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Sample records for future planetary x-ray

  1. Planetary X-ray studies: past, present and future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Branduardi-Raymont, Graziella

    2016-07-01

    Our solar system is a fascinating physics laboratory and X-ray observations are now firmly established as a powerful diagnostic tool of the multiple processes taking place in it. The science that X-rays reveal encompasses solar, space plasma and planetary physics, and the response of bodies in the solar system to the impact of the Sun's activity. This talk will review what we know from past observations and what we expect to learn in the short, medium and long term. Observations with Chandra and XMM-Newton have demonstrated that the origin of Jupiter's bright soft X-ray aurorae lies in the Charge eXchange (CX) process, likely to involve the interaction with atmospheric neutrals of local magnetospheric ions, as well as those carried in the solar wind. At higher energies electron bremsstrahlung is thought to be the X-ray emitting mechanism, while the whole planetary disk acts as a mirror for the solar X-ray flux via Thomson and fluorescent scattering. This 'X-ray mirror' phenomenon is all that is observed from Saturn's disk, which otherwise lacks X-ray auroral features. The Earth's X-ray aurora is bright and variable and mostly due to electron bremsstrahlung and line emission from atmospheric species. Un-magnetised planets, Venus and Mars, do not show X-ray aurorae but display the interesting combination of mirroring the solar X-ray flux and producing X-rays by Solar Wind Charge eXchange (SWCX) in their exospheres. These processes respond to different solar stimulation (photons and solar wind plasma respectively) hence their relative contributions are seen to vary according to the Sun's output. Present and future of planetary X-ray studies are very bright. We are preparing for the arrival of the Juno mission at Jupiter this summer and for coordinated observations with Chandra and XMM-Newton on the approach and later during Juno's orbital phase. These will allow direct correlation of the local plasma conditions with the X-ray emissions and the establishment of the

  2. Bremsstrahlung X-ray spectra of Jupiter and Saturn - Predictions for future planetary spacecraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbosa, D. D.

    1990-07-01

    Calculations of X-ray spectra due to bremsstrahlung from precipitating auroral electrons of Jupiter and Saturn are presented. The model assumes that a field-aligned potential drop accelerates a primary beam of electrons into the atmosphere where a population of secondary electrons having a power law energy dependence is generated. The spectrum at Jupiter is normalized to the soft X-ray observations of Metzger et al. (1983) at the low-energy end and constrained at the high-energy end by UV auroral energy requirements. The spectrum at Saturn is constructed by analogy to the Jovian case allowing for variation of the beam energy, energy flux, and scale size of the Saturnian aurora. The results indicate that a significant flux of X-rays is emanating from both planets which may serve as a basis for conducting planetary X-ray astronomy as a part of future spacecraft missions to the planets.

  3. The future in X-ray surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasinger, Günther

    2015-08-01

    I will chair this "Way Forward" discusson about the future in X-ray Surveys at the Focus Meeting #6Cosmological X-ray Surveys: probing the Hot and Energetic Cosmos. Participants will be R. Gilli,G. Pratt, G. Fabbiano, X. Barcons, T. Ohashi, F. Harrison.

  4. Remote X-Ray Diffraction and X-Ray Fluorescence Analysis on Planetary Surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blake, David F.; DeVincenzi, D. (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    The legacy of planetary X-ray Diffraction (XRD) and X-ray Fluorescence (XRF) began in 1960 when W. Parish proposed an XRD instrument for deployment on the moon. The instrument was built and flight qualified, but the Lunar XRD program was cancelled shortly before the first human landing in 1969. XRF chemical data have been collected in situ by surface landers on Mars (Viking 1 & 2, Pathfinder) and Venus (Venera 13 & 14). These highly successful experiments provide critical constraints on our current understanding of surface processes and planetary evolution. However, the mineralogy, which is more critical to planetary surface science than simple chemical analysis, will remain unknown or will at best be imprecisely constrained until X-ray diffraction (XRD) data are collected. Recent progress in X-ray detector technology allows the consideration of simultaneous XRD (mineralogic analysis) and high-precision XRF (elemental analysis) in systems miniaturized to the point where they can be mounted on fixed landers or small robotic rovers. There is a variety of potential targets for XRD/XRF equipped landers within the solar system, the most compelling of which are the poles of the moon, the southern highlands of Mars and Europa.

