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Sample records for future foodservice management

  1. Assessment of a Foodservice Management Sanitation Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Charlotte C.; Casey, Ralph

    1979-01-01

    This study determined the extent to which a course in foodservice sanitation using National Institute for the Foodservice Industry materials affected the postcourse sanitation inspection scores in selected establishments. Both experimental and control establishments had significantly higher inspection scores after the course than they had prior to…

  2. Comparison of foodservice management performance level between dietitians and non-dietitians in senior centers using IPA

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Yun-Kyoung

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the management importance and performance level of foodservice managers at senior centers. Using the survey, perceived importance and performance levels of seven foodservice management areas were evaluated and analyzed. Data showed the foodservice facilities were being managed by dietitians (61.6%) or non-dietitians (38.9%). The result indicated that overall importance level (3.43) was higher than performance level (3.02) (p<.01). As of the IPA result, dietitians and non-dietitians had different perspectives in terms of managing the eight categories of foodservice areas. The differences in the IPA results between the two groups may reflect bias attributable to the respondents' degrees of knowledge and professional preparation. The research findings could enhance our understanding of importance of hiring professional dietitians to operate foodservice at senior centers and find out which management area should be concentrated for more effective foodservice management. PMID:20016702

  3. Clinical nutrition and foodservice personnel in teaching hospitals have different perceptions of total quality management performance.

    PubMed

    Chong, Y; Unklesbay, N; Dowdy, R

    2000-09-01

    To investigate the perceived total quality management (TQM) performance of their department by clinical nutrition managers and dietitians, and foodservice managers and supervisors, in hospital food and nutrition service departments. Using a 2-part questionnaire containing items about 3 constructs of TQM performance and demographic characteristics, participants rated their perceptions of TQM performance. Employees in 7 Council of Teaching Hospitals. Of the 128 possible respondents, 73 (57%) completed the study. Correlation analysis to identify relationships between demographic characteristics and TQM performance. Analysis of variance to investigate statistical differences among hospitals and between subject groups and types of employment positions. Three TQM constructs--organization, information, and quality management--were evaluated. The clinical nutrition manager and dietitian group had mean ratings between 3.1 and 4.7 (5-point Likert scale); the foodservice manager and supervisor group had mean ratings from 2.7 to 4.0. Education level was significantly correlated (r = 0.44) to performance of employee training in the clinical nutrition group. The number of employees directly supervised was negatively correlated (r = -0.21) to the performance of employee training in the foodservice group. As the dynamic roles of dietitians change, many dietitians will occupy management positions in organizations such as restaurants, health food stores, food processing/distribution companies, and schools. This study demonstrates how a TQM survey instrument could be applied to clinical nutrition and foodservice settings. Dietitians will need to assess TQM in their workplace facilities, especially because of the direct links of TQM to productivity and client satisfaction.

  4. A Biosecurity Checklist for School Foodservice Programs: Developing a Biosecurity Management Plan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of Agriculture, 2004

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to introduce the need for securing foodservice operations from bioterrorism, provide a checklist of suggestions for improving the security of foodservice operations, and assist individuals responsible for school food service programs in strengthening the safety of the foodservice operation. While not mandatory, the…

  5. Perception of competency attainment in foodservice management: academic Plan IV vs. dietetic internship.

    PubMed

    Fruin, M F; Lawler, M R

    1986-08-01

    A national survey of 487 dietetic interns (61%), 63 internship directors (76%), and 68 Plan IV representatives (45%) utilized ADA entry-level role responsibilities in foodservice systems management. Student respondents rated perceived competence at the start and near completion of the internship. Program directors rated expected competence at the start of the internship. The three groups differed significantly on mean responses, with interns' ratings lowest and Plan IV representatives' ratings highest. Interns' mean ratings suggested that work experience just prior to starting an internship increased competence somewhat, regardless of type of work. Work during college was not included in the analysis. Interns' mean ratings also suggested that competence peaked some weeks before internship completion. Level of competence averaged about 6 on a scale of 0 to 7 at that time. Starting competence averaged about 2.5 to 3, indicating that Plan IV contribution is substantial but internship experience is essential for entry-level performance. Foodservice systems management competence levels compare very favorably with those previously reported for clinical dietetics.

  6. Inventory control system achievement test for dietetics and foodservice management students.

    PubMed

    Yang, I S; Fanslow, A M; Finley, D A

    1991-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop an inventory control system achievement test that measures cognitive achievement of students in a foodservice management information systems course. We developed a table of specifications for inventory control systems that included the following content areas: receiving, storing, issuing, inventory control, inventory valuation, and inventory control computer systems. We composed 114 test items in a multiple-choice format on the basis of the table of specifications. A sample of 105 students responded to the test; each had previously received 3 hours of instruction on inventory control systems in a foodservice management information systems course. The 50 best items, judged on the basis of item-analysis data and adherence to the table of specification, were selected for the final form of the inventory control system achievement test. The 50-item test was reliable as indicated by a Kuder-Richardson 20 value of .84. The test may be used to evaluate individual student's achievement, to evaluate the effectiveness of instruction, and to compare achievement of different groups.

  7. Technology in School Foodservice Operations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Callahan, Tom; Sharma, Vijay K.

    2002-01-01

    Describes the current state of technology to manage school food-service operations, including, for example, the use of automation to identify and feed needy students and the use of the Internet. Describes challenges of implementing an automated system. (PKP)

  8. Technology in School Foodservice Operations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Callahan, Tom; Sharma, Vijay K.

    2002-01-01

    Describes the current state of technology to manage school food-service operations, including, for example, the use of automation to identify and feed needy students and the use of the Internet. Describes challenges of implementing an automated system. (PKP)

  9. Consumer perceptions on sustainable practices implemented in foodservice organizations in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Ju, Seyoung

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES Sustainable practices in foodservice organizations including commercial and noncommercial ones are critical to ensure the protection of the environment for the future. With the rapid growth of the foodservice industry, wiser usage of input sources such as food, utilities, and single use packaging should be reconsidered for future generations. Therefore, this study aims to investigate the customer's perceptions on sustainable practices and to identify the relationship among sustainable practices, social contribution and purchase intention. SUBJECTS/METHODS The study was conducted using content analyses by reviewing articles on sustainable food service practices published domestically and abroad. Thereafter, data were collected with a face-to-face survey using a questionnaire and analyzed with factor analyses and multiple regressions. RESULTS Sustainable practices classified with factor analysis consisted of 6 dimensions of green food material procurement, sustainable food preparation, green packaging, preservation of energy, waste management, and public relations on green activity, with a total of 25 green activities in foodservice operations. Consumers were not very familiar with the green activities implemented in the foodservice unit, with the lowest awareness of "green food material procurement (2.46 out of 5 points)", and the highest awareness of "green packaging (3.74)" and "waste management (3.28). The factors influencing the perception of social contribution by foodservice organizations among 6 sustainable practice dimensions were found to be public relations on green activity (β = 0.154), waste management (β = 0.204) and sustainable food preparation (β = 0.183). Green packaging (β = 0.107) and the social contribution of the foodservice organization (β = 0.761) had strong relationships with the image of the organization. The purchase intentions of customers was affected only by the foodservice image (β = 0.775). CONCLUSIONS The

  10. Consumer perceptions on sustainable practices implemented in foodservice organizations in Korea.

    PubMed

    Ju, Seyoung; Chang, Hyeja

    2016-02-01

    Sustainable practices in foodservice organizations including commercial and noncommercial ones are critical to ensure the protection of the environment for the future. With the rapid growth of the foodservice industry, wiser usage of input sources such as food, utilities, and single use packaging should be reconsidered for future generations. Therefore, this study aims to investigate the customer's perceptions on sustainable practices and to identify the relationship among sustainable practices, social contribution and purchase intention. The study was conducted using content analyses by reviewing articles on sustainable food service practices published domestically and abroad. Thereafter, data were collected with a face-to-face survey using a questionnaire and analyzed with factor analyses and multiple regressions. Sustainable practices classified with factor analysis consisted of 6 dimensions of green food material procurement, sustainable food preparation, green packaging, preservation of energy, waste management, and public relations on green activity, with a total of 25 green activities in foodservice operations. Consumers were not very familiar with the green activities implemented in the foodservice unit, with the lowest awareness of "green food material procurement (2.46 out of 5 points)", and the highest awareness of "green packaging (3.74)" and "waste management (3.28). The factors influencing the perception of social contribution by foodservice organizations among 6 sustainable practice dimensions were found to be public relations on green activity (β = 0.154), waste management (β = 0.204) and sustainable food preparation (β = 0.183). Green packaging (β = 0.107) and the social contribution of the foodservice organization (β = 0.761) had strong relationships with the image of the organization. The purchase intentions of customers was affected only by the foodservice image (β = 0.775). The results of this study suggest that sustainable practices by

  11. Benchmarking in Foodservice Operations.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Food Management presented on April 9. 1998. Title: Benchmarking in Foodservice Operations. Abstract approved: M. Jean Chambers The objective of...would like to acknowledge and express my appreciation to my major professor, Dr. Jean Chambers , for her continual dedication, professional expertise...States Air Force. She, along with Dr. Chambers and Colonel Esther Myers, provided support from the beginning and throughout my educational journey. I am

  12. A Survey to Determine if Significant Differences Exist in the Scoring of Select Management Areas for Fast Food and Full Service Restaurant Managers by Two-Year Foodservice Management Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bloom, Thomas A.

    A survey was conducted of students in 77 of the 144 two-year foodservice management programs in the United States to assess their knowledge of and attitudes toward fast food restaurant management as compared to full service restaurant management. A total of 1,403 students from 44 programs responded. Results indicated that the food service…

  13. Factors other than environmental issues influence resource allocation decisions of school foodservice directors.

    PubMed

    Hackes, B L; Shanklin, C W

    1999-08-01

    To identify resource allocation decisions and policies and procedures used by school foodservice directors that were based on the concepts of pollution prevention, product stewardship, and sustainable development. A questionnaire about operational characteristics (including equipment and production systems, menu selection and service style) and environmental issues was mailed to school foodservice directors. Subjects were school foodservice directors in major cities who were members of the American School Food Service Association. Of the 389 questionnaires mailed, 168 (45.5%) were returned and used for data analysis. Descriptive statistics, analysis of variance, and correlation were used to analyze data. Cost factors were rated more important (P < or = .05) than environmental factors when operational decisions were made. Labor was ranked as the most important future issue by 45.0% of respondents, but it was not the most important factor when current operational decisions were made. Less than 20.0% of the respondents indicated that their districts had specific water (3.3%), energy (14.2%), or solid waste management policies (16.0%). However, 62.6% of respondents stated that their district had a recycling program. With the exception of recycling programs, school foodservice departments have not adopted a framework of pollution prevention, product stewardship, and sustainable development practices. Recycling and energy conservation programs and use of locally grown food products would minimize the environmental impact of school foodservice operations while reducing operational costs.

  14. Trends impacting food safety in retail foodservice: implications for dietetics practice.

    PubMed

    Sneed, Jeannie; Strohbehn, Catherine H

    2008-07-01

    Food safety in retail foodservice is increasingly important to consumers. Trends that impact food safety concerns include the increasing number of meals eaten away from home, increasing consumer awareness about food safety, an aging population, changes in the foodservice workforce, changing technology in work environments, changes in food procurement, foodservice risk factors, and food defense concerns. Each of these trends has implications for dietetics practice, both in working with consumers and managing foodservice operations.

  15. Assessment of foodservice quality and identification of improvement strategies using hospital foodservice quality model

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kyungjoo; Kim, Minyoung

    2010-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to assess hospital foodservice quality and to identify causes of quality problems and improvement strategies. Based on the review of literature, hospital foodservice quality was defined and the Hospital Foodservice Quality model was presented. The study was conducted in two steps. In Step 1, nutritional standards specified on diet manuals and nutrients of planned menus, served meals, and consumed meals for regular, diabetic, and low-sodium diets were assessed in three general hospitals. Quality problems were found in all three hospitals since patients consumed less than their nutritional requirements. Considering the effects of four gaps in the Hospital Foodservice Quality model, Gaps 3 and 4 were selected as critical control points (CCPs) for hospital foodservice quality management. In Step 2, the causes of the gaps and improvement strategies at CCPs were labeled as "quality hazards" and "corrective actions", respectively and were identified using a case study. At Gap 3, inaccurate forecasting and a lack of control during production were identified as quality hazards and corrective actions proposed were establishing an accurate forecasting system, improving standardized recipes, emphasizing the use of standardized recipes, and conducting employee training. At Gap 4, quality hazards were menus of low preferences, inconsistency of menu quality, a lack of menu variety, improper food temperatures, and patients' lack of understanding of their nutritional requirements. To reduce Gap 4, the dietary departments should conduct patient surveys on menu preferences on a regular basis, develop new menus, especially for therapeutic diets, maintain food temperatures during distribution, provide more choices, conduct meal rounds, and provide nutrition education and counseling. The Hospital Foodservice Quality Model was a useful tool for identifying causes of the foodservice quality problems and improvement strategies from a holistic point of view

  16. Forecasting in foodservice: model development, testing, and evaluation.

    PubMed

    Miller, J L; Thompson, P A; Orabella, M M

    1991-05-01

    This study was designed to develop, test, and evaluate mathematical models appropriate for forecasting menu-item production demand in foodservice. Data were collected from residence and dining hall foodservices at Ohio State University. Objectives of the study were to collect, code, and analyze the data; develop and test models using actual operation data; and compare forecasting results with current methods in use. Customer count was forecast using deseasonalized simple exponential smoothing. Menu-item demand was forecast by multiplying the count forecast by a predicted preference statistic. Forecasting models were evaluated using mean squared error, mean absolute deviation, and mean absolute percentage error techniques. All models were more accurate than current methods. A broad spectrum of forecasting techniques could be used by foodservice managers with access to a personal computer and spread-sheet and database-management software. The findings indicate that mathematical forecasting techniques may be effective in foodservice operations to control costs, increase productivity, and maximize profits.

  17. Variables affecting high school students' perceptions of school foodservice.

    PubMed

    Meyer, M K; Conklin, M T

    1998-12-01

    To determine if student satisfaction with high school foodservice is directly related to participation in the foodservice. A valid and reliable survey was conducted in a variety of classes such as English, history, and health science in grades 9 through 12, representing students aged 13 through 19 years. Students were asked 38 questions concerning variety of food, food quality, foodservice staff, aesthetics of the serving and dining area, and demographics. The study was conducted with 1,823 students from 9 schools representing 4 geographic regions. Stepwise multiple regression was used to determine the independent variables (attributes desired by the students) that most highly correlated with the dependent variable (satisfaction with the school foodservice overall). Variables most highly correlated with overall satisfaction were variety of food offered, flavor of food, attractiveness of food on the serving line, staff smiling and greeting students, quality of food choices, choices that allow students to meet cultural and ethnic preferences, courteousness of the staff, and quality of ingredients. Variety of food offered was the best predictor of satisfaction. A statistically significant difference was found (P<.01) between groups that never ate school lunch and those that ate school lunch 3 to 5 times per week on dining ambiance, food quality, and staff. The results indicate that satisfaction with foodservice is associated with purchase behavior in school foodservice programs. School foodservice and nutrition programs are critically important for providing nutrition to millions of our future leaders. Today it is not enough to prepare healthful, good-tasting food. High school students are sophisticated and are exposed at an early age to a variety of dining experiences including fast foods, ethnic cuisine, and fine dining. These factors have influenced the attributes students use to evaluate school foodservice. To maintain participation levels and financial stability

  18. School Foodservice: The Next Millennium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzgerald, Patricia L.

    1998-01-01

    Examines trends identified in the American School Food Service Association's research-based "1998-2000 Strategic Plan." Forecasters are projecting that student enrollments will rise over the next five years, labor shortages will continue, competition from fast-food providers is increasing, food-service providers' roles are expanding, and…

  19. Implementing healthier foodservice guidelines in hospital and federal worksite cafeterias: barriers, facilitators and keys to success.

    PubMed

    Jilcott Pitts, S B; Graham, J; Mojica, A; Stewart, L; Walter, M; Schille, C; McGinty, J; Pearsall, M; Whitt, O; Mihas, P; Bradley, A; Simon, C

    2016-12-01

    Healthy foodservice guidelines are being implemented in worksites and healthcare facilities to increase access to healthy foods by employees and public populations. However, little is known about the barriers to and facilitators of implementation. The present study aimed to examine barriers to and facilitators of implementation of healthy foodservice guidelines in federal worksite and hospital cafeterias. Using a mixed-methods approach, including a quantitative survey followed by a qualitative, in-depth interview, we examined: (i) barriers to and facilitators of implementation; (ii) behavioural design strategies used to promote healthier foods and beverages; and (iii) how implementation of healthy foodservice guidelines influenced costs and profitability. We used a purposive sample of five hospital and four federal worksite foodservice operators who recently implemented one of two foodservice guidelines: the United States Department of Health and Human Services/General Services Administration Health and Sustainability Guidelines ('Guidelines') in federal worksites or the Partnership for a Healthier America Hospital Healthier Food Initiative ('Initiative') in hospitals. Descriptive statistics were used to analyse quantitative survey data. Qualitative data were analysed using a deductive approach. Implementation facilitators included leadership support, adequate vendor selections and having dietitians assist with implementation. Implementation barriers included inadequate selections from vendors, customer complaints and additional expertise required for menu labelling. Behavioural design strategies used most frequently included icons denoting healthier options, marketing using social media and placement of healthier options in prime locations. Lessons learned can guide subsequent steps for future healthy foodservice guideline implementation in similar settings. © 2016 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  20. Importance of relationship quality and communication on foodservice for the elderly.

    PubMed

    Seo, Sunhee; Back, Ki Joon; Shanklin, Carol W

    2011-02-01

    In order to promote foodservice for the elderly, foodservice managers in Continuing Care Retirement Communities (CCRCs) must identify the main factors to enhance the satisfaction and behavioral intentions with food service. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationships between relationship quality (consisting of trust, commitment, and satisfaction) and communication in the formation of elderly's behavioral intentions with food services at CCRCs. A survey was administered to residents in two CCRCs and a total of 327 residents participated. A tested structural equation model exhibited good model fit and explanatory power of the study construct. Satisfaction directly influenced word-of-mouth and service quality has an influence on commitment. Commitment was a significant determinant of behavioral intentions to eat more often in the dining room. Also, communication showed positive association with trust. The results provided strong evidence for the importance of satisfaction and communication as a consequence of relationship marketing efforts. Suggestions for future research to better understand the elderly' behavioral intention judgments were given.

  1. Importance of relationship quality and communication on foodservice for the elderly

    PubMed Central

    Back, Ki Joon; Shanklin, Carol W.

    2011-01-01

    In order to promote foodservice for the elderly, foodservice managers in Continuing Care Retirement Communities (CCRCs) must identify the main factors to enhance the satisfaction and behavioral intentions with food service. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationships between relationship quality (consisting of trust, commitment, and satisfaction) and communication in the formation of elderly's behavioral intentions with food services at CCRCs. A survey was administered to residents in two CCRCs and a total of 327 residents participated. A tested structural equation model exhibited good model fit and explanatory power of the study construct. Satisfaction directly influenced word-of-mouth and service quality has an influence on commitment. Commitment was a significant determinant of behavioral intentions to eat more often in the dining room. Also, communication showed positive association with trust. The results provided strong evidence for the importance of satisfaction and communication as a consequence of relationship marketing efforts. Suggestions for future research to better understand the elderly' behavioral intention judgments were given. PMID:21487500

  2. Foodservice employees benefit from interventions targeting barriers to food safety.

    PubMed

    York, Valerie K; Brannon, Laura A; Shanklin, Carol W; Roberts, Kevin R; Howells, Amber D; Barrett, Elizabeth B

    2009-09-01

    The number of foodborne illnesses traced to improper food handling in restaurants indicates a need for research to improve food safety in these establishments. Therefore, this 2-year longitudinal study investigated the effectiveness of traditional ServSafe (National Restaurant Association Educational Foundation, Chicago, IL) food-safety training and a Theory of Planned Behavior intervention program targeting employees' perceived barriers and attitudes toward important food-safety behaviors. The effectiveness of the training and intervention was measured by knowledge scores and observed behavioral compliance rates related to food-safety practices. Employees were observed for handwashing, thermometer usage, and proper handling of work surfaces at baseline, after receiving ServSafe training, and again after exposure to the intervention targeting barriers and negative attitudes about food-safety practices. Repeated-measures analyses of variance indicated training improved handwashing knowledge, but the intervention was necessary to improve overall behavioral compliance and handwashing compliance. Results suggest that registered dietitians; dietetic technicians, registered; and foodservice managers should implement a combination of training and intervention to improve knowledge and compliance with food-safety behaviors, rather than relying on training alone. Challenges encountered while conducting this research are discussed, and recommendations are provided for researchers interested in conducting this type of research in the future.

  3. Getting a taste for food waste: a mixed methods ethnographic study into hospital food waste before patient consumption conducted at three New Zealand foodservice facilities.

    PubMed

    Goonan, Sarah; Mirosa, Miranda; Spence, Heather

    2014-01-01

    Foodservice organizations, particularly those in hospitals, are large producers of food waste. To date, research on waste in hospitals has focused primarily on plate waste and the affect of food waste on patient nutrition outcomes. Less focus has been placed on waste generation at the kitchen end of the hospital food system. We used a novel approach to understand reasons for hospital food waste before consumption and offer recommendations on waste minimization within foodservices. A mixed methods ethnographic research approach was adopted. Three New Zealand hospital foodservices were selected as research sites, all of which were contracted to an external foodservice provider. Data collection techniques included document analyses, observations, focus groups with kitchen staff, and one-on-one interviews with managers. Thematic analysis was conducted to generate common themes. Most food waste occurred during service and as a result of overproduction. Attitudes and habits of foodservice personnel were considered influential factors of waste generation. Implications of food waste were perceived differently by different levels of staff. Whereas managers raised discussion from a financial perspective, kitchen staff drew upon social implications. Organizational plans, controls, and use of pre-prepared ingredients assisted in waste minimization. An array of factors influenced waste generation in hospital foodservices. Exploring attitudes and practices of foodservice personnel allowed an understanding of reasons behind hospital food waste and ways in which it could be minimized. This study provides a foundation for further research on sustainable behavior within the wider foodservice sector and dietetics practice.

  4. Emergency preparedness needs assessment of centralized school foodservice and warehousing operations.

    PubMed

    Story, Cyndie; Sneed, Jeannie; Oakley, Charlotte B; Stretch, Theresa

    2007-12-01

    Managers of onsite retail foodservice operations, particularly those in centralized school foodservice operations, are called on to provide meals during emergencies, yet there is a paucity of research on their readiness to handle emergencies. Qualitative research and a cross-sectional survey design were used to conduct a needs assessment for emergency preparedness (emergency readiness, food recalls, and food defense) in centralized school foodservice operations, including warehousing. An open-ended written questionnaire was mailed to eight foodservice directors, and responses were used to develop a written questionnaire that was mailed to school foodservice directors in 200 districts identified as having centralized food production and warehousing. Directors from 78 districts responded (39% response rate). Most districts (n=72) had an emergency response team, and foodservice was included as part of 63 of those teams. Not all districts had written procedures for food recalls (47 of 73), natural disasters (37 of 74), or food defense (30 of 74). Barriers to implementing emergency preparedness policies and procedures included limited money, emergency equipment, and time. Most current training related to food safety with little training related to emergency preparedness. Training on the emergency preparedness plan was done in 61 of 78 districts. Training on emergency procedures was done by less than half of the districts during the previous year. This study identified best practices related to emergency preparedness that can be implemented in onsite retail foodservice operations. Results indicate a need to emphasize emergency preparedness, develop written standard operating procedures, and train employees to be prepared to respond to emergencies.

  5. Associations among school characteristics and foodservice practices in a nationally representative sample of United States schools.

    PubMed

    Thomson, Jessica L; Tussing-Humphreys, Lisa M; Martin, Corby K; LeBlanc, Monique M; Onufrak, Stephen J

    2012-01-01

    Determine school characteristics associated with healthy/unhealthy food service offerings or healthy food preparation practices. Secondary analysis of cross-sectional data. Nationally representative sample of public and private elementary, middle, and high schools. Data from the 2006 School Health Policies and Practices Study Food Service School Questionnaire, n = 526 for Healthy and Unhealthy Offerings analysis; n = 520 for Healthy Preparation analysis. Scores for healthy/unhealthy foodservice offerings and healthy food preparation practices. Multivariable regression to determine significant associations among school characteristics and offerings/preparation practices. Public schools and schools participating in the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) Team Nutrition reported more healthy offerings and preparation than private or nonparticipating schools, respectively. Elementary schools reported fewer unhealthy offerings than middle or high schools; middle schools reported fewer unhealthy offerings than high schools. Schools requiring foodservice managers to have a college education reported more healthy preparation, whereas those requiring completion of a foodservice training program reported fewer unhealthy offerings and more healthy preparation than schools without these requirements. Results suggest the school nutrition environment may be improved by requiring foodservice managers to hold a nutrition-related college degree and/or successfully pass a foodservice training program, and by participating in a school-based nutrition program, such as USDA Team Nutrition. Copyright © 2012 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. All rights reserved.

  6. Foodservices at School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Egmond-Pannell, Dorothy

    This chapter of "Principles of School Business Management" provides an overview of the history, regulation, and administration of school lunch programs and related food services. The historical review discusses factors prompting federal intervention in food programs for school children and cites legislation mandating funding. The chapter then…

  7. Associations among School Characteristics and Foodservice Practices in a Nationally Representative Sample of U.S. Schools

    PubMed Central

    Thomson, Jessica L.; Tussing-Humphreys, Lisa M.; Martin, Corby K.; LeBlanc, Monique M.; Onufrak, Stephen J.

    2012-01-01

    Objective Determine school characteristics associated with healthy/unhealthy foodservice offerings or healthy food preparation practices. Design Retrospective analysis of cross-sectional data. Setting Nationally representative sample of public and private elementary, middle and high schools. Participants 526 and 520 schools with valid data from the 2006 School Health Policies and Practices Study (SHPPS) Food Service School Questionnaire. Main Outcome Measure(s) Scores for healthy/unhealthy foodservice offerings and healthy food preparation practices. Analysis Multivariable regression to determine significant associations among school characteristics and offerings/preparation practices. Results Public schools and schools participating in USDA Team Nutrition reported more healthy offerings and preparation than private or non-participating schools, respectively. Elementary schools reported less unhealthy offerings than middle or high schools; middle schools reported less unhealthy offerings than high schools. Schools requiring foodservice managers to have a college education reported more healthy preparation while those requiring completion of a foodservice training program reported less unhealthy offerings and more healthy preparation than schools without these requirements. Conclusions and Implications Results suggest the school nutrition environment may be improved by requiring foodservice managers to hold a nutrition-related college degree and/or successfully pass a foodservice training program, and by participating in a school-based nutrition program, such as USDA Team Nutrition. PMID:22963956

  8. University foodservices' potential for providing environmental education to students.

    PubMed

    Slobbé, Chelsea; Mirosa, Miranda; Thomson, Carla

    2017-04-01

    University foodservices are potentially well placed to foster environmental education in a non-classroom setting and so could have the power to benefit communities through producing environmentally literate graduates. Buy-in from foodservice staff is critical for realising this potential, so understanding what foodservice staff think about their foodservice engaging in the provision of environmental education is essential. The aim of this study was to identify the dominant perspectives held by university foodservice staff about the desirability and realities of fostering environmental education in their workplaces. The study design integrated two phases: (i) 36 foodservice staff conducted a card-sorting activity that revealed four dominant viewpoints; (ii) 60 foodservice staff completed a survey where they identified with one of these viewpoints. The study was conducted in Dunedin, New Zealand. The four main perspectives were The 'Believer', the 'Relatively Positive Integrator', the 'Uncertain Contender' and the 'Sceptic'. All of the perspective groups, except for Sceptic, believed environmental education in their workplace was desirable. In the survey, 25% of the 60 participants self-identified with the Believer narrative, 40% with the Relatively Positive Integrator, 25% with the Uncertain Contender and 10% with the Sceptic. There were no significant differences between factors for sociodemographic characteristics. A paradigm shift in foodservice framework thinking could unlock the potential university foodservice has to assist universities whose strategic mission is to embed environmental education in both curricular and co-/extracurricula activities. © 2017 Dietitians Association of Australia.

  9. Development of Career Progression Systems for Employees in the Foodservice Industry. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Restaurant Association, Chicago, IL.

    Firms representing four segments of the foodservice industry (institutional foodservice (9 jobs), commercial restaurants (19 jobs), hotel foodservice (100 jobs), and airline foodservice (10 jobs), participated in a career and training study to test the feasibility of designing and implementing career progression (c.p.) systems within these…

  10. Managing our urban future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masser, Ian

    Urban growth is inevitable over the next two decades. The bulk of this growth will take place in less developed countries. This presents a formidable challenge for urban planers and managers. With this in mind this paper considers some of the ways urban planners can respond to this challenge. The discussion is divided into four sections. The first of these considers the nature of the tasks involved. The second examines the potential of remote sensing and geographic information systems to assist in these tasks in general terms. The third section presents some of the findings of three case studies which give some insights as to how these tools can be used to respond to this challenge while the final section sets out a vision of sustainable urban development and its implementation at the local level.

  11. Labor Productivity Standards in Texas School Foodservice Operations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherrin, A. Rachelle; Bednar, Carolyn; Kwon, Junehee

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: Purpose of this research was to investigate utilization of labor productivity standards and variables that affect productivity in Texas school foodservice operations. Methods: A questionnaire was developed, validated, and pilot tested, then mailed to 200 randomly selected Texas school foodservice directors. Descriptive statistics for…

  12. Labor Productivity Standards in Texas School Foodservice Operations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherrin, A. Rachelle; Bednar, Carolyn; Kwon, Junehee

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: Purpose of this research was to investigate utilization of labor productivity standards and variables that affect productivity in Texas school foodservice operations. Methods: A questionnaire was developed, validated, and pilot tested, then mailed to 200 randomly selected Texas school foodservice directors. Descriptive statistics for…

  13. Utilizing On-Campus Foodservice Facilities as a Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dallmeyer, Martha A.

    2012-01-01

    In 2008, the Family and Consumer Sciences Department at Bradley University recognized the need to improve the quality of the laboratory experience in foodservice classes. A hands-on, real-world, learning experience was desired. Simultaneously, the university administration wanted to provide an on-campus foodservice for students from 8:00 p.m. to…

  14. Utilizing On-Campus Foodservice Facilities as a Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dallmeyer, Martha A.

    2012-01-01

    In 2008, the Family and Consumer Sciences Department at Bradley University recognized the need to improve the quality of the laboratory experience in foodservice classes. A hands-on, real-world, learning experience was desired. Simultaneously, the university administration wanted to provide an on-campus foodservice for students from 8:00 p.m. to…

  15. A research model for relating job characteristics to job satisfaction of university foodservice employees.

    PubMed

    Duke, K M; Sneed, J

    1989-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between job characteristics and job satisfaction and between demographic variables and job satisfaction for university foodservice employees. A three-part survey was developed which included the 30-item Job Characteristics Inventory, 6 items related to job satisfaction, and 7 demographic items. Separate written questionnaires were administered to 32 managerial and 147 non-managerial employees of a large state university foodservice department. The response rate was 98% (32 managers and 143 non-managers). The reliability for the instrument, as determined by Cronbach's alpha, was 0.88 for employees and 0.91 for supervisors. Multiple linear regression analyses were used to test research hypotheses at a significance level of p less than or equal to .05. There was a positive relationship between job characteristics (autonomy, task identity, feedback, variety, dealing with others, and friendship opportunities) and job satisfaction for both employees and supervisors. Feedback and dealing with others were the individual job characteristics that were significant. Only one job characteristic, dealing with others, was rated higher by managerial than by non-managerial employees. There was no difference in job satisfaction by role (managerial vs. non-managerial) or demographic variables, except age for non-managerial employees. Older, non-managerial employees tended to be more satisfied with their jobs than did younger employees. Dietitians and foodservice managers can use the findings for implementing job design strategies, such as job enrichment and job rotation, to improve employee satisfaction.

  16. State of the art in marketing hospital foodservice departments.

    PubMed

    Pickens, C W; Shanklin, C W

    1985-11-01

    The purposes of this study were to identify the state of the art relative to the utilization of marketing techniques within hospital foodservice departments throughout the United States and to determine whether any relationships existed between the degree of utilization of marketing techniques and selected demographic characteristics of the foodservice administrators and/or operations. A validated questionnaire was mailed to 600 randomly selected hospital foodservice administrators requesting information related to marketing in their facilities. Forty-five percent of the questionnaires were returned and analyzed for frequency of response and significant relationship between variables. Chi-square was used for nominal data and Spearman rho for ranked data. Approximately 73% of the foodservice administrators stated that marketing was extremely important in the success of a hospital foodservice department. Respondents (79%) further indicated that marketing had become more important in their departments in the past 2 years. Departmental records, professional journals, foodservice suppliers, observation, and surveys were the sources most often used to obtain marketing data, a responsibility generally assumed by the foodservice director (86.2%). Merchandising, public relations, and word-of-mouth reputation were regarded as the most important aspects of marketing. Increased sales, participation, good will, departmental recognition, and employee satisfaction were used most frequently to evaluate the success of implemented marketing techniques. Marketing audits as a means of evaluating the success of marketing were used to a limited extent by the respondents.

  17. Plutonium management for the future

    SciTech Connect

    Pillay, K.K.S.

    1996-05-01

    Managment of excess nuclear materials from US weapons dismantlement has been the subject of numerous intellectual discussions during the past 5 years. Although there has been some objective recommendations, there is still much controversy surrounding the procsses that could lead to a national decision on Pu management. Two immediate needs are to secure the inventories of all Pu in safe configurations and to develop strategies for reducing proliferation risks. Specific suggestions discussed here are to (a) accept the deterrence value of Pu, (b) reappraise its potential as an energy resource, (c) recognize limitations to influence the future of Pu use world-wide, (d) isolate recoverable weapons-grade Pu and store it in stable configurations under international safeguards, and (e) manage Pu in spent fuels so that the valuable resources are not lost to a future generation.

  18. Progress Toward Future Runway Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lohr, Gary W.; Brown, Sherilyn A.; Atkins, Stephen; Eisenhawer, Stephen W.; Bott, Terrance F.; Long, Dou; Hasan, Shahab

    2011-01-01

    The runway is universally acknowledged as a constraining factor to capacity in the National Airspace System (NAS). It follows that investigation of the effective use of runways, both in terms of selection and assignment, is paramount to the efficiency of future NAS operations. The need to address runway management is not a new idea; however, as the complexities of factors affecting runway selection and usage increase, the need for effective research in this area correspondingly increases. Under the National Aeronautics and Space Administration s Airspace Systems Program, runway management is a key research area. To address a future NAS which promises to be a complex landscape of factors and competing interests among users and operators, effective runway management strategies and capabilities are required. This effort has evolved from an assessment of current practices, an understanding of research activities addressing surface and airspace operations, traffic flow management enhancements, among others. This work has yielded significant progress. Systems analysis work indicates that the value of System Oriented Runway Management tools is significantly increased in the metroplex environment over that of the single airport case. Algorithms have been developed to provide runway configuration recommendations for a single airport with multiple runways. A benefits analysis has been conducted that indicates the SORM benefits include supporting traffic growth, cost reduction as a result of system efficiency, NAS optimization from metroplex operations, fairness in aircraft operations, and rational decision making.

  19. Available Equipment in School Foodservice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, Mary Kay

    This report provides data on the National Food Service Management Institute's multi-year research project that identified type, style, age, and condition of available food service equipment in K-12 schools nationwide. The study found that smaller schools, serving less than 400 lunches per day, had kitchens equipped with ranges, small…

  20. RNAi: future in insect management.

    PubMed

    Burand, John P; Hunter, Wayne B

    2013-03-01

    RNA interference is a post- transcriptional, gene regulation mechanism found in virtually all plants and animals including insects. The demonstration of RNAi in insects and its successful use as a tool in the study of functional genomics opened the door to the development of a variety of novel, environmentally sound approaches for insect pest management. Here the current understanding of the biogenesis of the two RNAi classes in insects is reviewed. These are microRNAs (miRNAs) and short interfering RNAs (siRNAs). Several other key approaches in RNAi -based for insect control, as well as for the prevention of diseases in insects are also reviewed. The problems and prospects for the future use of RNAi in insects are presented.

  1. Comparison of students' foodservice satisfaction between Korea and US

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Eunkyung; Chun, Youngah; Joo, Nami

    2013-01-01

    This study analyzes important factors of foodservice in school through comparison of students' satisfaction of using foodservice in Korea and US in order to meet students' expectations. The survey was composed of 4 categories including menu, service, hygiene, and facility and it was carried out in both countries to evaluate satisfaction. First, comparison of satisfaction between two countries was made using t-test. Secondly, multiple regression was performed to identify factors affecting satisfaction. As a result Korean students were more satisfied than American students in all aspects. However, regardless of nationality, the top three factors affecting the students' satisfaction were the same. The predictors were food taste (Korean 0.375 and American 0.350), menu variety (Korean 0.305 and American 0.278), and service line (Korean 0.226 and American 0.192). Despite the similarity of the predicators, it can be concluded that the difference in satisfaction level between the two nationscan be explained by the approaches to create comfortable and acceptable changes in schools' foodservice. Korea has been increasing the foodservice quality based on their objectives to provide students comfortable and positive environment when eating nutritious meals. However, US have made their main objectives on making changes to decrease youth obesity. Foodservice improvements according to continuous evaluations and surveys are necessary in order to increase students' satisfaction. PMID:23422683

  2. The food-service industry, dietary guidelines and change.

    PubMed

    Hughes, R G; Harvey, P W; Heywood, P F

    1997-08-01

    The influence of the food-service industry on compliance with the Australian dietary guidelines was investigated through three separate methods of data collection and analysis: a telephone survey of 1683 randomly selected Brisbane residents; telephone interviews with 69 food-service-industry operators and 10 face-to-face interviews with key stakeholders in industry and government. Nearly 40 per cent of respondents had consumed foods prepared by the food-service industry at least once on the day before the interview, mainly from restaurants, cafes and takeaway shops, in the form of fast-food or snacks. Consumption of these foods declined with age. Those consuming foods prepared by the food-service industry ate significantly less fruit, vegetables and dairy food and were therefore less likely to comply with the dietary guidelines. Outcomes from interviews with operators in the food-service industry show that food choices offered to consumers were the result of a dynamic interaction between consumer demand and operators' own tastes and perceptions of food quality. Key informant interviews show that public health nutrition programs will have limited effect without supportive environmental changes in the food-service industry supply. An effective means of increasing the likelihood of compliance with the Australian dietary guidelines will be to encourage food suppliers in ways that address their core business concerns simultaneously with the goals of health professionals.

  3. Workplace foodservice; perception of quality and trust.

    PubMed

    Price, Sarah; Hartwell, Heather; Hemingway, Ann; Chapleo, Chris

    2016-02-01

    In settings such as workplaces there is a growing acceptance that the food provided has a significant impact on health and wellbeing. This is a captive environment where the overall contribution of the meal served could be an important element of the overall diet and represents an under researched area. Despite growing demand, little information is available; time pressure when making food choice alongside the challenge of understanding information provided can act as barriers for healthy selection and can also decrease confidence in the food system. We would also argue that the fundamental human right of informing consumers what they are eating is not currently being addressed and is underscored. This study used focus groups to explore criteria that motivate peoples' food choice in a workplace foodservice setting. Thematic analysis was applied to categorise data according to frequently occurring responses. Data were collected from four focus groups in Germany and the UK with a total of 23 participants. Although there is little expectation in the quality of food served in the workplace, respondents valued any transparency of information and the opportunity to socialise with other work colleagues. Criteria of importance were identified as: Value for money, Variety, Naturalness, Nutrition, Portion Size, Taste, Visual Appearance, Origin, Animal welfare, Environmental impact, Fair Trade and Organic. Gaining insight into these criteria can enable operators to meet the needs and expectations of their customers in order to increase confidence in the food provided and in addition signpost a healthier selection.

  4. Food-service establishment wastewater characterization.

    PubMed

    Lesikar, B J; Garza, O A; Persyn, R A; Kenimer, A L; Anderson, M T

    2006-08-01

    Food-service establishments that use on-site wastewater treatment systems are experiencing pretreatment system and/or drain field hydraulic and/or organic overloading. This study included characterization of four wastewater parameters (five-day biochemical oxygen demand [BOD5]; total suspended solids [TSS]; food, oil, and grease [FOG]; and flow) from 28 restaurants located in Texas during June, July, and August 2002. The field sampling methodology included taking a grab sample from each restaurant for 6 consecutive days at approximately the same time each day, followed by a 2-week break, and then sampling again for another 6 consecutive days, for a total of 12 samples per restaurant and 336 total observations. The analysis indicates higher organic (BOD5) and hydraulic values for restaurants than those typically found in the literature. The design values for this study for BOD5, TSS, FOG, and flow were 1523, 664, and 197 mg/L, and 96 L/day-seat respectively, which captured over 80% of the data collected.

  5. The Possibilities of Reducing Food Choice to Improve the Performance of College Foodservices.

    PubMed

    Mirosa, Miranda; Loh, Joanne; Spence, Heather

    2016-07-01

    College administrative and management leaders, foodservice personnel, and student residents value social, nutritional, financial, and environmental sustainability in their dining expectations. Menu choice reduction looks promising as a strategy to achieve these goals. However, foodservice research about dominant attitudes across these stakeholders is limited. To identify qualitative views from all stakeholders about choice reduction to ensure that any changes to the meal service are not to the detriment of consumer satisfaction. A comprehensive list of 74 statements representing the spectrum of attitudes surrounding choice was generated by searching a variety of resources, including academic literature and Internet sites, and by conducting semistructured interviews with stakeholders. A final set of 42 statements resulted from researcher scrutiny for optimum balance, clarity, appropriateness, simplicity, and applicability. A new sample of participants was then asked to sort these 42 statements into a normal distribution grid from "strongly disagree" to "strongly agree." A purposive convenience sample of stakeholders (staff n=5 and residents n=4) was used to identify statements about choice reduction. A second sample of stakeholders (staff n=6 and residents n=29) were recruited to sort the final 42 statements. Q methodology analysis techniques were used. This involved conducting a by-person factor analysis, using the centroid factor extraction method because of the permissiveness it allows for data exploration. A varimax factor rotation to enhance interpretability of the results identified shared viewpoints. Three dominant viewpoints toward the possibility of choice reduction in the meal service were identified. Factor 1 was "health driven" (in which healthiness was paramount). Factor 2 was "variety seekers" (in which choice had instrumental value). Factor 3 was "choice lovers" (in which choice had intrinsic value). Although participants could see a number of

  6. Eldercare foodservice: responding to the age of maturity.

    PubMed

    Sherer, M

    1992-12-01

    America is rapidly aging. In response, foodservice professionals are breaking all precedents as they expand & market meal programs to accommodate the growing number of seniors in need of nutrition services. Five case studies illustrate how directors & dietitians are improving the quality of life for this nation's elders.

  7. Measuring School Foodservice Workers’ Perceptions of Organizational Culture

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    School foodservice workers (SFW) are a direct link to children eating school meals. SFW who perceive positive and supportive organizational culture at their school nutrition departments also may perceive that such environments foster their own promotion of healthful food choices by students. To date...

  8. School Foodservice Costs: Location Matters. ERS Report Summary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ollinger, Michael; Ralston, Katherine; Guthrie, Joanne

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the extent to which location influences school foodservice costs per meal. It does not examine the effects of cost variation on financial solvency of an school food authority (SFA) or the adequacy of the US Department of Agriculture (USDA) meal reimbursements. Higher per meal costs do not necessarily indicate that an SFA is…

  9. Managing financial risk with options on futures.

    PubMed

    Bond, M T; Marshall, B S

    1995-05-01

    With the rise of managed care and capitation, more providers will be sharing in the financial risk of providing care. To help protect their organizations from the risk of unexpectedly high utilization under such a fixed-payment system, healthcare financial managers soon will be able to use options on futures contracts. These contracts provide wide profit potential but limited loss potential. Before investing in options on futures, however, healthcare financial managers should consider issues such as basis risk and trading costs.

  10. Influence of job characteristics and organizational commitment on job satisfaction of hospital foodservice employees.

    PubMed

    Sneed, J; Herman, C M

    1990-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the relationships among job characteristics, organizational commitment, job satisfaction, and demographic variables for hospital foodservice employees. Questionnaires including 30 items on job characteristics, 15 items on organizational commitment, 6 items related to job satisfaction, and 7 demographic items were administered to 45 supervisory and 172 nonsupervisory employees of 11 randomly selected hospitals. The reliability for the total instruments, using Cronbach's alpha, was 0.87 and 0.89, respectively, for the supervisory and nonsupervisory employee questionnaires. Organizational commitment and job satisfaction were related positively, with an r2 of 0.38. For supervisors, job characteristics related positively (p = .019) to organizational commitment, with variety being the only significant individual characteristic. For nonsupervisory employees, the model was also significant (p = .0001), with variety and feedback being the only significant individual characteristics. For all employees, there was a positive relationship between job characteristics and job satisfaction, with variety and feedback being the significant individual characteristics. Age was the only demographic variable related to organizational commitment; older employees had higher commitment scores. Demographic variables were not related to job satisfaction. Supervisors had higher perceived variety, autonomy, feedback, dealing with others, and friendship opportunities scores and higher commitment and satisfaction scores than did nonsupervisory employees. The findings indicate that dietitians and foodservice managers may increase organizational commitment and job satisfaction by increasing the variety and feedback in employees' jobs.

  11. Developing future managers: education and practice.

    PubMed

    Lehmann, D M

    1997-06-01

    Selecting, educating, and training managers for the future is not optional. If you leave this to chance, then you leave the organization's future to chance. The concept of identifying personal core competencies of future managers parallels the General's challenge of the "fog of war." You cannot tell people in advance all the things they will encounter as they march the organization forward. You can only prepare them so that they can handle the unexpected and unforeseen challenges that will occur. Building into the leader the necessary personal core competency is the best preparation for surprises. The personal core competencies for our organization's work of the future are shown below: Manager's Core Competencies: Teaming, Leadership, Process Management, Systems, Business Savvy, Product Knowledge, Job Knowledge. Each core competency includes a description that paints a clear picture of our expectations of our future managers. Your competencies may have similar labels or titles, but the descriptions will be unique to the vision of the future challenges for your organization.

  12. Validated foodservice training manual for supervisors with limited experience.

    PubMed

    Sparkman, A F; Briley, M E; Gillham, M B

    1984-12-01

    The objective of this research project was to develop a useful, validated training manual to be used by supervisors in small foodservice operations and government-funded nutrition programs that do not have access to the services of a registered dietitian. The accuracy of the content was critiqued by an expert panel. The pilot phase was conducted at one congregate dining site to assess and revise problems involving evaluation design. The model phase evaluated the trainer's ability to use the manual and the worker's knowledge and performance as a result of training. Foodservice workers' scores after training were significantly higher than scores before training (p less than .01). Performance evaluations 4 weeks after training showed a significant positive change in work behavior (p less than .001) over evaluations before training. At 8 weeks a return to pretraining behavior was observed. The project showed that regular in-service training sessions conducted in short segments that are inexpensive and continuous would be valuable in any foodservice operation with limited access to dietitians. Benefits from such training include improved efficiency of food preparation and service, better quality of products produced, increased cost-effectiveness, and higher employee morale.

  13. Training: An Opportunity for People with Disabilities in School Foodservice Operations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paez, Paola; Arendt, Susan; Strohbehn, Catherine

    2011-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: This study assessed current training methods and topics used at public school foodservice operations as well as school foodservice representatives' attitudes toward training employees with disabilities. Methods: A mixed method approach of data collection included two phases. Phase I used a more qualitative approach; interviews…

  14. HB 1347 and Its Relationship to Foodservice Outsourcing in Illinois Public Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brashear, Gary L.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined foodservice outsourcing in the State of Illinois. School administrators currently outsourcing foodservice were surveyed about their perceptions of HB1347 and its components. This study looked at HB1347 in Illinois, and its effects on outsourcing in school districts. Data for this study was collected from a survey sent to 100%…

  15. HB 1347 and Its Relationship to Foodservice Outsourcing in Illinois Public Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brashear, Gary L.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined foodservice outsourcing in the State of Illinois. School administrators currently outsourcing foodservice were surveyed about their perceptions of HB1347 and its components. This study looked at HB1347 in Illinois, and its effects on outsourcing in school districts. Data for this study was collected from a survey sent to 100%…

  16. Corporate Philanthropy: Philosophy, Management, Trends, Future, Background.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council on Foundations, Inc., Washington, DC.

    Major policy considerations and the management of corporate philanthropy, along with new directions and future prospects of corporate philanthropy, are addressed in 40 articles written by chief executive officers, lawyers, economists, and other leading analysts. In addition, a list of resource materials, a glossary, and a list of organizations…

  17. The Future of Copyright Management: European Perspectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Battisti, Michele

    This paper presents European perspectives on the future of copyright management. The first section is an overview of intellectual property rights in Europe, including differences between copyright countries and "droit d'auteur" countries. The second section addresses European Community legal policy, including examples related to the…

  18. Corporate Philanthropy: Philosophy, Management, Trends, Future, Background.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council on Foundations, Inc., Washington, DC.

    Major policy considerations and the management of corporate philanthropy, along with new directions and future prospects of corporate philanthropy, are addressed in 40 articles written by chief executive officers, lawyers, economists, and other leading analysts. In addition, a list of resource materials, a glossary, and a list of organizations…

  19. The future of management: The NASA paradigm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harris, Philip R.

    1992-01-01

    Prototypes of 21st century management, especially for large scale enterprises, may well be found within the aerospace industry. The space era inaugurated a number of projects of such scope and magnitude that another type of management had to be created to ensure successful achievement. The challenges will be not just in terms of technology and its management, but also human and cultural in dimension. Futurists, students of management, and those concerned with technological administration would do well to review the literature of emerging space management for its wider implications. NASA offers a paradigm, or demonstrated model, of future trends in the field of management at large. More research is needed on issues of leadership for Earth based project in space and space based programs with managers there. It is needed to realize that large scale technical enterprises, such as are undertaken in space, require a new form of management. NASA and other responsible agencies are urged to study excellence in space macromanagement, including the necessary multidisciplinary skills. Two recommended targets are the application of general living systems theory and macromanagement concepts for space stations in the 1990s.

  20. How do the work environment and work safety differ between the dry and wet kitchen foodservice facilities?

    PubMed

    Chang, Hye-Ja; Kim, Jeong-Won; Ju, Se-Young; Go, Eun-Sun

    2012-08-01

    In order to create a worker-friendly environment for institutional foodservice, facilities operating with a dry kitchen system have been recommended. This study was designed to compare the work safety and work environment of foodservice between wet and dry kitchen systems. Data were obtained using questionnaires with a target group of 303 staff at 57 foodservice operations. Dry kitchen facilities were constructed after 2006, which had a higher construction cost and more finishing floors with anti-slip tiles, and in which employees more wore non-slip footwear than wet kitchen (76.7%). The kitchen temperature and muscular pain were the most frequently reported employees' discomfort factors in the two systems, and, in the wet kitchen, "noise of kitchen" was also frequently reported as a discomfort. Dietitian and employees rated the less slippery and slip related incidents in dry kitchens than those of wet kitchen. Fryer area, ware-washing area, and plate waste table were the slippery areas and the causes were different between the functional areas. The risk for current leakage was rated significantly higher in wet kitchens by dietitians. In addition, the ware-washing area was found to be where employees felt the highest risk of electrical shock. Muscular pain (72.2%), arthritis (39.1%), hard-of-hearing (46.6%) and psychological stress (47.0%) were experienced by employees more than once a month, particularly in the wet kitchen. In conclusion, the dry kitchen system was found to be more efficient for food and work safety because of its superior design and well managed practices.

  1. How do the work environment and work safety differ between the dry and wet kitchen foodservice facilities?

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jeong-Won; Ju, Se-Young; Go, Eun-Sun

    2012-01-01

    In order to create a worker-friendly environment for institutional foodservice, facilities operating with a dry kitchen system have been recommended. This study was designed to compare the work safety and work environment of foodservice between wet and dry kitchen systems. Data were obtained using questionnaires with a target group of 303 staff at 57 foodservice operations. Dry kitchen facilities were constructed after 2006, which had a higher construction cost and more finishing floors with anti-slip tiles, and in which employees more wore non-slip footwear than wet kitchen (76.7%). The kitchen temperature and muscular pain were the most frequently reported employees' discomfort factors in the two systems, and, in the wet kitchen, "noise of kitchen" was also frequently reported as a discomfort. Dietitian and employees rated the less slippery and slip related incidents in dry kitchens than those of wet kitchen. Fryer area, ware-washing area, and plate waste table were the slippery areas and the causes were different between the functional areas. The risk for current leakage was rated significantly higher in wet kitchens by dietitians. In addition, the ware-washing area was found to be where employees felt the highest risk of electrical shock. Muscular pain (72.2%), arthritis (39.1%), hard-of-hearing (46.6%) and psychological stress (47.0%) were experienced by employees more than once a month, particularly in the wet kitchen. In conclusion, the dry kitchen system was found to be more efficient for food and work safety because of its superior design and well managed practices. PMID:22977692

  2. Moderating effects of leader-member exchange (LMX) on job burnout in dietitians and chefs of institutional foodservice

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    The objectives of the study were to investigate job burnout and leader-member exchange (LMX) levels as well as to evaluate buffering effects of LMX on burnout among dietitians and chefs at institutional foodservices. Hypotheses were proposed based on the Job Demands-Resources model and LMX theory. The study population consisted of dietitians and chefs who were in charge of managing unit operations in a nationwide contract management company. Positive/negative affectivity, workload, job burnout, and LMX scales that had been validated in previous research were adopted. A total of 552 questionnaires were distributed and 154 responses were returned. Results indicated that respondents' burnout levels were moderate and emotional exhaustion was greater than cynicism. In terms of LMX, the surveyed dietitians and chefs showed higher respect toward their supervisors than loyalty. When positive affectivity and negative affectivity were controlled, workload influenced emotional exhaustion and professional efficacy significantly. With affectivity and workload controlled, however, LMX did not influence any dimensions of burnout. The moderating effect of LMX on the relationship between workload and cynicism was significant. That is, the effect of workload on cynicism was weak if the dietitians and chefs perceived the relationship with their supervisor positively. Based on the findings and literature reviewed, how to mitigate job burnout among foodservice managers is discussed. PMID:21487501

  3. Current and Future Parts Management at NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sampson, Michael J.

    2011-01-01

    This presentation provides a high level view of current and future electronic parts management at NASA. It describes a current perspective of the new human space flight direction that NASA is beginning to take and how that could influence parts management in the future. It provides an overview of current NASA electronic parts policy and how that is implemented at the NASA flight Centers. It also describes some of the technical challenges that lie ahead and suggests approaches for their mitigation. These challenges include: advanced packaging, obsolescence and counterfeits, the global supply chain and Commercial Crew, a new direction by which NASA will utilize commercial launch vehicles to get astronauts to the International Space Station.

  4. Microbial assessment in school foodservices and recommendations for food safety improvement.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Y; Kim, S R; Kang, D H; Shim, W B; Seo, E; Chung, D H

    2008-08-01

    This study evaluated microbial food safety in school foodservices. Five school foodservices were randomly selected, and samples from water, cooking utensils, tableware, foodservice surroundings, and linen were collected in summer and winter (N=420). Tap and drinking water samples were collected, samples of food contact surfaces were collected by swab-kit, and samples for foodservice workers' hands and gloves were prepared by glove juice method. Aerobic plate count (APC) and coliform bacterial populations were enumerated on plate count agar (PCA) and desoxycholate lactose agar, respectively. The presence of Escherichia coli, Salmonella, Listeria monocytogenes, and Staphylococcus aureus was also examined by biochemical identification tests. In addition, PCA agar for APCs and Baird-Parker agar for S. aureus were used to enumerate airborne microorganisms. Higher APCs (< 0 to 5.1 log CFU/mL) than acceptable level were generally observed in water samples, while low coliform counts were found in the samples. High APCs were enumerated in cooking utensils, foodservice workers, tableware, and food-service surroundings, and coliforms were also found in the samples for both seasons. The presence of Salmonella was found from only 10% of plastic glove samples (summer), and the presence of L. monocytogenes was not observed in all samples. S. aureus was detected in some of water, cooking utensils, tableware, employees, and foodservice surroundings, and E. coli was observed in cooking utensils (10% to 20%; summer). No obvious airborne bacteria were detected. These results showed that sanitation practice in school foodservices should be improved, and the results may be useful in microbial assessment of school foodservices.

  5. Determinants of foodservice satisfaction for patients in geriatrics/rehabilitation and residents in residential aged care.

