Science.gov

Sample records for future directions based

  1. Future directions.

    PubMed

    Erickson, David L; Kress, W John

    2012-01-01

    It is a risky task to attempt to predict the direction that DNA barcoding and its applications may take in the future. In a very short time, the endeavor of DNA barcoding has gone from being a tool to facilitate taxonomy in difficult to identify species, to an ambitious, global initiative that seeks to tackle such pertinent and challenging issues as quantifying global biodiversity, revolutionizing the forensic identifications of species, advancing the study of interactions among species, and promoting the reconstruction of evolutionary relationships within communities. The core element of DNA barcoding will always remain the same: the generation of a set of well-identified samples collected and genotyped at one or more genetic barcode markers and assembled into a properly curated database. But the application of this body of data will depend on the creativity and need of the research community in using a "gold standard" of annotated DNA sequence data at the species level. We foresee several areas where the application of DNA barcode data is likely to yield important evolutionary, ecological, and societal insights, and while far from exclusive, provide examples of how DNA barcode data will continue to empower scientists to address hypothesis-driven research. Three areas of immediate and obvious concern are (1) biodiversity inventories, (2) phylogenetic applications, and (3) species interactions.

  2. Discovery of nutritional biomarkers: future directions based on omics technologies.

    PubMed

    Odriozola, Leticia; Corrales, Fernado J

    2015-07-01

    Understanding the interactions between food and human biology is of utmost importance to facilitate the development of more efficient nutritional interventions that might improve our wellness status and future health outcomes by reducing risk factors for non-transmittable chronic diseases, such as cardiovascular diseases, cancer, obesity and metabolic syndrome. Dissection of the molecular mechanisms that mediate the physiological effects of diets and bioactive compounds is one of the main goals of current nutritional investigation and the food industry as might lead to the discovery of novel biomarkers. It is widely recognized that the availability of robust nutritional biomarkers represents a bottleneck that delays the innovation process of the food industry. In this regard, omics sciences have opened up new avenues of research and opportunities in nutrition. Advances in mass spectrometry, nuclear magnetic resonance, next generation sequencing and microarray technologies allow massive genome, gene expression, proteomic and metabolomic profiling, obtaining a global and in-depth analysis of physiological/pathological scenarios. For this reason, omics platforms are most suitable for the discovery and characterization of novel nutritional markers that will define the nutritional status of both individuals and populations in the near future, and to identify the nutritional bioactive compounds responsible for the health outcomes.

  3. Mass spectrometry based proteomics: existing capabilities and future directions

    PubMed Central

    Angel, Thomas E.; Aryal, Uma K.; Hengel, Shawna M.; Baker, Erin S.; Kelly, Ryan T.; Robinson, Errol W.; Smith, Richard D.

    2012-01-01

    Mass spectrometry (MS)-based proteomics is emerging as a broadly effective means for identification, characterization, and quantification of proteins that are integral components of the processes essential for life. Characterization of proteins at the proteome and sub-proteome (e.g., the phosphoproteome, proteoglycome, or degradome/peptidome) levels provides a foundation for understanding fundamental aspects of biology. Emerging technologies such as ion mobility separations coupled with MS and microchip-based-proteome measurements combined with MS instrumentation and chromatographic separation techniques, such as nanoscale reversed phase liquid chromatography and capillary electrophoresis, show great promise for both broad undirected and targeted highly sensitive measurements. MS-based proteomics is increasingly contribute to our understanding of the dynamics, interactions, and roles that proteins and peptides play, advancing our understanding of biology on a systems wide level for a wide range of applications including investigations of microbial communities, bioremediation, and human health. PMID:22498958

  4. Future directions. Collagen-based prostheses for meniscal regeneration.

    PubMed

    Stone, K R; Rodkey, W G; Webber, R J; McKinney, L; Steadman, J R

    1990-03-01

    Prosthetic meniscal replacement offers the ability to stabilize the meniscectomized knee and provide prophylaxis against early degenerative arthritis. Since prosthetic meniscal replacement may be performed in the setting of normal articular cartilage, a prosthesis will be required to match the exact joint configuration, induce the same lubricity, produce the same coefficient of friction, and absorb and dampen the same joint forces (without incurring significant creep or abrasion) as does the normal meniscus. This feat is currently beyond the capabilities of artificial materials alone. Alternatively, collagen-based prostheses acting as resorbable regeneration templates offer the possibility of inducing regrowth of new menisci. This paper presents a summary of hypotheses, considerations, and laboratory evidence for the use of collagen-based, resorbable matrices as regeneration templates.

  5. Mass spectrometry-based proteomics: existing capabilities and future directions

    SciTech Connect

    Angel, Thomas E.; Aryal, Uma K.; Hengel, Shawna M.; Baker, Erin Shammel; Kelly, Ryan T.; Robinson, Errol W.; Smith, Richard D.

    2012-05-21

    Mass spectrometry-based proteomics provides a means for identification, characterization, and quantification of biomolecules that are integral components of the processes essential for life. Characterization of proteins present in a biological system at the proteome and sub-proteomes (e.g., the phosphoproteome, proteoglycome, or degradome/peptidome) levels provides a foundation for understanding fundamental aspects as well as potentially a range of translational applications. Emerging technologies such as ion mobility separations coupled with mass spectrometry and microchip-based - proteome measurements combined with continued enhancement of MS instrumentation and separation techniques, such as reversed phase liquid chromatography and potentially capillary electrophoresis, show great promise for both broad undirected as well as targeted measurements and will be critical for e.g., the proteome-wide characterization of post translational modifications and identification, or the verification, and validation of potential biomarkers of disease. MS-based proteomics is also increasingly demonstrating great potential for contributing to our understanding of the dynamics, reactions, and roles proteins and peptides play advancing our understanding of biology on a system wide level for a wide range of applications, from investigations of microbial communities, bioremediation, and human health and disease states alike.

  6. Evidence base and future research directions in the management of low back pain

    PubMed Central

    Abbott, Allan

    2016-01-01

    Low back pain (LBP) is a prevalent and costly condition. Awareness of valid and reliable patient history taking, physical examination and clinical testing is important for diagnostic accuracy. Stratified care which targets treatment to patient subgroups based on key characteristics is reliant upon accurate diagnostics. Models of stratified care that can potentially improve treatment effects include prognostic risk profiling for persistent LBP, likely response to specific treatment based on clinical prediction models or suspected underlying causal mechanisms. The focus of this editorial is to highlight current research status and future directions for LBP diagnostics and stratified care. PMID:27004162

  7. Agent-Based Modeling of Chronic Diseases: A Narrative Review and Future Research Directions

    PubMed Central

    Lawley, Mark A.; Siscovick, David S.; Zhang, Donglan; Pagán, José A.

    2016-01-01

    The United States is experiencing an epidemic of chronic disease. As the US population ages, health care providers and policy makers urgently need decision models that provide systematic, credible prediction regarding the prevention and treatment of chronic diseases to improve population health management and medical decision-making. Agent-based modeling is a promising systems science approach that can model complex interactions and processes related to chronic health conditions, such as adaptive behaviors, feedback loops, and contextual effects. This article introduces agent-based modeling by providing a narrative review of agent-based models of chronic disease and identifying the characteristics of various chronic health conditions that must be taken into account to build effective clinical- and policy-relevant models. We also identify barriers to adopting agent-based models to study chronic diseases. Finally, we discuss future research directions of agent-based modeling applied to problems related to specific chronic health conditions. PMID:27236380

  8. Agent-Based Modeling of Chronic Diseases: A Narrative Review and Future Research Directions.

    PubMed

    Li, Yan; Lawley, Mark A; Siscovick, David S; Zhang, Donglan; Pagán, José A

    2016-05-26

    The United States is experiencing an epidemic of chronic disease. As the US population ages, health care providers and policy makers urgently need decision models that provide systematic, credible prediction regarding the prevention and treatment of chronic diseases to improve population health management and medical decision-making. Agent-based modeling is a promising systems science approach that can model complex interactions and processes related to chronic health conditions, such as adaptive behaviors, feedback loops, and contextual effects. This article introduces agent-based modeling by providing a narrative review of agent-based models of chronic disease and identifying the characteristics of various chronic health conditions that must be taken into account to build effective clinical- and policy-relevant models. We also identify barriers to adopting agent-based models to study chronic diseases. Finally, we discuss future research directions of agent-based modeling applied to problems related to specific chronic health conditions.

  9. Future direction of direct writing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Nam-Soo; Han, Kenneth N.

    2010-11-01

    Direct write technology using special inks consisting of finely dispersed metal nanoparticles in liquid is receiving an undivided attention in recent years for its wide range of applicability in modern electronic industry. The application of this technology covers radio frequency identification-tag (RFID-tag), flexible-electronics, organic light emitting diodes (OLED) display, e-paper, antenna, bumpers used in flip-chip, underfilling, frit, miniresistance applications and biological uses, artificial dental applications and many more. In this paper, the authors have reviewed various direct write technologies on the market and discussed their advantages and shortfalls. Emphasis has given on microdispensing deposition write (MDDW), maskless mesoscale materials deposition (M3D), and ink-jet technologies. All of these technologies allow printing various patterns without employing a mask or a resist with an enhanced speed with the aid of computer. MDDW and M3D are capable of drawing patterns in three-dimension and MDDW, in particular, is capable of writing nanoinks with high viscosity. However, it is still far away for direct write to be fully implemented in the commercial arena. One of the hurdles to overcome is in manufacturing conductive inks which are chemically and physically stable, capable of drawing patterns with acceptable conductivity, and also capable of drawing patterns with acceptable adhesiveness with the substrates. The authors have briefly discussed problems involved in manufacturing nanometal inks to be used in various writing devices. There are numerous factors to be considered in manufacturing such inks. They are reducing agents, concentrations, oxidation, compact ability allowing good conductivity, and stability in suspension.

  10. Conclusions: Future Directions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobson, Harvey K.

    1978-01-01

    Various aspects of the institutional evaluation process are discussed including: pitfalls to avoid, choice of indicators, audience, accountability, futures research, technological change, program termination, data sources, longitudinal data, political aspects, advertising, marketing, and internal v external evaluators. (Author/SF)

  11. Conclusions and Future Directions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lillibridge, Fred

    2012-01-01

    Benchmarking, when done properly, offers a lot of promise for higher education units that want to improve how they do business. It is clear that much is known, but still more needs to be learned before it reaches its full potential as a useful tool. Readers of this issue of "New Directions for Institutional Research" have been treated to useful…

  12. Future devices and directions.

    PubMed

    Clark, R E; Zafirelis, Z

    2000-01-01

    This article summarizes the status of left ventricular assist devices currently in the stages of bench testing, animal experiments, and pilot clinical trials. The major design features and estimate of costs for 17 devices are described under 3 major categories of indications for use: destination therapy, bridge to transplant, and bridge to recovery. A sleeved piston pump located in the aorta and a unique, magnetically suspended centrifugal pump are described in the destination therapy section. Eight centrifugal and 4 axial flow devices are listed in the bridge to transplant category, and an external cup and a very low-cost centrifugal pump with a left atrium-to-aorta circuit are described in the bridge to recovery section. The key design features of the future, which will be required for success in both the clinical and marketplace arenas, will be simplicity, safety, low-power requirements, and low cost.

  13. UROLOGIC ROBOTS AND FUTURE DIRECTIONS

    PubMed Central

    Mozer, Pierre; Troccaz, Jocelyne; Stoianovici, Dan

    2009-01-01

    Purpose of review Robot-assisted laparoscopic surgery in urology has gained immense popularity with the Da Vinci system but a lot of research teams are working on new robots. The purpose of this paper is to review current urologic robots and present future developments directions. Recent findings Future systems are expected to advance in two directions: improvements of remote manipulation robots and developments of image-guided robots. Summary The final goal of robots is to allow safer and more homogeneous outcomes with less variability of surgeon performance, as well as new tools to perform tasks based on medical transcutaneous imaging, in a less invasive way, at lower costs. It is expected that improvements for remote system could be augmented reality, haptic feed back, size reduction and development of new tools for NOTES surgery. The paradigm of image-guided robots is close to a clinical availability and the most advanced robots are presented with end-user technical assessments. It is also notable that the potential of robots lies much further ahead than the accomplishments of the daVinci system. The integration of imaging with robotics holds a substantial promise, because this can accomplish tasks otherwise impossible. Image guided robots have the potential to offer a paradigm shift. PMID:19057227

  14. Optimizing the P300-based brain-computer interface: current status, limitations and future directions.

    PubMed

    Mak, J N; Arbel, Y; Minett, J W; McCane, L M; Yuksel, B; Ryan, D; Thompson, D; Bianchi, L; Erdogmus, D

    2011-04-01

    This paper summarizes the presentations and discussions at a workshop held during the Fourth International BCI Meeting charged with reviewing and evaluating the current state, limitations and future development of P300-based brain-computer interface (P300-BCI) systems. We reviewed such issues as potential users, recording methods, stimulus presentation paradigms, feature extraction and classification algorithms, and applications. A summary of the discussions and the panel's recommendations for each of these aspects are presented.

  15. Technology-based interventions for weight management: current randomized controlled trial evidence and future directions.

    PubMed

    Kozak, Andrea T; Buscemi, Joanna; Hawkins, Misty A W; Wang, Monica L; Breland, Jessica Y; Ross, Kathryn M; Kommu, Anupama

    2017-02-01

    Obesity is a prevalent health care issue associated with disability, premature morality, and high costs. Behavioral weight management interventions lead to clinically significant weight losses in overweight and obese individuals; however, many individuals are not able to participate in these face-to-face treatments due to limited access, cost, and/or time constraints. Technological advances such as widespread access to the Internet, increased use of smartphones, and newer behavioral self-monitoring tools have resulted in the development of a variety of eHealth weight management programs. In the present paper, a summary of the most current literature is provided along with potential solutions to methodological challenges (e.g., high attrition, minimal participant racial/ethnic diversity, heterogeneity of technology delivery modes). Dissemination and policy implications will be highlighted as future directions for the field of eHealth weight management.

  16. Future Directions in Ultraviolet Spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sonneborn, George (Editor); Moos, Warren; VanSteenberg, Michael

    2009-01-01

    The 'Future Directions in Ultraviolet Spectroscopy' conference was inspired by the accomplishments of the Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer (FUSE) Mission. The FUSE mission was launched in June 1999 and spent over eight years exploring the far-ultraviolet universe, gathering over 64 million seconds of high-resolution spectral data on nearly 3000 astronomical targets. The goal of this conference was not only to celebrate the accomplishments of FUSE, but to look toward the future and understand the major scientific drivers for the ultraviolet capabilities of the next generation fo space observatories. Invited speakers presented discussions based on measurements made by FUSE and other ultraviolet instruments, assessed their connection with measurements made with other techniques and, where appropriate, discussed the implications of low-z measurements for high-z phenomena. In addition to the oral presentations, many participants presented poster papers. The breadth of these presentation made it clear that much good science is still in progress with FUSE data and that these result will continue to have relevance in many scientific areas.

  17. Parent ADHD and Evidence-Based Treatment for Their Children: Review and Directions for Future Research.

    PubMed

    Chronis-Tuscano, Andrea; Wang, Christine H; Woods, Kelsey E; Strickland, Jennifer; Stein, Mark A

    2017-04-01

    One fourth to one half of parents of children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have ADHD themselves, complicating delivery of evidence-based child behavioral and pharmacological treatments. In this article, we review the literature examining the relation between parent ADHD and outcomes following behavioral and pharmacological treatments for children with ADHD. We also review research that has incorporated treatment of parent ADHD (either alone or in combination with child treatment) with the goal of improving parenting and child outcomes. Finally, we offer recommendations for future research on the relation between parent ADHD and evidence-based treatment outcomes for their children, with the purpose of advancing the science and informing clinical care of these families.

  18. [Development of therapies for Alzheimer's disease based on cholinergic hypothesis-status quo and future directions].

    PubMed

    Shimohama, Shun

    2013-01-01

    Numerous approaches have been explored to treat individuals with Alzheimer's disease (AD). General approaches include the following treatment; treatment of cognitive symptoms, slowing decline, delaying onset of disease, and primary prevention. 2011 is the new era for the drug therapy for AD in Japan, because three anti-dementia drugs, galantamine, rivastigmine and memantine, were admitted to use for AD in addition to donepezil. Donepezil, galantamine and rivastigmine has been developed based on cholinergic hypothesis that acetylcholine (ACh) acts a chief neurotransmitter as a cognitive neurotransmitter. Donepezil a specific acetylcholinesterase inhibitor (AChEI). Galantamine acts as an allosteric potentiating ligand of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in addition to the function of AChEI. Rivastigmine increase acetylcholine in the cholinergic synapse by inhibition of both AChE and butyrylcholinesterase. Recent study shows that these anti-dementia drugs afford symptomatic effect and also act as disease-modifiers which inhibit neuronal death and abnormal amyloid-beta deposition. These effects can slow the rate of decline of the disease. While in the past many of our attempts have been to treat secondary symptoms or improve the cognitive deficits, future attempts are likely to focus on slowing the rate of decline, delaying the onset of appearance, or preventing the disease.

  19. Simulation-based driver and vehicle crew training: applications, efficacy and future directions.

    PubMed

    Goode, Natassia; Salmon, Paul M; Lenné, Michael G

    2013-05-01

    Simulation is widely used as a training tool in many domains, and more recently the use of vehicle simulation as a tool for driver and vehicle crew training has become popular (de Winter et al., 2009; Pradhan et al., 2009). This paper presents an overview of how vehicle simulations are currently used to train driving-related procedural and higher-order cognitive skills, and team-based procedural and non-technical teamwork skills for vehicle crews, and evaluates whether there is evidence these training programs are effective. Efficacy was evaluated in terms of whether training achieves learning objectives and whether the attainment of those objectives enhances real world performance on target tasks. It was concluded that while some higher-order cognitive skills training programs have been shown to be effective, in general the adoption of simulation technology has far outstripped the pace of empirical research in this area. The paper concludes with a discussion of the issues that require consideration when developing and evaluating vehicle simulations for training purposes - based not only on what is known from the vehicle domain, but what can be inferred from other domains in which simulation is an established training approach, such as aviation (e.g. Jentsch et al., 2011) and medicine (e.g. McGaghie et al., 2010). STATEMENT OF RELEVANCE: Simulation has become a popular tool for driver and vehicle crew training in civilian and military settings. This review considers whether there is evidence that this training method leads to learning and the transfer of skills to real world performance. Evidence from other domains, such as aviation and medicine, is drawn upon to inform the design and evaluation of future vehicle simulation training systems.

  20. Biologically Based Methods for Pest Management in Agriculture under Changing Climates: Challenges and Future Directions

    PubMed Central

    Chidawanyika, Frank; Mudavanhu, Pride; Nyamukondiwa, Casper

    2012-01-01

    The current changes in global climatic regimes present a significant societal challenge, affecting in all likelihood insect physiology, biochemistry, biogeography and population dynamics. With the increasing resistance of many insect pest species to chemical insecticides and an increasing organic food market, pest control strategies are slowly shifting towards more sustainable, ecologically sound and economically viable options. Biologically based pest management strategies present such opportunities through predation or parasitism of pests and plant direct or indirect defense mechanisms that can all be important components of sustainable integrated pest management programs. Inevitably, the efficacy of biological control systems is highly dependent on natural enemy-prey interactions, which will likely be modified by changing climates. Therefore, knowledge of how insect pests and their natural enemies respond to climate variation is of fundamental importance in understanding biological insect pest management under global climate change. Here, we discuss biological control, its challenges under climate change scenarios and how increased global temperatures will require adaptive management strategies to cope with changing status of insects and their natural enemies. PMID:26466733

  1. Biologically Based Methods for Pest Management in Agriculture under Changing Climates: Challenges and Future Directions.

    PubMed

    Chidawanyika, Frank; Mudavanhu, Pride; Nyamukondiwa, Casper

    2012-11-09

    The current changes in global climatic regimes present a significant societal challenge, affecting in all likelihood insect physiology, biochemistry, biogeography and population dynamics. With the increasing resistance of many insect pest species to chemical insecticides and an increasing organic food market, pest control strategies are slowly shifting towards more sustainable, ecologically sound and economically viable options. Biologically based pest management strategies present such opportunities through predation or parasitism of pests and plant direct or indirect defense mechanisms that can all be important components of sustainable integrated pest management programs. Inevitably, the efficacy of biological control systems is highly dependent on natural enemy-prey interactions, which will likely be modified by changing climates. Therefore, knowledge of how insect pests and their natural enemies respond to climate variation is of fundamental importance in understanding biological insect pest management under global climate change. Here, we discuss biological control, its challenges under climate change scenarios and how increased global temperatures will require adaptive management strategies to cope with changing status of insects and their natural enemies.

  2. Future directions in aeropropulsion technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saunders, N. T.; Glassman, A. J.

    1985-01-01

    Future directions in aeropropulsion technology that have been identified in a series of studies recently sponsored by the U.S. Government are discussed. Advanced vehicle concepts that could become possible by the turn of the century are presented along with some of their projected capabilities. Key building-block propulsion technologies that will contribute to making these vehicle concepts a reality are discussed along with projections of their status by the year 2000. Some pertinent highlights of the NASA aeropropulsion program are included in the discussion.

  3. Developing Initiatives for Home-Based Child Care: Current Research and Future Directions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porter, Toni; Paulsell, Diane

    2011-01-01

    Home-based child care accounts for a significant share of the child care supply in the United States, especially for infants and toddlers. A synthesis of the home-based care research literature and information about recent home-based care quality initiatives points to a critical need for more systematic efforts to develop and test quality…

  4. School-Based Prevention of Depression and Anxiety in Australia: Current State and Future Directions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nehmy, Thomas J.

    2010-01-01

    Depression and anxiety constitute an enormous public health burden in Australia, and as such primary prevention is an important focus for school-based prevention efforts. The focus of the current literature review is school-based prevention programmes for depression and anxiety in Australia. Most prevention studies to date would be better…

  5. Evidence-Based Interventions in School Psychology: State of the Art and Directions for the Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gutkin, Terry B.

    2002-01-01

    Presents an overview of this special journal issue, designed to provide a current snapshot of the accomplishments and controversies pertaining to evidence-based intervention in school psychology. (GCP)

  6. Translating research for evidence-based public health: key concepts and future directions.

    PubMed

    Rychetnik, Lucie; Bauman, Adrian; Laws, Rachel; King, Lesley; Rissel, Chris; Nutbeam, Don; Colagiuri, Stephen; Caterson, Ian

    2012-12-01

    Applying research to guide evidence-based practice is an ongoing and significant challenge for public health. Developments in the emerging field of 'translation' have focused on different aspects of the problem, resulting in competing frameworks and terminology. In this paper the scope of 'translation' in public health is defined, and four related but conceptually different 'translation processes' that support evidence-based practice are outlined: (1) reviewing the transferability of evidence to new settings, (2) translation research, (3) knowledge translation, and (4) knowledge translation research. Finally, an integrated framework is presented to illustrate the relationship between these domains, and priority areas for further development and empirical research are identified.

  7. Obsessive-compulsive disorder: Evidence-based treatments and future directions for research

    PubMed Central

    Lack, Caleb W

    2012-01-01

    Over the past three decades, obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) has moved from an almost untreatable, life-long psychiatric disorder to a highly manageable one. This is a very welcome change to the 1%-3% of children and adults with this disorder as, thanks to advances in both pharmacological and psychological therapies, prognosis for those afflicted with OCD is quite good in the long term, even though most have comorbid disorders that are also problematic. We still have far to go, however, until OCD can be described as either easily treatable or the effective treatments are widely known about among clinicians. This review focuses on the current state of the art in treatment for OCD and where we still are coming up short in our work as a scientific community. For example, while the impact of medications is quite strong for adults in reducing OCD symptoms, current drugs are only somewhat effective for children. In addition, there are unacceptably high relapse rates across both populations when treated with pharmacological alone. Even in the cognitive-behavioral treatments, which show higher effect sizes and lower relapse rates than drug therapies, drop-out rates are at a quarter of those who begin treatment. This means a sizable portion of the OCD population who do obtain effective treatments (which appears to be only a portion of the overall population) are not effectively treated. Suggestions for future avenues of research are also presented. These are primarily focused on (1) increased dissemination of effective therapies; (2) augmentation of treatments for those with residual symptoms, both for psychotherapy and pharmacotherapy; and (3) the impact of comorbid disorders on treatment outcome. PMID:24175173

  8. Standards-Based Reform in the United States: History, Research, and Future Directions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, Laura S.; Stecher, Brian M.; Yuan, Kun

    2008-01-01

    Although becoming widespread, especially in view of No Child Left Behind (NCLB) and without a universally-accepted definition, most discussions of standards-based reforms (SBR) include certain commonalities, including: (1) Academic expectations for students; (2) Alignment of key elements of the educational system to promote attainment of these…

  9. Management of Child and Adolescent Eating Disorders: The Current Evidence Base and Future Directions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gowers, Simon; Bryant-Waugh, Rachel

    2004-01-01

    Although eating disorders in children and adolescents remain a serious cause of morbidity and mortality, the evidence base for effective interventions is surprisingly weak. The adult literature is growing steadily, but this is mainly with regard to psychological therapies for bulimia nervosa and to some extent in the field of pharmacotherapy. This…

  10. Future Directions in Adventure-based Therapy Research: Methodological Considerations and Design Suggestions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newes, Sandra L.

    2001-01-01

    More methodologically sound research in adventure therapy is needed if the field is to claim empirically-based efficacy as a treatment modality. Some considerations for conducting outcome studies in adventure therapy relate to standardization, multiple domain assessment, regression techniques, objective assessment of participant change, client and…

  11. Evidence-Based Practice in the United States: Challenges, Progress, and Future Directions

    PubMed Central

    Correa-de-Araujo, Rosaly

    2016-01-01

    Scientific literature demonstrates that advances in evidence-based nursing have improved systems of care and women’s health outcomes. Experts agree that nurses worldwide can play a key role in building such evidence and working with interdisciplinary health care teams and systems to accelerate its implementation. PMID:26473771

  12. Content-based image retrieval in radiology: current status and future directions.

    PubMed

    Akgül, Ceyhun Burak; Rubin, Daniel L; Napel, Sandy; Beaulieu, Christopher F; Greenspan, Hayit; Acar, Burak

    2011-04-01

    Diagnostic radiology requires accurate interpretation of complex signals in medical images. Content-based image retrieval (CBIR) techniques could be valuable to radiologists in assessing medical images by identifying similar images in large archives that could assist with decision support. Many advances have occurred in CBIR, and a variety of systems have appeared in nonmedical domains; however, permeation of these methods into radiology has been limited. Our goal in this review is to survey CBIR methods and systems from the perspective of application to radiology and to identify approaches developed in nonmedical applications that could be translated to radiology. Radiology images pose specific challenges compared with images in the consumer domain; they contain varied, rich, and often subtle features that need to be recognized in assessing image similarity. Radiology images also provide rich opportunities for CBIR: rich metadata about image semantics are provided by radiologists, and this information is not yet being used to its fullest advantage in CBIR systems. By integrating pixel-based and metadata-based image feature analysis, substantial advances of CBIR in medicine could ensue, with CBIR systems becoming an important tool in radiology practice.

  13. Phenomenological and evidence based research in ego state therapy: recognized and unrecognized successes and future directions.

    PubMed

    Hageman, Joan H; Frederick, Claire

    2013-07-01

    The status of research in ego state therapy is examined against the backdrop of 20th and 21st century developments in the philosophy of science and the emerging recognition of the subjective as a vital element in all science. Attention is paid to the phenomenological method because until recently phenomenological studies have been the basis for the standards of care and training in ego state therapy as well as in many aspects of hypnotically facilitated psychotherapy. The importance of bringing an end to the "science wars" through the integration of the subjective and the objective, of phenomenological studies and evidence-based studies in ego state therapy and hypnosis research, is proposed.

  14. Family-Based Treatment for Adolescent Eating Disorders: Current Status, New Applications and Future Directions

    PubMed Central

    Loeb, Katharine L; le Grange, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    Family-based treatment (FBT) is emerging as a treatment of choice for adolescent anorexia nervosa (AN) and bulimia nervosa (BN). This paper reviews the history of FBT, core clinical and theoretical elements, and key findings from the FBT for AN and BN treatment outcome literature. In addition, we address clinical questions and controversies regarding FBT for eating disorders, including whether FBT is clinically appropriate for all adolescents (e.g., older adolescents, patients with comorbid conditions), and whether it indicated for all types of families (e.g., critical, enmeshed, and non-intact families). Finally, we outline recently manualized, innovative applications of FBT for new populations currently under early investigation, such as FBT as a preventive/early intervention for AN, FBT for young adults with eating disorders, and FBT for pediatric overweight. PMID:20191109

  15. Future directions for SDI development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajabifard, Abbas; Feeney, Mary-Ellen F.; Williamson, Ian P.

    2002-08-01

    Understanding the role of spatial data infrastructure (SDI) in the society is important to acceptance of the concept and its alignment with spatial industry objectives. Much has been done to describe and understand the components and operation of different aspects of SDIs and their integration into the spatial data community. However, what is often miss-understood is that the role SDI plays is by necessity greater than the sum of individual components of SDI and stakeholder groups. SDI is fundamentally about facilitation and coordination of the exchange and sharing of spatial data between stakeholders in the spatial data community. To this end, the authors propose that the roles of SDI have been pursued through two different approaches: product- and process-based. Both approaches have value, but contribute to the evolution, uptake and utilization of the SDI concept in different ways. They provide different frameworks for dealing with SDI mandates for the objectives of spatial data access and sharing. This paper reviews the nature and concept of SDI, including the components, which have helped to build the current understanding about the importance of an infrastructure to support the interactions of the spatial data community. Several examples of how SDIs have been described are offered to aid understanding of their complexity. The need for descriptions to represent the discrepancies between the role and deliverables of an SDI, and thus, contribute to a simpler, but dynamic, understanding of the complexity of the SDI concept, are postulated. The transition between the understanding of SDIs from product-based to process-based approaches is investigated, with a review of the positions taken by current SDI initiatives throughout the world. A model of how these approaches provide a framework to meet the mandates of the relevant jurisdictions is proposed, and factors contributing to the success of such positions in the future are discussed.

  16. Future directions in bariatric surgery.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sean M; Pryor, Aurora D

    2011-12-01

    Bariatric surgery is a field in rapid evolution, and the speed of this evolution has been accelerating over the last several decades. A thorough understanding of past developments is crucial to anticipating the future intelligently. The trends that have driven evolution historically often persist, and continue to be influential in the future. With this in mind, this article briefly outlines the historical and current trends in bariatric surgery, and follows the trajectory of these trends into the future to anticipate the technologies and techniques that will be most important to the field in the coming years.

  17. Future treatment directions for HPV-associated head and neck cancer based on radiobiological rationale and current clinical evidence.

    PubMed

    Marcu, Loredana G

    2016-07-01

    A relatively new entity of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma located in the oropharynx and associated to the human papillomavirus (HPV) is on the rise. This cancer represents a distinct entity from the non-HPV tumours, holds different biological characteristics and responds differently to treatment. An outcome analysis of locoregionally-advanced oropharyngeal versus non-oropharyngeal cancers treated with chemo-radiotherapy revealed a statistically significant improvement for oropharyngeal cancers, which are thought to be due to their HPV-association. Consequently, more attention is paid to HPV-related head and neck cancers, given that HPV status serves as prognostic marker in oropharyngeal cancer patients. Yet, HPV positivity is a simplistic approach for risk stratification, thus more robust biomarkers are needed to fulfil this task. Despite differences in clinical response, HPV-related oral cancers undergo similar therapy to their non-HPV counterparts. This review discusses future treatment directions for HPV-related oropharyngeal cancers based on radiobiological rationale and current clinical evidence.

  18. Computer technology-based interventions in HIV prevention: state of the evidence and future directions for research

    PubMed Central

    Noar, Seth M.

    2015-01-01

    Computer technology-based interventions (CBIs) represent a promising area for HIV prevention behavioral intervention research. Such programs are a compelling prevention option given their potential for broad reach, customized content, and low cost delivery. The purpose of the current article is to provide a review of the state of the literature on CBIs. First, we define CBIs in HIV prevention and highlight the many advantages of such interventions. Next, we provide an overview of what is currently known regarding the efficacy of CBIs in HIV prevention, focusing on two recent meta-analyses of this literature. Finally, we propose an agenda for future directions for research in the area of CBIs, using the RE-AIM model as an organizing guide. We conclude that with the continued growth of computer technologies, opportunities to apply such technologies in HIV prevention will continue to blossom. Further research is greatly needed to advance an understanding of not only how and under what circumstances CBIs can be efficacious, but also how the reach, adoption, implementation, and maintenance of such programs in clinical and community settings can be achieved. PMID:21287420

  19. Computer technology-based interventions in HIV prevention: state of the evidence and future directions for research.

    PubMed

    Noar, Seth M

    2011-05-01

    Computer technology-based interventions (CBIs) represent a promising area for HIV prevention behavioral intervention research. Such programs are a compelling prevention option given their potential for broad reach, customized content, and low cost delivery. The purpose of the current article is to provide a review of the state of the literature on CBIs. First, we define CBIs in HIV prevention and highlight the many advantages of such interventions. Next, we provide an overview of what is currently known regarding the efficacy of CBIs in HIV prevention, focusing on two recent meta-analyses of this literature. Finally, we propose an agenda for future directions for research in the area of CBIs, using the RE-AIM model as an organizing guide. We conclude that with the continued growth of computer technologies, opportunities to apply such technologies in HIV prevention will continue to blossom. Further research is greatly needed to advance an understanding of not only how and under what circumstances CBIs can be efficacious, but also how the reach, adoption, implementation, and maintenance of such programs in clinical and community settings can be achieved.

  20. Research Needs and Future Directions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The food safety challenges facing the growers, processors and consumers of fresh and fresh cut produce are complex and multi-faceted. Established and ongoing research has given new insights into the ways in which produce can be contaminated at any step in the supply chain. The goal of future researc...

  1. Future Directions in Solar Physics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rabin, Douglas

    2010-01-01

    I will discuss scientific opportunities for space-based solar physics instruments in the coming decade and their synergy with major new ground-based telescopes. l will also discuss ( pow small satellites may complement larger solar physics missions.

  2. Future direction in airline marketing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colussy, D. A.

    1972-01-01

    The rapid growth and broadening of the air travel market, coupled with a more sophisticated consumer, will dramatically change airline marketing over the next decade. Discussed is the direction this change is likely to take and its implications for companies within the industry. New conceptualization approaches are required if the full potential of this expanding market is to be fully realized. Marketing strategies are developed that will enable various elements of the travel industry to compete not only against each other but also with other products that are competing for the consumer's discretionary income.

  3. Tick vaccines: current status and future directions.

    PubMed

    de la Fuente, José; Contreras, Marinela

    2015-01-01

    Ticks and tick-borne diseases are a growing problem affecting human and animal health worldwide. Traditional control methods, based primarily on chemical acaricides, have proven not to be sustainable because of the selection of acaricide-resistant ticks. Tick vaccines appear to be a promising and effective alternative for control of tick infestations and pathogen transmission. The purpose of this review is to summarize previous tick vaccine development and performance and formulate critical issues and recommendations for future directions for the development of improved and effective tick vaccines. The development of effective screening platforms and algorithms using omics approaches focused on relevant biological processes will allow the discovery of new tick-protective antigens. Future vaccines will likely combine tick antigens with different protective mechanisms alone or pathogen-derived antigens. The application of tick vaccines as a part of integrated control strategies will ultimately result in the control of tick-borne diseases.

  4. Future directions of ecosystem science

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Baron, Jill; Galvin, Kathleen A.

    1990-01-01

    , and global--have not replaced one another (Clark and Holling 1985). Instead, the effects are superimposed, creating what some perceive as impending global environmental crisis (Clark 1989, MacNeill 1989, WCED 1987). Public demands are developing for economic, political, social, and environmental efforts directed toward creating a state of global sustainability.

  5. Evidence-based physical activity guidelines for cancer survivors: current guidelines, knowledge gaps and future research directions.

    PubMed

    Buffart, L M; Galvão, D A; Brug, J; Chinapaw, M J M; Newton, R U

    2014-03-01

    Physical activity during and after cancer treatment has beneficial effects on a number of physical and psychosocial outcomes. This paper aims to discuss the existing physical activity guidelines for cancer survivors and to describe future research directions to optimize prescriptions. Studies on physical activity during and after cancer treatment were searched in PubMed, Clinicaltrials.gov, Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry, and Dutch Trial registry. Physical activity guidelines for cancer survivors suggest that physical activity should be an integral and continuous part of care for all cancer survivors. However, the development of these guidelines has been limited by the research conducted. To be able to develop more specific guidelines, future studies should focus on identifying clinical, personal, physical, psychosocial, and intervention moderators explaining 'for whom' or 'under what circumstances' interventions work. Further, more insight into the working mechanisms of exercise interventions on health outcomes in cancer survivors is needed to improve the efficacy and efficiency of interventions. Finally, existing programs should embrace interests and preferences of patients to facilitate optimal uptake of interventions. In conclusion, current physical activity guidelines for cancer survivors are generic, and research is needed to develop more personalized physical activity guidelines.

  6. Community-Based Review of Research Across Diverse Community Contexts: Key Characteristics, Critical Issues, and Future Directions.

    PubMed

    Shore, Nancy; Ford, Angela; Wat, Eric; Brayboy, Missy; Isaacs, Mei-Ling; Park, Alice; Strelnick, Hal; Seifer, Sarena D

    2015-07-01

    A growing number of community-based organizations and community-academic partnerships are implementing processes to determine whether and how health research is conducted in their communities. These community-based research review processes (CRPs) can provide individual and community-level ethics protections, enhance the cultural relevance of study designs and competence of researchers, build community and academic research capacity, and shape research agendas that benefit diverse communities. To better understand how they are organized and function, representatives of 9 CRPs from across the United States convened in 2012 for a working meeting. In this article, we articulated and analyzed the models presented, offered guidance to communities that seek to establish a CRP, and made recommendations for future research, practice, and policy.

  7. The far future of exoplanet direct characterization.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Jean; Léger, Alain; Fridlund, Malcolm; White, Glenn J; Eiroa, Carlos; Henning, Thomas; Herbst, Tom; Lammer, Helmut; Liseau, René; Paresce, Francesco; Penny, Alan; Quirrenbach, Andreas; Röttgering, Huub; Selsis, Franck; Beichman, Charles; Danchi, William; Kaltenegger, Lisa; Lunine, Jonathan; Stam, Daphne; Tinetti, Giovanna

    2010-01-01

    We describe future steps in the direct characterization of habitable exoplanets subsequent to medium and large mission projects currently underway and investigate the benefits of spectroscopic and direct imaging approaches. We show that, after third- and fourth-generation missions have been conducted over the course of the next 100 years, a significant amount of time will lapse before we will have the capability to observe directly the morphology of extrasolar organisms.

  8. Biomarkers in Pediatric ARDS: Future Directions.

    PubMed

    Orwoll, Benjamin E; Sapru, Anil

    2016-01-01

    Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is common among mechanically ventilated children and accompanies up to 30% of all pediatric intensive care unit deaths. Though ARDS diagnosis is based on clinical criteria, biological markers of acute lung damage have been extensively studied in adults and children. Biomarkers of inflammation, alveolar epithelial and capillary endothelial disruption, disordered coagulation, and associated derangements measured in the circulation and other body fluids, such as bronchoalveolar lavage, have improved our understanding of pathobiology of ARDS. The biochemical signature of ARDS has been increasingly well described in adult populations, and this has led to the identification of molecular phenotypes to augment clinical classifications. However, there is a paucity of data from pediatric ARDS (pARDS) patients. Biomarkers and molecular phenotypes have the potential to identify patients at high risk of poor outcomes, and perhaps inform the development of targeted therapies for specific groups of patients. Additionally, because of the lower incidence of and mortality from ARDS in pediatric patients relative to adults and lack of robust clinical predictors of outcome, there is an ongoing interest in biological markers as surrogate outcome measures. The recent definition of pARDS provides additional impetus for the measurement of established and novel biomarkers in future pediatric studies in order to further characterize this disease process. This chapter will review the currently available literature and discuss potential future directions for investigation into biomarkers in ARDS among children.

  9. Biomarkers in Pediatric ARDS: Future Directions

    PubMed Central

    Orwoll, Benjamin E.; Sapru, Anil

    2016-01-01

    Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is common among mechanically ventilated children and accompanies up to 30% of all pediatric intensive care unit deaths. Though ARDS diagnosis is based on clinical criteria, biological markers of acute lung damage have been extensively studied in adults and children. Biomarkers of inflammation, alveolar epithelial and capillary endothelial disruption, disordered coagulation, and associated derangements measured in the circulation and other body fluids, such as bronchoalveolar lavage, have improved our understanding of pathobiology of ARDS. The biochemical signature of ARDS has been increasingly well described in adult populations, and this has led to the identification of molecular phenotypes to augment clinical classifications. However, there is a paucity of data from pediatric ARDS (pARDS) patients. Biomarkers and molecular phenotypes have the potential to identify patients at high risk of poor outcomes, and perhaps inform the development of targeted therapies for specific groups of patients. Additionally, because of the lower incidence of and mortality from ARDS in pediatric patients relative to adults and lack of robust clinical predictors of outcome, there is an ongoing interest in biological markers as surrogate outcome measures. The recent definition of pARDS provides additional impetus for the measurement of established and novel biomarkers in future pediatric studies in order to further characterize this disease process. This chapter will review the currently available literature and discuss potential future directions for investigation into biomarkers in ARDS among children. PMID:27313995

  10. Literature Review of Cloud Based E-learning Adoption by Students: State of the Art and Direction for Future Work

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassan Kayali, Mohammad; Safie, Nurhizam; Mukhtar, Muriati

    2016-11-01

    Cloud computing is a new paradigm shift in information technology. Most of the studies in the cloud are business related while the studies in cloud based e-learning are few. The field is still in its infancy and researchers have used several adoption theories to discover the dimensions of this field. The purpose of this paper is to review and integrate the literature to understand the current situation of the cloud based e-learning adoption. A total of 312 articles were extracted from Science direct, emerald, and IEEE. Screening processes were applied to select only the articles that are related to the cloud based e-learning. A total of 231 removed because they are related to business organization. Next, a total of 63 articles were removed because they are technical articles. A total of 18 articles were included in this paper. A frequency analysis was conducted on the paper to identify the most frequent factors, theories, statistical software, respondents, and countries of the studies. The findings showed that usefulness and ease of use are the most frequent factors. TAM is the most prevalent adoption theories in the literature. The mean of the respondents in the reviewed studies is 377 and Malaysia is the most researched countries in terms of cloud based e-learning. Studies of cloud based e-learning are few and more empirical studies are needed.

  11. Dacryocystorhinostomy: History, evolution and future directions

    PubMed Central

    Yakopson, Vladimir S.; Flanagan, Joseph C.; Ahn, Daniel; Luo, Betsy P.

    2010-01-01

    Dacryocystorhinostomy (DCR) is a procedure of choice for nasolacrimal duct obstruction and chronic dacryostenosis in the setting of patent canaliculi and a functional lacrimal pump. Two major approaches are utilized: external, via a transcutaneous incision and endonasal endoscopically guided. The surgery has a high success rate via both approaches. We review the history, evolution, current techniques, complications and future directions of DCR. PMID:23960901

  12. Future Directions for School Finance Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirst, Michael W.

    This paper examines previous changes in school finance reform, makes some future projections about the direction finance reform might go, and indicates what strategies seem particulary effective. It begins at the Federal level by taking a look at the overall Federal budget picture and its implications for the Federal role. The author proposes that…

  13. Web Searching: Innovations, Challenges, and Future Directions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Su, Louise T.

    2000-01-01

    Presents an outline for a planned technical session discussing innovations in the Web, the current state of Web searching, challenges, and future directions. Highlights include search engines; an empirical comparison of Web site overview techniques; Federal statistics web sites; and an evaluation of Web search engines from the end-user's…

  14. Future directions in brain injury research.

    PubMed

    Gennarelli, Thomas A

    2014-01-01

    This paper reviews the potential future directions that are important for brain injury research, especially with regard to concussion. The avenues of proposed research are categorized according to current concepts of concussion, types of concussion, and a global schema for globally reducing the burden of concussion.

  15. Future Directions in Second Language Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swain, Merrill

    Progress that has been made in second language research in the last two years and future directions in the research methodology of second language studies are discussed. In order to examine the continuation and expansion of current research, the research reported by Schumann (1976) is compared with current research as represented by the titles of…

  16. Regenerative nanomedicine: current perspectives and future directions

    PubMed Central

    Chaudhury, Koel; Kumar, Vishu; Kandasamy, Jayaprakash; RoyChoudhury, Sourav

    2014-01-01

    Nanotechnology has considerably accelerated the growth of regenerative medicine in recent years. Application of nanotechnology in regenerative medicine has revolutionized the designing of grafts and scaffolds which has resulted in new grafts/scaffold systems having significantly enhanced cellular and tissue regenerative properties. Since the cell–cell and cell-matrix interaction in biological systems takes place at the nanoscale level, the application of nanotechnology gives an edge in modifying the cellular function and/or matrix function in a more desired way to mimic the native tissue/organ. In this review, we focus on the nanotechnology-based recent advances and trends in regenerative medicine and discussed under individual organ systems including bone, cartilage, nerve, skin, teeth, myocardium, liver and eye. Recent studies that are related to the design of various types of nanostructured scaffolds and incorporation of nanomaterials into the matrices are reported. We have also documented reports where these materials and matrices have been compared for their better biocompatibility and efficacy in supporting the damaged tissue. In addition to the recent developments, future directions and possible challenges in translating the findings from bench to bedside are outlined. PMID:25214780

  17. Geospatial Brokering - Challenges and Future Directions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, C. E.

    2012-12-01

    An important feature of many brokers is to facilitate straightforward human access to scientific data while maintaining programmatic access to it for system solutions. Standards-based protocols are critical for this, and there are a number of protocols to choose from. In this discussion, we will present a web application solution that leverages certain protocols - e.g., OGC CSW, REST, and OpenSearch - to provide programmatic as well as human access to geospatial resources. We will also discuss managing resources to reduce duplication yet increase discoverability, federated search solutions, and architectures that combine human-friendly interfaces with powerful underlying data management. The changing requirements witnessed in brokering solutions over time, our recent experience participating in the EarthCube brokering hack-a-thon, and evolving interoperability standards provide insight to future technological and philosophical directions planned for geospatial broker solutions. There has been much change over the past decade, but with the unprecedented data collaboration of recent years, in many ways the challenges and opportunities are just beginning.

  18. Future directions for high-spin studies

    SciTech Connect

    Stephens, F.S.

    1982-11-01

    Some future directions for experimental high-spin studies are discussed, concentrating mainly on the region above I -- 30h, where the ..gamma..-ray spectra are currently unresolvable. The 4..pi.. NaI balls offer a means to exploit the temperature effects recently shown to exist in such spectra. Large arrays of Compton-suppressed Ge detectors, on the other and, lead to higher effective resolution as it becomes possible to study triple and quadruple coincident events.

  19. Future Directions for Astronomical Image Display

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mandel, Eric

    2000-01-01

    In the "Future Directions for Astronomical Image Displav" project, the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory (SAO) and the National Optical Astronomy Observatories (NOAO) evolved our existing image display program into fully extensible. cross-platform image display software. We also devised messaging software to support integration of image display into astronomical analysis systems. Finally, we migrated our software from reliance on Unix and the X Window System to a platform-independent architecture that utilizes the cross-platform Tcl/Tk technology.

  20. Future directions for positive body image research.

    PubMed

    Halliwell, Emma

    2015-06-01

    The emergence of positive body image research during the last 10 years represents an important shift in the body image literature. The existing evidence provides a strong empirical basis for the study of positive body image and research has begun to address issues of age, gender, ethnicity, culture, development, and intervention in relation to positive body image. This article briefly reviews the existing evidence before outlining directions for future research. Specifically, six areas for future positive body image research are outlined: (a) conceptualization, (b) models, (c) developmental factors, (d) social interactions, (e) cognitive processing style, and (f) interventions. Finally, the potential role of positive body image as a protective factor within the broader body image literature is discussed.

  1. Current concepts and future directions of CELSS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macelroy, R. D.; Bredt, J.

    1984-01-01

    The components of a bioregenerative life-support system intended for use in space are described and the requirements for system control are discussed. Concepts of such systems include the use of higher plants and/or micro-algae as sources of oxygen, CO2 absorption, potable water, and food. In order to focus on the specific problem of reservoirs and buffers, bioregenerative life support in space is contrasted to terrestrial ecological concepts. Some of the future directions of the NASA CELSS (controlled ecological life-support system) program are outlined.

  2. Inductive Output Tubes -- Status and Future Direction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bohlen, Heinz

    2002-08-01

    Invented in 1938, at the same time as the klystron, it took the Inductive Output Tube (IOT) more than 40 years to surface as a useful device. Its progress after that event was rapid. Though plagued by teething problems in the beginning, it has since replaced the klystron as a TV amplifier in UHF, and it holds its own against the solid-state competition in that application. The IOT also shows much promise as a high-power amplifier, but early developments in this direction have remained solitary events so far. The paper discusses the causes and the potential of the device for future high-power applications.

  3. Immunotherapy for advanced melanoma: future directions.

    PubMed

    Valpione, Sara; Campana, Luca G

    2016-02-01

    As calculated by the meta-analysis of Korn et al., the prognosis of metastatic melanoma in the pretarget and immunological therapy era was poor, with a median survival of 6.2 and a 1-year life expectancy of 25.5%. Nowadays, significant advances in melanoma treatment have been gained, and immunotherapy is one of the promising approaches to get to durable responses and survival improvement. The aim of the present review is to highlight the recent innovations in melanoma immunotherapy and to propose a critical perspective of the future directions of this enthralling oncology subspecialty.

  4. Systematic review of catheter-based intra-arterial therapies in hepatocellular carcinoma: state of the art and future directions

    PubMed Central

    Duran, R; Chapiro, J; Schernthaner, R E

    2015-01-01

    Intra-arterial therapies (IATs) play a pivotal role in the management of patients with primary and secondary liver malignancies. The unique advantages of these treatments are their ability to selectively deliver a high dose of anticancer treatment while preserving healthy liver tissue. The proven efficacy of these catheter-based locoregional therapies in a highly systemic chemoresistant cancer such as hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), along with the minimally invasive nature of these treatments, quickly yielded wide acceptance in the medical community and revolutionized the field of Interventional Oncology. In this article, we describe the clinical rationale and background of catheter-based IATs. We provide an overview of clinical achievements of these treatments alone and in combination with sorafenib in patients with HCC. PMID:25978585

  5. Increasing the public health impact of evidence-based interventions in behavioral medicine: new approaches and future directions.

    PubMed

    Buscemi, Joanna; Janke, E Amy; Kugler, Kari C; Duffecy, Jenna; Mielenz, Thelma J; St George, Sara M; Sheinfeld Gorin, Sherri N

    2017-02-01

    The dissemination and implementation of evidence-based behavioral medicine interventions into real world practice has been limited. The purpose of this paper is to discuss specific limitations of current behavioral medicine research within the context of the RE-AIM framework, and potential opportunities to increase public health impact by applying novel intervention designs and data collection approaches. The MOST framework has recently emerged as an alternative approach to development and evaluation that aims to optimize multicomponent behavioral and bio-behavioral interventions. SMART designs, imbedded within the MOST framework, are an approach to optimize adaptive interventions. In addition to innovative design strategies, novel data collection approaches that have the potential to improve the public-health dissemination include mHealth approaches and considering environment as a potential data source. Finally, becoming involved in advocacy via policy related work may help to improve the impact of evidence-based behavioral interventions. Innovative methods, if increasingly implemented, may have the ability to increase the public health impact of evidence-based behavioral interventions to prevent disease.

  6. Future directions in multiple myeloma treatment.

    PubMed

    Child, J Anthony; Russell, Nigel; Sonneveld, Pieter; Schey, Steve

    2005-01-01

    Future therapy options for multiple myeloma may be directed at asymptomatic disease, as only symptomatic myeloma is treated currently. Additional genetic information from gene array analysis will mean that the identification of cases with poor prognosis will become more sophisticated. New markers are being discovered constantly, and these continuously change the picture regarding prognostic factors. More intensive treatment options increase the depth of remissions, thereby improving outcomes. In pilot studies, cyclophosphamide, thalidomide and dexamethasone (CTD) was a highly effective, well-tolerated regimen for patients refractory to initial therapy with VAD or with relapsed disease. It is being further evaluated as induction therapy in the current MRC Myeloma IX trial. Also under investigation is a small molecule derivative of thalidomide, CC-4047 (Actimid). It has between 1,000 and 10,000 times more potent antitumour necrosis factor alpha activity, with an additional immunomodulatory effect. It has been shown to be between 50 and 2,000 times more potent in the stimulation of T-cell proliferation and 50-100 times more potent in augmenting interleukin-2 and interferon-gamma production. With many possible approaches to study and work through, future strategies will revolve around exploration of the effectiveness of combinations that incorporate new agents in various disease and treatment settings. The use of genetic profiles to further delineate groups for different treatment approaches should enable the introduction of patient-specific treatment programmes in the future.

  7. State of the art and future directions of scaffold-based bone engineering from a biomaterials perspective.

    PubMed

    Hutmacher, Dietmar Werner; Schantz, Jan Thorsten; Lam, Christopher Xu Fu; Tan, Kim Cheng; Lim, Thiam Chye

    2007-01-01

    Scaffold-based bone tissue engineering aims to repair/regenerate bone defects. Such a treatment concept involves seeding autologous osteogenic cells throughout a biodegradable scaffold to create a scaffold-cell hybrid that may be called a tissue-engineered construct (TEC). A variety of materials and scaffolding fabrication techniques for bone tissue engineering have been investigated over the past two decades. This review aims to discuss the advances in bone engineering from a scaffold material point of view. In the first part the reader is introduced to the basic principles of bone engineering. The important properties of the biomaterials and the scaffold design in the making of tissue engineered bone constructs are discussed in detail, with special emphasis placed on the new material developments, namely composites made of synthetic polymers and calcium phosphates. Advantages and limitations of these materials are analysed along with various architectural parameters of scaffolds important for bone tissue engineering, e.g. porosity, pore size, interconnectivity and pore-wall microstructures.

  8. Particle-Based Methods for Multiscale Modeling of Blood Flow in the Circulation and in Devices: Challenges and Future Directions

    PubMed Central

    Yamaguchi, Takami; Ishikawa, Takuji; Imai, Y.; Matsuki, N.; Xenos, Mikhail; Deng, Yuefan; Bluestein, Danny

    2010-01-01

    A major computational challenge for a multiscale modeling is the coupling of disparate length and timescales between molecular mechanics and macroscopic transport, spanning the spatial and temporal scales characterizing the complex processes taking place in flow-induced blood clotting. Flow and pressure effects on a cell-like platelet can be well represented by a continuum mechanics model down to the order of the micrometer level. However, the molecular effects of adhesion/aggregation bonds are on the order of nanometer. A successful multiscale model of platelet response to flow stresses in devices and the ensuing clotting responses should be able to characterize the clotting reactions and their interactions with the flow. This paper attempts to describe a few of the computational methods that were developed in recent years and became available to researchers in the field. They differ from traditional approaches that dominate the field by expanding on prevailing continuum-based approaches, or by completely departing from them, yielding an expanding toolkit that may facilitate further elucidation of the underlying mechanisms of blood flow and the cellular response to it. We offer a paradigm shift by adopting a multidisciplinary approach with fluid dynamics simulations coupled to biophysical and biochemical transport. PMID:20336827

  9. Biomarker detection technologies and future directions.

    PubMed

    Nimse, Satish Balasaheb; Sonawane, Mukesh Digambar; Song, Keum-Soo; Kim, Taisun

    2016-02-07

    Biomarkers play a vital role in disease detection and treatment follow-up. It is important to note that diseases in the early stage are typically treated with the greatest probability of success. However, due to various technical difficulties in current technologies for the detection of biomarkers, the potential of biomarkers is not explored completely. Therefore, the developments of technologies, which can enable the accurate detection of prostate cancer at an early stage with simple, experimental protocols are highly inevitable. This critical review evaluates the current methods and technologies used in the detection of biomarkers. The aim of this article is to provide a comprehensive review covering the advantages and disadvantages of the biomarker detection methods. Future directions for the development of technologies to achieve highly selective and sensitive detection of biomarkers for point-of-care applications are also commented on.

  10. Future Directions for Astronomical Image Display

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mandel, Eric

    1997-01-01

    In our "Future Directions for Astronomical Image Display" project, the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory (SAO) and the National Optical Astronomy Observatories (NOAO) will evolve our existing image display software into a fully extensible, cross-platform image display server that can run stand-alone or be integrated seamlessly into astronomical analysis systems. We will build a Plug-in Image Extension (PIE) server for astronomy, consisting of a modular image display engine that can be customized using "plug-in" technology. We will create plug-ins that reproduce all the current functionality of SAOtng. We also will devise a messaging system and a set of distributed, shared data objects to support integrating the PIE server into astronomical analysis systems. Finally, we will migrate our PIE server, plug-ins, and messaging software from Unix and the X Window System to a platform-independent architecture that utilizes cross-platform technology such as Tcl/Tk or Java.

  11. Physical literacy: importance, assessment and future directions.

    PubMed

    Giblin, Susan; Collins, Dave; Button, Chris

    2014-09-01

    Physical literacy (PL) has become a major focus of physical education, physical activity and sports promotion worldwide. PL is a multifaceted conceptualisation of the skills required to fully realise potentials through embodied experience. Substantial financial investments in PL education by governments are underpinned by a wide range of anticipated benefits, including expectations of significant future savings to healthcare, improved physical and psychological well-being of the population, increased work-force productivity and raised levels of expertise in sport and exercise participation. However, disappointingly, scientific evidence showing the efficacy of PL interventions to successfully meet such high expectation is limited. We suggest that contradictions in research findings are due largely to limitations in movement assessment batteries and consequent discrepancies between measurements used to assess the immediate outcomes of PL programmes. Notably, there is no robust empirical tool for evidencing skill learning in the physical movement component of PL, education and this presents a serious limitation to the design of, and claims that can be made for, such interventions. Considering the parameters of proficient PL skills and the limitations of current evaluation instruments, possible future directions for developing empirical measures of PL movement skills are presented.