  5. Measuring and interpreting X-ray fluorescence from planetary surfaces.

    PubMed

    Owens, Alan; Beckhoff, Burkhard; Fraser, George; Kolbe, Michael; Krumrey, Michael; Mantero, Alfonso; Mantler, Michael; Peacock, Anthony; Pia, Maria-Grazia; Pullan, Derek; Schneider, Uwe G; Ulm, Gerhard

    2008-11-15

    As part of a comprehensive study of X-ray emission from planetary surfaces and in particular the planet Mercury, we have measured fluorescent radiation from a number of planetary analog rock samples using monochromatized synchrotron radiation provided by the BESSY II electron storage ring. The experiments were carried out using a purpose built X-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectrometer chamber developed by the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Germany's national metrology institute. The XRF instrumentation is absolutely calibrated and allows for reference-free quantitation of rock sample composition, taking into account secondary photon- and electron-induced enhancement effects. The fluorescence data, in turn, have been used to validate a planetary fluorescence simulation tool based on the GEANT4 transport code. This simulation can be used as a mission analysis tool to predict the time-dependent orbital XRF spectral distributions from planetary surfaces throughout the mapping phase. PMID:18855420

  6. Possible planetary XRF instrument with X-ray generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Lo I.; Trombka, Jacob I.

    1986-01-01

    We explore in this paper the possibility of a planetary in situ XRF system using a newly developed battery-operated miniature X-ray generator as the excitation source. Furthermore, recent advances in refrigeration technology and HgI2 detectors make it possible to consider realistically the inclusion of a high-resolution energy-dispersive spectrometer as part of the system. It will be shown that by the simple coupling of the miniature X-ray generator and a standard Si(Li) detector qualitative characterization of geochemical samples can be easily carried out without elaborate calibrations and spectrum stripping. Similar battery-operated miniature X-ray generators with a variety of anodes are now commercially available.

  7. Studying planetary matter using intense x-ray pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Appel, K.; Nakatsutsumi, M.; Pelka, A.; Priebe, G.; Thorpe, I.; Tschentscher, Th

    2015-01-01

    Free-electron laser facilities enable new applications in the field of high-pressure research including planetary materials. The European x-ray Free Electron Laser (European XFEL) in Hamburg, Germany will start user operation in 2017 and will provide photon energies of up to 25 keV. The high-energy density science instrument (HED) is one of the six baseline instruments at the European XFEL. It is dedicated to the study of dense material at strong excitation in a temperature range from eV to keV and pressures >100 GPa which is equivalent to an energy density >100 J mm-3. It will enable studying structural and electronic properties of excited states with hard x-rays. The instrument is currently in its technical design phase and first user experiments are foreseen for summer 2017. In this contribution, we present the x-ray instrumentation and foreseen x-ray techniques at HED and concentrate on prototype hard-condensed matter experiments in the field of planetary research as proposed during recent user consortium meetings for this instrument. These include quasi-isentropic (ramped) compression and shock compression experiments.

  8. Be/X-ray Binary Science for Future X-ray Timing Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson-Hodge, Colleen A.

    2011-01-01

    For future missions, the Be/X-ray binary community needs to clearly define our science priorities for the future to advocate for their inclusion in future missions. In this talk, I will describe current designs for two potential future missions and Be X-ray binary science enabled by these designs. The Large Observatory For X-ray Timing (LOFT) is an X-ray timing mission selected in February 2011 for the assessment phase from the 2010 ESA M3 call for proposals. The Advanced X-ray Timing ARray (AXTAR) is a NASA explorer concept X-ray timing mission. This talk is intended to initiate discussions of our science priorities for the future.