    PubMed

    Wright, Olivia R L; Connelly, Luke B; Capra, Sandra; Hendrikz, Joan

    2013-09-01

    Poor satisfaction with institutional food is a significant moderator of food intake in geriatrics/rehabilitation and residential aged care. To quantify the relationship between foodservice satisfaction, foodservice characteristics, demographic and contextual variables in geriatrics/rehabilitation and residential aged care. The Resident Foodservice Satisfaction Questionnaire was administered to 103 patients of 2 geriatrics/rehabilitation units and 210 residents of nine residential aged care facilities in Brisbane, Australia. Ordered probit regression analysis measured the association of age, gender, ethnicity and appetite, timing and amount of meal choice, menu selectivity, menu cycle, production system, meal delivery system and therapeutic diets with foodservice satisfaction. Patient and resident appetite (P < 0.01), the amount and timing of meal choice (P < 0.01), self-rated health (P < 0.01), accommodation style (P < 0.05) and age (P < 0.10) significantly moderated foodservice satisfaction. High protein/high energy therapeutic diets (P < 0.01), foodservice production (P < 0.01) and delivery systems (P > 0.01) were significant moderators for those with 'fair' self-rated health. Patient and resident characteristics and structural and systems-related foodservice variables were more important for influencing foodservice satisfaction than characteristics of food quality. The results suggest modifications to current menu planning and foodservice delivery methods: reducing the time-lapse between meal choice and consumption, augmenting the number of meals at which choice is offered, and revising food production and delivery systems.It is important that residents in poorer health who are a high risk of under-nutrition are provided with sufficient high protein/high energy therapeutic diets. Diets that restrict macro- and micro-nutrients should be minimized for all patients and residents. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Determinants of foodservice satisfaction for patients in geriatrics/rehabilitation and residents in residential aged care

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Olivia R. L.; Connelly, Luke B.; Capra, Sandra; Hendrikz, Joan

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background  Poor satisfaction with institutional food is a significant moderator of food intake in geriatrics/rehabilitation and residential aged care. Purpose  To quantify the relationship between foodservice satisfaction, foodservice characteristics, demographic and contextual variables in geriatrics/rehabilitation and residential aged care. Methods  The Resident Foodservice Satisfaction Questionnaire was administered to 103 patients of 2 geriatrics/rehabilitation units and 210 residents of nine residential aged care facilities in Brisbane, Australia. Ordered probit regression analysis measured the association of age, gender, ethnicity and appetite, timing and amount of meal choice, menu selectivity, menu cycle, production system, meal delivery system and therapeutic diets with foodservice satisfaction. Results  Patient and resident appetite (P < 0.01), the amount and timing of meal choice (P < 0.01), self‐rated health (P < 0.01), accommodation style (P < 0.05) and age (P < 0.10) significantly moderated foodservice satisfaction. High protein/high energy therapeutic diets (P < 0.01), foodservice production (P < 0.01) and delivery systems (P > 0.01) were significant moderators for those with ‘fair’ self‐rated health. Conclusions  Patient and resident characteristics and structural and systems‐related foodservice variables were more important for influencing foodservice satisfaction than characteristics of food quality. The results suggest modifications to current menu planning and foodservice delivery methods: reducing the time‐lapse between meal choice and consumption, augmenting the number of meals at which choice is offered, and revising food production and delivery systems.It is important that residents in poorer health who are a high risk of under‐nutrition are provided with sufficient high protein/high energy therapeutic diets. Diets that restrict macro‐ and micro‐nutrients should be

  7. Charge Management Optimization for Future TOU Rates

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Jiucai; Markel, Tony

    2016-06-22

    The effectiveness of future time of use (TOU) rates to enable managed charging for providing demand response depends on the vehicle's flexibility and the benefits to owners. This paper adopts opportunity, delayed, and smart charging methods to quantify these impacts, flexibilities, and benefits. Simulation results show that delayed and smart charging methods can shift most charging events to lower TOU rate periods without compromising the charged energy and individual driver mobility needs.

  8. Structural Health Management for Future Aerospace Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prosser, W. H.; Allison, S. G.; Woodard, S. E.; Wincheski, R. A.; Cooper, E. G.; Price, D. C.; Hedley, M.; Prokopenko, M.; Scott, D. A.; Tessler, A.

    2004-01-01

    Structural Health Management (SHM) will be of critical importance to provide the safety, reliability and affordability necessary for the future long duration space missions described in America's Vision for Space Exploration. Long duration missions to the Moon, Mars and beyond cannot be accomplished with the current paradigm of periodic, ground based structural integrity inspections. As evidenced by the Columbia tragedy, this approach is also inadequate for the current Shuttle fleet, thus leading to its initial implementation of on-board SHM sensing for impact detection as part of the return to flight effort. However, future space systems, to include both vehicles as well as structures such as habitation modules, will require an integrated array of onboard in-situ sensing systems. In addition, advanced data systems architectures will be necessary to communicate, store and process massive amounts of SHM data from large numbers of diverse sensors. Further, improved structural analysis and design algorithms will be necessary to incorporate SHM sensing into the design and construction of aerospace structures, as well as to fully utilize these sensing systems to provide both diagnosis and prognosis of structural integrity. Ultimately, structural integrity information will feed into an Integrated Vehicle Health Management (IVHM) system that will provide real-time knowledge of structural, propulsion, thermal protection and other critical systems for optimal vehicle management and mission control. This paper will provide an overview of NASA research and development in the area of SHM as well as to highlight areas of technology improvement necessary to meet these future mission requirements.

  9. Audit to Target Food-Service Corporations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shah, Nirvi

    2011-01-01

    The author reports on the U.S. Department of Agriculture's plan to look closely at whether the food-service-management companies running many school cafeterias are passing along all the discounts and rebates they receive from their suppliers to the districts that hire them. The plan to probe companies will begin in August, said Alison Decker, a…

  10. Audit to Target Food-Service Corporations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shah, Nirvi

    2011-01-01

    The author reports on the U.S. Department of Agriculture's plan to look closely at whether the food-service-management companies running many school cafeterias are passing along all the discounts and rebates they receive from their suppliers to the districts that hire them. The plan to probe companies will begin in August, said Alison Decker, a…

  11. Future directions in inflammatory bowel disease management.

    PubMed

    D'Haens, Geert R; Sartor, R Balfour; Silverberg, Mark S; Petersson, Joel; Rutgeerts, Paul

    2014-08-01

    Clinical management of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), new treatment modalities and the potential impact of personalised medicine remain topics of intense interest as our understanding of the pathophysiology of IBD expands. Potential future strategies for IBD management are discussed, based on recent preclinical and clinical research. A top-down approach to medical therapy is increasingly being adopted for patients with risk factors for severe inflammation or an unfavourable disease course in an attempt to halt the inflammatory process as early as possible, prevent complications and induce mucosal healing. In the future, biological therapies for IBD are likely to be used more selectively based on personalised benefit/risk assessment, determined through reliable biomarkers and tissue signatures, and will probably be optimised throughout the course of treatment. Biologics with different mechanisms of action will be available; when one drug fails, patients will be able to switch to another and even combination biologics may become a reality. The role of biotherapeutic products that are similar to currently licensed biologics in terms of quality, safety and efficacy - i.e. biosimilars - is at an early stage and requires further experience. Other therapeutic strategies may involve manipulation of the microbiome using antibiotics, probiotics, prebiotics, diet and combinations of all these approaches. Faecal microbiota transplantation is also a potential option in IBD although controlled data are lacking. The future of classifying, prognosticating and managing IBD involves an outcomes-based approach to identify biomarkers reflecting various biological processes that can be matched with clinically important endpoints. Copyright © 2014 European Crohn's and Colitis Organisation. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Waste Management System overview for future spacecraft.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ingelfinger, A. L.; Murray, R. W.

    1973-01-01

    Waste Management Systems (WMS) for post Apollo spacecraft will be significantly more sophisticated and earthlike in user procedures. Some of the features of the advanced WMS will be accommodation of both males and females, automatic operation, either tissue wipe or anal wash, measurement and sampling of urine, feces and vomitus for medical analysis, water recovery, and solids disposal. This paper presents an overview of the major problems of and approaches to waste management for future spacecraft. Some of the processes discussed are liquid/gas separation, the Dry-John, the Hydro-John, automated sampling, vapor compression distillation, vacuum distillation-catalytic oxidation, incineration, and the integration of the above into complete systems.

  13. Waste Management System overview for future spacecraft.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ingelfinger, A. L.; Murray, R. W.

    1973-01-01

    Waste Management Systems (WMS) for post Apollo spacecraft will be significantly more sophisticated and earthlike in user procedures. Some of the features of the advanced WMS will be accommodation of both males and females, automatic operation, either tissue wipe or anal wash, measurement and sampling of urine, feces and vomitus for medical analysis, water recovery, and solids disposal. This paper presents an overview of the major problems of and approaches to waste management for future spacecraft. Some of the processes discussed are liquid/gas separation, the Dry-John, the Hydro-John, automated sampling, vapor compression distillation, vacuum distillation-catalytic oxidation, incineration, and the integration of the above into complete systems.

  14. Foodservice yield and fabrication times for beef as influenced by purchasing options and merchandising styles.

    PubMed

    Weatherly, B H; Griffin, D B; Johnson, H K; Walter, J P; De La Zerda, M J; Tipton, N C; Savell, J W

    2001-12-01

    Selected beef subprimals were obtained from fabrication lines of three foodservice purveyors to assist in the development of a software support program for the beef foodservice industry. Subprimals were fabricated into bone-in or boneless foodservice ready-to-cook portion-sized cuts and associated components by professional meat cutters. Each subprimal was cut to generate mean foodservice cutting yields and labor requirements, which were calculated from observed weights (kilograms) and processing times (seconds). Once fabrication was completed, data were analyzed to determine means and standard errors of percentage yields and processing times for each subprimal. Subprimals cut to only one end point were evaluated for mean foodservice yields and processing times, but no comparisons were made within subprimal. However, those traditionally cut into various end points were additionally compared by cutting style. Subprimals cut by a single cutting style included rib, roast-ready; ribeye roll, lip-on, bone-in; brisket, deckle-off, boneless; top (inside) round; and bottom sirloin butt, flap, boneless. Subprimals cut into multiple end points or styles included ribeye, lip-on; top sirloin, cap; tenderloin butt, defatted; shortloin, short-cut; strip loin, boneless; top sirloin butt, boneless; and tenderloin, full, side muscle on, defatted. Mean yields of portion cuts, and mean fabrication times required to manufacture these cuts differed (P < 0.05) by cutting specification of the final product. In general, as the target portion size of fabricated steaks decreased, the mean number of steaks derived from any given subprimal cut increased, causing total foodservice yield to decrease and total processing time to increase. Therefore, an inverse relationship tended to exist between processing times and foodservice yields. With a method of accurately evaluating various beef purchase options, such as traditional commodity subprimals, closely trimmed subprimals, and pre-cut portion

  15. Emerging information management technologies and the future of disease management.

    PubMed

    Nobel, Jeremy J; Norman, Gordon K

    2003-01-01

    to DM and are likely to become heavily embedded in care management strategies in the future.

  16. School competitive food policies: perceptions of Pennsylvania public high school foodservice directors and principals.

    PubMed

    McDonnell, Elaine; Probart, Claudia; Weirich, J Elaine; Hartman, Terryl; Bailey-Davis, Lisa

    2006-02-01

    The objectives of this study were to describe the extent, nature, and enforcement of school competitive food policies in Pennsylvania public high schools and to determine if there are differences between school foodservice directors' and principals' perceptions of the existence and enforcement of these policies. A survey was distributed to 271 school foodservice directors and 100 principals in a representative, random sample of high schools. Two hundred twenty-eight school foodservice directors (84%) and 79 principals (79%) returned surveys. Descriptive statistics, chi2 analyses, and a proportions test were done using SPSS statistical software (SPSS base 11.5 for Windows, 2002, SPSS Inc, Chicago, IL). Few nutrition policies were reported related to setting nutritional standards for competitive foods (0.5% to 15.0%). Respondents' reporting of existence of policies not always enforced ranged from 0% to 12.8%. School foodservice directors reported uncertainty about existence of several policies outside their direct domain, but with potential effect on school meals participation. Differences were found between school foodservice directors' and principals' reporting of policies, with principals more often reporting policy existence and enforcement. These findings suggest the need for communication, both about existence of policies and chain of command in enforcement of policies. Given the local wellness policy provision of the Child Nutrition and WIC Reauthorization Act of 2004, opportunities exist for nutrition professionals to contribute to development of policies that influence the nutritional quality of school foods.

  17. Disease management: definitions, difficulties and future directions.

    PubMed Central

    Pilnick, A.; Dingwall, R.; Starkey, K.

    2001-01-01

    The last decade has seen a wide range of experiments in health care reform intended to contain costs and promote effectiveness. In the USA, managed care and disease management have been major strategies in this endeavour. It has been argued that their apparent success has strong implications for reform in other countries. However, in this paper we ask whether they are so easily exportable. We explain the concepts involved and set the development of managed care and disease management programmes in the context of the USA. The constituent elements of disease management are identified and discussed. Disease management is considered from the perspectives of the major stakeholders in the United Kingdom, and the differences between the models of health care in the United Kingdom's National Health Service and the USA are noted. A review is presented of evaluations of disease management programmes and of the weaknesses they highlight. The prospects for disease management in Europe are also discussed. PMID:11545333

  18. Future Newspaper Managers Learn Basics at Oregon.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halverson, Roy

    1978-01-01

    Describes an experimental program that prepares students for careers in newspaper management with a sequence of courses in journalism, accounting, marketing, management, finance, and statistics, ending with an internship in the business office of a daily or weekly newspaper. (RL)

  19. Disease management: definitions, difficulties and future directions.

    PubMed

    Pilnick, A; Dingwall, R; Starkey, K

    2001-01-01

    The last decade has seen a wide range of experiments in health care reform intended to contain costs and promote effectiveness. In the USA, managed care and disease management have been major strategies in this endeavour. It has been argued that their apparent success has strong implications for reform in other countries. However, in this paper we ask whether they are so easily exportable. We explain the concepts involved and set the development of managed care and disease management programmes in the context of the USA. The constituent elements of disease management are identified and discussed. Disease management is considered from the perspectives of the major stakeholders in the United Kingdom, and the differences between the models of health care in the United Kingdom's National Health Service and the USA are noted. A review is presented of evaluations of disease management programmes and of the weaknesses they highlight. The prospects for disease management in Europe are also discussed.

  20. Adaptive Management for a Turbulent Future

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Allen, Craig R.; Fontaine, Joseph J.; Pope, Kevin L.; Garmestani, Ahjond S.

    2011-01-01

    The challenges that face humanity today differ from the past because as the scale of human influence has increased, our biggest challenges have become global in nature, and formerly local problems that could be addressed by shifting populations or switching resources, now aggregate (i.e., "scale up") limiting potential management options. Adaptive management is an approach to natural resource management that emphasizes learning through management based on the philosophy that knowledge is incomplete and much of what we think we know is actually wrong. Adaptive management has explicit structure, including careful elucidation of goals, identification of alternative management objectives and hypotheses of causation, and procedures for the collection of data followed by evaluation and reiteration. It is evident that adaptive management has matured, but it has also reached a crossroads. Practitioners and scientists have developed adaptive management and structured decision making techniques, and mathematicians have developed methods to reduce the uncertainties encountered in resource management, yet there continues to be misapplication of the method and misunderstanding of its purpose. Ironically, the confusion over the term "adaptive management" may stem from the flexibility inherent in the approach, which has resulted in multiple interpretations of "adaptive management" that fall along a continuum of complexity and a priori design. Adaptive management is not a panacea for the navigation of 'wicked problems' as it does not produce easy answers, and is only appropriate in a subset of natural resource management problems where both uncertainty and controllability are high. Nonetheless, the conceptual underpinnings of adaptive management are simple; there will always be inherent uncertainty and unpredictability in the dynamics and behavior of complex social-ecological systems, but management decisions must still be made, and whenever possible, we should incorporate

  1. Adaptive management for a turbulent future

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Allen, C.R.; Fontaine, J.J.; Pope, K.L.; Garmestani, A.S.

    2011-01-01

    The challenges that face humanity today differ from the past because as the scale of human influence has increased, our biggest challenges have become global in nature, and formerly local problems that could be addressed by shifting populations or switching resources, now aggregate (i.e., "scale up") limiting potential management options. Adaptive management is an approach to natural resource management that emphasizes learning through management based on the philosophy that knowledge is incomplete and much of what we think we know is actually wrong. Adaptive management has explicit structure, including careful elucidation of goals, identification of alternative management objectives and hypotheses of causation, and procedures for the collection of data followed by evaluation and reiteration. It is evident that adaptive management has matured, but it has also reached a crossroads. Practitioners and scientists have developed adaptive management and structured decision making techniques, and mathematicians have developed methods to reduce the uncertainties encountered in resource management, yet there continues to be misapplication of the method and misunderstanding of its purpose. Ironically, the confusion over the term "adaptive management" may stem from the flexibility inherent in the approach, which has resulted in multiple interpretations of "adaptive management" that fall along a continuum of complexity and a priori design. Adaptive management is not a panacea for the navigation of 'wicked problems' as it does not produce easy answers, and is only appropriate in a subset of natural resource management problems where both uncertainty and controllability are high. Nonetheless, the conceptual underpinnings of adaptive management are simple; there will always be inherent uncertainty and unpredictability in the dynamics and behavior of complex social-ecological systems, but management decisions must still be made, and whenever possible, we should incorporate

  2. Ocular onchocerciasis: current management and future prospects

    PubMed Central

    Babalola, Olufemi Emmanuel

    2011-01-01

    This paper reviews the current management of onchocerciasis and its future prospects. Onchocerciasis is a disease affecting millions of people in Africa, South and Central America, and Yemen. It is spread by the blackfly as a vector and caused by the filarial nematode, Onchocerca volvulus. A serious attempt was made by the Onchocerciasis Control Program between 1975 and 2002 to eliminate the vector in eleven of the endemic countries in West Africa, and with remarkable success. Formerly, the treatment was with diethyl carbamazine for the microfilaria and suramin for the adult worm. These drugs are now known to be toxic and unsuitable for mass distribution. In particular, they precipitate optic nerve disease. With the discovery of ivermectin, a much safer microfilaricide, and the decision of Merck to distribute the drug free of charge for as long as needed, the strategy of control switched to mass drug administration through community-directed treatment with ivermectin. So far, millions have received this annual or biannual treatment through the African Program for Onchocerciasis Control and the Onchocerciasis Elimination Program for the Americas. However, the problem with ivermectin is that it is a monotherapy microfilaricide which has limited effect on the adult worm, and thus will need to be continued for the life span of the adult worm, which may last up to 15 years. There are also early reports of resistance. Serious encephalopathy and death may occur when ivermectin is used in subjects heavily infested with loiasis. It seems unlikely that a break in transmission will occur with community-directed treatment with ivermectin in Africa because of population migrations and the highly efficient vector, but in the Americas some countries such as Columbia and the Oaxaca focus in Mexico have reported eradication. Vector control is only now applicable in selected situations, and particularly to control the nuisance value of the blackfly. Trials are ongoing for

  3. Merging Two Futures Concepts: Issues Management and Policy Impact Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Renfro, William L.; Morrison, James L.

    1982-01-01

    Describes a workshop held during the 1982 World Future Society's Fourth General Assembly on the combined application of issues management and policy impact analysis. The workshop participants applied futures research, forecasting, goal-setting, and policy development techniques to future problems in educational policy. (AM)

  4. Future developments in health care performance management

    PubMed Central

    Crema, Maria; Verbano, Chiara

    2013-01-01

    This paper highlights the challenges of performance management in health care, wherein multiple different objectives have to be pursued. The literature suggests starting with quality performance, following the sand cone theory, but considering a multidimensional concept of health care quality. Moreover, new managerial approaches coming from an industrial context and adapted to health care, such as lean management and risk management, can contribute to improving quality performance. Therefore, the opportunity to analyze them arises from studying their overlaps and links in order to identify possible synergies and to investigate the opportunity to develop an integrated methodology enabling improved performance. PMID:24255600

  5. Educating Immigrant Hispanic Foodservice Workers about Food Safety Using Visual-Based Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rajagopal, Lakshman

    2013-01-01

    Providing food safety training to a diverse workforce brings with it opportunities and challenges that must be addressed. The study reported here provides evidence for benefits of using visual-based tools for food safety training when educating immigrant, Hispanic foodservice workers with no or minimal English language skills. Using visual tools…

  6. Attitudes of School Foodservice Directors about the Potential Benefits of School Wellness Policies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Longley, Carol; Sneed, Jeannie

    2009-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: The Reauthorization Act of 2004 requires schools participating in the National School Lunch and School Breakfast Programs to establish a wellness policy. The purpose of this study was to examine school foodservice directors' attitudes about the potential benefits of the wellness policy. Methods: A survey research design was…

  7. Diabetes Preparedness in Schools: What Do Foodservice Personnel Need to Know to Respond?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grenci, Alexandra

    2009-01-01

    Diabetes is increasing in youth, presenting a serious public health threat. Although type 1 diabetes has historically been more common in children, type 2 diabetes is on the rise, linked to increases in overweight and obesity among American youth, particularly those of high risk racial and ethnic groups. Foodservice personnel, along with other…

  8. Diabetes Preparedness in Schools: What Do Foodservice Personnel Need to Know to Respond?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grenci, Alexandra

    2009-01-01

    Diabetes is increasing in youth, presenting a serious public health threat. Although type 1 diabetes has historically been more common in children, type 2 diabetes is on the rise, linked to increases in overweight and obesity among American youth, particularly those of high risk racial and ethnic groups. Foodservice personnel, along with other…

  9. Attitudes of School Foodservice Directors about the Potential Benefits of School Wellness Policies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Longley, Carol; Sneed, Jeannie

    2009-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: The Reauthorization Act of 2004 requires schools participating in the National School Lunch and School Breakfast Programs to establish a wellness policy. The purpose of this study was to examine school foodservice directors' attitudes about the potential benefits of the wellness policy. Methods: A survey research design was…

  10. Barriers and Opportunities Related to Whole Grain Foods in Minnesota School Foodservice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hesse, David; Braun, Curtis; Dostal, Allison; Jeffery, Robert; Marquart, Len

    2009-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: The purpose of this research was to identify barriers and opportunities associated with the introduction of whole grain foods into school cafeterias. The primary objective was to elicit input from school foodservice personnel (SFP) regarding their experiences in ordering, purchasing, preparing, and serving whole grain foods in…

  11. School Foodservice Personnel's Struggle with Using Labels to Identify Whole-Grain Foods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chu, Yen Li; Orsted, Mary; Marquart, Len; Reicks, Marla

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To describe how school foodservice personnel use current labeling methods to identify whole-grain products and the influence on purchasing for school meals. Methods: Focus groups explored labeling methods to identify whole-grain products and barriers to incorporating whole-grain foods in school meals. Qualitative analysis procedures and…

  12. Whole-Grain Continuing Education for School Foodservice Personnel: Keeping Kids from Falling Short

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roth-Yousey, Lori; Barno, Trina; Caskey, Mary; Asche, Kimberly; Reicks, Marla

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this project was to develop and test whole-grain continuing education for school foodservice personnel. Methods: A continuing education program was developed to address planning, purchasing, preparing, and serving whole-grain food in schools. Participants completed a pre-post questionnaire to assess changes in knowledge,…

  13. Work/Life Practices and the Recruitment and Retention of Large School Districts' Foodservice Professionals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison, Mary Kate

    2010-01-01

    With the forthcoming retirement of school foodservice directors, the increasing pressures faced by employees at home and work, and the financial constraints of school districts, recruiting and retaining skilled and diverse employees will be challenging. Marketing work/life benefits to potential employees and supporting these policies to current…

  14. School Foodservice Employees' Perceptions of Practice: Differences by Generational Age and Hours Worked

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strohbehn, Catherine; Jun, Jinhyun; Arendt, Susan

    2014-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: This study investigated the influences of school foodservice employees' age and average number of hours worked per week on perceived safe food handling practices, barriers, and motivators. Methods: A bilingual survey (English and Spanish) was developed to assess reported food safety practices, barriers, and motivators to…

  15. School Foodservice Personnel's Struggle with Using Labels to Identify Whole-Grain Foods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chu, Yen Li; Orsted, Mary; Marquart, Len; Reicks, Marla

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To describe how school foodservice personnel use current labeling methods to identify whole-grain products and the influence on purchasing for school meals. Methods: Focus groups explored labeling methods to identify whole-grain products and barriers to incorporating whole-grain foods in school meals. Qualitative analysis procedures and…

  16. School Foodservice Employees' Perceptions of Practice: Differences by Generational Age and Hours Worked

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strohbehn, Catherine; Jun, Jinhyun; Arendt, Susan

    2014-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: This study investigated the influences of school foodservice employees' age and average number of hours worked per week on perceived safe food handling practices, barriers, and motivators. Methods: A bilingual survey (English and Spanish) was developed to assess reported food safety practices, barriers, and motivators to…

  17. Work/Life Practices and the Recruitment and Retention of Large School Districts' Foodservice Professionals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison, Mary Kate

    2010-01-01

    With the forthcoming retirement of school foodservice directors, the increasing pressures faced by employees at home and work, and the financial constraints of school districts, recruiting and retaining skilled and diverse employees will be challenging. Marketing work/life benefits to potential employees and supporting these policies to current…

  18. Educating Immigrant Hispanic Foodservice Workers about Food Safety Using Visual-Based Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rajagopal, Lakshman

    2013-01-01

    Providing food safety training to a diverse workforce brings with it opportunities and challenges that must be addressed. The study reported here provides evidence for benefits of using visual-based tools for food safety training when educating immigrant, Hispanic foodservice workers with no or minimal English language skills. Using visual tools…

  19. Whole-Grain Continuing Education for School Foodservice Personnel: Keeping Kids from Falling Short

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roth-Yousey, Lori; Barno, Trina; Caskey, Mary; Asche, Kimberly; Reicks, Marla

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this project was to develop and test whole-grain continuing education for school foodservice personnel. Methods: A continuing education program was developed to address planning, purchasing, preparing, and serving whole-grain food in schools. Participants completed a pre-post questionnaire to assess changes in knowledge,…

  20. Barriers and Opportunities Related to Whole Grain Foods in Minnesota School Foodservice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hesse, David; Braun, Curtis; Dostal, Allison; Jeffery, Robert; Marquart, Len

    2009-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: The purpose of this research was to identify barriers and opportunities associated with the introduction of whole grain foods into school cafeterias. The primary objective was to elicit input from school foodservice personnel (SFP) regarding their experiences in ordering, purchasing, preparing, and serving whole grain foods in…

  1. Training Our Future Teachers: Classroom Management. Revised

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenberg, Julie; Putman, Hannah; Walsh, Kate

    2014-01-01

    This report examines traditional teacher preparation in classroom management, which is a struggle for many teachers, especially new ones. 122 teacher preparation programs--both elementary and secondary, graduate and undergraduate--were examined to review the full breadth of the professional sequence. The following conclusions are made as a result…

  2. Computer forecasting: The future of hydro management

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, D.E.; Stover, C.M.

    1994-06-01

    Hydro managers must consider the demands of power production, flood control, environmental mitigation, and downstream water use when making decisions about operating their facilities. Alabama Power Company uses a computer-based real-time decision support system to achieve the best balance possible among the competing uses.

  3. Managing Complex and Dynamic Systems For The Future

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, E J

    2003-11-11

    The challenges of modern complicated systems regarding their design, analysis, and management are put in a historical context to better propose a framework for the future involving complementary uses of testing, modeling, and performance functions.

  4. Knowledge Management: Opportunity for the Secretary of the Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strassmann, Paul A.

    1987-01-01

    Discuses future trends in the role of the secretary. Suggests that secretaries will, in the next decade, become information managers. Recommends strategies that secretaries can implement to be ready for change. (CH)

  5. Imagining flood futures: risk assessment and management in practice.

    PubMed

    Lane, Stuart N; Landström, Catharina; Whatmore, Sarah J

    2011-05-13

    The mantra that policy and management should be 'evidence-based' is well established. Less so are the implications that follow from 'evidence' being predictions of the future (forecasts, scenarios, horizons) even though such futures define the actions taken today to make the future sustainable. Here, we consider the tension between 'evidence', reliable because it is observed, and predictions of the future, unobservable in conventional terms. For flood risk management in England and Wales, we show that futures are actively constituted, and so imagined, through 'suites of practices' entwining policy, management and scientific analysis. Management has to constrain analysis because of the many ways in which flood futures can be constructed, but also because of commitment to an accounting calculus, which requires risk to be expressed in monetary terms. It is grounded in numerical simulation, undertaken by scientific consultants who follow policy/management guidelines that define the futures to be considered. Historical evidence is needed to deal with process and parameter uncertainties and the futures imagined are tied to pasts experienced. Reliance on past events is a challenge for prediction, given changing probability (e.g. climate change) and consequence (e.g. development on floodplains). So, risk management allows some elements of risk analysis to become unstable (notably in relation to climate change) but forces others to remain stable (e.g. invoking regulation to prevent inappropriate floodplain development). We conclude that the assumed separation of risk assessment and management is false because the risk calculation has to be defined by management. Making this process accountable requires openness about the procedures that make flood risk analysis more (or less) reliable to those we entrust to produce and act upon them such that, unlike the 'pseudosciences', they can be put to the test of public interrogation by those who have to live with their consequences.

  6. Future issues in haz waste management

    SciTech Connect

    Maxwell, S. )

    1994-10-15

    The hazardous waste management market has experienced a roller-coaster ride during the past few years. The business exploded during the 1980s as public concerns led to a vast new range of regulatory controls, and siting/permitting difficulties caused demand to quickly outstrip capacity. Prices for hazardous waste management went through the roof, attracting many technology developers to the industry. But the forces of supply and demand, coupled with ongoing regulatory changes, soon adjusted market conditions. First, high profitability and growth attracted droves of new participants to the industry, eventually bringing new capacity on line. Second, and more significantly, high prices forced industrial America to closely re-examine its manufacturing practices and waste generation habits. It soon became clear there were broad opportunities to minimize hazardous waste generation through improved housekeeping practices, alternative manufacturing processes, and substitution of toxic materials in manufacturing.

  7. The Future of Air Traffic Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Denery, Dallas G.; Erzberger, Heinz; Edwards, Thomas A. (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    A system for the control of terminal area traffic to improve productivity, referred to as the Center-TRACON Automation System (CTAS), is being developed at NASA's Ames Research Center under a joint program with the FAA. CTAS consists of a set of integrated tools that provide computer-generated advisories for en-route and terminal area controllers. The premise behind the design of CTAS has been that successful planning of traffic requires accurate trajectory prediction. Data bases consisting of representative aircraft performance models, airline preferred operational procedures and a three dimensional wind model support the trajectory prediction. The research effort has been the design of a set of automation tools that make use of this trajectory prediction capability to assist controllers in overall management of traffic. The first tool, the Traffic Management Advisor (TMA), provides the overall flow management between the en route and terminal areas. A second tool, the Final Approach Spacing Tool (FAST) provides terminal area controllers with sequence and runway advisories to allow optimal use of the runways. The TMA and FAST are now being used in daily operations at Dallas/Ft. Worth airport. Additional activities include the development of several other tools. These include: 1) the En Route Descent Advisor that assist the en route controller in issuing conflict free descents and ascents; 2) the extension of FAST to include speed and heading advisories and the Expedite Departure Path (EDP) that assists the terminal controller in management of departures; and 3) the Collaborative Arrival Planner (CAP) that will assist the airlines in operational decision making. The purpose of this presentation is to review the CTAS concept and to present the results of recent field tests. The paper will first discuss the overall concept and then discuss the status of the individual tools.

  8. The Future of Air Traffic Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Denery, Dallas G.; Erzberger, Heinz; Edwards, Thomas A. (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    A system for the control of terminal area traffic to improve productivity, referred to as the Center-TRACON Automation System (CTAS), is being developed at NASA's Ames Research Center under a joint program with the FAA. CTAS consists of a set of integrated tools that provide computer-generated advisories for en-route and terminal area controllers. The premise behind the design of CTAS has been that successful planning of traffic requires accurate trajectory prediction. Data bases consisting of representative aircraft performance models, airline preferred operational procedures and a three dimensional wind model support the trajectory prediction. The research effort has been the design of a set of automation tools that make use of this trajectory prediction capability to assist controllers in overall management of traffic. The first tool, the Traffic Management Advisor (TMA), provides the overall flow management between the en route and terminal areas. A second tool, the Final Approach Spacing Tool (FAST) provides terminal area controllers with sequence and runway advisories to allow optimal use of the runways. The TMA and FAST are now being used in daily operations at Dallas/Ft. Worth airport. Additional activities include the development of several other tools. These include: 1) the En Route Descent Advisor that assist the en route controller in issuing conflict free descents and ascents; 2) the extension of FAST to include speed and heading advisories and the Expedite Departure Path (EDP) that assists the terminal controller in management of departures; and 3) the Collaborative Arrival Planner (CAP) that will assist the airlines in operational decision making. The purpose of this presentation is to review the CTAS concept and to present the results of recent field tests. The paper will first discuss the overall concept and then discuss the status of the individual tools.

  9. Corporate social responsibility and the future health care manager.

    PubMed

    Collins, Sandra K

    2010-01-01

    The decisions and actions of health care managers are oftentimes heavily scrutinized by the public. Given the current economic climate, managers may feel intense pressure to produce higher results with fewer resources. This could inadvertently test their moral fortitude and their social consciousness. A study was conducted to determine what corporate social responsibility orientation and viewpoint future health care managers may hold. The results of the study indicate that future health care managers may hold patient care in high regard as opposed to profit maximization. However, the results of the study also show that future managers within the industry may continue to need rules, laws, regulations, and legal sanctions to guide their actions and behavior.

  10. Thermal Management Architecture for Future Responsive Spacecraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bugby, D.; Zimbeck, W.; Kroliczek, E.

    2009-03-01

    This paper describes a novel thermal design architecture that enables satellites to be conceived, configured, launched, and operationally deployed very quickly. The architecture has been given the acronym SMARTS for Satellite Modular and Reconfigurable Thermal System and it involves four basic design rules: modest radiator oversizing, maximum external insulation, internal isothermalization and radiator heat flow modulation. The SMARTS philosophy is being developed in support of the DoD Operationally Responsive Space (ORS) initiative which seeks to drastically improve small satellite adaptability, deployability, and design flexibility. To illustrate the benefits of the philosophy for a prototypical multi-paneled small satellite, the paper describes a SMARTS thermal control system implementation that uses: panel-to-panel heat conduction, intra-panel heat pipe isothermalization, radiator heat flow modulation via a thermoelectric cooler (TEC) cold-biased loop heat pipe (LHP) and maximum external multi-layer insulation (MLI). Analyses are presented that compare the traditional "cold-biasing plus heater power" passive thermal design approach to the SMARTS approach. Plans for a 3-panel SMARTS thermal test bed are described. Ultimately, the goal is to incorporate SMARTS into the design of future ORS satellites, but it is also possible that some aspects of SMARTS technology could be used to improve the responsiveness of future NASA spacecraft. [22 CFR 125.4(b)(13) applicable

  11. Difficult childhood asthma: management and future.

    PubMed

    Tillie-Leblond, Isabelle; Deschildre, Antoine; Gosset, Philippe; de Blic, Jacques

    2012-09-01

    Diagnosis and management of severe asthma implies the definition of different entities, that is, difficult asthma and refractory severe asthma, but also the different phenotypes included in the term refractory severe asthma. A complete evaluation by a physician expert in asthma is necessary, adapted for each child. Identification of mechanisms involved in different phenotypes in refractory severe asthma may improve the therapeutic approach. The quality of care and monitoring of children with severe asthma is as important as the prescription drug, and is also crucial for differentiating between severe asthma and difficult asthma, whereby expertise is required.

  12. Future Directions of Delirium Research and Management

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, Christopher G.; Brummel, Nathan E.; Vasilevskis, Eduard E.; Girard, Timothy D.; Pandharipande, Pratik P.

    2013-01-01

    Delirium is a prevalent organ dysfunction in critically ill patients associated with significant morbidity and mortality, requiring advancements in the clinical and research realms to improve patient outcomes. Increased clinical recognition and utilization of delirium assessment tools, along with clarification of specific risk factors and presentations in varying patient populations, will be necessary in the future. To improve predictive models for outcomes, the continued development and implementation of delirium assessment tools and severity scoring systems will be required. The interplay between the pathophysiological pathways implicated in delirium and resulting clinical presentations and outcomes will need to guide the development of appropriate prevention and treatment protocols. Multicenter randomized controlled trials of interventional therapies will then need to be performed to test their ability to improve clinical outcomes. Physical and cognitive rehabilitation measures need to be further examined as additional means of improving outcomes from delirium in the hospital setting. PMID:23040289

  13. Peripartum cardiomyopathy: current management and future perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Hilfiker-Kleiner, Denise; Haghikia, Arash; Nonhoff, Justus; Bauersachs, Johann

    2015-01-01

    Pregnancy is associated with marked physiological changes challenging the cardiovascular system. Among the more severe pregnancy associated cardiovascular complications, peripartum cardiomyopathy (PPCM) is a potentially life-threatening heart disease emerging towards the end of pregnancy or in the first postpartal months in previously healthy women. A major challenge is to distinguish the peripartum discomforts in healthy women (fatigue, shortness of breath, and oedema) from the pathological symptoms of PPCM. Moreover, pregnancy-related pathologies such as preeclampsia, myocarditis, or underlying genetic disease show overlapping symptoms with PPCM. Difficulties in diagnosis and the discrimination from other pathological conditions in pregnancy may explain why PPCM is still underestimated. Additionally, underlying pathophysiologies are poorly understood, biomarkers are scarce and treatment options in general limited. Experience in long-term prognosis and management including subsequent pregnancies is just beginning to emerge. This review focuses on novel aspects of physiological and pathophysiological changes of the maternal cardiovascular system by comparing normal conditions, hypertensive complications, genetic aspects, and infectious disease in PPCM-pregnancies. It also presents clinical and basic science data on the current state of knowledge on PPCM and brings them in context thereby highlighting promising new insights in diagnostic tools and therapeutic approaches and management. PMID:25636745

  14. Financial Management of Libraries: Past Trends and Future Prospects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Stephen A.

    2003-01-01

    The financial environment within library and information services is reviewed and a structure for financial management is presented based on funding source and level of commercial activity. Objectives for financial management of library and information services is developed and reviewed in light of future trends and stakeholder perspectives.…

  15. Financial Management of Libraries: Past Trends and Future Prospects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Stephen A.

    2003-01-01

    The financial environment within library and information services is reviewed and a structure for financial management is presented based on funding source and level of commercial activity. Objectives for financial management of library and information services is developed and reviewed in light of future trends and stakeholder perspectives.…

  16. Content Management and the Future of Academic Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Yuhfen Diana; Liu, Mengxiong

    2001-01-01

    Discusses Internet-based electronic content management in digital libraries and considers the future of academic libraries. Topics include digital technologies; content management systems; standards; bandwidth; security and privacy concerns; legal matters, including copyrights and ownership; lifecycle; and multilingual access and interface. (LRW)

  17. Future of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease management.

    PubMed

    D'Urzo, Anthony; Vogelmeier, Claus

    2012-06-01

    Bronchodilators play a pivotal role in the management of symptomatic chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Inhaled short-acting bronchodilators are used for all stages of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, primarily for the immediate relief of symptoms; inhaled long-acting bronchodilators are recommended for maintenance therapy in patients with moderate-to-very severe disease and those with daily symptoms. When symptoms are not adequately controlled by a single bronchodilator, combining bronchodilators of different classes may prove effective. Several long-acting β(2)-agonists and long-acting muscarinic antagonists with 24-h duration of action and inhalers combining different classes of long-acting, once-daily bronchodilators are in development. The place of these agents in the treatment algorithm will be determined by their efficacy and safety profiles and their long-term impact on relevant clinical outcomes.

  18. Chordoma: current concepts, management, and future directions.

    PubMed

    Walcott, Brian P; Nahed, Brian V; Mohyeldin, Ahmed; Coumans, Jean-Valery; Kahle, Kristopher T; Ferreira, Manuel J

    2012-02-01

    Chordoma is a rare bone cancer that is aggressive, locally invasive, and has a poor prognosis. Chordomas are thought to arise from transformed remnants of notochord and have a predilection for the axial skeleton, with the most common sites being the sacrum, skull base, and spine. The gold standard treatment for chordomas of the mobile spine and sacrum is en-bloc excision with wide margins and postoperative external-beam radiation therapy. Treatment of clival chordomas is unique from other locations with an enhanced emphasis on preservation of neurological function, typified by a general paradigm of maximally safe cytoreductive surgery and advanced radiation delivery techniques. In this Review, we highlight current standards in diagnosis, clinical management, and molecular characterisation of chordomas, and discuss current research.

  19. Interdisciplinary science for future governance and management of forests.

    PubMed

    Nordin, Annika; Sandström, Camilla

    2016-02-01

    The sustainable use of forests constitutes one of the great challenges for the future due to forests' large spatial coverage, long-term planning horizons and inclusion of many ecosystem services. The mission of the Future Forests programme is to provide a scientifically robust knowledge base for sustainable governance and management of forests preparing for a future characterized by globalization and climate change. In this introduction to the Special Issue, we describe the interdisciplinary science approach developed in close collaboration with actors in the Future Forests programme, and discuss the potential impacts of this science on society. In addition, we introduce the 13 scientific articles and present results produced by the programme.

  20. SARS: how to manage future outbreaks?

    PubMed

    Tai, Dessmon Y H

    2006-05-01

    Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) was an unknown disease barely 3 years ago. After the World Health Organization declared the world SARS-free on 5 July 2003, there were episodic recurrences of SARS between September 2003 and May 2004, including 4 cases of laboratory-acquired SARS. SARS posed a mammoth challenge because of the impact of nosocomial transmission on healthcare manpower and facilities, and the resources needed for controlling and preventing further spread. Through worldwide scientific collaboration, the medical community has made much progress in unraveling its enigma, though much more needs to be discovered. This paper highlights how we can apply our knowledge of its epidemiology, mode of transmission, clinical course, ICU admission, complications, predictors of poor outcome, treatment and infection control to help us avert a catastrophic outbreak, and to manage our resources and patients. SARS preparedness and response planning must be flexible and dynamic so that appropriate measures can be implemented as an outbreak progresses. Even if SARS does not reemerge, the experience gained from such planning is valuable in preparing for threats of bioterrorism or a global avian influenza A (H5N1) virus pandemic.

  1. Psychiatric nursing case management: past, present, and future.

    PubMed

    Herrick, Charlotte A; Bartlett, Robin

    2004-09-01

    This literature review examines the evolution of psychiatric nursing case management in the United States. Various models, both inpatient and outpatient, are described, along with the roles of the case manager in each setting. The development of clinical pathways to monitor and document outcomes in acute settings is examined, along with the difficulties in adapting them specifically to psychiatric nursing case management. The types of data collected and the use of outcomes to support programs for the mentally ill are reviewed. Finally, recommendations for psychiatric nursing case management are made to provide guidelines for the future.

  2. Precision Information Environments Envisioning the future of emergency management

    SciTech Connect

    2010-04-01

    Researchers at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory are developing future work environments for the emergency management community called Precision Information Environments (or PIEs). PIEs will provide tailored access to information and decision support capabilities in a system that supports the multiple user roles, contexts, and phases of emergency management, planning, and response. This video gives you a look at one vision for the future. To view an annotated version that describes each of the technology concepts you'll see as well as the end user needs that motivated them and the research challenges that must be addressed to make them a reality visit http://precisioninformation.org.

  3. Foodservice Systems for Navy Forces in the 1990’s

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-04-01

    A long-term implementation plan exists for Shipboard Nontactical Automated Processing (SNAP) I and II where foodservice operations hold a low priority...months for a milk dispenser, and one year for a mixer and freezer. 8. A few commands felt that they could do without coffee urns due to 14 low ...received mean ratings of 3.5, between "somewhat bad" and "neutral", and were rated as satisfactory by only 25% of the enlisted customers. This low

  4. Physicians in health care management: 1. Physicians as managers: roles and future challenges.

    PubMed

    Leatt, P

    1994-01-15

    Physicians are increasingly expected to assume responsibility for the management of human and financial resources in health care, particularly in hospitals. Juggling their new management responsibilities with clinical care, teaching and research can lead to conflicting roles. However, their presence in management is crucial to shaping the future health care system. They bring to management positions important skills and values such as observation, problem-solving, analysis and ethical judgement. To improve their management skills physicians can benefit from management education programs such as those offered by the Physician-Manager Institute and several Canadian universities. To manage in the future environment they must increase their knowledge and skills in policy and political processes, financial strategies and management, human resources management, systems and program quality improvement and organizational design.

  5. Physicians in health care management: 1. Physicians as managers: roles and future challenges.

    PubMed Central

    Leatt, P

    1994-01-01

    Physicians are increasingly expected to assume responsibility for the management of human and financial resources in health care, particularly in hospitals. Juggling their new management responsibilities with clinical care, teaching and research can lead to conflicting roles. However, their presence in management is crucial to shaping the future health care system. They bring to management positions important skills and values such as observation, problem-solving, analysis and ethical judgement. To improve their management skills physicians can benefit from management education programs such as those offered by the Physician-Manager Institute and several Canadian universities. To manage in the future environment they must increase their knowledge and skills in policy and political processes, financial strategies and management, human resources management, systems and program quality improvement and organizational design. PMID:8287339

  6. School foodservice personnel's struggle with using labels to identify whole-grain foods.

    PubMed

    Chu, Yen Li; Orsted, Mary; Marquart, Len; Reicks, Marla

    2012-01-01

    To describe how school foodservice personnel use current labeling methods to identify whole-grain products and the influence on purchasing for school meals. Focus groups explored labeling methods to identify whole-grain products and barriers to incorporating whole-grain foods in school meals. Qualitative analysis procedures and the constant comparative method were used to analyze data. Participants were school foodservice personnel (n = 67) in 5 states across the United States. Limited ability and confidence were demonstrated in identifying whole-grain products from label information, statements, and claims. Participants indicated a need for a uniform labeling method such as whole-grain content to assist in ordering and purchasing. High cost and low acceptability were listed as barriers to incorporating whole-grain foods in school meals. Whole-grain product labeling should be improved to enhance understanding by foodservice personnel so that whole grains are included in school meals. Copyright © 2012 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Management of asthma in adults: current therapy and future directions

    PubMed Central

    Green, R; Brightling, C; Pavord, I; Wardlaw, A

    2003-01-01

    Asthma is increasing in prevalence worldwide and results in significant use of healthcare resources. Although most patients with asthma can be adequately treated with inhaled corticosteroids, an important number of patients require additional therapy and an increasing number of options are available. A further minority of patients develop severe persistent asthma which remains difficult to manage despite current pharmacological therapies. This review discusses the various treatment options currently available for each stage of asthma severity, highlights some of the limitations of current management, and outlines directions which may improve the management of asthma in the future. PMID:12782771

  8. Future Directions of Management Science and Operations Management in Business School Curricula

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuller, Jack A.; Denton, James W.

    2006-01-01

    The fields of Management Science (MS) and Operations Management (OM) have co-existed in business school curricula for over a half century. This paper examines five trends that point toward a bright future for Operations Management in the business curriculum. These trends include an increasing emphasis on global competition, the growth of the…

  9. Future Directions of Management Science and Operations Management in Business School Curricula

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuller, Jack A.; Denton, James W.

    2006-01-01

    The fields of Management Science (MS) and Operations Management (OM) have co-existed in business school curricula for over a half century. This paper examines five trends that point toward a bright future for Operations Management in the business curriculum. These trends include an increasing emphasis on global competition, the growth of the…

  10. The Future of Integrated Supply Chain Management Utilizing Performance Based Logistics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-04-01

    Defense Acquisition Review Journal 2 the future of integrateD supply chain ManageMent Image designed by Jim Elmore Report Documentation Page Form...00-00-2002 to 00-00-2002 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE The Future of Integrated Supply Chain Management Utilizing Performance Based Logistics 5a...Defense Acquisition Review Journal the future of integrateD supply chain ManageMent 3 the future of integrateD supply chain ManageMent utiliZing

  11. Utilization management in radiology, part 2: perspectives and future directions.

    PubMed

    Duszak, Richard; Berlin, Jonathan W

    2012-10-01

    Increased utilization of medical imaging in the early part of the last decade has resulted in numerous efforts to reduce associated spending. Recent initiatives have focused on managing utilization with radiology benefits managers and real-time order entry decision support systems. Although these approaches might seem mutually exclusive and their application to radiology appears unique, the historical convergence and broad acceptance of both programs within the pharmacy sector may offer parallels for their potential future in medical imaging. In this second installment of a two-part series, anticipated trends in radiology utilization management are reviewed. Perspectives on current and future potential roles of radiologists in such initiatives are discussed, particularly in light of emerging physician payment models.

  12. Resolving future fire management conflicts using multicriteria decision making.

    PubMed

    Driscoll, Don A; Bode, Michael; Bradstock, Ross A; Keith, David A; Penman, Trent D; Price, Owen F

    2016-02-01

    Management strategies to reduce the risks to human life and property from wildfire commonly involve burning native vegetation. However, planned burning can conflict with other societal objectives such as human health and biodiversity conservation. These conflicts are likely to intensify as fire regimes change under future climates and as growing human populations encroach farther into fire-prone ecosystems. Decisions about managing fire risks are therefore complex and warrant more sophisticated approaches than are typically used. We applied a multicriteria decision making approach (MCDA) with the potential to improve fire management outcomes to the case of a highly populated, biodiverse, and flammable wildland-urban interface. We considered the effects of 22 planned burning options on 8 objectives: house protection, maximizing water quality, minimizing carbon emissions and impacts on human health, and minimizing declines of 5 distinct species types. The MCDA identified a small number of management options (burning forest adjacent to houses) that performed well for most objectives, but not for one species type (arboreal mammal) or for water quality. Although MCDA made the conflict between objectives explicit, resolution of the problem depended on the weighting assigned to each objective. Additive weighting of criteria traded off the arboreal mammal and water quality objectives for other objectives. Multiplicative weighting identified scenarios that avoided poor outcomes for any objective, which is important for avoiding potentially irreversible biodiversity losses. To distinguish reliably among management options, future work should focus on reducing uncertainty in outcomes across a range of objectives. Considering management actions that have more predictable outcomes than landscape fuel management will be important. We found that, where data were adequate, an MCDA can support decision making in the complex and often conflicted area of fire management.

  13. Social Networks and Welfare in Future Animal Management.

    PubMed

    Koene, Paul; Ipema, Bert

    2014-03-17

    It may become advantageous to keep human-managed animals in the social network groups to which they have adapted. Data concerning the social networks of farm animal species and their ancestors are scarce but essential to establishing the importance of a natural social network for farmed animal species. Social Network Analysis (SNA) facilitates the characterization of social networking at group, subgroup and individual levels. SNA is currently used for modeling the social behavior and management of wild animals and social welfare of zoo animals. It has been recognized for use with farm animals but has yet to be applied for management purposes. Currently, the main focus is on cattle, because in large groups (poultry), recording of individuals is expensive and the existence of social networks is uncertain due to on-farm restrictions. However, in many cases, a stable social network might be important to individual animal fitness, survival and welfare. For instance, when laying hens are not too densely housed, simple networks may be established. We describe here small social networks in horses, brown bears, laying hens and veal calves to illustrate the importance of measuring social networks among animals managed by humans. Emphasis is placed on the automatic measurement of identity, location, nearest neighbors and nearest neighbor distance for management purposes. It is concluded that social networks are important to the welfare of human-managed animal species and that welfare management based on automatic recordings will become available in the near future.

  14. Charge Management Optimization for Future TOU Rates: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Jiucai; Markel, Tony

    2016-07-01

    The effectiveness of future time of use (TOU) rates to enable managed charging for providing demand response depends on the vehicle's flexibility and the benefits to owners. This paper adopts opportunity, delayed, and smart charging methods to quantify these impacts, flexibilities, and benefits. Simulation results show that delayed and smart charging methods can shift most charging events to lower TOU rate periods without compromising the charged energy and individual driver mobility needs.

  15. Water management: Current and future challenges and research directions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cosgrove, William J.; Loucks, Daniel P.

    2015-06-01

    Water distinguishes our planet compared to all the others we know about. While the global supply of available freshwater is more than adequate to meet all current and foreseeable water demands, its spatial and temporal distributions are not. There are many regions where our freshwater resources are inadequate to meet domestic, economic development and environmental needs. In such regions, the lack of adequate clean water to meet human drinking water and sanitation needs is indeed a constraint on human health and productivity and hence on economic development as well as on the maintenance of a clean environment and healthy ecosystems. All of us involved in research must find ways to remove these constraints. We face multiple challenges in doing that, especially given a changing and uncertain future climate, and a rapidly growing population that is driving increased social and economic development, globalization, and urbanization. How best to meet these challenges requires research in all aspects of water management. Since 1965, the journal Water Resources Research has played an important role in reporting and disseminating current research related to managing the quantity and quality and cost of this resource. This paper identifies the issues facing water managers today and future research needed to better inform those who strive to create a more sustainable and desirable future.

  16. JPL Project Information Management: A Continuum Back to the Future

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reiz, Julie M.

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the practices and architecture that support information management at JPL. This practice has allowed concurrent use and reuse of information by primary and secondary users. The use of this practice is illustrated in the evolution of the Mars Rovers from the Mars Pathfinder to the development of the Mars Science Laboratory. The recognition of the importance of information management during all phases of a project life cycle has resulted in the design of an information system that includes metadata, has reduced the risk of information loss through the use of an in-process appraisal, shaping of project's appreciation for capturing and managing the information on one project for re-use by future projects as a natural outgrowth of the process. This process has also assisted in connection of geographically disbursed partners into a team through sharing information, common tools and collaboration.

  17. Current Management of Refractory Germ Cell Tumors and Future Directions.

    PubMed

    Allen, J Clayton; Kirschner, Austin; Scarpato, Kristen R; Morgans, Alicia K

    2017-02-01

    We review current management strategies for patients with relapsed and refractory germ cell tumors (GCTs), defined as relapsed or persistent disease following at least one line of cisplatin-based chemotherapy. Additionally, we discuss future directions in the management of these patients. Recent studies involving targeted therapies have been disappointing. Nevertheless, studies of the management of refractory germ cell cancer are ongoing, with a focus on optimal utilization of high-dose chemotherapy and autologous stem cell transplant, as well as the role of immune checkpoint inhibitors in refractory germ cell tumors. Studies aiming to identify those patients who may benefit from more intensive treatment up front to prevent the development of refractory disease are also in progress. Testicular germ cell tumors are among the most curable of all solid tumor malignancies, with cure being possible even in the refractory, metastatic setting. Treatment of refractory disease remains a challenging clinical scenario, but potentially practice changing studies are ongoing.

  18. JPL Project Information Management: A Continuum Back to the Future

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reiz, Julie M.

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the practices and architecture that support information management at JPL. This practice has allowed concurrent use and reuse of information by primary and secondary users. The use of this practice is illustrated in the evolution of the Mars Rovers from the Mars Pathfinder to the development of the Mars Science Laboratory. The recognition of the importance of information management during all phases of a project life cycle has resulted in the design of an information system that includes metadata, has reduced the risk of information loss through the use of an in-process appraisal, shaping of project's appreciation for capturing and managing the information on one project for re-use by future projects as a natural outgrowth of the process. This process has also assisted in connection of geographically disbursed partners into a team through sharing information, common tools and collaboration.

  19. Social Networks and Welfare in Future Animal Management

    PubMed Central

    Koene, Paul; Ipema, Bert

    2014-01-01

    Simple Summary Living in a stable social environment is important to animals. Animal species have developed social behaviors and rules of approach and avoidance of conspecifics in order to co-exist. Animal species are kept or domesticated without explicit regard for their inherent social behavior and rules. Examples of social structures are provided for four species kept and managed by humans. This information is important for the welfare management of these species. In the near future, automatic measurement of social structures will provide a tool for daily welfare management together with nearest neighbor information. Abstract It may become advantageous to keep human-managed animals in the social network groups to which they have adapted. Data concerning the social networks of farm animal species and their ancestors are scarce but essential to establishing the importance of a natural social network for farmed animal species. Social Network Analysis (SNA) facilitates the characterization of social networking at group, subgroup and individual levels. SNA is currently used for modeling the social behavior and management of wild animals and social welfare of zoo animals. It has been recognized for use with farm animals but has yet to be applied for management purposes. Currently, the main focus is on cattle, because in large groups (poultry), recording of individuals is expensive and the existence of social networks is uncertain due to on-farm restrictions. However, in many cases, a stable social network might be important to individual animal fitness, survival and welfare. For instance, when laying hens are not too densely housed, simple networks may be established. We describe here small social networks in horses, brown bears, laying hens and veal calves to illustrate the importance of measuring social networks among animals managed by humans. Emphasis is placed on the automatic measurement of identity, location, nearest neighbors and nearest neighbor distance for

  20. Menu label accuracy at a university's foodservices. An exploratory recipe nutrition analysis.

    PubMed

    Feldman, Charles; Murray, Douglas; Chavarria, Stephanie; Zhao, Hang

    2015-09-01

    The increase in the weight of American adults and children has been positively associated with the prevalence of the consumption of food-away-from-home. The objective was to assess the accuracy of claimed nutritional information of foods purchased in contracted foodservices located on the campus of an institution of higher education. Fifty popular food items were randomly collected from five main dining outlets located on a selected campus in the northeastern United States. The sampling was repeated three times on separate occasions for an aggregate total of 150 food samples. The samples were then weighed and assessed for nutrient composition (protein, cholesterol, fiber, carbohydrates, total fat, calories, sugar, and sodium) using nutrient analysis software. Results were compared with foodservices' published nutrition information. Two group comparisons, claimed and measured, were performed using the paired-sample t-test. Descriptive statistics were used as well. Among the nine nutritional values, six nutrients (total fat, sodium, protein, fiber, cholesterol, and weight) had more than 10% positive average discrepancies between measured and claimed values. Statistical significance of the variance was obtained in four of the eight categories of nutrient content: total fat, sodium, protein, and cholesterol (P < .05). Significance was also reached in the variance of actual portion weight compared to the published claims (P < .001). Significant differences of portion size (weight), total fat, sodium, protein, and cholesterol were found among the sampled values and the foodservices' published claims. The findings from this study raise the concern that if the actual nutritional information does not accurately reflect the declared values on menus, conclusions, decisions and actions based on posted information may not be valid.

