis has been placed on the mechanistic and kinetic studies of these reactions with the hope that continuous improvements can be made with each reaction in the future. In view of the gap between the capabilities of the current repertoire of bioorthogonal reactions and the unmet needs of potential biological problems, we also strive to project the future directions of this rapidly developing field. PMID:20177591

  3. Physical literacy: importance, assessment and future directions.

    PubMed

    Giblin, Susan; Collins, Dave; Button, Chris

    2014-09-01

    Physical literacy (PL) has become a major focus of physical education, physical activity and sports promotion worldwide. PL is a multifaceted conceptualisation of the skills required to fully realise potentials through embodied experience. Substantial financial investments in PL education by governments are underpinned by a wide range of anticipated benefits, including expectations of significant future savings to healthcare, improved physical and psychological well-being of the population, increased work-force productivity and raised levels of expertise in sport and exercise participation. However, disappointingly, scientific evidence showing the efficacy of PL interventions to successfully meet such high expectation is limited. We suggest that contradictions in research findings are due largely to limitations in movement assessment batteries and consequent discrepancies between measurements used to assess the immediate outcomes of PL programmes. Notably, there is no robust empirical tool for evidencing skill learning in the physical movement component of PL, education and this presents a serious limitation to the design of, and claims that can be made for, such interventions. Considering the parameters of proficient PL skills and the limitations of current evaluation instruments, possible future directions for developing empirical measures of PL movement skills are presented. PMID:24898813

  4. Public School Funding Litigation: Recent Decisions and Future Directions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dayton, John; Rienstra-Kiracofe, Christine

    2003-01-01

    During the last 12 months, the highest courts in 5 states have issued opinions on the constitutionality of their public school funding systems. Briefly reviews decisions and discusses possible future directions of this litigation based on an analysis of the 3 decades of litigation since "Serrano v. Priest" (1971). (Contains 11 references.)…

  5. Lactic Acidosis: Current Treatments and Future Directions.

    PubMed

    Kraut, Jeffrey A; Madias, Nicolaos E

    2016-09-01

    Mortality rates associated with severe lactic acidosis (blood pH<7.2) due to sepsis or low-flow states are high. Eliminating the triggering conditions remains the most effective therapy. Although recommended by some, administration of sodium bicarbonate does not improve cardiovascular function or reduce mortality. This failure has been attributed to both reduction in serum calcium concentration and generation of excess carbon dioxide with intracellular acidification. In animal studies, hyperventilation and infusion of calcium during sodium bicarbonate administration improves cardiovascular function, suggesting that this approach could allow expression of the positive aspects of sodium bicarbonate. Other buffers, such as THAM or Carbicarb, or dialysis might also provide base with fewer untoward effects. Examination of these therapies in humans is warranted. The cellular injury associated with lactic acidosis is partly due to activation of NHE1, a cell-membrane Na(+)/H(+) exchanger. In animal studies, selective NHE1 inhibitors improve cardiovascular function, ameliorate lactic acidosis, and reduce mortality, supporting future research into their possible use in humans. Two main mechanisms contribute to lactic acid accumulation in sepsis and low-flow states: tissue hypoxia and epinephrine-induced stimulation of aerobic glycolysis. Targeting these mechanisms could allow for more specific therapy. This Acid-Base and Electrolyte Teaching Case presents a patient with acute lactic acidosis and describes current and future approaches to treatment. PMID:27291485

  6. Defining Future Directions for Endometriosis Research

    PubMed Central

    D’Hooghe, Thomas M.; Fazleabas, Asgerally; Giudice, Linda C.; Montgomery, Grant W.; Petraglia, Felice; Taylor, Robert N.

    2013-01-01

    Endometriosis, defined as estrogen-dependent lesions containing endometrial glands and stroma outside the uterus, is a chronic and often painful gynecological condition that affects 6% to 10% of reproductive age women. Endometriosis has estimated annual costs of US $12 419 per woman (approximately €9579), comprising one-third of the direct health care costs with two-thirds attributed to loss of productivity. Decreased quality of life is the most important predictor of direct health care and total costs. It has been estimated that there is a mean delay of 6.7 years between onset of symptoms and a surgical diagnosis of endometriosis, and each affected woman loses on average 10.8 hours of work weekly, mainly owing to reduced effectiveness while working. To encourage and facilitate research into this debilitating disease, a consensus workshop to define future directions for endometriosis research was held as part of the 11th World Congress on Endometriosis in September 2011 in Montpellier, France. The objective of this workshop was to review and update the endometriosis research priorities consensus statement developed following the 10th World Congress on Endometriosis in 2008.1 A total of 56 recommendations for research have been developed, grouped under 6 subheadings: (1) diagnosis, (2) classification and prognosis, (3) clinical trials, treatment, and outcomes, (4) epidemiology, (5) pathophysiology, and (6) research policy. By producing this consensus international research priorities statement, it is the hope of the workshop participants that researchers will be encouraged to develop new interdisciplinary research proposals that will attract increased funding support for work on endometriosis. PMID:23427182

  7. Current concepts and future directions of CELSS.

    PubMed

    MacElroy, R D; Bredt, J

    1984-01-01

    Studies of bioregenerative life support systems for use in space indicate that they are scientifically feasible. Preliminary data suggest that they would provide cost- and weight-saving benefits for low Earth orbit, long duration space platforms. Concepts of such systems include the use of higher plants and/or micro-algae as sources of food, potable water and oxygen, and as sinks for carbon dioxide and metabolic wastes. Recycling of materials within the system will require processing of food organism and crew wastes using microbiological and/or physical chemical techniques. The dynamics of material flow within the system will require monitoring, control, stabilization and maintenance imposed by computers. Future phases of study will continue investigations of higher plant and algal physiology, environmental responses, and control; flight experiments for testing responses of organisms to weightlessness and increased radiation levels; and development of ground-based facilities for the study of recycling within a bioregenerative life support system.

  8. Current concepts and future directions of CELSS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacElroy, R. D.; Bredt, J.

    Studies of bioregenerative life support systems for use in space indicate that they are scientifically feasible. Preliminary data suggest that they would provide cost- and weight-saving benefits for low Earth orbit, long duration space platforms. Concepts of such systems include the use of higher plants and/or micro-algae as sources of food, potable water and oxygen, and as sinks for carbon dioxide and metabolic wastes. Recycling of materials within the system will require processing of food organism and crew wastes using microbiological and/or physical chemical techniques. The dynamics of material flow within the system will require monitoring, control, stabilization and maintenance imposed by computers. Future phases of study will continue investigations of higher plant and algal physiology, environmental responses, and control; flight experiments for testing responses of organisms to weightlessness and increased radiation levels; and development of ground-based facilities for the study of recycling within a bioregerative life support system.

  9. Dietary biomarkers: advances, limitations and future directions.

    PubMed

    Hedrick, Valisa E; Dietrich, Andrea M; Estabrooks, Paul A; Savla, Jyoti; Serrano, Elena; Davy, Brenda M

    2012-12-14

    The subjective nature of self-reported dietary intake assessment methods presents numerous challenges to obtaining accurate dietary intake and nutritional status. This limitation can be overcome by the use of dietary biomarkers, which are able to objectively assess dietary consumption (or exposure) without the bias of self-reported dietary intake errors. The need for dietary biomarkers was addressed by the Institute of Medicine, who recognized the lack of nutritional biomarkers as a knowledge gap requiring future research. The purpose of this article is to review existing literature on currently available dietary biomarkers, including novel biomarkers of specific foods and dietary components, and assess the validity, reliability and sensitivity of the markers. This review revealed several biomarkers in need of additional validation research; research is also needed to produce sensitive, specific, cost-effective and noninvasive dietary biomarkers. The emerging field of metabolomics may help to advance the development of food/nutrient biomarkers, yet advances in food metabolome databases are needed. The availability of biomarkers that estimate intake of specific foods and dietary components could greatly enhance nutritional research targeting compliance to national recommendations as well as direct associations with disease outcomes. More research is necessary to refine existing biomarkers by accounting for confounding factors, to establish new indicators of specific food intake, and to develop techniques that are cost-effective, noninvasive, rapid and accurate measures of nutritional status.

  10. Dietary biomarkers: advances, limitations and future directions.

    PubMed

    Hedrick, Valisa E; Dietrich, Andrea M; Estabrooks, Paul A; Savla, Jyoti; Serrano, Elena; Davy, Brenda M

    2012-01-01

    The subjective nature of self-reported dietary intake assessment methods presents numerous challenges to obtaining accurate dietary intake and nutritional status. This limitation can be overcome by the use of dietary biomarkers, which are able to objectively assess dietary consumption (or exposure) without the bias of self-reported dietary intake errors. The need for dietary biomarkers was addressed by the Institute of Medicine, who recognized the lack of nutritional biomarkers as a knowledge gap requiring future research. The purpose of this article is to review existing literature on currently available dietary biomarkers, including novel biomarkers of specific foods and dietary components, and assess the validity, reliability and sensitivity of the markers. This review revealed several biomarkers in need of additional validation research; research is also needed to produce sensitive, specific, cost-effective and noninvasive dietary biomarkers. The emerging field of metabolomics may help to advance the development of food/nutrient biomarkers, yet advances in food metabolome databases are needed. The availability of biomarkers that estimate intake of specific foods and dietary components could greatly enhance nutritional research targeting compliance to national recommendations as well as direct associations with disease outcomes. More research is necessary to refine existing biomarkers by accounting for confounding factors, to establish new indicators of specific food intake, and to develop techniques that are cost-effective, noninvasive, rapid and accurate measures of nutritional status. PMID:23237668

  11. [Corticobasal syndrome: recent advances and future directions].

    PubMed

    Aiba, Ikuko

    2012-04-01

    Corticobasal degeneration (CBD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder described by Rebeiz et al. It is characterized by progressive, asymmetric, cortical (eg, apraxia, alien limb phenomena, cortical sensory loss, and myoclonus), and extrapyramidal (eg, rigidity, bradykinesia, dystonia, and tremor) dysfunction. However, CBD has many clinical phenotypes, and the features used for predicting CBD have low sensitivity. Therefore, the term corticobasal syndrome (CBS) has been used to characterize such clinical features, whereas the term CBD is used to refer to the pathological disorder. The most frequent causes of CBS are CBD, followed by Alzheimer's disease, progressive supranuclear palsy, frontotemporal lobar degeneration with TDP-43 pathology (sporadic and familial), Pick's disease, Lewy body disease, frontotemporal lobar degeneration with fused in sarcoma-positive inclusions, Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, and mutations in the microtubule-associated protein tau (MAPT) and progranulin (GRN) genes. The topography of neurodegeneration dictates the clinical syndrome not according to the underlying pathology. Researchers have attempted to develop fluid biomarkers or imaging analysis for diagnosing CBS. The aim of this review was to highlight recent advances in CBS diagnosis and discuss future directions.

  12. Regenerative medicine: Current therapies and future directions

    PubMed Central

    Mao, Angelo S.; Mooney, David J.

    2015-01-01

    Organ and tissue loss through disease and injury motivate the development of therapies that can regenerate tissues and decrease reliance on transplantations. Regenerative medicine, an interdisciplinary field that applies engineering and life science principles to promote regeneration, can potentially restore diseased and injured tissues and whole organs. Since the inception of the field several decades ago, a number of regenerative medicine therapies, including those designed for wound healing and orthopedics applications, have received Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval and are now commercially available. These therapies and other regenerative medicine approaches currently being studied in preclinical and clinical settings will be covered in this review. Specifically, developments in fabricating sophisticated grafts and tissue mimics and technologies for integrating grafts with host vasculature will be discussed. Enhancing the intrinsic regenerative capacity of the host by altering its environment, whether with cell injections or immune modulation, will be addressed, as well as methods for exploiting recently developed cell sources. Finally, we propose directions for current and future regenerative medicine therapies. PMID:26598661

  13. High performance computing: Clusters, constellations, MPPs, and future directions

    SciTech Connect

    Dongarra, Jack; Sterling, Thomas; Simon, Horst; Strohmaier, Erich

    2003-06-10

    Last year's paper by Bell and Gray [1] examined past trends in high performance computing and asserted likely future directions based on market forces. While many of the insights drawn from this perspective have merit and suggest elements governing likely future directions for HPC, there are a number of points put forth that we feel require further discussion and, in certain cases, suggest alternative, more likely views. One area of concern relates to the nature and use of key terms to describe and distinguish among classes of high end computing systems, in particular the authors use of ''cluster'' to relate to essentially all parallel computers derived through the integration of replicated components. The taxonomy implicit in their previous paper, while arguable and supported by some elements of our community, fails to provide the essential semantic discrimination critical to the effectiveness of descriptive terms as tools in managing the conceptual space of consideration. In this paper, we present a perspective that retains the descriptive richness while providing a unifying framework. A second area of discourse that calls for additional commentary is the likely future path of system evolution that will lead to effective and affordable Petaflops-scale computing including the future role of computer centers as facilities for supporting high performance computing environments. This paper addresses the key issues of taxonomy, future directions towards Petaflops computing, and the important role of computer centers in the 21st century.

  14. Clinical Research Informatics: Recent Advances and Future Directions

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Summary Objectives To summarize significant developments in Clinical Research Informatics (CRI) over the past two years and discuss future directions. Methods Survey of advances, open problems and opportunities in this field based on exploration of current literature. Results Recent advances are structured according to three use cases of clinical research: Protocol feasibility, patient identification/recruitment and clinical trial execution. Discussion CRI is an evolving, dynamic field of research. Global collaboration, open metadata, content standards with semantics and computable eligibility criteria are key success factors for future developments in CRI. PMID:26293865

  15. Cultural psychiatry: research strategies and future directions.

    PubMed

    Kirmayer, Laurence J; Ban, Lauren

    2013-01-01

    This chapter reviews some key aspects of current research in cultural psychiatry and explores future prospects. The first section discusses the multiple meanings of culture in the contemporary world and their relevance for understanding mental health and illness. The next section considers methodological strategies for unpacking the concept of culture and studying the impact of cultural variables, processes and contexts. Multiple methods are needed to address the many different components or dimensions of cultural identity and experience that constitute local worlds, ways of life or systems of knowledge. Quantitative and observational methods of clinical epidemiology and experimental science as well as qualitative ethnographic methods are needed to capture crucial aspects of culture as systems of meaning and practice. Emerging issues in cultural psychiatric research include: cultural variations in illness experience and expression; the situated nature of cognition and emotion; cultural configurations of self and personhood; concepts of mental disorder and mental health literacy; and the prospect of ecosocial models of health and culturally based interventions. The conclusion considers the implications of the emerging perspectives from cultural neuroscience for psychiatric theory and practice.

  16. Tissue engineering: current strategies and future directions.

    PubMed

    Olson, Jennifer L; Atala, Anthony; Yoo, James J

    2011-04-01

    Novel therapies resulting from regenerative medicine and tissue engineering technology may offer new hope for patients with injuries, end-stage organ failure, or other clinical issues. Currently, patients with diseased and injured organs are often treated with transplanted organs. However, there is a shortage of donor organs that is worsening yearly as the population ages and as the number of new cases of organ failure increases. Scientists in the field of regenerative medicine and tissue engineering are now applying the principles of cell transplantation, material science, and bioengineering to construct biological substitutes that can restore and maintain normal function in diseased and injured tissues. In addition, the stem cell field is a rapidly advancing part of regenerative medicine, and new discoveries in this field create new options for this type of therapy. For example, new types of stem cells, such as amniotic fluid and placental stem cells that can circumvent the ethical issues associated with embryonic stem cells, have been discovered. The process of therapeutic cloning and the creation of induced pluripotent cells provide still other potential sources of stem cells for cell-based tissue engineering applications. Although stem cells are still in the research phase, some therapies arising from tissue engineering endeavors that make use of autologous, adult cells have already entered the clinical setting, indicating that regenerative medicine holds much promise for the future. PMID:22111050

  17. HPV vaccine: Current status and future directions

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Sushil; Biswas, Manash; Jose, Tony

    2015-01-01

    HPV Vaccine was introduced to prevent cervical cancer known to be caused by infection with one or more of the high risk subtypes of the Human papilloma virus (HPV). Since introduction, trials have proven its efficacy in preventing Cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) beyond doubt and its effectiveness in preventing cervical cancer though presumptive is reasonably certain as per mathematical modelling. It also prevents other HPV related anogenital and oropharyngeal malignancies in both sexes. HPV vaccines have courted many controversies related to its efficacy, safety, ideal age of vaccination, use in HPV infected individuals and use in males. The currently available vaccines are based on L1 Viral like particles (VLP) and hence highly species specific, thermolabile, costly and are purely prophylactic. The quest for a cheaper, thermostable and broad spectrum vaccine has led to many newer prophylactic vaccines. Therapeutic vaccines were born out of the inescapable necessity considering high HPV related morbidity projected in the non HPV naïve population. Therapeutic vaccines would immediately reduce this burden and also help in the management of HPV related cancers alone or as part of combination strategies. Ongoing research is aimed at a total control over HPV related malignancies in the near future. PMID:25859081

  18. Colletotrichum – current status and future directions

    PubMed Central

    Cannon, P.F.; Damm, U.; Johnston, P.R.; Weir, B.S.

    2012-01-01

    A review is provided of the current state of understanding of Colletotrichum systematics, focusing on species-level data and the major clades. The taxonomic placement of the genus is discussed, and the evolution of our approach to species concepts and anamorph-teleomorph relationships is described. The application of multilocus technologies to phylogenetic analysis of Colletotrichum is reviewed, and selection of potential genes/loci for barcoding purposes is discussed. Host specificity and its relation to speciation and taxonomy is briefly addressed. A short review is presented of the current status of classification of the species clusters that are currently without comprehensive multilocus analyses, emphasising the orbiculare and destructivum aggregates. The future for Colletotrichum biology will be reliant on consensus classification and robust identification tools. In support of these goals, a Subcommission on Colletotrichum has been formed under the auspices of the International Commission on Taxonomy of Fungi, which will administer a carefully curated barcode database for sequence-based identification of species within the BioloMICS web environment. PMID:23136460

  19. Colletotrichum - current status and future directions.

    PubMed

    Cannon, P F; Damm, U; Johnston, P R; Weir, B S

    2012-09-15

    A review is provided of the current state of understanding of Colletotrichum systematics, focusing on species-level data and the major clades. The taxonomic placement of the genus is discussed, and the evolution of our approach to species concepts and anamorph-teleomorph relationships is described. The application of multilocus technologies to phylogenetic analysis of Colletotrichum is reviewed, and selection of potential genes/loci for barcoding purposes is discussed. Host specificity and its relation to speciation and taxonomy is briefly addressed. A short review is presented of the current status of classification of the species clusters that are currently without comprehensive multilocus analyses, emphasising the orbiculare and destructivum aggregates. The future for Colletotrichum biology will be reliant on consensus classification and robust identification tools. In support of these goals, a Subcommission on Colletotrichum has been formed under the auspices of the International Commission on Taxonomy of Fungi, which will administer a carefully curated barcode database for sequence-based identification of species within the BioloMICS web environment.

  20. ESDIS DOI System, Approach, and Future Direction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wanchoo, L.; James, N.

    2013-12-01

    that has the data product description. Even though the development and maintenance of DOI landing pages would be the responsibility of the DAACs, ESDIS in consultation with the data providers is currently developing the landing page guidelines that specifies the key data product descriptive elements to be included on each data product's landing page. This poster will describe in detail the unique process and system currently implemented by ESDIS for registering DOIs. In addition, the paper will summarize some of the early implementation shortcomings and how they were addressed, as well as the future directions of the ESDIS DOI system/process.

  1. Neurosciences research in space Future directions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sulzman, Frank M.; Wolfe, James W.

    Future research in the neurosciences can best be understood in the context of NASA's life sciences goals in the near term (1990-1995), mid term (1995-2000), and long term (2000 and beyond). Since NASA is planning short-duration Spacelab and International Microgravity Laboratory (IML) flights for many years to come, the acute effects of exposure to microgravity will continue to be of experimental and operational interest in the near term. To this end, major new areas of research will be devoted to ground-based studies of preflight adaptation trainers and their efficacy in preventing or reducing the incidence of space motion sickness. In addition, an extensive series of studies of the vestibular system will be conducted inflight on the IML-1 mission The IML-2 mission will emphasize behavior and performance, biological rhythms, and further vestibular studies. In the mid-term period, Spacelab missions will employ new technology such as magnetic recording techniques in order to evaluate changes in the processing of sensory and motor inputs at the brainstem and cortical level during exposure to microgravity. Two Space Life Sciences (SLS) missions planned for the mid to late 1990's, SLS-4 and SLS-5, will utilize an onboard centrifuge facility that will enable investigators to study the effects of partial gravity on sensory and motor function. In the long term (2000 and beyond), Space Station Freedom and long-duration missions will provide opportunities to explore new options in the neurosciences, such as sensory substitution and augmentation, through the use of physical sensors to provide three-dimensional tactile-visual, tactile-auditory and tactile-somatosensory inputs. The use of this technology will be extremely important in the area of robotic telepresence. Finally, Space Station Freedom and proposed LifeSat missions will provide neuroscientists the opportunity to study the effects of partial gravity and microgravity on neuronal plasticity.

  2. Future directions in reptile medical education.

    PubMed

    Jacobson, Elliott; Heard, Darryl; Isaza, Ramiro

    2006-01-01

    Reptile medicine has emerged as a specialty area within the broader field of zoological medicine. It encompasses the medical needs of approximately 7,500 vertebrate species. This vertebrate class is highly diversified, having biological and medical peculiarities that differ both between and within major groups. Historically, veterinarians who have become recognized specialists with reptiles have had limited formal training in their medical management. The pet reptile trade is a multi-million-dollar business, and the popularity of reptiles as pets has resulted in a need for more veterinarians with training in their medical management. While few private practices have high volumes of reptile cases, many small-animal practices will have the opportunity to see a significant number of reptiles on an annual basis. Most practitioners with reptile medical expertise have merged their experiences as reptile pet owners with the principles of veterinary medicine taught in veterinary college. Several North American veterinary colleges have reptile medicine courses, and most have didactic and clinical courses in exotic and zoo animal medicine that include lectures and practical experience. Most accredited zoological medicine residency training programs include training in reptile medicine. The case load and interest in reptile medicine will probably never be sufficient to lead the average veterinary college to develop much more than what is currently offered. Consequently, those few colleges having more extensive course offerings, both didactic and clinical, will serve as educational centers for this discipline. Future Web-based teaching programs in reptile medicine will allow students nationally and internationally to have access to instructional material that can be continually updated.

  3. Neurosciences research in space: future directions.

    PubMed

    Sulzman, F M; Wolfe, J W

    1991-01-01

    Future research in the neurosciences can best be understood in the context of NASA's life sciences goals in the near term (1990-95), mid term (1995-2000), and long term (2000 and beyond). Since NASA is planning short-duration Spacelab and International Microgravity Laboratory (IML) flights for many years to come, the acute effects of exposure to microgravity will continue to be of experimental and operational interest in the near term. To this end, major new areas of research will be devoted to ground-based studies of preflight adaptation trainers and their efficacy in preventing or reducing the incidence of space motion sickness. In addition, an extensive series of studies of the vestibular system will be conducted inflight on the IML-1 mission The IML-2 mission will emphasize behavior and performance, biological rhythms, and further vestibular studies. In the mid-term period, Spacelab missions will employ new technology such as magnetic recording techniques in order to evaluate changes in the processing of sensory and motor inputs at the brainstem and cortical level during exposure to microgravity. Two Space Life Sciences (SLS) missions planned for the mid to late 1990's, SLS-4 and SLS-5, will utilize an onboard centrifuge facility that will enable investigators to study the effects of partial gravity on sensory and motor function. In the long term (2000 and beyond), Space Station Freedom and long-duration missions will provide opportunities to explore new options in the neurosciences, such as sensory substitution and augmentation, through the use of physical sensors to provide three-dimensional tactile-visual, tactile-auditory and tactile-somatosensory inputs. The use of this technology will be extremely important in the area of robotic telepresence. Finally, Space Station Freedom and proposed LifeSat missions will provide neuroscientists the opportunity to study the effects of partial gravity and microgravity on neuronal plasticity.

  4. Future directions in the neuropsychology of epilepsy.

    PubMed

    McDonald, Carrie R; Taylor, Joanne; Hamberger, Marla; Helmstaedter, Christoph; Hermann, Bruce P; Schefft, Bruce

    2011-09-01

    Two important themes for future clinical research in the neuropsychology of epilepsy are proposed: (1) the neurobiological abnormalities that underlie neuropsychological impairment in people with epilepsy, and (2) neuropsychological status of persons with new-onset epilepsy.

  5. Airframe Noise Studies: Review and Future Direction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rackl, Robert G.; Miller, Gregory; Guo, Yueping; Yamamoto, Kingo

    2005-01-01

    This report contains the following information: 1) a review of airframe noise research performed under NASA's Advanced Subsonic Transport (AST) program up to the year 2000, 2) a comparison of the year 1992 airframe noise predictions with those using a year 2000 baseline, 3) an assessment of various airframe noise reduction concepts as applied to the year 2000 baseline predictions, and 4) prioritized recommendations for future airframe noise reduction work. NASA's Aircraft Noise Prediction Program was the software used for all noise predictions and assessments. For future work, the recommendations for the immediate future focus on the development of design tools sensitive to airframe noise treatment effects and on improving the basic understanding of noise generation by the landing gear as well as on its reduction.

  6. Directions: Future Planner for 11th Graders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Indiana Career and Postsecondary Advancement Center, Bloomington.

    This booklet is intended to help Indiana 11th graders plan their futures by identifying their career and educational goals and available employment and educational opportunities. The following are among the topics discussed in sections 1-4: (1) identifying goals (planning ahead, using class schedules to chart one's course, developing career and…

  7. Future Directions in Parent Education Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aaronson, May

    This paper suggests goals for future research programs in parent education. Suggestions include: (1) developing and replicating long-term studies of the effects of parent education, (2) examining the antecedents of adult behavior disorders to plan parenting programs that aim at preventing such disorders, (3) replacing deficit models of parenting…

  8. Leadership: current theories, research, and future directions.

    PubMed

    Avolio, Bruce J; Walumbwa, Fred O; Weber, Todd J

    2009-01-01

    This review examines recent theoretical and empirical developments in the leadership literature, beginning with topics that are currently receiving attention in terms of research, theory, and practice. We begin by examining authentic leadership and its development, followed by work that takes a cognitive science approach. We then examine new-genre leadership theories, complexity leadership, and leadership that is shared, collective, or distributed. We examine the role of relationships through our review of leader member exchange and the emerging work on followership. Finally, we examine work that has been done on substitutes for leadership, servant leadership, spirituality and leadership, cross-cultural leadership, and e-leadership. This structure has the benefit of creating a future focus as well as providing an interesting way to examine the development of the field. Each section ends with an identification of issues to be addressed in the future, in addition to the overall integration of the literature we provide at the end of the article.

  9. Recent and Future Directions in CT Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Pelc, Norbert J.

    2014-01-01

    Computed Tomography (CT) has made enormous technical advances since its introduction into clinical use. The engineering improvements have in turn led to important clinical applications and large impact in patient care. This paper reviews the technology development trends in Computed Tomography since its introduction and uses these trends to help illuminate likely future progress. The prediction is that significant further improvements in speed, spatial resolution and dose efficiency can be expected in the next decade. PMID:24435658

  10. Interventional CMR: Clinical Applications and Future Directions

    PubMed Central

    Rogers, Toby

    2015-01-01

    Interventional cardiovascular magnetic resonance (iCMR) promises to enable radiation-free catheterization procedures and to enhance contemporary image guidance for structural heart and electrophysiological interventions. However, clinical translation of exciting pre-clinical interventions has been limited by availability of devices that are safe to use in the magnetic resonance (MR) environment. We discuss challenges and solutions for clinical translation, including MR-conditional and MR-safe device design, and how to configure an interventional suite. We review the recent advances that have already enabled diagnostic MR right heart catheterization and simple electrophysiologic ablation to be performed in humans and explore future clinical applications. PMID:25894793

  11. Forecasting the Technological Future: Directions for Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watkins, Peter

    1986-01-01

    Recent studies indicate that the popular acceptance of linking education instrumentally to high technology leads to contradictory outcomes (for example, Sweet 1984, Rumberger and Levin 1985). Education is better directed toward the more fundamental skills of criticism and reflection on these technological changes in society. (24 references) (CJH)

  12. Poststroke epilepsy: update and future directions.

    PubMed

    Zelano, Johan

    2016-09-01

    Stroke is among the most common causes of epilepsy after middle age. Patients with poststroke epilepsy (PSE) differ in several respects from patients with other forms of structural-metabolic epilepsy; not least in age, age-related sensitivity to side effects of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs), and specific drug-drug interaction issues related to secondary-stroke prophylaxis. Encouragingly, there has lately been remarkable activity in the study of PSE. Three developments in PSE research deserve particular focus. First, large prospective trials have established the incidence and risk factors of PSE in the setting of modern stroke care. Stroke severity, cortical location, young age, and haemorrhage remain the most important risk factors. Second, although more studies are needed, epidemiological data indicate that the risk of PSE may be influenced, for instance, by statin treatment. Third, studies are emerging regarding the treatment and prognosis of PSE. Levetiracetam and lamotrigine may be well tolerated treatment options and seizure freedom is achieved in at least a similar proportion of patients as in other epilepsies. Furthermore, new animal models such as photothrombotic stroke gives hope of a more clear understanding of PSE epileptogenesis in the near future. In summary, PSE shows indications of maturing into an independent epilepsy research field. This review summarizes recent advances in our understanding of PSE and provides an update on management issues such as diagnosis, AED selection, and prognosis. Finally, future research challenges in the field are outlined. PMID:27582897

  13. Poststroke epilepsy: update and future directions

    PubMed Central

    Zelano, Johan

    2016-01-01

    Stroke is among the most common causes of epilepsy after middle age. Patients with poststroke epilepsy (PSE) differ in several respects from patients with other forms of structural–metabolic epilepsy; not least in age, age-related sensitivity to side effects of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs), and specific drug–drug interaction issues related to secondary-stroke prophylaxis. Encouragingly, there has lately been remarkable activity in the study of PSE. Three developments in PSE research deserve particular focus. First, large prospective trials have established the incidence and risk factors of PSE in the setting of modern stroke care. Stroke severity, cortical location, young age, and haemorrhage remain the most important risk factors. Second, although more studies are needed, epidemiological data indicate that the risk of PSE may be influenced, for instance, by statin treatment. Third, studies are emerging regarding the treatment and prognosis of PSE. Levetiracetam and lamotrigine may be well tolerated treatment options and seizure freedom is achieved in at least a similar proportion of patients as in other epilepsies. Furthermore, new animal models such as photothrombotic stroke gives hope of a more clear understanding of PSE epileptogenesis in the near future. In summary, PSE shows indications of maturing into an independent epilepsy research field. This review summarizes recent advances in our understanding of PSE and provides an update on management issues such as diagnosis, AED selection, and prognosis. Finally, future research challenges in the field are outlined. PMID:27582897

  14. Orbital debris: Technical issues and future directions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Potter, Andrew (Editor)

    1992-01-01

    An international conference on orbital debris sponsored jointly by the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, NASA, and the Department of Defense, was held in Baltimore, Maryland, 16-19 Apr. 1990. Thirty-three papers were presented. The papers were grouped into the areas of measurements, modeling, and implications of orbital debris for space flight. New radar and optical measurements of orbital debris were presented that showed the existence of a large population of small debris. Modeling of potential future environments showed that runaway growth of the debris population from random collisions was a real possibility. New techniques for shielding against orbital debris and methods for removal of satellites from orbit were discussed.

  15. Helicopter noise prediction - The current status and future direction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brentner, Kenneth S.; Farassat, F.

    1992-01-01

    The paper takes stock of the progress, assesses the current prediction capabilities, and forecasts the direction of future helicopter noise prediction research. The acoustic analogy approach, specifically, theories based on the Ffowcs Williams-Hawkings equations, are the most widely used for deterministic noise sources. Thickness and loading noise can be routinely predicted given good plane motion and blade loading inputs. Blade-vortex interaction noise can also be predicted well with measured input data, but prediction of airloads with the high spatial and temporal resolution required for BVI is still difficult. Current semiempirical broadband noise predictions are useful and reasonably accurate. New prediction methods based on a Kirchhoff formula and direct computation appear to be very promising, but are currently very demanding computationally.

  16. Ecological traps: current evidence and future directions

    PubMed Central

    Hale, Robin; Swearer, Stephen E.

    2016-01-01

    Ecological traps, which occur when animals mistakenly prefer habitats where their fitness is lower than in other available habitats following rapid environmental change, have important conservation and management implications. Empirical research has focused largely on assessing the behavioural effects of traps, by studying a small number of geographically close habitat patches. Traps, however, have also been defined in terms of their population-level effects (i.e. as preferred habitats of sufficiently low quality to cause population declines), and this is the scale most relevant for management. We systematically review the ecological traps literature to (i) describe the geographical and taxonomic distribution of efforts to study traps, (ii) examine how different traps vary in the strength of their effects on preference and fitness, (iii) evaluate the robustness of methods being used to identify traps, and (iv) determine whether the information required to assess the population-level consequences of traps has been considered. We use our results to discuss key knowledge gaps, propose improved methods to study traps, and highlight fruitful avenues for future research. PMID:26865295

  17. Pediatric cataract: challenges and future directions

    PubMed Central

    Medsinge, Anagha; Nischal, Ken K

    2015-01-01

    Cataract is a significant cause of visual disability in the pediatric population worldwide and can significantly impact the neurobiological development of a child. Early diagnosis and prompt surgical intervention is critical to prevent irreversible amblyopia. Thorough ocular evaluation, including the onset, duration, and morphology of a cataract, is essential to determine the timing for surgical intervention. Detailed assessment of the general health of the child, preferably in conjunction with a pediatrician, is helpful to rule out any associated systemic condition. Although pediatric cataracts have a diverse etiology, with the majority being idiopathic, genetic counseling and molecular testing should be undertaken with the help of a genetic counselor and/or geneticist in cases of hereditary cataracts. Advancement in surgical techniques and methods of optical rehabilitation has substantially improved the functional and anatomic outcomes of pediatric cataract surgeries in recent years. However, the phenomenon of refractive growth and the process of emmetropization have continued to puzzle pediatric ophthalmologists and highlight the need for future prospective studies. Posterior capsule opacification and secondary glaucoma are still the major postoperative complications necessitating long-term surveillance in children undergoing cataract surgery early in life. Successful management of pediatric cataracts depends on individualized care and experienced teamwork. We reviewed the etiology, preoperative evaluation including biometry, choice of intraocular lens, surgical techniques, and recent developments in the field of childhood cataract. PMID:25609909

  18. Pediatric cataract: challenges and future directions.

    PubMed

    Medsinge, Anagha; Nischal, Ken K

    2015-01-01

    Cataract is a significant cause of visual disability in the pediatric population worldwide and can significantly impact the neurobiological development of a child. Early diagnosis and prompt surgical intervention is critical to prevent irreversible amblyopia. Thorough ocular evaluation, including the onset, duration, and morphology of a cataract, is essential to determine the timing for surgical intervention. Detailed assessment of the general health of the child, preferably in conjunction with a pediatrician, is helpful to rule out any associated systemic condition. Although pediatric cataracts have a diverse etiology, with the majority being idiopathic, genetic counseling and molecular testing should be undertaken with the help of a genetic counselor and/or geneticist in cases of hereditary cataracts. Advancement in surgical techniques and methods of optical rehabilitation has substantially improved the functional and anatomic outcomes of pediatric cataract surgeries in recent years. However, the phenomenon of refractive growth and the process of emmetropization have continued to puzzle pediatric ophthalmologists and highlight the need for future prospective studies. Posterior capsule opacification and secondary glaucoma are still the major postoperative complications necessitating long-term surveillance in children undergoing cataract surgery early in life. Successful management of pediatric cataracts depends on individualized care and experienced teamwork. We reviewed the etiology, preoperative evaluation including biometry, choice of intraocular lens, surgical techniques, and recent developments in the field of childhood cataract. PMID:25609909

  19. The discipline of nursing: historical roots, current perspectives, future directions.

    PubMed

    Shaw, M C

    1993-10-01

    As advances in nursing science and research impact upon nursing education and clinical practice, new ways of looking at phenomena have led to a re-examination and refinement of the traditional concepts: person, environment, health and nursing. This evolving pattern of intellectual growth holds promise for the discipline of nursing through the advancement of knowledge based upon scientific inquiry into the practice of nursing. This paper discusses nursing as a discipline by examining the development of a unique body of knowledge from three viewpoints: historical past, current perspectives and future direction.

  20. Neurosciences research in space - Future directions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sulzman, Frank M.; Wolfe, James W.

    1991-01-01

    In order to gain a better understanding of the effects of long-duration space missions on the central nervous system, near-term research, to take place from 1990-1995, will be directed at investigating the acute effects of microgravity and the 'space adaptation syndrome'. These include experiments scheduled for the Spacelab Life Sciences 1 which is designed to evaluate changes in the visual, vestibular, and proprioceptive systems. An extensive series of experiments, collectively termed Microgravity Vestibular Investigations (MVI), is also planned for the IML-1 mission to be flown in 1992. The IML-2 mission will emphasize behavior and performance, biological rhythms, and further vestibular studies. Mid-term goals, projected to be achieved from 1995-2000, include the use of new technology such as magnetic recording techniques. Long-term goals are also discussed including studies dealing with neuronal plasticity and sensory substitution, augmentation, and robotic telepresence.

  1. Behavioral cardiology: current advances and future directions.

    PubMed

    Rozanski, Alan

    2014-07-01

    Growing epidemiological evidence identifies key domains relevant to behavioral cardiology, including health behaviors, emotions, mental mindsets, stress management, social connectedness, and a sense of purpose. Each of these domains exists along a continuum, ranging from positive factors that promote health, to negative factors, which are pathophysiological. To date, there has been relatively little translation of this growing knowledge base into cardiology practice. Four initiatives are proposed to meet this challenge: 1) promulgating greater awareness of the potency of psychosocial risks factors; 2) overcoming a current "artificial divide" between conventional and psychosocial risk factors; 3) developing novel cost-effective interventions using Internet and mobile health applications, group-based counseling, and development of tiered-care behavioral management; and 4) in recognition that "one size does not fit all" with respect to behavioral interventions, developing specialists who can counsel patients in multidisciplinary fashion and use evidence-based approaches for promoting patient motivation and execution of health goals.

  2. Remote sensing using GNSS signals: Current status and future directions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Shuanggen; Feng, G. P.; Gleason, S.

    2011-05-01

    The refracted, reflected and scattered signals of global navigation satellite systems (GNSS) have been successfully used to remotely sense the Earth's surface and atmosphere. It has demonstrated its potential to sense the atmosphere and ionosphere, ocean, land surfaces (including soil moisture) and the cryosphere. These new measurements, although in need of refinement and further validation in many cases, can be used to complement existing techniques and sensors, e.g., radiosonde, ionosonde, radar altimetry and synthetic aperture radar (SAR). This paper presents the current status and new developments of remote sensing using GNSS signals as well as its future directions and applications. Some notable emerging applications include monitoring sea ice, dangerous sea states, ocean eddy and storm surges. With the further improvement of the next generation multi -frequency GNSS systems and receivers and new space-based instruments utilizing GNSS reflections and refractions, new scientific applications of GNSS are expected in various environment remote sensing fields in the near future.

  3. Animal care guidelines and future directions.

    PubMed

    Webster, A B

    2007-06-01

    Two notions broadly accepted in developed western societies have made animal care guidelines inevitable. These are that domestic animals are sentient and that humans are responsible to ensure the proper care of domestic animals. Despite these common views, people have differing moral understandings of the human-animal relationship, and there are sharp divisions over how these views should be applied to domestic animal care. Animal care guidelines have been developed by different nations at several organizational levels to represent a compromise that is acceptable to most people. These organizational levels include individual poultry companies, national poultry associations, individual customers of the poultry industry, national associations of customer companies, national governments, and international organizations. Animal care guideline development has typically included input from producers and scientists and, depending on the sponsoring organization, animal advocates and government representatives as well. Animal advocacy groups have also sought to influence domestic animal care by campaigning against animal production practices or by offering their preferred guidelines for producers to adopt in the hope that the endorsement of the welfare group would add value to the product. Originally, animal care guidelines were only recommended, with little or no requirement for compliance. In recent years, the need for retail companies to assure certain welfare standards has led to animal welfare auditing of production facilities. Animal care guidelines primarily have sought to establish standards for handling and husbandry in existing production systems. Future guidelines may put increasing emphasis on adoption of alternative management practices or housing systems. International animal care guidelines are being developed on 2 levels (i.e., among national governments to create a common standard for trade in animal products and within international retail companies to

  4. Telehealth: current practices and future directions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    David, Yadin B.

    1996-02-01

    When we review the positive impact that the integration of ostensibly independent patient-care services have on the efficient management of quality care, education, and collaborative research, it is not surprising that telehealth deployment is on the rise. The forces that drive this phenomenon include: the need to manage the entire disease episode; the desire for wider geographically-distributed quality health care; the escalation of customer expectations; globalization of healthcare and its support services; an increase in patient and provider convenience; and the acceptance of the present technological community. At the Telehealth Center at the Texas Children's Hospital, current classifications of clinical applications are listed: (1) initial urgent evaluation of patients, (2) triage decisions and pretransfer arrangements, (3) medical and surgical follow-up and medication review, (4) consultation for primary care encounters, (5) real-time subspecialty care consultation and planning, (6) management of chronic diseases and conditions, (7) extended diagnostic work-ups, (8) review of diagnostic images, and (9) preventive medicine and patient education. The delivery of such services is associated with challenges and opportunities. As we move forward from limited data processing to an integrated communication system, from centralized main frame functions to personalized and location-independent workstations, and from hospitals to clinics and homecare, an increase in the minimum features provided by the equipment and the communication systems must accompany the widening variety of clinical applications. Future expansion of telehealth systems stands to revolutionize the delivery of services to the benefits of providers' networks, our economy, and patients through integration.

  5. Future directions of nanometrology and nanomanufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyons, Kevin W.

    2007-04-01

    Nanomanufacturing and nanometrology are key enablers for fulfilling the promise of nanotechnology. Nanomanufacturing (NM) capitalizes on the special material properties and processing capabilities at the nanoscale, and promotes integration of nanostructures to functional micro devices and meso/macroscale architectures and systems, as well as the interfacing issues across dimensional scales. Nanometrology provides the means to measure and characterize process and product performance and covers an expanse of topics including instrumentation, measurement approaches for off-line and in-process production applications, and standards. To meet the needs of this emerging manufacturing community it is important that research on scale-up of nanotechnology for high rate production, reliability, robustness, yield, efficiency and cost issues for manufacturing products and services be pursued. To achieve this, new research directions must include a systems approach that encompasses nanoscale materials and structures, fabrication and integration processes, production equipment and characterization of instrumentation, theory/ modeling/ simulation and control tools, biomimetic design and integration of multi-scale functional systems, three dimensional nanoscale metrology, production-hardened metrology, and other areas driven by industrial applications. Impact is expected in energy systems, electronics, medical/health, transportation, pharmaceutical, chemicals and defense sectors.

  6. Ocular tissue engineering: current and future directions.

    PubMed

    Karamichos, D

    2015-01-01

    Tissue engineering (TE) is a concept that was first emerged in the early 1990s to provide solutions to severe injured tissues and/or organs [1]. The dream was to be able to restore and replace the damaged tissue with an engineered version which would ultimately help overcome problems such as donor shortages, graft rejections, and inflammatory responses following transplantation. While an incredible amount of progress has been made, suggesting that TE concept is viable, we are still not able to overcome major obstacles. In TE, there are two main strategies that researchers have adopted: (1) cell-based, where cells are been manipulated to create their own environment before transplanted to the host, and (2) scaffold-based, where an extracellular matrix is created to mimic in vivo structures. TE approaches for ocular tissues are available and have indeed come a long way, over the last decades; however more clinically relevant ocular tissue substitutes are needed. Figure 1 highlights the importance of TE in ocular applications and indicates the avenues available based on each tissue.[...]. PMID:25695336

  7. Palate Morphogenesis: Current Understanding and Future Directions

    PubMed Central

    Greene, Robert M.; Pisano, M. Michele

    2011-01-01

    In the past, most scientists conducted their inquiries of nature via inductivism, the patient accumulation of “pieces of information” in the pious hope that the sum of the parts would clarify the whole. Increasingly, modern biology employs the tools of bioinformatics and systems biology in attempts to reveal the “big picture.” Most successful laboratories engaged in the pursuit of the secrets of embryonic development, particularly those whose research focus is craniofacial development, pursue a middle road where research efforts embrace, rather than abandon, what some have called the “pedestrian” qualities of inductivism, while increasingly employing modern data mining technologies. The secondary palate has provided an excellent paradigm that has enabled examination of a wide variety of developmental processes. Examination of cellular signal transduction, as it directs embryogenesis, has proven exceptionally revealing with regard to clarification of the “facts” of palatal ontogeny—at least the facts as we currently understand them. Herein, we review the most basic fundamentals of orofacial embryology and discuss how functioning of TGFβ, BMP, Shh, and Wnt signal transduction pathways contributes to palatal morphogenesis. Our current understanding of palate medial edge epithelial differentiation is also examined. We conclude with a discussion of how the rapidly expanding field of epigenetics, particularly regulation of gene expression by miRNAs and DNA methylation, is critical to control of cell and tissue differentiation, and how examination of these epigenetic processes has already begun to provide a better understanding of, and greater appreciation for, the complexities of palatal morphogenesis. PMID:20544696

  8. Metformin pharmacogenomics: current status and future directions.

    PubMed

    Pawlyk, Aaron C; Giacomini, Kathleen M; McKeon, Catherine; Shuldiner, Alan R; Florez, Jose C

    2014-08-01

    The incidence of type 2 diabetes (T2D) and its costs to the health care system continue to rise. Despite the availability of at least 10 drug classes for the treatment of T2D, metformin remains the most widely used first-line pharmacotherapy for its treatment; however, marked interindividual variability in response and few clinical or biomarker predictors of response reduce its optimal use. As clinical care moves toward precision medicine, a variety of broad discovery-based "omics" approaches will be required. Technical innovation, decreasing sequencing cost, and routine sample storage and processing has made pharmacogenomics the most widely applied discovery-based approach to date. This opens up the opportunity to understand the genetics underlying the interindividual variation in metformin responses in order for clinicians to prescribe specific treatments to given individuals for better efficacy and safety: metformin for those predicted to respond and alternative therapies for those predicted to be nonresponders or who are at increased risk for adverse side effects. Furthermore, understanding of the genetic determinants of metformin response may lead to the identification of novel targets and development of more effective agents for diabetes treatment. The goals of this workshop sponsored by the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases were to review the state of research on metformin pharmacogenomics, discuss the scientific and clinical hurdles to furthering our knowledge of the variability in patient responses to metformin, and consider how to effectively use this increased understanding to improve patient outcomes. PMID:25060887

  9. The Cassava Genome: Current Progress, Future Directions.

    PubMed

    Prochnik, Simon; Marri, Pradeep Reddy; Desany, Brian; Rabinowicz, Pablo D; Kodira, Chinnappa; Mohiuddin, Mohammed; Rodriguez, Fausto; Fauquet, Claude; Tohme, Joseph; Harkins, Timothy; Rokhsar, Daniel S; Rounsley, Steve

    2012-03-01

    The starchy swollen roots of cassava provide an essential food source for nearly a billion people, as well as possibilities for bioenergy, yet improvements to nutritional content and resistance to threatening diseases are currently impeded. A 454-based whole genome shotgun sequence has been assembled, which covers 69% of the predicted genome size and 96% of protein-coding gene space, with genome finishing underway. The predicted 30,666 genes and 3,485 alternate splice forms are supported by 1.4 M expressed sequence tags (ESTs). Maps based on simple sequence repeat (SSR)-, and EST-derived single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) already exist. Thanks to the genome sequence, a high-density linkage map is currently being developed from a cross between two diverse cassava cultivars: one susceptible to cassava brown streak disease; the other resistant. An efficient genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS) approach is being developed to catalog SNPs both within the mapping population and among diverse African farmer-preferred varieties of cassava. These resources will accelerate marker-assisted breeding programs, allowing improvements in disease-resistance and nutrition, and will help us understand the genetic basis for disease resistance. PMID:22523606

  10. The Informal Economy: Recent Trends, Future Directions.

    PubMed

    Chen, Martha Alter

    2016-08-01

    Informal employment represents more than half of nonagricultural employment in most developing regions, contributes to the overall economy, and provides pathways to reduction of poverty and inequality. Support to the informal economy should include the expansion of occupational health and safety to include informal workers, based on an analysis of their work places and work risks. The paper presents main schools of thought and argues for a holistic understanding of the different segments of the informal work force and for policies and interventions tailored to the needs and constraints of these different segments. The paper recommends a policy approach which seeks to extend social protection, including occupational health and safety services, to informal workers, and to increase the productivity of informal enterprises and informal workers through an enabling environment and support services. The paper calls for a new paradigm of a hybrid economy which would value and integrate the informal economy alongside the formal economies.

  11. Current Concepts and Future Directions of CELSS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macelroy, R. D.; Bredt, J.

    1985-01-01

    Bioregenerative life support systems for use in space were studied. Concepts of such systems include the use of higher plants and/or microalgae as sources of food, potable water and oxygen, and as sinks for carbon dioxide and metabolic wastes. Recycling of materials within the system will require processing of food organism and crew wastes using microbiological and/or physical chemical techniques. The dynamics of material flow within the system will require monitoring, control, stabilization and maintenance imposed by computers. Studies included higher plant and algal physiology, environmental responses, and control; flight experiments for testing responses of organisms to weightlessness and increased radiation levels; and development of ground based facilities for the study of recycling within a bioregenerative life support system.

  12. Environmental assessment process needs and future directions

    SciTech Connect

    Gustafson, P.F.

    1985-01-01

    The environmental assessment process as legislatively mandated by the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA) constitutes a double-edged sword as regards the successful management and disposal of radioactive waste. On the one hand, NEPA requires identification and disclosure of the environmental and societal consequences of a given major federal action, consideration of alternatives and/or mitigative measures leading to the same end result, a balancing of costs and benefits, and provides for and encourages public participation in the decision-making process regarding the proposed action(s). On the other hand, public participation supported by judicial decisions, based more upon procedural than substantive issues, may delay, alter, or indeed prohibit a proposed course of action. If the cognizant federal agencies (DOE and NRC in the radioactive waste area) comply with both the spirit and the letter of NEPA a framework for the successful management of radioactive wastes on all types can be developed. If however, these agencies are less than earnest in their NEPA compliance actions or if public opposition is backed by overzealous court action, any radioactive waste management/disposal action (however technically sound) can be hoisted upon a petard from which it may not be freed until well into the next century.

  13. Radiation Metabolomics: Current Status and Future Directions

    PubMed Central

    Menon, Smrithi S.; Uppal, Medha; Randhawa, Subeena; Cheema, Mehar S.; Aghdam, Nima; Usala, Rachel L.; Ghosh, Sanchita P.; Cheema, Amrita K.; Dritschilo, Anatoly

    2016-01-01

    Human exposure to ionizing radiation (IR) disrupts normal metabolic processes in cells and organs by inducing complex biological responses that interfere with gene and protein expression. Conventional dosimetry, monitoring of prodromal symptoms, and peripheral lymphocyte counts are of limited value as organ- and tissue-specific biomarkers for personnel exposed to radiation, particularly, weeks or months after exposure. Analysis of metabolites generated in known stress-responsive pathways by molecular profiling helps to predict the physiological status of an individual in response to environmental or genetic perturbations. Thus, a multi-metabolite profile obtained from a high-resolution mass spectrometry-based metabolomics platform offers potential for identification of robust biomarkers to predict radiation toxicity of organs and tissues resulting from exposures to therapeutic or non-therapeutic IR. Here, we review the status of radiation metabolomics and explore applications as a standalone technology, as well as its integration in systems biology, to facilitate a better understanding of the molecular basis of radiation response. Finally, we draw attention to the identification of specific pathways that can be targeted for the development of therapeutics to alleviate or mitigate harmful effects of radiation exposure. PMID:26870697

  14. LDL cholesterol: controversies and future therapeutic directions.

    PubMed

    Ridker, Paul M

    2014-08-16

    Lifelong exposure to raised concentrations of LDL cholesterol increases cardiovascular event rates, and the use of statin therapy as an adjunct to diet, exercise, and smoking cessation has proven highly effective in reducing the population burden associated with hyperlipidaemia. Yet, despite consistent biological, genetic, and epidemiological data, and evidence from randomised trials, there is controversy among national guidelines and clinical practice with regard to LDL cholesterol, its measurement, the usefulness of population-based screening, the net benefit-to-risk ratio for different LDL-lowering drugs, the benefit of treatment targets, and whether aggressive lowering of LDL is safe. Several novel therapies have been introduced for the treatment of people with genetic defects that result in loss of function within the LDL receptor, a major determinant of inherited hyperlipidaemias. Moreover, the usefulness of monoclonal antibodies that extend the LDL-receptor lifecycle (and thus result in substantial lowering of LDL cholesterol below the levels achieved with statins alone) is being assessed in phase 3 trials that will enrol more than 60,000 at-risk patients worldwide. These trials represent an exceptionally rapid translation of genetic observations into clinical practice and will address core questions of how low LDL cholesterol can be safely reduced, whether the mechanism of LDL-cholesterol lowering matters, and whether ever more aggressive lipid-lowering provides a safe, long-term mechanism to prevent atherothrombotic complications.

  15. Future Directions for the AAS Journals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kennicutt, R. C.

    1999-12-01

    Several years of investment by the AAS in electronic publishing is now paying off in nearly every facet of our journals. The transformation of the ApJ, ApJ Letters, and AJ to electronic journals is virtually complete; over 95% of manuscripts are submitted electronically, and the on-line editions of the journals are rapidly becoming the primary mode of access in virtually every sector of our readership. The high fraction of electronic manuscripts has made it possible to streamline and automate the manuscript handling and production processes, which in turn will lead to reduced costs and page charges, and major improvements in publication speed, especially for the ApJ. The next five years will see major enhancements to the information content as well as the form of the AAS journals. Although electronic publishing has revolutionized the form and accessibility of astronomical publications, their current content remains firmly anchored in electronic images of printed words, numbers, and figures. The next major step in the evolution of the journals will be to post and archive not only the printed articles but also the supporting data and models themselves. We already post downloadable ascii tables for many papers, and soon we will expand this to include every table we publish. We also plan to expand our support for publishing large electronic-only attachments to papers, including extended tables and (eventually) downloadable digital images, all at minimal cost to authors and subscribers. We will continue to actively explore new formats for data and information presentation, including on-line video, 3D representations, and higher-level linking of text and tabular material. At the same time we will exploit the expanding capabilities of web-based publishing to ensure that the most important feature of paper journals--- a reader-friendly format that encourages browsing and reading of papers--- is preserved in the electronic age.