  9. Laboratory studies into the effect of regolith on planetary X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Näränen, Jyri; Parviainen, Hannu; Muinonen, Karri; Carpenter, James; Nygård, Kim; Peura, Marko

    2008-12-01

    In the analysis of X-ray fluorescence spectra from planetary surfaces, it is traditionally assumed that the observed surface is a plane-parallel, smooth, and homogeneous medium. The spectral and spatial resolutions of the instruments that have been used to measure X-ray emission from planetary surfaces to date have been such that this has been a reasonable assumption, but a new generation of X-ray spectrometers will provide enhanced spectral and spatial resolutions when compared with previous instrumentation. In light of these improvements in performance, it is important to assess how the requirements on the methodology of analysis of spectra may change when the surface is considered as a regolith. At other wavelengths, varying physical properties of planetary regoliths, such as the packing density, are known to have an effect on the observed signal as a function of viewing geometry. In this paper, the results from laboratory X-ray fluorescence measurements of regolith analogue materials at different viewing geometries are presented. Characteristic properties of the regolith such as particle sizes and packing density are found to affect the measured elemental line ratios. A semiempirical function is introduced as a tool for fitting fluorescent line intensity dependences as a function of viewing geometry. The importance of the results is discussed and recommendations are made for the future analysis of planetary X-ray fluorescence data.

  10. Future challenging in X-ray optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Citterio, O.; Ghigo, M.; Mazzoleni, F.; Pareschi, G.; Aschenbach, B.; Bräuninger, H.; Parodi, G.

    One of the main guidelines for future X ray astronomy projects like e.g. XEUS- (ESA) and Generation-X (NASA) is to utilize grazing-incidence focusing optics2 with extremely large collecting areas (several m tens at 1 keV), with a dramatic increase of about two order of magnitude compared to the current X-ray telescopes. In order not to fall beyond the source confusion limit at low fluxes, the angular resolution required for these optics should be superb (a few arcsecs at most). The enormous mirror dimensions together with the high imaging performances give rise to a number of problems. It is basically impossible to realize so large mirrors from closed Wolter I shells which benefit from high mechanical stiffness. But instead the mirrors need to be formed as rectangular segments, a series of them will be assembled in a petal. Taking into account the realistic load capabilities of space launchers, to be able to put in orbit so large mirror modules the mass/geometric-area ratio of the optics should be very small. Finally, with a so large optics mass it would be very difficult to provide the electric power for an optics thermal active control, able to maintain the mirrors at the usual temperature of 20 o C. Therefore, very likely, the optics will instead operate in extreme thermal conditions, with the mirror temperature oscillating between -30 and - 40o C, that tends to exclude the epoxy - replication approach (the mismatch between the CTE of the substrate and that of the resin would cause prohibitively large deformations of the mirror surface profiles). From these considerations light weight materials with high thermal-mechanical properties such as glass or ceramics become attractive to realize the mirrors of future X-ray telescopes. In this paper we will discuss some technological methods based on the production and correct integration of thin mirror segments. Some aspects concerning the mass production and the economics of the proposed processes will be presented as

  11. The Future of X-Ray Optics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weisskopf, Martin C.

    2013-01-01

    The most important next step is the development of X-ray optics comparable to (or better than) Chandra in angular resolution that far exceed Chandra s effective area. Use the long delay to establish an adequately funded, competitive technology program along the lines I have recommended. Don't be diverted from this objective, except for Explorer-class missions. Progress in X-ray optics, with emphasis on the angular resolution, is central to the paradigm-shifting discoveries and the contributions of X-ray astronomy to multiwavelength astrophysics over the past 51 years.

  12. Prototyping a Global Soft X-Ray Imaging Instrument for Heliophysics, Planetary Science, and Astrophysics Science

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collier, M. R.; Porter, F. S.; Sibeck, D. G.; Carter, J. A.; Chiao, M. P.; Chornay, D. J.; Cravens, T.; Galeazzi, M.; Keller, J. W.; Koutroumpa, D.; Kuntz, K.; Read, A. M.; Robertson, I. P.; Sembay, S.; Snowden, S.; Thomas, N.