  1. Urban water management in cities: historical, current and future regimes.

    PubMed

    Brown, R R; Keath, N; Wong, T H F

    2009-01-01

    Drawing from three phases of a social research programme between 2002 and 2008, this paper proposes a framework for underpinning the development of urban water transitions policy and city-scale benchmarking at the macro scale. Through detailed historical, contemporary and futures research involving Australian cities, a transitions framework is proposed, presenting a typology of six city states, namely the 'Water Supply City', the 'Sewered City', the 'Drained City', the 'Waterways City', the 'Water Cycle City', and the 'Water Sensitive City'. This framework recognises the temporal, ideological and technological contexts that cities transition through when moving towards sustainable urban water conditions. The aim of this research is to assist urban water managers with understanding the scope of the hydro-social contracts currently operating across cities in order to determine the capacity development and cultural reform initiatives needed to effectively expedite the transition to more sustainable water management and ultimately to Water Sensitive Cities. One of the values of this framework is that it can be used by strategists and policy makers as a heuristic device and/or the basis for a future city state benchmarking tool. From a research perspective it can be an underpinning framework for future work on transitions policy research.

  2. Managing Water-Food-Energy Futures in the Canadian Prairies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wheater, H. S.; Hassanzadeh, E.; Nazemi, A.; Elshorbagy, A. A.

    2016-12-01

    The water-food-energy nexus is a convenient phrase to highlight competing societal uses for water and the need for cross-sectoral policy integration, but this can lead to oversimplification of the multiple dimensions of water (and energy) management. In practice, water managers must balance (and prioritize) demands for water for many uses, including environmental flows, and reservoir operation often involves managing conflicting demands, for example to maximize retention for supply, reduce storage to facilitate flood control, and constrain water levels and releases for habitat protection. Agriculture and water quality are also inextricably linked: irrigated agriculture requires appropriate water quality for product quality and certification, but agriculture can be a major source of nutrient pollution, with impacts on human and ecosystem health, drinking water treatment and amenity. And energy-water interactions include energy production (hydropower and cooling water for thermal power generation) and energy consumption (e.g. for pumping and water and wastewater treatment). These dependencies are illustrated for the Canadian prairies, and a risk-based approach to the management of climate change is presented. Trade-offs between economic benefits of hydropower and irrigation are illustrated for alternative climate futures, including implications for freshwater habitats. The results illustrate that inter-sector interactions vary as a function of climate and its variability, and that there is a need for policy to manage inter-sector allocations as a function of economic risk.

  3. Sustainable WEE management in Malaysia: present scenarios and future perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rezaul Hasan Shumon, Md; Ahmed, S.

    2013-12-01

    Technological advances have resulted development of a lot of electronic products for continuously increasing number of customers. As the customer taste and features of these products change rapidly, the life cycles have come down tremendously. Therefore, a large volume of e-wastes are now emanated every year. This scenario is very much predominant in Malaysia. On one hand e-wastes are becoming environmental hazards and affecting the ecological imbalance. On the other, these wastes are remaining still economically valuable. In Malaysia, e-waste management system is still in its nascent state. This paper describes the current status of e-waste generation and recycling and explores issues for future e-waste management system in Malaysia from sustainable point of view. As to draw some factual comparisons, this paper reviews the e-waste management system in European Union, USA, Japan, as a benchmark. Then it focuses on understanding the Malaysian culture, consumer discarding behavior, flow of the materials in recycling, e-waste management system, and presents a comparative view with the Swiss e-waste system. Sustainable issues for e-waste management in Malaysia are also presented. The response adopted so far in collection and recovery activities are covered in later phases. Finally, it investigates the barriers and challenges of e-waste system in Malaysia.

  4. Increasing Awareness of Sustainable Water Management for Future Civil Engineers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ilic, Suzana; Karleusa, Barbara; Deluka-Tibljas, Aleksandra

    2010-05-01

    There are more than 1.2 billion people around the world that do not have access to drinking water. While there are plans under the United Nations Millennium Development Goals to halve this number by 2015, there are a number of regions that will be exposed to water scarcity in the coming future. Providing sufficient water for future development is a great challenge for planners and designers of water supply systems. In order to design sustainable water supplies for the future, it is important to learn how people consume water and how water consumption can be reduced. The education of future civil engineers should take into account not only technical aspects of the water supply but also the accompanying social and economical issues, and appreciated the strengths and weaknesses of traditional solutions. The Faculty of Civil Engineering, at the University of Rijeka, has begun incorporating a series of activities that engage undergraduate students and the local community to develop a mutual understanding of the future needs for sustainable management. We present one of the activities, collaboration with the Lancaster Environment Centre at Lancaster University in the UK through the field course Water and environmental management in Mediterranean context. The course, which is designed for the Lancaster University geography students, features a combination of field trips and visits to provide an understanding of the socio-economic and environmental context of water management in two counties (Istra and Primorsko-Goranska). Students from Lancaster visit the Croatian water authority and a regional water company, where they learn about current management practices and problems in managing water supplies and demand through the year. They make their own observations of current management practices in the field and learn about water consumption from the end users. One day field visit to a village in the area that is still not connected to the main water supply system is

  5. The future of anticoagulation management in atrial fibrillation in Europe

    PubMed Central

    Lichten, Catherine A.; Castle-Clarke, Sophie; Manville, Catriona; Horvath, Veronika; Robin, Enora; Krapels, Joachim; Parks, Sarah; Sim, Megan; van Zijverden, Olga; Chataway, Joanna

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common type of cardiac arrhythmia, affecting approximately 1–2 per cent of the population worldwide. Those who suffer from AF have a five times higher risk of stroke. AF prevalence increases with age and it affects roughly 18 per cent of the population over 85. Consequently, as populations age, AF is becoming an increasingly significant public health issue. Over recent years there have been developments in treatment and management options, both for treating the arrhythmia directly, and assessing and reducing the risk of AF-related stroke, but there is a need to ensure that available knowledge is applied optimally to benefit patients so that opportunities to prevent AF-related stroke are not missed. The aims of this project were to assess the current landscape and explore the direction of future developments in AF management in Europe, with a focus on the use of anticoagulants in the prevention of AF-related stroke. Through rapid evidence assessment, key informant interviews, PESTLE analysis and the development and exploration of future scenarios, we have developed sets of shorter- and longer-term recommendations for improving AF-related patient outcomes. The short-term recommendations are: i) improve AF awareness among the public and policymakers; ii) support education about AF management for healthcare professionals and patients; and iii) maintain engagement in AF-related research across the health services. PMID:28083378

  6. Development of a risk-based methodology for estimating survival and growth of enteropathogenic Escherichia coli on iceberg-lettuce exposed at short-term storage in foodservice centers.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Caturla, M Y; Valero, A; García-Gimeno, R M; Zurera, G

    2012-09-01

    Ready-to-eat lettuce is a food commodity prone to contamination by pathogenic microorganisms if processing and distribution conditions as well as handling practices are not effective. A challenge testing protocol was applied to ready-to-eat iceberg-lettuce samples by inoculating different initial contamination levels (4.5, 3.5 and 2.5 log cfu/g) of Escherichia coli strain (serotype O158:H23) subsequently stored at 8, 12, 16, 20 and 24°C for 6h. A polynomial regression model for log difference (log(diff)) was developed at each inoculum level studied through the calculation of the effective static temperature (T(eff)). Furthermore, the developed model was integrated within a risk-based approach with real time/Temperature (t/T) data collected in three Spanish foodservice centers: school canteens, long-term care facilities (LTCF) and hospitals. Statistical distributions were fitted to t/T data and estimated log(diff) values were obtained as model outputs through a Monte Carlo simulation (10,000 iterations). The results obtained at static conditions indicated that the maintenance of the lettuce at 8°C slightly reduced the E. coli population from -0.4 to -0.5 log cfu/g. However, if chill chain is not maintained, E. coli can grow up to 1.1 log cfu/g at temperatures above 16°C, even at low contamination levels. Regarding log(diff) estimated in foodservice centers, very low risk was obtained (log(diff)<1.0 log cfu in all cases). Mean T(eff) values obtained in hospitals were the lowest ones (11.1°C) and no growth of E. coli was predicted in >92% of simulated cases. The results presented in this study could serve food operators to set time/Temperature requirements for ready-to-eat foods in foodservice centers, providing a scientific basis through the use of predictive modeling. These findings may also serve to food safety managers to better define the control measures to be adopted in foodservice centers in order to prevent food-borne infections. Copyright © 2012

  7. Multidisciplinary management of chronic heart failure: principles and future trends.

    PubMed

    Davidson, Patricia M; Newton, Phillip J; Tankumpuan, Thitipong; Paull, G; Dennison-Himmelfarb, Cheryl

    2015-10-01

    Globally, the management of chronic heart failure (CHF) challenges health systems. The high burden of disease and the costs associated with hospitalization adversely affect individuals, families, and society. Improved quality, access, efficiency, and equity of CHF care can be achieved by using multidisciplinary care approaches if there is adherence and fidelity to the program's elements. The goal of this article was to summarize evidence and make recommendations for advancing practice, education, research, and policy in the multidisciplinary management of patients with CHF. Essential elements of multidisciplinary management of CHF were identified from meta-analyses and clinical practice guidelines. The study factors were discussed from the perspective of the health care system, providers, patients, and their caregivers. Identified gaps in evidence were used to identify areas for future focus in CHF multidisciplinary management. Although there is high-level evidence (including several meta-analyses) for the efficacy of management programs for CHF, less evidence exists to determine the benefit attributable to individual program components or to identify the specific content of effective components and the manner of their delivery. Health care system, provider, and patient factors influence health care models and the effective management of CHF and require focus and attention. Extrapolating trial findings to clinical practice settings is limited by the heterogeneity of study populations and the implementation of models of intervention beyond academic health centers, where practice environments differ considerably. Ensuring that individual programs are both developed and assessed that consider these factors is integral to ensuring adherence and fidelity with the core dimensions of disease management necessary to optimize patient and organizational outcomes. Recognizing the complexity of the multidisciplinary CHF interventions will be important in advancing the design

  8. Multiple system atrophy: current and future approaches to management

    PubMed Central

    Flabeau, Olivier; Meissner, Wassilios G.; Tison, François

    2010-01-01

    Multiple system atrophy (MSA) is a rare neurodegenerative disorder without any effective treatment in slowing or stopping disease progression. It is characterized by poor levodopa responsive Parkinsonism, cerebellar ataxia, pyramidal signs and autonomic failure in any combination. Current therapeutic strategies are primarily based on dopamine replacement and improvement of autonomic failure. However, symptomatic management remains disappointing and no curative treatment is yet available. Recent experimental evidence has confirmed the key role of alpha-synuclein aggregation in the pathogenesis of MSA. Referring to this hypothesis, transgenic and toxic animal models have been developed to assess candidate drugs for MSA. The standardization of diagnosis criteria and assessment procedures will allow large multicentre clinical trials to be conducted. In this article we review the available symptomatic treatment, recent results of studies investigating potential neuroprotective drugs, and future approaches for the management in MSA. PMID:21179616

  9. Management of Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma: Current Practice and Future Perspective.

    PubMed

    Lee, Anne W M; Ma, Brigette B Y; Ng, Wai Tong; Chan, Anthony T C

    2015-10-10

    Nasopharyngeal carcinoma of the undifferentiated subtype is endemic to southern China, and patient prognosis has improved significantly over the past three decades because of advances in disease management, diagnostic imaging, radiotherapy technology, and broader application of systemic therapy. Despite the excellent local control with modern radiotherapy, distant failure remains a key challenge. Advances in molecular technology have helped to decipher the molecular pathogenesis of nasopharyngeal carcinoma as well as its etiologic association with the Epstein-Barr virus. This in turn has led to the discovery of novel biomarkers and drug targets, rendering this cancer site a current focus for new drug development. This article reviews and appraises the key literature on the current management of nasopharyngeal carcinoma and future directions in clinical research. © 2015 by American Society of Clinical Oncology.

  10. Future prospects of health management systems using cellular phones.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hun-Sung; Hwang, Yunji; Lee, Jae-Ho; Oh, Hye Young; Kim, Yi-Jun; Kwon, Hyeon Yoon; Kang, Hyoseung; Kim, Hyunah; Park, Rae Woong; Kim, Ju Han

    2014-06-01

    Cellular phones enable communication between healthcare providers and patients for prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of diseases. However, few studies have examined the user-friendliness or effectiveness of cellular phone-based medical informatics (CPBMI) for healthcare. This study investigated the use of CPBMI to identify its current status within the medical field, advantages and disadvantages, practicability, clinical effectiveness, costs, and cost-saving potential. CPBMI was validated in terms of practicality and provision of medical benefits. It is critical to use CPBMI in accordance with the different features of each disease and condition. Use of CPBMI is expected to be especially useful for patients with chronic disease. We discussed the current status of the clinical use, benefits, and risks of CPBMI. CPBMI and information technology-based health management tools are anticipated to become useful and effective components of healthcare management in the future.

  11. Use of Visuals for Food Safety Education of Spanish-Speaking Foodservice Workers: A Case Study in Iowa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rajagopal, Lakshman

    2012-01-01

    Providing food safety training to an audience whose native language is not English is always a challenge. In the study reported here, minimal-text visuals in Spanish were used to train Hispanic foodservice workers about proper handwashing technique and glove use based on the 2005 Food Code requirements. Overall, results indicated that visuals…

  12. Use of Visuals for Food Safety Education of Spanish-Speaking Foodservice Workers: A Case Study in Iowa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rajagopal, Lakshman

    2012-01-01

    Providing food safety training to an audience whose native language is not English is always a challenge. In the study reported here, minimal-text visuals in Spanish were used to train Hispanic foodservice workers about proper handwashing technique and glove use based on the 2005 Food Code requirements. Overall, results indicated that visuals…

  13. Simulation Games: The Future of Water Resources Education and Management?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castilla Rho, J. C.; Mariethoz, G.; Rojas, R. F.; Andersen, M. S.; Kelly, B. F.; Holley, C.

    2014-12-01

    Scientists rely on models of the water cycle to describe and predict problems of water scarcity in a changing climate, and to suggest adaptation strategies for securing future water needs. Yet these models are too often complicated for managers, the general public and for students to understand. Simpler modelling environments will help with finding solutions by engaging a broader segment of the population. Such environments will enable education at the earliest stages and collective action. I propose that simulation games can be an effective communication platform between scientists and 'non-experts' and that such games will shed light on problems of pollution and overuse of water resources. In the same way as pilots use flight simulators to become proficient at flying aircraft, simulation games—if underpinned by good science—can be used to educate the public, students and managers about how to best manage our water resources. I aim to motivate young scientists to think about using games to advance water education and management.

  14. Managed-care plans. Their future under national health insurance.

    PubMed Central

    Weil, T. P.

    1991-01-01

    The nation's health maintenance organizations, preferred-provider organizations, independent practice associations, and similar managed-care efforts are not well positioned to take a leadership role in a nationwide universal access or national health insurance plan. They--with the possible exception of some large staff and group health maintenance organizations--have been unable to show uniformly that they can contain costs, provide better access or higher quality of care, and achieve greater patient satisfaction than fee-for-service endeavors. As the United States pursues universal access as a step toward national health insurance, the managed-care plans will continue to increase their numbers of subscribers. They will not, however, be able to enroll large numbers of the young, low-income employees and their dependents who account for most of the 63 million people uninsured sometime during each year. Under national health insurance, there might be an option for some health maintenance organizations to negotiate capitated payments. The vast majority of the nation's physicians, however, will reluctantly embrace a centrally managed fee-for-service approach rather than a salary or capitated reimbursement method, leaving only a trace of the competitive managed-care plan theme in a future, primarily monolithic, national health care system. PMID:1815407

  15. Using student opinion and design inputs to develop an informed university foodservice menu.

    PubMed

    Feldman, Charles; Harwell, Heather; Brusca, Joseph

    2013-10-01

    The potential for Universities and Colleges to be settings that promote health and wellbeing has become the subject for debate where the role of foodservice has been acknowledged as influential. The aim of this research was to evaluate an effective design to promote healthy selections from university foodservice menus. The research was designed around a grounded theory approach utilizing semiological prompts based on different existing nutrition labeling schemes. A total of 39 students (17 male, 22 female) participated in seven focus groups at Montclair State University, US. The participants of this study clearly called for nutrition labeling on college menus and a prototype design had been agreed. The students also itemized five nutrients they wanted listed in a Traffic Light system of colors and then quantified on the menu: calories, sodium, sugar, fat and carbohydrates, plus beneficial ingredients or nutrients for display in menu icons. The nutrients and display order varies somewhat from industry and government standards, though the student recommendations are suggestive of common understandings of published nutrient guidelines. Students have a stake in how menu information is presented on campus and their opinions could positively impact the general selection of healthy foods. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. [Proposal of reference values of microbiological environment monitoring in foodservice establishments].

    PubMed

    Soler Quiles, Carla; Mañes, Jordi; Savino, Angelo; Soriano, José M

    2015-04-01

    To propose a new reference of microbiological environment monitoring in foodservice establishments. The present work shows the determination and evaluation of the microbiological contamination generated in a foodservice establishment Method: It is based on surface sampling (microbial build-up) using mixed cellulose ester membrane filters and on air sampling (hourly microbial adhesion) using Petri dishes. Limits of contamination are established before and during the food elaboration, by means of the microbiological analysis of the environment, surfaces and equipment systems, until reliable limits and levels of acceptance are established of each selected point. Finally, a program of environmental microbiological monitoring was established including the evaluation of all parameters that compose and are implicit in the area, thus assuring and supporting its continuity with the documentation and registers developed for a safety area. Samples for microbiological examination were collected over a period of one moth on ten different days, at two different times. Twelve selected points having previously been identified as hazardous were monitored. Furthermore, foods though to be of high risk were periodically collected for microbiological analysis. The possibility to use of an ample range of selective media, well over the limited number used in this study, allows the analysis of many single microbial species. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  17. Relationships among hygiene indicators in take-away foodservice establishments and the impact of climatic conditions.

    PubMed

    Djekic, I; Kuzmanović, J; Anđelković, A; Saračević, M; Stojanović, M M; Tomašević, I

    2016-09-01

    This paper examined the relationships among hygiene indicators in take-away foodservice establishments and the impact of climatic conditions. A total of 7545 samples were collected encompassing 2050 from food handlers' (HF) hands, 3991 from stainless steel food contact surfaces (FCS) and 1504 samples from plastic FCS. The study covered a period of 43 months. Hygiene-indicator bacteria (total plate count, Enterobacteriaceae Staphylococcus) were determined from the samples collected from 559 different take-away establishments. Climatic conditions were evaluated in respect to the outside temperature, pressure, humidity and precipitation. Logistic regression confirmed that the presence of precipitation was associated with an increased likelihood of exhibiting both Enterobacteriaceae and Staphylococcus on HF' hands as well as exhibiting Enterobacteriaceae on both types of FCS. Numerable Enterobacteriaceae and Staphylococcus levels on HF' hands were detected when higher outside temperatures and higher precipitations occurred. Higher outside temperatures were observed when Enterobacteriaceae were detected on both plastics (P < 0·05) and stainless steel (P > 0·05). Higher precipitation was observed when Enterobacteriaceae was detected on stainless steel while in contrast, this indicator was detected on plastics in periods with lower precipitation. This research confirms relationships between hygiene indicators in take-aways and climatic conditions, mostly temperature and precipitation. This study provides another perspective into the possible nature of cross-contamination and foodborne outbreaks originating in foodservice establishments and brings to attention the necessity of analysing various climatic conditions. © 2016 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  18. How cooks navigate nutrition, hunger and care in public-sector foodservice settings.

    PubMed

    Tsui, Emma K; Morillo, Arelis

    2016-04-01

    To examine the perspectives and practices of cooks responsible for carrying out healthy meal programmes in publicly funded foodservice, in order to better understand what they consider to be 'good' food and where nutrition and nutritional standards fit into this conceptualization. A qualitative, exploratory study involving in-depth interviews that were conducted with cooks and their supervisors about their work practices and perspectives on providing healthy food for clients. Participants were recruited from child-care, after-school, senior-centre and shelter settings that had participated in healthy menu training in New York City, USA. Eighteen cooks and nine supervisors working in the aforementioned settings. The views and practices of both cooks and supervisors about what constitutes 'good' food extend beyond a purely nutritional view of goodness to include the importance of addressing hunger and clients' food preferences, among other factors. Cooks address these by interacting with clients and altering recipes and menus in a range of ways to maximize the likelihood of food consumption and enjoyment. These approaches are often, but not always, compatible with setting-specific nutritional guidelines that may be set at the national, state, local or organizational level. Cooks play a key role in translating nutritional guidelines into what is served. In doing so, they engage in skilled labour and forms of care that increase the ability of public-sector foodservice to address food security and other goals, but these aspects of their work are not widely recognized.

  19. The costs of future polio risk management policies.

    PubMed

    Tebbens, Radboud J Duintjer; Sangrujee, Nalinee; Thompson, Kimberly M

    2006-12-01

    Decisionmakers need information about the anticipated future costs of maintaining polio eradication as a function of the policy options under consideration. Given the large portfolio of options, we reviewed and synthesized the existing cost data relevant to current policies to provide context for future policies. We model the expected future costs of different strategies for continued vaccination, surveillance, and other costs that require significant potential resource commitments. We estimate the costs of different potential policy portfolios for low-, middle-, and high-income countries to demonstrate the variability in these costs. We estimate that a global transition from routine immunization with oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) to inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV) would increase the costs of managing polio globally, although routine IPV use remains less costly than routine OPV use with supplemental immunization activities. The costs of surveillance and a stockpile, while small compared to routine vaccination costs, represent important expenditures to ensure adequate response to potential outbreaks. The uncertainty and sensitivity analyses highlight important uncertainty in the aggregated costs and demonstrates that the discount rate and uncertainty in price and administration cost of IPV drives the expected incremental cost of routine IPV vs. OPV immunization.

  20. Using the Systems-Practice Framework to Understand Food Allergen Management Practices at College Catering Operations: A Qualitative Study.

    PubMed

    Verstappen, Jennie; Mirosa, Miranda; Thomson, Carla

    2017-07-06

    The number of individuals with food allergies or intolerances attending catered university residential colleges is increasing, and safe dining options are required to minimize the risk of allergic reactions and food-induced death. This qualitative research study sought to advance professional knowledge of the factors affecting allergen management practices, particularly pertaining to college foodservices. Three catered residential colleges affiliated with a major university in New Zealand were selected as research sites. The study used an ethnographic approach and systems-practice theory as a framework for data collection and organizing results. Data collection techniques included document analyses (3 hours per site), observations (6 to 8 hours per site), focus groups with foodservice workers (30 to 45 minutes per site, n=16), and interviews with foodservice managers (45 to 90 minutes per interview, n=5). Notes and transcripts were coded through the process of thematic analysis using NVivo for Mac software, version 11.1.1, to identify factors affecting allergen management practices. The main factors affecting allergen management practices at college foodservices included information provided by residents about dietary requirements; communication between residents and foodservice staff; systems for allergen management; attitude of foodservice staff; and college size. Detailed dietary information, effective communication with residents, sufficient resources, clarification of responsibilities, and thorough systems are required for staff to perform safe allergen management practices. Ultimately, successful implementation was predominantly determined by staff attitude. Foodservice managers are advised to identify motivators and address barriers of staff attitudes toward allergen management practices to promote successful implementation. Copyright © 2017 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Bidding: Getting the Best Price for School Foodservice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiBella, Cecilia M.

    1998-01-01

    Sharon (Massachusetts) Public Schools developed an alternative procurement process for school food services that complies with state public bidding laws while evading "low-bid" constraints. The new process features evaluative criteria covering nutrition education, community outreach, management expertise, site visits, and price…

  2. The Management of Classical Hodgkin's Lymphoma: Past, Present, and Future

    PubMed Central

    Richardson, S. E.; McNamara, C.

    2011-01-01

    The management of classical Hodgkin's lymphoma (CHL) is a success story of modern multi-agent haemato-oncology. Prior to the middle of the twentieth century CHL was fatal in the majority of cases. Introduction of single agent radiotherapy (RT) demonstrated for the first time that these patients could be cured. Developments in chemotherapy including the mechlorethamine, vincristine, procarbazine and prednisolone (MOPP) and Adriamycin, bleomycin, vinblastine and dacarbazine (ABVD) regimens have resulted in cure rates of over 80%. Even in relapse, CHL patients can be salvaged with high dose chemotherapy and autologous haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (ASCT). Challenges remain, however, in finding new strategies to manage the small number of patients who continue to relapse or progress. In addition, the young age of many Hodgkin's patients forces difficult decisions in balancing the benefit of early disease control against the survival disadvantage of late toxicity. In this article we aim to summarise past trials, define the current standard of care and appraise future developments in the management of CHL. PMID:21687653

  3. Innovative requirements and technologies for future RLVs health management system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maltecca, L.; Miccichè, L.; Russo, G.; Sellitto, M.

    2002-07-01

    The Italian aerospace research program PRORA (PROgramma nazionale di Ricerche Aerospaziali), which has been conceived and managed by CIRA (Italian Aerospace Research Center), is focused on the development of innovative technologies, also based on experience from flying test beds. One family of these test beds, designated USV (Unmanned Space Vehicle) will be dedicated to acquire the knowledge about future RLV (Reusable Launch Vehicle) technologies. Major strategic technologies identified are reusability, hypersonic flight and atmospheric re-entry. The Phase-A study has been concluded and recently approved. Laben (a Finmeccanica Company) has contributed to identify requirements for the next generations of on board Vehicle Health Management System (VHMS) and to investigate possible innovative architectures. This new generation VHMS will be able to manage in a real-time mode the health of the vehicle (structure, propulsion, avionics, etc.). The proposed approach is based on a set of decentralised computers linked via an advanced high-speed interconnect system. This paper will describe preliminary requirements analysis and trade-off's mainly in terms of HW (e.g. use of general purpose CPUs versus DSPs, interconnects and topologies).

  4. Renal anaemia: recent developments and future directions for improved management.

    PubMed

    Mahon, A; Bennett, L

    2007-01-01

    The global burden of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and associated anaemia is substantial. With the increasing numbers of patients that are likely to be affected in the future, approaches are required to improve anaemia management without increasing the workload of renal units. Advocating early treatment may improve patient outcomes and nurses are in an ideal position to identify and manage anaemia at an early stage in patients with CKD. In addition, adopting a multidisciplinary approach, alongside nephrologists, diabetologists, cardiologists, social workers, nutritionists and pharmacists, may allow nurses to detect and treat anaemia earlier in patients with CKD. Maintaining awareness of factors associated with decreased erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESAs) efficacy (e.g. iron deficiency or poor nutritional status) is also important. To reduce the burden on healthcare providers, anaemia management could be simplified by extending the administration interval of ESAs. Recent studies have explored the clinical efficacy of administration of currently available agents at intervals of up to once monthly in highly selected, stable patients. The use of an ESA that can control anaemia while maintaining haemoglobin levels within guideline ranges with extended administration intervals in all patients without the need for additional screening or stepwise dose adjustments with attendant monitoring may help improve patient care while reducing the workload of healthcare providers.

  5. Selective breeding: the future of TB management in African buffalo?

    PubMed

    le Roex, N; Berrington, C M; Hoal, E G; van Helden, P D

    2015-09-01

    The high prevalence of bovine tuberculosis (BTB) in African buffalo (Syncerus caffer) in regions of southern African has a negative economic impact on the trade of animals and animal products, represents an ecological threat to biodiversity, and poses a health risk to local communities through the wildlife-cattle-human interface. Test and cull methods may not be logistically feasible in many free-range wildlife systems, and with the presence of co-existing BTB hosts and the limited effectiveness of the BCG vaccine in buffalo, there is a need for alternative methods of BTB management. Selective breeding for increased resistance to BTB in buffalo may be a viable method of BTB management in the future, particularly if genetic information can be incorporated into these schemes. To explore this possibility, we discuss the different strategies that can be employed in selective breeding programmes, and consider the implementation of genetic improvement schemes. We reflect on the suitability of applying this strategy for enhanced BTB resistance in African buffalo, and address the challenges of this approach that must be taken into account. Conclusions and the implications for management are presented. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Future strategies in the management of coronary artery disease.

    PubMed

    Schwitter, Jürg

    2006-09-01

    New diagnostic techniques have now become available that will enable us to obtain information on coronary artery disease (CAD), which was not previously possible. This is urgently needed, since changes in CAD management are highly desirable considering that up to 60% of patients die due to an insufficient diagnostic strategy (reactive strategy). In this article, the pathophysiology of CAD and the evidence of current concepts on coronary atherosclerosis are critically reviewed. Consequently, a shift from a 'reactive strategy' of CAD management to an active strategy is proposed in order to detect and treat patients before acute myocardial infarcts occur. Reliability, repeatability, cost-effectiveness and comfort are important features of an optimal test for this active strategy. This perspective gives an overview of current and future tests with respect to these features. The novel tomographic techniques are particularly promising with respect to standardization and reproducibility, which will set the basis for the determination of test performance and, consequently, cost-effectiveness. Assessment of cost-effectiveness is increasingly important, since prevalence of CAD is high and will most likely increase, while resources will remain restricted in most countries. Considering these economic restrictions, this article also proposes new mathematical tools using data from prospective trials and large international registries as an objective means to select the best tests for CAD diagnosis and management, and to identify those patient subsets which benefit most from an active strategy.

  7. Planning and managing future space facility projects. [management by objectives and group dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sieber, J. E.; Wilhelm, J. A.; Tanner, T. A.; Helmreich, R. L.; Burgenbauch, S. F.

    1979-01-01

    To learn how ground-based personnel of a space project plan and organize their work and how such planning and organizing relate to work outcomes, longitudinal study of the management and execution of the Space Lab Mission Development Test 3 (SMD 3) was performed at NASA Ames Research Center. A view of the problems likely to arise in organizations and some methods of coping with these problems are presented as well as the conclusions and recommendations that pertain strictly to SMD 3 management. Emphasis is placed on the broader context of future space facility projects and additional problems that may be anticipated. A model of management that may be used to facilitate problem solving and communication - management by objectives (MBO) is presented. Some problems of communication and emotion management that MBO does not address directly are considered. Models for promoting mature, constructive and satisfying emotional relationships among group members are discussed.

  8. Current Control and Future Risk in Asthma Management

    PubMed Central

    Sims, Erika J; Haughney, John; Ryan, Dermot; Thomas, Mike

    2011-01-01

    Despite international and national guidelines, poor asthma control remains an issue. Asthma exacerbations are costly to both the individual, and the healthcare provider. Improvements in our understanding of the therapeutic benefit of asthma therapies suggest that, in general, while long-acting bronchodilator therapy improves asthma symptoms, the anti-inflammatory activity of inhaled corticosteroids reduces acute asthma exacerbations. Studies have explored factors which could be predictive of exacerbations. A history of previous exacerbations, poor asthma control, poor inhaler technique, a history of lower respiratory tract infections, poor adherence to medication, the presence of allergic rhinitis, gastro-oesophageal reflux disease, psychological dysfunction, smoking and obesity have all been implicated as having a predictive role in the future risk of asthma exacerbation. Here we review the current literature and discuss this in the context of primary care management of asthma. PMID:21966601

  9. Chronic Pancreatitis: Landmark Papers, Management Decisions, and Future.

    PubMed

    DiMagno, Eugene P; DiMagno, Matthew J

    2016-01-01

    On May 16, 2015 at the invitation of the American Gastroenterological Association Institute Council E.P.D. presented a state-of-the-art lecture at Digestive Disease Week 2015. The aims were to discuss a selection of landmark papers in chronic pancreatitis (CP) that influence modern management and to conclude by suggesting some future directions. This is based on that presentation. We will specifically review the following: duct anatomy and pancreas divisum, description of chronic relapsing pancreatitis and its differentiation from recurrent acute pancreatitis and established CP (ECP), natural histories and gene discoveries of alcoholic, idiopathic and hereditary pancreatitis, development of pancreatic cancer in CP, exocrine pancreatic insufficiency and calculation of dose and delivery of enzymes, endoscopic ultrasonography, and autoimmune pancreatitis. With some exceptions, we exclude basic science and surgery.

  10. Projected future climate change and Baltic Sea ecosystem management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andersson, Agneta

    2015-04-01

    Climate change is likely to have large effects on the Baltic Sea ecosystem. Simulations indicate 2-4oC warming and 50-80% decreasing ice cover by 2100. Precipitation may increase ~30% in the north, causing increased land runoff of allochthonous organic matter (AOM) and organic pollutants. Salinity will decrease by about 2 units. Coupled physical-biogeochemical models indicate that in the south, bottom-water anoxia may spread, reducing cod recruitment and increasing sediment phosphorus release, promoting cyanobacterial blooms. In the north, heterotrophic bacteria will be favoured by AOM while phytoplankton may become hampered. More trophic levels in the food web will increase energy losses and consequently reduce fish production. Future management of the Baltic Sea must consider effects of climate change on the ecosystem dynamics and functions, as well as effects of anthrophogenic nutrient and pollutant load. Monitoring should have a holistic approach and encompass both autotrophic (phytoplankton) and heterotrophic (e.g. bacterial) processes.

  11. Program planning for future improvement in managing ORNL's radioactive wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-01-01

    This report is intended to serve as a reference document and guide in developing the long-term improvements section of ORNL's radioactive waste management plan. The report reviews ORNL's operations and future program needs in terms of currently applicable DOE regulations and also in terms of regulations and accepted practices of the commerical sector of the nuclear power industry so that the impact of potential future adoption of these regulations and standards on ORNL's operations can be fully evaluated. The principal conclusion reached after reviewing ORNL's waste management operations is that these operations are currently being conducted in a manner that does not endanger the health or safety of workers or the general public and that does not have an adverse effect on the environment. Although nineteen specific problem areas have been identified all of these problems can be attributed to one of the following: a) the legacy of past practices; b) gradual deterioration of systems which have reached (or are near to reaching) the end of their reasonable design lives; and c) potential changes in regulations applicable to ORNL. All of the programs designed to improve or correct these problem areas could be accomplished within a four year period. However, given current limitations on manpower and capital, these programs would more likely be spread out over a five to ten year period of time if they were all to be undertaken. The cost of undertaking all of these projects concurrently is estimated to be between 60 and 100 million dollars. Due to the many unknowns and uncertainties associated with the problem areas, actual total costs for specific projects could vary from those presented in this report by as much as 300 percent. (DMC)

  12. The future management of nephrology: budget elements and organization planning.

    PubMed

    Quintaliani, Giuseppe; Panella, Vincenzo; Antonini, Giacomo

    2003-01-01

    Like many specialized branches of medicine, the future of nephrology will be entrusted to organizational models that are able to withstand the impact of both the new and increasing demand for assistance and the rationalization of resources. Therefore, it is necessary to clearly understand that the model must integrate and unify many aspects that regulate the activities in the health care service. Budget means "who does what and with material and what human resources" with respect to the constraints imposed by the decisions of the controlling entities, and it is mainly a system of planning and control. Management control utilizes a combined and coordinated synthesis of various company techniques including an auditing system, analytical accounting (or per cents of cost), a reporting system able to change the data gathered into measures of syntheses that can be used to carry out sound evaluations. The health system needs a type of organization--typical of professional organizations--that is an absolute prerogative of the technical/professional component which is the only one able to discern, understand and propose new diagnostic and therapeutic trends and approaches. At the end an evaluation of quality system is depicted. ISO 9004 norms, for example, provide principles on which an organization must be based, in order to reach high levels of quality and that must be used by the top management to lead the organization towards improved performance.

  13. Evaluating stakeholder participation in water management: intermediary outcomes as potential indicators for future resource management outcomes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carr, Gemma; Bloeschl, Guenter; Loucks, Daniel Pete

    2013-04-01

    . Furthermore, failure to achieve intermediary outcomes correlates to failure to achieve resource management outcomes. Evaluating intermediary outcomes leads to both a broader assessment of a programme's achievements at the time of evaluation, and can indicate whether a programme will go on to achieve resource management objectives in the future.

  14. The relationship between emotions and food consumption (macronutrient) in a foodservice college setting - a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Hartwell, Heather J; Edwards, John S A; Brown, Lorraine

    2013-05-01

    Many aspects of eating out have been studied, yet emotions remain an under-researched area, despite having been shown to play a significant role in food consumption. The aim of this research is to critically evaluate the relationship between emotions and food consumption (macronutrient) in a realistic eating environment, a college cafeteria. Subjects (n = 408), diners using a cafeteria, completed an emotions questionnaire before and after freely choosing, paying for and consuming a hot main meal. The results demonstrated a greater feeling of contentment with a high fat, high energy meal, whereas with a low carbohydrate meal, participants felt unfulfilled. In addition, a high protein meal also leads to a feeling of contentment. These results are rather counter-intuitive to public health nutrition policy but indicate the importance of inclusion of a protein or high carbohydrate item in any dish design in a foodservice setting.

  15. The future of male infertility management and assisted reproduction technology.

    PubMed

    Mortimer, D

    2000-12-01

    Intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) is undoubtedly a powerful, and sometimes the only effective, form of infertility treatment. Nonetheless, it is a non-specific treatment that, combined with increasingly heroic techniques to recover male germinal cells, has led to perceptions of men as just providers of gametes in the infertility equation. In response to this nihilist attitude, where women are investigated extensively and scant attention is paid to men, there is a re-emerging awareness of andrology--particularly in countries with limited healthcare resources. Structured management strategies, using diagnostic information to recognize causative factors amenable to simpler, even systemic, therapies with reasonable chances of pregnancy rather than resorting prematurely to assisted reproduction technology, represent rational, cost-effective approaches to infertility management. Furthermore, genetic testing (particularly cystic fibrosis gene defects and Y-chromosome microdeletions) is essential for couples to make fully informed decisions on their options. Recognition that free radical-induced damage to the sperm genome (e.g. from smoking or in-vitro sperm manipulation) underlies deleterious paternal effects on preimplantation development promotes further synergy between andrology and embryology. Although societies strike different balances between considerations of affordability and cost-effectiveness of assisted reproduction technology, ICSI represents a last resort, to be used when less-invasive, lower-cost treatments have been deemed inappropriate or have failed. Consequently, rather than assisted reproduction technology eliminating the need for andrology, the future will see increasingly tighter integration of multidisciplinary infertility care, embracing careful diagnosis and patient education before obtaining truly informed consent and embarking upon cost-effective treatment.

  16. Where does foodborne illness happen-in the home, at foodservice, or elsewhere-and does it matter?

    PubMed

    Jacob, C J; Powell, D A

    2009-11-01

    Foodservice professionals, politicians, and the media are often cited making claims as to which locations most often expose consumers to foodborne pathogens. Many times, it is implied that most foodborne illnesses originate from food consumed where dishes are prepared to order, such as restaurants or in private homes. The manner in which the question is posed and answered frequently reveals a speculative bias that either favors homemade or foodservice meals as the most common source of foodborne pathogens. Many answers have little or no scientific grounding, while others use data compiled by passive surveillance systems. Current surveillance systems focus on the place where food is consumed rather than the point where food is contaminated. Rather than focusing on the location of consumption-and blaming consumers and others-analysis of the steps leading to foodborne illness should center on the causes of contamination in a complex farm-to-fork food safety system.

  17. Current management of diabetes mellitus and future directions in care.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Sudesna; Davies, Melanie J

    2015-11-01

    The last 90 years have seen considerable advances in the management of type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Prof MacLean of Guy's Hospital wrote in the Postgraduate Medical Journal in 1926 about the numerous challenges that faced patients and their healthcare professionals in delivering safe and effective diabetes care at that time. The discovery of insulin in 1922 heralded a new age in enabling long-term glycaemic control, which reduced morbidity and mortality. Thirty years later, the first oral agents for diabetes, the biguanides and sulfonylureas, appeared and freed type 2 patients from having to inject insulin following diagnosis. Improvements in insulin formulations over the decades, including rapid-acting and long-acting insulin analogues that more closely mimic physiological insulin secretion, have increased the flexibility and efficacy of type 1 diabetes management. The last two decades have seen major advances in technology, which has manifested in more accurate glucose monitoring systems and insulin delivery devices ('insulin pump'). Increased understanding of the pathophysiological deficits underlying type 2 diabetes has led to the development of targeted therapeutic approaches such as on the small intestine (glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor analogues and dipeptidyl-peptidase IV inhibitors) and kidneys (sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitors). A patient-centred approach delivered by a multidisciplinary team is now advocated. Glycaemic targets are set according to individual circumstances, taking into account factors such as weight, hypoglycaemia risk and patient preference. Stepwise treatment guidelines devised by international diabetes organisations standardise and rationalise management. Structured education programmes and psychological support are now well-established as essential for improving patient motivation and self-empowerment. Large multicentre randomised trials have confirmed the effectiveness of intensive glycaemic control on microvascular

  18. Diabetes management by probiotics: Current knowledge and future perspectives.

    PubMed

    Rad, Aziz Homayouni; Sahhaf, Farnaz; Hassanalilou, Tohid; Ejtahed, Hanieh-Sadat; Motayagheni, Negar; Soroush, Ahmad-Reza; Javadi, Mina; Mortazavian, Amir Mohammad; Khalili, Leila

    2016-10-14

    Diabetes mellitus, a condition of multifactorial origin, is related to the intestinal microbiota by numerous molecular mechanisms. Controlling the vast increase in the prevalence of diabetes needs a natural and safe solution. Probiotics, known as live microorganisms that exert health benefits to the host, have anti-diabetic property. This review will highlight the current evidences in probiotic effectiveness and future prospects for exploring probiotic therapy in the prevention and control of diabetes. We interrogated Pub Med and Science Direct by using "Probiotics" and "Diabetes" for searching the studies aiming the application of probiotics and the beneficial effects of probiotics in diabetes prevention and control. It has been shown that probiotics can increase insulin sensitivity and reduce autoimmune responses by modulating intestinal microbiota and decreasing the inflammatory reactions and oxidative stress. Recent evidences show that probiotics influences the host through modulating intestinal permeability and mucosal immune response, manipulating eating behaviors by appetite-regulating hormones and controlling gut endocannabinoid (eCB) system that is believed to be associated with inflammation and diabetes. Moreover, modulating the intestinal microbiota by probiotics controls host metabolism by affecting energy extraction from food and by biochemically converting molecules derived from the host or from gut microbes themselves. Experimental and clinical evidences support the hypothesis that the modulation of the gut microbiota by probiotics could be effective in prevention and management of diabetes.

  19. Water management in Egypt for facing the future challenges

    PubMed Central

    Omar, Mohie El Din M.; Moussa, Ahmed M.A.

    2016-01-01

    The current water shortage in Egypt is 13.5 Billion cubic meter per year (BCM/yr) and is expected to continuously increase. Currently, this water shortage is compensated by drainage reuse which consequently deteriorates the water quality. Therefore, this research was commenced with the objective of assessing different scenarios for 2025 using the Water Evaluation and Planning (WEAP) model and by implementing different water sufficiency measures. Field data were assembled and analyzed, and different planning alternatives were proposed and tested in order to design three future scenarios. The findings indicated that water shortage in 2025 would be 26 BCM/yr in case of continuation of current policies. Planning alternatives were proposed to the irrigation canals, land irrigation timing, aquatic weeds in waterways and sugarcane areas in old agricultural lands. Other measures were suggested to pumping rates of deep groundwater, sprinkler and drip irrigation systems in new agricultural lands. Further measures were also suggested to automatic daily surveying for distribution leak and managing the pressure effectively in the domestic and industrial water distribution systems. Finally, extra measures for water supply were proposed including raising the permitted withdrawal limit from deep groundwater and the Nubian aquifer and developing the desalination resource. The proposed planning alternatives would completely eliminate the water shortage in 2025. PMID:27222745

  20. The Epidemiology, Genetics and Future Management of Syndactyly

    PubMed Central

    Jordan, D; Hindocha, S; Dhital, M; Saleh, M; Khan, W

    2012-01-01

    Syndactyly is a condition well documented in current literature due to it being the most common congenital hand defect, with a large aesthetic and functional significance. There are currently nine types of phenotypically diverse non-syndromic syndactyly, an increase since the original classification by Temtamy and McKusick(1978). Non-syndromic syndactyly is inherited as an autosomal dominant trait, although the more severe presenting types and sub types appear to have autosomal recessive and in some cases X-linked hereditary. Gene research has found that these phenotypes appear to not only be one gene specific, although having individual localised loci, but dependant on a wide range of genes and subsequent signalling pathways involved in limb formation. The principal genes so far defined to be involved in congenital syndactyly concern mainly the Zone of Polarizing Activity and Shh pathway. Research into the individual phenotypes appears to complicate classification as new genes are found both linked, and not linked, to each malformation. Consequently anatomical, phenotypical and genotypical classifications can be used, but are variable in significance, depending on the audience. Currently, management is surgical, with a technique unchanged for several decades, although future development will hopefully bring alternatives in both earlier diagnosis and gene manipulation for therapy. PMID:22448207

  1. Projected future climate change and Baltic Sea ecosystem management.

    PubMed

    Andersson, Agneta; Meier, H E Markus; Ripszam, Matyas; Rowe, Owen; Wikner, Johan; Haglund, Peter; Eilola, Kari; Legrand, Catherine; Figueroa, Daniela; Paczkowska, Joanna; Lindehoff, Elin; Tysklind, Mats; Elmgren, Ragnar

    2015-06-01

    Climate change is likely to have large effects on the Baltic Sea ecosystem. Simulations indicate 2-4 °C warming and 50-80 % decrease in ice cover by 2100. Precipitation may increase ~30 % in the north, causing increased land runoff of allochthonous organic matter (AOM) and organic pollutants and decreased salinity. Coupled physical-biogeochemical models indicate that, in the south, bottom-water anoxia may spread, reducing cod recruitment and increasing sediment phosphorus release, thus promoting cyanobacterial blooms. In the north, heterotrophic bacteria will be favored by AOM, while phytoplankton production may be reduced. Extra trophic levels in the food web may increase energy losses and consequently reduce fish production. Future management of the Baltic Sea must consider the effects of climate change on the ecosystem dynamics and functions, as well as the effects of anthropogenic nutrient and pollutant load. Monitoring should have a holistic approach, encompassing both autotrophic (phytoplankton) and heterotrophic (e.g., bacterial) processes.

  2. Oral Cavity Carcinoma: Current Management, Controversies, and Future Directions

    PubMed Central

    Chinn, Steven B.; Myers, Jeffrey N.

    2015-01-01

    Oral cavity carcinoma (OCC) remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with head and neck cancer. Although the incidence has decreased over the last decade, outcomes remain stagnant with only a 5% improvement in overall survival in the last 20 years. Although surgical resection remains the primary treatment modality, several areas of controversy exist with regard to work-up, management of the primary and neck tumors, and adjuvant therapy. As surgical techniques evolve, so has the delivery of radiotherapy and systemic treatment, which have helped to improve the outcomes for patients with advanced disease. Recently, the addition of cetuximab has shown promise as a way to improve outcomes while minimizing toxicity, and this remains an active area of study in the adjuvant setting. Advances in microvascular free-flap reconstruction have extended the limits of resection and enabled enhanced restoration of function and cosmesis. While these advances have led to limited survival benefit, evaluation of alternative modalities has gained interest on the basis of success in other head and neck subsites. Organ preservation with definitive chemoradiotherapy, though proven in the larynx and pharynx, remains controversial in OCC. Likewise, although the association of human papillomavirus is well established in oropharyngeal carcinoma, it has not been proven in the pathogenesis or survival of OCC. Future study of the molecular biology and pathogenesis of OCC should offer additional insight into screening, treatment selection, and novel therapeutic approaches. PMID:26351335

  3. Management of diabetic nephropathy: Recent progress and future perspective.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Jamal

    2015-01-01

    Diabetic nephropathy (DN), a leading cause of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) affecting ∼20-30% diabetics, is associated with increased cardiovascular mortality. The progression of kidney disease in patients with diabetes can take many years. It occurs as a result of interaction between both genetic and environmental factors in individuals with both type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Hyperglycaemia, hypertension, and genetic pre-disposition are the main risk factors besides elevated serum lipids, smoking habits, and the amount of dietary proteins. Interventions such as glycaemic control, blood pressure control and inhibition of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system have been shown to slow this progression. Despite the implementation of these strategies, the number of patients with diabetes that ultimately develop end-stage renal disease remains high. The treatment of DN, therefore, has posed a formidable challenge besides optimization of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system blockade in patients with DN; additional investigation has focused on the potential of novel therapies that target various pathways upregulated by hyperglycaemia or other targets believed to promote the progression of DN such as oxidative stress, inflammation, endothelin system and vitamin D receptors. This review article addresses the pathogenesis and some of the well established principles regarding the progression and accepted management of DN, and also includes the perspectives of novel anti-DN agents and the future directions for the prevention of DN. Copyright © 2015 Diabetes India. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Water management in Egypt for facing the future challenges.

    PubMed

    Omar, Mohie El Din M; Moussa, Ahmed M A

    2016-05-01

    The current water shortage in Egypt is 13.5 Billion cubic meter per year (BCM/yr) and is expected to continuously increase. Currently, this water shortage is compensated by drainage reuse which consequently deteriorates the water quality. Therefore, this research was commenced with the objective of assessing different scenarios for 2025 using the Water Evaluation and Planning (WEAP) model and by implementing different water sufficiency measures. Field data were assembled and analyzed, and different planning alternatives were proposed and tested in order to design three future scenarios. The findings indicated that water shortage in 2025 would be 26 BCM/yr in case of continuation of current policies. Planning alternatives were proposed to the irrigation canals, land irrigation timing, aquatic weeds in waterways and sugarcane areas in old agricultural lands. Other measures were suggested to pumping rates of deep groundwater, sprinkler and drip irrigation systems in new agricultural lands. Further measures were also suggested to automatic daily surveying for distribution leak and managing the pressure effectively in the domestic and industrial water distribution systems. Finally, extra measures for water supply were proposed including raising the permitted withdrawal limit from deep groundwater and the Nubian aquifer and developing the desalination resource. The proposed planning alternatives would completely eliminate the water shortage in 2025.

  5. Time and Temperature Conditions during Product Flow and Sensory Quality of Potato Salad Prepared in a Conventional Foodservice System.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-01-01

    studied the variability in temperature of scrambled eggs prepared in a cook-chill hospital foodservice system where the scrambled eggs were cooked...avail- able for comparison. In Commissary and Ready-Prepared Systems Cremer and Chipley (1980b) reported on the sensory evaluation of scrambled eggs ... scrambled eggs and beef patties reheated in microwave and convec- tion ovens. The data showed that eggs reheated in a microwave oven were scored

  6. Current Management of Alcoholic Hepatitis and Future Therapies

    PubMed Central

    Saberi, Behnam; Dadabhai, Alia S.; Jang, Yoon-Young; Gurakar, Ahmet; Mezey, Esteban

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Alcohol is one of the most common etiologies of liver disease, and alcoholic liver disease overall is the second most common indication for liver transplantation in the United States. It encompasses a spectrum of disease, including fatty liver disease, alcoholic hepatitis (AH), and alcoholic cirrhosis. AH can range from mild to severe disease, with severe disease being defined as: Discriminant Function (DF) ≥ 32, or Model for End-stage Liver Disease (MELD) ≥ 21, or presence of hepatic encephalopathy. Management of the mild disease consists mainly of abstinence and supportive care. Severe AH is associated with significant mortality. Currently, there is no ideal medical treatment for this condition. Besides alcohol cessation, corticosteroids have been used with conflicting results and are associated with an inherent risk of infection. Overall steroids have shown short term benefit when compared to placebo, but they have no obvious long term benefits. Pentoxifylline does not improve survival in patients with severe AH and is no longer recommended based on the results of the STOPAH (Steroid Or Pentoxifylline for Alcoholic Hepatitis) trial. Anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF) agents are associated with increased risk of life threatening infections and death. Currently, early stage trials are underway, mainly targeting novel pathways based on disease pathogenesis, including modulation of innate immune system, inhibition of gut-liver axis and cell death pathways, and activation of transcription factor farnesyl X receptor (FXR). Future treatment may lie in human induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) technology, which is currently under investigation for the study of pathogenesis, drug discovery, and stem cell transplantation. Liver transplantation has been reported with good results in highly selected patients but is controversial due to limited organ supply. PMID:27350941

  7. Preparing Future Leaders: Project Management Strategies for Service Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munger, Roger; Gutowski, Amanda

    2008-01-01

    This article makes a case for teaching project management strategies in service-learning courses. The authors describe three specific documents students can create to help them manage a service-learning project and then present strategies that can help students manage their project teams. Such skills, the authors argue, provide the tools students…

  8. Preparing Future Leaders: Project Management Strategies for Service Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munger, Roger; Gutowski, Amanda

    2008-01-01

    This article makes a case for teaching project management strategies in service-learning courses. The authors describe three specific documents students can create to help them manage a service-learning project and then present strategies that can help students manage their project teams. Such skills, the authors argue, provide the tools students…

  9. The Future of Management as Design: A Thought Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bouchard, Veronique; del Forno, Leon

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Management practices and education are presently in a stage of reappraisal and a growing number of scholars and experts are suggesting that managers should be taught and adopt the approach and methodologies of designers. The purpose of this paper is to imagine the impact of this move and to try and foresee whether "management as design"…

  10. Wildland fire management futures: insights from a foresight panel

    Treesearch

    Robert L. Olson; David N. Bengston; Leif A. DeVaney; Trevor A.C. Thompson

    2015-01-01

    Wildland fire management faces unprecedented challenges in the 21st century: the increasingly apparent effects of climate change, more people and structures in the wildland-urban interface, growing costs associated with wildfire management, and the rise of high-impact fires, to name a few. Given these significant and growing challenges, conventional fire management...

  11. Case Management in Community Corrections: Current Status and Future Directions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Day, Andrew; Hardcastle, Lesley; Birgden, Astrid

    2012-01-01

    Case management is commonly regarded as the foundation of effective service provision across a wide range of human service settings. This article considers the case management that is offered to clients of community corrections, identifying the distinctive features of case management in this particular setting, and reviewing the empirical evidence…

  12. The Future of Management as Design: A Thought Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bouchard, Veronique; del Forno, Leon

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Management practices and education are presently in a stage of reappraisal and a growing number of scholars and experts are suggesting that managers should be taught and adopt the approach and methodologies of designers. The purpose of this paper is to imagine the impact of this move and to try and foresee whether "management as design"…

  13. Case Management in Community Corrections: Current Status and Future Directions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Day, Andrew; Hardcastle, Lesley; Birgden, Astrid

    2012-01-01

    Case management is commonly regarded as the foundation of effective service provision across a wide range of human service settings. This article considers the case management that is offered to clients of community corrections, identifying the distinctive features of case management in this particular setting, and reviewing the empirical evidence…

  14. The ATLAS Distributed Data Management project: Past and Future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garonne, Vincent; Stewart, Graeme A.; Lassnig, Mario; Molfetas, Angelos; Barisits, Martin; Beermann, Thomas; Nairz, Armin; Goossens, Luc; Barreiro Megino, Fernando; Serfon, Cedric; Oleynik, Danila; Petrosyan, Artem

    2012-12-01

    ATLAS has recorded more than 8 petabyte(PB) of RAW data since the LHC started running at the end of 2009. Many more derived data products and complimentary simulation data have also been produced by the collaboration and, in total, 90PB are currently stored in the Worldwide LHC Computing Grid by ATLAS. All these data are managed by the ATLAS Distributed Data Management system, called Don Quijote 2 (DQ2). DQ2 has evolved rapidly to help ATLAS Computing operations manage these large quantities of data across the many grid sites at which ATLAS runs, and to help ATLAS physicists get access to these data. In this paper, we describe new and improved DQ2 services, and the experience of data management operation in ATLAS computing, showing how these services enable the management of PB scale computing operations. We also present the concepts of the new version of the ATLAS Distributed Data Management (DDM) system, Rucio.