  12. Bioorthogonal Chemistry: Recent Progress and Future Directions

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Reyna K. V.; Lin, Qing

    2010-01-01

    The ability to use covalent chemistry to label biomolecules selectively in their native habitats has greatly enhanced our understanding of biomolecular dynamics and function beyond what is possible with the genetic tools alone. To attain the exquisite selectivity essential in the covalent approach in a complex biological environment, a “bottom-up” two-step strategy has achieved many successes recently. In this approach, a bioorthogonal chemical functionality is built into the basic life’s building blocks―amino acids, nucleosides, lipids, and sugars―as well as secondary metabolites; after their incorporation into the biomolecules, an array of biophysical probes are selectively appended to the chemically tagged biomolecules via a suitable bioorthogonal reaction. While much has been accomplished in the expansion of unnatural building blocks carrying unique chemical moieties for all major classes of biomolecules, the dearth of robust bioorthogonal reactions has limited both the scope and utility of this promising approach. Here we summarize the recent progress in the development of bioorthogonal reactions and their applications in various biological systems. A major emphasis has been placed on the mechanistic and kinetic studies of these reactions with the hope that continuous improvements can be made with each reaction in the future. In view of the gap between the capabilities of the current repertoire of bioorthogonal reactions and the unmet needs of potential biological problems, we also strive to project the future directions of this rapidly developing field. PMID:20177591

  13. Defining Future Directions for Endometriosis Research

    PubMed Central

    D’Hooghe, Thomas M.; Fazleabas, Asgerally; Giudice, Linda C.; Montgomery, Grant W.; Petraglia, Felice; Taylor, Robert N.

    2013-01-01

    Endometriosis, defined as estrogen-dependent lesions containing endometrial glands and stroma outside the uterus, is a chronic and often painful gynecological condition that affects 6% to 10% of reproductive age women. Endometriosis has estimated annual costs of US $12 419 per woman (approximately €9579), comprising one-third of the direct health care costs with two-thirds attributed to loss of productivity. Decreased quality of life is the most important predictor of direct health care and total costs. It has been estimated that there is a mean delay of 6.7 years between onset of symptoms and a surgical diagnosis of endometriosis, and each affected woman loses on average 10.8 hours of work weekly, mainly owing to reduced effectiveness while working. To encourage and facilitate research into this debilitating disease, a consensus workshop to define future directions for endometriosis research was held as part of the 11th World Congress on Endometriosis in September 2011 in Montpellier, France. The objective of this workshop was to review and update the endometriosis research priorities consensus statement developed following the 10th World Congress on Endometriosis in 2008.1 A total of 56 recommendations for research have been developed, grouped under 6 subheadings: (1) diagnosis, (2) classification and prognosis, (3) clinical trials, treatment, and outcomes, (4) epidemiology, (5) pathophysiology, and (6) research policy. By producing this consensus international research priorities statement, it is the hope of the workshop participants that researchers will be encouraged to develop new interdisciplinary research proposals that will attract increased funding support for work on endometriosis. PMID:23427182

  14. Regenerative medicine: Current therapies and future directions

    PubMed Central

    Mao, Angelo S.; Mooney, David J.

    2015-01-01

    Organ and tissue loss through disease and injury motivate the development of therapies that can regenerate tissues and decrease reliance on transplantations. Regenerative medicine, an interdisciplinary field that applies engineering and life science principles to promote regeneration, can potentially restore diseased and injured tissues and whole organs. Since the inception of the field several decades ago, a number of regenerative medicine therapies, including those designed for wound healing and orthopedics applications, have received Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval and are now commercially available. These therapies and other regenerative medicine approaches currently being studied in preclinical and clinical settings will be covered in this review. Specifically, developments in fabricating sophisticated grafts and tissue mimics and technologies for integrating grafts with host vasculature will be discussed. Enhancing the intrinsic regenerative capacity of the host by altering its environment, whether with cell injections or immune modulation, will be addressed, as well as methods for exploiting recently developed cell sources. Finally, we propose directions for current and future regenerative medicine therapies. PMID:26598661

  15. IL-1: discoveries, controversies and future directions.

    PubMed

    Dinarello, Charles A

    2010-03-01

    Although there has been a great amount of progress in the 25 years since the first reporting of the cDNA for IL-1alpha and IL-1beta, the history of IL-1 goes back to the early 1940s. In fact, the entire field of inflammatory cytokines, TLR and the innate immune response can be found in the story of IL-1. This Viewpoint follows the steps from the identification of the fever-inducing activities of "soluble factors" produced by endotoxin-stimulated leukocytes through to the discovery of cryopyrin and the caspase-1 inflammasome and on to the clinical benefits of anti-IL-1beta-based therapeutics. It also discusses some of the current controversies regarding the activation of the inflammasome. The future of novel anti-inflammatory agents to combat chronic inflammation is based, in part, on the diseases that are uniquely responsive to anti-IL-1beta, which is surely a reason to celebrate the 25th anniversary of the cloning of IL-1alpha and IL-1beta.

  16. High performance computing: Clusters, constellations, MPPs, and future directions

    SciTech Connect

    Dongarra, Jack; Sterling, Thomas; Simon, Horst; Strohmaier, Erich

    2003-06-10

    Last year's paper by Bell and Gray [1] examined past trends in high performance computing and asserted likely future directions based on market forces. While many of the insights drawn from this perspective have merit and suggest elements governing likely future directions for HPC, there are a number of points put forth that we feel require further discussion and, in certain cases, suggest alternative, more likely views. One area of concern relates to the nature and use of key terms to describe and distinguish among classes of high end computing systems, in particular the authors use of ''cluster'' to relate to essentially all parallel computers derived through the integration of replicated components. The taxonomy implicit in their previous paper, while arguable and supported by some elements of our community, fails to provide the essential semantic discrimination critical to the effectiveness of descriptive terms as tools in managing the conceptual space of consideration. In this paper, we present a perspective that retains the descriptive richness while providing a unifying framework. A second area of discourse that calls for additional commentary is the likely future path of system evolution that will lead to effective and affordable Petaflops-scale computing including the future role of computer centers as facilities for supporting high performance computing environments. This paper addresses the key issues of taxonomy, future directions towards Petaflops computing, and the important role of computer centers in the 21st century.

  17. Clinical Research Informatics: Recent Advances and Future Directions

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Summary Objectives To summarize significant developments in Clinical Research Informatics (CRI) over the past two years and discuss future directions. Methods Survey of advances, open problems and opportunities in this field based on exploration of current literature. Results Recent advances are structured according to three use cases of clinical research: Protocol feasibility, patient identification/recruitment and clinical trial execution. Discussion CRI is an evolving, dynamic field of research. Global collaboration, open metadata, content standards with semantics and computable eligibility criteria are key success factors for future developments in CRI. PMID:26293865

  18. Obesity Pharmacotherapy: Current Perspectives and Future Directions

    PubMed Central

    Misra, Monika

    2013-01-01

    The rising tide of obesity and its related disorders is one of the most pressing health concerns worldwide, yet existing medicines to combat the problem are disappointingly limited in number and effectiveness. Recent advances in mechanistic insights into the neuroendocrine regulation of body weight have revealed an expanding list of molecular targets for novel, rationally designed antiobesity pharmaceutical agents. Antiobesity drugs act via any of four mechanisms: 1) decreasing energy intake, 2) increasing energy expenditure or modulating lipid metabolism, 3) modulating fat stores or adipocyte differentiation, and 4) mimicking caloric restriction. Various novel drug candidates and targets directed against obesity are currently being explored. A few of them are also in the later phases of clinical trials. This review discusses the development of novel antiobesity drugs based on current understanding of energy homeostasis PMID:23092275

  19. Tissue Engineering: Current Strategies and Future Directions

    PubMed Central

    Olson, Jennifer L.; Atala, Anthony

    2011-01-01

    Novel therapies resulting from regenerative medicine and tissue engineering technology may offer new hope for patients with injuries, end-stage organ failure, or other clinical issues. Currently, patients with diseased and injured organs are often treated with transplanted organs. However, there is a shortage of donor organs that is worsening yearly as the population ages and as the number of new cases of organ failure increases. Scientists in the field of regenerative medicine and tissue engineering are now applying the principles of cell transplantation, material science, and bioengineering to construct biological substitutes that can restore and maintain normal function in diseased and injured tissues. In addition, the stem cell field is a rapidly advancing part of regenerative medicine, and new discoveries in this field create new options for this type of therapy. For example, new types of stem cells, such as amniotic fluid and placental stem cells that can circumvent the ethical issues associated with embryonic stem cells, have been discovered. The process of therapeutic cloning and the creation of induced pluripotent cells provide still other potential sources of stem cells for cell-based tissue engineering applications. Although stem cells are still in the research phase, some therapies arising from tissue engineering endeavors that make use of autologous, adult cells have already entered the clinical setting, indicating that regenerative medicine holds much promise for the future. PMID:22111050

  20. HPV vaccine: Current status and future directions

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Sushil; Biswas, Manash; Jose, Tony

    2015-01-01

    HPV Vaccine was introduced to prevent cervical cancer known to be caused by infection with one or more of the high risk subtypes of the Human papilloma virus (HPV). Since introduction, trials have proven its efficacy in preventing Cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) beyond doubt and its effectiveness in preventing cervical cancer though presumptive is reasonably certain as per mathematical modelling. It also prevents other HPV related anogenital and oropharyngeal malignancies in both sexes. HPV vaccines have courted many controversies related to its efficacy, safety, ideal age of vaccination, use in HPV infected individuals and use in males. The currently available vaccines are based on L1 Viral like particles (VLP) and hence highly species specific, thermolabile, costly and are purely prophylactic. The quest for a cheaper, thermostable and broad spectrum vaccine has led to many newer prophylactic vaccines. Therapeutic vaccines were born out of the inescapable necessity considering high HPV related morbidity projected in the non HPV naïve population. Therapeutic vaccines would immediately reduce this burden and also help in the management of HPV related cancers alone or as part of combination strategies. Ongoing research is aimed at a total control over HPV related malignancies in the near future. PMID:25859081

  1. Colletotrichum – current status and future directions

    PubMed Central

    Cannon, P.F.; Damm, U.; Johnston, P.R.; Weir, B.S.

    2012-01-01

    A review is provided of the current state of understanding of Colletotrichum systematics, focusing on species-level data and the major clades. The taxonomic placement of the genus is discussed, and the evolution of our approach to species concepts and anamorph-teleomorph relationships is described. The application of multilocus technologies to phylogenetic analysis of Colletotrichum is reviewed, and selection of potential genes/loci for barcoding purposes is discussed. Host specificity and its relation to speciation and taxonomy is briefly addressed. A short review is presented of the current status of classification of the species clusters that are currently without comprehensive multilocus analyses, emphasising the orbiculare and destructivum aggregates. The future for Colletotrichum biology will be reliant on consensus classification and robust identification tools. In support of these goals, a Subcommission on Colletotrichum has been formed under the auspices of the International Commission on Taxonomy of Fungi, which will administer a carefully curated barcode database for sequence-based identification of species within the BioloMICS web environment. PMID:23136460

  2. Cultural psychiatry: research strategies and future directions.

    PubMed

    Kirmayer, Laurence J; Ban, Lauren

    2013-01-01

    This chapter reviews some key aspects of current research in cultural psychiatry and explores future prospects. The first section discusses the multiple meanings of culture in the contemporary world and their relevance for understanding mental health and illness. The next section considers methodological strategies for unpacking the concept of culture and studying the impact of cultural variables, processes and contexts. Multiple methods are needed to address the many different components or dimensions of cultural identity and experience that constitute local worlds, ways of life or systems of knowledge. Quantitative and observational methods of clinical epidemiology and experimental science as well as qualitative ethnographic methods are needed to capture crucial aspects of culture as systems of meaning and practice. Emerging issues in cultural psychiatric research include: cultural variations in illness experience and expression; the situated nature of cognition and emotion; cultural configurations of self and personhood; concepts of mental disorder and mental health literacy; and the prospect of ecosocial models of health and culturally based interventions. The conclusion considers the implications of the emerging perspectives from cultural neuroscience for psychiatric theory and practice.

  3. Defining biotypes for depression and anxiety based on large-scale circuit dysfunction: a theoretical review of the evidence and future directions for clinical translation.

    PubMed

    Williams, Leanne M

    2017-01-01

    Complex emotional, cognitive and self-reflective functions rely on the activation and connectivity of large-scale neural circuits. These circuits offer a relevant scale of focus for conceptualizing a taxonomy for depression and anxiety based on specific profiles (or biotypes) of neural circuit dysfunction. Here, the theoretical review first outlines the current consensus as to what constitutes the organization of large-scale circuits in the human brain identified using parcellation and meta-analysis. The focus is on neural circuits implicated in resting reflection (default mode), detection of "salience," affective processing ("threat" and "reward"), "attention," and "cognitive control." Next, the current evidence regarding which type of dysfunctions in these circuits characterize depression and anxiety disorders is reviewed, with an emphasis on published meta-analyses and reviews of circuit dysfunctions that have been identified in at least two well-powered case:control studies. Grounded in the review of these topics, a conceptual framework is proposed for considering neural circuit-defined "biotypes." In this framework, biotypes are defined by profiles of extent of dysfunction on each large-scale circuit. The clinical implications of a biotype approach for guiding classification and treatment of depression and anxiety is considered. Future research directions will develop the validity and clinical utility of a neural circuit biotype model that spans diagnostic categories and helps to translate neuroscience into clinical practice in the real world.

  4. ESDIS DOI System, Approach, and Future Direction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wanchoo, L.; James, N.

    2013-12-01

    that has the data product description. Even though the development and maintenance of DOI landing pages would be the responsibility of the DAACs, ESDIS in consultation with the data providers is currently developing the landing page guidelines that specifies the key data product descriptive elements to be included on each data product's landing page. This poster will describe in detail the unique process and system currently implemented by ESDIS for registering DOIs. In addition, the paper will summarize some of the early implementation shortcomings and how they were addressed, as well as the future directions of the ESDIS DOI system/process.

  5. Future directions in the neuropsychology of epilepsy.

    PubMed

    McDonald, Carrie R; Taylor, Joanne; Hamberger, Marla; Helmstaedter, Christoph; Hermann, Bruce P; Schefft, Bruce

    2011-09-01

    Two important themes for future clinical research in the neuropsychology of epilepsy are proposed: (1) the neurobiological abnormalities that underlie neuropsychological impairment in people with epilepsy, and (2) neuropsychological status of persons with new-onset epilepsy.

  6. Neurosciences research in space Future directions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sulzman, Frank M.; Wolfe, James W.

    Future research in the neurosciences can best be understood in the context of NASA's life sciences goals in the near term (1990-1995), mid term (1995-2000), and long term (2000 and beyond). Since NASA is planning short-duration Spacelab and International Microgravity Laboratory (IML) flights for many years to come, the acute effects of exposure to microgravity will continue to be of experimental and operational interest in the near term. To this end, major new areas of research will be devoted to ground-based studies of preflight adaptation trainers and their efficacy in preventing or reducing the incidence of space motion sickness. In addition, an extensive series of studies of the vestibular system will be conducted inflight on the IML-1 mission The IML-2 mission will emphasize behavior and performance, biological rhythms, and further vestibular studies. In the mid-term period, Spacelab missions will employ new technology such as magnetic recording techniques in order to evaluate changes in the processing of sensory and motor inputs at the brainstem and cortical level during exposure to microgravity. Two Space Life Sciences (SLS) missions planned for the mid to late 1990's, SLS-4 and SLS-5, will utilize an onboard centrifuge facility that will enable investigators to study the effects of partial gravity on sensory and motor function. In the long term (2000 and beyond), Space Station Freedom and long-duration missions will provide opportunities to explore new options in the neurosciences, such as sensory substitution and augmentation, through the use of physical sensors to provide three-dimensional tactile-visual, tactile-auditory and tactile-somatosensory inputs. The use of this technology will be extremely important in the area of robotic telepresence. Finally, Space Station Freedom and proposed LifeSat missions will provide neuroscientists the opportunity to study the effects of partial gravity and microgravity on neuronal plasticity.

  7. Snowboarding injuries : current trends and future directions.

    PubMed

    Bladin, Christopher; McCrory, Paul; Pogorzelski, Anita

    2004-01-01

    Snowboarding has become one of the premier alpine sports. The past decade has seen the popularity of snowboarding increase dramatically and the recent Winter Olympic Games at Salt Lake City, USA, showcased the strong visual appeal of the sport and the youth-oriented lifestyle and culture that accompanies it. The injury profile of the sport has also undergone change along with technological advances in boot and binding systems and the changing demographics of the sports participants. Central to the development of injury-prevention strategies is knowledge of the profile of injuries that occur, understanding those who are at particular risk and, if possible, the biomechanical factors involved in each injury type. Snowboarding was initially considered a dangerous, uncontrolled, alpine sport - an opinion based on little or no scientific evidence. That evidence has rapidly grown over the past decade and we now know that snowboard injury rates are no different to those in skiing; however, the injury profile is different. The purpose of this review is to give some perspective to the current snowboard injury literature. It discusses not only the demographic profile of those injured and the type of injuries that occur, but also gives some insight into the progress that has occurred in determining the impact of specific prevention strategies, such as splints to prevent injuries to the wrist/forearm. The next decade will also see a greater understanding of the biomechanical forces involved in snowboard injuries, which may well impact on future technological advances. As the literature indicates, however, some things will not change, e.g. injuries are more likely to occur in beginners and lessons need to be reinforced as a fundamental aspect of any injury-prevention strategy.

  8. Future directions in reptile medical education.

    PubMed

    Jacobson, Elliott; Heard, Darryl; Isaza, Ramiro

    2006-01-01

    Reptile medicine has emerged as a specialty area within the broader field of zoological medicine. It encompasses the medical needs of approximately 7,500 vertebrate species. This vertebrate class is highly diversified, having biological and medical peculiarities that differ both between and within major groups. Historically, veterinarians who have become recognized specialists with reptiles have had limited formal training in their medical management. The pet reptile trade is a multi-million-dollar business, and the popularity of reptiles as pets has resulted in a need for more veterinarians with training in their medical management. While few private practices have high volumes of reptile cases, many small-animal practices will have the opportunity to see a significant number of reptiles on an annual basis. Most practitioners with reptile medical expertise have merged their experiences as reptile pet owners with the principles of veterinary medicine taught in veterinary college. Several North American veterinary colleges have reptile medicine courses, and most have didactic and clinical courses in exotic and zoo animal medicine that include lectures and practical experience. Most accredited zoological medicine residency training programs include training in reptile medicine. The case load and interest in reptile medicine will probably never be sufficient to lead the average veterinary college to develop much more than what is currently offered. Consequently, those few colleges having more extensive course offerings, both didactic and clinical, will serve as educational centers for this discipline. Future Web-based teaching programs in reptile medicine will allow students nationally and internationally to have access to instructional material that can be continually updated.

  9. Airframe Noise Studies: Review and Future Direction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rackl, Robert G.; Miller, Gregory; Guo, Yueping; Yamamoto, Kingo

    2005-01-01

    This report contains the following information: 1) a review of airframe noise research performed under NASA's Advanced Subsonic Transport (AST) program up to the year 2000, 2) a comparison of the year 1992 airframe noise predictions with those using a year 2000 baseline, 3) an assessment of various airframe noise reduction concepts as applied to the year 2000 baseline predictions, and 4) prioritized recommendations for future airframe noise reduction work. NASA's Aircraft Noise Prediction Program was the software used for all noise predictions and assessments. For future work, the recommendations for the immediate future focus on the development of design tools sensitive to airframe noise treatment effects and on improving the basic understanding of noise generation by the landing gear as well as on its reduction.

  10. Future directions for EPA Superfund research.

    PubMed

    Wentsel, Randall S; Blaney, Ben; Kowalski, Lorelei; Bennett, David A; Grevatt, Peter; Frey, Sharon

    2002-03-01

    The EPA Office of Research and Development (ORD) identifies and prioritizes future research areas through a Waste Research Coordination Team. The team works together to plan the ORD Superfund research program, and it has members from each of the ORD laboratories as well as representatives from the Superfund office. Superfund scientists have identified several research topics in applied research areas to improve risk assessment methods and reduce uncertainty in site-specific risk assessments. Research areas include: dermal exposure models and toxicity values, improved methods for exposure factors, pharmaco-kinetic dose-response models, bioavailability and statistical methods. This paper presents ORD future research plans in response to these identified research areas.

  11. Future Directions in Ion Beam Therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Habermehl, Daniel; Combs, Stephanie; Debus, Jürgen

    There is a growing interest in ion beam therapy (IBT) worldwide which has led to an increasing number of new treatment facilities. This development is accompanied by intensive radiobiological, physical and clinical research of both proton therapy (PT) and carbon ion radiotherapy (CIRT). Current developments in IBT with high impact for future challenges will be summarized in this chapter.

  12. Evaluative Conditioning: Recent Developments and Future Directions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gast, Anne; Gawronski, Bertram; De Houwer, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Evaluative conditioning (EC) is generally considered to be one of the routes via which likes and dislikes are acquired. We identify recent trends in EC research and speculate about the topics that will dominate future research on EC. Many of the recent developments in EC research were shaped by functional definitions of EC that refer only to…

  13. Beyond 2000: Future Directions for Adult Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sticht, Thomas G.

    This paper provides adult educators with information they can use to produce perspectives for the future of adult education (AE). Part 1 provides a perspective on the past and present of AE that falls under the aegis of the Federal Adult Education Act of 1966 and subsequent amendments. It paints a picture of AE from the mid-1960s to the present…

  14. Leadership: current theories, research, and future directions.

    PubMed

    Avolio, Bruce J; Walumbwa, Fred O; Weber, Todd J

    2009-01-01

    This review examines recent theoretical and empirical developments in the leadership literature, beginning with topics that are currently receiving attention in terms of research, theory, and practice. We begin by examining authentic leadership and its development, followed by work that takes a cognitive science approach. We then examine new-genre leadership theories, complexity leadership, and leadership that is shared, collective, or distributed. We examine the role of relationships through our review of leader member exchange and the emerging work on followership. Finally, we examine work that has been done on substitutes for leadership, servant leadership, spirituality and leadership, cross-cultural leadership, and e-leadership. This structure has the benefit of creating a future focus as well as providing an interesting way to examine the development of the field. Each section ends with an identification of issues to be addressed in the future, in addition to the overall integration of the literature we provide at the end of the article.

  15. Defense Strategy and Forces: Setting Future Directions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-15

    adverse climatic state for human life, arresting the rise in global tempera- ture and averting severe climate change are clearly in America’s interest...prefer to remain aloof, or will bring in train effects that will redound adversely against them. The United States today is the world’s only superpower...and (5) continue to overmatch possible adver - saries on the conventional battlefield. Each of these missions requires investment in future defense

  16. Interventional CMR: Clinical Applications and Future Directions

    PubMed Central

    Rogers, Toby

    2015-01-01

    Interventional cardiovascular magnetic resonance (iCMR) promises to enable radiation-free catheterization procedures and to enhance contemporary image guidance for structural heart and electrophysiological interventions. However, clinical translation of exciting pre-clinical interventions has been limited by availability of devices that are safe to use in the magnetic resonance (MR) environment. We discuss challenges and solutions for clinical translation, including MR-conditional and MR-safe device design, and how to configure an interventional suite. We review the recent advances that have already enabled diagnostic MR right heart catheterization and simple electrophysiologic ablation to be performed in humans and explore future clinical applications. PMID:25894793

  17. Perspectives on Future Directions in Vocational Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Betz, Nancy E.

    2001-01-01

    Major research directions for vocational psychology include diversity, use of new technology, organizational career development, and work adjustment over the life span. Issues include the role of qualitative methods and the appropriate disciplinary focus--closer to or beyond psychology. A challenge is attracting new researchers to the topic of…

  18. Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis: current and future directions.

    PubMed

    Soo, E; Adamali, H; Edey, A J

    2017-01-21

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is the most common idiopathic interstitial pneumonia and is increasingly recognised. Prior to the advent of effective therapies, achieving an early diagnosis was arguably of little prognostic consequence given IPF was considered an untreatable and uniformly fatal disease. The advent of new drug treatments has given hope for the future and raised the profile of IPF. International management guidelines highlight the critical role of radiology as part of an interstitial lung disease multidisciplinary team approach in reaching an accurate and early diagnosis of IPF. The diagnostic criteria and levels of diagnostic confidence for the radio-pathological pattern associated with the clinical syndrome of IPF, usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP), appear seemingly straightforward; however, with increasing research and recognition of radiopathological interobserver variability, limitations of this classification model are becoming increasingly apparent. This review describes ancillary radiological features, comorbidities, and emerging new entities that potentially co-exist with IPF. Beyond diagnosis radiology is developing as a key prognostic tool to inform longitudinal patient evaluation. These diagnostic and prognostic clinical challenges and the future role of radiology in IPF are discussed.

  19. Future Directions for the PEGASUS Toroidal Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fonck, R.; Pegasus Team

    1999-11-01

    The PEGASUS Toroidal Experiment is uniquely poised to explore the tokamak/spheromak transition regime in the near future. To this end, a new low-inductance toroidal field coil set will allow transient exploration of the Ip/ITF > 3 regime and associated plasma relaxation phenomena. The addition of a transformer and inline inductor to the ohmic power supply will increase the pulse length to 0.03-0.05 s and will couple 5-10x the present power to the plasma. The High Harmonic Fast Wave (HHFW) antenna is complete and installation is planned for Fall 1999. The power supplies for the HHFW system have been tested up to 0.7 MW into dummy loads with future upgrades to 2 MW. Poloidal current injection via plasma guns is being tested for generating non-inductive target plasmas, thus reducing startup volt second consumption. If successful, a coaxial array of plasma guns will be used to initiate and drive the startup plasma, achieving non-inductive plasma currents 0.1-0.2 MA. Investigation of the viability of Electron Bernstein Wave heating in overdense ST plasmas is also planned, and may lead to an alternative method of non-inductive current ramp and sustainment.

  20. Poststroke epilepsy: update and future directions

    PubMed Central

    Zelano, Johan

    2016-01-01

    Stroke is among the most common causes of epilepsy after middle age. Patients with poststroke epilepsy (PSE) differ in several respects from patients with other forms of structural–metabolic epilepsy; not least in age, age-related sensitivity to side effects of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs), and specific drug–drug interaction issues related to secondary-stroke prophylaxis. Encouragingly, there has lately been remarkable activity in the study of PSE. Three developments in PSE research deserve particular focus. First, large prospective trials have established the incidence and risk factors of PSE in the setting of modern stroke care. Stroke severity, cortical location, young age, and haemorrhage remain the most important risk factors. Second, although more studies are needed, epidemiological data indicate that the risk of PSE may be influenced, for instance, by statin treatment. Third, studies are emerging regarding the treatment and prognosis of PSE. Levetiracetam and lamotrigine may be well tolerated treatment options and seizure freedom is achieved in at least a similar proportion of patients as in other epilepsies. Furthermore, new animal models such as photothrombotic stroke gives hope of a more clear understanding of PSE epileptogenesis in the near future. In summary, PSE shows indications of maturing into an independent epilepsy research field. This review summarizes recent advances in our understanding of PSE and provides an update on management issues such as diagnosis, AED selection, and prognosis. Finally, future research challenges in the field are outlined. PMID:27582897

  1. High temperature composites. Status and future directions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Signorelli, R. A.

    1982-01-01

    A summary of research investigations of manufacturing methods, fabrication methods, and testing of high temperature composites for use in gas turbine engines is presented. Ceramic/ceramic, ceramic/metal, and metal/metal composites are considered. Directional solidification of superalloys and eutectic alloys, fiber reinforced metal and ceramic composites, ceramic fibers and whiskers, refractory coatings, metal fiber/metal composites, matrix metal selection, and the preparation of test specimens are discussed.

  2. Condom negotiation: findings and future directions.

    PubMed

    Peasant, Courtney; Parra, Gilbert R; Okwumabua, Theresa M

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this review was to summarize factors associated with condom negotiation among heterosexual men. Literature searches were conducted using multiple databases spanning several disciplines. Studies examining psychological, demographic, relational, communication, and environmental factors related to condom negotiation are described, and a three-dimensional framework of condom negotiation is proposed. This framework of condom negotiation may aid researchers in operationalizing this construct, organizing this literature, and facilitating measurement development. We used this three-dimensional framework to articulate the influence of gender, ethnicity, relationship type, partner characteristics, trauma history, post-traumatic stress, and alcohol use on condom negotiation. Areas for future research are outlined. More research is needed to understand how these factors interact to influence condom negotiation, as well as the interaction between gender and the identified factors.

  3. Respiratory neuroplasticity - Overview, significance and future directions.

    PubMed

    Fuller, David D; Mitchell, Gordon S

    2017-01-01

    Neuroplasticity is an important property of the neural system controlling breathing. However, our appreciation for its importance is still relatively new, and we have much to learn concerning different forms of plasticity, their underlying mechanisms, and their biological and clinical significance. In this brief review, we discuss several well-studied models of respiratory plasticity, including plasticity initiated by inactivity in the respiratory system, intermittent and sustained hypoxia, and traumatic injury to the spinal cord. Other aspects of respiratory plasticity are considered in other contributions to this special edition of Experimental Neurology on respiratory plasticity. Finally, we conclude with discussions concerning the biological and clinical significance of respiratory motor plasticity, and areas in need of future research effort.

  4. NASA's future directions in space exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Odonnell, W. J.

    1983-01-01

    The Presidential policy statement of July 4, 1982 has outlined basic U.S. goals for activities in space which include strengthening security, maintaining space leadership, obtaining economic and scientific benefits, expanding private sector investment and involvement in space-related activities, promoting international cooperative activities, and cooperating with other nations in maintaining freedom of space for activities enhancing the security and welfare of mankind. NASA's priorities include: operational status for a four-Orbiter Shuttle fleet, demonstration of the Shuttle's ability to recover and repair the Solar Maximum Mission Satellite, the first launch of Spacelab, and the 1986 launch of the Space Telescope. Future projects include the Venus Radar Mapper, the Advanced Communications Technology Satellite, and the establishment of large permanent space facilities. It is stated that the United States must take the necessary steps now to achieve an understanding of the potential benefits of continued manned operations in space.

  5. Orbital debris: Technical issues and future directions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Potter, Andrew (Editor)

    1992-01-01

    An international conference on orbital debris sponsored jointly by the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, NASA, and the Department of Defense, was held in Baltimore, Maryland, 16-19 Apr. 1990. Thirty-three papers were presented. The papers were grouped into the areas of measurements, modeling, and implications of orbital debris for space flight. New radar and optical measurements of orbital debris were presented that showed the existence of a large population of small debris. Modeling of potential future environments showed that runaway growth of the debris population from random collisions was a real possibility. New techniques for shielding against orbital debris and methods for removal of satellites from orbit were discussed.

  6. Neck dissection: current concepts and future directions.

    PubMed

    Rigual, Nestor R; Wiseman, Sam M

    2004-01-01

    For individuals diagnosed with head and neck cancer, neck dissection may be performed for therapy or disease staging. The classification of neck dissection and the definition of precise anatomic landmarks have allowed for this operation, and its many variations, to become standardized world-wide. SLNBX shows promise in its ability to accurately stage NO head and neck cancer and may allow patients with no micro metastatic disease to avoid neck dissection. Before this technique becomes adopted into routine clinical practice, however, it must first be prospectively scrutinized in large patient populations. Regardless of the future role of SLNBX in the management of head and neck cancer, currently it is only through a complete understanding of the clinical, theoretic, and technical aspects of neck dis-section that surgeons may benefit individual patients and the head and neck cancer patient population as a whole.

  7. Intracoronary Doppler: Clinical Application And Future Directions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitlow, Patrick L.; Raymond, Russell E.; Tuzcu, E. Murat

    1989-08-01

    Because coronary arteriography may underestimate the severity of coronary artery disease, other methods to assess the physiologic significance of a coronary lesion have been sought. Experimental data have confirmed that the ratio of peak flow to resting flow, coronary vasodilator reserve (CVDR), is a quantitative measure of the functional significance of a coronary a stenosis. A 20 MHz pulsed Doppler catheter with a 1 mm outer diameter and an innerlumen for guidewire placement was developed in 1985 and has been used for clinical measurement of CVDR. The technique appears safe, and reliable signals can be obtained in the vast majority of patients studied. Limitations of the technique include possible changes in vessel diameter with delivery of a vasodilator stimulus, possible elevation of baseline flow above normal resting values which would diminish the CVDR, and inability to measure absolute coronary flow. These limitations could be overcome by the development of an intravascular Echo-Doppler device in the future.

  8. CATS Aerosol Typing and Future Directions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McGill, Matt; Yorks, John; Scott, Stan; Palm, Stephen; Hlavka, Dennis; Hart, William; Nowottnick, Ed; Selmer, Patrick; Kupchock, Andrew; Midzak, Natalie; Trepte, Chip; Vaughan, Mark; Colarco, Peter; da Silva, Arlindo

    2016-01-01

    The Cloud Aerosol Transport System (CATS), launched in January of 2015, is a lidar remote sensing instrument that will provide range-resolved profile measurements of atmospheric aerosols and clouds from the International Space Station (ISS). CATS is intended to operate on-orbit for at least six months, and up to three years. Status of CATS Level 2 and Plans for the Future:Version. 1. Aerosol Typing (ongoing): Mode 1: L1B data released later this summer; L2 data released shortly after; Identify algorithm biases (ex. striping, FOV (field of view) biases). Mode 2: Processed Released Currently working on correcting algorithm issues. Version 2 Aerosol Typing (Fall, 2016): Implementation of version 1 modifications Integrate GEOS-5 aerosols for typing guidance for non spherical aerosols. Version 3 Aerosol Typing (2017): Implementation of 1-D Var Assimilation into GEOS-5 Dynamic lidar ratio that will evolve in conjunction with simulated aerosol mixtures.

  9. Helicopter noise prediction - The current status and future direction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brentner, Kenneth S.; Farassat, F.

    1992-01-01

    The paper takes stock of the progress, assesses the current prediction capabilities, and forecasts the direction of future helicopter noise prediction research. The acoustic analogy approach, specifically, theories based on the Ffowcs Williams-Hawkings equations, are the most widely used for deterministic noise sources. Thickness and loading noise can be routinely predicted given good plane motion and blade loading inputs. Blade-vortex interaction noise can also be predicted well with measured input data, but prediction of airloads with the high spatial and temporal resolution required for BVI is still difficult. Current semiempirical broadband noise predictions are useful and reasonably accurate. New prediction methods based on a Kirchhoff formula and direct computation appear to be very promising, but are currently very demanding computationally.

  10. Transcranial brain stimulation: clinical applications and future directions.

    PubMed

    Najib, Umer; Bashir, Shahid; Edwards, Dylan; Rotenberg, Alexander; Pascual-Leone, Alvaro

    2011-04-01

    Noninvasive brain stimulation is a valuable investigative tool and has potential therapeutic applications in cognitive neuroscience, neurophysiology, psychiatry, and neurology. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is particularly useful to establish and map causal brain-behavior relations in motor and nonmotor cortical areas. Neuronavigated TMS is able to provide precise information related to the individual's functional anatomy that can be visualized and used during surgical interventions and critically aid in presurgical planning, reducing the need for riskier and more cumbersome intraoperative or invasive mapping procedures. This article reviews methodological aspects, clinical applications, and future directions of TMS-based mapping.

  11. Pediatric cataract: challenges and future directions

    PubMed Central

    Medsinge, Anagha; Nischal, Ken K

    2015-01-01

    Cataract is a significant cause of visual disability in the pediatric population worldwide and can significantly impact the neurobiological development of a child. Early diagnosis and prompt surgical intervention is critical to prevent irreversible amblyopia. Thorough ocular evaluation, including the onset, duration, and morphology of a cataract, is essential to determine the timing for surgical intervention. Detailed assessment of the general health of the child, preferably in conjunction with a pediatrician, is helpful to rule out any associated systemic condition. Although pediatric cataracts have a diverse etiology, with the majority being idiopathic, genetic counseling and molecular testing should be undertaken with the help of a genetic counselor and/or geneticist in cases of hereditary cataracts. Advancement in surgical techniques and methods of optical rehabilitation has substantially improved the functional and anatomic outcomes of pediatric cataract surgeries in recent years. However, the phenomenon of refractive growth and the process of emmetropization have continued to puzzle pediatric ophthalmologists and highlight the need for future prospective studies. Posterior capsule opacification and secondary glaucoma are still the major postoperative complications necessitating long-term surveillance in children undergoing cataract surgery early in life. Successful management of pediatric cataracts depends on individualized care and experienced teamwork. We reviewed the etiology, preoperative evaluation including biometry, choice of intraocular lens, surgical techniques, and recent developments in the field of childhood cataract. PMID:25609909

  12. Ecological traps: current evidence and future directions

    PubMed Central

    Hale, Robin; Swearer, Stephen E.

    2016-01-01

    Ecological traps, which occur when animals mistakenly prefer habitats where their fitness is lower than in other available habitats following rapid environmental change, have important conservation and management implications. Empirical research has focused largely on assessing the behavioural effects of traps, by studying a small number of geographically close habitat patches. Traps, however, have also been defined in terms of their population-level effects (i.e. as preferred habitats of sufficiently low quality to cause population declines), and this is the scale most relevant for management. We systematically review the ecological traps literature to (i) describe the geographical and taxonomic distribution of efforts to study traps, (ii) examine how different traps vary in the strength of their effects on preference and fitness, (iii) evaluate the robustness of methods being used to identify traps, and (iv) determine whether the information required to assess the population-level consequences of traps has been considered. We use our results to discuss key knowledge gaps, propose improved methods to study traps, and highlight fruitful avenues for future research. PMID:26865295

  13. Injection Adipolysis: Mechanisms, Agents, and Future Directions

    PubMed Central

    Leblanc, Keith

    2016-01-01

    Noninvasive procedures targeting the elimination of unwanted adipose tissues have recently been developed. injection adipolysis is the term for the injection of cytotoxic substances into these tissues, with the intent of cosmetic improvement by volume reduction. initial attempts in the field utilized intravenous preparations of sodium deoxycholate and soy-derived phosphatidylcholine, approved for the intravenous treatment of fat emboli and dyslipidemias in countries outside the United States. it was initially purported that the active ingredient in these injections was phosphatidylcholine. Subsequent research discovered that injections of sodium deoxycholate alone were capable of inducing cellular lysis in vitro. These compounds also demonstrated an affinity for adipose tissue, sparing the overlying dermis and epidermis. The United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) recently approved a formulation of sodium deoxycholate 10mg/mL for subcutaneous injection with the indication of aesthetic improvement of excess submental fat. it has shown moderate efficacy with appropriate patient selection and good patient satisfaction. However, previous research leading to the development of this drug proposed that including phosphatidylcholine to a more appealing cosmetic result, with decreased severity of injection-site reactions. Future drugs in the field of injection adipolysis may attempt to combine these ingredients for improved cosmesis and tolerability. PMID:28210398

  14. Neurosciences research in space - Future directions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sulzman, Frank M.; Wolfe, James W.

    1991-01-01

    In order to gain a better understanding of the effects of long-duration space missions on the central nervous system, near-term research, to take place from 1990-1995, will be directed at investigating the acute effects of microgravity and the 'space adaptation syndrome'. These include experiments scheduled for the Spacelab Life Sciences 1 which is designed to evaluate changes in the visual, vestibular, and proprioceptive systems. An extensive series of experiments, collectively termed Microgravity Vestibular Investigations (MVI), is also planned for the IML-1 mission to be flown in 1992. The IML-2 mission will emphasize behavior and performance, biological rhythms, and further vestibular studies. Mid-term goals, projected to be achieved from 1995-2000, include the use of new technology such as magnetic recording techniques. Long-term goals are also discussed including studies dealing with neuronal plasticity and sensory substitution, augmentation, and robotic telepresence.

  15. Behavioral cardiology: current advances and future directions.

    PubMed

    Rozanski, Alan

    2014-07-08

    Growing epidemiological evidence identifies key domains relevant to behavioral cardiology, including health behaviors, emotions, mental mindsets, stress management, social connectedness, and a sense of purpose. Each of these domains exists along a continuum, ranging from positive factors that promote health, to negative factors, which are pathophysiological. To date, there has been relatively little translation of this growing knowledge base into cardiology practice. Four initiatives are proposed to meet this challenge: 1) promulgating greater awareness of the potency of psychosocial risks factors; 2) overcoming a current "artificial divide" between conventional and psychosocial risk factors; 3) developing novel cost-effective interventions using Internet and mobile health applications, group-based counseling, and development of tiered-care behavioral management; and 4) in recognition that "one size does not fit all" with respect to behavioral interventions, developing specialists who can counsel patients in multidisciplinary fashion and use evidence-based approaches for promoting patient motivation and execution of health goals.

  16. Large scale scientific computing - future directions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patterson, G. S.

    1982-06-01

    Every new generation of scientific computers has opened up new areas of science for exploration through the use of more realistic numerical models or the ability to process ever larger amounts of data. Concomitantly, scientists, because of the success of past models and the wide range of physical phenomena left unexplored, have pressed computer designers to strive for the maximum performance that current technology will permit. This encompasses not only increased processor speed, but also substantial improvements in processor memory, I/O bandwidth, secondary storage and facilities to augment the scientist's ability both to program and to understand the results of a computation. Over the past decade, performance improvements for scientific calculations have come from algoeithm development and a major change in the underlying architecture of the hardware, not from significantly faster circuitry. It appears that this trend will continue for another decade. A future archetectural change for improved performance will most likely be multiple processors coupled together in some fashion. Because the demand for a significantly more powerful computer system comes from users with single large applications, it is essential that an application be efficiently partitionable over a set of processors; otherwise, a multiprocessor system will not be effective. This paper explores some of the constraints on multiple processor architecture posed by these large applications. In particular, the trade-offs between large numbers of slow processors and small numbers of fast processors is examined. Strategies for partitioning range from partitioning at the language statement level (in-the-small) and at the program module level (in-the-large). Some examples of partitioning in-the-large are given and a strategy for efficiently executing a partitioned program is explored.

  17. Telehealth: current practices and future directions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    David, Yadin B.

    1996-02-01

    When we review the positive impact that the integration of ostensibly independent patient-care services have on the efficient management of quality care, education, and collaborative research, it is not surprising that telehealth deployment is on the rise. The forces that drive this phenomenon include: the need to manage the entire disease episode; the desire for wider geographically-distributed quality health care; the escalation of customer expectations; globalization of healthcare and its support services; an increase in patient and provider convenience; and the acceptance of the present technological community. At the Telehealth Center at the Texas Children's Hospital, current classifications of clinical applications are listed: (1) initial urgent evaluation of patients, (2) triage decisions and pretransfer arrangements, (3) medical and surgical follow-up and medication review, (4) consultation for primary care encounters, (5) real-time subspecialty care consultation and planning, (6) management of chronic diseases and conditions, (7) extended diagnostic work-ups, (8) review of diagnostic images, and (9) preventive medicine and patient education. The delivery of such services is associated with challenges and opportunities. As we move forward from limited data processing to an integrated communication system, from centralized main frame functions to personalized and location-independent workstations, and from hospitals to clinics and homecare, an increase in the minimum features provided by the equipment and the communication systems must accompany the widening variety of clinical applications. Future expansion of telehealth systems stands to revolutionize the delivery of services to the benefits of providers' networks, our economy, and patients through integration.

  18. Future directions of nanometrology and nanomanufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyons, Kevin W.

    2007-04-01

    Nanomanufacturing and nanometrology are key enablers for fulfilling the promise of nanotechnology. Nanomanufacturing (NM) capitalizes on the special material properties and processing capabilities at the nanoscale, and promotes integration of nanostructures to functional micro devices and meso/macroscale architectures and systems, as well as the interfacing issues across dimensional scales. Nanometrology provides the means to measure and characterize process and product performance and covers an expanse of topics including instrumentation, measurement approaches for off-line and in-process production applications, and standards. To meet the needs of this emerging manufacturing community it is important that research on scale-up of nanotechnology for high rate production, reliability, robustness, yield, efficiency and cost issues for manufacturing products and services be pursued. To achieve this, new research directions must include a systems approach that encompasses nanoscale materials and structures, fabrication and integration processes, production equipment and characterization of instrumentation, theory/ modeling/ simulation and control tools, biomimetic design and integration of multi-scale functional systems, three dimensional nanoscale metrology, production-hardened metrology, and other areas driven by industrial applications. Impact is expected in energy systems, electronics, medical/health, transportation, pharmaceutical, chemicals and defense sectors.

  19. Directed Energy: A Look to the Future

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-01-01

    expatriates, IPG Photonics—a US-based world leader in high-power fiber lasers — currently markets a 50- kilowatt fiber laser with over 25 percent...efficiency.8 In com- parison, the Department of Defense’s Joint High Power Solid State Laser program dem- onstrated a 100- kilowatt -class laser with good...measure of how tightly a beam can be focused) far superior to that of the IPG industrial laser . Additionally, the French, British, and Germans

  20. Palate Morphogenesis: Current Understanding and Future Directions

    PubMed Central

    Greene, Robert M.; Pisano, M. Michele

    2011-01-01

    In the past, most scientists conducted their inquiries of nature via inductivism, the patient accumulation of “pieces of information” in the pious hope that the sum of the parts would clarify the whole. Increasingly, modern biology employs the tools of bioinformatics and systems biology in attempts to reveal the “big picture.” Most successful laboratories engaged in the pursuit of the secrets of embryonic development, particularly those whose research focus is craniofacial development, pursue a middle road where research efforts embrace, rather than abandon, what some have called the “pedestrian” qualities of inductivism, while increasingly employing modern data mining technologies. The secondary palate has provided an excellent paradigm that has enabled examination of a wide variety of developmental processes. Examination of cellular signal transduction, as it directs embryogenesis, has proven exceptionally revealing with regard to clarification of the “facts” of palatal ontogeny—at least the facts as we currently understand them. Herein, we review the most basic fundamentals of orofacial embryology and discuss how functioning of TGFβ, BMP, Shh, and Wnt signal transduction pathways contributes to palatal morphogenesis. Our current understanding of palate medial edge epithelial differentiation is also examined. We conclude with a discussion of how the rapidly expanding field of epigenetics, particularly regulation of gene expression by miRNAs and DNA methylation, is critical to control of cell and tissue differentiation, and how examination of these epigenetic processes has already begun to provide a better understanding of, and greater appreciation for, the complexities of palatal morphogenesis. PMID:20544696

  1. The Cassava Genome: Current Progress, Future Directions.

    PubMed

    Prochnik, Simon; Marri, Pradeep Reddy; Desany, Brian; Rabinowicz, Pablo D; Kodira, Chinnappa; Mohiuddin, Mohammed; Rodriguez, Fausto; Fauquet, Claude; Tohme, Joseph; Harkins, Timothy; Rokhsar, Daniel S; Rounsley, Steve

    2012-03-01

    The starchy swollen roots of cassava provide an essential food source for nearly a billion people, as well as possibilities for bioenergy, yet improvements to nutritional content and resistance to threatening diseases are currently impeded. A 454-based whole genome shotgun sequence has been assembled, which covers 69% of the predicted genome size and 96% of protein-coding gene space, with genome finishing underway. The predicted 30,666 genes and 3,485 alternate splice forms are supported by 1.4 M expressed sequence tags (ESTs). Maps based on simple sequence repeat (SSR)-, and EST-derived single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) already exist. Thanks to the genome sequence, a high-density linkage map is currently being developed from a cross between two diverse cassava cultivars: one susceptible to cassava brown streak disease; the other resistant. An efficient genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS) approach is being developed to catalog SNPs both within the mapping population and among diverse African farmer-preferred varieties of cassava. These resources will accelerate marker-assisted breeding programs, allowing improvements in disease-resistance and nutrition, and will help us understand the genetic basis for disease resistance.

  2. Current Concepts and Future Directions of CELSS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macelroy, R. D.; Bredt, J.

    1985-01-01

    Bioregenerative life support systems for use in space were studied. Concepts of such systems include the use of higher plants and/or microalgae as sources of food, potable water and oxygen, and as sinks for carbon dioxide and metabolic wastes. Recycling of materials within the system will require processing of food organism and crew wastes using microbiological and/or physical chemical techniques. The dynamics of material flow within the system will require monitoring, control, stabilization and maintenance imposed by computers. Studies included higher plant and algal physiology, environmental responses, and control; flight experiments for testing responses of organisms to weightlessness and increased radiation levels; and development of ground based facilities for the study of recycling within a bioregenerative life support system.

  3. The Informal Economy: Recent Trends, Future Directions.

    PubMed

    Chen, Martha Alter

    2016-08-01

    Informal employment represents more than half of nonagricultural employment in most developing regions, contributes to the overall economy, and provides pathways to reduction of poverty and inequality. Support to the informal economy should include the expansion of occupational health and safety to include informal workers, based on an analysis of their work places and work risks. The paper presents main schools of thought and argues for a holistic understanding of the different segments of the informal work force and for policies and interventions tailored to the needs and constraints of these different segments. The paper recommends a policy approach which seeks to extend social protection, including occupational health and safety services, to informal workers, and to increase the productivity of informal enterprises and informal workers through an enabling environment and support services. The paper calls for a new paradigm of a hybrid economy which would value and integrate the informal economy alongside the formal economies.

  4. Chordoma: current concepts, management, and future directions.

    PubMed

    Walcott, Brian P; Nahed, Brian V; Mohyeldin, Ahmed; Coumans, Jean-Valery; Kahle, Kristopher T; Ferreira, Manuel J

    2012-02-01

    Chordoma is a rare bone cancer that is aggressive, locally invasive, and has a poor prognosis. Chordomas are thought to arise from transformed remnants of notochord and have a predilection for the axial skeleton, with the most common sites being the sacrum, skull base, and spine. The gold standard treatment for chordomas of the mobile spine and sacrum is en-bloc excision with wide margins and postoperative external-beam radiation therapy. Treatment of clival chordomas is unique from other locations with an enhanced emphasis on preservation of neurological function, typified by a general paradigm of maximally safe cytoreductive surgery and advanced radiation delivery techniques. In this Review, we highlight current standards in diagnosis, clinical management, and molecular characterisation of chordomas, and discuss current research.

  5. Future Directions of Evidence-Based Practice in Athletic Training: Perceived Strategies to Enhance the Use of Evidence-Based Practice

    PubMed Central

    Welch, Cailee E.; Hankemeier, Dorice A.; Wyant, Aimee L.; Hays, Danica G.; Pitney, William A.; Van Lunen, Bonnie L.

    2014-01-01

    Context: The shift to a culture of evidence-based practice (EBP) in athletic training is a necessary step in both the optimization of patient care and the advancement of athletic trainers (ATs) as health care professionals. Whereas individuals have gained knowledge in this area, most ATs still are not practicing in an evidence-based manner. Exploring perceived strategies to enhance the use of EBP will help to determine the best approaches to assist ATs in applying EBP concepts to practice to improve patient care. Objective: To explore beneficial strategies and techniques ATs perceived would promote successful implementation of EBP within athletic training education and clinical practice. Design: Qualitative study. Setting: Individual telephone interviews. Patients or Other Participants: Twenty-five ATs (12 educators, 13 clinicians; athletic training experience = 16.00 ± 9.41 years) were interviewed. Data Collection and Analysis: One phone interview was conducted with each participant. After the interview was transcribed, the data were analyzed and coded into common themes and categories. Triangulation of the data occurred via the use of multiple researchers and member checking to confirm the accuracy of the data. Results: Participants identified several components they perceived as essential for enhancing the use of EBP within the athletic training profession. These components included the need for more EBP resources, more processed information, focused workshops, peer discussion and mentorship, and continual repetition and exposure. Participants also indicated that ATs need to accept their professional responsibilities to foster EBP in their daily practices. Conclusions: The proper shift to a culture of EBP in athletic training will take both time and a persistent commitment by ATs to create strategies that will enhance the implementation of EBP across the profession. Researchers should focus on continuing to identify effective educational interventions for ATs

  6. Environmental assessment process needs and future directions

    SciTech Connect

    Gustafson, P.F.

    1985-01-01

    The environmental assessment process as legislatively mandated by the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA) constitutes a double-edged sword as regards the successful management and disposal of radioactive waste. On the one hand, NEPA requires identification and disclosure of the environmental and societal consequences of a given major federal action, consideration of alternatives and/or mitigative measures leading to the same end result, a balancing of costs and benefits, and provides for and encourages public participation in the decision-making process regarding the proposed action(s). On the other hand, public participation supported by judicial decisions, based more upon procedural than substantive issues, may delay, alter, or indeed prohibit a proposed course of action. If the cognizant federal agencies (DOE and NRC in the radioactive waste area) comply with both the spirit and the letter of NEPA a framework for the successful management of radioactive wastes on all types can be developed. If however, these agencies are less than earnest in their NEPA compliance actions or if public opposition is backed by overzealous court action, any radioactive waste management/disposal action (however technically sound) can be hoisted upon a petard from which it may not be freed until well into the next century.

  7. Radiation Metabolomics: Current Status and Future Directions

    PubMed Central

    Menon, Smrithi S.; Uppal, Medha; Randhawa, Subeena; Cheema, Mehar S.; Aghdam, Nima; Usala, Rachel L.; Ghosh, Sanchita P.; Cheema, Amrita K.; Dritschilo, Anatoly

    2016-01-01

    Human exposure to ionizing radiation (IR) disrupts normal metabolic processes in cells and organs by inducing complex biological responses that interfere with gene and protein expression. Conventional dosimetry, monitoring of prodromal symptoms, and peripheral lymphocyte counts are of limited value as organ- and tissue-specific biomarkers for personnel exposed to radiation, particularly, weeks or months after exposure. Analysis of metabolites generated in known stress-responsive pathways by molecular profiling helps to predict the physiological status of an individual in response to environmental or genetic perturbations. Thus, a multi-metabolite profile obtained from a high-resolution mass spectrometry-based metabolomics platform offers potential for identification of robust biomarkers to predict radiation toxicity of organs and tissues resulting from exposures to therapeutic or non-therapeutic IR. Here, we review the status of radiation metabolomics and explore applications as a standalone technology, as well as its integration in systems biology, to facilitate a better understanding of the molecular basis of radiation response. Finally, we draw attention to the identification of specific pathways that can be targeted for the development of therapeutics to alleviate or mitigate harmful effects of radiation exposure. PMID:26870697

  8. Cancer communication: status and future directions.

    PubMed

    Hesse, Bradford W

    2009-01-01

    On November 7, 2005, the directors of the National Cancer Institute's (NCI's) Comprehensive Cancer Centers met to identify ways of accelerating success against cancer using current knowledge. Not surprisingly, cancer communication was identified as a focal point of research that needed to be conducted to extend the benefits of cancer knowledge throughout the population. There were three foci of communication research identified by the directors: (a) research designed to extend awareness of prevention and early detection, (b) research designed to improve the accuracy and usability of cancer science as portrayed in national news media, and (c) research designed to support behavior through individual and community-level interventions. Each of these foci takes on new meaning when considered in the context of a rapidly changing communication environment. Behavioral science must evolve to keep up with these changes and to offer new evidence-based approaches for extending the reach, effectiveness, and efficiency of cancer communication in order to do its part in accelerating successes against the disease.

  9. Promising Practices and Programs: Current Efforts and Future Directions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crisp, Gloria

    2016-01-01

    The final chapter of the issue provides a synthesis of the first eight chapters, offers conclusions and recommendations, and considers future directions regarding practices and programs with promise for high impact at community colleges around the country.

  10. Intracardiac flow visualization: current status and future directions.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez Muñoz, Daniel; Markl, Michael; Moya Mur, José Luis; Barker, Alex; Fernández-Golfín, Covadonga; Lancellotti, Patrizio; Zamorano Gómez, José Luis

    2013-11-01

    Non-invasive cardiovascular imaging initially focused on heart structures, allowing the visualization of their motion and inferring its functional status from it. Colour-Doppler and cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) have allowed a visual approach to intracardiac flow behaviour, as well as measuring its velocity at single selected spots. Recently, the application of new technologies to medical use and, particularly, to cardiology has allowed, through different algorithms in CMR and applications of ultrasound-related techniques, the description and analysis of flow behaviour in all points and directions of the selected region, creating the opportunity to incorporate new data reflecting cardiac performance to cardiovascular imaging. The following review provides an overview of the currently available imaging techniques that enable flow visualization, as well as its present and future applications based on the available literature and on-going works.

  11. Effect-directed analysis: Current status and future challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Seongjin; Giesy, John P.; Lee, Jung-Suk; Lee, Jong-Hyeon; Khim, Jong Seong

    2016-09-01

    Effect-directed analysis (EDA) has become useful for identification of toxicant(s) that occur in mixtures in the environment, especially those that are causative agents of specific adverse effects. Here, we summarize and review EDA methodology including preparation of samples, biological analyses, fractionations, and instrumental analyses, highlighting key scientific advancements. A total of 63 documents since 1999 (Scopus search) including 46 research articles, 13 review papers, and 4 project descriptions, have been collected and reviewed in this study. At the early stage (1999-2010), most studies that applied EDA focused on organic extracts of freshwater and coastal contaminated sediments and wastewater. Toxic effects were often measured using cell-based bioassays ( in vitro) and the causative chemicals were identified by use of low resolution gas chromatography with mass selective detector (GCMSD). More recently (2010-present), EDA has been extended to various matrices such as biota, soil, crude oil, and suspended solids and techniques have been improved to include determination of bioavailability in vivo. In particular, methods for non-target screenings of organic chemicals in environmental samples using cutting-edge instrumentation such as time of flight-mass spectrometry (ToF-MS), Fourier transform-ion cyclotron resonance (FT-ICR), and Orbitrap mass spectrometer have been developed. This overview provides descriptions of recent improvements of EDA and suggests future research directions based on current understandings and limitations.

  12. Cytokine release assays: current practices and future directions.

    PubMed

    Finco, D; Grimaldi, C; Fort, M; Walker, M; Kiessling, A; Wolf, B; Salcedo, T; Faggioni, R; Schneider, A; Ibraghimov, A; Scesney, S; Serna, D; Prell, R; Stebbings, R; Narayanan, P K

    2014-04-01

    As a result of the CD28 superagonist biotherapeutic monoclonal antibody (TGN 1412) "cytokine storm" incident, cytokine release assays (CRA) have become hazard identification and prospective risk assessment tools for screening novel biotherapeutics directed against targets having a potential risk for eliciting adverse pro-inflammatory clinical infusion reactions. Different laboratories may have different strategies, assay formats, and approaches to the reporting, interpretation, and use of data for either decision making or risk assessment. Additionally, many independent contract research organizations (CROs), academic and government laboratories are involved in some aspect of CRA work. As a result, while some pharmaceutical companies are providing CRA data as part of the regulatory submissions when necessary, technical and regulatory practices are still evolving to provide data predictive of cytokine release in humans and that are relevant to safety. This manuscript provides an overview of different approaches employed by the pharmaceutical industry and CROs, for the use and application of CRA based upon a survey and post survey follow up conducted by ILSI-Health and Environmental Sciences Institute (HESI) Immunotoxicology Committee CRA Working Group. Also discussed is ongoing research in the academic sector, the regulatory environment, current limitations of the assays, and future directions and recommendations for cytokine release assays.