  16. Cognitive behavioral therapy: current status and future research directions.

    PubMed

    McMain, Shelley; Newman, Michelle G; Segal, Zindel V; DeRubeis, Robert J

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), an umbrella term that includes a diverse group of treatments, is defined by a strong commitment to empiricism. While CBT has a robust empirical base, areas for improvement remain. This article reviews the status of the current empirical base and its limitations, and presents future directions for advancement of the field. Ultimately, studies are needed that will identify the predictors, mediators, and moderators of treatment response in order to increase knowledge on how to personalize interventions for each client and to strengthen the impact of CBT. Efforts to advance the dissemination and implementation of CBT, innovative approaches such as practice-oriented research, and the advantages of incorporating new and existing technologies, are discussed as well.

  17. Pharmacological treatment of anxiety disorders: current treatments and future directions.

    PubMed

    Farach, Frank J; Pruitt, Larry D; Jun, Janie J; Jerud, Alissa B; Zoellner, Lori A; Roy-Byrne, Peter P

    2012-12-01

    Modern pharmacological treatments for anxiety disorders are safer and more tolerable than they were 30 years ago. Unfortunately, treatment efficacy and duration have not improved in most cases despite a greater understanding of the pathophysiology of anxiety. Moreover, innovative treatments have not reached the market despite billions of research dollars invested in drug development. In reviewing the literature on current treatments, we argue that evidence-based practice would benefit from better research on the causes of incomplete treatment response as well as the comparative efficacy of drug combinations and sequencing. We also survey two broad approaches to the development of innovative anxiety treatments:the continued development of drugs based on specific neuroreceptors and the pharmacological manipulation of fear-related memory. We highlight directions for future research, as neither of these approaches is ready for routine clinical use.

  18. Cognitive behavioral therapy: current status and future research directions.

    PubMed

    McMain, Shelley; Newman, Michelle G; Segal, Zindel V; DeRubeis, Robert J

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), an umbrella term that includes a diverse group of treatments, is defined by a strong commitment to empiricism. While CBT has a robust empirical base, areas for improvement remain. This article reviews the status of the current empirical base and its limitations, and presents future directions for advancement of the field. Ultimately, studies are needed that will identify the predictors, mediators, and moderators of treatment response in order to increase knowledge on how to personalize interventions for each client and to strengthen the impact of CBT. Efforts to advance the dissemination and implementation of CBT, innovative approaches such as practice-oriented research, and the advantages of incorporating new and existing technologies, are discussed as well. PMID:25689506

  19. Promising Practices and Programs: Current Efforts and Future Directions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crisp, Gloria

    2016-01-01

    The final chapter of the issue provides a synthesis of the first eight chapters, offers conclusions and recommendations, and considers future directions regarding practices and programs with promise for high impact at community colleges around the country.

  20. Acupuncture and Depth: Future Direction for Acupuncture Research

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The research on acupuncture has increased steadily over the years and regular review and revision of the direction of future acupuncture research are necessary. This paper aims to review and explore the significance of acupuncture depth in modern acupuncture research. Searches conducted in Science Direct and China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) databases reflected a lack of focus on depth of acupuncture. We propose that the research trends of acupuncture should progress to the depth of insertion. It is suggested that future acupuncture research, especially randomized controlled trials (RCTs), should take into consideration the depth of insertion. Comparison between databases using different language of medium suggests the need for international collaboration of researchers from the same field. It is also crucial to inherit and innovate traditional medicine (TM) through modern technology. The use of bibliometric method is also suitable for development of TM research trends. Acupuncture and depth should be considered as one of the future directions of acupuncture research. PMID:25114707

  1. Past, current, and future directions in Canadian drug policy.

    PubMed

    Erickson, P G

    Canada's earliest drug laws were directed at the opiates and cocaine. More recent concerns have been with cannabis, other hallucinogens, and the reemergence of cocaine, especially in the form of crack. Renewed enforcement efforts, combined with the redirection of priorities toward demand reduction via educational intervention, have been the hallmarks of recent Canadian drug policy initiatives. Some implications of these strategies for the future definition of the boundaries of Canada's drug problems, and likely policy directions, are discussed. PMID:2289838

  2. Phytophthora database 2.0: update and future direction.

    PubMed

    Park, Bongsoo; Martin, Frank; Geiser, David M; Kim, Hye-Seon; Mansfield, Michele A; Nikolaeva, Ekaterina; Park, Sook-Young; Coffey, Michael D; Russo, Joseph; Kim, Seong H; Balci, Yilmaz; Abad, Gloria; Burgess, Treena; Grünwald, Niklaus J; Cheong, Kyeongchae; Choi, Jaeyoung; Lee, Yong-Hwan; Kang, Seogchan

    2013-12-01

    The online community resource Phytophthora database (PD) was developed to support accurate and rapid identification of Phytophthora and to help characterize and catalog the diversity and evolutionary relationships within the genus. Since its release in 2008, the sequence database has grown to cover 1 to 12 loci for ≈2,600 isolates (representing 138 described and provisional species). Sequences of multiple mitochondrial loci were added to complement nuclear loci-based phylogenetic analyses and diagnostic tool development. Key characteristics of most newly described and provisional species have been summarized. Other additions to improve the PD functionality include: (i) geographic information system tools that enable users to visualize the geographic origins of chosen isolates on a global-scale map, (ii) a tool for comparing genetic similarity between isolates via microsatellite markers to support population genetic studies, (iii) a comprehensive review of molecular diagnostics tools and relevant references, (iv) sequence alignments used to develop polymerase chain reaction-based diagnostics tools to support their utilization and new diagnostic tool development, and (v) an online community forum for sharing and preserving experience and knowledge accumulated in the global Phytophthora community. Here we present how these improvements can support users and discuss the PD's future direction.

  3. Current capabilities and future directions in computational fluid dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    A summary of significant findings is given, followed by specific recommendations for future directions of emphasis for computational fluid dynamics development. The discussion is organized into three application areas: external aerodynamics, hypersonics, and propulsion - and followed by a turbulence modeling synopsis.

  4. Future Directions in Distance Learning and Communication Technologies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shih, Timothy; Hung, Jason

    2007-01-01

    Future Directions in Distance Learning and Communication Technologies presents theoretical studies and practical solutions for engineers, educational professionals, and graduate students in the research areas of e-learning, distance education, and instructional design. This book provides readers with cutting-edge solutions and research directions…

  5. Issues and Future Direction of Physical Education in Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mgbor, Michael O.

    2006-01-01

    This paper examines the issues that influenced the development of physical education in Nigerian schools after the country's political independence in 1960. Negative forces, which affected the tempo of growth, are discussed, and suggestions for the future direction of physical education in Nigeria, particularly given its importance in national…

  6. Commentary on Future directions: Building technologies and design tools''

    SciTech Connect

    Quadrel, R.W.

    1992-08-10

    This paper presents a number of interesting and thought-provoking scenarios about the future use of advanced technology in the design and operation of commercial buildings. I will express my reactions in the following series of short paragraphs. These thoughts will, I hope, raise some new questions and offer fruitful directions for further exploration.

  7. Commentary on ``Future directions: Building technologies and design tools``

    SciTech Connect

    Quadrel, R.W.

    1992-08-10

    This paper presents a number of interesting and thought-provoking scenarios about the future use of advanced technology in the design and operation of commercial buildings. I will express my reactions in the following series of short paragraphs. These thoughts will, I hope, raise some new questions and offer fruitful directions for further exploration.

  8. Helicopter Rotor Noise Prediction: Background, Current Status, and Future Direction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brentner, Kenneth S.

    1997-01-01

    Helicopter noise prediction is increasingly important. The purpose of this viewgraph presentation is to: 1) Put into perspective the recent progress; 2) Outline current prediction capabilities; 3) Forecast direction of future prediction research; 4) Identify rotorcraft noise prediction needs. The presentation includes an historical perspective, a description of governing equations, and the current status of source noise prediction.

  9. Future Directions for Business Education: A Delphi Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kesten, Cyril A.; Lambrecht, Judith J.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to synthesize perceptions from the field about current issues and to propose future directions for the field of business education. Method: A modified three-stage Delphi study was carried out with business educators who attended national conferences and/or belonged to national professional organizations.…

  10. Diabetic peripheral neuropathy: current perspective and future directions.

    PubMed

    Singh, Randhir; Kishore, Lalit; Kaur, Navpreet

    2014-02-01

    Diabetic neuropathy is a heterogeneous group of disorders with extremely complex pathophysiology and affects both somatic and autonomic components of the nervous system. Neuropathy is the most common chronic complication of diabetes mellitus. Metabolic disruptions in the peripheral nervous system, including altered protein kinase C activity, and increased polyol pathway activity in neurons and Schwann cells resulting from hyperglycemia plays a key role in the development of diabetic neuropathy. These pathways are related to the metabolic and/or redox state of the cell and are the major source of damage. Activation of these metabolic pathways leads to oxidative stress, which is a mediator of hyperglycemia induced cell injury and a unifying theme for all mechanisms of diabetic neuropathy. The therapeutic intervention of these metabolic pathways is capable of ameliorating diabetic neuropathy but therapeutics which target one particular mechanism may have a limited success. Available therapeutic approaches are based upon the agents that modulate pathogenetic mechanisms (glycemic control) and relieve the symptoms of diabetic neuropathy. This review emphasizes the pathogenesis, presently available therapeutic approaches and future directions for the management of diabetic neuropathy.

  11. Thermal batteries: A technology review and future directions

    SciTech Connect

    Guidotti, R.A.

    1995-07-01

    Thermally activated (``thermal``) batteries have been used for ordnance applications (e.g., proximity fuzes) since World War II and, subsequent to that, in nuclear weapons. This technology was developed by the Germans as a power source for their V2 rockets. It was obtained by the Allies by interrogation of captured German scientists after the war. The technology developed rapidly from the initial primitive systems used by the Germans to one based on Ca/CaCrO{sub 4}. This system was used very successfully into the late 1970s, when it was replaced by the Li-alloy/FeS{sub 2} electrochemical system. This paper describes the predominant electrochemical couples that have been used in thermal batteries over the years. Major emphasis is placed on the chemistry and electrochemistry of the Ca/CaCrO{sub 4} and Li-alloy/FeS{sub 2} systems. The reason for this is to give the reader a better appreciation for the advances in thermal-battery technology for which these two systems are directly responsible. Improvements to date in the current Li-alloy/FeS{sub 2} and related systems are discussed and areas for possible future research and development involving anodes, cathodes, electrolytes, and insulations are outlined. New areas where thermal-battery technology has potential applications are also examined.

  12. Information-time based futures pricing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yen, Simon; Wang, Jai Jen

    2009-09-01

    This study follows Clark [P.K. Clark, A subordinated stochastic process model with finite variance for speculative prices, Econometrica 41 (1973) 135-155] and Chang, Chang and Lim [C.W. Chang, S.K. Chang, K.G. Lim, Information-time option pricing: Theory and empirical evidence, Journal of Financial Economics 48 (1998) 211-242] to subordinate an information-time based directing process into calendar-time based parent processes. A closed-form futures pricing formula is derived after taking into account the information-time setting and the stochasticity of the spot price, interest rate, and convenience yield. According to the empirical results on the TAIEX and TFETX data from 1998/7/21 to 2003/12/31, the information-time based model performs better than its calendar-time based counterpart and the cost of carry model, especially when the information arrival intensity estimates become larger.

  13. Clinical Research with Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS): Challenges and Future Directions

    PubMed Central

    Brunoni, Andre Russowsky; Nitsche, Michael A.; Bolognini, Nadia; Bikson, Marom; Wagner, Tim; Merabet, Lotfi; Edwards, Dylan J.; Valero-Cabre, Antoni; Rotenberg, Alexander; Pascual-Leone, Alvaro; Ferrucci, Roberta; Priori, Alberto; Boggio, Paulo; Fregni, Felipe

    2011-01-01

    Background Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a neuromodulatory technique that delivers low-intensity, direct current to cortical areas facilitating or inhibiting spontaneous neuronal activity. In the past ten years, tDCS physiological mechanisms of action have been intensively investigated giving support for the investigation of its applications in clinical neuropsychiatry and rehabilitation. However, new methodological, ethical, and regulatory issues emerge when translating the findings of preclinical and phase I studies into phase II and III clinical studies. The aim of this comprehensive review is to discuss the key challenges of this process and possible methods to address them. Methods We convened a workgroup of researchers in the field to review, discuss and provide updates and key challenges of neuromodulation use for clinical research. Main Findings/Discussion We reviewed several basic and clinical studies in the field and identified potential limitations, taking into account the particularities of the technique. We review and discuss the findings into four topics: (i) mechanisms of action of tDCS, parameters of use and computer-based human brain modeling investigating electric current fields and magnitude induced by tDCS; (ii) methodological aspects related to the clinical research of tDCS as divided according to study phase (i.e., preclinical, phase I, phase II and phase III studies); (iii) ethical and regulatory concerns; (iv) future directions regarding novel approaches, novel devices, and future studies involving tDCS. Finally, we propose some alternative methods to facilitate clinical research on tDCS. PMID:22037126

  14. Advances and future directions of research on spectral methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patera, A. T.

    1986-01-01

    Recent advances in spectral methods are briefly reviewed and characterized with respect to their convergence and computational complexity. Classical finite element and spectral approaches are then compared, and spectral element (or p-type finite element) approximations are introduced. The method is applied to the full Navier-Stokes equations, and examples are given of the application of the technique to several transitional flows. Future directions of research in the field are outlined.

  15. FIFE in 1992 - Results, scientific gains, and future research directions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sellers, P. J.; Hall, F. G.

    1992-01-01

    A summary is presented of some of the more significant findings of the science teams and science staff of FIFE, emphasizing scientific gains, and outlining some future research directions. Attention is given to interactions between surface and boudary layer heat fluxes, momentum fluxes, and correlations between near-surface heat and CO2 fluxes and satellite data. Consideration is given to improved understanding of the exchanges between the land surface and the atmosphere at the local scale.

  16. FIFE in 1992 - Results, scientific gains, and future research directions

    SciTech Connect

    Sellers, P.J.; Hall, F.G. )

    1992-11-01

    A summary is presented of some of the more significant findings of the science teams and science staff of FIFE, emphasizing scientific gains, and outlining some future research directions. Attention is given to interactions between surface and boudary layer heat fluxes, momentum fluxes, and correlations between near-surface heat and CO2 fluxes and satellite data. Consideration is given to improved understanding of the exchanges between the land surface and the atmosphere at the local scale. 59 refs.

  17. Foresight scanning: future directions of clinical and pharmaceutical research.

    PubMed

    Foster, Brian C

    2008-01-01

    Foresight Scanning: Future Directions of Clinical and Pharmaceutical Research. Brian C. Foster, Therapeutic Products Directorate, Health Canada, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada ABSTRACT The Canadian Society for Pharmaceutical Sciences Satellite Symposium on Foresight Scanning, May 26 and 27, 2008, Nordegg, Alberta, Canada, focussed on the future directions of clinical and pharmaceutical research. The symposium brought together a group of clinicians, regulatory scientists, researchers and students to examine where clinical, pharmaceutical, and regulatory science might be in 10 to 15 years. Industry, regulatory, analytical, and clinical perspectives were presented and discussed, as well as the impact of exogenous (indirect) and endogenous (direct) change drivers. Unconditional funding was provided by Bayer HealthCare; they had no input on the direction of the meeting or selection of speakers. It was envisioned that the more important endogenous drivers may not be new information or changes in technology, policy, regulation, or health care delivery, but amplification of long-term underlying trends by emergence of new technologies, convergence of existing technologies or new communication and collaboration vehicles such as Web 2.0.

  18. Religion, spirituality, and mental health: current controversies and future directions.

    PubMed

    Dein, Simon; Cook, Christopher C H; Koenig, Harold

    2012-10-01

    Although studies examining religion, spirituality, and mental health generally indicate positive associations, there is a need for more sophisticated methodology, greater discrimination between different cultures and traditions, more focus on situated experiences of individuals belonging to particular traditions, and, in particular, greater integration of theological contributions to this area. We suggest priorities for future research based on these considerations.

  19. Future Directions of Inquiry in Adapted Physical Activity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reid, Greg

    2000-01-01

    Sketches some future trends of inquiry in adapted physical activity. These include investigation into ethics in adapted physical activity. Empirically based issues of inquiry include physical activity as a dependent measure, diverse and changing populations, theoretical and applied research, nomothetic and idiographic research perspectives,…

  20. MILESTONES AND FUTURE DIRECTIONS IN THE SOLVENT EXTRACTION OF CAESIUM

    SciTech Connect

    Moyer, Bruce A

    2011-01-01

    The remarkable development of solvent-extraction (SX) chemistry for caesium separation over the past half a century as driven by the needs of the nuclear industry now constitutes an instructive case study in exploring the limits of selectivity and cycle efficiency in SX. In this review, key milestones in the pursuit of both fundamentals and applications of caesium extraction will be highlighted along with a look at future prospects. The high-yield fission-product 137Cs constitutes a major fraction of the radioactivity in nuclear wastes, and in view of its heat production, environmental mobility, radiation hazard, and even uses as a radiation source, methods have long been sought for its separation. Toward this end, the evolving science has been challenged by daunting requirements for decontamination in the presence of high concentrations of competing cations, and demands for small footprint, modular design, and high throughput place a premium on selectivity and efficiency. Fortunately, the science has also benefited from the peculiar economics of nuclear separations, which have afforded the development of wonderfully sophisticated reagents. With its location in the lower left side of the periodic table, the Cs+ cation has the distinction of having the lowest charge density of any metal cation except short-lived francium. For practical purposes, Cs+ is thus the least hydrated and, in principle, the most directly extractable metal cation. Technologies employing liquid-liquid cation exchange with very large, durable anions like those from the dicarbollide family have therefore been quite effective based solely on solvation principles. Alternatively, researchers have turned to macrocyclic coordinating extractants, such as calix-crown ethers, following principles of molecular recognition, with dramatic results. Overall, strides continue along these lines, though it is apparent that caesium SX has reached a state of excellent fundamental understanding and technical

  1. Magnetic particle imaging: current developments and future directions

    PubMed Central

    Panagiotopoulos, Nikolaos; Duschka, Robert L; Ahlborg, Mandy; Bringout, Gael; Debbeler, Christina; Graeser, Matthias; Kaethner, Christian; Lüdtke-Buzug, Kerstin; Medimagh, Hanne; Stelzner, Jan; Buzug, Thorsten M; Barkhausen, Jörg; Vogt, Florian M; Haegele, Julian

    2015-01-01

    future directions in MPI about a decade after its first appearance. PMID:25960650

  2. Direct Monitoring of Turbidity Currents: New Insights, Challenging Preconceptions and Future Directions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clare, M. A.; Talling, P. J.; Cartigny, M.; Vardy, M. E.; Azpiroz, M.; Hunt, J.; Sumner, E.; Hizzett, J.; Vellinga, A.; Hughes Clarke, J. E.

    2015-12-01

    Turbidity currents are, volumetrically, the most important process for the transportation of sediment on the face of our planet. The combination of large volume and fast speeds can damage globally important seafloor cables and offshore structures and may transport sediment over hundreds of kilometres. Despite their significance for sediment flux and as geohazards, very few examples of direct monitoring of real-world turbidity currents exist. Until recently, there has been a reliance on depositional records, scaled-down experiments and numerical models to understand the nature of turbidity currents. The results of direct monitoring obtained over the past few years now provide us with ground-breaking insights into the real-world behaviour of full-scale turbidity currents. We present results of recent flow monitoring acquired using an array of acoustic and geophysical tools, from multiple sites worldwide, including the deep-sea Congo Canyon, Canadian fjords, and a dredging experiment offshore Holland. This advent in turbidity current monitoring, largely driven by step-changes in technology, has reinforced some existing interpretations, but also challenges some preconceptions. Our results are based on monitoring using multibeam sonars, sub-bottom and acoustic Doppler current profilers. First, we provide insights into the triggering of flows that include landslides, tidal and wave effects, and other more cryptic events with no clear initiation point. Second, the influence of dense layers at the base of flows is shown to be important for sediment transport and bedform migration; however, most acoustic techniques struggle to penetrate. Initial results from a novel Chirp profiler provide imaging of the lowermost part of the flow. Third, the morphology of the flow and its development through time are shown to deviate from that observed in classical flume tank experiments. Finally, we summarise some future directions for flow monitoring to push forward our understanding of

  3. Stabilisation of distal radius fractures: Lessons learned and future directions.

    PubMed

    Horst, Taylor A; Jupiter, Jesse B

    2016-02-01

    Our understanding of the diagnosis and management of distal radius fractures has been a long developed over centuries. There has been a shift in treatment of these very common injuries from closed reduction and casting to internal fixation. The answer to the best method of treatment has yet to be found. Today, we have a multitude of treatment options available with varying degrees of evidence to support their use. This review helps to illustrate the lessons we have learned and future directions for treatment.

  4. Exoskeletons and orthoses: classification, design challenges and future directions

    PubMed Central

    Herr, Hugh

    2009-01-01

    For over a century, technologists and scientists have actively sought the development of exoskeletons and orthoses designed to augment human economy, strength, and endurance. While there are still many challenges associated with exoskeletal and orthotic design that have yet to be perfected, the advances in the field have been truly impressive. In this commentary, I first classify exoskeletons and orthoses into devices that act in series and in parallel to a human limb, providing a few examples within each category. This classification is then followed by a discussion of major design challenges and future research directions critical to the field of exoskeletons and orthoses. PMID:19538735

  5. Evolution of posttraumatic stress disorder and future directions.

    PubMed

    Ray, Susan L

    2008-08-01

    The knowledge that trauma can cause long-term physiological and psychological problems has been recognized for centuries. Today, such suffering would be classified as the characteristic symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Nurses in all practice settings are increasingly caring for individuals suffering from military trauma, natural disasters, and interpersonal violence such as childhood sexual, physical, and emotional abuse, intimate partner violence, and collective violence. This article discusses how the diagnosis of PTSD evolved over the course of history, limitations of the PTSD diagnostic category, and additional diagnostic categories for trauma. Implications for nursing practice and future directions for research are explored.

  6. The present state and future directions of PDF methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pope, S. B.

    1992-01-01

    The objectives of the workshop are presented in viewgraph format, as is this entire article. The objectives are to discuss the present status and the future direction of various levels of engineering turbulence modeling related to Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) computations for propulsion; to assure that combustion is an essential part of propulsion; and to discuss Probability Density Function (PDF) methods for turbulent combustion. Essential to the integration of turbulent combustion models is the development of turbulent model, chemical kinetics, and numerical method. Some turbulent combustion models typically used in industry are the k-epsilon turbulent model, the equilibrium/mixing limited combustion, and the finite volume codes.

  7. Hunting electroweakinos at future hadron colliders and direct detection experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    di Cortona, Giovanni Grilli

    2015-05-01

    We analyse the mass reach for electroweakinos at future hadron colliders and their interplay with direct detection experiments. Motivated by the LHC data, we focus on split supersymmetry models with different electroweakino spectra. We find for example that a 100 TeV collider may explore Winos up to ˜ 7 TeV in low scale gauge mediation models or thermal Wino dark matter around 3 TeV in models of anomaly mediation with long-lived Winos. We show moreover how collider searches and direct detection experiments have the potential to cover large part of the parameter space even in scenarios where the lightest neutralino does not contribute to the whole dark matter relic density.

  8. HIV Vaccine: Recent Advances, Current Roadblocks, and Future Directions

    PubMed Central

    Rubens, Muni; Ramamoorthy, Venkataraghavan; Saxena, Anshul; Shehadeh, Nancy; Appunni, Sandeep

    2015-01-01

    HIV/AIDS is a leading cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide. In spite of successful interventions and treatment protocols, an HIV vaccine would be the ultimate prevention and control strategy. Ever since identification of HIV/AIDS, there have been meticulous efforts for vaccine development. The specific aim of this paper is to review recent vaccine efficacy trials and associated advancements and discuss the current challenges and future directions. Recombinant DNA technologies greatly facilitated development of many viral products which were later incorporated into vectors for effective vaccines. Over the years, a number of scientific approaches have gained popularity and include the induction of neutralizing antibodies in late 1980s, induction of CD8 T cell in early 1990s, and combination approaches currently. Scientists have hypothesized that stimulation of right sequences of somatic hypermutations could induce broadly reactive neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs) capable of effective neutralization and viral elimination. Studies have shown that a number of host and viral factors affect these processes. Similarly, eliciting specific CD8 T cells immune responses through DNA vaccines hold future promises. In summary, future studies should focus on the continuous fight between host immune responses and ever-evasive viral factors for effective vaccines. PMID:26579546

  9. HIV Vaccine: Recent Advances, Current Roadblocks, and Future Directions.

    PubMed

    Rubens, Muni; Ramamoorthy, Venkataraghavan; Saxena, Anshul; Shehadeh, Nancy; Appunni, Sandeep

    2015-01-01

    HIV/AIDS is a leading cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide. In spite of successful interventions and treatment protocols, an HIV vaccine would be the ultimate prevention and control strategy. Ever since identification of HIV/AIDS, there have been meticulous efforts for vaccine development. The specific aim of this paper is to review recent vaccine efficacy trials and associated advancements and discuss the current challenges and future directions. Recombinant DNA technologies greatly facilitated development of many viral products which were later incorporated into vectors for effective vaccines. Over the years, a number of scientific approaches have gained popularity and include the induction of neutralizing antibodies in late 1980s, induction of CD8 T cell in early 1990s, and combination approaches currently. Scientists have hypothesized that stimulation of right sequences of somatic hypermutations could induce broadly reactive neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs) capable of effective neutralization and viral elimination. Studies have shown that a number of host and viral factors affect these processes. Similarly, eliciting specific CD8 T cells immune responses through DNA vaccines hold future promises. In summary, future studies should focus on the continuous fight between host immune responses and ever-evasive viral factors for effective vaccines. PMID:26579546

  10. Pain behavior observation: current status and future directions.

    PubMed

    Keefe, F J

    2000-01-01

    Individuals who have pain engage in certain pain-related behaviors that tend to communicate their pain to others. There is growing recognition that the careful observation of such pain behaviors is an important component of a comprehensive pain assessment. This article provides an overview of the current status of behavioral observation methods used to assess pain behavior. The first half of this article describes and evaluates the most commonly used pain behavior observation methods. These include self-observation methods such as activity diaries, and direct observation methods such as the use of standard behavior sampling methods and naturalistic observation methods. The second half of the article discusses several important future clinical and research applications of pain behavior observation methods. The need to develop practical, clinical methods for incorporating pain behavior observation methods into practice settings is emphasized. Important future research topics include studying the social context of pain behavior (eg, by examining how spouses respond to displays of pain behavior), examining the predictive validity of pain behavior (ie, how observed pain behaviors predict future disability and impairment), and identifying pain behavior subgroups within heterogeneous chronic pain populations. Further development and refinement of pain behavior observation methods is likely to increase our understanding of the varied ways that patients adapt to persistent pain.

  11. Future directions for LDEF ionizing radiation modeling and assessments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Armstrong, T. W.; Colborn, B. L.

    1992-01-01

    Data from the ionizing radiation dosimetry aboard LDEF provide a unique opportunity for assessing the accuracy of current space radiation models and in identifying needed improvements for future mission applications. Details are given of the LDEF data available for radiation model evaluations. The status is given of model comparisons with LDEF data, along with future directions of planned modeling efforts and data comparison assessments. The methodology is outlined which is related to modeling being used to help insure that the LDEF ionizing radiation results can be used to address ionizing radiation issues for future missions. In general, the LDEF radiation modeling has emphasized quick-look predictions using simplified methods to make comparisons with absorbed dose measurements and induced radioactivity measurements of emissions. Modeling and LDEF data comparisons related to linear energy transfer spectra are of importance for several reasons which are outlined. The planned modeling and LDEF data comparisons for LET spectra is discussed, including components of the LET spectra due to different environment sources, contribution from different production mechanisms, and spectra in plastic detectors vs silicon.

  12. Postoperative ileus: mechanisms and future directions for research.

    PubMed

    Vather, Ryash; O'Grady, Greg; Bissett, Ian P; Dinning, Phil G

    2014-05-01

    Postoperative ileus (POI) is an abnormal pattern of gastrointestinal motility characterized by nausea, vomiting, abdominal distension and/or delayed passage of flatus or stool, which may occur following surgery. Postoperative ileus slows recovery, increases the risk of developing postoperative complications and confers a significant financial load on healthcare institutions. The aim of the present review is to provide a succinct overview of the clinical features and pathophysiological mechanisms of POI, with final comment on selected directions for future research.Terminology used when describing POI is inconsistent, with little differentiation made between the obligatory period of gut dysfunction seen after surgery ('normal POI') and the more clinically and pathologically significant entity of a 'prolonged POI'. Both normal and prolonged POI represent a fundamentally similar pathophysiological phenomenon. The aetiology of POI is postulated to be multifactorial, with principal mediators being inflammatory cell activation, autonomic dysfunction (both primarily and as part of the surgical stress response), agonism at gut opioid receptors, modulation of gastrointestinal hormone activity and electrolyte derangements. A final common pathway for these effectors is impaired contractility and motility and gut wall oedema. There are many potential directions for future research. In particular, there remains scope to accurately characterize the gastrointestinal dysfunction that underscores an ileus, development of an accurate risk stratification tool will facilitate early implementation of preventive measures and clinical appraisal of novel therapeutic strategies that target individual pathways in the pathogenesis of ileus warrant further investigation. PMID:24754527

  13. Photoelectrochemical based direct conversion systems

    SciTech Connect

    Kocha, S.; Arent, D.; Peterson, M.

    1995-09-01

    The goal of this research is to develop a stable, cost effective, photoelectrochemical based system that will split water upon illumination, producing hydrogen and oxygen directly, using sunlight as the only energy input. This type of direct conversion system combines a photovoltaic material and an electrolyzer into a single monolithic device. We report on our studies of two multifunction multiphoton photoelectrochemical devices, one based on the ternary semiconductor gallium indium phosphide, (GaInP{sub 2}), and the other one based on amorphous silicon carbide. We also report on our studies of the solid state surface treatment of GaInP{sub 2} as well as our continuing effort to develop synthetic techniques for the attachment of transition metal complexes to the surface of semiconductor electrodes. All our surface studies are directed at controlling the interface energetics and forming stable catalytic surfaces.

  14. HIV and Hepatitis Testing: Global Progress, Challenges, and Future Directions.

    PubMed

    Easterbrook, Philippa; Johnson, Cheryl; Figueroa, Carmen; Baggaley, Rachel

    2016-01-01

    HIV infection and viral hepatitis due to HBV and HCV infection are major causes of chronic disease worldwide, and share some common routes of transmission, epidemiology, initial barriers faced in treatment access, and in strategies for a global public health response. Testing and diagnosis of HIV, HBV, and HCV infection is the gateway for access to both care and treatment and prevention services, and crucial for an effective HIV and hepatitis epidemic response. In this review article, we first summarize the common goals and guiding principles in a public health approach to HIV and hepatitis testing. We summarize the impressive global progress in HIV testing scale-up and evolution of approaches, with expansion of provider-initiated testing and counseling in clinical settings (particularly antenatal and tuberculosis clinics), the introduction of more community based testing services, and use of rapid diagnostic tests enabling provision of same-day test results. However, 46% of all people living with HIV are still unaware of their serostatus, and many continue to be diagnosed and start antiretroviral therapy late. As testing and treatment scale-up accelerates for an "treat all" approach, other challenges to address include how to better focus testing and reach those yet undiagnosed and most at risk, especially key populations, men, adolescents, and children. We summarize future directions in HIV testing to speed scale-up and close gaps that are addressed in the WHO 2015 consolidated HIV testing guidelines. In contrast to HIV, action in hepatitis testing and treatment has been fragmented and limited to a few countries, and there remains a large burden of undiagnosed cases globally. We summarize key challenges in the hepatitis testing response, including lack of simple, reliable, and low-cost diagnostic tests, laboratory capacity, and testing facilities; inadequate data to guide country specific hepatitis testing approaches and who to screen; stigmatization and social

  15. Future directions in clinical child and adolescent psychology: a Delphi survey.

    PubMed

    James, Rochelle L; Roberts, Michael C

    2009-10-01

    This study sought to identify the future directions in three domains: clinical practice, research, and training of clinical child and adolescent psychologists in the upcoming decade. Doctoral-level active members in the field were surveyed via a two-round Delphi survey (45 in round 1; 35 in round 2). Evidence-based practice received the greatest consensus by the participants and highest rank in each of the three domains. Other highly ranked clinical practice directions included prevention and early diagnosis and treatment, and clinical services for specific psychological problems. Research directions focused on biological and social factors interactions in the etiology and treatment and specific child and adolescent disorders. In the training domain, major directions included the pursuit of specialty training in child and adolescent psychology and training emphasizing the biological basis of behavior. Implications of these future directions are discussed.

  16. Relationship Education Research: Current Status and Future Directions

    PubMed Central

    Markman, Howard J.; Rhoades, Galena K.

    2011-01-01

    The overarching aim of this paper is to review research on relationship education programs and approaches that have been published or accepted for publication since the last review article in 2002. This paper provides a critical overview of the relationship education field and sets an agenda for research and practice for the next decade. A theme weaved throughout the paper are the ways in which relationship education is similar and different from couples therapy and we conclude that there can be a synergistic, healthy marriage between the two. We then provide recommendations for future directions for research in the relationship education field. Finally, the co-authors comment on our experiences in both the relationship education field and couples therapy field as both researchers and interventionists. PMID:22283386

  17. Future directions for arms control and nonproliferation. Conference summary

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-07-06

    This report provides a summary of the presentations and discussions at the Spring 1994 CNSN-Wilton Park Conference. The Conference was one of a series on US-European security cooperation organized by The Center for National Security Negotiations (CNSN) of Science Applications International Corporation. These conferences bring together government and non-government experts, primarily from the United States and Europe, to discuss a range of regional and global security issues. The conferences provide an opportunity to explore, in a frank and off-the-record environment, common interests and concerns, as well as differences in approach that affect trans-Atlantic cooperation. This report is divided into the following three areas: (1) implementation of existing and pending agreements; (2) non-proliferation: prospects for trans-Atlantic cooperation; and (3) future directions in arms control.

  18. Dark matter and dark energy: summary and future directions.

    PubMed

    Ellis, John

    2003-11-15

    This paper reviews the progress reported at the Discussion Meeting and advertises some possible future directions in our drive to understand dark matter and dark energy. Additionally, a first attempt is made to place in context the exciting new results from the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe satellite, which were published shortly after this meeting. In the first part of this paper, pieces of observational evidence shown here that bear on the amounts of dark matter and dark energy are reviewed. Subsequently, particle candidates for dark matter are mentioned, and detection strategies are discussed. Finally, ideas are presented for calculating the amounts of dark matter and dark energy, and possibly relating them to laboratory data.

  19. Transnational nurse migration: future directions for medical anthropological research.

    PubMed

    Prescott, Megan; Nichter, Mark

    2014-04-01

    Transnational nurse migration is a serious global health issue in which inequitably distributed shortages hinder health and development goals. This article selectively reviews the literature on nurse migration that has emerged from nursing, health planning, and the social sciences and offers productive directions for future anthropological research. The literature on global nurse migration has largely focused on push/pull economic logic and the concept of brain drain to understand the causes and effects of nurse migration. These concepts obscure political-economic, historical, and cultural factors that pattern nurse migration and influence the complex effects of nurse migration. Global nurse care chain analysis helps illuminate the numerous nodes in the production and migration of nurses, and management of this transnational process. Examples are provided from the Philippines and India to illustrate ways in which this analysis may be deepened, refined and rendered more critical by anthropological research.

  20. Diagnosing fetal alcohol spectrum disorder: History, challenges and future directions

    PubMed Central

    Benz, Jennifer; Rasmussen, Carmen; Andrew, Gail

    2009-01-01

    Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) is one of the most common preventable causes of developmental disability, and is currently one of the most pressing public health concerns in Canada. FASD refers to the range of physical, mental, behavioural and learning disabilities that an individual may acquire as a result of maternal alcohol consumption. In the present paper, the history of the diagnostic approach to alcohol-related disorders over the past 35 years is reviewed. Research supporting the importance of early diagnosis for the long-term outcomes and management of individuals with FASD is presented, and challenges that have plagued efforts to efficiently diagnose individuals with FASD are discussed. Finally, the study reviews the future directions and implications regarding current diagnostic strategies. PMID:20357921

  1. 5p deletions: Current knowledge and future directions.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Joanne M; Qualmann, Krista J; Okashah, Rebecca; Reilly, AmySue; Alexeyev, Mikhail F; Campbell, Dennis J

    2015-09-01

    Disorders resulting from 5p deletions (5p-) were first recognized by Lejeune et al. in 1963 [Lejeune et al. (1963); C R Hebd Seances Acad Sci 257:3098-3102]. 5p- is caused by partial or total deletion of the short arm of chromosome 5. The most recognizable phenotype is characterized by a high-pitched cry, dysmorphic features, poor growth, and developmental delay. This report reviews 5p- disorders and their molecular basis. Hemizygosity for genes located within this region have been implicated in contributing to the phenotype. A review of the genes on 5p which may be dosage sensitive is summarized. Because of the growing knowledge of these specific genes, future directions to explore potential targeted therapies for individuals with 5p- are discussed. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26235846

  2. Future Research and Policy Directions in Physician Reimbursement

    PubMed Central

    McMenamin, Peter

    1981-01-01

    Payments to physicians absorb the second largest share of the health care dollar in the United States. In 1979, the share was 19 percent of the total, or $40.6 billion (Gibson, 1980). The Health Care Financing Administration (HCFA) alone spent $8.6 billion for physician services, representing approximately 16 percent of all public funds disbursed under HCFA programs. This paper presents an overview of various issues concerning physician reimbursement. Several major areas have been identified (access, cost, quality, and improving or refining the Office of Research, Demonstrations, and Statistics' [ORDS] research techniques for analyzing topics concerning physician reimbursement). Each area is introduced with a brief discussion of some of the problems associated with the physician reimbursement systems relating to that area. Selected results are then presented from the previous research in each area, along with descriptions of continuing studies currently underway. Each section concludes with a discussion of potential future directions for new research or data development. PMID:10309465

  3. Executive Function in SLI: Recent Advances and Future Directions

    PubMed Central

    Plante, Elena

    2015-01-01

    This paper provides a review of recent research on executive function abilities in children with specific language impairment (SLI). Across several studies, children with SLI are reported to perform worse than typically developing peers on measures of sustained attention, working memory, inhibition, and attention shifting. However, few studies have considered multiple executive function components simultaneously and even fewer have examined the underlying relationship between executive function deficits and impaired language acquisition. We argue that in order to fully understand the nature of executive function deficits in SLI, the field must move past simply identifying weaknesses to instead test models of executive function development and explore the nature of the relationship between executive function and language. Future research directions are recommended in order to achieve these goals. PMID:26543795

  4. Animal Models of Psychosis: Current State and Future Directions

    PubMed Central

    Forrest, Alexandra D.; Coto, Carlos A.; Siegel, Steven J.

    2014-01-01

    Psychosis is an abnormal mental state characterized by disorganization, delusions and hallucinations. Animal models have become an increasingly important research tool in the effort to understand both the underlying pathophysiology and treatment of psychosis. There are multiple animal models for psychosis, with each formed by the coupling of a manipulation and a measurement. In this manuscript we do not address the diseases of which psychosis is a prominent comorbidity. Instead, we summarize the current state of affairs and future directions for animal models of psychosis. To accomplish this, our manuscript will first discuss relevant behavioral and electrophysiological measurements. We then provide an overview of the different manipulations that are combined with these measurements to produce animal models. The strengths and limitations of each model will be addressed in order to evaluate its cross-species comparability. PMID:25215267

  5. 5p Deletions: Current Knowledge and Future Directions

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Joanne M.; Qualmann, Krista J.; Okashah, Rebecca; Reilly, Amysue; Alexeyev, Mikhail F.; Campbell, Dennis J.

    2016-01-01

    Disorders resulting from 5p deletions (5p–) were first recognized by Lejeune et al. in 1963 [Lejeune et al. (1963); C R Hebd Seances Acad Sci 257:3098-3102]. 5p– is caused by partial or total deletion of the short arm of chromosome 5. The most recognizable phenotype is characterized by a high-pitched cry, dysmorphic features, poor growth, and developmental delay. This report reviews 5p– disorders and their molecular basis. Hemizygosity for genes located within this region have been implicated in contributing to the phenotype. A review of the genes on 5p which may be dosage sensitive is summarized. Because of the growing knowledge of these specific genes, future directions to explore potential targeted therapies for individuals with 5p– are discussed. PMID:26235846

  6. Immunotherapy for acne vulgaris: current status and future directions.

    PubMed

    Simonart, Thierry

    2013-12-01

    There is a high unmet clinical need for new and better treatments in acne vulgaris. Propionibacterium acnes has a strong proinflammatory activity and targets molecules involved in the innate cutaneous immunity, keratinocytes and sebaceous glands of the pilosebaceous follicle. The role of P. acnes in acne confers legitimacy on the possible benefits of immunization-based approaches, which may represent a solution for limiting the development of antibiotic-resistant P. acnes. Various immunization-based approaches have been developed over the last decades, including killed pathogen-based vaccines, vaccination against cell wall-anchored sialidase, monoclonal antibodies to the Christie, Atkins, Munch-Peterson factor of P. acnes, anti-Toll-like receptors vaccines and natural antimicrobial peptides. This review summarizes the current evidence and explores the challenges to making this a realistic treatment option for the future.

  7. Future Directions in Solar EUV/UV Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrison, R. A.

    1999-05-01

    Studies of the extreme ultraviolet (EUV) and ultraviolet (UV) spectrum of the Sun provide a unique and powerful means to investigate plasma properties, such as density, temperature, abundance and flow speeds throughout the low solar atmosphere, from chromsphere to corona. In particular, with the SOHO mission, recent EUV/UV spectroscopic studies have paved the way for significant advances in numerous areas of solar physics research, such as active region structure and evolution, quiet Sun transient processes, mass ejection onset, and so on... and the wealth of data will guarantee that we will be reaping the rewards for some time to come. However, spectroscopy demands relatively high mass, high telemetry instrumentation, and the products are not readily understood by the non-specialist. Thus, with the new breed of lighter missions and a greater need to enhance public awareness, what is the future for solar EUV/UV spectroscopy? The NASA STEREO mission due for launch in 2004 is not expected to carry a spectrometer. The Japanese Solar-B mission will be carrying an EUV spectrometer. The need for such instruments for the possible ESA Solar Orbiter, the NASA Solar Probe and other future missions must be addressed. SOHO comes from mid-1980's technology so we can readily enhance our current performances with the use of multilayers, improved CCD technology, multi-line-of-sight observations etc... So, as well as advertising the success of solar spectroscopy in recent years, an outline of possible directions willl be given which will underline the strong case for including such experiments in future solar missions.

  8. Future directions of the DIII-D tokomak program

    SciTech Connect

    Simonen, T.C. )

    1992-06-01

    The author discusses possible future direction for the DII-D tokamak in terms of developing the US and international tokamak research programs. DII-D is the second largest US magnetic fusion facility; an advanced tokamak and divertor research device for addressing plasma confinement and control issues, a testbed for demonstrating and developing fusion technology components, and a proving ground for applied physics theories and diagnostic instrumentation. DII-D is the largest non-circular tokamak in the US and is operated with extensive national and international collaboration, including a long-standing Japanese collaboration and major multi-disciplinary collaborations with LLNL, ORNL, and UCLA. The DIII-D program is now demonstrating advanced tokamak operating modes transiently and plans in future experiments to sustain these improved confinement, stability, and divertor modes with non-inductive rf current drive. The long range research program focuses on divertor and advanced tokamak issues. The goal is to provide an integrated demonstration of well-confined high-beta divertor plasma with non-inductive current drive. The author presents ways that DIII-D can contribute to technology issues relevant to ITER physics issues, with the requesite investment of resources.

  9. Review of Current Studies in Instructional Design Theory in Korea: Major Trends and Future Directions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lim, Cheolil; Yeon, Eunkyoung

    2009-01-01

    This article reviewed recent studies of instructional design theory in Korea to explore major trends and suggest future directions. Based on the analysis of 40 articles from the "Journal of Educational Technology" between 1994 and 2006, this study identified six trends: little emphasis on the conceptualization of instructional design theory;…

  10. Collection Directions: Some Reflections on the Future of Library Collections and Collecting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dempsey, Lorcan; Malpas, Constance; Lavoie, Brian

    2014-01-01

    This article takes a broad view of the evolution of collecting behaviors in a network environment and suggests some future directions based on various simple models. The authors look at the changing dynamics of print collections, at the greater engagement with research and learning behaviors, and at trends in scholarly communication. The goal is…

  11. Management of Hepatocellular Carcinoma: Current Status and Future Directions

    PubMed Central

    Au, Jennifer S.; Frenette, Catherine T.

    2015-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the second most common cause of cancer death worldwide. This cancer commonly arises against a background of chronic liver disease. As a result, a patient with HCC requires multidisciplinary care. Treatment options vary widely based on tumor burden and metastases. The most widely utilized staging system is the Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer staging system, which recommends treatments based on tumor size and the underlying liver disease and functional status of the patient. Treatment options range from surgical resection or transplantation to locoregional therapies with modalities such as radiofrequency ablation and transarterial chemoembolization to systemic chemotherapies. Future care involves the development of combination therapies that afford the best tumor response, further clarification of the patients best suited for therapies and the development of new oral chemotherapeutic agents. PMID:26087860

  12. Multimode waveguide based directional coupler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmed, Rajib; Rifat, Ahmmed A.; Sabouri, Aydin; Al-Qattan, Bader; Essa, Khamis; Butt, Haider

    2016-07-01

    The Silicon-on-Insulator (SOI) based platform overcomes limitations of the previous copper and fiber based technologies. Due to its high index difference, SOI waveguide (WG) and directional couplers (DC) are widely used for high speed optical networks and hybrid Electro-Optical inter-connections; TE00-TE01, TE00-TE00 and TM00-TM00 SOI direction couplers are designed with symmetrical and asymmetrical configurations to couple with TE00, TE01 and TM00 in a multi-mode semi-triangular ring-resonator configuration which will be applicable for multi-analyte sensing. Couplers are designed with effective index method and their structural parameters are optimized with consideration to coupler length, wavelength and polarization dependence. Lastly, performance of the couplers are analyzed in terms of cross-talk, mode overlap factor, coupling length and coupling efficiency.

  13. Section III, Division 5 - Development and Future Directions

    SciTech Connect

    D. K. Morton; R I Jetter; James E Nestell; T. D. Burchell; T L Sham

    2012-07-01

    This paper provides commentary on a new division under Section III of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel (BPV) Code. This new Division 5 has an issuance date of November 1, 2011 and is part of the 2011 Addenda to the 2010 Edition of the BPV Code. The new Division covers the rules for the design, fabrication, inspection and testing of components for high temperature nuclear reactors. Information is provided on the scope and need for Division 5, the structure of Division 5, where the rules originated, the various changes made in finalizing Division 5, and the future near-term and long-term expectations for Division 5 development. Portions of this paper were based on Chapter 17 of the Companion Guide to the ASME Boiler & Pressure Vessel Code, Fourth Edition, © ASME, 2012, Reference.

  14. Nanotechnology in ocular delivery: current and future directions.

    PubMed

    Sultana, Yasmin; Maurya, D P; Iqbal, Z; Aqil, M

    2011-06-01

    Our knowledge in the field of ocular drug delivery is rapidly expanding. An increase in the understanding of ocular drug absorption and disposition vis-à-vis developments in nanotechnology has led to the emergence of many of the nanotechnology-based ocular drug delivery systems including nanoparticles, microemulsions, liposomes, solid lipid nanoparticles, light-sensitive nanocarrier systems, etc. The need to develop effective treatments for posterior eye segment diseases is more important than surface delivery. Treatment of blinding diseases of the eye, such as proliferative retinopathy or macular degeneration, requires effective and safe delivery of drugs to posterior eye segment tissues, and recent advances in nanotechnology have demonstrated successful outcomes. Nanoscientists should focus their efforts on nano-ophthalmology. This review describes the current status and progress made so far, and the course that needs to be pursued in the future. PMID:21695286

  15. Eye Nutrition in Context: Mechanisms, Implementation, and Future Directions

    PubMed Central

    Demmig-Adams, Barbara; Adams, Robert B.

    2013-01-01

    Carotenoid-based visual cues and roles of carotenoids in human vision are reviewed, with an emphasis on protection by zeaxanthin and lutein against vision loss, and dietary sources of zeaxanthin and lutein are summarized. In addition, attention is given to synergistic interactions of zeaxanthin and lutein with other dietary factors affecting human vision (such as antioxidant vitamins, phenolics, and poly-unsaturated fatty acids) and the emerging mechanisms of these interactions. Emphasis is given to lipid oxidation products serving as messengers with functions in gene regulation. Lastly, the photo-physics of light collection and photoprotection in photosynthesis and vision are compared and their common principles identified as possible targets of future research. PMID:23857222

  16. Future directions for the management of pain in osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Sofat, Nidhi; Kuttapitiya, Anasuya

    2014-01-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is the predominant form of arthritis worldwide, resulting in a high degree of functional impairment and reduced quality of life owing to chronic pain. To date, there are no treatments that are known to modify disease progression of OA in the long term. Current treatments are largely based on the modulation of pain, including NSAIDs, opiates and, more recently, centrally acting pharmacotherapies to avert pain. This review will focus on the rationale for new avenues in pain modulation, including inhibition with anti-NGF antibodies and centrally acting analgesics. The authors also consider the potential for structure modification in cartilage/bone using growth factors and stem cell therapies. The possible mismatch between structural change and pain perception will also be discussed, introducing recent techniques that may assist in improved patient phenotyping of pain subsets in OA. Such developments could help further stratify subgroups and treatments for people with OA in future. PMID:25018771

  17. Status and Future Directions of the ENERGY STAR Program

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Richard; Webber, Carrie; Koomey, Jonathan

    2001-12-04

    In 1992 the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) introduced ENERGY STAR (registered trademark) a voluntary labeling program designed to identify and promote energy-efficient products, in order to reduce carbon dioxide emissions. Since then, the EPA, now in partnership with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), has expanded the program to cover nearly the entire buildings sector, spanning new homes, commercial buildings, residential heating and cooling equipment, major appliances, office equipment, commercial and residential lighting, and home electronics. This paper is based on our experience since 1993 in providing technical support to the ENERGY STAR program. We provide a snapshot of the ENERGY STAR program in the year 2000, including a general overview of the program, its accomplishments, and the possibilities for future development.

  18. Molecular Ultrasound Imaging: Current Status and Future Directions

    PubMed Central

    Deshpande, Nirupama; Needles, Andrew; Willmann, Jürgen K.

    2011-01-01

    Targeted contrast-enhanced ultrasound (molecular ultrasound) is an emerging imaging strategy that combines ultrasound technology with novel molecularly-targeted ultrasound contrast agents for assessing biological processes at the molecular level. Molecular ultrasound contrast agents are nano- or micro-sized particles that are targeted to specific molecular markers by adding high-affinity binding ligands onto the surface of the particles. Following intravenous administration, these targeted ultrasound contrast agents accumulate at tissue sites overexpressing specific molecular markers, thereby enhancing the ultrasound imaging signal. High spatial and temporal resolution, real-time imaging, non-invasiveness, relatively low costs, lack of ionizing irradiation and wide availability of ultrasound systems are advantages compared to other molecular imaging modalities. In this article we review current concepts and future directions of molecular ultrasound imaging, including different classes of molecular ultrasound contrast agents, ongoing technical developments of preclinical and clinical ultrasound systems , the potential of molecular ultrasound for imaging different diseases at the molecular level, and the translation of molecular ultrasound into the clinic. PMID:20541656

  19. Circadian rhythms and addiction: Mechanistic insights and future directions

    PubMed Central

    Logan, Ryan W.; Williams, Wilbur P.; McClung, Colleen A.

    2014-01-01

    Circadian rhythms are prominent in many physiological and behavioral functions. Circadian disruptions either by environmental or molecular perturbation can have profound health consequences, including the development and progression of addiction. Both animal and humans studies indicate extensive bidirectional relationships between the circadian system and drugs of abuse. Addicted individuals display disrupted rhythms, and chronic disruption or particular chronotypes, may increase the risk for substance abuse and relapse. Moreover, polymorphisms in circadian genes and an evening chronotype have been linked to mood and addiction disorders, and recent efforts suggest an association with the function of reward neurocircuitry. Animal studies are beginning to determine how altered circadian gene function results in drug induced neuroplasticity and behaviors. Many studies suggest a critical role for circadian rhythms in reward-related pathways in the brain and indicate that drugs of abuse directly affect the central circadian pacemaker. In this review, we highlight key findings demonstrating the importance of circadian rhythms in addiction, and how future studies will reveal important mechanistic insights into the involvement of circadian rhythms in drug addiction. PMID:24731209

  20. Future directions in air quality research: economic issues.

    PubMed

    Adams, Richard M; Horst, Robert L

    2003-06-01

    Our challenge was to address future directions in air quality research that involve economic issues. The paper outlines the role of economics in the evaluation of air pollution impacts on environmental systems and describes existing research. We identify studies that address economic effects in the agricultural sector, in the commercial forest sector, and in unmanaged natural systems. Effects related to ozone exposure are highlighted. The summary of available research is followed by a discussion of research recommendations. Several short-term recommendations are identified that can augment some of the new research being considered by scientists. A more ambitious, long-term research project is outlined for valuing air pollution impacts in unmanaged natural environments. Specifically, the paper describes possible advantages of an 'integrated assessment' framework that more formally brings together the complex relationships that exist in both ecological and economic systems. A final section contains thoughts on the importance of education (i.e., information transfer) in the research process, especially in relation to policy. It is further noted that education should be inclusive of all members of the research team, throughout all stages of the research process. PMID:12676216

  1. Research Diagnostic Criteria for Temporomandibular Disorders: Future Directions

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Gary C.; Gonzalez, Yoly M.; Ohrbach, Richard; Truelove, Edmond L.; Sommers, Earl; Look, John O.; Schiffman, Eric L.