  15. Improving financial and patient outcomes: the future of demand management.

    PubMed

    Marosits, M J

    1997-08-01

    Demand management has evolved from early managed care models that sought to curtail rising costs through demand-side utilization controls. The first generation of demand management relied heavily on financial incentives for consumers and physicians to demand fewer and less costly resources. The second generation of demand management complemented financial incentives with clinically focused strategies. Often, these strategies were implemented directly by the payer on through a primary care physician gatekeeper. The current and coming generation of demand management activities emphasizes informed consumer choice and active participation in preventative health care, resource utilization decisions, and customization of healthcare services. This personal health management aligns financial incentives, clinical care protocols, and consumer decision-support systems to balance outcomes and resource consumption.

  16. Watershed management perspectives in the Southwest: Past, present, and future

    Treesearch

    Peter F. Ffolliott; Malchus B. Baker; Vicente L. Lopes

    2000-01-01

    Watershed management perspectives in the Southwest have been, are, and will be reflected by the nature of watershed management practices. Past perspectives evolved from considerations of increasing water yields and water quality concerns. Present perspectives are centered on minimizing adverse impacts to soil and water resources, sustaining high-quality water flows,...

  17. Park Managers Attitudes toward Climbing: Implications for Future Regulation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huffman, Michael G.; Harwell, Rick

    This study examined park managers' attitudes toward adventure climbing and climbing regulations, especially concerning the management of: (1) conflicts (among visitors competing for use of the same resource); (2) impact on the environment; and (3) risk (i.e. implications for rescue and legal liability problems). Questionnaires were sent randomly…

  18. Meeting future information needs for Great Lakes fisheries management

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Christie, W.J.; Collins, John J.; Eck, Gary W.; Goddard, Chris I.; Hoenig, John M.; Holey, Mark; Jacobson, Lawrence D.; MacCallum, Wayne; Nepszy, Stephen J.; O'Gorman, Robert; Selgeby, James

    1987-01-01

    Description of information needs for management of Great Lakes fisheries is complicated by recent changes in biology and management of the Great Lakes, development of new analytical methodologies, and a transition in management from a traditional unispecies approach to a multispecies/community approach. A number of general problems with the collection and management of data and information for fisheries management need to be addressed (i.e. spatial resolution, reliability, computerization and accessibility of data, design of sampling programs, standardization and coordination among agencies, and the need for periodic review of procedures). Problems with existing data collection programs include size selectivity and temporal trends in the efficiency of fishing gear, inadequate creel survey programs, bias in age estimation, lack of detailed sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) wounding data, and data requirements for analytical techniques that are underutilized by managers of Great Lakes fisheries. The transition to multispecies and community approaches to fisheries management will require policy decisions by the management agencies, adequate funding, and a commitment to develop programs for collection of appropriate data on a long-term basis.

  19. A computer-based decision support system aids distribution in planning and control of foodservices.

    PubMed

    Hicks, Z R; Matthews, M E; Norback, J P

    1986-09-01

    Three scenarios, developed from typical situations in the foodservice, were stimulated on the Sperry 1100/80 computer to illustrate how the decision support system assisted dietitians. The scenarios included an analysis of price changes and discounts from a potential vendor; menu planning and pricing for a holiday dinner for 800 to 900 employees; and a comparison of costs between 1 day of meals for a patient on a general and a diabetic diet. In the analysis of price discounts, 1.5 hours were required for finding an acceptable solution using the decision support system. Prices were changed on 349 ingredients; then matrix multiplication within the decision support system resulted in recosting all menu items with those ingredients and provided new prices for cost per meals. Eight new ingredients, 13 menu items, and 2 menu plans for two different holiday meals were entered into the computer; precise amounts and prices for menu items and meals were obtained in 1 hour. Twelve hours was the minimum time estimated for finding a solution by hand calculations. Time to calculate costs of 27 different menu items for one patient day was estimated to be 9 hours manually. With the decision support system, cost comparisons were available in 1 hour. Both the usefulness and the potential of the decision support system were demonstrated.

  20. A comparison of food policy and practice reporting between credentialed and noncredentialed Ohio school foodservice directors.

    PubMed

    Mincher, Jeanine L; Symons, Cynthia W; Thompson, Amy

    2012-12-01

    With rising childhood obesity rates and the increasing complexity of the school food environment, practitioners working in school nutrition need adequate preparation for their responsibilities. School foodservice directors (SFSDs) vary widely in their academic preparation, and there are no established standards for individuals in this occupation. Credentialing provides a way in which baseline knowledge of SFSDs can be established; however, little is known about the influence of such credentials on food-related policies and practices in public schools. Our cross-sectional study compared the reported food policies and practices between credentialed and noncredentialed SFSDs within all districts (N=364) of the Ohio public school system during the 2009-2010 school year. Using a Likert-type format, policy and practice scores were measured by asking participants to respond to statements adapted from the School Health Index assessment tool. Differences in the policy and practice scores reported by SFSDs holding a food-related credential and those not holding a credential were determined by t test. Results indicated that respondents with a food-related credential were more likely to report both comprehensive food-related policies (14.51 vs 13.39; range=0 to 21) and practices (33.86 vs 32.50; range=0 to 39). These findings support the value of credentialing SFSDs. However, further research is required to establish which credential provides the optimal match in the provision of high quality nutrition care to schoolchildren.

  1. Product line management: its meaning and future promise.

    PubMed

    Salter, V

    1986-05-01

    The concept of product line management has recently drawn much attention in the health care field. The impetus has come from both marketing and accounting professionals as they have sought to find solutions to identified problems. Examined here are the roots of product line management, the reasons for the growth in the application of the concept in health care, and whether it promises to solve the problems faced by health care organizations in the current highly competitive environment.

  2. Training future surgeons for management roles: the resident-surgeon-manager conference.

    PubMed

    Hanna, Waël C; Mulder, David S; Fried, Gerald M; Elhilali, Mostafa; Khwaja, Kosar A

    2012-10-01

    programs have the responsibility of preparing their residents for leadership and managerial roles in their future careers. An annual seminar serves as a starting point that could be built on for incorporating formal management training in surgical residency curricula.

  3. Managing immune diseases in the smartphone era: how have apps impacted disease management and their future?

    PubMed

    Gallagher, Joe; O'Donoghue, John; Car, Josip

    2015-04-01

    Immunology, similar to other areas of clinical science, is a data-rich discipline that involves a great deal of interaction between healthcare professionals and their patients. The focus of this editorial is to review the challenges and opportunities for mobile healthcare applications within immunology. It is clear that further research is required to fully maximize the potential of mobile apps (e.g., regulations and guidelines, electronic health). However, it is equally clear that mobile healthcare applications have had a positive impact on patient outcomes (better response rates, more efficient usage of time and more accurate diagnosis). Overall, healthcare applications have a fundamental role to play in the future management of diseases as they will help to ensure that we deliver more effective patient care.

  4. Effects of modified foodservice practices in military dining facilities on ad libitum nutritional intake of US army soldiers.

    PubMed

    Crombie, Aaron P; Funderburk, LesLee K; Smith, Tracey J; McGraw, Susan M; Walker, Leila A; Champagne, Catherine M; Allen, H Raymond; Margolis, Lee M; McClung, Holly L; Young, Andrew J

    2013-07-01

    Modifying foodservice practices in military dining facilities could influence ad libitum nutritional intake patterns of soldiers. We aimed to determine how changes in foodservice operations consistent with 2005 Dietary Guidelines for Americans affected soldiers' ad libitum nutritional intake in military dining facilities (DFACs). Ten DFACs participated, and the intervention was implemented in five DFACs in an independently sampled, partial crossover design. Nutrient intake of diners was assessed during a test meal using digital photography, and customer satisfaction with foodservice was assessed via surveys at baseline (n=602), and again at 6 months (n=519) and 12 months (n=458) after the intervention was implemented. Volunteers were US Army active duty soldiers recruited from among diners at 10 DFACs on Fort Bragg, NC. Primary outcomes were intakes of energy and total fat, and percent energy from fat and saturated fat. Differences between diners' intakes in control and intervention DFACs were assessed using independent samples t tests. At 6 months after implementing the intervention, diners at intervention DFACs had significantly lower lunchtime intakes of energy (945±338 kcal vs 1,061±380 kcal), total fat (38±19 g vs 47±25 g), percent energy from fat (35%±10% vs 39%±11%) and saturated fat (4.7%±1.7% vs 5.6%±2.3%), discretionary fat (30±18 g vs 39±24 g), and refined grains (2.3±1.7 oz equivalents vs 2.8±2.4 oz equivalents) compared with diners at control DFACs. Further, diners at intervention DFACs rated customer satisfaction higher than diners at control DFACs. These findings suggest that modest changes in military DFAC serving practices to promote healthy eating and food selection can facilitate positive changes in soldiers' nutritional intake. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. Pediatric airway management: current practices and future directions.

    PubMed

    Sunder, Rani A; Haile, Dawit T; Farrell, Patrick T; Sharma, Anshuman

    2012-10-01

    Management of a pediatric airway can be a challenge, especially for the non-pediatric anesthesiologists. Structured algorithms for an unexpected difficult pediatric airway have been missing so far. A recent step wise algorithm, based on the Difficult Airway society (DAS) adult protocol, is a step in the right direction. There have been some exciting advances in development of pediatric extra-glottic devices for maintaining ventilation, and introduction of pediatric versions of new 'non line of sight' laryngoscopes and optical stylets. The exact role of these devices in routine and emergent situations is still evolving. Recent advances in simulation technology has become a valuable tool in imparting psychomotor and procedural skills to trainees and allied healthcare workers. Moving toward the goal of eliminating serious adverse events during the management of routine and difficult pediatric airway, authors propose that institutions develop a dedicated Difficult Airway Service comprising of a team of experts in advanced airway management. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  6. Back to the future. [Forestry management in Nepal

    SciTech Connect

    Pardo, R. )

    1993-06-01

    If the forests in the Himalayan mountain kingdom of Nepal were evenly distributed and accessible, they could likely meet the country's needs for forest products including the significant use of wood fuels. However, accelerated forest degradation and deforestation is occurring in Nepal. This article reviews how the 1992 Nepal Forestry Act substantially reallocates the responsibility for management of Nepal's forests between the central government and the local communities, dividing the forests into five different types: community, leasehold, government-managed, protected, and religious. Some of the problems created by the law's community forestry provisions are described. Since no guidelines for management are in the legislation nor are there objectives and standards for administration, changes in these areas could improve implementation and achieve sustainable forest development. 6 refs., 1 fig.

  7. An evolution in blood management: past, present, and future.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Ajay; Figueroa, Priscilla I; Gowans, Kate L; Parker, Brian M; Proctor, Andrew W; Benitez-Santana, San Miguel; Koch, Colleen

    2011-01-01

    Blood management is a concept that adopts a principle of improving patient outcome by integrating all available techniques to ensure safety, availability, and appropriate allocation of blood products. This constitutes a model of multidisciplinary care where the changes in culture are system directed on the basis of evidence-based medicine. There are about 14% US hospitals where any kind of blood management program exists, although the idea remains the same but the programs vary in their execution, implementation, and ultimately providing the value to patients. In this article, we have described our experience of creating a patient-centric, cost-effective, evidence-based, and multipronged program creation with scalable results. The use of data, education, process improvement, engagement, and accountability of caregivers have resulted in sustained results and helped in creating a comprehensive blood management program.

  8. Education and training of future wetland scientists and managers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilcox, D.A.

    2008-01-01

    Wetland science emerged as a distinct discipline in the 1980s. In response, courses addressing various aspects of wetland science and management were developed by universities, government agencies, and private firms. Professional certification of wetland scientists began in the mid-1990s to provide confirmation of the quality of education and experience of persons involved in regulatory, management, restoration/construction, and research involving wetland resources. The education requirements for certification and the need for persons with specific wetland training to fill an increasing number of wetland-related positions identified a critical need to develop curriculum guidelines for an undergraduate wetland science and management major for potential accreditation by the Society of Wetland Scientists. That proposed major contains options directed toward either wetland science or management. Both options include required basic courses to meet the general education requirements of many universities, required upper-level specialized courses that address critical aspects of physical and biological sciences applicable to wetlands, and a minimum of four additional upper-level specialized courses that can be used to tailor a degree to students' interests. The program would be administered by an independent review board that would develop guidelines and evaluate university applications for accreditation. Students that complete the required coursework will fulfill the education requirements for professional wetland scientist certification and possess qualifications that make them attractive candidates for graduate school or entry-level positions in wetland science or management. Universities that offer this degree program could gain an advantage in recruiting highly qualified students with an interest in natural resources. Alternative means of educating established wetland scientists are likewise important, especially to provide specialized knowledge and experience or

  9. Banking for the future: Prospects for integrated cyclical water management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ross, Andrew

    2014-11-01

    Integrated management of surface water and groundwater can provide efficient and flexible use of water by making the best use of the properties of different types of water resources. Integrated cyclical water management can help adaptation to climate variation and uncertainty by varying the proportion of surface water and groundwater allocations over time in response to changing water availability. Water use entitlements and rules specify conditions for the use, storage and exchange of surface water and groundwater. These entitlements and rules provide certainty for water users, investors and managers. Entitlements and rules also need to be flexible to enable users and managers to respond to changing water availability and knowledge. Arrangements to provide certainty and flexibility can conflict. For example guarantees of specific long-term allocations of water, or shares of allocations can conflict with arrangements to bank water underground during wet periods and then to use an increased amount of groundwater in dry periods. Systems of water entitlements and rules need to achieve a balance between certainty and flexibility. This article explores the effect of water entitlements and rules, and arrangements to provide certainty and flexibility for the integration of surface water and groundwater management over time. The analysis draws on case studies from the Namoi River basin in New South Wales and the South Platte River basin in Colorado. Integrated cyclical water management requires a comprehensive, flexible and balanced system of water entitlements and rules that allow extended water carryover, water banking, aquifer storage and recovery over the wet and dry climate cycle. Opportunities for extended carryover and aquifer storage and recovery over the wet and dry climate cycle merit further consideration in New South Wales, Colorado and other jurisdictions.

  10. Cook/chill foodservice systems. Predicting cooling time of a ground beef entrée chilled in bulk.

    PubMed

    Rollin, J L; Matthews, M E; Lung, D B

    1979-10-01

    Mathematical formulas which incorporate thermal properties of the food, geometry of the food mass, and process conditions during cooling were used to predict the time required for a cooked ground beef product chilled in bulk to cool to 45 degrees F. (7 degrees C.). Formulas predicted cooling time within 36 min. (11 per cent) of the actual cooling time. For widespread application, additional information on thermal properties of entrée products of the type served in foodservice operations needs to be obtained.

  11. Future Urbanization and the Management of Urban Heat Risk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marcotullio, P. J.

    2015-12-01

    We present urbanization scenarios that identify a range of urban population estimates to 2100 on a global spatial grid. We associate these data with model outputs that estimate future temperature using IPCC RCP8.5 scenarios for 2030, 2050, 2070 and 2080 using minimum, maximum and mean urban population per grid cell exposure to average summer temperatures of > 35° C to identify national, regional and global totals. After an examination of urban extreme heat morbidity and mortality trends we review the range of policies (across sectors such as energy, buildings, health and hospitals, water supply, transportation, etc.,) with particular emphasis on knowledge from different sources, technologies and experiences - including indigenous knowledge systems, currently deployed in cities around the world that respond to this threat. Finally, we identify potential synergies, trade-offs and maladaptations in urban adaptation responses to extreme heat given estimated future population exposure.

  12. WATERSHED MANAGEMENT ON THE PAJARITO PLATEAU: PAST, PRESENT, AND FUTURE

    SciTech Connect

    K. MULLEN; K. BITNER

    2001-01-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) developed a draft watershed-management plan that pertains to the 43-mi{sup 2} area within the LANL boundaries. The watershed-management plan was started in 1996 with a number of overall goals: (1) to be a good steward of the natural resources entrusted to the laboratory, (2) to provide long-term evaluation regarding success of the Environmental Restoration Project in acceptably cleaning up sites, (3) compliance with the storm water National Pollution Discharge Elimination System program, and (4) upgrading the LANL environmental surveillance program that has been ongoing since the 1940s. LANL has an extensive network consisting of 53 surface-water-monitoring stations located in every major canyon, upstream and downstream of LANL, and at most confluences. Monitoring of the network has been ongoing for about 20 years. The stations are equipped with ultrasonic transducers that trip automated samplers to collect water samples from every flow event. These data have been reported every year in the report series Environmental Surveillance at Los Alamos, but have not been used to analyze watershed health. The focus of the LANL watershed-management plan is to use water quality data to monitor watershed health and to implement management actions when LANL activities, past or present, adversely impact the health of the watershed.

  13. The Future of Management Education in Australia: Challenges and Innovations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Richard; Agarwal, Renu; Green, Roy

    2013-01-01

    Purpose -- The purpose of this paper is to undertake a survey of the external and internal forces changing the nature of business schools and business education. It aims to investigate how management education responds to increasing productivity, innovation and capability challenges, examine how MBA programs currently meet these demands, and how…

  14. Enlisted Force Management: Past Practices and Future Challenges

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-01-22

    overlunder POF Page 31 GAO/NSIAD-9148 Eilisted Force Managie ~met Chapter 3 DOD Enlisted Force Management Requirements Figure 3.10: Fiscal Year 1989 Army E...military pay and retirement benefits. A more senior force brings higher current compensation costs, greater "T’rhese result.’ were discussed in a July 30

  15. Educators and Resource Managers: A Partnership with a Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schafer, Rudolph J. H.

    This document addresses the need for educators and natural resource management personnel to work together in developing environmental education programs. The goals suggested for such programs include: (1) providing each individual with the ability to develop a lifestyle which is compatible with a healthy and productive ecosystem; and (2)…

  16. Plan Your Future! Career Management Skills for Students of Languages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Randall, Laurence

    2016-01-01

    At the University of Westminster, the Department of Modern Languages and Cultures has developed a student employability and work-integrated learning project, "Career Management Skills" (CMS), for undergraduate language students. The main objective was to develop a comprehensive employability strategy for all students on all undergraduate…

  17. Women in Management: Leadership Theories, Research Results, and Future Directions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Putnam, Linda L.

    This review of the literature about women in management advocates the pursuit of research on women executives as unique components in the organizational setting, with the warning that careful and unremitting attention be paid to the selection of theoretical perspectives. It examines trait and role theory, and discusses such factors as…

  18. Watershed management and sustainable development: Lessons learned and future directions

    Treesearch

    Karlyn Eckman; Hans M. Gregerson; Allen L. Lundgren

    2000-01-01

    Fundamental belief underlying the direction and content of this paper is that the paradigms of land and water management evolving into the 21st century increasingly favor a watershed focused approach. Underlying that approach is an appreciation of the processes of sustainable development and resource use. The increasing recognition that sustainable development and...

  19. The Future Management of Education: A Design for Its Improvement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myers, Spencer W.

    This report explains the application of management system principles to education. The principles include (1) a statement of the major mission of the organization, (2) statements of goals and objectives, (3) a definition of the product and an identification of the factors essential to the production of the product, (4) a description of the…

  20. Detecting biological responses to flow management: Missed opportunities; future directions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Souchon, Y.; Sabaton, C.; Deibel, R.; Reiser, D.; Kershner, J.; Gard, M.; Katopodis, C.; Leonard, P.; Poff, N.L.; Miller, W.J.; Lamb, B.L.

    2008-01-01

    The conclusions of numerous stream restoration assessments all around the world are extremely clear and convergent: there has been insufficient appropriate monitoring to improve general knowledge and expertise. In the specialized field of instream flow alterations, we consider that there are several opportunities comparable to full-size experiments. Hundreds of water management decisions related to instream flow releases have been made by government agencies, native peoples, and non-governmental organizations around the world. These decisions are based on different methods and assumptions and many flow regimes have been adopted by formal or informal rules and regulations. Although, there have been significant advances in analytical capabilities, there has been very little validation monitoring of actual outcomes or research related to the response of aquatic dependent species to new flow regimes. In order to be able to detect these kinds of responses and to better guide decision, a general design template is proposed. The main steps of this template are described and discussed, in terms of objectives, hypotheses, variables, time scale, data management, and information, in the spirit of adaptive management. The adoption of such a framework is not always easy, due to differing interests of actors for the results, regarding the duration of monitoring, nature of funding and differential timetables between facilities managers and technicians. Nevertheless, implementation of such a framework could help researchers and practitioners to coordinate and federate their efforts to improve the general knowledge of the links between the habitat dynamics and biological aquatic responses. Copyright ?? 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. The Future of Management Education in Australia: Challenges and Innovations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Richard; Agarwal, Renu; Green, Roy

    2013-01-01

    Purpose -- The purpose of this paper is to undertake a survey of the external and internal forces changing the nature of business schools and business education. It aims to investigate how management education responds to increasing productivity, innovation and capability challenges, examine how MBA programs currently meet these demands, and how…

  2. Capacity Assurance - A Twenty Year Planning Tool for the Future Management of Hazardous Waste

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This page contains information about the assessment of national capacity is intended to reflect the reality of waste flows and needs for future management capacity along with the 2015 report, previous reports, and supporting documents

  3. Futurism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foy, Jane Loring

    The objectives of this research report are to gain insight into the main problems of the future and to ascertain the attitudes that the general population has toward the treatment of these problems. In the first section of this report the future is explored socially, psychologically, and environmentally. The second section describes the techniques…

  4. Clinical management of dilated cardiomyopathy: current knowledge and future perspectives.

    PubMed

    Merlo, Marco; Cannatá, Antonio; Vitagliano, Alice; Zambon, Elena; Lardieri, Gerardina; Sinagra, Gianfranco

    2016-01-01

    Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) is a primary heart muscle disease characterized by a progressive dilation and dysfunction of either the left or both ventricles. The management of DCM is currently challenging for clinicians. The persistent lack of knowledge about the etiology and pathophysiology of this disease continues to determine important fields of uncertainty in managing this condition. Molecular cardiology and genetics currently represent the most crucial horizon of increasing knowledge. Understanding the mechanisms underlying the disease allows clinicians to treat this disease more effectively and to further improve outcomes of DCM patients through advancements in etiologic characterization, prognostic stratification and individualized therapy. Left ventricular reverse remodeling predicts a lower rate of major cardiac adverse events independently from other factors. Optimized medical treatment and device implantation are pivotal in inducing left ventricular reverse remodeling. Newly identified targets, such as angiotensin-neprilysin inhibition, phosphodiesterase inhibition and calcium sensitizing are important in improving prognosis in patients affected by DCM.

  5. Disease management: state of the art and future directions.

    PubMed

    Armstrong, E P; Sclar, D A

    1999-03-01

    Disease management (DM) programs have become common in health systems, especially in managed care organizations and hospitals. These programs are designed to improve both the quality of care and the efficiency of health care delivery. However, there may be controversy about the most important outcomes to consider. Furthermore, the effectiveness of DM initiatives is largely undocumented in the literature. The purpose of this paper is to review the issues, methods, and outcomes involved in creating and instituting DM programs. To improve DM efforts within health systems, constructive relationships with practitioners need to be built by involving important individuals early in the process. It is hoped that evidence-based guidelines will further enhance DM efforts. Beneficial DM initiatives require a multidisciplinary focus of cooperation and willingness to share data between distinct professional groups. More thorough analysis of DM programs is needed in many health systems.

  6. Health care management. A tool for the future.

    PubMed

    Dees, J P; Taylor, J R

    1990-02-01

    As a result of increasing health care costs in the U.S., the skilled, knowledgeable occupational health nurse can implement a plan to reduce these costs with benefits personnel. Using accepted business principles such as the Deming/Shewart cycle, health data can be obtained from the provider, trends can be analyzed, and strategies can be planned for the population. Health and subsequent costs can be managed through the use of the natural history of disease, the three levels of prevention, occupational health nurses' relationships with people, and their access to confidential data. Short-term strategies should include catastrophic and intermediate case management. These systems ensure results in terms of quality and cost.

  7. Towards "DRONE-BORNE" Disaster Management: Future Application Scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanzi, Tullio Joseph; Chandra, Madhu; Isnard, Jean; Camara, Daniel; Sebastien, Olivier; Harivelo, Fanilo

    2016-06-01

    Information plays a key role in crisis management and relief efforts for natural disaster scenarios. Given their flight properties, UAVs (Unmanned Aerial Vehicles) provide new and interesting perspectives on the data gathering for disaster management. A new generation of UAVs may help to improve situational awareness and information assessment. Among the advantages UAVs may bring to the disaster management field, we can highlight the gain in terms of time and human resources, as they can free rescue teams from time-consuming data collection tasks and assist research operations with more insightful and precise guidance thanks to advanced sensing capabilities. However, in order to be useful, UAVs need to overcome two main challenges. The first one is to achieve a sufficient autonomy level, both in terms of navigation and interpretation of the data sensed. The second major challenge relates to the reliability of the UAV, with respect to accidental (safety) or malicious (security) risks. This paper first discusses the potential of UAV in assisting in different humanitarian relief scenarios, as well as possible issues in such situations. Based on recent experiments, we discuss the inherent advantages of autonomous flight operations, both lone flights and formation flights. The question of autonomy is then addressed and a secure embedded architecture and its specific hardware capabilities is sketched out. We finally present a typical use case based on the new detection and observation abilities that UAVs can bring to rescue teams. Although this approach still has limits that have to be addressed, technically speaking as well as operationally speaking, it seems to be a very promising one to enhance disaster management efforts activities.

  8. Automated management of power systems. [for future planetary spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Imamura, M. S.; Bridgeforth, A.

    1979-01-01

    APSM (Automated Power System Management) is a technology readiness program underway to develop, evaluate, and demonstrate various techniques involved in power system monitoring, as well as computational and control functions. The demonstration breadboard consists of the Viking Orbiter '75 power subassembly breadboard modified to incorporate dedicated microprocessors and digital interface circuits, as well as test support equipment for both spacecraft and ground computer simulation, fault simulation, and data acquisition.

  9. Some thoughts about future perspectives of water and wastewater management.

    PubMed

    Wilderer, P A

    2004-01-01

    The ideals of sustainability have a longer history than is sometimes realised, as they can be traced back to the insights of Von Carlowitz in 1713. However in the intervening centuries early successes in sanitation based on the "flushing sewer" led engineers to focus too much on sewerage-based solutions that are increasingly uneconomic and unequal to the challenges arising from population growth and urbanisation. The future strategy for globally sustainable sanitation will surely involve source separation and recycling and reuse: these are the technologies that environmental scientists and engineers should now be addressing.

  10. Conflict Detection and Resolution for Future Air Transportation Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krozel, Jimmy; Peters, Mark E.; Hunter, George

    1997-01-01

    With a Free Flight policy, the emphasis for air traffic control is shifting from active control to passive air traffic management with a policy of intervention by exception. Aircraft will be allowed to fly user preferred routes, as long as safety Alert Zones are not violated. If there is a potential conflict, two (or more) aircraft must be able to arrive at a solution for conflict resolution without controller intervention. Thus, decision aid tools are needed in Free Flight to detect and resolve conflicts, and several problems must be solved to develop such tools. In this report, we analyze and solve problems of proximity management, conflict detection, and conflict resolution under a Free Flight policy. For proximity management, we establish a system based on Delaunay Triangulations of aircraft at constant flight levels. Such a system provides a means for analyzing the neighbor relationships between aircraft and the nearby free space around air traffic which can be utilized later in conflict resolution. For conflict detection, we perform both 2-dimensional and 3-dimensional analyses based on the penetration of the Protected Airspace Zone. Both deterministic and non-deterministic analyses are performed. We investigate several types of conflict warnings including tactical warnings prior to penetrating the Protected Airspace Zone, methods based on the reachability overlap of both aircraft, and conflict probability maps to establish strategic Alert Zones around aircraft.

  11. Control of Future Air Traffic Systems via Complexity Bound Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alexandrov, Natalia

    2013-01-01

    The complexity of the present system for managing air traffic has led to "discreteness" in approaches to creating new concepts: new concepts are created as point designs, based on experience, expertise, and creativity of the proposer. Discrete point designs may be highly successful but they are difficult to substantiate in the face of equally strong substantiation of competing concepts, as well as the state of the art in concept evaluation via simulations. Hybrid concepts may present a compromise - the golden middle. Yet a hybrid of sometimes in principle incompatible concepts forms another point design that faces the challenge of substantiation and validation. We are faced with the need to re-design the air transportation system ab initio. This is a daunting task, especially considering the problem of transitioning from the present system to any fundamentally new system. However, design from scratch is also an opportunity to reconsider approaches to new concept development. In this position paper we propose an approach, Optimized Parametric Functional Design, for systematic development of concepts for management and control of airspace systems, based on optimization formulations in terms of required system functions and states. This reasoning framework, realizable in the context of ab initio system design, offers an approach to deriving substantiated airspace management and control concepts. With growing computational power, we hope that the approach will also yield a methodology for actual dynamic control of airspace

  12. Leadership succession planning: an evidence-based approach for managing the future.

    PubMed

    Redman, Richard W

    2006-06-01

    Leadership succession planning is a key business strategy to help organizational leaders deal effectively with the future. Evidence from industry provides a variety of best practices that can ensure that a pipeline of leaders will be available when they are needed. The author addresses the essential needs that individuals face when developing a cadre of available leaders prepared for managing an uncertain future.

  13. An Investigation on the Impact of Training on Employees’ Perceptions of Occupational Status and Self-Esteem in the Foodservice Industry

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-12-01

    what impacts or changes the perceptions of its occupational status directly relating to self - esteem . Additionally, previous research on occupational... self - esteem may help to keep quality employees in the foodservice industry. Additionally, it may take on the larger task of helping to change society’s

  14. Career Progression Systems in the Internal Labor Market of the Foodservice Industry and the Role of the National Restaurant Association. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Leonard; Pezzullo, Caroline

    The lack of visible career paths was universally recognized as a major factor leading to the extraordinarily high rate of turnover and absenteeism in the foodservice industry. The report evaluates the potential of a National Trade Association as a vehicle for improvements in this area and focuses on National Restaurant Association (NRA) efforts in…

  15. Diversity in engineering: managing the workforce of the future

    SciTech Connect

    Layne, Peggy; Arenberg, Carol

    2002-07-03

    On October 29-30, 2001, the National Academy of Engineering Committee on Diversity in the Engineering Workforce brought together representatives of corporations that have been recognized for their successful diversity programs and members of the NAE Forum on Diversity to participate in a workshop entitled ''Best Practices in Managing Diversity''. The purpose of the workshop was to identify and describe corporate programs that have successfully recruited, retained, and advanced women and minorities in engineering careers and to discuss metrics by which to evaluate diversity programs.

  16. Management of knee osteoarthritis. Current status and future trends.

    PubMed

    Ondrésik, Marta; Azevedo Maia, Fatima R; da Silva Morais, Alain; Gertrudes, Ana C; Dias Bacelar, Ana H; Correia, Cristina; Gonçalves, Cristiana; Radhouani, Hajer; Amandi Sousa, Rui; Oliveira, Joaquim M; Reis, Rui L

    2017-04-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) affects a large number of the population, and its incidence is showing a growing trend with the increasing life span. OA is the most prevalent joint condition worldwide, and currently, there is no functional cure for it. This review seeks to briefly overview the management of knee OA concerning standardized pharmaceutical and clinical approaches, as well as the new biotechnological horizons of OA treatment. The potential of biomaterials and state of the art of advanced therapeutic approaches, such as cell and gene therapy focused primarily on cartilage regeneration are the main subjects of this review. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2017;114: 717-739. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. An Information Management System for CHIKYU Operation and its Future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuramoto, S.; Matsuda, S.; Ito, H.

    2005-12-01

    The CDEX (Center for Deep Earth Exploration, JAMSTEC) is an implementing organization of a riser drilling vessel, CHIKYU ("Earth"). CHIKYU has a large capability to produce a wide variety of data, core measurement data, logging data, mud logging data, cuttings data and monitoring data in boreholes, etc. Also CDEX conducts site survey for safety drilling and publication before and after cruises. It is critical that these diverse data be managed using a unified, coherent method, and that they be organized and provided to users in an intuitive, clearly understandable way that reflects the aims and underlying philosophies of the IODP and JAMSTEC. It is crucial that these data are accessible to users through an integrated interface in which all data formats, management tools, and procedures are standardized. Meeting these goals will assure total usability for scientists, administrators, and the public, from data creation to uploading and cataloging, to end use and publication. CDEX is developing an integrated information management system, call "SIO7" (Scientific Information from 7 Oceans) for CHIKYU operation, and would like to extend to adopt various information handling systems in geosciences. The SIO7 composed of 2 major systems, J-CORES (JAMSTEC Core Systematics) and DEXIS (Deep Earth Exploration Information System) (see http://sio7.jamstec.go.jp/ for the details). J-CORES is a database system designated to manage all aspects of core data. The system is modeled on the JANUS system developed by and for ODP, but implements an extended, somewhat modified data model. The functions that support onboard and real time data input operations have also been strengthened. A variety of data visualization and visual core description functions have been added, and data loading from those applications has been automated, making the system as a whole both powerful and easy to use. On the other hand, DEXIS is developed based on the combination and integration of existing off

  18. Current and future direction in the management of scleroderma.

    PubMed

    Brady, Sean M; Shapiro, Lee; Mousa, Shaker A

    2016-09-01

    Scleroderma is a heterogeneous disease with a complex etiology. As more information is gained about the underlying mechanisms and the improved classifications of scleroderma subtypes, treatments can be better personalized. Improving scleroderma patients' early diagnosis before end organ manifestations occur should improve clinical trial design and outcomes. Two recently FDA-approved antifibrotics for idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis may be effective treatments in patients with pulmonary fibrosis secondary to scleroderma after further investigation. The potential impact of Nanobiotechnology in improving the efficacy and safety of existing antifibrotics and immunomodulators might present an exciting new approach in the management of scleroderma.

  19. Management of Dynamic Biomedical Terminologies: Current Status and Future Challenges

    PubMed Central

    Dos Reis, J. C.; Pruski, C.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Objectives Controlled terminologies and their dependent artefacts provide a consensual understanding of a domain while reducing ambiguities and enabling reasoning. However, the evolution of a domain’s knowledge directly impacts these terminologies and generates inconsistencies in the underlying biomedical information systems. In this article, we review existing work addressing the dynamic aspect of terminologies as well as their effects on mappings and semantic annotations. Methods We investigate approaches related to the identification, characterization and propagation of changes in terminologies, mappings and semantic annotations including techniques to update their content. Results and conclusion Based on the explored issues and existing methods, we outline open research challenges requiring investigation in the near future. PMID:26293859

  20. Future directions for the management of pain in osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Sofat, Nidhi; Kuttapitiya, Anasuya

    2014-01-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is the predominant form of arthritis worldwide, resulting in a high degree of functional impairment and reduced quality of life owing to chronic pain. To date, there are no treatments that are known to modify disease progression of OA in the long term. Current treatments are largely based on the modulation of pain, including NSAIDs, opiates and, more recently, centrally acting pharmacotherapies to avert pain. This review will focus on the rationale for new avenues in pain modulation, including inhibition with anti-NGF antibodies and centrally acting analgesics. The authors also consider the potential for structure modification in cartilage/bone using growth factors and stem cell therapies. The possible mismatch between structural change and pain perception will also be discussed, introducing recent techniques that may assist in improved patient phenotyping of pain subsets in OA. Such developments could help further stratify subgroups and treatments for people with OA in future. PMID:25018771

  1. The Future of Cysteine Cathepsins in Disease Management.

    PubMed

    Kramer, Lovro; Turk, Dušan; Turk, Boris

    2017-10-01

    Since the discovery of the key role of cathepsin K in bone resorption, cysteine cathepsins have been investigated by pharmaceutical companies as drug targets. The first clinical results from targeting cathepsins by activity-based probes and substrates are paving the way for the next generation of molecular diagnostic imaging, whereas the majority of antibody-drug conjugates currently in clinical trials depend on activation by cathepsins. Finally, cathepsins have emerged as suitable vehicles for targeted drug delivery. It is therefore timely to review the future of cathepsins in drug discovery. We focus here on inflammation-associated diseases because dysregulation of the immune system accompanied by elevated cathepsin activity is a common feature of these conditions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Management of Hepatocellular Carcinoma: Current Status and Future Directions

    PubMed Central

    Au, Jennifer S.; Frenette, Catherine T.

    2015-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the second most common cause of cancer death worldwide. This cancer commonly arises against a background of chronic liver disease. As a result, a patient with HCC requires multidisciplinary care. Treatment options vary widely based on tumor burden and metastases. The most widely utilized staging system is the Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer staging system, which recommends treatments based on tumor size and the underlying liver disease and functional status of the patient. Treatment options range from surgical resection or transplantation to locoregional therapies with modalities such as radiofrequency ablation and transarterial chemoembolization to systemic chemotherapies. Future care involves the development of combination therapies that afford the best tumor response, further clarification of the patients best suited for therapies and the development of new oral chemotherapeutic agents. PMID:26087860

  3. Alternative futures for health economics: implications for nursing management.

    PubMed

    Mannion, Russell; Small, Neil; Thompson, Carl

    2005-09-01

    As nursing has been subject to successive waves of 'managerialism' there has been a drive on the part of government and elements within the profession to enhance the science base and promote cost-effective health care interventions. This has generated new interest in the 'economics of nursing' as efficiency and 'value for money' are viewed as necessary precondition for the provision of a high quality nursing service. As an academic subject health economics has brought an elegant set of theories to bear on the topic of health and health care. However, mainstream health economics is premised on a series of simplifying assumptions that, if applied uncritically, can induce a range of unintended and adverse consequences. This paper asks how ideas developed in one sphere (health economics) can be become influential in another (nursing management and practice) and it seeks explanations in the theories of Michel Foucault, specifically in his exploration of the reciprocal relationship between power and knowledge. How are our assumptions about what is possible and desirable shaped, how far do mechanisms of surveillance and self-subjugation extend? A range of alternative economic approaches have been developed which challenge many mainstream health economics assumptions. Some of these are better suited to the complex social environment present within health care. Nurses, nurse managers and researchers should question the assumptions of dominant economic models and explore a range of economic frameworks when planning services and evaluating their practice.

  4. Lifestyle medicine: the future of chronic disease management.

    PubMed

    Kushner, Robert F; Sorensen, Kirsten Webb

    2013-10-01

    Lifestyle medicine is a new discipline that has recently emerged as a systematized approach for management of chronic disease. The practice of lifestyle medicine requires skills and competency in addressing multiple health risk behaviours and improving self-management. Targets include diet, physical activity, behaviour change, body weight control, treatment plan adherence, stress and coping, spirituality, mind body techniques, tobacco and substance abuse. This review focuses on the impact of a healthy lifestyle on chronic disease, the rarity of good health and the challenges of implementing a lifestyle medicine programme. Unhealthy lifestyle behaviours are at the root of the global burden of noncommunicable diseases and account for about 63% of all deaths. Over the past several years, there has been an increased interest in evaluating the benefit of adhering to 'low-risk lifestyle' behaviours and ideal 'cardiovascular health metrics'. Although a healthy lifestyle has repeatedly been shown to improve mortality, the population prevalence of healthy living remains low. Lifestyle medicine presents a new and challenging approach to address the prevention and treatment of noncommunicable diseases, the most important and prevalent causes for increased morbidity and mortality worldwide.

  5. Managers' perceptions of radiographers' skills: current and future needs.

    PubMed

    Akroyd, D; Wold, B

    1996-01-01

    As the healthcare delivery system changes, it is imperative to assess the skills of practitioners to ensure consistency between educational preparation and work place needs. The purpose of this study was to examine radiology managers' perception of selected workplace skills and new radiography graduates' ability to perform them. A random sample of 1,932 members of the American Healthcare Radiology Administrators (AHRA) received a questionnaire containing 35 skills categorized as basic, intermediate or advanced. Skills were ranked by the magnitude of the difference between managers' rating of importance of each skill and their rating of graduates' ability to perform that skill satisfactorily. In the basic skill area, the four top-ranked skills represented problem-solving ability or critical thinking. Of the five highest-ranked intermediate skills, the top three were patient care skills: venipuncture, taking vital signs and monitoring patient equipment. In the advanced skill area, six skills exhibited high values for the difference between importance and ability. Two of those related to patient care, three were non-technical and the sixth was the ability to perform CT in addition to basic radiography. Employers and educators should work together to seek educational methods that produce radiographers who are better prepared for the fast-changing workplace.

  6. California Groundwater Management During Drought: Existing and Future Regulatory Approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ekdahl, E.; Boland-Brien, S.; Vanderburgh, B.; Landau, K.; Bean, J.; Peltier, T.

    2015-12-01

    Groundwater has served as an effective buffer to California's crippling drought of 2012-2015, allowing continued agricultural production in many areas where surface water deliveries have been curtailed. However, over-reliance on groundwater has caused plummeting groundwater levels in much of the state's heavily agricultural regions, with annual groundwater overdraft state-wide estimated in the millions of acre-feet per year. Prior to 2015, California water law did not allow for the effective monitoring or assessment of groundwater use; passage of new state regulations will require development of locally-managed plans that, for the first time, require comprehensive groundwater management and groundwater basin sustainability. Because these plans are not required to be implemented for another 25 years, groundwater levels will likely continue to decrease. Some communities that are 100-percent reliant on groundwater as a source of municipal supply may face shortages and supply issues, which may exacerbate known water quality concerns. Examination of community water systems that are reliant on groundwater, their existing water quality issues, and their response to the current drought (through existing mandatory conservation requirements imposed by California state regulators) can identify areas that are particularly susceptible to continued groundwater overdraft.

  7. Virtual reality and pain management: current trends and future directions

    PubMed Central

    Li, Angela; Montaño, Zorash; Chen, Vincent J; Gold, Jeffrey I

    2011-01-01

    SUMMARY Virtual reality (VR) has been used to manage pain and distress associated with a wide variety of known painful medical procedures. In clinical settings and experimental studies, participants immersed in VR experience reduced levels of pain, general distress/unpleasantness and report a desire to use VR again during painful medical procedures. Investigators hypothesize that VR acts as a nonpharmacologic form of analgesia by exerting an array of emotional affective, emotion-based cognitive and attentional processes on the body’s intricate pain modulation system. While the exact neurobiological mechanisms behind VR’s action remain unclear, investigations are currently underway to examine the complex interplay of cortical activity associated with immersive VR. Recently, new applications, including VR, have been developed to augment evidenced-based interventions, such as hypnosis and biofeedback, for the treatment of chronic pain. This article provides a comprehensive review of the literature, exploring clinical and experimental applications of VR for acute and chronic pain management, focusing specifically on current trends and recent developments. In addition, we propose mechanistic theories highlighting VR distraction and neurobiological explanations, and conclude with new directions in VR research, implications and clinical significance. PMID:21779307

  8. Current migraine management – patient acceptability and future approaches

    PubMed Central

    Fumal, Arnaud; Schoenen, Jean

    2008-01-01

    Despite its high prevalence and individual as well as societal burden, migraine remains underdiagnosed and undertreated. In recent years, the options for the management of migraine patients have greatly expanded. A number of drugs belonging to various pharmacological classes and deliverable by several routes are now available both for the acute and the preventive treatments of migraine. Nevertheless, disability and satisfaction remain low in many subjects because treatments are not accessible, not optimized, not effective, or simply not tolerated. There is thus still considerable room for better education, for more efficient therapies and for greater support from national health systems. In spite of useful internationally accepted guidelines, anti-migraine treatment has to be individually tailored to each patient taking into account the migraine subtype, the ensuing disability, the patient’s previous history and present expectations, and the co-morbid disorders. In this article we will summarize the phenotypic presentations of migraine and review recommendations for acute and preventive treatment, highlighting recent advances which are relevant for clinical practice in terms of both diagnosis and management. PMID:19337450

  9. A Critical Appraisal of Recent Advances and Future Directions in Value Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fong, Patrick Sik-Wah

    2004-01-01

    At present, value management (VM) is struggling to survive amidst other management fads. The problem is that it is still not recognized as a professional or academic discipline. There is no sound academic base and a lack of understanding by the public, owners and corporate organizations. The future survival of VM is therefore always being…

  10. Environmental Quality of the Pensacola Bay System: Retrospective Review for Future Resource Management and Rehabilitation

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objective of this report is to summarize the scattered environmental information for the PBS which is essential for understanding its current environmental condition and trend and needed for future cost-effective and science-based resource management. The management and regul...

  11. Environmental Quality of the Pensacola Bay System: Retrospective Review for Future Resource Management and Rehabilitation

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objective of this report is to summarize the scattered environmental information for the PBS which is essential for understanding its current environmental condition and trend and needed for future cost-effective and science-based resource management. The management and regul...

  12. A Critical Appraisal of Recent Advances and Future Directions in Value Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fong, Patrick Sik-Wah

    2004-01-01

    At present, value management (VM) is struggling to survive amidst other management fads. The problem is that it is still not recognized as a professional or academic discipline. There is no sound academic base and a lack of understanding by the public, owners and corporate organizations. The future survival of VM is therefore always being…

  13. Future directions in the management of ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Disis, Mary L; Rivkin, Saul

    2003-08-01

    As investigators at the bench define the oncogenic pathways involved in ovarian cancer growth and invasion, clinical scientists will develop therapies to target these important pathways. The approach to the treatment of ovarian cancer will change to focus on strategies designed to eliminate minimal residual disease after primary therapy and in this way cure the disease. Concepts of consolidation after standard adjuvant chemotherapy and maintenance regimens will start to be evaluated for clinical efficacy. In addition, the focus on recurrent disease may change from repeated cytotoxic approaches to regimens chosen to prevent invasion or the development of drug resistance, changing the approach to ovarian cancer recurrence to a treatment plan of managing a chronic, but not imminently terminal, disease.

  14. Records Management: Preserving the Past to Make the Future

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petro, Kathryn

    2004-01-01

    As an intern in the Records Management Office at NASA, I have learned the importance of records management and teamwork. I work in building 60 with Kevin Coleman, the Records and Forms Manager and History Officer, and Deborah Demaline, the senior records specialist. Prior to my internship, I had never paid attention to records and their role in operating a business. However, after my first assignment of identifying files and filling out a C-277 form, I realized the importance of preserving each file. Since NASA is a government agency, keeping our records in a safe and easily accessible area is a major priority. As the records have accumulated over the years, and the destruction of records has been put on hold due to the fairly recent tobacco litigation; the amount of NASA s records has been quickly accumulating. Currently, our records are stored at Plum Brook in Sandusky, Ohio. Recently, rain has leaked through the bunkers and caused damage to some of our records boxes. Plum Brook has been experiencing difficulty in finding the funds to repair the damage. NASA Glenn is reluctant to give Plum Brook more money because the staff at the Sandusky site has not shown us a detailed summary of what they are doing with the funds we give them annually. Even though storing our records at Plum Brook comes with little cost, there are plenty other companies that offer a records storage area and a special software database for easy record retrieval. My assignment is to do a feasibility study on these companies to see how they compare in providing the appropriate criteria for NASA Glenn's needs. Other research I am doing is on which companies will allow us to convert our physical records into an electronic database for quicker retrieval and to eliminate the cost of storing our records in a facility altogether. The two studies have required me to not only work closely with the Records Management Department, but also the Information Technology staff. It has been important for me to

  15. Records Management: Preserving the Past to Make the Future

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petro, Kathryn

    2004-01-01

    As an intern in the Records Management Office at NASA, I have learned the importance of records management and teamwork. I work in building 60 with Kevin Coleman, the Records and Forms Manager and History Officer, and Deborah Demaline, the senior records specialist. Prior to my internship, I had never paid attention to records and their role in operating a business. However, after my first assignment of identifying files and filling out a C-277 form, I realized the importance of preserving each file. Since NASA is a government agency, keeping our records in a safe and easily accessible area is a major priority. As the records have accumulated over the years, and the destruction of records has been put on hold due to the fairly recent tobacco litigation; the amount of NASA s records has been quickly accumulating. Currently, our records are stored at Plum Brook in Sandusky, Ohio. Recently, rain has leaked through the bunkers and caused damage to some of our records boxes. Plum Brook has been experiencing difficulty in finding the funds to repair the damage. NASA Glenn is reluctant to give Plum Brook more money because the staff at the Sandusky site has not shown us a detailed summary of what they are doing with the funds we give them annually. Even though storing our records at Plum Brook comes with little cost, there are plenty other companies that offer a records storage area and a special software database for easy record retrieval. My assignment is to do a feasibility study on these companies to see how they compare in providing the appropriate criteria for NASA Glenn's needs. Other research I am doing is on which companies will allow us to convert our physical records into an electronic database for quicker retrieval and to eliminate the cost of storing our records in a facility altogether. The two studies have required me to not only work closely with the Records Management Department, but also the Information Technology staff. It has been important for me to

  16. AEM and NMR: Tools for the Future of Groundwater Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abraham, J. D.; Cannia, J. C.; Lawrie, K.

    2012-12-01

    Within the world, understanding groundwater resources and their management are growing in importance to society as groundwater resources are stressed by drought and continued development. To minimize conflicts, tools and techniques need to be applied to support knowledge-based decisions and management. Airborne electromagnetic (AEM) surveys provide high-quality subsurface data not available from any other source for building the complex hydrogeologic frameworks needed by water-resource managers for effective groundwater management. Traditionally, point data, such as borehole logs, borehole geophysics, surface geophysics, and aquifer tests were interpolated over long distances to create hydrogeologic frameworks. These methods have enjoyed a long history of being the best available technology to inform our understanding of groundwater and how it moves. The AEM techniques proivde pathway for geoscientists to follow to develop more accurate descriptions of the hydrogeological framework. However, the critical and challenging measurements in characterizing aquifers include effective porosity and hydraulic conductivity. These parameters are not reliable derived from AEM. Typically, values for effective porosity and hydraulic conductivity are derived by lithological comparisons with published data; direct measurements of hydraulic conductivity acquired by a few constant head aquifer tests or slug tests; and expensive and time consuming laboratory measurements of cores which can be biased by sampling and the difficulty of making measurements on unconsolidated materials. Aquifer tests are considered to be the best method to gather information on hydraulic conductivity but are rare because of cost and difficult logistics. Also they are unique in design and interpretation from site to site. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) can provide a direct measurement of the presence of water in the pore space of aquifer materials. Detection and direct measurement is possible due to the

  17. Contemporary management of prosthetic valve endocarditis: principals and future outlook.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, Cormac T; Kiernan, Thomas J

    2015-05-01

    Infective endocarditis involving prosthetic valves accounts for 20% of all endocarditis cases. Rising in prevalence due to increasing placement of valvular prostheses, prosthetic valve endocarditis (PVE) is more difficult to diagnose by conventional methods, associated with more invasive infection and increased mortality. This report explores the existing literature in identifying a direct approach to the management of PVE; such as adjuncts to establishing a diagnosis (for instance positron emission tomography/computed tomography and radiolabeled leukocyte scintigraphy), the trends in specific pathogens associated with PVE and the recommended antimicrobials for each. The patterns of disease requiring surgical intervention are also highlighted and explored. In addition, a 5-year outlook offers consolidated knowledge on epidemiological trends of both culprit organisms and population subgroups suffering (and projected to suffer) from PVE.

  18. The future of anticoagulation management in atrial fibrillation in Europe: An assessment of today's challenges with recommendations for the future.

    PubMed

    Lichten, Catherine A; Castle-Clarke, Sophie; Manville, Catriona; Horvath, Veronika; Robin, Enora; Krapels, Joachim; Parks, Sarah; Sim, Megan; van Zijverden, Olga; Chataway, Joanna

    2015-11-30

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common type of cardiac arrhythmia, affecting approximately 1-2 per cent of the population worldwide. Those who suffer from AF have a five times higher risk of stroke. AF prevalence increases with age and it affects roughly 18 per cent of the population over 85. Consequently, as populations age, AF is becoming an increasingly significant public health issue. Over recent years there have been developments in treatment and management options, both for treating the arrhythmia directly, and assessing and reducing the risk of AF-related stroke, but there is a need to ensure that available knowledge is applied optimally to benefit patients so that opportunities to prevent AF-related stroke are not missed. The aims of this project were to assess the current landscape and explore the direction of future developments in AF management in Europe, with a focus on the use of anticoagulants in the prevention of AF-related stroke. Through rapid evidence assessment, key informant interviews, PESTLE analysis and the development and exploration of future scenarios, we have developed sets of shorter- and longer-term recommendations for improving AF-related patient outcomes. The short-term recommendations are: i) improve AF awareness among the public and policymakers; ii) support education about AF management for healthcare professionals and patients; and iii) maintain engagement in AF-related research across the health services.

  19. Ewing Sarcoma: Current Management and Future Approaches Through Collaboration.

    PubMed

    Gaspar, Nathalie; Hawkins, Douglas S; Dirksen, Uta; Lewis, Ian J; Ferrari, Stefano; Le Deley, Marie-Cecile; Kovar, Heinrich; Grimer, Robert; Whelan, Jeremy; Claude, Line; Delattre, Olivier; Paulussen, Michael; Picci, Piero; Sundby Hall, Kirsten; van den Berg, Hendrik; Ladenstein, Ruth; Michon, Jean; Hjorth, Lars; Judson, Ian; Luksch, Roberto; Bernstein, Mark L; Marec-Bérard, Perrine; Brennan, Bernadette; Craft, Alan W; Womer, Richard B; Juergens, Heribert; Oberlin, Odile

    2015-09-20

    Ewing sarcoma (ES) is an aggressive sarcoma of bone and soft tissue occurring at any age with a peak incidence in adolescents and young adults. The treatment of ES relies on a multidisciplinary approach, coupling risk-adapted intensive neoadjuvant and adjuvant chemotherapies with surgery and/or radiotherapy for control of the primary site and possible metastatic disease. The optimization of ES multimodality therapeutic strategies has resulted from the efforts of several national and international groups in Europe and North America and from cooperation between pediatric and medical oncologists. Successive first-line trials addressed the efficacy of various cyclic combinations of drugs incorporating doxorubicin, vincristine, cyclophosphamide, ifosfamide, etoposide, and dactinomycin and identified prognostic factors now used to tailor therapies. The role of high-dose chemotherapy is still debated. Current 5-year overall survival for patients with localized disease is 65% to 75%. Patients with metastases have a 5-year overall survival < 30%, except for those with isolated pulmonary metastasis (approximately 50%). Patients with recurrence have a dismal prognosis. The many insights into the biology of the EWS-FLI1 protein in the initiation and progression of ES remain to be translated into novel therapeutic strategies. Current options and future approaches will be discussed.

  20. Optimal Management of Metastatic Melanoma: Current Strategies and Future Directions

    PubMed Central

    Batus, Marta; Waheed, Salman; Ruby, Carl; Petersen, Lindsay; Bines, Steven D.; Kaufman, Howard L.

    2013-01-01

    Melanoma is increasing in incidence and remains a major public health threat. Although the disease may be curable when identified early, advanced melanoma is characterized by widespread metastatic disease and a median survival of less than 10 months. In recent years, however, major advances in our understanding of the molecular nature of melanoma and the interaction of melanoma cells with the immune system have resulted in several new therapeutic strategies that are showing significant clinical benefit. Current therapeutic approaches include surgical resection of metastatic disease, chemotherapy, immunotherapy, and targeted therapy. Dacarbazine, interleukin-2, ipilimumab, and vemurafenib are now approved for the treatment of advanced melanoma. In addition, new combination chemotherapy regimens, monoclonal antibodies blocking the programmed death-1 (PD-1)/PD-ligand 1 pathway, and targeted therapy against CKIT, mitogen-activated protein/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (MEK), and other putative signaling pathways in melanoma are beginning to show promise in early-phase clinical trials. Further research on these modalities alone and in combination will likely be the focus of future clinical investigation and may impact the outcomes for patients with advanced melanoma. PMID:23677693

  1. The management of erectile dysfunction: innovations and future perspectives.

    PubMed

    Leonardi, Rosario; Alemanni, Matteo

    2011-03-01

    Phosphodiesterase 5 (PDE5) inhibitors are recommended as first line therapy for the treatment of erectile dysfunction (ED). To date, three PDE5 inhibitors are on the market: sildenafil, vardenafil and tadalafil. These compounds are available as oral tablets; they are rapidly absorbed in the gastrointestinal tract and are excreted mainly in the fces and to a lexer extent in the urine. Recently, an orodisnersible formulation of feces and, to a lesser extent, in the urine. Recently, an orodispersible formulation of vardenafil (vardenafil ODT) has been developed, which is able to dissolve in the mouth within seconds, releasing a minty flavor, without the need of being swallowed with water. The clinical studies so far performed showed that vardenafil ODT has a bioavailability superior to the traditional film-coated tablet. Among the other PDE5 inhibitors under development we report mirodenafil, lodenafil carbonate, avalafil and SLx-2101 It is likely that in the future molecules that act on pathways other than the one of NO/cGMP will be available. Such as Rho-kinase inhibitors, which inhibit the mechanism that leads to smooth muscle contraction thus allowing erection and hydrogen sulphide (H2S), an endogenous molecule synthesized from cysteine that can be both a vasodilator and a vasoconstrictor according to its concentration.