  13. Future directions for H sub x O sub y detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crosley, David R. (Editor); Hoell, James M. (Editor)

    1986-01-01

    The activities and recommendations of the NASA workshop on the Future Directions for H sub x O sub y detection are given. The objective of this workshop was to access future directions for the measurement of the OH radical as well as other H sub x O sub y species. The workshop discussions were focused by two broad questions: (1) What are the capabilities of potential measurement methods? and (2) Will the results from the most promising method be useful in furthering understanding of tropospheric chemistry?

  14. Asthma and suicide: current knowledge and future directions.

    PubMed

    Goodwin, Renee D

    2012-02-01

    The prevalence of asthma has risen dramatically, especially among youth, in recent years, and asthma is now among the most common chronic conditions. Recent studies suggest a relationship between asthma and suicidal ideation, suicide attempt, and death by suicide. This paper reviews the literature, summarizes the weight of evidence, and discusses the clinical implications and future directions for research.

  15. Future Directions for EC Teacher Educators: 10 Principles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibbs, Colin

    2010-01-01

    In this two-part series, the author's task is to draw out some themes from the Working Forum for Teacher Educators, held in Auckland, New Zealand on April 30-May 2, 2008. Earlier he identified ten concerns relating to future directions in early childhood teacher education. In this article, he suggests ten principles for early childhood teacher…

  16. Future Directions in Distance Learning and Communication Technologies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shih, Timothy; Hung, Jason

    2007-01-01

    Future Directions in Distance Learning and Communication Technologies presents theoretical studies and practical solutions for engineers, educational professionals, and graduate students in the research areas of e-learning, distance education, and instructional design. This book provides readers with cutting-edge solutions and research directions…

  17. Current capabilities and future directions in computational fluid dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    A summary of significant findings is given, followed by specific recommendations for future directions of emphasis for computational fluid dynamics development. The discussion is organized into three application areas: external aerodynamics, hypersonics, and propulsion - and followed by a turbulence modeling synopsis.

  18. Issues and Future Direction of Physical Education in Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mgbor, Michael O.

    2006-01-01

    This paper examines the issues that influenced the development of physical education in Nigerian schools after the country's political independence in 1960. Negative forces, which affected the tempo of growth, are discussed, and suggestions for the future direction of physical education in Nigeria, particularly given its importance in national…

  19. Thermal batteries: A technology review and future directions

    SciTech Connect

    Guidotti, R.A.

    1995-07-01

    Thermally activated (``thermal``) batteries have been used for ordnance applications (e.g., proximity fuzes) since World War II and, subsequent to that, in nuclear weapons. This technology was developed by the Germans as a power source for their V2 rockets. It was obtained by the Allies by interrogation of captured German scientists after the war. The technology developed rapidly from the initial primitive systems used by the Germans to one based on Ca/CaCrO{sub 4}. This system was used very successfully into the late 1970s, when it was replaced by the Li-alloy/FeS{sub 2} electrochemical system. This paper describes the predominant electrochemical couples that have been used in thermal batteries over the years. Major emphasis is placed on the chemistry and electrochemistry of the Ca/CaCrO{sub 4} and Li-alloy/FeS{sub 2} systems. The reason for this is to give the reader a better appreciation for the advances in thermal-battery technology for which these two systems are directly responsible. Improvements to date in the current Li-alloy/FeS{sub 2} and related systems are discussed and areas for possible future research and development involving anodes, cathodes, electrolytes, and insulations are outlined. New areas where thermal-battery technology has potential applications are also examined.

  20. Diabetic peripheral neuropathy: current perspective and future directions.

    PubMed

    Singh, Randhir; Kishore, Lalit; Kaur, Navpreet

    2014-02-01

    Diabetic neuropathy is a heterogeneous group of disorders with extremely complex pathophysiology and affects both somatic and autonomic components of the nervous system. Neuropathy is the most common chronic complication of diabetes mellitus. Metabolic disruptions in the peripheral nervous system, including altered protein kinase C activity, and increased polyol pathway activity in neurons and Schwann cells resulting from hyperglycemia plays a key role in the development of diabetic neuropathy. These pathways are related to the metabolic and/or redox state of the cell and are the major source of damage. Activation of these metabolic pathways leads to oxidative stress, which is a mediator of hyperglycemia induced cell injury and a unifying theme for all mechanisms of diabetic neuropathy. The therapeutic intervention of these metabolic pathways is capable of ameliorating diabetic neuropathy but therapeutics which target one particular mechanism may have a limited success. Available therapeutic approaches are based upon the agents that modulate pathogenetic mechanisms (glycemic control) and relieve the symptoms of diabetic neuropathy. This review emphasizes the pathogenesis, presently available therapeutic approaches and future directions for the management of diabetic neuropathy.

  1. Mechanical Circulatory Support: Current Status and Future Directions.

    PubMed

    Silva Enciso, Jorge

    2016-01-01

    Advance heart failure (AHF) is a growing epidemic with high morbidity and mortality. Left ventricular assist device (LVAD) has come to offer an opportunity to improve survival and quality of life. This form of therapy however, is not free of complications and poses a challenge to apply to a broader population. Adjunct therapies in combination with LVAD therapy and advances in device technology are in the near future, which may lessen the number of adverse events. This review summarizes the history, clinical outcomes and current challenges facing LVAD therapy. Finally, future directions of LVADs in the treatment of AHF are discussed.

  2. Information-time based futures pricing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yen, Simon; Wang, Jai Jen

    2009-09-01

    This study follows Clark [P.K. Clark, A subordinated stochastic process model with finite variance for speculative prices, Econometrica 41 (1973) 135-155] and Chang, Chang and Lim [C.W. Chang, S.K. Chang, K.G. Lim, Information-time option pricing: Theory and empirical evidence, Journal of Financial Economics 48 (1998) 211-242] to subordinate an information-time based directing process into calendar-time based parent processes. A closed-form futures pricing formula is derived after taking into account the information-time setting and the stochasticity of the spot price, interest rate, and convenience yield. According to the empirical results on the TAIEX and TFETX data from 1998/7/21 to 2003/12/31, the information-time based model performs better than its calendar-time based counterpart and the cost of carry model, especially when the information arrival intensity estimates become larger.

  3. Clinical Research with Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS): Challenges and Future Directions

    PubMed Central

    Brunoni, Andre Russowsky; Nitsche, Michael A.; Bolognini, Nadia; Bikson, Marom; Wagner, Tim; Merabet, Lotfi; Edwards, Dylan J.; Valero-Cabre, Antoni; Rotenberg, Alexander; Pascual-Leone, Alvaro; Ferrucci, Roberta; Priori, Alberto; Boggio, Paulo; Fregni, Felipe

    2011-01-01

    Background Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a neuromodulatory technique that delivers low-intensity, direct current to cortical areas facilitating or inhibiting spontaneous neuronal activity. In the past ten years, tDCS physiological mechanisms of action have been intensively investigated giving support for the investigation of its applications in clinical neuropsychiatry and rehabilitation. However, new methodological, ethical, and regulatory issues emerge when translating the findings of preclinical and phase I studies into phase II and III clinical studies. The aim of this comprehensive review is to discuss the key challenges of this process and possible methods to address them. Methods We convened a workgroup of researchers in the field to review, discuss and provide updates and key challenges of neuromodulation use for clinical research. Main Findings/Discussion We reviewed several basic and clinical studies in the field and identified potential limitations, taking into account the particularities of the technique. We review and discuss the findings into four topics: (i) mechanisms of action of tDCS, parameters of use and computer-based human brain modeling investigating electric current fields and magnitude induced by tDCS; (ii) methodological aspects related to the clinical research of tDCS as divided according to study phase (i.e., preclinical, phase I, phase II and phase III studies); (iii) ethical and regulatory concerns; (iv) future directions regarding novel approaches, novel devices, and future studies involving tDCS. Finally, we propose some alternative methods to facilitate clinical research on tDCS. PMID:22037126

  4. Recent progress and future directions in protein-protein docking.

    PubMed

    Ritchie, David W

    2008-02-01

    This article gives an overview of recent progress in protein-protein docking and it identifies several directions for future research. Recent results from the CAPRI blind docking experiments show that docking algorithms are steadily improving in both reliability and accuracy. Current docking algorithms employ a range of efficient search and scoring strategies, including e.g. fast Fourier transform correlations, geometric hashing, and Monte Carlo techniques. These approaches can often produce a relatively small list of up to a few thousand orientations, amongst which a near-native binding mode is often observed. However, despite the use of improved scoring functions which typically include models of desolvation, hydrophobicity, and electrostatics, current algorithms still have difficulty in identifying the correct solution from the list of false positives, or decoys. Nonetheless, significant progress is being made through better use of bioinformatics, biochemical, and biophysical information such as e.g. sequence conservation analysis, protein interaction databases, alanine scanning, and NMR residual dipolar coupling restraints to help identify key binding residues. Promising new approaches to incorporate models of protein flexibility during docking are being developed, including the use of molecular dynamics snapshots, rotameric and off-rotamer searches, internal coordinate mechanics, and principal component analysis based techniques. Some investigators now use explicit solvent models in their docking protocols. Many of these approaches can be computationally intensive, although new silicon chip technologies such as programmable graphics processor units are beginning to offer competitive alternatives to conventional high performance computer systems. As cryo-EM techniques improve apace, docking NMR and X-ray protein structures into low resolution EM density maps is helping to bridge the resolution gap between these complementary techniques. The use of symmetry and

  5. Advances and future directions of research on spectral methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patera, A. T.

    1986-01-01

    Recent advances in spectral methods are briefly reviewed and characterized with respect to their convergence and computational complexity. Classical finite element and spectral approaches are then compared, and spectral element (or p-type finite element) approximations are introduced. The method is applied to the full Navier-Stokes equations, and examples are given of the application of the technique to several transitional flows. Future directions of research in the field are outlined.

  6. Global Updates on the Future Directions of Neurotoxins and Fillers

    PubMed Central

    Heningburg, Jade

    2016-01-01

    Summary: Neurotoxins and fillers continue to remain in high demand, comprising a large part of the growing business of cosmetic minimally invasive procedures. Multiple Food and Drug Administration–approved safe yet different products exist within each category, and the role of each product continues to expand. The authors review the literature to provide an overview of the use of neurotoxins and fillers and their future directions. PMID:28018777

  7. Milestones of the IMIA-NI history and future directions.

    PubMed

    Hovenga, Evelyn J S

    2009-01-01

    IMIA-NI's past achievements are reflected upon in the context of its current strategic directions. Two key historical milestones are described in some detail, the ISO Reference terminology model for nursing and the International Nursing Minimum Data Set development project, as this work is continuing to influence future directions in health and nursing informatics. Current features of our health care environment are explored noting the current desire of most nations to implement electronic health records (EHRs) and its relationship with IMIA-NI's strategic directions. Nurses can play their part by working collaboratively, converting their knowledge into computer processable formats, establishing the necessary professional knowledge governance infrastructure and lobbying key decision makers to establish national infrastructures that will enable the adoption and optimum use of EHRs.

  8. MILESTONES AND FUTURE DIRECTIONS IN THE SOLVENT EXTRACTION OF CAESIUM

    SciTech Connect

    Moyer, Bruce A

    2011-01-01

    The remarkable development of solvent-extraction (SX) chemistry for caesium separation over the past half a century as driven by the needs of the nuclear industry now constitutes an instructive case study in exploring the limits of selectivity and cycle efficiency in SX. In this review, key milestones in the pursuit of both fundamentals and applications of caesium extraction will be highlighted along with a look at future prospects. The high-yield fission-product 137Cs constitutes a major fraction of the radioactivity in nuclear wastes, and in view of its heat production, environmental mobility, radiation hazard, and even uses as a radiation source, methods have long been sought for its separation. Toward this end, the evolving science has been challenged by daunting requirements for decontamination in the presence of high concentrations of competing cations, and demands for small footprint, modular design, and high throughput place a premium on selectivity and efficiency. Fortunately, the science has also benefited from the peculiar economics of nuclear separations, which have afforded the development of wonderfully sophisticated reagents. With its location in the lower left side of the periodic table, the Cs+ cation has the distinction of having the lowest charge density of any metal cation except short-lived francium. For practical purposes, Cs+ is thus the least hydrated and, in principle, the most directly extractable metal cation. Technologies employing liquid-liquid cation exchange with very large, durable anions like those from the dicarbollide family have therefore been quite effective based solely on solvation principles. Alternatively, researchers have turned to macrocyclic coordinating extractants, such as calix-crown ethers, following principles of molecular recognition, with dramatic results. Overall, strides continue along these lines, though it is apparent that caesium SX has reached a state of excellent fundamental understanding and technical

  9. Magnetic particle imaging: current developments and future directions.

    PubMed

    Panagiotopoulos, Nikolaos; Duschka, Robert L; Ahlborg, Mandy; Bringout, Gael; Debbeler, Christina; Graeser, Matthias; Kaethner, Christian; Lüdtke-Buzug, Kerstin; Medimagh, Hanne; Stelzner, Jan; Buzug, Thorsten M; Barkhausen, Jörg; Vogt, Florian M; Haegele, Julian

    2015-01-01

    Magnetic particle imaging (MPI) is a novel imaging method that was first proposed by Gleich and Weizenecker in 2005. Applying static and dynamic magnetic fields, MPI exploits the unique characteristics of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs). The SPIONs' response allows a three-dimensional visualization of their distribution in space with a superb contrast, a very high temporal and good spatial resolution. Essentially, it is the SPIONs' superparamagnetic characteristics, the fact that they are magnetically saturable, and the harmonic composition of the SPIONs' response that make MPI possible at all. As SPIONs are the essential element of MPI, the development of customized nanoparticles is pursued with the greatest effort by many groups. Their objective is the creation of a SPION or a conglomerate of particles that will feature a much higher MPI performance than nanoparticles currently available commercially. A particle's MPI performance and suitability is characterized by parameters such as the strength of its MPI signal, its biocompatibility, or its pharmacokinetics. Some of the most important adjuster bolts to tune them are the particles' iron core and hydrodynamic diameter, their anisotropy, the composition of the particles' suspension, and their coating. As a three-dimensional, real-time imaging modality that is free of ionizing radiation, MPI appears ideally suited for applications such as vascular imaging and interventions as well as cellular and targeted imaging. A number of different theories and technical approaches on the way to the actual implementation of the basic concept of MPI have been seen in the last few years. Research groups around the world are working on different scanner geometries, from closed bore systems to single-sided scanners, and use reconstruction methods that are either based on actual calibration measurements or on theoretical models. This review aims at giving an overview of current developments and future directions

  10. Magnetic particle imaging: current developments and future directions

    PubMed Central

    Panagiotopoulos, Nikolaos; Duschka, Robert L; Ahlborg, Mandy; Bringout, Gael; Debbeler, Christina; Graeser, Matthias; Kaethner, Christian; Lüdtke-Buzug, Kerstin; Medimagh, Hanne; Stelzner, Jan; Buzug, Thorsten M; Barkhausen, Jörg; Vogt, Florian M; Haegele, Julian

    2015-01-01

    future directions in MPI about a decade after its first appearance. PMID:25960650

  11. Direct Monitoring of Turbidity Currents: New Insights, Challenging Preconceptions and Future Directions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clare, M. A.; Talling, P. J.; Cartigny, M.; Vardy, M. E.; Azpiroz, M.; Hunt, J.; Sumner, E.; Hizzett, J.; Vellinga, A.; Hughes Clarke, J. E.

    2015-12-01

    Turbidity currents are, volumetrically, the most important process for the transportation of sediment on the face of our planet. The combination of large volume and fast speeds can damage globally important seafloor cables and offshore structures and may transport sediment over hundreds of kilometres. Despite their significance for sediment flux and as geohazards, very few examples of direct monitoring of real-world turbidity currents exist. Until recently, there has been a reliance on depositional records, scaled-down experiments and numerical models to understand the nature of turbidity currents. The results of direct monitoring obtained over the past few years now provide us with ground-breaking insights into the real-world behaviour of full-scale turbidity currents. We present results of recent flow monitoring acquired using an array of acoustic and geophysical tools, from multiple sites worldwide, including the deep-sea Congo Canyon, Canadian fjords, and a dredging experiment offshore Holland. This advent in turbidity current monitoring, largely driven by step-changes in technology, has reinforced some existing interpretations, but also challenges some preconceptions. Our results are based on monitoring using multibeam sonars, sub-bottom and acoustic Doppler current profilers. First, we provide insights into the triggering of flows that include landslides, tidal and wave effects, and other more cryptic events with no clear initiation point. Second, the influence of dense layers at the base of flows is shown to be important for sediment transport and bedform migration; however, most acoustic techniques struggle to penetrate. Initial results from a novel Chirp profiler provide imaging of the lowermost part of the flow. Third, the morphology of the flow and its development through time are shown to deviate from that observed in classical flume tank experiments. Finally, we summarise some future directions for flow monitoring to push forward our understanding of

  12. Overview and future direction for blackbody solar-pumped lasers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deyoung, R. J.

    1988-01-01

    A review of solar-pumped blackbody lasers is given which addresses their present status and suggests future research directions. The blackbody laser concept is one system proposed to scale to multimegawatt power levels for space-to-space power transmissions for such applications as onboard spacecraft electrical or propulsion needs. Among the critical technical issues are the scalability to high powers and the laser wavelength which impacts the transmission optics size as well as the laser-to-electric converter at the receiver. Because present blackbody solar-pumped lasers will have laser wavelengths longer than 4 microns, simple photovoltaic converters cannot be used, and transmission optics will be large. Thus, future blackbody laser systems should emphasize near visible laser wavelengths.

  13. Panel on future directions in parallel computer architecture

    SciTech Connect

    VanTilborg, A.M. )

    1989-06-01

    One of the program highlights of the 15th Annual International Symposium on Computer Architecture, held May 30 - June 2, 1988 in Honolulu, was a panel session on future directions in parallel computer architecture. The panel was organized and chaired by the author, and was comprised of Prof. Jack Dennis (NASA Ames Research Institute for Advanced Computer Science), Prof. H.T. Kung (Carnegie Mellon), and Dr. Burton Smith (Tera Computer Company). The objective of the panel was to identify the likely trajectory of future parallel computer system progress, particularly from the sandpoint of marketplace acceptance. Approximately 250 attendees participated in the session, in which each panelist began with a ten minute viewgraph explanation of his views, followed by an open and sometimes lively exchange with the audience and fellow panelists. The session ran for ninety minutes.

  14. Drug-Coated Balloons: Current Outcomes and Future Directions.

    PubMed

    Kondapalli, Ananya; Danek, Barbara A; Khalili, Houman; Jeon-Slaughter, Haekyung; Banerjee, Subhash

    2017-04-01

    Paclitaxel-coated drug-coated balloons have significantly improved short-term and mid-term clinical outcomes in patients with symptomatic femoropopliteal peripheral artery disease. However, long-term results are awaited. Furthermore, the clinical success of drug-coated balloons in the infrapopliteal peripheral arteries has been more modest and overall similar to traditional balloon angioplasty, and remains an area of unmet clinical need. This article provides an overview of the clinical evidence for paclitaxel-coated balloons in the femoropopliteal and infrapopliteal peripheral artery distributions and future directions in this area.

  15. Stabilisation of distal radius fractures: Lessons learned and future directions.

    PubMed

    Horst, Taylor A; Jupiter, Jesse B

    2016-02-01

    Our understanding of the diagnosis and management of distal radius fractures has been a long developed over centuries. There has been a shift in treatment of these very common injuries from closed reduction and casting to internal fixation. The answer to the best method of treatment has yet to be found. Today, we have a multitude of treatment options available with varying degrees of evidence to support their use. This review helps to illustrate the lessons we have learned and future directions for treatment.

  16. Sonoelastography in the musculoskeletal system: Current role and future directions

    PubMed Central

    Winn, Naomi; Lalam, Radhesh; Cassar-Pullicino, Victor

    2016-01-01

    Ultrasound is an essential modality within musculoskeletal imaging, with the recent addition of elastography. The elastic properties of tissues are different from the acoustic impedance used to create B mode imaging and the flow properties used within Doppler imaging, hence elastography provides a different form of tissue assessment. The current role of ultrasound elastography in the musculoskeletal system will be reviewed, in particular with reference to muscles, tendons, ligaments, joints and soft tissue tumours. The different ultrasound elastography methods currently available will be described, in particular strain elastography and shear wave elastography. Future directions of ultrasound elastography in the musculoskeletal system will also be discussed. PMID:27928468

  17. Exoskeletons and orthoses: classification, design challenges and future directions

    PubMed Central

    Herr, Hugh

    2009-01-01

    For over a century, technologists and scientists have actively sought the development of exoskeletons and orthoses designed to augment human economy, strength, and endurance. While there are still many challenges associated with exoskeletal and orthotic design that have yet to be perfected, the advances in the field have been truly impressive. In this commentary, I first classify exoskeletons and orthoses into devices that act in series and in parallel to a human limb, providing a few examples within each category. This classification is then followed by a discussion of major design challenges and future research directions critical to the field of exoskeletons and orthoses. PMID:19538735

  18. Left ventricular assist devices: current controversies and future directions.

    PubMed

    Schumer, Erin M; Black, Matthew C; Monreal, Gretel; Slaughter, Mark S

    2016-12-07

    Advanced heart failure is a growing epidemic that leads to significant suffering and economic losses. The development of left ventricular assist devices (LVADs) has led to improved quality of life and long-term survival for patients diagnosed with this devastating condition. This review briefly summarizes the short history and clinical outcomes of LVADs and focuses on the current controversies and issues facing LVAD therapy. Finally, the future directions for the role of LVADs in the treatment of end-stage heart failure are discussed.

  19. Management of asthma in adults: current therapy and future directions

    PubMed Central

    Green, R; Brightling, C; Pavord, I; Wardlaw, A

    2003-01-01

    Asthma is increasing in prevalence worldwide and results in significant use of healthcare resources. Although most patients with asthma can be adequately treated with inhaled corticosteroids, an important number of patients require additional therapy and an increasing number of options are available. A further minority of patients develop severe persistent asthma which remains difficult to manage despite current pharmacological therapies. This review discusses the various treatment options currently available for each stage of asthma severity, highlights some of the limitations of current management, and outlines directions which may improve the management of asthma in the future. PMID:12782771

  20. Myxosporean parasites in Australian frogs: Importance, implications and future directions

    PubMed Central

    Hartigan, Ashlie; Phalen, David N.; Šlapeta, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Myxosporean parasites have been identified in amphibians around the world yet very little is known about their diversity, biology and host impact. Several species of Australian frogs have recently been shown to be affected by myxosporidiosis caused by two new Cystodiscus species. In this manuscript, we review what is known about the myxosporean parasites Cystodiscus australis and Cystodiscus axonis that produce myxospores in gallbladders of Australian frogs and Myxobolus fallax and Myxobolus hylae that produce spores in gonads and the potential impact of these parasites on the conservation of Australian frogs. By doing so, we aim to highlight the importance of amphibian myxosporean parasites, suggest directions for future research and argue that the lessons learned about these parasites in Australia are directly transferable to amphibians around the world. PMID:24533318

  1. HIV Vaccine: Recent Advances, Current Roadblocks, and Future Directions

    PubMed Central

    Rubens, Muni; Ramamoorthy, Venkataraghavan; Saxena, Anshul; Shehadeh, Nancy; Appunni, Sandeep

    2015-01-01

    HIV/AIDS is a leading cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide. In spite of successful interventions and treatment protocols, an HIV vaccine would be the ultimate prevention and control strategy. Ever since identification of HIV/AIDS, there have been meticulous efforts for vaccine development. The specific aim of this paper is to review recent vaccine efficacy trials and associated advancements and discuss the current challenges and future directions. Recombinant DNA technologies greatly facilitated development of many viral products which were later incorporated into vectors for effective vaccines. Over the years, a number of scientific approaches have gained popularity and include the induction of neutralizing antibodies in late 1980s, induction of CD8 T cell in early 1990s, and combination approaches currently. Scientists have hypothesized that stimulation of right sequences of somatic hypermutations could induce broadly reactive neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs) capable of effective neutralization and viral elimination. Studies have shown that a number of host and viral factors affect these processes. Similarly, eliciting specific CD8 T cells immune responses through DNA vaccines hold future promises. In summary, future studies should focus on the continuous fight between host immune responses and ever-evasive viral factors for effective vaccines. PMID:26579546

  2. Future directions for LDEF ionizing radiation modeling and assessments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Armstrong, T. W.; Colborn, B. L.

    1992-01-01

    Data from the ionizing radiation dosimetry aboard LDEF provide a unique opportunity for assessing the accuracy of current space radiation models and in identifying needed improvements for future mission applications. Details are given of the LDEF data available for radiation model evaluations. The status is given of model comparisons with LDEF data, along with future directions of planned modeling efforts and data comparison assessments. The methodology is outlined which is related to modeling being used to help insure that the LDEF ionizing radiation results can be used to address ionizing radiation issues for future missions. In general, the LDEF radiation modeling has emphasized quick-look predictions using simplified methods to make comparisons with absorbed dose measurements and induced radioactivity measurements of emissions. Modeling and LDEF data comparisons related to linear energy transfer spectra are of importance for several reasons which are outlined. The planned modeling and LDEF data comparisons for LET spectra is discussed, including components of the LET spectra due to different environment sources, contribution from different production mechanisms, and spectra in plastic detectors vs silicon.

  3. Town Hall Meeting: Future Directions in Dynamic High Pressure Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nellis, W. J.; Dlott, D.

    2007-12-01

    Shock-compression research began in the 1940s for reasons of national defense. While military-related research will continue to be a major motivator of shock research, war between nations is not as probable today as it was in the last century. Today other issues are gaining national and international importance. This situation raises the possibility of redistribution of federal funding into fields other than those related directly to military research. It is timely to consider possible future directions that would put us in a position to obtain support to address emerging needs of society, while maintaining traditional expertise. Possibilities for future research at national and military laboratories and at universities are suggested in the context of ideas and questions posed in a recent report of the National Research Council of the National Academies. Dynamic-compression research is positioned to play a prominent role in general scientific research and such results are needed to enhance probabilities of achieving present and emerging technological goals of national importance.

  4. HIV and Hepatitis Testing: Global Progress, Challenges, and Future Directions.

    PubMed

    Easterbrook, Philippa; Johnson, Cheryl; Figueroa, Carmen; Baggaley, Rachel

    2016-01-01

    HIV infection and viral hepatitis due to HBV and HCV infection are major causes of chronic disease worldwide, and share some common routes of transmission, epidemiology, initial barriers faced in treatment access, and in strategies for a global public health response. Testing and diagnosis of HIV, HBV, and HCV infection is the gateway for access to both care and treatment and prevention services, and crucial for an effective HIV and hepatitis epidemic response. In this review article, we first summarize the common goals and guiding principles in a public health approach to HIV and hepatitis testing. We summarize the impressive global progress in HIV testing scale-up and evolution of approaches, with expansion of provider-initiated testing and counseling in clinical settings (particularly antenatal and tuberculosis clinics), the introduction of more community based testing services, and use of rapid diagnostic tests enabling provision of same-day test results. However, 46% of all people living with HIV are still unaware of their serostatus, and many continue to be diagnosed and start antiretroviral therapy late. As testing and treatment scale-up accelerates for an "treat all" approach, other challenges to address include how to better focus testing and reach those yet undiagnosed and most at risk, especially key populations, men, adolescents, and children. We summarize future directions in HIV testing to speed scale-up and close gaps that are addressed in the WHO 2015 consolidated HIV testing guidelines. In contrast to HIV, action in hepatitis testing and treatment has been fragmented and limited to a few countries, and there remains a large burden of undiagnosed cases globally. We summarize key challenges in the hepatitis testing response, including lack of simple, reliable, and low-cost diagnostic tests, laboratory capacity, and testing facilities; inadequate data to guide country specific hepatitis testing approaches and who to screen; stigmatization and social

  5. Future directions in clinical child and adolescent psychology: a Delphi survey.

    PubMed

    James, Rochelle L; Roberts, Michael C

    2009-10-01

    This study sought to identify the future directions in three domains: clinical practice, research, and training of clinical child and adolescent psychologists in the upcoming decade. Doctoral-level active members in the field were surveyed via a two-round Delphi survey (45 in round 1; 35 in round 2). Evidence-based practice received the greatest consensus by the participants and highest rank in each of the three domains. Other highly ranked clinical practice directions included prevention and early diagnosis and treatment, and clinical services for specific psychological problems. Research directions focused on biological and social factors interactions in the etiology and treatment and specific child and adolescent disorders. In the training domain, major directions included the pursuit of specialty training in child and adolescent psychology and training emphasizing the biological basis of behavior. Implications of these future directions are discussed.

  6. Photoelectrochemical based direct conversion systems

    SciTech Connect

    Kocha, S.; Arent, D.; Peterson, M.

    1995-09-01

    The goal of this research is to develop a stable, cost effective, photoelectrochemical based system that will split water upon illumination, producing hydrogen and oxygen directly, using sunlight as the only energy input. This type of direct conversion system combines a photovoltaic material and an electrolyzer into a single monolithic device. We report on our studies of two multifunction multiphoton photoelectrochemical devices, one based on the ternary semiconductor gallium indium phosphide, (GaInP{sub 2}), and the other one based on amorphous silicon carbide. We also report on our studies of the solid state surface treatment of GaInP{sub 2} as well as our continuing effort to develop synthetic techniques for the attachment of transition metal complexes to the surface of semiconductor electrodes. All our surface studies are directed at controlling the interface energetics and forming stable catalytic surfaces.

  7. 5p Deletions: Current Knowledge and Future Directions

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Joanne M.; Qualmann, Krista J.; Okashah, Rebecca; Reilly, Amysue; Alexeyev, Mikhail F.; Campbell, Dennis J.

    2016-01-01

    Disorders resulting from 5p deletions (5p–) were first recognized by Lejeune et al. in 1963 [Lejeune et al. (1963); C R Hebd Seances Acad Sci 257:3098-3102]. 5p– is caused by partial or total deletion of the short arm of chromosome 5. The most recognizable phenotype is characterized by a high-pitched cry, dysmorphic features, poor growth, and developmental delay. This report reviews 5p– disorders and their molecular basis. Hemizygosity for genes located within this region have been implicated in contributing to the phenotype. A review of the genes on 5p which may be dosage sensitive is summarized. Because of the growing knowledge of these specific genes, future directions to explore potential targeted therapies for individuals with 5p– are discussed. PMID:26235846

  8. Animal Models of Psychosis: Current State and Future Directions

    PubMed Central

    Forrest, Alexandra D.; Coto, Carlos A.; Siegel, Steven J.

    2014-01-01

    Psychosis is an abnormal mental state characterized by disorganization, delusions and hallucinations. Animal models have become an increasingly important research tool in the effort to understand both the underlying pathophysiology and treatment of psychosis. There are multiple animal models for psychosis, with each formed by the coupling of a manipulation and a measurement. In this manuscript we do not address the diseases of which psychosis is a prominent comorbidity. Instead, we summarize the current state of affairs and future directions for animal models of psychosis. To accomplish this, our manuscript will first discuss relevant behavioral and electrophysiological measurements. We then provide an overview of the different manipulations that are combined with these measurements to produce animal models. The strengths and limitations of each model will be addressed in order to evaluate its cross-species comparability. PMID:25215267

  9. Transnational nurse migration: future directions for medical anthropological research.

    PubMed

    Prescott, Megan; Nichter, Mark

    2014-04-01

    Transnational nurse migration is a serious global health issue in which inequitably distributed shortages hinder health and development goals. This article selectively reviews the literature on nurse migration that has emerged from nursing, health planning, and the social sciences and offers productive directions for future anthropological research. The literature on global nurse migration has largely focused on push/pull economic logic and the concept of brain drain to understand the causes and effects of nurse migration. These concepts obscure political-economic, historical, and cultural factors that pattern nurse migration and influence the complex effects of nurse migration. Global nurse care chain analysis helps illuminate the numerous nodes in the production and migration of nurses, and management of this transnational process. Examples are provided from the Philippines and India to illustrate ways in which this analysis may be deepened, refined and rendered more critical by anthropological research.

  10. Future Research and Policy Directions in Physician Reimbursement

    PubMed Central

    McMenamin, Peter

    1981-01-01

    Payments to physicians absorb the second largest share of the health care dollar in the United States. In 1979, the share was 19 percent of the total, or $40.6 billion (Gibson, 1980). The Health Care Financing Administration (HCFA) alone spent $8.6 billion for physician services, representing approximately 16 percent of all public funds disbursed under HCFA programs. This paper presents an overview of various issues concerning physician reimbursement. Several major areas have been identified (access, cost, quality, and improving or refining the Office of Research, Demonstrations, and Statistics' [ORDS] research techniques for analyzing topics concerning physician reimbursement). Each area is introduced with a brief discussion of some of the problems associated with the physician reimbursement systems relating to that area. Selected results are then presented from the previous research in each area, along with descriptions of continuing studies currently underway. Each section concludes with a discussion of potential future directions for new research or data development. PMID:10309465

  11. Future directions for arms control and nonproliferation. Conference summary

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-07-06

    This report provides a summary of the presentations and discussions at the Spring 1994 CNSN-Wilton Park Conference. The Conference was one of a series on US-European security cooperation organized by The Center for National Security Negotiations (CNSN) of Science Applications International Corporation. These conferences bring together government and non-government experts, primarily from the United States and Europe, to discuss a range of regional and global security issues. The conferences provide an opportunity to explore, in a frank and off-the-record environment, common interests and concerns, as well as differences in approach that affect trans-Atlantic cooperation. This report is divided into the following three areas: (1) implementation of existing and pending agreements; (2) non-proliferation: prospects for trans-Atlantic cooperation; and (3) future directions in arms control.

  12. The State and Future Direction of NASA's NEO Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Lindley N.

    2007-10-01

    The discovery and characterization of the Near Earth Object population of natural asteroids and comets continues to collect interest, not only from the planetary science community but also from the broader space industry and policy forums as well. Interest even on Capital Hill has been indicated via the NASA Authorization Act of 2005, which requested of NASA options for a more comprehensive search for these objects than has been undertaken to date. In this short presentation, we will quickly review the current state of NASA's NEO Observation Program and discuss aspects of the recent report submitted by NASA to Congress in response to the 2005 Authorization Act. This will include potential directions for NASA NEO Program in future years as well as set the stage for the other presentations in this DPS session.

  13. Executive Function in SLI: Recent Advances and Future Directions.

    PubMed

    Kapa, Leah L; Plante, Elena

    2015-09-01

    This paper provides a review of recent research on executive function abilities in children with specific language impairment (SLI). Across several studies, children with SLI are reported to perform worse than typically developing peers on measures of sustained attention, working memory, inhibition, and attention shifting. However, few studies have considered multiple executive function components simultaneously and even fewer have examined the underlying relationship between executive function deficits and impaired language acquisition. We argue that in order to fully understand the nature of executive function deficits in SLI, the field must move past simply identifying weaknesses to instead test models of executive function development and explore the nature of the relationship between executive function and language. Future research directions are recommended in order to achieve these goals.

  14. Photovoltaic concentrators: performance and reliability data and future design directions

    SciTech Connect

    Edenburn, M.W.; Boes, E.C.

    1984-05-01

    This paper will summarize the status and discuss likely future directions of photovoltaic concentrator technology. A current commercial Si cell module has a peak efficiency of 15.5%, and 17% has been reached for an experimental module. Advanced cells and module design improvements offer still higher efficiencies. Concentrator Fresnel lens array fields installed several years ago have all demonstrated very good electrical performance with little performance degradation. Fresnel lens arrays are commercially available and prices of $7/watt for installed one megawatt systems have been quoted. Cost projections predict that current technology concentrating PV arrays can be installed for less than $2/watt if they are manufactured in large, steady quantities. More advanced designs may cost even less.

  15. Photovoltaic concentrators: Performance and reliability data and future design directions

    SciTech Connect

    Edenbrum, M.

    1984-05-01

    This paper will summarize the status and discuss likely future directions of photovoltaic concentrator technology. A current commercial Si cell module has a peak efficiency of 15.5%, and 17% has been reached for an experimental module. Advanced cells and module design improvements offer still higher efficiencies. Concentrator Fresnel lens array fields installed several years ago have all demonstrated very good electrical performance with little performance degradation. Fresnel lens arrays are commercially available and prices of $7/watt for installed one megawatt systems have been quoted. Cost projections predict that current technology concentrating PV arrays can be installed for less than $2/watt if they are manufactured in large, steady quantities. More advanced designs may cost even less.

  16. Hyaluronic acid viscosupplementation and osteoarthritis: current uses and future directions.

    PubMed

    Strauss, Eric J; Hart, Jennifer A; Miller, Mark D; Altman, Roy D; Rosen, Jeffrey E

    2009-08-01

    Intra-articular hyaluronic acid viscosupplementation is gaining popularity as a treatment option in the nonoperative management of patients with osteoarthritis. Recent clinical studies have demonstrated that the anti-inflammatory, anabolic, and chondroprotective actions of hyaluronic acid reduce pain and improve patient function. With evidence mounting in support of the efficacy of this treatment modality for patients with osteoarthritis, its potential use in additional patient populations and for other pathologies affecting the knee is being investigated. The current article reviews the use of intra-articular hyaluronic acid viscosupplementation in the management of knee osteoarthritis and presents the potential for expanding its indications for other joints and alternative patient subpopulations. Additionally, future directions for the use of hyaluronic acid and areas of active research are discussed.

  17. Deaf children and bullying: directions for future research.

    PubMed

    Weiner, Mary T; Miller, Margery

    2006-01-01

    U.S. SCHOOLS are currently addressing bullying and its effects on children. Bullying is characterized as repetitive verbal teasing, threatening, physical intimidation, demeaning others, violent acts, torture, and other forms of verbal and physical aggression (Smith and Sharp, 1994a). Little is known about bullying and its impact on deaf children. Measures to describe and quantify bullying factors in this population should be developed and validated that address characteristics of deaf victims and bullies, various types of school settings deaf children attend, bullying dynamics that may be unique to this population and its peers, and other environmental factors. The presence of disabilities besides deafness, social support systems of deaf children and their families, sociocultural background, degree of hearing loss, parental educational levels and occupations, socioeconomic status, and linguistic backgrounds should also be considered. This discussion highlights issues and precautions concerning future directions for studying bullying with deaf children.

  18. Future Directions in Solar EUV/UV Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrison, R. A.

    1999-05-01

    Studies of the extreme ultraviolet (EUV) and ultraviolet (UV) spectrum of the Sun provide a unique and powerful means to investigate plasma properties, such as density, temperature, abundance and flow speeds throughout the low solar atmosphere, from chromsphere to corona. In particular, with the SOHO mission, recent EUV/UV spectroscopic studies have paved the way for significant advances in numerous areas of solar physics research, such as active region structure and evolution, quiet Sun transient processes, mass ejection onset, and so on... and the wealth of data will guarantee that we will be reaping the rewards for some time to come. However, spectroscopy demands relatively high mass, high telemetry instrumentation, and the products are not readily understood by the non-specialist. Thus, with the new breed of lighter missions and a greater need to enhance public awareness, what is the future for solar EUV/UV spectroscopy? The NASA STEREO mission due for launch in 2004 is not expected to carry a spectrometer. The Japanese Solar-B mission will be carrying an EUV spectrometer. The need for such instruments for the possible ESA Solar Orbiter, the NASA Solar Probe and other future missions must be addressed. SOHO comes from mid-1980's technology so we can readily enhance our current performances with the use of multilayers, improved CCD technology, multi-line-of-sight observations etc... So, as well as advertising the success of solar spectroscopy in recent years, an outline of possible directions willl be given which will underline the strong case for including such experiments in future solar missions.

  19. Collection Directions: Some Reflections on the Future of Library Collections and Collecting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dempsey, Lorcan; Malpas, Constance; Lavoie, Brian

    2014-01-01

    This article takes a broad view of the evolution of collecting behaviors in a network environment and suggests some future directions based on various simple models. The authors look at the changing dynamics of print collections, at the greater engagement with research and learning behaviors, and at trends in scholarly communication. The goal is…

  20. Review of Current Studies in Instructional Design Theory in Korea: Major Trends and Future Directions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lim, Cheolil; Yeon, Eunkyoung

    2009-01-01

    This article reviewed recent studies of instructional design theory in Korea to explore major trends and suggest future directions. Based on the analysis of 40 articles from the "Journal of Educational Technology" between 1994 and 2006, this study identified six trends: little emphasis on the conceptualization of instructional design…

  1. The evolution of surgical telementoring: current applications and future directions

    PubMed Central

    El-Sabawi, Bassim

    2016-01-01

    Surgical telementoring is a concept within telemedicine that involves the use of information technology to provide real-time guidance and technical assistance for surgical procedures from an expert physician at a different geographical location. It is a means to overcome the logistic obstacles associated with traditional mentoring and can aid in the distribution of advanced surgical techniques. In addition to its perceived educational benefits, it has the potential to directly impact patient care by providing immediate access to specialized surgical expertise in areas lacking access to qualified surgeons. With advances in technology, surgical telementoring has made significant strides in the past two decades and a breadth of positive experiences have been published in the literature. Despite this growth, questions remain regarding ideal videoconferencing methodology, resolution and latency requirements, security and liability issues, and telementoring in combination with emerging technology. This review addresses the history and progression, current applications, and future directions of surgical telementoring as a means to distribute advanced surgical expertise around the world. PMID:27867943

  2. Management of Hepatocellular Carcinoma: Current Status and Future Directions

    PubMed Central

    Au, Jennifer S.; Frenette, Catherine T.

    2015-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the second most common cause of cancer death worldwide. This cancer commonly arises against a background of chronic liver disease. As a result, a patient with HCC requires multidisciplinary care. Treatment options vary widely based on tumor burden and metastases. The most widely utilized staging system is the Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer staging system, which recommends treatments based on tumor size and the underlying liver disease and functional status of the patient. Treatment options range from surgical resection or transplantation to locoregional therapies with modalities such as radiofrequency ablation and transarterial chemoembolization to systemic chemotherapies. Future care involves the development of combination therapies that afford the best tumor response, further clarification of the patients best suited for therapies and the development of new oral chemotherapeutic agents. PMID:26087860

  3. Image-Guided Hydrodynamic Gene Delivery: Current Status and Future Directions

    PubMed Central

    Kamimura, Kenya; Yokoo, Takeshi; Abe, Hiroyuki; Kobayashi, Yuji; Ogawa, Kohei; Shinagawa, Yoko; Inoue, Ryosuke; Terai, Shuji

    2015-01-01

    Hydrodynamics-based delivery has been used as an experimental tool to express transgene in small animals. This in vivo gene transfer method is useful for functional analysis of genetic elements, therapeutic effect of oligonucleotides, and cancer cells to establish the metastatic cancer animal model for experimental research. Recent progress in the development of image-guided procedure for hydrodynamics-based gene delivery in large animals directly supports the clinical applicability of this technique. This review summarizes the current status and recent progress in the development of hydrodynamics-based gene delivery and discusses the future directions for its clinical application. PMID:26308044

  4. Future directions for the management of pain in osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Sofat, Nidhi; Kuttapitiya, Anasuya

    2014-01-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is the predominant form of arthritis worldwide, resulting in a high degree of functional impairment and reduced quality of life owing to chronic pain. To date, there are no treatments that are known to modify disease progression of OA in the long term. Current treatments are largely based on the modulation of pain, including NSAIDs, opiates and, more recently, centrally acting pharmacotherapies to avert pain. This review will focus on the rationale for new avenues in pain modulation, including inhibition with anti-NGF antibodies and centrally acting analgesics. The authors also consider the potential for structure modification in cartilage/bone using growth factors and stem cell therapies. The possible mismatch between structural change and pain perception will also be discussed, introducing recent techniques that may assist in improved patient phenotyping of pain subsets in OA. Such developments could help further stratify subgroups and treatments for people with OA in future. PMID:25018771

  5. Section III, Division 5 - Development and Future Directions

    SciTech Connect

    D. K. Morton; R I Jetter; James E Nestell; T. D. Burchell; T L Sham

    2012-07-01

    This paper provides commentary on a new division under Section III of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel (BPV) Code. This new Division 5 has an issuance date of November 1, 2011 and is part of the 2011 Addenda to the 2010 Edition of the BPV Code. The new Division covers the rules for the design, fabrication, inspection and testing of components for high temperature nuclear reactors. Information is provided on the scope and need for Division 5, the structure of Division 5, where the rules originated, the various changes made in finalizing Division 5, and the future near-term and long-term expectations for Division 5 development. Portions of this paper were based on Chapter 17 of the Companion Guide to the ASME Boiler & Pressure Vessel Code, Fourth Edition, © ASME, 2012, Reference.

  6. Contained Morcellation: Review of Current Methods and Future Directions

    PubMed Central

    Taylan, Enes; Sahin, Cagdas; Zeybek, Burak; Akdemir, Ali

    2017-01-01

    Power morcellation of surgical specimen during laparoscopic surgery is a practical technology that provides the opportunity to perform several minimally invasive procedures. However, this technology brought forward additional risks and complications associated with dissemination of both benign and malignant tissues inside the abdominal cavity. Based on startling cases, Food and Drug Administration (FDA) announced a discouraging statement on the use of power morcellators that decreased the number of minimally invasive approaches in the following period. As a response to these concerns and negative impacts of the FDA statement, researchers developed several new approaches resulting in contained or in-bag morcellation methods. In this review, we aimed to discuss these current methods and provide an insight for future developments. PMID:28352629

  7. Eye Nutrition in Context: Mechanisms, Implementation, and Future Directions

    PubMed Central

    Demmig-Adams, Barbara; Adams, Robert B.

    2013-01-01

    Carotenoid-based visual cues and roles of carotenoids in human vision are reviewed, with an emphasis on protection by zeaxanthin and lutein against vision loss, and dietary sources of zeaxanthin and lutein are summarized. In addition, attention is given to synergistic interactions of zeaxanthin and lutein with other dietary factors affecting human vision (such as antioxidant vitamins, phenolics, and poly-unsaturated fatty acids) and the emerging mechanisms of these interactions. Emphasis is given to lipid oxidation products serving as messengers with functions in gene regulation. Lastly, the photo-physics of light collection and photoprotection in photosynthesis and vision are compared and their common principles identified as possible targets of future research. PMID:23857222

  8. Circadian rhythms and addiction: Mechanistic insights and future directions

    PubMed Central

    Logan, Ryan W.; Williams, Wilbur P.; McClung, Colleen A.

    2014-01-01

    Circadian rhythms are prominent in many physiological and behavioral functions. Circadian disruptions either by environmental or molecular perturbation can have profound health consequences, including the development and progression of addiction. Both animal and humans studies indicate extensive bidirectional relationships between the circadian system and drugs of abuse. Addicted individuals display disrupted rhythms, and chronic disruption or particular chronotypes, may increase the risk for substance abuse and relapse. Moreover, polymorphisms in circadian genes and an evening chronotype have been linked to mood and addiction disorders, and recent efforts suggest an association with the function of reward neurocircuitry. Animal studies are beginning to determine how altered circadian gene function results in drug induced neuroplasticity and behaviors. Many studies suggest a critical role for circadian rhythms in reward-related pathways in the brain and indicate that drugs of abuse directly affect the central circadian pacemaker. In this review, we highlight key findings demonstrating the importance of circadian rhythms in addiction, and how future studies will reveal important mechanistic insights into the involvement of circadian rhythms in drug addiction. PMID:24731209

  9. Future directions in air quality research: economic issues.

    PubMed

    Adams, Richard M; Horst, Robert L

    2003-06-01

    Our challenge was to address future directions in air quality research that involve economic issues. The paper outlines the role of economics in the evaluation of air pollution impacts on environmental systems and describes existing research. We identify studies that address economic effects in the agricultural sector, in the commercial forest sector, and in unmanaged natural systems. Effects related to ozone exposure are highlighted. The summary of available research is followed by a discussion of research recommendations. Several short-term recommendations are identified that can augment some of the new research being considered by scientists. A more ambitious, long-term research project is outlined for valuing air pollution impacts in unmanaged natural environments. Specifically, the paper describes possible advantages of an 'integrated assessment' framework that more formally brings together the complex relationships that exist in both ecological and economic systems. A final section contains thoughts on the importance of education (i.e., information transfer) in the research process, especially in relation to policy. It is further noted that education should be inclusive of all members of the research team, throughout all stages of the research process.

  10. Integration of multimodality images: success and future directions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Chin-Tu

    1993-07-01

    The concept of multi-modality image integration, in which images obtained from different sensors are co-registered spatially and various aspects of object characteristics revealed by individual imaging techniques are synergistically fused in order to yield new information, has received considerable attention in recent years. The initial success was made in visualizing integrated brain images which show the overlay of physiological information from PET or SPECT with anatomical information from CT or MRI, providing new knowledge of correlates of brain function and brain structure that was difficult to access previously. Extension of this concept to cardiac and pulmonary imaging is still in its infancy. One additional difficulty in dealing with cardiac/pulmonary data sets is the issue of motion. However, some features in periodic motion may offer additional information for the purpose of spatial co-registration. In addition to visualization of the fused image data in 2-D and 3-D, future directions in the arena of image integration from multiple modalities include multi-modal image reconstruction, multi-modal image segmentation and feature extraction, and other image analysis tasks that incorporate information available from multiple sources.

  11. Estimating the cost of blood: past, present, and future directions.

    PubMed

    Shander, Aryeh; Hofmann, Axel; Gombotz, Hans; Theusinger, Oliver M; Spahn, Donat R

    2007-06-01

    Understanding the costs associated with blood products requires sophisticated knowledge about transfusion medicine and is attracting the attention of clinical and administrative healthcare sectors worldwide. To improve outcomes, blood usage must be optimized and expenditures controlled so that resources may be channeled toward other diagnostic, therapeutic, and technological initiatives. Estimating blood costs, however, is a complex undertaking, surpassing simple supply versus demand economics. Shrinking donor availability and application of a precautionary principle to minimize transfusion risks are factors that continue to drive the cost of blood products upward. Recognizing that historical accounting attempts to determine blood costs have varied in scope, perspective, and methodology, new approaches have been initiated to identify all potential cost elements related to blood and blood product administration. Activities are also under way to tie these elements together in a comprehensive and practical model that will be applicable to all single-donor blood products without regard to practice type (e.g., academic, private, multi- or single-center clinic). These initiatives, their rationale, importance, and future directions are described.

  12. Research Diagnostic Criteria for Temporomandibular Disorders: Future Directions

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Gary C.; Gonzalez, Yoly M.; Ohrbach, Richard; Truelove, Edmond L.; Sommers, Earl; Look, John O.; Schiffman, Eric L.

    2011-01-01

    The Research Diagnostic Criteria for Temporomandibular Disorders (RDC/TMD) Validation Project provided the first comprehensive assessment of reliability and validity of the original Axis I and II. In addition, Axis I of the RDC/TMD was revised with estimates of reliability and validity. These findings are reported in previous papers. Further revisions for Axis I and II are presented for consideration by the TMD research and clinical communities. Potential Axis I revisions include addressing concerns with orofacial pain differential diagnosis and changes in nomenclature in an attempt to provide improved consistency with other musculoskeletal diagnostic systems. In addition, expansion of the RDC/TMD to include the less common TMD conditions and disorders would make it more comprehensive and clinically useful. The original standards for diagnostic sensitivity (≤0.70) and specificity (≤0.95) should be reconsidered to reflect changes in the field since the RDC/TMD was published in 1992. Pertaining to Axis II, current recommendations for all chronic pain conditions include standardized instruments and expansion of the domains assessed. In addition there is need for improved clinical efficiency of Axis II instruments and exploring methods to better integrate Axis I and II in clinical settings. To that end, this paper recommends an international symposium to provide future direction. PMID:20213033

  13. Future Directions for Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Damiano, Cara R.; Mazefsky, Carla A.; White, Susan W.; Dichter, Gabriel S.

    2014-01-01

    This article suggests future directions for research aimed at improved understanding of the etiology and pathophysiology of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) as well as pharmacologic and psychosocial interventions for ASD across the lifespan. The past few years have witnessed unprecedented transformations in the understanding of ASD neurobiology, genetics, early identification, and early intervention. However, recent increases in ASD prevalence estimates highlight the urgent need for continued efforts to translate novel ASD discoveries into effective interventions for all individuals with ASD. In this article we highlight promising areas for ongoing and new research expected to quicken the pace of scientific discovery and ultimately the translation of research findings into accessible and empirically supported interventions for those with ASD. We highlight emerging research in the following domains as particularly promising and pressing: (1) preclinical models; (2) experimental therapeutics; (3) early identification and intervention; (4) psychiatric comorbidities and the Research Domain Criteria (RDoC) initiative; (5) ecological momentary assessment; (6) neurotechnologies; and (7) the needs of adults with ASD. Increased research emphasis in these areas has the potential to hasten the translation of knowledge on the etiological mechanisms of ASD to psychosocial and biological interventions to reduce the burden of ASD on affected individuals and their families. PMID:25216048

  14. Nonintubated thoracoscopic surgery: state of the art and future directions

    PubMed Central

    Hung, Ming-Hui; Hsu, Hsao-Hsun

    2014-01-01

    Video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) has become a common and globally accepted surgical approach for a variety of thoracic diseases. Conventionally, it is performed under tracheal intubation with double lumen tube or bronchial blocker to achieve single lung ventilation. Recently, VATS without tracheal intubation were reported to be feasible and safe in a series of VATS procedures, including management of pneumothorax, wedge resection of pulmonary tumors, excision of mediastinal tumors, lung volume reduction surgery, segmentectomy, and lobectomy. Patients undergoing nonintubated VATS are anesthetized using regional anesthesia in a spontaneously single lung breathing status after iatrogenic open pneumothorax. Conscious sedation is usually necessary for longer and intensively manipulating procedures and intraoperative cough reflex can be effectively inhibited with intrathoracic vagal blockade on the surgical side. The early outcomes of nonintubated VATS include a faster postoperative recovery and less complication rate comparing with its counterpart of intubated general anesthesia, by which may translate into a fast track VATS program. The future directions of nonintubated VATS should focus on its long-term outcomes, especially on oncological perspectives of survival in lung cancer patients. For now, it is still early to conclude the benefits of this technique, however, an educating and training program may be needed to enable both thoracic surgeons and anesthesiologists providing an alternative surgical option in their caring patients. PMID:24455169

  15. Cognitive Training in Mental Disorders: Update and Future Directions

    PubMed Central

    Keshavan, Matcheri S.; Vinogradov, Sophia; Rumsey, Judith; Sherrill, Joel; Wagner, Ann

    2014-01-01

    Objective In this paper, we review the conceptual basis, definitions, and evolution of cognitive training (CT) approaches for the treatment of mental disorders. Method We review the current state of the knowledge on CT in psychiatric illnesses, and its neural and behavioral targets, and summarize the factors that appear to relate to a successful response to CT, including learner characteristics that influence clinical outcome. We also discuss methodological issues relevant to the development and testing of CT approaches, with the goal of creating maximally efficient and effective approaches to training. Finally, we identify gaps in existing knowledge, and outline key research directions for the future. Results While much of the early work has been conducted in schizophrenia, CT has more recently been applied to a widening range of neuropsychiatric illnesses, including attention deficit disorder, mood disorders, and substance use disorders. CT harnesses the inherent neuroplastic capacities of the brain, targeting neural system function across psychiatric disorders, and thus improving cognitive processes that play a role in emotion regulation, clinical symptoms, and adaptive community functioning. Conclusions CT offers considerable promise, especially given the limited efficacy of pharmacological interventions in ameliorating cognitive deficits. However, more work is needed to understand mechanisms underlying CT, predictors of response, generalization and real-world applicability, and approaches to dissemination in practice settings. PMID:24700194

  16. Susceptibility-weighted imaging: current status and future directions.

    PubMed

    Liu, Saifeng; Buch, Sagar; Chen, Yongsheng; Choi, Hyun-Seok; Dai, Yongming; Habib, Charbel; Hu, Jiani; Jung, Joon-Yong; Luo, Yu; Utriainen, David; Wang, Meiyun; Wu, Dongmei; Xia, Shuang; Haacke, E Mark

    2017-04-01

    Susceptibility-weighted imaging (SWI) is a method that uses the intrinsic nature of local magnetic fields to enhance image contrast in order to improve the visibility of various susceptibility sources and to facilitate diagnostic interpretation. It is also the precursor to the concept of the use of phase for quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM). Nowadays, SWI has become a widely used clinical tool to image deoxyhemoglobin in veins, iron deposition in the brain, hemorrhages, microbleeds and calcification. In this article, we review the basics of SWI, including data acquisition, data reconstruction and post-processing. In particular, the source of cusp artifacts in phase images is investigated in detail and an improved multi-channel phase data combination algorithm is provided. In addition, we show a few clinical applications of SWI for the imaging of stroke, traumatic brain injury, carotid vessel wall, siderotic nodules in cirrhotic liver, prostate cancer, prostatic calcification, spinal cord injury and intervertebral disc degeneration. As the clinical applications of SWI continue to expand both in and outside the brain, the improvement of SWI in conjunction with QSM is an important future direction of this technology. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Children and war: current understandings and future directions.

    PubMed

    Berman, H

    2001-01-01

    During the last decade, the number of children whose lives have been disrupted by war, oppression, terror, and other forms of conflict has grown tremendously. When the United Nations High Commission for Refugees was first established during the 1950s to provide international protection to refugees following World War II, it was estimated that there were 1.5 million refugees and displaced persons. Today there are approximately 14 million, about three-fourths of whom are women and children. Although the experiences of refugee children and adolescents vary considerably, many have witnessed or experienced the death or murder of loved ones. Upon resettlement, they face numerous challenges. Research with this population is a relatively new area of investigation, but there is evidence that many of these young people experience long-term physical and emotional health problems. In this article, current research findings are reviewed, the widespread emphasis in the literature on post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is critically examined, future research directions are suggested, and implications for public health nurses are addressed.

  18. Circadian rhythms and addiction: mechanistic insights and future directions.

    PubMed

    Logan, Ryan W; Williams, Wilbur P; McClung, Colleen A

    2014-06-01

    Circadian rhythms are prominent in many physiological and behavioral functions. Circadian disruptions either by environmental or molecular perturbation can have profound health consequences, including the development and progression of addiction. Both animal and humans studies indicate extensive bidirectional relationships between the circadian system and drugs of abuse. Addicted individuals display disrupted rhythms, and chronic disruption or particular chronotypes may increase the risk for substance abuse and relapse. Moreover, polymorphisms in circadian genes and an evening chronotype have been linked to mood and addiction disorders, and recent efforts suggest an association with the function of reward neurocircuitry. Animal studies are beginning to determine how altered circadian gene function results in drug-induced neuroplasticity and behaviors. Many studies suggest a critical role for circadian rhythms in reward-related pathways in the brain and indicate that drugs of abuse directly affect the central circadian pacemaker. In this review, we highlight key findings demonstrating the importance of circadian rhythms in addiction and how future studies will reveal important mechanistic insights into the involvement of circadian rhythms in drug addiction.