    2011-01-01

    The Research Diagnostic Criteria for Temporomandibular Disorders (RDC/TMD) Validation Project provided the first comprehensive assessment of reliability and validity of the original Axis I and II. In addition, Axis I of the RDC/TMD was revised with estimates of reliability and validity. These findings are reported in previous papers. Further revisions for Axis I and II are presented for consideration by the TMD research and clinical communities. Potential Axis I revisions include addressing concerns with orofacial pain differential diagnosis and changes in nomenclature in an attempt to provide improved consistency with other musculoskeletal diagnostic systems. In addition, expansion of the RDC/TMD to include the less common TMD conditions and disorders would make it more comprehensive and clinically useful. The original standards for diagnostic sensitivity (≤0.70) and specificity (≤0.95) should be reconsidered to reflect changes in the field since the RDC/TMD was published in 1992. Pertaining to Axis II, current recommendations for all chronic pain conditions include standardized instruments and expansion of the domains assessed. In addition there is need for improved clinical efficiency of Axis II instruments and exploring methods to better integrate Axis I and II in clinical settings. To that end, this paper recommends an international symposium to provide future direction. PMID:20213033

  2. Evaluating theories of bird song learning: implications for future directions.

    PubMed

    Margoliash, D

    2002-12-01

    Studies of birdsong learning have stimulated extensive hypotheses at all levels of behavioral and physiological organization. This hypothesis building is valuable for the field and is consistent with the remarkable range of issues that can be rigorously addressed in this system. The traditional instructional (template) theory of song learning has been challenged on multiple fronts, especially at a behavioral level by evidence consistent with selectional hypotheses. In this review I highlight the caveats associated with these theories to better define the limits of our knowledge and identify important experiments for the future. The sites and representational forms of the various conceptual entities posited by the template theory are unknown. The distinction between instruction and selection in vocal learning is not well established at a mechanistic level. There is as yet insufficient neurophysiological data to choose between competing mechanisms of error-driven learning and reinforcement learning. Both may obtain for vocal learning. The possible role of sleep in acoustic or procedural memory consolidation, while supported by some physiological observations, does not yet have support in the behavioral literature. The remarkable expansion of knowledge in the past 20 years and the recent development of new technologies for physiological and behavioral experiments should permit direct tests of these theories in the coming decade.

  3. Future Directions for Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Damiano, Cara R.; Mazefsky, Carla A.; White, Susan W.; Dichter, Gabriel S.

    2014-01-01

    This article suggests future directions for research aimed at improved understanding of the etiology and pathophysiology of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) as well as pharmacologic and psychosocial interventions for ASD across the lifespan. The past few years have witnessed unprecedented transformations in the understanding of ASD neurobiology, genetics, early identification, and early intervention. However, recent increases in ASD prevalence estimates highlight the urgent need for continued efforts to translate novel ASD discoveries into effective interventions for all individuals with ASD. In this article we highlight promising areas for ongoing and new research expected to quicken the pace of scientific discovery and ultimately the translation of research findings into accessible and empirically supported interventions for those with ASD. We highlight emerging research in the following domains as particularly promising and pressing: (1) preclinical models; (2) experimental therapeutics; (3) early identification and intervention; (4) psychiatric comorbidities and the Research Domain Criteria (RDoC) initiative; (5) ecological momentary assessment; (6) neurotechnologies; and (7) the needs of adults with ASD. Increased research emphasis in these areas has the potential to hasten the translation of knowledge on the etiological mechanisms of ASD to psychosocial and biological interventions to reduce the burden of ASD on affected individuals and their families. PMID:25216048

  4. Nonintubated thoracoscopic surgery: state of the art and future directions

    PubMed Central

    Hung, Ming-Hui; Hsu, Hsao-Hsun

    2014-01-01

    Video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) has become a common and globally accepted surgical approach for a variety of thoracic diseases. Conventionally, it is performed under tracheal intubation with double lumen tube or bronchial blocker to achieve single lung ventilation. Recently, VATS without tracheal intubation were reported to be feasible and safe in a series of VATS procedures, including management of pneumothorax, wedge resection of pulmonary tumors, excision of mediastinal tumors, lung volume reduction surgery, segmentectomy, and lobectomy. Patients undergoing nonintubated VATS are anesthetized using regional anesthesia in a spontaneously single lung breathing status after iatrogenic open pneumothorax. Conscious sedation is usually necessary for longer and intensively manipulating procedures and intraoperative cough reflex can be effectively inhibited with intrathoracic vagal blockade on the surgical side. The early outcomes of nonintubated VATS include a faster postoperative recovery and less complication rate comparing with its counterpart of intubated general anesthesia, by which may translate into a fast track VATS program. The future directions of nonintubated VATS should focus on its long-term outcomes, especially on oncological perspectives of survival in lung cancer patients. For now, it is still early to conclude the benefits of this technique, however, an educating and training program may be needed to enable both thoracic surgeons and anesthesiologists providing an alternative surgical option in their caring patients. PMID:24455169

  5. Cognitive Training in Mental Disorders: Update and Future Directions

    PubMed Central

    Keshavan, Matcheri S.; Vinogradov, Sophia; Rumsey, Judith; Sherrill, Joel; Wagner, Ann

    2014-01-01

    Objective In this paper, we review the conceptual basis, definitions, and evolution of cognitive training (CT) approaches for the treatment of mental disorders. Method We review the current state of the knowledge on CT in psychiatric illnesses, and its neural and behavioral targets, and summarize the factors that appear to relate to a successful response to CT, including learner characteristics that influence clinical outcome. We also discuss methodological issues relevant to the development and testing of CT approaches, with the goal of creating maximally efficient and effective approaches to training. Finally, we identify gaps in existing knowledge, and outline key research directions for the future. Results While much of the early work has been conducted in schizophrenia, CT has more recently been applied to a widening range of neuropsychiatric illnesses, including attention deficit disorder, mood disorders, and substance use disorders. CT harnesses the inherent neuroplastic capacities of the brain, targeting neural system function across psychiatric disorders, and thus improving cognitive processes that play a role in emotion regulation, clinical symptoms, and adaptive community functioning. Conclusions CT offers considerable promise, especially given the limited efficacy of pharmacological interventions in ameliorating cognitive deficits. However, more work is needed to understand mechanisms underlying CT, predictors of response, generalization and real-world applicability, and approaches to dissemination in practice settings. PMID:24700194

  6. Advancing the Field Elder Abuse: Future Directions and Policy Implications

    PubMed Central

    Dong, XinQi

    2012-01-01

    Elder abuse, sometime called elder mistreatment or elder maltreatment, includes psychological, physical, and sexual abuse, neglect (caregiver neglect and self-neglect), and financial exploitation. Evidence suggests that 1 out of 10 older adult experiences some form of elder abuse, and only 1 of out 25 cases are actually reported to social services agencies. At the same time, elder abuse is associated with significant morbidity and premature mortality. Despite these findings, there is a great paucity in research, practice, and policy dealing with the pervasive issues of elder abuse. Through my experiences as a American Political Sciences Association Congressional Policy Fellow/Health and Aging Policy Fellow working with Administration on Community Living (ACL) (Previously known at Administration on Aging (AoA)) for the last two years, I will describe the major functions of the ACL; and highlight on two major pieces of federal legislation: The Older Americans Act (OAA) and the Elder Justice Act (EJA). Moreover, I will highlight major research gaps and future policy relevant research directions for the field of elder abuse. PMID:23110488

  7. Future directions for separation science in nuclear and radiochemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Pruett, D.J.

    1986-01-01

    Solvent extraction and ion exchange have been the most widely used separation techniques in nuclear and radiochemistry since their development in the 1940s. Many successful separations processes based on these techniques have been used for decades in research laboratories, analytical laboratories, and industrial plants. Thus, it is easy to conclude that most of the fundamental and applied research that is needed in these areas has been done, and that further work in these ''mature'' fields is unlikely to be fruitful. A more careful review, however, reveals that significant problems remain to be solved, and that there is a demand for the development of new reagents, methods, and systems to solve the increasingly complex separations problems in the nuclear field. Specifically, new separation techniques based on developments in membrane technology and biotechnology that have occurred over the last 20 years should find extensive applications in radiochemical separations. Considerable research is needed in such areas as interfacial chemistry, the design and control of highly selective separation agents, critically evaluated data bases and mathematical models, and the fundamental chemistry of dilute solutions if these problems are to be solved and new techniques developed in a systematic way. Nonaqueous separation methods, such as pyrochemical and fluoride volatility processes, have traditionally played a more limited role in nuclear and radiochemistry, but recent developments in the chemistry and engineering of these processes promises to open up new areas of research and application in the future.

  8. Psychiatric Advance Directives in India: What will the future hold?

    PubMed

    Ratnam, Ashutosh; Rudra, Abhijit; Chatterjee, K; Das, R C

    2015-08-01

    Psychiatric Advance Directives (PADs) have been incorporated into India's Mental Health Care Bill, 2013. This is the first time any form of Advance Directive stands to receive legal sanction in India. PADs have numerous theoretical and empirically tenable therapeutic and financial advantages. Western experiences have shown high acceptance for the concept among psychiatric patients, and illustrated that most stable patients with severe mental illness retain the capacity to frame PADs consistent with community practice standards. However active psychopathology does impair this capacity, and therein, current subjective assessments of competence performed by Physicians without objective instruments are often inaccurate. Though PADs champion patient autonomy, when applied and studied, they have shown little significant advantage-there is currently not enough data to support evidence-based universal recommendations for PADs. PADs as incorporated into the Mental Health Care Bill model on existing Western statutes, and though many of the strengths of earlier systems have been subsumed, so have several of the shortcomings. The risks, benefits and applicability of PADs in India are complicated by the social re-calibration of patient autonomy, mental-healthcare delivery system weaknesses, and the relatively peripheral role the Psychiatrist is mandated to play in the entire advance directive process. Treating patients within the framework of their pre-stated wishes will be a much more intricate and arduous task than most of modern Psychiatric practice in India, but the difficulties, obstacles and inevitable failures encountered will provide evidence of the delivery system's weaknesses and thereby contribute to its strength.

  9. Canadian advanced life support capacities and future directions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bamsey, M.; Graham, T.; Stasiak, M.; Berinstain, A.; Scott, A.; Vuk, T. Rondeau; Dixon, M.

    2009-07-01

    Canada began research on space-relevant biological life support systems in the early 1990s. Since that time Canadian capabilities have grown tremendously, placing Canada among the emerging leaders in biological life support systems. The rapid growth of Canadian expertise has been the result of several factors including a large and technically sophisticated greenhouse sector which successfully operates under challenging climatic conditions, well planned technology transfer strategies between the academic and industrial sectors, and a strong emphasis on international research collaborations. Recent activities such as Canada's contribution of the Higher Plant Compartment of the European Space Agency's MELiSSA Pilot Plant and the remote operation of the Arthur Clarke Mars Greenhouse in the Canadian High Arctic continue to demonstrate Canadian capabilities with direct applicability to advanced life support systems. There is also a significant latent potential within Canadian institutions and organizations with respect to directly applicable advanced life support technologies. These directly applicable research interests include such areas as horticultural management strategies (for candidate crops), growth media, food processing, water management, atmosphere management, energy management, waste management, imaging, environment sensors, thermal control, lighting systems, robotics, command and data handling, communications systems, structures, in-situ resource utilization, space analogues and mission operations. With this background and in collaboration with the Canadian aerospace industry sector, a roadmap for future life support contributions is presented here. This roadmap targets an objective of at least 50% food closure by 2050 (providing greater closure in oxygen, water recycling and carbon dioxide uptake). The Canadian advanced life support community has chosen to focus on lunar surface infrastructure and not low Earth orbit or transit systems (i.e. microgravity

  10. Inorganic Nitrite Therapy: Historical perspective and future directions

    PubMed Central

    Kevil, Christopher G.; Kolluru, Gopi K.; Pattillo, Christopher B.; Giordano, Tony

    2015-01-01

    Over the past several years, investigators studying nitric oxide (NO) biology and metabolism have come to learn that the one electron oxidation product of NO, nitrite anion, serves as a unique player in modulating tissue NO bioavailability. Numerous studies have examined how this oxidized metabolite of NO can act as a salvage pathway for maintaining NO equivalents through multiple reduction mechanisms in permissive tissue environments. Moreover, it is now clear that nitrite anion production and distribution throughout the body can act in an endocrine manner to augment NO bioavailability that is important for physiological and pathological processes. These discoveries have led to renewed hope and efforts for an effective NO based therapeutic agent through the unique action of sodium nitrite as an NO pro-drug. More recent studies also indicate that sodium nitrate may also increase plasma nitrite levels via the enterosalivary circulatory system resulting in nitrate reduction to nitrite by microorganisms found within the oral cavity. In this review, we discuss the importance of nitrite anion in several disease models along with an appraisal of sodium nitrite therapy in the clinic, potential caveats of such clinical uses, and future possibilities of nitrite based therapies. PMID:21619929

  11. Public participation in energy facility siting. Part 2; Future directions

    SciTech Connect

    Whitlatch, E.E. . Dept. of Civil Engineering)

    1990-08-01

    The first planning era for energy facility siting was typified by technological decision making in a climate of eminent domain. The second planning era, from 1970 to present, involves regulatory/adjudicatory decision making in a climate of adversarial proceedings. However, outcomes are not much different than in the first: Decisions are still largely made on technological grounds, sites are secretly selected and anonymously secured, and public participation has little effect on decisions. The result has been endgame litigation that delays needed projects increases cost, and polarizes participants. Utilities are understandably reluctant to plan large base-load plants, yet almost all projections of electricity use indicate that such plants will be needed after 1996, if not before. The author discusses how it is in the self-interest of all three principal actors---industry, environmental groups, and state and local government---to move beyond confrontation to a third planning era based on negotiation. Unassisted negotiation (open siting or open planning) and assisted negotiation (facilitation and mediation) promise to produce mutual gain for all parties through cooperative and creative problem solving. Most importantly, they lay the groundwork for future productive interaction.

  12. International medical education and future directions: a global perspective.

    PubMed

    Harden, Ronald M

    2006-12-01

    Internationalization, one of the most important forces in higher education today, presents a powerful challenge and an opportunity for medical schools. Factors encouraging internationalization include (1) globalization of health care delivery, (2) governmental pressures, (3) improved communication channels, (4) development of a common vocabulary, (5) outcome-based education and standards, (6) staff development initiatives, and (7) competitiveness and commercialization. A three-dimensional model--based on the student (local or international), the teacher (local or international), and the curriculum (local, imported, or international)-offers a range of perspectives for international medical education. In the traditional approach to teaching and learning medicine, local students and local teachers use a local curriculum. In the international medical graduate or overseas student model, students from one country pursue in another country a curriculum taught and developed by teachers in the latter. In the branch-campus model, students, usually local, have an imported curriculum taught jointly by international and local teachers. The future of medical education, facilitated by the new learning technologies and pedagogies, lies in a move from such international interconnected approaches, which emphasize the mobility of students, teachers, and curriculum across the boundaries of two countries, to a transnational approach in which internationalization is integrated and embedded within a curriculum and involves collaboration between a number of schools in different countries. In this approach, the study of medicine is exemplified in the global context rather than the context of a single country. The International Virtual Medical School serves as an example in this regard.

  13. Direct estimation of diffuse gaseous emissions from coal fires: current methods and future directions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Engle, Mark A.; Olea, Ricardo A.; O'Keefe, Jennifer M. K.; Hower, James C.; Geboy, Nicholas J.

    2013-01-01

    Coal fires occur in nature spontaneously, contribute to increases in greenhouse gases, and emit atmospheric toxicants. Increasing interest in quantifying coal fire emissions has resulted in the adaptation and development of specialized approaches and adoption of numerical modeling techniques. Overview of these methods for direct estimation of diffuse gas emissions from coal fires is presented in this paper. Here we take advantage of stochastic Gaussian simulation to interpolate CO2 fluxes measured using a dynamic closed chamber at the Ruth Mullins coal fire in Perry County, Kentucky. This approach allows for preparing a map of diffuse gas emissions, one of the two primary ways that gases emanate from coal fires, and establishing the reliability of the study both locally and for the entire fire. Future research directions include continuous and automated sampling to improve quantification of gaseous coal fire emissions.

  14. Science and cycling: current knowledge and future directions for research.

    PubMed

    Atkinson, Greg; Davison, Richard; Jeukendrup, Asker; Passfield, Louis

    2003-09-01

    In this holistic review of cycling science, the objectives are: (1) to identify the various human and environmental factors that influence cycling power output and velocity; (2) to discuss, with the aid of a schematic model, the often complex interrelationships between these factors; and (3) to suggest future directions for research to help clarify how cycling performance can be optimized, given different race disciplines, environments and riders. Most successful cyclists, irrespective of the race discipline, have a high maximal aerobic power output measured from an incremental test, and an ability to work at relatively high power outputs for long periods. The relationship between these characteristics and inherent physiological factors such as muscle capilliarization and muscle fibre type is complicated by inter-individual differences in selecting cadence for different race conditions. More research is needed on high-class professional riders, since they probably represent the pinnacle of natural selection for, and physiological adaptation to, endurance exercise. Recent advances in mathematical modelling and bicycle-mounted strain gauges, which can measure power directly in races, are starting to help unravel the interrelationships between the various resistive forces on the bicycle (e.g. air and rolling resistance, gravity). Interventions on rider position to optimize aerodynamics should also consider the impact on power output of the rider. All-terrain bicycle (ATB) racing is a neglected discipline in terms of the characterization of power outputs in race conditions and the modelling of the effects of the different design of bicycle frame and components on the magnitude of resistive forces. A direct application of mathematical models of cycling velocity has been in identifying optimal pacing strategies for different race conditions. Such data should, nevertheless, be considered alongside physiological optimization of power output in a race. An even distribution

  15. Munchausen by Internet: Current Research and Future Directions

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Jacqui

    2012-01-01

    about their health in the online environment. We also suggest directions for future research. PMID:22914203

  16. Current trends and future directions in flower development research.

    PubMed

    Scutt, Charlie P; Vandenbussche, Michiel

    2014-11-01

    Flowers, the reproductive structures of the approximately 400 000 extant species of flowering plants, exist in a tremendous range of forms and sizes, mainly due to developmental differences involving the number, arrangement, size and form of the floral organs of which they consist. However, this tremendous diversity is underpinned by a surprisingly robust basic floral structure in which a central group of carpels forms on an axis of determinate growth, almost invariably surrounded by two successive zones containing stamens and perianth organs, respectively. Over the last 25 years, remarkable progress has been achieved in describing the molecular mechanisms that control almost all aspects of flower development, from the phase change that initiates flowering to the final production of fruits and seeds. However, this work has been performed almost exclusively in a small number of eudicot model species, chief among which is Arabidopsis thaliana. Studies of flower development must now be extended to a much wider phylogenetic range of flowering plants and, indeed, to their closest living relatives, the gymnosperms. Studies of further, more wide-ranging models should provide insights that, for various reasons, cannot be obtained by studying the major existing models alone. The use of further models should also help to explain how the first flowering plants evolved from an unknown, although presumably gymnosperm-like ancestor, and rapidly diversified to become the largest major plant group and to dominate the terrestrial flora. The benefits for society of a thorough understanding of flower development are self-evident, as human life depends to a large extent on flowering plants and on the fruits and seeds they produce. In this preface to the Special Issue, we introduce eleven articles on flower development, representing work in both established and further models, including gymnosperms. We also present some of our own views on current trends and future directions of the

  17. Future Directions in the Developmental Science of Addictions

    PubMed Central

    Hussong, Andrea M.; Burns, Alison R.; Solis, Jessica M.; Rothenberg, W. Andrew

    2014-01-01

    This essay addresses important future directions for the study of addictions, emphasizing the incorporation of developmental perspectives into how we think about substance use and disorder as unfolding processes over time and context for a heterogeneous group of individuals. These perspectives articulate complexities in the developmental processes that underlie change and continuity in human behavior over time. We consider two key developmental concepts, namely ‘time’ and ‘heterogeneity’. We argue that a lack of attention to time sampling creates ambiguity in the meaning of time-linked assessments, challenges in discerning which of multiple clocks may govern behavior, and the inability in some instances to distinguish which of multiple etiological processes may be driving behavior within our samples. Moreover, artificial divisions among disorders that commonly co-occur with substance use are a barrier to the further integration of the study and treatment of addictions with that of psychopathology. Similar to recent changes in the study of psychiatric disorders more broadly, we argue that identifying common deficits among commonly comorbid disorders, rather than patterns of comorbidity per se, is key to identifying early emerging risk factors for substance use and disorder, with important implications for identifying risk populations and developmental periods as well as potentially malleable intervention targets. Attention to time sampling in theory-driven research designs and attempts to identify more homogenous groups of individuals who use and eventually abuse substances over time are two examples of ways to better understand some of the complexity underlying the development of addictions. PMID:24156358

  18. Current trends and future directions in flower development research

    PubMed Central

    Scutt, Charlie P.; Vandenbussche, Michiel

    2014-01-01

    Flowers, the reproductive structures of the approximately 400 000 extant species of flowering plants, exist in a tremendous range of forms and sizes, mainly due to developmental differences involving the number, arrangement, size and form of the floral organs of which they consist. However, this tremendous diversity is underpinned by a surprisingly robust basic floral structure in which a central group of carpels forms on an axis of determinate growth, almost invariably surrounded by two successive zones containing stamens and perianth organs, respectively. Over the last 25 years, remarkable progress has been achieved in describing the molecular mechanisms that control almost all aspects of flower development, from the phase change that initiates flowering to the final production of fruits and seeds. However, this work has been performed almost exclusively in a small number of eudicot model species, chief among which is Arabidopsis thaliana. Studies of flower development must now be extended to a much wider phylogenetic range of flowering plants and, indeed, to their closest living relatives, the gymnosperms. Studies of further, more wide-ranging models should provide insights that, for various reasons, cannot be obtained by studying the major existing models alone. The use of further models should also help to explain how the first flowering plants evolved from an unknown, although presumably gymnosperm-like ancestor, and rapidly diversified to become the largest major plant group and to dominate the terrestrial flora. The benefits for society of a thorough understanding of flower development are self-evident, as human life depends to a large extent on flowering plants and on the fruits and seeds they produce. In this preface to the Special Issue, we introduce eleven articles on flower development, representing work in both established and further models, including gymnosperms. We also present some of our own views on current trends and future directions of the

  19. Future Directions of Electromagnetic Methods for Hydrocarbon Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strack, K. M.

    2014-01-01

    For hydrocarbon applications, seismic exploration is the workhorse of the industry. Only in the borehole, electromagnetic (EM) methods play a dominant role, as they are mostly used to determine oil reserves and to distinguish water from oil-bearing zones. Throughout the past 60 years, we had several periods with an increased interest in EM. This increased with the success of the marine EM industry and now electromagnetics in general is considered for many new applications. The classic electromagnetic methods are borehole, onshore and offshore, and airborne EM methods. Airborne is covered elsewhere (see Smith, this issue). Marine EM material is readily available from the service company Web sites, and here I will only mention some future technical directions that are visible. The marine EM success is being carried back to the onshore market, fueled by geothermal and unconventional hydrocarbon applications. Oil companies are listening to pro-EM arguments, but still are hesitant to go through the learning exercises as early adopters. In particular, the huge business drivers of shale hydrocarbons and reservoir monitoring will bring markets many times bigger than the entire marine EM market. Additional applications include support for seismic operations, sub-salt, and sub-basalt, all areas where seismic exploration is costly and inefficient. Integration with EM will allow novel seismic methods to be applied. In the borehole, anisotropy measurements, now possible, form the missing link between surface measurements and ground truth. Three-dimensional (3D) induction measurements are readily available from several logging contractors. The trend to logging-while-drilling measurements will continue with many more EM technologies, and the effort of controlling the drill bit while drilling including look-ahead-and-around the drill bit is going on. Overall, the market for electromagnetics is increasing, and a demand for EM capable professionals will continue. The emphasis will

  20. Candidate Gravitational Microlensing Events for Future Direct Lens Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henderson, C. B.; Park, H.; Sumi, T.; Udalski, A.; Gould, A.; Tsapras, Y.; Han, C.; Gaudi, B. S.; Bozza, V.; Abe, F.; Bennett, D. P.; Bond, I. A.; Botzler, C. S.; Freeman, M.; Fukui, A.; Fukunaga, D.; Itow, Y.; Koshimoto, N.; Ling, C. H.; Masuda, K.; Matsubara, Y.; Muraki, Y.; Namba, S.; Ohnishi, K.; Rattenbury, N. J.; Saito, To; Sullivan, D. J.; Suzuki, D.; Sweatman, W. L.; Tristram, P. J.; Tsurumi, N.; Wada, K.; Yamai, N.; Yock, P. C. M.; Yonehara, A.; MOA Collaboration; Szymański, M. K.; Kubiak, M.; Pietrzyński, G.; Soszyński, I.; Skowron, J.; Kozłowski, S.; Poleski, R.; Ulaczyk, K.; Wyrzykowski, Ł.; Pietrukowicz, P.; OGLE Collaboration; Almeida, L. A.; Bos, M.; Choi, J.-Y.; Christie, G. W.; Depoy, D. L.; Dong, S.; Friedmann, M.; Hwang, K.-H.; Jablonski, F.; Jung, Y. K.; Kaspi, S.; Lee, C.-U.; Maoz, D.; McCormick, J.; Moorhouse, D.; Natusch, T.; Ngan, H.; Pogge, R. W.; Shin, I.-G.; Shvartzvald, Y.; Tan, T.-G.; Thornley, G.; Yee, J. C.; μFUN Collaboration; Allan, A.; Bramich, D. M.; Browne, P.; Dominik, M.; Horne, K.; Hundertmark, M.; Figuera Jaimes, R.; Kains, N.; Snodgrass, C.; Steele, I. A.; Street, R. A.; RoboNet Collaboration

    2014-10-01

    The mass of the lenses giving rise to Galactic microlensing events can be constrained by measuring the relative lens-source proper motion and lens flux. The flux of the lens can be separated from that of the source, companions to the source, and unrelated nearby stars with high-resolution images taken when the lens and source are spatially resolved. For typical ground-based adaptive optics (AO) or space-based observations, this requires either inordinately long time baselines or high relative proper motions. We provide a list of microlensing events toward the Galactic bulge with high relative lens-source proper motion that are therefore good candidates for constraining the lens mass with future high-resolution imaging. We investigate all events from 2004 to 2013 that display detectable finite-source effects, a feature that allows us to measure the proper motion. In total, we present 20 events with μ >~ 8 mas yr-1. Of these, 14 were culled from previous analyses while 6 are new, including OGLE-2004-BLG-368, MOA-2005-BLG-36, OGLE-2012-BLG-0211, OGLE-2012-BLG-0456, MOA-2012-BLG-532, and MOA-2013-BLG-029. In lsim12 yr from the time of each event the lens and source of each event will be sufficiently separated for ground-based telescopes with AO systems or space telescopes to resolve each component and further characterize the lens system. Furthermore, for the most recent events, comparison of the lens flux estimates from images taken immediately to those estimated from images taken when the lens and source are resolved can be used to empirically check the robustness of the single-epoch method currently being used to estimate lens masses for many events.

  1. Adaptive directional wavelet transform based on directional prefiltering.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Yuichi; Hasegawa, Madoka; Kato, Shigeo; Ikehara, Masaaki; Nguyen, Truong Q

    2010-04-01

    This paper proposes an efficient approach for adaptive directional wavelet transform (WT) based on directional prefiltering. Although the adaptive directional WT is able to transform an image along diagonal orientations as well as traditional horizontal and vertical directions, it sacrifices computation speed for good image coding performance. We present two efficient methods to find the best transform directions by prefiltering using 2-D filter bank or 1-D directional WT along two fixed directions. The proposed direction calculation methods achieve comparable image coding performance comparing to the conventional one with less complexity. Furthermore, transform direction data of the proposed method can be used for content-based image retrieval to increase retrieval ratio. PMID:20028625

  2. Building Future Directions for Teacher Learning in Science Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Kathy; Lindsay, Simon

    2016-04-01

    In 2013, as part of a process to renew an overall sector vision for science education, Catholic Education Melbourne (CEM) undertook a review of its existing teacher in-service professional development programs in science. This review led to some data analysis being conducted in relation to two of these programs where participant teachers were positioned as active learners undertaking critical reflection in relation to their science teaching practice. The conditions in these programs encouraged teachers to notice critical aspects of their teaching practice. The analysis illustrates that as teachers worked in this way, their understandings about effective science pedagogy began to shift, in particular, teachers recognised how their thinking not only influenced their professional practice but also ultimately shaped the quality of their students' learning. The data from these programs delivers compelling evidence of the learning experience from a teacher perspective. This article explores the impact of this experience on teacher thinking about the relationship between pedagogical choices and quality learning in science. The findings highlight that purposeful, teacher-centred in-service professional learning can significantly contribute to enabling teachers to think differently about science teaching and learning and ultimately become confident pedagogical leaders in science. The future of quality school-based science education therefore relies on a new vision for teacher professional learning, where practice explicitly recognises, values and attends to teachers as professionals and supports them to articulate and share the professional knowledge they have about effective science teaching practice.

  3. Characterizing the food environment: Pitfalls and future directions

    PubMed Central

    Vernez Moudon, Anne; Drewnowski, Adam; Duncan, Glen E; Hurvitz, Philip M; Saelens, Brian E; Scharnhorst, Eric

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To assess a county population’s exposure to different types of food sources reported to affect both diet quality and obesity rates. Design: Food permit records obtained from the local health department served to establish the full census of food stores and restaurants. Employing prior categorization schemes which classified the relative healthfulness of food sources based on establishment type (i.e. supermarkets versus convenience stores, or full-service versus fast food restaurants), food establishments were assigned to the healthy, unhealthy, or undetermined groups. Setting: King County, WA. Subjects: Full census of food sources. Results: According to all categorization schemes, most food establishments in King County fell into the unhealthy and undetermined groups. The use of the food permit data showed that large stores, which included supermarkets as healthy food establishments, contained a sizeable number of bakery/delis, fish/meat, ethnic and standard quick service restaurants, and coffee shops, all food sources that, when housed in a separate venue or owned by a different business establishment, were classified as either unhealthy or of undetermined value to health. Conclusions: To fully assess the potential health effects of exposure to the extant food environment, future research would need to establish the health value of foods in the many such common establishments as individually owned grocery stores and ethnic food stores and restaurants. Within- venue exposure to foods should also be investigated. PMID:23570695

  4. Consumer health plan choice: current knowledge and future directions.

    PubMed

    Scanlon, D P; Chernew, M; Lave, J R

    1997-01-01

    A keystone of the competitive strategy in health insurance markets is the assumption that "consumers" can make informed choices based on the costs and quality of competing health plans, and that selection effects are not large. However, little is known about how individuals use information other than price in the decision making process. This review summarizes the state of knowledge about how individuals make choices among health plans and outlines an agenda for future research. We find that the existing literature on health plan choice is no longer sufficient given the widespread growth and acceptance of managed care, and the increased proportion of consumers' income now going toward the purchase of health plans. Instead, today's environment of health plan choice requires better understanding of how plan attributes other than price influence plan choice, how other variables such as health status interact with plan attributes in the decision making process, and how specific populations differ from one another in terms of the sensitivity of their health plan choices to these different types of variables.

  5. Sports concussion assessment and management: future research directions.

    PubMed

    McCrea, Michael; Broshek, Donna K; Barth, Jeffrey T

    2015-01-01

    Over the past 2 decades, major progress has been achieved toward advancing the translational science of sport-related concussion (SRC), paving the way for evidence-based guidelines for injury diagnosis, evaluation and management. Several key empirical questions on the basic and clinical science of SRC, however, remain unanswered. The aim of this summary article is to highlight gaps in the existing science of SRC and to propose a platform for the next generation of SRC research. The article is framed around addressing two key questions that have major significance to protecting the health and safety of athletes affected by SRC, including: (a) Who is at risk of slow recovery or poor outcome after SRC, and why? (b) How does one modify the risks of slow recovery and poor outcome after SRC? Another aim of this article is to stimulate thought among researchers who will carry the science of SRC into the future, including neuropsychology leaders in the field. Implications for the broader science of traumatic brain injury are also discussed.

  6. Bed bug detection: Current technologies and future directions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study evaluates current technologies used to detect bed bug infestations, and presents new information regarding the underlying chemical basis of canines scent detection. The manuscript also reports new and future devices that may play a part in bed bug detection in the future....

  7. Some suggested future directions of quantitative resource assessments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Singer, D.A.

    2001-01-01

    Future quantitative assessments will be expected to estimate quantities, values, and locations of undiscovered mineral resources in a form that conveys both economic viability and uncertainty associated with the resources. Historically, declining metal prices point to the need for larger deposits over time. Sensitivity analysis demonstrates that the greatest opportunity for reducing uncertainty in assessments lies in lowering uncertainty associated with tonnage estimates. Of all errors possible in assessments, those affecting tonnage estimates are by far the most important. Selecting the correct deposit model is the most important way of controlling errors because the dominance of tonnage-deposit models are the best known predictor of tonnage. Much of the surface is covered with apparently barren rocks and sediments in many large regions. Because many exposed mineral deposits are believed to have been found, a prime concern is the presence of possible mineralized rock under cover. Assessments of areas with resources under cover must rely on extrapolation from surrounding areas, new geologic maps of rocks under cover, or analogy with other well-explored areas that can be considered training tracts. Cover has a profound effect on uncertainty and on methods and procedures of assessments because geology is seldom known and geophysical methods typically have attenuated responses. Many earlier assessment methods were based on relationships of geochemical and geophysical variables to deposits learned from deposits exposed on the surface-these will need to be relearned based on covered deposits. Mineral-deposit models are important in quantitative resource assessments for two reasons: (1) grades and tonnages of most deposit types are significantly different, and (2) deposit types are present in different geologic settings that can be identified from geologic maps. Mineral-deposit models are the keystone in combining the diverse geoscience information on geology, mineral

  8. Hydrological modelling of urbanized catchments: A review and future directions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salvadore, Elga; Bronders, Jan; Batelaan, Okke

    2015-10-01

    In recent years, the conceptual detail of hydrological models has dramatically increased as a result of improved computational techniques and the availability of spatially-distributed digital data. Nevertheless modelling spatially-distributed hydrological processes can be challenging, particularly in strongly heterogeneous urbanized areas. Multiple interactions occur between urban structures and the water system at various temporal and spatial scales. So far, no universal methodology exists for simulating the urban water system at catchment scale. This paper reviews the state of the art on the scientific knowledge and practice of modelling the urban hydrological system at the catchment scale, with the purpose of identifying current limitations and defining a blueprint for future modelling advances. We compare conceptual descriptions of urban physical hydrological processes on basis of a selection of 43 modelling approaches. The complexity of the urban water system at the catchment scale results in an incomplete understanding of the interaction between urban and natural hydrological systems, and in a high degree of uncertainty. Data availability is still a strong limitation since current modelling practice recognizes the need for high spatial and temporal resolution. Spatio-temporal gaps exist between the physical scales of hydrological processes and the resolution of applied models. Therefore urban hydrology is often simplified either as a study of surface runoff over impervious surfaces or hydraulics of piped systems. Many approaches target very specific objectives and the level of detail in representing physical processes is not consistent. Based on our analysis, we propose a blueprint for a highly complex integrated urban hydrological model. We regard flexibility, in terms of model structure and data assimilation, as the key characteristic for overcoming these limitations. We advocate the use of modular, process-based approaches, which are flexible and adaptable

  9. Current management of diabetes mellitus and future directions in care.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Sudesna; Davies, Melanie J

    2015-11-01

    outcomes, but macrovascular outcomes and cardiovascular safety remain controversial with several glucose-lowering agents. Future directions in diabetes care include strategies such as the 'bionic pancreas', stem cell therapy and targeting the intestinal microbiome. All of these treatments are still being refined, and it may be several decades before they are clinically useful. Prevention and cure of diabetes is the Holy Grail but remain elusive due to lack of detailed understanding of the metabolic, genetic and immunological causes that underpin diabetes. Much progress has been made since the time of Prof MacLean 90 years ago, but there are still great strides to be taken before the life of the patient with diabetes improves even more significantly. PMID:26453594

  10. Modelling biological evolution: recent progress, current challenges and future direction

    PubMed Central

    Morozov, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    Mathematical modelling is widely recognized as a powerful and convenient theoretical tool for investigating various aspects of biological evolution and explaining the existing genetic complexity of the real world. It is increasingly apparent that understanding the key mechanisms involved in the processes of species biodiversity, natural selection and inheritance, patterns of animal behaviour and coevolution of species in complex ecological systems is simply impossible by means of laboratory experiments and field observations alone. Mathematical models are so important because they provide wide-ranging exploration of the problem without a need for experiments with biological systems—which are usually expensive, often require long time and can be potentially dangerous. However, as the number of theoretical works on modelling biological evolution is constantly accelerating each year as different mathematical frameworks and various aspects of evolutionary problems are considered, it is often hard to avoid getting lost in such an immense flux of publications. The aim of this issue of Interface Focus is to provide a useful guide to important recent findings in some key areas in modelling biological evolution, to refine the existing challenges and to outline possible future directions. In particular, the following topics are addressed here by world-leading experts in the modelling of evolution: (i) the origins of biodiversity observed in ecosystems and communities; (ii) evolution of decision-making by animals and the optimal strategy of populations; (iii) links between evolutionary and ecological processes across different time scales; (iv) quantification of biological information in evolutionary models; and (v) linking theoretical models with empirical data. Most of the works presented here are in fact contributed papers from the international conference ‘Modelling Biological Evolution’ (MBE 2013), which took place in Leicester, UK, in May 2013 and brought together

  11. Current management of diabetes mellitus and future directions in care.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Sudesna; Davies, Melanie J

    2015-11-01

    outcomes, but macrovascular outcomes and cardiovascular safety remain controversial with several glucose-lowering agents. Future directions in diabetes care include strategies such as the 'bionic pancreas', stem cell therapy and targeting the intestinal microbiome. All of these treatments are still being refined, and it may be several decades before they are clinically useful. Prevention and cure of diabetes is the Holy Grail but remain elusive due to lack of detailed understanding of the metabolic, genetic and immunological causes that underpin diabetes. Much progress has been made since the time of Prof MacLean 90 years ago, but there are still great strides to be taken before the life of the patient with diabetes improves even more significantly.

  12. Treatment-resistant depression: therapeutic trends, challenges, and future directions

    PubMed Central

    Al-Harbi, Khalid Saad

    2012-01-01

    Background Patients with major depression respond to antidepressant treatment, but 10%–30% of them do not improve or show a partial response coupled with functional impairment, poor quality of life, suicide ideation and attempts, self-injurious behavior, and a high relapse rate. The aim of this paper is to review the therapeutic options for treating resistant major depressive disorder, as well as evaluating further therapeutic options. Methods In addition to Google Scholar and Quertle searches, a PubMed search using key words was conducted, and relevant articles published in English peer-reviewed journals (1990–2011) were retrieved. Only those papers that directly addressed treatment options for treatment-resistant depression were retained for extensive review. Results Treatment-resistant depression, a complex clinical problem caused by multiple risk factors, is targeted by integrated therapeutic strategies, which include optimization of medications, a combination of antidepressants, switching of antidepressants, and augmentation with non-antidepressants, psychosocial and cultural therapies, and somatic therapies including electroconvulsive therapy, repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation, magnetic seizure therapy, deep brain stimulation, transcranial direct current stimulation, and vagus nerve stimulation. As a corollary, more than a third of patients with treatment-resistant depression tend to achieve remission and the rest continue to suffer from residual symptoms. The latter group of patients needs further study to identify the most effective therapeutic modalities. Newer biomarker-based antidepressants and other drugs, together with non-drug strategies, are on the horizon to address further the multiple complex issues of treatment-resistant depression. Conclusion Treatment-resistant depression continues to challenge mental health care providers, and further relevant research involving newer drugs is warranted to improve the quality of life of patients

  13. Divorce and Health: Current Trends and Future Directions

    PubMed Central

    Sbarra, David A.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Social relationships play a vital role in health and wellbeing, and it follows that loss experiences can be highly stressful for some people. This paper reviews what is known about the association between marital separation, divorce and health outcomes. METHODS Key findings in the area of divorce and health are discussed, and the review outlines a series of specific questions for future research. In particular, the paper integrates research in social epidemiology with research in social psychophysiology. The former approach provides a broad-based estimate of the association between marital status and health outcomes, whereas the latter approach studies mechanisms of action and individual differences associated with increased risk for poor outcomes. RESULTS The experience of separation or divorce confers risk for poor health outcomes, including a 23% higher mortality rate. However, most people cope well and are resilient after their marriage or long-term relationship ends. Despite the fact that resilience is the most common response, a small percentage of people (approximately 10–15%) struggle quite substantially, and it appears that the overall elevated adverse health risks are driven by the poor functioning of this group. Several candidate mechanisms and novel (ambulatory) assessment techniques are discussed that may elucidate the poor outcomes among people who adapt poorly to separation. CONCLUSIONS To increase knowledge on the association between divorce and health, three primary areas require more research: (a) genetic and third variable explanations for divorce-related health outcomes; (b) better studies of objective social behavior following separation; and, (c) increased attention to interventions targeting high risk adults. PMID:25829240

  14. Cardiac MR imaging: current status and future direction

    PubMed Central

    Van, Tu Anh; Krug, Roland; Hetts, Steven W.; Wilson, Mark W.

    2015-01-01

    Coronary artery disease is currently a worldwide epidemic with increasing impact on healthcare systems. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) sequences give complementary information on LV function, regional perfusion, angiogenesis, myocardial viability and orientations of myocytes. T2-weighted short-tau inversion recovery (T2-STIR), fat suppression and black blood sequences have been frequently used for detecting edematous area at risk (AAR) of infarction. T2 mapping, however, indicated that the edematous reaction in acute myocardial infarct (AMI) is not stable and warranted the use of edematous area in evaluating therapies. On the other hand, cine MRI demonstrated reproducible data on LV function in healthy volunteers and LV remodeling in patients. Noninvasive first pass perfusion, using exogenous tracer (gadolinium-based contrast media) and arterial spin labeling MRI, using endogenous tracer (water), are sensitive and useful techniques for evaluating myocardial perfusion and angiogenesis. Recently, new strategies have been developed to quantify myocardial viability using T1-mapping and equilibrium contrast enhanced MR techniques because existing delayed contrast enhancement MRI (DE-MRI) sequences are limited in detecting patchy microinfarct and diffuse fibrosis. These new techniques were successfully used for characterizing diffuse myocardial fibrosis associated with myocarditis, amyloidosis, sarcoidosis heart failure, aortic hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, congenital heart disease, restrictive cardiomyopathy, arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia and hypertension). Diffusion MRI provides information regarding microscopic tissue structure, while diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) helps to characterize the myocardium and monitor the process of LV remodeling after AMI. Novel trends in hybrid imaging, such as cardiac positron emission tomography (PET)/MRI and optical imaging/MRI, are recently under intensive investigation. With the promise of higher spatial

  15. Xi. Sleep and development: conclusions and future directions.

    PubMed

    Sadeh, Avi; El-Sheikh, Mona

    2015-03-01

    Literature on sleep and child development is growing in novel directions across several disciplines necessitating guiding conceptual principles and methodological tools. First, this volume presents a summary of discussions from an SRCD-sponsored multidisciplinary forum on sleep and development, which includes presentation of key issues and guiding recommendations for research priorities in this fast developing field. Second, enhancing accessibility to child development researchers, state of the science sleep assessment methodologies are presented with a discussion of their advantages and disadvantages. Third, seven empirical studies conducted with "typically" developing infants and children provide examples of relations between sleep and some of the many individual and familial factors that influence and are influenced by sleep. In the presentation of empirical findings, a developmental ecological systems perspective adapted to sleep was espoused to illustrate some of the multiple levels of influence in the study of child sleep and development. Collectively, studies in this volume build significantly on the literature through: (a) illustrating linkages between various sleep parameters (e.g., quality, sleeping arrangements) and other key developmental domains (e.g., attachment, parenting); (b) demonstration of longitudinal relations connecting sleep with development, which is scarce in this field; and (c) utilization of actigraphy-based assessments of sleep duration and quality, which are underutilized in the literature yet important for a more nuanced understanding of sleep and development.

  16. Development and Translation of Histotripsy: Current Status and Future Directions

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, William W.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose of review 1) to outline the initial development of histotripsy, a non-invasive image guided focused ultrasound technology that mechanically homogenizes targeted tissues and 2) to describe the results of pre-clinical translational research directed towards urologic applications. Recent Findings Histotripsy tissue ablation is based on initiation and control of acoustic cavitation at a target point within the body. This unique mechanical mechanism of action is distinct when compared to conventional thermal ablative modalities. Features of histotripsy (non-thermal, noninvasive, high precision, real-time monitoring/feedback, tissue liquefaction) have prompted assessment of this technology as a potential ablative therapy for a number of organs and disease processes. Summary Ongoing research efforts to apply histotripsy to preclinical models of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), prostate cancer, renal masses, and renal calculi have resulted in enhanced understanding of cavitation bioeffects, refinement of treatment systems, strategies to enhance treatment efficiency, and initiation of a pilot human clinical trial to assess the safety of histotripsy for BPH therapy. PMID:24231530

  17. Planning for the Future of Geo-Cybereducation: Outcomes of the Workshop, Challenges, and Future Directions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryan, J. G.; Eriksson, S. C.

    2010-12-01

    Inspired by the recommendations of the NSF report “Fostering Learning in the Networked World: The Cyberlearning Opportunity and Challenge” (NSF08204), the NSF National STEM Digital Learning program funded “Planning for the Future of Geocybereducation” Workshop sought to bring together leaders from the geoscience education community, from major geoscience research initiatives, and from the growing public- and private-sector geoscience information community. The objectives of the workshop were to begin conversations aimed at identifying best practices and tools for geoscience cyber-education, in the context of both the changing nature of learners and of rapidly evolving geo-information platforms, and to provide guidance to the NSF as to necessary future directions and needs for funding. 65 participants met and interacted live for the two-day workshop, with ongoing post-meeting virtual interactions via a collaborative workspace (www.geocybered.ning.com). Topics addressed included the rapidly changing character of learners, the growing capabilities of geoscience information systems and their affiliated tools, and effective models for collaboration among educators, researchers and geoinformation specialists. Discussions at the meeting focused on the implications of changing learners on the educational process, the challenges for teachers and administrators in keeping pace, and on the challenges of communication among these divergent professional communities. Ongoing virtual discussions and collaborations have produced a draft workshop document, and the workshop conveners are maintaining the workshop site as a venue for ongoing discussion and interaction. Several key challenges were evident from the workshop discussions and subsequent interactions: a) the development of most of the large geoinformatics and geoscience research efforts were not pursued with education as a significant objective, resulting in limited financial support for such activities after the

  18. Shared decision making in endocrinology: present and future directions.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Gutierrez, Rene; Gionfriddo, Michael R; Ospina, Naykky Singh; Maraka, Spyridoula; Tamhane, Shrikant; Montori, Victor M; Brito, Juan P

    2016-08-01

    In medicine and endocrinology, there are few clinical circumstances in which clinicians can accurately predict what is best for their patients. As a result, patients and clinicians frequently have to make decisions about which there is uncertainty. Uncertainty results from limitations in the research evidence, unclear patient preferences, or an inability to predict how treatments will fit into patients' daily lives. The work that patients and clinicians do together to address the patient's situation and engage in a deliberative dialogue about reasonable treatment options is often called shared decision making. Decision aids are evidence-based tools that facilitate this process. Shared decision making is a patient-centred approach in which clinicians share information about the benefits, harms, and burden of different reasonable diagnostic and treatment options, and patients explain what matters to them in view of their particular values, preferences, and personal context. Beyond the ethical argument in support of this approach, decision aids have been shown to improve patients' knowledge about the available options, accuracy of risk estimates, and decisional comfort. Decision aids also promote patient participation in the decision-making process. Despite accumulating evidence from clinical trials, policy support, and expert recommendations in endocrinology practice guidelines, shared decision making is still not routinely implemented in endocrine practice. Additional work is needed to enrich the number of available tools and to implement them in practice workflows. Also, although the evidence from randomised controlled trials favours the use of this shared decision making in other settings, populations, and illnesses, the effect of this approach has been studied in a few endocrine disorders. Future pragmatic trials are needed to explore the effect and feasibility of shared decision making implementation into routine endocrinology and primary care practice. With the

  19. Shared decision making in endocrinology: present and future directions.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Gutierrez, Rene; Gionfriddo, Michael R; Ospina, Naykky Singh; Maraka, Spyridoula; Tamhane, Shrikant; Montori, Victor M; Brito, Juan P

    2016-08-01

    In medicine and endocrinology, there are few clinical circumstances in which clinicians can accurately predict what is best for their patients. As a result, patients and clinicians frequently have to make decisions about which there is uncertainty. Uncertainty results from limitations in the research evidence, unclear patient preferences, or an inability to predict how treatments will fit into patients' daily lives. The work that patients and clinicians do together to address the patient's situation and engage in a deliberative dialogue about reasonable treatment options is often called shared decision making. Decision aids are evidence-based tools that facilitate this process. Shared decision making is a patient-centred approach in which clinicians share information about the benefits, harms, and burden of different reasonable diagnostic and treatment options, and patients explain what matters to them in view of their particular values, preferences, and personal context. Beyond the ethical argument in support of this approach, decision aids have been shown to improve patients' knowledge about the available options, accuracy of risk estimates, and decisional comfort. Decision aids also promote patient participation in the decision-making process. Despite accumulating evidence from clinical trials, policy support, and expert recommendations in endocrinology practice guidelines, shared decision making is still not routinely implemented in endocrine practice. Additional work is needed to enrich the number of available tools and to implement them in practice workflows. Also, although the evidence from randomised controlled trials favours the use of this shared decision making in other settings, populations, and illnesses, the effect of this approach has been studied in a few endocrine disorders. Future pragmatic trials are needed to explore the effect and feasibility of shared decision making implementation into routine endocrinology and primary care practice. With the

  20. Virtual Learning Communities Centered within a Discipline: Future Directions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blanchard, Anita L.; Cook, James R.

    2012-01-01

    Over a decade ago, Lenning and Ebbers (1999) envisioned that information and computer technology (ICT) could be used to create virtual learning communities (VLCs) as a "future" form of learning communities. Indeed, almost all academic departments--including psychology--depend heavily on the use of ICT to create and sustain connections among…

  1. Sustainable practices in medicinal chemistry: current state and future directions.

    PubMed

    Bryan, Marian C; Dillon, Barry; Hamann, Lawrence G; Hughes, Gregory J; Kopach, Michael E; Peterson, Emily A; Pourashraf, Mehrnaz; Raheem, Izzat; Richardson, Paul; Richter, Daniel; Sneddon, Helen F

    2013-08-01

    The medicinal chemistry subgroup of the American Chemical Society's Green Chemistry Institute Pharmaceutical Roundtable (ACS GCI PR) offers a perspective on the current state of environmentally sustainable practices in medicinal chemistry with the aim of sharing best practices more widely and highlighting some potential future developments.

  2. Implementing TQM in Education: Current Efforts and Future Research Directions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Motwani, Jaideep

    1995-01-01

    A literature review classified four streams on total quality management (TQM) in education: (1) definition and measurement; (2) normative studies; (3) conceptual models; and (4) implementation and assessment. Phases of TQM implementation were identified: awareness and commitment, planning, program implementation, and evaluation; future directions…

  3. Chemical Reaction Engineering: Current Status and Future Directions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dudukovic, M. P.

    1987-01-01

    Describes Chemical Reaction Engineering (CRE) as the discipline that quantifies the interplay of transport phenomena and kinetics in relating reactor performance to operating conditions and input variables. Addresses the current status of CRE in both academic and industrial settings and outlines future trends. (TW)

  4. Future directions of imaging MS in pharmaceutical R&D.

    PubMed

    Goodwin, Richard J A; Webborn, Peter J H

    2015-01-01

    MS imaging has rapidly evolved over the last decade, finding roles in all aspects of pharmaceutical research and development. This article discusses possible methodological and technological future advancements and describes research areas where the technology can expand and continue to prove to be worthwhile tool for drug discovery and development. PMID:26510897

  5. Future Directions for the Education of Gifted Learners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cimusz, Linda; And Others

    1994-01-01

    The future of gifted education is discussed in this symposium report, which contains the edited presentations of six national consultants and the ensuing discussion among the panelists. The consultants addressed the significance of a report of the U.S. Department of Education entitled "National Excellence: A Case for Developing America's Talent."…

  6. Refugee Issues: Current Status and Directions for the Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubin, Gary; And Others

    A comprehensive review of current refugee policy and program issues is provided in this paper, which is intended to serve both as a status report and a guide to developing an agenda for the future. Chapter I deals with early warning as to potential refugee movements, mass asylum, and interim assistance. Chapter II discusses and analyzes four types…

  7. Work organization interventions: state of knowledge and future directions.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Lawrence R; Sauter, Steven L

    2004-01-01

    Changes taking place in the modern workplace, such as more flexible and lean production technologies, flatter management structures, and nontraditional employment practices fundamentally alter work organization factors and raise concerns about potentially negative influences on worker health and safety. These changes raise concerns about adverse effects on worker safety and health and call attention to the need for interventions to counter these effects. This forum article provides an overview of work organization intervention research, highlights gaps in the research literature, and sets forth an agenda for future intervention research. Research to date has focused primarily on individual-level interventions, with far less attention to interventions at the legislative/policy level, employer/organization level, and job/task level. Future research is recommended to establish the effectiveness of work organization interventions using improved methodological designs and giving increased attention to the circumstances within organizations that promote the adoption of such interventions.

  8. Diagnosis of henipavirus infection: current capabilities and future directions.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lin-Fa; Daniels, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Since the last major review on diagnosis of henipavirus infection about a decade ago, significant progress has been made in many different areas of test development, especially in the development of molecular tests using real-time PCR and many novel serological test platforms. In addition to provide an updated review of the current test capabilities, this review also identifies key future challenges in henipavirus diagnosis.

  9. The microball and Gammasphere: Research highlights and future directions

    SciTech Connect

    Devlin, M.; Sarantites, D.G.; LaFosse, D.R.; Lerma, F.

    1996-12-31

    The Microball, a compact, 4{pi} charged-particle detector array, has been used in conjunction with Gammasphere for numerous physics experiments, and more are planned in the near future. A summary of this research program is presented, and the device and its capabilities are described. An example of its use in the study of the population and entry state excitation energy distributions of normal and superdeformed bands in {sup 82}Sr is presented.

  10. Psychotherapy and Psychosocial Treatment: Recent Advances and Future Directions.

    PubMed

    Plakun, Eric M

    2015-09-01

    Psychotherapy and psychosocial treatment have been shown to be effective forms of treatment of a range of individual and complex comorbid disorders. The future role of psychotherapy and psychosocial treatment depends on several factors, including full implementation of mental health parity, correction of underlying false assumptions that shape treatment, payment priorities and research, identification and teaching of common factors or elements shared by effective psychosocial therapies, and adequate teaching of psychotherapy and psychosocial treatment.