  2. Integrated water and waste management system for future spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ingelfinger, A. L.; Murray, R. W.

    1974-01-01

    Over 200 days of continuous testing have been completed on an integrated waste management-water recovery system developed by General Electric under a jointly funded AEC/NASA/AF Contract. The 4 man system provides urine, feces, and trash collection; water reclamation; storage, heating and dispensing of the water; storage and disposal of the feces and urine residue and all of other nonmetallic waste material by incineration. The heat required for the 1200 deg F purification processes is provided by a single 420-w radioisotope heater. A second 836-w radioisotope heater supplemented by 720 w of electrical heat provides for distillation and water heating. Significant test results are no pre-or-post treatment, greater than 98 per cent potable water recovery, approximately 95 per cent reduction in solids weight and volume, all outflows are sterile with the water having no bacteria or virus, and the radioisotope capsule radiation level is only 7.9 mrem/hr unshielded at 1 m (neutrons and gamma).

  3. Future project concerning mass disaster management: a forensic odontology prospectus.

    PubMed

    Nuzzolese, Emilio; Di Vella, Giancarlo

    2007-08-01

    The world has experienced a plethora of mass disasters in recent years: acts of terrorism, bombings, earthquakes, hurricanes, typhoons, air crashes and other transportation mishaps, not to mention armed conflicts and migrants drowned in the Mediterranean Sea. In reviewing mass disasters to date, the principal difficulties have not changed: (1) large numbers of humans fragmented, co-mingled, and burned remains; (2) difficulty in determining who was involved in the disaster; (3) acquisition of useful medical and dental records and radiographs; (4) legal, jurisdictional, organisational, and political issues; (5) internal and external documentation and communication problems; (6) application of universal human forensic identification codes. Forensic dentistry plays a major role in victim identification. DNA and dental identification of human remains depends on sufficient availability of ante mortem information, existence of sufficient post mortem material and a comparison or match between ante and post mortem details. Forensic odontology is a specialty with a specific training, and cannot simply be carried out by dentists without such training. Strategies for developing an international forensic odontology capacity and resources are needed for the management of dead bodies following a mass disaster, together with universal guidelines and codes. To this end, Interpol's forms have proved to be a good starting point to meet these requirements.

  4. Understanding idiopathic intracranial hypertension: mechanisms, management, and future directions.

    PubMed

    Markey, Keira A; Mollan, Susan P; Jensen, Rigmor H; Sinclair, Alexandra J

    2016-01-01

    Idiopathic intracranial hypertension is a disorder characterised by raised intracranial pressure that predominantly affects young, obese women. Pathogenesis has not been fully elucidated, but several causal factors have been proposed. Symptoms can include headaches, visual loss, pulsatile tinnitus, and back and neck pain, but the clinical presentation is highly variable. Although few studies have been done to support evidence-based management, several recent advances have the potential to enhance understanding of the causes of the disease and to guide treatment decisions. Investigators of the Idiopathic Intracranial Hypertension Treatment Trial (IIHTT) reported beneficial effects of acetazolamide in patients with mild visual loss. Studies have also established weight loss as an effective disease-modifying treatment, and further clinical trials to investigate new treatments are underway. The incidence of idiopathic intracranial hypertension is expected to increase as rates of obesity increase; efforts to reduce diagnostic delays and identify new, effective approaches to treatment will be key to meeting the needs of a growing number of patients.

  5. Satellites, tweets, forecasts: the future of flood disaster management?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dottori, Francesco; Kalas, Milan; Lorini, Valerio; Wania, Annett; Pappenberger, Florian; Salamon, Peter; Ramos, Maria Helena; Cloke, Hannah; Castillo, Carlos

    2017-04-01

    Floods have devastating effects on lives and livelihoods around the world. Structural flood defence measures such as dikes and dams can help protect people. However, it is the emerging science and technologies for flood disaster management and preparedness, such as increasingly accurate flood forecasting systems, high-resolution satellite monitoring, rapid risk mapping, and the unique strength of social media information and crowdsourcing, that are most promising for reducing the impacts of flooding. Here, we describe an innovative framework which integrates in real-time two components of the Copernicus Emergency mapping services, namely the European Flood Awareness System and the satellite-based Rapid Mapping, with new procedures for rapid risk assessment and social media and news monitoring. The integrated framework enables improved flood impact forecast, thanks to the real-time integration of forecasting and monitoring components, and increases the timeliness and efficiency of satellite mapping, with the aim of capturing flood peaks and following the evolution of flooding processes. Thanks to the proposed framework, emergency responders will have access to a broad range of timely and accurate information for more effective and robust planning, decision-making, and resource allocation.

  6. Management strategies and future challenges for aortic valve disease.

    PubMed

    Bonow, Robert O; Leon, Martin B; Doshi, Darshan; Moat, Neil

    2016-03-26

    The management of aortic valve disease has been improved by accurate diagnosis and assessment of severity by echocardiography and advanced imaging techniques, efforts to elicit symptoms or objective markers of disease severity and progression, and consideration of optimum timing of aortic valve replacement, even in elderly patients. Prevalence of calcific aortic stenosis is growing in ageing populations. Conventional surgery remains the most appropriate option for most patients who require aortic valve replacement, but the transcatheter approach is established for high-risk patients or poor candidates for surgery. The rapid growth of transcatheter aortic valve replacement has been fuelled by improved technology, evidence-based clinical research, and setting up of multidisciplinary heart teams. Aortic regurgitation can be difficult to diagnose and quantify. Left ventricular dysfunction often precedes symptoms, needing active surveillance by echocardiography to determine the optimum time for aortic valve replacement. Development of transcatheter approaches for aortic regurgitation is challenging, owing to the absence of valvular calcification and distortion of aortic root anatomy in many patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Groundwater management in Cusco region, Peru Present and future challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guttman, Joseph; Berger, Diego; Pumayalli Saloma, Rene

    2013-04-01

    efficiency of such irrigation systems is about 35% (most of the water recharges to the underground or is lost by evaporation). Slightly increasing the efficiency by only 10-20% together with bringing additional water would cause a dramatic change in the farmer's life and in their income. A Pre-feasibility study indicates that there are deeper subsurface groundwater systems that flow from the Andes Mountain downstream to the valleys. The deeper systems are most probably separated from the spring systems. The deeper groundwater systems are flowing from the Andes Mountains downstream via individual paths, in places where both sides of the faults contain permeable layers and through several alluvial fans. Detailed researches are planned in the next few years to identify those individual sites and to locate sites for drilling boreholes (observation and production). Today, an integrated water resources management at the local and regional level is lacking. The feasibility studies will include recommendations to the regional government on how to implement such an integrated management program together with capacity building of the institutional capability of regional governments.

  8. Future prospectives for the management of chronic hepatitis B

    PubMed Central

    Leemans, WF; Janssen, HLA; de Man, RA

    2007-01-01

    Chronic hepatitis B virus infection affects about 400 million people around the globe and causes approximately one million deaths a year. Since the discovery of interferon-α as a therapeutic option the treatment of hepatitis B has evolved fast and management has become increasingly complicated. The amount of viral replication reflected in the viral load (HBV-DNA) plays an important role in the development of cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. The current treatment modalities for chronic hepatitis B are immunomodulatory (interferons) and antiviral suppressants (nucleoside and nucleotide analogues) all with their own advantages and limitations. An overview of the treatment efficacy for both immunomodulatory as antiviral compounds is provided in order to provide the clinician insight into the factors influencing treatment outcome. With nucleoside or nucleotide analogues suppression of viral replication by 5-7 log10 is feasible, but not all patients respond to therapy. Known factors influencing treatment outcome are viral load, ALT levels and compliance. Many other factors which might influence treatment are scarcely investigated. Identifying the factors associated with response might result in stopping rules, so treatment could be adapted in an early stage to provide adequate treatment and avoid the development of resistance. The efficacy of compounds for the treatment of mutant virus and the cross-resistance is largely unknown. However, genotypic and phenotypic testing as well as small clinical trials provided some data on efficacy in this population. Discontinuation of nucleoside or nucleotide analogues frequently results in viral relapse; however, some patients have a sustained response. Data on the risk factors for relapse are necessary in order to determine when treatment can be discontinued safely. In conclusion: chronic hepatitis B has become a treatable disease; however, much research is needed to tailor therapy to an individual patient, to predict the

  9. Role of future scenarios in understanding deep uncertainty in long-term air quality management.

    PubMed

    Gamas, Julia; Dodder, Rebecca; Loughlin, Dan; Gage, Cynthia

    2015-11-01

    The environment and its interactions with human systems, whether economic, social, or political, are complex. Relevant drivers may disrupt system dynamics in unforeseen ways, making it difficult to predict future conditions. This kind of "deep uncertainty" presents a challenge to organizations faced with making decisions about the future, including those involved in air quality management. Scenario Planning is a structured process that involves the development of narratives describing alternative future states of the world, designed to differ with respect to the most critical and uncertain drivers. The resulting scenarios are then used to understand the consequences of those futures and to prepare for them with robust management strategies. We demonstrate a novel air quality management application of Scenario Planning. Through a series of workshops, important air quality drivers were identified. The most critical and uncertain drivers were found to be "technological development" and "change in societal paradigms." These drivers were used as a basis to develop four distinct scenario storylines. The energy and emissions implications of each storyline were then modeled using the MARKAL energy system model. NOx emissions were found to decrease for all scenarios, largely a response to existing air quality regulations, whereas SO2 emissions ranged from 12% greater to 7% lower than 2015 emissions levels. Future-year emissions differed considerably from one scenario to another, however, with key differentiating factors being transition to cleaner fuels and energy demand reductions. Application of scenarios in air quality management provides a structured means of sifting through and understanding the dynamics of the many complex driving forces affecting future air quality. Further, scenarios provide a means to identify opportunities and challenges for future air quality management, as well as a platform for testing the efficacy and robustness of particular management

  10. The sensitivity of current and future forest managers to climate-induced changes in ecological processes.

    PubMed

    Seidl, Rupert; Aggestam, Filip; Rammer, Werner; Blennow, Kristina; Wolfslehner, Bernhard

    2016-05-01

    Climate vulnerability of managed forest ecosystems is not only determined by ecological processes but also influenced by the adaptive capacity of forest managers. To better understand adaptive behaviour, we conducted a questionnaire study among current and future forest managers (i.e. active managers and forestry students) in Austria. We found widespread belief in climate change (94.7 % of respondents), and no significant difference between current and future managers. Based on intended responses to climate-induced ecosystem changes, we distinguished four groups: highly sensitive managers (27.7 %), those mainly sensitive to changes in growth and regeneration processes (46.7 %), managers primarily sensitive to regeneration changes (11.2 %), and insensitive managers (14.4 %). Experiences and beliefs with regard to disturbance-related tree mortality were found to particularly influence a manager's sensitivity to climate change. Our findings underline the importance of the social dimension of climate change adaptation, and suggest potentially strong adaptive feedbacks between ecosystems and their managers.

  11. Sustainable water management under future uncertainty with eco-engineering decision scaling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poff, N. Leroy; Brown, Casey M.; Grantham, Theodore E.; Matthews, John H.; Palmer, Margaret A.; Spence, Caitlin M.; Wilby, Robert L.; Haasnoot, Marjolijn; Mendoza, Guillermo F.; Dominique, Kathleen C.; Baeza, Andres

    2016-01-01

    Managing freshwater resources sustainably under future climatic and hydrological uncertainty poses novel challenges. Rehabilitation of ageing infrastructure and construction of new dams are widely viewed as solutions to diminish climate risk, but attaining the broad goal of freshwater sustainability will require expansion of the prevailing water resources management paradigm beyond narrow economic criteria to include socially valued ecosystem functions and services. We introduce a new decision framework, eco-engineering decision scaling (EEDS), that explicitly and quantitatively explores trade-offs in stakeholder-defined engineering and ecological performance metrics across a range of possible management actions under unknown future hydrological and climate states. We illustrate its potential application through a hypothetical case study of the Iowa River, USA. EEDS holds promise as a powerful framework for operationalizing freshwater sustainability under future hydrological uncertainty by fostering collaboration across historically conflicting perspectives of water resource engineering and river conservation ecology to design and operate water infrastructure for social and environmental benefits.

  12. Automated management of life cycle for future network experiment based on description language

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niu, Hongxia; Liang, Junxue; Lin, Zhaowen; Ma, Yan

    2016-12-01

    Future network is a complex resources pool including multiple physical resources and virtual resources. Establishing experiment on future network is complicate and tedious. That achieving the automated management of future network experiments is so important. This paper brings forward the way for researching and managing the life cycle of experiment based on the description language. The description language uses the framework, which couples with a low hierarchical structure and a complete description of the network experiment. In this way, the experiment description template can be generated by this description framework accurately and completely. In reality, we can also customize and reuse network experiment by modifying the description template. The results show that this method can achieve the aim for managing the life cycle of network experiment effectively and automatically, which greatly saves time, reduces the difficulty, and implements the reusability of services.

  13. Sustainable water management under future uncertainty with eco-engineering decision scaling

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Poff, N LeRoy; Brown, Casey M; Grantham, Theodore E.; Matthews, John H; Palmer, Margaret A.; Spence, Caitlin M; Wilby, Robert L.; Haasnoot, Marjolijn; Mendoza, Guillermo F; Dominique, Kathleen C; Baeza, Andres

    2015-01-01

    Managing freshwater resources sustainably under future climatic and hydrological uncertainty poses novel challenges. Rehabilitation of ageing infrastructure and construction of new dams are widely viewed as solutions to diminish climate risk, but attaining the broad goal of freshwater sustainability will require expansion of the prevailing water resources management paradigm beyond narrow economic criteria to include socially valued ecosystem functions and services. We introduce a new decision framework, eco-engineering decision scaling (EEDS), that explicitly and quantitatively explores trade-offs in stakeholder-defined engineering and ecological performance metrics across a range of possible management actions under unknown future hydrological and climate states. We illustrate its potential application through a hypothetical case study of the Iowa River, USA. EEDS holds promise as a powerful framework for operationalizing freshwater sustainability under future hydrological uncertainty by fostering collaboration across historically conflicting perspectives of water resource engineering and river conservation ecology to design and operate water infrastructure for social and environmental benefits.

  14. Conjunctive management of surface and groundwater resources under projected future climate change scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mani, Amir; Tsai, Frank T.-C.; Kao, Shih-Chieh; Naz, Bibi S.; Ashfaq, Moetasim; Rastogi, Deeksha

    2016-09-01

    This study introduces a mixed integer linear fractional programming (MILFP) method to optimize conjunctive use of future surface water and groundwater resources under projected climate change scenarios. The conjunctive management model maximizes the ratio of groundwater usage to reservoir water usage. Future inflows to the reservoirs were estimated from the future runoffs projected through hydroclimate modeling considering the Variable Infiltration Capacity model, and 11 sets of downscaled Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 5 global climate model projections. Bayesian model averaging was adopted to quantify uncertainty in future runoff projections and reservoir inflow projections due to uncertain future climate projections. Optimized conjunctive management solutions were investigated for a water supply network in northern Louisiana which includes the Sparta aquifer. Runoff projections under climate change scenarios indicate that runoff will likely decrease in winter and increase in other seasons. Results from the developed conjunctive management model with MILFP indicate that the future reservoir water, even at 2.5% low inflow cumulative probability level, could counterbalance groundwater pumping reduction to satisfy demands while improving the Sparta aquifer through conditional groundwater head constraints.

  15. Conjunctive management of surface and groundwater resources under projected future climate change scenarios

    DOE PAGES

    Mani, Amir; Tsai, Frank T. -C.; Kao, Shih-Chieh; ...

    2016-06-16

    Our study introduces a mixed integer linear fractional programming (MILFP) method to optimize conjunctive use of future surface water and groundwater resources under projected climate change scenarios. The conjunctive management model maximizes the ratio of groundwater usage to reservoir water usage. Future inflows to the reservoirs were estimated from the future runoffs projected through hydroclimate modeling considering the Variable Infiltration Capacity model, and 11 sets of downscaled Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 5 global climate model projections. Bayesian model averaging was adopted to quantify uncertainty in future runoff projections and reservoir inflow projections due to uncertain future climate projections. Optimizedmore » conjunctive management solutions were investigated for a water supply network in northern Louisiana which includes the Sparta aquifer. Runoff projections under climate change scenarios indicate that runoff will likely decrease in winter and increase in other seasons. Ultimately, results from the developed conjunctive management model with MILFP indicate that the future reservoir water, even at 2.5% low inflow cumulative probability level, could counterbalance groundwater pumping reduction to satisfy demands while improving the Sparta aquifer through conditional groundwater head constraint.« less

  16. Conjunctive management of surface and groundwater resources under projected future climate change scenarios

    SciTech Connect

    Mani, Amir; Tsai, Frank T. -C.; Kao, Shih-Chieh; Naz, Bibi S.; Ashfaq, Moetasim; Rastogi, Deeksha

    2016-06-16

    Our study introduces a mixed integer linear fractional programming (MILFP) method to optimize conjunctive use of future surface water and groundwater resources under projected climate change scenarios. The conjunctive management model maximizes the ratio of groundwater usage to reservoir water usage. Future inflows to the reservoirs were estimated from the future runoffs projected through hydroclimate modeling considering the Variable Infiltration Capacity model, and 11 sets of downscaled Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 5 global climate model projections. Bayesian model averaging was adopted to quantify uncertainty in future runoff projections and reservoir inflow projections due to uncertain future climate projections. Optimized conjunctive management solutions were investigated for a water supply network in northern Louisiana which includes the Sparta aquifer. Runoff projections under climate change scenarios indicate that runoff will likely decrease in winter and increase in other seasons. Ultimately, results from the developed conjunctive management model with MILFP indicate that the future reservoir water, even at 2.5% low inflow cumulative probability level, could counterbalance groundwater pumping reduction to satisfy demands while improving the Sparta aquifer through conditional groundwater head constraint.

  17. Conjunctive management of surface and groundwater resources under projected future climate change scenarios

    SciTech Connect

    Mani, Amir; Tsai, Frank T. -C.; Kao, Shih-Chieh; Naz, Bibi S.; Ashfaq, Moetasim; Rastogi, Deeksha

    2016-06-16

    Our study introduces a mixed integer linear fractional programming (MILFP) method to optimize conjunctive use of future surface water and groundwater resources under projected climate change scenarios. The conjunctive management model maximizes the ratio of groundwater usage to reservoir water usage. Future inflows to the reservoirs were estimated from the future runoffs projected through hydroclimate modeling considering the Variable Infiltration Capacity model, and 11 sets of downscaled Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 5 global climate model projections. Bayesian model averaging was adopted to quantify uncertainty in future runoff projections and reservoir inflow projections due to uncertain future climate projections. Optimized conjunctive management solutions were investigated for a water supply network in northern Louisiana which includes the Sparta aquifer. Runoff projections under climate change scenarios indicate that runoff will likely decrease in winter and increase in other seasons. Ultimately, results from the developed conjunctive management model with MILFP indicate that the future reservoir water, even at 2.5% low inflow cumulative probability level, could counterbalance groundwater pumping reduction to satisfy demands while improving the Sparta aquifer through conditional groundwater head constraint.

  18. The History and Future of NDE in the Management of Nuclear Power Plant Materials Degradation

    SciTech Connect

    Doctor, Steven R.

    2009-04-01

    The author has spent more than 25 years conducting engineering and research studies to quantify the performance of nondestructive evaluation (NDE) in nuclear power plant (NPP) applications and identifying improvements to codes and standards for NDE to manage materials degradation. This paper will review this fundamental NDE engineering/research work and then look to the future on how NDE can be optimized for proactively managing materials degradation in NPP components.

  19. Management of Limbal Stem Cell Deficiency: A Historical Perspective, Past, Present, and Future.

    PubMed

    Holland, Edward J

    2015-10-01

    To review the management of limbal stem cell deficiency (LSCD) from a historical perspective, report the current treatment guidelines, and propose potential future treatments. A literature review was conducted to identify key publications regarding the management of LSCD since treatments were first reported. The advances in surgical treatments, as well as postoperative management, are described from a historical perspective. In addition, current treatment guidelines, as well as future management strategies, are discussed. The management of LSCD has changed dramatically during the last several decades. Before the understanding of the anatomy and physiology of the limbus, all patients with severe LSCD had a dismal prognosis. It was not until the understanding of the location and function of the limbal stem cells that successful management protocols could be formulated. This research gave rise to medical and surgical treatment that protected or replaced diseased or absent limbal stem cells. Understanding the role of the conjunctiva in severe ocular surface disease was also critical in the management of LSCD. Continued improvement in tissue harvesting and surgical techniques have led to improved outcomes in LSCD patients. Significant progress has been made during the last several decades to manage patients with LSCD. A substantial percent of patients can achieve improved visual acuity with current techniques. Continued research with new cell culture and tissue engineering techniques may be the next breakthrough to improve the outcomes for these most challenging patients.

  20. Assessment of food offerings and marketing strategies in the food-service venues at California Children's Hospitals.

    PubMed

    Lesser, Lenard I; Hunnes, Dana E; Reyes, Phedellee; Arab, Lenore; Ryan, Gery W; Brook, Robert H; Cohen, Deborah A

    2012-01-01

    Marketing strategies and food offerings in hospital cafeterias can impact dietary choices. Using a survey adapted to assess food environments, the purpose of this study was to assess the food environment available to patients, staff, and visitors at the food-service venues in all 14 California children's hospitals. We modified a widely-used tool to create the Nutritional Environment Measures Survey for Cafeterias (NEMS-C) by partnering with a hospital wellness committee. The NEMS-C summarizes the number of healthy items offered, whether calorie labeling is present, if there is signage promoting healthy or unhealthy foods, pricing structure, and the presence of unhealthy combination meals. The range of possible scores is zero (unhealthy) to 37 (healthy). We directly observed the food-service venues at all 14 tertiary care children's hospitals in California and scored them. Inter-rater reliability showed 89% agreement on the assessed items. For the 14 hospitals, the mean score was 19.1 (SD = 4.2; range, 13-30). Analysis revealed that nearly all hospitals offered diet drinks, low-fat milk, and fruit. Fewer than one-third had nutrition information at the point of purchase and 30% had signs promoting healthy eating. Most venues displayed high calorie impulse items such as cookies and ice cream at the registers. Seven percent (7%) of the 384 entrees served were classified as healthy according to NEMS criteria. Most children's hospitals' food venues received a mid-range score, demonstrating there is considerable room for improvement. Many inexpensive options are underused, such as providing nutritional information, incorporating signage that promotes healthy choices, and not presenting unhealthy impulse items at the register. Copyright © 2012 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Measuring potential access to food stores and food-service places in rural areas in the U.S.

    PubMed

    Sharkey, Joseph R

    2009-04-01

    Geographic access to healthy food resources remains a major focus of research that examines the contribution of the built environment to healthful eating. Methods used to define and measure spatial accessibility can significantly affect the results. Considering the implications for marketing, policy, and programs, adequate measurement of the food environment is important. Little of the published work on food access has focused on rural areas, where the burden of nutrition-related disease is greater. This article seeks to expand our understanding of the challenges to measurement of potential spatial access to food resources in rural areas in the U.S. Key challenges to the accurate measurement of the food environment in rural areas include: (1) defining the rural food environment while recognizing that market factors may be changing; (2) describing characteristics that may differentiate similar types of food stores and food-service places; and (3) determining location coordinates for food stores and food-service places. In order to enhance measurements in rural areas, "ground-truthed" methodology, which includes on-site observation and collection of GPS data, should become the standard for rural areas. Measurement must also recognize the emergence of new and changing store formats. Efforts should be made to determine accessibility, in terms of both proximity to a single location and variety of multiple locations within a specified buffer, from origins other than the home, and consider multipurpose trips and trip chaining. The measurement of food access will be critical for community-based approaches to meet dietary needs. Researchers must be willing to take the steps necessary for rigorous measurement of a dynamic food environment.

  2. Management of impulse control disorders in Parkinson's disease: Controversies and future approaches.

    PubMed

    Samuel, Michael; Rodriguez-Oroz, Maria; Antonini, Angelo; Brotchie, Jonathan M; Ray Chaudhuri, Kallol; Brown, Richard G; Galpern, Wendy R; Nirenberg, Melissa J; Okun, Michael S; Lang, Anthony E

    2015-02-01

    Impulse control disorders in Parkinson's disease are a group of impulsive behaviors most often associated with dopaminergic treatment. Presently, there is a lack of high quality evidence available to guide their management. This manuscript reviews current management strategies, before concentrating on the concept of dopamine agonist withdrawal syndrome and its implications for the management of impulse control disorders. Further, we focus on controversies, including the role of more recently available anti-parkinsonian drugs, and potential future approaches involving routes of drug delivery, nonpharmacological treatments (such as cognitive behavioral therapy and deep brain stimulation), and other as yet experimental strategies. © 2015 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.

  3. Environmental management practices and engineering science: a review and typology for future research.

    PubMed

    Evangelinos, Konstantinos I; Allan, Stuart; Jones, Keith; Nikolaou, Ioannis E

    2014-04-01

    Current literature describes a number of environmental management practices and cleaner production methods that facilitate different industrial sectors to address their various environmental impacts. The high number of present practices makes their use especially difficult and complicated. This paper aims to shed light on this field by providing a typology of those environmental management practices (such as environmental management systems, environmental indicators assessment methodologies, and cleaner productions methods) and their limitations. It also describes the strengths and weaknesses of using such tools and thoughts for future research.

  4. Integrated Talent Management Enterprise as a Framework for Future Army Talent Management

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-06-12

    alignment with strategy, (2) internal consistency, (3) cultural embeddedness , (4) management involvement, (5) a balance of global and local needs... embeddedness , (4) management involvement, (5) a balance of global and local needs, and (6) employer branding through differentiation. v ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I...59 Principle 3: Cultural Embeddedness

  5. 17 CFR 1.11 - Risk Management Program for futures commission merchants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ..., group, or personnel of a futures commission merchant or any of its affiliates, whether or not identified... supervisory authority of the performance of the activities described in paragraph (b)(1)(i) or (ii) of this... § 30.7 of this chapter for 30.7 customers. (5) Senior management means, any officer or...

  6. Oak policy and management in California: Spanish origins and future considerations

    Treesearch

    James W. Bartolome; Lynn. Huntsinger

    2015-01-01

    The development of goals and policies for Californian oak woodlands is reviewed; then some important considerations for future policy development are highlighted. California and Spain share long and illuminating histories of human interaction with oak woodlands. The Integrated Hardwood Range Management Program, initiated about 1985, was a focal point for Californian...

  7. The SEA of the Future: Leveraging Performance Management to Support School Improvement. Volume 1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gross, Betheny, Ed.; Jochim, Ashley, Ed.

    2013-01-01

    "The SEA of the Future" is an education publication series examining how state education agencies can shift from a compliance to a performance-oriented organization through strategic planning and performance management tools to meet growing demands to support education reform while improving productivity. This inaugural edition of…

  8. Climate Change and Forests of the Future: Managing in the Face of Uncertainty

    Treesearch

    Constance Millar; Nathan L. Stephenson; Scott L. Stephens

    2007-01-01

    We offer a conceptual framework for managing forested ecosystems under an assumption that future environments will be different from present but that we cannot be certain about the specifics of change. We encourage flexible approaches that promote reversible and incremental steps, and that favor ongoing learning and capacity to modify direction as situations change. We...

  9. Achievable future conditions as a framework for guiding forest conservation and management

    Treesearch

    S.W. Golladay; K.L. Martin; James Vose; Dave Wear; A.P. Covich; R.J. Hobbs; Kier Klepzig; G.E. Likens; R.J. Naiman; A.W. Shearer

    2016-01-01

    We contend that traditional approaches to forest conservation and management will be inadequate given the predicted scale of social-economic and biophysical changes in the 21st century. New approaches, focused on anticipating and guiding ecological responses to change, are urgently needed to ensure the full value of forest ecosystem services for future generations....

  10. Using foresight methods to anticipate future threats: the case of disease management.

    PubMed

    Ma, Sai; Seid, Michael

    2006-01-01

    We describe a unique foresight framework for health care managers to use in longer-term planning. This framework uses scenario-building to envision plausible alternate futures of the U.S. health care system and links those broad futures to business-model-specific "load-bearing" assumptions. Because the framework we describe simultaneously addresses very broad and very specific issues, it can be easily applied to a broad range of health care issues by using the broad framework and business-specific assumptions for the particular case at hand. We illustrate this method using the case of disease management, pointing out that although the industry continues to grow rapidly, its future also contains great uncertainties.

  11. Characterizing the Leaching Behavior of Coal Combustion Residues using the Leaching Environmental Assessment Framework (LEAF) to Inform Future Management Decisions

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract for presentation on Characterizing the Leaching Behavior of Coal Combustion Residues using the Leaching Environmental Assessment Framework (LEAF) to Inform Future Management Decisions. The abstract is attached.

  12. Characterizing the Leaching Behavior of Coal Combustion Residues using the Leaching Environmental Assessment Framework (LEAF) to Inform Future Management Decisions

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract for presentation on Characterizing the Leaching Behavior of Coal Combustion Residues using the Leaching Environmental Assessment Framework (LEAF) to Inform Future Management Decisions. The abstract is attached.

  13. Past, current and future fire frequency in the Canadian boreal forest: implications for sustainable forest management.

    PubMed

    Bergeron, Yves; Flannigan, Mike; Gauthier, Sylvie; Leduc, Alain; Lefort, Patrick

    2004-08-01

    Over the past decades, there has been an increasing interest in the development of forest management approaches that are based on an understanding of historical natural disturbance dynamics. The rationale for such an approach is that management to favor landscape compositions and stand structures similar to those of natural ecosystems should also maintain biological diversity and essential ecological functions. In fire-dominated landscapes, this approach is possible only if current and future fire frequencies are sufficiently low, comparing to pre-industrial fire frequency, that we can substitute fire by forest management. We address this question by comparing current and future fire frequency to historical reconstruction of fire frequency from studies realized in the Canadian boreal forest. Current and simulated future fire frequencies using 2 and 3 x CO2 scenarios are lower than the historical fire frequency for many sites, suggesting that forest management could potentially be used to recreate the forest age structure of fire-controlled pre-industrial landscapes. There are however, important limitations to the current even-age management.

  14. Stormwater quality management in rail transportation--past, present and future.

    PubMed

    Vo, Phuong Tram; Ngo, Huu Hao; Guo, Wenshan; Zhou, John L; Listowski, Andrzej; Du, Bin; Wei, Qin; Bui, Xuan Thanh

    2015-04-15

    Railways currently play an important role in sustainable transportation systems, owing to their substantial carrying capacity, environmental friendliness and land-saving advantages. Although total pollutant emissions from railway systems are far less than that of automobile vehicles, the pollution from railway operations should not be underestimated. To date, both scientific and practical papers dealing with stormwater management for rail tracks have solely focused on its drainage function. Unlike roadway transport, the potential of stormwater pollution from railway operations is currently mishandled. There have been very few studies into the impact of its operations on water quality. Hence, upon the realisation on the significance of nonpoint source pollution, stormwater management priorities should have been re-evaluated. This paper provides an examination of past and current practices of stormwater management in the railway industry, potential sources of stormwater pollution, obstacles faced in stormwater management and concludes with strategies for future management directions.

  15. Human-Centered Technologies and Procedures for Future Air Traffic Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Philip; Woods, David; McCoy, Elaine; Billings, Charles; Sarter, Nadine; Denning, Rebecca; Dekker, Sidney

    1997-01-01

    The use of various methodologies to predict the impact of future Air Traffic Management (ATM) concepts and technologies is explored. The emphasis has been on the importance of modeling coordination and cooperation among multiple agents within this system, and on understanding how the interactions among these agents will be influenced as new roles, responsibilities, procedures and technologies are introduced. To accomplish this, we have been collecting data on performance under the current air traffic management system, identifying critical problem areas and looking for examples suggestive of general approaches for solving such problems. Using the results of these field studies, we have developed a set of concrete scenarios centered around future designs, and have studied performance in these scenarios with a set of 40 controllers, dispatchers, pilots and traffic managers.

  16. Adaptive harvest management of North American waterfowl populations - recent successes and future prospects

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nichols, J.D.; Runge, M.C.; Johnson, F.A.; Williams, B.K.; Schodde, Richard; Hannon, Susan; Scheiffarth, Gregor; Bairlein, Franz

    2006-01-01

    The history of North American waterfowl harvest management has been characterized by attempts to use population monitoring data to make informed harvest management decisions. Early attempts can be characterized as intuitive decision processes, and later efforts were guided increasingly by population models and associated predictions. In 1995, a formal adaptive management process was implemented, and annual decisions about duck harvest regulations in the United States are still based on this process. This formal decision process is designed to deal appropriately with the various forms of uncertainty that characterize management decisions, environmental uncertainty, structural uncertainty, partial controllability and partial observability. The key components of the process are (1) objectives, (2) potential management actions, (3) model(s) of population response to management actions, (4) credibility measures for these models, and (5) a monitoring program. The operation of this iterative process is described, and a brief history of a decade of its use is presented. Future challenges range from social and political issues such as appropriate objectives and management actions, to technical issues such as multispecies management, geographic allocation of harvest, and incorporation of actions that include habitat acquisition and management.

  17. Commercial foodservice considerations in providing consumer-driven nutrition program elements. Part I. Consumer health objectives and associated employee education needs.

    PubMed

    Cummings, L E

    1988-01-01

    Commercial, public foodservices are experiencing an increasing demand for menu selections consumers see as healthful. Demographic, economic and lifestyle forces are resulting in a growing proportion of individuals and families who eat away from home more frequently. Many are seeking prudent food choices not only at home, but also in foodservice operations. To them, nutrition represents one controllable lifestyle element which can influence their personal health. Weight control and preventive nutrition are the nutrition-related objectives of most consumers interested in foodservice nutrition. They look to dietary guidelines, both those which are specific to their particular health concerns, (e.g. weight control), and those intended as eating-style changes to reduce the risk of such diet-related conditions and diseases as obesity, atherosclerosis, high blood pressure, diabetes and certain forms of cancer. Focusing on these health objectives, interested foodservice operators should offer items which allow consumers to avoid certain foods and food preparation methods which add up to too much of the following: total calories; fat; refined carbohydrates; cholesterol; sodium; and certain controversial substances, (e.g., caffeine). They seek to replace some of the 'avoid' items with a variety of choices of minimally-processed plant foods, and with less-fatty animal foods. Employee education to support menuing nutrition should begin with the development of an awareness of specific target market health concerns. Employees can then be made familiar with methods to translate these dietary wants and needs into appealing, well-tuned products and service elements. The success of nutrition program elements relies heavily on this understanding by employees in their roles from recipe development to table service.

  18. Is current medical education adequately preparing future physicians to manage concussion: an initial evaluation.

    PubMed

    Donaworth, Michael A; Grandhi, Ravi K; Logan, Kelsey; Gubanich, Paul J; Myer, Gregory D

    2016-01-01

    In 2010, there were 2.5 million hospitalizations, emergency room visits, or deaths associated with concussions in the United States.[1] Knowledge deficits exist among physicians regarding concussion management, which can lead to severe repercussions, including poor patient outcomes, poor patient satisfaction, and potential medical-legal issues. While concussion is a prevalent condition evaluated in the medical field, medical students continue to have a knowledge deficit regarding concussion diagnosis, prognosis, medical management, and return to play guidelines. Medical students from a mid-western medical school completed a survey on concussion diagnosis, prognosis, medical management, and return to play guidelines. The response rate was 40%. The data suggests that the vast majority of medical students are able to define concussion; however, most reported never having a lecture dedicated to concussion during medical school and also lacked clinical experience with acute concussion and post-concussive syndrome. There are clear areas of deficiency as noted by the inability of students to correctly identify symptoms and appropriate management of concussion. The current study indicates that at an individual, mid-western, top 50 medical school, current medical trainees may not be adequately educated to identify and manage concussion. Future research is warranted to determine the optimal guidelines to educate future physicians as it pertains to concussion diagnosis, management, prognosis, and return to play guidelines.

  19. Greenhouse gas emissions from alternative futures of deforestation and agricultural management in the southern Amazon.

    PubMed

    Galford, Gillian L; Melillo, Jerry M; Kicklighter, David W; Cronin, Timothy W; Cerri, Carlos E P; Mustard, John F; Cerri, Carlos C

    2010-11-16

    The Brazilian Amazon is one of the most rapidly developing agricultural areas in the world and represents a potentially large future source of greenhouse gases from land clearing and subsequent agricultural management. In an integrated approach, we estimate the greenhouse gas dynamics of natural ecosystems and agricultural ecosystems after clearing in the context of a future climate. We examine scenarios of deforestation and postclearing land use to estimate the future (2006-2050) impacts on carbon dioxide (CO(2)), methane (CH(4)), and nitrous oxide (N(2)O) emissions from the agricultural frontier state of Mato Grosso, using a process-based biogeochemistry model, the Terrestrial Ecosystems Model (TEM). We estimate a net emission of greenhouse gases from Mato Grosso, ranging from 2.8 to 15.9 Pg CO(2)-equivalents (CO(2)-e) from 2006 to 2050. Deforestation is the largest source of greenhouse gas emissions over this period, but land uses following clearing account for a substantial portion (24-49%) of the net greenhouse gas budget. Due to land-cover and land-use change, there is a small foregone carbon sequestration of 0.2-0.4 Pg CO(2)-e by natural forests and cerrado between 2006 and 2050. Both deforestation and future land-use management play important roles in the net greenhouse gas emissions of this frontier, suggesting that both should be considered in emissions policies. We find that avoided deforestation remains the best strategy for minimizing future greenhouse gas emissions from Mato Grosso.

  20. Adapting to a Changing Colorado River: Making Future Water Deliveries More Reliable Through Robust Management Strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Groves, D.; Bloom, E.; Fischbach, J. R.; Knopman, D.

    2013-12-01

    The U.S. Bureau of Reclamation and water management agencies representing the seven Colorado River Basin States initiated the Colorado River Basin Study in January 2010 to evaluate the resiliency of the Colorado River system over the next 50 years and compare different options for ensuring successful management of the river's resources. RAND was asked to join this Basin Study Team in January 2012 to help develop an analytic approach to identify key vulnerabilities in managing the Colorado River basin over the coming decades and to evaluate different options that could reduce this vulnerability. Using a quantitative approach for planning under uncertainty called Robust Decision Making (RDM), the RAND team assisted the Basin Study by: identifying future vulnerable conditions that could lead to imbalances that could cause the basin to be unable to meet its water delivery objectives; developing a computer-based tool to define 'portfolios' of management options reflecting different strategies for reducing basin imbalances; evaluating these portfolios across thousands of future scenarios to determine how much they could improve basin outcomes; and analyzing the results from the system simulations to identify key tradeoffs among the portfolios. This talk will describe RAND's contribution to the Basin Study, focusing on the methodologies used to to identify vulnerabilities for Upper Basin and Lower Basin water supply reliability and to compare portfolios of options. Several key findings emerged from the study. Future Streamflow and Climate Conditions Are Key: - Vulnerable conditions arise in a majority of scenarios where streamflows are lower than historical averages and where drought conditions persist for eight years or more. - Depending where the shortages occur, problems will arise for delivery obligations for the upper river basin and the lower river basin. The lower river basin is vulnerable to a broader range of plausible future conditions. Additional Investments in

  1. Future Deltas Utrecht University research focus area: towards sustainable management of sinking deltas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stouthamer, E.; van Asselen, S.

    2015-11-01

    Deltas are increasingly under pressure from human impact and climate change. To deal with these pressures that threat future delta functioning, we need to understand interactions between physical, biological, chemical and social processes in deltas. This requires an integrated approach, in which knowledge on natural system functioning is combined with knowledge on spatial planning, land and water governance and legislative frameworks. In the research focus area Future Deltas of Utrecht University an interdisciplinary team from different research groups therefore works together. This allows developing integrated sustainable and resilient delta management strategies, which is urgently needed to prevent loss of vital delta services.

  2. Managing burned landscapes: Evaluating future management strategies for resilient forests under a warming climate

    Treesearch

    K. L. Shive; P. Z. Fule; C. H. Sieg; B. A. Strom; M. E. Hunter

    2014-01-01

    Climate change effects on forested ecosystems worldwide include increases in drought-related mortality, changes to disturbance regimes and shifts in species distributions. Such climate-induced changes will alter the outcomes of current management strategies, complicating the selection of appropriate strategies to promote forest resilience. We modelled forest growth in...

  3. Current and future developments in managed care in the United States and implications for Europe

    PubMed Central

    Lagoe, Ronald; Aspling, Deborah L; Westert, Gert P

    2005-01-01

    The paper reviews and evaluates current and future approaches to cost containment in the United States. Managed care was once seen as an effective approach to supporting health care quality while containing costs in the USA. In recent years payors started to look in other directions, since prospects for limiting expenses faded. Nowadays consumer driven health plans seem to be on the rise. The reasons for the decline of managed care, the growing popularity of the consumer driven health plans and the implications for Europe are discussed. PMID:15774017

  4. The current and future role of endomicroscopy in the management of inflammatory bowel disease

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Douglas L.; Lee, John G.; Parekh, Nimisha K.; Samarasena, Jason; Bechtold, Matthew L.; Chang, Kenneth

    2015-01-01

    Confocal laser-induced endomicroscopy (CLE), first introduced in 2003, allows the capture of images of “virtual histology” of the gastrointestinal mucosa during endoscopy, providing the opportunity to retrieve real-time visualization of the pathology of the mucosal epithelium with its cellular and subcellular structures. This new endoscopic imaging technique serves as an adjunctive diagnostic tool to the traditional ileocolonoscopy in the management of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients. In multiple clinical trials, CLE has been shown to improve detection of dysplasia, assess disease activity, predict future clinical relapses, and assess potential responsiveness to anti-tumor necrosis factor therapy. This review explores in depth the current and future role of CLE in the management of IBD patients. PMID:26130373

  5. The past, current and future of diagnosis and management of pleural disease

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Pleural disease is frequently encountered by the chest physician. Pleural effusions arise as the sequelae of underlying disease processes including pressure/volume imbalances, infection and malignancy. In addition to pleural effusions, persistent air leaks after surgery and bronchopleural fistulae remain a challenge. Our understanding of pleural disease including its diagnosis and management, have made tremendous strides. The introduction of the molecular detection of organism specific infection, risk stratification and improvements in the non-surgical treatment of patients with pleural infection are all within reach and may be the standard of care in the very near future. Malignant pleural effusion management continues to evolve with the introduction of tunneled pleural catheters and procedures combining that and chemical pleurodesis. These advances in the diagnostic and therapeutic evaluation of pleural disease as well as what seems to be an increasing multidisciplinary interest in the space foretell a bright future. PMID:26807281

  6. Agile Development Processes: Delivering a Successful Data Management Platform Now and in the Future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deaubl, E.; Lowry, S.

    2007-10-01

    Developing a flexible, extensible architecture for scientific data archival and management is a monumental task under older, big design, up-front methodologies. We will describe how we are using agile development techniques in our service oriented architecture (SOA)-based platform to integrate astronomer and operator input into the development process, deliver functional software earlier, and ensure that the software is maintainable and extensible in the future.

  7. Shaping Future Phosphorus Management Pathways by Understanding the Past and Present

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Migliavacca, M.; Richardson, A. D.; Cescatti, A.; Cremonese, E.; Keenan, T. F.; Sonnentag, O.

    2014-12-01

    Sustainable phosphorus (P) management in agricultural and urban ecosystems is necessary to ensure global food security and healthy aquatic ecosystems. Researchers and decision-makers alike need to understand how social, economic, political, and biophysical factors interact to create risks and opportunities around future P cycling. For example, P can accumulate in soils and be lost to waterways over a long-time scale. Such lags between application, use, and transport of P could affect our ability to identify sources of P enrichment of surface waters and, consequently, influence the development of strategies to limit water quality degradation. To enhance understanding of the relationship between human activities, P loading to the landscape and P loading to surface waters, we are examining cumulative P additions from 1950 to 2007 at the county level for the major US hydrologic basins. We examine the temporal relationship between net P additions and water quality in order to identify especially important time periods for P management. We also compare the timing of P additions and losses across hydrologic basins. Concurrently, the P-FUTURES project, a partnership between researchers and stakeholders to advance and understand the process of social transformation, focuses on the role of urban ecosystems in future sustainable P management. In this project we are using a cross-city comparison approach and transdisciplinary methods, including participatory workshops and future visioning activities, to determine pathways to more sustainable P management in Phoenix, USA; Sydney, Australia; Hanoi, Vietnam; and Blantyre, Malawi. In Blantyre for example we have identified possible synergies between decreasing nutrient losses and deforestation and existing municipal goals to increase affordable hydroelectric power. Preliminary results from both on-going projects allow us to gain insight into how local context shapes P cycling and locally-appropriate solutions.

  8. Shaping Future Phosphorus Management Pathways by Understanding the Past and Present

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metson, G. S.; Compton, J.; Cordell, D.; Harrison, J.; Iwaniec, D.

    2015-12-01

    Sustainable phosphorus (P) management in agricultural and urban ecosystems is necessary to ensure global food security and healthy aquatic ecosystems. Researchers and decision-makers alike need to understand how social, economic, political, and biophysical factors interact to create risks and opportunities around future P cycling. For example, P can accumulate in soils and be lost to waterways over a long-time scale. Such lags between application, use, and transport of P could affect our ability to identify sources of P enrichment of surface waters and, consequently, influence the development of strategies to limit water quality degradation. To enhance understanding of the relationship between human activities, P loading to the landscape and P loading to surface waters, we are examining cumulative P additions from 1950 to 2007 at the county level for the major US hydrologic basins. We examine the temporal relationship between net P additions and water quality in order to identify especially important time periods for P management. We also compare the timing of P additions and losses across hydrologic basins. Concurrently, the P-FUTURES project, a partnership between researchers and stakeholders to advance and understand the process of social transformation, focuses on the role of urban ecosystems in future sustainable P management. In this project we are using a cross-city comparison approach and transdisciplinary methods, including participatory workshops and future visioning activities, to determine pathways to more sustainable P management in Phoenix, USA; Sydney, Australia; Hanoi, Vietnam; and Blantyre, Malawi. In Blantyre for example we have identified possible synergies between decreasing nutrient losses and deforestation and existing municipal goals to increase affordable hydroelectric power. Preliminary results from both on-going projects allow us to gain insight into how local context shapes P cycling and locally-appropriate solutions.

  9. Measuring impact of protected area management interventions: current and future use of the Global Database of Protected Area Management Effectiveness

    PubMed Central

    Coad, Lauren; Leverington, Fiona; Knights, Kathryn; Geldmann, Jonas; Eassom, April; Kapos, Valerie; Kingston, Naomi; de Lima, Marcelo; Zamora, Camilo; Cuardros, Ivon; Nolte, Christoph; Burgess, Neil D.; Hockings, Marc

    2015-01-01

    Protected areas (PAs) are at the forefront of conservation efforts, and yet despite considerable progress towards the global target of having 17% of the world's land area within protected areas by 2020, biodiversity continues to decline. The discrepancy between increasing PA coverage and negative biodiversity trends has resulted in renewed efforts to enhance PA effectiveness. The global conservation community has conducted thousands of assessments of protected area management effectiveness (PAME), and interest in the use of these data to help measure the conservation impact of PA management interventions is high. Here, we summarize the status of PAME assessment, review the published evidence for a link between PAME assessment results and the conservation impacts of PAs, and discuss the limitations and future use of PAME data in measuring the impact of PA management interventions on conservation outcomes. We conclude that PAME data, while designed as a tool for local adaptive management, may also help to provide insights into the impact of PA management interventions from the local-to-global scale. However, the subjective and ordinal characteristics of the data present significant limitations for their application in rigorous scientific impact evaluations, a problem that should be recognized and mitigated where possible. PMID:26460133

  10. Measuring impact of protected area management interventions: current and future use of the Global Database of Protected Area Management Effectiveness.

    PubMed

    Coad, Lauren; Leverington, Fiona; Knights, Kathryn; Geldmann, Jonas; Eassom, April; Kapos, Valerie; Kingston, Naomi; de Lima, Marcelo; Zamora, Camilo; Cuardros, Ivon; Nolte, Christoph; Burgess, Neil D; Hockings, Marc

    2015-11-05

    Protected areas (PAs) are at the forefront of conservation efforts, and yet despite considerable progress towards the global target of having 17% of the world's land area within protected areas by 2020, biodiversity continues to decline. The discrepancy between increasing PA coverage and negative biodiversity trends has resulted in renewed efforts to enhance PA effectiveness. The global conservation community has conducted thousands of assessments of protected area management effectiveness (PAME), and interest in the use of these data to help measure the conservation impact of PA management interventions is high. Here, we summarize the status of PAME assessment, review the published evidence for a link between PAME assessment results and the conservation impacts of PAs, and discuss the limitations and future use of PAME data in measuring the impact of PA management interventions on conservation outcomes. We conclude that PAME data, while designed as a tool for local adaptive management, may also help to provide insights into the impact of PA management interventions from the local-to-global scale. However, the subjective and ordinal characteristics of the data present significant limitations for their application in rigorous scientific impact evaluations, a problem that should be recognized and mitigated where possible.

  11. Putting watershed restoration in context: alternative future scenarios influence management outcomes.

    PubMed

    Fullerton, A H; Steel, E A; Caras, Y; Sheer, M; Olson, P; Kaje, J

    2009-01-01

    Predicting effects of habitat restoration is an important step for recovery of imperiled anadromous salmonid populations. Habitat above three major hydropower dams in the Lewis River watershed, southwestern Washington, USA, will soon become accessible to anadromous fish. We used multiple models to estimate habitat conditions above dams and fish population responses. Additionally, we used scenario planning to predict how habitat and fish will respond to potential future trends in land use due to human population growth and riparian conservation policies. Finally, we developed a hypothetical management strategy (i.e., a set of prioritized restoration projects in specific locations within the watershed) as an example of how a fixed amount of restoration funds might be spent to enhance the success of reintroducing fish above dams. We then compared predicted outcomes from this new strategy to those of six previously modeled strategies. We estimated how the choice of the best management strategy might differ among alternative future scenarios. Results suggest that dam passage will provide access to large amounts of high-quality habitat that will benefit fish populations. Moreover, conservation of existing riparian areas, if implemented, has the potential to improve conditions to a much greater extent than restoration strategies examined, despite expected urban growth. We found that the relative performance of management strategies shifted when fish were allowed to migrate above dams, but less so among alternative futures examined. We discuss how predicted outcomes from these seven hypothetical management strategies could be used for developing an on-the-ground strategy to address a real management situation.

  12. Bounded ranges of variation as a framework for future conservation and fire management.

    PubMed

    Moritz, Max A; Hurteau, Matthew D; Suding, Katharine N; D'Antonio, Carla M

    2013-05-01

    Alterations in natural fire patterns have negatively affected fire-prone ecosystems in many ways. The historical range of variability (HRV) concept evolved as a management target for natural vegetation composition and fire regimes in fire-prone ecosystems. HRV-based management inherently assumes that ecosystem resilience is reflected in observed ranges of past vegetation and fire dynamics, typically without knowledge of where thresholds exist beyond these dynamics. Given uncertainty in future conditions, some have argued that HRV may not adequately reflect ecosystem resilience to future fire activity. We suggest a refinement that includes concepts from the thresholds of potential concern (TPC) framework, which emphasizes tipping points at the extremes of ecosystem dynamics and other socially unacceptable outcomes. We propose bounded ranges of variation (BRV), an approach focused on building resilience by using historical information, but also by identifying socio-ecological thresholds to avoid and associated management action triggers. Here, we examine nonnative species and carbon sequestration as examples of how the BRV framework could be used in the context of conservation and fire management.

  13. Technology-based interventions for weight management: current randomized controlled trial evidence and future directions.

    PubMed

    Kozak, Andrea T; Buscemi, Joanna; Hawkins, Misty A W; Wang, Monica L; Breland, Jessica Y; Ross, Kathryn M; Kommu, Anupama

    2017-02-01

    Obesity is a prevalent health care issue associated with disability, premature morality, and high costs. Behavioral weight management interventions lead to clinically significant weight losses in overweight and obese individuals; however, many individuals are not able to participate in these face-to-face treatments due to limited access, cost, and/or time constraints. Technological advances such as widespread access to the Internet, increased use of smartphones, and newer behavioral self-monitoring tools have resulted in the development of a variety of eHealth weight management programs. In the present paper, a summary of the most current literature is provided along with potential solutions to methodological challenges (e.g., high attrition, minimal participant racial/ethnic diversity, heterogeneity of technology delivery modes). Dissemination and policy implications will be highlighted as future directions for the field of eHealth weight management.

  14. Baltic Sea ecosystem-based management under climate change: Synthesis and future challenges.

    PubMed

    Blenckner, Thorsten; Österblom, Henrik; Larsson, Per; Andersson, Agneta; Elmgren, Ragnar

    2015-06-01

    Ecosystem-based management (EBM) has emerged as the generally agreed strategy for managing ecosystems, with humans as integral parts of the managed system. Human activities have substantial effects on marine ecosystems, through overfishing, eutrophication, toxic pollution, habitat destruction, and climate change. It is important to advance the scientific knowledge of the cumulative, integrative, and interacting effects of these diverse activities, to support effective implementation of EBM. Based on contributions to this special issue of AMBIO, we synthesize the scientific findings into four components: pollution and legal frameworks, ecosystem processes, scale-dependent effects, and innovative tools and methods. We conclude with challenges for the future, and identify the next steps needed for successful implementation of EBM in general and specifically for the Baltic Sea.

  15. Energy, water and carbon balance of managed forests: comparing the future to the past

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loustau, Denis; Moreaux, Virginie; Moisy, Christophe; Picart, Delphine; Lafont, Sébastien; Benest, Fabienne; Lagouarde, Jean-PIerre; Bosc, Alexandre

    2014-05-01

    Intensification of forest management concerns a growing fraction of temperate and tropical forests. It is thought to affect wider areas in the near future for facing biomass, fiber and wood demands. Intensively managed forests are submitted to increased soil preparation, fertilization, drainage, thinning, clear-cutting, whole tree - harvesting and rotation shortening. They are composed of fast growing stands commonly planted with enhanced tree varieties or clones of eucalypts, pines, poplars, willows among others. Altogether these practices have substantial effects on forest exchanges with atmosphere and groundwater and therefore on local and regional climates and water resources. Using data collected from flux tower sites, MODIS products and forest and soil inventories together with our process based model of forest growth, GO+, we analysed the impacts of intensified management on forest canopy exchanges of heat, short and longwave radiations, water and CO2 and its interaction with soil and climate. Results obtained under present climate conditions evidenced interactions between intensification effects and soil and climate conditions. We show that biophysical impacts on radiative forcing potential, through albedo increase and convective fluxes of heat and water, are in the same order of magnitude than changes in the biogeochemical cycle of carbon. Drought affects dramatically the net carbon and water balances of forest stands independent of management and age. However, the effects of successive management operations (ploughing, vegetation burial, thinning) overtook climate impacts and make the young stands and intensive alternatives more independent and resilient to climate change impacts. The model applications to the analysis of future climate scenarios allowed to attributing the role of management alternatives, soil conditions and climate and their interactions. For intensively managed forests, the frequency of soil preparation operations, the management

  16. Operational approaches to managing forests of the future in Mediterranean regions within a context of changing climates

    Treesearch

    Scott L. Stephens; Constance I. Millar; Brandon M. Collins

    2010-01-01

    Many US forest managers have used historical ecology information to assist in the development of desired conditions. While there are many important lessons to learn from the past, we believe that we cannot rely on past forest conditions to provide us with blueprints for future management. To respond to this uncertainty, managers will be challenged to integrate...

  17. UNDERSTANDING THE PAST, MANAGING THE FUTURE - Remotely sensed analysis of the urban sprawl of Istanbul for supporting decision making for a sustainable future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altan, O.; Kemper, G.

    2012-07-01

    The GIS based analysis of the land use change of Istanbul delivers a huge and comprehensive database that can be used for further analysis. Trend analysis and scenarios enable a view to the future that highlights the needs for a proper planning. Also the understanding via comparison to other cities assists in order not to copy errors from other cities. GIS in combination with ancillary data open a wide field for managing the future of Istanbul.

  18. Greenhouse gas emissions from alternative futures of deforestation and agricultural management in the southern Amazon

    PubMed Central

    Galford, Gillian L.; Melillo, Jerry M.; Kicklighter, David W.; Cronin, Timothy W.; Cerri, Carlos E. P.; Mustard, John F.; Cerri, Carlos C.