    2012-01-01

    We describe current progress in the development of a prototype wide field-of-view soft X-ray imager that employs Lobstereye optics and targets heliophysics, planetary, and astrophysics science. The prototype will provide proof-of-concept for a future flight instrument capable of imaging the entire dayside magnetosheath from outside the magnetosphere. Such an instrument was proposed for the ESA AXIOM mission.

  13. Prototyping a Global Soft X-ray Imaging Instrument for Heliophysics, Planetary Science, and Astrophysics Science

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collier, Michael R.; Porter, F. Scott; Sibeck, David G.; Carter, Jenny A.; Chiao, Meng P.; Chornay, Dennis J.; Cravens, Thomas; Galeazzi, Massimiliano; Keller, John W.; Koutroumpa, Dimitra; Kuntz, Kip; Read, Any M.; Robertson, Ina P.; Sembay, Steve; Snowden, Steven; Thomas, Nick

    2012-01-01

    We describe current progress in the development of a prototype wide field-of-view soft X-ray imager that employs Lobster-eye optics and targets heliophysics, planetary, and astrophysics science. The prototype will provide proof-of-concept for a future flight instrument capable of imaging the entire dayside magnetosheath from outside the magnetosphere. Such an instrument was proposed for the FSA AXIOM mission

  14. Prototyping a global soft X-ray imaging instrument for heliophysics, planetary science, and astrophysics science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collier, M. R.; Porter, F. S.; Sibeck, D. G.; Carter, J. A.; Chiao, M. P.; Chornay, D. J.; Cravens, T.; Galeazzi, M.; Keller, J. W.; Koutroumpa, D.; Kuntz, K.; Read, A. M.; Robertson, I. P.; Sembay, S.; Snowden, S.; Thomas, N.

    2012-04-01

    We describe current progress in the development of a prototype wide field-of-view soft X-ray imager that employs Lobster-eye optics and targets heliophysics, planetary, and astrophysics science. The prototype will provide proof-of-concept for a future flight instrument capable of imaging the entire dayside magnetosheath from outside the magnetosphere. Such an instrument was proposed for the ESA AXIOM mission.

  15. The Chandra planetary nebula survey (CHANPLANS). II. X-ray emission from compact planetary nebulae

    SciTech Connect

    Freeman, M.; Kastner, J. H.; Montez, R. Jr.; Balick, B.; Frew, D. J.; De Marco, O.; Parker, Q. A.; Jones, D.; Miszalski, B.; Sahai, R.; Blackman, E.; Frank, A.; Chu, Y.-H.; Guerrero, M. A.; Zijlstra, A.; Bujarrabal, V.; Corradi, R. L. M.; Nordhaus, J.; and others

    2014-10-20

    We present results from the most recent set of observations obtained as part of the Chandra X-ray observatory Planetary Nebula Survey (CHANPLANS), the first comprehensive X-ray survey of planetary nebulae (PNe) in the solar neighborhood (i.e., within ∼1.5 kpc of the Sun). The survey is designed to place constraints on the frequency of appearance and range of X-ray spectral characteristics of X-ray-emitting PN central stars and the evolutionary timescales of wind-shock-heated bubbles within PNe. CHANPLANS began with a combined Cycle 12 and archive Chandra survey of 35 PNe. CHANPLANS continued via a Chandra Cycle 14 Large Program which targeted all (24) remaining known compact (R {sub neb} ≲ 0.4 pc), young PNe that lie within ∼1.5 kpc. Results from these Cycle 14 observations include first-time X-ray detections of hot bubbles within NGC 1501, 3918, 6153, and 6369, and point sources in HbDs 1, NGC 6337, and Sp 1. The addition of the Cycle 14 results brings the overall CHANPLANS diffuse X-ray detection rate to ∼27% and the point source detection rate to ∼36%. It has become clearer that diffuse X-ray emission is associated with young (≲ 5 × 10{sup 3} yr), and likewise compact (R {sub neb} ≲ 0.15 pc), PNe with closed structures and high central electron densities (n{sub e} ≳ 1000 cm{sup –3}), and is rarely associated with PNe that show H{sub 2} emission and/or pronounced butterfly structures. Hb 5 is one such exception of a PN with a butterfly structure that hosts diffuse X-ray emission. Additionally, two of the five new diffuse X-ray detections (NGC 1501 and NGC 6369) host [WR]-type central stars, supporting the hypothesis that PNe with central stars of [WR]-type are likely to display diffuse X-ray emission.