  11. Water management: Current and future challenges and research directions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cosgrove, William J.; Loucks, Daniel P.

    2015-06-01

    Water distinguishes our planet compared to all the others we know about. While the global supply of available freshwater is more than adequate to meet all current and foreseeable water demands, its spatial and temporal distributions are not. There are many regions where our freshwater resources are inadequate to meet domestic, economic development and environmental needs. In such regions, the lack of adequate clean water to meet human drinking water and sanitation needs is indeed a constraint on human health and productivity and hence on economic development as well as on the maintenance of a clean environment and healthy ecosystems. All of us involved in research must find ways to remove these constraints. We face multiple challenges in doing that, especially given a changing and uncertain future climate, and a rapidly growing population that is driving increased social and economic development, globalization, and urbanization. How best to meet these challenges requires research in all aspects of water management. Since 1965, the journal Water Resources Research has played an important role in reporting and disseminating current research related to managing the quantity and quality and cost of this resource. This paper identifies the issues facing water managers today and future research needed to better inform those who strive to create a more sustainable and desirable future.

  12. The future of the juvenile court: promising new directions.

    PubMed

    Edwards, L P

    1996-01-01

    The juvenile court of the future will be a viable, but changed, institution largely because of society's need to hold parents accountable for their children's well-being and youths accountable for their actions. The author describes three current trends in juvenile court which will continue to impact the court in the future. First, more jurisdictions will refine and streamline their court structures, either through better coordination or by creating unified family courts. This will result in better handling and supervision of multiple cases involving the same family. Second, the use of a wide variety of alternative dispute resolution techniques will grow, and the court will assume a monitoring and oversight function over these mediated agreements. Third, private and voluntary efforts will be utilized to assist the court in providing services to children and families, as well as to mobilize community-wide efforts on behalf of children. Ideally, the juvenile court of the future will place itself squarely in the community and work with others concerned about the well-being of children and families to provide an appropriate and meaningful response to each child who comes within the court's purview. PMID:9117359

  13. Future of Condition Based Maintenance at Stennis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    George, Cory A.; Smith, Joshua W.; Ladner, Gina H.; Killam, Mike

    2015-01-01

    This study seeks to understand the current state of condition based maintenance (CBM) at Stennis Space Center and set a bench mark for the future expansion of the CBM program. Condition based maintenance is the idea of maintaining an asset upon decreasing performance or when a failure is impending instead of at some arbitrary time regardless of condition. Special attention was paid to remote sensing and monitoring of assets around the center to cut maintenance costs and extend overall operational lifetime of those assets. It was found that 55 percent of the categories of assets which could actually utilize a remote CBM program are currently being partially monitored. CBM solutions that have been investigated and proposed for future deployment cover areas such as building integrity, oil analysis, power line and water pipe inspection.

  14. Direct Reprogramming—The Future of Cardiac Regeneration?

    PubMed Central

    Doppler, Stefanie A.; Deutsch, Marcus-André; Lange, Rüdiger; Krane, Markus

    2015-01-01

    Today, the only available curative therapy for end stage congestive heart failure (CHF) is heart transplantation. This therapeutic option is strongly limited by declining numbers of available donor hearts and by restricted long-term performance of the transplanted graft. The disastrous prognosis for CHF with its restricted therapeutic options has led scientists to develop different concepts of alternative regenerative treatment strategies including stem cell transplantation or stimulating cell proliferation of different cardiac cell types in situ. However, first clinical trials with overall inconsistent results were not encouraging, particularly in terms of functional outcome. Among other approaches, very promising ongoing pre-clinical research focuses on direct lineage conversion of scar fibroblasts into functional myocardium, termed “direct reprogramming” or “transdifferentiation.” This review seeks to summarize strategies for direct cardiac reprogramming including the application of different sets of transcription factors, microRNAs, and small molecules for an efficient generation of cardiomyogenic cells for regenerative purposes. PMID:26230692

  15. Future treatment and research directions in distal radius fracture.

    PubMed

    Jupiter, Jesse

    2012-05-01

    Whether or not they will have their lives dramatically extended in the next few decades, it is clear that people are living longer, healthier, and more active lives. The two peak incidences of distal radius fractures will remain within the pediatric and geriatric age groups, with the latter experiencing a substantial increase in the coming years. This article attempts to project future developments with regard to epidemiology, risk and prevention, fracture assessment, and treatment of distal radius fractures, and the ever increasing concern for the economic impact of this prevalent injury.

  16. Conclusions, synthesis, and future directions: understanding sources of population change

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Esler, Daniel N.; Flint, Paul L.; Derksen, Dirk V.; Savard, Jean-Pierre L.; Eadie, John M.

    2015-01-01

    The material in this volume reflects the burgeoning interest in sea ducks, both as study species with compelling and unique ecological attributes and as taxa of conservation concern. In this review, we provide perspective on the current state of sea duck knowledge by highlighting key findings in the preceding chapters that are of particular value for understanding or influencing population change. We also introduce a conceptual model that characterizes links among topics covered by individual chapters and places them in the context of demographic responses. Finally, we offer recommendations for areas of future research that we suggest will have importance for understanding and managing sea duck population dynamics.

  17. Helicobacter pylori research: historical insights and future directions

    PubMed Central

    Fock, Kwong Ming; Graham, David Y.; Malfertheiner, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori leads to chronic gastritis, peptic ulcer disease and gastric cancer. With increasing issues of antibiotic resistance and changing epidemiology of this pathogen, new approaches are needed for effective management. In 1984, Dr Barry Marshall and Dr Robin Warren reported the association of Helicobacter pylori with peptic ulcers in The Lancet—a discovery that earned them the Nobel prize in Physiology or Medicine in 2005—but what progress have we made since then? Here, we have invited three international experts to give their insights into the advances in H. pylori research over the past 30 years and where research should be focused in the future. PMID:23752823

  18. Section III, Division 5 - Development And Future Directions

    SciTech Connect

    Morton, Dana K.; Jetter, Robert I; Nestell, James E.; Burchell, Timothy D; Sham, Sam

    2012-01-01

    This paper provides commentary on a new division under Section III of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel (BPV) Code. This new Division 5 has an issuance date of November 1, 2011 and is part of the 2011 Addenda to the 2010 Edition of the BPV Code. The new Division covers the rules for the design, fabrication, inspection and testing of components for high temperature nuclear reactors. Information is provided on the scope and need for Division 5, the structure of Division 5, where the rules originated, the various changes made in finalizing Division 5, and the future near-term and long-term expectations for Division 5 development.

  19. On sleep and development: recent advances and future directions.

    PubMed

    Lukowski, Angela F; Bell, Martha Ann

    2015-03-01

    The authors of the monograph discuss conceptual and methodological issues in the study of sleep-behavior associations, report on the advantages and disadvantages of various techniques for assessing sleep in infants and children, and suggest the importance of examining sleep-behavior relations across multiple disciplines of influence. The primary focus of this commentary is to highlight how these new perspectives contribute to our emerging understanding of sleep-behavior relations in infancy and childhood, as well as to propose further challenges and avenues for future research.

  20. Epigenetics of Addiction: Current Knowledge, Challenges, and Future Directions.

    PubMed

    Cecil, Charlotte A M; Walton, Esther; Viding, Essi

    2016-09-01

    Addiction to psychoactive substances is a debilitating condition underpinned by the interplay of genetic and environmental factors. At present, a key challenge for research is to delineate how, at a molecular level, these influences become "biologically embedded," contributing to the onset and persistence of addictive behaviors. Recently, epigenetic processes that regulate gene expression have emerged as a potential mechanism of interest. In this commentary, we discuss the relevance of epigenetics to addiction research, starting with the current state of knowledge, what challenges we have yet to overcome, and what the future may hold in terms of research methodology and translational potential. PMID:27588525

  1. Future directions for LDEF ionizing radiation modeling and assessments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Armstrong, T. W.; Colborn, B. L.

    1993-01-01

    A calculational program utilizing data from radiation dosimetry measurements aboard the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) satellite to reduce the uncertainties in current models defining the ionizing radiation environment is in progress. Most of the effort to date has been on using LDEF radiation dose measurements to evaluate models defining the geomagnetically trapped radiation, which has provided results applicable to radiation design assessments being performed for Space Station Freedom. Plans for future data comparisons, model evaluations, and assessments using additional LDEF data sets (LET spectra, induced radioactivity, and particle spectra) are discussed.

  2. Archiving strategy for USGS EROS center and our future direction

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Faundeen, John L.

    2010-01-01

    The U. S. Geological Survey's Earth Resources Observation and Science Center has the responsibility to acquire, manage, and preserve our Nation's land observations. These records are obtained primarily from airplanes and satellites dating back to the 1930s. The ability to compare landscapes from the past with current information enables change analysis at local and global scales. With new observations added daily, the records management challenges are daunting, involving petabytes of electronic data and tens of thousands of rolls of analog film. This paper focuses upon the appraisal and preservation functions employed to ensure that these records are available for current and future generations.

  3. Future Directions: Social Development in the Context of Social Justice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Killen, Melanie; Smetana, Judith G.

    2010-01-01

    Many societies and cultures have become increasingly diverse and heterogeneous over the past decade. This diversity has a direct bearing on social justice in children's and adolescents' social development. Increased diversity can have positive consequences, such as the possibility for increased empathy, tolerance, perspective taking, and the…

  4. National Climate Program: Early achievements and future directions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    Activities of the National Climate Program since 1978 are reviewed, and outlines new directions which should be emphasized over the next five years or so. These are discussed under the subentities of climate system research; climate impacts; and climatic data, information, and services.

  5. Functional Behavior Assessment in Schools: Current Status and Future Directions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Cynthia M.; Rodriguez, Billie Jo; Campbell, Amy

    2015-01-01

    Functional behavior assessment is becoming a commonly used practice in school settings. Accompanying this growth has been an increase in research on functional behavior assessment. We reviewed the extant literature on documenting indirect and direct methods of functional behavior assessment in school settings. To discern best practice guidelines…

  6. Status and future directions of the ENERGY STAR program

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Richard E.; Webber, Carrie A.; Koomey, Jonathan G.

    2000-06-19

    In 1992 the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) introduced ENERGY STAR (registered trademark), a voluntary labeling program designed to identify and promote energy-efficient products, in order to reduce carbon dioxide emissions. Since then EPA, now in partnership with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), has expanded the program to cover nearly the entire buildings sector, spanning new homes, commercial buildings, residential heating and cooling equipment, major appliances, office equipment, commercial and residential lighting, and home electronics. This paper provides a snapshot of the ENERGY STAR program in the year 2000, including a general overview of the program, its accomplishments, and the possibilities for future development. First, we describe the products that are currently eligible for the ENERGY STAR label and the program mechanisms that EPA and DOE are using to promote these products. Second, we illustrate selected milestones achieved in some markets, and ways that EPA and DOE are responding to challenges or changes in certain markets. Third, we discuss the evolving ENERGY STAR brand strategy. Next, we explore ways in which ENERGY STAR interacts with and enhances other policies, such as appliance standards and regional market transformation collaboratives. We then discuss evaluation studies that EPA and DOE are undertaking to quantify the impact of the ENERGY STAR program. Finally, we discuss future areas of expansion for the ENERGY STAR program, including labeling of new products and integrated programs for commercial and existing residential buildings.

  7. The MCMI-III: present and future directions.

    PubMed

    Millon, T; Davis, R D

    1997-02-01

    Both the original Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory (MCMI-I; Millon, 1977) and the Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory-II (MCMI-II; Millon, 1987) were refined and strengthened on a regular basis by both theoretic logic and research data. This aspiration has continued. The new Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory-III (MCMI-III; Millon, 1994) has been further coordinated with the most recent official diagnostic schema, the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed., [DSM-IV]; American Psychiatric Association [APA], 1994) in an even more explicit way than before. Although the publication of the first version of the MCMI preceded the publication of the DSM-IV, its author played a major role in formulating the official manual's personality disorders, contributing thereby to their conceptual correspondence. The DSM-III-R (APA, 1987) was subsequently published in the same year as the MCMI-II; the inventory was modified in its final stages to make it as consonant as possible with the conceptual changes introduced in the then forthcoming official classification. The present version of the MCMI, the MCMI-III, strengthens these correspondences further by drawing on many of the diagnostic criteria of the DSM-IV to serve as the basis for drafting the inventory's items. This article reports on a select set of theoretical and empirical developments that are being carefully weighed for possible inclusion in future MCMIs, or as a guide in the refinement process of future MCMIs. PMID:16370772

  8. Direct-write Bioprinting Three-Dimensional Biohybrid Systems for Future Regenerative Therapies

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Carlos C.; Boland, Eugene D.; Williams, Stuart K.; Hoying, James B.

    2013-01-01

    Regenerative medicine seeks to repair or replace dysfunctional tissues with engineered biological or biohybrid systems. Current clinical regenerative models utilize simple uniform tissue constructs formed with cells cultured onto biocompatible scaffolds. Future regenerative therapies will require the fabrication of complex three-dimensional constructs containing multiple cell types and extracellular matrices. We believe bioprinting technologies will provide a key role in the design and construction of future engineered tissues for cell-based and regenerative therapies. This review describes the current state-of-the-art bioprinting technologies, focusing on direct-write bioprinting. We describe a number of process and device considerations for successful bioprinting of composite biohybrid constructs. In addition, we have provided baseline direct-write printing parameters for a hydrogel system (Pluronic F127) often used in cardiovascular applications. Direct-write dispensed lines (gels with viscosities ranging from 30 mPa*s to greater than 600×106 mPa*s) were measured following mechanical and pneumatic printing via three commercially available needle sizes (20ga, 25ga, and 30ga). Example patterns containing microvascular cells and isolated microvessel fragments were also bioprinted into composite 3D structures. Cells and vessel fragments remained viable and maintained in vitro behavior after incorporation into biohybrid structures. Direct-write bioprinting of biologicals provides a unique method to design and fabricate complex, multi-component 3D structures for experimental use. We hope our design insights and baseline parameter descriptions of direct-write bioprinting will provide a useful foundation for colleagues to incorporate this 3D fabrication method into future regenerative therapies. PMID:21504055

  9. Female sex trafficking: conceptual issues, current debates, and future directions.

    PubMed

    Meshkovska, Biljana; Siegel, Melissa; Stutterheim, Sarah E; Bos, Arjan E R

    2015-01-01

    Female sex trafficking is a pressing concern. In this article, we provide a comprehensive overview of relevant issues regarding the concept of female sex trafficking and research in the field of human trafficking, drawing on a variety of disciplines, including economics, gender and sexuality studies, psychology, sociology, law, and social work. We discuss the debates surrounding the definition of human trafficking, compare and contrast it with human smuggling, and outline connections between female sex trafficking and the issue of sex work and prostitution. We further discuss the history and current estimations of female sex trafficking. We then outline the main actors in female sex trafficking, including trafficked persons, traffickers, clients, and service providers, and we overview the trafficking process from recruitment to identification, recovery, and (re)integration. Finally, we conclude with recommendations for future research that tie together the concepts of vulnerability, exploitation, and long-term recovery and (re)integration. PMID:25897567

  10. Future Research Directions in Asthma. An NHLBI Working Group Report.

    PubMed

    Levy, Bruce D; Noel, Patricia J; Freemer, Michelle M; Cloutier, Michelle M; Georas, Steve N; Jarjour, Nizar N; Ober, Carole; Woodruff, Prescott G; Barnes, Kathleen C; Bender, Bruce G; Camargo, Carlos A; Chupp, Geoff L; Denlinger, Loren C; Fahy, John V; Fitzpatrick, Anne M; Fuhlbrigge, Anne; Gaston, Ben M; Hartert, Tina V; Kolls, Jay K; Lynch, Susan V; Moore, Wendy C; Morgan, Wayne J; Nadeau, Kari C; Ownby, Dennis R; Solway, Julian; Szefler, Stanley J; Wenzel, Sally E; Wright, Rosalind J; Smith, Robert A; Erzurum, Serpil C

    2015-12-01

    Asthma is a common chronic disease without cure. Our understanding of asthma onset, pathobiology, classification, and management has evolved substantially over the past decade; however, significant asthma-related morbidity and excess healthcare use and costs persist. To address this important clinical condition, the NHLBI convened a group of extramural investigators for an Asthma Research Strategic Planning workshop on September 18-19, 2014, to accelerate discoveries and their translation to patients. The workshop focused on (1) in utero and early-life origins of asthma, (2) the use of phenotypes and endotypes to classify disease, (3) defining disease modification, (4) disease management, and (5) implementation research. This report summarizes the workshop and produces recommendations to guide future research in asthma. PMID:26305520

  11. Population exposure from the fuel cycle: Review and future direction

    SciTech Connect

    Richmond, C.R.

    1987-01-01

    The legacy of radiation exposures confronting man arises from two historical sources of energy, the sun and radioactive decay. Contemporary man continues to be dependent on these two energy sources, which include the nuclear fuel cycle. Radiation exposures from all energy sources should be examined, with particular emphasis on the nuclear fuel cycle, incidents such as Chernobyl and Three Mile Island. In addition to risk estimation, concepts such as de minimis, life shortening as a measure of risk, and competing risks as projected into the future must be considered in placing radiation exposures in perspective. The utility of these concepts is in characterizing population exposures for decision makers in a manner that the public may judge acceptable. All these viewpoints are essential in the evaluation of population exposure from the nuclear fuel cycle.

  12. Exposure assessment at 30 000 feet: challenges and future directions.

    PubMed

    Grajewski, Barbara; Pinkerton, Lynne E

    2013-07-01

    Few studies of cancer mortality and incidence among flight crew have included a detailed assessment of both occupational exposures and lifestyle factors that may influence the risk of cancer. In this issue, Kojo et al. (Risk factors for skin cancer among Finnish airline cabin crew. Ann Occup. Hyg 2013; 57: 695-704) evaluated the relative contributions of ultraviolet and cosmic radiation to the incidence of skin cancer in Finnish flight attendants. This is a useful contribution, yet the reason flight crew members have an increased risk of skin cancer compared with the general population remains unclear. Good policy decisions for flight crew will depend on continued and emerging effective collaborations to increase study power and improve exposure assessment in future flight crew health studies. Improving the assessment of occupational exposures and non-occupational factors will cost additional time and effort, which are well spent if the role of exposures can be clarified in larger studies. PMID:23818455

  13. Exposure Assessment at 30 000 Feet: Challenges and Future Directions

    PubMed Central

    Grajewski, Barbara; Pinkerton, Lynne E.

    2015-01-01

    Few studies of cancer mortality and incidence among flight crew have included a detailed assessment of both occupational exposures and lifestyle factors that may influence the risk of cancer. In this issue, Kojo et al. (Risk factors for skin cancer among Finnish airline cabin crew. Ann. Occup. Hyg 2013; 57: 695–704) evaluated the relative contributions of ultraviolet and cosmic radiation to the incidence of skin cancer in Finnish flight attendants. This is a useful contribution, yet the reason flight crew members have an increased risk of skin cancer compared with the general population remains unclear. Good policy decisions for flight crew will depend on continued and emerging effective collaborations to increase study power and improve exposure assessment in future flight crew health studies. Improving the assessment of occupational exposures and non-occupational factors will cost additional time and effort, which are well spent if the role of exposures can be clarified in larger studies. PMID:23818455

  14. Wireless Multimedia Sensor Networks: Current Trends and Future Directions

    PubMed Central

    Almalkawi, Islam T.; Zapata, Manel Guerrero; Al-Karaki, Jamal N.; Morillo-Pozo, Julian

    2010-01-01

    Wireless Multimedia Sensor Networks (WMSNs) have emerged and shifted the focus from the typical scalar wireless sensor networks to networks with multimedia devices that are capable to retrieve video, audio, images, as well as scalar sensor data. WMSNs are able to deliver multimedia content due to the availability of inexpensive CMOS cameras and microphones coupled with the significant progress in distributed signal processing and multimedia source coding techniques. In this paper, we outline the design challenges of WMSNs, give a comprehensive discussion of the proposed architectures, algorithms and protocols for the different layers of the communication protocol stack for WMSNs, and evaluate the existing WMSN hardware and testbeds. The paper will give the reader a clear view of the state of the art at all aspects of this research area, and shed the light on its main current challenges and future trends. We also hope it will foster discussions and new research ideas among its researchers. PMID:22163571

  15. Neoadjuvant therapy for gastric cancer: current evidence and future directions

    PubMed Central

    Newton, Andrew D.; Datta, Jashodeep; Loaiza-Bonilla, Arturo; Karakousis, Giorgos C.

    2015-01-01

    Although surgical resection remains the only potentially curative treatment for gastric cancer (GC), poor long-term outcomes with resection alone compel a multimodality approach to this disease. Multimodality strategies vary widely; while adjuvant approaches are typically favored in Asia and the United States (USA), a growing body of evidence supports neoadjuvant and/or perioperative strategies in locally advanced tumors. Neoadjuvant approaches are particularly attractive given the morbidity associated with surgical management of GC and the substantial risk of omission of adjuvant therapy. The specific advantages of chemoradiotherapy (CRT) compared to chemotherapy have not been well defined, particularly in the preoperative setting and trials aimed at determining the optimal elements and sequencing of therapy are underway. Future studies will also define the role of targeted and biologic therapies. PMID:26487948

  16. The Transition to High School: Current Knowledge, Future Directions

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    In the American educational system, school transitions are frequent and predictable, but they can disrupt student functioning across developmental domains. How students experience school transitions has been a focus of research for some time, but the high school transition has received less attention, and the limited research often focuses on a particular developmental domain (e.g., academics and socioemotional well-being) to the exclusion of a more integrated model. This review relies on life course theory to establish an organizational framework for interpreting and connecting the diffuse and sometimes disparate findings on the high school transition, including adolescent developmental trajectories and the influence of social ties, changing sociocultural contexts, and stratification systems. Conclusions identify aspects for future inquiry suggested by current knowledge and the tenets of the life course perspective. PMID:21966178

  17. Low Anterior Resection Syndrome: Current Management and Future Directions.

    PubMed

    Ridolfi, Timothy J; Berger, Nicholas; Ludwig, Kirk A

    2016-09-01

    Outcomes for rectal cancer surgery have improved significantly over the past 20 years with increasing rates of survival and recurrence, specifically local recurrence. These gains have been realized during a period of time in which there has been an increasing emphasis on sphincter preservation. As we have become increasingly aggressive in avoiding resection of the anus, we have begun accepting bowel dysfunction as a normal outcome. Low anterior resection syndrome, defined as a constellation of symptoms including incontinence, frequency, urgency, or feelings of incomplete emptying, has a significant impact on quality of life and results in many patients opting for a permanent colostomy to avoid these symptoms. In this article, we will highlight the most recent clinical and basic science research on this topic and discuss areas of future investigation. PMID:27582649

  18. Wireless Multimedia Sensor Networks: current trends and future directions.

    PubMed

    Almalkawi, Islam T; Zapata, Manel Guerrero; Al-Karaki, Jamal N; Morillo-Pozo, Julian

    2010-01-01

    Wireless Multimedia Sensor Networks (WMSNs) have emerged and shifted the focus from the typical scalar wireless sensor networks to networks with multimedia devices that are capable to retrieve video, audio, images, as well as scalar sensor data. WMSNs are able to deliver multimedia content due to the availability of inexpensive CMOS cameras and microphones coupled with the significant progress in distributed signal processing and multimedia source coding techniques. In this paper, we outline the design challenges of WMSNs, give a comprehensive discussion of the proposed architectures, algorithms and protocols for the different layers of the communication protocol stack for WMSNs, and evaluate the existing WMSN hardware and testbeds. The paper will give the reader a clear view of the state of the art at all aspects of this research area, and shed the light on its main current challenges and future trends. We also hope it will foster discussions and new research ideas among its researchers. PMID:22163571

  19. Perspectives and future directions for epigenetics in hematology

    PubMed Central

    Godley, Lucy A.

    2013-01-01

    Genetic analysis of hematologic malignancies over the past 5 years has revealed abundant mutations in epigenetic regulators in all classes of disorders. Here, we summarize the observations made within our review series on the role of epigenetics in hematology. We highlight the clinical implications of mutations in epigenetic regulators and outline what we envision are some of the major areas that merit future research. Recent findings may have immediate prognostic value, but also offer new targets for drug development. However, the pleiotropic action of these regulators indicates caution is warranted and argues for investment in understanding of their underlying mechanisms of action as we proceed to exploit these findings for the benefit of patients. PMID:23692857

  20. Progress and Future Directions in North American Carbon Cycle Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michalak, Anna; Huntzinger, Deborah; Shrestha, Gyami

    2013-05-01

    The North American Carbon Program (NACP) convened its fourth biennial "All Investigators" meeting (AIM4, http://www.nacarbon.org/meeting_2013) to review progress in understanding the dynamics of the carbon cycle of North America and adjacent oceans and to chart a course for a more integrative and holistic approach to future research. The meeting was structured around the six decadal goals outlined in the new "A U.S. Carbon Cycle Science Plan" (Michalak et al., University Corporation for Atmospheric Research, 2011, available at http://www.carboncyclescience.gov) and focused on (1) diagnosis of the atmospheric carbon cycle, (2) drivers of anthropogenic emissions, (3) vulnerability of carbon stocks to change, (4) ecosystem impacts of change, (5) carbon management, and (6) decision support.

  1. Future directions in packet radio architectures and protocols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shacham, Nachum; Westcott, Jil

    1987-01-01

    The technology of packet switching over multihop, multiple-access channels has evolved to the point at which its protocols can now support internetwork operation of medium-size networks whose nodes possess some degree of mobility. As regards the needs and challenges of the future operating environment, it is clear that these can be met only by enhancing the packet radio architecture and its protocols. Several enhancements that allow the organization of large, dynamic networks that can operate over multiple channels, adapt to varying conditions, and possess self-monitoring and self-control capabilities are discussed. As these areas are examined, the attendant issues and tradeoffs are discussed; in addition, some protocols and information regarding their performance are presented.

  2. Future Directions for Fusion Propulsion Research at NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, Robert B.; Cassibry, Jason T.

    2005-01-01

    Fusion propulsion is inevitable if the human race remains dedicated to exploration of the solar system. There are fundamental reasons why fusion surpasses more traditional approaches to routine crewed missions to Mars, crewed missions to the outer planets, and deep space high speed robotic missions, assuming that reduced trip times, increased payloads, and higher available power are desired. A recent series of informal discussions were held among members from government, academia, and industry concerning fusion propulsion. We compiled a sufficient set of arguments for utilizing fusion in space. .If the U.S. is to lead the effort and produce a working system in a reasonable amount of time, NASA must take the initiative, relying on, but not waiting for, DOE guidance. Arguments for fusion propulsion are presented, along with fusion enabled mission examples, fusion technology trade space, and a proposed outline for future efforts.

  3. Qualitative psychotherapy research: the journey so far and future directions.

    PubMed

    Levitt, Heidi M

    2015-03-01

    This article documents the evolution of qualitative psychotherapy research over the past 3 decades. Clients' and therapists' accounts of their experiences in psychotherapy provide a window into the psychotherapy relationship and its mechanisms of change. A sizable body of literature has been generated that uses qualitative methods to collect and analyze these accounts and to shed light on the psychotherapy process. It notes changes in the field such as growing numbers of dissertations and publications using qualitative methods as well as a strengthening emphasis on qualitative research within graduate education and research funding bodies. Future recommendations include developing principles for practice from qualitative methods and conducting qualitative meta-analyses. Other recommendations include forming journal review policies that support the publication of qualitative research and that focus on coherence in adapting methods to meet research goals, in light of a study's characteristics and epistemological framework, rather than focusing on sets of procedures.

  4. Minireview: Endocrine Disruptors: Past Lessons and Future Directions.

    PubMed

    Schug, Thaddeus T; Johnson, Anne F; Birnbaum, Linda S; Colborn, Theo; Guillette, Louis J; Crews, David P; Collins, Terry; Soto, Ana M; Vom Saal, Frederick S; McLachlan, John A; Sonnenschein, Carlos; Heindel, Jerrold J

    2016-08-01

    Within the past few decades, the concept of endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) has risen from a position of total obscurity to become a focus of dialogue, debate, and concern among scientists, physicians, regulators, and the public. The emergence and development of this field of study has not always followed a smooth path, and researchers continue to wrestle with questions about the low-dose effects and nonmonotonic dose responses seen with EDCs, their biological mechanisms of action, the true pervasiveness of these chemicals in our environment and in our bodies, and the extent of their effects on human and wildlife health. This review chronicles the development of the unique, multidisciplinary field of endocrine disruption, highlighting what we have learned about the threat of EDCs and lessons that could be relevant to other fields. It also offers perspectives on the future of the field and opportunities to better protect human health. PMID:27477640

  5. Future Research Directions in Asthma. An NHLBI Working Group Report.

    PubMed

    Levy, Bruce D; Noel, Patricia J; Freemer, Michelle M; Cloutier, Michelle M; Georas, Steve N; Jarjour, Nizar N; Ober, Carole; Woodruff, Prescott G; Barnes, Kathleen C; Bender, Bruce G; Camargo, Carlos A; Chupp, Geoff L; Denlinger, Loren C; Fahy, John V; Fitzpatrick, Anne M; Fuhlbrigge, Anne; Gaston, Ben M; Hartert, Tina V; Kolls, Jay K; Lynch, Susan V; Moore, Wendy C; Morgan, Wayne J; Nadeau, Kari C; Ownby, Dennis R; Solway, Julian; Szefler, Stanley J; Wenzel, Sally E; Wright, Rosalind J; Smith, Robert A; Erzurum, Serpil C

    2015-12-01

    Asthma is a common chronic disease without cure. Our understanding of asthma onset, pathobiology, classification, and management has evolved substantially over the past decade; however, significant asthma-related morbidity and excess healthcare use and costs persist. To address this important clinical condition, the NHLBI convened a group of extramural investigators for an Asthma Research Strategic Planning workshop on September 18-19, 2014, to accelerate discoveries and their translation to patients. The workshop focused on (1) in utero and early-life origins of asthma, (2) the use of phenotypes and endotypes to classify disease, (3) defining disease modification, (4) disease management, and (5) implementation research. This report summarizes the workshop and produces recommendations to guide future research in asthma.

  6. Female sex trafficking: conceptual issues, current debates, and future directions.

    PubMed

    Meshkovska, Biljana; Siegel, Melissa; Stutterheim, Sarah E; Bos, Arjan E R

    2015-01-01

    Female sex trafficking is a pressing concern. In this article, we provide a comprehensive overview of relevant issues regarding the concept of female sex trafficking and research in the field of human trafficking, drawing on a variety of disciplines, including economics, gender and sexuality studies, psychology, sociology, law, and social work. We discuss the debates surrounding the definition of human trafficking, compare and contrast it with human smuggling, and outline connections between female sex trafficking and the issue of sex work and prostitution. We further discuss the history and current estimations of female sex trafficking. We then outline the main actors in female sex trafficking, including trafficked persons, traffickers, clients, and service providers, and we overview the trafficking process from recruitment to identification, recovery, and (re)integration. Finally, we conclude with recommendations for future research that tie together the concepts of vulnerability, exploitation, and long-term recovery and (re)integration.

  7. Molecular ecology of aquatic communities: Reflections and future directions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zehr, J.P.; Voytek, M.A.

    1999-01-01

    During the 1980s, many new molecular biology techniques were developed, providing new capabilities for studying the genetics and activities of organisms. Biologists and ecologists saw the promise that these techniques held for studying different aspects of organisms, both in culture and in the natural environment. In less than a decade, these techniques were adopted by a large number of researchers studying many types of organisms in diverse environments. Much of the molecular-level information acquired has been used to address questions of evolution, biogeography, population structure and biodiversity. At this juncture, molecular ecologists are poised to contribute to the study of the fundamental characteristics underlying aquatic community structure. The goal of this overview is to assess where we have been, where we are now and what the future holds for revealing the basis of community structure and function with molecular-level information.

  8. Nuclear Breast Imaging: Clinical Results and Future Directions.

    PubMed

    Berg, Wendie A

    2016-02-01

    Interest in nuclear breast imaging is increasing because of technical improvements in dedicated devices that allow the use of relatively low doses of radiotracers with high sensitivity for even small breast cancers. For women with newly diagnosed cancer, primary chemotherapy is often recommended, and improved methods of assessing treatment response are of interest. With widespread breast density notification, functional rather than anatomic methods of screening are of increasing interest as well. For a cancer imaging technology to be adopted, several criteria must be met that will be discussed: evidence of clinical benefit with minimal harm, standardized interpretive criteria, direct biopsy guidance, and acceptable cost-effectiveness.

  9. Coparenting in a Family Context: Emerging Achievements, Current Dilemmas, and Future Directions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cowan, Philip A.; McHale, James P.

    1996-01-01

    Reviews major themes emerging from family research and describes directions for future research. Finds strong support that whole-family functioning and quality of coparenting relationship add uniquely to individual differences in children's adaptation. Future research directions include extending research across diverse samples, increasing…

  10. Usability of Geographic Information: current challenges and future directions.

    PubMed

    Brown, M; Sharples, S; Harding, J; Parker, C J; Bearman, N; Maguire, M; Forrest, D; Haklay, M; Jackson, M

    2013-11-01

    The use of Geographic Information or GI, has grown rapidly in recent years. Previous research has identified the importance of usability and user centred design in enabling the proliferation and exploitation of GI. However, the design and development of usable GI is not simply a matter of applying the tried and tested usability methods that have been developed for software and web design. Dealing with data and specifically GI brings with it a number of issues that change the way usability and user centred design can be applied. This paper describes the outcomes of a workshop held in March 2010 exploring the core issues relating to GI usability. The workshop brought together an international group of twenty experts in both human factors and GI, from a wide range of academic and industrial backgrounds. These experts considered three key issues, the stakeholders in GI, key challenges applying usability to GI and the usability methods that can be successfully applied to GI. The result of this workshop was to identify some areas for future research, such as the production of meaningful metadata and the implications of blurring of the line between data producers and data consumers. PMID:23177775

  11. Filoviruses in bats: current knowledge and future directions.

    PubMed

    Olival, Kevin J; Hayman, David T S

    2014-04-01

    Filoviruses, including Ebolavirus and Marburgvirus, pose significant threats to public health and species conservation by causing hemorrhagic fever outbreaks with high mortality rates. Since the first outbreak in 1967, their origins, natural history, and ecology remained elusive until recent studies linked them through molecular, serological, and virological studies to bats. We review the ecology, epidemiology, and natural history of these systems, drawing on examples from other bat-borne zoonoses, and highlight key areas for future research. We compare and contrast results from ecological and virological studies of bats and filoviruses with those of other systems. We also highlight how advanced methods, such as more recent serological assays, can be interlinked with flexible statistical methods and experimental studies to inform the field studies necessary to understand filovirus persistence in wildlife populations and cross-species transmission leading to outbreaks. We highlight the need for a more unified, global surveillance strategy for filoviruses in wildlife, and advocate for more integrated, multi-disciplinary approaches to understand dynamics in bat populations to ultimately mitigate or prevent potentially devastating disease outbreaks. PMID:24747773

  12. The development, past achievements, and future directions of brain PET

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Terry; Rabiner, Eugenii A

    2012-01-01

    The early developments of brain positron emission tomography (PET), including the methodological advances that have driven progress, are outlined. The considerable past achievements of brain PET have been summarized in collaboration with contributing experts in specific clinical applications including cerebrovascular disease, movement disorders, dementia, epilepsy, schizophrenia, addiction, depression and anxiety, brain tumors, drug development, and the normal healthy brain. Despite a history of improving methodology and considerable achievements, brain PET research activity is not growing and appears to have diminished. Assessments of the reasons for decline are presented and strategies proposed for reinvigorating brain PET research. Central to this is widening the access to advanced PET procedures through the introduction of lower cost cyclotron and radiochemistry technologies. The support and expertize of the existing major PET centers, and the recruitment of new biologists, bio-mathematicians and chemists to the field would be important for such a revival. New future applications need to be identified, the scope of targets imaged broadened, and the developed expertize exploited in other areas of medical research. Such reinvigoration of the field would enable PET to continue making significant contributions to advance the understanding of the normal and diseased brain and support the development of advanced treatments. PMID:22434067

  13. Oncolytic Seneca Valley Virus: past perspectives and future directions

    PubMed Central

    Burke, Michael J

    2016-01-01

    Seneca Valley Virus isolate 001 (SVV-001) is an oncolytic RNA virus of the Picornaviridae family. It is also the first picornavirus discovered of the novel genus Senecavirus. SVV-001 replicates through an RNA intermediate, bypassing a DNA phase, and is unable to integrate into the host genome. SVV-001 was originally discovered as a contaminant in the cell culture of fetal retinoblasts and has since been identified as a potent oncolytic virus against tumors of neuroendocrine origin. SVV-001 has a number of features that make it an attractive oncolytic virus, namely, its ability to target and penetrate solid tumors via intravenous administration, inability for insertional mutagenesis, and being a self-replicating RNA virus with selective tropism for cancer cells. SVV-001 has been studied in both pediatric and adult early phase studies reporting safety and some clinical efficacy, albeit primarily in adult tumors. This review summarizes the current knowledge of SVV-001 and what its future as an oncolytic virus may hold.

  14. Oncolytic Seneca Valley Virus: past perspectives and future directions.

    PubMed

    Burke, Michael J

    2016-01-01

    Seneca Valley Virus isolate 001 (SVV-001) is an oncolytic RNA virus of the Picornaviridae family. It is also the first picornavirus discovered of the novel genus Senecavirus. SVV-001 replicates through an RNA intermediate, bypassing a DNA phase, and is unable to integrate into the host genome. SVV-001 was originally discovered as a contaminant in the cell culture of fetal retinoblasts and has since been identified as a potent oncolytic virus against tumors of neuroendocrine origin. SVV-001 has a number of features that make it an attractive oncolytic virus, namely, its ability to target and penetrate solid tumors via intravenous administration, inability for insertional mutagenesis, and being a self-replicating RNA virus with selective tropism for cancer cells. SVV-001 has been studied in both pediatric and adult early phase studies reporting safety and some clinical efficacy, albeit primarily in adult tumors. This review summarizes the current knowledge of SVV-001 and what its future as an oncolytic virus may hold. PMID:27660749

  15. Natural killer cell biology: an update and future directions.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Kerry S; Hasegawa, Jun

    2013-09-01

    Natural killer (NK) cells constitute a minor subset of normal lymphocytes that initiate innate immune responses toward tumor and virus-infected cells. They can mediate spontaneous cytotoxicity toward these abnormal cells and rapidly secrete numerous cytokines and chemokines to promote subsequent adaptive immune responses. Significant progress has been made in the past 2 decades to improve our understanding of NK cell biology. Here we review recent discoveries, including a better comprehension of the "education" of NK cells to achieve functional competence during their maturation and the discovery of "memory" responses by NK cells, suggesting that they might also contribute to adaptive immunity. The improved understanding of NK cell biology has forged greater awareness that these cells play integral early roles in immune responses. In addition, several promising clinical therapies have been used to exploit NK cell functions in treating patients with cancer. As our molecular understanding improves, these and future immunotherapies should continue to provide promising strategies to exploit the unique functions of NK cells to treat cancer, infections, and other pathologic conditions.

  16. Combinatorial optimization: Current successes and directions for the future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffman, Karla L.

    2000-12-01

    Our ability to solve large, important combinatorial optimization problems has improved dramatically in the past decade. The availability of reliable software, extremely fast and inexpensive hardware and high-level languages that make the modeling of complex problems much faster have led to a much greater demand for optimization tools. This paper highlights the major breakthroughs and then describes some very exciting future opportunities. Previously, large research projects required major data collection efforts, expensive mainframes and substantial analyst manpower. Now, we can solve much larger problems on personal computers, much of the necessary data is routinely collected and tools exist to speed up both the modeling and the post-optimality analysis. With the information-technology revolution taking place currently, we now have the opportunity to have our tools embedded into supply-chain systems that determine production and distribution schedules, process-design and location-allocation decisions. These tools can be used industry-wide with only minor modifications being done by each user.

  17. Peaking for optimal performance: Research limitations and future directions.

    PubMed

    Pyne, David B; Mujika, Iñigo; Reilly, Thomas

    2009-02-01

    A key element of the physical preparation of athletes is the taper period in the weeks immediately preceding competition. Existing research has defined the taper, identified various forms used in contemporary sport, and examined the prescription of training volume, load, intensity, duration, and type (progressive or step). Current limitations include: the lack of studies on team, combative, racquet, and precision (target) sports; the relatively small number of randomized controlled trials; the narrow focus on a single competition (single peak) compared with multiple peaking for weekly, multi-day or multiple events; and limited understanding of the physiological, neuromuscular, and biomechanical basis of the taper. Future research should address these limitations, together with the influence of prior training on optimal tapering strategies, and the interactions between the taper and long-haul travel, heat, and altitude. Practitioners seek information on how to prescribe tapers from season to season during an athlete's career, or a team's progression through a domestic league season, or multi-year Olympic or World Cup cycle. Practical guidelines for planning effective tapers for the Vancouver 2010 and London 2012 Olympics will evolve from both experimental investigations and modelling of successful tapers currently employed in a wide range of sports. PMID:19153861

  18. Nanotechnology: current concepts in orthopaedic surgery and future directions.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, M P; McHale, K J; Parvizi, J; Mehta, S

    2014-05-01

    Nanotechnology is the study, production and controlled manipulation of materials with a grain size < 100 nm. At this level, the laws of classical mechanics fall away and those of quantum mechanics take over, resulting in unique behaviour of matter in terms of melting point, conductivity and reactivity. Additionally, and likely more significant, as grain size decreases, the ratio of surface area to volume drastically increases, allowing for greater interaction between implants and the surrounding cellular environment. This favourable increase in surface area plays an important role in mesenchymal cell differentiation and ultimately bone-implant interactions. Basic science and translational research have revealed important potential applications for nanotechnology in orthopaedic surgery, particularly with regard to improving the interaction between implants and host bone. Nanophase materials more closely match the architecture of native trabecular bone, thereby greatly improving the osseo-integration of orthopaedic implants. Nanophase-coated prostheses can also reduce bacterial adhesion more than conventionally surfaced prostheses. Nanophase selenium has shown great promise when used for tumour reconstructions, as has nanophase silver in the management of traumatic wounds. Nanophase silver may significantly improve healing of peripheral nerve injuries, and nanophase gold has powerful anti-inflammatory effects on tendon inflammation. Considerable advances must be made in our understanding of the potential health risks of production, implantation and wear patterns of nanophase devices before they are approved for clinical use. Their potential, however, is considerable, and is likely to benefit us all in the future.

  19. Usability of Geographic Information: current challenges and future directions.

    PubMed

    Brown, M; Sharples, S; Harding, J; Parker, C J; Bearman, N; Maguire, M; Forrest, D; Haklay, M; Jackson, M

    2013-11-01

    The use of Geographic Information or GI, has grown rapidly in recent years. Previous research has identified the importance of usability and user centred design in enabling the proliferation and exploitation of GI. However, the design and development of usable GI is not simply a matter of applying the tried and tested usability methods that have been developed for software and web design. Dealing with data and specifically GI brings with it a number of issues that change the way usability and user centred design can be applied. This paper describes the outcomes of a workshop held in March 2010 exploring the core issues relating to GI usability. The workshop brought together an international group of twenty experts in both human factors and GI, from a wide range of academic and industrial backgrounds. These experts considered three key issues, the stakeholders in GI, key challenges applying usability to GI and the usability methods that can be successfully applied to GI. The result of this workshop was to identify some areas for future research, such as the production of meaningful metadata and the implications of blurring of the line between data producers and data consumers.

  20. Historical Perspective and Future Directions in Platelet Research

    PubMed Central

    Coller, Barry S.

    2011-01-01

    Platelets are a remarkable mammalian adaptation that are required for human survival by virtue of their ability to prevent and arrest bleeding. Ironically, however, in the past century, the platelets’ hemostatic activity became maladaptive for the increasingly large percentage of individuals who develop age-dependent progressive atherosclerosis. As a result, platelets also make a major contribution to ischemic thrombotic vascular disease, the leading cause of death worldwide. In this brief review, I provide historical descriptions of a highly selected group of topics to provide a framework for understanding our current knowledge and the trends that are likely to continue into the future of platelet research. For convenience, I separate the eras of platelet research into the “Descriptive Period” extending from ~1880-1960 and the “Mechanistic Period” encompassing the past ~50 years since 1960. We currently are reaching yet another inflection point, as there is a major shift from a focus on traditional biochemistry and cell and molecular biology to an era of single molecule biophysics, single cell biology, single cell molecular biology, structural biology, computational simulations, and the high-throughput, data-dense techniques collectively named with the “omics” postfix. Given the progress made in understanding, diagnosing, and treating many rare and common platelet disorders during the past 50 years, I think it appropriate to consider it a Golden Age of Platelet Research and to recognize all of the investigators who have made important contributions to this remarkable achievement. PMID:21781274

  1. Oncolytic Seneca Valley Virus: past perspectives and future directions

    PubMed Central

    Burke, Michael J

    2016-01-01

    Seneca Valley Virus isolate 001 (SVV-001) is an oncolytic RNA virus of the Picornaviridae family. It is also the first picornavirus discovered of the novel genus Senecavirus. SVV-001 replicates through an RNA intermediate, bypassing a DNA phase, and is unable to integrate into the host genome. SVV-001 was originally discovered as a contaminant in the cell culture of fetal retinoblasts and has since been identified as a potent oncolytic virus against tumors of neuroendocrine origin. SVV-001 has a number of features that make it an attractive oncolytic virus, namely, its ability to target and penetrate solid tumors via intravenous administration, inability for insertional mutagenesis, and being a self-replicating RNA virus with selective tropism for cancer cells. SVV-001 has been studied in both pediatric and adult early phase studies reporting safety and some clinical efficacy, albeit primarily in adult tumors. This review summarizes the current knowledge of SVV-001 and what its future as an oncolytic virus may hold. PMID:27660749

  2. Oncolytic Seneca Valley Virus: past perspectives and future directions.

    PubMed

    Burke, Michael J

    2016-01-01

    Seneca Valley Virus isolate 001 (SVV-001) is an oncolytic RNA virus of the Picornaviridae family. It is also the first picornavirus discovered of the novel genus Senecavirus. SVV-001 replicates through an RNA intermediate, bypassing a DNA phase, and is unable to integrate into the host genome. SVV-001 was originally discovered as a contaminant in the cell culture of fetal retinoblasts and has since been identified as a potent oncolytic virus against tumors of neuroendocrine origin. SVV-001 has a number of features that make it an attractive oncolytic virus, namely, its ability to target and penetrate solid tumors via intravenous administration, inability for insertional mutagenesis, and being a self-replicating RNA virus with selective tropism for cancer cells. SVV-001 has been studied in both pediatric and adult early phase studies reporting safety and some clinical efficacy, albeit primarily in adult tumors. This review summarizes the current knowledge of SVV-001 and what its future as an oncolytic virus may hold.

  3. Oral Cavity Carcinoma: Current Management, Controversies, and Future Directions.

    PubMed

    Chinn, Steven B; Myers, Jeffrey N

    2015-10-10

    Oral cavity carcinoma (OCC) remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with head and neck cancer. Although the incidence has decreased over the last decade, outcomes remain stagnant with only a 5% improvement in overall survival in the last 20 years. Although surgical resection remains the primary treatment modality, several areas of controversy exist with regard to work-up, management of the primary and neck tumors, and adjuvant therapy. As surgical techniques evolve, so has the delivery of radiotherapy and systemic treatment, which have helped to improve the outcomes for patients with advanced disease. Recently, the addition of cetuximab has shown promise as a way to improve outcomes while minimizing toxicity, and this remains an active area of study in the adjuvant setting. Advances in microvascular free-flap reconstruction have extended the limits of resection and enabled enhanced restoration of function and cosmesis. While these advances have led to limited survival benefit, evaluation of alternative modalities has gained interest on the basis of success in other head and neck subsites. Organ preservation with definitive chemoradiotherapy, though proven in the larynx and pharynx, remains controversial in OCC. Likewise, although the association of human papillomavirus is well established in oropharyngeal carcinoma, it has not been proven in the pathogenesis or survival of OCC. Future study of the molecular biology and pathogenesis of OCC should offer additional insight into screening, treatment selection, and novel therapeutic approaches.

  4. Psychiatric epidemiology: selected recent advances and future directions.

    PubMed Central

    Kessler, R. C.

    2000-01-01

    Reviewed in this article are selected recent advances and future challenges for psychiatric epidemiology. Major advances in descriptive psychiatric epidemiology in recent years include the development of reliable and valid fully structured diagnostic interviews, the implementation of parallel cross-national surveys of the prevalences and correlates of mental disorders, and the initiation of research in clinical epidemiology. Remaining challenges include the refinement of diagnostic categories and criteria, recognition and evaluation of systematic underreporting bias in surveys of mental disorders, creation and use of accurate assessment tools for studying disorders of children, adolescents, the elderly, and people in less developed countries, and setting up systems to carry out small area estimations for needs assessment and programme planning. Advances in analytical and experimental epidemiology have been more modest. A major challenge is for psychiatric epidemiologists to increase the relevance of their analytical research to their colleagues in preventative psychiatry as well as to social policy analysts. Another challenge is to develop interventions aimed at increasing the proportion of people with mental disorders who receive treatment. Despite encouraging advances, much work still needs to be conducted before psychiatric epidemiology can realize its potential to improve the mental health of populations. PMID:10885165

  5. Towards a global environmental sociology? Legacies, trends and future directions

    PubMed Central

    Lidskog, Rolf; Mol, Arthur PJ; Oosterveer, Peter

    2014-01-01

    A current debate on environmental sociology involves how the subdiscipline should conceptualise and investigate the environment and whether it should be prescriptive and deliver policy recommendations. Taking this debate as a point of departure this article discusses the current and future role of sociology in a globalised world. It discusses how environmental sociology in the US and Europe differ in their understandings of sociology’s contribution to the study of the environment. Particular stress is placed on how these two regions differ with respect to their use of the tradition of sociological thought, views on what constitutes the environment and ways of institutionalising environmental sociology as a sociological field. In conclusion, the question is raised of whether current versions of environmental sociology are appropriate for analysing a globalised world environment; or whether environmental sociology’s strong roots in European and US cultures make it less relevant when facing an increasingly globalised world. Finally, the article proposes some new rules for a global environmental sociology and describes some of their possible implications for the sociological study of climate change. PMID:25937642

  6. Advanced Low Conductivity Thermal Barrier Coatings: Performance and Future Directions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhu, Dongming; Miller, Robert A.

    2008-01-01

    Thermal barrier coatings will be more aggressively designed to protect gas turbine engine hot-section components in order to meet future engine higher fuel efficiency and lower emission goals. In this presentation, thermal barrier coating development considerations and performance will be emphasized. Advanced thermal barrier coatings have been developed using a multi-component defect clustering approach, and shown to have improved thermal stability and lower conductivity. The coating systems have been demonstrated for high temperature combustor applications. For thermal barrier coatings designed for turbine airfoil applications, further improved erosion and impact resistance are crucial for engine performance and durability. Erosion resistant thermal barrier coatings are being developed, with a current emphasis on the toughness improvements using a combined rare earth- and transition metal-oxide doping approach. The performance of the toughened thermal barrier coatings has been evaluated in burner rig and laser heat-flux rig simulated engine erosion and thermal gradient environments. The results have shown that the coating composition optimizations can effectively improve the erosion and impact resistance of the coating systems, while maintaining low thermal conductivity and cyclic durability. The erosion, impact and high heat-flux damage mechanisms of the thermal barrier coatings will also be described.

  7. Flow and Noise Control: Review and Assessment of Future Directions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, Russell H.; Choudhari, Meelan M.; Joslin, Ronald D.

    2002-01-01

    Technologies for developing radically new aerovehicles that would combine quantum leaps in cost, safety, and performance benefits with environmental friendliness have appeared on the horizon. This report provides both an assessment of the current state-of-the-art in flow and noise control and a vision for the potential gains to be made, in terms of performance benefit for civil and military aircraft and a unique potential for noise reduction, via future advances in flow and noise technologies. This report outlines specific areas of research that will enable the breakthroughs necessary to bring this vision to reality. Recent developments in many topics within flow and noise control are reviewed. The flow control overview provides succinct summaries of various approaches for drag reduction and improved maneuvering. Both exterior and interior noise problems are examined, including dominant noise sources, physics of noise generation and propagation, and both established and proposed concepts for noise reduction. Synergy between flow and noise control is a focus and, more broadly, the need to pursue research in a more concurrent approach involving multiple disciplines. Also discussed are emerging technologies such as nanotechnology that may have a significant impact on the progress of flow and noise control.

  8. Filoviruses in Bats: Current Knowledge and Future Directions

    PubMed Central

    Olival, Kevin J.; Hayman, David T. S.

    2014-01-01

    Filoviruses, including Ebolavirus and Marburgvirus, pose significant threats to public health and species conservation by causing hemorrhagic fever outbreaks with high mortality rates. Since the first outbreak in 1967, their origins, natural history, and ecology remained elusive until recent studies linked them through molecular, serological, and virological studies to bats. We review the ecology, epidemiology, and natural history of these systems, drawing on examples from other bat-borne zoonoses, and highlight key areas for future research. We compare and contrast results from ecological and virological studies of bats and filoviruses with those of other systems. We also highlight how advanced methods, such as more recent serological assays, can be interlinked with flexible statistical methods and experimental studies to inform the field studies necessary to understand filovirus persistence in wildlife populations and cross-species transmission leading to outbreaks. We highlight the need for a more unified, global surveillance strategy for filoviruses in wildlife, and advocate for more integrated, multi-disciplinary approaches to understand dynamics in bat populations to ultimately mitigate or prevent potentially devastating disease outbreaks. PMID:24747773

  9. Bone regenerative medicine: classic options, novel strategies, and future directions

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    This review analyzes the literature of bone grafts and introduces tissue engineering as a strategy in this field of orthopedic surgery. We evaluated articles concerning bone grafts; analyzed characteristics, advantages, and limitations of the grafts; and provided explanations about bone-tissue engineering technologies. Many bone grafting materials are available to enhance bone healing and regeneration, from bone autografts to graft substitutes; they can be used alone or in combination. Autografts are the gold standard for this purpose, since they provide osteogenic cells, osteoinductive growth factors, and an osteoconductive scaffold, all essential for new bone growth. Autografts carry the limitations of morbidity at the harvesting site and limited availability. Allografts and xenografts carry the risk of disease transmission and rejection. Tissue engineering is a new and developing option that had been introduced to reduce limitations of bone grafts and improve the healing processes of the bone fractures and defects. The combined use of scaffolds, healing promoting factors, together with gene therapy, and, more recently, three-dimensional printing of tissue-engineered constructs may open new insights in the near future. PMID:24628910

  10. Mitochondrial pyruvate transport: a historical perspective and future research directions

    PubMed Central

    McCommis, Kyle S.; Finck, Brian N.