    2010-01-01

    The Brazilian Amazon is one of the most rapidly developing agricultural areas in the world and represents a potentially large future source of greenhouse gases from land clearing and subsequent agricultural management. In an integrated approach, we estimate the greenhouse gas dynamics of natural ecosystems and agricultural ecosystems after clearing in the context of a future climate. We examine scenarios of deforestation and postclearing land use to estimate the future (2006–2050) impacts on carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), and nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions from the agricultural frontier state of Mato Grosso, using a process-based biogeochemistry model, the Terrestrial Ecosystems Model (TEM). We estimate a net emission of greenhouse gases from Mato Grosso, ranging from 2.8 to 15.9 Pg CO2-equivalents (CO2-e) from 2006 to 2050. Deforestation is the largest source of greenhouse gas emissions over this period, but land uses following clearing account for a substantial portion (24–49%) of the net greenhouse gas budget. Due to land-cover and land-use change, there is a small foregone carbon sequestration of 0.2–0.4 Pg CO2-e by natural forests and cerrado between 2006 and 2050. Both deforestation and future land-use management play important roles in the net greenhouse gas emissions of this frontier, suggesting that both should be considered in emissions policies. We find that avoided deforestation remains the best strategy for minimizing future greenhouse gas emissions from Mato Grosso. PMID:20651250

  19. The Indus basin in the framework of current and future water resources management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laghari, A. N.; Vanham, D.; Rauch, W.

    2012-04-01

    The Indus basin is one of the regions in the world that is faced with major challenges for its water sector, due to population growth, rapid urbanisation and industrialisation, environmental degradation, unregulated utilization of the resources, inefficient water use and poverty, all aggravated by climate change. The Indus Basin is shared by 4 countries - Pakistan, India, Afghanistan and China. With a current population of 237 million people which is projected to increase to 319 million in 2025 and 383 million in 2050, already today water resources are abstracted almost entirely (more than 95% for irrigation). Climate change will result in increased water availability in the short term. However in the long term water availability will decrease. Some current aspects in the basin need to be re-evaluated. During the past decades water abstractions - and especially groundwater extractions - have augmented continuously to support a rice-wheat system where rice is grown during the kharif (wet, summer) season (as well as sugar cane, cotton, maize and other crops) and wheat during the rabi (dry, winter) season. However, the sustainability of this system in its current form is questionable. Additional water for domestic and industrial purposes is required for the future and should be made available by a reduction in irrigation requirements. This paper gives a comprehensive listing and description of available options for current and future sustainable water resources management (WRM) within the basin. Sustainable WRM practices include both water supply management and water demand management options. Water supply management options include: (1) reservoir management as the basin is characterised by a strong seasonal behaviour in water availability (monsoon and meltwater) and water demands; (2) water quality conservation and investment in wastewater infrastructure; (3) the use of alternative water resources like the recycling of wastewater and desalination; (4) land use

  20. Climate change and forests of the future: managing in the face of uncertainty.

    PubMed

    Millar, Constance I; Stephenson, Nathan L; Stephens, Scott L

    2007-12-01

    We offer a conceptual framework for managing forested ecosystems under an assumption that future environments will be different from present but that we cannot be certain about the specifics of change. We encourage flexible approaches that promote reversible and incremental steps, and that favor ongoing learning and capacity to modify direction as situations change. We suggest that no single solution fits all future challenges, especially in the context of changing climates, and that the best strategy is to mix different approaches for different situations. Resources managers will be challenged to integrate adaptation strategies (actions that help ecosystems accommodate changes adaptively) and mitigation strategies (actions that enable ecosystems to reduce anthropogenic influences on global climate) into overall plans. Adaptive strategies include resistance options (forestall impacts and protect highly valued resources), resilience options (improve the capacity of ecosystems to return to desired conditions after disturbance), and response options (facilitate transition of ecosystems from current to new conditions). Mitigation strategies include options to sequester carbon and reduce overall greenhouse gas emissions. Priority-setting approaches (e.g., triage), appropriate for rapidly changing conditions and for situations where needs are greater than available capacity to respond, will become increasingly important in the future.

  1. Climate change and forests of the future: Managing in the face of uncertainty

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Millar, C.I.; Stephenson, N.L.; Stephens, S.L.

    2007-01-01

    We offer a conceptual framework for managing forested ecosystems under an assumption that future environments will be different from present but that we cannot be certain about the specifics of change. We encourage flexible approaches that promote reversible and incremental steps, and that favor ongoing learning and capacity to modify direction as situations change. We suggest that no single solution fits all future challenges, especially in the context of changing climates, and that the best strategy is to mix different approaches for different situations. Resources managers will be challenged to integrate adaptation strategies (actions that help ecosystems accommodate changes adaptively) and mitigation strategies (actions that enable ecosystems to reduce anthropogenic influences on global climate) into overall plans. Adaptive strategies include resistance options (forestall impacts and protect highly valued resources), resilience options (improve the capacity of ecosystems to return to desired conditions after disturbance), and response options (facilitate transition of ecosystems from current to new conditions). Mitigation strategies include options to sequester carbon and reduce overall greenhouse gas emissions. Priority-setting approaches (e.g., triage), appropriate for rapidly changing conditions and for situations where needs are greater than available capacity to respond, will become increasingly important in the future. ?? 2007 by the Ecological Society of America.

  2. Prognostics and Health Management of Wind Turbines: Current Status and Future Opportunities

    SciTech Connect

    Sheng, Shuangwen

    2015-12-14

    Prognostics and health management is not a new concept. It has been used in relatively mature industries, such as aviation and electronics, to help improve operation and maintenance (O&M) practices. In the wind industry, prognostics and health management is relatively new. The level for both wind industry applications and research and development (R&D) has increased in recent years because of its potential for reducing O&M cost of wind power, especially for turbines installed offshore. The majority of wind industry application efforts has been focused on diagnosis based on various sensing and feature extraction techniques. For R&D, activities are being conducted in almost all areas of a typical prognostics and health management framework (i.e., sensing, data collection, feature extraction, diagnosis, prognosis, and maintenance scheduling). This presentation provides an overview of the current status of wind turbine prognostics and health management that focuses on drivetrain condition monitoring through vibration, oil debris, and oil condition analysis techniques. It also discusses turbine component health diagnosis through data mining and modeling based on supervisory control and data acquisition system data. Finally, it provides a brief survey of R&D activities for wind turbine prognostics and health management, along with future opportunities.

  3. Management of atrial fibrillation in the Emergency Department: current approach and future expectations.

    PubMed

    Russo, V; Navarin, S; Zampini, G; Magrini, L; Mann, C; Muiesan, M L; De Caterina, R; Yılmaz, M B; Beton, O; Monzani, V; Kubica, J; Müller, C; Di Somma, S

    2013-12-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common cardiac dysrhythmia and occurs in 3.3%-10% of emergency admissions. It is frequently quoted for people over the age of 75, but the cases of AF in young subjects without structural heart disease are also increasing, therefore, leading to the evaluation of "lonely atrial fibrillation" as a new challenge for the clinician. The first diagnosis and treatment often occur in the emergency room and the emergency physician has therefore to evaluate the initial step towards the therapeutic decisions. Although international standard guidelines are available, AF treatment in the Emergency Department (ED) is still heterogeneous in terms of the management strategy chosen. There are two main strategies for the management of AF: rate and rhythm control. Moreover, antithrombotic treatment is pivotal in AF to prevent cardioembolic stroke and it is considered a primary objective after an accurate assessment of antithrombotic treatment risks and benefits. The introduction of innovative echocardiographic approach, directly in ED, seems to improve the management and risk stratification of patients with AF. This review aims to provide an overview about the current approach and the future expectations in the management of AF in ED. This manuscript represents a synopsis of the lectures on AF management in the ED of the Third Italian GREAT Network Congress, that was hold in Rome, 15-19 October 2012. We decided to use only the most relevant references for each contribution as suggested by each participant at this review.

  4. Geriatric assessment with management in cancer care: Current evidence and potential mechanisms for future research

    PubMed Central

    Magnuson, Allison; Allore, Heather; Cohen, Harvey Jay; Mohile, Supriya G.; Williams, Grant R.; Chapman, Andrew; Extermann, Martine; Olin, Rebecca L.; Targia, Valerie; Mackenzie, Amy; Holmes, Holly M.; Hurria, Arti

    2016-01-01

    Older adults with cancer represent a complex patient population. Geriatric assessment (GA) is recommended to evaluate the medical and supportive care needs of this group. “GA with management” is a term encompassing the resultant medical decisions and interventions implemented in response to vulnerabilities identified on GA. In older, non-cancer patients, GA with management has been shown to improve a variety of outcomes, such as reducing functional decline and health care utilization. However, the role of GA with management in the older adult with cancer is less well established. Rigorous clinical trials of GA with management are necessary to develop an evidence base and support its use in the routine oncology care of older adults. At the recent U-13 conference, “Design and Implementation of Intervention Studies to Improve or Maintain Quality of Survivorship in Older and/or Frail Adults with Cancer,” a session was dedicated to developing research priorities in GA with management. Here we summarize identified knowledge gaps in GA with management studies for older patients with cancer and propose areas for future research. PMID:27197915

  5. Intelligent biomedical clothing for personal health and disease management: state of the art and future vision.

    PubMed

    Lymberis, Andreas; Olsson, Silas

    2003-01-01

    Telemedicine has been introduced to overcome distance in order to get prompt access to medical knowledge and appropriate health care. More recently, work in telemedicine has aimed at developing solutions to support the management of chronic diseases such as diabetes, and lung and heart diseases, as well as to provide support for home care services. Telemedicine is also entering the fields of health promotion/prevention disease, life style management, and well-being. The evolution and broadening of telemedicine gives birth to a nomenclature that includes "e-health," "telehealth," and "telecare." The latest developments in microsystems and nanotechnologies as well as in information processing and communication technologies allow miniaturization and non-invasive smart monitoring of physiological and physical data. Ongoing cutting-edge multidisciplinary research in textile fibers, biomedical sensors, and wireless and mobile telecommunications integrated with telemedicine, aims at developing intelligent biomedical clothing (IBC) that could pave the way to support personalized management of health and diseases at the point of need and at any time. In this study, we aim to describe the current status of multidisciplinary research and development of IBC, based on bibliographic research and reports from seminars, workshops, conferences, and working groups. A further aim is to inform the developers, the decision makers, and users in the health and healthcare sector regarding future solutions to support personalized health care and disease management. Both the textile sector and healthcare sector are looking with great interest at the innovative products and applications that could result from the integration of microsystems, nanotechnologies, biomedical sensors, textiles, and mobile telecommunications. For health monitoring, disease prevention and management, rehabilitation, and sport medicine, IBC may offer, in the mid-term future, a unique, wearable non

  6. Carbon storage potential of managed mountain grasslands under future conditions - Inverse modelling and uncertainty analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammerle, A.; Williams, M. D.; Schoups, G.; Themessl, M. J.; Gobiet, A.; Calanca, P. S.; Wohlfahrt, G.

    2012-12-01

    Biogeochemical models are often difficult to calibrate due to their complex structure and/or their large number of parameters. To provide reliable results as well as defensible estimations of uncertainty any data-fusion approach has to account for and quantify all errors consisting of input, model structural and parameter estimation errors. Here we present a study of the carbon cycling of managed temperate mountain grasslands in the Austrian Alps and their carbon storage potential under future conditions using a data model fusion approach enabled to handle these uncertainties. Provided multiple data sets of different managed grassland ecosystems (consisting of micrometeorological variables, carbon dioxide fluxes, aboveground biomass and soil water content) the grassland adapted DALEC model, a big-leaf photosynthesis model as well as a soil moisture model were applied to model the carbon balance of these ecosystems. Parameter estimation of these models is done using a Bayesian inversion scheme. A vital part of this study is the correct residual handling and representation in the inverse parameter estimation scheme in order to provide a robust parameter- and predictive uncertainty estimation. This estimation is achieved by using a generalized likelihood function that, in contrast to the formal approach, does not rely on independent and identically distributed errors according to a normal distribution, with zero mean and constant variance, which does not hold in many ecological applications. Once calibrated these models are used to explore the carbon storage potential of managed grassland ecosystems under different future management- and climate-scenarios. Given these model results optimal management strategies can be provided to maximize the carbon storage potential without compromising yield.

  7. [Marketing mix in a radiology department: challenges for future radiologists in management].

    PubMed

    Claikens, B

    1998-08-01

    Radiology has gained an enviable position among medial specialities. Developments in new technology expand its horizons and the volume of radiologic imaging techniques and procedures increase far more than the overall growth in health care services. In this position radiology has become a prime target for restrictions, cutbacks, controlled financing in an area of managed care and new national health care policy based on partially fixed budgets. Future health care takers have to choose the best available diagnostic and therapeutic techniques. Evidence based medicine, cost-utility analysis, diagnostic performance analysis, patient outcome analysis, technology assessment and guidelines for practice are means to guide us through our obligatory choice. Our major objective is to use the most performant available imaging technique or intervention to achieve the best possible outcome for our patient at lower possible costs. A strategic response from radiologists is required to meet the imperatives of this new management situation. They must do far more than interpret imaging procedures. They must work as efficient managers of imaging resources, organise their practices and define their marketing-strategies using the different, so-called, marketing-mix elements. The challenges will be great but the rewards are worth our best efforts. In this article we highlight the marketing responsibilities of future radiologists and their clinical practice in this new socio-economic environment and we present different useful marketing tools.

  8. [Management qualifications for academic surgeons in the future: what can we learn from business administration?].

    PubMed

    Büchler, Peter; Martin, David; Büchler, Markus W

    2006-05-01

    Health is a fundamental resource for social and economic development. Greater human development implies that people live longer and enjoy good health for a greater number of years. Healthcare systems should adapt to the new challenges posed by health: a sharp increase in population aging, the demand for more appropriate and transparent management, increased patient expectations, rising costs, and the emergence of ever more challenging economic contexts. At the vanguard of surgical development, surgical units in university hospitals play a fundamental role in the future of surgery and are therefore responsible for coping efficiently with these changes. To do this, effective surgical leaders are required. However, this poses the problem of how these future surgical leaders should be trained so that their training can be controlled and proactively influenced in advance. The present article reviews the arguments and need for management training among general surgeons, as well as knowledge of this process and its results. To maintain first-class healthcare and provide the most advanced medical education and biomedical research, modern surgical units in university hospitals will require effective surgical leaders. To train these modern leaders, business management programs are essential, both in undergraduate education and in specialized surgical training.

  9. Structural Analysis Methods for Structural Health Management of Future Aerospace Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tessler, Alexander

    2007-01-01

    Two finite element based computational methods, Smoothing Element Analysis (SEA) and the inverse Finite Element Method (iFEM), are reviewed, and examples of their use for structural health monitoring are discussed. Due to their versatility, robustness, and computational efficiency, the methods are well suited for real-time structural health monitoring of future space vehicles, large space structures, and habitats. The methods may be effectively employed to enable real-time processing of sensing information, specifically for identifying three-dimensional deformed structural shapes as well as the internal loads. In addition, they may be used in conjunction with evolutionary algorithms to design optimally distributed sensors. These computational tools have demonstrated substantial promise for utilization in future Structural Health Management (SHM) systems.

  10. Assessing and managing breast cancer risk: clinicians' current practice and future needs.

    PubMed

    Collins, Ian M; Steel, Emma; Mann, G Bruce; Emery, Jon D; Bickerstaffe, Adrian; Trainer, Alison; Butow, Phyllis; Pirotta, Marie; Antoniou, Antonis C; Cuzick, Jack; Hopper, John; Phillips, Kelly-Anne; Keogh, Louise A

    2014-10-01

    Decision support tools for the assessment and management of breast cancer risk may improve uptake of prevention strategies. End-user input in the design of such tools is critical to increase clinical use. Before developing such a computerized tool, we examined clinicians' practice and future needs. Twelve breast surgeons, 12 primary care physicians and 5 practice nurses participated in 4 focus groups. These were recorded, coded, and analyzed to identify key themes. Participants identified difficulties assessing risk, including a lack of available tools to standardize practice. Most expressed confidence identifying women at potentially high risk, but not moderate risk. Participants felt a tool could especially reassure young women at average risk. Desirable features included: evidence-based, accessible (e.g. web-based), and displaying absolute (not relative) risks in multiple formats. The potential to create anxiety was a concern. Development of future tools should address these issues to optimize translation of knowledge into clinical practice.

  11. The future is no longer what it used to be. Managing health telematics projects.

    PubMed

    Demeester, M; Beuscart, R

    1997-09-01

    Future used to mean global progress and convergence of science and technology and society. Today, we observe the decoupling of the two poles of knowledge formation and application (i.e. science and technology, and culture and society, respectively) and also fierce confrontation between them. The key issue to reconcile the two poles is to re-invent the link between them. The new future lies in the development of mental and technical capacities for change and the creation of new forms of solidarity. We propose, as a general attitude, to reactivate and develop the four principles of efficacy-effectiveness-efficiency, hospitality, responsibility and pertinence. Translated into driving forces for the development of health care telematic projects, they amount to the acceptance of and capacity for enterprise-wide solutions, hospitality and capacity to acquire outside knowledge, self-managed, multi-functional team work spirit, reengineering mentality to achieve pertinent technico-cultural solutions.

  12. Development and Application of Future Climate Scenarios for Natural Resource Management in Southwestern Colorado

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rangwala, I.; Rondeau, R.; Wyborn, C.; Clifford, K. R.; Travis, W.

    2015-12-01

    Locally relevant projections of climate change provide critical insights for natural resource managers seeking to adapt their management activities to climate change in the context of uncertainty. To provide such information, we developed climate scenarios, in form of narratives and quantitative information, of future climate change and its impacts in southwestern Colorado. This information was intended to provide detailed insights into the range of changes that natural resource managers may face in the future. The scenarios were developed in an iterative process through interactions among the ecologists, social and climate scientists. In our scenario development process, climate uncertainty is acknowledged by having multiple scenarios, where each scenario is regarded as a storyline with equal likelihood as another scenario. We quantified changes in several decision relevant climate and ecological responses based on our best available understanding and provided a tight storyline for each scenario to facilitate (a) a more augmented use of scientific information in a decision-making process, (b) differential responses from stakeholders across the different scenarios, and (c) identification of strategies that could work across these multiple scenarios. Here, we discuss the process of selecting the scenarios, quantifying climate and ecological responses, and the criteria for building the narrative for each scenario. We also discuss the process by which these scenarios get used, and provide an assessment of their effectiveness and users' feedbacks that could inform the future development of these tools and processes. This research involvement and collaboration occurred, in part, as a result of the PACE Fellowship Program that is associated with NOAA Climate Program Office and the U.S. CLIVAR community.

  13. Education for Cultivating Future Factory Managers by Industry-College Cooperation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tennichi, Michio; Yamada, Hirofumi; Matsui, Hiroshi; Furuya, Shigehiko; Ito, Kouhei

    In 2007, Kanazawa Technical College was designated by the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology as an institute on a Project to the Cultivation of Practical Engineers by Cooperative Education and is to complete the project. Our project aims at accomplishing “Education Program Development and Practice for Cultivating Future Factory Managers Beginning at Age 16” , with the object of the cooperative project by local businesses, Ishikawa Prefecture and Kanazawa Institute of Technology. This paper reports as follows. (1) Outline of this project (2) Results from the project we have tackled. (3) Safety education in order to begin mechanical hands-on training at the first grade.

  14. State of the science: hot flashes and cancer. Part 2: management and future directions.

    PubMed

    Carpenter, Janet S

    2005-09-01

    To critically evaluate and synthesize intervention research related to hot flashes in the context of cancer and to identify implications and future directions for policy, research, and practice. Published, peer-reviewed articles and textbooks; editorials; and computerized databases. Although a variety of pharmacologic and nonpharmacologic treatments are available, they may not be appropriate or effective for all individuals. The large and diverse evidence base and current national attention on hot flash treatment highlight the importance of the symptom to healthcare professionals, including oncology nurses. Using existing research to understand, assess, and manage hot flashes in the context of cancer can prevent patient discomfort and improve the delivery of evidence-based care.

  15. Integrating Science, Management, and Policy for the Future of Water in California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levy, Michael

    2013-07-01

    Society faces complex, multifaceted problems that call for research that transcends disciplinary boundaries and informs public policy. Water resources management in the face of climate change in California is one such challenge. Understanding responses to future conditions requires integration of climatic, hydrologic, ecological, and social dynamics. To catalyze the development and application of this science, the graduate students of the U.S. National Science Foundation-funded Climate Change, Water, and Society Integrative Graduate Education and Research Traineeship (CCWAS IGERT) at the University of California, Davis organized a "State of the Science" workshop to identify knowledge gaps; promote cross-disciplinary communication, fertilization, and collaboration; and better connect science and policy.

  16. Neuronavigation in the surgical management of brain tumors: current and future trends

    PubMed Central

    Orringer, Daniel A; Golby, Alexandra; Jolesz, Ferenc

    2013-01-01

    Neuronavigation has become an ubiquitous tool in the surgical management of brain tumors. This review describes the use and limitations of current neuronavigational systems for brain tumor biopsy and resection. Methods for integrating intraoperative imaging into neuronavigational datasets developed to address the diminishing accuracy of positional information that occurs over the course of brain tumor resection are discussed. In addition, the process of integration of functional MRI and tractography into navigational models is reviewed. Finally, emerging concepts and future challenges relating to the development and implementation of experimental imaging technologies in the navigational environment are explored. PMID:23116076

  17. MANAGEMENT OF ENDOCRINE DISEASE: Present and future perspectives for medical therapy of nonfunctioning pituitary adenomas.

    PubMed

    Greenman, Yona

    2017-09-01

    In contrast to the clear indication for surgical treatment in symptomatic patients with clinically nonfunctioning pituitary adenomas (NFPA), there are no randomized controlled studies comparing therapeutic strategies such as watchful waiting, irradiation or medical therapy for the management of NFPA after surgery. Further, no medical therapy is currently approved for the treatment of NFPA. In this review, we summarize accumulating data on medications currently approved for secreting pituitary adenomas, used off-label in patients with NFPA. Perspectives on overall treatment optimization and potential future therapies are also detailed. © 2017 European Society of Endocrinology.

  18. Comprehensive management of pressure ulcers in spinal cord injury: Current concepts and future trends

    PubMed Central

    Kruger, Erwin A.; Pires, Marilyn; Ngann, Yvette; Sterling, Michelle; Rubayi, Salah

    2013-01-01

    Pressure ulcers in spinal cord injury represent a challenging problem for patients, their caregivers, and their physicians. They often lead to recurrent hospitalizations, multiple surgeries, and potentially devastating complications. They present a significant cost to the healthcare system, they require a multidisciplinary team approach to manage well, and outcomes directly depend on patients' education, prevention, and compliance with conservative and surgical protocols. With so many factors involved in the successful treatment of pressure ulcers, an update on their comprehensive management in spinal cord injury is warranted. Current concepts of local wound care, surgical options, as well as future trends from the latest wound healing research are reviewed to aid medical professionals in treating patients with this difficult problem. PMID:24090179

  19. Future perspectives of Smartphone applications for rheumatic diseases self-management.

    PubMed

    Azevedo, Ana Rita Pereira; de Sousa, Hugo Manuel Lopes; Monteiro, Joaquim António Faria; Lima, Aurea Rosa Nunes Pereira

    2015-03-01

    Rheumatic diseases (RD) self-management interventions are designed to improve health-related quality of life, health care utilization, and perceived self-efficacy. Despite these demonstrated good results, there are several issues that hinder or render less appealing these interventions. One economically and socially viable solution is exploiting the potential of Smartphone technology. This potential comes from Smartphones pervasive presence in actual society, combined with the advantages of being personal, intuitive, and computationally powerful, with capability to support applications and assist its user throughout different activities of daily living and environments persistently. With their global acceptance increasing quickly, there is a great opportunity for mobile health in using Smartphone applications for RD self-management. Besides the potential of such applications, research on the development and evaluation of such applications is in the early stages. Therefore, it is important to foresee its future applicability in order to meet the needs of the twenty-first century.

  20. Prevalence, Diagnosis and Management of Pancreatic Cystic Neoplasms: Current Status and Future Directions

    PubMed Central

    Farrell, James J.

    2015-01-01

    Cystic neoplasms of the pancreas are found with increasing prevalence, especially in elderly asymptomatic individuals. Although the overall risk of malignancy is very low, the presence of these pancreatic cysts is associated with a large degree of anxiety and further medical investigation due to concerns about malignancy. This review discusses the different cystic neoplasms of the pancreas and reports diagnostic strategies based on clinical features and imaging data. Surgical and nonsurgical management of the most common cystic neoplasms, based on the recently revised Sendai guidelines, is also discussed, with special reference to intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (IPMN; particularly the branch duct variant), which is the lesion most frequently identified incidentally. IPMN pathology, its risk for development into pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma, the pros and cons of current guidelines for management, and the potential role of endoscopic ultrasound in determining cancer risk are discussed. Finally, surgical treatment, strategies for surveillance of pancreatic cysts, and possible future directions are discussed. PMID:26343068

  1. Salmon Futures: Stakeholder-driven salmon management scenarios under changing environmental conditions on Alaska's Kenai Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trammell, E. J.; Krupa, M.

    2015-12-01

    Understanding the adaptive capacity of individuals within natural resource management agencies is a key component of assessing the vulnerability of salmon to future environmental change. We seek to explore the adaptive capacity of natural resource agencies on Alaska's Kenai Peninsula by exploring the drivers and implications of different salmon allocation scenarios through participatory workshops with managers. We present here the initial results from the first workshop, which explores the various drivers responsible for changes in salmon allocation. Ranging from global to local, and biophysical to socioeconomic, these drivers are also linked to specific actors in the region. These complex interactions comprise the Kenai Peninsula's social-ecological system and determine its ability to react to change. Using a stakeholder-driven scenario framework, we aim to: 1) explore the adaptive capacity of natural resource agencies in the region by exploring and exposing managers to different but logically coherent salmon allocation scenarios; 2) build stakeholder confidence in the science of environmental change on the Kenai Peninsula; and 3) develop a decision support tool that helps regional resource managers better understand their changing environment. We utilize and present the scenario framework as a platform for integrating hydrologic, landscape, and cultural change information into actionable decisions, crafted by the stakeholders, so that landscape change on the Kenai becomes more coordinated.

  2. Equipping future doctors: incorporating management and leadership into medical curriculums in the United Kingdom.

    PubMed

    Sonsale, Aniket; Bharamgoudar, Reshma

    2017-04-01

    Throughout their careers, doctors are likely to come across complex management and leadership scenarios that many would not have had prior training in. Expectations of doctors are rising and it is becoming increasingly necessary to be able to astutely handle a variety of situations. Medical curricula must reflect this change and adapt to include the teaching of key management and leadership skills. Despite budgeting pressures, the National Health Service continues to spend vast sums of money on external management consultants. The 2013 Francis Report stressed the need for better management skills and leadership, especially in doctors who were identified as the spearheads of change. This view is backed up by senior professionals who stress that by incorporating it into undergraduate curricula, doctors will be equipped with the skills to flourish in the future. The challenges of doing so must be highlighted, since the teaching of managerial and leadership concepts must effectively combine theoretical approaches with practical applications. Empowering students of today will enable them as tomorrow's doctors to tackle the challenges of modern medicine.

  3. [Team Approaches for and Future Challenges to Promoting Perioperative Oral Management].

    PubMed

    Aimono, Yuka; Kamoshida, Toshiro; Nakashima, Takafumi; Sato, Wataru; Sakamoto, Risa; Saito, Yoshiko; Kikuchi, Sakiko; Ishii, Hideyuki; Maruyama, Tsunehiko; Aoyama, Yoshifumi

    2016-02-01

    When the medical fee system was revised in 2012, the category of perioperative oral management was newly organized. However, the calculation of additional fees for such management required referral from medical to dental departments. In addition, requests for such management were limited, possibly owing to an increased burden on doctors engaged in outpatient services. This study examined the usefulness of an approach to promote patients' use of dental services by increasing their awareness of the importance of oral management. In this approach, pharmacists explained doctors' instructions to patients at a chemotherapy center within the study facility. Explanations were provided to 114 patients, 75 (65.8%) of whom subsequently used dental services in the facility. For patients using dental services, oral care was performed most frequently (40; 53.3%), followed by invasive procedures (23; 30.7%). Furthermore, the facility's ethics committee approved a survey to measure the satisfaction of patients undergoing chemotherapy at the center. Of the 110 patients invited to participate in the survey, 77(70.0%) did not respond. Researchers concluded the low response rate was associated with patients' belief that dental services were intended primarily for treating oral cavities and their lack of awareness of the importance of preventive dental care. However, in 2014, the number of calculations of additional fees for perioperative oral management markedly increased each month after the above-mentioned approach, from 62 (January) to 162 (December). Both the hospital-to family and family-to-hospital dentist referral rates significantly increased, from 11.2% and 10.7%, respectively (June 2013), to 21.0% and 41.9%, respectively(June 2014). Future evaluations of the outcomes of perioperative oral management and promoting cooperation between medical and dental communities may be necessary.

  4. Current Progress and Future Plans for the DOE Office of Environmental Management International Program

    SciTech Connect

    Gerdes, K.D.; Marra, J. C.; Peeler, D.K.; Harbour, M.J.J.R.; Fox, K.M.; Vienna, J.D.; Aloy, A.S.; Stefanovsky, S.V.; Bondarkov, M.D.

    2008-07-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Environmental Management (EM) has collaborated with various international institutes for many years on radioactive waste management challenges of mutual concern. Currently, DOE-EM is performing collaborative work with researchers at the Khlopin Radium Institute and the SIA Radon Institute in Russia and the Ukraine's International Radioecology Laboratory to explore issues related to high-level waste and to investigate experience and technologies that could support DOE-EM site cleanup needs. Specific initiatives include: - Application of the Cold Crucible Induction Heated Melter to DOE Wastes - SIA Radon and Savannah River National Laboratory; - Improved Solubility and Retention of Troublesome Components in SRS and Hanford Waste Glasses - Khlopin Radium Institute, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory and Savannah River National Laboratory; - Long-term Impacts from Radiation/Contamination within the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone, International Radioecology Laboratory and Savannah River National Laboratory. This paper provides an overview of the status of the current International Program task activities. The paper will also provide insight into the future direction for the program. Specific ties to the current DOE-EM technology development multi-year planning effort will be highlighted as well as opportunities for future international collaborations. (authors)

  5. CURRENT PROGRESS AND FUTURE PLANS FOR THE DOE OFFICE OF ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT INTERNATIONAL PROGRAM

    SciTech Connect

    Marra, J; Kurt D Gerdes, K; David Peeler, D; John Harbour, J; Kevin Fox, K

    2007-11-16

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Environmental Management (EM) has collaborated with various international institutes for many years on radioactive waste management challenges of mutual concern. Currently, DOE-EM is performing collaborative work with researchers at the Khlopin Radium Institute and the SIA Radon Institute in Russia and the Ukraine's International Radioecology Laboratory to explore issues related to high-level waste and to investigate experience and technologies that could support DOE-EM site cleanup needs. Specific initiatives include: (1) Application of the Cold Crucible Induction Heated Melter to DOE Wastes--SIA Radon and Savannah River National Laboratory; (2) Improved Solubility and Retention of Troublesome Components in SRS and Hanford Waste Glasses--Khlopin Radium Institute, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory and Savannah River National Laboratory; and (3) Long-term Impacts from Radiation/Contamination within the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone--International Radioecology Laboratory and Savannah River National Laboratory. This paper provides an overview of the status of the current International Program task activities. The paper will also provide insight into the future direction for the program. Specific ties to the current DOE-EM technology development multi-year planning effort will be highlighted as well as opportunities for future international collaborations.

  6. Four-Year Turfgrass Management Programs in the United States: I. Structure, Requirements, Needs, and Future Outlook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karnok, Deith J.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    A survey of 32 land-grant institutions was conducted to determine structure, course requirements, needs, and future directions of 4-year turfgrass management programs in the United States. Results related to course selection, limiting factors to the program's success, and future challenges are reported. (MDH)

  7. Future Rehabilitation Professionals' Intentions to Use Self-Management Support: Helping Students to Help Patients.

    PubMed

    Figueiredo, Sabrina; Mayo, Nancy E; Thomas, Aliki

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: We evaluated whether education in self-management support (SMS) increases future clinicians' intentions to use a new way of delivering rehabilitation services. Methods: A convenience sample of 10 students took a 5-week theoretical course, followed by 6 weeks spent assessing patients, establishing treatment plans, and monitoring their performance by telephone. Focus groups were held before and after the educational modules, with deductive mapping of themes to the Theory of Planned Behaviour and inductive analysis of additional themes. Results: Five themes and 22 subcategories emerged from the deductive-inductive focus group content analysis. After participating in the educational modules, students reported gaining knowledge about SMS and highlighted the lack of similar preparation during their academic courses. Nonetheless, they were hesitant to adopt SMS. Conclusion: Future clinicians gained knowledge and skills after being exposed to SMS courses, but their intention to adopt SMS in their future daily practice remained low. We also noted a lack of formal training in SMS in the academic setting. The findings from this study support incorporating SMS training into the curriculum, but to increase students' intention to use SMS as part of patient care, training may need to be in more depth than it was in the modules we used.

  8. Bacterial disease management: challenges, experience, innovation and future prospects: Challenges in Bacterial Molecular Plant Pathology.

    PubMed

    Sundin, George W; Castiblanco, Luisa F; Yuan, Xiaochen; Zeng, Quan; Yang, Ching-Hong

    2016-12-01

    Plant diseases caused by bacterial pathogens place major constraints on crop production and cause significant annual losses on a global scale. The attainment of consistent effective management of these diseases can be extremely difficult, and management potential is often affected by grower reliance on highly disease-susceptible cultivars because of consumer preferences, and by environmental conditions favouring pathogen development. New and emerging bacterial disease problems (e.g. zebra chip of potato) and established problems in new geographical regions (e.g. bacterial canker of kiwifruit in New Zealand) grab the headlines, but the list of bacterial disease problems with few effective management options is long. The ever-increasing global human population requires the continued stable production of a safe food supply with greater yields because of the shrinking areas of arable land. One major facet in the maintenance of the sustainability of crop production systems with predictable yields involves the identification and deployment of sustainable disease management solutions for bacterial diseases. In addition, the identification of novel management tactics has also come to the fore because of the increasing evolution of resistance to existing bactericides. A number of central research foci, involving basic research to identify critical pathogen targets for control, novel methodologies and methods of delivery, are emerging that will provide a strong basis for bacterial disease management into the future. Near-term solutions are desperately needed. Are there replacement materials for existing bactericides that can provide effective disease management under field conditions? Experience should inform the future. With prior knowledge of bactericide resistance issues evolving in pathogens, how will this affect the deployment of newer compounds and biological controls? Knowledge is critical. A comprehensive understanding of bacterial pathosystems is required to not

  9. Landfill taxes and Enhanced Waste Management: Combining valuable practices with respect to future waste streams.

    PubMed

    Hoogmartens, Rob; Eyckmans, Johan; Van Passel, Steven

    2016-09-01

    Both landfill taxes and Enhanced Waste Management (EWM) practices can mitigate the scarcity issue of landfill capacity by respectively reducing landfilled waste volumes and valorising future waste streams. However, high landfill taxes might erode incentives for EWM, even though EWM creates value by valorising waste. Concentrating on Flanders (Belgium), the paper applies dynamic optimisation modelling techniques to analyse how landfill taxation and EWM can reinforce each other and how taxation schemes can be adjusted in order to foster sustainable and welfare maximising ways of processing future waste streams. Based on the Flemish simulation results, insights are offered that are generally applicable in international waste and resource management policy. As shown, the optimal Flemish landfill tax that optimises welfare in the no EWM scenario is higher than the one in the EWM scenario (93 against €50/ton). This difference should create incentives for applying EWM and is driven by the positive external effects that are generated by EWM practices. In Flanders, as the current landfill tax is slightly lower than these optimal levels, the choice that can be made is to further increase taxation levels or show complete commitment to EWM. A first generally applicable insight that was found points to the fact that it is not necessarily the case that the higher the landfill tax, the more effective waste management improvements can be realised. Other insights are about providing sufficient incentives for applying EMW practices and formulating appropriate pleas in support of technological development. By these insights, this paper should provide relevant information that can assist in triggering the transition towards a resource-efficient, circular economy in Europe.

  10. Assessment of future physicians on biomedical waste management in a tertiary care hospital of West Bengal.

    PubMed

    Basu, Mausumi; Das, Palash; Pal, Ranabir

    2012-01-01

    One-fourths of the biomedical waste (BMW) is regarded as hazardous with the potential for significant health concern for both medical personnel and general community. So, awareness about various aspects of BMW management is required and it was assessed among junior doctors in a tertiary care hospital. To assess the knowledge and awareness about various aspects of BMW management among junior doctors (future physicians) and thus help the authority to develop the strategy for improving the situation in future. In this descriptive observational study, we interviewed 200 junior doctors of a tertiary care hospital of Kolkata using a pre-designed pre-tested self-administered, semi-structured, anonymous questionnaire. Majority of the participants were in the age group of 22 to 24 years (62%), males (66.5%), hostelites (70.2%), belonged to nuclear family (80.1%), and had per capita monthly family income in the range of Rs 5 000 to 20 000 (61.4%). Almost all respondents (99.1%) heard about BMW, 94.4% heard about the BMW rule 1998, and 67.9% knew about the Bio Hazard symbol. Only 55.9% respondents could remember the ten category of BMW. Segregation at source (the golden rule of BMW) was known by 78.8% of the junior doctors, only 29.5% had the knowledge of various methods of final disposal of BMW. Though 98.8% of the study population was aware that improper management of BMW causes different health problems, only 76.4% knew about various types of color-coded bags for collection of BMW. All the junior doctors were trained in all these essential aspects of BMW in their undergraduate curriculum. Still, intensive training program and monitoring at regular time interval is needed for all staff, with special emphasis on junior doctors.

  11. Assessment of future physicians on biomedical waste management in a tertiary care hospital of West Bengal

    PubMed Central

    Basu, Mausumi; Das, Palash; Pal, Ranabir

    2012-01-01

    Background: One-fourths of the biomedical waste (BMW) is regarded as hazardous with the potential for significant health concern for both medical personnel and general community. So, awareness about various aspects of BMW management is required and it was assessed among junior doctors in a tertiary care hospital. Objectives: To assess the knowledge and awareness about various aspects of BMW management among junior doctors (future physicians) and thus help the authority to develop the strategy for improving the situation in future. Materials and methods: In this descriptive observational study, we interviewed 200 junior doctors of a tertiary care hospital of Kolkata using a pre-designed pre-tested self-administered, semi-structured, anonymous questionnaire. Results: Majority of the participants were in the age group of 22 to 24 years (62%), males (66.5%), hostelites (70.2%), belonged to nuclear family (80.1%), and had per capita monthly family income in the range of Rs 5 000 to 20 000 (61.4%). Almost all respondents (99.1%) heard about BMW, 94.4% heard about the BMW rule 1998, and 67.9% knew about the Bio Hazard symbol. Only 55.9% respondents could remember the ten category of BMW. Segregation at source (the golden rule of BMW) was known by 78.8% of the junior doctors, only 29.5% had the knowledge of various methods of final disposal of BMW. Though 98.8% of the study population was aware that improper management of BMW causes different health problems, only 76.4% knew about various types of color-coded bags for collection of BMW. All the junior doctors were trained in all these essential aspects of BMW in their undergraduate curriculum. Conclusion: Still, intensive training program and monitoring at regular time interval is needed for all staff, with special emphasis on junior doctors. PMID:22690049

  12. Treatment of Thrombotic Antiphospholipid Syndrome: The Rationale of Current Management-An Insight into Future Approaches.

    PubMed

    Chighizola, Cecilia Beatrice; Ubiali, Tania; Meroni, Pier Luigi

    2015-01-01

    Vascular thrombosis and pregnancy morbidity represent the clinical manifestations of antiphospholipid syndrome (APS), which is serologically characterized by the persistent positivity of antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL). Antiplatelet and anticoagulant agents currently provide the mainstay of APS treatment. However, the debate is still open: controversies involve the intensity and the duration of anticoagulation and the treatment of stroke and refractory cases. Unfortunately, the literature cannot provide definite answers to these controversial issues as it is flawed by many limitations, mainly due to the recruitment of patients not fulfilling laboratory and clinical criteria for APS. The recommended therapeutic management of different aPL-related clinical manifestations is hereby presented, with a critical appraisal of the evidence supporting such approaches. Cutting edge therapeutic strategies are also discussed, presenting the pioneer reports about the efficacy of novel pharmacological agents in APS. Thanks to a better understanding of aPL pathogenic mechanisms, new therapeutic targets will soon be explored. Much work is still to be done to unravel the most controversial issues about APS management: future studies are warranted to define the optimal management according to aPL risk profile and to assess the impact of a strict control of cardiovascular risk factors on disease control.

  13. Current and future management of NK/T-cell lymphoma based on clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Motoko

    2012-11-01

    Recently reported results of well-designed prospective clinical trials for extranodal NK/T-cell lymphoma, nasal type (ENKL) have rapidly changed the management of ENKL. This review will focus on the evidence obtained from prospective clinical trials for ENKL and discuss the most highly recommended current management and future directions for the better management of ENKL. For patients with nasal NK/T-cell lymphoma of stage IE or contiguous stage IIE with cervical node involvement, concurrent chemoradiotherapy with radiotherapy (RT) and a two-thirds dose of DeVIC chemotherapy is recommended as a first-line treatment. To obtain the expected clinical outcome, performing RT following the same procedure as that reported is important. For the other patients with newly diagnosed ENKL, SMILE chemotherapy is recommended as an induction therapy. The Epstein-Barr virus DNA load in peripheral blood is useful for both prognostication and monitoring during the follow-up after treatment. Other L-asparaginase-containing chemotherapies and chemotherapies containing non-multidrug resistance-related agents and etoposide are good options for elderly patients or patients with impaired organ function. As in the cases of other aggressive lymphomas, prospective clinical trials with adequate statistical considerations should be conducted to improve the prognosis of patients with ENKL.

  14. Modelling Coral Reef Futures to Inform Management: Can Reducing Local-Scale Stressors Conserve Reefs under Climate Change?

    PubMed Central

    Gurney, Georgina G.; Melbourne-Thomas, Jessica; Geronimo, Rollan C.; Aliño, Perry M.; Johnson, Craig R.

    2013-01-01

    Climate change has emerged as a principal threat to coral reefs, and is expected to exacerbate coral reef degradation caused by more localised stressors. Management of local stressors is widely advocated to bolster coral reef resilience, but the extent to which management of local stressors might affect future trajectories of reef state remains unclear. This is in part because of limited understanding of the cumulative impact of multiple stressors. Models are ideal tools to aid understanding of future reef state under alternative management and climatic scenarios, but to date few have been sufficiently developed to be useful as decision support tools for local management of coral reefs subject to multiple stressors. We used a simulation model of coral reefs to investigate the extent to which the management of local stressors (namely poor water quality and fishing) might influence future reef state under varying climatic scenarios relating to coral bleaching. We parameterised the model for Bolinao, the Philippines, and explored how simulation modelling can be used to provide decision support for local management. We found that management of water quality, and to a lesser extent fishing, can have a significant impact on future reef state, including coral recovery following bleaching-induced mortality. The stressors we examined interacted antagonistically to affect reef state, highlighting the importance of considering the combined impact of multiple stressors rather than considering them individually. Further, by providing explicit guidance for management of Bolinao's reef system, such as which course of management action will most likely to be effective over what time scales and at which sites, we demonstrated the utility of simulation models for supporting management. Aside from providing explicit guidance for management of Bolinao's reef system, our study offers insights which could inform reef management more broadly, as well as general understanding of reef

  15. Modelling coral reef futures to inform management: can reducing local-scale stressors conserve reefs under climate change?

    PubMed

    Gurney, Georgina G; Melbourne-Thomas, Jessica; Geronimo, Rollan C; Aliño, Perry M; Johnson, Craig R

    2013-01-01

    Climate change has emerged as a principal threat to coral reefs, and is expected to exacerbate coral reef degradation caused by more localised stressors. Management of local stressors is widely advocated to bolster coral reef resilience, but the extent to which management of local stressors might affect future trajectories of reef state remains unclear. This is in part because of limited understanding of the cumulative impact of multiple stressors. Models are ideal tools to aid understanding of future reef state under alternative management and climatic scenarios, but to date few have been sufficiently developed to be useful as decision support tools for local management of coral reefs subject to multiple stressors. We used a simulation model of coral reefs to investigate the extent to which the management of local stressors (namely poor water quality and fishing) might influence future reef state under varying climatic scenarios relating to coral bleaching. We parameterised the model for Bolinao, the Philippines, and explored how simulation modelling can be used to provide decision support for local management. We found that management of water quality, and to a lesser extent fishing, can have a significant impact on future reef state, including coral recovery following bleaching-induced mortality. The stressors we examined interacted antagonistically to affect reef state, highlighting the importance of considering the combined impact of multiple stressors rather than considering them individually. Further, by providing explicit guidance for management of Bolinao's reef system, such as which course of management action will most likely to be effective over what time scales and at which sites, we demonstrated the utility of simulation models for supporting management. Aside from providing explicit guidance for management of Bolinao's reef system, our study offers insights which could inform reef management more broadly, as well as general understanding of reef

  16. An approach for the anticipatory and participatory management of current and future flood risks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luther, J.

    2012-04-01

    concepts and the application of respective techniques are thus reviewed and incorporated with regard to their suitability for an integrated management of current and future flood risks. In particular, "hybrid scenarios" with qualitative and quantitative components represented by nested models as well as assumptions across different spatiotemporal scales, respectively, are suggested for dealing with the uncertainties when assessing flood risks throughout a system's possible evolution. The (initially top-down developed) approach and its components will be briefly presented. These "scenario products" could later serve as a stimulus for discussions that bring together different actors and enhance - and eventually legitimise - the scenarios further in a "scenario process": (1) A first step is the conceptualisation of a flood risk system following the SPRC-model. Its physical geographical and anthropogenic factors may either be subject to autonomous trends, target-oriented control, or facultative system behaviour (e.g. dike breaches). With this concept, the integration of different processes and scales is aspired. (2) Secondly, it is conceptually shown how the risk cascade for present and future states of the flood risk system can be calculated based on coupled models ranging from climate change projections to a damage simulation models. (3) Thirdly, ways to develop socioeconomic storylines for the development frameworks and guiding principles for the strategic alternatives are presented and the futures are combined. This involves making plausible and consistent assumptions for many system factors and their drivers and finding ways to harmonise existing data for the same areas and time steps. (4) Fourthly, selected futures can be analysed and evaluated ex ante applying the coupled models of the second step to derive the emerging flood risks. The evaluation addresses, amongst other aspects, the identification of (i) the sensitivity of all scenarios against the current strategic

  17. Social-ecological interactions, management panaceas, and the future of wild fish populations

    PubMed Central

    van Poorten, Brett T.; Arlinghaus, Robert; Daedlow, Katrin; Haertel-Borer, Susanne S.

    2011-01-01

    We explored the social and ecological outcomes associated with emergence of a management panacea designed to govern a stochastic renewable natural resource. To that end, we constructed a model of a coupled social-ecological system of recreational fisheries in which a manager supports naturally fluctuating stocks by stocking fish in response to harvest-driven satisfaction of resource users. The realistic assumption of users remembering past harvest experiences when exploiting a stochastically fluctuating fish population facilitates the emergence of a stocking-based management panacea over time. The social benefits of panacea formation involve dampening natural population fluctuations and generating stability of user satisfaction. It also maintains the resource but promotes the eventual replacement of wild fish by hatchery-descended fish. Our analyses show this outcome is particularly likely when hatchery-descended fish are reasonably fit (e.g., characterized by similar survival relative to wild fish) and/or when natural recruitment of the wild population is low (e.g., attributable to habitat deterioration), which leaves the wild population with little buffer against competition by stocked fish. The potential for release-based panacea formation is particularly likely under user-based management regimes and should be common in a range of social-ecological systems (e.g., fisheries, forestry), whenever user groups are entitled to engage in release or replanting strategies. The net result will be the preservation of a renewable resource through user-based incentives, but the once natural populations are likely to be altered and to host nonnative genotypes. This risks other ecosystem services and the future of wild populations. PMID:21742983

  18. Data Management and Science at DOE BES User Facilities Past, Present, and Future

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, Stephen D; Herwig, Kenneth W; Ren, Shelly; Vazhkudai, Sudharshan S; Jemian, Dr. Pete R; Luitz, Steffen; Salnikov, Andrei; Gaponenko, Igor; Proffen, Thomas; Lewis, Paul; Hagen, Mark E

    2009-06-01

    The primary mission of user facilities operated by Basic Energy Sciences under the Department of Energy is to produce data for users in support of open science and basic research. We trace back almost 30 years of history across selected user facilities illustrating the evolution of facility data management practices and how these practices have related to performing scientific research. The facilities cover multiple techniques such as X-ray and neutron scattering, imaging and tomography sciences. Over time, detector and data acquisition technologies have dramatically increased the ability to produce prolific volumes of data challenging the traditional paradigm of users taking data home upon completion of their experiments to process and publish their results. During this time, computing capacity has also increased dramatically, though the size of the data has grown significantly faster than the capacity of one's laptop to manage and process this new facility produced data. Trends indicate that this will continue to be the case for yet some time. Thus users face a quandary for how to manage today's data complexity and size as these may exceed the computing resources users have available to themselves. This same quandary can also stifle collaboration and sharing. Realizing this, some facilities are already providing web portal access to data and computing thereby providing users access to resources they need. Portal based computing is now driving researchers to think about how to use the data collected at multiple facilities in an integrated way to perform their research, and also how to collaborate and share data. In the future, inter-facility data management systems will enable next tier cross-instrument-cross facility scientific research fuelled by smart applications residing upon user computer resources. We can learn from the medical imaging community that has been working since the early 1990's to integrate data from across multiple modalities to achieve better

  19. Evaluating watershed service availability under future management and climate change scenarios in the Pangani Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Notter, Benedikt; Hurni, Hans; Wiesmann, Urs; Ngana, James O.

    Watershed services are the benefits people obtain from the flow of water through a watershed. While demand for such services is increasing in most parts of the world, supply is getting more insecure due to human impacts on ecosystems such as climate or land use change. Population and water management authorities therefore require information on the potential availability of watershed services in the future and the trade-offs involved. In this study, the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) is used to model watershed service availability for future management and climate change scenarios in the East African Pangani Basin. In order to quantify actual “benefits”, SWAT2005 was slightly modified, calibrated and configured at the required spatial and temporal resolution so that simulated water resources and processes could be characterized based on their valuation by stakeholders and their accessibility. The calibrated model was then used to evaluate three management and three climate scenarios. The results show that by the year 2025, not primarily the physical availability of water, but access to water resources and efficiency of use represent the greatest challenges. Water to cover basic human needs is available at least 95% of time but must be made accessible to the population through investments in distribution infrastructure. Concerning the trade-off between agricultural use and hydropower production, there is virtually no potential for an increase in hydropower even if it is given priority. Agriculture will necessarily expand spatially as a result of population growth, and can even benefit from higher irrigation water availability per area unit, given improved irrigation efficiency and enforced regulation to ensure equitable distribution of available water. The decline in services from natural terrestrial ecosystems (e.g. charcoal, food), due to the expansion of agriculture, increases the vulnerability of residents who depend on such services mostly in times

  20. Weeds in a Changing Climate: Vulnerabilities, Consequences, and Implications for Future Weed Management

    PubMed Central

    Ramesh, Kulasekaran; Matloob, Amar; Aslam, Farhena; Florentine, Singarayer K.; Chauhan, Bhagirath S.

    2017-01-01

    role in developing future management programs for future weed threats. This review has presented a comprehensive discussion of the recent research in this area, and has identified key deficiencies which need further research in crop-weed eco-systems to formulate suitable control measures before the real impacts of climate change set in. PMID:28243245

  1. Weeds in a Changing Climate: Vulnerabilities, Consequences, and Implications for Future Weed Management.

    PubMed

    Ramesh, Kulasekaran; Matloob, Amar; Aslam, Farhena; Florentine, Singarayer K; Chauhan, Bhagirath S

    2017-01-01

    role in developing future management programs for future weed threats. This review has presented a comprehensive discussion of the recent research in this area, and has identified key deficiencies which need further research in crop-weed eco-systems to formulate suitable control measures before the real impacts of climate change set in.

  2. Management of posterior uveal melanoma: past, present, and future: the 2014 Charles L. Schepens lecture.

    PubMed

    Shields, Jerry A; Shields, Carol L

    2015-02-01

    To review the management of ciliary body and choroidal melanoma (posterior uveal melanoma [PUM]) over the last century with an emphasis on changing concepts. Retrospective review. Review of personal experience over 40 years and pertinent literature on management of PUM. Diagnosis and therapy for PUM. Patient survival. In the early 1900s, most patients presented with a large symptomatic melanoma that necessitated enucleation, and the systemic prognosis was poor. In the 1970s, controversy erupted regarding the role of enucleation for PUM. Some authorities advocated prompt enucleation, and others proposed that enucleation promoted metastasis, known as the "Zimmerman hypothesis." Others recommended observation, withholding treatment until tumor growth was documented. During the 1970s, there was a trend toward eye-saving procedures, including laser photocoagulation, surgical removal of tumor, and techniques of radiotherapy. Despite local treatment success, systemic prognosis remained guarded with approximately 40% mortality overall. However, there was convincing evidence that smaller tumors offered a significantly better prognosis. Currently, there is a movement toward earlier identification and treatment of small melanomas using clinical factors predictive of malignant potential, in keeping with similar philosophy regarding other cancers. Further understanding of melanoma cytogenetics and molecular pathways have helped to recognize patients at risk for metastasis. At-risk patients are offered systemic therapeutic trials to prevent metastasis. We anticipate that the future management of PUM will focus on detection of clinical and imaging clues for earliest diagnosis, prompt local tumor treatment, and systemic targeted therapies for microscopic metastasis or prevention of metastasis. Personalized evaluation of patient-specific melanoma molecular pathway signature could allow for therapeutic intervention at a site specific to the pathway abnormality that leads to the

  3. Recent Developments in Neurofibromatoses and RASopathies: Management, Diagnosis and Current and Future Therapeutic Avenues

    PubMed Central

    Rauen, Katherine A.; Huson, Susan M.; Burkitt-Wright, Emma; Evans, D Gareth; Farschtschi, Said; Ferner, Rosalie E; Gutmann, David H.; Hanemann, C Oliver; Kerr, Bronwyn; Legius, Eric; Parada, Luis F; Patton, Michael; Peltonen, Juha; Ratner, Nancy; Riccardi, Vincent M.; van der Vaart, Thijs; Vikkula, Miikka; Viskochil, David H.; Zenker, Martin; Upadhyaya, Meena

    2014-01-01

    Neurofibromatosis type 1 was the first RASopathy and is now one of many RASopathies that are caused by germline mutations in genes that encode components of the Ras/mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway. Their common underlying pathogenetic etiology causes significant overlap in phenotypic features which includes craniofacial dysmorphology, cardiac, cutaneous, musculoskeletal, GI and ocular abnormalities, and a predisposition to cancer. The proceedings from the symposium “Recent Developments in Neurofibromatoses and RASopathies: Management, Diagnosis and Current and Future Therapeutic Avenues” chronicle this timely and topical clinical translational research symposium. The overarching goal was to bring together clinicians, basic scientists, physician-scientists, advocate leaders, trainees, students and individuals with Ras pathway syndromes to discuss the most state-of-the-art basic science and clinical issues in an effort to spark collaborations directed towards the best practices and therapies for individuals with RASopathies. PMID:25393061

  4. Recent developments in neurofibromatoses and RASopathies: management, diagnosis and current and future therapeutic avenues.

    PubMed

    Rauen, Katherine A; Huson, Susan M; Burkitt-Wright, Emma; Evans, D Gareth; Farschtschi, Said; Ferner, Rosalie E; Gutmann, David H; Hanemann, C Oliver; Kerr, Bronwyn; Legius, Eric; Parada, Luis F; Patton, Michael; Peltonen, Juha; Ratner, Nancy; Riccardi, Vincent M; van der Vaart, Thijs; Vikkula, Miikka; Viskochil, David H; Zenker, Martin; Upadhyaya, Meena

    2015-01-01

    Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) was the first RASopathy and is now one of many RASopathies that are caused by germline mutations in genes that encode components of the Ras/mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway. Their common underlying pathogenetic etiology causes significant overlap in phenotypic features which includes craniofacial dysmorphology, cardiac, cutaneous, musculoskeletal, GI and ocular abnormalities, and a predisposition to cancer. The proceedings from the symposium "Recent Developments in Neurofibromatoses (NF) and RASopathies: Management, Diagnosis and Current and Future Therapeutic Avenues" chronicle this timely and topical clinical translational research symposium. The overarching goal was to bring together clinicians, basic scientists, physician-scientists, advocate leaders, trainees, students and individuals with Ras pathway syndromes to discuss the most state-of-the-art basic science and clinical issues in an effort to spark collaborations directed towards the best practices and therapies for individuals with RASopathies. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Aggression in Tephritidae Flies: Where, When, Why? Future Directions for Research in Integrated Pest Management.