  19. Advancing the Field Elder Abuse: Future Directions and Policy Implications

    PubMed Central

    Dong, XinQi

    2012-01-01

    Elder abuse, sometime called elder mistreatment or elder maltreatment, includes psychological, physical, and sexual abuse, neglect (caregiver neglect and self-neglect), and financial exploitation. Evidence suggests that 1 out of 10 older adult experiences some form of elder abuse, and only 1 of out 25 cases are actually reported to social services agencies. At the same time, elder abuse is associated with significant morbidity and premature mortality. Despite these findings, there is a great paucity in research, practice, and policy dealing with the pervasive issues of elder abuse. Through my experiences as a American Political Sciences Association Congressional Policy Fellow/Health and Aging Policy Fellow working with Administration on Community Living (ACL) (Previously known at Administration on Aging (AoA)) for the last two years, I will describe the major functions of the ACL; and highlight on two major pieces of federal legislation: The Older Americans Act (OAA) and the Elder Justice Act (EJA). Moreover, I will highlight major research gaps and future policy relevant research directions for the field of elder abuse. PMID:23110488

  20. Future directions in the developmental science of addictions.

    PubMed

    Hussong, Andrea M; Burns, Alison R; Solis, Jessica M; Rothenberg, W Andrew

    2013-01-01

    This article addresses important future directions for the study of addictions, emphasizing the incorporation of developmental perspectives into how we think about substance use and disorder as unfolding processes over time and context for a heterogeneous group of individuals. These perspectives articulate complexities in the developmental processes that underlie change and continuity in human behavior over time. We consider two key developmental concepts, namely, "time" and "heterogeneity." We argue that a lack of attention to time sampling creates ambiguity in the meaning of time-linked assessments, challenges in discerning which of multiple clocks may govern behavior, and the inability in some instances to distinguish which of multiple etiological processes may be driving behavior within our samples. Moreover, artificial divisions among disorders that commonly co-occur with substance use are a barrier to the further integration of the study and treatment of addictions with that of psychopathology. Similar to recent changes in the study of psychiatric disorders more broadly, we argue that identifying common deficits among commonly comorbid disorders, rather than patterns of comorbidity per se, is key to identifying early emerging risk factors for substance use and disorder, with important implications for identifying risk populations and developmental periods as well as potentially malleable intervention targets. Attention to time sampling in theory-driven research designs and attempts to identify more homogenous groups of individuals who use and eventually abuse substances over time are two examples of ways to better understand some of the complexity underlying the development of addictions.

  1. Current status and future direction of cryopreservation of camelid embryos.

    PubMed

    Herrid, M; Vajta, G; Skidmore, J A

    2017-02-01

    Over the past 3 decades, and similar to the horse industry, fresh embryo transfer has been widely practiced on large commercial scales in different camelid species, especially the dromedary camel and alpaca. However, the inability to cryopreserve embryos significantly reduces its broader application, and as such limits the capacity to utilize elite genetic resources internationally. In addition, cryopreservation of the semen of camelids is also difficult, suggesting an extreme sensitivity of the germplasm to cooling and freezing. As a result, genetic resources of camelids must continue to be maintained as living collections of animals. Due to concerns over disease outbreaks such as that of the highly pathogenic Middle East Respiratory Syndrome in the Middle East and Asia, there is an urgent need to establish an effective gene banking system for camelid species, especially the camel. The current review compares and summarizes recent progress in the field of camelid embryo cryopreservation, identifying four possible reasons for the slow development of an effective protocol and describing eight future directions to improve the current protocols. At the same time, the results of a recent dromedary camel embryo transfer study which produced a high morphologic integrity and survival rate of Open Pulled Straw-vitrified embryos are also discussed.

  2. Evaluating theories of bird song learning: implications for future directions.

    PubMed

    Margoliash, D

    2002-12-01

    Studies of birdsong learning have stimulated extensive hypotheses at all levels of behavioral and physiological organization. This hypothesis building is valuable for the field and is consistent with the remarkable range of issues that can be rigorously addressed in this system. The traditional instructional (template) theory of song learning has been challenged on multiple fronts, especially at a behavioral level by evidence consistent with selectional hypotheses. In this review I highlight the caveats associated with these theories to better define the limits of our knowledge and identify important experiments for the future. The sites and representational forms of the various conceptual entities posited by the template theory are unknown. The distinction between instruction and selection in vocal learning is not well established at a mechanistic level. There is as yet insufficient neurophysiological data to choose between competing mechanisms of error-driven learning and reinforcement learning. Both may obtain for vocal learning. The possible role of sleep in acoustic or procedural memory consolidation, while supported by some physiological observations, does not yet have support in the behavioral literature. The remarkable expansion of knowledge in the past 20 years and the recent development of new technologies for physiological and behavioral experiments should permit direct tests of these theories in the coming decade.

  3. Future directions for separation science in nuclear and radiochemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Pruett, D.J.

    1986-01-01

    Solvent extraction and ion exchange have been the most widely used separation techniques in nuclear and radiochemistry since their development in the 1940s. Many successful separations processes based on these techniques have been used for decades in research laboratories, analytical laboratories, and industrial plants. Thus, it is easy to conclude that most of the fundamental and applied research that is needed in these areas has been done, and that further work in these ''mature'' fields is unlikely to be fruitful. A more careful review, however, reveals that significant problems remain to be solved, and that there is a demand for the development of new reagents, methods, and systems to solve the increasingly complex separations problems in the nuclear field. Specifically, new separation techniques based on developments in membrane technology and biotechnology that have occurred over the last 20 years should find extensive applications in radiochemical separations. Considerable research is needed in such areas as interfacial chemistry, the design and control of highly selective separation agents, critically evaluated data bases and mathematical models, and the fundamental chemistry of dilute solutions if these problems are to be solved and new techniques developed in a systematic way. Nonaqueous separation methods, such as pyrochemical and fluoride volatility processes, have traditionally played a more limited role in nuclear and radiochemistry, but recent developments in the chemistry and engineering of these processes promises to open up new areas of research and application in the future.

  4. Multimode waveguide based directional coupler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmed, Rajib; Rifat, Ahmmed A.; Sabouri, Aydin; Al-Qattan, Bader; Essa, Khamis; Butt, Haider

    2016-07-01

    The Silicon-on-Insulator (SOI) based platform overcomes limitations of the previous copper and fiber based technologies. Due to its high index difference, SOI waveguide (WG) and directional couplers (DC) are widely used for high speed optical networks and hybrid Electro-Optical inter-connections; TE00-TE01, TE00-TE00 and TM00-TM00 SOI direction couplers are designed with symmetrical and asymmetrical configurations to couple with TE00, TE01 and TM00 in a multi-mode semi-triangular ring-resonator configuration which will be applicable for multi-analyte sensing. Couplers are designed with effective index method and their structural parameters are optimized with consideration to coupler length, wavelength and polarization dependence. Lastly, performance of the couplers are analyzed in terms of cross-talk, mode overlap factor, coupling length and coupling efficiency.

  5. Canadian advanced life support capacities and future directions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bamsey, M.; Graham, T.; Stasiak, M.; Berinstain, A.; Scott, A.; Vuk, T. Rondeau; Dixon, M.

    2009-07-01

    Canada began research on space-relevant biological life support systems in the early 1990s. Since that time Canadian capabilities have grown tremendously, placing Canada among the emerging leaders in biological life support systems. The rapid growth of Canadian expertise has been the result of several factors including a large and technically sophisticated greenhouse sector which successfully operates under challenging climatic conditions, well planned technology transfer strategies between the academic and industrial sectors, and a strong emphasis on international research collaborations. Recent activities such as Canada's contribution of the Higher Plant Compartment of the European Space Agency's MELiSSA Pilot Plant and the remote operation of the Arthur Clarke Mars Greenhouse in the Canadian High Arctic continue to demonstrate Canadian capabilities with direct applicability to advanced life support systems. There is also a significant latent potential within Canadian institutions and organizations with respect to directly applicable advanced life support technologies. These directly applicable research interests include such areas as horticultural management strategies (for candidate crops), growth media, food processing, water management, atmosphere management, energy management, waste management, imaging, environment sensors, thermal control, lighting systems, robotics, command and data handling, communications systems, structures, in-situ resource utilization, space analogues and mission operations. With this background and in collaboration with the Canadian aerospace industry sector, a roadmap for future life support contributions is presented here. This roadmap targets an objective of at least 50% food closure by 2050 (providing greater closure in oxygen, water recycling and carbon dioxide uptake). The Canadian advanced life support community has chosen to focus on lunar surface infrastructure and not low Earth orbit or transit systems (i.e. microgravity

  6. Inorganic Nitrite Therapy: Historical perspective and future directions

    PubMed Central

    Kevil, Christopher G.; Kolluru, Gopi K.; Pattillo, Christopher B.; Giordano, Tony

    2015-01-01

    Over the past several years, investigators studying nitric oxide (NO) biology and metabolism have come to learn that the one electron oxidation product of NO, nitrite anion, serves as a unique player in modulating tissue NO bioavailability. Numerous studies have examined how this oxidized metabolite of NO can act as a salvage pathway for maintaining NO equivalents through multiple reduction mechanisms in permissive tissue environments. Moreover, it is now clear that nitrite anion production and distribution throughout the body can act in an endocrine manner to augment NO bioavailability that is important for physiological and pathological processes. These discoveries have led to renewed hope and efforts for an effective NO based therapeutic agent through the unique action of sodium nitrite as an NO pro-drug. More recent studies also indicate that sodium nitrate may also increase plasma nitrite levels via the enterosalivary circulatory system resulting in nitrate reduction to nitrite by microorganisms found within the oral cavity. In this review, we discuss the importance of nitrite anion in several disease models along with an appraisal of sodium nitrite therapy in the clinic, potential caveats of such clinical uses, and future possibilities of nitrite based therapies. PMID:21619929

  7. Direct estimation of diffuse gaseous emissions from coal fires: current methods and future directions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Engle, Mark A.; Olea, Ricardo A.; O'Keefe, Jennifer M. K.; Hower, James C.; Geboy, Nicholas J.

    2013-01-01

    Coal fires occur in nature spontaneously, contribute to increases in greenhouse gases, and emit atmospheric toxicants. Increasing interest in quantifying coal fire emissions has resulted in the adaptation and development of specialized approaches and adoption of numerical modeling techniques. Overview of these methods for direct estimation of diffuse gas emissions from coal fires is presented in this paper. Here we take advantage of stochastic Gaussian simulation to interpolate CO2 fluxes measured using a dynamic closed chamber at the Ruth Mullins coal fire in Perry County, Kentucky. This approach allows for preparing a map of diffuse gas emissions, one of the two primary ways that gases emanate from coal fires, and establishing the reliability of the study both locally and for the entire fire. Future research directions include continuous and automated sampling to improve quantification of gaseous coal fire emissions.

  8. Current trends and future directions in flower development research

    PubMed Central

    Scutt, Charlie P.; Vandenbussche, Michiel

    2014-01-01

    Flowers, the reproductive structures of the approximately 400 000 extant species of flowering plants, exist in a tremendous range of forms and sizes, mainly due to developmental differences involving the number, arrangement, size and form of the floral organs of which they consist. However, this tremendous diversity is underpinned by a surprisingly robust basic floral structure in which a central group of carpels forms on an axis of determinate growth, almost invariably surrounded by two successive zones containing stamens and perianth organs, respectively. Over the last 25 years, remarkable progress has been achieved in describing the molecular mechanisms that control almost all aspects of flower development, from the phase change that initiates flowering to the final production of fruits and seeds. However, this work has been performed almost exclusively in a small number of eudicot model species, chief among which is Arabidopsis thaliana. Studies of flower development must now be extended to a much wider phylogenetic range of flowering plants and, indeed, to their closest living relatives, the gymnosperms. Studies of further, more wide-ranging models should provide insights that, for various reasons, cannot be obtained by studying the major existing models alone. The use of further models should also help to explain how the first flowering plants evolved from an unknown, although presumably gymnosperm-like ancestor, and rapidly diversified to become the largest major plant group and to dominate the terrestrial flora. The benefits for society of a thorough understanding of flower development are self-evident, as human life depends to a large extent on flowering plants and on the fruits and seeds they produce. In this preface to the Special Issue, we introduce eleven articles on flower development, representing work in both established and further models, including gymnosperms. We also present some of our own views on current trends and future directions of the

  9. Sleep Disturbance in Pediatric PTSD: Current Findings and Future Directions

    PubMed Central

    Kovachy, Ben; O'Hara, Ruth; Hawkins, Nate; Gershon, Anda; Primeau, Michelle M.; Madej, Jessica; Carrion, Victor

    2013-01-01

    Many studies have provided strong evidence of a fundamental and complex role for sleep disturbances in adult posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Investigations of adult PTSD using subjective and objective measures document sleep architecture abnormalities and high prevalence of sleep disordered breathing, periodic limb movement disorder, nightmares, and insomnia. PTSD treatment methods do appear to significantly improve sleep disturbance, and also studies suggest that treatments for sleep disorders often result in improvements in PTSD symptoms. Further, the most recent evidence suggests sleep abnormalities may precede the development of PTSD. Given the importance of sleep disorders to the onset, course, and treatment of adult PTSD, examination of sleep disturbances far earlier in the life course is imperative. Here we review the literature on what we know about sleep disturbances and disorders in pediatric PTSD. Our review indicates that the extant, empirical data examining sleep disturbance and disorders in pediatric PTSD is limited. Yet, this literature suggests there are significantly higher reports of sleep disturbances and nightmares in children and adolescents exposed to trauma and/or diagnosed with PTSD than in non-trauma-exposed samples. Sleep questionnaires are predominantly employed to assess sleep disorders in pediatric PTSD, with few studies utilizing objective measures. Given the important, complex relationship being uncovered between adult PTSD and sleep, this review calls for further research of sleep in children with PTSD using more specific subjective measures and also objective measures, such as polysomnography and eventually treatment trial studies. Citation: Kovachy B; O'Hara R; Hawkins N; Gershon A; Primeau MM; Madej J; Carrion V. Sleep disturbance in pediatric PTSD: current findings and future directions. J Clin Sleep Med 2013;9(5):501-510. PMID:23674943

  10. Munchausen by Internet: Current Research and Future Directions

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Jacqui

    2012-01-01

    about their health in the online environment. We also suggest directions for future research. PMID:22914203

  11. Future Directions in the Developmental Science of Addictions

    PubMed Central

    Hussong, Andrea M.; Burns, Alison R.; Solis, Jessica M.; Rothenberg, W. Andrew

    2014-01-01

    This essay addresses important future directions for the study of addictions, emphasizing the incorporation of developmental perspectives into how we think about substance use and disorder as unfolding processes over time and context for a heterogeneous group of individuals. These perspectives articulate complexities in the developmental processes that underlie change and continuity in human behavior over time. We consider two key developmental concepts, namely ‘time’ and ‘heterogeneity’. We argue that a lack of attention to time sampling creates ambiguity in the meaning of time-linked assessments, challenges in discerning which of multiple clocks may govern behavior, and the inability in some instances to distinguish which of multiple etiological processes may be driving behavior within our samples. Moreover, artificial divisions among disorders that commonly co-occur with substance use are a barrier to the further integration of the study and treatment of addictions with that of psychopathology. Similar to recent changes in the study of psychiatric disorders more broadly, we argue that identifying common deficits among commonly comorbid disorders, rather than patterns of comorbidity per se, is key to identifying early emerging risk factors for substance use and disorder, with important implications for identifying risk populations and developmental periods as well as potentially malleable intervention targets. Attention to time sampling in theory-driven research designs and attempts to identify more homogenous groups of individuals who use and eventually abuse substances over time are two examples of ways to better understand some of the complexity underlying the development of addictions. PMID:24156358

  12. Future Directions of Electromagnetic Methods for Hydrocarbon Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strack, K. M.

    2014-01-01

    For hydrocarbon applications, seismic exploration is the workhorse of the industry. Only in the borehole, electromagnetic (EM) methods play a dominant role, as they are mostly used to determine oil reserves and to distinguish water from oil-bearing zones. Throughout the past 60 years, we had several periods with an increased interest in EM. This increased with the success of the marine EM industry and now electromagnetics in general is considered for many new applications. The classic electromagnetic methods are borehole, onshore and offshore, and airborne EM methods. Airborne is covered elsewhere (see Smith, this issue). Marine EM material is readily available from the service company Web sites, and here I will only mention some future technical directions that are visible. The marine EM success is being carried back to the onshore market, fueled by geothermal and unconventional hydrocarbon applications. Oil companies are listening to pro-EM arguments, but still are hesitant to go through the learning exercises as early adopters. In particular, the huge business drivers of shale hydrocarbons and reservoir monitoring will bring markets many times bigger than the entire marine EM market. Additional applications include support for seismic operations, sub-salt, and sub-basalt, all areas where seismic exploration is costly and inefficient. Integration with EM will allow novel seismic methods to be applied. In the borehole, anisotropy measurements, now possible, form the missing link between surface measurements and ground truth. Three-dimensional (3D) induction measurements are readily available from several logging contractors. The trend to logging-while-drilling measurements will continue with many more EM technologies, and the effort of controlling the drill bit while drilling including look-ahead-and-around the drill bit is going on. Overall, the market for electromagnetics is increasing, and a demand for EM capable professionals will continue. The emphasis will

  13. Current trends and future directions in flower development research.

    PubMed

    Scutt, Charlie P; Vandenbussche, Michiel

    2014-11-01

    Flowers, the reproductive structures of the approximately 400 000 extant species of flowering plants, exist in a tremendous range of forms and sizes, mainly due to developmental differences involving the number, arrangement, size and form of the floral organs of which they consist. However, this tremendous diversity is underpinned by a surprisingly robust basic floral structure in which a central group of carpels forms on an axis of determinate growth, almost invariably surrounded by two successive zones containing stamens and perianth organs, respectively. Over the last 25 years, remarkable progress has been achieved in describing the molecular mechanisms that control almost all aspects of flower development, from the phase change that initiates flowering to the final production of fruits and seeds. However, this work has been performed almost exclusively in a small number of eudicot model species, chief among which is Arabidopsis thaliana. Studies of flower development must now be extended to a much wider phylogenetic range of flowering plants and, indeed, to their closest living relatives, the gymnosperms. Studies of further, more wide-ranging models should provide insights that, for various reasons, cannot be obtained by studying the major existing models alone. The use of further models should also help to explain how the first flowering plants evolved from an unknown, although presumably gymnosperm-like ancestor, and rapidly diversified to become the largest major plant group and to dominate the terrestrial flora. The benefits for society of a thorough understanding of flower development are self-evident, as human life depends to a large extent on flowering plants and on the fruits and seeds they produce. In this preface to the Special Issue, we introduce eleven articles on flower development, representing work in both established and further models, including gymnosperms. We also present some of our own views on current trends and future directions of the

  14. Candidate gravitational microlensing events for future direct lens imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Henderson, C. B.; Gould, A.; Gaudi, B. S.; Park, H.; Han, C.; Sumi, T.; Koshimoto, N.; Udalski, A.; Tsapras, Y.; Bozza, V.; Abe, F.; Fukunaga, D.; Itow, Y.; Masuda, K.; Bennett, D. P.; Bond, I. A.; Ling, C. H.; Botzler, C. S.; Freeman, M.; Fukui, A.; Collaboration: MOA Collaboration; OGLE Collaboration; μFUN Collaboration; RoboNet Collaboration; and others

    2014-10-10

    The mass of the lenses giving rise to Galactic microlensing events can be constrained by measuring the relative lens-source proper motion and lens flux. The flux of the lens can be separated from that of the source, companions to the source, and unrelated nearby stars with high-resolution images taken when the lens and source are spatially resolved. For typical ground-based adaptive optics (AO) or space-based observations, this requires either inordinately long time baselines or high relative proper motions. We provide a list of microlensing events toward the Galactic bulge with high relative lens-source proper motion that are therefore good candidates for constraining the lens mass with future high-resolution imaging. We investigate all events from 2004 to 2013 that display detectable finite-source effects, a feature that allows us to measure the proper motion. In total, we present 20 events with μ ≳ 8 mas yr{sup –1}. Of these, 14 were culled from previous analyses while 6 are new, including OGLE-2004-BLG-368, MOA-2005-BLG-36, OGLE-2012-BLG-0211, OGLE-2012-BLG-0456, MOA-2012-BLG-532, and MOA-2013-BLG-029. In ≲12 yr from the time of each event the lens and source of each event will be sufficiently separated for ground-based telescopes with AO systems or space telescopes to resolve each component and further characterize the lens system. Furthermore, for the most recent events, comparison of the lens flux estimates from images taken immediately to those estimated from images taken when the lens and source are resolved can be used to empirically check the robustness of the single-epoch method currently being used to estimate lens masses for many events.

  15. Candidate Gravitational Microlensing Events for Future Direct Lens Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henderson, C. B.; Park, H.; Sumi, T.; Udalski, A.; Gould, A.; Tsapras, Y.; Han, C.; Gaudi, B. S.; Bozza, V.; Abe, F.; Bennett, D. P.; Bond, I. A.; Botzler, C. S.; Freeman, M.; Fukui, A.; Fukunaga, D.; Itow, Y.; Koshimoto, N.; Ling, C. H.; Masuda, K.; Matsubara, Y.; Muraki, Y.; Namba, S.; Ohnishi, K.; Rattenbury, N. J.; Saito, To; Sullivan, D. J.; Suzuki, D.; Sweatman, W. L.; Tristram, P. J.; Tsurumi, N.; Wada, K.; Yamai, N.; Yock, P. C. M.; Yonehara, A.; MOA Collaboration; Szymański, M. K.; Kubiak, M.; Pietrzyński, G.; Soszyński, I.; Skowron, J.; Kozłowski, S.; Poleski, R.; Ulaczyk, K.; Wyrzykowski, Ł.; Pietrukowicz, P.; OGLE Collaboration; Almeida, L. A.; Bos, M.; Choi, J.-Y.; Christie, G. W.; Depoy, D. L.; Dong, S.; Friedmann, M.; Hwang, K.-H.; Jablonski, F.; Jung, Y. K.; Kaspi, S.; Lee, C.-U.; Maoz, D.; McCormick, J.; Moorhouse, D.; Natusch, T.; Ngan, H.; Pogge, R. W.; Shin, I.-G.; Shvartzvald, Y.; Tan, T.-G.; Thornley, G.; Yee, J. C.; μFUN Collaboration; Allan, A.; Bramich, D. M.; Browne, P.; Dominik, M.; Horne, K.; Hundertmark, M.; Figuera Jaimes, R.; Kains, N.; Snodgrass, C.; Steele, I. A.; Street, R. A.; RoboNet Collaboration

    2014-10-01

    The mass of the lenses giving rise to Galactic microlensing events can be constrained by measuring the relative lens-source proper motion and lens flux. The flux of the lens can be separated from that of the source, companions to the source, and unrelated nearby stars with high-resolution images taken when the lens and source are spatially resolved. For typical ground-based adaptive optics (AO) or space-based observations, this requires either inordinately long time baselines or high relative proper motions. We provide a list of microlensing events toward the Galactic bulge with high relative lens-source proper motion that are therefore good candidates for constraining the lens mass with future high-resolution imaging. We investigate all events from 2004 to 2013 that display detectable finite-source effects, a feature that allows us to measure the proper motion. In total, we present 20 events with μ >~ 8 mas yr-1. Of these, 14 were culled from previous analyses while 6 are new, including OGLE-2004-BLG-368, MOA-2005-BLG-36, OGLE-2012-BLG-0211, OGLE-2012-BLG-0456, MOA-2012-BLG-532, and MOA-2013-BLG-029. In lsim12 yr from the time of each event the lens and source of each event will be sufficiently separated for ground-based telescopes with AO systems or space telescopes to resolve each component and further characterize the lens system. Furthermore, for the most recent events, comparison of the lens flux estimates from images taken immediately to those estimated from images taken when the lens and source are resolved can be used to empirically check the robustness of the single-epoch method currently being used to estimate lens masses for many events.

  16. The Integrated Landscape Modeling partnership - Current status and future directions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mushet, David M.; Scherff, Eric J.

    2016-01-28

    The Integrated Landscape Modeling (ILM) partnership is an effort by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) to identify, evaluate, and develop models to quantify services derived from ecosystems, with a focus on wetland ecosystems and conservation effects. The ILM partnership uses the Integrated Valuation of Ecosystem Services and Tradeoffs (InVEST) modeling platform to facilitate regional quantifications of ecosystem services under various scenarios of land-cover change that are representative of differing conservation program and practice implementation scenarios. To date, the ILM InVEST partnership has resulted in capabilities to quantify carbon stores, amphibian habitat, plant-community diversity, and pollination services. Work to include waterfowl and grassland bird habitat quality is in progress. Initial InVEST modeling has been focused on the Prairie Pothole Region (PPR) of the United States; future efforts might encompass other regions as data availability and knowledge increase as to how functions affecting ecosystem services differ among regions.The ILM partnership is also developing the capability for field-scale process-based modeling of depressional wetland ecosystems using the Agricultural Policy/Environmental Extender (APEX) model. Progress was made towards the development of techniques to use the APEX model for closed-basin depressional wetlands of the PPR, in addition to the open systems that the model was originally designed to simulate. The ILM partnership has matured to the stage where effects of conservation programs and practices on multiple ecosystem services can now be simulated in selected areas. Future work might include the continued development of modeling capabilities, as well as development and evaluation of differing conservation program and practice scenarios of interest to partner agencies including the USDA’s Farm Service Agency (FSA) and Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS). When

  17. Noninvasive Biomarkers of Liver Fibrosis: Clinical Applications and Future Directions

    PubMed Central

    Motola, Daniel L.; Caravan, Peter; Chung, Raymond T.

    2014-01-01

    Chronic liver disease is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Current strategies for assessing prognosis and treatment rely on accurate assessment of disease stage. Liver biopsy is the gold standard for assessing fibrosis stage but has many limitations. Noninvasive biomarkers of liver fibrosis have been extensively designed, studied, and validated in a variety of liver diseases. With the advent of direct acting antivirals and the rise in obesity-related liver disease, there is a growing need to establish these noninvasive methods in the clinic. In addition, it has become increasingly clear over the last few years that noninvasive biomarkers can also be used to monitor response to antifibrotic therapies and predict liver outcomes, including hepatocellular carcinoma development. This review highlights the most well-established noninvasive biomarkers to-date, with a particular emphasis on serum and imaging-based methodologies. PMID:25396099

  18. Clinical applications and future directions of functional MRI.

    PubMed

    Orringer, Daniel A; Vago, David R; Golby, Alexandra J

    2012-09-01

    First described for use in mapping the human visual cortex in 1991, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is based on blood-oxygen level dependent (BOLD) changes in cortical regions that occur during specific tasks. Typically, an overabundance of oxygenated (arterial) blood is supplied during activation of brain areas. Consequently, the venous outflow from the activated areas contains a higher concentration of oxyhemoglobin, which changes the paramagnetic properties of the tissue that can be detected during a T2-star acquisition. fMRI data can be acquired in response to specific tasks or in the resting state. fMRI has been widely applied to studying physiologic and pathophysiologic diseases of the brain. This review will discuss the most common current clinical applications of fMRI as well as emerging directions.

  19. NINDS clinical trials in stroke: lessons learned and future directions.

    PubMed

    Marler, John R

    2007-12-01

    Since 1977 the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS) at the National Institutes of Health (NIH) has sponsored 28 phase 3 trials to evaluate treatments of stroke, which when all completed will have randomized a total of 44 862 patients in the United States and other countries. NINDS stroke clinical trials have been successful in finding beneficial and cost-effective treatments for cerebrovascular disease. Future trials are likely to be larger and have simpler designs which allow for the inclusion of more patients and which collect less data for each patient. In addition, measures of cognitive outcomes, particularly timed tests of executive function, disability scales, and quality-of-life outcomes will become more common. The stroke research community can take pride in the solid base of evidence that has been built over the past 2 decades. If we continue to follow the discoveries of science, continue to create new trial methodology, and increase participation in clinical trials, significant advances in the treatment of cerebrovascular disease will continue.

  20. Neuroendoscopy in Kuwait: Evolution, Current Status, and Future Directions.

    PubMed

    Azab, Waleed A; Abdelrahman, Ahmed Y; Alsheikh, Tarik M; Najibullah, Mostafa M

    2016-08-01

    An overview of the development of neuroendoscopy at the neurosurgery department, Ibn Sina Hospital in Kuwait, is presented with an outline of difficulties and obstacles faced by the field until it reached its current status. The factors and solutions that helped us overcome these problems are also elaborated on. After a modest beginning few years ago, endoscopic skull base procedures, intraventricular neuroendoscopy, and spinal endoscopy are regularly performed in the department. Although neuroendoscopy is not per se a neurosurgical subspecialty, it is an area that requires special training. Achieving an appropriate level of care necessitates these highly trained neurosurgeons to collaborate together and with other specialties to create teamsgeared towards offering such treatment options topatients. Importantly, a multitude of essential facilities should be available to make such a pattern of practice possible. In our experience, this was made possible through continued efforts that have finally paid off and gradually led to a complete shift of the face of neuroendoscopic practice in our department. Our future endeavors aim at further development of neuroendoscopy in the department to create a center of excellence.

  1. Building Future Directions for Teacher Learning in Science Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Kathy; Lindsay, Simon

    2016-04-01

    In 2013, as part of a process to renew an overall sector vision for science education, Catholic Education Melbourne (CEM) undertook a review of its existing teacher in-service professional development programs in science. This review led to some data analysis being conducted in relation to two of these programs where participant teachers were positioned as active learners undertaking critical reflection in relation to their science teaching practice. The conditions in these programs encouraged teachers to notice critical aspects of their teaching practice. The analysis illustrates that as teachers worked in this way, their understandings about effective science pedagogy began to shift, in particular, teachers recognised how their thinking not only influenced their professional practice but also ultimately shaped the quality of their students' learning. The data from these programs delivers compelling evidence of the learning experience from a teacher perspective. This article explores the impact of this experience on teacher thinking about the relationship between pedagogical choices and quality learning in science. The findings highlight that purposeful, teacher-centred in-service professional learning can significantly contribute to enabling teachers to think differently about science teaching and learning and ultimately become confident pedagogical leaders in science. The future of quality school-based science education therefore relies on a new vision for teacher professional learning, where practice explicitly recognises, values and attends to teachers as professionals and supports them to articulate and share the professional knowledge they have about effective science teaching practice.

  2. Adaptive optics high resolution spectroscopy: present status and future direction

    SciTech Connect

    Alcock, C; Angel, R; Ciarlo, D; Fugate, R O; Ge, J; Kuzmenko, P; Lloyd-Hart, M; Macintosh, B; Najita, J; Woolf, N

    1999-07-27

    High resolution spectroscopy experiments with visible adaptive optics (AO) telescopes at Starfire Optical Range and Mt. Wilson have demonstrated that spectral resolution can be routinely improved by a factor of - 10 over the seeing-limited case with no extra light losses at visible wavelengths. With large CCDs now available, a very wide wavelength range can be covered in a single exposure. In the near future, most large ground-based telescopes will be equipped with powerful A0 systems. Most of these systems are aimed primarily at diffraction-limited operation in the near IR. An exciting new opportunity will thus open up for high resolution IR spectroscopy. Immersion echelle gratings with much coarser grooves being developed by us at LLNL will play a critical role in achieving high spectral resolution with a compact and low cost IR cryogenically cooled spectrograph and simultaneous large wavelength coverage on relatively small IR detectors. We have constructed a new A0 optimized spectrograph at Steward Observatory to provide R = 200,000 in the optical, which is being commissioned at the Starfire Optical Range 3.5m telescope. We have completed the optical design of the LLNL IR Immersion Spectrograph (LISPEC) to take advantage of improved silicon etching technology. Key words: adaptive optics, spectroscopy, high resolution, immersion gratings

  3. Bed bug detection: Current technologies and future directions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study evaluates current technologies used to detect bed bug infestations, and presents new information regarding the underlying chemical basis of canines scent detection. The manuscript also reports new and future devices that may play a part in bed bug detection in the future....

  4. Some suggested future directions of quantitative resource assessments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Singer, D.A.

    2001-01-01

    Future quantitative assessments will be expected to estimate quantities, values, and locations of undiscovered mineral resources in a form that conveys both economic viability and uncertainty associated with the resources. Historically, declining metal prices point to the need for larger deposits over time. Sensitivity analysis demonstrates that the greatest opportunity for reducing uncertainty in assessments lies in lowering uncertainty associated with tonnage estimates. Of all errors possible in assessments, those affecting tonnage estimates are by far the most important. Selecting the correct deposit model is the most important way of controlling errors because the dominance of tonnage-deposit models are the best known predictor of tonnage. Much of the surface is covered with apparently barren rocks and sediments in many large regions. Because many exposed mineral deposits are believed to have been found, a prime concern is the presence of possible mineralized rock under cover. Assessments of areas with resources under cover must rely on extrapolation from surrounding areas, new geologic maps of rocks under cover, or analogy with other well-explored areas that can be considered training tracts. Cover has a profound effect on uncertainty and on methods and procedures of assessments because geology is seldom known and geophysical methods typically have attenuated responses. Many earlier assessment methods were based on relationships of geochemical and geophysical variables to deposits learned from deposits exposed on the surface-these will need to be relearned based on covered deposits. Mineral-deposit models are important in quantitative resource assessments for two reasons: (1) grades and tonnages of most deposit types are significantly different, and (2) deposit types are present in different geologic settings that can be identified from geologic maps. Mineral-deposit models are the keystone in combining the diverse geoscience information on geology, mineral

  5. Systemic Immunotherapy for Urothelial Cancer: Current Trends and Future Directions.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Shilpa; Gill, David; Poole, Austin; Agarwal, Neeraj

    2017-01-27

    Urothelial cancer of the bladder, renal pelvis, ureter, and other urinary organs is the fifth most common cancer in the United States, and systemic platinum-based chemotherapy remains the standard of care for first-line treatment of advanced/metastatic urothelial carcinoma (UC). Until recently, there were very limited options for patients who are refractory to chemotherapy, or do not tolerate chemotherapy due to toxicities and overall outcomes have remained very poor. While the role of immunotherapy was first established in non-muscle invasive bladder cancer in the 1970s, no systemic immunotherapy was approved for advanced disease until the recent approval of a programmed death ligand-1 (PD-L1) inhibitor, atezolizumab, in patients with advanced/metastatic UC who have progressed on platinum-containing regimens. This represents a significant milestone in this disease after a void of over 30 years. In addition to atezolizumab, a variety of checkpoint inhibitors have shown a significant activity in advanced/metastatic urothelial carcinoma and are expected to gain Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval in the near future. The introduction of novel immunotherapy agents has led to rapid changes in the field of urothelial carcinoma. Numerous checkpoint inhibitors are being tested alone or in combination in the first and subsequent-line therapies of metastatic disease, as well as neoadjuvant and adjuvant settings. They are also being studied in combination with radiation therapy and for non-muscle invasive bladder cancer refractory to BCG. Furthermore, immunotherapy is being utilized for those ineligible for firstline platinum-based chemotherapy. This review outlines the novel immunotherapy agents which have either been approved, or are currently being investigated in clinical trials in UC.

  6. Systemic Immunotherapy for Urothelial Cancer: Current Trends and Future Directions

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Shilpa; Gill, David; Poole, Austin; Agarwal, Neeraj

    2017-01-01

    Urothelial cancer of the bladder, renal pelvis, ureter, and other urinary organs is the fifth most common cancer in the United States, and systemic platinum-based chemotherapy remains the standard of care for first-line treatment of advanced/metastatic urothelial carcinoma (UC). Until recently, there were very limited options for patients who are refractory to chemotherapy, or do not tolerate chemotherapy due to toxicities and overall outcomes have remained very poor. While the role of immunotherapy was first established in non-muscle invasive bladder cancer in the 1970s, no systemic immunotherapy was approved for advanced disease until the recent approval of a programmed death ligand-1 (PD-L1) inhibitor, atezolizumab, in patients with advanced/metastatic UC who have progressed on platinum-containing regimens. This represents a significant milestone in this disease after a void of over 30 years. In addition to atezolizumab, a variety of checkpoint inhibitors have shown a significant activity in advanced/metastatic urothelial carcinoma and are expected to gain Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval in the near future. The introduction of novel immunotherapy agents has led to rapid changes in the field of urothelial carcinoma. Numerous checkpoint inhibitors are being tested alone or in combination in the first and subsequent-line therapies of metastatic disease, as well as neoadjuvant and adjuvant settings. They are also being studied in combination with radiation therapy and for non-muscle invasive bladder cancer refractory to BCG. Furthermore, immunotherapy is being utilized for those ineligible for first-line platinum-based chemotherapy. This review outlines the novel immunotherapy agents which have either been approved, or are currently being investigated in clinical trials in UC. PMID:28134806

  7. Hydrological modelling of urbanized catchments: A review and future directions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salvadore, Elga; Bronders, Jan; Batelaan, Okke

    2015-10-01

    In recent years, the conceptual detail of hydrological models has dramatically increased as a result of improved computational techniques and the availability of spatially-distributed digital data. Nevertheless modelling spatially-distributed hydrological processes can be challenging, particularly in strongly heterogeneous urbanized areas. Multiple interactions occur between urban structures and the water system at various temporal and spatial scales. So far, no universal methodology exists for simulating the urban water system at catchment scale. This paper reviews the state of the art on the scientific knowledge and practice of modelling the urban hydrological system at the catchment scale, with the purpose of identifying current limitations and defining a blueprint for future modelling advances. We compare conceptual descriptions of urban physical hydrological processes on basis of a selection of 43 modelling approaches. The complexity of the urban water system at the catchment scale results in an incomplete understanding of the interaction between urban and natural hydrological systems, and in a high degree of uncertainty. Data availability is still a strong limitation since current modelling practice recognizes the need for high spatial and temporal resolution. Spatio-temporal gaps exist between the physical scales of hydrological processes and the resolution of applied models. Therefore urban hydrology is often simplified either as a study of surface runoff over impervious surfaces or hydraulics of piped systems. Many approaches target very specific objectives and the level of detail in representing physical processes is not consistent. Based on our analysis, we propose a blueprint for a highly complex integrated urban hydrological model. We regard flexibility, in terms of model structure and data assimilation, as the key characteristic for overcoming these limitations. We advocate the use of modular, process-based approaches, which are flexible and adaptable

  8. NOAA Operational Space Environmental Monitoring - Current Capabilities and Future Directions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denig, William; Redmon, Rob; Mulligan, Patricia

    2014-05-01

    and Space Weather Prediction Center are using a combination of operational measurements and models to develop advanced now-cast and forecast space weather applications. Present and future capabilities include but are not limited to the Oval Variation Assessment Tracking Intensity and Online Now-casting (OVATION) Prime based auroral forecast and magnetopause location and geosynchronous crossing detection applications.

  9. Current management of diabetes mellitus and future directions in care.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Sudesna; Davies, Melanie J

    2015-11-01

    outcomes, but macrovascular outcomes and cardiovascular safety remain controversial with several glucose-lowering agents. Future directions in diabetes care include strategies such as the 'bionic pancreas', stem cell therapy and targeting the intestinal microbiome. All of these treatments are still being refined, and it may be several decades before they are clinically useful. Prevention and cure of diabetes is the Holy Grail but remain elusive due to lack of detailed understanding of the metabolic, genetic and immunological causes that underpin diabetes. Much progress has been made since the time of Prof MacLean 90 years ago, but there are still great strides to be taken before the life of the patient with diabetes improves even more significantly.

  10. Some Recent Advances and Future Directions in Permafrost Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romanovsky, V. E.; Grosse, G.; Marchenko, S. S.

    2010-12-01

    The impact of climate warming on permafrost and the potential of climate feedbacks resulting from permafrost thawing have recently received a great deal of attention. Field-based studies, remote sensing and modeling are revealing complex feedbacks of permafrost degradation to terrestrial and offshore environments in Polar Regions and the Earth’s atmosphere. Major research questions that remain to be adequately answered involve uncertainties about the vulnerability of permafrost to thaw, a projected decline in permafrost extent during the coming decades, ecosystem feedbacks, and the global consequences to climate change of mobilizing ancient carbon from permafrost as it thaws. Some of these important questions are: How resilient is permafrost to climate change and external disturbance, and what are the feedbacks to permafrost stability? How will permafrost degradation and landform changes alter hydrology and ecosystems? How large are carbon pools in and beneath permafrost including subsea permafrost, how vulnerable are they to disturbance related to degradation of permafrost, and to what extent will altered carbon and energy cycles affect the global climate? Ground temperatures are a primary indicator of permafrost stability. The monitoring network of the Thermal State of Permafrost (TSP) program under the Fourth International Polar Year (IPY) has more than 550 sites across the circumpolar region. TSP measurements, combined with numerical thermal modeling, now provide a relatively comprehensive assessment of panarctic permafrost dynamics during the last ~100 years. However, current numerical models project the future state of permafrost largely based on subsurface thermal dynamics driven by regional or global climate model projections and internal surface and ground properties. These models largely ignore complicated sub-grid scale feedbacks associated with dynamic ecological components and disturbance. Disturbances of the ground thermal regime can be triggered by

  11. Cardiac MR imaging: current status and future direction.

    PubMed

    Saeed, Maythem; Van, Tu Anh; Krug, Roland; Hetts, Steven W; Wilson, Mark W

    2015-08-01

    Coronary artery disease is currently a worldwide epidemic with increasing impact on healthcare systems. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) sequences give complementary information on LV function, regional perfusion, angiogenesis, myocardial viability and orientations of myocytes. T2-weighted short-tau inversion recovery (T2-STIR), fat suppression and black blood sequences have been frequently used for detecting edematous area at risk (AAR) of infarction. T2 mapping, however, indicated that the edematous reaction in acute myocardial infarct (AMI) is not stable and warranted the use of edematous area in evaluating therapies. On the other hand, cine MRI demonstrated reproducible data on LV function in healthy volunteers and LV remodeling in patients. Noninvasive first pass perfusion, using exogenous tracer (gadolinium-based contrast media) and arterial spin labeling MRI, using endogenous tracer (water), are sensitive and useful techniques for evaluating myocardial perfusion and angiogenesis. Recently, new strategies have been developed to quantify myocardial viability using T1-mapping and equilibrium contrast enhanced MR techniques because existing delayed contrast enhancement MRI (DE-MRI) sequences are limited in detecting patchy microinfarct and diffuse fibrosis. These new techniques were successfully used for characterizing diffuse myocardial fibrosis associated with myocarditis, amyloidosis, sarcoidosis heart failure, aortic hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, congenital heart disease, restrictive cardiomyopathy, arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia and hypertension). Diffusion MRI provides information regarding microscopic tissue structure, while diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) helps to characterize the myocardium and monitor the process of LV remodeling after AMI. Novel trends in hybrid imaging, such as cardiac positron emission tomography (PET)/MRI and optical imaging/MRI, are recently under intensive investigation. With the promise of higher spatial

  12. Divorce and Health: Current Trends and Future Directions

    PubMed Central

    Sbarra, David A.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Social relationships play a vital role in health and wellbeing, and it follows that loss experiences can be highly stressful for some people. This paper reviews what is known about the association between marital separation, divorce and health outcomes. METHODS Key findings in the area of divorce and health are discussed, and the review outlines a series of specific questions for future research. In particular, the paper integrates research in social epidemiology with research in social psychophysiology. The former approach provides a broad-based estimate of the association between marital status and health outcomes, whereas the latter approach studies mechanisms of action and individual differences associated with increased risk for poor outcomes. RESULTS The experience of separation or divorce confers risk for poor health outcomes, including a 23% higher mortality rate. However, most people cope well and are resilient after their marriage or long-term relationship ends. Despite the fact that resilience is the most common response, a small percentage of people (approximately 10–15%) struggle quite substantially, and it appears that the overall elevated adverse health risks are driven by the poor functioning of this group. Several candidate mechanisms and novel (ambulatory) assessment techniques are discussed that may elucidate the poor outcomes among people who adapt poorly to separation. CONCLUSIONS To increase knowledge on the association between divorce and health, three primary areas require more research: (a) genetic and third variable explanations for divorce-related health outcomes; (b) better studies of objective social behavior following separation; and, (c) increased attention to interventions targeting high risk adults. PMID:25829240

  13. The Future Directions in Education. Report of the Future Directions in Education Conference (Mont Ste. Marie, Quebec, Canada, October 1986).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canadian School Trustees Association, Ottawa (Ontario).

    Representatives of Canadian business, labor, government, and education met to share insights about the future of education and to formulate options for adopting the public school system to the challenge of the future. The keynote address delivered by Frank Feather, President of Globescope, Inc. and editor of "Canada Tomorrow," challenged…

  14. Development and Translation of Histotripsy: Current Status and Future Directions

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, William W.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose of review 1) to outline the initial development of histotripsy, a non-invasive image guided focused ultrasound technology that mechanically homogenizes targeted tissues and 2) to describe the results of pre-clinical translational research directed towards urologic applications. Recent Findings Histotripsy tissue ablation is based on initiation and control of acoustic cavitation at a target point within the body. This unique mechanical mechanism of action is distinct when compared to conventional thermal ablative modalities. Features of histotripsy (non-thermal, noninvasive, high precision, real-time monitoring/feedback, tissue liquefaction) have prompted assessment of this technology as a potential ablative therapy for a number of organs and disease processes. Summary Ongoing research efforts to apply histotripsy to preclinical models of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), prostate cancer, renal masses, and renal calculi have resulted in enhanced understanding of cavitation bioeffects, refinement of treatment systems, strategies to enhance treatment efficiency, and initiation of a pilot human clinical trial to assess the safety of histotripsy for BPH therapy. PMID:24231530

  15. Planning for the Future of Geo-Cybereducation: Outcomes of the Workshop, Challenges, and Future Directions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryan, J. G.; Eriksson, S. C.

    2010-12-01

    Inspired by the recommendations of the NSF report “Fostering Learning in the Networked World: The Cyberlearning Opportunity and Challenge” (NSF08204), the NSF National STEM Digital Learning program funded “Planning for the Future of Geocybereducation” Workshop sought to bring together leaders from the geoscience education community, from major geoscience research initiatives, and from the growing public- and private-sector geoscience information community. The objectives of the workshop were to begin conversations aimed at identifying best practices and tools for geoscience cyber-education, in the context of both the changing nature of learners and of rapidly evolving geo-information platforms, and to provide guidance to the NSF as to necessary future directions and needs for funding. 65 participants met and interacted live for the two-day workshop, with ongoing post-meeting virtual interactions via a collaborative workspace (www.geocybered.ning.com). Topics addressed included the rapidly changing character of learners, the growing capabilities of geoscience information systems and their affiliated tools, and effective models for collaboration among educators, researchers and geoinformation specialists. Discussions at the meeting focused on the implications of changing learners on the educational process, the challenges for teachers and administrators in keeping pace, and on the challenges of communication among these divergent professional communities. Ongoing virtual discussions and collaborations have produced a draft workshop document, and the workshop conveners are maintaining the workshop site as a venue for ongoing discussion and interaction. Several key challenges were evident from the workshop discussions and subsequent interactions: a) the development of most of the large geoinformatics and geoscience research efforts were not pursued with education as a significant objective, resulting in limited financial support for such activities after the

  16. Simulating a Radial Velocity Precurser Survey for Target Yield Optimization for a Future Direct Imaging Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newman, Patrick; Plavchan, Peter; Crepp, Justin R.; Dulz, Shannon; Stark, Chris; Kane, Stephen R.

    2017-01-01

    Future direct imaging mission concepts such as HabEx and LUVOIR aim to directly image and characterize Earth-analogs around nearby stars. With the scope and expense of these missions, the exoplanet yield is strongly dependent on the frequency of Earth-like planets and the a priori knowledge of which stars specifically host suitable planetary systems. Ground-based radial velocity surveys can potentially perform the pre-selection of direct imaging missions at a fraction of the cost of a blind direct imaging survey. We present a simulation of such a survey. We consider both the WIYN and Large Binocular Telescope, including weather conditions and limitations in telescope time, fitted with spectrometers of varying sensitivities including iLocator and NEID. We recover simulated planets and their orbital parameters, estimating the effectiveness of a pre-cursor radial velocity survey.

  17. Chemical Reaction Engineering: Current Status and Future Directions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dudukovic, M. P.

    1987-01-01

    Describes Chemical Reaction Engineering (CRE) as the discipline that quantifies the interplay of transport phenomena and kinetics in relating reactor performance to operating conditions and input variables. Addresses the current status of CRE in both academic and industrial settings and outlines future trends. (TW)

  18. Virtual Learning Communities Centered within a Discipline: Future Directions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blanchard, Anita L.; Cook, James R.

    2012-01-01

    Over a decade ago, Lenning and Ebbers (1999) envisioned that information and computer technology (ICT) could be used to create virtual learning communities (VLCs) as a "future" form of learning communities. Indeed, almost all academic departments--including psychology--depend heavily on the use of ICT to create and sustain connections among…

  19. Future research directions in seeking countermeasures to weightlessness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baldwin, Kenneth M.

    1995-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to briefly review the state of knowledge concerning the adaptive properties of mammalian skeletal muscle in response to varying duration in weightlessness, to identify voids in the understanding of this adaptive process, and to provide some insight for undertaking future research on this important topic.

  20. Gender and Diversity in Organizations: Past, Present, and Future Directions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murrell, Audrey J.; James, Erika Hayes

    2001-01-01

    Introduces a special issue on how the nature of organizations has changed in recent years and implications of these changes for the future. Discusses key issues that have been studied on gender and diversity in organizations (discrimination, affirmative action, barriers to career advancement, and sexual harassment). Notes strategies for enhancing…

  1. Vocational Psychology: An Analysis and Directions for the Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, Joyce E. A.

    2001-01-01

    Key areas of future research in vocational psychology include changing organizational structures, changing career attitudes, diversity of career development opportunities, international focus, increasing diversity, changing nature of technology, evolving educational systems, increased entrepreneurship, work and family issues, and career-leisure…

  2. Quality Principles and Empowered Learning: Current Practices and Future Directions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thor, Linda M.

    This paper reviews the application of Total Quality Management (TQM) to learning and suggests where continuous quality improvement in education may lead in the future. Several issues in the application of TQM are discussed, including: the need for active participation and full support of faculty and staff, active and creative involvement of…

  3. Future Directions for the Education of Gifted Learners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cimusz, Linda; And Others

    1994-01-01

    The future of gifted education is discussed in this symposium report, which contains the edited presentations of six national consultants and the ensuing discussion among the panelists. The consultants addressed the significance of a report of the U.S. Department of Education entitled "National Excellence: A Case for Developing America's…

  4. Enter the Cyberpunk Librarian: Future Directions in Cyberspace.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willson, Jonathan

    1996-01-01

    "Cyberpunk librarian," a metaphor for librarians operating in cyberspace, is defined. This article describes the properties and culture of the electronic frontier, discusses the social impact of cyberspace, examines the role of libraries and librarians in the future. Argues that librarians can help shape a vision of cyberspace that…

  5. Sustainable practices in medicinal chemistry: current state and future directions.

    PubMed

    Bryan, Marian C; Dillon, Barry; Hamann, Lawrence G; Hughes, Gregory J; Kopach, Michael E; Peterson, Emily A; Pourashraf, Mehrnaz; Raheem, Izzat; Richardson, Paul; Richter, Daniel; Sneddon, Helen F

    2013-08-08

    The medicinal chemistry subgroup of the American Chemical Society's Green Chemistry Institute Pharmaceutical Roundtable (ACS GCI PR) offers a perspective on the current state of environmentally sustainable practices in medicinal chemistry with the aim of sharing best practices more widely and highlighting some potential future developments.

  6. Refugee Issues: Current Status and Directions for the Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubin, Gary; And Others

    A comprehensive review of current refugee policy and program issues is provided in this paper, which is intended to serve both as a status report and a guide to developing an agenda for the future. Chapter I deals with early warning as to potential refugee movements, mass asylum, and interim assistance. Chapter II discusses and analyzes four types…

  7. Capturing the Future: Direct and Indirect Probes of Neutron Capture

    SciTech Connect

    Couture, Aaron Joseph

    2016-08-31

    This report documents aspects of direct and indirect neutron capture. The importance of neutron capture rates and methods to determine them are presented. The following conclusions are drawn: direct neutron capture measurements remain a backbone of experimental study; work is being done to take increased advantage of indirect methods for neutron capture; both instrumentation and facilities are making new measurements possible; more work is needed on the nuclear theory side to understand what is needed furthest from stability.

  8. The Medicare Prospective Payment System: Intent and Future Direction

    PubMed Central

    Dobson, Allen

    1984-01-01

    Increases in health care expenditures, especially for hospital care, have been a persistent and growing problem for the Medicare program and the Nation for nearly two decades. Recognizing its potential as a pragmatic yet immediate solution to spiralling costs, Congress recently enacted the Prospective Payment System (PPS) for most inpatient hospital services covered by Medicare. The PPS legislation represents a fundamental change in the way hospitals are paid for care delivered to Medicare beneficiaries. Hospitals can be expected to respond to behavioral incentives created by the new payment approach with both immediate and long-term adjustments. Changes in the ways hospitals will manage themselves and conduct their business — present and future — are examined, and some initial data trends are presented. Significant future policy issues related to the PPS and the health care delivery system are lastly discussed.

  9. Utilization management in radiology, part 2: perspectives and future directions.

    PubMed

    Duszak, Richard; Berlin, Jonathan W

    2012-10-01

    Increased utilization of medical imaging in the early part of the last decade has resulted in numerous efforts to reduce associated spending. Recent initiatives have focused on managing utilization with radiology benefits managers and real-time order entry decision support systems. Although these approaches might seem mutually exclusive and their application to radiology appears unique, the historical convergence and broad acceptance of both programs within the pharmacy sector may offer parallels for their potential future in medical imaging. In this second installment of a two-part series, anticipated trends in radiology utilization management are reviewed. Perspectives on current and future potential roles of radiologists in such initiatives are discussed, particularly in light of emerging physician payment models.

  10. The microball and Gammasphere: Research highlights and future directions

    SciTech Connect

    Devlin, M.; Sarantites, D.G.; LaFosse, D.R.; Lerma, F.

    1996-12-31

    The Microball, a compact, 4{pi} charged-particle detector array, has been used in conjunction with Gammasphere for numerous physics experiments, and more are planned in the near future. A summary of this research program is presented, and the device and its capabilities are described. An example of its use in the study of the population and entry state excitation energy distributions of normal and superdeformed bands in {sup 82}Sr is presented.

  11. Diagnosis of henipavirus infection: current capabilities and future directions.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lin-Fa; Daniels, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Since the last major review on diagnosis of henipavirus infection about a decade ago, significant progress has been made in many different areas of test development, especially in the development of molecular tests using real-time PCR and many novel serological test platforms. In addition to provide an updated review of the current test capabilities, this review also identifies key future challenges in henipavirus diagnosis.

  12. Psychotherapy and Psychosocial Treatment: Recent Advances and Future Directions.

    PubMed

    Plakun, Eric M

    2015-09-01

    Psychotherapy and psychosocial treatment have been shown to be effective forms of treatment of a range of individual and complex comorbid disorders. The future role of psychotherapy and psychosocial treatment depends on several factors, including full implementation of mental health parity, correction of underlying false assumptions that shape treatment, payment priorities and research, identification and teaching of common factors or elements shared by effective psychosocial therapies, and adequate teaching of psychotherapy and psychosocial treatment.

  13. Water management: Current and future challenges and research directions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cosgrove, William J.; Loucks, Daniel P.

    2015-06-01

    Water distinguishes our planet compared to all the others we know about. While the global supply of available freshwater is more than adequate to meet all current and foreseeable water demands, its spatial and temporal distributions are not. There are many regions where our freshwater resources are inadequate to meet domestic, economic development and environmental needs. In such regions, the lack of adequate clean water to meet human drinking water and sanitation needs is indeed a constraint on human health and productivity and hence on economic development as well as on the maintenance of a clean environment and healthy ecosystems. All of us involved in research must find ways to remove these constraints. We face multiple challenges in doing that, especially given a changing and uncertain future climate, and a rapidly growing population that is driving increased social and economic development, globalization, and urbanization. How best to meet these challenges requires research in all aspects of water management. Since 1965, the journal Water Resources Research has played an important role in reporting and disseminating current research related to managing the quantity and quality and cost of this resource. This paper identifies the issues facing water managers today and future research needed to better inform those who strive to create a more sustainable and desirable future.

  14. Direct Reprogramming-The Future of Cardiac Regeneration?

    PubMed

    Doppler, Stefanie A; Deutsch, Marcus-André; Lange, Rüdiger; Krane, Markus

    2015-07-29

    Today, the only available curative therapy for end stage congestive heart failure (CHF) is heart transplantation. This therapeutic option is strongly limited by declining numbers of available donor hearts and by restricted long-term performance of the transplanted graft. The disastrous prognosis for CHF with its restricted therapeutic options has led scientists to develop different concepts of alternative regenerative treatment strategies including stem cell transplantation or stimulating cell proliferation of different cardiac cell types in situ. However, first clinical trials with overall inconsistent results were not encouraging, particularly in terms of functional outcome. Among other approaches, very promising ongoing pre-clinical research focuses on direct lineage conversion of scar fibroblasts into functional myocardium, termed "direct reprogramming" or "transdifferentiation." This review seeks to summarize strategies for direct cardiac reprogramming including the application of different sets of transcription factors, microRNAs, and small molecules for an efficient generation of cardiomyogenic cells for regenerative purposes.

  15. Direct Reprogramming—The Future of Cardiac Regeneration?

    PubMed Central

    Doppler, Stefanie A.; Deutsch, Marcus-André; Lange, Rüdiger; Krane, Markus

    2015-01-01

    Today, the only available curative therapy for end stage congestive heart failure (CHF) is heart transplantation. This therapeutic option is strongly limited by declining numbers of available donor hearts and by restricted long-term performance of the transplanted graft. The disastrous prognosis for CHF with its restricted therapeutic options has led scientists to develop different concepts of alternative regenerative treatment strategies including stem cell transplantation or stimulating cell proliferation of different cardiac cell types in situ. However, first clinical trials with overall inconsistent results were not encouraging, particularly in terms of functional outcome. Among other approaches, very promising ongoing pre-clinical research focuses on direct lineage conversion of scar fibroblasts into functional myocardium, termed “direct reprogramming” or “transdifferentiation.” This review seeks to summarize strategies for direct cardiac reprogramming including the application of different sets of transcription factors, microRNAs, and small molecules for an efficient generation of cardiomyogenic cells for regenerative purposes. PMID:26230692

  16. Future of Condition Based Maintenance at Stennis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    George, Cory A.; Smith, Joshua W.; Ladner, Gina H.; Killam, Mike

    2015-01-01

    This study seeks to understand the current state of condition based maintenance (CBM) at Stennis Space Center and set a bench mark for the future expansion of the CBM program. Condition based maintenance is the idea of maintaining an asset upon decreasing performance or when a failure is impending instead of at some arbitrary time regardless of condition. Special attention was paid to remote sensing and monitoring of assets around the center to cut maintenance costs and extend overall operational lifetime of those assets. It was found that 55 percent of the categories of assets which could actually utilize a remote CBM program are currently being partially monitored. CBM solutions that have been investigated and proposed for future deployment cover areas such as building integrity, oil analysis, power line and water pipe inspection.