    2015-01-01

    Pyruvate is the end-product of glycolysis, a major substrate for oxidative metabolism, and a branching point for glucose, lactate, fatty acid and amino acid synthesis. The mitochondrial enzymes that metabolize pyruvate are physically separated from cytosolic pyruvate pools and rely on a membrane transport system to shuttle pyruvate across the impermeable inner mitochondrial membrane (IMM). Despite long-standing acceptance that transport of pyruvate into the mitochondrial matrix by a carrier-mediated process is required for the bulk of its metabolism, it has taken almost 40 years to determine the molecular identity of an IMM pyruvate carrier. Our current understanding is that two proteins, mitochondrial pyruvate carriers MPC1 and MPC2, form a hetero-oligomeric complex in the IMM to facilitate pyruvate transport. This step is required for mitochondrial pyruvate oxidation and carboxylation – critical reactions in intermediary metabolism that are dysregulated in several common diseases. The identification of these transporter constituents opens the door to the identification of novel compounds that modulate MPC activity, with potential utility for treating diabetes, cardiovascular disease, cancer, neurodegenerative diseases, and other common causes of morbidity and mortality. The purpose of the present review is to detail the historical, current and future research investigations concerning mitochondrial pyruvate transport, and discuss the possible consequences of altered pyruvate transport in various metabolic tissues. PMID:25748677

  11. 50 years of Arabidopsis research: highlights and future directions.

    PubMed

    Provart, Nicholas J; Alonso, Jose; Assmann, Sarah M; Bergmann, Dominique; Brady, Siobhan M; Brkljacic, Jelena; Browse, John; Chapple, Clint; Colot, Vincent; Cutler, Sean; Dangl, Jeff; Ehrhardt, David; Friesner, Joanna D; Frommer, Wolf B; Grotewold, Erich; Meyerowitz, Elliot; Nemhauser, Jennifer; Nordborg, Magnus; Pikaard, Craig; Shanklin, John; Somerville, Chris; Stitt, Mark; Torii, Keiko U; Waese, Jamie; Wagner, Doris; McCourt, Peter

    2016-02-01

    922 I. 922 II. 922 III. 925 IV. 925 V. 926 VI. 927 VII. 928 VIII. 929 IX. 930 X. 931 XI. 932 XII. 933 XIII. Natural variation and genome-wide association studies 934 XIV. 934 XV. 935 XVI. 936 XVII. 937 937 References 937 SUMMARY: The year 2014 marked the 25(th) International Conference on Arabidopsis Research. In the 50 yr since the first International Conference on Arabidopsis Research, held in 1965 in Göttingen, Germany, > 54 000 papers that mention Arabidopsis thaliana in the title, abstract or keywords have been published. We present herein a citational network analysis of these papers, and touch on some of the important discoveries in plant biology that have been made in this powerful model system, and highlight how these discoveries have then had an impact in crop species. We also look to the future, highlighting some outstanding questions that can be readily addressed in Arabidopsis. Topics that are discussed include Arabidopsis reverse genetic resources, stock centers, databases and online tools, cell biology, development, hormones, plant immunity, signaling in response to abiotic stress, transporters, biosynthesis of cells walls and macromolecules such as starch and lipids, epigenetics and epigenomics, genome-wide association studies and natural variation, gene regulatory networks, modeling and systems biology, and synthetic biology. PMID:26465351

  12. Exploring the avian gut microbiota: current trends and future directions

    PubMed Central

    Waite, David W.; Taylor, Michael W.

    2015-01-01

    Birds represent a diverse and evolutionarily successful lineage, occupying a wide range of niches throughout the world. Like all vertebrates, avians harbor diverse communities of microorganisms within their guts, which collectively fulfill crucial roles in providing the host with nutrition and protection from pathogens. Across the field of avian microbiology knowledge is extremely uneven, with several species accounting for an overwhelming majority of all microbiological investigations. These include agriculturally important birds, such as chickens and turkeys, as well as birds of evolutionary or conservation interest. In our previous study we attempted the first meta-analysis of the avian gut microbiota, using 16S rRNA gene sequences obtained from a range of publicly available data sets. We have now extended our analysis to explore the microbiology of several key species in detail, to consider the avian microbiota within the context of what is known about other vertebrates, and to identify key areas of interest in avian microbiology for future study. PMID:26191057

  13. [Oral medicine in Israel: Current status and future directions].

    PubMed

    Aframian, D J; Vered, M

    2016-04-01

    The oral cavity-body relationships are bi-directional: oral diseases affect the welfare and health of the individual, while diseases and conditions of organs and tissues in the human body affect oral health. The global policy of the World Health Organization is to improve oral health in the 21st century as an integral part of promoting our general health. During the recent years the knowledge of the dental profession has grown exponentially and widened its fields of interest and this has led to impressive advances at both clinical and research levels. Oral medicine, which is a recognized, licensed specialty in Israel, is a definite example that reflects this process. In the last decade residency programs in oral medicine are in the process of constant increased demand. The authors discuss this trend and comment on the need to maintain excellence in this specialty.

  14. Metaphor and music emotion: Ancient views and future directions.

    PubMed

    Pannese, Alessia; Rappaz, Marc-André; Grandjean, Didier

    2016-08-01

    Music is often described in terms of emotion. This notion is supported by empirical evidence showing that engaging with music is associated with subjective feelings, and with objectively measurable responses at the behavioural, physiological, and neural level. Some accounts, however, reject the idea that music may directly induce emotions. For example, the 'paradox of negative emotion', whereby music described in negative terms is experienced as enjoyable, suggests that music might move the listener through indirect mechanisms in which the emotional experience elicited by music does not always coincide with the emotional label attributed to it. Here we discuss the role of metaphor as a potential mediator in these mechanisms. Drawing on musicological, philosophical, and neuroscientific literature, we suggest that metaphor acts at key stages along and between physical, biological, cognitive, and contextual processes, and propose a model of music experience in which metaphor mediates between language, emotion, and aesthetic response.

  15. [Oral medicine in Israel: Current status and future directions].

    PubMed

    Aframian, D J; Vered, M

    2016-04-01

    The oral cavity-body relationships are bi-directional: oral diseases affect the welfare and health of the individual, while diseases and conditions of organs and tissues in the human body affect oral health. The global policy of the World Health Organization is to improve oral health in the 21st century as an integral part of promoting our general health. During the recent years the knowledge of the dental profession has grown exponentially and widened its fields of interest and this has led to impressive advances at both clinical and research levels. Oral medicine, which is a recognized, licensed specialty in Israel, is a definite example that reflects this process. In the last decade residency programs in oral medicine are in the process of constant increased demand. The authors discuss this trend and comment on the need to maintain excellence in this specialty. PMID:27480002

  16. The cyber threat landscape: Challenges and future research directions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gil, Santiago; Kott, Alexander; Barabási, Albert-László

    2014-07-01

    While much attention has been paid to the vulnerability of computer networks to node and link failure, there is limited systematic understanding of the factors that determine the likelihood that a node (computer) is compromised. We therefore collect threat log data in a university network to study the patterns of threat activity for individual hosts. We relate this information to the properties of each host as observed through network-wide scans, establishing associations between the network services a host is running and the kinds of threats to which it is susceptible. We propose a methodology to associate services to threats inspired by the tools used in genetics to identify statistical associations between mutations and diseases. The proposed approach allows us to determine probabilities of infection directly from observation, offering an automated high-throughput strategy to develop comprehensive metrics for cyber-security.

  17. Metaphor and music emotion: Ancient views and future directions.

    PubMed

    Pannese, Alessia; Rappaz, Marc-André; Grandjean, Didier

    2016-08-01

    Music is often described in terms of emotion. This notion is supported by empirical evidence showing that engaging with music is associated with subjective feelings, and with objectively measurable responses at the behavioural, physiological, and neural level. Some accounts, however, reject the idea that music may directly induce emotions. For example, the 'paradox of negative emotion', whereby music described in negative terms is experienced as enjoyable, suggests that music might move the listener through indirect mechanisms in which the emotional experience elicited by music does not always coincide with the emotional label attributed to it. Here we discuss the role of metaphor as a potential mediator in these mechanisms. Drawing on musicological, philosophical, and neuroscientific literature, we suggest that metaphor acts at key stages along and between physical, biological, cognitive, and contextual processes, and propose a model of music experience in which metaphor mediates between language, emotion, and aesthetic response. PMID:27362475

  18. Some thoughts on future directions in margin research

    SciTech Connect

    Mutter, J.C. )

    1990-05-01

    Looking through the abstracts of presentations for this symposium, the authors see a science in transition. The quarter century since plate tectonic theory provided geoscience with a guiding framework in which to carry forward research into global tectonic phenomenon has witnessed a flourishing of research into the structure and evolution of continental margins. Margin evolution can now be placed firmly within this theoretical construct, thereby providing one of the key elaborations of the original theory that has given it its strength and value. What, then, is the next stage Are they in a period of normal science characterized by the detailed verification of an established paradigm, or can they hope for a really new direction Two approaches seem to present themselves. One is to focus attention on anomalies-things that don't quite fit or are not very easily covered by the present paradigm. Volcanic passive margins don't fit very well within the simple kinematic statement of plate tectonics, nor do eustasy and its effect on sedimentary sequences. While study of these square pegs in the round hole of plate theory may not bring them to a new paradigm, they might well provide significant modifications to the current wisdom. Perhaps a more fruitful approach is to propose that they are at a point in the development of other science at which the era of verification of the plate tectonic paradigm is sufficiently mature (perhaps even at its end) that the proper direction now is to establish a rigorous physical basis for the phenomena that are kinematically described by plate theory. The objective should be to created a higher order theory and thereby illuminate these known phenomena. Numerical and analytical modeling of deformational processes, magma generation, and migration are making leading contributions to this endeavor.

  19. The Next 25 Years?: Future Scenarios and Future Directions for Education and Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Facer, K.; Sandford, R.

    2010-01-01

    The educational technology research field has been at the heart of debates about the future of education for the last quarter century. This paper explores the socio-technical developments that the next 25 years might bring and the implications of such developments for educators and for educational technology research. The paper begins by outlining…

  20. Future Directions in Childhood Adversity and Youth Psychopathology

    PubMed Central

    McLaughlin, Katie A.

    2016-01-01

    Despite long-standing interest in the influence of adverse early experiences on mental health, systematic scientific inquiry into childhood adversity and developmental outcomes has emerged only recently. Existing research has amply demonstrated that exposure to childhood adversity is associated with elevated risk for multiple forms of youth psychopathology. In contrast, knowledge of developmental mechanisms linking childhood adversity to the onset of psychopathology—and whether those mechanisms are general or specific to particular kinds of adversity—remains cursory. Greater understanding of these pathways and identification of protective factors that buffer children from developmental disruptions following exposure to adversity is essential to guide the development of interventions to prevent the onset of psychopathology following adverse childhood experiences. This article provides recommendations for future research in this area. In particular, use of a consistent definition of childhood adversity, integration of studies of typical development with those focused on childhood adversity, and identification of distinct dimensions of environmental experience that differentially influence development are required to uncover mechanisms that explain how childhood adversity is associated with numerous psychopathology outcomes (i.e., multifinality) and identify moderators that shape divergent trajectories following adverse childhood experiences. A transdiagnostic model that highlights disruptions in emotional processing and poor executive functioning as key mechanisms linking childhood adversity with multiple forms of psychopathology is presented as a starting point in this endeavour. Distinguishing between general and specific mechanisms linking childhood adversity with psychopathology is needed to generate empirically informed interventions to prevent the long-term consequences of adverse early environments on children’s development. PMID:26849071

  1. Towards a global environmental sociology? Legacies, trends and future directions.

    PubMed

    Lidskog, Rolf; Mol, Arthur Pj; Oosterveer, Peter

    2015-05-01

    Le débat actuel sur la sociologie de l’environnement porte sur la façon de conceptualiser et d’examiner l’environnement et sur la nécessité de proposer une approche normative et des recommandations politiques. À partir de ce débat, cet article examine le rôle actuel et futur de la sociologie dans le contexte de la mondialisation. Il analyse dans quelle mesure les recherches sociologiques de l’environnement aux États-Unis et en Europe diffèrent dans leur compréhension de la contribution de la sociologie à l’étude de l’environnement. Un accent particulier est mis sur les différences entre les deux régions pour ce qui concerne leur utilisation de la tradition sociologique, leur vision de la nature de l’environnement et leurs moyens d’institutionnaliser la sociologie de l’environnement en tant que domaine de recherche. En conclusion, ce travail soulève la question de savoir si les approches actuelles de la sociologie de l’environnement sont appropriées à l’analyse de l’environnement mondialisé et si les origines européennes et nord-américaines de la sociologie de l’environnement la rendent moins pertinente dans un contexte de mondialisation croissante. Enfin, cet article propose de nouvelles règles pour une sociologie mondiale de l’environnement et met en évidence les incidences possibles des études sociologiques sur le changement climatique.

  2. Future Directions in Deinstitutionalization and Education: A Delphi Investigation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Putnam, Joanne W.; Bruininks, Robert H.

    1986-01-01

    A total of 33 special education leaders presented forecasts, through a Delphi survey procedure, for the deinstitutionalization of and the residential and education services for the handicapped. It was predicted that the deinstitutionalization movement will not lose its momentum and that community based residential services will become increasingly…

  3. Gifted Native American Students: Literature, Lessons, and Future Directions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gentry, Marcia; Fugate, C. Matthew; Wu, Jiaxi; Castellano, Jaime A.

    2014-01-01

    A national research agenda focused on gifted/creative/talented Native American students is needed, as this population remains one of the least researched, most overlooked, and most underserved in the field. Literature-based assumptions surrounding Native American students' talent development, culture and traditions, cognitive styles and…

  4. ISOLATED WETLANDS: STATE-OF-THE-SCIENCE AND FUTURE DIRECTIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    In Solid Waste Agency of Northern Cook County v. U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (SWANCC), the U.S. Supreme Court held that isolated, intrastate, non-navigable waters could not be protected under the Clean Water Act based solely on their use by migratory birds. The SWANCC decision ...

  5. Understanding Technology Adoption: Theory and Future Directions for Informal Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Straub, Evan T.

    2009-01-01

    How and why individuals adopt innovations has motivated a great deal of research. This article examines individuals' computing adoption processes through the lenses of three adoption theories: Rogers's innovation diffusion theory, the Concerns-Based Adoption Model, the Technology Acceptance Model, and the United Theory of Acceptance and Use of…

  6. Business Education at Catholic Universities: Current Status and Future Directions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porth, Stephen J.; McCall, John J.; DiAngelo, Joseph A.

    2009-01-01

    Is business education at Catholic colleges and universities different than business education at secular institutions? This study assesses the current state of business education at Catholic colleges and universities based on a national survey of business school deans and faculty members and an audit of business unit web sites. Results suggest…

  7. Current issues and future directions of oncolytic adenoviruses.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Masato; Curiel, David T

    2010-02-01

    Oncolytic adenoviruses (Ads) constitute a promising new class of anticancer agent. They are based on the well-studied adenoviral vector system, which lends itself to concept-driven design to generate oncolytic variants. The first oncolytic Ad was approved as a drug in China in 2005, although clinical efficacy observed in human trials has failed to reach the high expectations that were based on studies in animal models. Current obstacles to the full realization of efficacy of this class of anticancer agent include (i) limited efficiency of infection and specific replication in tumor cells, (ii) limited vector spread within the tumor, (iii) imperfect animal models and methods of in vivo imaging, and (iv) an incomplete understanding of the interaction of these agents with the host. In this review, we discuss recent advances in the field of oncolytic Ads and potential ways to overcome current obstacles to their clinical application and efficacy.

  8. Current Issues and Future Directions of Oncolytic Adenoviruses

    PubMed Central

    Yamamoto, Masato; Curiel, David T

    2009-01-01

    Oncolytic adenoviruses (Ads) constitute a promising new class of anticancer agent. They are based on the well-studied adenoviral vector system, which lends itself to concept-driven design to generate oncolytic variants. The first oncolytic Ad was approved as a drug in China in 2005, although clinical efficacy observed in human trials has failed to reach the high expectations that were based on studies in animal models. Current obstacles to the full realization of efficacy of this class of anticancer agent include (i) limited efficiency of infection and specific replication in tumor cells, (ii) limited vector spread within the tumor, (iii) imperfect animal models and methods of in vivo imaging, and (iv) an incomplete understanding of the interaction of these agents with the host. In this review, we discuss recent advances in the field of oncolytic Ads and potential ways to overcome current obstacles to their clinical application and efficacy. PMID:19935777

  9. Future World Energy Constraints and the Direction for Solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Lightfoot, H.D.

    2004-09-12

    This paper was originally written in response to the concern that rising levels of CO2 in the atmosphere caused by burning of fossil fuels will ultimately contribute to global warming. Now we are beginning to see evidence of coming problems in the supply of fuels for transportation. This paper describes the benefits of adequate energy supply and the problems of future energy supply. Partial solutions are suggested for immediate application as well as longer term solutions to address both of these concerns. To evaluate the situation and solutions we must understand: (1) how much primary energy is currently used world-wide and might be needed in 2100, (2) how important energy is to the welfare of people, (3) the forms of energy sources and end uses and (4) where new sources may come from. The major portion of world primary energy demand is provided by fossil fuels. This portion dropped from 93% in 1970 to 85% in 1995, mainly because of the increased use of nuclear energy. How ever, since the mid-1990s fossil fuels have maintained their 85% share of world energy supply. The importance of the relationship between per capita energy consumption and per capita income for the world is discussed. The limits of conservation, energy efficiency and renewable energies are examined. The contribution of renewable energies is compared to 41 different views of world energy demand in 2100. Without new technology for large scale storage of intermittent electricity from wind and solar the contribution of renewable energies is not likely to grow significantly beyond the current level of 7-8%. The paper offers conclusions and partial solutions that we can work on immediately. Examination of the forms of energy supplied by the sun, which is powered by nuclear fusion, and the way in which nuclear fission currently supplies energy to the world sets the research framework for longer term solutions. This framework points towards two possible longer term complementary res earch projects which

  10. Hepatitis C in the Russian Federation: challenges and future directions.

    PubMed

    Mukomolov, Sergey; Trifonova, Galina; Levakova, Irina; Bolsun, Daria; Krivanogova, Eugenia

    2016-01-01

    seen in the near future that will require urgent preventive and therapeutic measures.

  11. Hepatitis C in the Russian Federation: challenges and future directions

    PubMed Central

    Mukomolov, Sergey; Trifonova, Galina; Levakova, Irina; Bolsun, Daria; Krivanogova, Eugenia

    2016-01-01

    carcinoma will be seen in the near future that will require urgent preventive and therapeutic measures. PMID:27217802

  12. Multiferroic magnetoelectric composites: Historical perspective, status, and future directions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nan, Ce-Wen; Bichurin, M. I.; Dong, Shuxiang; Viehland, D.; Srinivasan, G.

    2008-02-01

    magnetoelectric response of single-phase compounds by many orders of magnitude. Of interest, motivated by on-chip integration in microelectronic devices, nanostructured composites of ferroelectric and magnetic oxides have recently been deposited in a film-on substrate geometry. The coupling interaction between nanosized ferroelectric and magnetic oxides is also responsible for the magnetoelectric effect in the nanostructures as was the case in those bulk composites. The availability of high-quality nanostructured composites makes it easier to tailor their properties through epitaxial strain, atomic-level engineering of chemistry, and interfacial coupling. In this review, we discuss these bulk and nanostructured magnetoelectric composites both in experimental and theoretical. From application viewpoint, microwave devices, sensors, transducers, and heterogeneous read/write devices are among the suggested technical implementations of the magnetoelectric composites. The review concludes with an outlook on the exciting future possibilities and scientific challenges in the field of multiferroic magnetoelectric composites.

  13. Extracting evidence from forensic DNA analyses: future molecular biology directions.

    PubMed

    Budowle, Bruce; van Daal, Angela

    2009-04-01

    Molecular biology tools have enhanced the capability of the forensic scientist to characterize biological evidence to the point where it is feasible to analyze minute samples and achieve high levels of individualization. Even with the forensic DNA field's maturity, there still are a number of areas where improvements can be made. These include: enabling the typing of samples of limited quantity and quality; using genetic information and novel markers to provide investigative leads; enhancing automation with robotics, different chemistries, and better software tools; employing alternate platforms for typing DNA samples; developing integrated microfluidic/microfabrication devices to process DNA samples with higher throughput, faster turnaround times, lower risk of contamination, reduced labor, and less consumption of evidentiary samples; and exploiting high-throughput sequencing, particularly for attribution in microbial forensics cases. Knowledge gaps and new directions have been identified where molecular biology will likely guide the field of forensics. This review aims to provide a roadmap to guide those interested in contributing to the further development of forensic genetics.

  14. Direct Laser Cladding , Current Status and Future Scope of Application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weisheit, A.; Gasser, A.; Backes, G.; Jambor, T.; Pirch, N.; Wissenbach, K.

    During the last decades Direct Laser Cladding has become an established technique in many industrial fields for applying wear and corrosion protection layers on metallic surfaces as well as for the repair of high value-added components. The most important application fields are die and tool making, turbine components for aero engines and power generation, machine components such as axes and gears, and oil drilling components. Continuous wave (CW) lasers with a power up to 18 kW are used on automated machines with three or more axes, enabling 3D cladding . The outstanding feature of DLC is the high precision which leads to a minimum heat input into the work piece and a very low distortion. Due to the high cooling rates a fine grained microstructure is achieved during solidification. A new development in laser cladding is micro cladding in a size range below 50 \\upmum especially for electronic and medical applications. Furthermore, additive manufacturing is coming again into focus as a clean and resource-efficient method to manufacture and modify functional prototypes as well as unique and small lot parts.

  15. Microneedles for Transdermal Biosensing: Current Picture and Future Direction.

    PubMed

    Ventrelli, Letizia; Marsilio Strambini, Lucanos; Barillaro, Giuseppe

    2015-12-01

    A novel trend is rapidly emerging in the use of microneedles, which are a miniaturized replica of hypodermic needles with length-scales of hundreds of micrometers, aimed at the transdermal biosensing of analytes of clinical interest, e.g., glucose, biomarkers, and others. Transdermal biosensing via microneedles offers remarkable opportunities for moving biosensing technologies and biochips from research laboratories to real-field applications, and envisages easy-to-use point-of-care microdevices with pain-free, minimally invasive, and minimal-training features that are very attractive for both developed and emerging countries. In addition to this, microneedles for transdermal biosensing offer a unique possibility for the development of biochips provided with end-effectors for their interaction with the biological system under investigation. Direct and efficient collection of the biological sample to be analyzed will then become feasible in situ at the same length-scale of the other biochip components by minimally trained personnel and in a minimally invasive fashion. This would eliminate the need for blood extraction using hypodermic needles and reduce, in turn, related problems, such as patient infections, sample contaminations, analysis artifacts, etc. The aim here is to provide a thorough and critical analysis of state-of-the-art developments in this novel research trend, and to bridge the gap between microneedles and biosensors. PMID:26439100

  16. Future directions in alcoholism research. Genomics and gene transfer.

    PubMed

    Brooks, P J; Lipsky, R H

    2000-01-01

    Alcohol affects the process by which genes direct the synthesis of proteins (i.e., expression). Therefore, patterns of gene expression in the presence of alcohol can help scientists identify the specific molecular sites of alcohol's actions within the brain. New technologies can detect and quantify changes in the expression of thousands of genes simultaneously by scanning microscopic gene arrays applied to glass or silicon chips an inch or so square. However, genes whose activity is altered in the presence of alcohol may either be contributing to alcoholism development or may be reacting to alcohol's presence. This question can be researched by observing the effects of manipulating the level of specific gene products. One way to accomplish this end is by means of viruses that have been engineered to express a specific gene in infected cells. This technique has been applied successfully in studying addictive behaviors. It is suggested that patterns of gene expression may become a diagnostic tool, with different disease states being characterized by distinct expression profiles.

  17. Device innovation in neurosurgery: controversy, learning, and future directions.

    PubMed

    Babu, Maya A; Heary, Robert F; Nahed, Brian V

    2012-04-01

    Innovation in medicine has led to advances directly benefitting patients. Yet recent legislation has created intense scrutiny of the relationship between surgeons and industry. Critics argue that surgeon-held patents and royalties incentivize surgeon loyalty, influencing decision making as to which devices are used intraoperatively. We explored the potential for inventor-related conflicts of interest. We searched patent records from the United States Patent and Trademark Office for every diplomate recognized by the American Board of Neurological Surgeons (4868 neurosurgeons). We also searched physician payment registries of the 5 largest device makers; of these, Medtronic, DePuy, and Zimmer were the only companies with available registries. A total of 147 neurosurgeons (3.0%) hold a total of 582 patents; the number of patents held per neurosurgeon ranges from 1 to 53. The fields in which patents are held include tumor (125), spine (98), vascular (54), trauma (27), stereotaxy/image guidance (88), pain (19), peripheral nerve (2), electrical stimulation (63), and pediatrics (9); surgical instruments (59), drug delivery (17), and other (21) account for the remainder. The total amount of royalties received by neurosurgeons in 2010 is expected to be $13,223,000 (minimum: $7K, maximum: $8.261M). Despite public and legislative perceptions of widespread conflicts of interest, there are relatively few neurosurgeons who hold patents and receive significant royalties. PMID:21946505

  18. Sustainable winter cities: Future directions for planning, policy and design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pressman, Norman E. P.

    Attempts to generate a "climate-responsive" northern urban form are part of a relatively recent phenomenon and field of investigation. In conjunction with the international "winter cities" movement, the need has been established for explicit, systematic inquiry directed toward national and local action to improve the comfort and lifestyles of all northern inhabitants. It is important to recognize that winter-induced discomforts exist and that they must be acknowledged in planning theory and practice. For northern cities to function more satisfactorily, the negative impacts of winter must be reduced while its beneficial characteristics are enhanced. While not all summer activities can or should be abandoned during winter, proper micro-climatic control is essential if human life is to be retained outside. The outdoor season should be extended since so much indoor isolation occurs. The main principles to be incorporated in exemplary "winter city" design should be contact with nature, year-round usability, user participation, cultural continuity, and the creation of comfortable micro-climatic conditions throughout much of the city's open spaces. All valuable sources of inspiration must be harnessed in the attempt to mediate between organic regionalism and internationalism, on the one hand, and romanticism and pragmatic realism, on the other. Creating optimum conditions for human well-being, habitation, work and intellectual development in each of the four seasons is vital under harsh environments. Adopting a climate-sensitive approach to planning policy and urban design can render everyday life less stressful, especially during the lengthy winter periods found in many northern latitude and high altitude settings.

  19. Current Understanding and Future Directions for Vocal Fold Mechanobiology

    PubMed Central

    Li, Nicole Y.K.; Heris, Hossein K.; Mongeau, Luc

    2013-01-01

    The vocal folds, which are located in the larynx, are the main organ of voice production for human communication. The vocal folds are under continuous biomechanical stress similar to other mechanically active organs, such as the heart, lungs, tendons and muscles. During speech and singing, the vocal folds oscillate at frequencies ranging from 20 Hz to 3 kHz with amplitudes of a few millimeters. The biomechanical stress associated with accumulated phonation is believed to alter vocal fold cell activity and tissue structure in many ways. Excessive phonatory stress can damage tissue structure and induce a cell-mediated inflammatory response, resulting in a pathological vocal fold lesion. On the other hand, phonatory stress is one major factor in the maturation of the vocal folds into a specialized tri-layer structure. One specific form of vocal fold oscillation, which involves low impact and large amplitude excursion, is prescribed therapeutically for patients with mild vocal fold injuries. Although biomechanical forces affect vocal fold physiology and pathology, there is little understanding of how mechanical forces regulate these processes at the cellular and molecular level. Research into vocal fold mechanobiology has burgeoned over the past several years. Vocal fold bioreactors are being developed in several laboratories to provide a biomimic environment that allows the systematic manipulation of physical and biological factors on the cells of interest in vitro. Computer models have been used to simulate the integrated response of cells and proteins as a function of phonation stress. The purpose of this paper is to review current research on the mechanobiology of the vocal folds as it relates to growth, pathogenesis and treatment as well as to propose specific research directions that will advance our understanding of this subject. PMID:24812638

  20. Databases for genetic services. Current usages and future directions.

    PubMed

    Meaney, F J

    1987-06-01

    Computer-based systems for the management of data in clinical genetics have become increasingly available for patient information storage and retrieval, evaluation and diagnosis, and pedigree data. The need for a national genetic services database has been recognized, and federal grants have provided funds for the development of state and regional databases for the evaluation of genetic services. Continuation of federal funding and the development of data systems that allow local, state, and regional needs to be met are essential for any progress to be made toward a national database. PMID:3668409

  1. Databases for genetic services. Current usages and future directions.

    PubMed

    Meaney, F J

    1987-06-01

    Computer-based systems for the management of data in clinical genetics have become increasingly available for patient information storage and retrieval, evaluation and diagnosis, and pedigree data. The need for a national genetic services database has been recognized, and federal grants have provided funds for the development of state and regional databases for the evaluation of genetic services. Continuation of federal funding and the development of data systems that allow local, state, and regional needs to be met are essential for any progress to be made toward a national database.

  2. Performance seeking control: Program overview and future directions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilyard, Glenn B.; Orme, John S.

    1993-01-01

    A flight test evaluation of the performance-seeking control (PSC) algorithm on the NASA F-15 highly integrated digital electronic control research aircraft was conducted for single-engine operation at subsonic and supersonic speeds. The model-based PSC system was developed with three optimization modes: minimum fuel flow at constant thrust, minimum turbine temperature at constant thrust, and maximum thrust at maximum dry and full afterburner throttle settings. Subsonic and supersonic flight testing were conducted at the NASA Dryden Flight Research Facility covering the three PSC optimization modes and over the full throttle range. Flight results show substantial benefits. In the maximum thrust mode, thrust increased up to 15 percent at subsonic and 10 percent at supersonic flight conditions. The minimum fan turbine inlet temperature mode reduced temperatures by more than 100 F at high altitudes. The minimum fuel flow mode results decreased fuel consumption up to 2 percent in the subsonic regime and almost 10 percent supersonically. These results demonstrate that PSC technology can benefit the next generation of fighter or transport aircraft. NASA Dryden is developing an adaptive aircraft performance technology system that is measurement based and uses feedback to ensure optimality. This program will address the technical weaknesses identified in the PSC program and will increase performance gains.

  3. Grammatical agreement processing in reading: ERP findings and future directions.

    PubMed

    Molinaro, Nicola; Barber, Horacio A; Carreiras, Manuel

    2011-09-01

    In the domain of written sentence comprehension, the computation of agreement dependencies is generally considered as a form-driven processing routine whose domain is syntactic in nature. In the present review we discuss the main findings emerging in the Event-Related Potential (ERP) literature on sentence comprehension, focusing on the different dimensions of agreement patterns (features, values, constituents involved and language): Agreement mismatches usually evoke a biphasic electrophysiological pattern (Left Anterior Negativity - LAN, 300-450 msec and P600 after 500 msec). This ERP pattern is assumed to reflect rule-based computations sensitive to formal (inflectional) covariations of related words (trigger-target). Here we claim that agreement processing is sensitive to both the type of feature involved and the constituents that express the agreement dependency. More specifically, LAN could reflect violation of expectancy (elicited by the trigger) for the target functional morphology; later, trigger and target are structurally integrated at the sentence level (early P600). However, morphosyntactic information could trigger the activation of higher-level representations that are not strictly syntactic in nature. The recruitment of this additional non-syntactic information (mirrored by N400-like effects) indicates that rule-based computations of agreement dependencies are not blind to non-syntactic information but are often recruited to establish sentence-level relations.

  4. Robotic surgery for oropharynx cancer: promise, challenges, and future directions.

    PubMed

    de Almeida, John R; Genden, Eric M

    2012-04-01

    Epidemiologic studies have shown a rise in the incidence of oropharyngeal cancer without a corresponding increase in oral cavity cancers. These diverging trends are explained by human papilloma virus, which preferentially affects the oropharynx. Cancers resulting from this viral infection bear a better prognosis than those that are smoking-related. Treatment of oropharyngeal cancers has typically involved the use of radiation and chemotherapy to avoid the morbidity of mandibular splitting surgery. The use of transoral robotic surgery (TORS) has obviated the need for large-scale open approaches but still provides the pathologic staging data that is unavailable from non-surgical approaches. Although TORS is in its infancy, early functional and oncologic outcome data are promising. The complex management of oropharyngeal cancers should utilize the available treatment modalities to optimize outcomes and stratify patients to different treatment based on risk status. PMID:22311683

  5. Wildlife population assessment: past developments and future directions.

    PubMed

    Buckland, S T; Goudie, I B; Borchers, D L

    2000-03-01

    We review the major developments in wildlife population assessment in the past century. Three major areas are considered: mark-recapture, distance sampling, and harvest models. We speculate on how these fields will develop in the next century. Topics for which we expect to see methodological advances include integration of modeling with Geographic Information Systems, automated survey design algorithms, advances in model-based inference from sample survey data, a common inferential framework for wildlife population assessment methods, improved methods for estimating population trends, the embedding of biological process models into inference, substantially improved models for conservation management, advanced spatiotemporal models of ecosystems, and greater emphasis on incorporating model selection uncertainty into inference. We discuss the kind of developments that might be anticipated in these topics.

  6. Future Directions, Challenges and Opportunities in Nuclear Energy

    SciTech Connect

    Klein, Andy; Lance, Jack

    2007-03-21

    The renaissance of nuclear energy for electricity and hydrogen production and process heat for other potential applications is moving ahead rapidly. Both near- and far-term roles are envisioned for this important energy technology, and each of these roles will have its own particular technical challenges and opportunities. Numerous power producers world-wide are actively considering the construction of new nuclear power plants for the production of electricity in the near-term. The U.S. Department of Energy has announced plans to develop both the next generation of nuclear power plants and the technology necessary to recycle used nuclear fuel. These exciting technologies will bring novel challenges to their developers and designers as they push the knowledge base in materials utilization, high temperatures and pressures, extended operating cycles, and extreme operating environments. Development of the techniques and methods to interrogate, understand, manage and control these devices will be crucial to enabling the full extension of these technologies.

  7. Future Directions, Challenges and Opportunities in Nuclear Energy

    SciTech Connect

    Andy Klein; Jack Lance

    2006-07-01

    The renaissance of nuclear energy for electricity and hydrogen production and process heat for other potential applications is moving ahead rapidly. Both near- and far-term roles are envisioned for this important energy technology, and each of these roles will have its own particular technical challenges and opportunities. Numerous power producers world-wide are actively considering the construction of new nuclear power plants for the production of electricity in the near-term. The U.S. Department of Energy has announced plans to develop both the next generation of nuclear power plants and the technology necessary to recycle used nuclear fuel. These exciting technologies will bring novel challenges to their developers and designers as they push the knowledge base in materials utilization, high temperatures and pressures, extended operating cycles, and extreme operating environments. Development of the techniques and methods to interrogate, understand, manage and control these devices will be crucial to enabling the full extension of these technologies.

  8. Bed bug detection: current technologies and future directions.

    PubMed

    Vaidyanathan, Rajeev; Feldlaufer, Mark F

    2013-04-01

    Technologies to detect bed bugs have not kept pace with their global resurgence. Early detection is critical to prevent infestations from spreading. Detection based exclusively on bites is inadequate, because reactions to insect bites are non-specific and often misdiagnosed. Visual inspections are commonly used and depend on identifying live bugs, exuviae, or fecal droplets. Visual inspections are inexpensive, but they are time-consuming and unreliable when only a few bugs are present. Use of a dog to detect bed bugs is gaining in popularity, but it can be expensive, may unintentionally advertise a bed bug problem, and is not foolproof. Passive monitors mimic natural harborages; they are discreet and typically use an adhesive to trap bugs. Active monitors generate carbon dioxide, heat, a pheromone, or a combination to attract bed bugs to a trap. New technologies using DNA analysis, mass spectrometry, and electronic noses are innovative but impractical and expensive for widespread use. PMID:23553226

  9. Pituitary adenomas: historical perspective, surgical management and future directions

    PubMed Central

    Theodros, Debebe; Patel, Mira; Ruzevick, Jacob; Lim, Michael; Bettegowda, Chetan

    2016-01-01

    Pituitary adenomas are among the most common central nervous system tumors. They represent a diverse group of neoplasms that may or may not secrete hormones based on their cell of origin. Epidemiologic studies have documented the incidence of pituitary adenomas within the general population to be as high as 16.7%. A growing body of work has helped to elucidate the pathogenesis of these tumors. Each subtype has been shown to demonstrate unique cellular changes potentially leading to tumorigenesis. Surgical advancements over several decades have included microsurgery and the employment of the endoscope for surgical resection. These advancements increase the likelihood of gross-total resection and have resulted in decreased patient morbidity. PMID:26497533

  10. Youth, Technology, and HIV: Recent Advances and Future Directions.

    PubMed

    Hightow-Weidman, Lisa B; Muessig, Kathryn E; Bauermeister, Jose; Zhang, Chen; LeGrand, Sara

    2015-12-01

    Technology, including mobile technologies and social media, offers powerful tools to reach, engage, and retain youth and young adults in HIV prevention and care interventions both in the USA and globally. In this report, we focus on HIV, technology, and youth, presenting a synthesis of recently published (Jan 2014-May 2015) observational and experimental studies relevant for understanding and intervening on HIV risk, prevention, and care. We present findings from a selection of the 66 relevant citations identified, highlighting studies that demonstrate a novel approach to technology interventions among youth in regard to content, delivery, target population, or public health impact. We discuss current trends globally and in the USA in how youth are using technology, as well as emergent research issues in this field-including the need for new theories for developing technology-based HIV interventions and new metrics of engagement, exposure, and evaluation.

  11. Bio-ontologies: current trends and future directions

    PubMed Central

    Bodenreider, Olivier; Stevens, Robert

    2006-01-01

    In recent years, as a knowledge-based discipline, bioinformatics has been made more computationally amenable. After its beginnings as a technology advocated by computer scientists to overcome problems of heterogeneity, ontology has been taken up by biologists themselves as a means to consistently annotate features from genotype to phenotype. In medical informatics, artifacts called ontologies have been used for a longer period of time to produce controlled lexicons for coding schemes. In this article, we review the current position in ontologies and how they have become institutionalized within biomedicine. As the field has matured, the much older philosophical aspects of ontology have come into play. With this and the institutionalization of ontology has come greater formality. We review this trend and what benefits it might bring to ontologies and their use within biomedicine. PMID:16899495

  12. Bed Bug Detection: Current Technologies and Future Directions

    PubMed Central

    Vaidyanathan, Rajeev; Feldlaufer, Mark F.

    2013-01-01

    Technologies to detect bed bugs have not kept pace with their global resurgence. Early detection is critical to prevent infestations from spreading. Detection based exclusively on bites is inadequate, because reactions to insect bites are non-specific and often misdiagnosed. Visual inspections are commonly used and depend on identifying live bugs, exuviae, or fecal droplets. Visual inspections are inexpensive, but they are time-consuming and unreliable when only a few bugs are present. Use of a dog to detect bed bugs is gaining in popularity, but it can be expensive, may unintentionally advertise a bed bug problem, and is not foolproof. Passive monitors mimic natural harborages; they are discreet and typically use an adhesive to trap bugs. Active monitors generate carbon dioxide, heat, a pheromone, or a combination to attract bed bugs to a trap. New technologies using DNA analysis, mass spectrometry, and electronic noses are innovative but impractical and expensive for widespread use. PMID:23553226

  13. Accounting for context: future directions in bioethics theory and research.

    PubMed

    Douglas-Steele, D; Hundert, E M

    1996-06-01

    Many physicians have found that the traditional approach to bioethics fails to account for important aspects of their moral experience in practice. New approaches to bioethics theory are challenging the traditional application of universal moral principles based in liberal moral theory. At the same time, a shift in both the goals and methods of bioethics education has accompanied its "coming of age" in the medical school curriculum. Taken together, these changes challenge both bioethics educators and theorists to come closer to the details and nuances of real clinical encounters. The emerging trend emphasizes the importance of context in bioethics education and in the moral theory and research undergirding it. This article introduces one research approach examining the practical life contexts of medical students' ethical experiences and learning. It calls for increased attention to research and theory in bioethics that more adequately accounts for the ways different contexts produce significant changes in meaning and understanding in medical encounters. PMID:8767639

  14. Pharmacotherapy in pediatric obesity: current agents and future directions.

    PubMed

    Wald, Abigail B; Uli, Naveen K

    2009-09-01

    Childhood obesity is emerging as a major public health threat, with adverse implications on the health of individuals and long-term costs to society. Family-based lifestyle interventions with behavioral modification, diet and exercise form the mainstay of treatment. Pharmacologic treatment may be considered in selected subjects, especially in the presence of significant and severe comorbidities, when lifestyle intervention has failed to achieve weight reduction. Orlistat and sibutramine are FDA-approved for treatment of pediatric obesity; metformin may be considered in the presence of clinically significant insulin resistance. Evidence is lacking on the appropriate duration of medical therapy and optimal combination with lifestyle intervention. Lack of coverage of medications by insurance and high out-of-pocket costs may be limiting factors to some families. Adverse effects necessitate careful monitoring and may lead to discontinuation of medication. Pharmacologic agents with novel mechanisms of action offer hope of improved efficacy, tolerability and safety. PMID:19688265

  15. Graphlet-based Characterization of Directed Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarajlić, Anida; Malod-Dognin, Noël; Yaveroğlu, Ömer Nebil; Pržulj, Nataša

    2016-10-01

    We are flooded with large-scale, dynamic, directed, networked data. Analyses requiring exact comparisons between networks are computationally intractable, so new methodologies are sought. To analyse directed networks, we extend graphlets (small induced sub-graphs) and their degrees to directed data. Using these directed graphlets, we generalise state-of-the-art network distance measures (RGF, GDDA and GCD) to directed networks and show their superiority for comparing directed networks. Also, we extend the canonical correlation analysis framework that enables uncovering the relationships between the wiring patterns around nodes in a directed network and their expert annotations. On directed World Trade Networks (WTNs), our methodology allows uncovering the core-broker-periphery structure of the WTN, predicting the economic attributes of a country, such as its gross domestic product, from its wiring patterns in the WTN for up-to ten years in the future. It does so by enabling us to track the dynamics of a country’s positioning in the WTN over years. On directed metabolic networks, our framework yields insights into preservation of enzyme function from the network wiring patterns rather than from sequence data. Overall, our methodology enables advanced analyses of directed networked data from any area of science, allowing domain-specific interpretation of a directed network’s topology.

  16. Graphlet-based Characterization of Directed Networks

    PubMed Central

    Sarajlić, Anida; Malod-Dognin, Noël; Yaveroğlu, Ömer Nebil; Pržulj, Nataša

    2016-01-01

    We are flooded with large-scale, dynamic, directed, networked data. Analyses requiring exact comparisons between networks are computationally intractable, so new methodologies are sought. To analyse directed networks, we extend graphlets (small induced sub-graphs) and their degrees to directed data. Using these directed graphlets, we generalise state-of-the-art network distance measures (RGF, GDDA and GCD) to directed networks and show their superiority for comparing directed networks. Also, we extend the canonical correlation analysis framework that enables uncovering the relationships between the wiring patterns around nodes in a directed network and their expert annotations. On directed World Trade Networks (WTNs), our methodology allows uncovering the core-broker-periphery structure of the WTN, predicting the economic attributes of a country, such as its gross domestic product, from its wiring patterns in the WTN for up-to ten years in the future. It does so by enabling us to track the dynamics of a country’s positioning in the WTN over years. On directed metabolic networks, our framework yields insights into preservation of enzyme function from the network wiring patterns rather than from sequence data. Overall, our methodology enables advanced analyses of directed networked data from any area of science, allowing domain-specific interpretation of a directed network’s topology. PMID:27734973

  17. CONSORT in China: past development and future direction.

    PubMed

    Song, Tian-Jiao; Leng, Hou-Fu; Zhong, Linda Ld; Wu, Tai-Xiang; Bian, Zhao-Xiang

    2015-06-01

    The Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials (CONSORT) Statement was published in 1996, and first introduced to China in 2001. Although CONSORT has been widely accepted in high-quality international journals, we still need to have more investigation on how many Chinese journals have adopted the CONSORT Statement, and whether the quality of reporting has improved. A systematic search of the "Instructions to authors" in all Chinese medical journals in China Academic Journals (CAJ) Full-text Database was conducted up to February 2012 and only 7 journals officially listed the requirements of the CONSORT Statement. The research articles about randomized controlled trials (RCTs) published in 2002, 2004, 2006, 2008, and 2010 from journals which had specifically adopted the CONSORT Statement, and from 30 top journals based on the Chinese Science Citation Index (CSCI) 2011 as the control group, were identified. The quality of both cohorts of articles was assessed using the revised CONSORT Checklist and Jadad scale. A total of 1221 Chinese medical journals was identified. Only seven journals stated clearly in the "Instructions to authors" that authors should adopt the CONSORT requirement in the clinical trial paper. None of these journals is among the control group in the CSCI 2011. In the selected years, a total of 171 articles from 7 journals which had adopted CONSORT and 232 articles in the control were identified as including RCT trials. The average scores according to the revised CONSORT Checklist were 29.47 for the CONSORT-adopting journals and 25.57 for the control group; while the average scores based on the Jadad scale were 2.53 for CONSORT-adopting journals and 1.97 for the control group. Few journals among Chinese medical journals have adopted the CONSORT Statement. The overall quality of RCT reports in the 7 journals which have adopted CONSORT was better than those in the top 30 journals which have not adopted CONSORT. The quality of RCT reports in Chinese

  18. Bilingual teaching in nursing education in China: evolution, status, and future directions.

    PubMed

    He, Wei; Xu, Yu; Zhu, Jianhua

    2011-09-01

    Based on Chinese published literature and personal observations, this article reviews the history of bilingual teaching in nursing education in China, describes its current status and challenges, and predicts its future directions. Bilingual teaching in nursing education enjoys increasing popularity in China. The major factors that affect bilingual teaching are bilingual educators, students' English-language levels, bilingual teaching materials, and teaching models. Based on surveys of nursing schools, the English-language proficiency of the nursing educators varies greatly. The main issues with the teaching methods lie in over-translation, cramming, and limited interaction between the students and the teachers. Despite relatively inadequate English-language proficiency among Chinese nursing students, their interest can be strengthened greatly if international exchanges are available and promoted. Bilingual textbooks are more suitable in China's national context because of pricing and relevance. Although immersive bilingual teaching is the ideal, it is more feasible to begin with infiltrative bilingual teaching and move progressively towards increased English-language penetration. Future directions for improving bilingual teaching include training teaching faculty members, strengthening international exchanges, providing better bilingual study atmospheres, and gradually implementing bilingual textbooks.

  19. Gestational diabetes mellitus. Unresolved issues and future research directions.

    PubMed Central

    Okun, N.; Verma, A.; Demianczuk, N.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To summarize the controversial aspects of gestational diabetes (GDM) and introduce readers to possible relevant research questions that could be examined to provide clinicians with good-quality data on which to base decisions about this relatively common pregnancy-related issue. DATA SOURCES AND STUDY SELECTION: Ongoing review of the English literature related to GDM. Sources were not restricted to prospective, controlled trials, as these are severely limited in number. SYNTHESIS: Controversial issues include the relevance of GDM to clinically meaningful outcomes in the index pregnancy, the effectiveness of current therapy in altering these outcomes, and the resultant questionable relevance of routine screening and diagnosis of an entity with as yet uncertain significance in pregnancy. CONCLUSIONS: Suggested questions to be addressed in multicentre controlled trials include randomization with respect to screening and with respect to treatment. Until such trials are completed, continuing with a standard approach to screening, diagnosis, and treatment, such as that suggested by the third international workshop on GDM, is recommended. PMID:9626427

  20. New directions: Atmospheric chemical mechanisms for the future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaduwela, Ajith; Luecken, Deborah; Carter, William; Derwent, Richard

    2015-12-01

    The atmospheric chemical reaction scheme, commonly referred to as the chemical mechanism, is the portion of an air quality model that represents the atmospheric chemistry of the pollutants. It is at the heart of every air quality model used in research and policy applications to predict and analyse the complex air pollutants: ozone, air toxics and PM2.5. The chemical mechanism should incorporate available information on chemical kinetics and reaction pathways and be the conduit through which the fundamental science of atmospheric chemistry is applied to solve real-world problems. The efficiency and effectiveness of policies developed to reduce exposure to harmful pollutants depend on how well the mechanisms reflect the actual chemistry. If the mechanism has reaction pathways that are incorrectly characterised or completely missing, the resulting predictions may underestimate emission reduction requirements needed to meet public health and ecosystem protection targets, or may overstate the emission reductions needed and cause unnecessary implementation costs. It is therefore essential that mechanisms utilise the best, most up-to-date atmospheric chemistry information available so that policy development is based on air quality model predictions that are robust, transparent and free from scientific challenge. We are concerned that this may not continue to be the case.

  1. Turbidite systems: State of the art and future directions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Normark, W.R.; Posamentier, H.; Mutti, E.

    1993-01-01

    The study of turbidite systems covering a wide range of physical scales has led to confus ion regarding the use of certain key terms and hence a breakdown in communication between workers involved in turbidite research. There are three fundamentally different scales and types of observations derived from the study of outcrop data (ancient systems), high-resolution seismic reflection and side scan sonar data (modern systems), and multichannel seismic reflection data (modern and older buried systems). Despite the variability of scale the same terms are used to describe features that may have little in common. Consequently, turbidite system terminology has become imprecise and even misleading in some cases, thus providing impediments to developing useful predictive models for processes, depositional environments, and lateral and vertical distribution of sand bodies within turbidite systems. To address this concern, we review the principal elements critical to deepwater systems: slump scars, submarine canyons, channels, channel fill deposits, overbank deposits, and lobes and discuss some of their recognition criteria with each different type of data base. Local and regional tectonic setting, relative sea level variations, and bottom current activity are probably the main factors that control size, external geometry, internal stratal configuration, and facies characteristics of both modern and ancient turbidite systems. These factors ultimately control the timing and bounding characteristics between stages of growth of deepwater systems. If comparison of elements from different turbidite deposits using various data types is carried out at similar physical and temporal scales, predictive models eventually may be improved.

  2. Fatigue in Multiple Sclerosis: Misconceptions and Future Research Directions

    PubMed Central

    Rudroff, Thorsten; Kindred, John H.; Ketelhut, Nathaniel B.

    2016-01-01

    Fatigue is one of the most disabling side effects in people with multiple sclerosis. While this fact is well known, there has been a remarkable lack of progress in determining the pathophysiological mechanisms behind fatigue and the establishment of effective treatments. The main barrier has been the lack of a unified definition of fatigue that can be objectively tested with validated experimental models. In this “perspective article” we propose the use of the following model and definition of fatigue: the decrease in physical and/or mental performance that results from changes in central, psychological, and/or peripheral factors. These changes depend on the task being performed, the environmental conditions it is performed in, and the physical and mental capacity of the individual. Our definition and model of fatigue outlines specific causes of fatigue and how it affects task performance. We also outline the strengths and weaknesses of commonly used measures of fatigue and suggest, based on our model and definition, new research strategies, which should include multiple measures. These studies should be mechanistic with validated experimental models to determine changes in central, psychological, and/or peripheral factors that explain fatigue. The proposed new research strategies may lead to the identification of the origins of MS related fatigue and the development of new, more effective treatments. PMID:27531990

  3. Detecting biological responses to flow management: Missed opportunities; future directions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Souchon, Y.; Sabaton, C.; Deibel, R.; Reiser, D.; Kershner, J.; Gard, M.; Katopodis, C.; Leonard, P.; Poff, N.L.; Miller, W.J.; Lamb, B.L.

    2008-01-01

    The conclusions of numerous stream restoration assessments all around the world are extremely clear and convergent: there has been insufficient appropriate monitoring to improve general knowledge and expertise. In the specialized field of instream flow alterations, we consider that there are several opportunities comparable to full-size experiments. Hundreds of water management decisions related to instream flow releases have been made by government agencies, native peoples, and non-governmental organizations around the world. These decisions are based on different methods and assumptions and many flow regimes have been adopted by formal or informal rules and regulations. Although, there have been significant advances in analytical capabilities, there has been very little validation monitoring of actual outcomes or research related to the response of aquatic dependent species to new flow regimes. In order to be able to detect these kinds of responses and to better guide decision, a general design template is proposed. The main steps of this template are described and discussed, in terms of objectives, hypotheses, variables, time scale, data management, and information, in the spirit of adaptive management. The adoption of such a framework is not always easy, due to differing interests of actors for the results, regarding the duration of monitoring, nature of funding and differential timetables between facilities managers and technicians. Nevertheless, implementation of such a framework could help researchers and practitioners to coordinate and federate their efforts to improve the general knowledge of the links between the habitat dynamics and biological aquatic responses. Copyright ?? 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Decompression to altitude: assumptions, experimental evidence, and future directions.

    PubMed

    Foster, Philip P; Butler, Bruce D

    2009-02-01

    Although differences exist, hypobaric and hyperbaric exposures share common physiological, biochemical, and clinical features, and their comparison may provide further insight into the mechanisms of decompression stress. Although altitude decompression illness (DCI) has been experienced by high-altitude Air Force pilots and is common in ground-based experiments simulating decompression profiles of extravehicular activities (EVAs) or astronauts' space walks, no case has been reported during actual EVAs in the non-weight-bearing microgravity environment of orbital space missions. We are uncertain whether gravity influences decompression outcomes via nitrogen tissue washout or via alterations related to skeletal muscle activity. However, robust experimental evidence demonstrated the role of skeletal muscle exercise, activities, and/or movement in bubble formation and DCI occurrence. Dualism of effects of exercise, positive or negative, on bubble formation and DCI is a striking feature in hypobaric exposure. Therefore, the discussion and the structure of this review are centered on those highlighted unresolved topics about the relationship between muscle activity, decompression, and microgravity. This article also provides, in the context of altitude decompression, an overview of the role of denitrogenation, metabolic gases, gas micronuclei, stabilization of bubbles, biochemical pathways activated by bubbles, nitric oxide, oxygen, anthropometric or physiological variables, Doppler-detectable bubbles, and potential arterialization of bubbles. These findings and uncertainties will produce further physiological challenges to solve in order to line up for the programmed human return to the Moon, the preparation for human exploration of Mars, and the EVAs implementation in a non-zero gravity environment.