    PubMed

    Benelli, Giovanni

    2014-12-30

    True fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) include over 4000 species, many of which constitute enormous threats to fruit and vegetable production worldwide. A number of Tephritidae are lekking species, forming aggregations in which males fight to defend a small territory where they court females and mate. Male-male contests also occur in non-lekking species, characterized by resource defense polygyny. Tephritidae females display agonistic behavior to maintain single oviposition sites and reduce larval competition for food. Here, how, where, when and why aggressive interactions occur in Tephritidae flies is reviewed. A number of neglected issues deserving further research are highlighted, with a special focus on diel periodicity of aggression, cues evoking aggressive behavior, the role of previous experience on fighting success and the evolution of behavioral lateralization of aggressive displays. In the final section, future directions to exploit this knowledge in Integrated Pest Management, with particular emphasis on enhancement of Sterile Insect Technique and interspecific competitive displacement in the field are suggested.

  6. ALARA database value in future outage work planning and dose management

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, D.W.; Green, W.H.

    1995-03-01

    ALARA database encompassing job-specific duration and man-rem plant specific information over three refueling outages represents an invaluable tool for the outage work planner and ALARA engineer. This paper describes dose-management trends emerging based on analysis of three refueling outages at Clinton Power Station. Conclusions reached based on hard data available from a relational database dose-tracking system is a valuable tool for planning of future outage work. The system`s ability to identify key problem areas during a refueling outage is improving as more outage comparative data becomes available. Trends over a three outage period are identified in this paper in the categories of number and type of radiation work permits implemented, duration of jobs, projected vs. actual dose rates in work areas, and accuracy of outage person-rem projection. The value of the database in projecting 1 and 5 year station person-rem estimates is discussed.

  7. Human decision making in future ATC systems comparative studies in distributed traffic management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kreifeldt, J. G.; Wempe, T. E.

    1974-01-01

    Seven different human-centered alternatives for distributing traffic management responsibility between air and ground in the terminal area were simulated and evaluated at NASA-Ames Research Center in the man-machine integration branch. The alternatives differed in three divisions of decision-making responsibility ranging from completely ground-centered to completely air-centered and in the amount of information presented to the pilots via traffic situation displays (TSD). Objective, verbal and subjective measures of system performance, workloads, preferences, etc., were obtained. Based on the task and corresponding measures, the ground-centered (vectoring) alternative was the least favorable. Best overall performance was achieved and preferred with a moderate division of responsibility in which controllers issued sequence order only and pilots used a TSD with 30 sec path predictors on their own aircraft. Speculations on the use of the results in context of a ground-centralized system failure and for future ATC systems are presented.

  8. Aeronautical Communications Research and Development Needs for Future Air Traffic Management Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kerczewski, Robert J.

    2002-01-01

    Continuing growth in regional and global air travel has resulted in increasing traffic congestion in the air and on the ground. In spite of occasional temporary downturns due to economic recessions and catastrophic events, average growth rates of air travel have remained high since the 1960s. The resulting congestion, which constrains expansion of the air transportation industry, inflicts schedule delays and decreases overall system efficiency, creating a pressing need to develop more efficient methods of air traffic management (ATM). New ATM techniques, procedures, air space automation methods, and decision support tools are being researched and developed for deployment in time frames stretching from the next few years to the year 2020 and beyond. As these methods become more advanced and increase in complexity, the requirements for information generation, sharing and transfer among the relevant entities in the ATM system increase dramatically. However, current aeronautical communications systems will be inadequate to meet the future information transfer demands created by these advanced ATM systems. Therefore, the NASA Glenn Research Center is undertaking research programs to develop communication, methods and key technologies that can meet these future requirements. As part of this process, studies, workshops, testing and experimentation, and research and analysis have established a number of research and technology development needs. The purpose of this paper is to outline the critical research and technology needs that have been identified in these activities, and explain how these needs have been determined.

  9. The past, present, and future of U.S. utility demand-side management programs

    SciTech Connect

    Eto, J.

    1996-12-01

    Demand-side management or DSM refers to active efforts by electric and gas utilities to modify customers` energy use patterns. The experience in the US shows that utilities, when provided with appropriate incentives, can provide a powerful stimulus to energy efficiency in the private sector. This paper describes the range and history of DSM programs offered by US electric utilities, with a focus on the political, economic, and regulatory events that have shaped their evolution. It also describes the changes these programs are undergoing as a result of US electricity industry restructuring. DSM programs began modestly in the 1970s in response to growing concerns about dependence on foreign sources of oil and environmental consequences of electricity generation, especially nuclear power. The foundation for the unique US partnership between government and utility interests can be traced first to the private-ownership structure of the vertically integrated electricity industry and second to the monopoly franchise granted by state regulators. Electricity industry restructuring calls into question both of these basic conditions, and thus the future of utility DSM programs for the public interest. Future policies guiding ratepayer-funded energy-efficiency DSM programs will need to pay close attention to the specific market objectives of the programs and to the balance between public and private interests.

  10. Physical Activity as a Nonpharmacological Symptom Management Approach in Myeloproliferative Neoplasms: Recommendations for Future Research.

    PubMed

    Eckert, Ryan; Huberty, Jennifer; Gowin, Krisstina; Mesa, Ruben; Marks, Lisa

    2016-07-24

    Essential thrombocythemia, polycythemia vera, and myelofibrosis are rare chronic hematological malignancies known as myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs) and are characterized by deregulated myeloid lineage cell production, splenomegaly, and heterogeneous symptom profiles. MPN patients suffer from a significant symptom burden (eg, fatigue, depressive symptoms, early satiety) and an impaired overall quality of life (QoL). Current treatments typically include pharmacological approaches, which may come with additional side effects and may be limited by treatment-associated toxicities (ie, cytopenias). Nonpharmacological approaches such as physical activity may be beneficial for reducing symptom burden and improving QoL. To date, no studies have examined physical activity as a nonpharmacological approach in MPN patients despite preliminary evidence supporting its benefit in other hematological cancers. The purpose of this article is to (1) review the literature related to physical activity and specific hematological cancer subtypes and to (2) make suggestions for future research involving physical activity in MPN patients as a symptom management strategy. A brief review of studies examining physical activity in leukemias, lymphomas, and myelomas (excluding stem-cell transplant patients) was conducted. There is preliminary evidence to suggest that physical activity may be an effective approach to improve patient-reported outcomes (fatigue, depression, anxiety, sleep), physical fitness (cardiovascular fitness, balance, body composition), and overall QoL in other hematological cancers. Based on encouraging findings in other hematological cancers, future research should examine the feasibility and effectiveness of physical activity in MPN patients. © The Author(s) 2016.

  11. Revisiting extreme storms of the past 100 years for future safety of large water management infrastructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xiaodong; Hossain, Faisal

    2016-07-01

    Historical extreme storm events are widely used to make Probable Maximum Precipitation (PMP) estimates, which form the cornerstone of large water management infrastructure safety. Past studies suggest that extreme precipitation processes can be sensitive to land surface feedback and the planetary warming trend, which makes the future safety of large infrastructures questionable given the projected changes in land cover and temperature in the coming decades. In this study, a numerical modeling framework was employed to reconstruct 10 extreme storms over CONUS that occurred during the past 100 years, which are used by the engineering profession for PMP estimation for large infrastructures such as dams. Results show that the correlation in daily rainfall for such reconstruction can range between 0.4 and 0.7, while the correlation for maximum 3-day accumulation (a standard period used in infrastructure design) is always above 0.5 for post-1948 storms. This suggests that current numerical modeling and reanalysis data allow us to reconstruct big storms after 1948 with acceptable accuracy. For storms prior to 1948, however, reconstruction of storms shows inconsistency with observations. Our study indicates that numerical modeling and data may not have advanced to a sufficient level to understand how such old storms (pre-1948) may behave in future warming and land cover conditions. However, the infrastructure community can certainly rely on the use of model reconstructed extreme storms of the 1948-present period to reassess safety of our large water infrastructures under assumed changes in temperature and land cover.

  12. Scenarios of Future Water use on Mediterranean Islands based on an Integrated Assessment of Water Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lange, M. A.

    2006-12-01

    The availability of water in sufficient quantities and adequate quality presents considerable problems on Mediterranean islands. Because of their isolation and thus the impossibility to draw on more distant or more divers aquifers, they rely entirely on precipitation as natural replenishing mechanism. Recent observations indicate decreasing precipitation, increasing evaporation and steadily growing demand for water on the islands. Future climate change will exacerbate this problem, thus increasing the already pertinent vulnerability to droughts. Responsible planning of water management strategies requires scenarios of future supply and demand through an integrated assessment including climate scenarios based on regional climate modeling as well as scenarios on changes in societal and economical determinants of water demand. Constructing such strategies necessitates a thorough understanding about the interdependencies and feedbacks between physical/hydrological and socio-economic determinants of water balances on an island. This has to be based on a solid understanding of past and present developments of these drivers. In the framework of the EU-funded MEDIS project (Towards sustainable water use on Mediterranean Islands: addressing conflicting demands and varying hydrological, social and economic conditions, EVK1-CT-2001-00092), detailed investigations on present vulnerabilities and adaptation strategies to droughts have been carried out on Mallorca, Corsica, Sicily, Crete and Cyprus. This was based on an interdisciplinary study design including hydrological, geophysical, agricultural-, social and political sciences investigations. A central element of the study has been the close interaction with stakeholders on the islands and their contribution to strategy formulation. An important result has been a specification of vulnerability components including: a physical/environmental-, an economical/regulatory- and a social/institutional/political component. Their

  13. Potential Effects of Future Climate Change on the Bioclimatic Habitat of Ecoregions and Managed Lands in Oregon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shafer, S. L.; Saltré, F.; Bartlein, P. J.

    2011-12-01

    Conservation and natural resource managers need information on the potential effects of climate change for the species and ecosystems they manage. We evaluated potential future changes in climate and bioclimatic habitat for ecoregions (as defined by The Nature Conservancy) and managed areas (e.g., national parks) in Oregon, USA. We used future climate simulations for the 21st century from the World Climate Research Programme's Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 3 (CMIP3) data set that were produced under the A2 greenhouse gases emissions scenario by three coupled atmosphere-ocean general circulation models (CCSM3, CGCM3.1(T47), UKMO-HadCM3). Projected future climate anomalies were interpolated using geographic-distance-weighted bilinear interpolation to a 30-arc-second (~1-km) grid encompassing the state of Oregon. The interpolated anomalies were applied to 1961-1990 30-year mean climate data (PRISM Climate Group, Oregon State Univ.). Bioclimatic variables (e.g., growing degree days) were calculated using the interpolated climate data and soil data from the CONUS-Soil data set (Miller and White 1998). We chose bioclimatic variables that represent important physiological and environmental limits for Oregon species and habitats of management concern. Maps and multivariate descriptive plots were used to evaluate the direction, magnitude, and spatial patterns of projected future climate and bioclimatic changes. The results indicate which ecoregions and managed areas would experience the largest climate and bioclimatic changes under each of the potential future climate simulations.

  14. Clinical applications, limitations and future role of transient elastography in the management of liver disease.

    PubMed

    Chang, Pik Eu; Goh, George Boon-Bee; Ngu, Jing Hieng; Tan, Hiang Keat; Tan, Chee Kiat

    2016-02-06

    Transient elastography (TE) is a reliable tool for the non-invasive assessment of liver fibrosis in routine clinical practice. TE is currently approved for use in Europe, Asia and the United States. The widespread adoption of this technology is certain to increase the use of TE worldwide. Although TE has been well validated in chronic viral hepatitis, its clinical role in other liver diseases remains less clear. The advent of new treatment for chronic hepatitis C and emerging prevalence of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis raises new questions on the role of TE in current clinical practice. This review aims to examine the clinical applications, limitations and future role of TE in current clinical practice in light of the changing epidemiology of liver diseases and new clinical management paradigms. In current clinical practice, TE is the most accurate non-invasive method for diagnosis of liver cirrhosis. TE is useful to rule out fibrosis and cirrhosis but does not have sufficient accuracy to discern between various stages of fibrosis. The clinical role of TE has evolved from cross-sectional point-in-time assessment of fibrosis and cirrhosis to the more relevant role of prediction of vital clinical end-points. This provides clinicians with the ability to modify treatment strategies based on the information provided by TE. TE has evolved over the past decade to become an essential tool to assist the clinician in the management of chronic liver disease.

  15. Identification of stakeholder perspectives on future flood management in the Rhine basin using Q methodology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raadgever, G. T.; Mostert, E.; van de Giesen, N. C.

    2008-08-01

    This article identifies different stakeholder perspectives on future flood management in the downstream parts of the Rhine basin in Germany and The Netherlands. The perspectives were identified using Q methodology, which proved to be a good, but time-intensive, method for eliciting and analyzing stakeholder perspectives in a structured and unbiased way. Three shared perspectives were found: A) "Anticipation and institutions", B) "Space for flooding" and C) "Knowledge and engineering". These three perspectives share a central concern for the provision of safety against flooding, but disagree on the expected autonomous developments and the preferred measures. In perspective A, the expected climate change and economic growth call for fast action. To deal with the increasing flood risk, mostly institutional measures are proposed, such as the development of a stronger basin commission. In perspective B, an increasing spatial pressure on the river area is expected, and the proposed measures are focused on mitigating damage, e.g., through controlled flooding and compartmentalization. In perspective C, the role of expert knowledge and technological improvements is emphasized. Preferred strategies include strengthening the dikes and differentiation of safety standards. An overview of stakeholder perspectives can be useful in natural resources management for 1) setting the research agenda, 2) identifying differences in values and interests that need to be discussed, 3) creating awareness among a broad range of stakeholders, and 4) developing scenarios.

  16. Severe asthma: Current management, targeted therapies and future directions-A roundtable report.

    PubMed

    McDonald, Vanessa M; Maltby, Steven; Reddel, Helen K; King, Gregory G; Wark, Peter A B; Smith, Lorraine; Upham, John W; James, Alan L; Marks, Guy B; Gibson, Peter G

    2017-01-01

    Asthma is a chronic respiratory disease characterized by respiratory symptoms, airway inflammation, airway obstruction and airway hyper-responsiveness. Asthma is common and directly affects 10% of Australians, 1-5% of adults in Asia and 300 million people worldwide. It is a heterogeneous disorder with many clinical, molecular, biological and pathophysiological phenotypes. Current management strategies successfully treat the majority of patients with asthma who have access to them. However, there is a subset of an estimated 5-10% of patients with asthma who have severe disease and are disproportionately impacted by symptoms, exacerbations and overall illness burden. The care required for this relatively small proportion of patients is also significant and has a major impact on the healthcare system. A number of new therapies that hold promise for severe asthma are currently in clinical trials or are entering the Australian and international market. However, recognition of severe asthma in clinical practice is variable, and there is little consensus on the best models of care or how to integrate emerging and often costly therapies into current practice. In this article, we report on roundtable discussions held with severe asthma experts from around Australia, and make recommendations about approaches for better patient diagnosis and assessment. We assess current models of care for patient management and discuss how approaches may be optimized to improve patient outcomes. Finally, we propose mechanisms to assess new therapies and how to best integrate these approaches into future treatment. © 2016 Asian Pacific Society of Respirology.

  17. Do we have the tools to manage resistance in the future?

    PubMed

    Hollomon, Derek W

    2012-02-01

    Pesticide resistance is a major factor affecting world food and fibre production, but that has been contained so far by the availability of diverse modes of action. Overcoming resistance by switching to a new mode of action is a concept easily grasped by growers but threatened by losses through resistance and new registration requirements. Opportunities for innovation and development of a diversity of novel modes of action exist through harnessing recent advances, fundamental to all eukaryotes and largely funded for medical rather than agricultural objectives, in understanding cell biology and development. The cystoskeleton, cell wall synthesis, signal transduction and RNAi are discussed as examples where new targets are now exposed. However, new modes of action will be delivered not only by sprayer or seed treatment but also through transgenic crops, although these still need to be transferred from experiment to practice. Improvements in modelling protein structures and target-site changes, supplemented by rapid diagnostics to detect resistance early, will improve resistance risk management and integrate chemical, biopesticide, transgenic and conventional breeding around the concept of diversity in modes of action. However, before agronomy can translate this into practical antiresistance strategies, there is a need to direct more resources to the biochemistry and cell biology of pests, diseases and weeds to translate these new discoveries into key tools needed to manage resistance in the future. Copyright © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  18. Preeclampsia – Aetiology, Current Diagnostics and Clinical Management, New Therapy Options and Future Perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Tallarek, A.-C.; Huppertz, B.; Stepan, H.

    2012-01-01

    Preeclampsia is a multisystem disease for which the exact causes have not yet been sufficiently clarified. However, in the past few years it has become clear that a placental imbalance between angiogenic and anti-angiogenic proteins is the decisive pathogenetic factor for the occurrence of preeclampsia. With the possibility to measure these angiogenic factors (sFlt-1/PlGF ratio) in maternal blood full new diagnostic possibilities have been opened that enable the certain diagnosis or exclusion of the diseases as well as a short-term prognosis to be made. In secondary prevention the current data situation for ASA confirms a moderate but measurable utility. The management concept depends on gestational age. In the case of early clinical manifestations (< 34th week of pregnancy) the clinical management in a perinatal centre remains unchanged with foeto-maternal monitoring and induction of pulmonary maturation, symptomatic therapy under careful blood pressure lowering and determination of the optimal delivery time. A balance must be made here between foetal immaturity and maternal risks upon prolongations. The pathomechanism of anti-angiogenic overload with sFlt-1 provides a starting point for first therapeutic interventions. The present article gives an overview of current diagnostic options and presents possible future therapeutic perspectives for discussion. PMID:26640284

  19. Diagnosis and Management of Autoimmune Hepatitis: Current Status and Future Directions

    PubMed Central

    Czaja, Albert J.

    2016-01-01

    Autoimmune hepatitis is characterized by autoantibodies, hypergammaglobulinemia, and interface hepatitis on histological examination. The features lack diagnostic specificity, and other diseases that may resemble autoimmune hepatitis must be excluded. The clinical presentation may be acute, acute severe (fulminant), or asymptomatic; conventional autoantibodies may be absent; centrilobular necrosis and bile duct changes may be present; and the disease may occur after liver transplantation or with features that suggest overlapping disorders. The diagnostic criteria have been codified, and diagnostic scoring systems can support clinical judgment. Nonstandard autoantibodies, including antibodies to actin, α-actinin, soluble liver antigen, perinuclear antineutrophil antigen, asialoglycoprotein receptor, and liver cytosol type 1, are tools that can support the diagnosis, especially in patients with atypical features. Prednisone or prednisolone in combination with azathioprine is the preferred treatment, and strategies using these medications in various doses can ameliorate treatment failure, incomplete response, drug intolerance, and relapse after drug withdrawal. Budesonide, mycophenolate mofetil, and calcineurin inhibitors can be considered in selected patients as frontline or salvage therapies. Molecular (recombinant proteins and monoclonal antibodies), cellular (adoptive transfer and antigenic manipulation), and pharmacological (antioxidants, antifibrotics, and antiapoptotic agents) interventions constitute future directions in management. The evolving knowledge of the pathogenic pathways and the advances in technology promise new management algorithms. PMID:26934884

  20. The SPi chip as an integrated power management device for serial powering of future HEP experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Trimpl, M.; Deptuch, G.; Gingu, C.; Yarema, R.; Holt, R.; Weber, M.; Kierstead, J.; Lynn, D.; /Brookhaven

    2009-01-01

    Serial powering is one viable and very efficient way to distribute power to future high energy physics (HEP) experiments. One promising way to realize serial powering is to have a power management device on the module level that provides the necessary voltage levels and features monitoring functionality. The SPi (Serial Powering Interface) chip is such a power manager and is designed to meet the requirements imposed by current SLHC upgrade plans. It incorporates a programmable shunt regulator, two linear regulators, current mode ADCs to monitor the current distribution on the module, over-current detection, and also provides module power-down capabilities. Compared to serially powered setups that use discrete components, the SPi offers a higher level of functionality in much less real estate and is designed to be radiation tolerant. Bump bonding techniques are used for chip on board assembly providing the most reliable connection at lowest impedance. This paper gives an overview of the SPi and outlines the main building blocks of the chip. First stand alone tests are presented showing that the chip is ready for operation in serially powered setups.

  1. Clinical applications, limitations and future role of transient elastography in the management of liver disease

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Pik Eu; Goh, George Boon-Bee; Ngu, Jing Hieng; Tan, Hiang Keat; Tan, Chee Kiat

    2016-01-01

    Transient elastography (TE) is a reliable tool for the non-invasive assessment of liver fibrosis in routine clinical practice. TE is currently approved for use in Europe, Asia and the United States. The widespread adoption of this technology is certain to increase the use of TE worldwide. Although TE has been well validated in chronic viral hepatitis, its clinical role in other liver diseases remains less clear. The advent of new treatment for chronic hepatitis C and emerging prevalence of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis raises new questions on the role of TE in current clinical practice. This review aims to examine the clinical applications, limitations and future role of TE in current clinical practice in light of the changing epidemiology of liver diseases and new clinical management paradigms. In current clinical practice, TE is the most accurate non-invasive method for diagnosis of liver cirrhosis. TE is useful to rule out fibrosis and cirrhosis but does not have sufficient accuracy to discern between various stages of fibrosis. The clinical role of TE has evolved from cross-sectional point-in-time assessment of fibrosis and cirrhosis to the more relevant role of prediction of vital clinical end-points. This provides clinicians with the ability to modify treatment strategies based on the information provided by TE. TE has evolved over the past decade to become an essential tool to assist the clinician in the management of chronic liver disease. PMID:26855815

  2. The future of thiazolidinedione therapy in the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Yau, Hanford; Rivera, Kathya; Lomonaco, Romina; Cusi, Kenneth

    2013-06-01

    Since their approval, thiazolidinediones (TZDs) have been used extensively as insulin-sensitizers for the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Activation of peroxisomal proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) nuclear receptors by TZDs leads to a vast spectrum of metabolic and antiinflammatory effects. In the past decade, clinicians and scientists across the fields of metabolism, diabetes, liver disease (NAFLD), atherosclerosis, inflammation, infertility, and even cancer have had high hopes about the potential for TZDs to treat many of these diseases. However, an increasing awareness about undesirable "off-target" effects of TZDs have made us rethink their role and be more cautious about the long-term benefits and risks related to their use. This review examines the most relevant work on the benefits and risks associated with TZD treatment, with a focus on the only PPARγ agonist currently available (pioglitazone), aiming to offer the reader a balanced overview about the current and future role of TZDs in the management of insulin-resistant states and T2DM.

  3. Is EDI dead? The future of the Internet in supply chain management.

    PubMed

    Peters, L R

    2000-08-01

    I have been involved in materials management for about 30 years (that is not something many of us really want to admit--it says we are getting old), and over that time I have seen many methods of communication come and go. In the 1960s, we used seven-part carbon forms to generate orders. We also used the keypunch card or IBM card to send our request for materials to our supplier. The supplier would acknowledge our order and provide us with a promise date. This could be done by mail using these cards or by forwarding the information to us electronically for conversion to cards. I could trace the history of communication in painful detail, but that is not important. What is important is that the only thing that has remained constant in those past 30 years has been change. We have all heard that before, but we seem to forget it. This presentation will look at the future of EDI and the Internet in supply chain management.

  4. The future water environment--using scenarios to explore the significant water management challenges in England and Wales to 2050.

    PubMed

    Henriques, C; Garnett, K; Weatherhead, E K; Lickorish, F A; Forrow, D; Delgado, J

    2015-04-15

    Society gets numerous benefits from the water environment. It is crucial to ensure that water management practices deliver these benefits over the long-term in a sustainable and cost-effective way. Currently, hydromorphological alterations and nutrient enrichment pose the greatest challenges in European water bodies. The rapidly changing climatic and socio-economic boundary conditions pose further challenges to water management decisions and the achievement of policy goals. Scenarios are a strategic tool useful in conducting systematic investigations of future uncertainties pertaining to water management. In this study, the use of scenarios revealed water management challenges for England and Wales to 2050. A set of existing scenarios relevant to river basin management were elaborated through stakeholder workshops and interviews, relying on expert knowledge to identify drivers of change, their interdependencies, and influence on system dynamics. In a set of four plausible alternative futures, the causal chain from driving forces through pressures to states, impacts and responses (DPSIR framework) was explored. The findings suggest that scenarios driven by short-term economic growth and competitiveness undermine current environmental legislative requirements and exacerbate the negative impacts of climate change, producing a general deterioration of water quality and physical habitats, as well as reduced water availability with adverse implications for the environment, society and economy. Conversely, there are substantial environmental improvements under the scenarios characterised by long-term sustainability, though achieving currently desired environmental outcomes still poses challenges. The impacts vary across contrasting generic catchment types that exhibit distinct future water management challenges. The findings suggest the need to address hydromorphological alterations, nutrient enrichment and nitrates in drinking water, which are all likely to be

  5. Low back pain in older adults: risk factors, management options and future directions.

    PubMed

    Wong, Arnold Yl; Karppinen, Jaro; Samartzis, Dino

    2017-01-01

    Low back pain (LBP) is one of the major disabling health conditions among older adults aged 60 years or older. While most causes of LBP among older adults are non-specific and self-limiting, seniors are prone to develop certain LBP pathologies and/or chronic LBP given their age-related physical and psychosocial changes. Unfortunately, no review has previously summarized/discussed various factors that may affect the effective LBP management among older adults. Accordingly, the objectives of the current narrative review were to comprehensively summarize common causes and risk factors (modifiable and non-modifiable) of developing severe/chronic LBP in older adults, to highlight specific issues in assessing and treating seniors with LBP, and to discuss future research directions. Existing evidence suggests that prevalence rates of severe and chronic LBP increase with older age. As compared to working-age adults, older adults are more likely to develop certain LBP pathologies (e.g., osteoporotic vertebral fractures, tumors, spinal infection, and lumbar spinal stenosis). Importantly, various age-related physical, psychological, and mental changes (e.g., spinal degeneration, comorbidities, physical inactivity, age-related changes in central pain processing, and dementia), as well as multiple risk factors (e.g., genetic, gender, and ethnicity), may affect the prognosis and management of LBP in older adults. Collectively, by understanding the impacts of various factors on the assessment and treatment of older adults with LBP, both clinicians and researchers can work toward the direction of more cost-effective and personalized LBP management for older people.

  6. Management of Neuropsychiatric Systemic Lupus Erythematosus: Current Approaches and Future Perspectives.

    PubMed

    Magro-Checa, César; Zirkzee, Elisabeth J; Huizinga, Tom W; Steup-Beekman, Gerda M

    2016-03-01

    Neuropsychiatric systemic lupus erythematosus (NPSLE) is a generic definition referring to a series of neurological and psychiatric symptoms directly related to systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). NPSLE includes heterogeneous and rare neuropsychiatric (NP) manifestations involving both the central and peripheral nervous system. Due to the lack of a gold standard, the attribution of NP symptoms to SLE represents a clinical challenge that obligates the strict exclusion of any other potential cause. In the acute setting, management of these patients does not differ from other non-SLE subjects presenting with the same NP manifestation. Afterwards, an individualized therapeutic strategy, depending on the presenting manifestation and severity of symptoms, must be started. Clinical trials in NPSLE are scarce and most of the data are extracted from case series and case reports. High-dose glucocorticoids and intravenous cyclophosphamide remain the cornerstone for patients with severe symptoms that are thought to reflect inflammation or an underlying autoimmune process. Rituximab, intravenous immunoglobulins, or plasmapheresis may be used if response is not achieved. When patients present with mild to moderate NP manifestations, or when maintenance therapy is warranted, azathioprine and mycophenolate may be considered. When symptoms are thought to reflect a thrombotic underlying process, anticoagulation and antiplatelet agents are the mainstay of therapy, especially if antiphospholipid antibodies or antiphospholipid syndrome are present. Recent trials on SLE using new biologicals, based on newly understood SLE mechanisms, have shown promising results. Based on what we currently know about its pathogenesis, it is tempting to speculate how these new therapies may affect the management of NPSLE patients. This article provides a comprehensive and critical review of the literature on the epidemiology, pathophysiology, diagnosis, and management of NPSLE. We describe the most

  7. Monitoring and adaptive resistance management in Australia for Bt-cotton: current status and future challenges.

    PubMed

    Downes, Sharon; Mahon, Rod; Olsen, Karen

    2007-07-01

    In the mid-1990 s the Australian Cotton industry adopted an insect-resistant variety of cotton (Ingard) which expresses the Bt toxin Cry1Ac that is specific to a group of insects including the target Helicoverpa armigera. A conservative resistance management plan (RMP), that restricted the area planted to Ingard, was implemented to preserve the efficacy of Cry1Ac until two-gene transgenic cotton was available. In 2004/05 Bollgard II replaced Ingard as the transgenic cotton available in Australia. It improves on Ingard by incorporating an additional insecticidal protein (Cry2Ab). If an appropriate refuge is grown, there is no restriction on the area planted to Bollgard II. In 2004/05 and 2005/06 the Bollgard II acreage represented approximately 80 of the total area planted to cotton in Australia. The sensitivity of field-collected populations of H. armigera to Bt products was assayed before and subsequent to the widespread deployment of Ingard cotton. In 2002 screens against Cry2Ab were developed in preparation for replacement of Ingard with Bollgard II. There have been no reported field failures of Bollgard II due to resistance. However, while alleles that confer resistance to H. armigera in the field are rare for Cry1Ac, they are surprisingly common for Cry2Ab. We present an overview of the current approach adopted in Australia to monitor and adaptively manage resistance to Bt-cotton in field populations of H. armigera and discuss the implications of our findings to date. We also highlight future challenges for resistance management in Australia, many of which extend to other Bt-crop and pest systems.

  8. Food Preparation. I: Food Facts for Home. II: Facts about Foodservice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Procter and Gamble Educational Services, Cincinnati, OH.

    This package is intended for use in home economics classes focusing on nutrition and food preparation and service. The teaching guide is divided into two parts. The first centers on selected first-time facts on nutrition, meal planning, and basic food preparation skills. It includes modules on nutrition, meal management, initial steps in food…

  9. Sanitary Food Service; Instructor's Guide to Be Used in Training Food-Service Personnel.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Public Health Service (DHEW), Cincinnati, OH.

    Instructors of civilian and/or military food service employees are given suggestions for the flexible use of this guide, then receive more detailed guidelines for grouping trainees, managing classes, planning lessons, and adapting the food service course to various groups and teaching situations. Specific content (principles to be taught) and…

  10. Food Preparation. I: Food Facts for Home. II: Facts about Foodservice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Procter and Gamble Educational Services, Cincinnati, OH.

    This package is intended for use in home economics classes focusing on nutrition and food preparation and service. The teaching guide is divided into two parts. The first centers on selected first-time facts on nutrition, meal planning, and basic food preparation skills. It includes modules on nutrition, meal management, initial steps in food…

  11. Organisation and management of public dentistry in Sweden. Past, present and future.

    PubMed

    Ordell, Sven

    2011-01-01

    Professional organisations present challenges in management compared to producing companies, as control of the work lies within the professional groups themselves. Management in the Public Dental Health Service (PDHS) has an added difficulty in the two-tiered political governance in Swedish public dentistry. The aim of this thesis was to contribute to better understanding of the organisation and management of Human Service Organisations, especially the PDHS in Sweden, thereby contributing to long-term sustainability with due regard to the professionals. The aim was also to point to some future difficulties facing the PDHS and possible solutions to these. Four papers are included in the thesis. The first paper set out to define the professions in dentistry in Sweden from theories on professions. Dentists and, to a lesser degree; dental hygienists were the identified professional groups. The second paper scrutinised the external environment for dentistry in Sweden in the form of political decisions, i.e., laws and regulations. The findings were that there can be a gap between the formal objectives and the factual behaviour from the political level, and that certain politically attractive ideas might reoccur at a later time despite good scientific arguments against them. Also indicated in this paper were ways to influence the political processes, by active participation in the early stages of decision-making The third paper dealt with the heads (CDOs) of the PDHS in the counties and is based on a questionnaire to them on management. It was found that ideas on management and organisation usually were embedded in the way the respective county council was organised. A strong belief in advantages of scale was noted, both for administration and also for dental care itself. The fourth paper compared overall job satisfaction among publicly employed dentists in Denmark and Sweden. A focus on size of clinic, on professional development and on influence at the work place was

  12. Drugs in Alzheimer's disease Dementia: An overview of current pharmacological management and future directions.

    PubMed

    Eleti, Saigeet

    2016-09-01

    Alzheimer's dementia is one of the most significant health burdens of the modern age in both industrialised and non-industrialised nations as it is a major cause of morbidity and functional impairment in the elderly. Currently there are no cures for progressive dementias, including Alzheimer's disease, and no treatments that would modify their progress. Intervention involves pharmacological treatment to temporarily relieve the symptoms, including three cholinesterase inhibitors and a noncompetitive NMDA antagonist, and the efficacy of these is widely debated. While our understanding of the underlying pathology of Alzheimer's continues to grow, we have yet to fully elucidate the mechanisms that drive neuronal loss in this condition. Any truly disease-modifying treatment must be developed to target these pathological pathways. An extensive analysis of the available literature is presented here, including a number of trials, meta-analyses and reviews, with the aim of assessing current management, establishing best practice and summarising the future of dementia care. The efficacy of acetylcholinesterase inhibitors remains controversial due to uncertainty over what change is considered clinically significant. Any derived benefit seems to be independent of dementia severity and donepezil is the most cost-effective for Alzheimer's dementia. Memantine potentially influences the underlying pathological processes in Alzheimer's disease and may be more effective in moderate to severe Alzheimer's dementia. The role of combination therapy remains uncertain. Future therapies are aimed at modulating the disease process by using chemical agents to inhibit amyloid and tau deposition. None have been approved clinically. Current pharmacological therapy for Alzheimer's dementia is very limited and primarily aims at achieving symptom control. A major limitation is our lack of knowledge of the underlying pathology and it is only by better understanding the disease process that we can

  13. Precipitation variability and future projections for water resources management in Tunisia Northern Coastal basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bargaoui, Z.; Tramblay, Y.; Lawin, E.; Servat, E.

    2012-04-01

    Northern Tunisia is the rainiest part of the country. This is the reason why the surface water resources management scheme of Tunisia is principally focused on that area. The strategic situation of the study area, with respect to surface water resources, encourages the investigation of the climate change impacts as projected by climate models. The goal of this study is first to compare the observed precipitation with climate model outputs, and then to evaluate the future changes projected by the models. The study area is subdivided into three regions: the transboundary Medjerda basin, the northern coastal basins (Zouara, Sidi El Barrack, Lake Ichkeul basins) and the eastern coastal basins (Cap-Bon region and wadi Meliane basins). Rainfall data are collected in this area since the late 19th century. A data base provided by the Tunisian hydrological service (DGRE) is including 388 stations with monthly precipitation data over the period 1961-2000. Recent advances in downscaling have provided regional climate model (RCM) simulations at a coarser resolution than Global climate models (GCM). However there is a need to validate RCM outputs with respect to observed precipitation data before using them to make future projections. For that purpose, an ensemble of RCM simulations provided by the European Union-funded project ENSEMBLES (www. ensembles-eu.org) are used. Six RCM models runs (CNR_ARPEGE, DMI_ARPEGE, DMI_BCM, ICT_ECHAM, SMH_BCM, SMH_ECHAM) are tested for a control period (1961-2000) and two projection periods (2011-2050 and 2051-2090).The models efficiency in reproducing seasonal precipitation amounts and variability over the study domain is evaluated. A 1-km monthly precipitation grid is first obtained through the interpolation of rainfall observations during the period 1961-2000 with kriging techniques. Monthly precipitation series averaged over the three great regions are built for comparison for the control period. The RCM outputs are evaluated with respect

  14. Improving U.S. Navy Foodservice Management Training. Part 2: Recommendations for Improving On-Site Training Ashore and Afloat

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-12-01

    salt, pepper and other condiments on each table. C: I’m an ice cream buff. You serve only chocolate and vanilla» I’m curious to know if we could...for instance, in the case of highly seasoned rhili. Patrons who like their chili bland will probably give the chili low marks, whereas those who like...the two clusters and does not indicate a general opinion of the chili . How To Begin Some suggestions for implementation and follow-up are now in

  15. The DOE Office of Environmental Management International Collaboration Program Overview: Interactions, Agreements, and Future Direction

    SciTech Connect

    Marra, James C.; Fox, Kevin M.; Jannik, Gerald T.; Farfan, Eduardo B.; Kim, Dong-Sang; Vienna, John D.; Roach, Jay; Aloy, A. S.; Stefanovsky, S. V.; Lopukh, D. B.; Bondarkov, M. D.; Gerdes, Kurt D.; Han, Ana M.

    2010-02-10

    As the lead U.S. agency for the environmental cleanup, the Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Environmental Management (EM) carries out international activities in support of U.S. policies and objectives regarding accelerated risk reduction and remediation of the environmental legacy of the nation's nuclear weapons program and government-sponsored nuclear energy research. To achieve this, EM pursues collaborations with foreign government organizations, educational institutions, and private industry to assist in identifying technologies and promote international collaborations that leverage resources and link international experience and expertise. An initiative of the International Program is to link international experience and expertise to the technical needs of the overall EM mission and to foster further collaboration with international partners to promote those needs. This paper will provide an overview of the current international program and how it plans to leverage existing, and when necessary, new international partnerships to support the overall EM cleanup mission. In addition it will examine the future vision of the international program to promote the EM mission through a focus on transformational solutions, science, and technology development.

  16. Aggression in Tephritidae Flies: Where, When, Why? Future Directions for Research in Integrated Pest Management

    PubMed Central

    Benelli, Giovanni

    2014-01-01

    True fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) include over 4000 species, many of which constitute enormous threats to fruit and vegetable production worldwide. A number of Tephritidae are lekking species, forming aggregations in which males fight to defend a small territory where they court females and mate. Male-male contests also occur in non-lekking species, characterized by resource defense polygyny. Tephritidae females display agonistic behavior to maintain single oviposition sites and reduce larval competition for food. Here, how, where, when and why aggressive interactions occur in Tephritidae flies is reviewed. A number of neglected issues deserving further research are highlighted, with a special focus on diel periodicity of aggression, cues evoking aggressive behavior, the role of previous experience on fighting success and the evolution of behavioral lateralization of aggressive displays. In the final section, future directions to exploit this knowledge in Integrated Pest Management, with particular emphasis on enhancement of Sterile Insect Technique and interspecific competitive displacement in the field are suggested. PMID:26463064

  17. Managing future air quality in megacities: A case study for Delhi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amann, Markus; Purohit, Pallav; Bhanarkar, Anil D.; Bertok, Imrich; Borken-Kleefeld, Jens; Cofala, Janusz; Heyes, Chris; Kiesewetter, Gregor; Klimont, Zbigniew; Liu, Jun; Majumdar, Dipanjali; Nguyen, Binh; Rafaj, Peter; Rao, Padma S.; Sander, Robert; Schöpp, Wolfgang; Srivastava, Anjali; Vardhan, B. Harsh

    2017-07-01

    Megacities in Asia rank high in air pollution at the global scale. In many cities, ambient concentrations of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) have been exceeding both the WHO interim targets as well as respective national air quality standards. This paper presents a systems analytical perspective on management options that could efficiently improve air quality at the urban scale, having Delhi as a case study. We employ the newly developed GAINS-City policy analysis framework, consisting of a bottom up emission calculation combined with atmospheric chemistry-transport calculation, to derive innovative insights into the current sources of pollution and their impacts on ambient PM2.5, both from emissions of primary PM as well as precursors of secondary inorganic and organic aerosols. We outline the likely future development of these sources, quantify the related ambient PM2.5 concentrations and health impacts, and explore potential policy interventions that could effectively reduce environmental pollution and resulting health impacts in the coming years. The analysis demonstrates that effective improvement of Delhi's air quality requires collaboration with neighboring States and must involve sources that are less relevant in industrialized countries. At the same time, many of the policy interventions will have multiple co-benefits on development targets in Delhi and its neighboring States. Outcomes of this study, as well as the modelling tools used herein, are applicable to other urban areas and fast growing metropolitan zones in the emerging Asian regions.

  18. Building future scenarios and uncovering persisting challenges of participatory forest management in Chilimo Forest, Central Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Kassa, Habtemariam; Campbell, Bruce; Sandewall, Mats; Kebede, Mammo; Tesfaye, Yemiru; Dessie, Gessesse; Seifu, Abebe; Tadesse, Menfese; Garedew, Efrem; Sandewall, Kajsa

    2009-02-01

    We examined the changes in forest status and people's livelihoods through building future scenarios for Chilimo Forest in Central Ethiopia where participatory forest management (PFM) is being implemented. Participatory methods were employed to collect data, and a dynamic modeling technique was applied to explore trends over time. By integrating the more quantitative model outputs with qualitative insights, information on forests and livelihoods was summarized and returned to users, both to inform them and get feedback. A scenario of open access without PFM provides higher income benefits in the short term but not over the longer term, as compared to a scenario with PFM. Follow up meetings were organized with national decision makers to explore the possibility of new provisions in the national forest proclamation related to joint community-state ownership of forests. Project implementers must constantly work towards improving short term incentives from PFM, as these may be insufficient to garner support for PFM. Other necessary elements for PFM to succeed include: ensuring active participation of the communities in the process; and, clarifying and harmonizing the rules and regulations at different levels.

  19. CO2 evaporative cooling: The future for tracking detector thermal management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tropea, P.; Daguin, J.; Petagna, P.; Postema, H.; Verlaat, B.; Zwalinski, L.

    2016-07-01

    In the last few years, CO2 evaporative cooling has been one of the favourite technologies chosen for the thermal management of tracking detectors at LHC. ATLAS Insertable B-Layer and CMS Pixel phase 1 upgrade have adopted it and their systems are now operational or under commissioning. The CERN PH-DT team is now merging the lessons learnt on these two systems in order to prepare the design and construction of the cooling systems for the new Upstream Tracker and the Velo upgrade in LHCb, due by 2018. Meanwhile, the preliminary design of the ATLAS and CMS full tracker upgrades is started, and both concepts heavily rely on CO2 evaporative cooling. This paper highlights the performances of the systems now in operation and the challenges to overcome in order to scale them up to the requirements of the future generations of trackers. In particular, it focuses on the conceptual design of a new cooling system suited for the large phase 2 upgrade programmes, which will be validated with the construction of a common prototype in the next years.

  20. Public perceptions of demand-side management and a smarter energy future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spence, Alexa; Demski, Christina; Butler, Catherine; Parkhill, Karen; Pidgeon, Nick

    2015-06-01

    Demand-side management (DSM) is a key aspect of many future energy system scenarios. DSM refers to a range of technologies and interventions designed to create greater efficiency and flexibility on the demand-side of the energy system. Examples include the provision of more information to users to support efficient behaviour and new `smart’ technologies that can be automatically controlled. Key stated outcomes of implementing DSM are benefits for consumers, such as cost savings and greater control over energy use. Here, we use results from an online survey to examine public perceptions and acceptability of a range of current DSM possibilities in a representative sample of the British population (N = 2,441). We show that, although cost is likely to be a significant reason for many people to take up DSM measures, those concerned about energy costs are actually less likely to accept DSM. Notably, individuals concerned about climate change are more likely to be accepting. A significant proportion of people, particularly those concerned about affordability, indicated unwillingness or concerns about sharing energy data, a necessity for many forms of DSM. We conclude substantial public engagement and further policy development is required for widespread DSM implementation.

  1. Seizures in low- and high-grade gliomas: current management and future outlook.

    PubMed

    Vecht, Charles J; Wilms, Erik B

    2010-05-01

    Major difficulties in patients with epilepsy and brain tumors include refractory seizures, potential interactions between anticonvulsants and chemotherapeutic agents and enhanced risks of toxicity, including cognitive deterioration. For seizure control, levetiracetam, valproic acid, topiramate and lamotrigine can each be considered as agents of first choice. We advocate starting with levetiracetam monotherapy, based on efficacy, good tolerability and the absence of interactions. If levetiracetam alone is not sufficiently effective, we propose adding a second antiepileptic drug, rather than switching to monotherapy with another anticonvulsant. Under these circumstances we advise the use of valproic acid as an add-on over topiramate or lamotrigine, based on its reported clinical activity in brain tumor patients. The combination of levetiracetam and valproic acid seems synergistic, and produces few or no cognitive side effects. Antitumor therapy by neurosurgery, cranial radiation or chemotherapy contribute substantially to reducing seizure activity. Future research on seizure management in brain tumor patients should focus on better insight into the influence of multidrug resistance proteins on anticonvulsant drug transport over the blood-brain barrier, efficacy of new anticonvulsants with no or few interactions with other drugs, synergistic combinations of anticonvulsants in order to limit toxicity and therapeutic drug monitoring of anticonvulsants in current clinical practice and in new drug studies, including the effects of concomitant administration of chemotherapeutic agents.

  2. Mechanistic Insight and Management of Diabetic Nephropathy: Recent Progress and Future Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Xue, Rui; Gui, Dingkun; Zheng, Liyang; Zhai, Ruonan

    2017-01-01

    Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is the most serious microvascular complication of diabetes and the largest single cause of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) in many developed countries. DN is also associated with an increased cardiovascular mortality. It occurs as a result of interaction between both genetic and environmental factors. Hyperglycemia, hypertension, and genetic predisposition are the major risk factors. However, the exact mechanisms of DN are unclear. Despite the benefits derived from strict control of glucose and blood pressure, as well as inhibition of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, many patients continue to enter into ESRD. Thus, there is urgent need for improving mechanistic understanding of DN and then developing new and effective therapeutic approaches to delay the progression of DN. This review focuses on recent progress and future perspective about mechanistic insight and management of DN. Some preclinical relevant studies are highlighted and new perspectives of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) for delaying DN progression are discussed in detail. These findings strengthen the therapeutic rationale for TCM in the treatment of DN and also provide new insights into the development of novel drugs for the prevention of DN. However, feasibility and safety of these therapeutic approaches and the clinical applicability of TCM in human DN need to be further investigated. PMID:28386567

  3. Knowledge Management - A Necessity For The Training Of Future Specialists Of The Sustainable Entreprises

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rotaru, Ionela Magdalena

    2015-09-01

    The world we are living in is shaped by what is a reality for years already: globalisation of economy. The lack of borders makes the impact that technology has on society to be a major one. The virtual world so accessible today is not just about new markets, access to cheaper work force, work online but also fierce competition. The common denominator of most efforts in the area of industry is performance. Limits continuously moving willingness to pay for products that delineate the performance delivered be the same range. Here too we can see the role of the education. For example, Landes shows that both knowledge and know-how are the ones that determine how well off societies are. The education of engineers is therefore critical to every nation to ensure the prosperity of its citizens. This paper here intends to approach the educational process of the engineering specific area of knowledge from the management perspective. The training process becomes sustainable in accordance with the requirements of the future: trained specialists for sustainable enterprises.

  4. Adaptive harvest management of North American waterfowl populations: a brief history and future prospects

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nichols, J.D.; Runge, M.C.; Johnson, F.A.; Williams, B.K.

    2007-01-01

    Since 1995, the US Fish and Wildlife Service has used an adaptive approach to the management of sport harvest of mid-continent Mallard ducks (Anas platyrhynchos) in North America. This approach differs from many current approaches to conservation and management in requiring close collaboration between managers and scientists. Key elements of this process are objectives, alternative management actions, models permitting prediction of system responses, and a monitoring program. The iterative process produces optimal management decisions and leads to reduction in uncertainty about response of populations to management. This general approach to management has a number of desirable features and is recommended for use in many other programs of management and conservation.

  5. Changes in the Management of Information in Audio-Visual Archives following Digitization: Current and Future Outlook

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caldera-Serrano, Jorge

    2008-01-01

    This article attempts to offer an overview of the current changes that are being experienced in the management of audio-visual documentation and those that can be forecast in the future as a result of the migration from analogue to digital information. For this purpose the documentary chain will be used as a basis to analyse individually the tasks…

  6. Managing hardwood-softwood mixtures for future forests in eastern North America: assessing suitability to projected climate change

    Treesearch

    John M. Kabrick; Kenneth L. Clark; Anthony W. D' Amato; Daniel C. Dey; Laura S. Kenefic; Christel C. Kern; Benjamin O. Knapp; David A. MacLean; Patricia Raymond; Justin D. Waskiewicz

    2017-01-01

    Despite growing interest in management strategies for climate change adaptation, there are few methods for assessing the ability of stands to endure or adapt to projected future climates. We developed a means for assigning climate "Compatibility" and "Adaptability" scores to stands for assessing the suitability of tree species for projected climate...

  7. Changes in the Management of Information in Audio-Visual Archives following Digitization: Current and Future Outlook

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caldera-Serrano, Jorge

    2008-01-01

    This article attempts to offer an overview of the current changes that are being experienced in the management of audio-visual documentation and those that can be forecast in the future as a result of the migration from analogue to digital information. For this purpose the documentary chain will be used as a basis to analyse individually the tasks…

  8. Attitudes toward Business Ethics and Degree of Opinion Leadership of Future Managers In the United States, Finland, and China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Comegys, Charles; Vaisanen, Jaani; Lupton, Robert A.; Rawlinson, David R.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the attitudes towards business ethics of future managers in three countries: the United State, Finland, and China, and determine whether business ethics attitudes differed by the student's major, class year, GPA, gender, age, and the number of ethics and religious studies courses completed. Additionally the…

  9. Attitudes toward Business Ethics and Degree of Opinion Leadership of Future Managers In the United States, Finland, and China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Comegys, Charles; Vaisanen, Jaani; Lupton, Robert A.; Rawlinson, David R.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the attitudes towards business ethics of future managers in three countries: the United State, Finland, and China, and determine whether business ethics attitudes differed by the student's major, class year, GPA, gender, age, and the number of ethics and religious studies courses completed. Additionally the…

  10. The 12th I. E. Melhus Graduate Student Symposium: host plant resistance and disease management, current status and future outlook

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The 12th I. E. Melhus Graduate Student Symposium was held on 6 August 2012 during the Annual meeting of the American Phytopathological Society (APS) in Providence, RI. The theme for this symposium was “Host Plant Resistance and Disease Management: Current Status and Future Outlook”. The APS Host R...

  11. Future Forests Webinar Series, Webinar Proceedings and Summary: Ongoing Research and Management Responses to the Mountain Pine Beetle Outbreak

    Treesearch

    M. Matonis; R. Hubbard; K. Gebert; B. Hahn; C. Regan

    2014-01-01

    The Future Forest Webinar Series facilitated dialogue between scientists and managers about the challenges and opportunities created by the mountain pine beetle (MPB) epidemic. The series consisted of six webinar facilitated by the USFS Rocky Mountain Research Station, the Northern and Rocky Mountain Regions, and the Colorado Forest Restoration Institute. The series...

  12. The Skills and Training Needed by Farm Management Researchers in the Future: Discussion. Economics Staff Paper 93-4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franklin, Douglas R.

    In view of continuing trends in farming and the trend toward increasing farm diversification and specialization, the National Association of State Universities and Land Grant Colleges and individual researchers have proposed their own lists of the skills that will be needed by farm management researchers in the future. Because farm management…

  13. Using ecological forecasting of future vegetation transition and fire frequency change in the Sierra Nevada to assess fire management strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thorne, J. H.; Schwartz, M. W.; Holguin, A. J.; Moritz, M.; Batllori, E.; Folger, K.; Nydick, K.

    2013-12-01

    Ecological systems may respond in complex manners as climate change progresses. Among the responses, site-level climate conditions may cause a shift in vegetation due to the physiological tolerances of plant species, and the fire return interval may change. Natural resource managers challenged with maintaining ecosystem health need a way to forecast how these processes may affect every location, in order to determine appropriate management actions and prioritize locations for interventions. We integrated climate change-driven vegetation type transitions with projected change in fire frequency for 45,203 km2 of the southern Sierra Nevada, California, containing over 10 land management agencies as well as private lands. This Magnitude of Change (MOC) approach involves classing vegetation types in current time according to their climate envelopes, and identifying which sites will in the future have climates beyond what that vegetation currently occurs in. Independently, fire models are used to determine the change in fire frequency for each site. We examined 82 vegetation types with >50 grid cell occurrences. We found iconic resources such as the giant sequoia, lower slope oak woodlands, and high elevation conifer forests are projected as highly vulnerable by models that project a warmer drier future, but not as much by models that project a warmer future that is not drier than current conditions. Further, there were strongly divergent vulnerabilities of these forest types across land ownership (National Parks versus US Forest Service lands), and by GCM. For example, of 50 giant sequoia (Sequoiadendron giganteum) groves and complexes, all but 3 (on Sierra National Forest) were in the 2 highest levels of risk of climate and fire under the GFDL A2 projection, while 15 groves with low-to-moderate risk were found on both the National Parks and National Forests 18 in the 2 under PCM A2. Landscape projections of potential MOC suggest that the region is likely to experience

  14. Preparing Leaders to Anticipate and Manage the Future: Part I: Society and Education: Educational Management for the 1980's and Beyond.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mackett, Muriel; Steele, Donald

    A Rubik's cube analogy provides a perspective on the complexity of managing educational futures and the purposes, language, and assumptions of this monograph. A broad commentary on the relationship between society and education and an overview of the conceptual framework used to examine this relationship is followed by a comprehensive review of…

  15. Development and consideration of global policies for managing the future risks of poliovirus outbreaks: insights and lessons learned through modeling.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Kimberly M; Duintjer Tebbens, Radboud J; Pallansch, Mark A; Kew, Olen M; Sutter, Roland W; Aylward, R Bruce; Watkins, Margaret; Gary, Howard; Alexander, James P; Venczel, Linda; Johnson, Denise; Cáceres, Victor M; Sangrujee, Nalinee; Jafari, Hamid; Cochi, Stephen L

    2006-12-01

    The success of the Global Polio Eradication Initiative promises to bring large benefits, including sustained improvements in quality of life (i.e., cases of paralytic disease and deaths avoided) and costs saved from cessation of vaccination. Obtaining and maintaining these benefits requires that policymakers manage the transition from the current massive use of oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) to a world without OPV and free of the risks of potential future reintroductions of live polioviruses. This article describes the analytical journey that began in 2001 with a retrospective case study on polio risk management and led to development of dynamic integrated risk, economic, and decision analysis tools to inform global policies for managing the risks of polio. This analytical journey has provided several key insights and lessons learned that will be useful to future analysts involved in similar complex decision-making processes.

  16. Methodology To Define Drought Management Scenarios Based On Accumulated Future Projections Of Risk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haro-Monteagudo, David; Solera-Solera, Abel; Andreu-Álvarez, Joaquín

    2014-05-01

    Drought is a serious threat to many water resources systems in the world. Especially to those in which the equilibrium between resources availability and water uses is very fragile, making that deviation below normality compromises the capacity of the system to cope with all the demands and environmental requirements. Since droughts are not isolated events but instead they develop through time in what could be considered a creeping behavior, it is very difficult to determine when an episode starts and how long will it last. Because this is a major concern for water managers and society in general, scientific research has strived to develop indices that allow evaluating the risk of a drought event occurrence. These indices often have as basis previous and current state variables of the system that combined between them supply decision making responsible with an indication of the risk of being in a situation of drought, normally through the definition of a drought scenario situation. While this way of proceeding has found to be effective in many systems, there are cases in which indicators systems fail to define the appropriate on-going drought scenario early enough to start measures that allowed to minimize the possible impacts. This is the case, for example, of systems with high seasonal precipitation variability. The use of risk assessment models to evaluate future possible states of the system becomes handy in cases like the previous one, although they are not limited to such systems. We present a method to refine the drought scenario definition within a water resources system. To implement this methodology, we use a risk assessment model generalized to water resources systems based in the stochastic generation of multiple possible future streamflows generation and the simulation of the system from a Monte-Carlo approach. We do this assessment every month of the year up to the end of the hydrologic year that normally corresponds with the end of the irrigation

  17. The National Electronic Library: A Guide to the Future for Library Managers. The Greenwood Library Management Collection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pitkin, Gary M., Ed.

    As a reference guide for library professionals, this volume helps librarians prepare for the future in the growing electronic environment by examining the historical and theoretical background of the National Electronic Library and assessing the role of libraries in the past, present, and future. The book is divided in two sections: "The…

  18. The National Electronic Library: A Guide to the Future for Library Managers. The Greenwood Library Management Collection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pitkin, Gary M., Ed.