  17. Epigenetics of Addiction: Current Knowledge, Challenges, and Future Directions.

    PubMed

    Cecil, Charlotte A M; Walton, Esther; Viding, Essi

    2016-09-01

    Addiction to psychoactive substances is a debilitating condition underpinned by the interplay of genetic and environmental factors. At present, a key challenge for research is to delineate how, at a molecular level, these influences become "biologically embedded," contributing to the onset and persistence of addictive behaviors. Recently, epigenetic processes that regulate gene expression have emerged as a potential mechanism of interest. In this commentary, we discuss the relevance of epigenetics to addiction research, starting with the current state of knowledge, what challenges we have yet to overcome, and what the future may hold in terms of research methodology and translational potential.

  18. Conclusions, synthesis, and future directions: understanding sources of population change

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Esler, Daniel N.; Flint, Paul L.; Derksen, Dirk V.; Savard, Jean-Pierre L.; Eadie, John M.

    2015-01-01

    The material in this volume reflects the burgeoning interest in sea ducks, both as study species with compelling and unique ecological attributes and as taxa of conservation concern. In this review, we provide perspective on the current state of sea duck knowledge by highlighting key findings in the preceding chapters that are of particular value for understanding or influencing population change. We also introduce a conceptual model that characterizes links among topics covered by individual chapters and places them in the context of demographic responses. Finally, we offer recommendations for areas of future research that we suggest will have importance for understanding and managing sea duck population dynamics.

  19. Hepatic applications of endoscopic ultrasound: Current status and future directions.

    PubMed

    Srinivasan, Indu; Tang, Shou-Jiang; Vilmann, Andreas S; Menachery, John; Vilmann, Peter

    2015-11-28

    The diagnosis and staging of various gastrointestinal malignancies have been made possible with the use of endoscopic ultrasound, which is a relatively safe procedure. The field of endoscopic ultrasound is fast expanding due to advancements in therapeutic endoscopic ultrasound. Though various studies have established its role in gastrointestinal malignancies and pancreatic conditions, its potential in the field of hepatic lesions still remains vastly untapped. In this paper the authors attempt to review important and landmark trials, case series and case studies involving hepatic applications of endoscopic ultrasound, thus not only providing an overview of utilization of endoscopic ultrasound in various liver conditions but also speculating its future role.

  20. Biomechanics in dermatology: Recent advances and future directions.

    PubMed

    Lewinson, Ryan T; Haber, Richard M

    2017-02-01

    Biomechanics is increasingly being recognized as an important research area in dermatology. To highlight only a few examples, biomechanics has contributed to the development of novel topical therapies for aesthetic and medical purposes, enhanced our understanding of the pathogenesis of plantar melanoma, and provided insight into the epidemiology of psoriatic disease. This article summarizes the findings from recent studies to demonstrate the important role that biomechanics may have in dermatologic disease and therapy and places these biomechanical findings in a clinical context for the practicing physician. In addition, areas for future biomechanics research and development in dermatology are discussed.

  1. Dedifferentiation, transdifferentiation, and reprogramming: future directions in regenerative medicine.

    PubMed

    Eguizabal, Cristina; Montserrat, Nuria; Veiga, Anna; Izpisua Belmonte, Juan Carlos

    2013-01-01

    The main goal of regenerative medicine is to replace damaged tissue. To do this it is necessary to understand in detail the whole regeneration process including differentiated cells that can be converted into progenitor cells (dedifferentiation), cells that can switch into another cell type (transdifferentiation), and somatic cells that can be induced to become pluripotent cells (reprogramming). By studying the regenerative processes in both nonmammal and mammal models, natural or artificial processes could underscore the molecular and cellular mechanisms behind these phenomena and be used to create future regenerative strategies for humans.

  2. Archiving strategy for USGS EROS center and our future direction

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Faundeen, John L.

    2010-01-01

    The U. S. Geological Survey's Earth Resources Observation and Science Center has the responsibility to acquire, manage, and preserve our Nation's land observations. These records are obtained primarily from airplanes and satellites dating back to the 1930s. The ability to compare landscapes from the past with current information enables change analysis at local and global scales. With new observations added daily, the records management challenges are daunting, involving petabytes of electronic data and tens of thousands of rolls of analog film. This paper focuses upon the appraisal and preservation functions employed to ensure that these records are available for current and future generations.

  3. Section III, Division 5 - Development And Future Directions

    SciTech Connect

    Morton, Dana K.; Jetter, Robert I; Nestell, James E.; Burchell, Timothy D; Sham, Sam

    2012-01-01

    This paper provides commentary on a new division under Section III of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel (BPV) Code. This new Division 5 has an issuance date of November 1, 2011 and is part of the 2011 Addenda to the 2010 Edition of the BPV Code. The new Division covers the rules for the design, fabrication, inspection and testing of components for high temperature nuclear reactors. Information is provided on the scope and need for Division 5, the structure of Division 5, where the rules originated, the various changes made in finalizing Division 5, and the future near-term and long-term expectations for Division 5 development.

  4. Hepatic applications of endoscopic ultrasound: Current status and future directions

    PubMed Central

    Srinivasan, Indu; Tang, Shou-Jiang; Vilmann, Andreas S; Menachery, John; Vilmann, Peter

    2015-01-01

    The diagnosis and staging of various gastrointestinal malignancies have been made possible with the use of endoscopic ultrasound, which is a relatively safe procedure. The field of endoscopic ultrasound is fast expanding due to advancements in therapeutic endoscopic ultrasound. Though various studies have established its role in gastrointestinal malignancies and pancreatic conditions, its potential in the field of hepatic lesions still remains vastly untapped. In this paper the authors attempt to review important and landmark trials, case series and case studies involving hepatic applications of endoscopic ultrasound, thus not only providing an overview of utilization of endoscopic ultrasound in various liver conditions but also speculating its future role. PMID:26640331

  5. Future treatment and research directions in distal radius fracture.

    PubMed

    Jupiter, Jesse

    2012-05-01

    Whether or not they will have their lives dramatically extended in the next few decades, it is clear that people are living longer, healthier, and more active lives. The two peak incidences of distal radius fractures will remain within the pediatric and geriatric age groups, with the latter experiencing a substantial increase in the coming years. This article attempts to project future developments with regard to epidemiology, risk and prevention, fracture assessment, and treatment of distal radius fractures, and the ever increasing concern for the economic impact of this prevalent injury.

  6. Workshop on Future Directions for Optical Information Processing.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-03-01

    preliminary efforts in this direction. Recent work on microcnannel plate optical devices [83,84) and cellular liquid crystal systems [85) also show promise...00000000000000000000000 00 1 1 11 111111 11111 1111 0000000000000 000000 0 000 aecio HOW matl cylz - 1 SECTOR ROM INVERT CICLS - 21 Figuro 18 Bias Customizing Pattern

  7. Future Directions: Social Development in the Context of Social Justice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Killen, Melanie; Smetana, Judith G.

    2010-01-01

    Many societies and cultures have become increasingly diverse and heterogeneous over the past decade. This diversity has a direct bearing on social justice in children's and adolescents' social development. Increased diversity can have positive consequences, such as the possibility for increased empathy, tolerance, perspective taking, and the…

  8. The future of direct-to-consumer clinical genetic tests.

    PubMed

    Frueh, Felix W; Greely, Henry T; Green, Robert C; Hogarth, Stuart; Siegel, Sue

    2011-06-01

    In light of the meeting of the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in March 2011 to discuss the regulation of clinical direct-to-consumer (DTC) genetic tests, we have invited five experts to consider the best means of overseeing the ordering and interpretation of these tests. Should these tests be regulated? If so, who, if anyone, should communicate results to consumers?

  9. National Climate Program: Early achievements and future directions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    Activities of the National Climate Program since 1978 are reviewed, and outlines new directions which should be emphasized over the next five years or so. These are discussed under the subentities of climate system research; climate impacts; and climatic data, information, and services.

  10. Status and future directions of the ENERGY STAR program

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Richard E.; Webber, Carrie A.; Koomey, Jonathan G.

    2000-06-19

    In 1992 the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) introduced ENERGY STAR (registered trademark), a voluntary labeling program designed to identify and promote energy-efficient products, in order to reduce carbon dioxide emissions. Since then EPA, now in partnership with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), has expanded the program to cover nearly the entire buildings sector, spanning new homes, commercial buildings, residential heating and cooling equipment, major appliances, office equipment, commercial and residential lighting, and home electronics. This paper provides a snapshot of the ENERGY STAR program in the year 2000, including a general overview of the program, its accomplishments, and the possibilities for future development. First, we describe the products that are currently eligible for the ENERGY STAR label and the program mechanisms that EPA and DOE are using to promote these products. Second, we illustrate selected milestones achieved in some markets, and ways that EPA and DOE are responding to challenges or changes in certain markets. Third, we discuss the evolving ENERGY STAR brand strategy. Next, we explore ways in which ENERGY STAR interacts with and enhances other policies, such as appliance standards and regional market transformation collaboratives. We then discuss evaluation studies that EPA and DOE are undertaking to quantify the impact of the ENERGY STAR program. Finally, we discuss future areas of expansion for the ENERGY STAR program, including labeling of new products and integrated programs for commercial and existing residential buildings.

  11. Half-century research developments in maritime accidents: Future directions.

    PubMed

    Luo, Meifeng; Shin, Sung-Ho

    2016-04-19

    Over the past 50 years, research in maritime accidents has undergone a series of fundamental changes. Understanding the evolution of these changes can help maritime communities to know what has been done in the past, how maritime safety can be improved in the future, and how to reduce or eliminate the risks to ships, the lives aboard them, the cargo they carry, and the marine environment. This study conducts a comprehensive literature review on research in maritime accidents, comprising 572 papers published in 125 journals over the 50 years from 1965 to 2014. The patterns of evolution of the researchers, the journals, the disciplines involved, the research methods, the major issues and causes, and the data sources are identified, and the changes explained. We find that the main focus of research in maritime accidents has shifted over the past 50 years from naval architecture to human error, and may continue to expand into socio-economic factors. In addition, future research in maritime accidents will be multi-disciplinary, use multiple data sources, and adopt advanced research methods, to account for complex interactions between the natural environment, the development of naval technology, human behavior, and shipping market conditions.

  12. Hyperoxaluria and systemic oxalosis: current therapy and future directions.

    PubMed

    Bobrowski, Amy E; Langman, Craig B

    2006-10-01

    Excessive urinary oxalate excretion, termed hyperoxaluria, may arise from inherited or acquired diseases. The most severe forms are caused by increased endogenous production of oxalate related to one of several inborn errors of metabolism, termed primary hyperoxaluria. Recurrent kidney stones and progressive medullary nephrocalcinosis lead to the loss of kidney function, requiring dialysis or transplantation, accompanied by systemic oxalate deposition that is termed systemic oxalosis. For most primary hyperoxalurias, accurate diagnosis leads to the use of therapies that include pyridoxine supplementation, urinary crystallisation inhibitors, hydration with enteral fluids and, in the near future, probiotic supplementation or other innovative therapies. These therapies have varying degrees of success, and none represent a cure. Organ transplantation results in reduced patient and organ survival when compared with national statistics. Exciting new approaches under investigation include the restoration of defective enzymatic activity through the use of chemical chaperones and hepatocyte cell transplantation, or recombinant gene therapy for enzyme replacement. Such approaches give hope for a future therapeutic cure for primary hyperoxaluria that includes correction of the underlying genetic defect without exposure to the life-long dangers associated with organ transplantation.

  13. Direct-write Bioprinting Three-Dimensional Biohybrid Systems for Future Regenerative Therapies

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Carlos C.; Boland, Eugene D.; Williams, Stuart K.; Hoying, James B.

    2013-01-01

    Regenerative medicine seeks to repair or replace dysfunctional tissues with engineered biological or biohybrid systems. Current clinical regenerative models utilize simple uniform tissue constructs formed with cells cultured onto biocompatible scaffolds. Future regenerative therapies will require the fabrication of complex three-dimensional constructs containing multiple cell types and extracellular matrices. We believe bioprinting technologies will provide a key role in the design and construction of future engineered tissues for cell-based and regenerative therapies. This review describes the current state-of-the-art bioprinting technologies, focusing on direct-write bioprinting. We describe a number of process and device considerations for successful bioprinting of composite biohybrid constructs. In addition, we have provided baseline direct-write printing parameters for a hydrogel system (Pluronic F127) often used in cardiovascular applications. Direct-write dispensed lines (gels with viscosities ranging from 30 mPa*s to greater than 600×106 mPa*s) were measured following mechanical and pneumatic printing via three commercially available needle sizes (20ga, 25ga, and 30ga). Example patterns containing microvascular cells and isolated microvessel fragments were also bioprinted into composite 3D structures. Cells and vessel fragments remained viable and maintained in vitro behavior after incorporation into biohybrid structures. Direct-write bioprinting of biologicals provides a unique method to design and fabricate complex, multi-component 3D structures for experimental use. We hope our design insights and baseline parameter descriptions of direct-write bioprinting will provide a useful foundation for colleagues to incorporate this 3D fabrication method into future regenerative therapies. PMID:21504055

  14. Female sex trafficking: conceptual issues, current debates, and future directions.

    PubMed

    Meshkovska, Biljana; Siegel, Melissa; Stutterheim, Sarah E; Bos, Arjan E R

    2015-01-01

    Female sex trafficking is a pressing concern. In this article, we provide a comprehensive overview of relevant issues regarding the concept of female sex trafficking and research in the field of human trafficking, drawing on a variety of disciplines, including economics, gender and sexuality studies, psychology, sociology, law, and social work. We discuss the debates surrounding the definition of human trafficking, compare and contrast it with human smuggling, and outline connections between female sex trafficking and the issue of sex work and prostitution. We further discuss the history and current estimations of female sex trafficking. We then outline the main actors in female sex trafficking, including trafficked persons, traffickers, clients, and service providers, and we overview the trafficking process from recruitment to identification, recovery, and (re)integration. Finally, we conclude with recommendations for future research that tie together the concepts of vulnerability, exploitation, and long-term recovery and (re)integration.

  15. H1 Antihistamines: Current Status and Future Directions

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    In this review, we compare and contrast the clinical pharmacology, efficacy, and safety of first-generation H1 antihistamines and second-generation H1 antihistamines. First-generation H1 antihistamines cross the blood-brain barrier, and in usual doses, they potentially cause sedation and impair cognitive function and psychomotor performance. These medications, some of which have been in use for more than 6 decades, have never been optimally investigated. Second-generation H1 antihistamines such as cetirizine, desloratadine, fexofenadine, levocetirizine, and loratadine cross the blood-brain barrier to a significantly smaller extent than their predecessors. The clinical pharmacology, efficacy, and safety of these medications have been extensively studied. They are therefore the H1 antihistamines of choice in the treatment of allergic rhinitis, allergic conjunctivitis, and urticaria. In the future, clinically advantageous H1 antihistamines developed with the aid of molecular techniques might be available. PMID:23282578

  16. Future directions in the prevention of prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Ian M.; Cabang, April B.; Wargovich, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    The high global incidence of prostate cancer has led to a focus on chemoprevention strategies to reduce the public health impact of the disease. Early studies indicating that selenium and vitamin E might protect against prostate cancer encouraged large-scale studies that produced mixed clinical results. Next-generation prostate cancer prevention trials validated the impact of 5α-reductase inhibitors in hormone-responsive prostate cancer, and these results were confirmed in follow-up studies. Other interventions on the horizon, involving both dietary and pharmacological agents, hold some promise but require further investigation to validate their efficacy. In this Review, we discuss the clinical and preclinical evidence for dietary and pharmacological prevention of prostate cancer and give an overview of future opportunities for chemoprevention. PMID:24281061

  17. Pragmatics and adult language disorders: past achievements and future directions.

    PubMed

    Cummings, Louise

    2007-05-01

    In this article, the current state of our knowledge of pragmatic disorders in adults with language impairment is assessed. A brief historical background of clinical pragmatics is presented, and the place of adult language pathology within the development of this field is discussed. A comprehensive review is undertaken of pragmatic deficits in adults with language impairments of diverse etiologies. Specifically, pragmatic deficits are examined in adults with left-hemisphere damage, often resulting in aphasia, and in adults with right-hemisphere damage, traumatic brain injury, schizophrenia, and neurodegenerative disorders (principally, Alzheimer's disease). Although many pragmatic phenomena have been examined in these clinical populations, studies have also tended to neglect important areas of pragmatic functioning in adults with these disorders. Several such areas are identified within a wider discussion of how researchers and clinicians can best pursue future investigations of pragmatics in adults with language impairment.

  18. Future directions in bladder cancer immunotherapy: towards adaptive immunity.

    PubMed

    Smith, Sean G; Zaharoff, David A

    2016-01-01

    The clinical management of bladder cancer has not changed significantly in several decades. In particular, intravesical bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) immunotherapy has been a mainstay for high-risk nonmuscle invasive bladder cancer since the late 1970s/early 1980s. This is despite the fact that bladder cancer has the highest recurrence rates of any cancer and BCG immunotherapy has not been shown to induce a tumor-specific immune response. We and others have hypothesized that immunotherapies capable of inducing tumor-specific adaptive immunity are needed to impact bladder cancer morbidity and mortality. This article summarizes the preclinical and clinical development of bladder cancer immunotherapies with an emphasis on the last 5 years. Expected progress in the near future is also discussed.

  19. Population exposure from the fuel cycle: Review and future direction

    SciTech Connect

    Richmond, C.R.

    1987-01-01

    The legacy of radiation exposures confronting man arises from two historical sources of energy, the sun and radioactive decay. Contemporary man continues to be dependent on these two energy sources, which include the nuclear fuel cycle. Radiation exposures from all energy sources should be examined, with particular emphasis on the nuclear fuel cycle, incidents such as Chernobyl and Three Mile Island. In addition to risk estimation, concepts such as de minimis, life shortening as a measure of risk, and competing risks as projected into the future must be considered in placing radiation exposures in perspective. The utility of these concepts is in characterizing population exposures for decision makers in a manner that the public may judge acceptable. All these viewpoints are essential in the evaluation of population exposure from the nuclear fuel cycle.

  20. The Transition to High School: Current Knowledge, Future Directions

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    In the American educational system, school transitions are frequent and predictable, but they can disrupt student functioning across developmental domains. How students experience school transitions has been a focus of research for some time, but the high school transition has received less attention, and the limited research often focuses on a particular developmental domain (e.g., academics and socioemotional well-being) to the exclusion of a more integrated model. This review relies on life course theory to establish an organizational framework for interpreting and connecting the diffuse and sometimes disparate findings on the high school transition, including adolescent developmental trajectories and the influence of social ties, changing sociocultural contexts, and stratification systems. Conclusions identify aspects for future inquiry suggested by current knowledge and the tenets of the life course perspective. PMID:21966178

  1. Progress and future directions in computational fluid dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kutler, Paul; Gross, Anthony R.

    1988-01-01

    Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) has made great strides in the detailed simulation of complex fluid flows, including the fluid physics of flows heretofore not understood. It is now being routinely applied to some rather complicated problems, and starting to impact the design cycle of aerospace vehicles and their components. In addition, it is being used to complement and is being complemented by experimental studies. In this paper some major elements of contemporary CFD research, such as code validation, turbulence physics, and hypersonic flows are discussed, along with a review of the principal pacing items that currently govern CFD. Several examples are presented to illustrate the current state of the art. Finally, prospects for the future of the development and application of CFD are suggested.

  2. Wireless Multimedia Sensor Networks: Current Trends and Future Directions

    PubMed Central

    Almalkawi, Islam T.; Zapata, Manel Guerrero; Al-Karaki, Jamal N.; Morillo-Pozo, Julian

    2010-01-01

    Wireless Multimedia Sensor Networks (WMSNs) have emerged and shifted the focus from the typical scalar wireless sensor networks to networks with multimedia devices that are capable to retrieve video, audio, images, as well as scalar sensor data. WMSNs are able to deliver multimedia content due to the availability of inexpensive CMOS cameras and microphones coupled with the significant progress in distributed signal processing and multimedia source coding techniques. In this paper, we outline the design challenges of WMSNs, give a comprehensive discussion of the proposed architectures, algorithms and protocols for the different layers of the communication protocol stack for WMSNs, and evaluate the existing WMSN hardware and testbeds. The paper will give the reader a clear view of the state of the art at all aspects of this research area, and shed the light on its main current challenges and future trends. We also hope it will foster discussions and new research ideas among its researchers. PMID:22163571

  3. Molecular ecology of aquatic communities: Reflections and future directions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zehr, J.P.; Voytek, M.A.

    1999-01-01

    During the 1980s, many new molecular biology techniques were developed, providing new capabilities for studying the genetics and activities of organisms. Biologists and ecologists saw the promise that these techniques held for studying different aspects of organisms, both in culture and in the natural environment. In less than a decade, these techniques were adopted by a large number of researchers studying many types of organisms in diverse environments. Much of the molecular-level information acquired has been used to address questions of evolution, biogeography, population structure and biodiversity. At this juncture, molecular ecologists are poised to contribute to the study of the fundamental characteristics underlying aquatic community structure. The goal of this overview is to assess where we have been, where we are now and what the future holds for revealing the basis of community structure and function with molecular-level information.

  4. Qualitative psychotherapy research: the journey so far and future directions.

    PubMed

    Levitt, Heidi M

    2015-03-01

    This article documents the evolution of qualitative psychotherapy research over the past 3 decades. Clients' and therapists' accounts of their experiences in psychotherapy provide a window into the psychotherapy relationship and its mechanisms of change. A sizable body of literature has been generated that uses qualitative methods to collect and analyze these accounts and to shed light on the psychotherapy process. It notes changes in the field such as growing numbers of dissertations and publications using qualitative methods as well as a strengthening emphasis on qualitative research within graduate education and research funding bodies. Future recommendations include developing principles for practice from qualitative methods and conducting qualitative meta-analyses. Other recommendations include forming journal review policies that support the publication of qualitative research and that focus on coherence in adapting methods to meet research goals, in light of a study's characteristics and epistemological framework, rather than focusing on sets of procedures.

  5. Future Directions for Fusion Propulsion Research at NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, Robert B.; Cassibry, Jason T.

    2005-01-01

    Fusion propulsion is inevitable if the human race remains dedicated to exploration of the solar system. There are fundamental reasons why fusion surpasses more traditional approaches to routine crewed missions to Mars, crewed missions to the outer planets, and deep space high speed robotic missions, assuming that reduced trip times, increased payloads, and higher available power are desired. A recent series of informal discussions were held among members from government, academia, and industry concerning fusion propulsion. We compiled a sufficient set of arguments for utilizing fusion in space. .If the U.S. is to lead the effort and produce a working system in a reasonable amount of time, NASA must take the initiative, relying on, but not waiting for, DOE guidance. Arguments for fusion propulsion are presented, along with fusion enabled mission examples, fusion technology trade space, and a proposed outline for future efforts.

  6. Progress and Future Directions in North American Carbon Cycle Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michalak, Anna; Huntzinger, Deborah; Shrestha, Gyami

    2013-05-01

    The North American Carbon Program (NACP) convened its fourth biennial "All Investigators" meeting (AIM4, http://www.nacarbon.org/meeting_2013) to review progress in understanding the dynamics of the carbon cycle of North America and adjacent oceans and to chart a course for a more integrative and holistic approach to future research. The meeting was structured around the six decadal goals outlined in the new "A U.S. Carbon Cycle Science Plan" (Michalak et al., University Corporation for Atmospheric Research, 2011, available at http://www.carboncyclescience.gov) and focused on (1) diagnosis of the atmospheric carbon cycle, (2) drivers of anthropogenic emissions, (3) vulnerability of carbon stocks to change, (4) ecosystem impacts of change, (5) carbon management, and (6) decision support.

  7. Dental hygiene practice: international profile and future directions.

    PubMed

    Johnson, P M

    1992-12-01

    Results of an international survey on dental hygiene are reported. The survey was conducted in 1988 through the International Dental Hygienists' Federation as part of a project to establish and maintain an international database on the profession. Information was collected by mail from national dental hygienist associations, using a 40-item questionnaire developed for the purpose; preliminary tabulations were validated by the associations. Information is presented for 13 countries-Australia, Canada, Denmark, Italy, Japan, Korea, The Netherlands, Nigeria, Norway, Sweden, Switzerland, the United States and the United Kingdom. Characteristics include historical development, numbers and distribution, education, regulation, scope of practice, employment settings and conditions, professional organisation, and perceived oral health and professional issues. The profiles and issues are examined in the light of broader socio-economic, demographic, epidemiological, technological and policy-related trends and changes. Implications for future health and organisational planning are noted.

  8. Bulgarian Megaliths - Present State and Future Research Directions.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsonev, L. V.; Kolev, D. Z.

    A first attempt is made to provide a global picture of the megaliths in Thrace (South East Europe); also the problems related to their dating are explicated. The location and the conventional (indirect) dating of the menhirs and dolmens mainly in Bulgaria, but partially also in Greece and Turkey are summarized. The necessity of direct dating - preferably by luminescence means - is discussed. International collaboration is proposed for creating a full and precise picture of the Thracian megaliths within the chronological framework of the pan-European (Mediterranean) megalithic region.

  9. Geographical Information Systems and Health: Current State and Future Directions

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    This paper provides an introduction to Geographical Information Systems (GIS) and how they can be used. It reviews the current state of GIS use in health care before identifying the barriers to more pervasive use of GIS in health. Finally, it makes recommendations for the direction of health GIS research over the next decade and concludes with a call to action to health informatics researchers to stop ignoring a tool and methodology that has such immense potential for improving the health of our communities. PMID:22844644

  10. Cardiorespiratory Fitness and Atherosclerosis: Recent Data and Future Directions.

    PubMed

    Mehanna, Emile; Hamik, Anne; Josephson, Richard A

    2016-05-01

    Historically, the relationship between exercise and the cardiovascular system was viewed as unidirectional, with a disease resulting in exercise limitation and hazard. This article reviews and explores the bidirectional nature, delineating the effects, generally positive, on the cardiovascular system and atherosclerosis. Exercise augments eNOS, affects redox potential, and favorably affects mediators of atherosclerosis including lipids, glucose homeostasis, and inflammation. There are direct effects on the vasculature as well as indirect benefits related to exercise-induced changes in body composition and skeletal muscle. Application of aerobic exercise to specific populations is described, with the hope that this knowledge will move the science forward and improve individual patient outcome.

  11. Current challenges and future directions in cardiac imaging

    PubMed Central

    Wann, Samuel; Tunio, Javed

    2010-01-01

    Imaging is one of the most important accomplishments of medicine during the last 1000 years. The contribution of modern imaging to progress in the delivery of health care is unquestioned. However, we need to refine our use of imaging, limiting its use to those occasions when it can contribute directly or indirectly to improving and lengthening the lives of patients. Technology prowess in imaging alone is not sufficient to deliver value to individuals or to society. Continued investment in imaging technology requires critical appraisal of its use in clinical decision making and patient outcomes. PMID:23960604

  12. Mesenchymal Stem Cells and Articular Cartilage Repair: Clinical Studies and Future Direction

    PubMed Central

    Punwar, Shahid; Khan, Wasim S

    2011-01-01

    Cartilage is frequently injured but shows little capacity for repair. Current treatment options include the use of procedures that stimulate repair through the stimulation of subchondral bone marrow and result in the formation of fibrocartilage. There is considerable interest in the use of cell-based treatment strategies and there are limited studies describing the use of mesenchymal stem cells for cartilage repair with promising early results. This paper reviews the current treatment strategies for articular cartilage, describes use of mesenchymal stem cells for articular cartilage repair along with the results of clinical studies, and describes the future direction that these strategies are likely to take. PMID:21886696

  13. Quantitative health impact assessment: current practice and future directions

    PubMed Central

    Veerman, J; Barendregt, J; Mackenbach, J

    2005-01-01

    Study objective: To assess what methods are used in quantitative health impact assessment (HIA), and to identify areas for future research and development. Design: HIA reports were assessed for (1) methods used to quantify effects of policy on determinants of health (exposure impact assessment) and (2) methods used to quantify health outcomes resulting from changes in exposure to determinants (outcome assessment). Main results: Of 98 prospective HIA studies, 17 reported quantitative estimates of change in exposure to determinants, and 16 gave quantified health outcomes. Eleven (categories of) determinants were quantified up to the level of health outcomes. Methods for exposure impact assessment were: estimation on the basis of routine data and measurements, and various kinds of modelling of traffic related and environmental factors, supplemented with experts' estimates and author's assumptions. Some studies used estimates from other documents pertaining to the policy. For the calculation of health outcomes, variants of epidemiological and toxicological risk assessment were used, in some cases in mathematical models. Conclusions: Quantification is comparatively rare in HIA. Methods are available in the areas of environmental health and, to a lesser extent, traffic accidents, infectious diseases, and behavioural factors. The methods are diverse and their reliability and validity are uncertain. Research and development in the following areas could benefit quantitative HIA: methods to quantify the effect of socioeconomic and behavioural determinants; user friendly simulation models; the use of summary measures of public health, expert opinion and scenario building; and empirical research into validity and reliability. PMID:15831683

  14. 50 years of Arabidopsis research: highlights and future directions.

    PubMed

    Provart, Nicholas J; Alonso, Jose; Assmann, Sarah M; Bergmann, Dominique; Brady, Siobhan M; Brkljacic, Jelena; Browse, John; Chapple, Clint; Colot, Vincent; Cutler, Sean; Dangl, Jeff; Ehrhardt, David; Friesner, Joanna D; Frommer, Wolf B; Grotewold, Erich; Meyerowitz, Elliot; Nemhauser, Jennifer; Nordborg, Magnus; Pikaard, Craig; Shanklin, John; Somerville, Chris; Stitt, Mark; Torii, Keiko U; Waese, Jamie; Wagner, Doris; McCourt, Peter

    2016-02-01

    922 I. 922 II. 922 III. 925 IV. 925 V. 926 VI. 927 VII. 928 VIII. 929 IX. 930 X. 931 XI. 932 XII. 933 XIII. Natural variation and genome-wide association studies 934 XIV. 934 XV. 935 XVI. 936 XVII. 937 937 References 937 SUMMARY: The year 2014 marked the 25(th) International Conference on Arabidopsis Research. In the 50 yr since the first International Conference on Arabidopsis Research, held in 1965 in Göttingen, Germany, > 54 000 papers that mention Arabidopsis thaliana in the title, abstract or keywords have been published. We present herein a citational network analysis of these papers, and touch on some of the important discoveries in plant biology that have been made in this powerful model system, and highlight how these discoveries have then had an impact in crop species. We also look to the future, highlighting some outstanding questions that can be readily addressed in Arabidopsis. Topics that are discussed include Arabidopsis reverse genetic resources, stock centers, databases and online tools, cell biology, development, hormones, plant immunity, signaling in response to abiotic stress, transporters, biosynthesis of cells walls and macromolecules such as starch and lipids, epigenetics and epigenomics, genome-wide association studies and natural variation, gene regulatory networks, modeling and systems biology, and synthetic biology.

  15. Advanced Low Conductivity Thermal Barrier Coatings: Performance and Future Directions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhu, Dongming; Miller, Robert A.

    2008-01-01

    Thermal barrier coatings will be more aggressively designed to protect gas turbine engine hot-section components in order to meet future engine higher fuel efficiency and lower emission goals. In this presentation, thermal barrier coating development considerations and performance will be emphasized. Advanced thermal barrier coatings have been developed using a multi-component defect clustering approach, and shown to have improved thermal stability and lower conductivity. The coating systems have been demonstrated for high temperature combustor applications. For thermal barrier coatings designed for turbine airfoil applications, further improved erosion and impact resistance are crucial for engine performance and durability. Erosion resistant thermal barrier coatings are being developed, with a current emphasis on the toughness improvements using a combined rare earth- and transition metal-oxide doping approach. The performance of the toughened thermal barrier coatings has been evaluated in burner rig and laser heat-flux rig simulated engine erosion and thermal gradient environments. The results have shown that the coating composition optimizations can effectively improve the erosion and impact resistance of the coating systems, while maintaining low thermal conductivity and cyclic durability. The erosion, impact and high heat-flux damage mechanisms of the thermal barrier coatings will also be described.

  16. Alcohol and NMDA receptor: current research and future direction.

    PubMed

    Chandrasekar, Raman

    2013-01-01

    The brain is one of the major targets of alcohol actions. Most of the excitatory synaptic transmission in the central nervous system is mediated by N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors. However, one of the most devastating effects of alcohol leads to brain shrinkage, loss of nerve cells at specific regions through a mechanism involving excitotoxicity, oxidative stress. Earlier studies have indicated that chronic exposure to ethanol both in vivo and in vitro, increases NR1 and NR2B gene expression and their polypeptide levels. The effect of alcohol and molecular changes on the regulatory process, which modulates NMDAR functions including factors altering transcription, translation, post-translational modifications, and protein expression, as well as those influencing their interactions with different regulatory proteins (downstream effectors) are incessantly increasing at the cellular level. Further, I discuss the various genetically altered mice approaches that have been used to study NMDA receptor subunits and their functional implication. In a recent countable review, epigenetic dimension (i.e., histone modification-induced chromatin remodeling and DNA methylation, in the process of alcohol related neuroadaptation) is one of the key molecular mechanisms in alcohol mediated NMDAR alteration. Here, I provide a recount on what has already been achieved, current trends and how the future research/studies of the NMDA receptor might lead to even greater engagement with many possible new insights into the neurobiology and treatment of alcoholism.

  17. Exploring the avian gut microbiota: current trends and future directions

    PubMed Central

    Waite, David W.; Taylor, Michael W.

    2015-01-01

    Birds represent a diverse and evolutionarily successful lineage, occupying a wide range of niches throughout the world. Like all vertebrates, avians harbor diverse communities of microorganisms within their guts, which collectively fulfill crucial roles in providing the host with nutrition and protection from pathogens. Across the field of avian microbiology knowledge is extremely uneven, with several species accounting for an overwhelming majority of all microbiological investigations. These include agriculturally important birds, such as chickens and turkeys, as well as birds of evolutionary or conservation interest. In our previous study we attempted the first meta-analysis of the avian gut microbiota, using 16S rRNA gene sequences obtained from a range of publicly available data sets. We have now extended our analysis to explore the microbiology of several key species in detail, to consider the avian microbiota within the context of what is known about other vertebrates, and to identify key areas of interest in avian microbiology for future study. PMID:26191057

  18. Oral Cavity Carcinoma: Current Management, Controversies, and Future Directions

    PubMed Central

    Chinn, Steven B.; Myers, Jeffrey N.

    2015-01-01

    Oral cavity carcinoma (OCC) remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with head and neck cancer. Although the incidence has decreased over the last decade, outcomes remain stagnant with only a 5% improvement in overall survival in the last 20 years. Although surgical resection remains the primary treatment modality, several areas of controversy exist with regard to work-up, management of the primary and neck tumors, and adjuvant therapy. As surgical techniques evolve, so has the delivery of radiotherapy and systemic treatment, which have helped to improve the outcomes for patients with advanced disease. Recently, the addition of cetuximab has shown promise as a way to improve outcomes while minimizing toxicity, and this remains an active area of study in the adjuvant setting. Advances in microvascular free-flap reconstruction have extended the limits of resection and enabled enhanced restoration of function and cosmesis. While these advances have led to limited survival benefit, evaluation of alternative modalities has gained interest on the basis of success in other head and neck subsites. Organ preservation with definitive chemoradiotherapy, though proven in the larynx and pharynx, remains controversial in OCC. Likewise, although the association of human papillomavirus is well established in oropharyngeal carcinoma, it has not been proven in the pathogenesis or survival of OCC. Future study of the molecular biology and pathogenesis of OCC should offer additional insight into screening, treatment selection, and novel therapeutic approaches. PMID:26351335

  19. Merkel cell carcinoma: emerging biology, current approaches, and future directions.

    PubMed

    Tothill, Richard; Estall, Vanessa; Rischin, Danny

    2015-01-01

    Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is an aggressive neuroendocrine cutaneous cancer that predominantly occurs in patients who are older, and is associated with a high rate of distant failure and mortality. Current management strategies that incorporate surgery and radiotherapy achieve high rates of locoregional control, but distant failure rates remain problematic, highlighting the need for new effective systemic therapies. Chemotherapy can achieve high response rates of limited duration in the metastatic setting, but its role in definitive management remains unproven. Recent developments in our knowledge about the biology of MCC have led to the identification of new potential therapeutic targets and treatments. A key finding has been the discovery that a human polyomavirus may be a causative agent. However, emerging data suggests that MCC may actually be two distinct entities, viral-associated and viral-negative MCC, which is likely to have implications for the management of MCC in the future and for the development of new treatments. In this review, we discuss recent discoveries about the biology of MCC, current approaches to management, and new therapeutic strategies that are being investigated.

  20. Future directions of sickle cell disease research: the NIH perspective.

    PubMed

    Hoots, W Keith; Shurin, Susan B

    2012-08-01

    Efforts to enhance therapy for children and adults with sickle cell disease (SCD) have proven more challenging than might have been predicted from the fact that an understanding of the underlying pathogenesis antedated that of many other diseases for which good treatments presently exist. The multi-organ injury that occurs with SCD certainly contributes to this clinical reality. Research over decades indicates that the primary defect in hemoglobin that results in polymerization of the protein under low oxygen conditions and resultant cellular deformity of the red blood cell initiates a complex downstream pathogenesis associated with vascular injury and organ ischemia. Deciphering this in a manner that informs successful therapies that improve all target organs continues to challenge hematologists. The National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute (NHLBI) is dedicated to support research across the basic science, translational and clinical spectrum to achieve these clinical outcomes. The following provides a brief summary of the research strategies which NHLBI is presently supporting and will support in the future to enhance care and ultimately, to effect cure of this hemoglobin disease that causes such suffering to those who inherit this monogenic disease.

  1. Oncolytic Seneca Valley Virus: past perspectives and future directions

    PubMed Central

    Burke, Michael J

    2016-01-01

    Seneca Valley Virus isolate 001 (SVV-001) is an oncolytic RNA virus of the Picornaviridae family. It is also the first picornavirus discovered of the novel genus Senecavirus. SVV-001 replicates through an RNA intermediate, bypassing a DNA phase, and is unable to integrate into the host genome. SVV-001 was originally discovered as a contaminant in the cell culture of fetal retinoblasts and has since been identified as a potent oncolytic virus against tumors of neuroendocrine origin. SVV-001 has a number of features that make it an attractive oncolytic virus, namely, its ability to target and penetrate solid tumors via intravenous administration, inability for insertional mutagenesis, and being a self-replicating RNA virus with selective tropism for cancer cells. SVV-001 has been studied in both pediatric and adult early phase studies reporting safety and some clinical efficacy, albeit primarily in adult tumors. This review summarizes the current knowledge of SVV-001 and what its future as an oncolytic virus may hold. PMID:27660749

  2. Oncolytic Seneca Valley Virus: past perspectives and future directions.

    PubMed

    Burke, Michael J

    2016-01-01

    Seneca Valley Virus isolate 001 (SVV-001) is an oncolytic RNA virus of the Picornaviridae family. It is also the first picornavirus discovered of the novel genus Senecavirus. SVV-001 replicates through an RNA intermediate, bypassing a DNA phase, and is unable to integrate into the host genome. SVV-001 was originally discovered as a contaminant in the cell culture of fetal retinoblasts and has since been identified as a potent oncolytic virus against tumors of neuroendocrine origin. SVV-001 has a number of features that make it an attractive oncolytic virus, namely, its ability to target and penetrate solid tumors via intravenous administration, inability for insertional mutagenesis, and being a self-replicating RNA virus with selective tropism for cancer cells. SVV-001 has been studied in both pediatric and adult early phase studies reporting safety and some clinical efficacy, albeit primarily in adult tumors. This review summarizes the current knowledge of SVV-001 and what its future as an oncolytic virus may hold.

  3. Alcohol and NMDA receptor: current research and future direction

    PubMed Central

    Chandrasekar, Raman

    2013-01-01

    The brain is one of the major targets of alcohol actions. Most of the excitatory synaptic transmission in the central nervous system is mediated by N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors. However, one of the most devastating effects of alcohol leads to brain shrinkage, loss of nerve cells at specific regions through a mechanism involving excitotoxicity, oxidative stress. Earlier studies have indicated that chronic exposure to ethanol both in vivo and in vitro, increases NR1 and NR2B gene expression and their polypeptide levels. The effect of alcohol and molecular changes on the regulatory process, which modulates NMDAR functions including factors altering transcription, translation, post-translational modifications, and protein expression, as well as those influencing their interactions with different regulatory proteins (downstream effectors) are incessantly increasing at the cellular level. Further, I discuss the various genetically altered mice approaches that have been used to study NMDA receptor subunits and their functional implication. In a recent countable review, epigenetic dimension (i.e., histone modification-induced chromatin remodeling and DNA methylation, in the process of alcohol related neuroadaptation) is one of the key molecular mechanisms in alcohol mediated NMDAR alteration. Here, I provide a recount on what has already been achieved, current trends and how the future research/studies of the NMDA receptor might lead to even greater engagement with many possible new insights into the neurobiology and treatment of alcoholism. PMID:23754976

  4. Future directions in high-pressure neutron diffraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guthrie, M.

    2015-04-01

    The ability to manipulate structure and properties using pressure has been well known for many centuries. Diffraction provides the unique ability to observe these structural changes in fine detail on lengthscales spanning atomic to nanometre dimensions. Amongst the broad suite of diffraction tools available today, neutrons provide unique capabilities of fundamental importance. However, to date, the growth of neutron diffraction under extremes of pressure has been limited by the weakness of available sources. In recent years, substantial government investments have led to the construction of a new generation of neutron sources while existing facilities have been revitalized by upgrades. The timely convergence of these bright facilities with new pressure-cell technologies suggests that the field of high-pressure (HP) neutron science is on the cusp of substantial growth. Here, the history of HP neutron research is examined with the hope of gleaning an accurate prediction of where some of these revolutionary capabilities will lead in the near future. In particular, a dramatic expansion of current pressure-temperature range is likely, with corresponding increased scope for extreme-conditions science with neutron diffraction. This increase in coverage will be matched with improvements in data quality. Furthermore, we can also expect broad new capabilities beyond diffraction, including in neutron imaging, small angle scattering and inelastic spectroscopy.

  5. Early Pregnancy Diagnosis in Bovines: Current Status and Future Directions

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Meenakshi; Singh, Surender; Mohanty, Ashok K.; Singh, Inderjeet

    2013-01-01

    An early and accurate diagnosis of reproductive dysfunctions or aberrations is crucial to better reproductive management in livestock. High reproductive efficiency is a prerequisite for high life-time production in dairy animals. Early pregnancy diagnosis is key to shorten the calving interval through early identification of open animals and their timely treatment and rebreeding so as to maintain a postpartum barren interval close to 60 days. A buffalo, the most important dairy animal in the Indian subcontinent, is known for problems related to high calving interval, late puberty, and high incidence of anestrus. Lack of reliable cow-side early pregnancy diagnosis methods further aggravates the situation. Several methods of pregnancy diagnosis are being practiced in bovine species, yet none qualifies as the ideal pregnancy diagnosis method due to the inherent limitations of sensitivity, accuracy, specificity, speed, and ease of performing the test. The advancement of molecular techniques like proteomics and their applications in animal research has given a new hope to look for pregnancy biomarker molecules in these animals. This review attempts to examine common pregnancy diagnosis methods available for dairy animals, while assessing the usefulness of the modern technologies in detecting novel pregnancy markers and designing future strategies for research in this area. PMID:24382949

  6. Filoviruses in Bats: Current Knowledge and Future Directions

    PubMed Central

    Olival, Kevin J.; Hayman, David T. S.

    2014-01-01

    Filoviruses, including Ebolavirus and Marburgvirus, pose significant threats to public health and species conservation by causing hemorrhagic fever outbreaks with high mortality rates. Since the first outbreak in 1967, their origins, natural history, and ecology remained elusive until recent studies linked them through molecular, serological, and virological studies to bats. We review the ecology, epidemiology, and natural history of these systems, drawing on examples from other bat-borne zoonoses, and highlight key areas for future research. We compare and contrast results from ecological and virological studies of bats and filoviruses with those of other systems. We also highlight how advanced methods, such as more recent serological assays, can be interlinked with flexible statistical methods and experimental studies to inform the field studies necessary to understand filovirus persistence in wildlife populations and cross-species transmission leading to outbreaks. We highlight the need for a more unified, global surveillance strategy for filoviruses in wildlife, and advocate for more integrated, multi-disciplinary approaches to understand dynamics in bat populations to ultimately mitigate or prevent potentially devastating disease outbreaks. PMID:24747773

  7. Future directions for the early detection of colorectal cancer recurrence.

    PubMed

    Walker, Avery S; Johnson, Eric K; Maykel, Justin A; Stojadinovic, Alex; Nissan, Aviram; Brucher, Bjorn; Champagne, Bradley J; Steele, Scott R

    2014-01-01

    Surgical resection remains a mainstay of treatment and is highly effective for localized colorectal cancer. However, ~30-40% of patients develop recurrence following surgery and 40-50% of recurrences are apparent within the first few years after initial surgical resection. Several variables factor into the ultimate outcome of these patients, including the extent of disease, tumor biology, and patient co-morbidities. Additionally, the time from initial treatment to the development of recurrence is strongly associated with overall survival, particularly in patients who recur within one year of their surgical resection. Current post-resection surveillance strategies involve physical examination, laboratory, endoscopic and imaging studies utilizing various high and low-intensity protocols. Ultimately, the goal is to detect recurrence as early as possible, and ideally in the asymptomatic localized phase, to allow initiation of treatment that may still result in cure. While current strategies have been effective, several efforts are evolving to improve our ability to identify recurrent disease at its earliest phase. Our aim with this article is to briefly review the options available and, more importantly, examine emerging and future options to assist in the early detection of colon and rectal cancer recurrence.

  8. Historical Perspective and Future Directions in Platelet Research

    PubMed Central

    Coller, Barry S.

    2011-01-01

    Platelets are a remarkable mammalian adaptation that are required for human survival by virtue of their ability to prevent and arrest bleeding. Ironically, however, in the past century, the platelets’ hemostatic activity became maladaptive for the increasingly large percentage of individuals who develop age-dependent progressive atherosclerosis. As a result, platelets also make a major contribution to ischemic thrombotic vascular disease, the leading cause of death worldwide. In this brief review, I provide historical descriptions of a highly selected group of topics to provide a framework for understanding our current knowledge and the trends that are likely to continue into the future of platelet research. For convenience, I separate the eras of platelet research into the “Descriptive Period” extending from ~1880-1960 and the “Mechanistic Period” encompassing the past ~50 years since 1960. We currently are reaching yet another inflection point, as there is a major shift from a focus on traditional biochemistry and cell and molecular biology to an era of single molecule biophysics, single cell biology, single cell molecular biology, structural biology, computational simulations, and the high-throughput, data-dense techniques collectively named with the “omics” postfix. Given the progress made in understanding, diagnosing, and treating many rare and common platelet disorders during the past 50 years, I think it appropriate to consider it a Golden Age of Platelet Research and to recognize all of the investigators who have made important contributions to this remarkable achievement. PMID:21781274

  9. Future Direct Spectroscopic Detection of Hot Jupiters with IGRINS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gullikson, Kevin; Endl, Mike

    2013-08-01

    With about 700 confirmed extrasolar planets, it is time to move beyond discovery and towards characterization. Perhaps the most basic parameter of an extrasolar planet is its mass; however, this is very difficult to determine if the planet does not transit the star. The radial velocity technique, still the most fruitful method of discovering planets in the solar neighborhood, can only determine a minimum planet mass. We investigate a method using the near-future IGRINS near infrared spectrograph to detect the orbital motion of the planet itself. We simulate several observations of a star with an orbiting planet, and search for the spectral signature of the planet by cross-correlating against planet model spectra. A detection appears as a strong peak in the cross-correlation function, and gives the radial velocity of the planet at the time of observation. This, combined with the motion of the star from traditional radial velocity planet search programs, can determine the actual planet mass. We find that the IGRINS instrument can detect the spectral signature from large planets on very close orbits (so-called Hot Jupiters), and that the detections can provide tight constraints on the true planet mass.

  10. Interventional pediatric cardiology: state of the art and future directions.

    PubMed

    Rao, P S

    1998-01-01

    Although the interventional pediatric cardiology began in the early 1950s, it was not until the mid-1980s that a full spectrum of transcatheter interventions in children could be undertaken including balloon atrial septostomy which has been in usage since 1966. Enormous developments have occurred even from the mid-1980s to date. In this review, current state-of-the-art for each broad area of therapeutic catheterization is presented. A large variety of lesions could be opened-up or closed, as the case may be and the results of these interventions were either similar to or better than those reported for the alternative surgical therapy. Indeed, therapeutic catheterization techniques have replaced the conventional surgery for many lesions and are threatening to do so for others. However, long-term follow-up results are scanty and are needed. Further miniaturization of catheters/sheaths used in interventional pediatric cardiology and development of new technology for the lesions which are not amenable to currently available transcatheter methods are awaited. The future seems to be bright for interventional pediatric cardiology.

  11. Bone regenerative medicine: classic options, novel strategies, and future directions

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    This review analyzes the literature of bone grafts and introduces tissue engineering as a strategy in this field of orthopedic surgery. We evaluated articles concerning bone grafts; analyzed characteristics, advantages, and limitations of the grafts; and provided explanations about bone-tissue engineering technologies. Many bone grafting materials are available to enhance bone healing and regeneration, from bone autografts to graft substitutes; they can be used alone or in combination. Autografts are the gold standard for this purpose, since they provide osteogenic cells, osteoinductive growth factors, and an osteoconductive scaffold, all essential for new bone growth. Autografts carry the limitations of morbidity at the harvesting site and limited availability. Allografts and xenografts carry the risk of disease transmission and rejection. Tissue engineering is a new and developing option that had been introduced to reduce limitations of bone grafts and improve the healing processes of the bone fractures and defects. The combined use of scaffolds, healing promoting factors, together with gene therapy, and, more recently, three-dimensional printing of tissue-engineered constructs may open new insights in the near future. PMID:24628910

  12. Usability of Geographic Information: current challenges and future directions.

    PubMed

    Brown, M; Sharples, S; Harding, J; Parker, C J; Bearman, N; Maguire, M; Forrest, D; Haklay, M; Jackson, M

    2013-11-01

    The use of Geographic Information or GI, has grown rapidly in recent years. Previous research has identified the importance of usability and user centred design in enabling the proliferation and exploitation of GI. However, the design and development of usable GI is not simply a matter of applying the tried and tested usability methods that have been developed for software and web design. Dealing with data and specifically GI brings with it a number of issues that change the way usability and user centred design can be applied. This paper describes the outcomes of a workshop held in March 2010 exploring the core issues relating to GI usability. The workshop brought together an international group of twenty experts in both human factors and GI, from a wide range of academic and industrial backgrounds. These experts considered three key issues, the stakeholders in GI, key challenges applying usability to GI and the usability methods that can be successfully applied to GI. The result of this workshop was to identify some areas for future research, such as the production of meaningful metadata and the implications of blurring of the line between data producers and data consumers.

  13. Psychiatric epidemiology: selected recent advances and future directions.

    PubMed Central

    Kessler, R. C.

    2000-01-01

    Reviewed in this article are selected recent advances and future challenges for psychiatric epidemiology. Major advances in descriptive psychiatric epidemiology in recent years include the development of reliable and valid fully structured diagnostic interviews, the implementation of parallel cross-national surveys of the prevalences and correlates of mental disorders, and the initiation of research in clinical epidemiology. Remaining challenges include the refinement of diagnostic categories and criteria, recognition and evaluation of systematic underreporting bias in surveys of mental disorders, creation and use of accurate assessment tools for studying disorders of children, adolescents, the elderly, and people in less developed countries, and setting up systems to carry out small area estimations for needs assessment and programme planning. Advances in analytical and experimental epidemiology have been more modest. A major challenge is for psychiatric epidemiologists to increase the relevance of their analytical research to their colleagues in preventative psychiatry as well as to social policy analysts. Another challenge is to develop interventions aimed at increasing the proportion of people with mental disorders who receive treatment. Despite encouraging advances, much work still needs to be conducted before psychiatric epidemiology can realize its potential to improve the mental health of populations. PMID:10885165

  14. Flow and Noise Control: Review and Assessment of Future Directions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, Russell H.; Choudhari, Meelan M.; Joslin, Ronald D.

    2002-01-01

    Technologies for developing radically new aerovehicles that would combine quantum leaps in cost, safety, and performance benefits with environmental friendliness have appeared on the horizon. This report provides both an assessment of the current state-of-the-art in flow and noise control and a vision for the potential gains to be made, in terms of performance benefit for civil and military aircraft and a unique potential for noise reduction, via future advances in flow and noise technologies. This report outlines specific areas of research that will enable the breakthroughs necessary to bring this vision to reality. Recent developments in many topics within flow and noise control are reviewed. The flow control overview provides succinct summaries of various approaches for drag reduction and improved maneuvering. Both exterior and interior noise problems are examined, including dominant noise sources, physics of noise generation and propagation, and both established and proposed concepts for noise reduction. Synergy between flow and noise control is a focus and, more broadly, the need to pursue research in a more concurrent approach involving multiple disciplines. Also discussed are emerging technologies such as nanotechnology that may have a significant impact on the progress of flow and noise control.

  15. Towards a global environmental sociology? Legacies, trends and future directions.

    PubMed

    Lidskog, Rolf; Mol, Arthur Pj; Oosterveer, Peter

    2015-05-01

    A current debate on environmental sociology involves how the subdiscipline should conceptualise and investigate the environment and whether it should be prescriptive and deliver policy recommendations. Taking this debate as a point of departure this article discusses the current and future role of sociology in a globalised world. It discusses how environmental sociology in the US and Europe differ in their understandings of sociology's contribution to the study of the environment. Particular stress is placed on how these two regions differ with respect to their use of the tradition of sociological thought, views on what constitutes the environment and ways of institutionalising environmental sociology as a sociological field. In conclusion, the question is raised of whether current versions of environmental sociology are appropriate for analysing a globalised world environment; or whether environmental sociology's strong roots in European and US cultures make it less relevant when facing an increasingly globalised world. Finally, the article proposes some new rules for a global environmental sociology and describes some of their possible implications for the sociological study of climate change.

  16. Myeloma genetics and genomics: practice implications and future directions.

    PubMed

    Faiman, Beth

    2014-12-01

    Multiple myeloma (MM) is a heterogeneous, clonal disorder of the plasma cells originating from the B-cell line. The diagnosis and monitoring of MM requires routine measurement of biomarkers such as serum protein electrophoresis, urine protein electrophoresis, serum free light chains, among others. Prognostic models such as the Durie-Salmon staging system and International Staging System are available and account for the disease burden. Advanced biomarker and genetic testing includes cytogenetics, fluorescent in situ hybridization, and gene expression profiling to estimate the aggressiveness of the disease and personalize the patient's treatment. Future goals of therapy will be to achieve minimal residual disease (MRD), which incorporates biomarkers and genomic data. MRD testing might provide a better estimate of the depth of response to therapy and overall survival. A robust genomic program of research is still needed to provide additional information for the best MM care practices and to gain new strategies to treat the disease, in particular, in the relapsed and/or refractory setting.

  17. Towards a global environmental sociology? Legacies, trends and future directions

    PubMed Central

    Lidskog, Rolf; Mol, Arthur PJ; Oosterveer, Peter

    2014-01-01

    A current debate on environmental sociology involves how the subdiscipline should conceptualise and investigate the environment and whether it should be prescriptive and deliver policy recommendations. Taking this debate as a point of departure this article discusses the current and future role of sociology in a globalised world. It discusses how environmental sociology in the US and Europe differ in their understandings of sociology’s contribution to the study of the environment. Particular stress is placed on how these two regions differ with respect to their use of the tradition of sociological thought, views on what constitutes the environment and ways of institutionalising environmental sociology as a sociological field. In conclusion, the question is raised of whether current versions of environmental sociology are appropriate for analysing a globalised world environment; or whether environmental sociology’s strong roots in European and US cultures make it less relevant when facing an increasingly globalised world. Finally, the article proposes some new rules for a global environmental sociology and describes some of their possible implications for the sociological study of climate change. PMID:25937642

  18. Natural killer cell biology: an update and future directions.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Kerry S; Hasegawa, Jun

    2013-09-01

    Natural killer (NK) cells constitute a minor subset of normal lymphocytes that initiate innate immune responses toward tumor and virus-infected cells. They can mediate spontaneous cytotoxicity toward these abnormal cells and rapidly secrete numerous cytokines and chemokines to promote subsequent adaptive immune responses. Significant progress has been made in the past 2 decades to improve our understanding of NK cell biology. Here we review recent discoveries, including a better comprehension of the "education" of NK cells to achieve functional competence during their maturation and the discovery of "memory" responses by NK cells, suggesting that they might also contribute to adaptive immunity. The improved understanding of NK cell biology has forged greater awareness that these cells play integral early roles in immune responses. In addition, several promising clinical therapies have been used to exploit NK cell functions in treating patients with cancer. As our molecular understanding improves, these and future immunotherapies should continue to provide promising strategies to exploit the unique functions of NK cells to treat cancer, infections, and other pathologic conditions.

  19. The Next 25 Years?: Future Scenarios and Future Directions for Education and Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Facer, K.; Sandford, R.

    2010-01-01

    The educational technology research field has been at the heart of debates about the future of education for the last quarter century. This paper explores the socio-technical developments that the next 25 years might bring and the implications of such developments for educators and for educational technology research. The paper begins by outlining…

  20. Direct immunofluorescence on hair follicles--present and future perspectives.

    PubMed

    Alexandru, Adina; Zurac, Sabina; Salavastru, Carmen M; Andrei, Razvan; Tebeica, Tiberiu; Staniceanu, Florica; Tiplica, George S

    2013-06-01

    Direct immunofluorescence (DIF) is an important tool for evaluating bullous autoimmune and connective tissue disorders. We report 21 cases of pemphigus vulgaris, bullous pemphigoid and lupus erythematosus that were investigated by performing DIF on scalp hair follicles. The study was done using a simplified technique of preparing the hairs for DIF testing. The anagen hairs tested positive in pemphigus vulgaris patients while the telogen hairs were negative. In bullous pemphigoid and lupus erythematosus cases hair DIF presented negative results.Hair DIF has the potential of taking the place of skin or mucosal DIF in pemphigus patients if performed on anagen hair follicles. The technique used to perform hair DIF is important in obtaining reliable results and eliminating the possibility of generating false-negative testing. Larger studies are needed in order to validate this method.