  5. Soil ecotoxicology: state of the art and future directions

    PubMed Central

    van Gestel, Cornelis A.M.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Developments in soil ecotoxicology started with observations on pesticide effects on soil invertebrates in the 1960s. To support the risk assessment of chemicals, in the 1980s and 1990s development of toxicity tests was the main issue, including single species tests and also more realistic test systems like model ecosystems and field tests focusing on structural and functional endpoints. In the mean time, awareness grew about issues like bioavailability and routes of exposure, while biochemical endpoints (biomarkers) were proposed as sensitive and potential early-warning tools. In recent years, interactions between different chemicals (mixture toxicity) and between chemical and other stressors attracted scientific interest. With the development of molecular biology, omics tools are gaining increasing interest, while the ecological relevance of exposure and effects is translating into concepts like (chemical) stress ecology, ecological vulnerability and trait-based approaches. This contribution addresses historical developments and focuses on current issues in soil ecotoxicology. It is concluded that soil ecotoxicological risk assessment would benefit from extending the available battery of toxicity tests by including e.g. isopods, by paying more attention to exposure, bioavailability and toxicokinetics, and by developing more insight into the ecology of soil organisms to support better understanding of exposure and long-term consequences of chemical exposure at the individual, population and community level. Ecotoxicogenomics tools may also be helpful in this, but will require considerable further research before they can be applied in the practice of soil ecotoxicological risk assessment. PMID:22536114

  6. Fatigue in Multiple Sclerosis: Misconceptions and Future Research Directions.

    PubMed

    Rudroff, Thorsten; Kindred, John H; Ketelhut, Nathaniel B

    2016-01-01

    Fatigue is one of the most disabling side effects in people with multiple sclerosis. While this fact is well known, there has been a remarkable lack of progress in determining the pathophysiological mechanisms behind fatigue and the establishment of effective treatments. The main barrier has been the lack of a unified definition of fatigue that can be objectively tested with validated experimental models. In this "perspective article" we propose the use of the following model and definition of fatigue: the decrease in physical and/or mental performance that results from changes in central, psychological, and/or peripheral factors. These changes depend on the task being performed, the environmental conditions it is performed in, and the physical and mental capacity of the individual. Our definition and model of fatigue outlines specific causes of fatigue and how it affects task performance. We also outline the strengths and weaknesses of commonly used measures of fatigue and suggest, based on our model and definition, new research strategies, which should include multiple measures. These studies should be mechanistic with validated experimental models to determine changes in central, psychological, and/or peripheral factors that explain fatigue. The proposed new research strategies may lead to the identification of the origins of MS related fatigue and the development of new, more effective treatments. PMID:27531990

  7. Cardiac PET Perfusion Tracers: Current Status and Future Directions

    PubMed Central

    Maddahi, Jamshid; Packard, René R. S.

    2015-01-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) is increasingly used for non-invasive detection and evaluation of coronary artery disease (CAD). However, the widespread use of PET MPI has been limited by shortcomings of the current PET perfusion tracers. Availability of these tracers is limited by need for an on-site (15O water and 13N ammonia) or nearby (13N ammonia) cyclotron or commitment to costly generators (82Rb). Due to short half-lives ranging from 76sec for 82Rb, to 2.1min for 15O water and 10min for 13N ammonia, their use in conjunction with treadmill exercise stress testing is either not possible (82Rb and 15O water) or is not practical (13N ammonia). Furthermore, the long positron range of 82Rb makes image resolution suboptimal and its low extraction limits its defect resolution. In recent years, development of an 18F labeled PET perfusion tracer has gathered considerable interest. The longer half-life of 18F (108 minutes) would make the tracer available as a unit dose from regional cyclotrons and allow use in conjunction with treadmill exercise testing. Furthermore, the short positron range of 18F would result in better image resolution. 18F flurpiridaz is by far the most thoroughly studied in animal models, and is the only F18-based PET MPI radiotracer currently undergoing clinical evaluation. Pre-clinical and clinical experience with 18F flurpiridaz demonstrated a high myocardial extraction fraction, high image and defect resolution, high myocardial uptake, slow myocardial clearance, and high myocardial-to-background contrast which was stable over time – important properties of an ideal PET MPI radiotracer. Pre-clinical data from other 18F labeled myocardial perfusion tracers are encouraging. PMID:25234078

  8. Genistein and cancer: current status, challenges, and future directions.

    PubMed

    Spagnuolo, Carmela; Russo, Gian Luigi; Orhan, Ilkay Erdogan; Habtemariam, Solomon; Daglia, Maria; Sureda, Antoni; Nabavi, Seyed Fazel; Devi, Kasi Pandima; Loizzo, Monica Rosa; Tundis, Rosa; Nabavi, Seyed Mohammad

    2015-07-01

    Primary prevention through lifestyle interventions is a cost-effective alternative for preventing a large burden of chronic and degenerative diseases, including cancer, which is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. In the past decade, epidemiologic and preclinical evidence suggested that polyphenolic phytochemicals present in many plant foods possess chemopreventive properties against several cancer forms. Thus, there has been increasing interest in the potential cancer chemopreventive agents obtained from natural sources, such as polyphenols, that may represent a new, affordable approach to curb the increasing burden of cancer throughout the world. Several epidemiologic studies showed a relation between a soy-rich diet and cancer prevention, which was attributed to the presence of a phenolic compound, genistein, present in soy-based foods. Genistein acts as a chemotherapeutic agent against different types of cancer, mainly by altering apoptosis, the cell cycle, and angiogenesis and inhibiting metastasis. Targeting caspases, B cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2)-associated X protein (Bax), Bcl-2, kinesin-like protein 20A (KIF20A), extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2), nuclear transcription factor κB (NF-κB), mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), inhibitor of NF-κB (IκB), Wingless and integration 1 β-catenin (Wnt/β-catenin), and phosphoinositide 3 kinase/Akt (PI3K/Akt) signaling pathways may act as the molecular mechanisms of the anticancer, therapeutic effects of genistein. Genistein also shows synergistic behavior with well-known anticancer drugs, such as adriamycin, docetaxel, and tamoxifen, suggesting a potential role in combination therapy. This review critically analyzes the available literature on the therapeutic role of genistein on different types of cancer, focusing on its chemical features, plant food sources, bioavailability, and safety. PMID:26178025

  9. Atmospheric nucleation: highlights of the EUCAARI project and future directions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerminen, V.-M.; Petäjä, T.; Manninen, H. E.; Paasonen, P.; Nieminen, T.; Sipilä, M.; Junninen, H.; Ehn, M.; Gagné, S.; Laakso, L.; Riipinen, I.; Vehkamäki, H.; Kurten, T.; Ortega, I. K.; Dal Maso, M.; Brus, D.; Hyvärinen, A.; Lihavainen, H.; Leppä, J.; Lehtinen, K. E. J.; Mirme, A.; Mirme, S.; Hõrrak, U.; Berndt, T.; Stratmann, F.; Birmili, W.; Wiedensohler, A.; Metzger, A.; Dommen, J.; Baltensperger, U.; Kiendler-Scharr, A.; Mentel, T. F.; Wildt, J.; Winkler, P. M.; Wagner, P. E.; Petzold, A.; Minikin, A.; Plass-Dülmer, C.; Pöschl, U.; Laaksonen, A.; Kulmala, M.

    2010-07-01

    Within the project EUCAARI (European Integrated project on Aerosol Cloud Climate and Air Quality interactions), atmospheric nucleation was studied by (i) developing and testing new air ion and cluster spectrometers, (ii) conducting homogeneous nucleation experiments for sulphate and organic systems in the laboratory, (iii) investigating atmospheric nucleation mechanism under field conditions, and (iv) applying new theoretical and modelling tools for data interpretation and development of parameterisations. The current paper provides a synthesis of the obtained results and identifies the remaining major knowledge gaps related to atmospheric nucleation. The most important technical achievement of the project was the development of new instruments for measuring sub-3 nm particle populations, along with the extensive application of these instruments in both the laboratory and the field. All the results obtained during EUCAARI indicate that sulphuric acid plays a central role in atmospheric nucleation, in addition to which other vapours, especially organic ones, are needed to explain the nucleation and the subsequent growth processes. Both our field and laboratory data demonstrate that the nucleation rate scales to the first or second power of the nucleating vapour concentration(s). This agrees with the few earlier field observations, but is in stark contrast with classical thermodynamic nucleation theories. The average formation rates of 2-nm particles were found to vary by almost two orders of magnitude between the different EUCAARI sites, whereas the formation rates of charged 2-nm particles varied very little between the sites. Overall, our observations are indicative of frequent, yet moderate, ion-induced nucleation usually outweighed by much stronger neutral nucleation events in the lower troposphere. The most concrete outcome of the EUCAARI nucleation studies are the new semi-empirical nucleation rate parameterizations based on field observations, along with

  10. Atmospheric nucleation: highlights of the EUCAARI project and future directions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerminen, V.-M.; Petäjä, T.; Manninen, H. E.; Paasonen, P.; Nieminen, T.; Sipilä, M.; Junninen, H.; Ehn, M.; Gagné, S.; Laakso, L.; Riipinen, I.; Vehkamäki, H.; Kurten, T.; Ortega, I. K.; Dal Maso, M.; Brus, D.; Hyvärinen, A.; Lihavainen, H.; Leppä, J.; Lehtinen, K. E. J.; Mirme, A.; Mirme, S.; Hõrrak, U.; Berndt, T.; Stratmann, F.; Birmili, W.; Wiedensohler, A.; Metzger, A.; Dommen, J.; Baltensperger, U.; Kiendler-Scharr, A.; Mentel, T. F.; Wildt, J.; Winkler, P. M.; Wagner, P. E.; Petzold, A.; Minikin, A.; Plass-Dülmer, C.; Pöschl, U.; Laaksonen, A.; Kulmala, M.

    2010-11-01

    the EUCAARI nucleation studies are the new semi-empirical nucleation rate parameterizations based on field observations, along with updated aerosol formation parameterizations.

  11. Genistein and Cancer: Current Status, Challenges, and Future Directions12

    PubMed Central

    Spagnuolo, Carmela; Russo, Gian Luigi; Orhan, Ilkay Erdogan; Habtemariam, Solomon; Daglia, Maria; Sureda, Antoni; Nabavi, Seyed Fazel; Devi, Kasi Pandima; Loizzo, Monica Rosa; Tundis, Rosa; Nabavi, Seyed Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    Primary prevention through lifestyle interventions is a cost-effective alternative for preventing a large burden of chronic and degenerative diseases, including cancer, which is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. In the past decade, epidemiologic and preclinical evidence suggested that polyphenolic phytochemicals present in many plant foods possess chemopreventive properties against several cancer forms. Thus, there has been increasing interest in the potential cancer chemopreventive agents obtained from natural sources, such as polyphenols, that may represent a new, affordable approach to curb the increasing burden of cancer throughout the world. Several epidemiologic studies showed a relation between a soy-rich diet and cancer prevention, which was attributed to the presence of a phenolic compound, genistein, present in soy-based foods. Genistein acts as a chemotherapeutic agent against different types of cancer, mainly by altering apoptosis, the cell cycle, and angiogenesis and inhibiting metastasis. Targeting caspases, B cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2)–associated X protein (Bax), Bcl-2, kinesin-like protein 20A (KIF20A), extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2), nuclear transcription factor κB (NF-κB), mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), inhibitor of NF-κB (IκB), Wingless and integration 1 β-catenin (Wnt/β-catenin), and phosphoinositide 3 kinase/Akt (PI3K/Akt) signaling pathways may act as the molecular mechanisms of the anticancer, therapeutic effects of genistein. Genistein also shows synergistic behavior with well-known anticancer drugs, such as adriamycin, docetaxel, and tamoxifen, suggesting a potential role in combination therapy. This review critically analyzes the available literature on the therapeutic role of genistein on different types of cancer, focusing on its chemical features, plant food sources, bioavailability, and safety. PMID:26178025

  12. Future Directions of Structural Mass Spectrometry using Hydroxyl Radical Footprinting

    SciTech Connect

    J Kiselar; M Chance

    2011-12-31

    Hydroxyl radical protein footprinting coupled to mass spectrometry has been developed over the last decade and has matured to a powerful method for analyzing protein structure and dynamics. It has been successfully applied in the analysis of protein structure, protein folding, protein dynamics, and protein-protein and protein-DNA interactions. Using synchrotron radiolysis, exposure of proteins to a 'white' X-ray beam for milliseconds provides sufficient oxidative modification to surface amino acid side chains, which can be easily detected and quantified by mass spectrometry. Thus, conformational changes in proteins or protein complexes can be examined using a time-resolved approach, which would be a valuable method for the study of macromolecular dynamics. In this review, we describe a new application of hydroxyl radical protein footprinting to probe the time evolution of the calcium-dependent conformational changes of gelsolin on the millisecond timescale. The data suggest a cooperative transition as multiple sites in different molecular subdomains have similar rates of conformational change. These findings demonstrate that time-resolved protein footprinting is suitable for studies of protein dynamics that occur over periods ranging from milliseconds to seconds. In this review, we also show how the structural resolution and sensitivity of the technology can be improved as well. The hydroxyl radical varies in its reactivity to different side chains by over two orders of magnitude, thus oxidation of amino acid side chains of lower reactivity are more rarely observed in such experiments. Here we demonstrate that the selected reaction monitoring (SRM)-based method can be utilized for quantification of oxidized species, improving the signal-to-noise ratio. This expansion of the set of oxidized residues of lower reactivity will improve the overall structural resolution of the technique. This approach is also suggested as a basis for developing hypothesis

  13. The use of animals in agriculture and science: historical context, international considerations and future direction.

    PubMed

    Bayvel, A C D

    2005-08-01

    As the final contribution to this important World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) publication, this paper provides some relevant background and contextual information and identifies a number of strategically significant international activities that will influence the future direction of animal welfare internationally. The assumption of an animal welfare leadership role by the OIE, with the full support of its 167 Member Countries, is an international development of major strategic significance. As an inter-governmental organisation, the OIE is committed to a science-based approach to the development of animal welfare guidelines and standards and to working closely with all stakeholders. This paper covers the use of animals in both agriculture and science, reflecting the OIE's dual remit for both animal health and animal welfare and the importance of animal-based research and testing to the OIE's animal health and reference laboratory roles.

  14. Status and future directions for advanced accelerator research - conventional and non-conventional collider concepts

    SciTech Connect

    Siemann, R.H.

    1997-01-01

    The relationship between advanced accelerator research and future directions for particle physics is discussed. Comments are made about accelerator research trends in hadron colliders, muon colliders, and e{sup +}3{sup {minus}} linear colliders.

  15. Genetic toxicology in the 21st century: Reflections and future directions

    EPA Science Inventory

    A symposium at the 40th anniversary of the Environmental Mutagen Society, held from October 24–28, 2009 in St. Louis, MO, surveyed the current status and future directions of genetic toxicology. This article summarizes the presentations and provides a perspective on the future. A...

  16. Community-based dental education: history, current status, and future.

    PubMed

    Formicola, Allan J; Bailit, Howard L

    2012-01-01

    This article examines the history, current status, and future direction of community-based dental education (CBDE). The key issues addressed include the reasons that dentistry developed a different clinical education model than the other health professions; how government programs, private medical foundations, and early adopter schools influenced the development of CBDE; the societal and financial factors that are leading more schools to increase the time that senior dental students spend in community programs; the impact of CBDE on school finances and faculty and student perceptions; and the reasons that CBDE is likely to become a core part of the clinical education of all dental graduates.

  17. Risk assessment of the impact of future volcanic eruptions on direct normal irradiance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pagh Nielsen, Kristian; Blanc, Philippe; Vignola, Frank

    2016-04-01

    Stratospheric sulfate aerosols from Plinian volcanic eruptions affect the solar surface irradiance forcing by scattering the solar radiation as it passes through the Earth atmosphere. Since these aerosols have high single scattering albedos they mostly affect direct normal irradiances (DNI). The effect on global horizontal irradiance (GHI) is less because some of the scattered irradiance reaches the surface as diffuse horizontal irradiance (DHI) and adds to the GHI. DNI is the essential input to concentrating solar thermal electric power (CSP/STE) and concentrated photovoltaic (CPV) plants. Therefore, an assessment of the future potential variability in the DNI resource caused by Plinian volcanic eruptions is desirable. Based on investigations of the El Chichón and Pinatubo eruptions, the microphysical, and thereby optical, properties of the stratospheric sulfate aerosols are well known. Given these, radiative transfer computations of the DNI resource can be made. The DNI resource includes forward scattered irradiance within the acceptance angle of a given CSP/STE or CPV plant. The rarity of Plinian eruptions poses a challenge for assessing the statistical risk of future eruptions and its potential of risk in the electricity production. Here we present and discuss methods to account for these potential volcanic eruptions for technical and economical studies including scenarios with very high probability of exceedance (e.g. P99 scenarios) for risk assessment of DNI-based solar power projects.

  18. Translational research on early language development: Current challenges and future directions

    PubMed Central

    BEEGHLY, MARJORIE

    2011-01-01

    There is a pressing need for the early and accurate identification of young children at risk for language and other developmental disabilities and the provision of timely, age-appropriate intervention, as mandated by Part C of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act. Research has shown that early intervention is effective for many language impaired children in different etiological groups, and can reduce the functional impact of persistent disorders on children and their families. Yet, the accurate identification of infants and toddlers at risk for language impairment remains elusive, especially for late-talking children without obvious genetic or neurological conditions. In this paper, the need for translational research on basic processes in early language development in typical and atypical populations and the contextual factors that affect them are discussed, along with current challenges and future directions for its successful implementation. Implications of this research for clinical evidence-based practice are also considered. PMID:17152398

  19. Future Scenarios for Fission Based Reactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    David, S.

    2005-04-01

    The coming century will see the exhaustion of standard fossil fuels, coal, gas and oil, which today represent 75% of the world energy production. Moreover, their use will have caused large-scale emission of greenhouse gases (GEG), and induced global climate change. This problem is exacerbated by a growing world energy demand. In this context, nuclear power is the only GEG-free energy source available today capable of responding significantly to this demand. Some scenarios consider a nuclear energy production of around 5 Gtoe in 2050, wich would represent a 20% share of the world energy supply. Present reactors generate energy from the fission of U-235 and require around 200 tons of natural Uranium to produce 1GWe.y of energy, equivalent to the fission of one ton of fissile material. In a scenario of a significant increase in nuclear energy generation, these standard reactors will consume the whole of the world's estimated Uranium reserves in a few decades. However, natural Uranium or Thorium ore, wich are not themselves fissile, can produce a fissile material after a neutron capture ( 239Pu and 233U respectively). In a breeder reactor, the mass of fissile material remains constant, and the fertile ore is the only material to be consumed. In this case, only 1 ton of natural ore is needed to produce 1GWe.y. Thus, the breeding concept allows optimal use of fertile ore and development of sustainable nuclear energy production for several thousand years into the future. Different sustainable nuclear reactor concepts are studied in the international forum "generation IV". Different types of coolant (Na, Pb and He) are studied for fast breeder reactors based on the Uranium cycle. The thermal Thorium cycle requires the use of a liquid fuel, which can be reprocessed online in order to extract the neutron poisons. This paper presents these different sustainable reactors, based on the Uranium or Thorium fuel cycles and will compare the different options in term of fissile

  20. Consciousness in humans and non-human animals: recent advances and future directions

    PubMed Central

    Boly, Melanie; Seth, Anil K.; Wilke, Melanie; Ingmundson, Paul; Baars, Bernard; Laureys, Steven; Edelman, David B.; Tsuchiya, Naotsugu

    2013-01-01

    This joint article reflects the authors' personal views regarding noteworthy advances in the neuroscience of consciousness in the last 10 years, and suggests what we feel may be promising future directions. It is based on a small conference at the Samoset Resort in Rockport, Maine, USA, in July of 2012, organized by the Mind Science Foundation of San Antonio, Texas. Here, we summarize recent advances in our understanding of subjectivity in humans and other animals, including empirical, applied, technical, and conceptual insights. These include the evidence for the importance of fronto-parietal connectivity and of “top-down” processes, both of which enable information to travel across distant cortical areas effectively, as well as numerous dissociations between consciousness and cognitive functions, such as attention, in humans. In addition, we describe the development of mental imagery paradigms, which made it possible to identify covert awareness in non-responsive subjects. Non-human animal consciousness research has also witnessed substantial advances on the specific role of cortical areas and higher order thalamus for consciousness, thanks to important technological enhancements. In addition, much progress has been made in the understanding of non-vertebrate cognition relevant to possible conscious states. Finally, major advances have been made in theories of consciousness, and also in their comparison with the available evidence. Along with reviewing these findings, each author suggests future avenues for research in their field of investigation. PMID:24198791

  1. Biomarker Approaches to Greenhouse Gas Estimations Through the Cenozoic - Recent Developments and Future Directions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badger, M. P. S.; Chalk, T. B.; Foster, G. L.; Bown, P. R.; Gibbs, S.; Sexton, P. F.; Schmidt, D. N.; Palike, H.; Mackensen, A.; Pancost, R. D.

    2015-12-01

    Greenhouse gases (GHGs) are one of the fundamental controls of Earth's climate past, present and future. Significant research effort has been expended attempting to produce accurate and precise reconstructions of GHG concentrations through the geologic past. As Earth System modellers, policy makers and the wider public increasingly rely on paleo-CO2 reconstructions to ground-truth and inform climate models capable of predicting future conditions, reliable estimates have never been more important. Recently doubts have begun to emerge about the accuracy and precision of the key biomarker-based tool for CO2 reconstruction - based on measuring compound specific alkenone δ13C values - in part due to discrepancies between values calculated using this proxy and records generated utilising the boron isotopic composition of planktic foraminifera. Meanwhile, increasing efforts are being expended to investigate other potentially important GHGs such as CH4 during critical intervals in the Cenozoic. Here we present new, coupled alkenone δ13C - boron δ11B CO2 records across a full glacial-interglacial cycle from identical samples at ODP Site 999 in the Caribbean Sea. This allows comparison between the two palaeo-CO2 proxies currently most frequently used, with more direct measurements of atmospheric GHGs from ice cores. Our results suggest that current alkenone-based CO2 estimates may require reassessment - especially at lower levels of atmospheric pCO2. We discuss the implications of this work for our understanding of atmospheric pCO2 evolution through the Cenozoic in the context of new CO2 records from the Eocene. We also introduce new efforts to ground-truth numerical model-derived changes in CH4 with lipid biomarker evidence for methane processing from globally-distributed terrestrial Eocene deposits, and discuss the impact and importance of CH4 on global climate.

  2. Direct and indirect effects of climate change on projected future fire regimes in the western United States.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhihua; Wimberly, Michael C

    2016-01-15

    We asked two research questions: (1) What are the relative effects of climate change and climate-driven vegetation shifts on different components of future fire regimes? (2) How does incorporating climate-driven vegetation change into future fire regime projections alter the results compared to projections based only on direct climate effects? We used the western United States (US) as study area to answer these questions. Future (2071-2100) fire regimes were projected using statistical models to predict spatial patterns of occurrence, size and spread for large fires (>400 ha) and a simulation experiment was conducted to compare the direct climatic effects and the indirect effects of climate-driven vegetation change on fire regimes. Results showed that vegetation change amplified climate-driven increases in fire frequency and size and had a larger overall effect on future total burned area in the western US than direct climate effects. Vegetation shifts, which were highly sensitive to precipitation pattern changes, were also a strong determinant of the future spatial pattern of burn rates and had different effects on fire in currently forested and grass/shrub areas. Our results showed that climate-driven vegetation change can exert strong localized effects on fire occurrence and size, which in turn drive regional changes in fire regimes. The effects of vegetation change for projections of the geographic patterns of future fire regimes may be at least as important as the direct effects of climate change, emphasizing that accounting for changing vegetation patterns in models of future climate-fire relationships is necessary to provide accurate projections at continental to global scales.

  3. The use of virtual reality in memory rehabilitation: current findings and future directions.

    PubMed

    Brooks, B M; Rose, F D

    2003-01-01

    There is considerable potential for using virtual reality (VR) in memory rehabilitation which is only just beginning to be realized. PC-based virtual environments are probably better suited for this purpose than more immersive virtual environments because they are relatively inexpensive and portable, and less frightening to patients. Those exploratory studies that have so far been performed indicate that VR involvement would be usefully directed towards improving assessments of memory impairments and in memory remediation using reorganization techniques. In memory assessment, the use of VR could provide more comprehensive, ecologically-valid, and controlled evaluations of prospective, incidental, and spatial memory in a rehabilitation setting than is possible using standardized assessment tests. The additional knowledge gained from these assessments could more effectively direct rehabilitation towards specific impairments of individual patients. In memory remediation, VR training has been found to promote procedural learning in people with memory impairments, and this learning has been found to transfer to improved real-world performance. Future research should investigate ways in which the procedural knowledge gained during VR interaction can be adapted to offset the many disabilities which result from different forms of memory impairment. PMID:12867677

  4. Psychological Therapies for Auditory Hallucinations (Voices): Current Status and Key Directions for Future Research

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Neil; Hayward, Mark; Peters, Emmanuelle; van der Gaag, Mark; Bentall, Richard P.; Jenner, Jack; Strauss, Clara; Sommer, Iris E.; Johns, Louise C.; Varese, Filippo; García-Montes, José Manuel; Waters, Flavie; Dodgson, Guy; McCarthy-Jones, Simon

    2014-01-01

    This report from the International Consortium on Hallucinations Research considers the current status and future directions in research on psychological therapies targeting auditory hallucinations (hearing voices). Therapy approaches have evolved from behavioral and coping-focused interventions, through formulation-driven interventions using methods from cognitive therapy, to a number of contemporary developments. Recent developments include the application of acceptance- and mindfulness-based approaches, and consolidation of methods for working with connections between voices and views of self, others, relationships and personal history. In this article, we discuss the development of therapies for voices and review the empirical findings. This review shows that psychological therapies are broadly effective for people with positive symptoms, but that more research is required to understand the specific application of therapies to voices. Six key research directions are identified: (1) moving beyond the focus on overall efficacy to understand specific therapeutic processes targeting voices, (2) better targeting psychological processes associated with voices such as trauma, cognitive mechanisms, and personal recovery, (3) more focused measurement of the intended outcomes of therapy, (4) understanding individual differences among voice hearers, (5) extending beyond a focus on voices and schizophrenia into other populations and sensory modalities, and (6) shaping interventions for service implementation. PMID:24936081

  5. Highlights of Recent Developments in the International GPS Service and Perspectives for Future Directions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neilan, R.; Reigber, C.; Springer, T.; Beutler, G.; Kouba, J.

    1999-01-01

    In December 1998, the IGS Governing Board officially changed the name of this IAG service from 'International GPS Service for Geodynamics to simply the 'International GPS Service'. This change of name reflects the fact that today the IGS supports numerous scientific projects outside the traditional geodetic and geodynamic disciplines. A number of IGS projects and working groups have been established, each concentrating on a particular science application, such as the ionosphere, atmosphere, reference frame, precise time transfer, etc. These activities are enabled and simulated by the IGS and directly contribute to the continuing development of the service. The IGS is currently poised to respond to evolving user requirements that focus on timeliness and reliability of data and products, particularly in support of a slate of Low Earth Orbiter missions over the next decade. Perspectives on the future of the IGS will be developed based on current directions as well as anticipated external influences, such as GPS satellite modernization, GLONASS, availability of global communications, and plans for the European GALILEO (Global Navigation Satellite System - GNSS). We will address development of user friendly interfaces and IGS product tutorials.

  6. The future of e-learning in healthcare professional education: some possible directions. Commentary.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Kieran

    2014-01-01

    E-learning in healthcare professional education still seems like it is a new innovation but the reality is that e-learning has been around for as long as the internet has been around. This is approximately twenty years and so it is probably appropriate to now take stock and consider what the future of e-learning in healthcare professional education might be. One likely occurrence is that there will be more formats, more interactive technology, and sometimes game-based learning. Another future of healthcare professional education will likely be in simulation. Like other forms of technology outside of medicine, the cost of e-learning in healthcare professional education will fall rapidly. E-learning will also become more adaptive in the future and so will deliver educational content based on learners' exact needs. The future of e-learning will also be mobile. Increasingly in the future e-learning will be blended with face to face education.

  7. Planet Diversity Yields with Space-based Direct Imaging Telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Domagal-Goldman, Shawn; Kopparapu, Ravi Kumar; Hébrard, Eric; Stark, Chris; Robinson, Tyler D.; Roberge, Aki; Mandell, Avi; McElwain, Michael W.; Clampin, Mark; Meadows, Victoria; Arney, Giada; Advanced Technology Large Aperture Space Telescope Science Team, Exoplanet Climate Group

    2016-01-01

    In this presentation, we will estimate the yield for a diversity of planets from future space-based flagship telescopes. We first divvy up planets into categories that are based on current observables, and that should impact the spectra we hope to observe in the future. The two main classification parameters we use here are the size of a planet and the energy flux into the planet's atmosphere. These two parameters are measureable or inferable from present-day observations, and should have a strong influence on future spectroscopy observations from JWST, WFIRST (with a coronagraph and/or starshade), and concept flagship missions that would fly some time after WFIRST. This allows us to calculate "ηplanet" values for each kind of planet. These η values then allow calculations of the expected yields from direct imaging missions, by leveraging the models and prior work by Stark and colleagues (2014, 2015). That work estimated the yields for potentially Earth-like worlds (i.e. of a size and stellar irradiation consistent with definitions of the habitable zone) for telescopes with a variety of observational parameters. We will do the same thing here, but for a wider variety of planets. This will allow us to discuss the implications of architecture and instrument properties on the diversity of worlds that future direct imaging missions would observe.

  8. Synthesis of Findings, Current Investigations, and Future Directions: Operation Brain Trauma Therapy.

    PubMed

    Kochanek, Patrick M; Bramlett, Helen M; Shear, Deborah A; Dixon, C Edward; Mondello, Stefania; Dietrich, W Dalton; Hayes, Ronald L; Wang, Kevin K W; Poloyac, Samuel M; Empey, Philip E; Povlishock, John T; Mountney, Andrea; Browning, Megan; Deng-Bryant, Ying; Yan, Hong Q; Jackson, Travis C; Catania, Michael; Glushakova, Olena; Richieri, Steven P; Tortella, Frank C

    2016-03-15

    Operation Brain Trauma Therapy (OBTT) is a fully operational, rigorous, and productive multicenter, pre-clinical drug and circulating biomarker screening consortium for the field of traumatic brain injury (TBI). In this article, we synthesize the findings from the first five therapies tested by OBTT and discuss both the current work that is ongoing and potential future directions. Based on the results generated from the first five therapies tested within the exacting approach used by OBTT, four (nicotinamide, erythropoietin, cyclosporine A, and simvastatin) performed below or well below what was expected based on the published literature. OBTT has identified, however, the early post-TBI administration of levetiracetam as a promising agent and has advanced it to a gyrencephalic large animal model--fluid percussion injury in micropigs. The sixth and seventh therapies have just completed testing (glibenclamide and Kollidon VA 64), and an eighth drug (AER 271) is in testing. Incorporation of circulating brain injury biomarker assessments into these pre-clinical studies suggests considerable potential for diagnostic and theranostic utility of glial fibrillary acidic protein in pre-clinical studies. Given the failures in clinical translation of therapies in TBI, rigorous multicenter, pre-clinical approaches to therapeutic screening such as OBTT may be important for the ultimate translation of therapies to the human condition. PMID:26671284

  9. Synthesis of Findings, Current Investigations, and Future Directions: Operation Brain Trauma Therapy.

    PubMed

    Kochanek, Patrick M; Bramlett, Helen M; Shear, Deborah A; Dixon, C Edward; Mondello, Stefania; Dietrich, W Dalton; Hayes, Ronald L; Wang, Kevin K W; Poloyac, Samuel M; Empey, Philip E; Povlishock, John T; Mountney, Andrea; Browning, Megan; Deng-Bryant, Ying; Yan, Hong Q; Jackson, Travis C; Catania, Michael; Glushakova, Olena; Richieri, Steven P; Tortella, Frank C

    2016-03-15

    Operation Brain Trauma Therapy (OBTT) is a fully operational, rigorous, and productive multicenter, pre-clinical drug and circulating biomarker screening consortium for the field of traumatic brain injury (TBI). In this article, we synthesize the findings from the first five therapies tested by OBTT and discuss both the current work that is ongoing and potential future directions. Based on the results generated from the first five therapies tested within the exacting approach used by OBTT, four (nicotinamide, erythropoietin, cyclosporine A, and simvastatin) performed below or well below what was expected based on the published literature. OBTT has identified, however, the early post-TBI administration of levetiracetam as a promising agent and has advanced it to a gyrencephalic large animal model--fluid percussion injury in micropigs. The sixth and seventh therapies have just completed testing (glibenclamide and Kollidon VA 64), and an eighth drug (AER 271) is in testing. Incorporation of circulating brain injury biomarker assessments into these pre-clinical studies suggests considerable potential for diagnostic and theranostic utility of glial fibrillary acidic protein in pre-clinical studies. Given the failures in clinical translation of therapies in TBI, rigorous multicenter, pre-clinical approaches to therapeutic screening such as OBTT may be important for the ultimate translation of therapies to the human condition.

  10. Stem cell technology for tendon regeneration: current status, challenges, and future research directions

    PubMed Central

    Lui, Pauline Po Yee

    2015-01-01

    Tendon injuries are a common cause of physical disability. They present a clinical challenge to orthopedic surgeons because injured tendons respond poorly to current treatments without tissue regeneration and the time required for rehabilitation is long. New treatment options are required. Stem cell-based therapies offer great potential to promote tendon regeneration due to their high proliferative, synthetic, and immunomodulatory activities as well as their potential to differentiate to the target cell types and undergo genetic modification. In this review, I first recapped the challenges of tendon repair by reviewing the anatomy of tendon. Next, I discussed the advantages and limitations of using different types of stem cells compared to terminally differentiated cells for tendon tissue engineering. The safety and efficacy of application of stem cells and their modified counterparts for tendon tissue engineering were then summarized after a systematic literature search in PubMed. The challenges and future research directions to enhance, optimize, and standardize stem cell-based therapies for augmenting tendon repair were then discussed. PMID:26715856

  11. The ReaxFF reactive force-field: Development, applications, and future directions

    DOE PAGES

    Senftle, Thomas; Hong, Sungwook; Islam, Md Mahbubul; Kylasa, Sudhir; Zheng, Yuanzia; Shin, Yun Kyung; Junkermeier, Chad; Engel-Herbert, Roman; Janik, Michael J.; Aktulga, Hasan Metin; et al

    2016-03-04

    The reactive force-field (ReaxFF) interatomic potential is a powerful computational tool for exploring, developing and optimizing material properties. Methods based on the principles of quantum mechanics (QM), while offering valuable theoretical guidance at the electronic level, are often too computationally intense for simulations that consider the full dynamic evolution of a system. Alternatively, empirical interatomic potentials that are based on classical principles require significantly fewer computational resources, which enables simulations to better describe dynamic processes over longer timeframes and on larger scales. Such methods, however, typically require a predefined connectivity between atoms, precluding simulations that involve reactive events. The ReaxFFmore » method was developed to help bridge this gap. Approaching the gap from the classical side, ReaxFF casts the empirical interatomic potential within a bond-order formalism, thus implicitly describing chemical bonding without expensive QM calculations. As a result, this article provides an overview of the development, application, and future directions of the ReaxFF method.« less

  12. Cigarette Smoking Practices among American College Students: Review and Future Directions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patterson, Freda; Lerman, Caryn; Kaufmann, Vyga G.; Neuner, Geoffrey A.; Audrain-McGovern, Janet

    2004-01-01

    Cigarette smoking among college students is a critical public health problem. In this article, the authors review available research on cigarette smoking practices among college students and suggest directions for future research. Studies show that smoking by college students is associated with being White, living in housing where smoking is…

  13. Behavioral and Cognitive-Behavioral Approaches to Chronic Pain: Recent Advances and Future Directions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keefe, Francis J.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Reviews and highlights recent research advances and future research directions concerned with behavioral and cognitive-behavioral approaches to chronic pain. Reviews assessment research on studies of social context of pain, relationship of chronic pain to depression, cognitive variables affecting pain, and comprehensive assessment measures.…

  14. Future Directions in Etiologic, Prevention, and Treatment Research for Eating Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stice, Eric; South, Kelsey; Shaw, Heather

    2012-01-01

    Significant advances have occurred regarding the understanding of etiologic processes that give rise to eating disorders and the design and evaluation of efficacious prevention programs and treatment interventions. Herein we offer suggestions regarding potentially fruitful directions for future research in these areas. We suggest it would be…

  15. Future directions for probing two and three nucleon short-range correlations at high energies

    SciTech Connect

    Frankfurt, Leonid; Sargsian, Misak; Strikman, Mark

    2008-10-13

    We summarize recent progress in the studies of the short-rang correlations (SRC) in nuclei in high energy electron and hadron nucleus scattering and suggest directions for the future high energy studies aimed at establishing detailed structure of two-nucleon SRCs, revealing structure of three nucleon SRC correlations and discovering non-nucleonic degrees of freedom in nuclei.

  16. Teaching and Learning Vocabulary in a Second Language: Past, Present and Future Directions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maiguashca, Raffaella Uslenghi

    1993-01-01

    In a review of two decades of vocabulary research, it is noted that vocabulary has moved from "poor relation" to "guest of honor" status in language teaching. Research areas include specialized bibliographies, vocabulary acquisition, vocabulary teaching, course materials, and lexicography. Future research directions are suggested, including…

  17. Early Childhood Inclusion in the United States: Goals, Current Status, and Future Directions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guralnick, Michael J.; Bruder, Mary Beth

    2016-01-01

    The current status and future directions of early childhood inclusion in the United States are discussed from the perspective of 4 key goals: access, accommodations and feasibility, developmental progress, and social integration. Recommendations are put forward to promote inclusion goals emphasizing administrative structures, personnel…

  18. A global model simulation of present and future nitrate aerosols and their direct radiative forcing of climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hauglustaine, D. A.; Balkanski, Y.; Schulz, M.

    2014-03-01

    The ammonia cycle and nitrate particle formation have been introduced in the LMDz-INCA global model. Both fine nitrate particles formation in the accumulation mode and coarse nitrate forming on existing dust and sea-salt particles are considered. The model simulates distributions of nitrates and related species in agreement with previous studies and observations. The calculated present-day total nitrate direct radiative forcing since the pre-industrial is -0.056 W m-2. This forcing has the same magnitude than the forcing associated with organic carbon particles and represents 18% of the sulfate forcing. Fine particles largely dominate the nitrate forcing representing close to 90% of this value. The model has been used to investigate the future changes in nitrates and direct radiative forcing of climate based on snapshot simulations for the four Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) scenarios and for the 2030, 2050 and 2100 time horizons. Due to a decrease in fossil fuel emissions in the future, the concentrations of most of the species involved in the nitrate-ammonium-sulfate system drop by 2100 except for ammonia which originates from agricultural practices and for which emissions significantly increase in the future. Despite the decrease of nitrate surface levels in Europe and Northern America, the global burden of accumulation mode nitrates increases by up to a factor of 2.6 in 2100. This increase in nitrate in the future arises despite decreasing NOx emissions due to increased availability of ammonia to form ammonium nitrate. The total aerosol direct forcing decreases from its present-day value of -0.234 W m-2 to a range of -0.070 to -0.130 W m-2 in 2100 based on the considered scenario. The direct forcing decreases for all aerosols except for nitrates for which the direct negative forcing increases to a range of -0.060 to -0.115 W m-2 in 2100. Including nitrates in the radiative forcing calculations increases the total direct forcing of aerosols by a

  19. Assessment and measurement of head and neck lymphedema: state-of-the-science and future directions.

    PubMed

    Deng, Jie; Ridner, Sheila H; Aulino, Joseph M; Murphy, Barbara A

    2015-05-01

    Currently, assessment and measurement of lymphedema in head and neck cancer patients is difficult. The aims of this report are to examine the current state of science regarding available measurement of head and neck lymphedema, to identify gaps in clinical evaluation of head and neck lymphedema, and to propose future research directions for advancing the assessment of head and neck lymphedema. The authors conducted a comprehensive literature review based on PubMed, CINAHL, Cochrane database, EMBASE, and PsycINFO from 1989 to 2014. Primary search terms included head and/or neck cancer, head and/or neck and/or face, lymphedema, edema, swelling, fibrosis, measurement, assessment, and evaluation. The authors also reviewed information from the Oncology Nursing Society, National Lymphedema Network, National Cancer Institute, American Cancer Society, and other related healthcare professional association web sites. Based on the nature/characteristics of measurement reported in the literature, methods for assessment of head and neck lymphedema can be categorized into: (1) patient-reported outcome (PRO) measures (e.g., symptom tool), (2) clinician-reported outcome (CRO) measures based on clinical grading criteria via a clinical exam (external lymphedema evaluation by physical examination and internal edema examination via endoscopy), and (3) technical capacity/measurement techniques (e.g., imaging techniques). Although a number of measures have been reported in the literature, clinically useful PRO and CRO measures, and reliable and sensitive measurement techniques need to be validated to address gaps in assessment of head and neck lymphedema, and to be easily used in early identification of lymphedema and assessment of treatment/interventional effects. PMID:25703799

  20. Spinal muscular atrophy: classification, diagnosis, management, pathogenesis, and future research directions.

    PubMed

    Kostova, Felina V; Williams, Virginia C; Heemskerk, Jill; Iannaccone, Susan; Didonato, Christine; Swoboda, Kathryn; Maria, Bernard L

    2007-08-01

    Spinal muscular atrophy is an autosomal recessive neurodegenerative disorder that affects the motor neurons responsible for movement of the proximal muscles of the trunk and body. To date, the disease can be classified into 3 main categories based on severity and age of onset. During the October 18th symposium held in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, researchers met to (1) describe current diagnostic strategies, (2) discuss recent thoughts on pathogenesis, (3) review current therapies and clinical trials, and (4) define future research directions. In her opening remarks, Dr Story Landis, director of the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, emphasized the degree to which the Neurobiology of Disease in Children conference series has broadened awareness of the many rare diseases affecting children, not only through the advancement of research but also by educating practitioners about diagnostic strategies. Dr Landis also discussed the role this conference may play in fostering research that seeks to develop a single mechanism of therapy for spinal muscular atrophy. She also discussed the current funding situation at the National Institutes of Health and addressed the crucial function of volunteer research organizations that sponsor research in further improving management of this condition. This article summarizes the presentations and includes the verbatim edited transcript of question-and-answer sessions.

  1. Cognitive training programs for childhood cancer patients and survivors: A critical review and future directions.

    PubMed

    Olson, Katie; Sands, Stephen A

    2016-01-01

    A robust literature has developed documenting neurocognitive late effects in survivors of leukemia and central nervous system (CNS) tumors, the most frequent cancer diagnoses of childhood. Patterns of late effects include deficits in attention and concentration, working memory, processing speed, and executive function, as well as other domains. As childhood cancer survivors are living longer, ameliorating deficits both in broad and specific neurocognitive domains has been increasingly recognized as an endeavor of paramount importance. Interventions to improve cognitive functioning were first applied to the field of pediatric oncology in the 1990s, based on strategies used effectively with adults who had sustained a traumatic brain injury (TBI). Compilation and modification of these techniques has led to the development of structured cognitive training programs, with the effectiveness and feasibility of such interventions currently an active area of research. Consequently, the purpose of this critical review is to: (1) review cognitive training programs intended to remediate or prevent neurocognitive deficits in pediatric cancer patients and survivors, (2) critically analyze training program strengths and weaknesses to inform practice, and (3) provide recommendations for future directions of clinical care and research.

  2. Cognitive training programs for childhood cancer patients and survivors: A critical review and future directions.

    PubMed

    Olson, Katie; Sands, Stephen A

    2016-01-01

    A robust literature has developed documenting neurocognitive late effects in survivors of leukemia and central nervous system (CNS) tumors, the most frequent cancer diagnoses of childhood. Patterns of late effects include deficits in attention and concentration, working memory, processing speed, and executive function, as well as other domains. As childhood cancer survivors are living longer, ameliorating deficits both in broad and specific neurocognitive domains has been increasingly recognized as an endeavor of paramount importance. Interventions to improve cognitive functioning were first applied to the field of pediatric oncology in the 1990s, based on strategies used effectively with adults who had sustained a traumatic brain injury (TBI). Compilation and modification of these techniques has led to the development of structured cognitive training programs, with the effectiveness and feasibility of such interventions currently an active area of research. Consequently, the purpose of this critical review is to: (1) review cognitive training programs intended to remediate or prevent neurocognitive deficits in pediatric cancer patients and survivors, (2) critically analyze training program strengths and weaknesses to inform practice, and (3) provide recommendations for future directions of clinical care and research. PMID:26070928

  3. Enhancement of Psychosocial Treatment With D-Cycloserine: Models, Moderators, and Future Directions.

    PubMed

    Otto, Michael W; Kredlow, M Alexandra; Smits, Jasper A J; Hofmann, Stefan G; Tolin, David F; de Kleine, Rianne A; van Minnen, Agnes; Evins, A Eden; Pollack, Mark H

    2016-08-15

    Advances in the understanding of the neurobiology of fear extinction have resulted in the development of d-cycloserine (DCS), a partial glutamatergic N-methyl-D-aspartate agonist, as an augmentation strategy for exposure treatment. We review a decade of research that has focused on the efficacy of DCS for augmenting the mechanisms (e.g., fear extinction) and outcome of exposure treatment across the anxiety disorders. Following a series of small-scale studies offering strong support for this clinical application, more recent larger-scale studies have yielded mixed results, with some showing weak or no effects. We discuss possible explanations for the mixed findings, pointing to both patient and session (i.e., learning experiences) characteristics as possible moderators of efficacy, and offer directions for future research in this area. We also review recent studies that have aimed to extend the work on DCS augmentation of exposure therapy for the anxiety disorders to DCS enhancement of learning-based interventions for addiction, anorexia nervosa, schizophrenia, and depression. Here, we attend to both DCS effects on facilitating therapeutic outcomes and additional therapeutic mechanisms beyond fear extinction (e.g., appetitive extinction, hippocampal-dependent learning).

  4. Trail formation based on directed pheromone deposition.

    PubMed

    Boissard, Emmanuel; Degond, Pierre; Motsch, Sebastien

    2013-05-01

    We propose an Individual-Based Model of ant-trail formation. The ants are modeled as self-propelled particles which deposit directed pheromone particles and interact with them through alignment interaction. The directed pheromone particles intend to model pieces of trails, while the alignment interaction translates the tendency for an ant to follow a trail when it meets it. Thanks to adequate quantitative descriptors of the trail patterns, the existence of a phase transition as the ant-pheromone interaction frequency is increased can be evidenced. We propose both kinetic and fluid descriptions of this model and analyze the capabilities of the fluid model to develop trail patterns. We observe that the development of patterns by fluid models require extra trail amplification mechanisms that are not needed at the Individual-Based Model level. PMID:22526837

  5. Regional analysis of drought and heat impacts on forests: current and future science directions.

    PubMed

    Law, Beverly E

    2014-12-01

    Accurate assessments of forest response to current and future climate and human actions are needed at regional scales. Predicting future impacts on forests will require improved analysis of species-level adaptation, resilience, and vulnerability to mortality. Land system models can be enhanced by creating trait-based groupings of species that better represent climate sensitivity, such as risk of hydraulic failure from drought. This emphasizes the need for more coordinated in situ and remote sensing observations to track changes in ecosystem function, and to improve model inputs, spatio-temporal diagnosis, and predictions of future conditions, including implications of actions to mitigate climate change.

  6. Dynamics-based centrality for directed networks.

    PubMed

    Masuda, Naoki; Kori, Hiroshi

    2010-11-01

    Determining the relative importance of nodes in directed networks is important in, for example, ranking websites, publications, and sports teams, and for understanding signal flows in systems biology. A prevailing centrality measure in this respect is the PageRank. In this work, we focus on another class of centrality derived from the Laplacian of the network. We extend the Laplacian-based centrality, which has mainly been applied to strongly connected networks, to the case of general directed networks such that we can quantitatively compare arbitrary nodes. Toward this end, we adopt the idea used in the PageRank to introduce global connectivity between all the pairs of nodes with a certain strength. Numerical simulations are carried out on some networks. We also offer interpretations of the Laplacian-based centrality for general directed networks in terms of various dynamical and structural properties of networks. Importantly, the Laplacian-based centrality defined as the stationary density of the continuous-time random walk with random jumps is shown to be equivalent to the absorption probability of the random walk with sinks at each node but without random jumps. Similarly, the proposed centrality represents the importance of nodes in dynamics on the original network supplied with sinks but not with random jumps.

  7. Dynamics-based centrality for directed networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masuda, Naoki; Kori, Hiroshi

    2010-11-01

    Determining the relative importance of nodes in directed networks is important in, for example, ranking websites, publications, and sports teams, and for understanding signal flows in systems biology. A prevailing centrality measure in this respect is the PageRank. In this work, we focus on another class of centrality derived from the Laplacian of the network. We extend the Laplacian-based centrality, which has mainly been applied to strongly connected networks, to the case of general directed networks such that we can quantitatively compare arbitrary nodes. Toward this end, we adopt the idea used in the PageRank to introduce global connectivity between all the pairs of nodes with a certain strength. Numerical simulations are carried out on some networks. We also offer interpretations of the Laplacian-based centrality for general directed networks in terms of various dynamical and structural properties of networks. Importantly, the Laplacian-based centrality defined as the stationary density of the continuous-time random walk with random jumps is shown to be equivalent to the absorption probability of the random walk with sinks at each node but without random jumps. Similarly, the proposed centrality represents the importance of nodes in dynamics on the original network supplied with sinks but not with random jumps.

  8. Directed Nanoscale Assembly of Graphene Based Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Sang Ouk

    Graphene based materials, including fullerene, carbon nanotubes and graphene, are two-dimensional polymeric materials consisting of sp2 hybrid carbons. Those carbon materials have attracted enormous research attention for their outstanding material properties along with molecular scale dimension. The optimized utilization of those materials in various application fields inevitably requires the subtle controllability of their structures and properties. In this presentation, our research achievements associated to directed nanoscale assembly of B- or N-doped graphene based materials will be introduced. Graphene based materials can be efficiently processed into various three-dimensional structures via self-assembly principles. Those carbon assembled structures with extremely large surface and high electro-conductivity are potentially useful for energy and environmental applications. Aqueous dispersion of graphene oxide shows liquid crystalline phase, whose spontaneous molecular ordering is useful for display or fiber spinning. Along with the structure control by directed nanoscale assembly, substitutional doping of graphene based materials with B- or N- can be attained via various chemical treatment methods. The resultant chemically modified carbon materials with tunable workfunction, charge carrier density and enhanced surface activity could be employed for various nanomaterials and nanodevices for improved functionalities and performances.

  9. Allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplant for acute myeloid leukemia: Current state in 2013 and future directions

    PubMed Central

    Kanate, Abraham S; Pasquini, Marcelo C; Hari, Parameswaran N; Hamadani, Mehdi

    2014-01-01

    Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) represents a heterogeneous group of high-grade myeloid neoplasms of the elderly with variable outcomes. Though remission-induction is an important first step in the management of AML, additional treatment strategies are essential to ensure long-term disease-free survival. Recent pivotal advances in understanding the genetics and molecular biology of AML have allowed for a risk-adapted approach in its management based on relapse-risk. Allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (allo-HCT) represents an effective therapeutic strategy in AML providing the possibility of cure with potent graft-versus-leukemia reactions, with a demonstrable survival advantage in younger patients with intermediate- or poor-risk cytogenetics. Herein we review the published data regarding the role of allo-HCT in adults with AML. We searched MEDLINE/PubMed and EMBASE/Ovid. In addition, we searched reference lists of relevant articles, conference proceedings and ongoing trial databases. We discuss the role of allo-HCT in AML patients stratified by cytogenetic- and molecular-risk in first complete remission, as well as allo-HCT as an option in relapsed/refractory AML. Besides the conventional sibling and unrelated donor allografts, we review the available data and recent advances for alternative donor sources such as haploidentical grafts and umbilical cord blood. We also discuss conditioning regimens, including reduced intensity conditioning which has broadened the applicability of allo-HCT. Finally we explore recent advances and future possibilities and directions of allo-HCT in AML. Practical therapeutic recommendations have been made where possible based on available data and expert opinion. PMID:24772235

  10. Promising Fuel Cycle Options for R&D – Results, Insights, and Future Directions

    SciTech Connect

    Wigeland, Roald Arnold

    2015-05-01

    The Fuel Cycle Options (FCO) campaign in the U.S. DOE Fuel Cycle Research & Development Program conducted a detailed evaluation and screening of nuclear fuel cycles. The process for this study was described at the 2014 ICAPP meeting. This paper reports on detailed insights and questions from the results of the study. The comprehensive study identified continuous recycle in fast reactors as the most promising option, using either U/Pu or U/TRU recycle, and potentially in combination with thermal reactors, as reported at the ICAPP 2014 meeting. This paper describes the examination of the results in detail that indicated that there was essentially no difference in benefit between U/Pu and U/TRU recycle, prompting questions about the desirability of pursuing the more complex U/TRU approach given that the estimated greater challenges for development and deployment. The results will be reported from the current effort that further explores what, if any, benefits of TRU recycle (minor actinides in addition to plutonium recycle) may be in order to inform decisions on future R&D directions. The study also identified continuous recycle using thorium-based fuel cycles as potentially promising, in either fast or thermal systems, but with lesser benefit. Detailed examination of these results indicated that the lesser benefit was confined to only a few of the evaluation metrics, identifying the conditions under which thorium-based fuel cycles would be promising to pursue. For the most promising fuel cycles, the FCO is also conducting analyses on the potential transition to such fuel cycles to identify the issues, challenges, and the timing for critical decisions that would need to be made to avoid unnecessary delay in deployment, including investigation of issues such as the effects of a temporary lack of plutonium fuel resources or supporting infrastructure. These studies are placed in the context of an overall analysis approach designed to provide comprehensive information to

  11. Perceptual accuracy of upper airway compromise in children: Clinical relevance and future directions for research

    PubMed Central

    Esteban, Cynthia; Kopel, Sheryl J.; Jandasek, Barbara; Dansereau, Katie; Fritz, Gregory K.; Klein, Robert B.