  16. Formation and X-ray Emission from Hot bubbles in Planetary Nebulae II. Hot bubble X-ray emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toalá, J. A.; Arthur, S. J.

    2016-09-01

    We present a study of the X-ray emission from numerical simulations of hot bubbles in planetary nebulae (PNe). High-resolution, two-dimensional, radiation-hydrodynamical simulations of the formation and evolution of hot bubbles in PNe, with and without thermal conduction, are used to calculate the X-ray emission and study its time-dependence and relationship to the changing stellar parameters. Instabilities in the wind-wind interaction zone produce clumps and filaments in the swept-up shell of nebular material. Turbulent mixing and thermal conduction at the corrugated interface can produce quantities of intermediate temperature and density gas between the hot, shocked wind bubble and the swept-up photoionized nebular material, which can emit in soft, diffuse X-rays. We use the CHIANTI software to compute synthetic spectra for the models and calculate their luminosities. We find that models both with conduction and those without can produce the X-ray temperatures and luminosities that are in the ranges reported in observations, although the models including thermal conduction are an order of magnitude more luminous than those without. Our results show that at early times the diffuse X-ray emission should be dominated by the contribution from the hot, shocked stellar wind, whereas at later times the nebular gas will dominate the spectrum. We analyse the effect of sampling on the resultant spectra and conclude that a minimum of 200 counts is required to reliably reproduce the spectral shape. Likewise, heavily smoothed surface-brightness profiles obtained from low-count detections of PNe do not provide a reliable description of the spatial distribution of the X-ray emitting gas.

  17. Effect of regolith on planetary X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy: laboratory and numerical studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naranen, Jyri; Carpenter, James; Parviainen, Hannu; Muinonen, Karri

    Fluorescent X-rays from the surfaces of airless planetary bodies in the inner solar system have been measured by instruments on several spacecraft. X-ray emission follows photoionisation by incident solar X-rays and charged particles and reveals the elemental composition of the surface. Analyses of X-ray spectra obtained by orbiting spacecraft, use the relative intensities of elemental emission lines (e.g., Ca/Si, Fe/Si) to determine the geochemistry of the target body. Historically, the analysis of X-ray spectra has assumed that surfaces can be considered as homogeneous plane-parallel media. It has been shown, however, that relative line intensities are affected by the physical properties of the target surface (e.g. particle size distribution and packing density of the regolith) and the viewing and illumination geometry of observations. We describe experimental investigations into the effects of regolith properties on the line ratios measured by a nadir pointing (emergence angle 0° ) orbiting instrument, with with solar illumination angles in the range 25-75° from zenith. The planetary regolith analogue used in these experiments was a terrestrial, olivine rich basalt, which has been used by previous authors as an analogue to the lunar maria. The basalt samples were ground to powder and sieved to discriminate particles in the ranges, <75µm, 75-250µm, and 250-500µm. These separate powders were then pressed into solid pellets. The separation of particles with different sizes allows some determination of the effects due to changes in particle size. All measurements were made at pressures of less than 0.5 mbar to prevent absorption of fluorescent X-rays in air. The relative fluorescent line ratios of several major rock forming elements (K, Ca, Ti, Si) were measured. We find that for measurements made in a "nadir" pointing geometry, the measured spectrum becomes increasingly hard as illumination angle increases (i.e. X-ray lines at higher energies are enhanced

  18. Planetary and satellite x ray spectroscopy: A new window on solid-body composition by remote sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chenette, D. L.; Wolcott, R. W.; Selesnick, R. S.