  1. Discrimination and the HPA axis: current evidence and future directions.

    PubMed

    Busse, David; Yim, Ilona S; Campos, Belinda; Marshburn, Christopher K

    2017-02-02

    Numerous studies suggest that discrimination is associated with poor physical and mental health outcomes. Whereas the cardiovascular system has been extensively studied as a potential pathway linking discrimination with disease, the role of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis remains understudied. We conducted a systematic review of research on discrimination and related constructs as predictors and correlates of HPA axis activity. Twenty seven studies (10 experimental, 17 observational) met inclusion criteria. Studies suggest that discrimination is associated with alterations in HPA axis activity and that the direction of this association depends on the timing and chronicity of the discrimination experience. There is also evidence of important modulating variables (race, socioeconomic status) and contextual confounders (emotional, situational) that warrant further study. Accounting for the HPA axis in addition to the cardiovascular system will contribute to a more comprehensive understanding of the biobehavioral pathways contributing to physical and mental health inequities related to discrimination.

  2. The cyber threat landscape: Challenges and future research directions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gil, Santiago; Kott, Alexander; Barabási, Albert-László

    2014-07-01

    While much attention has been paid to the vulnerability of computer networks to node and link failure, there is limited systematic understanding of the factors that determine the likelihood that a node (computer) is compromised. We therefore collect threat log data in a university network to study the patterns of threat activity for individual hosts. We relate this information to the properties of each host as observed through network-wide scans, establishing associations between the network services a host is running and the kinds of threats to which it is susceptible. We propose a methodology to associate services to threats inspired by the tools used in genetics to identify statistical associations between mutations and diseases. The proposed approach allows us to determine probabilities of infection directly from observation, offering an automated high-throughput strategy to develop comprehensive metrics for cyber-security.

  3. Robotic mitral valve surgery: current limitations and future directions

    PubMed Central

    Suri, Rakesh; Mick, Stephanie; Mihaljevic, Tomislav

    2016-01-01

    Use of the surgical robot facilitates less invasive mitral valve surgery. Although multiple single center studies confirmed excellent results with robotically-assisted mitral valve surgery, both real and perceived limitations have slowed adoption of this technology. Some still question the safety and efficacy of robotically-assisted mitral valve surgery. However, present data suggests that robotic operations can be performed by specialized surgeons in appropriately selected patients without compromising results. That said, the robot does introduce additional procedural complexity related to management of cardiopulmonary bypass and myocardial protection. A direct approach to these challenges combined with careful patient selection enables the surgeon to obtain excellent results with robotically-assisted mitral valve surgery. PMID:27942490

  4. Metaphor and music emotion: Ancient views and future directions.

    PubMed

    Pannese, Alessia; Rappaz, Marc-André; Grandjean, Didier

    2016-08-01

    Music is often described in terms of emotion. This notion is supported by empirical evidence showing that engaging with music is associated with subjective feelings, and with objectively measurable responses at the behavioural, physiological, and neural level. Some accounts, however, reject the idea that music may directly induce emotions. For example, the 'paradox of negative emotion', whereby music described in negative terms is experienced as enjoyable, suggests that music might move the listener through indirect mechanisms in which the emotional experience elicited by music does not always coincide with the emotional label attributed to it. Here we discuss the role of metaphor as a potential mediator in these mechanisms. Drawing on musicological, philosophical, and neuroscientific literature, we suggest that metaphor acts at key stages along and between physical, biological, cognitive, and contextual processes, and propose a model of music experience in which metaphor mediates between language, emotion, and aesthetic response.

  5. Direct determination of neutrino mass parameters at future colliders

    SciTech Connect

    Kadastik, M.; Raidal, M.; Rebane, L.

    2008-06-01

    If the observed light neutrino masses are induced by their Yukawa couplings to singlet right-handed neutrinos, the natural smallness of those makes direct collider tests of the electroweak scale neutrino mass mechanisms difficult in the simplest models. In the triplet Higgs seesaw scenario the smallness of light neutrino masses may come from the smallness of B-L breaking parameters, allowing sizable Yukawa couplings even for a TeV scale triplet. We show that, in this scenario, measuring the branching fractions of doubly charged Higgs to different same-charged lepton flavors at CERN LHC and/or ILC experiments will allow one to measure the neutrino mass parameters that neutrino oscillation experiments are insensitive to, including the neutrino mass hierarchy, lightest neutrino mass, and Majorana phases.

  6. The European Drought Observatory (EDO): Current State and Future Directions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogt, J.; Singleton, A.; Sepulcre, G.; Micale, F.; Barbosa, P.

    2012-12-01

    the development of the system as well as an outlook on the future developments.

  7. Future Directions in Childhood Adversity and Youth Psychopathology.

    PubMed

    McLaughlin, Katie A

    2016-01-01

    Despite long-standing interest in the influence of adverse early experiences on mental health, systematic scientific inquiry into childhood adversity and developmental outcomes has emerged only recently. Existing research has amply demonstrated that exposure to childhood adversity is associated with elevated risk for multiple forms of youth psychopathology. In contrast, knowledge of developmental mechanisms linking childhood adversity to the onset of psychopathology-and whether those mechanisms are general or specific to particular kinds of adversity-remains cursory. Greater understanding of these pathways and identification of protective factors that buffer children from developmental disruptions following exposure to adversity is essential to guide the development of interventions to prevent the onset of psychopathology following adverse childhood experiences. This article provides recommendations for future research in this area. In particular, use of a consistent definition of childhood adversity, integration of studies of typical development with those focused on childhood adversity, and identification of distinct dimensions of environmental experience that differentially influence development are required to uncover mechanisms that explain how childhood adversity is associated with numerous psychopathology outcomes (i.e., multifinality) and identify moderators that shape divergent trajectories following adverse childhood experiences. A transdiagnostic model that highlights disruptions in emotional processing and poor executive functioning as key mechanisms linking childhood adversity with multiple forms of psychopathology is presented as a starting point in this endeavour. Distinguishing between general and specific mechanisms linking childhood adversity with psychopathology is needed to generate empirically informed interventions to prevent the long-term consequences of adverse early environments on children's development.

  8. Future Directions in Childhood Adversity and Youth Psychopathology

    PubMed Central

    McLaughlin, Katie A.

    2016-01-01

    Despite long-standing interest in the influence of adverse early experiences on mental health, systematic scientific inquiry into childhood adversity and developmental outcomes has emerged only recently. Existing research has amply demonstrated that exposure to childhood adversity is associated with elevated risk for multiple forms of youth psychopathology. In contrast, knowledge of developmental mechanisms linking childhood adversity to the onset of psychopathology—and whether those mechanisms are general or specific to particular kinds of adversity—remains cursory. Greater understanding of these pathways and identification of protective factors that buffer children from developmental disruptions following exposure to adversity is essential to guide the development of interventions to prevent the onset of psychopathology following adverse childhood experiences. This article provides recommendations for future research in this area. In particular, use of a consistent definition of childhood adversity, integration of studies of typical development with those focused on childhood adversity, and identification of distinct dimensions of environmental experience that differentially influence development are required to uncover mechanisms that explain how childhood adversity is associated with numerous psychopathology outcomes (i.e., multifinality) and identify moderators that shape divergent trajectories following adverse childhood experiences. A transdiagnostic model that highlights disruptions in emotional processing and poor executive functioning as key mechanisms linking childhood adversity with multiple forms of psychopathology is presented as a starting point in this endeavour. Distinguishing between general and specific mechanisms linking childhood adversity with psychopathology is needed to generate empirically informed interventions to prevent the long-term consequences of adverse early environments on children’s development. PMID:26849071

  9. Connectomic Analysis of Brain Networks: Novel Techniques and Future Directions

    PubMed Central

    Cazemier, J. Leonie; Clascá, Francisco; Tiesinga, Paul H. E.

    2016-01-01

    Brain networks, localized or brain-wide, exist only at the cellular level, i.e., between specific pre- and post-synaptic neurons, which are connected through functionally diverse synapses located at specific points of their cell membranes. “Connectomics” is the emerging subfield of neuroanatomy explicitly aimed at elucidating the wiring of brain networks with cellular resolution and a quantified accuracy. Such data are indispensable for realistic modeling of brain circuitry and function. A connectomic analysis, therefore, needs to identify and measure the soma, dendrites, axonal path, and branching patterns together with the synapses and gap junctions of the neurons involved in any given brain circuit or network. However, because of the submicron caliber, 3D complexity, and high packing density of most such structures, as well as the fact that axons frequently extend over long distances to make synapses in remote brain regions, creating connectomic maps is technically challenging and requires multi-scale approaches, Such approaches involve the combination of the most sensitive cell labeling and analysis methods available, as well as the development of new ones able to resolve individual cells and synapses with increasing high-throughput. In this review, we provide an overview of recently introduced high-resolution methods, which researchers wanting to enter the field of connectomics may consider. It includes several molecular labeling tools, some of which specifically label synapses, and covers a number of novel imaging tools such as brain clearing protocols and microscopy approaches. Apart from describing the tools, we also provide an assessment of their qualities. The criteria we use assess the qualities that tools need in order to contribute to deciphering the key levels of circuit organization. We conclude with a brief future outlook for neuroanatomic research, computational methods, and network modeling, where we also point out several outstanding issues

  10. Understanding Technology Adoption: Theory and Future Directions for Informal Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Straub, Evan T.

    2009-01-01

    How and why individuals adopt innovations has motivated a great deal of research. This article examines individuals' computing adoption processes through the lenses of three adoption theories: Rogers's innovation diffusion theory, the Concerns-Based Adoption Model, the Technology Acceptance Model, and the United Theory of Acceptance and Use of…

  11. Business Education at Catholic Universities: Current Status and Future Directions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porth, Stephen J.; McCall, John J.; DiAngelo, Joseph A.

    2009-01-01

    Is business education at Catholic colleges and universities different than business education at secular institutions? This study assesses the current state of business education at Catholic colleges and universities based on a national survey of business school deans and faculty members and an audit of business unit web sites. Results suggest…

  12. ISOLATED WETLANDS: STATE-OF-THE-SCIENCE AND FUTURE DIRECTIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    In Solid Waste Agency of Northern Cook County v. U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (SWANCC), the U.S. Supreme Court held that isolated, intrastate, non-navigable waters could not be protected under the Clean Water Act based solely on their use by migratory birds. The SWANCC decision ...

  13. Gifted Native American Students: Literature, Lessons, and Future Directions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gentry, Marcia; Fugate, C. Matthew; Wu, Jiaxi; Castellano, Jaime A.

    2014-01-01

    A national research agenda focused on gifted/creative/talented Native American students is needed, as this population remains one of the least researched, most overlooked, and most underserved in the field. Literature-based assumptions surrounding Native American students' talent development, culture and traditions, cognitive styles and learning…

  14. Multiferroic magnetoelectric composites: Historical perspective, status, and future directions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nan, Ce-Wen; Bichurin, M. I.; Dong, Shuxiang; Viehland, D.; Srinivasan, G.

    2008-02-01

    magnetoelectric response of single-phase compounds by many orders of magnitude. Of interest, motivated by on-chip integration in microelectronic devices, nanostructured composites of ferroelectric and magnetic oxides have recently been deposited in a film-on substrate geometry. The coupling interaction between nanosized ferroelectric and magnetic oxides is also responsible for the magnetoelectric effect in the nanostructures as was the case in those bulk composites. The availability of high-quality nanostructured composites makes it easier to tailor their properties through epitaxial strain, atomic-level engineering of chemistry, and interfacial coupling. In this review, we discuss these bulk and nanostructured magnetoelectric composites both in experimental and theoretical. From application viewpoint, microwave devices, sensors, transducers, and heterogeneous read/write devices are among the suggested technical implementations of the magnetoelectric composites. The review concludes with an outlook on the exciting future possibilities and scientific challenges in the field of multiferroic magnetoelectric composites.

  15. Future World Energy Constraints and the Direction for Solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Lightfoot, H.D.

    2004-09-12

    This paper was originally written in response to the concern that rising levels of CO2 in the atmosphere caused by burning of fossil fuels will ultimately contribute to global warming. Now we are beginning to see evidence of coming problems in the supply of fuels for transportation. This paper describes the benefits of adequate energy supply and the problems of future energy supply. Partial solutions are suggested for immediate application as well as longer term solutions to address both of these concerns. To evaluate the situation and solutions we must understand: (1) how much primary energy is currently used world-wide and might be needed in 2100, (2) how important energy is to the welfare of people, (3) the forms of energy sources and end uses and (4) where new sources may come from. The major portion of world primary energy demand is provided by fossil fuels. This portion dropped from 93% in 1970 to 85% in 1995, mainly because of the increased use of nuclear energy. How ever, since the mid-1990s fossil fuels have maintained their 85% share of world energy supply. The importance of the relationship between per capita energy consumption and per capita income for the world is discussed. The limits of conservation, energy efficiency and renewable energies are examined. The contribution of renewable energies is compared to 41 different views of world energy demand in 2100. Without new technology for large scale storage of intermittent electricity from wind and solar the contribution of renewable energies is not likely to grow significantly beyond the current level of 7-8%. The paper offers conclusions and partial solutions that we can work on immediately. Examination of the forms of energy supplied by the sun, which is powered by nuclear fusion, and the way in which nuclear fission currently supplies energy to the world sets the research framework for longer term solutions. This framework points towards two possible longer term complementary res earch projects which

  16. Hepatitis C in the Russian Federation: challenges and future directions.

    PubMed

    Mukomolov, Sergey; Trifonova, Galina; Levakova, Irina; Bolsun, Daria; Krivanogova, Eugenia

    2016-01-01

    seen in the near future that will require urgent preventive and therapeutic measures.

  17. Cardiac 3D Printing and its Future Directions.

    PubMed

    Vukicevic, Marija; Mosadegh, Bobak; Min, James K; Little, Stephen H

    2017-02-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) printing is at the crossroads of printer and materials engineering, noninvasive diagnostic imaging, computer-aided design, and structural heart intervention. Cardiovascular applications of this technology development include the use of patient-specific 3D models for medical teaching, exploration of valve and vessel function, surgical and catheter-based procedural planning, and early work in designing and refining the latest innovations in percutaneous structural devices. In this review, we discuss the methods and materials being used for 3D printing today. We discuss the basic principles of clinical image segmentation, including coregistration of multiple imaging datasets to create an anatomic model of interest. With applications in congenital heart disease, coronary artery disease, and surgical and catheter-based structural disease, 3D printing is a new tool that is challenging how we image, plan, and carry out cardiovascular interventions.

  18. Epigenetic mechanisms in atrial fibrillation: New insights and future directions.

    PubMed

    Tao, Hui; Shi, Kai-Hu; Yang, Jing-Jing; Li, Jun

    2016-05-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common sustained arrhythmia. AF is a complex disease that results from genetic and environmental factors and their interactions. In recent years, numerous studies have shown that epigenetic mechanisms significantly participate in AF pathogenesis. Even though a poor understanding of the molecular and electrophysiologic mechanisms of AF, accumulated evidence has suggested that the relevance of epigenetic changes in the development of AF. The aim of this review is to describe the present knowledge about the epigenetic regulatory features significantly participates in AF, and look ahead on new perspectives of epigenetic mechanisms research. Epigenetic regulatory features such as DNA methylation, histone modification, and microRNA influence gene expression by epigenetic mechanisms and by directly binding to various factor response elements in the target gene promoters. Given the role of epigenetic alterations in regulating genes, there is potential for the integration of factors-induced epigenetic alterations as informative factors in the risk assessment process. In this review, new insight into the epigenetic mechanisms in AF pathogenesis is discussed, with special emphasis on DNA methylation, histone modification, and microRNA. Further studies are needed to reveal the potential targets of epigenetic mechanisms, and it can be developed as a therapeutic target for AF.

  19. Direct Laser Cladding , Current Status and Future Scope of Application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weisheit, A.; Gasser, A.; Backes, G.; Jambor, T.; Pirch, N.; Wissenbach, K.

    During the last decades Direct Laser Cladding has become an established technique in many industrial fields for applying wear and corrosion protection layers on metallic surfaces as well as for the repair of high value-added components. The most important application fields are die and tool making, turbine components for aero engines and power generation, machine components such as axes and gears, and oil drilling components. Continuous wave (CW) lasers with a power up to 18 kW are used on automated machines with three or more axes, enabling 3D cladding . The outstanding feature of DLC is the high precision which leads to a minimum heat input into the work piece and a very low distortion. Due to the high cooling rates a fine grained microstructure is achieved during solidification. A new development in laser cladding is micro cladding in a size range below 50 \\upmum especially for electronic and medical applications. Furthermore, additive manufacturing is coming again into focus as a clean and resource-efficient method to manufacture and modify functional prototypes as well as unique and small lot parts.

  20. 3D geo-database research: Retrospective and future directions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breunig, Martin; Zlatanova, Sisi

    2011-07-01

    3D geo-database research is a promising field to support challenging applications such as 3D urban planning, environmental monitoring, infrastructure management, and early warning or disaster management and response. In these fields, interdisciplinary research in GIScience and related fields is needed to support the modelling, analysis, management, and integration of large geo-referenced data sets, which describe human activities and geophysical phenomena. Geo-databases may serve as platforms to integrate 2D maps, 3D geo-scientific models, and other geo-referenced data. However, current geo-databases do not provide sufficient 3D data modelling and data handling techniques. New 3D geo-databases are needed to handle surface and volume models. This article first presents a 25-year retrospective of geo-database research. Data modelling, standards, and indexing of geo-data are discussed in detail. New directions for the development of 3D geo-databases to open new fields for interdisciplinary research are addressed. Two scenarios in the fields of early warning and emergency response demonstrate the combined management of human and geophysical phenomena. The article concludes with a critical outlook on open research problems.

  1. Microneedles for Transdermal Biosensing: Current Picture and Future Direction.

    PubMed

    Ventrelli, Letizia; Marsilio Strambini, Lucanos; Barillaro, Giuseppe

    2015-12-09

    A novel trend is rapidly emerging in the use of microneedles, which are a miniaturized replica of hypodermic needles with length-scales of hundreds of micrometers, aimed at the transdermal biosensing of analytes of clinical interest, e.g., glucose, biomarkers, and others. Transdermal biosensing via microneedles offers remarkable opportunities for moving biosensing technologies and biochips from research laboratories to real-field applications, and envisages easy-to-use point-of-care microdevices with pain-free, minimally invasive, and minimal-training features that are very attractive for both developed and emerging countries. In addition to this, microneedles for transdermal biosensing offer a unique possibility for the development of biochips provided with end-effectors for their interaction with the biological system under investigation. Direct and efficient collection of the biological sample to be analyzed will then become feasible in situ at the same length-scale of the other biochip components by minimally trained personnel and in a minimally invasive fashion. This would eliminate the need for blood extraction using hypodermic needles and reduce, in turn, related problems, such as patient infections, sample contaminations, analysis artifacts, etc. The aim here is to provide a thorough and critical analysis of state-of-the-art developments in this novel research trend, and to bridge the gap between microneedles and biosensors.

  2. Future directions of CAM research in pediatric oncology.

    PubMed

    Post-White, Janice; Hawks, Ria; O'Mara, Ann; Ott, Mary Jane

    2006-01-01

    Children with cancer are using complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) to relieve symptoms, reduce side effects of treatment, and cope with the emotional aspects of having a life-threatening illness. Parental decisions about using CAM should be based on studies of efficacy and safety. Unfortunately, little evidence of efficacy is available for the majority of CAM therapies. This article discusses the methodological challenges to conducting CAM research in children and the evidence needed to support integrative medicine in pediatric oncology.

  3. QDR Analysis: Lessons Learned and Future Directions Mini- Symposium

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-07-02

    systems , the "* Deal better with uncertainty and risk human decision process, presence, (e.g., alternate world views, logistics and communications. There...34* Space based systems "* Human decision process "* Links from information to military effectiveness - JWARS C41SR development is risky; may not be...participation in final decisions But not everything... - Needed more preparatory analysis - No system in place to ensure that all questions addressed

  4. Sustainable winter cities: Future directions for planning, policy and design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pressman, Norman E. P.

    Attempts to generate a "climate-responsive" northern urban form are part of a relatively recent phenomenon and field of investigation. In conjunction with the international "winter cities" movement, the need has been established for explicit, systematic inquiry directed toward national and local action to improve the comfort and lifestyles of all northern inhabitants. It is important to recognize that winter-induced discomforts exist and that they must be acknowledged in planning theory and practice. For northern cities to function more satisfactorily, the negative impacts of winter must be reduced while its beneficial characteristics are enhanced. While not all summer activities can or should be abandoned during winter, proper micro-climatic control is essential if human life is to be retained outside. The outdoor season should be extended since so much indoor isolation occurs. The main principles to be incorporated in exemplary "winter city" design should be contact with nature, year-round usability, user participation, cultural continuity, and the creation of comfortable micro-climatic conditions throughout much of the city's open spaces. All valuable sources of inspiration must be harnessed in the attempt to mediate between organic regionalism and internationalism, on the one hand, and romanticism and pragmatic realism, on the other. Creating optimum conditions for human well-being, habitation, work and intellectual development in each of the four seasons is vital under harsh environments. Adopting a climate-sensitive approach to planning policy and urban design can render everyday life less stressful, especially during the lengthy winter periods found in many northern latitude and high altitude settings.

  5. Contemporary issues and future directions for research into pathological gambling.

    PubMed

    Dickerson, M; Baron, E

    2000-08-01

    The recent healthy increase in research into all aspects of gambling is noted. The dominant theme accounting for most of this research is the mental disorder model of pathological gambling and measures that have been derived from this conceptualization. It is suggested that an alternative approach focusing on the construct of choice or subjective control over gambling may be a research direction that will ensure that progress is maintained. In this paper a context for the discussion is provided by first identifying briefly fundamental conceptual and methodological issues associated with the mental disorder model. In particular it is argued that the heterogeneity of the diagnosis of pathological gambling makes the research task of assessing truly independent variables extremely difficult. Subsequently an illustrative schema is presented that demonstrates both the potential advantages and some of the complexities associated with the dependent variable of self-control over gambling behaviour. The main advantages are argued to be (a) the focus of research is narrowed to one potential cause of harmful impacts rather than the great diversity of impacts themselves, (b) prospective studies of regular gamblers in real gambling venues may be a key source of insight into the development of pathological gambling and (c) it promotes the development of theoretical links with the mainstream of the discipline of psychology. Despite the conceptual difficulties that may be associated with the variable of self-control, it is suggested that these may be overcome because contemporary research into the addictive behaviours has demonstrated considerable success in the definition and measurement of control and related themes such as craving, restraint and temptation.

  6. Direct His-bundle pacing: present and future.

    PubMed

    Deshmukh, Pramod M; Romanyshyn, Mary

    2004-06-01

    Direct His-bundle pacing (DHBP) produces rapid sequential multisite synchronous ventricular activation and, therefore, would be an ideal alternative to right ventricular apical (RVA) pacing. In 54 patients with cardiomyopathy, ejection fraction (EF) 0.23 +/- 0.11, persistent atrial fibrillation, and normal QRS < 120 ms. DHBP was attempted. This was successful in 39 patients. In seven patients, the effect of increasing heart rate on contractility (Treppe effect) was investigated. Twelve patients who also received a RVA lead underwent cardiopulmonary testing. After a mean follow-up of 42 months, 29 patients are still alive with EF improving from 0.23 +/- 0.11 to 0.33 +/- 0.15. Functional class improved from 3.5 to 2.2. DP/dt increased at each pacing site (P < 0.05) as the heart rate increased to 60, 100, and 120 beats/min. Rise in dP/dt by DHBP pacing at 120 beats/min was at least 170 +/- mmHg/s, greater than any other site in the ventricle (P < 0.05). Cardiopulmonary testing revealed longer exercise time (RVA 255 +/- 110 s) (His 280 +/- 104 s) (P < 0.05), higher O2 uptake (RVA 15 +/- 4 mL/kg per minute) (His 16 +/- 4 mL/kg minute) (P < 0.05), and later anaerobic threshold (RVA 126 +/- 71 s) (His 145 +/- 74 s) (P < 0.05) with DHBP compared to RVA pacing. Long-term DHBP is safe and effective in humans. DHBP is associated with a superior Treppe effect and increased cardiopulmonary reserve when compared to RVA pacing.

  7. Grammatical agreement processing in reading: ERP findings and future directions.

    PubMed

    Molinaro, Nicola; Barber, Horacio A; Carreiras, Manuel

    2011-09-01

    In the domain of written sentence comprehension, the computation of agreement dependencies is generally considered as a form-driven processing routine whose domain is syntactic in nature. In the present review we discuss the main findings emerging in the Event-Related Potential (ERP) literature on sentence comprehension, focusing on the different dimensions of agreement patterns (features, values, constituents involved and language): Agreement mismatches usually evoke a biphasic electrophysiological pattern (Left Anterior Negativity - LAN, 300-450 msec and P600 after 500 msec). This ERP pattern is assumed to reflect rule-based computations sensitive to formal (inflectional) covariations of related words (trigger-target). Here we claim that agreement processing is sensitive to both the type of feature involved and the constituents that express the agreement dependency. More specifically, LAN could reflect violation of expectancy (elicited by the trigger) for the target functional morphology; later, trigger and target are structurally integrated at the sentence level (early P600). However, morphosyntactic information could trigger the activation of higher-level representations that are not strictly syntactic in nature. The recruitment of this additional non-syntactic information (mirrored by N400-like effects) indicates that rule-based computations of agreement dependencies are not blind to non-syntactic information but are often recruited to establish sentence-level relations.

  8. Performance seeking control: Program overview and future directions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilyard, Glenn B.; Orme, John S.

    1993-01-01

    A flight test evaluation of the performance-seeking control (PSC) algorithm on the NASA F-15 highly integrated digital electronic control research aircraft was conducted for single-engine operation at subsonic and supersonic speeds. The model-based PSC system was developed with three optimization modes: minimum fuel flow at constant thrust, minimum turbine temperature at constant thrust, and maximum thrust at maximum dry and full afterburner throttle settings. Subsonic and supersonic flight testing were conducted at the NASA Dryden Flight Research Facility covering the three PSC optimization modes and over the full throttle range. Flight results show substantial benefits. In the maximum thrust mode, thrust increased up to 15 percent at subsonic and 10 percent at supersonic flight conditions. The minimum fan turbine inlet temperature mode reduced temperatures by more than 100 F at high altitudes. The minimum fuel flow mode results decreased fuel consumption up to 2 percent in the subsonic regime and almost 10 percent supersonically. These results demonstrate that PSC technology can benefit the next generation of fighter or transport aircraft. NASA Dryden is developing an adaptive aircraft performance technology system that is measurement based and uses feedback to ensure optimality. This program will address the technical weaknesses identified in the PSC program and will increase performance gains.

  9. Latest developments and future directions in dengue vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Thisyakorn, Chule

    2014-01-01

    Dengue is a mosquito-borne disease which is currently an expanding global health problem. The disease is caused by four closely related viruses, the dengue virus. There are no specific dengue therapeutics and prevention is currently limited to vector control measures. Development of an effective tetravalent dengue vaccine would therefore represent a major advance in the control of the disease and is considered a high public health priority. While a licensed dengue vaccine is not yet available, the scope and intensity of dengue vaccine development has increased dramatically in the last decade. The uniqueness of the dengue viruses and the spectrum of disease resulting from infection have made dengue vaccine development difficult. Several vaccine candidates are currently being evaluated in clinical studies. The candidate currently at the most advanced clinical development stage, a live-attenuated tetravalent vaccine based on chimeric yellow fever dengue virus, has progressed to phase III efficacy studies. Several other live-attenuated vaccines, as well as subunit, DNA and purified inactivated vaccine candidates, are at earlier stages of clinical development. Additional technological approaches, such as virus-vectored and virus-like particle-based vaccines, are under evaluation in preclinical studies. PMID:24757522

  10. Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation in Child Neurology: Current and Future Directions

    PubMed Central

    Frye, Richard E.; Rotenberg, Alexander; Ousley, Molliann; Pascual-Leone, Alvaro

    2008-01-01

    Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is a method for focal brain stimulation based on the principle of electromagnetic induction, where small intracranial electric currents are generated by a powerful, rapidly changing extracranial magnetic field. Over the past 2 decades TMS has shown promise in the diagnosis, monitoring, and treatment of neurological and psychiatric disease in adults, but has been used on a more limited basis in children. We reviewed the literature to identify potential diagnostic and therapeutic applications of TMS in child neurology and also its safety in pediatrics. Although TMS has not been associated with any serious side effects in children and appears to be well tolerated, general safety guidelines should be established. The potential for applications of TMS in child neurology and psychiatry is significant. Given its excellent safety profile and possible therapeutic effect, this technique should develop as an important tool in pediatric neurology over the next decade. PMID:18056688

  11. Youth, Technology and HIV: Recent Advances and Future Directions

    PubMed Central

    Hightow-Weidman, Lisa B.; Muessig, Kathryn E.; Bauermeister, Jose; Zhang, Chen; LeGrand, Sara

    2015-01-01

    Technology, including mobile technologies and social media, offers powerful tools to reach, engage, and retain youth and young adults in HIV prevention and care interventions both in the United States and globally. In this report we focus on HIV, technology, and youth, presenting a synthesis of recently published (Jan 2014-May 2015) observational and experimental studies relevant for understanding and intervening on HIV risk, prevention and care. We present findings from a selection of the 66 relevant citations identified, highlighting studies that demonstrate a novel approach to technology interventions among youth in regard to content, delivery, target population or public health impact. We discuss current trends globally and in the US in how youth are using technology, as well as emergent research issues in this field – including the need for new theories for developing technology-based HIV interventions and new metrics of engagement, exposure, and evaluation. PMID:26385582

  12. Perfectionism and eating disorders: current status and future directions.

    PubMed

    Bardone-Cone, Anna M; Wonderlich, Stephen A; Frost, Randy O; Bulik, Cynthia M; Mitchell, James E; Uppala, Saritha; Simonich, Heather

    2007-04-01

    The literature examining the relation between perfectionism and eating disorders was reviewed and content and methodological comparisons were made with the perfectionism literature in anxiety disorders and depressive disorders. A PsychInfo search using the key words "perfectionism/perfect/perfectionistic," "anorexia," "bulimia," and "eating disorders" was performed and the generated list of papers was supplemented based on a review of reference lists in the papers. A total of 55 papers published between 1990 and 2005 were identified that assessed perfectionism among individuals with diagnosed eating disorders. The key research questions were distilled from these publications and empirical findings were summarized for each question, followed by a comparison with perfectionism papers in the anxiety and depressive disorder literatures. Also, key research design methodological parameters were identified and comparisons made across the three literatures: eating disorders, anxiety disorders, depressive disorders. The current review concludes with conceptual and methodological recommendations for researchers interested in perfectionism and eating disorders.

  13. Disease management: state of the art and future directions.

    PubMed

    Armstrong, E P; Sclar, D A

    1999-03-01

    Disease management (DM) programs have become common in health systems, especially in managed care organizations and hospitals. These programs are designed to improve both the quality of care and the efficiency of health care delivery. However, there may be controversy about the most important outcomes to consider. Furthermore, the effectiveness of DM initiatives is largely undocumented in the literature. The purpose of this paper is to review the issues, methods, and outcomes involved in creating and instituting DM programs. To improve DM efforts within health systems, constructive relationships with practitioners need to be built by involving important individuals early in the process. It is hoped that evidence-based guidelines will further enhance DM efforts. Beneficial DM initiatives require a multidisciplinary focus of cooperation and willingness to share data between distinct professional groups. More thorough analysis of DM programs is needed in many health systems.

  14. Personalising exercise recommendations for brain health: considerations and future directions.

    PubMed

    Barha, Cindy K; Galea, Liisa A; Nagamatsu, Lindsay S; Erickson, Kirk I; Liu-Ambrose, Teresa

    2017-04-01

    The societal value of strategies that delay the onset and progression of dementia cannot be overstated. Physical activity-unstructured and structured-is a promising, cost-effective strategy for the promotion of brain health. However, a large degree of variation exists in its efficacy. Therefore, to increase its utility as 'medication' for healthy cognitive ageing, it is imperative to identify key moderators and mediators of the positive effects of targeted exercise training on brain health. In this commentary, we focus on the type of targeted exercise training, the determinants of individual variation, including biological sex and genotypic factors, and the mechanisms by which exercise exerts its influence on the brain. We argue that a better understanding of these factors will allow for evidence-based, personalised, tailored exercise recommendations that go beyond the one-size-fits-all approach to successfully combat dementia.

  15. Future Directions, Challenges and Opportunities in Nuclear Energy

    SciTech Connect

    Andy Klein; Jack Lance

    2006-07-01

    The renaissance of nuclear energy for electricity and hydrogen production and process heat for other potential applications is moving ahead rapidly. Both near- and far-term roles are envisioned for this important energy technology, and each of these roles will have its own particular technical challenges and opportunities. Numerous power producers world-wide are actively considering the construction of new nuclear power plants for the production of electricity in the near-term. The U.S. Department of Energy has announced plans to develop both the next generation of nuclear power plants and the technology necessary to recycle used nuclear fuel. These exciting technologies will bring novel challenges to their developers and designers as they push the knowledge base in materials utilization, high temperatures and pressures, extended operating cycles, and extreme operating environments. Development of the techniques and methods to interrogate, understand, manage and control these devices will be crucial to enabling the full extension of these technologies.

  16. Roots, development and future directions of laboratory medicine.

    PubMed

    Price, Christopher P

    2010-07-01

    Laboratory medicine has evolved from basic scientific observation and good experimental practice, with a strong emphasis on establishing the mechanisms of disease processes, linked with biomarker discovery, and development of analytical technologies. That evolution is set to move on apace with the mapping of the human genome. However, laboratory medicine is not solely based on robust basic science, but also on the translation of that knowledge into establishing the clinical utility of a marker, translation into evidence of the impact on health outcomes, as well as transformational change to integrate this new knowledge into the delivery of better care for patients. This translational research and the focus on transformational change are crucial in demonstrating value-for-money in the laboratory medicine service.

  17. Adherence to Cardiovascular Medications: Lessons Learned and Future Directions

    PubMed Central

    Kronish, Ian M; Ye, Siqin

    2013-01-01

    Approximately 50% of patients with cardiovascular disease and/or its major risk factors have poor adherence to their prescribed medications. Finding novel methods to help patients improve their adherence to existing evidence-based cardiovascular drug therapies has enormous potential to improve health outcomes while potentially reducing health care costs. The goal of this report is to provide a review of the current understanding of adherence to cardiovascular medications from the point of view of prescribing clinicians and cardiovascular researchers. Key topics addressed include: 1) definitions of medication adherence; 2) prevalence and impact of non-adherence; 3) methods for assessing medication adherence; 4) reasons for poor adherence; and 5) approaches to improving adherence to cardiovascular medications. For each of these topics, the report seeks to identify important gaps in knowledge and opportunities for advancing the field of cardiovascular adherence research. PMID:23621969

  18. Bed bug detection: current technologies and future directions.

    PubMed

    Vaidyanathan, Rajeev; Feldlaufer, Mark F

    2013-04-01

    Technologies to detect bed bugs have not kept pace with their global resurgence. Early detection is critical to prevent infestations from spreading. Detection based exclusively on bites is inadequate, because reactions to insect bites are non-specific and often misdiagnosed. Visual inspections are commonly used and depend on identifying live bugs, exuviae, or fecal droplets. Visual inspections are inexpensive, but they are time-consuming and unreliable when only a few bugs are present. Use of a dog to detect bed bugs is gaining in popularity, but it can be expensive, may unintentionally advertise a bed bug problem, and is not foolproof. Passive monitors mimic natural harborages; they are discreet and typically use an adhesive to trap bugs. Active monitors generate carbon dioxide, heat, a pheromone, or a combination to attract bed bugs to a trap. New technologies using DNA analysis, mass spectrometry, and electronic noses are innovative but impractical and expensive for widespread use.

  19. Future Directions, Challenges and Opportunities in Nuclear Energy

    SciTech Connect

    Klein, Andy; Lance, Jack

    2007-03-21

    The renaissance of nuclear energy for electricity and hydrogen production and process heat for other potential applications is moving ahead rapidly. Both near- and far-term roles are envisioned for this important energy technology, and each of these roles will have its own particular technical challenges and opportunities. Numerous power producers world-wide are actively considering the construction of new nuclear power plants for the production of electricity in the near-term. The U.S. Department of Energy has announced plans to develop both the next generation of nuclear power plants and the technology necessary to recycle used nuclear fuel. These exciting technologies will bring novel challenges to their developers and designers as they push the knowledge base in materials utilization, high temperatures and pressures, extended operating cycles, and extreme operating environments. Development of the techniques and methods to interrogate, understand, manage and control these devices will be crucial to enabling the full extension of these technologies.

  20. Bed Bug Detection: Current Technologies and Future Directions

    PubMed Central

    Vaidyanathan, Rajeev; Feldlaufer, Mark F.

    2013-01-01

    Technologies to detect bed bugs have not kept pace with their global resurgence. Early detection is critical to prevent infestations from spreading. Detection based exclusively on bites is inadequate, because reactions to insect bites are non-specific and often misdiagnosed. Visual inspections are commonly used and depend on identifying live bugs, exuviae, or fecal droplets. Visual inspections are inexpensive, but they are time-consuming and unreliable when only a few bugs are present. Use of a dog to detect bed bugs is gaining in popularity, but it can be expensive, may unintentionally advertise a bed bug problem, and is not foolproof. Passive monitors mimic natural harborages; they are discreet and typically use an adhesive to trap bugs. Active monitors generate carbon dioxide, heat, a pheromone, or a combination to attract bed bugs to a trap. New technologies using DNA analysis, mass spectrometry, and electronic noses are innovative but impractical and expensive for widespread use. PMID:23553226

  1. Future research directions in the use of biomarkers.

    PubMed Central

    Hemminki, K; Kumar, R; Bykov, V J; Louhelainen, J; Vodicka, P

    1996-01-01

    Many DNA adduct studies have been carried out in occupational groups that have been at a risk of cancer based on epidemiological results relating to exposure decades ago. Even new epidemiological publications on cancer cannot accurately address the effective exposures after about 1970. This is one justification for biomarker studies. Another justification is exposures for which epidemiological studies have not been conducted or have provided inadequate results, in spite of suspicions raised by short-term or animal experiments. The modulation of environment carcinogenesis by host polymorphism in genes for xenobiotic metabolizing and DNA repair enzymes is currently under extensive investigation. The studies relating phenotype/genotype to cancer are presently extended to various end points that may be related to cancer such as DNA adducts and cytogenetic damage. Adjustment for a metabolic phenotype or genotype may also increase the precision in the measurement. Mutations in oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes may give clues to the etiology of cancer. PMID:8781364

  2. Pituitary adenomas: historical perspective, surgical management and future directions

    PubMed Central

    Theodros, Debebe; Patel, Mira; Ruzevick, Jacob; Lim, Michael; Bettegowda, Chetan

    2016-01-01

    Pituitary adenomas are among the most common central nervous system tumors. They represent a diverse group of neoplasms that may or may not secrete hormones based on their cell of origin. Epidemiologic studies have documented the incidence of pituitary adenomas within the general population to be as high as 16.7%. A growing body of work has helped to elucidate the pathogenesis of these tumors. Each subtype has been shown to demonstrate unique cellular changes potentially leading to tumorigenesis. Surgical advancements over several decades have included microsurgery and the employment of the endoscope for surgical resection. These advancements increase the likelihood of gross-total resection and have resulted in decreased patient morbidity. PMID:26497533

  3. Clinical islet transplant: current and future directions towards tolerance.

    PubMed

    Shapiro, A M James; Nanji, Sulaiman A; Lakey, Jonathan R T

    2003-12-01

    The ultimate goal of islet transplantation is to completely correct the diabetic state from an unlimited donor source, without the need for chronic immunosuppressive drug therapy. Although islet transplantation provides an opportunity to develop innovative strategies for tolerance in the clinic, both alloimmune and autoimmune barriers must be controlled, if stable graft function is to be maintained long-term. After islet extraction from the pancreas, the cellular graft may be stored in tissue culture or cryopreserved for banking, providing an opportunity not only to optimally condition the recipient but also to allow in vitro immunologic manipulation of the graft before transplantation, unlike solid organ grafts. As such, islets may be considered a "special case." Remarkable progress has occurred in the last three years, with dramatic improvements in outcomes after clinical islet transplantation. The introduction of a steroid-free, sirolimus-based, anti-rejection protocol and islets prepared from two (or rarely three) donors led to high rates of insulin independence. The "Edmonton Protocol" has been successfully replicated by other centers in an international multicenter trial. A number of key refinements in pancreas transportation, processing, purification on non-ficoll-based media, storage of islets in culture for two days and newer immunological conditioning and induction therapies have led to continued advancement through extensive collaboration between key centers. This review outlines the historical development of islet transplantation over the past 30 years, provides an update on current clinical outcomes, and summarizes a series of unique opportunities for development and early testing of tolerance protocols in patients.

  4. Bilingual teaching in nursing education in China: evolution, status, and future directions.

    PubMed

    He, Wei; Xu, Yu; Zhu, Jianhua

    2011-09-01

    Based on Chinese published literature and personal observations, this article reviews the history of bilingual teaching in nursing education in China, describes its current status and challenges, and predicts its future directions. Bilingual teaching in nursing education enjoys increasing popularity in China. The major factors that affect bilingual teaching are bilingual educators, students' English-language levels, bilingual teaching materials, and teaching models. Based on surveys of nursing schools, the English-language proficiency of the nursing educators varies greatly. The main issues with the teaching methods lie in over-translation, cramming, and limited interaction between the students and the teachers. Despite relatively inadequate English-language proficiency among Chinese nursing students, their interest can be strengthened greatly if international exchanges are available and promoted. Bilingual textbooks are more suitable in China's national context because of pricing and relevance. Although immersive bilingual teaching is the ideal, it is more feasible to begin with infiltrative bilingual teaching and move progressively towards increased English-language penetration. Future directions for improving bilingual teaching include training teaching faculty members, strengthening international exchanges, providing better bilingual study atmospheres, and gradually implementing bilingual textbooks.

  5. Bulk Data Dissemination in Low Power Sensor Networks: Present and Future Directions

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Zhirong; Hu, Tianlei; Song, Qianshu

    2017-01-01

    Wireless sensor network-based (WSN-based) applications need an efficient and reliable data dissemination service to facilitate maintenance, management and data distribution tasks. As WSNs nowadays are becoming pervasive and data intensive, bulk data dissemination protocols have been extensively studied recently. This paper provides a comprehensive survey of the state-of-the-art bulk data dissemination protocols. The large number of papers available in the literature propose various techniques to optimize the dissemination protocols. Different from the existing survey works which separately explores the building blocks of dissemination, our work categorizes the literature according to the optimization purposes: Reliability, Scalability and Transmission/Energy efficiency. By summarizing and reviewing the key insights and techniques, we further discuss on the future directions for each category. Our survey helps unveil three key findings for future direction: (1) The recent advances in wireless communications (e.g., study on cross-technology interference, error estimating codes, constructive interference, capture effect) can be potentially exploited to support further optimization on the reliability and energy efficiency of dissemination protocols; (2) Dissemination in multi-channel, multi-task and opportunistic networks requires more efforts to fully exploit the spatial-temporal network resources to enhance the data propagation; (3) Since many designs incur changes on MAC layer protocols, the co-existence of dissemination with other network protocols is another problem left to be addressed. PMID:28098830

  6. CONSORT in China: past development and future direction.

    PubMed

    Song, Tian-Jiao; Leng, Hou-Fu; Zhong, Linda Ld; Wu, Tai-Xiang; Bian, Zhao-Xiang

    2015-06-01

    The Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials (CONSORT) Statement was published in 1996, and first introduced to China in 2001. Although CONSORT has been widely accepted in high-quality international journals, we still need to have more investigation on how many Chinese journals have adopted the CONSORT Statement, and whether the quality of reporting has improved. A systematic search of the "Instructions to authors" in all Chinese medical journals in China Academic Journals (CAJ) Full-text Database was conducted up to February 2012 and only 7 journals officially listed the requirements of the CONSORT Statement. The research articles about randomized controlled trials (RCTs) published in 2002, 2004, 2006, 2008, and 2010 from journals which had specifically adopted the CONSORT Statement, and from 30 top journals based on the Chinese Science Citation Index (CSCI) 2011 as the control group, were identified. The quality of both cohorts of articles was assessed using the revised CONSORT Checklist and Jadad scale. A total of 1221 Chinese medical journals was identified. Only seven journals stated clearly in the "Instructions to authors" that authors should adopt the CONSORT requirement in the clinical trial paper. None of these journals is among the control group in the CSCI 2011. In the selected years, a total of 171 articles from 7 journals which had adopted CONSORT and 232 articles in the control were identified as including RCT trials. The average scores according to the revised CONSORT Checklist were 29.47 for the CONSORT-adopting journals and 25.57 for the control group; while the average scores based on the Jadad scale were 2.53 for CONSORT-adopting journals and 1.97 for the control group. Few journals among Chinese medical journals have adopted the CONSORT Statement. The overall quality of RCT reports in the 7 journals which have adopted CONSORT was better than those in the top 30 journals which have not adopted CONSORT. The quality of RCT reports in Chinese

  7. Prediction of conversion to psychosis: review and future directions

    PubMed Central

    Gee, Dylan G.; Cannon, Tyrone D.

    2014-01-01

    This article reviews recent findings on predictors of conversion to psychosis among youth deemed at ultra high risk (UHR) based on the presence of subpsychotic-intensity symptoms or genetic risk for psychosis and a recent decline in functioning. Although transition rates differ between studies, the most well powered studies have observed rates of conversion to full psychosis in the 30–40% range over 2–3 years of follow-up. Across studies, severity of subthreshold positive symptoms, poorer social functioning, and genetic risk for schizophrenia appear to be consistent predictors of conversion to psychosis, with algorithms combining these indicators achieving positive predictive power ≥ 80%. Nevertheless, a substantial fraction of UHR cases do not convert to psychosis. Recent work indicates that UHR cases who present with lower levels of negative symptoms and higher levels of social functioning are more likely to recover symptomatically and no longer meet criteria for an at-risk mental state. In general, it appears that about 1/3 of UHR cases convert to psychosis, about 1/3 do not convert but remain symptomatic and functionally impaired, and about 1/3 recover symptomatically and functionally. Continued efforts to detect early risk for psychosis are critical for informing early intervention and provide increasing promise of delaying or even preventing the onset of psychosis. PMID:22286564

  8. Turbidite systems: State of the art and future directions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Normark, W.R.; Posamentier, H.; Mutti, E.

    1993-01-01

    The study of turbidite systems covering a wide range of physical scales has led to confus ion regarding the use of certain key terms and hence a breakdown in communication between workers involved in turbidite research. There are three fundamentally different scales and types of observations derived from the study of outcrop data (ancient systems), high-resolution seismic reflection and side scan sonar data (modern systems), and multichannel seismic reflection data (modern and older buried systems). Despite the variability of scale the same terms are used to describe features that may have little in common. Consequently, turbidite system terminology has become imprecise and even misleading in some cases, thus providing impediments to developing useful predictive models for processes, depositional environments, and lateral and vertical distribution of sand bodies within turbidite systems. To address this concern, we review the principal elements critical to deepwater systems: slump scars, submarine canyons, channels, channel fill deposits, overbank deposits, and lobes and discuss some of their recognition criteria with each different type of data base. Local and regional tectonic setting, relative sea level variations, and bottom current activity are probably the main factors that control size, external geometry, internal stratal configuration, and facies characteristics of both modern and ancient turbidite systems. These factors ultimately control the timing and bounding characteristics between stages of growth of deepwater systems. If comparison of elements from different turbidite deposits using various data types is carried out at similar physical and temporal scales, predictive models eventually may be improved.

  9. New directions: Atmospheric chemical mechanisms for the future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaduwela, Ajith; Luecken, Deborah; Carter, William; Derwent, Richard

    2015-12-01

    The atmospheric chemical reaction scheme, commonly referred to as the chemical mechanism, is the portion of an air quality model that represents the atmospheric chemistry of the pollutants. It is at the heart of every air quality model used in research and policy applications to predict and analyse the complex air pollutants: ozone, air toxics and PM2.5. The chemical mechanism should incorporate available information on chemical kinetics and reaction pathways and be the conduit through which the fundamental science of atmospheric chemistry is applied to solve real-world problems. The efficiency and effectiveness of policies developed to reduce exposure to harmful pollutants depend on how well the mechanisms reflect the actual chemistry. If the mechanism has reaction pathways that are incorrectly characterised or completely missing, the resulting predictions may underestimate emission reduction requirements needed to meet public health and ecosystem protection targets, or may overstate the emission reductions needed and cause unnecessary implementation costs. It is therefore essential that mechanisms utilise the best, most up-to-date atmospheric chemistry information available so that policy development is based on air quality model predictions that are robust, transparent and free from scientific challenge. We are concerned that this may not continue to be the case.

  10. Fatigue in Multiple Sclerosis: Misconceptions and Future Research Directions

    PubMed Central

    Rudroff, Thorsten; Kindred, John H.; Ketelhut, Nathaniel B.

    2016-01-01

    Fatigue is one of the most disabling side effects in people with multiple sclerosis. While this fact is well known, there has been a remarkable lack of progress in determining the pathophysiological mechanisms behind fatigue and the establishment of effective treatments. The main barrier has been the lack of a unified definition of fatigue that can be objectively tested with validated experimental models. In this “perspective article” we propose the use of the following model and definition of fatigue: the decrease in physical and/or mental performance that results from changes in central, psychological, and/or peripheral factors. These changes depend on the task being performed, the environmental conditions it is performed in, and the physical and mental capacity of the individual. Our definition and model of fatigue outlines specific causes of fatigue and how it affects task performance. We also outline the strengths and weaknesses of commonly used measures of fatigue and suggest, based on our model and definition, new research strategies, which should include multiple measures. These studies should be mechanistic with validated experimental models to determine changes in central, psychological, and/or peripheral factors that explain fatigue. The proposed new research strategies may lead to the identification of the origins of MS related fatigue and the development of new, more effective treatments. PMID:27531990

  11. Iodized salt consumption in Sudan: present status and future directions.

    PubMed

    Mahfouz, Mohamed Salih; Gaffar, Abdelrahim Mutwakel; Bani, Ibrahim Ahmed

    2012-12-01

    Iodine Deficiency Disorders (IDD) Control Programme in Sudan adopted salt iodization as the long-term strategy in 1994. In 2000, it was found that less than 1% of households were using adequately-iodized salt. The objectives of this study were to: (i) study the coverage and variation of different geographical regions of Sudan regarding access to and use of iodized salt, (ii) explore the possible factors which influence the use of iodized salt, (iii) develop recommendations to help in the implementation of the Universal Salt Iodization (USI) strategy in Sudan. This paper is based on the Sudan Household Health Survey (SHHS) dataset. A total sample of 24,507 households was surveyed, and 18,786 cooking salt samples were tested for iodine levels with rapid salt-testing kits. Nationally, the percentage of households using adequately-iodized salt increased from less than 1% in 2000 to 14.4%, with wide variations between states. Access to iodized salt ranged from 96.9% in Central Equatoria to 0.4% in Gezira state. Population coverage with iodized salt in Sudan remains very low. The awareness and political support for USI programme is very weak. National legislation banning the sale of non-iodized salt does not exist. Utilization of the already-existing laws, like the National Standardization and Metrology Law (2008), to develop a compulsory national salt specification, will accelerate the USI in Sudan.

  12. Vaccines against invasive Salmonella disease: current status and future directions.

    PubMed

    MacLennan, Calman A; Martin, Laura B; Micoli, Francesca

    2014-01-01

    Though primarily enteric pathogens, Salmonellae are responsible for a considerable yet under-appreciated global burden of invasive disease. In South and South-East Asia, this manifests as enteric fever caused by serovars Typhi and Paratyphi A. In sub-Saharan Africa, a similar disease burden results from invasive nontyphoidal Salmonellae, principally serovars Typhimurium and Enteritidis. The existing Ty21a live-attenuated and Vi capsular polysaccharide vaccines target S. Typhi and are not effective in young children where the burden of invasive Salmonella disease is highest. After years of lack of investment in new Salmonella vaccines, recent times have seen increased interest in the area led by emerging-market manufacturers, global health vaccine institutes and academic partners. New glycoconjugate vaccines against S. Typhi are becoming available with similar vaccines against other invasive serovars in development. With other new vaccines under investigation, including live-attenuated, protein-based and GMMA vaccines, now is an exciting time for the Salmonella vaccine field.

  13. Gestational diabetes mellitus. Unresolved issues and future research directions.

    PubMed Central

    Okun, N.; Verma, A.; Demianczuk, N.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To summarize the controversial aspects of gestational diabetes (GDM) and introduce readers to possible relevant research questions that could be examined to provide clinicians with good-quality data on which to base decisions about this relatively common pregnancy-related issue. DATA SOURCES AND STUDY SELECTION: Ongoing review of the English literature related to GDM. Sources were not restricted to prospective, controlled trials, as these are severely limited in number. SYNTHESIS: Controversial issues include the relevance of GDM to clinically meaningful outcomes in the index pregnancy, the effectiveness of current therapy in altering these outcomes, and the resultant questionable relevance of routine screening and diagnosis of an entity with as yet uncertain significance in pregnancy. CONCLUSIONS: Suggested questions to be addressed in multicentre controlled trials include randomization with respect to screening and with respect to treatment. Until such trials are completed, continuing with a standard approach to screening, diagnosis, and treatment, such as that suggested by the third international workshop on GDM, is recommended. PMID:9626427

  14. Surveys on sexual health: recent developments and future directions

    PubMed Central

    Wellings, K.; Cleland, J.

    2001-01-01

    The increasingly widespread adoption of the term sexual health reflects a move away from the medicalisation of this specialty. The focus has shifted from clinical practice to lifestyle and behaviour; from clinician to client, and from treatment to prevention. This article discusses these themes, identifying their implications for sexual health research. Recent times have seen, for example, a growing number of studies combining biological and behavioural measures conducted by interdisciplinary teams able to combine biomedical measurements of morbidity with insights into the subjective interpretations of symptoms and consequences. Considerable progress has been made, too, in mounting community based studies, and much has been achieved in gaining compliance and refining sampling methods. Integrated sexual health services, encompassing more than contraceptive or prophylactic service provision, have provided the impetus to investigation of the costs and benefits of coordinated family planning and genitourinary medicine services. Despite its broader focus, there remain opportunities for sexual health research to expand its remit. Studies to date may have focused too narrowly on pathological, to the neglect of health enhancing, consequences of sexual behaviour. Key Words: surveys; sexual health PMID:11463921

  15. Understanding idiopathic intracranial hypertension: mechanisms, management, and future directions.

    PubMed

    Markey, Keira A; Mollan, Susan P; Jensen, Rigmor H; Sinclair, Alexandra J

    2016-01-01

    Idiopathic intracranial hypertension is a disorder characterised by raised intracranial pressure that predominantly affects young, obese women. Pathogenesis has not been fully elucidated, but several causal factors have been proposed. Symptoms can include headaches, visual loss, pulsatile tinnitus, and back and neck pain, but the clinical presentation is highly variable. Although few studies have been done to support evidence-based management, several recent advances have the potential to enhance understanding of the causes of the disease and to guide treatment decisions. Investigators of the Idiopathic Intracranial Hypertension Treatment Trial (IIHTT) reported beneficial effects of acetazolamide in patients with mild visual loss. Studies have also established weight loss as an effective disease-modifying treatment, and further clinical trials to investigate new treatments are underway. The incidence of idiopathic intracranial hypertension is expected to increase as rates of obesity increase; efforts to reduce diagnostic delays and identify new, effective approaches to treatment will be key to meeting the needs of a growing number of patients.

  16. The human proteome project: current state and future direction.

    PubMed

    Legrain, Pierre; Aebersold, Ruedi; Archakov, Alexander; Bairoch, Amos; Bala, Kumar; Beretta, Laura; Bergeron, John; Borchers, Christoph H; Corthals, Garry L; Costello, Catherine E; Deutsch, Eric W; Domon, Bruno; Hancock, William; He, Fuchu; Hochstrasser, Denis; Marko-Varga, György; Salekdeh, Ghasem Hosseini; Sechi, Salvatore; Snyder, Michael; Srivastava, Sudhir; Uhlén, Mathias; Wu, Cathy H; Yamamoto, Tadashi; Paik, Young-Ki; Omenn, Gilbert S

    2011-07-01

    After the successful completion of the Human Genome Project, the Human Proteome Organization has recently officially launched a global Human Proteome Project (HPP), which is designed to map the entire human protein set. Given the lack of protein-level evidence for about 30% of the estimated 20,300 protein-coding genes, a systematic global effort will be necessary to achieve this goal with respect to protein abundance, distribution, subcellular localization, interaction with other biomolecules, and functions at specific time points. As a general experimental strategy, HPP research groups will use the three working pillars for HPP: mass spectrometry, antibody capture, and bioinformatics tools and knowledge bases. The HPP participants will take advantage of the output and cross-analyses from the ongoing Human Proteome Organization initiatives and a chromosome-centric protein mapping strategy, termed C-HPP, with which many national teams are currently engaged. In addition, numerous biologically driven and disease-oriented projects will be stimulated and facilitated by the HPP. Timely planning with proper governance of HPP will deliver a protein parts list, reagents, and tools for protein studies and analyses, and a stronger basis for personalized medicine. The Human Proteome Organization urges each national research funding agency and the scientific community at large to identify their preferred pathways to participate in aspects of this highly promising project in a HPP consortium of funders and investigators.

  17. Detecting biological responses to flow management: Missed opportunities; future directions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Souchon, Y.; Sabaton, C.; Deibel, R.; Reiser, D.; Kershner, J.; Gard, M.; Katopodis, C.; Leonard, P.; Poff, N.L.; Miller, W.J.; Lamb, B.L.

    2008-01-01

    The conclusions of numerous stream restoration assessments all around the world are extremely clear and convergent: there has been insufficient appropriate monitoring to improve general knowledge and expertise. In the specialized field of instream flow alterations, we consider that there are several opportunities comparable to full-size experiments. Hundreds of water management decisions related to instream flow releases have been made by government agencies, native peoples, and non-governmental organizations around the world. These decisions are based on different methods and assumptions and many flow regimes have been adopted by formal or informal rules and regulations. Although, there have been significant advances in analytical capabilities, there has been very little validation monitoring of actual outcomes or research related to the response of aquatic dependent species to new flow regimes. In order to be able to detect these kinds of responses and to better guide decision, a general design template is proposed. The main steps of this template are described and discussed, in terms of objectives, hypotheses, variables, time scale, data management, and information, in the spirit of adaptive management. The adoption of such a framework is not always easy, due to differing interests of actors for the results, regarding the duration of monitoring, nature of funding and differential timetables between facilities managers and technicians. Nevertheless, implementation of such a framework could help researchers and practitioners to coordinate and federate their efforts to improve the general knowledge of the links between the habitat dynamics and biological aquatic responses. Copyright ?? 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Family treatment of child anxiety: outcomes, limitations and future directions.