    2013-01-01

    Approximately 80% of children with asthma have coexisting allergic rhinitis. The accurate recognition and assessment of asthma and rhinitis symptoms is an integral component of guideline-based treatment for both conditions. This article describes the development and preliminary evaluation of a novel paradigm for testing the accuracy of children's assessment of their upper airway (rhinitis) symptoms. This work is guided by our previous research showing the clinical efficacy of tools to evaluate children's perceptual accuracy of asthma symptoms and linking accurate asthma symptom perception to decreased asthma morbidity (Fritz G, et al., Ethnic differences in perception of lung function: A factor in pediatric asthma disparities? Am J Respir Crit Care Med 182:12–18, 2010; Klein RB, et al., The Asthma Risk Grid: Clinical interpretation of symptom perception, Allergy Asthma Proc 251–256, 2004). The pilot study tests a paradigm that allows for the examination of the correspondence of children's assessment of their upper airway functioning with actual values of upper airway flow through the use of a portable, handheld nasal peak flowmeter. Nine children with persistent asthma were evaluated over a 4-week period. The article describes the rhinitis perceptual accuracy paradigm and reviews the results of a pilot study, showing a large proportion of inaccurate rhinitis symptoms “guesses” by the sample of children with persistent asthma. Patterns of inaccuracy, rhinitis control, and asthma morbidity are also described. Directions for future work are reviewed. The development of clinical tools to evaluate children's accuracy of rhinitis symptoms are needed, given the central role of the self-assessment of symptoms in guideline-based care. Accurate perception of the severity of rhinitis symptoms may enhance rhinitis control, lessen the burden of asthma, and prevent unnecessary emergency use among this high-risk group of children. PMID:24124637

  12. Future directions for IPPNW. International Physicians for the Prevention of Nuclear War.

    PubMed

    Ashford, M W

    2000-01-01

    This paper is offered as my personal reflections for future directions of International Physicians for the Prevention of Nuclear War. The deep discussions that surrounded the war in Kosovo and Serbia have led me to examine some of the issues that confront IPPNW today in a different light. Rather than cataloguing all the work of IPPNW and the future steps in each, I focus on areas where we have a new opportunity, a new challenge, or a difficult decision to make in choosing a strategic direction for IPPNW. After a brief summary of our history and principles, I address the new challenges within IPPNW's triangle of concern--disarmament, environment and development. I then outline a series of strategies that have been proposed to advance our goals. Finally, I raise other issues that seem to warrant further discussion and policy development.

  13. Particle-based methods for multiscale modeling of blood flow in the circulation and in devices: challenges and future directions. Sixth International Bio-Fluid Mechanics Symposium and Workshop March 28-30, 2008 Pasadena, California.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Takami; Ishikawa, Takuji; Imai, Y; Matsuki, N; Xenos, Mikhail; Deng, Yuefan; Bluestein, Danny

    2010-03-01

    A major computational challenge for a multiscale modeling is the coupling of disparate length and timescales between molecular mechanics and macroscopic transport, spanning the spatial and temporal scales characterizing the complex processes taking place in flow-induced blood clotting. Flow and pressure effects on a cell-like platelet can be well represented by a continuum mechanics model down to the order of the micrometer level. However, the molecular effects of adhesion/aggregation bonds are on the order of nanometer. A successful multiscale model of platelet response to flow stresses in devices and the ensuing clotting responses should be able to characterize the clotting reactions and their interactions with the flow. This paper attempts to describe a few of the computational methods that were developed in recent years and became available to researchers in the field. They differ from traditional approaches that dominate the field by expanding on prevailing continuum-based approaches, or by completely departing from them, yielding an expanding toolkit that may facilitate further elucidation of the underlying mechanisms of blood flow and the cellular response to it. We offer a paradigm shift by adopting a multidisciplinary approach with fluid dynamics simulations coupled to biophysical and biochemical transport.

  14. Polymer – drug conjugates: Origins, progress to date and future directions

    PubMed Central

    Kopeček, Jindřich

    2012-01-01

    This overview focuses on bioconjugates of water-soluble polymers with low molecular weight drugs and proteins. After a short discussion of the origins of the field, the state-of-the-art is reviewed. Then research directions needed for the acceleration of the translation of nanomedicines into the clinic are outlined. Two most important directions, synthesis of backbone degradable polymer carriers and drug-free macromolecular therapeutics, a new paradigm in drug delivery, are discussed in detail. Finally, the future perspectives of the field are briefly discussed. PMID:23123294

  15. Non-Invasive Brain Stimulation for Treatment of Focal Hand Dystonia: Update and Future Direction

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Hyun Joo; Hallett, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Focal hand dystonia (FHD) is characterized by excessive and unwanted muscle activation in both the hand and arm resulting in impaired performance in particular tasks. Understanding the pathophysiology of FHD has progressed significantly for several decades and this has led to consideration of other potential therapies such as non-invasive brain stimulation (NIBS). A number of studies have been conducted to develop new therapy for FHD using transcranial magnetic stimulation and transcranial direct current stimulation. In this paper, we review previous studies and describe the potential therapeutic use of NIBS for FHD. We also discuss the future direction of NIBS to treat FHD. PMID:27240806

  16. Minimizing metabolic activation during pharmaceutical lead optimization: progress, knowledge gaps and future directions.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Sanjeev; Kassahun, Kelem; Tschirret-Guth, Richard A; Mitra, Kaushik; Baillie, Thomas A

    2008-01-01

    Minimizing the potential for drug candidates to form chemically reactive metabolites that can covalently modify cellular macromolecules represents a rational strategy to reduce the risk of drug-induced idiosyncratic toxicity in humans. In this review, the approaches that are currently available for addressing this issue during the lead optimization phase of drug discovery, their limitations, and future scientific directions that have the potential to address these limitations are discussed.

  17. Saliency-based gaze prediction based on head direction.

    PubMed

    Nakashima, Ryoichi; Fang, Yu; Hatori, Yasuhiro; Hiratani, Akinori; Matsumiya, Kazumichi; Kuriki, Ichiro; Shioiri, Satoshi

    2015-12-01

    Despite decades of attempts to create a model for predicting gaze locations by using saliency maps, a highly accurate gaze prediction model for general conditions has yet to be devised. In this study, we propose a gaze prediction method based on head direction that can improve the accuracy of any model. We used a probability distribution of eye position based on head direction (static eye-head coordination) and added this information to a model of saliency-based visual attention. Using empirical data on eye and head directions while observers were viewing natural scenes, we estimated a probability distribution of eye position. We then combined the relationship between eye position and head direction with visual saliency to predict gaze locations. The model showed that information on head direction improved the prediction accuracy. Further, there was no difference in the gaze prediction accuracy between the two models using information on head direction with and without eye-head coordination. Therefore, information on head direction is useful for predicting gaze location when it is available. Furthermore, this gaze prediction model can be applied relatively easily to many daily situations such as during walking.

  18. A Critical Appraisal of Recent Advances and Future Directions in Value Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fong, Patrick Sik-Wah

    2004-01-01

    At present, value management (VM) is struggling to survive amidst other management fads. The problem is that it is still not recognized as a professional or academic discipline. There is no sound academic base and a lack of understanding by the public, owners and corporate organizations. The future survival of VM is therefore always being…

  19. Inactivated and subunit vaccines against porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome: Current status and future direction.

    PubMed

    Renukaradhya, Gourapura J; Meng, Xiang-Jin; Calvert, Jay G; Roof, Michael; Lager, Kelly M

    2015-06-17

    Within a few years of its emergence in the late 1980s, the PRRS virus had spread globally to become the foremost infectious disease concern for the pork industry. Since 1994, modified live-attenuated vaccines against porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV-MLV) have been widely used, but have failed to provide complete protection against emerging and heterologous field strains of the virus. Moreover, like many other MLVs, PRRSV-MLVs have safety concerns including vertical and horizontal transmission of the vaccine virus and several documented incidences of reversion to virulence. Thus, the development of efficacious inactivated vaccines is warranted for the control and eradication of PRRS. Since the early 1990s, researchers have been attempting to develop inactivated PRRSV vaccines, but most of the candidates have failed to elicit protective immunity even against homologous virus challenge. Recent research findings relating to both inactivated and subunit candidate PRRSV vaccines have shown promise, but they need to be pursued further to improve their heterologous efficacy and cost-effectiveness before considering commercialization. In this comprehensive review, we provide information on attempts to develop PRRSV inactivated and subunit vaccines. These includes various virus inactivation strategies, adjuvants, nanoparticle-based vaccine delivery systems, DNA vaccines, and recombinant subunit vaccines produced using baculovirus, plant, and replication-deficient viruses as vector vaccines. Finally, future directions for the development of innovative non-infectious PRRSV vaccines are suggested. Undoubtedly there remains a need for novel PRRSV vaccine strategies targeted to deliver cross-protective, non-infectious vaccines for the control and eradication of PRRS.

  20. Real-time nutrient monitoring in rivers: adaptive sampling strategies, technological challenges and future directions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blaen, Phillip; Khamis, Kieran; Lloyd, Charlotte; Bradley, Chris

    2016-04-01

    Excessive nutrient concentrations in river waters threaten aquatic ecosystem functioning and can pose substantial risks to human health. Robust monitoring strategies are therefore required to generate reliable estimates of river nutrient loads and to improve understanding of the catchment processes that drive spatiotemporal patterns in nutrient fluxes. Furthermore, these data are vital for prediction of future trends under changing environmental conditions and thus the development of appropriate mitigation measures. In recent years, technological developments have led to an increase in the use of continuous in-situ nutrient analysers, which enable measurements at far higher temporal resolutions than can be achieved with discrete sampling and subsequent laboratory analysis. However, such instruments can be costly to run and difficult to maintain (e.g. due to high power consumption and memory requirements), leading to trade-offs between temporal and spatial monitoring resolutions. Here, we highlight how adaptive monitoring strategies, comprising a mixture of temporal sample frequencies controlled by one or more 'trigger variables' (e.g. river stage, turbidity, or nutrient concentration), can advance our understanding of catchment nutrient dynamics while simultaneously overcoming many of the practical and economic challenges encountered in typical in-situ river nutrient monitoring applications. We present examples of short-term variability in river nutrient dynamics, driven by complex catchment behaviour, which support our case for the development of monitoring systems that can adapt in real-time to rapid environmental changes. In addition, we discuss the advantages and disadvantages of current nutrient monitoring techniques, and suggest new research directions based on emerging technologies and highlight how these might improve: 1) monitoring strategies, and 2) understanding of linkages between catchment processes and river nutrient fluxes.

  1. Inactivated and subunit vaccines against porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome: Current status and future direction.

    PubMed

    Renukaradhya, Gourapura J; Meng, Xiang-Jin; Calvert, Jay G; Roof, Michael; Lager, Kelly M

    2015-06-17

    Within a few years of its emergence in the late 1980s, the PRRS virus had spread globally to become the foremost infectious disease concern for the pork industry. Since 1994, modified live-attenuated vaccines against porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV-MLV) have been widely used, but have failed to provide complete protection against emerging and heterologous field strains of the virus. Moreover, like many other MLVs, PRRSV-MLVs have safety concerns including vertical and horizontal transmission of the vaccine virus and several documented incidences of reversion to virulence. Thus, the development of efficacious inactivated vaccines is warranted for the control and eradication of PRRS. Since the early 1990s, researchers have been attempting to develop inactivated PRRSV vaccines, but most of the candidates have failed to elicit protective immunity even against homologous virus challenge. Recent research findings relating to both inactivated and subunit candidate PRRSV vaccines have shown promise, but they need to be pursued further to improve their heterologous efficacy and cost-effectiveness before considering commercialization. In this comprehensive review, we provide information on attempts to develop PRRSV inactivated and subunit vaccines. These includes various virus inactivation strategies, adjuvants, nanoparticle-based vaccine delivery systems, DNA vaccines, and recombinant subunit vaccines produced using baculovirus, plant, and replication-deficient viruses as vector vaccines. Finally, future directions for the development of innovative non-infectious PRRSV vaccines are suggested. Undoubtedly there remains a need for novel PRRSV vaccine strategies targeted to deliver cross-protective, non-infectious vaccines for the control and eradication of PRRS. PMID:25980425

  2. The Future of Age-Based Public Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hudson, Robert B.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    This issue deals with the future of an age-based public policy. Articles discuss the history of age-based public policy; the competing bases for benefits; population dynamics; Social Security, Medicaid, and Medicare; employer policies; and local and state policies. Describes California's Linkages Program. (JOW)

  3. Future directions of C3 research at DARPA (Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perry, D. G.; Dahmann, J. S.

    Research into C3 related problems is a major effort of the Information Science and Technology Office of the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency. The major thrusts of projects are in the area of future, high-risk efforts, often resulting in the development of a conceptual model or prototype. Some of these prototypes are then further developed to provide an infrastructure for future research. The programs can be divided into two groups: base technology research programs and testbed programs. The testbeds provide a focus for the technology programs.

  4. The developmental psychopathology of alcohol use and alcohol disorders: Research achievements and future directions

    PubMed Central

    CHASSIN, LAURIE; SHER, KENNETH J.; HUSSONG, ANDREA; CURRAN, PATRICK

    2013-01-01

    The last 25 years have seen significant advances in our conceptualization of alcohol use and alcohol use disorders within a developmental framework, along with advances in our empirical understanding that have been potentiated by advances in quantitative methods. These include advances in understanding the heterogeneity of trajectories of alcohol outcomes; new insights about early childhood antecedents, and adolescence and emerging adulthood as important developmental periods for alcohol outcomes; a more nuanced understanding of the influences of developmental transitions, and their timing and contexts; a greater appreciation for the importance of considering multiple levels of analysis (including an increasing number of genetically informative studies); a continuing focus on studying multiple pathways underlying alcohol outcomes; and an increasing focus on studying the effects of alcohol exposure on future development. The current paper reviews these advances and suggests directions for future study. PMID:24342856

  5. Workshop on future directions for plant research at NASA: a report.

    PubMed

    2004-01-01

    NASA's Fundamental Space Biology Division and the Advanced Human Support Technology Program convened a workshop in December 2003 [correction of 2004] at Kennedy Space Center, Florida, to chart future directions for plant research at NASA. The purpose of the workshop was to bring together key managers and principal investigators in NASA's plant research community as well as non-NASA funded researchers to formulate a strategy to guide future plant research for the Office of Biological and Physical Research (OBPR). Subsequent to the workshop, on Wednesday, January 14, 2004, President George W. Bush announced a proposal for NASA to go back to the moon and later send a manned mission to Mars. The following is a summary of workshop recommendations provided by the plant research community within the framework of the new exploration vision as set for by NASA.

  6. Workshop on future directions for plant research at NASA: a report.

    PubMed

    2004-01-01

    NASA's Fundamental Space Biology Division and the Advanced Human Support Technology Program convened a workshop in December 2003 [correction of 2004] at Kennedy Space Center, Florida, to chart future directions for plant research at NASA. The purpose of the workshop was to bring together key managers and principal investigators in NASA's plant research community as well as non-NASA funded researchers to formulate a strategy to guide future plant research for the Office of Biological and Physical Research (OBPR). Subsequent to the workshop, on Wednesday, January 14, 2004, President George W. Bush announced a proposal for NASA to go back to the moon and later send a manned mission to Mars. The following is a summary of workshop recommendations provided by the plant research community within the framework of the new exploration vision as set for by NASA. PMID:15880904

  7. A Review of Existing Relational Aggression Programs: Strengths, Limitations, and Future Directions

    PubMed Central

    Leff, Stephen S.; Waasdorp, Tracy Evian; Crick, Nicki R.

    2011-01-01

    Research suggests that involvement in relational aggression is associated with serious adjustment problems, including concurrent and future social maladjustment (e.g., problematic friendships; rejection), internalizing problems (e.g., depressive symptoms), and school avoidance. Despite the burgeoning literature focusing on the harmful and damaging nature of relationally aggressive behavior, this research has only recently begun to be used to inform school-based prevention and intervention programming. This article reviews the developmental research related to relational aggression and presents a systematic examination of nine published school-based prevention and intervention programs to prevent relational aggression. Programs reviewed target preschool through eighth-grade students. Strengths and limitations of each program are discussed. Recommendations are offered for future research to develop and validate school-based programming for relational aggression, and implications for school psychologists are discussed. PMID:21666876

  8. Radiation binary targeted therapy for HER-2 positive breast cancers: assumptions, theoretical assessment and future directions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mundy, Daniel W.; Harb, Wael; Jevremovic, Tatjana

    2006-03-01

    irradiation treatment facilities are examined for this application. The tumour boron concentrations and tumour to healthy tissue concentration ratios required to deliver 50 Gy-Eq to the tumour without exceeding 18 Gy-Eq in the skin are determined, as well as the associated therapeutic ratios. Discussion is provided to address the future research direction for assessing the feasibility of the proposed concept.

  9. Radiation binary targeted therapy for HER-2 positive breast cancers: assumptions, theoretical assessment and future directions.

    PubMed

    Mundy, Daniel W; Harb, Wael; Jevremovic, Tatjana

    2006-03-21

    irradiation treatment facilities are examined for this application. The tumour boron concentrations and tumour to healthy tissue concentration ratios required to deliver 50 Gy-Eq to the tumour without exceeding 18 Gy-Eq in the skin are determined, as well as the associated therapeutic ratios. Discussion is provided to address the future research direction for assessing the feasibility of the proposed concept.

  10. Innovative pacing: Recent advances, emerging technologies, and future directions in cardiac pacing.

    PubMed

    Austin, Christopher; Kusumoto, Fred

    2016-07-01

    The field of cardiovascular medicine is rapidly evolving as advancements in technology and engineering provide clinicians new and exciting ways to care for an aging population. Cardiac pacing, in particular, has seen a series of game-changing technologies emerge in the past several years spurred by low-power electronics, high density batteries, improved catheter delivery systems and innovative software design. We look at several of these emerging pacemaker technologies, discussing the rationale, current state and future directions of these pioneering developments in electrophysiology. PMID:27017442

  11. Current Needs and Future Directions of Occupational Safety and Heath in a Globalized World

    PubMed Central

    Perera, Frederica P.; Li, TY; Lin, C; Tang, Deliang; Gilbert, Steven G.; Kang, Seong-Kyu; Aschner, Michael

    2011-01-01

    This summary provides a synopsis of talks included in a symposium entitled “Current Needs and Future Directions of Occupational Safety and Heath in a Globalized World”. The purpose of the symposium was to (1) highlight national and international agencies with occupational health related activities; (2) address electronic (e-)waste issues in developing countries where exposures are secondary to the handling and scavenging of scrap; and (3) discuss the effects of hazardous materials, such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) and tobacco smoke on child intelligence quotient (IQ) in developing countries. PMID:22037493

  12. Inorganic chemistry in nuclear imaging and radiotherapy: current and future directions

    PubMed Central

    Carroll, Valerie; Demoin, Dustin W.; Hoffman, Timothy J; Jurisson, Silvia S

    2013-01-01

    Summary Radiometals play an important role in diagnostic and therapeutic radiopharmaceuticals. This field of radiochemistry is multidisciplinary, involving radiometal production, separation of the radiometal from its target, chelate design for complexing the radiometal in a biologically stable environment, specific targeting of the radiometal to its in vivo site, and nuclear imaging and/or radiotherapy applications of the resultant radiopharmaceutical. The critical importance of inorganic chemistry in the design and application of radiometal-containing imaging and therapy agents is described from a historical perspective to future directions. PMID:25382874

  13. Ethnic Minorities and Coronary Heart Disease: an Update and Future Directions.

    PubMed

    Leigh, J Adam; Alvarez, Manrique; Rodriguez, Carlos J

    2016-02-01

    Heart disease remains the leading cause of death in the USA. Overall, heart disease accounts for about 1 in 4 deaths with coronary heart disease (CHD) being responsible for over 370,000 deaths per year. It has frequently and repeatedly been shown that some minority groups in the USA have higher rates of traditional CHD risk factors, different rates of treatment with revascularization procedures, and excess morbidity and mortality from CHD when compared to the non-Hispanic white population. Numerous investigations have been made into the causes of these disparities. This review aims to highlight the recent literature which examines CHD in ethnic minorities and future directions in research and care.

  14. Tom Ten Have's contributions to causal inference and biostatistics: review and future research directions.

    PubMed

    Small, Dylan S; Joffe, Marshall M; Lynch, Kevin G; Roy, Jason A; Russell Localio, A

    2014-09-10

    Tom Ten Have made many contributions to causal inference and biostatistics before his untimely death. This paper reviews Tom's contributions and discusses potential related future research directions. We focus on Tom's contributions to longitudinal/repeated measures categorical data analysis and particularly his contributions to causal inference. Tom's work on causal inference was primarily in the areas of estimating the effect of receiving treatment in randomized trials with nonadherence and mediation analysis. A related area to mediation analysis he was working on at the time of his death was posttreatment effect modification with applications to designing adaptive treatment strategies.

  15. Schema therapy for bipolar disorder: a conceptual model and future directions.

    PubMed

    Hawke, Lisa D; Provencher, Martin D; Parikh, Sagar V

    2013-05-15

    Schema therapy (ST) is an integrative form of psychotherapy developed for complex, chronic psychological disorders with a characterlogical underpinning. Bipolar disorder is just such a disorder--complex and often comorbid, with demonstrated stable cognitive and personality features that complicate the course of illness. This article presents the reasons justifying the application of ST to bipolar disorder and proposes a treatment rationale and future directions for treatment and research. If well adapted to the characteristics of bipolar disorder, ST might prove to be an effective adjunctive psychotherapy option that attenuates emotional reactivity, reduces symptoms and improves quality of life.

  16. Review of numerical methods for simulation of the aortic root: Present and future directions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohammadi, Hossein; Cartier, Raymond; Mongrain, Rosaire

    2016-05-01

    Heart valvular disease is still one of the main causes of mortality and morbidity in develop countries. Numerical modeling has gained considerable attention in studying hemodynamic conditions associated with valve abnormalities. Simulating the large displacement of the valve in the course of the cardiac cycle needs a well-suited numerical method to capture the natural biomechanical phenomena which happens in the valve. The paper aims to review the principal progress of the numerical approaches for studying the hemodynamic of the aortic valve. In addition, the future directions of the current approaches as well as their potential clinical applications are discussed.

  17. Folic acid food fortification-its history, effect, concerns, and future directions.

    PubMed

    Crider, Krista S; Bailey, Lynn B; Berry, Robert J

    2011-03-01

    Periconceptional intake of folic acid is known to reduce a woman's risk of having an infant affected by a neural tube birth defect (NTD). National programs to mandate fortification of food with folic acid have reduced the prevalence of NTDs worldwide. Uncertainty surrounding possible unintended consequences has led to concerns about higher folic acid intake and food fortification programs. This uncertainty emphasizes the need to continually monitor fortification programs for accurate measures of their effect and the ability to address concerns as they arise. This review highlights the history, effect, concerns, and future directions of folic acid food fortification programs.

  18. Immunotherapy for cancer in the central nervous system: Current and future directions

    PubMed Central

    Binder, David C.; Davis, Andrew A.; Wainwright, Derek A.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most common primary brain tumor in adults and still remains incurable. Although immunotherapeutic vaccination against GBM has demonstrated immune-stimulating activity with some promising survival benefits, tumor relapse is common, highlighting the need for additional and/or combinatorial approaches. Recently, antibodies targeting immune checkpoints were demonstrated to generate impressive clinical responses against advanced melanoma and other malignancies, in addition to showing potential for enhancing vaccination and radiotherapy (RT). Here, we summarize the current knowledge of central nervous system (CNS) immunosuppression, evaluate past and current immunotherapeutic trials and discuss promising future immunotherapeutic directions to treat CNS-localized malignancies. PMID:27057463

  19. Current advances and future perspectives in extrusion-based bioprinting.

    PubMed

    Ozbolat, Ibrahim T; Hospodiuk, Monika

    2016-01-01

    Extrusion-based bioprinting (EBB) is a rapidly growing technology that has made substantial progress during the last decade. It has great versatility in printing various biologics, including cells, tissues, tissue constructs, organ modules and microfluidic devices, in applications from basic research and pharmaceutics to clinics. Despite the great benefits and flexibility in printing a wide range of bioinks, including tissue spheroids, tissue strands, cell pellets, decellularized matrix components, micro-carriers and cell-laden hydrogels, the technology currently faces several limitations and challenges. These include impediments to organ fabrication, the limited resolution of printed features, the need for advanced bioprinting solutions to transition the technology bench to bedside, the necessity of new bioink development for rapid, safe and sustainable delivery of cells in a biomimetically organized microenvironment, and regulatory concerns to transform the technology into a product. This paper, presenting a first-time comprehensive review of EBB, discusses the current advancements in EBB technology and highlights future directions to transform the technology to generate viable end products for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. PMID:26561931

  20. Cranial Neural Crest Cell Contribution to Craniofacial Formation, Pathology, and Future Directions in Tissue Engineering

    PubMed Central

    Snider, Taylor Nicholas; Mishina, Yuji

    2015-01-01

    This review provides an overview of the state and future directions of development and pathology in the craniofacial complex in the context of Cranial Neural Crest Cells (CNCC). CNCC are a multipotent cell population that is largely responsible for forming the vertebrate head. We focus on findings that have increased the knowledge of gene regulatory networks and molecular mechanisms governing CNCC migration and the participation of these cells in tissue formation. Pathology due to aberrant migration or cell death of CNCC, termed neurocristopathies, is discussed in addition to craniosynostoses. Finally, we discuss tissue engineering applications that take advantage of recent advancements in genome editing and the multipotent nature of CNCC. These applications have relevance to treating diseases due directly to the failure of CNCC, and also in restoring tissues lost due to a variety of reasons. PMID:25227212

  1. A global model simulation of present and future nitrate aerosols and their direct radiative forcing of climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hauglustaine, D. A.; Balkanski, Y.; Schulz, M.

    2014-10-01

    The ammonia cycle and nitrate particle formation are introduced into the LMDz-INCA (Laboratoire de Météorologie Dynamique, version 4 - INteraction with Chemistry and Aerosols, version 3) global model. An important aspect of this new model is that both fine nitrate particle formation in the accumulation mode and coarse nitrate forming on existing dust and sea-salt particles are considered. The model simulates distributions of nitrates and related species in agreement with previous studies and observations. The calculated present-day total nitrate direct radiative forcing since the pre-industrial is -0.056 W m-2. This forcing corresponds to 18% of the sulfate forcing. Fine particles largely dominate the nitrate forcing, representing close to 90% of this value. The model has been used to investigate the future changes in nitrates and direct radiative forcing of climate based on snapshot simulations for the four representative concentration pathway (RCP) scenarios and for the 2030, 2050, and 2100 time horizons. Due to a decrease in fossil fuel emissions in the future, the concentration of most of the species involved in the nitrate-ammonium-sulfate system drop by 2100 except for ammonia, which originates from agricultural practices and for which emissions significantly increase in the future. Despite the decrease of nitrate surface levels in Europe and North America, the global burden of accumulation mode nitrates increases by up to a factor of 2.6 in 2100. This increase in ammonium nitrate in the future arises despite decreasing NOx emissions due to increased availability of ammonia to form ammonium nitrate. The total aerosol direct forcing decreases from its present-day value of -0.234 W m-2 to a range of -0.070 to -0.130 W m-2 in 2100 based on the considered scenario. The direct forcing decreases for all aerosols except for nitrates, for which the direct negative forcing increases to a range of -0.060 to -0.115 W m-2 in 2100. Including nitrates in the radiative

  2. Status of Problem-Based Learning Research in Pharmacy Education: A Call for Future Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cisneros, Robert M.; Salisbury-Glennon, Jill D.; Anderson-Harper, Heidi M.

    2002-01-01

    Reviews the current status of problem-based learning (PBL) research in pharmacy education, identifies trends and student outcomes from the pharmacy courses that have used PBL, presents a brief review of PBL research in medical education, and recommends future directions for PBL research in pharmacy education. (EV)

  3. A Theme-Based Course: Hydrogen as the Fuel of the Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shultz, Mary Jane; Kelly, Matthew; Paritsky, Leonid; Wagner, Julia

    2009-01-01

    A theme-based course focusing on the potential role of hydrogen as a future fuel is described. Numerous topics included in typical introductory courses can be directly related to the issue of hydrogen energy. Beginning topics include Avogadro's number, the mole, atomic mass, gas laws, and the role of electrons in chemical transformations. Reaction…

  4. Constructed wetlands, 1991-2011: a review of research development, current trends, and future directions.

    PubMed

    Zhi, Wei; Ji, Guodong

    2012-12-15

    This study explores a bibliometric approach to quantitatively evaluate global scientific constructed wetlands research, and statistically assess current trends, and future directions using the Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED) database from 1991 to 2011. Articles referencing constructed wetlands were analyzed by accessing the following: publication language, output characteristics, publication performance by country and institution, author keywords, title words, and KeyWords Plus. Synthetically analyzing three keyword types, we concluded that the dominant constructed wetlands research hotspots from 1991 to 2011 included water, nutrients, plants, and flow. These four hotspots remained the most dominant research areas throughout our study period, and are predicted to remain the top research emphases in the near future. "Soil" also exhibited a notable increase since 2005, and is likely to become another notable area of research interest in the future. "Phytoremediation" and "horizontal" were not identified in 1991-1995, but exhibited marked increases from 136th (0.5%) and 169th (0.7%) in 1996-2000, to 9th (3.8%) and 11th (4.3%) in 2006-2011, respectively. Therefore, given the heightened attention during the last 15 years, these topics are likely to become a primary research focus in upcoming years.

  5. Status and future directions of InP solar cell research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jain, R. K.; Weinberg, I.

    1992-01-01

    An overview of the current status and future directions of InP space solar cell research is provided. The scope of the paper does not allow us to discuss other recent major developments in InP cell modeling, contacts, and characterization, or developments in other solar cell materials. Solar cells made from InP and related materials are not expected to be used in the near future for terrestrial applications, but significant Air-Mass1.5 (AM1.5) cell efficiencies are given for comparison. This paper deals with the developments in single-junction cells, multijunction tandem cells, and space flight testing, including radiation effects. Concentrator InP solar cells are also discussed, since they offer the possibility of simultaneous thermal and current injection annealing. These cells also promise cost effectiveness and the concentrator elements may provide cells with extra protection from space radiation. The concluding section addresses the steps to be taken in the future and provides guidelines for further research and development.

  6. Future Directions for Postdoctoral Training in Cancer Prevention: Insights from a Panel of Experts

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, David E.; Faupel-Badger, Jessica; Phillips, Siobhan; Belcher, Britni; Chang, Shine; Abrams, David B.; Kramer, Barnett S.; White, Mary C.; O’Malley, Michael; Varanasi, Arti P.; Fabian, Carol J.; Wiest, Jonathan S.; Colditz, Graham A.; Hall, Kara; Shields, Peter G.; Weitzel, Jeffrey N.

    2014-01-01

    Cancer prevention postdoctoral fellowships have existed since the 1970s. The National Cancer Institute facilitated a meeting by a panel of experts in April 2013 to consider four important topics for future directions for cancer prevention postdoctoral training programs: 1) future research needs; 2) underrepresented disciplines; 3) curriculum; and 4) career preparation. Panelists proffered several areas needing more research or emphasis, ranging from computational science to culture. Health care providers, along with persons from non-traditional disciplines such as engineers and lawyers, were among disciplines recognized as being underrepresented in training programs. Curriculum suggestions were that fellows receive training in topics such as leadership and human relations, in addition to learning the principles of epidemiology, cancer biological mechanisms, and behavioral science. For career preparation, there was a clear recognition of the diversity of employment options available besides academic positions, and that program leaders should do more to help fellows identify and prepare for different career paths. The major topics and strategies covered at this meeting can help form the basis for cancer prevention training program leaders to consider modifications or new directions, and keep them current with the changing scientific and employment climate for doctoral degree recipients and postdoctoral fellows. PMID:24604827

  7. Anorexia nervosa: directions for future research. Study Group on Anorexia Nervosa.

    PubMed

    1995-04-01

    On September 27-29, 1993, the Study Group on Anorexia Nervosa (AN): Basic Mechanisms, Clinical Approaches and Treatment met in Geneva, Switzerland to discuss recent progress in research on anorexia nervosa, and to identify directions for future studies. Anorexia nervosa is a disorder of unknown etiology, without a specific curative treatment, affecting mostly individuals in adolescence and early adulthood, with significant morbidity and mortality, and having a major impact on psychosocial and vocational development. In anorexia nervosa there are severe disturbances in virtually every endocrine system, such as the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis, the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) axis, the growth hormone (GH)/somatomedin C (IGF-1) system, and the central and peripheral arginine vasopressin (AVP) systems. Furthermore, classical neurotransmitter systems, such as the cholinergic noradrenergic, and serotonergic systems, are abnormally regulated in anorexia nervosa. New research data is also emerging on the abnormal regulation of immune function in this disorder. The Study Group concluded that even though several biological systems are abnormally regulated in anorexia nervosa, there is no biological test which is specific enough to make the diagnosis of the disorder. New directions for research in anorexia nervosa are identified and discussed in this report. Finally, the Study Group proposed future meetings to bring together clinical and pre-clinical (pharmacological, biochemical, and molecular) scientists studying topics, such as neuroendocrine function, which are important in the biology of anorexia nervosa.

  8. Future Directions of Supersonic Combustion Research: Air Force/NASA Workshop on Supersonic Combustion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tishkoff, Julian M.; Drummond, J. Philip; Edwards, Tim; Nejad, Abdollah S.

    1997-01-01

    The Air Force Office of Scientific Research, the Air Force Wright Laboratory Aero Propulsion and Power Directorate, and the NASA Langley Research Center held a joint supersonic combustion workshop on 14-16 May 1996. The intent of this meeting was to: (1) examine the current state-of-the-art in hydrocarbon and/or hydrogen fueled scramjet research; (2) define the future direction and needs of basic research in support of scramjet technology; and (3) when appropriate, help transition basic research findings to solve the needs of developmental engineering programs in the area of supersonic combustion and fuels. A series of topical sessions were planned. Opening presentations were designed to focus and encourage group discussion and scientific exchange. The last half-day of the workshop was set aside for group discussion of the issues that were raised during the meeting for defining future research opportunities and directions. The following text attempts to summarize the discussions that took place at the workshop.

  9. Future directions for postdoctoral training in cancer prevention: insights from a panel of experts.

    PubMed

    Nelson, David E; Faupel-Badger, Jessica; Phillips, Siobhan; Belcher, Britni; Chang, Shine; Abrams, David B; Kramer, Barnett S; White, Mary C; O'Malley, Michael; Varanasi, Arti P; Fabian, Carol J; Wiest, Jonathan S; Colditz, Graham A; Hall, Kara; Shields, Peter G; Weitzel, Jeffrey N

    2014-04-01

    Cancer prevention postdoctoral fellowships have existed since the 1970s. The National Cancer Institute facilitated a meeting by a panel of experts in April 2013 to consider four important topics for future directions for cancer prevention postdoctoral training programs: (i) future research needs; (ii) underrepresented disciplines; (iii) curriculum; and (iv) career preparation. Panelists proffered several areas needing more research or emphasis, ranging from computational science to culture. Health care providers, along with persons from nontraditional disciplines in scientific training programs such as engineers and lawyers, were among those recognized as being underrepresented in training programs. Curriculum suggestions were that fellows receive training in topics such as leadership and human relations, in addition to learning the principles of epidemiology, cancer biologic mechanisms, and behavioral science. For career preparation, there was a clear recognition of the diversity of employment options available besides academic positions, and that program leaders should do more to help fellows identify and prepare for different career paths. The major topics and strategies covered at this meeting can help form the basis for cancer prevention training program leaders to consider modifications or new directions, and keep them updated with the changing scientific and employment climate for doctoral degree recipients and postdoctoral fellows.

  10. Biomechanical energy harvesting from human motion: theory, state of the art, design guidelines, and future directions

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Biomechanical energy harvesting from human motion presents a promising clean alternative to electrical power supplied by batteries for portable electronic devices and for computerized and motorized prosthetics. We present the theory of energy harvesting from the human body and describe the amount of energy that can be harvested from body heat and from motions of various parts of the body during walking, such as heel strike; ankle, knee, hip, shoulder, and elbow joint motion; and center of mass vertical motion. Methods We evaluated major motions performed during walking and identified the amount of work the body expends and the portion of recoverable energy. During walking, there are phases of the motion at the joints where muscles act as brakes and energy is lost to the surroundings. During those phases of motion, the required braking force or torque can be replaced by an electrical generator, allowing energy to be harvested at the cost of only minimal additional effort. The amount of energy that can be harvested was estimated experimentally and from literature data. Recommendations for future directions are made on the basis of our results in combination with a review of state-of-the-art biomechanical energy harvesting devices and energy conversion methods. Results For a device that uses center of mass motion, the maximum amount of energy that can be harvested is approximately 1 W per kilogram of device weight. For a person weighing 80 kg and walking at approximately 4 km/h, the power generation from the heel strike is approximately 2 W. For a joint-mounted device based on generative braking, the joints generating the most power are the knees (34 W) and the ankles (20 W). Conclusions Our theoretical calculations align well with current device performance data. Our results suggest that the most energy can be harvested from the lower limb joints, but to do so efficiently, an innovative and light-weight mechanical design is needed. We also compared the

  11. Assessment of Local HOx and ROx Measurement Techniques: Achievements, Challenges, and Future Directions - Outcomes from the International HOx Workshop 2015

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hofzumahaus, Andreas; Heard, Dwayne

    2016-04-01

    Measurements of HOx radicals are an important tool for the investigation of tropospheric chemistry in field campaigns and simulation chamber experiments. The measured data allow us to test chemical models simulating the atmospheric concentrations of OH, HO2 and RO2, and help to improve chemical mechanisms used in regional and global models for predictions of the atmospheric chemical composition. In Spring 2015, an international, IGAC-endorsed workshop took place at Forschungszentrum Jülich, Germany, to assess the performance and reliability of current HOx measurement techniques. Fifteen international groups from Germany, UK, Ireland, France, Finland, USA, China and Japan came together to discuss achievements, challenges and future directions of laser-based, mass-spectrometry based, and chemical techniques. Following the discussions, a working group was established to guide the community in the near future in making progress on continued improvement in HOx measurements. Three goals will be persued: the development of a common calibration unit, the development of procedures to investigate and, if necessary, eliminate possible measurement artefacts, and planning for future instrumental intercomparisons. This poster contribution will give an overview of the workshop, its outcome and planned activites.

  12. Treading lightly on shifting ground: The direction and motivation of future geological research

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Witt, A.C.

    2011-01-01

    The future of the geosciences and geological research will involve complex scientific challenges, primarily concerning global and regional environmental issues, in the next 20-30 years. It is quite reasonable to suspect, based on current political and socioeconomic events, that young geoscientists will be faced with and involved in helping to resolve some well defined problems: water and energy security, the effects of anthropogenic climate change, coastal sea level rise and development, and the mitigation of geohazards. It is how we choose to approach these challenges that will define our future. Interdisciplinary applied research, improved modeling and prediction augmented with faster and more sophisticated computing, and a greater role in creating and guiding public policy, will help us achieve our goals of a cleaner and safer Earth environment in the next 30 years. In the far future, even grander possibilities for eliminating the risk of certain geohazards and finding sustainable solutions to our energy needs can be envisioned. Looking deeper into the future, the possibilities for geoscience research push the limits of the imagination.

  13. Present status and future directions of the Mayo/IBM PACS project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morin, Richard L.; Forbes, Glenn S.; Gehring, Dale G.; Salutz, James R.; Pavlicek, William

    1991-07-01

    This joint project began in 1988 and was motivated by the need to develop an alternative to the archival process in place at that time (magnetic tape) for magnetic resonance imaging and neurological computed tomography. In addition, this project was felt to be an important step in gaining the necessary clinical experience for the future implementation of various aspects of electronic imaging. The initial phase of the project was conceived and developed to prove the concept, test the fundamental components, and produce performance measurements for future work. The key functions of this phase centered on attachment of imaging equipment (GE Signa) and archival processes using a non-dedicated (institutionally supplied) local area network (LAN). Attachment of imaging equipment to the LAN was performed using commercially available devices (Ethernet, PS/2, Token Ring). Image data were converted to ACR/NEMA format with retention of the vendor specific header information. Performance measurements were encouraging and led to the design of following projects. The second phase has recently been concluded. The major features of this phase have been to greatly expand the network, put the network into clinical use, establish an efficient and useful viewing station, include diagnostic reports in the archive data, provide wide area network (WAN) capability via ISDN, and establish two-way real-time video between remote sites. This phase has heightened both departmental and institutional thought regarding various issues raised by electronic imaging. Much discussion regarding both present as well as future archival processes has occurred. The use of institutional LAN resources has proven to be adequate for the archival function examined thus far. Experiments to date have shown that use of dedicated resources will be necessary for retrieval activities at even a basic level. This report presents an overview of the background present status and future directions of the project.

  14. "Megatrends" for Higher Education: Directions for the Future of College Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schreier, James W.

    Directions for college teaching were assessed, based on ratings of 10 "megatrends" identified by John Naisbitt. The study questionnaire summarized the 10 megatrends and provided scales for rating the probability of the trends occurring and their potential impact. Responses were obtained from Marquette University faculty of the College of Business…

  15. The Nursing Home Culture-Change Movement: Recent Past, Present, and Future Directions for Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rahman, Anna N.; Schnelle, John F.

    2008-01-01

    This article uses a retrospective approach to critique the research base underlying the nursing home culture-change movement--an effort to radically transform the nation's nursing homes by delivering resident-directed care and empowering staff. The article traces the development of the movement from its inception 10 years ago to 2005, when the…

  16. Onboard FPGA-based SAR processing for future spaceborne systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Le, Charles; Chan, Samuel; Cheng, Frank; Fang, Winston; Fischman, Mark; Hensley, Scott; Johnson, Robert; Jourdan, Michael; Marina, Miguel; Parham, Bruce; Rogez, Francois; Rosen, Paul; Shah, Biren; Taft, Stephanie

    2004-01-01

    We present a real-time high-performance and fault-tolerant FPGA-based hardware architecture for the processing of synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images in future spaceborne system. In particular, we will discuss the integrated design approach, from top-level algorithm specifications and system requirements, design methodology, functional verification and performance validation, down to hardware design and implementation.

  17. Expanded resource base - the key to future geothermal development

    SciTech Connect

    Mock, John E.; Beeland, Gene V.

    1994-01-20

    According to analyses by the Department of Energy’s Energy Information Administration (EIA), geothermal electric power capacity could nearly quadruple over the next 20 years, and there is a tremendous potential for growth in the direct uses of geothermal energy. However, for a high rate of development to occur in either of these applications, the identified resource base must be expanded. To this end, the Department is supporting R&D efforts to 1) share with industry the costs and risks of evaluating promising new resource prospects with power potential; 2) reduce the costs of exploration to enhance industry’s cost-competitive posture; and 3) assess the location and characteristics of low-temperature resources. This paper describes DOE’s new cost-shared industry-coupled exploratory drilling program to be initiated with a solicitation by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, field manager of DOE’s reservoir technology activities. Proposals will be requested for drilling either core holes or full-size wells on prospects from which some information had already been gathered, such as surface geophysics or shallow heat flow. The paper also discusses the status of the project designed to demonstrate whether a geothermal reservoir can be identified and adequately evaluated to meet investment requirements with slimholes rather than the much more costly production-size wells. Results to date of testing at the Far West 24 MWe plant site at Steam Boat Hills, Nevada, are reported, and plans for related technology development to make slimhole exploration accessible even to small developers are described. In addition, the paper describes the components of a Low-Temperature Assessment Program and its objectives and identifies the state resource assessment teams. It is concluded that the successful execution of each of these projects will help to ensure a secure future for geothermal energy in this country, thus enhancing the environment wherever geothermal energy

  18. Immunotherapy of Brain Cancers: The Past, the Present, and Future Directions

    PubMed Central

    Ge, Lisheng; Hoa, Neil; Bota, Daniela A.; Natividad, Josephine; Howat, Andrew; Jadus, Martin R.

    2010-01-01

    Treatment of brain cancers, especially high grade gliomas (WHO stage III and IV) is slowly making progress, but not as fast as medical researchers and the patients would like. Immunotherapy offers the opportunity to allow the patient's own immune system a chance to help eliminate the cancer. Immunotherapy's strength is that it efficiently treats relatively small tumors in experimental animal models. For some patients, immunotherapy has worked for them while not showing long-term toxicity. In this paper, we will trace the history of immunotherapy for brain cancers. We will also highlight some of the possible directions that this field may be taking in the immediate future for improving this therapeutic option. PMID:21437175

  19. Neural Plasticity following Abacus Training in Humans: A Review and Future Directions

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yongxin; Chen, Feiyan; Huang, Wenhua

    2016-01-01

    The human brain has an enormous capacity to adapt to a broad variety of environmental demands. Previous studies in the field of abacus training have shown that this training can induce specific changes in the brain. However, the neural mechanism underlying these changes remains elusive. Here, we reviewed the behavioral and imaging findings of comparisons between abacus experts and average control subjects and focused on changes in activation patterns and changes in brain structure. Finally, we noted the limitations and the future directions of this field. We concluded that although current studies have provided us with information about the mechanisms of abacus training, more research on abacus training is needed to understand its neural impact. PMID:26881089

  20. Iron chelation therapy in transfusion-dependent thalassemia patients: current strategies and future directions

    PubMed Central

    Saliba, Antoine N; Harb, Afif R; Taher, Ali T

    2015-01-01

    Transfusional iron overload is a major target in the care of patients with transfusion-dependent thalassemia (TDT) and other refractory anemias. Iron accumulates in the liver, heart, and endocrine organs leading to a wide array of complications. In this review, we summarize the characteristics of the approved iron chelators, deferoxamine, deferiprone, and deferasirox, and the evidence behind the use of each, as monotherapy or as part of combination therapy. We also review the different guidelines on iron chelation in TDT. This review also discusses future prospects and directions in the treatment of transfusional iron overload in TDT whether through innovation in chelation or other therapies, such as novel agents that improve transfusion dependence. PMID:26124688

  1. Iron chelation therapy in transfusion-dependent thalassemia patients: current strategies and future directions.

    PubMed

    Saliba, Antoine N; Harb, Afif R; Taher, Ali T

    2015-01-01

    Transfusional iron overload is a major target in the care of patients with transfusion-dependent thalassemia (TDT) and other refractory anemias. Iron accumulates in the liver, heart, and endocrine organs leading to a wide array of complications. In this review, we summarize the characteristics of the approved iron chelators, deferoxamine, deferiprone, and deferasirox, and the evidence behind the use of each, as monotherapy or as part of combination therapy. We also review the different guidelines on iron chelation in TDT. This review also discusses future prospects and directions in the treatment of transfusional iron overload in TDT whether through innovation in chelation or other therapies, such as novel agents that improve transfusion dependence.

  2. Medical applications of wireless sensor networks - current status and future directions.

    PubMed

    Grgić, Krešimir; Zagar, Drago; Križanović, Višnja

    2012-02-01

    In recent years a significant development of BASN (Body Area Sensor Networks) as a special subclass of WSN (Wireless Sensor Networks) has emerged. These networks have enabled a rapid development of telemedicine systems, which provide remote monitoring of patients and their vital parameters. The article gives a short overview of the BASN networks. Furthermore, a general system architecture of telemedicine systems is proposed. The proposed architecture includes a local sensory area, a communication network area and an institutional network area. It also provides the security and privacy of patient-related data. Furthermore, the article surveys some existing telemedicine systems. Finally, some current problems are explained and the directions for the future development of the telemedicine systems are given. PMID:22634904

  3. The Effects of Ellagic Acid upon Brain Cells: A Mechanistic View and Future Directions.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Marcos Roberto

    2016-06-01

    Ellagic acid (EA, 2,3,7,8-tetrahydroxy-chromeno; C14H6O8) is a polyphenol derived from fruits (pomegranates, berries) and nuts. EA exhibits antioxidant capacity and induces anti-inflammatory actions in several mammalian tissues. EA has been characterized as a possible neuroprotective agent, but the number of reports is still limited to conclude whether and how EA exerts neuroprotection in humans. In this regard, performing additional studies considering the potential beneficial and/or toxicological roles for EA on brain cells would be an important step towards fully understanding of when and how EA may be securely utilized by humans as a neuroprotective agent. The aim of the present work is to discuss data related to the neuronal and glial effects of EA and the mechanisms underlying such events. Moreover, future directions are suggested as a potential guide to be utilized by researchers interested in investigating the neuronal and glial actions of EA hereafter. PMID:26846140

  4. Future Directions in the Study of Health Behavior among Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Ziegelmann, Jochen P; Knoll, Nina

    2015-01-01

    The study of health behaviors and fostering health-behavior change is an important endeavor even in old age. The aim of this viewpoint article is threefold. First, we use a broad perspective for the definition of health behaviors to capture all relevant aspects of health-behavior change in older adults. Particularly, we suggest a distinction between proximal (e.g., physical activity) and distal health behaviors (e.g., social participation). Second, we recommend a stronger orientation towards processes in order to study health behaviors and the design of health-behavior change interventions. Third, we review the advantages of a developmental perspective in health psychology. Future directions in the study of health behavior among older adults are discussed. PMID:25660128

  5. [Current progress and future direction in the biology of ovarian germ stem cells in mammals].

    PubMed

    Li, Chao-Hui; Guo, Kun; Zheng, Ping

    2012-12-01

    Whether or not oogenesis continues after birth in mammalian ovaries remains controversial. Since the 1950's, it has been generally accepted that oogenesis takes place during embryogenesis in mammals and ceases at birth. At birth, germ cells in mammalian ovaries have progressed to the diplotene stage of meiotic prophase and have formed primordial follicles with surrounding somatic cells. These primordial follicles represent follicle reserves of the reproductive life. However, this view has been recently challenged by a growing body of evidence showing the isolation and propagation of germ stem cells from mouse and human ovaries. These ovarian germ stem cells are capable of regenerating functional oocytes when transplanted back into recipient ovaries. Despite the discovery of the potential germ stem cells in mammalian ovaries, it remains uncertain whether these cells exist and function in ovaries under physiological conditions. Herein we review the current progress and future direction in this infant area.

  6. Physiological Reactivity to Psychological Stress in Human Pregnancy: Current Knowledge and Future Directions

    PubMed Central

    Christian, Lisa M.

    2012-01-01

    Cardiovascular and neuroendocrine reactivity to acute stress are important predictors of health outcomes in non-pregnant populations. Greater magnitude and duration of physiological responses have been associated with increased risk of hypertensive disorders and diabetes, greater susceptibility to infectious illnesses, suppression of cell-mediated immunity as well as risk for depression and anxiety disorders. Stress reactivity during pregnancy has unique implications for maternal health, birth outcomes, and fetal development. However, as compared to the larger literature, our understanding of the predictors and consequences of exaggerated stress reactivity in pregnancy is limited. This paper reviews the current state of this literature with an emphasis on gaps in knowledge and future directions. PMID:22800930

  7. Cocaine and mitochondria-related signaling in the brain: A mechanistic view and future directions.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Marcos Roberto; Jardim, Fernanda Rafaela

    2016-01-01

    Cocaine is extensively used as a psychostimulant among subjects at different ages worldwide. Cocaine causes neuronal dysfunction and, consequently, negatively affects human behavior and decreases life quality severely. Cocaine acts through diverse mechanisms, including mitochondrial impairment and activation of cell signaling pathways associated to stress response. There is some controversy regarding the effect of cocaine in inducing cell death through apoptosis in different experimental models. The aim of the present work is to discuss data associated to the mitochondrial consequences of cocaine exposure of mammalian cells in several experimental models from in vitro to in vivo, including postmortem human tissue analyses. Furthermore, future directions are proposed in order to serve as a suggestive guide in relation to the next steps towards the complete elucidation of the mechanisms of toxicity elicited by cocaine upon mitochondria of neuronal cells.

  8. Cocaine and mitochondria-related signaling in the brain: A mechanistic view and future directions.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Marcos Roberto; Jardim, Fernanda Rafaela

    2016-01-01

    Cocaine is extensively used as a psychostimulant among subjects at different ages worldwide. Cocaine causes neuronal dysfunction and, consequently, negatively affects human behavior and decreases life quality severely. Cocaine acts through diverse mechanisms, including mitochondrial impairment and activation of cell signaling pathways associated to stress response. There is some controversy regarding the effect of cocaine in inducing cell death through apoptosis in different experimental models. The aim of the present work is to discuss data associated to the mitochondrial consequences of cocaine exposure of mammalian cells in several experimental models from in vitro to in vivo, including postmortem human tissue analyses. Furthermore, future directions are proposed in order to serve as a suggestive guide in relation to the next steps towards the complete elucidation of the mechanisms of toxicity elicited by cocaine upon mitochondria of neuronal cells. PMID:26707813

  9. Attachment among older adults: current issues and directions for future research.

    PubMed

    Bradley, J M; Cafferty, T P

    2001-09-01

    Although John Bowlby conceptualized attachment theory as applicable across the life span, researchers have been relatively slow to examine attachment phenomena specifically among older adults. The present article reviews the extant research applying attachment theory to older populations; preliminary findings suggest that attachment issues hold particular relevance for older adults, given the increased potential for separation, loss and vulnerability associated with aging. Although many of the studies reviewed are somewhat limited methodologically, the overall pattern of results suggests that attachment patterns are associated with a variety of outcomes in later life (such as adaptation to chronic illness and caregiver burden among family members, reactions to the death of a loved one, and general well-being) in a theoretically consistent manner. The implications of and questions raised by current findings are reviewed, and directions for future research are discussed.

  10. Epidemiologic studies of polyomaviruses and cancer: previous findings, methodologic challenges and future directions.

    PubMed

    Rollison, Dana E M

    2006-01-01

    Polyomavirus infection became the focus of epidemiologic studies of cancer several decades ago, soon after the discovery of simian virus 40 (SV40) in 1960 and its ability to induce tumors in experimentally infected animals in 1961. Between 1963 and 2003, eight case-control and eleven cohort studies investigated the possible associations between polyomavirus infection and multiple types of cancer, including lymphoma, brain tumors, and mesothelioma. Two of these studies included measures of infection with the human polyomaviruses, JC virus and BK virus. Overall, the results from these studies were mostly null, although limitations in study design and exposure assessment complicate their interpretation. This chapter includes a review of results from previous epidemiologic studies of polyomavirus infection and human cancer, discussion of the methodologic challenges in study design, and proposed future directions for epidemiologic research.

  11. NASA Workshop on future directions in surface modeling and grid generation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vandalsem, W. R.; Smith, R. E.; Choo, Y. K.; Birckelbaw, L. D.; Vogel, A. A.