    1993-01-01

    The rings and most of the satellites of the outer planets orbit within the radiation belts of their parent bodies. This is an environment with intense fluxes of energetic electrons. As a result, these objects are strong emitters of X-rays. The characteristic X-ray lines from these bodies depend on atomic composition, but they are not sensitive to how the material is arranged in compounds or mixtures. X-ray fluorescence spectral analysis has demonstrated its unique value in the laboratory as a qualitative and quantitative analysis tool. This technique has yet to be fully exploited in a planetary instrument for remote sensing. The characteristic X-ray emissions provide atomic relative abundances. These results are complementary to the molecular composition information obtained from IR, visible, and UV emission spectra. The atomic relative abundances are crucial to understanding the formation and evolution of these bodies. They are also crucial to the proper interpretation of the molecular composition results from the other sensors. The intensities of the characteristic X-ray emissions are sufficiently strong to be measured with an instrument of modest size. Recent developments in X-ray detector technologies and electronic miniaturization have made possible space-flight X-ray imaging and nonimaging spectrometers of high sensitivity and excellent energy resolution that are rugged enough to survive long-duration space missions. Depending on the application, such instruments are capable of resolving elemental abundances of elements from carbon through iron. At the same time, by measuring the bremsstrahlung intensity and energy spectrum, the characteristics of the source electron flux can be determined. We will discuss these concepts, including estimated source strengths, and will describe a small instrument capable of providing this unique channel of information for future planetary missions. We propose to build this instrument using innovative electronics packaging

  19. X-ray photochemical alteration of planetary samples during in situ micro-XRF analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flannery, D. T.; Tuite, M. L., Jr.; Hodyss, R. P.; Allwood, A.; Bhartia, R.; Abbey, W. J.; Williford, K. H.

    2015-12-01

    PIXL (Planetary Instrument for X-ray Lithochemistry; selected for the Mars 2020 mission contact science payload) uses a polycapillary to focus X-rays to a ~100 μm spot on sample surfaces, providing higher spatial resolution, higher X-ray flux, and higher fluorescence counts compared to previously flown planetary XRF instruments. Photochemical changes in organic materials occurring during investigations employing x-rays have been reported, particularly for biological samples examined in synchrotrons (e.g. George et al., J. Synchrotron Radiation, 19:875-876). However, little is known about the effect energies and fluxes typical to micro-XRF instruments may have on the organic molecules that are commonly preserved in rocks and sediments. In particular, it is essential to understand the effect of micro-XRF on organics preserved near surfaces that are later subjected to contact science that focuses on organic geochemistry (e.g. UV Raman/fluorescence instruments). We report results of an investigation in which samples containing organic molecules were exposed to X-ray energies and fluxes typical to micro-XRF. Samples containing alkanes and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were characterized by GC-MS and UV Raman/fluorescence before being subjected to various X-ray energies and fluxes typical of PIXL. Following x-ray irradiation, samples were again characterized by GC-MS and UV Raman/fluorescence in order to characterize photochemical effects.

  20. In Situ Mineralogical Analysis of Planetary Materials Using X-Ray Diffraction and X-Ray Fluorescence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sarrazin, P.; Blake, D.; Vaniman, D.; Chang, Sherwood (Technical Monitor)

    1996-01-01

    Remote observations of Mars have led scientists to believe that its early climate was similar to that of the early Earth, having had abundant liquid water and a dense atmosphere. One of the most fascinating questions of recent times is whether simple bacterial life developed on Mars (as it did on the Earth) during this early element period. Analyses of SNC meteorites have broadened considerably our knowledge of the chemistry of certain types of Martian rocks, underscoring the tantalizing possibility of early hydrothermal systems and even of ancient bacterial life. Detailed analyses of SNC meteorites in Terrestrial laboratories utilize the most sophisticated organic, isotopic and microscopic techniques in existence. Indeed; it is unlikely that the key biogenic indicators used in McKay et al (ibid) could be identified by a remote instrument on the surface of Mars. As a result, it is probable that any robotic search for evidence of an ancient Martian biosphere will have as its focus the identification of key minerals in likely host rocks rather than the direct detection of organic or isotopic biomarkers. Even on a sample return mission, mineralogical screening will be utilized to choose the most likely candidate rocks. X-ray diffraction (XRD) is the only technique that can provide a direct determination of the crystal structures of the phases present within a sample. When many different crystalline phases are present, quantitative analysis is better constrained if used in conjunction with a determination of elemental composition, obtainable by X-ray fluorescence (XRF) using the same X-ray source as for XRD. For planetary surface analysis, a remote instrument combining XRD and XRF could be used for mineralogical characterization of both soils and rocks. We are designing a remote XRD/XRF instrument with this objective in mind. The instrument concept pays specific attention to constraints in sample preparation, weight, volume, power, etc. Based on the geometry of a