    PubMed

    Creswell, Cathy; Cartwright-Hatton, Sam

    2007-09-01

    Anxiety of childhood is a common and serious condition. The past decade has seen an increase in treatment-focussed research, with recent trials tending to give greater attention to parents in the treatment process. This review examines the efficacy of family-based cognitive behaviour therapy and attempts to delineate some of the factors that might have an impact on its efficacy. The choice and timing of outcome measure, age and gender of the child, level of parental anxiety, severity and type of child anxiety and treatment format and content are scrutinised. The main conclusions are necessarily tentative, but it seems likely that Family Cognitive Behaviour Therapy (FCBT) is superior to no treatment, and, for some outcome measures, also superior to Child Cognitive Behaviour Therapy (CCBT). Where FCBT is successful, the results are consistently maintained at follow-up. It appears that where a parent is anxious, and this is not addressed, outcomes are less good. However, for children of anxious parents, FCBT is probably more effective than CCBT. What is most clear is that large, well-designed studies, examining these factors alone and in combination, are now needed.

  19. Insulin Resistance in Children: Consensus, Perspective, and Future Directions

    PubMed Central

    Levy-Marchal, Claire; Arslanian, Silva; Cutfield, Wayne; Sinaiko, Alan; Druet, Celine; Marcovecchio, M. Loredana; Chiarelli, Francesco

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Emerging data indicate that insulin resistance is common among children and adolescents and is related to cardiometabolic risk, therefore requiring consideration early in life. However, there is still confusion on how to define insulin resistance, how to measure it, what its risk factors are, and whether there are effective strategies to prevent and treat it. A consensus conference was organized in order to clarify these points. Participants: The consensus was internationally supported by all the major scientific societies in pediatric endocrinology and 37 participants. Evidence: An independent and systematic search of the literature was conducted to identify key articles relating to insulin resistance in children. Consensus Process: The conference was divided into five themes and working groups: background and definition; methods of measurement and screening; risk factors and consequences; prevention; and treatment. Each group selected key issues, searched the literature, and developed a draft document. During a 3-d meeting, these papers were debated and finalized by each group before presenting them to the full forum for further discussion and agreement. Conclusions: Given the current childhood obesity epidemic, insulin resistance in children is an important issue confronting health care professionals. There are no clear criteria to define insulin resistance in children, and surrogate markers such as fasting insulin are poor measures of insulin sensitivity. Based on current screening criteria and methodology, there is no justification for screening children for insulin resistance. Lifestyle interventions including diet and exercise can improve insulin sensitivity, whereas drugs should be implemented only in selected cases. PMID:20829185

  20. Future Directions In Image Management: Medical And Practical Considerations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erickson, J. J.; Eikman, E. A.; Shaff, M. I.; James, A. E.

    1983-05-01

    The volume of data produced by new imaging modalities has far outstripped the ability of most departments to effectively utilize the images produced. The problem is further exacerbated by the fact that the diagnostic procedures have become progressively less invasive and traumatic and are being applied to an ever larger patient population. The decrease in cost and the rise in technological capability of computer systems in recent years has provided imaging specialists with the opportunity to create network systems for the storage and recall of diagnostic images. This paper examines the philosophy of image storage from the standpoint of the medical, legal, and practical questions. A proposal is made that not all images are equal and that some deserve to be archived for longer periods than others. The practical problem of using a video display for diagnostic readout, aside from the classical questions of resolution and response time, is discussed. A proposal is also made that two data bases might be created; one which provides rapid access to the clinically relevant images (i.e., the two or three that demonstrate pathology) and one which may require much longer to access, but which contains all the archived data.

  1. Soil ecotoxicology: state of the art and future directions.

    PubMed

    van Gestel, Cornelis A M

    2012-01-01

    Developments in soil ecotoxicology started with observations on pesticide effects on soil invertebrates in the 1960s. To support the risk assessment of chemicals, in the 1980s and 1990s development of toxicity tests was the main issue, including single species tests and also more realistic test systems like model ecosystems and field tests focusing on structural and functional endpoints. In the mean time, awareness grew about issues like bioavailability and routes of exposure, while biochemical endpoints (biomarkers) were proposed as sensitive and potential early-warning tools. In recent years, interactions between different chemicals (mixture toxicity) and between chemical and other stressors attracted scientific interest. With the development of molecular biology, omics tools are gaining increasing interest, while the ecological relevance of exposure and effects is translating into concepts like (chemical) stress ecology, ecological vulnerability and trait-based approaches. This contribution addresses historical developments and focuses on current issues in soil ecotoxicology. It is concluded that soil ecotoxicological risk assessment would benefit from extending the available battery of toxicity tests by including e.g. isopods, by paying more attention to exposure, bioavailability and toxicokinetics, and by developing more insight into the ecology of soil organisms to support better understanding of exposure and long-term consequences of chemical exposure at the individual, population and community level. Ecotoxicogenomics tools may also be helpful in this, but will require considerable further research before they can be applied in the practice of soil ecotoxicological risk assessment.

  2. Tuberculosis Diagnostics: State of the Art and Future Directions.

    PubMed

    Pai, Madhukar; Nicol, Mark P; Boehme, Catharina C

    2016-10-01

    Rapid and accurate diagnosis is critical for timely initiation of anti-tuberculosis (TB) treatment, but many people with TB (or TB symptoms) do not have access to adequate initial diagnosis. In many countries, TB diagnosis is still reliant on sputum microscopy, a test with known limitations. However, new diagnostics are starting to change the landscape. Stimulated, in part, by the success and rollout of Xpert MTB/RIF, an automated, molecular test, there is now considerable interest in new technologies. The landscape looks promising with a pipeline of new tools, particularly molecular diagnostics, and well over 50 companies actively engaged in product development, and many tests have been reviewed by WHO for policy endorsement. However, new diagnostics are yet to reach scale, and there needs to be greater convergence between diagnostics development and the development of shorter TB drug regimens. Another concern is the relative absence of non-sputum-based diagnostics in the pipeline for children, and of biomarker tests for triage, cure, and latent TB progression. Increased investments are necessary to support biomarker discovery, validation, and translation into clinical tools. While transformative tools are being developed, high-burden countries will need to improve the efficiency of their health care delivery systems, ensure better uptake of new technologies, and achieve greater linkages across the TB and HIV care continuum. While we wait for next-generation technologies, national TB programs must scale up the best diagnostics currently available, and use implementation science to get the maximum impact.

  3. Genistein and cancer: current status, challenges, and future directions.

    PubMed

    Spagnuolo, Carmela; Russo, Gian Luigi; Orhan, Ilkay Erdogan; Habtemariam, Solomon; Daglia, Maria; Sureda, Antoni; Nabavi, Seyed Fazel; Devi, Kasi Pandima; Loizzo, Monica Rosa; Tundis, Rosa; Nabavi, Seyed Mohammad

    2015-07-01

    Primary prevention through lifestyle interventions is a cost-effective alternative for preventing a large burden of chronic and degenerative diseases, including cancer, which is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. In the past decade, epidemiologic and preclinical evidence suggested that polyphenolic phytochemicals present in many plant foods possess chemopreventive properties against several cancer forms. Thus, there has been increasing interest in the potential cancer chemopreventive agents obtained from natural sources, such as polyphenols, that may represent a new, affordable approach to curb the increasing burden of cancer throughout the world. Several epidemiologic studies showed a relation between a soy-rich diet and cancer prevention, which was attributed to the presence of a phenolic compound, genistein, present in soy-based foods. Genistein acts as a chemotherapeutic agent against different types of cancer, mainly by altering apoptosis, the cell cycle, and angiogenesis and inhibiting metastasis. Targeting caspases, B cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2)-associated X protein (Bax), Bcl-2, kinesin-like protein 20A (KIF20A), extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2), nuclear transcription factor κB (NF-κB), mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), inhibitor of NF-κB (IκB), Wingless and integration 1 β-catenin (Wnt/β-catenin), and phosphoinositide 3 kinase/Akt (PI3K/Akt) signaling pathways may act as the molecular mechanisms of the anticancer, therapeutic effects of genistein. Genistein also shows synergistic behavior with well-known anticancer drugs, such as adriamycin, docetaxel, and tamoxifen, suggesting a potential role in combination therapy. This review critically analyzes the available literature on the therapeutic role of genistein on different types of cancer, focusing on its chemical features, plant food sources, bioavailability, and safety.

  4. Future Directions of Structural Mass Spectrometry using Hydroxyl Radical Footprinting

    SciTech Connect

    J Kiselar; M Chance

    2011-12-31

    Hydroxyl radical protein footprinting coupled to mass spectrometry has been developed over the last decade and has matured to a powerful method for analyzing protein structure and dynamics. It has been successfully applied in the analysis of protein structure, protein folding, protein dynamics, and protein-protein and protein-DNA interactions. Using synchrotron radiolysis, exposure of proteins to a 'white' X-ray beam for milliseconds provides sufficient oxidative modification to surface amino acid side chains, which can be easily detected and quantified by mass spectrometry. Thus, conformational changes in proteins or protein complexes can be examined using a time-resolved approach, which would be a valuable method for the study of macromolecular dynamics. In this review, we describe a new application of hydroxyl radical protein footprinting to probe the time evolution of the calcium-dependent conformational changes of gelsolin on the millisecond timescale. The data suggest a cooperative transition as multiple sites in different molecular subdomains have similar rates of conformational change. These findings demonstrate that time-resolved protein footprinting is suitable for studies of protein dynamics that occur over periods ranging from milliseconds to seconds. In this review, we also show how the structural resolution and sensitivity of the technology can be improved as well. The hydroxyl radical varies in its reactivity to different side chains by over two orders of magnitude, thus oxidation of amino acid side chains of lower reactivity are more rarely observed in such experiments. Here we demonstrate that the selected reaction monitoring (SRM)-based method can be utilized for quantification of oxidized species, improving the signal-to-noise ratio. This expansion of the set of oxidized residues of lower reactivity will improve the overall structural resolution of the technique. This approach is also suggested as a basis for developing hypothesis

  5. Genistein and Cancer: Current Status, Challenges, and Future Directions12

    PubMed Central

    Spagnuolo, Carmela; Russo, Gian Luigi; Orhan, Ilkay Erdogan; Habtemariam, Solomon; Daglia, Maria; Sureda, Antoni; Nabavi, Seyed Fazel; Devi, Kasi Pandima; Loizzo, Monica Rosa; Tundis, Rosa; Nabavi, Seyed Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    Primary prevention through lifestyle interventions is a cost-effective alternative for preventing a large burden of chronic and degenerative diseases, including cancer, which is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. In the past decade, epidemiologic and preclinical evidence suggested that polyphenolic phytochemicals present in many plant foods possess chemopreventive properties against several cancer forms. Thus, there has been increasing interest in the potential cancer chemopreventive agents obtained from natural sources, such as polyphenols, that may represent a new, affordable approach to curb the increasing burden of cancer throughout the world. Several epidemiologic studies showed a relation between a soy-rich diet and cancer prevention, which was attributed to the presence of a phenolic compound, genistein, present in soy-based foods. Genistein acts as a chemotherapeutic agent against different types of cancer, mainly by altering apoptosis, the cell cycle, and angiogenesis and inhibiting metastasis. Targeting caspases, B cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2)–associated X protein (Bax), Bcl-2, kinesin-like protein 20A (KIF20A), extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2), nuclear transcription factor κB (NF-κB), mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), inhibitor of NF-κB (IκB), Wingless and integration 1 β-catenin (Wnt/β-catenin), and phosphoinositide 3 kinase/Akt (PI3K/Akt) signaling pathways may act as the molecular mechanisms of the anticancer, therapeutic effects of genistein. Genistein also shows synergistic behavior with well-known anticancer drugs, such as adriamycin, docetaxel, and tamoxifen, suggesting a potential role in combination therapy. This review critically analyzes the available literature on the therapeutic role of genistein on different types of cancer, focusing on its chemical features, plant food sources, bioavailability, and safety. PMID:26178025

  6. Pancreas cancer in Mississippi: present challenges and future directions.

    PubMed

    Helling, Thomas S

    2010-04-01

    Pancreatic cancer remains a deadly disease. Currently, the only hope for cure is surgical resection at an early stage of the disease. However, there is evidence that many individuals do not receive this treatment, perhaps because of health care disparities. Mississippi, because of its socioeconomic composition, has been the focus of concern for health care disparities. In order to determine whether such disparities exist in Mississippi for pancreatic cancer, a retrospective analysis was done from 2000 2006 of case diagnosis, treatment, and mortality from this disease. The Mississippi Cancer Registry, the American College of Surgeons (ACS) National Cancer Data Base (NCDB), and the National Cancer Institute (NCI) Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) program were surveyed. Outcomes at all 12 ACS Commission on Cancer (CoC) accredited hospitals within the state were compared to the NCDB nationwide (n=1331 hospitals). In 2006 Mississippi had the highest death rate from pancreas cancer in the nation (12.7/100,000). Age-adjusted incidence by county ranged to a high of 26.91/100,000. Fifty-one percent of patients who died from pancreatic cancer in the state were treated at ACS CoC hospitals. The fate of the other 49% is not known. Of the patients tracked at CoC hospitals, there was essentially no significant difference with respect to age distribution, stage at diagnosis, or first treatment modalities when compared to NCDB nationwide CoC data. There were fewer patients surviving two years with locally advanced disease compared to national figures. Of concern was the large number of patients whose treatment for pancreatic cancer is unknown. It is incumbent on health care providers in the state to develop a system of care for pancreatic cancer that is accessible, inclusive, and comprehensive.

  7. Graphlet-based Characterization of Directed Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarajlić, Anida; Malod-Dognin, Noël; Yaveroğlu, Ömer Nebil; Pržulj, Nataša

    2016-10-01

    We are flooded with large-scale, dynamic, directed, networked data. Analyses requiring exact comparisons between networks are computationally intractable, so new methodologies are sought. To analyse directed networks, we extend graphlets (small induced sub-graphs) and their degrees to directed data. Using these directed graphlets, we generalise state-of-the-art network distance measures (RGF, GDDA and GCD) to directed networks and show their superiority for comparing directed networks. Also, we extend the canonical correlation analysis framework that enables uncovering the relationships between the wiring patterns around nodes in a directed network and their expert annotations. On directed World Trade Networks (WTNs), our methodology allows uncovering the core-broker-periphery structure of the WTN, predicting the economic attributes of a country, such as its gross domestic product, from its wiring patterns in the WTN for up-to ten years in the future. It does so by enabling us to track the dynamics of a country’s positioning in the WTN over years. On directed metabolic networks, our framework yields insights into preservation of enzyme function from the network wiring patterns rather than from sequence data. Overall, our methodology enables advanced analyses of directed networked data from any area of science, allowing domain-specific interpretation of a directed network’s topology.

  8. Graphlet-based Characterization of Directed Networks

    PubMed Central

    Sarajlić, Anida; Malod-Dognin, Noël; Yaveroğlu, Ömer Nebil; Pržulj, Nataša

    2016-01-01

    We are flooded with large-scale, dynamic, directed, networked data. Analyses requiring exact comparisons between networks are computationally intractable, so new methodologies are sought. To analyse directed networks, we extend graphlets (small induced sub-graphs) and their degrees to directed data. Using these directed graphlets, we generalise state-of-the-art network distance measures (RGF, GDDA and GCD) to directed networks and show their superiority for comparing directed networks. Also, we extend the canonical correlation analysis framework that enables uncovering the relationships between the wiring patterns around nodes in a directed network and their expert annotations. On directed World Trade Networks (WTNs), our methodology allows uncovering the core-broker-periphery structure of the WTN, predicting the economic attributes of a country, such as its gross domestic product, from its wiring patterns in the WTN for up-to ten years in the future. It does so by enabling us to track the dynamics of a country’s positioning in the WTN over years. On directed metabolic networks, our framework yields insights into preservation of enzyme function from the network wiring patterns rather than from sequence data. Overall, our methodology enables advanced analyses of directed networked data from any area of science, allowing domain-specific interpretation of a directed network’s topology. PMID:27734973

  9. The ReaxFF reactive force-field: development, applications and future directions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senftle, Thomas P.; Hong, Sungwook; Islam, Md Mahbubul; Kylasa, Sudhir B.; Zheng, Yuanxia; Shin, Yun Kyung; Junkermeier, Chad; Engel-Herbert, Roman; Janik, Michael J.; Aktulga, Hasan Metin; Verstraelen, Toon; Grama, Ananth; van Duin, Adri C. T.

    2016-03-01

    The reactive force-field (ReaxFF) interatomic potential is a powerful computational tool for exploring, developing and optimizing material properties. Methods based on the principles of quantum mechanics (QM), while offering valuable theoretical guidance at the electronic level, are often too computationally intense for simulations that consider the full dynamic evolution of a system. Alternatively, empirical interatomic potentials that are based on classical principles require significantly fewer computational resources, which enables simulations to better describe dynamic processes over longer timeframes and on larger scales. Such methods, however, typically require a predefined connectivity between atoms, precluding simulations that involve reactive events. The ReaxFF method was developed to help bridge this gap. Approaching the gap from the classical side, ReaxFF casts the empirical interatomic potential within a bond-order formalism, thus implicitly describing chemical bonding without expensive QM calculations. This article provides an overview of the development, application, and future directions of the ReaxFF method.

  10. Prevalence, Diagnosis and Management of Pancreatic Cystic Neoplasms: Current Status and Future Directions

    PubMed Central

    Farrell, James J.

    2015-01-01

    Cystic neoplasms of the pancreas are found with increasing prevalence, especially in elderly asymptomatic individuals. Although the overall risk of malignancy is very low, the presence of these pancreatic cysts is associated with a large degree of anxiety and further medical investigation due to concerns about malignancy. This review discusses the different cystic neoplasms of the pancreas and reports diagnostic strategies based on clinical features and imaging data. Surgical and nonsurgical management of the most common cystic neoplasms, based on the recently revised Sendai guidelines, is also discussed, with special reference to intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (IPMN; particularly the branch duct variant), which is the lesion most frequently identified incidentally. IPMN pathology, its risk for development into pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma, the pros and cons of current guidelines for management, and the potential role of endoscopic ultrasound in determining cancer risk are discussed. Finally, surgical treatment, strategies for surveillance of pancreatic cysts, and possible future directions are discussed. PMID:26343068

  11. Status and future directions for advanced accelerator research - conventional and non-conventional collider concepts

    SciTech Connect

    Siemann, R.H.

    1997-01-01

    The relationship between advanced accelerator research and future directions for particle physics is discussed. Comments are made about accelerator research trends in hadron colliders, muon colliders, and e{sup +}3{sup {minus}} linear colliders.

  12. Epilogue: Understanding Children Who Have Been Affected by Maltreatment and Prenatal Alcohol Exposure--Future Directions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hyter, Yvette D.; Way, Ineke

    2007-01-01

    This epilogue summarizes the six articles presented in the clinical forum focused on understanding children who have been affected by maltreatment and prenatal alcohol exposure. It presents common themes that emerged among the articles and future research directions.

  13. A review of selected longitudinal studies on aging: past findings and future directions.

    PubMed

    Stanziano, Damian C; Whitehurst, Michael; Graham, Patricia; Roos, Bernard A

    2010-10-01

    A review of the 51 longitudinal aging studies currently in the National Institute on Aging Database of Longitudinal Studies was conducted to identify major information gaps and areas for future research. Database information, which included posted study summaries, study details from principal investigators or directors of these projects, and more than 300 recent publications based on the studies, were reviewed to identify significant findings of each study. This review summarizes the main findings and identifies the need for future work within six broad study topics: cognitive function, socioeconomic status, health and physical performance, morbidity and mortality predictors, healthcare costs, and genetics. The percentages of these 51 studies addressing the four most common topics are as follows: cognitive function (44%), health and physical performance (51%), socioeconomic factors (55%), and predictors of morbidity/mortality (63%). Important areas not addressed to any major degree were healthcare costs and genetics. Only two studies reported findings on genetics or epigenetics of human aging, and only a single study reported on associations between aging and financial costs, especially healthcare costs, which have been postulated to be important determinants of care and life quality. The results of this review, together with the specific directions proposed by other investigators with longitudinal study expertise, will inform the strategic planning of future long-term studies of aging.

  14. What the future holds for ectodermal dysplasias: future research and treatment directions.

    PubMed

    Slavkin, Harold C

    2009-09-01

    A contrarian view suggests that the ectodermal dysplasias, including more than 200 different disorders, represent clinical variability and molecular heterogeneity as well as complex multigene heritable conditions often characterized by dysmorphogenesis of derivatives of embryonic ectoderm and beyond. Controversy exists over which syndromes do or do not belong in the classification of the clinical features that characterize ectodermal dysplasias. For example, Ellis-van Creveld syndrome is characterized by abnormalities of the teeth and hair, as well as of the skeleton and the cardiovascular system. Precision in diagnosis often is a preamble for improved patient diagnosis, treatment and desired outcomes. In tandem, molecular studies of complex epithelial-mesenchymal interactions required for ectodermal derivatives (e.g., hair, nail, skin, teeth, and exocrine glands) continue to identify and explain many signal transduction pathways and networks related to ectodermal dysplasias. Meanwhile, major international investments in fundamental biomedical research continue to yield significant benefits to the larger society. The convergence of informatics, nanotechnology, genomics, and epigenetic studies with clinical medicine and dentistry promise major progress for special needs patients such as ectodermal dysplasias. For example, investments in the molecular biology of genes and their regulation and function now provide more than 30 candidates for specific biomarkers to improve diagnosis, prognosis, treatments, therapeutics, and biomaterials for ectodermal dysplasias. Innovations in high throughput genotyping, gene mapping, single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), interference RNA treatments, bioimaging, tissue engineering and related biomimetic approaches to design and fabricate biomaterials, offer enormous promise for the future of ectodermal dysplasias.

  15. Genetic toxicology in the 21st century: Reflections and future directions

    EPA Science Inventory

    A symposium at the 40th anniversary of the Environmental Mutagen Society, held from October 24–28, 2009 in St. Louis, MO, surveyed the current status and future directions of genetic toxicology. This article summarizes the presentations and provides a perspective on the future. A...

  16. Risk assessment of the impact of future volcanic eruptions on direct normal irradiance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pagh Nielsen, Kristian; Blanc, Philippe; Vignola, Frank

    2016-04-01

    Stratospheric sulfate aerosols from Plinian volcanic eruptions affect the solar surface irradiance forcing by scattering the solar radiation as it passes through the Earth atmosphere. Since these aerosols have high single scattering albedos they mostly affect direct normal irradiances (DNI). The effect on global horizontal irradiance (GHI) is less because some of the scattered irradiance reaches the surface as diffuse horizontal irradiance (DHI) and adds to the GHI. DNI is the essential input to concentrating solar thermal electric power (CSP/STE) and concentrated photovoltaic (CPV) plants. Therefore, an assessment of the future potential variability in the DNI resource caused by Plinian volcanic eruptions is desirable. Based on investigations of the El Chichón and Pinatubo eruptions, the microphysical, and thereby optical, properties of the stratospheric sulfate aerosols are well known. Given these, radiative transfer computations of the DNI resource can be made. The DNI resource includes forward scattered irradiance within the acceptance angle of a given CSP/STE or CPV plant. The rarity of Plinian eruptions poses a challenge for assessing the statistical risk of future eruptions and its potential of risk in the electricity production. Here we present and discuss methods to account for these potential volcanic eruptions for technical and economical studies including scenarios with very high probability of exceedance (e.g. P99 scenarios) for risk assessment of DNI-based solar power projects.

  17. Direct Observation of Teacher and Student Behavior in School Settings: Trends, Issues and Future Directions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Timothy J.; Scott, Terrance M.; Wehby, Joseph H.; Wills, Howard P.

    2014-01-01

    Across the modern history of the field of special education and emotional/behavioral disorders (EBD), direct observation of student and educator behavior has been an essential component of the diagnostic process, student progress monitoring, and establishing functional and statistical relationships within research. This article provides an…

  18. Developing Self-Directed Executive Functioning: Recent Findings and Future Directions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barker, Jane E.; Munakata, Yuko

    2015-01-01

    How do children become increasingly self-directed across development, achieving their goals without help from others? How might such developments be impacted by societal changes in how children spend their time? Children's abilities to achieve their goals are supported by developing executive functions (EFs), cognitive processes that predict…

  19. Oncologic Photodynamic Therapy: Basic Principles, Current Clinical Status and Future Directions

    PubMed Central

    van Straten, Demian; Mashayekhi, Vida; de Bruijn, Henriette S.; Oliveira, Sabrina; Robinson, Dominic J.

    2017-01-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a clinically approved cancer therapy, based on a photochemical reaction between a light activatable molecule or photosensitizer, light, and molecular oxygen. When these three harmless components are present together, reactive oxygen species are formed. These can directly damage cells and/or vasculature, and induce inflammatory and immune responses. PDT is a two-stage procedure, which starts with photosensitizer administration followed by a locally directed light exposure, with the aim of confined tumor destruction. Since its regulatory approval, over 30 years ago, PDT has been the subject of numerous studies and has proven to be an effective form of cancer therapy. This review provides an overview of the clinical trials conducted over the last 10 years, illustrating how PDT is applied in the clinic today. Furthermore, examples from ongoing clinical trials and the most recent preclinical studies are presented, to show the directions, in which PDT is headed, in the near and distant future. Despite the clinical success reported, PDT is still currently underutilized in the clinic. We also discuss the factors that hamper the exploration of this effective therapy and what should be changed to render it a more effective and more widely available option for patients. PMID:28218708

  20. Progress in Aluminum Electrolysis Control and Future Direction for Smart Aluminum Electrolysis Plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hongliang; Li, Tianshuang; Li, Jie; Yang, Shuai; Zou, Zhong

    2016-10-01

    The industrial aluminum reduction cell is an electrochemistry reactor that operates under high temperatures and highly corrosive conditions. However, these conditions have restricted the measurement of key control parameters, making the control of aluminum reduction cells a difficult problem in the industry. Because aluminum electrolysis control systems have a significant economic influence, substantial research has been conducted on control algorithms, control systems and information systems for aluminum reduction cells. This article first summarizes the development of control systems and then focuses on the progress made since 2000, including alumina concentration control, temperature control and electrolyte molecular ratio control, fault diagnosis, cell condition prediction and control system expansion. Based on these studies, the concept of a smart aluminum electrolysis plant is proposed. The frame construction, key problems and current progress are introduced. Finally, several future directions are discussed.

  1. Progress in Aluminum Electrolysis Control and Future Direction for Smart Aluminum Electrolysis Plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hongliang; Li, Tianshuang; Li, Jie; Yang, Shuai; Zou, Zhong

    2017-02-01

    The industrial aluminum reduction cell is an electrochemistry reactor that operates under high temperatures and highly corrosive conditions. However, these conditions have restricted the measurement of key control parameters, making the control of aluminum reduction cells a difficult problem in the industry. Because aluminum electrolysis control systems have a significant economic influence, substantial research has been conducted on control algorithms, control systems and information systems for aluminum reduction cells. This article first summarizes the development of control systems and then focuses on the progress made since 2000, including alumina concentration control, temperature control and electrolyte molecular ratio control, fault diagnosis, cell condition prediction and control system expansion. Based on these studies, the concept of a smart aluminum electrolysis plant is proposed. The frame construction, key problems and current progress are introduced. Finally, several future directions are discussed.

  2. Measuring masculinity in research on men of color: findings and future directions.

    PubMed

    Griffith, Derek M; Gunter, Katie; Watkins, Daphne C

    2012-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the association between masculinity and the health of US men of color aged 18 years and older. We identified 22 population-based studies that included a measure of masculinity and a measure of health behavior, mental health, or physical health. The associations between masculinity and health were complex and varied by construct and health outcome, though they generally were significant in the hypothesized directions. Future research should explore the centrality of masculinity versus other identities and characteristics, how the relationship between masculinity and health varies by health outcome, and the identification of the conceptions and aspects of masculinity that are most relevant to and associated with specific health behaviors and health outcomes.

  3. Developing technology-enhanced active learning for medical education: challenges, solutions, and future directions.

    PubMed

    McCoy, Lise; Pettit, Robin K; Lewis, Joy H; Bennett, Thomas; Carrasco, Noel; Brysacz, Stanley; Makin, Inder Raj S; Hutman, Ryan; Schwartz, Frederic N

    2015-04-01

    Growing up in an era of video games and Web-based applications has primed current medical students to expect rapid, interactive feedback. To address this need, the A.T. Still University-School of Osteopathic Medicine in Arizona (Mesa) has developed and integrated a variety of approaches using technology-enhanced active learning for medical education (TEAL-MEd) into its curriculum. Over the course of 3 years (2010-2013), the authors facilitated more than 80 implementations of games and virtual patient simulations into the education of 550 osteopathic medical students. The authors report on 4 key aspects of the TEAL-MEd initiative, including purpose, portfolio of tools, progress to date regarding challenges and solutions, and future directions. Lessons learned may be of benefit to medical educators at academic and clinical training sites who wish to implement TEAL-MEd activities.

  4. Consciousness in humans and non-human animals: recent advances and future directions

    PubMed Central

    Boly, Melanie; Seth, Anil K.; Wilke, Melanie; Ingmundson, Paul; Baars, Bernard; Laureys, Steven; Edelman, David B.; Tsuchiya, Naotsugu

    2013-01-01

    This joint article reflects the authors' personal views regarding noteworthy advances in the neuroscience of consciousness in the last 10 years, and suggests what we feel may be promising future directions. It is based on a small conference at the Samoset Resort in Rockport, Maine, USA, in July of 2012, organized by the Mind Science Foundation of San Antonio, Texas. Here, we summarize recent advances in our understanding of subjectivity in humans and other animals, including empirical, applied, technical, and conceptual insights. These include the evidence for the importance of fronto-parietal connectivity and of “top-down” processes, both of which enable information to travel across distant cortical areas effectively, as well as numerous dissociations between consciousness and cognitive functions, such as attention, in humans. In addition, we describe the development of mental imagery paradigms, which made it possible to identify covert awareness in non-responsive subjects. Non-human animal consciousness research has also witnessed substantial advances on the specific role of cortical areas and higher order thalamus for consciousness, thanks to important technological enhancements. In addition, much progress has been made in the understanding of non-vertebrate cognition relevant to possible conscious states. Finally, major advances have been made in theories of consciousness, and also in their comparison with the available evidence. Along with reviewing these findings, each author suggests future avenues for research in their field of investigation. PMID:24198791

  5. Sea Basing: Past, Present and Future

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Command, were on station at the Indian Ocean island of Diego Garcia . By 1985, the NTPF had grown to 15 vessels.12 The MPS ships were divided into three...Maritime Preposition Force (Future) brief to the Second Marine Expeditionary Force 6 August 2003. CD obtained from MSgt Carrion , II MEF Maritime...amphibious fleet. 45 Maritime Preposition Force (Future) brief to the Second Marine Expeditionary Force 6 August 2003. CD obtained from MSgt Carrion

  6. Current research and future directions in pattern identification: Results of an international symposium.

    PubMed

    Lee, Myeong Soo; Lee, Ju Ah; Alraek, Terje; Bian, Zhao-Xiang; Birch, Stephen; Goto, Hirozo; Jung, Jeeyoun; Kao, Shung-Te; Moon, Sang-Kwan; Park, Bongki; Park, Kyung-Mo; You, Sooseong; Yun, Kyung-Jin; Zaslawski, Chris

    2016-12-01

    A symposium on pattern identification (PI) was held at the Korea Institute of Oriental Medicine (KIOM) on October 2, 2013, in Daejeon, South Korea. This symposium was convened to provide information on the current research in PI as well as suggest future research directions. The participants discussed the nature of PI, possible research questions, strategies and future international collaborations in pattern research. With eight presentations and an extensive panel discussion, the symposium allowed participants to discuss research methods in traditional medicine for PI. One speaker presented the topic, 'Clinical pattern differentiation and contemporary research in PI.' Two speakers presented current trends in research on blood stasis while the remaining five other delegates discussed the research methods and future directions of PI research. The participants engaged in in-depth discussions regarding the nature of PI, potential research questions, strategies and future international collaborations in pattern research.

  7. Direct and indirect effects of climate change on projected future fire regimes in the western United States.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhihua; Wimberly, Michael C

    2016-01-15

    We asked two research questions: (1) What are the relative effects of climate change and climate-driven vegetation shifts on different components of future fire regimes? (2) How does incorporating climate-driven vegetation change into future fire regime projections alter the results compared to projections based only on direct climate effects? We used the western United States (US) as study area to answer these questions. Future (2071-2100) fire regimes were projected using statistical models to predict spatial patterns of occurrence, size and spread for large fires (>400 ha) and a simulation experiment was conducted to compare the direct climatic effects and the indirect effects of climate-driven vegetation change on fire regimes. Results showed that vegetation change amplified climate-driven increases in fire frequency and size and had a larger overall effect on future total burned area in the western US than direct climate effects. Vegetation shifts, which were highly sensitive to precipitation pattern changes, were also a strong determinant of the future spatial pattern of burn rates and had different effects on fire in currently forested and grass/shrub areas. Our results showed that climate-driven vegetation change can exert strong localized effects on fire occurrence and size, which in turn drive regional changes in fire regimes. The effects of vegetation change for projections of the geographic patterns of future fire regimes may be at least as important as the direct effects of climate change, emphasizing that accounting for changing vegetation patterns in models of future climate-fire relationships is necessary to provide accurate projections at continental to global scales.

  8. Biomarker Approaches to Greenhouse Gas Estimations Through the Cenozoic - Recent Developments and Future Directions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badger, M. P. S.; Chalk, T. B.; Foster, G. L.; Bown, P. R.; Gibbs, S.; Sexton, P. F.; Schmidt, D. N.; Palike, H.; Mackensen, A.; Pancost, R. D.

    2015-12-01

    Greenhouse gases (GHGs) are one of the fundamental controls of Earth's climate past, present and future. Significant research effort has been expended attempting to produce accurate and precise reconstructions of GHG concentrations through the geologic past. As Earth System modellers, policy makers and the wider public increasingly rely on paleo-CO2 reconstructions to ground-truth and inform climate models capable of predicting future conditions, reliable estimates have never been more important. Recently doubts have begun to emerge about the accuracy and precision of the key biomarker-based tool for CO2 reconstruction - based on measuring compound specific alkenone δ13C values - in part due to discrepancies between values calculated using this proxy and records generated utilising the boron isotopic composition of planktic foraminifera. Meanwhile, increasing efforts are being expended to investigate other potentially important GHGs such as CH4 during critical intervals in the Cenozoic. Here we present new, coupled alkenone δ13C - boron δ11B CO2 records across a full glacial-interglacial cycle from identical samples at ODP Site 999 in the Caribbean Sea. This allows comparison between the two palaeo-CO2 proxies currently most frequently used, with more direct measurements of atmospheric GHGs from ice cores. Our results suggest that current alkenone-based CO2 estimates may require reassessment - especially at lower levels of atmospheric pCO2. We discuss the implications of this work for our understanding of atmospheric pCO2 evolution through the Cenozoic in the context of new CO2 records from the Eocene. We also introduce new efforts to ground-truth numerical model-derived changes in CH4 with lipid biomarker evidence for methane processing from globally-distributed terrestrial Eocene deposits, and discuss the impact and importance of CH4 on global climate.

  9. Highlights of Recent Developments in the International GPS Service and Perspectives for Future Directions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neilan, R.; Reigber, C.; Springer, T.; Beutler, G.; Kouba, J.

    1999-01-01

    In December 1998, the IGS Governing Board officially changed the name of this IAG service from 'International GPS Service for Geodynamics to simply the 'International GPS Service'. This change of name reflects the fact that today the IGS supports numerous scientific projects outside the traditional geodetic and geodynamic disciplines. A number of IGS projects and working groups have been established, each concentrating on a particular science application, such as the ionosphere, atmosphere, reference frame, precise time transfer, etc. These activities are enabled and simulated by the IGS and directly contribute to the continuing development of the service. The IGS is currently poised to respond to evolving user requirements that focus on timeliness and reliability of data and products, particularly in support of a slate of Low Earth Orbiter missions over the next decade. Perspectives on the future of the IGS will be developed based on current directions as well as anticipated external influences, such as GPS satellite modernization, GLONASS, availability of global communications, and plans for the European GALILEO (Global Navigation Satellite System - GNSS). We will address development of user friendly interfaces and IGS product tutorials.

  10. Psychological Therapies for Auditory Hallucinations (Voices): Current Status and Key Directions for Future Research

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Neil; Hayward, Mark; Peters, Emmanuelle; van der Gaag, Mark; Bentall, Richard P.; Jenner, Jack; Strauss, Clara; Sommer, Iris E.; Johns, Louise C.; Varese, Filippo; García-Montes, José Manuel; Waters, Flavie; Dodgson, Guy; McCarthy-Jones, Simon

    2014-01-01

    This report from the International Consortium on Hallucinations Research considers the current status and future directions in research on psychological therapies targeting auditory hallucinations (hearing voices). Therapy approaches have evolved from behavioral and coping-focused interventions, through formulation-driven interventions using methods from cognitive therapy, to a number of contemporary developments. Recent developments include the application of acceptance- and mindfulness-based approaches, and consolidation of methods for working with connections between voices and views of self, others, relationships and personal history. In this article, we discuss the development of therapies for voices and review the empirical findings. This review shows that psychological therapies are broadly effective for people with positive symptoms, but that more research is required to understand the specific application of therapies to voices. Six key research directions are identified: (1) moving beyond the focus on overall efficacy to understand specific therapeutic processes targeting voices, (2) better targeting psychological processes associated with voices such as trauma, cognitive mechanisms, and personal recovery, (3) more focused measurement of the intended outcomes of therapy, (4) understanding individual differences among voice hearers, (5) extending beyond a focus on voices and schizophrenia into other populations and sensory modalities, and (6) shaping interventions for service implementation. PMID:24936081

  11. Does Arts-Based Research Have a Future?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eisner, Elliot

    2006-01-01

    This article focuses on the future of arts-based research in education. The author contends that there are several features that need to be taken into account if arts-based educational research is to have a future. First, arts-based educational research needs to have a cadre of scholars committed to its exploration--individuals who regard…

  12. The ReaxFF reactive force-field: Development, applications, and future directions

    SciTech Connect

    Senftle, Thomas; Hong, Sungwook; Islam, Md Mahbubul; Kylasa, Sudhir; Zheng, Yuanzia; Shin, Yun Kyung; Junkermeier, Chad; Engel-Herbert, Roman; Janik, Michael J.; Aktulga, Hasan Metin; Verstraelen, Toon; Grama, Ananth; Adri C. T. van Duin

    2016-03-04

    The reactive force-field (ReaxFF) interatomic potential is a powerful computational tool for exploring, developing and optimizing material properties. Methods based on the principles of quantum mechanics (QM), while offering valuable theoretical guidance at the electronic level, are often too computationally intense for simulations that consider the full dynamic evolution of a system. Alternatively, empirical interatomic potentials that are based on classical principles require significantly fewer computational resources, which enables simulations to better describe dynamic processes over longer timeframes and on larger scales. Such methods, however, typically require a predefined connectivity between atoms, precluding simulations that involve reactive events. The ReaxFF method was developed to help bridge this gap. Approaching the gap from the classical side, ReaxFF casts the empirical interatomic potential within a bond-order formalism, thus implicitly describing chemical bonding without expensive QM calculations. As a result, this article provides an overview of the development, application, and future directions of the ReaxFF method.

  13. The ReaxFF reactive force-field: Development, applications, and future directions

    DOE PAGES

    Senftle, Thomas; Hong, Sungwook; Islam, Md Mahbubul; ...

    2016-03-04

    The reactive force-field (ReaxFF) interatomic potential is a powerful computational tool for exploring, developing and optimizing material properties. Methods based on the principles of quantum mechanics (QM), while offering valuable theoretical guidance at the electronic level, are often too computationally intense for simulations that consider the full dynamic evolution of a system. Alternatively, empirical interatomic potentials that are based on classical principles require significantly fewer computational resources, which enables simulations to better describe dynamic processes over longer timeframes and on larger scales. Such methods, however, typically require a predefined connectivity between atoms, precluding simulations that involve reactive events. The ReaxFFmore » method was developed to help bridge this gap. Approaching the gap from the classical side, ReaxFF casts the empirical interatomic potential within a bond-order formalism, thus implicitly describing chemical bonding without expensive QM calculations. As a result, this article provides an overview of the development, application, and future directions of the ReaxFF method.« less

  14. Stem cell technology for tendon regeneration: current status, challenges, and future research directions.

    PubMed

    Lui, Pauline Po Yee

    2015-01-01

    Tendon injuries are a common cause of physical disability. They present a clinical challenge to orthopedic surgeons because injured tendons respond poorly to current treatments without tissue regeneration and the time required for rehabilitation is long. New treatment options are required. Stem cell-based therapies offer great potential to promote tendon regeneration due to their high proliferative, synthetic, and immunomodulatory activities as well as their potential to differentiate to the target cell types and undergo genetic modification. In this review, I first recapped the challenges of tendon repair by reviewing the anatomy of tendon. Next, I discussed the advantages and limitations of using different types of stem cells compared to terminally differentiated cells for tendon tissue engineering. The safety and efficacy of application of stem cells and their modified counterparts for tendon tissue engineering were then summarized after a systematic literature search in PubMed. The challenges and future research directions to enhance, optimize, and standardize stem cell-based therapies for augmenting tendon repair were then discussed.

  15. Current controversies and future directions in basal ganglia research. Integrating basic neuroscience and clinical investigation.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Cairasco, N; Miguel, E C; Rauch, S L; Leckman, J F

    1997-12-01

    This article discusses current controversies and future directions in basal ganglia research, detailing behavioral aspects, anatomic models, neurochemistry, pharmacology, and diagnostic methods as well as surgical techniques. A neuroethologic perspective is highlighted. Furthermore, the relevant literature pertaining to contemporary molecular approaches such as brain microinjections of embryonic or genetically modified cells, for therapeutic purposes and the use of transgenic and knockout animals.

  16. Harnessing the Mastery Learning Literature: Past Efforts, Current Status, & Future Directions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hymel, Glenn M.

    Literature on mastery learning (ML) is reviewed from the perspectives of past efforts, current approaches, and future directions. To date, approaches in managing the ML literature have been in four major areas: (1) the "typing" of ML efforts in the context of a comprehensive literature review; (2) the compilation of state-of-the-art bibliographies…

  17. Status and Future Directions of Online Search Services in Georgia Academic Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mosby, Anne Page; McKinney, Gayle

    This study evolved from a survey of all academic libraries in Georgia, designed to identify current online activities in the state's academic libraries, and to predict future directions and trends. The information was gathered to provide a pool of data for comparison, planning, management, and administration of online services, and to serve as a…

  18. Status and future directions for advanced accelerator research-conventional and non-conventional collider concepts

    SciTech Connect

    Siemann, R.H.

    1997-03-01

    The relationship between advanced accelerator research and future directions for particle physics is discussed. Comments are made about accelerator research trends in hadron colliders, muon colliders, and e{sup +}e{sup {minus}} linear colliders. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  19. Future directions for probing two and three nucleon short-range correlations at high energies

    SciTech Connect

    Frankfurt, Leonid; Sargsian, Misak; Strikman, Mark

    2008-10-13

    We summarize recent progress in the studies of the short-rang correlations (SRC) in nuclei in high energy electron and hadron nucleus scattering and suggest directions for the future high energy studies aimed at establishing detailed structure of two-nucleon SRCs, revealing structure of three nucleon SRC correlations and discovering non-nucleonic degrees of freedom in nuclei.

  20. Early Childhood Inclusion in the United States: Goals, Current Status, and Future Directions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guralnick, Michael J.; Bruder, Mary Beth

    2016-01-01

    The current status and future directions of early childhood inclusion in the United States are discussed from the perspective of 4 key goals: access, accommodations and feasibility, developmental progress, and social integration. Recommendations are put forward to promote inclusion goals emphasizing administrative structures, personnel…

  1. Behavioral and Cognitive-Behavioral Approaches to Chronic Pain: Recent Advances and Future Directions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keefe, Francis J.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Reviews and highlights recent research advances and future research directions concerned with behavioral and cognitive-behavioral approaches to chronic pain. Reviews assessment research on studies of social context of pain, relationship of chronic pain to depression, cognitive variables affecting pain, and comprehensive assessment measures.…

  2. Future Directions in Etiologic, Prevention, and Treatment Research for Eating Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stice, Eric; South, Kelsey; Shaw, Heather

    2012-01-01

    Significant advances have occurred regarding the understanding of etiologic processes that give rise to eating disorders and the design and evaluation of efficacious prevention programs and treatment interventions. Herein we offer suggestions regarding potentially fruitful directions for future research in these areas. We suggest it would be…

  3. Future Directions for Research on the Development and Prevention of Early Conduct Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Daniel S.

    2013-01-01

    This article describes our state of knowledge regarding the development and prevention of conduct problems in early childhood, then identifies directions that would benefit future basic and applied research. Our understanding about the course and risk factors associated with early-developing conduct problems has been significantly enhanced during…

  4. A global model simulation of present and future nitrate aerosols and their direct radiative forcing of climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hauglustaine, D. A.; Balkanski, Y.; Schulz, M.

    2014-03-01

    The ammonia cycle and nitrate particle formation have been introduced in the LMDz-INCA global model. Both fine nitrate particles formation in the accumulation mode and coarse nitrate forming on existing dust and sea-salt particles are considered. The model simulates distributions of nitrates and related species in agreement with previous studies and observations. The calculated present-day total nitrate direct radiative forcing since the pre-industrial is -0.056 W m-2. This forcing has the same magnitude than the forcing associated with organic carbon particles and represents 18% of the sulfate forcing. Fine particles largely dominate the nitrate forcing representing close to 90% of this value. The model has been used to investigate the future changes in nitrates and direct radiative forcing of climate based on snapshot simulations for the four Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) scenarios and for the 2030, 2050 and 2100 time horizons. Due to a decrease in fossil fuel emissions in the future, the concentrations of most of the species involved in the nitrate-ammonium-sulfate system drop by 2100 except for ammonia which originates from agricultural practices and for which emissions significantly increase in the future. Despite the decrease of nitrate surface levels in Europe and Northern America, the global burden of accumulation mode nitrates increases by up to a factor of 2.6 in 2100. This increase in nitrate in the future arises despite decreasing NOx emissions due to increased availability of ammonia to form ammonium nitrate. The total aerosol direct forcing decreases from its present-day value of -0.234 W m-2 to a range of -0.070 to -0.130 W m-2 in 2100 based on the considered scenario. The direct forcing decreases for all aerosols except for nitrates for which the direct negative forcing increases to a range of -0.060 to -0.115 W m-2 in 2100. Including nitrates in the radiative forcing calculations increases the total direct forcing of aerosols by a

  5. Less positive or more negative? Future-directed thinking in mild to moderate depression.

    PubMed

    Bjärehed, Jonas; Sarkohi, Ali; Andersson, Gerhard

    2010-01-01

    Depressed patients have been found to generate fewer anticipated positive future events, but most previous studies have included patients who have either been severely depressed or expressed suicidal thoughts and intents or both. The aim of this study was to compare positive and negative future-directed thinking in persons with mild to moderate depression who did not express suicidal thoughts or intents (n = 20) with a matched group of nondepressed persons (n = 20). The two groups completed the Future-Thinking Task (FTT), in which they were asked to generate positive and negative anticipated future events for three upcoming time periods (1 week, 1 year, and 5-10 years). In the present version of the FTT, both quantitative and qualitative aspects were included (i.e. subjective likelihood and emotional valence). Results showed that depressed persons reported lower scores regarding anticipated future positive events but they did not differ in terms of future negative events. The results are consistent with previous research and further strengthen the notion that reduced anticipation of future positive events is a defining characteristic of depression, even in the absence of suicidal ideation.

  6. Planet Diversity Yields with Space-based Direct Imaging Telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Domagal-Goldman, Shawn; Kopparapu, Ravi Kumar; Hébrard, Eric; Stark, Chris; Robinson, Tyler D.; Roberge, Aki; Mandell, Avi; McElwain, Michael W.; Clampin, Mark; Meadows, Victoria; Arney, Giada; Advanced Technology Large Aperture Space Telescope Science Team, Exoplanet Climate Group

    2016-01-01

    In this presentation, we will estimate the yield for a diversity of planets from future space-based flagship telescopes. We first divvy up planets into categories that are based on current observables, and that should impact the spectra we hope to observe in the future. The two main classification parameters we use here are the size of a planet and the energy flux into the planet's atmosphere. These two parameters are measureable or inferable from present-day observations, and should have a strong influence on future spectroscopy observations from JWST, WFIRST (with a coronagraph and/or starshade), and concept flagship missions that would fly some time after WFIRST. This allows us to calculate "ηplanet" values for each kind of planet. These η values then allow calculations of the expected yields from direct imaging missions, by leveraging the models and prior work by Stark and colleagues (2014, 2015). That work estimated the yields for potentially Earth-like worlds (i.e. of a size and stellar irradiation consistent with definitions of the habitable zone) for telescopes with a variety of observational parameters. We will do the same thing here, but for a wider variety of planets. This will allow us to discuss the implications of architecture and instrument properties on the diversity of worlds that future direct imaging missions would observe.

  7. Young Children Understand the Normative Implications of Future-Directed Speech Acts

    PubMed Central

    Lohse, Karoline; Gräfenhain, Maria; Behne, Tanya; Rakoczy, Hannes

    2014-01-01

    Much recent research has shown that the capacity for mental time travel and temporal reasoning emerges during the preschool years. Nothing is known so far, however, about young children's grasp of the normative dimension of future-directed thought and speech. The present study is the first to show that children from age 4 understand the normative outreach of such future-directed speech acts: subjects at time 1 witnessed a speaker make future-directed speech acts about/towards an actor A, either in imperative mode (“A, do X!”) or as a prediction (“the actor A will do X”). When at time 2 the actor A performed an action that did not match the content of the speech act at time 1, children identified the speaker as the source of a mistake in the prediction case, and the actor as the source of the mistake in the imperative case and leveled criticism accordingly. These findings add to our knowledge about the emergence and development of temporal cognition in revealing an early sensitivity to the normative aspects of future-orientation. PMID:24489815

  8. Cognitive training programs for childhood cancer patients and survivors: A critical review and future directions.

    PubMed

    Olson, Katie; Sands, Stephen A

    2016-01-01

    A robust literature has developed documenting neurocognitive late effects in survivors of leukemia and central nervous system (CNS) tumors, the most frequent cancer diagnoses of childhood. Patterns of late effects include deficits in attention and concentration, working memory, processing speed, and executive function, as well as other domains. As childhood cancer survivors are living longer, ameliorating deficits both in broad and specific neurocognitive domains has been increasingly recognized as an endeavor of paramount importance. Interventions to improve cognitive functioning were first applied to the field of pediatric oncology in the 1990s, based on strategies used effectively with adults who had sustained a traumatic brain injury (TBI). Compilation and modification of these techniques has led to the development of structured cognitive training programs, with the effectiveness and feasibility of such interventions currently an active area of research. Consequently, the purpose of this critical review is to: (1) review cognitive training programs intended to remediate or prevent neurocognitive deficits in pediatric cancer patients and survivors, (2) critically analyze training program strengths and weaknesses to inform practice, and (3) provide recommendations for future directions of clinical care and research.

  9. Looking Beyond Chronological Age: Current Knowledge and Future Directions in the Study of Subjective Age.

    PubMed

    Kotter-Grühn, Dana; Kornadt, Anna E; Stephan, Yannick

    2015-01-01

    The notion of the heterogeneity of aging goes along with the awareness that every person experiences aging differently. Over the past years, scholars have emphasized that the assessment of these subjective experiences of aging contributes to our understanding of a range of psychological and physiological processes and outcomes among older adults. One construct frequently used in this context is subjective age, that is, how old or young a person feels. Subjective age has been shown to be an important correlate as well as a predictor of markers of successful aging such as well-being, health, and longevity. However, less is known about the antecedents of subjective age and the mechanisms underlying the relationship between feeling younger and positive developmental outcomes. This article briefly summarizes and critically evaluates the empirical evidence on this topic and makes suggestions on how to address and potentially overcome currently existing theoretical, methodological, and psychometric challenges. Based on the discussion of these challenges, the paper provides directions for future research by outlining underexplored topics such as intraindividual variability and determinants of subjective age, the match between objective age indicators and subjective age, and how subjective age maps on behavior and functioning.

  10. Regional analysis of drought and heat impacts on forests: current and future science directions.

    PubMed

    Law, Beverly E

    2014-12-01

    Accurate assessments of forest response to current and future climate and human actions are needed at regional scales. Predicting future impacts on forests will require improved analysis of species-level adaptation, resilience, and vulnerability to mortality. Land system models can be enhanced by creating trait-based groupings of species that better represent climate sensitivity, such as risk of hydraulic failure from drought. This emphasizes the need for more coordinated in situ and remote sensing observations to track changes in ecosystem function, and to improve model inputs, spatio-temporal diagnosis, and predictions of future conditions, including implications of actions to mitigate climate change.

  11. Polymer – drug conjugates: Origins, progress to date and future directions

    PubMed Central

    Kopeček, Jindřich

    2012-01-01

    This overview focuses on bioconjugates of water-soluble polymers with low molecular weight drugs and proteins. After a short discussion of the origins of the field, the state-of-the-art is reviewed. Then research directions needed for the acceleration of the translation of nanomedicines into the clinic are outlined. Two most important directions, synthesis of backbone degradable polymer carriers and drug-free macromolecular therapeutics, a new paradigm in drug delivery, are discussed in detail. Finally, the future perspectives of the field are briefly discussed. PMID:23123294

  12. Promising Fuel Cycle Options for R&D – Results, Insights, and Future Directions

    SciTech Connect

    Wigeland, Roald Arnold

    2015-05-01

    The Fuel Cycle Options (FCO) campaign in the U.S. DOE Fuel Cycle Research & Development Program conducted a detailed evaluation and screening of nuclear fuel cycles. The process for this study was described at the 2014 ICAPP meeting. This paper reports on detailed insights and questions from the results of the study. The comprehensive study identified continuous recycle in fast reactors as the most promising option, using either U/Pu or U/TRU recycle, and potentially in combination with thermal reactors, as reported at the ICAPP 2014 meeting. This paper describes the examination of the results in detail that indicated that there was essentially no difference in benefit between U/Pu and U/TRU recycle, prompting questions about the desirability of pursuing the more complex U/TRU approach given that the estimated greater challenges for development and deployment. The results will be reported from the current effort that further explores what, if any, benefits of TRU recycle (minor actinides in addition to plutonium recycle) may be in order to inform decisions on future R&D directions. The study also identified continuous recycle using thorium-based fuel cycles as potentially promising, in either fast or thermal systems, but with lesser benefit. Detailed examination of these results indicated that the lesser benefit was confined to only a few of the evaluation metrics, identifying the conditions under which thorium-based fuel cycles would be promising to pursue. For the most promising fuel cycles, the FCO is also conducting analyses on the potential transition to such fuel cycles to identify the issues, challenges, and the timing for critical decisions that would need to be made to avoid unnecessary delay in deployment, including investigation of issues such as the effects of a temporary lack of plutonium fuel resources or supporting infrastructure. These studies are placed in the context of an overall analysis approach designed to provide comprehensive information to

  13. Roles of White Noise in Stochastic Analysis and Some of Future Directions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hida, Takeyuki

    2011-01-01

    White Noise analysis may be thought of a well-established theory. This is true in a sense, however we are surprised to find that there are so many profound properties still remain undiscovered. In this report, we shall have a quick review of white noise theory, then we shall propose some of future directions to be investigated, from our viewpoint. Further, we shall discuss a new noise which is of Poisson type.

  14. Discrete directional wavelet bases for image compression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dragotti, Pier L.; Velisavljevic, Vladan; Vetterli, Martin; Beferull-Lozano, Baltasar

    2003-06-01

    The application of the wavelet transform in image processing is most frequently based on a separable construction. Lines and columns in an image are treated independently and the basis functions are simply products of the corresponding one dimensional functions. Such method keeps simplicity in design and computation, but is not capable of capturing properly all the properties of an image. In this paper, a new truly separable discrete multi-directional transform is proposed with a subsampling method based on lattice theory. Alternatively, the subsampling can be omitted and this leads to a multi-directional frame. This transform can be applied in many areas like denoising, non-linear approximation and compression. The results on non-linear approximation and denoising show very interesting gains compared to the standard two-dimensional analysis.

  15. Dynamics-based centrality for directed networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masuda, Naoki; Kori, Hiroshi

    2010-11-01

    Determining the relative importance of nodes in directed networks is important in, for example, ranking websites, publications, and sports teams, and for understanding signal flows in systems biology. A prevailing centrality measure in this respect is the PageRank. In this work, we focus on another class of centrality derived from the Laplacian of the network. We extend the Laplacian-based centrality, which has mainly been applied to strongly connected networks, to the case of general directed networks such that we can quantitatively compare arbitrary nodes. Toward this end, we adopt the idea used in the PageRank to introduce global connectivity between all the pairs of nodes with a certain strength. Numerical simulations are carried out on some networks. We also offer interpretations of the Laplacian-based centrality for general directed networks in terms of various dynamical and structural properties of networks. Importantly, the Laplacian-based centrality defined as the stationary density of the continuous-time random walk with random jumps is shown to be equivalent to the absorption probability of the random walk with sinks at each node but without random jumps. Similarly, the proposed centrality represents the importance of nodes in dynamics on the original network supplied with sinks but not with random jumps.

  16. Particle-based methods for multiscale modeling of blood flow in the circulation and in devices: challenges and future directions. Sixth International Bio-Fluid Mechanics Symposium and Workshop March 28-30, 2008 Pasadena, California.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Takami; Ishikawa, Takuji; Imai, Y; Matsuki, N; Xenos, Mikhail; Deng, Yuefan; Bluestein, Danny

    2010-03-01

    A major computational challenge for a multiscale modeling is the coupling of disparate length and timescales between molecular mechanics and macroscopic transport, spanning the spatial and temporal scales characterizing the complex processes taking place in flow-induced blood clotting. Flow and pressure effects on a cell-like platelet can be well represented by a continuum mechanics model down to the order of the micrometer level. However, the molecular effects of adhesion/aggregation bonds are on the order of nanometer. A successful multiscale model of platelet response to flow stresses in devices and the ensuing clotting responses should be able to characterize the clotting reactions and their interactions with the flow. This paper attempts to describe a few of the computational methods that were developed in recent years and became available to researchers in the field. They differ from traditional approaches that dominate the field by expanding on prevailing continuum-based approaches, or by completely departing from them, yielding an expanding toolkit that may facilitate further elucidation of the underlying mechanisms of blood flow and the cellular response to it. We offer a paradigm shift by adopting a multidisciplinary approach with fluid dynamics simulations coupled to biophysical and biochemical transport.