    As a reference guide for library professionals, this volume helps librarians prepare for the future in the growing electronic environment by examining the historical and theoretical background of the National Electronic Library and assessing the role of libraries in the past, present, and future. The book is divided in two sections: "The…

  19. The Energy-Water Nexus: Managing the Links between Energy and Water for a Sustainable Future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hussey, Karen; Petit, Carine

    2010-05-01

    Water and energy are both indispensable inputs to modern economies but currently both resources are under threat owing to the impacts of an ever-increasing population and associated demand, unsustainable practices in agriculture and manufacturing, and the implications of a changing climate. However, it is where water and energy rely on each other that pose the most complex challenges for policy-makers. Water is needed for mining coal, drilling oil, refining gasoline, and generating and distributing electricity; and, conversely, vast amounts of energy are needed to pump, transport, treat and distribute water, particularly in the production of potable water through the use of desalination plants and waste water treatment plants. Despite the links, and the urgency in both sectors for security of supply, in existing policy frameworks energy and water policies are developed largely in isolation from one another. Worse still, some policies designed to encourage alternative energy supplies give little thought to the resultant consequences on water resources, and, similarly, policies designed to secure water supplies pay little attention to the resultant consequences on energy use. The development of new technologies presents both opportunities and challenges for managing the energy-water nexus but a better understanding of the links between energy and water is essential in any attempt to formulate policies for more resilient and adaptable societies. The energy-water nexus must be adequately integrated into policy and decision-making or governments run the risk of contradicting their efforts, and therefore failing in their objectives, in both sectors. A series of COST Exploratory Workshops, drawing on on-going research in the energy-water nexus from a number of international teams, identified the implications of the energy-water nexus on the development of (i) energy policies (ii) water resource management policies and (iii) climate adaptation and mitigation policies. A

  20. Management of malignancy-associated pleural effusion: current and future treatment strategies.

    PubMed

    Marchi, Evaldo; Teixeira, Lisete R; Vargas, Francisco S

    2003-01-01

    Management of recurrent malignant pleural effusion, a common complication of malignancy, poses a challenge to clinicians. Although almost one century has elapsed since the introduction of the pleurodesis procedure, the ideal approach and best agent are still to be defined. Optimally, pleurodesis should be done at the bedside with a minimally invasive procedure, and suitable agents to achieve pleural symphysis should be inexpensive, available worldwide and free of adverse effects. To date, no substance completely fulfills these requirements. Silver nitrate should be considered for pleurodesis because of its low cost and ease of handling. Although talc has been used most frequently to induce pleurodesis, reports of death due to acute respiratory failure have raised concerns about the safety of this agent. Tetracycline, an effective alternative used in the past, is no longer commercially available. This agent has been substituted with derivatives of tetracycline, such as minocycline and doxycycline with success rates similar to those with tetracycline. Several antineoplastic agents have been injected into the pleural space with the aim of producing pleural symphysis, the most representative of this group being bleomycin. Recent knowledge of the molecular mechanisms involved in pleural inflammation has brought into focus new substances, such as transforming growth factor beta and vascular endothelial growth factor, which may be used as pleurodesis agents in the future. Nevertheless, more studies are necessary to better define the potential of these substances in the induction of pleural symphysis.Ideally, a sclerosing agent should be cost-effective, available worldwide and easily administered. Talc will probably stand as the preferred agent to be used for pleurodesis in malignant pleural effusion because of its efficacy, easy manipulation and handling. However, further investigation is necessary to minimize adverse effects related to talc.

  1. Emergency management of severe hyperkalemia: Guideline for best practice and opportunities for the future.

    PubMed

    Rossignol, Patrick; Legrand, Matthieu; Kosiborod, Mikhail; Hollenberg, Steven M; Peacock, W Frank; Emmett, Michael; Epstein, Murray; Kovesdy, Csaba P; Yilmaz, Mehmet Birhan; Stough, Wendy Gattis; Gayat, Etienne; Pitt, Bertram; Zannad, Faiez; Mebazaa, Alexandre

    2016-11-01

    Hyperkalemia is a common electrolyte disorder, especially in chronic kidney disease, diabetes mellitus, or heart failure. Hyperkalemia can lead to potentially fatal cardiac dysrhythmias, and it is associated with increased mortality. Determining whether emergency therapy is warranted is largely based on subjective clinical judgment. The Investigator Network Initiative Cardiovascular and Renal Clinical Trialists (INI-CRCT) aimed to evaluate the current knowledge pertaining to the emergency treatment of hyperkalemia. The INI-CRCT developed a treatment algorithm reflecting expert opinion of best practices in the context of current evidence, identified gaps in knowledge, and set priorities for future research. We searched PubMed (to August 4, 2015) for consensus guidelines, reviews, randomized clinical trials, and observational studies, limited to English language but not by publication date. Treatment approaches are based on small studies, anecdotal experience, and traditional practice patterns. The safety and real-world effectiveness of standard therapies remain unproven. Prospective research is needed and should include studies to better characterize the population, define the serum potassium thresholds where life-threatening arrhythmias are imminent, assess the potassium and electrocardiogram response to standard interventions. Randomized, controlled trials are needed to test the safety and efficacy of new potassium binders for the emergency treatment of severe hyperkalemia in hemodynamically stable patients. Existing emergency treatments for severe hyperkalemia are not supported by a compelling body of evidence, and they are used inconsistently across institutions, with potentially significant associated side effects. Further research is needed to fill knowledge gaps, and definitive clinical trials are needed to better define optimal management strategies, and ultimately to improve outcomes in these patients.

  2. Planning the future of JPL's management and administrative support systems around an integrated database

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ebersole, M. M.

    1983-01-01

    JPL's management and administrative support systems have been developed piece meal and without consistency in design approach over the past twenty years. These systems are now proving to be inadequate to support effective management of tasks and administration of the Laboratory. New approaches are needed. Modern database management technology has the potential for providing the foundation for more effective administrative tools for JPL managers and administrators. Plans for upgrading JPL's management and administrative systems over a six year period evolving around the development of an integrated management and administrative data base are discussed.

  3. Planning the future of JPL's management and administrative support systems around an integrated database

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ebersole, M. M.

    1983-01-01

    JPL's management and administrative support systems have been developed piece meal and without consistency in design approach over the past twenty years. These systems are now proving to be inadequate to support effective management of tasks and administration of the Laboratory. New approaches are needed. Modern database management technology has the potential for providing the foundation for more effective administrative tools for JPL managers and administrators. Plans for upgrading JPL's management and administrative systems over a six year period evolving around the development of an integrated management and administrative data base are discussed.

  4. Preparing Los Alamos National Laboratory's Waste Management Program for the Future - 12175

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, Scotty W.; Dorries, Alison M.; Singledecker, Steven; Henckel, George

    2012-07-01

    The waste management program at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) is undergoing significant transition to establish a lean highly functioning waste management program that will succeed the large environmental cleanup waste management program. In the coming years, the environmental cleanup activities will be mostly completed and the effort will change to long-term stewardship. What will remain in waste management is a smaller program focused on direct off-site shipping to cost-effectively enable the enduring mission of the laboratory in support of the national nuclear weapons program and fundamental science and research. It is essential that LANL implement a highly functioning efficient waste management program in support of the core missions of the national weapons program and fundamental science and research - and LANL is well on the way to that goal. As LANL continues the transition process, the following concepts have been validated: - Business drivers including the loss of onsite disposal access and completion of major environmental cleanup activities will drive large changes in waste management strategies and program. - A well conceived organizational structure; formal management systems; a customer service attitude; and enthusiastic managers are core to a successful waste management program. - During times of organizational transition, a project management approach to managing change in a complex work place with numerous complex deliverables is successful strategy. - Early and effective engagement with waste generators, especially Project Managers, is critical to successful waste planning. - A well-trained flexible waste management work force is vital. Training plans should include continuous training as a strategy. - A shared fate approach to managing institutional waste decisions, such as the LANL Waste Management Recharge Board is effective. - An efficient WM program benefits greatly from modern technology and innovation in managing waste data and

  5. Prognostics and Health Management of Wind Turbines: Current Status and Future Opportunities

    SciTech Connect

    Sheng, Shuangwen

    2016-10-04

    This presentation was given at the 2016 Annual Conference of the Prognostics and Health Management Society. It covers the current status and challenges and opportunities of prognostics and health management of wind turbines.

  6. Future productivity and phenology changes in European grasslands for different warming levels: implications for grassland management and carbon balance.

    PubMed

    Chang, Jinfeng; Ciais, Philippe; Viovy, Nicolas; Soussana, Jean-François; Klumpp, Katja; Sultan, Benjamin

    2017-12-01

    Europe has warmed more than the global average (land and ocean) since pre-industrial times, and is also projected to continue to warm faster than the global average in the twenty-first century. According to the climate models ensemble projections for various climate scenarios, annual mean temperature of Europe for 2071-2100 is predicted to be 1-5.5 °C higher than that for 1971-2000. Climate change and elevated CO2 concentration are anticipated to affect grassland management and livestock production in Europe. However, there has been little work done to quantify the European-wide response of grassland to future climate change. Here we applied ORCHIDEE-GM v2.2, a grid-based model for managed grassland, over European grassland to estimate the impacts of future global change. Increases in grassland productivity are simulated in response to future global change, which are mainly attributed to the simulated fertilization effect of rising CO2. The results show significant phenology shifts, in particular an earlier winter-spring onset of grass growth over Europe. A longer growing season is projected over southern and southeastern Europe. In other regions, summer drought causes an earlier end to the growing season, overall reducing growing season length. Future global change allows an increase of management intensity with higher than current potential annual grass forage yield, grazing capacity and livestock density, and a shift in seasonal grazing capacity. We found a continual grassland soil carbon sink in Mediterranean, Alpine, North eastern, South eastern and Eastern regions under specific warming level (SWL) of 1.5 and 2 °C relative to pre-industrial climate. However, this carbon sink is found to saturate, and gradually turn to a carbon source at warming level reaching 3.5 °C. This study provides a European-wide assessment of the future changes in productivity and phenology of grassland, and their consequences for the management intensity and the carbon balance

  7. Seeing the future impacts of climate change and forest management: a landscape visualization system for forest managers

    Treesearch

    Eric J. Gustafson; Melissa Lucash; Johannes Liem; Helen Jenny; Rob Scheller; Kelly Barrett; Brian R. Sturtevant

    2016-01-01

    Forest managers are increasingly considering how climate change may alter forests' capacity to provide ecosystem goods and services. But identifying potential climate change effects on forests is difficult because interactions among forest growth and mortality, climate change, management, and disturbances are complex and uncertain. Although forest landscape models...

  8. The US Wilderness Managers Survey: Charting a path for the future

    Treesearch

    Chad P. Dawson; Ken Cordell; Alan E. Watson; Ramesh Ghimire; Gary T. Green

    2016-01-01

    The Wilderness Manager Survey (WMS) was developed in 2014 to support interagency strategic planning for the National Wilderness Preservation System (NWPS) and asked managers about their perceived threats to the NWPS, the need for science information to support decisionmaking, the need for education and training, and the most important problems for managers in the...

  9. Social Science Research Related to Wildfire Management: An Overview of Recent Findings and Future Research Needs

    Treesearch

    Sarah M. McCaffrey; Eric Toman; Melanie Stidham; Bruce. Shindler

    2012-01-01

    As with other aspects of natural-resource management, the approach to managing wildland fires has evolved over time as scientific understanding has advanced and the broader context surrounding management decisions has changed. Prior to 2000 the primary focus of most fire research was on the physical and ecological aspects of fire; social science research was limited to...

  10. [Case management for school students with chronic disease: the current situation and future direction].

    PubMed

    Huang, Chun-Hsia; Chen, I-Ju; Yu, Shu

    2005-04-01

    This paper aims to investigate the importance of management of chronic illness in schools epidemiological data. By examining the current state of such management, we found that school nurses, family members, mentors and school administrators lack sufficient knowledge to conduct effective case management for students with chronic diseases. This paper seeks to indicate principles for the conduct of case management of chronic disease in Taiwan. Incorporating practices, regulations, information systems, policy, and evaluation systems, recommendations are made with the hope that a well-planned system of case management of chronic disease can be established in schools to further enhance the quality of health care and life generally for school children.

  11. Designing new institutions for implementing integrated disaster risk management: key elements and future directions.

    PubMed

    Gopalakrishnan, Chennat; Okada, Norio

    2007-12-01

    The goal of integrated disaster risk management is to promote an overall improvement in the quality of safety and security in a region, city or community at disaster risk. This paper presents the case for a thorough overhaul of the institutional component of integrated disaster risk management. A review of disaster management institutions in the United States indicates significant weaknesses in their ability to contribute effectively to the implementation of integrated disaster risk management. Our analysis and findings identify eight key elements for the design of dynamic new disaster management institutions. Six specific approaches are suggested for incorporating the identified key elements in building new institutions that would have significant potential for enhancing the effective implementation of integrated disaster risk management. We have developed a possible blueprint for effective design and construction of efficient, sustainable and functional disaster management institutions.

  12. Future trends in society and technology: implications for wilderness research and management

    Treesearch

    George H. Stankey

    2000-01-01

    Judging the impact of social and technological trends on the future of wilderness is complex. Declining public trust, growing demands for scrutiny, a need to recognize the link between biophysical and socioeconomic systems, and the need for criteria to select among alternative futures challenge us. A burgeoning global population will increase resource impacts, but more...

  13. Future Challenges in Managing Human Health and Performance Risks for Space Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Corbin, Barbara J.; Barratt, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The global economy forces many nations to consider their national investments and make difficult decisions regarding their investment in future exploration. To enable safe, reliable, and productive human space exploration, we must pool global resources to understand and mitigate human health & performance risks prior to embarking on human exploration of deep space destinations. Consensus on the largest risks to humans during exploration is required to develop an integrated approach to mitigating risks. International collaboration in human space flight research will focus research on characterizing the effects of spaceflight on humans and the development of countermeasures or systems. Sharing existing data internationally will facilitate high quality research and sufficient power to make sound recommendations. Efficient utilization of ISS and unique ground-based analog facilities allows greater progress. Finally, a means to share results of human research in time to influence decisions for follow-on research, system design, new countermeasures and medical practices should be developed. Although formidable barriers to overcome, International working groups are working to define the risks, establish international research opportunities, share data among partners, share flight hardware and unique analog facilities, and establish forums for timely exchange of results. Representatives from the ISS partnership research and medical communities developed a list of the top ten human health & performance risks and their impact on exploration missions. They also drafted a multilateral data sharing plan to establish guidelines and principles for sharing human spaceflight data. Other working groups are also developing methods to promote international research solicitations. Collaborative use of analog facilities and shared development of space flight research and medical hardware continues. Establishing a forum for exchange of results between researchers, aerospace physicians

  14. Results of the automated power systems management /APSM/ program and future technology implementation. [of spacecraft power supplies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bridgeforth, A. O.

    1982-01-01

    The APSM program was initiated in 1975. The purpose of this program was to develop and demonstrate the technology and benefits of autonomous operation of planetary spacecraft power systems to meet the projected requirements of future missions. Development of the APSM program was based on implementing a selected set of autonomous functions in a state-of-the-art breadboard power system. A distributed microcomputer system was developed to implement the functions. Several critical programmatic elements were identified as necessary to implement autonomous functions. These elements, including proper skill combination, well defined autonomous functions, and management of the software design and development task, were found to be more significant than hardware management. The incorporation of APSM technology in future space programs is also discussed.

  15. Sustaining a Mature Risk Management Process: Ensuring the International Space Station for a Vibrant Future

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raftery, Michael; Carter-Journet, Katrina

    2013-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) risk management methodology is an example of a mature and sustainable process. Risk management is a systematic approach used to proactively identify, analyze, plan, track, control, communicate, and document risks to help management make risk-informed decisions that increase the likelihood of achieving program objectives. The ISS has been operating in space for over 14 years and permanently crewed for over 12 years. It is the longest surviving habitable vehicle in low Earth orbit history. Without a mature and proven risk management plan, it would be increasingly difficult to achieve mission success throughout the life of the ISS Program. A successful risk management process must be able to adapt to a dynamic program. As ISS program-level decision processes have evolved, so too has the ISS risk management process continued to innovate, improve, and adapt. Constant adaptation of risk management tools and an ever-improving process is essential to the continued success of the ISS Program. Above all, sustained support from program management is vital to risk management continued effectiveness. Risk management is valued and stressed as an important process by the ISS Program.

  16. The Perceptions of Non Music Staff and Senior Management of the Impact of the Implementation of the Musical Futures Approach on the Whole School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hallam, Susan; Creech, Andrea; McQueen, Hilary

    2016-01-01

    This research aimed to provide an account of the impact of the Musical Futures approach on the wider school community in Musical Futures "Champion Schools". Questionnaires were completed by 344 non-music teachers. Interviews were undertaken with members of senior management teams. The majority of staff indicated that Musical Futures had…

  17. The Perceptions of Non Music Staff and Senior Management of the Impact of the Implementation of the Musical Futures Approach on the Whole School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hallam, Susan; Creech, Andrea; McQueen, Hilary

    2016-01-01

    This research aimed to provide an account of the impact of the Musical Futures approach on the wider school community in Musical Futures "Champion Schools". Questionnaires were completed by 344 non-music teachers. Interviews were undertaken with members of senior management teams. The majority of staff indicated that Musical Futures had…

  18. The Future of Forest Management on NIPF Lands in the South: Results of an Expert Opinion Survey

    Treesearch

    Steverson O. Moffat; Frederick W. Cubbage; Anthony J. Cascio; Raymond M. Sheffield

    1998-01-01

    A survey was sent to each state forester in the 13 states in the Southeast and South Central Regions to ask their opinions regarding the future of forest management on NIPF lands in their state. The results indicate that changes are in store for NIPF lands between now and 2020. Planted pine is projected to increase 7% in area in the South, largely at the expense of...

  19. An overview of food waste management in developing countries: Current status and future perspective.

    PubMed

    Thi, Ngoc Bao Dung; Kumar, Gopalakrishnan; Lin, Chiu-Yue

    2015-07-01

    Food waste (FW) related issues in developing countries is currently considered to be a major threatening factor for sustainable development and FW management systems. Due to incomplete FW management systems, many developing countries are facing challenges, such as environmental and sanitary problems that are caused by FW. The difference in FW generation trends between developing countries and developed countries was reviewed in this work, which demonstrated that the effects of income level, population growth, and public participation in FW management are very important. Thus, this work aimed to provide an overview of recycling activities, related regulations, and current FW treatment technology in developing countries by following some case studies. Taiwan, has been suggested as being a successful case in terms of FW management, and is therefore a typical model for developing countries to follow. Finally, an integrative management system as a suitable model for FW management has been suggested for developing countries.

  20. The Future of Asset Management for Human Space Exploration: Supply Classification and an Integrated Database

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shull, Sarah A.; Gralla, Erica L.; deWeck, Olivier L.; Shishko, Robert

    2006-01-01

    One of the major logistical challenges in human space exploration is asset management. This paper presents observations on the practice of asset management in support of human space flight to date and discusses a functional-based supply classification and a framework for an integrated database that could be used to improve asset management and logistics for human missions to the Moon, Mars and beyond.

  1. The Future of Asset Management for Human Space Exploration: Supply Classification and an Integrated Database

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shull, Sarah A.; Gralla, Erica L.; deWeck, Olivier L.; Shishko, Robert

    2006-01-01

    One of the major logistical challenges in human space exploration is asset management. This paper presents observations on the practice of asset management in support of human space flight to date and discusses a functional-based supply classification and a framework for an integrated database that could be used to improve asset management and logistics for human missions to the Moon, Mars and beyond.

  2. Addressing challenges for future strategic-level emergency management: reframing, networking, and capacity-building.

    PubMed

    Bosomworth, Karyn; Owen, Christine; Curnin, Steven

    2017-04-01

    The mounting frequency and intensity of natural hazards, alongside growing interdependencies between social-technical and ecological systems, are placing increased pressure on emergency management. This is particularly true at the strategic level of emergency management, which involves planning for and managing non-routine, high-consequence events. Drawing on the literature, a survey, and interviews and workshops with Australia's senior emergency managers, this paper presents an analysis of five core challenges that these pressures are creating for strategic-level emergency management. It argues that emphasising 'emergency management' as a primary adaptation strategy is a retrograde step that ignores the importance of addressing socio-political drivers of vulnerabilities. Three key suggestions are presented that could assist the country's strategic-level emergency management in tackling these challenges: (i) reframe emergency management as a component of disaster risk reduction rather than them being one and the same; (ii) adopt a network governance approach; and (iii) further develop the capacities of strategic-level emergency managers.

  3. Stories of management in the future by young adults and young nurses.

    PubMed

    Harmoinen, Merja; Niiranen, Kaisa; Niiranen, Vuokko; Astedt-Kurki, Päivi; Suominen, Tarja

    2014-04-11

    Abstract Aim: The aim of this study was to describe the phenomenon of management by way of the ideas by secondary school students and young nurses. Background: Young adults are changing workplaces more than ever before, yet their work expectations and perspectives of management differ to those of previous generations. Methods: The data was collected from upper secondary school students and professionally educated nurses (n = 68), some of whom were immigrants (n = 41). Framed essays were used as a research method and emergent data was analysed using content analysis. Results: According to the results, good management involves systematic management, equality, appreciation of know-how, and the promotion of wellbeing at work. Conclusion: New perspectives on management were drawn from the study, in particular the multiple dimensions of equality in workplace organization and the manager's role in an employee's professional development process. Implication for nursing management: The interactive skills of the manager are emphasized in promoting wellbeing at work. This is especially so in multi-cultural teams, where the manager is expected to be adept at understanding intercultural communication and the values of young employees.

  4. Future applications of high-resolution MS to meet the demands for pain management drug testing.

    PubMed

    Crews, Bridgit O

    2014-01-01

    Urine specimens submitted for pain management drug testing often contain multiple psychotherapeutic drugs, in addition to opioids. Immunoassay-based screen-and-confirm approaches typically used for clinical drug testing have limited sensitivity to detect therapeutic concentrations of many drugs prescribed in pain management and do not differentiate between drugs in the same class. In addition, screening for all the various illicit and prescription drugs that may be present in the pain management population requires as many as 10-20 individual immunoassays. High-resolution MS approaches have the potential to transform the way clinical drug testing is performed for pain management.

  5. THE FUTURE OF SUSTAINABLE MANAGEMENT APPROACHES AND REVITALIZATION TOOLS-ELECTRONIC (SMARTE): 2006-2010

    EPA Science Inventory

    SMARTe is being developed to give stakeholders information resources, analytical tools, communication strategies, and a decision analysis approach to be able to make better decisions regarding future uses of property. The development of the communication tools and decision analys...

  6. The role of future scenarios to understand deep uncertainty for air quality management.

    EPA Science Inventory

    The environment and its interaction with human systems (economic, social and political) is complex and dynamic. Key drivers may disrupt systemdynamics in unforeseen ways, making it difficult to predict future conditions precisely. This kind of deep uncertainty presents a challeng...

  7. The role of future scenarios to understand deep uncertainty for air quality management.

    EPA Science Inventory

    The environment and its interaction with human systems (economic, social and political) is complex and dynamic. Key drivers may disrupt systemdynamics in unforeseen ways, making it difficult to predict future conditions precisely. This kind of deep uncertainty presents a challeng...

  8. 17 CFR 1.73 - Clearing futures commission merchant risk management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... intra-day and overnight; (4) Conduct stress tests under extreme but plausible conditions of all...) Test all lines of credit at least once per year. (b) Each futures commission merchant that is a...

  9. 17 CFR 1.73 - Clearing futures commission merchant risk management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... intra-day and overnight; (4) Conduct stress tests under extreme but plausible conditions of all...) Test all lines of credit at least once per year. (b) Each futures commission merchant that is a...

  10. Role of future scenarios in understanding deep uncertainty in long-term air quality management

    EPA Science Inventory

    The environment and its interactions with human systems, whether economic, social or political, are complex. Relevant drivers may disrupt system dynamics in unforeseen ways, making it difficult to predict future conditions. This kind of deep uncertainty presents a challenge to ...

  11. THE FUTURE OF SUSTAINABLE MANAGEMENT APPROACHES AND REVITALIZATION TOOLS-ELECTRONIC (SMARTE): 2006-2010

    EPA Science Inventory

    SMARTe is being developed to give stakeholders information resources, analytical tools, communication strategies, and a decision analysis approach to be able to make better decisions regarding future uses of property. The development of the communication tools and decision analys...

  12. Role of future scenarios in understanding deep uncertainty in long-term air quality management

    EPA Science Inventory

    The environment and its interactions with human systems, whether economic, social or political, are complex. Relevant drivers may disrupt system dynamics in unforeseen ways, making it difficult to predict future conditions. This kind of deep uncertainty presents a challenge to ...

  13. Financial Success for Young Adults and Recent Graduates: Managing Money, Credit, and Your Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arrowood, Janet C.

    2006-01-01

    There are numerous financial planning and money management handbooks, but few focus on the needs of young adults between 16 and 25 years of age. Colleges and some high schools are increasingly offering courses covering money management, but the materials are more "economics-focused" than "real-world" focused. Young people are huge consumers who…

  14. Wildland fire management policy: Learning from the past and present and responding to future challenges

    Treesearch

    Tom Zimmerman

    2009-01-01

    Since its origin as a defined functional activity, wildland fire management has been the natural resource management program with the highest risk, complexity, and greatest potential for serious negative outcomes. During this time, this program has continually grown in temporal and spatial extent, operational complexity, ecological significance, social, economic, and...

  15. What Might Online Delivery Teach Us about Blended Management Education? Prior Perspectives and Future Directions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arbaugh, J. B.

    2014-01-01

    Although the term has roots in the training and development literature, "blended learning" has only recently begun to be studied in management education. This article examines the literatures of blended and fully online management education to determine whether there are factors that may influence instructional effectiveness that are…

  16. Competencies of Front-Line Managers in Supported Accommodation: Issues for Practice and Future Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clement, Tim; Bigby, Christine

    2012-01-01

    Background: Front-line managers of supported accommodation for people with intellectual disability are assumed to have a key role in the realisation of outcomes for service users. Yet, their job has been little researched. A job analysis from Minnesota that identified 142 competencies required of effective front-line managers was used to examine…

  17. Key Authors in Business and Management Education Research: Productivity, Topics, and Future Directions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arbaugh, J. B.; Asarta, Carlos J.; Hwang, Alvin; Fornaciari, Charles J.; Bento, Regina F.; Dean, Kathy Lund

    2017-01-01

    Previous studies of author productivity in business and management education (BME) research have focused on single disciplinary areas, and even single journals. This study is the first to examine the productivity of BME scholars across multiple disciplinary areas (i.e., accounting, economics, finance, information systems, management, marketing,…

  18. Wildland fire management policy: Learning from the past and present and responding to future challenges

    Treesearch

    Tom Zimmerman

    2009-01-01

    Wildland fire is one of the most important vegetation- shaping factors that land managers deal with. It is our highest risk, most complex, and potentially highest consequence program. Wildland fire management policy is the most important element in defining the direction, scope, and focus of the program. What is policy? If we look it up in Merriam-Webster's...

  19. Future trends and needs in stored product entomology-pest management

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Insect pest management in stored products, and in particular the concept of integrated pest management (IPM), has different meanings depending on one's viewpoint of IPM. One of the difficulties in stored products is adequately sampling large bulk bins or silos of raw stored grain or large milling an...

  20. Stories of management in the future according to young adults and young nurses.

    PubMed

    Harmoinen, Merja; Niiranen, Kaisa; Niiranen, Vuokko; Astedt-Kurki, Päivi; Suominen, Tarja

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Aim: The aim of this study was to describe the phenomenon of management by way of the ideas of secondary school students and young nurses. Young adults are changing workplaces more than ever before, yet their work expectations and perspectives of management differ to those of previous generations. The data was collected from upper secondary school students and professionally educated nurses (N = 68), some of whom were immigrants (N = 41). Framed essays were used as a research method and emergent data was analyzed using content analysis. According to the results, good management involves systematic management, equality, appreciation of know-how, and the promotion of wellbeing at work. New perspectives on management were drawn from the study, in particular the multiple dimensions of equality in workplace organization and the manager's role in an employee's professional development process. The interactive skills of the manager are emphasized in promoting wellbeing at work. This is especially so in multi-cultural teams, where the manager is expected to be adept at understanding intercultural communication and the values of young employees.

  1. What Might Online Delivery Teach Us about Blended Management Education? Prior Perspectives and Future Directions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arbaugh, J. B.

    2014-01-01

    Although the term has roots in the training and development literature, "blended learning" has only recently begun to be studied in management education. This article examines the literatures of blended and fully online management education to determine whether there are factors that may influence instructional effectiveness that are…

  2. Financial Success for Young Adults and Recent Graduates: Managing Money, Credit, and Your Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arrowood, Janet C.

    2006-01-01

    There are numerous financial planning and money management handbooks, but few focus on the needs of young adults between 16 and 25 years of age. Colleges and some high schools are increasingly offering courses covering money management, but the materials are more "economics-focused" than "real-world" focused. Young people are huge consumers who…

  3. History, extent, and future of Arizona BLM-managed roadless areas in the Madrean Archipelago

    Treesearch

    Trevor Hare; Cory Jones

    2005-01-01

    Roadless areas of southeastern Arizona managed by the Bureau of Land Management are becoming rare. Fragmentation by roads and development, all-terrain vehicle use, erosion, and altered hydrology are a few of the causes of loss and degradation of roadless areas. The history of BLM and publicly identified roadless areas includes the passage of the Wilderness Act of 1964...

  4. Conserving and managing the trees of the future: genetic resources for Pacific Northwest forests.

    Treesearch

    Sally. Duncan

    2003-01-01

    Genetic resource management has historically called for altering the genetic structure of plant populations through selection for traits of interest such as rapid growth. Although this is still a principal component of tree breeding programs in the Pacific Northwest, managing genetic resources now also brings a clear focus on retaining a broad diversity within and...

  5. Women in Business: The View of Future Male and Female Managers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevens, George E.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses the integration of women into management positions in business. Found that women and men appear to be shedding the stereotype of traditional female roles and that men are more traditional than women in their attitudes toward women in management. (JOW)

  6. Exploring Tensions between Self-Disclosure and Privacy Needs: The Future of Communication Boundary Management Theories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sargent, Jack; Kirby, Erika; Harter, Lynn M.

    The boundary metaphor has been used successfully over the past two decades to explain and predict how individuals manage the tensions between the need to self-disclose and the need for privacy within interpersonal relationships. This paper explores the history of Communication Boundary Management Theories and presents suggestions for modifying the…

  7. Mobile phone health apps for diabetes management: current evidence and future developments.

    PubMed

    Goyal, S; Cafazzo, J A

    2013-12-01

    Can an app help manage diabetes? We discuss how the advent of mobile health apps in connecting patients to providers is creating new opportunities for the management of diabetes. Although there are promising outcomes, there is still much to be learned about how such technology could be fully exploited.

  8. Competencies of Front-Line Managers in Supported Accommodation: Issues for Practice and Future Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clement, Tim; Bigby, Christine

    2012-01-01

    Background: Front-line managers of supported accommodation for people with intellectual disability are assumed to have a key role in the realisation of outcomes for service users. Yet, their job has been little researched. A job analysis from Minnesota that identified 142 competencies required of effective front-line managers was used to examine…

  9. Management by the manager, decisions by the team: Leadership style for the future, or just a hopeless muddle

    SciTech Connect

    Furaus, J.P.; Shirley, C.G.

    1988-01-01

    A characteristic of team implementation of projects is some type of participatory decision-making. Opinions differ on whether this is a valuable tool for project managers or whether it is only a management fad that blurs accountability. This paper recounts experience and offers observations about the effectiveness of participatory decision-making in project management. The basis of the paper is approximately a decade of projects in construction of specialized facilities for research and development (RandD) at Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque, New Mexico. Over the time we have developed a participatory style that distributes a balance of authority and accountability. It is a style that has worked well in our environment and is evidence that shared decision-making can be made to work. 4 figs.

  10. Intertidal zone management in the Western Indian Ocean: assessing current status and future possibilities using expert opinions.

    PubMed

    Nordlund, Lina Mtwana; de la Torre-Castro, Maricela; Erlandsson, Johan; Conand, Chantal; Muthiga, Nyawira; Jiddawi, Narriman; Gullström, Martin

    2014-12-01

    This expert opinion study examined the current status of the intertidal zone in the Western Indian Ocean (WIO) and ranked and discussed future management approaches. Information was gathered from scientists, practitioners, and managers active in the WIO region through a questionnaire and a workshop. The experts stated that the productive intertidal environment is highly valuable for reasons such as recreation, erosion protection, and provision of edible invertebrates and fish. Several anthropogenic pressures were identified, including pollution, harbor activities, overexploitation, and climate change. The experts considered the WIO intertidal zone as generally understudied, undermanaged, and with poor or no monitoring. The most important management strategies according to the expert opinions are to develop and involve local people in integrated coastal zone management (ICZM), to increase knowledge on species-environment relationships, and to develop awareness campaigns and education programs. To improve coastal environmental management and conservation, we argue that the intertidal zone should be treated as one organizational management unit within the larger framework of ICZM.

  11. Flood Risk Management Policy in Scotland: Research Questions Past, Present and Future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilkinson, Mark; Hastings, Emily; MacDonald, Jannette

    2016-04-01

    Scotland's Centre of Expertise for Waters (CREW) delivers accessible research and expert opinion to support the Scottish Government and its delivery partners in the development and implementation of water policy. It was established in 2011 by the Scottish Government (Rural and Environmental Science and Analytical Services) in recognition of a gap in the provision of short term advice and research to policy (development and implementation). Key policy areas include the Water Framework Directive, Floods Directive, Drinking Water Directive, Habitats Directive and Scotland's Hydro Nation Strategy. CREW is unique in its demand-driven and free service for policy makers and practitioners, managing the engagement between scientists, policy makers and practitioners to work effectively across this interface. The users of CREW are the Scottish Government, Scottish Environment Protection Agency, Scottish Natural Heritage and Scottish Water. CREW has funded around 100 projects relating to water policy since its inception in 2011. Of these, a significant number relate to flood risk management policy. Based on a review of work to date, this poster will give an overview of these projects and a forward look at the challenges that remain. From learning from community led flood risk management to surface water flood forecasting for urban communities, links will be made between sustainable and traditional flood risk management while considering the perceptions of stakeholders to flood risk management. How can we deliver fully integrated flood risk management options? How policy makers, scientists and land managers can better work together will also be explored.

  12. Human-Centered Technologies and Procedures for Future Air Traffic Management: A Preliminary Overview of 1996 Studies and Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Philip; McCoy, Elaine; Denning, Rebecca; Woods, David; Sarter, Nadine; Dekker, Sidney; Billings, Charles

    1996-01-01

    In this project, we have been exploring the use of a general methodology to predict the impact of future Air Traffic Management (ATM) concepts and technologies. In applying this methodology, our emphasis has been on the importance of modeling coordination and cooperation among the multiple agents within this system, and on understanding how the interactions among these agents will be influenced as new roles, responsibilities, procedures and technologies are introduced. To accomplish this, we have been collecting data on performance under the current air traffic management system, trying to identify critical problem areas and looking for exemplars suggestive of general approaches for solving such problems. Based on the results of these field studies, we have developed a set of scenarios centered around potential future system designs, and have conducted studies using these scenarios involving a total 40 controllers, dispatchers, pilots and traffic managers. The purpose of this report is to provide NASA with an early summary of the major recommendations that have resulted from our research under the AATT Program thus far. Recommendations 1-3 deal with general approaches that our findings suggest should be incorporated in future AATT Program activities, while Recommendations 4-11 identify some specific topics and technologies that merit research and development activities. Detailed technical reports containing supporting data, as well as the results of our still ongoing analyses, will be provided at a later date. The remainder of this report is organized as follows. Section 1 briefly describes the general design philosophy supported by our empirical studies. Section 2 presents the research methods we have used for identifying requirements for future system designs and for evaluating alternative design solutions. Section 3 discusses preliminary results from an initial set of investigations that we have conducted using these research methods. Section 4 then provides an

  13. Managing women's and children's services: contemporary models as a template for the future.

    PubMed

    Ropp, A L

    2001-06-01

    Historically hospitals have struggled with organizational design and management of services within a single institution. The traditional design has been a bureaucracy with a hierarchical management structure. As individual hospitals develop new business relationships to form health systems, there is a need for innovative solutions that provide the flexibility and responsiveness necessary for successful health care management. One traditional business model, the SBU, or strategic business unit, may serve as a template for the development of product or service lines. The SBU has application for selected portions of a health care organization. The SBU will be discussed as it specifically relates to women's and children's health care services.

  14. Copeptin in acute coronary syndromes and heart failure management: State of the art and future directions.

    PubMed

    Schurtz, Guillaume; Lamblin, Nicolas; Bauters, Christophe; Goldstein, Patrick; Lemesle, Gilles

    2015-01-01

    Over the past two decades, the use of multiple biomarkers has changed cardiovascular disease management. Recently, several trials have assessed the diagnostic and prognostic performances of copeptin, especially in patients with heart failure or acute coronary syndromes. Primary results are interesting, with copeptin looking promising for: the management of patients who present at emergency departments early after chest pain onset and the risk stratification of patients with heart failure. The purpose of this article is to review the data on the place of copeptin in the management of patients with chest pain or heart failure.

  15. Belowground Ecology of Scarabs Feeding on Grass Roots: Current Knowledge and Future Directions for Management in Australasia

    PubMed Central

    Frew, Adam; Barnett, Kirk; Nielsen, Uffe N.; Riegler, Markus; Johnson, Scott N.

    2016-01-01

    Many scarab beetles spend the majority of their lives belowground as larvae, feeding on grass roots. Many of these larvae are significant pests, causing damage to crops and grasslands. Damage by larvae of the greyback cane beetle (Dermolepida albohirtum), for example, can cause financial losses of up to AU$40 million annually to the Australian sugarcane industry. We review the ecology of some scarab larvae in Australasia, focusing on three subfamilies; Dynastinae, Rutelinae, and Melolonthinae, containing key pest species. Although considerable research on the control of some scarab pests has been carried out in Australasia, for some species, the basic biology and ecology remains largely unexplored. We synthesize what is known about these scarab larvae and outline key knowledge gaps to highlight future research directions with a view to improve pest management. We do this by presenting an overview of the scarab larval host plants and feeding behavior; the impacts of abiotic (temperature, moisture, and fertilization) and biotic (pathogens, natural enemies, and microbial symbionts) factors on scarab larvae and conclude with how abiotic and biotic factors can be applied in agriculture for improved pest management, suggesting future research directions. Several host plant microbial symbionts, such as arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and endophytes, can improve plant tolerance to scarabs and reduce larval performance, which have shown promise for use in pest management. In addition to this, several microbial scarab pathogens have been isolated for commercial use in pest management with particularly promising results. The entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae caused a 50% reduction in cane beetle larvae while natural enemies such as entomopathogenic nematodes have also shown potential as a biocontrol. Key abiotic factors, such as soil water, play an important role in affecting both scarab larvae and these control agents and should therefore feature in future multi

  16. Shaping Future Phosphorus Management Pathways by Understanding the Past and Present

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sustainable phosphorus (P) management in agricultural and urban ecosystems is necessary to ensure global food security and healthy aquatic ecosystems. Researchers and decision-makers alike need to understand how social, economic, political, and biophysical factors interact to cre...

  17. Integrated pest management in western flower thrips: past, present and future.

    PubMed

    Mouden, Sanae; Sarmiento, Kryss Facun; Klinkhamer, Peter Gl; Leiss, Kirsten A

    2017-05-01

    Western flower thrips (WFT) is one of the most economically important pest insects of many crops worldwide. Recent EU legislation has caused a dramatic shift in pest management strategies, pushing for tactics that are less reliable on chemicals. The development of alternative strategies is therefore an issue of increasing urgency. This paper reviews the main control tactics in integrated pest management (IPM) of WFT, with the focus on biological control and host plant resistance as areas of major progress. Knowledge gaps are identified and innovative approaches emphasised, highlighting the advances in 'omics' technologies. Successful programmes are most likely generated when preventive and therapeutic strategies with mutually beneficial, cost-effective and environmentally sound foundations are incorporated. © 2017 The Authors. Pest Management Science published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 The Authors. Pest Management Science published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society of Chemical Industry.

  18. PREDICTIVE UNCERTAINTY IN HYDROLOGIC AND WATER QUALITY MODELING: APPROACHES, APPLICATION TO ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT, AND FUTURE CHALLENGES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Extant process-based hydrologic and water quality models are indispensable to water resources planning and environmental management. However, models are only approximations of real systems and often calibrated with incomplete and uncertain data. Reliable estimates, or perhaps f...

  19. Fluid management and its role in the future of Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salzman, J.; Vernon, R.; Hill, M.; Peterson, T.

    1986-01-01

    Technological challenges and suggested plans for meeting them pertaining to fluid management in the Space Station are discussed. A short overview is given of the major Space Station systems and operations which employ or rely on fluid management, followed by a description of the general system issues and challenges encountered in managing fluids in space. Examples of some current and near term activities directed toward providing the understanding and technologies necessary to overcome relevant problems are presented. Finally, suggested plans for similar but longer range research and development activities are offered. These plans emphasize the requirements and benefits of expanded in-space experiments, with the ultimate aim of using the Space Station as a facility for fluid management research and technology development efforts.

  20. Value-based leadership. Is your hospital management team prepared for the future?

    PubMed

    Stempniak, Marty

    2013-05-01

    This foldout section looks at the seven steps to a value-structured hospital, 10 must-do strategies for thriving in the new health care era, and what new skills management, physicians and trustees should have.

  1. Shaping Future Phosphorus Management Pathways by Understanding the Past and Present

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sustainable phosphorus (P) management in agricultural and urban ecosystems is necessary to ensure global food security and healthy aquatic ecosystems. Researchers and decision-makers alike need to understand how social, economic, political, and biophysical factors interact to cre...

  2. PREDICTIVE UNCERTAINTY IN HYDROLOGIC AND WATER QUALITY MODELING: APPROACHES, APPLICATION TO ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT, AND FUTURE CHALLENGES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Extant process-based hydrologic and water quality models are indispensable to water resources planning and environmental management. However, models are only approximations of real systems and often calibrated with incomplete and uncertain data. Reliable estimates, or perhaps f...

  3. [Audits of the quality management system and safety in radiotherapy: Lessons learned and future prospects].

    PubMed

    Leroy, E; Marque, A

    2016-10-01

    The external audit of the management system of quality and safety in radiotherapy by quality managers of the French Association of Quality and Safety in Radiotherapy (AFQSR) is an opportunity to exchange good practices, returns of experience, effectiveness and weaknesses of the quality system, and its perceptions by all the teams. We present the results of the first audits conducted, and the results of a survey on the perception of quality at national level. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier SAS.

  4. Contingency Contracting and the IT Manager: Today’s Challenges and Future Implications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-03-01

    explanations as patterns .91 Specifically, the use of the Gansler report to explain that contract management has been lacking is used in addition to...Technology services throughout the Iraq and Afghanistan contingencies. The case study analyzes data utilizing the pattern matching methodology to determine...analyzes data utilizing the pattern matching methodology to determine the level of efficiency and effectiveness of the management of contractor

  5. Early Management of Patients With Acute Heart Failure: State of the Art and Future Directions

    PubMed Central

    Collins, Sean P.; Storrow, Alan B.; Levy, Phillip D.; Albert, Nancy; Butler, Javed; Ezekowitz, Justin A.; Felker, G. Michael; Fermann, Gregory J.; Fonarow, Gregg C.; Givertz, Michael M.; Hiestand, Brian; Hollander, Judd E.; Lanfear, David E.; Pang, Peter S.; Peacock, W. Frank; Sawyer, Douglas B.; Teerlink, John R.; Lenihan, Daniel J.

    2015-01-01

    Heart failure (HF) afflicts nearly 6 million Americans, resulting in 1 million emergency department (ED) visits and over 1 million annual hospital discharges. The majority of inpatient admissions originate in the ED; thus, it is crucial that emergency physicians and other providers involved in early management understand the latest developments in diagnostic testing, therapeutics, and alternatives to hospitalization. This article discusses contemporary ED management as well as the necessary next steps for ED-based acute HF research. PMID:25423908

  6. Environmental management of pesticidal POPs in China: past, present and future.

    PubMed

    Wei, Dongbin; Kameya, Takashi; Urano, Kohei

    2007-10-01

    China, the largest developing country in the world, has been undergoing rapid economic growth in the past two decades. Synchronously, large quantities of persistent organic chlorinated pesticides have been used in agriculture and non-agriculture areas. Accompanying with incomplete management framework, the improper use and disposal of pesticides have caused serious pollution problems. In this study, we discussed: (1) ten persistent organochlorine pesticides in terms of historical production, consumption and number of manufacturers, import and export; (2) the current management framework of pesticidal persistent organic pollutants (POPs) with respect to legal system and government administrative system; (3) the existing problems in the management of pesticidal POPs; and proposed recommendations for countermeasures. Based on the available information, it can be concluded that records on the historical production and consumption quantities of pesticidal POPs are incomplete which makes a difficulty in the management. Although China has come a long way in developing a modern legal system, the current system is still considered weak and inefficient; and many challenges are ahead. The government administrative system has also been reformed and improved, but over-lapping jurisdictions still exist and are ineffective in managing pesticidal POPs program. To address these existing problems in pesticidal POPs management, it was suggested that more investigations should be conducted to collect information on pollution sources of pesticidal POPs, to evaluate their environmental risks, to identify new alternative chemicals and to complete management framework of pesticidal POPs in China. Furthermore, the public should be encouraged to participate in managing hazardous pesticidal POPs in China, and international cooperation and communication should be established and strengthened imperatively as well.

  7. Succession Planning and Management: The Backbone of the Radiology Group's Future.

    PubMed

    Donner, E Michael; Gridley, Daniel; Ulreich, Sidney; Bluth, Edward I

    2017-01-01

    The transition of leadership within radiology practices is often not a planned replacement process with formal development of potential future leaders. To ensure their ongoing success, however, practices need to develop comprehensive succession plans that include a robust developmental program for potential leaders consisting of mentoring, coaching, structured socialization, 360-degree feedback, developmental stretch assignments, job rotation, and formal education. Succession planning and leadership development will be necessary in the future for a practice to be successful in its business relationships and to be financially viable. Copyright © 2016 American College of Radiology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. The Database Business: Managing Today--Planning for Tomorrow. Issues and Futures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aitchison, T. M.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Current issues and the future of the database business are discussed in five papers. Topics covered include aspects relating to the quality of database production; international ownership in the U.S. information marketplace; an overview of pricing strategies in the electronic information industry; and pricing issues from the viewpoints of online…

  9. The role of future scenarios to understand deep uncertainty in air quality management

    EPA Science Inventory

    The environment and it’s interaction with human systems (economic, social and political) is complex and dynamic. Key drivers may disrupt system dynamics in unforeseen ways, making it difficult to predict future conditions precisely. This kind of deep uncertainty presents ...

  10. The role of future scenarios to understand deep uncertainty in air quality management

    EPA Science Inventory

    The environment and it’s interaction with human systems (economic, social and political) is complex and dynamic. Key drivers may disrupt system dynamics in unforeseen ways, making it difficult to predict future conditions precisely. This kind of deep uncertainty presents ...

  11. Provoking Aspiration: Risk-Management through the Cultivation of Future Selves in College Recruitment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Posecznick, Alex

    2015-01-01

    Drawing upon data from an ethnography of college admissions, I describe how the admissions' personnel and faculty mobilize persuasive scripts that invite prospective students to reimagine themselves as subjects with a fluid set of aspirations within the context of risky futures. The focus here is not on the representations of the college itself,…

  12. Interfutures: Facing the Future, Mastering the Probable and Managing the Unpredictable.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, Paris (France).

    This report discusses the findings of the three year Interfutures Project which studied the future development of advanced industrial societies and the relations between these countries and the developing countries. The major emphasis of the project was to analyze economic problems. However, political and social elements were also studied. The…

  13. Hazardous waste, impact on health and environment for development of better waste management strategies in future in India.

    PubMed

    Misra, Virendra; Pandey, S D

    2005-04-01

    Industry has become an essential part of modern society, and waste production is an inevitable outcome of the developmental activities. A material becomes waste when it is discarded without expecting to be compensated for its inherent value. These wastes may pose a potential hazard to the human health or the environment (soil, air, water) when improperly treated, stored, transported or disposed off or managed. Currently in India even though hazardous wastes, emanations and effluents are regulated, solid wastes often are disposed off indiscriminately posing health and environmental risk. In view of this, management of hazardous wastes including their disposal in environment friendly and economically viable way is very important and therefore suggestions are made for developing better strategies. Out of the various categories of the wastes, solid waste contributes a major share towards environmental degradation. The present paper outlines the nature of the wastes, waste generating industries, waste characterization, health and environmental implications of wastes management practices, steps towards planning, design and development of models for effective hazardous waste management, treatment, approaches and regulations for disposal of hazardous waste. Appraisal of the whole situation with reference to Indian scenario is attempted so that a better cost-effective strategies for waste management be evolved in future.

  14. Can integrative catchment management mitigate future water quality issues caused by climate change and socio-economic development?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Honti, Mark; Schuwirth, Nele; Rieckermann, Jörg; Stamm, Christian

    2017-03-01

    The design and evaluation of solutions for integrated surface water quality management requires an integrated modelling approach. Integrated models have to be comprehensive enough to cover the aspects relevant for management decisions, allowing for mapping of larger-scale processes such as climate change to the regional and local contexts. Besides this, models have to be sufficiently simple and fast to apply proper methods of uncertainty analysis, covering model structure deficits and error propagation through the chain of sub-models. Here, we present a new integrated catchment model satisfying both conditions. The conceptual iWaQa model was developed to support the integrated management of small streams. It can be used to predict traditional water quality parameters, such as nutrients and a wide set of organic micropollutants (plant and material protection products), by considering all major pollutant pathways in urban and agricultural environments. Due to its simplicity, the model allows for a full, propagative analysis of predictive uncertainty, including certain structural and input errors. The usefulness of the model is demonstrated by predicting future surface water quality in a small catchment with mixed land use in the Swiss Plateau. We consider climate change, population growth or decline, socio-economic development, and the implementation of management strategies to tackle urban and agricultural point and non-point sources of pollution. Our results indicate that input and model structure uncertainties are the most influential factors for certain water quality parameters. In these cases model uncertainty is already high for present conditions. Nevertheless, accounting for today's uncertainty makes management fairly robust to the foreseen range of potential changes in the next decades. The assessment of total predictive uncertainty allows for selecting management strategies that show small sensitivity to poorly known boundary conditions. The

  15. Environmental assessment of waste management in Greenland: current practice and potential future developments.

    PubMed

    Eisted, Rasmus; Christensen, Thomas H

    2013-05-01

    The majority of the waste in Greenland is disposed of in open dumps or incinerated in simple small-scale incinerators. There are relatively few environmental regulations that control the emissions of leachate, landfill gas and/or flue gases from incineration. Only some scrap metal and hazardous waste are collected separately and exported to Europe. The impacts from the current waste management system were modelled from a life-cycle perspective using the LCA-waste model EASEWASTE. Impacts with regard to global warming, acidification, etc. are small (a few hundred person-equivalents (PE) for a system serving 56 000 inhabitants), but significant environmental loads are caused by air emissions from the incinerators and leachate from the landfills. Several alternative management scenarios were modelled and results show that increased use of incineration, full utilization of the heat production for district heating and separation of hazardous waste probably could improve Greenland's waste management system. Segregation of recyclable materials as paper, cardboard and biowaste will do little to environmentally improve the waste management system due to loss of energy recovery from incineration and the long transport of the recyclables to markets. Export of waste to Denmark for incineration at modern waste incinerators with advanced flue gas cleaning could also be considered as a means to achieve better environmental performance of the waste management system.

  16. Critical education in resource and environmental management: Learning and empowerment for a sustainable future

    SciTech Connect

    Diduck, A.

    1999-10-01

    Changing rom current patterns of resource use to a sustainable and equitable economy is a complex and intractable problem. This paper suggests that critical education may form part of the solution. Critical environmental assessment (EA) education, the model explored in this paper, offers a tool for resource and environmental managers to use in managing public involvement processes. This model challenges current patterns of resource use and addresses criticisms of public involvement processes. Critical EA education, involving both cognitive development and personal empowerment, focuses on critical intelligence, problem solving and social action. The concept is offered as a means to facilitate and improve public involvement and, thereby, empower local communities to take greater control of resource use decisions affecting their lives. Positive implications of critical EA education for change, complexity, uncertainty and conflict, which are four enduring themes in resource and environmental management, are discussed in the paper. The implications include: cognitive development and personal empowerment at the level of local resource communities; simplification of the often complex discourse encountered in resource management; reduction in feelings of powerlessness often experienced by members of the public in environmental assessment scenarios; a reduction of ignorance and indeterminacy regarding resource management issues; conflict resolution at the cognitive level; and, clarification of the opposing values, interests or actions at the heart of a conflict.

  17. eHealth in the future of medications management: personalisation, monitoring and adherence.

    PubMed

    Car, Josip; Tan, Woan Shin; Huang, Zhilian; Sloot, Peter; Franklin, Bryony Dean

    2017-04-05

    Globally, healthcare systems face major challenges with medicines management and medication adherence. Medication adherence determines medication effectiveness and can be the single most effective intervention for improving health outcomes. In anticipation of growth in eHealth interventions worldwide, we explore the role of eHealth in the patients' medicines management journey in primary care, focusing on personalisation and intelligent monitoring for greater adherence. eHealth offers opportunities to transform every step of the patient's medicines management journey. From booking appointments, consultation with a healthcare professional, decision-making, medication dispensing, carer support, information acquisition and monitoring, to learning about medicines and their management in daily life. It has the potential to support personalisation and monitoring and thus lead to better adherence. For some of these dimensions, such as supporting decision-making and providing reminders and prompts, evidence is stronger, but for many others more rigorous research is urgently needed. Given the potential benefits and barriers to eHealth in medicines management, a fine balance needs to be established between evidence-based integration of technologies and constructive experimentation that could lead to a game-changing breakthrough. A concerted, transdisciplinary approach adapted to different contexts, including low- and middle-income contries is required to realise the benefits of eHealth at scale.

  18. Contact heterogeneities in feral swine: implications for disease management and future research

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pepin, Kim; Davis, Amy J.; Beasley, James; Boughton, Raoul; Campbell, Tyler; Cooper, Susan; Gaston, Wes; Hartley, Stephen B.; Kilgo, John C.; Wisely, Samantha; Wyckoff, Christy; VerCauteren, Kurt

    2016-01-01

    Contact rates vary widely among individuals in socially structured wildlife populations. Understanding the interplay of factors responsible for this variation is essential for planning effective disease management. Feral swine (Sus scrofa) are a socially structured species which pose an increasing threat to livestock and human health, and little is known about contact structure. We analyzed 11 GPS data sets from across the United States to understand the interplay of ecological and demographic factors on variation in co-location rates, a proxy for contact rates. Between-sounder contact rates strongly depended on the distance among home ranges (less contact among sounders separated by >2 km; negligible between sounders separated by >6 km), but other factors causing high clustering between groups of sounders also seemed apparent. Our results provide spatial parameters for targeted management actions, identify data gaps that could lead to improved management and provide insight on experimental design for quantitating contact rates and structure.

  19. Studying the Past for the Future: Managing Modern Biodiversity from Historic and Prehistoric Data

    SciTech Connect

    Foster, Professor Thomas; Olsen, Lisa M; Dale, Virginia H; Chen, Alice

    2010-01-01

    Management of biodiversity and anthropogenic effects on the environment are some of the most difficult challenges facing humans today. In this paper, we describe how archaeological, historical, and ecological data can be combined to identify metrics of ecological change. Archaeological surveys, historic witness tree data, analysis of ancient pollen, and recent satellite imagery are combined to create indicators of change that are useable by modem environmental managers at Fort Benning Military Reservation in Georgia and Alabama in the United States. Archaeological data were collected at 30 meter intervals, historic vegetation data were collected from early nineteenth century survey maps, and ancient pollen and charcoal were collected from soil cores in lakes. We show how data sets collected with disparate goals from anthropology and ecology can be applied to make policy decisions about environmental management.

  20. Contact heterogeneities in feral swine: implications for disease management and future research

    DOE PAGES

    Pepin, Kim M.; Davis, Amy J.; Beasley, James; ...

    2016-03-17

    Contact rates vary widely among individuals in socially structured wildlife populations. Understanding the interplay of factors responsible for this variation is essential for planning effective disease management. Feral swine (Sus scrofa) are a socially structured species which pose an increasing threat to livestock and human health, and little is known about contact structure. We analyzed 11 GPS data sets from across the United States to understand the interplay of ecological and demographic factors on variation in co-location rates, a proxy for contact rates. Between-sounder contact rates strongly depended on the distance among home ranges (less contact among sounders separated bymore » >2 km; negligible between sounders separated by >6 km), but other factors causing high clustering between groups of sounders also seemed apparent. Our results provide spatial parameters for targeted management actions, identify data gaps that could lead to improved management and provide insight on experimental design for quantitating contact rates and structure.« less