    1992-01-01

    Given here is a summary of the paper sessions and panel discussions of the NASA Workshop on Future Directions in Surface Modeling and Grid Generation held a NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, California, December 5-7, 1989. The purpose was to assess U.S. capabilities in surface modeling and grid generation and take steps to improve the focus and pace of these disciplines within NASA. The organization of the workshop centered around overviews from NASA centers and expert presentations from U.S. corporations and universities. Small discussion groups were held and summarized by group leaders. Brief overviews and a panel discussion by representatives from the DoD were held, and a NASA-only session concluded the meeting. In the NASA Program Planning Session summary there are five recommended steps for NASA to take to improve the development and application of surface modeling and grid generation.

  12. Radiotherapy for Hepatocellular Carcinoma: New Indications and Directions for Future Study.

    PubMed

    Ohri, Nitin; Dawson, Laura A; Krishnan, Sunil; Seong, Jinsil; Cheng, Jason C; Sarin, Shiv K; Kinkhabwala, Milan; Ahmed, Mansoor M; Vikram, Bhadrasain; Coleman, C Norman; Guha, Chandan

    2016-09-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a leading cause of cancer death worldwide; its incidence is increasing in the United States. Depending on disease extent and underlying liver status, patients may be treated with local, locoregional, and/or systemic therapy. Recent data indicates that radiotherapy (RT) can play a meaningful role in the management of HCC. Here, we review published experiences using RT for HCC, including the use of radiosensitizers and stereotactic RT. We discuss methods for performing preclinical studies of RT for HCC and biomarkers of response. As a part of the HCC Working Group, an informal committee of the National Cancer Institute's Radiation Research Program, we suggest how RT should be implemented in the management of HCC and identify future directions for the study of RT in HCC. PMID:27377923

  13. Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptors and the Heart: Lessons from the Past and Future Directions

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Wang-Soo; Kim, Jaetaek

    2015-01-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) belong to the nuclear family of ligand activated transcriptional factors and comprise three different isoforms, PPAR-α, PPAR-β/δ, and PPAR-γ. The main role of PPARs is to regulate the expression of genes involved in lipid and glucose metabolism. Several studies have demonstrated that PPAR agonists improve dyslipidemia and glucose control in animals, supporting their potential as a promising therapeutic option to treat diabetes and dyslipidemia. However, substantial differences exist in the therapeutic or adverse effects of specific drug candidates, and clinical studies have yielded inconsistent data on their cardioprotective effects. This review summarizes the current knowledge regarding the molecular function of PPARs and the mechanisms of the PPAR regulation by posttranslational modification in the heart. We also describe the results and lessons learned from important clinical trials on PPAR agonists and discuss the potential future directions for this class of drugs. PMID:26587015

  14. Neural Plasticity following Abacus Training in Humans: A Review and Future Directions.

    PubMed

    Li, Yongxin; Chen, Feiyan; Huang, Wenhua

    2016-01-01

    The human brain has an enormous capacity to adapt to a broad variety of environmental demands. Previous studies in the field of abacus training have shown that this training can induce specific changes in the brain. However, the neural mechanism underlying these changes remains elusive. Here, we reviewed the behavioral and imaging findings of comparisons between abacus experts and average control subjects and focused on changes in activation patterns and changes in brain structure. Finally, we noted the limitations and the future directions of this field. We concluded that although current studies have provided us with information about the mechanisms of abacus training, more research on abacus training is needed to understand its neural impact.

  15. Proton Beam Therapy for Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer: Current Clinical Evidence and Future Directions

    PubMed Central

    Berman, Abigail T.; St. James, Sara; Rengan, Ramesh

    2015-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cancer cause of death in the United States. Radiotherapy is an essential component of the definitive treatment of early-stage and locally-advanced lung cancer, and the palliative treatment of metastatic lung cancer. Proton beam therapy (PBT), through its characteristic Bragg peak, has the potential to decrease the toxicity of radiotherapy, and, subsequently improve the therapeutic ratio. Herein, we provide a primer on the physics of proton beam therapy for lung cancer, present the existing data in early-stage and locally-advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), as well as in special situations such as re-irradiation and post-operative radiation therapy. We then present the technical challenges, such as anatomic changes and motion management, and future directions for PBT in lung cancer, including pencil beam scanning. PMID:26147335

  16. Proton Beam Therapy for Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer: Current Clinical Evidence and Future Directions.

    PubMed

    Berman, Abigail T; James, Sara St; Rengan, Ramesh

    2015-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cancer cause of death in the United States. Radiotherapy is an essential component of the definitive treatment of early-stage and locally-advanced lung cancer, and the palliative treatment of metastatic lung cancer. Proton beam therapy (PBT), through its characteristic Bragg peak, has the potential to decrease the toxicity of radiotherapy, and, subsequently improve the therapeutic ratio. Herein, we provide a primer on the physics of proton beam therapy for lung cancer, present the existing data in early-stage and locally-advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), as well as in special situations such as re-irradiation and post-operative radiation therapy. We then present the technical challenges, such as anatomic changes and motion management, and future directions for PBT in lung cancer, including pencil beam scanning. PMID:26147335

  17. Stigma, Obesity and Adolescent Risk Behaviors: Current Research and Future Directions

    PubMed Central

    Farhat, Tilda

    2015-01-01

    Adolescents are particularly vulnerable to risk behaviors as, in this life stage, they are experiencing intense physical, psychological and social changes. Adolescents who are overweight/obese, but particularly those who perceive themselves as such, are more likely to engage in risk behaviors than those who are or perceive themselves of normal-weight. Weight stigma and discrimination may contribute to this association as they reinforce poor body image and create intense stress. Stress is associated with poor emotion regulation, more impulsive, contextually-determined, and less rational decision-making, leading to greater engagement in risk behaviors. However, pathways from weight stigma/discrimination to risk behavior may be moderated by adolescents' social networks. This review provides a conceptual model and empirical evidence to illustrate the proposed pathways from weight stigma and discrimination to risk behaviors. Public health implications and future research directions are also discussed. PMID:26086032

  18. Benign Paroxysmal Positional Vertigo (BPPV): History, Pathophysiology, Office Treatment and Future Directions

    PubMed Central

    Hornibrook, Jeremy

    2011-01-01

    BPPV is the most common cause of vertigo. It most often occurs spontaneously in the 50 to 70 year age group. In younger individuals it is the commonest cause of vertigo following head injury. There is a wide spectrum of severity from inconsistent positional vertigo to continuous vertigo provoked by any head movement. It is likely to be a cause of falls and other morbidity in the elderly. Misdiagnosis can result in unnecessary tests. The cardinal features and a diagnostic test were clarified in 1952 by Dix and Hallpike. Subsequently, it has been established that the symptoms are attributable to detached otoconia in any of the semicircular canals. BPPV symptoms can resolve spontaneously but can last for days, weeks, months, and years. Unusual patterns of nystagmus and nonrepsonse to treatment may suggest central pathology. Diagnostic strategies and the simplest “office” treatment techniques are described. Future directions for research are discussed. PMID:21808648

  19. Quasi-spherical direct drive fusion simulations for the Z machine and future accelerators.

    SciTech Connect

    VanDevender, J. Pace; McDaniel, Dillon Heirman; Roderick, Norman Frederick; Nash, Thomas J.

    2007-11-01

    We explored the potential of Quasi-Spherical Direct Drive (QSDD) to reduce the cost and risk of a future fusion driver for Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) and to produce megajoule thermonuclear yield on the renovated Z Machine with a pulse shortening Magnetically Insulated Current Amplifier (MICA). Analytic relationships for constant implosion velocity and constant pusher stability have been derived and show that the required current scales as the implosion time. Therefore, a MICA is necessary to drive QSDD capsules with hot-spot ignition on Z. We have optimized the LASNEX parameters for QSDD with realistic walls and mitigated many of the risks. Although the mix-degraded 1D yield is computed to be {approx}30 MJ on Z, unmitigated wall expansion under the > 100 gigabar pressure just before burn prevents ignition in the 2D simulations. A squeezer system of adjacent implosions may mitigate the wall expansion and permit the plasma to burn.

  20. Ethnic Minorities and Coronary Heart Disease: an Update and Future Directions

    PubMed Central

    Leigh, J. Adam; Alvarez, Manrique

    2016-01-01

    Heart disease remains the leading cause of death in the USA. Overall, heart disease accounts for about 1 in 4 deaths with coronary heart disease (CHD) being responsible for over 370,000 deaths per year. It has frequently and repeatedly been shown that some minority groups in the USA have higher rates of traditional CHD risk factors, different rates of treatment with revascularization procedures, and excess morbidity and mortality from CHD when compared to the non-Hispanic white population. Numerous investigations have been made into the causes of these disparities. This review aims to highlight the recent literature which examines CHD in ethnic minorities and future directions in research and care. PMID:26792015

  1. Jupiter's Phase Variations from Cassini: a testbed for future direct-imaging missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayorga, Laura; Jackiewicz, Jason; Rages, Kathy; West, Robert; Knowles, Ben; Marley, Mark; Lewis, Nikole

    2016-10-01

    Phase curves are important for our understanding of the energy balance and scattering behavior of an exoplanet's atmosphere. In preparation for future direct-imaging missions of Jupiter-like planets, we present phase curves of Jupiter from 0--150 degrees as measured in multiple optical bandpasses by Cassini/ISS during the Millennium flyby of Jupiter in late 2000 to early 2001. We demonstrate and confirm that Jupiter is not well represented by a Lambertian phase function and that its color is more variable with phase angle than predicted by Jupiter-like models. This indicates that a Jupiter-twin observed near quadrature may not be as straightforward to classify as a Jupiter-like planet.

  2. Past and future direct radiative forcing of nitrate aerosol in East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jiandong; Wang, Wei-Chyung; Liao, Hong; Chang, Wenyuan

    2015-08-01

    Nitrate as a rapidly increasing aerosol species in recent years affects the present climate and potentially has large implications on the future climate. In this study, the long-term direct radiative forcing (DRF) of nitrate aerosol is investigated using State Key Laboratory of Numerical Modeling for Atmospheric Sciences and Geophysical Fluid Dynamics (LASG) atmospheric general circulation model (AGCM) and the aerosol dataset simulated by a chemical transport model with focus on East Asia. The DRF due to other aerosols, especially sulfate, is also evaluated for comparisons. Although the chemical transport model underestimates the magnitudes of nitrate and sulfate aerosols when compared with Chinese site observations, some insights into the significances of nitrate climate effects still emerge. The present-day global annual mean all-sky DRF of nitrate is calculated to be -0.025 W m-2 relative to the preindustrial era, which is much weaker than -0.37 W m-2 for sulfate. However, nitrate DRF may become increasingly important in the future especially over East Asia, given the expectation that decreasing trend in global sulfate continues while the projected nitrate maintains at the present level for a mid-range forcing scenario and even be a factor of two larger by the end of the 21st century for high emission scenarios. For example, the anthropogenic nitrate DRF of -2.0 W m-2 over eastern China could persist until the 2050s, and nitrate is projected to account for over 60 % of total anthropogenic aerosol DRF over East Asia by 2100. In addition, we illustrate that the regional nitrate DRF and its seasonal variation are sensitive to meteorological parameters, in particular the relative humidity and cloud amount. It thus remains a need for climate models to include more realistically nitrate aerosol in projecting future climate changes.

  3. Vascular pathobiology in chronic liver disease and cirrhosis - current status and future directions.

    PubMed

    Iwakiri, Yasuko; Shah, Vijay; Rockey, Don C

    2014-10-01

    Chronic liver disease is associated with remarkable alterations in the intra- and extrahepatic vasculature. Because of these changes, the fields of liver vasculature and portal hypertension have recently become closely integrated within the broader vascular biology discipline. As developments in vascular biology have evolved, a deeper understanding of vascular processes has led to a better understanding of the mechanisms of the dynamic vascular changes associated with portal hypertension and chronic liver disease. In this context, hepatic vascular cells, such as sinusoidal endothelial cells and pericyte-like hepatic stellate cells, are closely associated with one another, where they have paracrine and autocrine effects on each other and themselves. These cells play important roles in the pathogenesis of liver fibrosis/cirrhosis and portal hypertension. Further, a variety of signaling pathways have recently come to light. These include growth factor pathways involving cytokines such as transforming growth factor β, platelet derived growth factor, and others as well as a variety of vasoactive peptides and other molecules. An early and consistent feature of liver injury is the development of an increase in intra-hepatic resistance; this is associated with changes in hepatic vascular cells and their signaling pathway that cause portal hypertension. A critical concept is that this process aggregates signals to the extrahepatic circulation, causing derangement in this system's cells and signaling pathways, which ultimately leads to the collateral vessel formation and arterial vasodilation in the splanchnic and systemic circulation, which by virtue of the hydraulic derivation of Ohm's law (pressure = resistance × flow), worsens portal hypertension. This review provides a detailed review of the current status and future direction of the basic biology of portal hypertension with a focus on the physiology, pathophysiology, and signaling of cells within the liver, as well

  4. Protection and Repair After Spinal Cord Injury: Accomplishments and Future Directions

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    It was an honor for me to present the 2014 G. Heiner Sell Memorial Lecture at the annual American Spinal Injury Association (ASIA) meeting in San Antonio. For this purpose, I provided a comprehensive review of the scope of research targeting discovery and translational and clinical investigations into spinal cord injury (SCI) research. Indeed, these are exciting times in the area of spinal cord research and clinical initiatives. Many laboratories and clinical programs throughout the world are publishing data related to the pathophysiology of SCI and new strategies for protecting and promoting recovery in both animal models and humans. For this lecture, several topics were discussed including neuroprotective and reparative strategies, neurorehabilitation, quality of life issues, and future directions. In the area of neuroprotection, pathophysiological events that may be targeted with therapeutic strategies, including pharmacological and targeted temperature management were reviewed. For reparative approaches, the importance of both intrinsic and extrinsic mechanisms of axonal regeneration was highlighted. Various cell therapies currently being tested in preclinical and clinical arenas were reviewed as well as ongoing US Food and Drug Administration approved trials for SCI patients. Neurorehabilitation is an evolving research field with locomotive training strategies, electrical stimulation, and brain-machine interface programs targeting various types of SCI. The importance of testing combination approaches including neuroprotective, reparative, and rehabilitative strategies to maximize recovery mechanisms was therefore emphasized. Finally, quality of life issues that affect thousands of individuals living with paralysis were also presented. Future directions and specific obstacles that require attention as we continue to move the SCI field forward were discussed. PMID:26364287

  5. Marine plankton phenology and life history in a changing climate: current research and future directions

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Rubao; Edwards, Martin; Mackas, David L.; Runge, Jeffrey A.; Thomas, Andrew C.

    2010-01-01

    Increasing availability and extent of biological ocean time series (from both in situ and satellite data) have helped reveal significant phenological variability of marine plankton. The extent to which the range of this variability is modified as a result of climate change is of obvious importance. Here we summarize recent research results on phenology of both phytoplankton and zooplankton. We suggest directions to better quantify and monitor future plankton phenology shifts, including (i) examining the main mode of expected future changes (ecological shifts in timing and spatial distribution to accommodate fixed environmental niches vs. evolutionary adaptation of timing controls to maintain fixed biogeography and seasonality), (ii) broader understanding of phenology at the species and community level (e.g. for zooplankton beyond Calanus and for phytoplankton beyond chlorophyll), (iii) improving and diversifying statistical metrics for indexing timing and trophic synchrony and (iv) improved consideration of spatio-temporal scales and the Lagrangian nature of plankton assemblages to separate time from space changes. PMID:20824042

  6. MEM: A physical-based directional meteoroid model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McNamara, H.; Cooke, W.; Suggs, R.

    2004-01-01

    Three years of research conducted by the University of Western Ontario into the nature and distribution of the sporadic sources have been incorporated into a Meteoroid Engineering Model (MEM) by members of the Meteoroid Environments Office at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center. This paper gives a broad overview of this model, new features of which include: a) identification of the sporadic radiants with real sources of meteoroids, such as comets, b) a physics-based approach which yields accurate fluxes and directionality for interplanetary spacecraft anywhere from 0.2 AU to 2 AU. and c) velocity distributions obtained from theory and validated against observation. Its use and application is also described, along with existing limitations and plans for future improvements.

  7. Direct care registered nurses' and nursing leaders' review of the clinical competencies needed for the successful nurse of the future: a gap analysis.

    PubMed

    Strong, Margaret; Kane, Irene; Petras, Denise; Johnson-Joy, Cheryl; Weingarten, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    Direct care nurses and nurse leaders were surveyed on their perceptions of the appropriateness, importance, and use in daily practice of 10 clinical nursing competencies needed for nurses to be successful in the future. Competencies needed in the 21st century are not based entirely on task-driven motor skills because comprehensive knowledge is essential to care for complex patients. Differences identified between direct care nurses, leaders, and educational levels provide educational opportunities for both groups.

  8. Developing the School of the Future Based on Quality Principles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doukas, Constantinos I.; Kotsanis, Yannis; Economu, Vassilis; Riviou, Katerina

    Our school's vision is to deliver a more attractive, qualitative and technologically equipped school to our students in order to prepare them to be active 21st Century citizens. In this paper we present the on-going effort that we have made during the last years, towards this direction. Our initial step towards building the "School of the Future" is the implementation of a "Classroom of the Future", as well as the experience gained through our participation in the homonym project. In this classroom our students have a light-weight portable "electronic schoolbag" (Tablet PC) and are connected wirelessly to the interactive whiteboard of their classroom and their teacher's "electronic" tools. This schoolbag contains all of their books and sheets as well as virtual labs, simulations, multimedia material, their schoolwork and every tool related to the educational process.

  9. Improvements in the use of aquatic herbicides and establishment of future research directions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Getsinger, K.D.; Netherland, M.D.; Grue, C.E.; Koschnick, T.J.

    2008-01-01

    priorities for future research directions in chemical management of submersed plants. The priorities we identified include: (A) improving methods for evaluating non-target impacts of herbicides with an emphasis on threatened and endangered species, or species of special concern; (B) improving herbicide performance in flowing-water environments, including irrigation canals; (C) screening and developing new herbicides to supplement fluridone for large-scale or whole-lake management approaches; (D) screening and developing new organic algaecides to supplement the use of copper-based compounds; (E) developing risk assessment tools to educate the public on the risks of invasive species and chemical management options; (F) increasing cooperative research with ecologists and fisheries scientists to evaluate the long-term impacts of invasive species introductions and herbicide programs on native plant assemblages, water quality, and fish populations; and (G) improving the integration of chemical control technology with other aquatic plant management disciplines. While circumstances may dictate setting new priorities or dropping current ones, the list we have generated represents our vision of the needs that will require the greatest focus over the next several years.

  10. Rapid Detection of Microorganisms--State of Art and Future Directions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, George

    2008-03-01

    For the last several decades, nutrient-based culture growth methods have been accepted as the standard for microorganism detection and identification. However, since the discovery of nucleic acids and molecular breakthrough technologies such as restriction enzymes and polymerase chain reactions, the detection and identification of microorganisms have advanced to culture-independent methods that fall under the category of rapid microbial detections. Here, we present an overview of major rapid microbial detection technologies. These technologies will include both amplification and non-amplification based methods for the detection and identification of target microorganisms. The technologies described can be applied to detecting a wide variety of microorganisms, including bacteria, viruses, mycoplasma, and fungi and have the potential sensitivity to detect a single microorganism. Also in this presentation, we will present examples of real-life applications as well as future challenges for the advancement of the field of rapid microbiology.

  11. A flexible future for paper-based electronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Tongfen; Zou, Xiyue; Mazzeo, Aaron D.

    2016-05-01

    This paper will review the origins and state of the art in paper-based electronics, suggesting the stage is set for future promising applications. Current interest in paper-based electronics can trace its roots to recent developments in paper-based microfluidics. With a need to improve the reliability and sensitivity of paperbased microfluidics for certain tasks, there were natural efforts to begin embedding sensing electrodes into microfluidic devices. Recognizing the general benefits of paper as an advanced material (e.g., its environmental friendliness, bendable nature, and low cost), efforts in paper-based electronics also began to take a life of their own with demonstrations of transistors, batteries and devices for energy storage, energy harvesting, sensors to improve situational awareness, acoustics, and displays. The state-of-the-art paper-based electronic devices have benefited and will continue to profit from technologies for printing and transferring electronic functionality onto the surfaces of paper-based substrates. Nonetheless, the authors suggest that many future promising applications will go beyond using paper as a carrier/substrate for electronic components to explore tuning of the electrical, mechanical, and chemical properties of the paper itself. With these technical advances, paper-based electronics will move closer to economically viable killer applications.

  12. The Current Status and Future Directions of Heavy Charged Particle Therapy in Medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levy, Richard P.; Blakely, Eleanor A.; Chu, William T.; Coutrakon, George B.; Hug, Eugen B.; Kraft, Gerhard; Tsujii, Hirohiko

    2009-03-01

    As aggressive, 3D-conformal treatment has become the clearly accepted goal of radiation oncology, heavy charged-particle treatment with protons and heavier ions has concurrently and relentlessly ascended to the forefront. Protons and helium nuclei, with relatively low linear-energy-transfer (LET) properties, have consistently been demonstrated to be beneficial for aggressive (high-dose) local treatment of many types of tumors. Protons have been applied to the majority of solid tumors, and have reached a high degree of general acceptance in radiation oncology after three decades and 55,000 patients treated. However, some 15% to 20% of tumor types have proven resistant to even the most aggressive low-LET irradiation. For these radio-resistant tumors, treatment with heavier ions (e.g., carbon) offers great potential benefit. These high-LET particles have increased relative biological effectiveness (RBE) that reaches its maximum in the Bragg peak. Irradiation with these heavier ions offers the unique combination of excellent 3D-dose distribution and increased RBE. We are presently witnessing several, important parallel developments in particle therapy. Protons will likely continue their exponential growth phase, and more compact design systems will make protons available to a larger patient population—thus becoming the "heavy charged particle of choice" for Cancer Centers with limited financial resources. In parallel, major academic efforts will further advance the field of heavier ion therapy, exploring all opportunities for particle treatment and continuing the search for the ideal particle(s) for specific tumors. The future of ion therapy will be best realized by clinical trials that have ready access to top-quality delivery of both protons and heavier ions that can be accurately shaped for treatment of a specific pathology, and which will permit direct randomized-trial comparison of the effectiveness of the various ions for different diseases. Optimal results

  13. The Current Status and Future Directions of Heavy Charged Particle Therapy in Medicine

    SciTech Connect

    Levy, Richard P.; Blakely, Eleanor A.; Chu, William T.; Coutrakon, George B.; Hug, Eugen B.; Kraft, Gerhard; Tsujii, Hirohiko

    2009-03-10

    As aggressive, 3D-conformal treatment has become the clearly accepted goal of radiation oncology, heavy charged-particle treatment with protons and heavier ions has concurrently and relentlessly ascended to the forefront. Protons and helium nuclei, with relatively low linear-energy-transfer (LET) properties, have consistently been demonstrated to be beneficial for aggressive (high-dose) local treatment of many types of tumors. Protons have been applied to the majority of solid tumors, and have reached a high degree of general acceptance in radiation oncology after three decades and 55,000 patients treated. However, some 15% to 20% of tumor types have proven resistant to even the most aggressive low-LET irradiation. For these radio-resistant tumors, treatment with heavier ions (e.g., carbon) offers great potential benefit. These high-LET particles have increased relative biological effectiveness (RBE) that reaches its maximum in the Bragg peak. Irradiation with these heavier ions offers the unique combination of excellent 3D-dose distribution and increased RBE. We are presently witnessing several, important parallel developments in particle therapy. Protons will likely continue their exponential growth phase, and more compact design systems will make protons available to a larger patient population - thus becoming the 'heavy charged particle of choice' for Cancer Centers with limited financial resources. In parallel, major academic efforts will further advance the field of heavier ion therapy, exploring all opportunities for particle treatment and continuing the search for the ideal particle(s) for specific tumors. The future of ion therapy will be best realized by clinical trials that have ready access to top-quality delivery of both protons and heavier ions that can be accurately shaped for treatment of a specific pathology, and which will permit direct randomized-trial comparison of the effectiveness of the various ions for different diseases. Optimal results

  14. The rehabilitation of face recognition impairments: a critical review and future directions.

    PubMed

    Bate, Sarah; Bennetts, Rachel J

    2014-01-01

    While much research has investigated the neural and cognitive characteristics of face recognition impairments (prosopagnosia), much less work has examined their rehabilitation. In this paper, we present a critical analysis of the studies that have attempted to improve face-processing skills in acquired and developmental prosopagnosia, and place them in the context of the wider neurorehabilitation literature. First, we examine whether neuroplasticity within the typical face-processing system varies across the lifespan, in order to examine whether timing of intervention may be crucial. Second, we examine reports of interventions in acquired prosopagnosia, where training in compensatory strategies has had some success. Third, we examine reports of interventions in developmental prosopagnosia, where compensatory training in children and remedial training in adults have both been successful. However, the gains are somewhat limited-compensatory strategies have resulted in labored recognition techniques and limited generalization to untrained faces, and remedial techniques require longer periods of training and result in limited maintenance of gains. Critically, intervention suitability and outcome in both forms of the condition likely depends on a complex interaction of factors, including prosopagnosia severity, the precise functional locus of the impairment, and individual differences such as age. Finally, we discuss future directions in the rehabilitation of prosopagnosia, and the possibility of boosting the effects of cognitive training programmes by simultaneous administration of oxytocin or non-invasive brain stimulation. We conclude that future work using more systematic methods and larger participant groups is clearly required, and in the case of developmental prosopagnosia, there is an urgent need to develop early detection and remediation tools for children, in order to optimize intervention outcome. PMID:25100965

  15. Future therapeutic directions for factor Xa inhibition in the prophylaxis and treatment of thrombotic disorders.

    PubMed

    Turpie, Alexander G G

    2003-11-15

    The targeted mechanism of factor Xa inhibition has been studied extensively, initially as prophylaxis for venous thromboembolism (VTE) in the orthopedic surgical setting. Future therapeutic directions for selective factor Xa inhibition in the management of other thrombotic diseases are discussed. Thromboembolic diseases can occur in the venous or arterial sides of the circulatory system. Factor Xa inhibition is a targeted approach to anticoagulation that resulted from significant advances in our understanding of the coagulation cascade. The factor Xa inhibitor fondaparinux has been studied extensively in the orthopedic surgical setting for the prophylaxis of VTE. Current investigations that are under way or completed evaluate the efficacy and safety of fondaparinux for the management of various thrombotic diseases. The future development of fondaparinux resides primarily in three therapeutic areas: prevention of VTE, treatment of VTE, and treatment of acute coronary syndromes. For the prevention of VTE, fondaparinux has been studied as extended prophylaxis following hip fracture surgery (PENTHIFRA Plus), for use in high-risk abdominal surgical patients (PEGASUS and APOLLO), and for use in medical patients (ARTEMIS). Studies evaluating fondaparinux for the treatment of VTE are part of the large MATISSE clinical program (MATISSE DVT and MATISSE PE). Fondaparinux was investigated in phase 2 studies for the treatment of acute coronary syndromes, including acute ST-segment myocardial infarction (PENTALYSE) and unstable angina (PENTUA). Encouraging data from these trials are the basis for phase 3 programs in this area (MICHELANGELO). The orthopedic prophylactic and nonorthopedic clinical programs for fondaparinux in the management of thrombosis support the concept that targeted inhibition of coagulation is an effective advance in antithrombotic therapy. PMID:14650863

  16. Scoring of coronary artery calcium scans: history, assumptions, current limitations, and future directions.

    PubMed

    Alluri, Krishna; Joshi, Parag H; Henry, Travis S; Blumenthal, Roger S; Nasir, Khurram; Blaha, Michael J

    2015-03-01

    Coronary artery calcium (CAC) scanning is a reliable, noninvasive technique for estimating overall coronary plaque burden and for identifying risk for future cardiac events. Arthur Agatston and Warren Janowitz published the first technique for scoring CAC scans in 1990. Given the lack of available data correlating CAC with burden of coronary atherosclerosis at that time, their scoring algorithm was remarkable, but somewhat arbitrary. Since then, a few other scoring techniques have been proposed for the measurement of CAC including the Volume score and Mass score. Yet despite new data, little in this field has changed in the last 15 years. The main focus of our paper is to review the implications of the current approach to scoring CAC scans in terms of correlation with the central disease - coronary atherosclerosis. We first discuss the methodology of each available scoring system, describing how each of these scores make important indirect assumptions in the way they account (or do not account) for calcium density, location of calcium, spatial distribution of calcium, and microcalcification/emerging calcium that might limit their predictive power. These assumptions require further study in well-designed, large event-driven studies. In general, all of these scores are adequate and are highly correlated with each other. Despite its age, the Agatston score remains the most extensively studied and widely accepted technique in both the clinical and research settings. After discussing CAC scoring in the era of contrast enhanced coronary CT angiography, we discuss suggested potential modifications to current CAC scanning protocols with respect to tube voltage, tube current, and slice thickness which may further improve the value of CAC scoring. We close with a focused discussion of the most important future directions in the field of CAC scoring. PMID:25585030

  17. The History, Status, Gaps, and Future Directions of Neurotoxicology in China

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Tongjian; Luo, Wenjing; Ruan, Diyun; Wu, Yi-Jun; Fox, Donald A.; Chen, Jingyuan

    2016-01-01

    history, status, gaps, and future directions of neurotoxicology in China. Environ Health Perspect 124:722–732; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1409566 PMID:26824332

  18. Genetic Toxicology in the 21st Century: Reflections and Future Directions

    PubMed Central

    Mahadevan, Brinda; Snyder, Ronald D.; Waters, Michael D.; Benz, R. Daniel; Kemper, Raymond A.; Tice, Raymond R.; Richard, Ann M.

    2011-01-01

    A symposium at the 40th anniversary of the Environmental Mutagen Society, held from October 24–28, 2009 in St. Louis, MO, surveyed the current status and future directions of genetic toxicology. This article summarizes the presentations and provides a perspective on the future. An abbreviated history is presented, highlighting the current standard battery of genotoxicity assays and persistent challenges. Application of computational toxicology to safety testing within a regulatory setting is discussed as a means for reducing the need for animal testing and human clinical trials, and current approaches and applications of in silico genotoxicity screening approaches across the pharmaceutical industry were surveyed and are reported here. The expanded use of toxicogenomics to illuminate mechanisms and bridge genotoxicity and carcinogenicity, and new public efforts to use high-throughput screening technologies to address lack of toxicity evaluation for the backlog of thousands of industrial chemicals in the environment are detailed. The Tox21 project involves coordinated efforts of four U.S. Government regulatory/research entities to use new and innovative assays to characterize key steps in toxicity pathways, including genotoxic and nongenotoxic mechanisms for carcinogenesis. Progress to date, highlighting preliminary test results from the National Toxicology Program is summarized. Finally, an overview is presented of ToxCast™, a related research program of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, using a broad array of high throughput and high content technologies for toxicity profiling of environmental chemicals, and computational toxicology modeling. Progress and challenges, including the pressing need to incorporate metabolic activation capability, are summarized. PMID:21538556

  19. Mapping Soil Salinity with ECa-Directed Soil Sampling: History, Protocols, Guidelines, Applications, and Future Research Trends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corwin, Dennis

    2014-05-01

    Soil salinity is a spatially complex and dynamic property of soil that influences crop yields when the threshold salinity level is exceeded. Mapping soil salinity is necessary for soil classification, reclamation, crop selection, and site-specific irrigation management of salt-affected soils in the arid and semi-arid agricultural regions of the world. Because of its spatial and temporal heterogeneity soil salinity is difficult to map and monitor at field scales. There are various methods for characterizing soil salinity variability, but none of these approaches has been as extensively investigated and is as reliable and cost effective as apparent soil electrical conductivity (ECa) directed soil sampling. Geospatial measurements of ECa are well-suited for characterizing soil salinity spatial distribution because they are reliable, quick, and easy to take with GPS-based mobilized ECa measurement equipment. However, ECa is influenced by a variety of soil properties, which makes the measurement of soil salinity at field scale problematic. It is the goal of this presentation to provide an overview of the field-scale characterization of soil salinity distribution using ECa-directed soil sampling. A historical perspective, protocols and guidelines, strengths and limitations, applications, and future trends are presented for characterizing spatial and temporal variation in soil salinity using ECa-directed soil sampling. Land resource managers, farmers, extension specialists, soil classification specialists, and Natural Resource Conservation Service field staff are the beneficiaries of field-scale maps of soil salinity.

  20. Multiple Transportable Carbohydrates During Exercise: Current Limitations and Directions for Future Research.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Patrick B

    2015-07-01

    The concept of multiple transportable carbohydrates (MTC) refers to a combination of saccharides that rely on distinct transporters for intestinal absorption. Ingestion of MTC during prolonged exercise has been purported to increase carbohydrate absorption efficiency, increase exogenous carbohydrate oxidation, reduce gastrointestinal (GI) distress, and improve athletic performance when carbohydrate intake is high (>50-60 g·h⁻¹). Although reviews of MTC research have been published previously, a comprehensive literature evaluation underscoring methodological limitations has not been conducted to guide future work. Accordingly, this review outlined the plausible mechanisms of MTC and subsequently evaluated MTC research based on several factors, including participant characteristics, exercise modality, exercise task, treatment formulation, treatment blinding, and pre-exercise nutrition status. A total of 27 articles examining MTC during exercise were identified and reviewed. Overall, ingestion of MTC led to increased exogenous carbohydrate oxidation, reduced GI distress, and improved performance during cycling lasting ≥2.5 hours, particularly when carbohydrate was ingested at ≥1.2 g·min⁻¹. Despite the apparent benefits, several limitations in the literature were apparent, including that only 3 studies used running, only 2 studies were conducted in the field, most participants were fasted, and women and adolescents were underrepresented. In addition, the majority of the studies fed carbohydrate at ≥1.2 g·min⁻¹, which may have inflated levels of GI distress and exaggerated performance decrements with single-saccharide feedings. Based on these limitations, future MTC investigations should consider focusing on running, examining team-based sports, including women and adolescents, conducting experiments under field conditions, examining the modifying effects of pre-exercise nutrition, and using modest feeding protocols (1.0-1.2 g·min⁻¹).

  1. The outcomes of complementary and alternative medicine use among pregnant and birthing women: current trends and future directions.

    PubMed

    Steel, Amie; Adams, Jon; Sibbritt, David; Broom, Alex

    2015-06-01

    Complementary and alternative medicine is used by a substantial number of pregnant women and maternity care providers are often faced with the task of ensuring women are using safe and effective treatments while respecting a woman's right to autonomous decision-making. In the era of evidence-based medicine maternity health professionals are expected to draw upon the best available evidence when making clinical decisions and providing health advice. This review will outline the current trends in research evidence associated with the outcomes of complementary and alternative medicine use amongst pregnant and birthing women as well as highlight some potential directions for future development in this important yet largely unknown topic in contemporary maternity care.

  2. Mindfulness Meditation Training for Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder in Adulthood: Current Empirical Support, Treatment Overview, and Future Directions

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, John T.; Zylowska, Lidia; Kollins, Scott H.

    2015-01-01

    Research examining nonpharmacological interventions for adults diagnosed with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has expanded in recent years and provides patients with more treatment options. Mindfulness-based training is an example of an intervention that is gaining promising preliminary empirical support and is increasingly administered in clinical settings. The aim of this review is to provide a rationale for the application of mindfulness to individuals diagnosed with ADHD, describe the current state of the empirical basis for mindfulness training in ADHD, and summarize a treatment approach specific to adults diagnosed with ADHD: the Mindful Awareness Practices (MAPs) for ADHD Program. Two case study examples are provided to demonstrate relevant clinical issues for practitioners interested in this approach. Directions for future research, including mindfulness meditation as a standalone treatment and as a complementary approach to cognitive-behavioral therapy, are provided. PMID:25908900

  3. Soft X-Ray Studies of Pu Electronic Structure: Past Lessons From XAS and Future Direction With BIS

    SciTech Connect

    Tobin, J G; Yu, S W; Chung, B W; Waddill, G D; Kutepov, A L

    2008-12-10

    Synchrotron-radiation-based spectroscopies such as X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy (XAS) have contributed greatly to our improved understanding of Pu electronic structure. However, significant questions remain concerning the nature of Pu electronic structure. Perhaps the missing piece of the puzzle is the direct experimental determination of the unoccupied electronic structure using high energy inverse photoelectron spectroscopy (IPES) or Bremstrahlung Isochromat Spectroscopy (BIS). Past BIS studies of Th and U indicate the feasibility and utility of Pu studies. To this end, a new BIS capability has been developed in our laboratory. Electron stimulated emission of photons has been carried out using the XES-350 monochromator and detector system. Our preliminary results and future plans will be presented.

  4. Potential impacts of topography and prevailing wind direction on future precipitation changes in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsunematsu, N.; Dairaku, K.; Hirano, J.

    2013-12-01

    To investigate future changes in summertime precipitation amounts over the Japanese islands and their relations to the topographical heights, this study analyzed 20 km horizontal grid-spacing regional climate model downscalings of MIROC3.2-hires 20C3M and SRES-A1B scenario data for the periods of 1981-2000 and 2081-2100. Results indicate the remarkable increases in June-July-August mean daily precipitation in the west and south sides (windward sides) of the mountainous regions, especially in western Japan where heavy rainfall is frequently observed in the recent climate. The remarkable increases in summertime precipitation are likely to occur not only in high altitude areas but also at low altitudes. The occurrence frequencies of precipitation greater than 100 mm/day would also increase in such areas. The intensification of southwesterly moist air flows in the lower troposphere is considered to be one of the main causes of those precipitation changes because the intensified southwesterly moist air flows impinging on the western and southern slopes of the mountains can generate stronger upslope flows and well-developed clouds, leading to increased precipitation. Also, the results show that future precipitation changes in the lee sides of the mountainous regions (e.g., the Tokyo metropolitan area) would be comparatively small. These results indicate large influences of topography and prevailing wind direction on future precipitation changes. Acknowledgments: This study was conducted as part of the research subject "Vulnerability and Adaptation to Climate Change in Water Hazard Assessed Using Regional Climate Scenarios in the Tokyo Region' (National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention; PI: Koji Dairaku) of Research Program on Climate Change Adaptation (RECCA) and was supported by the SOUSEI Program, funded by Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology, Government of Japan. We thank the regional climate modeling groups (MRI

  5. Current and future trends in metagenomics : Development of knowledge bases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mori, Hiroshi; Yamada, Takuji; Kurokawa, Ken

    Microbes are essential for every part of life on Earth. Numerous microbes inhabit the biosphere, many of which are uncharacterized or uncultivable. They form a complex microbial community that deeply affects against surrounding environments. Metagenome analysis provides a radically new way of examining such complex microbial community without isolation or cultivation of individual bacterial community members. In this article, we present a brief discussion about a metagenomics and the development of knowledge bases, and also discuss about the future trends in metagenomics.

  6. Social stress as a cause of diseases in farm animals: Current knowledge and future directions.

    PubMed

    Proudfoot, Kathryn; Habing, Gregory

    2015-10-01

    Over the past 50 years, biomedical research has established a strong linkage between psychosocial stress and disease risk in humans, which has transformed the understanding of stress and the role it plays in human lives. This research has led to personalized medicine where a reduction in daily life stress is a main goal for many people with debilitating illnesses. This review describes the supporting evidence that social stress also plays a critical role in farm animal disease prevention, and may be a mediator by which common management practices can increase disease risk. There is evidence that social factors, including deprivation of social contact ('social isolation'), reducing space allowance ('crowding') and disturbing social order ('social instability') trigger physiological and behavioral indicators of stress in livestock. Less research exists, however, linking management practices that trigger social stress with higher disease risk. Suggestions are offered for future research opportunities, and practical, evidence-based recommendations are made for reducing the negative effects of social isolation, instability and crowding. The current evidence that social factors contribute to disease risk in farm animals is not as convincing as the human literature, but remains a promising and important area for future research.

  7. Newton's cradle: a metaphor to consider the flexibility, resistance and direction of nursing's future.

    PubMed

    McAllister, Margaret; Madsen, Wendy; Holmes, Colin

    2014-06-01

    Nursing faces an uncertain future as technological developments, structural changes within health systems and rapidly evolving health needs create new and challenging possibilities. This article draws on the results of a qualitative study undertaken with a range of Queensland nurse leaders to explore their perceptions of these changes. The study re-surfaced, and allows for a re-examination of, four issues that have long created tension within nursing and which continue to have a negative impact on the profession as a whole. These are as follows: professionalisation; preparation of graduates; myths and narratives of nursing; and leadership. We provide a metaphor that imagines all of these tensions operating in dynamic interplay. The image is that of a Newton's Cradle - a model for energy and momentum. The metaphor allows one to see the wide context of changes affecting nursing and the significance of the interconnections. If tensions within nursing maintain their own integrity through containment, understanding and development, they remain in alignment, and energy is conserved rather than wasted or misdirected. It suggests that with increased awareness and attention paid to internal challenges, and by taking a broad-based approach to systemic improvements, nursing could become more effective, progressive and proactive in shaping its own future.

  8. The future direction of ITU-T SG4 and application of correlative technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yun, Xiang

    2004-04-01

    The future of TMN in ITU-T will be heavily influenced by new telecom technologies, such as IP, and associated management needs. To meet this challenge, SG 4 has adopted two approaches. Current focus of ITU-T SG4 is common working methods for specifying protocol-neutral TMN requirements and information/models and identification of key management technologies to meet future needs. ITU-T SG4 has successfully set up the CORBA framework. The core is re-using the CORBA Common Object Services. ITU-T defines a set of CORBA interfaces for the CORBA generic information model. These interfaces are translated manually from a set of M.3100 GDMO managed object classes following the TMN CORBA framework and guidelines. Although TMN CORBA framework has finished, it still raises new issues, such as implementation conformance and complexity of additional services. It is remarkable that China has made great progress on CORBA-based network management standardization. ITU-T adopts some correlative technologies. SG4 agreed to define the Integrated Management of Hybrid Circuit Switched and Packet/IP Networks. SG4 also make progress in tML, Qos, ETS.

  9. A critical review of the development, current hotspots, and future directions of Lake Taihu research from the bibliometrics perspective.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yunlin; Yao, Xiaolong; Qin, Boqiang

    2016-07-01

    Lake Taihu, as the important drinking water source of the Yangtze River Delta urban agglomeration and the third largest freshwater lake in China, has experienced serious lake eutrophication and water quality deterioration in the past three decades. Growing scientific, political, and public attention has been given to the water quality of Lake Taihu. This study aimed to conduct a comparative quantitative and qualitative analysis of the development, current hotspots, and future directions of Lake Taihu research using a bibliometric analysis of eight well-studied lakes (Lake Taihu, Lake Baikal, Lake Biwa, Lake Erie, Lake Michigan, Lake Ontario, Lake Superior and Lake Victoria) around the world based on the Science Citation Index (SCI) database. A total of 1582 papers discussing Lake Taihu research were published in 322 journals in the past three decades. However, the first paper about Lake Taihu research was not found in the SCI database until 1989, and there were only zero, one, or two papers each year from 1989 to 1995. There had been rapid development in Lake Taihu research since 1996 and a sharp increase in papers since 2005. A keyword analysis showed that "sediment," "eutrophication", "Microcystis aeruginosa", "cyanobacterial blooms", and "remote sensing" were the most frequently used keywords of the study subject. Owing to its significant impact on aquatic ecosystems, a crucial emphasis has been placed on climate change recently. In addition, the future focuses of research directions, including (1) environmental effects of physical processes; (2) nutrient cycles and control and ecosystem responses; (3) cyanobacteria bloom monitoring, causes, forecast and management; (4) eutrophication and climate change interactions; and (5) ecosystem degradation mechanism and ecological practice of lake restoration, are presented based on the keyword analysis. Through multidisciplinary fields (physics, chemistry, and biology) cross and synthesis study of Lake Taihu, the

  10. A critical review of the development, current hotspots, and future directions of Lake Taihu research from the bibliometrics perspective.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yunlin; Yao, Xiaolong; Qin, Boqiang

    2016-07-01

    Lake Taihu, as the important drinking water source of the Yangtze River Delta urban agglomeration and the third largest freshwater lake in China, has experienced serious lake eutrophication and water quality deterioration in the past three decades. Growing scientific, political, and public attention has been given to the water quality of Lake Taihu. This study aimed to conduct a comparative quantitative and qualitative analysis of the development, current hotspots, and future directions of Lake Taihu research using a bibliometric analysis of eight well-studied lakes (Lake Taihu, Lake Baikal, Lake Biwa, Lake Erie, Lake Michigan, Lake Ontario, Lake Superior and Lake Victoria) around the world based on the Science Citation Index (SCI) database. A total of 1582 papers discussing Lake Taihu research were published in 322 journals in the past three decades. However, the first paper about Lake Taihu research was not found in the SCI database until 1989, and there were only zero, one, or two papers each year from 1989 to 1995. There had been rapid development in Lake Taihu research since 1996 and a sharp increase in papers since 2005. A keyword analysis showed that "sediment," "eutrophication", "Microcystis aeruginosa", "cyanobacterial blooms", and "remote sensing" were the most frequently used keywords of the study subject. Owing to its significant impact on aquatic ecosystems, a crucial emphasis has been placed on climate change recently. In addition, the future focuses of research directions, including (1) environmental effects of physical processes; (2) nutrient cycles and control and ecosystem responses; (3) cyanobacteria bloom monitoring, causes, forecast and management; (4) eutrophication and climate change interactions; and (5) ecosystem degradation mechanism and ecological practice of lake restoration, are presented based on the keyword analysis. Through multidisciplinary fields (physics, chemistry, and biology) cross and synthesis study of Lake Taihu, the

  11. Research on the adaptation of skeletal muscle to hypogravity Past and future directions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riley, D. A.; Ellis, S.

    1983-01-01

    The results of previous research on the cellular effects of microgravity on rat tissue are reviewed and areas of future necessary research are identified. The rats were flown on board Cosmos 605, 782, and 936. Postflight tissue analyses revealed increases in connective tissue cells and focal disruption of muscle fibers due to the microgravity environment of space. Evidence has been found for muscular and neural changes occurring as a result of reentry stresses. It is suggested that a data base be established for quantizing muscle function with electromyography, measurements of force output, and length measurement. The data can serve as a reference for comparisons with data obtained in orbiting laboratories such as the Spacelab. The experiments will have a goal of defining and preventing the mechanism of neuromuscular atrophy.

  12. Patient-reported outcomes in studies of complementary and alternative medicine: problems, solutions, and future directions.

    PubMed

    Eton, David T; Bauer, Brent A; Sood, Amit; Yost, Kathleen J; Sloan, Jeff A

    2011-01-01

    Patient-reported outcome (PRO) measures are frequently used to assess therapeutic efficacy and effectiveness of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM). Although CAM investigators are increasingly making use of valid, self-report instruments to assess patient-relevant outcomes, the sheer number of available instruments poses challenges. Two of the more pressing issues are discussed: the lack of guidance for selecting measures and the limited attention paid to the clinical meaningfulness of PRO results. Solutions are offered that may support selection and standardization of outcome measures for future CAM studies. This includes testing of tools from the National Institutes of Health's Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS). Increased standardization of outcome measurement in CAM studies will allow for more cross-study comparisons and facilitate the statistical pooling of results, ultimately leading to a more informative evidence base.

  13. State of the art and future directions for the atomic hydrogen maser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vessot, Robert F. C.

    1990-01-01

    The present status of technology development for atomic hydrogen masers (H-masers) is reviewed. The limitations to frequency stability and accuracy are discussed with emphasis on the problems associated with cavity resonator instability and the lack of reproducibility and stability of the storage volume wall coating frequency shift. New types of coating developed in the Soviet Union and better, cavity resonator materials, are expected to make possible frequency at the 10(exp -16) level at 10(exp 4) sec. Better control of systematic effects should extend the long-term stability to levels better than 10(exp -15) for intervals beyond one day. Present use of H-masers as flywheel oscillators in timekeeping systems is discussed as is the outlook for the future cryogenic and room temperature H-masers as flywheel oscillators to operate very high resolution frequency discriminators based on the newly evolving technology of trapped and cooled ions and atoms.

  14. Gender-Specific Research on Mental Illness in the Emergency Department: Current Knowledge and Future Directions

    PubMed Central

    Ranney, Megan L.; Locci, Natalie; Adams, Erica J.; Betz, Marian; Burmeister, David B.; Corbin, Ted; Dalawari, Preeti; Jacoby, Jeanne L.; Linden, Judith; Purtle, Jonathan; North, Carol; Houry, Debra E.

    2014-01-01

    Mental illness is a growing, and largely unaddressed, problem for the population and for emergency department (ED) patients in particular. Extensive literature outlines sex and gender differences in mental illness’ epidemiology and risk and protective factors. Few studies, however, examined sex and gender differences in screening, diagnosis, and management of mental illness in the ED setting. Our consensus group used the nominal group technique to outline major gaps in knowledge and research priorities for these areas, including the influence of violence and other risk factors on the course of mental illness for ED patients. Our consensus group urges the pursuit of this research in general, and conscious use of a gender lens when conducting, analyzing, and authoring future ED-based investigations of mental illness. PMID:25413369

  15. Non-invasive brain stimulation in children: applications and future directions

    PubMed Central

    Rajapakse, Thilinie; Kirton, Adam

    2013-01-01

    Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is a neurostimulation and neuromodulation technique that has provided over two decades of data in focal, non-invasive brain stimulation based on the principles of electromagnetic induction. Its minimal risk, excellent tolerability and increasingly sophisticated ability to interrogate neurophysiology and plasticity make it an enviable technology for use in pediatric research with future extension into therapeutic trials. While adult trials show promise in using TMS as a novel, non-invasive, non-pharmacologic diagnostic and therapeutic tool in a variety of nervous system disorders, its use in children is only just emerging. TMS represents an exciting advancement to better understand and improve outcomes from disorders of the developing brain. PMID:24163755

  16. Future directions in two-phase flow and heat transfer in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bankoff, S. George

    1994-01-01

    Some areas of opportunity for future research in microgravity two-phase flow and heat transfer are pointed out. These satisfy the dual requirements of relevance to current and future needs, and scientific/engineering interest.

  17. Current guidelines for high-density lipoprotein cholesterol in therapy and future directions

    PubMed Central

    Subedi, Bishnu H; Joshi, Parag H; Jones, Steven R; Martin, Seth S; Blaha, Michael J; Michos, Erin D

    2014-01-01

    Many studies have suggested that a significant risk factor for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) is low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C). Therefore, increasing HDL-C with therapeutic agents has been considered an attractive strategy. In the prestatin era, fibrates and niacin monotherapy, which cause modest increases in HDL-C, reduced ASCVD events. Since their introduction, statins have become the cornerstone of lipoprotein therapy, the benefits of which are primarily attributed to decrease in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Findings from several randomized trials involving niacin or cholesteryl ester transfer protein inhibitors have challenged the concept that a quantitative elevation of plasma HDL-C will uniformly translate into ASCVD benefits. Consequently, the HDL, or more correctly, HDL-C hypothesis has become more controversial. There are no clear guidelines thus far for targeting HDL-C or HDL due to lack of solid outcomes data for HDL specific therapies. HDL-C levels are only one marker of HDL out of its several structural or functional properties. Novel approaches are ongoing in developing and assessing agents that closely mimic the structure of natural HDL or replicate its various functions, for example, reverse cholesterol transport, vasodilation, anti-inflammation, or inhibition of platelet aggregation. Potential new approaches like HDL infusions, delipidated HDL, liver X receptor agonists, Apo A-I upregulators, Apo A mimetics, and gene therapy are in early phase trials. This review will outline current therapies and describe future directions for HDL therapeutics. PMID:24748800

  18. Therapeutic Rationales, Progresses, Failures, and Future Directions for Advanced Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Wadosky, Kristine M; Koochekpour, Shahriar

    2016-01-01

    Patients with localized prostate cancer (PCa) have several therapeutic options with good prognosis. However, survival of patients with high-risk, advanced PCa is significantly less than patients with early-stage, organ-confined disease. Testosterone and other androgens have been directly linked to PCa progression since 1941. In this review, we chronicle the discoveries that led to modern therapeutic strategies for PCa. Specifically highlighted is the biology of androgen receptor (AR), the nuclear receptor transcription factor largely responsible for androgen-stimulated and castrate-recurrent (CR) PCa. Current PCa treatment paradigms can be classified into three distinct but interrelated categories: targeting AR at pre-receptor, receptor, or post-receptor signaling. The continuing challenge of disease relapse as CR and/or metastatic tumors, destined to occur within three years of the initial treatment, is also discussed. We conclude that the success of PCa therapies in the future depends on targeting molecular mechanisms underlying tumor recurrence that still may affect AR at pre-receptor, receptor, and post-receptor levels. PMID:27019626

  19. Integrating MCH/FP and STD/HIV services: current debates and future directions.

    PubMed

    Mayhew, S

    1996-12-01

    The issue of integrating MCH/FP and STD/HIV services has gained an increasingly high priority on public health agendas in recent years. In the prevailing climate of health sector reform, policy-makers are likely to be increasingly pressed to address the broader concept of "reproductive health' in the terms consolidated at the Cairo International Conference on Population and Development, and the UN Conference on Women in Beijing. Integrated MCH/FP and STD/HIV services could be regarded as a significant step towards providing integrated reproductive health services, but clarity of issues and concerns is essential. A number of rationales have emerged which argue for the integration of these services, and many concerns have been voiced. There is little consensus, however, on the definition of "integrated services' and there are few documented case studies which might clarify the issues. This paper reviews the context in which rationales for "integrated services' emerged, the issues of concern and the case studies available. It concludes by suggesting future directions for research, noting in particular the need for country-specific and multi-dimensional frameworks and the appropriateness of a policy analysis approach.

  20. Reflections on the development of psychology in Ethiopia and future directions.

    PubMed

    Wondie, Yemataw

    2014-10-01

    The introduction and development of psychology in Ethiopia has been mainly limited to Addis Ababa University in the capital city, and also to educational and school psychology which was highly influenced by the field of education at this pioneering university. Similarly, mental health services have been principally developed at the Amanuel Mental Hospital in Addis Ababa that has existed since the 1950s. However, the expansion of higher learning institutions on one hand, and the apparent growing prevalence of mental illness on the other, seem to have contributed to the development of both mental health training and services in other regional cities and towns. Although the influence of the education-oriented psychological training of the Addis Ababa University is still present, clinical psychology education and services are now being started in other universities. One of these is the master's programme in clinical psychology opened for the first time in the University of Gondar. This article sheds light on the development of psychology in Ethiopia and addresses some of the issues raised about the factors that have influenced its development such as traditional beliefs, poverty and comparisons between mental health in lower middle-income countries and higher middle-income countries ( Uppal et al., 2014 ). The paper also proposes future directions for the education, research, infrastructure and services of clinical psychology and mental health in Ethiopia.