  17. Directed Nanoscale Assembly of Graphene Based Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Sang Ouk

    Graphene based materials, including fullerene, carbon nanotubes and graphene, are two-dimensional polymeric materials consisting of sp2 hybrid carbons. Those carbon materials have attracted enormous research attention for their outstanding material properties along with molecular scale dimension. The optimized utilization of those materials in various application fields inevitably requires the subtle controllability of their structures and properties. In this presentation, our research achievements associated to directed nanoscale assembly of B- or N-doped graphene based materials will be introduced. Graphene based materials can be efficiently processed into various three-dimensional structures via self-assembly principles. Those carbon assembled structures with extremely large surface and high electro-conductivity are potentially useful for energy and environmental applications. Aqueous dispersion of graphene oxide shows liquid crystalline phase, whose spontaneous molecular ordering is useful for display or fiber spinning. Along with the structure control by directed nanoscale assembly, substitutional doping of graphene based materials with B- or N- can be attained via various chemical treatment methods. The resultant chemically modified carbon materials with tunable workfunction, charge carrier density and enhanced surface activity could be employed for various nanomaterials and nanodevices for improved functionalities and performances.

  18. A Critical Appraisal of Recent Advances and Future Directions in Value Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fong, Patrick Sik-Wah

    2004-01-01

    At present, value management (VM) is struggling to survive amidst other management fads. The problem is that it is still not recognized as a professional or academic discipline. There is no sound academic base and a lack of understanding by the public, owners and corporate organizations. The future survival of VM is therefore always being…

  19. The interplay between sleep and emotion regulation: conceptual framework empirical evidence and future directions.

    PubMed

    Gruber, Reut; Cassoff, Jamie

    2014-11-01

    Emotions are biologically-based responses that help an organism meet challenges and opportunities, and involve changes in subjective experience, behavior, and physiology. Emotions arise when something important to us is at stake. Although many factors have been associated with healthy emotional regulation, the role of sleep in this process has been largely ignored. Recent studies, however, have begun to delineate how sleep critically affects emotional functioning. Nighttime sleep affects daytime mood, emotional reactivity and the capacity to regulate positive and negative emotions; conversely, daytime experiences affect sleep. Hence, there is a complex interplay between sleep and emotional regulation. The objective of this article is to examine this interplay in adults. This objective is addressed by utilizing a framework that identifies key aspects of the relationship between sleep and emotion. We propose that the connectivity between the emotional centers of the brain--the prefontal cortex and the amygdala--is in part dependent on the homeostatic sleep system such that connectivity between these brain networks is higher when rested and lower when sleep deprived. High connectivity drives more efficient executive functioning, while a disconnect leads to poor executive functioning capacity including emotional reactivity and impulsivity. The cognitive effects of the homeostatic system are couple with the mood regulation effects of the circadian system together dictating the degree to which one experiences emotional regulation or dysregulation. Further, the affective brain systems of individuals with clinical symptomology and/or pathology are suggested to be more vulnerable to homeostatic pressure and circadian lows or misalignment resulting in increased affective clinical symptomology. We review empirical evidence that supports this framework and explore the implications of this framework. Finally, we describe future directions for this type of work.

  20. Real-time nutrient monitoring in rivers: adaptive sampling strategies, technological challenges and future directions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blaen, Phillip; Khamis, Kieran; Lloyd, Charlotte; Bradley, Chris

    2016-04-01

    Excessive nutrient concentrations in river waters threaten aquatic ecosystem functioning and can pose substantial risks to human health. Robust monitoring strategies are therefore required to generate reliable estimates of river nutrient loads and to improve understanding of the catchment processes that drive spatiotemporal patterns in nutrient fluxes. Furthermore, these data are vital for prediction of future trends under changing environmental conditions and thus the development of appropriate mitigation measures. In recent years, technological developments have led to an increase in the use of continuous in-situ nutrient analysers, which enable measurements at far higher temporal resolutions than can be achieved with discrete sampling and subsequent laboratory analysis. However, such instruments can be costly to run and difficult to maintain (e.g. due to high power consumption and memory requirements), leading to trade-offs between temporal and spatial monitoring resolutions. Here, we highlight how adaptive monitoring strategies, comprising a mixture of temporal sample frequencies controlled by one or more 'trigger variables' (e.g. river stage, turbidity, or nutrient concentration), can advance our understanding of catchment nutrient dynamics while simultaneously overcoming many of the practical and economic challenges encountered in typical in-situ river nutrient monitoring applications. We present examples of short-term variability in river nutrient dynamics, driven by complex catchment behaviour, which support our case for the development of monitoring systems that can adapt in real-time to rapid environmental changes. In addition, we discuss the advantages and disadvantages of current nutrient monitoring techniques, and suggest new research directions based on emerging technologies and highlight how these might improve: 1) monitoring strategies, and 2) understanding of linkages between catchment processes and river nutrient fluxes.

  1. Reflections on the Galileoscope Program: Goals, Challenges, Achievements, and Future Directions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pompea, Stephen M.; Fienberg, R. T.; Arion, D. N.

    2010-01-01

    The value of an inexpensive telescope that could be constructed and used at night became clear in the planning process for the International Year of Astronomy 2009. In fact, it became a national and international priority to develop such a telescope. Thus was born the Galileoscope project, as it later became known. We tested nearly every department store telescope available and finding them wanting in some major aspect, project members developed and tested a series of prototypes of refracting telescope kits. A key to the project is that the telescope is professionally designed and engineered with its design informed by extensive usability testing to ensure that it can be used easily by people of all ages. The eyepiece has excellent eye relief, for example, so that one can observe with glasses. The primary image quality requirement was that the telescope be good enough to see the rings of Saturn, as well as the Galilean satellites of Jupiter, with a field of view large enough to view the entire Pleiades. The Galileoscope is an ideal telescope to reproduce the observations of Galileo, from any place bright city or dark rural site. For the science classroom, we have developed well-tested educational materials on observing with the Galileoscope and teaching optics with it, available in pdf format on the Web site www. galileoscope.org. The educational materials are standards-based and appropriate for high school and beginning-level physics classes. Some of the key project decisions will be described and the future directions of the project will be described. This work was supported by a grant from the National Science Foundation Astronomy Division. NOAO is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy (AURA), Inc. under cooperative agreement with the National Science Foundation.

  2. Image-guided spine surgery: state of the art and future directions

    PubMed Central

    Shafizadeh, Sven; Rixen, Dieter; Paffrath, Thomas; Bouillon, Bertil; Steinhausen, Eva S.; Baethis, Holger

    2009-01-01

    Navigation technology is a widely available tool in spine surgery and has become a part of clinical routine in many centers. The issue of where and when navigation technology should be used is still an issue of debate. It is the aim of this study to give an overview on the current knowledge concerning the technical capabilities of image-guided approaches and to discuss possible future directions of research and implementation of this technique. Based on a Medline search total of 1,462 publications published until October 2008 were retrieved. The abstracts were scanned manually for relevance to the topics of navigated spine surgery in the cervical spine, the thoracic spine, the lumbar spine, as well as ventral spine surgery, radiation exposure, tumor surgery and cost-effectivity in navigated spine surgery. Papers not contributing to these subjects were deleted resulting in 276 papers that were included in the analysis. Image-guided approaches have been investigated and partially implemented into clinical routine in virtually any field of spine surgery. However, the data available is mostly limited to small clinical series, case reports or retrospective studies. Only two RCTs and one metaanalysis have been retrieved. Concerning the most popular application of image-guided approaches, pedicle screw insertion, the evidence of clinical benefit in the most critical areas, e.g. the thoracic spine, is still lacking. In many other areas of spine surgery, e.g. ventral spine surgery or tumor surgery, image-guided approaches are still in an experimental stage. The technical development of image-guided techniques has reached a high level as the accuracies that can be achieved technically meet the anatomical demands. However, there is evidence that the interaction between the surgeon (‘human factor’) and the navigation system is a source of inaccuracy. It is concluded that more effort needs to be spend to understand this interaction. PMID:19763640

  3. A 60-year journey of mycorrhizal research in China: Past, present and future directions.

    PubMed

    He, Xinhua; Duan, Yinghua; Chen, Yinglong; Xu, Minggang

    2010-12-01

    The significance of mycorrhizas (fungal roots in 90% of land plants) in plant nutrient acquisition and growth, element biogeochemical cycling and maintaining of terrestrial ecosystem structures has been globally established for more than 120 years. Great progress in mycorrhizal research in the past 60 years (1950-2009, 1981-2009 in particular) has also been made across China, particularly in the mainland, Hong Kong and Taiwan. For instance, a total of 20 new and approximately 120 records of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungal species, 30 new and approximately 800 records of ectomycorrhizal (EM) fungal species, a dozen of new and approximately 100 records of orchid mycorrhizal (OM) fungal species have been isolated by morphological observation and/or molecular identification in China since the 1950s. Great accomplishment has also been made in the following area, including fungal species richness and genetic structure, relationships between species composition and plant taxa, effects of mycorrhizal fungi on plant nutrient uptake and growth, resistances to pathogens and interactions with other soil microorganisms, potential of mycorrhizal fungi in phytoremediation and/or land reclamation, alterations of enzymatic activities in mycorrhizal plants, and elevated CO(2) and O(3) on root colonization and species diversity. Unfortunately, the international community cannot easily appreciate almost all Chinese mycorrhizal studies since the vast majority of them have been published in Chinese and/or in China-based journals. The aim of this review is to make a comprehensive exposure of the past and present China's major mycorrhizal research to the whole world, and then to suggest potential directions for the enhancement of future mycorrhizal research within and/or between the Chinese and international mycorrhizal community.

  4. Inactivated and subunit vaccines against porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome: Current status and future direction.

    PubMed

    Renukaradhya, Gourapura J; Meng, Xiang-Jin; Calvert, Jay G; Roof, Michael; Lager, Kelly M

    2015-06-17

    Within a few years of its emergence in the late 1980s, the PRRS virus had spread globally to become the foremost infectious disease concern for the pork industry. Since 1994, modified live-attenuated vaccines against porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV-MLV) have been widely used, but have failed to provide complete protection against emerging and heterologous field strains of the virus. Moreover, like many other MLVs, PRRSV-MLVs have safety concerns including vertical and horizontal transmission of the vaccine virus and several documented incidences of reversion to virulence. Thus, the development of efficacious inactivated vaccines is warranted for the control and eradication of PRRS. Since the early 1990s, researchers have been attempting to develop inactivated PRRSV vaccines, but most of the candidates have failed to elicit protective immunity even against homologous virus challenge. Recent research findings relating to both inactivated and subunit candidate PRRSV vaccines have shown promise, but they need to be pursued further to improve their heterologous efficacy and cost-effectiveness before considering commercialization. In this comprehensive review, we provide information on attempts to develop PRRSV inactivated and subunit vaccines. These includes various virus inactivation strategies, adjuvants, nanoparticle-based vaccine delivery systems, DNA vaccines, and recombinant subunit vaccines produced using baculovirus, plant, and replication-deficient viruses as vector vaccines. Finally, future directions for the development of innovative non-infectious PRRSV vaccines are suggested. Undoubtedly there remains a need for novel PRRSV vaccine strategies targeted to deliver cross-protective, non-infectious vaccines for the control and eradication of PRRS.

  5. Silicon nitride grating waveguide based directional coupler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Jijun; Li, Anyuan; Akimoto, Ryoichi; Zeng, Heping

    2016-10-01

    Silicon nitride is a promising wave-guiding material for integrated photonics applications with a wide transparency bandwidth from visible to mid-infrared, with a superior performance in fiber-coupling and propagation losses, more tolerant fabrication process to the structure parameters variation and compatible with the CMOS technology. Directional coupler (DC) is very popular for realizing beam splitter because of its structural simplicity and no excess loss intrinsically. Here, a conventional silicon nitride directional coupler, three-dimensional vertical coupler, and grating waveguide assisted coupler are designed and fabricated, and compared with each other. A grating waveguide based coupler with a period of 300 nm and coupling length of 26 um, can realize a wideband 3-dB splitter for the wavelength in the range from 1540 to 1620 nm, for a transverse electric (TE) polarized wave. With further optimization of the grating period and duty cycle, the device performance can be further improved with a wider bandwidth.

  6. Proceedings of the Intentional Meeting on Future Directions in Developmental Education (1st, Minneapolis, Minnesota, October 5-6, 1999).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lundell, Dana Britt, Ed.; Higbee, Jeanne L., Ed.

    This collection of essays is intended to spark thoughtful discussion about future directions for developmental education. The essays grew out of a conversation among 21 local, regional, and national leaders in the field of developmental education at the "First Intentional Meeting on Future Directions in Developmental Education," held in October,…

  7. Saliency-based gaze prediction based on head direction.

    PubMed

    Nakashima, Ryoichi; Fang, Yu; Hatori, Yasuhiro; Hiratani, Akinori; Matsumiya, Kazumichi; Kuriki, Ichiro; Shioiri, Satoshi

    2015-12-01

    Despite decades of attempts to create a model for predicting gaze locations by using saliency maps, a highly accurate gaze prediction model for general conditions has yet to be devised. In this study, we propose a gaze prediction method based on head direction that can improve the accuracy of any model. We used a probability distribution of eye position based on head direction (static eye-head coordination) and added this information to a model of saliency-based visual attention. Using empirical data on eye and head directions while observers were viewing natural scenes, we estimated a probability distribution of eye position. We then combined the relationship between eye position and head direction with visual saliency to predict gaze locations. The model showed that information on head direction improved the prediction accuracy. Further, there was no difference in the gaze prediction accuracy between the two models using information on head direction with and without eye-head coordination. Therefore, information on head direction is useful for predicting gaze location when it is available. Furthermore, this gaze prediction model can be applied relatively easily to many daily situations such as during walking.

  8. The developmental psychopathology of alcohol use and alcohol disorders: Research achievements and future directions

    PubMed Central

    CHASSIN, LAURIE; SHER, KENNETH J.; HUSSONG, ANDREA; CURRAN, PATRICK

    2013-01-01

    The last 25 years have seen significant advances in our conceptualization of alcohol use and alcohol use disorders within a developmental framework, along with advances in our empirical understanding that have been potentiated by advances in quantitative methods. These include advances in understanding the heterogeneity of trajectories of alcohol outcomes; new insights about early childhood antecedents, and adolescence and emerging adulthood as important developmental periods for alcohol outcomes; a more nuanced understanding of the influences of developmental transitions, and their timing and contexts; a greater appreciation for the importance of considering multiple levels of analysis (including an increasing number of genetically informative studies); a continuing focus on studying multiple pathways underlying alcohol outcomes; and an increasing focus on studying the effects of alcohol exposure on future development. The current paper reviews these advances and suggests directions for future study. PMID:24342856

  9. Jupiter's Phase Variations from Cassini: a testbed for future direct-imaging missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayorga, Laura; Jackiewicz, Jason; Rages, Kathy; West, Robert A.; Knowles, Ben; Lewis, Nikole K.; Marley, Mark S.

    2017-01-01

    Phase curves are important for our understanding of the energy balance and scattering behavior of an exoplanet's atmosphere. In preparation for future direct-imaging missions of Jupiter-like planets, in particular WFIRST, we present phase curves of Jupiter from 0--150 degrees as measured in multiple optical bandpasses by Cassini/ISS during the Millennium flyby of Jupiter in late 2000 to early 2001. We demonstrate and confirm that Jupiter is not well represented by a Lambertian phase function and that its color is more variable with phase angle than predicted by Jupiter-like models. This indicates that a Jupiter-twin observed near quadrature may not be as straightforward to classify as a Jupiter-like planet and comment on the implications for future missions.

  10. Workshop on future directions for plant research at NASA: a report.

    PubMed

    2004-01-01

    NASA's Fundamental Space Biology Division and the Advanced Human Support Technology Program convened a workshop in December 2003 [correction of 2004] at Kennedy Space Center, Florida, to chart future directions for plant research at NASA. The purpose of the workshop was to bring together key managers and principal investigators in NASA's plant research community as well as non-NASA funded researchers to formulate a strategy to guide future plant research for the Office of Biological and Physical Research (OBPR). Subsequent to the workshop, on Wednesday, January 14, 2004, President George W. Bush announced a proposal for NASA to go back to the moon and later send a manned mission to Mars. The following is a summary of workshop recommendations provided by the plant research community within the framework of the new exploration vision as set for by NASA.

  11. Future directions in bonding resins to the dentine-pulp complex.

    PubMed

    Bouillaguet, S; Wataha, J C

    2004-04-01

    Resin-based materials are rapidly becoming the primary restorative material to replace tooth structure and the low percentage of biological problems reported for resin-based restorations is testimony to their relative biocompatibility. Despite considerable advances in the understanding of the mechanisms, which govern the integration of resin composite materials with the dentine-pulp complex, considerable potential for improvement remains. Most of these improvements centre around a better understanding of the biological and microbiological risks of resin materials and will only be possible with improved in vitro and in vivo models. There are also a number of possible future developments in materials, clinical techniques and diagnostic methods that may improve the long-term success and reliability of resin-based restorations. The remainder of this paper describes the most likely avenues for future improvements.

  12. Radiation binary targeted therapy for HER-2 positive breast cancers: assumptions, theoretical assessment and future directions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mundy, Daniel W.; Harb, Wael; Jevremovic, Tatjana

    2006-03-01

    irradiation treatment facilities are examined for this application. The tumour boron concentrations and tumour to healthy tissue concentration ratios required to deliver 50 Gy-Eq to the tumour without exceeding 18 Gy-Eq in the skin are determined, as well as the associated therapeutic ratios. Discussion is provided to address the future research direction for assessing the feasibility of the proposed concept.

  13. Immunotherapy for cancer in the central nervous system: Current and future directions.

    PubMed

    Binder, David C; Davis, Andrew A; Wainwright, Derek A

    2016-02-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most common primary brain tumor in adults and still remains incurable. Although immunotherapeutic vaccination against GBM has demonstrated immune-stimulating activity with some promising survival benefits, tumor relapse is common, highlighting the need for additional and/or combinatorial approaches. Recently, antibodies targeting immune checkpoints were demonstrated to generate impressive clinical responses against advanced melanoma and other malignancies, in addition to showing potential for enhancing vaccination and radiotherapy (RT). Here, we summarize the current knowledge of central nervous system (CNS) immunosuppression, evaluate past and current immunotherapeutic trials and discuss promising future immunotherapeutic directions to treat CNS-localized malignancies.

  14. Folic acid food fortification-its history, effect, concerns, and future directions.

    PubMed

    Crider, Krista S; Bailey, Lynn B; Berry, Robert J

    2011-03-01

    Periconceptional intake of folic acid is known to reduce a woman's risk of having an infant affected by a neural tube birth defect (NTD). National programs to mandate fortification of food with folic acid have reduced the prevalence of NTDs worldwide. Uncertainty surrounding possible unintended consequences has led to concerns about higher folic acid intake and food fortification programs. This uncertainty emphasizes the need to continually monitor fortification programs for accurate measures of their effect and the ability to address concerns as they arise. This review highlights the history, effect, concerns, and future directions of folic acid food fortification programs.

  15. National Institutes of Health Approaches to Dissemination and Implementation Science: Current and Future Directions

    PubMed Central

    Vinson, Cynthia; Chambers, David; Khoury, Muin J.; Kaplan, Robert M.; Hunter, Christine

    2012-01-01

    To address the vast gap between current knowledge and practice in the area of dissemination and implementation research, we address terminology, provide examples of successful applications of this research, discuss key sources of support, and highlight directions and opportunities for future advances. There is a need for research testing approaches to scaling up and sustaining effective interventions, and we propose that further advances in the field will be achieved by focusing dissemination and implementation research on 5 core values: rigor and relevance, efficiency, collaboration, improved capacity, and cumulative knowledge. PMID:22594758

  16. Inorganic chemistry in nuclear imaging and radiotherapy: current and future directions

    PubMed Central

    Carroll, Valerie; Demoin, Dustin W.; Hoffman, Timothy J; Jurisson, Silvia S

    2013-01-01

    Summary Radiometals play an important role in diagnostic and therapeutic radiopharmaceuticals. This field of radiochemistry is multidisciplinary, involving radiometal production, separation of the radiometal from its target, chelate design for complexing the radiometal in a biologically stable environment, specific targeting of the radiometal to its in vivo site, and nuclear imaging and/or radiotherapy applications of the resultant radiopharmaceutical. The critical importance of inorganic chemistry in the design and application of radiometal-containing imaging and therapy agents is described from a historical perspective to future directions. PMID:25382874

  17. The past, present, and future of direct-to-consumer prescription drug advertising.

    PubMed

    Perri, M; Shinde, S; Banavali, R

    1999-10-01

    Since the first experiences with direct-to-consumer (DTC) prescription drug advertising in the early 1980s, pharmaceutical marketers, government regulators, researchers, health practitioners, and consumers have been both perplexed and intrigued by this practice. As experience with DTC advertising has expanded, so has knowledge and understanding of its risks and rewards. This article discusses important issues in DTC advertising, such as the effects it may have on the patient-practitioner relationship, the diffusion and adoption of new drugs, prices, and competition. It also discusses the future of DTC advertising.

  18. Current Needs and Future Directions of Occupational Safety and Heath in a Globalized World

    PubMed Central

    Perera, Frederica P.; Li, TY; Lin, C; Tang, Deliang; Gilbert, Steven G.; Kang, Seong-Kyu; Aschner, Michael

    2011-01-01

    This summary provides a synopsis of talks included in a symposium entitled “Current Needs and Future Directions of Occupational Safety and Heath in a Globalized World”. The purpose of the symposium was to (1) highlight national and international agencies with occupational health related activities; (2) address electronic (e-)waste issues in developing countries where exposures are secondary to the handling and scavenging of scrap; and (3) discuss the effects of hazardous materials, such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) and tobacco smoke on child intelligence quotient (IQ) in developing countries. PMID:22037493

  19. Immunotherapy of brain cancers: the past, the present, and future directions.

    PubMed

    Ge, Lisheng; Hoa, Neil; Bota, Daniela A; Natividad, Josephine; Howat, Andrew; Jadus, Martin R

    2010-01-01

    Treatment of brain cancers, especially high grade gliomas (WHO stage III and IV) is slowly making progress, but not as fast as medical researchers and the patients would like. Immunotherapy offers the opportunity to allow the patient's own immune system a chance to help eliminate the cancer. Immunotherapy's strength is that it efficiently treats relatively small tumors in experimental animal models. For some patients, immunotherapy has worked for them while not showing long-term toxicity. In this paper, we will trace the history of immunotherapy for brain cancers. We will also highlight some of the possible directions that this field may be taking in the immediate future for improving this therapeutic option.

  20. RNA-targeted therapeutics in cancer clinical trials: Current status and future directions.

    PubMed

    Barata, Pedro; Sood, Anil K; Hong, David S

    2016-11-01

    Recent advances in RNA delivery and target selection provide unprecedented opportunities for cancer treatment, especially for cancers that are particularly hard to treat with existing drugs. Small interfering RNAs, microRNAs, and antisense oligonucleotides are the most widely used strategies for silencing gene expression. In this review, we summarize how these approaches were used to develop drugs targeting RNA in human cells. Then, we review the current state of clinical trials of these agents for different types of cancer and outcomes from published data. Finally, we discuss lessons learned from completed studies and future directions for this class of drugs.

  1. The present state and the future direction of eddy viscosity models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilcox, David C.

    1992-01-01

    Information is given in viewgraph form on the present state and future direction of eddy viscosity models. Topics covered include the eddy viscosity dilemma, two-equation models, equations of motion, free shear flows, incompressible free shear flows, model-predicted boundary layer structure, defect layer analysis, the effects of pressure gradients, viscous sublayer structure, wall functions and viscous damping, viscous damping for kappa-omega, the effects of compressibility, perturbation analysis of the wall layer, an alternative compressibility term, unsteady boundary layers, incompressible separation, backstep results, and compressible separation.

  2. Palliative Care Social Work In India: Current Status and Future Directions

    PubMed Central

    Ragesh, G; Zacharias, Lithin; Thomas, Priya Treesa

    2017-01-01

    Palliative care (PC) involves total care for persons suffering from life-threatening illnesses and their families. Social work as a profession and an academic discipline is gaining momentum in India for the past few decades. A large number of professional social workers are working with individuals, families, and communities to provide PC in India. Authors have presented the current status of PC social work interventions and discussed the future directions in the practice, research, and training in PC and end-of-life care. PMID:28216870

  3. Current status and future direction of NASA's Space Life Sciences Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, Ronald J.; Lujan, Barbara F.

    1989-01-01

    The elements of the NASA Life Sciences Program that are related to manned space flight and biological scientific studies in space are reviewed. Projects included in the current program are outlined and the future direction of the program is discussed. Consideration is given to issues such as long-duration spaceflight, medical support in space, readaptation to the gravity field of earth, considerations for the Space Station, radiation hazards, environmental standards for space habitation, and human operator interaction with computers, robots, and telepresence systems.

  4. Cognitive remediation therapy for mood disorders: rationale, early evidence, and future directions.

    PubMed

    Bowie, Christopher R; Gupta, Maya; Holshausen, Katherine

    2013-06-01

    People with mood disorders experience cognitive impairments that are predictive of functional disability. Cognitive remediation (CR) is an empirically validated intervention that is designed to remediate neurocognitive deficits and improve functioning. Although much of the focus of this treatment during the last decade has centred on attention deficit disorders, brain injury, and schizophrenia spectrum disorders, emerging evidence suggests that CR is an effective intervention for mood disorders and that these treatment effects translate into improvements in cognitive performance and possibly functioning. Our review aims to examine the profile and magnitude of cognitive impairments in mood disorders, review the evidence in support of CR for this population, and discuss future research directions in CR.

  5. Robots, multi-user virtual environments and healthcare: synergies for future directions.

    PubMed

    Moon, Ajung; Grajales, Francisco J; Van der Loos, H F Machiel

    2011-01-01

    The adoption of technology in healthcare over the last twenty years has steadily increased, particularly as it relates to medical robotics and Multi-User Virtual Environments (MUVEs) such as Second Life. Both disciplines have been shown to improve the quality of care and have evolved, for the most part, in isolation from each other. In this paper, we present four synergies between medical robotics and MUVEs that have the potential to decrease resource utilization and improve the quality of healthcare delivery. We conclude with some foreseeable barriers and future research directions for researchers in these fields.

  6. Anesthesia for Children With Craniofacial Abnormalities in the Developing Countries: Challenges and Future Directions.

    PubMed

    Melookaran, Ann M; Rao, Sirisha A; Antony, Sible B; Herrera, Adriana

    2015-06-01

    Interest in global health to provide safer pediatric surgical care in developing countries has increased during the last decade. A collaborative effort between surgeons and anesthesiologists has provided the opportunity to deliver specialized care to children, particularly in the areas of cleft lip and palate repair. However, medical resources, facilities, and adequately trained personnel, especially in pediatric anesthesia, are often limited in these countries. Challenges, educational efforts, and future directions for the globalization of anesthesia are discussed. Involvement of international entities may help raise awareness, channel efforts, expand programs and encourage volunteerism to ultimately provide safer care to pediatric patients, have better outcomes and reduced anesthesia-related morbidity and mortality.

  7. Review of numerical methods for simulation of the aortic root: Present and future directions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohammadi, Hossein; Cartier, Raymond; Mongrain, Rosaire

    2016-05-01

    Heart valvular disease is still one of the main causes of mortality and morbidity in develop countries. Numerical modeling has gained considerable attention in studying hemodynamic conditions associated with valve abnormalities. Simulating the large displacement of the valve in the course of the cardiac cycle needs a well-suited numerical method to capture the natural biomechanical phenomena which happens in the valve. The paper aims to review the principal progress of the numerical approaches for studying the hemodynamic of the aortic valve. In addition, the future directions of the current approaches as well as their potential clinical applications are discussed.

  8. Ultraviolet germicidal irradiation: future directions for air disinfection and building applications.

    PubMed

    Miller, Shelly L; Linnes, Jacqueline; Luongo, Julia

    2013-01-01

    Ultraviolet germicidal irradiation (UVGI) for air disinfection applications has relied on low-pressure mercury vapor lamps for decades. New design requirements have generated the need for alternatives in some uses. This study describes the current state of UVGI technology and describes future directions for technology development, including the use of lamps produced from nontoxic materials and light-emitting diode lamps. Important applications are discussed such as the use of ultraviolet germicidal lamps in developing countries, in heating, ventilating and air-conditioning systems to improve energy efficiency and indoor air quality, and for whole room disinfection.

  9. Immunotherapy for cancer in the central nervous system: Current and future directions

    PubMed Central

    Binder, David C.; Davis, Andrew A.; Wainwright, Derek A.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most common primary brain tumor in adults and still remains incurable. Although immunotherapeutic vaccination against GBM has demonstrated immune-stimulating activity with some promising survival benefits, tumor relapse is common, highlighting the need for additional and/or combinatorial approaches. Recently, antibodies targeting immune checkpoints were demonstrated to generate impressive clinical responses against advanced melanoma and other malignancies, in addition to showing potential for enhancing vaccination and radiotherapy (RT). Here, we summarize the current knowledge of central nervous system (CNS) immunosuppression, evaluate past and current immunotherapeutic trials and discuss promising future immunotherapeutic directions to treat CNS-localized malignancies. PMID:27057463

  10. Inorganic chemistry in nuclear imaging and radiotherapy: current and future directions.

    PubMed

    Carroll, Valerie; Demoin, Dustin W; Hoffman, Timothy J; Jurisson, Silvia S

    2012-08-01

    Radiometals play an important role in diagnostic and therapeutic radiopharmaceuticals. This field of radiochemistry is multidisciplinary, involving radiometal production, separation of the radiometal from its target, chelate design for complexing the radiometal in a biologically stable environment, specific targeting of the radiometal to its in vivo site, and nuclear imaging and/or radiotherapy applications of the resultant radiopharmaceutical. The critical importance of inorganic chemistry in the design and application of radiometal-containing imaging and therapy agents is described from a historical perspective to future directions.

  11. Cranial Neural Crest Cell Contribution to Craniofacial Formation, Pathology, and Future Directions in Tissue Engineering

    PubMed Central

    Snider, Taylor Nicholas; Mishina, Yuji

    2015-01-01

    This review provides an overview of the state and future directions of development and pathology in the craniofacial complex in the context of Cranial Neural Crest Cells (CNCC). CNCC are a multipotent cell population that is largely responsible for forming the vertebrate head. We focus on findings that have increased the knowledge of gene regulatory networks and molecular mechanisms governing CNCC migration and the participation of these cells in tissue formation. Pathology due to aberrant migration or cell death of CNCC, termed neurocristopathies, is discussed in addition to craniosynostoses. Finally, we discuss tissue engineering applications that take advantage of recent advancements in genome editing and the multipotent nature of CNCC. These applications have relevance to treating diseases due directly to the failure of CNCC, and also in restoring tissues lost due to a variety of reasons. PMID:25227212

  12. Estimating and disclosing the risk of developing Alzheimer’s disease: challenges, controversies and future directions

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, J Scott; Tersegno, Sarah M

    2010-01-01

    With Alzheimer’s disease increasing in prevalence and public awareness, more people are becoming interested in learning their chances of developing this condition. Disclosing Alzheimer’s disease risk has been discouraged because of the limited predictive value of available tests, lack of prevention and treatment options, and concerns regarding potential psychological and social harms. However, challenges to this status quo include the availability of direct-to-consumer health risk information (e.g., genetic susceptibility tests), as well as a growing literature suggesting that people seeking risk information for Alzheimer’s disease through formal education and counseling protocols generally find it useful and do not experience adverse effects. This paper reviews current and potential methods of risk assessment for Alzheimer’s disease, discusses the process and impact of disclosing risk to interested patients and consumers, and considers the practical and ethical challenges in this emerging area. Anticipated future directions are addressed. PMID:20856693

  13. Molecular simulation of protein-surface interactions: Benefits, problems, solutions, and future directions (Review)

    PubMed Central

    Latour, Robert A.

    2009-01-01

    While the importance of protein adsorption to materials surfaces is widely recognized, little is understood at this time regarding how to design surfaces to control protein adsorption behavior. All-atom empirical force field molecular simulation methods have enormous potential to address this problem by providing an approach to directly investigate the adsorption behavior of peptides and proteins at the atomic level. As with any type of technology, however, these methods must be appropriately developed and applied if they are to provide realistic and useful results. Three issues that are particularly important for the accurate simulation of protein adsorption behavior are the selection of a valid force field to represent the atomic-level interactions involved, the accurate representation of solvation effects, and system sampling. In this article, each of these areas is addressed and future directions for continued development are presented. PMID:19809597

  14. A global model simulation of present and future nitrate aerosols and their direct radiative forcing of climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hauglustaine, D. A.; Balkanski, Y.; Schulz, M.

    2014-10-01

    The ammonia cycle and nitrate particle formation are introduced into the LMDz-INCA (Laboratoire de Météorologie Dynamique, version 4 - INteraction with Chemistry and Aerosols, version 3) global model. An important aspect of this new model is that both fine nitrate particle formation in the accumulation mode and coarse nitrate forming on existing dust and sea-salt particles are considered. The model simulates distributions of nitrates and related species in agreement with previous studies and observations. The calculated present-day total nitrate direct radiative forcing since the pre-industrial is -0.056 W m-2. This forcing corresponds to 18% of the sulfate forcing. Fine particles largely dominate the nitrate forcing, representing close to 90% of this value. The model has been used to investigate the future changes in nitrates and direct radiative forcing of climate based on snapshot simulations for the four representative concentration pathway (RCP) scenarios and for the 2030, 2050, and 2100 time horizons. Due to a decrease in fossil fuel emissions in the future, the concentration of most of the species involved in the nitrate-ammonium-sulfate system drop by 2100 except for ammonia, which originates from agricultural practices and for which emissions significantly increase in the future. Despite the decrease of nitrate surface levels in Europe and North America, the global burden of accumulation mode nitrates increases by up to a factor of 2.6 in 2100. This increase in ammonium nitrate in the future arises despite decreasing NOx emissions due to increased availability of ammonia to form ammonium nitrate. The total aerosol direct forcing decreases from its present-day value of -0.234 W m-2 to a range of -0.070 to -0.130 W m-2 in 2100 based on the considered scenario. The direct forcing decreases for all aerosols except for nitrates, for which the direct negative forcing increases to a range of -0.060 to -0.115 W m-2 in 2100. Including nitrates in the radiative

  15. Futurism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foy, Jane Loring

    The objectives of this research report are to gain insight into the main problems of the future and to ascertain the attitudes that the general population has toward the treatment of these problems. In the first section of this report the future is explored socially, psychologically, and environmentally. The second section describes the techniques…

  16. Artificial sweetener use among children: epidemiology, recommendations, metabolic outcomes, and future directions.

    PubMed

    Sylvetsky, Allison; Rother, Kristina I; Brown, Rebecca

    2011-12-01

    This review summarizes the literature pertaining to the epidemiology and current recommendations for pediatric artificial sweetener use and presents the results of studies investigating metabolic responses to artificial sweeteners among children. An understanding of the research previously conducted and the gaps that remain will inform future clinical and translational research, to develop evidence-based recommendations for artificial sweetener use in the prevention and treatment of pediatric obesity.

  17. Status and future directions of InP solar cell research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jain, R. K.; Weinberg, I.

    1992-01-01

    An overview of the current status and future directions of InP space solar cell research is provided. The scope of the paper does not allow us to discuss other recent major developments in InP cell modeling, contacts, and characterization, or developments in other solar cell materials. Solar cells made from InP and related materials are not expected to be used in the near future for terrestrial applications, but significant Air-Mass1.5 (AM1.5) cell efficiencies are given for comparison. This paper deals with the developments in single-junction cells, multijunction tandem cells, and space flight testing, including radiation effects. Concentrator InP solar cells are also discussed, since they offer the possibility of simultaneous thermal and current injection annealing. These cells also promise cost effectiveness and the concentrator elements may provide cells with extra protection from space radiation. The concluding section addresses the steps to be taken in the future and provides guidelines for further research and development.

  18. Lasers, minimally invasive surgery, and general surgery: challenges and future directions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lanzafame, Raymond J.

    1993-05-01

    The face of surgery is changing rapidly since the advent of the laparoscopic cholecystectomy and the heightened interest in minimally invasive surgery. There is little question that the expansion of minimally invasive techniques and technology are driven by patients and industry. These factors are counter to the mainstream of general surgeons who remain reluctant to accept change despite declining numbers of general surgeons, an increasing trend toward sub-specialization and shrinking spectrum of diseases being treated. The enthusiasm for laser applications in general surgery is declining despite an ever-increasing array of wavelengths, increasingly complex and expensive technology and the availability of multiple delivery devices. The future of surgery holds several opportunities for the refinement of laser and minimally invasive surgical technologies and their application to routine problems. However, the challenge for the future must remain a balance between the availability of technology and cost containment. This paper examines the challenges and future directions for lasers and minimally invasive techniques in general surgery.

  19. Future Directions of Supersonic Combustion Research: Air Force/NASA Workshop on Supersonic Combustion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tishkoff, Julian M.; Drummond, J. Philip; Edwards, Tim; Nejad, Abdollah S.

    1997-01-01

    The Air Force Office of Scientific Research, the Air Force Wright Laboratory Aero Propulsion and Power Directorate, and the NASA Langley Research Center held a joint supersonic combustion workshop on 14-16 May 1996. The intent of this meeting was to: (1) examine the current state-of-the-art in hydrocarbon and/or hydrogen fueled scramjet research; (2) define the future direction and needs of basic research in support of scramjet technology; and (3) when appropriate, help transition basic research findings to solve the needs of developmental engineering programs in the area of supersonic combustion and fuels. A series of topical sessions were planned. Opening presentations were designed to focus and encourage group discussion and scientific exchange. The last half-day of the workshop was set aside for group discussion of the issues that were raised during the meeting for defining future research opportunities and directions. The following text attempts to summarize the discussions that took place at the workshop.

  20. Future Directions in Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis Research. An NHLBI Workshop Report

    PubMed Central

    Blackwell, Timothy S.; Tager, Andrew M.; Borok, Zea; Moore, Bethany B.; Schwartz, David A.; Anstrom, Kevin J.; Bar-Joseph, Ziv; Bitterman, Peter; Blackburn, Michael R.; Bradford, William; Brown, Kevin K.; Chapman, Harold A.; Collard, Harold R.; Cosgrove, Gregory P.; Deterding, Robin; Doyle, Ramona; Flaherty, Kevin R.; Garcia, Christine Kim; Hagood, James S.; Henke, Craig A.; Herzog, Erica; Hogaboam, Cory M.; Horowitz, Jeffrey C.; King, Talmadge E.; Loyd, James E.; Lawson, William E.; Marsh, Clay B.; Noble, Paul W.; Noth, Imre; Sheppard, Dean; Olsson, Julie; Ortiz, Luis A.; O’Riordan, Thomas G.; Oury, Tim D.; Raghu, Ganesh; Roman, Jesse; Sime, Patricia J.; Sisson, Thomas H.; Tschumperlin, Daniel; Violette, Shelia M.; Weaver, Timothy E.; Wells, Rebecca G.; White, Eric S.; Kaminski, Naftali; Martinez, Fernando J.; Wynn, Thomas A.; Thannickal, Victor J.

    2014-01-01

    The median survival of patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) continues to be approximately 3 years from the time of diagnosis, underscoring the lack of effective medical therapies for this disease. In the United States alone, approximately 40,000 patients die of this disease annually. In November 2012, the NHLBI held a workshop aimed at coordinating research efforts and accelerating the development of IPF therapies. Basic, translational, and clinical researchers gathered with representatives from the NHLBI, patient advocacy groups, pharmaceutical companies, and the U.S. Food and Drug Administration to review the current state of IPF research and identify priority areas, opportunities for collaborations, and directions for future research. The workshop was organized into groups that were tasked with assessing and making recommendations to promote progress in one of the following six critical areas of research: (1) biology of alveolar epithelial injury and aberrant repair; (2) role of extracellular matrix; (3) preclinical modeling; (4) role of inflammation and immunity; (5) genetic, epigenetic, and environmental determinants; (6) translation of discoveries into diagnostics and therapeutics. The workshop recommendations provide a basis for directing future research and strategic planning by scientific, professional, and patient communities and the NHLBI. PMID:24160862

  1. A Theme-Based Course: Hydrogen as the Fuel of the Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shultz, Mary Jane; Kelly, Matthew; Paritsky, Leonid; Wagner, Julia

    2009-01-01

    A theme-based course focusing on the potential role of hydrogen as a future fuel is described. Numerous topics included in typical introductory courses can be directly related to the issue of hydrogen energy. Beginning topics include Avogadro's number, the mole, atomic mass, gas laws, and the role of electrons in chemical transformations. Reaction…

  2. Assessment of Local HOx and ROx Measurement Techniques: Achievements, Challenges, and Future Directions - Outcomes from the International HOx Workshop 2015

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hofzumahaus, Andreas; Heard, Dwayne

    2016-04-01

    Measurements of HOx radicals are an important tool for the investigation of tropospheric chemistry in field campaigns and simulation chamber experiments. The measured data allow us to test chemical models simulating the atmospheric concentrations of OH, HO2 and RO2, and help to improve chemical mechanisms used in regional and global models for predictions of the atmospheric chemical composition. In Spring 2015, an international, IGAC-endorsed workshop took place at Forschungszentrum Jülich, Germany, to assess the performance and reliability of current HOx measurement techniques. Fifteen international groups from Germany, UK, Ireland, France, Finland, USA, China and Japan came together to discuss achievements, challenges and future directions of laser-based, mass-spectrometry based, and chemical techniques. Following the discussions, a working group was established to guide the community in the near future in making progress on continued improvement in HOx measurements. Three goals will be persued: the development of a common calibration unit, the development of procedures to investigate and, if necessary, eliminate possible measurement artefacts, and planning for future instrumental intercomparisons. This poster contribution will give an overview of the workshop, its outcome and planned activites.

  3. Assessment of Local HOx and ROx Measurement Techniques: Achievements, Challenges, and Future Directions - Outcome From the International HOx Workshop 2015

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hofzumahaus, A.; Heard, D. E.

    2015-12-01

    Measurements of HOx radicals are an important tool for the investigation of tropospheric chemistry in field campaigns and simulation chamber experiments. The measured data allow us to test chemical models simulating the atmospheric concentrations of OH, HO2 and RO2, and help to improve chemical mechanisms used in regional and global models for predictions of the atmospheric chemical composition. In Spring 2015, an international, IGAC-endorsed workshop took place at Forschungszentrum Jülich, Germany, to assess the performance and reliability of current HOx measurement techniques. Fifteen international groups from Germany, UK, Ireland, France, Finland, USA, China and Japan came together to discuss achievements, challenges and future directions of laser-based, mass-spectrometry based, and chemical techniques. Following the discussions, a working group was established to guide the community in the near future in making progress on continued improvement in HOx measurements. Three goals will be persued: the development of a common calibration unit, the development of procedures to investigate and, if necessary, eliminate possible measurement artefacts, and planning for future instrumental intercomparisons. This contribution will give an overview of the workshop, its outcome and planned activites.

  4. Biomechanical energy harvesting from human motion: theory, state of the art, design guidelines, and future directions

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Biomechanical energy harvesting from human motion presents a promising clean alternative to electrical power supplied by batteries for portable electronic devices and for computerized and motorized prosthetics. We present the theory of energy harvesting from the human body and describe the amount of energy that can be harvested from body heat and from motions of various parts of the body during walking, such as heel strike; ankle, knee, hip, shoulder, and elbow joint motion; and center of mass vertical motion. Methods We evaluated major motions performed during walking and identified the amount of work the body expends and the portion of recoverable energy. During walking, there are phases of the motion at the joints where muscles act as brakes and energy is lost to the surroundings. During those phases of motion, the required braking force or torque can be replaced by an electrical generator, allowing energy to be harvested at the cost of only minimal additional effort. The amount of energy that can be harvested was estimated experimentally and from literature data. Recommendations for future directions are made on the basis of our results in combination with a review of state-of-the-art biomechanical energy harvesting devices and energy conversion methods. Results For a device that uses center of mass motion, the maximum amount of energy that can be harvested is approximately 1 W per kilogram of device weight. For a person weighing 80 kg and walking at approximately 4 km/h, the power generation from the heel strike is approximately 2 W. For a joint-mounted device based on generative braking, the joints generating the most power are the knees (34 W) and the ankles (20 W). Conclusions Our theoretical calculations align well with current device performance data. Our results suggest that the most energy can be harvested from the lower limb joints, but to do so efficiently, an innovative and light-weight mechanical design is needed. We also compared the

  5. Treading lightly on shifting ground: The direction and motivation of future geological research

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Witt, A.C.

    2011-01-01

    The future of the geosciences and geological research will involve complex scientific challenges, primarily concerning global and regional environmental issues, in the next 20-30 years. It is quite reasonable to suspect, based on current political and socioeconomic events, that young geoscientists will be faced with and involved in helping to resolve some well defined problems: water and energy security, the effects of anthropogenic climate change, coastal sea level rise and development, and the mitigation of geohazards. It is how we choose to approach these challenges that will define our future. Interdisciplinary applied research, improved modeling and prediction augmented with faster and more sophisticated computing, and a greater role in creating and guiding public policy, will help us achieve our goals of a cleaner and safer Earth environment in the next 30 years. In the far future, even grander possibilities for eliminating the risk of certain geohazards and finding sustainable solutions to our energy needs can be envisioned. Looking deeper into the future, the possibilities for geoscience research push the limits of the imagination.

  6. Bases of Radio Direction Finding, Part II

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-12-22

    FTD-ID(RS)T-2232-77 Part 2 of 2 FOREIGN TECHNOLOGY DIVISION BASES OF RADIO DIRECTION FINDING by I. S. Kukes, M. Ye. Starik -3- 0DAM Approved for...FOREIGN TECHNOLOGY DI- FOREIGN TECHNOLOGY DIVISION I VISION. j WP.AFB, OHIO. FTD- ID(RS)T-2232-77 Date22 Dec 1977 Table of Contents U.S. Board on...2939, Nt 8, LTI). 3. 11.2 WI ir-p x( o a~ B. B OcitowiwN -punpcKi:. si’Hovim’ paAisonve.1CI* MONil . PCJA.-.It3A. OTA. A9JI1041-1oTS, .1943. 11.3. C a R

  7. Direct-acting oral anticoagulants: pharmacology, indications, management, and future perspectives.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Outes, Antonio; Suárez-Gea, Ma Luisa; Lecumberri, Ramón; Terleira-Fernández, Ana Isabel; Vargas-Castrillón, Emilio

    2015-11-01

    In recent years, several direct-acting oral anticoagulants (DOAC) have become available for use in Europe and other regions in indications related to prophylaxis and treatment of venous and arterial thromboembolism. They include the oral direct thrombin inhibitor dabigatran etexilate (Pradaxa, Boehringer Ingelheim) and the oral direct FXa inhibitors rivaroxaban (Xarelto, Bayer HealthCare), apixaban (Eliquis, Bristol-Myers Squibb), and edoxaban (Lixiana/Savaysa, Daiichi-Sankyo). The new compounds have a predictable dose response and few drug-drug interactions (unlike vitamin k antagonists), and they do not require parenteral administration (unlike heparins). However, they accumulate in patients with renal impairment, lack widely available monitoring tests for measuring its anticoagulant activity, and no specific antidotes for neutralization in case of overdose and/or severe bleeding are currently available. In this review, we describe the pharmacology of the DOAC, the efficacy, and safety data from pivotal studies that support their currently approved indications and discuss the postmarketing experience available. We also summarize practical recommendations to ensure an appropriate use of the DOAC according to existing data. Finally, we discuss relevant ongoing studies and future perspectives.

  8. Benign Paroxysmal Positional Vertigo (BPPV): History, Pathophysiology, Office Treatment and Future Directions.

    PubMed

    Hornibrook, Jeremy

    2011-01-01

    BPPV is the most common cause of vertigo. It most often occurs spontaneously in the 50 to 70 year age group. In younger individuals it is the commonest cause of vertigo following head injury. There is a wide spectrum of severity from inconsistent positional vertigo to continuous vertigo provoked by any head movement. It is likely to be a cause of falls and other morbidity in the elderly. Misdiagnosis can result in unnecessary tests. The cardinal features and a diagnostic test were clarified in 1952 by Dix and Hallpike. Subsequently, it has been established that the symptoms are attributable to detached otoconia in any of the semicircular canals. BPPV symptoms can resolve spontaneously but can last for days, weeks, months, and years. Unusual patterns of nystagmus and nonrepsonse to treatment may suggest central pathology. Diagnostic strategies and the simplest "office" treatment techniques are described. Future directions for research are discussed.

  9. NASA Workshop on future directions in surface modeling and grid generation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vandalsem, W. R.; Smith, R. E.; Choo, Y. K.; Birckelbaw, L. D.; Vogel, A. A.

    1992-01-01

    Given here is a summary of the paper sessions and panel discussions of the NASA Workshop on Future Directions in Surface Modeling and Grid Generation held a NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, California, December 5-7, 1989. The purpose was to assess U.S. capabilities in surface modeling and grid generation and take steps to improve the focus and pace of these disciplines within NASA. The organization of the workshop centered around overviews from NASA centers and expert presentations from U.S. corporations and universities. Small discussion groups were held and summarized by group leaders. Brief overviews and a panel discussion by representatives from the DoD were held, and a NASA-only session concluded the meeting. In the NASA Program Planning Session summary there are five recommended steps for NASA to take to improve the development and application of surface modeling and grid generation.

  10. Parents' ethnic-racial socialization practices: a review of research and directions for future study.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Diane; Rodriguez, James; Smith, Emilie P; Johnson, Deborah J; Stevenson, Howard C; Spicer, Paul

    2006-09-01

    Recently, there has been an emergence of literature on the mechanisms through which parents transmit information, values, and perspectives about ethnicity and race to their children, commonly referred to as racial or ethnic socialization. This literature has sought to document the nature of such socialization, its antecedents in parents' and children's characteristics and experiences, and its consequences for children's well-being and development. In this article, the authors integrate and synthesize what is known about racial and ethnic socialization on the basis of current empirical research, examining studies concerning its nature and frequency; its child, parent, and ecological predictors; and its consequences for children's development, including ethnic identity, self-esteem, coping with discrimination, academic achievement, and psychosocial well-being. The authors also discuss conceptual and methodological limitations of the literature and suggest directions for future research.

  11. Transdermal rivastigmine in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease: current and future directions.

    PubMed

    Amanatkar, Hamid Reza; Grossberg, George Thomas

    2014-10-01

    Despite the fact that the prevalence of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is exponentially increasing, we have not yet been able to develop a new treatment to modify the course of the disease. This vacuum makes the traditional cholinesterase inhibitors and N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonist the only accessible pharmacotherapy options for the treatment of this disease. Among these medications, the only available transdermal patch at this time is the rivastigmine patch. This patch provides significantly lower gastrointestinal adverse effects. A higher tolerability rate provides the option for physicians to continue treatment with higher doses of rivastigmine in advanced stages of AD. Moreover, ease of use, easy-to-follow schedule, less administration time spent by the caregiver result in greater adherent to the treatment. This article aims to provide a comprehensive drug profile for transdermal rivastigmine, to review currently available treatment options, and to try to anticipate future treatment directions for AD.

  12. Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptors and the Heart: Lessons from the Past and Future Directions

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Wang-Soo; Kim, Jaetaek

    2015-01-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) belong to the nuclear family of ligand activated transcriptional factors and comprise three different isoforms, PPAR-α, PPAR-β/δ, and PPAR-γ. The main role of PPARs is to regulate the expression of genes involved in lipid and glucose metabolism. Several studies have demonstrated that PPAR agonists improve dyslipidemia and glucose control in animals, supporting their potential as a promising therapeutic option to treat diabetes and dyslipidemia. However, substantial differences exist in the therapeutic or adverse effects of specific drug candidates, and clinical studies have yielded inconsistent data on their cardioprotective effects. This review summarizes the current knowledge regarding the molecular function of PPARs and the mechanisms of the PPAR regulation by posttranslational modification in the heart. We also describe the results and lessons learned from important clinical trials on PPAR agonists and discuss the potential future directions for this class of drugs. PMID:26587015

  13. End-of-Life Care and Psychiatry: Current Trends and Future Directions in India

    PubMed Central

    Deodhar, Jayita K.

    2016-01-01

    Although 80% of the deaths worldwide occur in middle- and low-income countries such as India, there is less awareness of end-of-life care (EOLC) for people with chronic, serious, progressive, or advanced life-limiting illnesses, including dementia. EOLC involves good communication, clinical decision-making, liaison with medical teams and families, comprehensive assessment of and specialized interventions for physical, psychological, spiritual, and social needs of patients and their caregivers. The psychiatrist can play a significant role in each of the above domains in EOLC. The current trends in India are examined, including ambiguities between EOLC and euthanasia. Future directions include formulating a national EOLC policy, providing appropriate services and training. The psychiatrist should get involved in this process, with major responsibilities in providing good quality EOLC for patients with both life-limiting physical illnesses and severe mental disorders, supporting their caregivers, and ensuring dignity in death. PMID:28031629

  14. State of the art review and future directions in oil spill modeling.

    PubMed

    Spaulding, Malcolm L

    2017-02-15

    A review of the state of the art in oil spill modeling, focused on the period from 2000 to present is provided. The review begins with an overview of the current structure of spill models and some lessons learned from model development and application and then provides guiding principles that govern the development of the current generation of spill models. A review of the basic structure of spill models, and new developments in specific transport and fate processes; including surface and subsurface transport, spreading, evaporation, dissolution, entrainment and oil droplet size distributions, emulsification, degradation, and sediment oil interaction are presented. The paper concludes with thoughts on future directions in the field with a primary focus on advancements in handling interactions between Lagrangian elements.

  15. Immunotherapy of Brain Cancers: The Past, the Present, and Future Directions

    PubMed Central

    Ge, Lisheng; Hoa, Neil; Bota, Daniela A.; Natividad, Josephine; Howat, Andrew; Jadus, Martin R.

    2010-01-01

    Treatment of brain cancers, especially high grade gliomas (WHO stage III and IV) is slowly making progress, but not as fast as medical researchers and the patients would like. Immunotherapy offers the opportunity to allow the patient's own immune system a chance to help eliminate the cancer. Immunotherapy's strength is that it efficiently treats relatively small tumors in experimental animal models. For some patients, immunotherapy has worked for them while not showing long-term toxicity. In this paper, we will trace the history of immunotherapy for brain cancers. We will also highlight some of the possible directions that this field may be taking in the immediate future for improving this therapeutic option. PMID:21437175

  16. Metabolite identification and profiling in drug design: current practice and future directions.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhoupeng; Zhu, Mingshe; Tang, Wei

    2009-01-01

    Drug metabolism and pharmacokinetics (DMPK) represents a critical component in support of drug discovery and development. This is because the therapeutic efficacy of a drug is dependent on its exposure which in turn is dictated in part by metabolic stability of the molecule. In addition, drug metabolism may lead to the formation of metabolites that can either be pharmacologically active or elicit adverse effect. On this basis, metabolite identification and profiling have become a routine exercise during lead optimization and subsequent development processes. The current communication provides an overview on the account of metabolite identification and profiling in support of drug design with an additional emphasis on the commonly used analytical techniques. The discussion is supported by case studies. Future directions are discussed in the context of newer platforms of technology and bioanalytical approaches enabling better operation efficiency in pharmaceutical research.

  17. Future Directions for Research on the Development and Prevention of Early Conduct Problems

    PubMed Central

    Shaw, Daniel S.

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes our state of knowledge regarding the development and prevention of conduct problems in early childhood, then identifies directions that would benefit future basic and applied research. Our understanding about the course and risk factors associated with early-developing conduct problems has been significantly enhanced during the past three decades; however, many challenges remain in understanding the development of early conduct problems for girls, the contribution of poverty across variations in community urbanicity, and developing cascading models of conduct problems that incorporate prenatal risk. Significant advances in early prevention and intervention are also described, as well as challenges for identifying and engaging parents of at-risk children in nontraditional community settings. PMID:23534691

  18. Recent Accomplishments and Future Directions in US Fusion Safety & Environmental Program

    SciTech Connect

    David A. Petti; Brad J. Merrill; Phillip Sharpe; L. C. Cadwallader; L. El-Guebaly; S. Reyes

    2006-07-01

    The US fusion program has long recognized that the safety and environmental (S&E) potential of fusion can be attained by prudent materials selection, judicious design choices, and integration of safety requirements into the design of the facility. To achieve this goal, S&E research is focused on understanding the behavior of the largest sources of radioactive and hazardous materials in a fusion facility, understanding how energy sources in a fusion facility could mobilize those materials, developing integrated state of the art S&E computer codes and risk tools for safety assessment, and evaluating S&E issues associated with current fusion designs. In this paper, recent accomplishments are reviewed and future directions outlined.

  19. Cocaine and mitochondria-related signaling in the brain: A mechanistic view and future directions.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Marcos Roberto; Jardim, Fernanda Rafaela

    2016-01-01

    Cocaine is extensively used as a psychostimulant among subjects at different ages worldwide. Cocaine causes neuronal dysfunction and, consequently, negatively affects human behavior and decreases life quality severely. Cocaine acts through diverse mechanisms, including mitochondrial impairment and activation of cell signaling pathways associated to stress response. There is some controversy regarding the effect of cocaine in inducing cell death through apoptosis in different experimental models. The aim of the present work is to discuss data associated to the mitochondrial consequences of cocaine exposure of mammalian cells in several experimental models from in vitro to in vivo, including postmortem human tissue analyses. Furthermore, future directions are proposed in order to serve as a suggestive guide in relation to the next steps towards the complete elucidation of the mechanisms of toxicity elicited by cocaine upon mitochondria of neuronal cells.

  20. End-of-Life Care and Psychiatry: Current Trends and Future Directions in India.

    PubMed

    Deodhar, Jayita K

    2016-01-01

    Although 80% of the deaths worldwide occur in middle- and low-income countries such as India, there is less awareness of end-of-life care (EOLC) for people with chronic, serious, progressive, or advanced life-limiting illnesses, including dementia. EOLC involves good communication, clinical decision-making, liaison with medical teams and families, comprehensive assessment of and specialized interventions for physical, psychological, spiritual, and social needs of patients and their caregivers. The psychiatrist can play a significant role in each of the above domains in EOLC. The current trends in India are examined, including ambiguities between EOLC and euthanasia. Future directions include formulating a national EOLC policy, providing appropriate services and training. The psychiatrist should get involved in this process, with major responsibilities in providing good quality EOLC for patients with both life-limiting physical illnesses and severe mental disorders, supporting their caregivers, and ensuring dignity in death.