  1. Serendipitous Chandra X-Ray Detection of a Hot Bubble within the Planetary Nebula NGC 5315

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kastner, Joel H.; Montez, Rodolfo, Jr.; Balick, Bruce; De Marco, Orsola

    2008-01-01

    We report the serendipitous detection of the planetary nebula NGC 5315 by the Chandra X-Ray Observatory. The Chandra imaging spectroscopy results indicate that the X-rays from this PN, which harbors a Wolf-Rayet (W-R) central star, emanate from a TX ~ 2.5 × 106 K plasma generated via the same wind-wind collisions that have cleared a compact (lesssim8000 AU radius) central cavity within the nebula. The inferred X-ray luminosity of NGC 5315 is ~2.5 × 1032 ergs s-1 (0.3-2.0 keV), placing this object among the most luminous such "hot bubble" X-ray sources yet detected within PNe. With the X-ray detection of NGC 5315, objects with W-R-type central stars now constitute a clear majority of known examples of diffuse X-ray sources among PNe; all such "hot bubble" PN X-ray sources display well-defined, quasi-continuous optical rims. We therefore assert that X-ray-luminous hot bubbles are characteristic of young PNe with large central star wind kinetic energies and closed bubble morphologies. However, the evidence at hand also suggests that processes such as wind and bubble temporal evolution, as well as heat conduction and/or mixing of hot bubble and nebular gas, ultimately govern the luminosity and temperature of superheated plasma within PNe.

  2. The Chandra Planetary Nebula Survey (ChanPlaNS). II. X-Ray Emission from Compact Planetary Nebulae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freeman, M.; Montez, R., Jr.; Kastner, J. H.; Balick, B.; Frew, D. J.; Jones, D.; Miszalski, B.; Sahai, R.; Blackman, E.; Chu, Y.-H.; De Marco, O.; Frank, A.; Guerrero, M. A.; Lopez, J. A.; Zijlstra, A.; Bujarrabal, V.; Corradi, R. L. M.; Nordhaus, J.; Parker, Q. A.; Sandin, C.; Schönberner, D.; Soker, N.; Sokoloski, J. L.; Steffen, M.; Toalá, J. A.; Ueta, T.; Villaver, E.

    2014-10-01

    We present results from the most recent set of observations obtained as part of the Chandra X-ray observatory Planetary Nebula Survey (ChanPlaNS), the first comprehensive X-ray survey of planetary nebulae (PNe) in the solar neighborhood (i.e., within ~1.5 kpc of the Sun). The survey is designed to place constraints on the frequency of appearance and range of X-ray spectral characteristics of X-ray-emitting PN central stars and the evolutionary timescales of wind-shock-heated bubbles within PNe. ChanPlaNS began with a combined Cycle 12 and archive Chandra survey of 35 PNe. ChanPlaNS continued via a Chandra Cycle 14 Large Program which targeted all (24) remaining known compact (R neb <~ 0.4 pc), young PNe that lie within ~1.5 kpc. Results from these Cycle 14 observations include first-time X-ray detections of hot bubbles within NGC 1501, 3918, 6153, and 6369, and point sources in HbDs 1, NGC 6337, and Sp 1. The addition of the Cycle 14 results brings the overall ChanPlaNS diffuse X-ray detection rate to ~27% and the point source detection rate to ~36%. It has become clearer that diffuse X-ray emission is associated with young (lsim 5 × 103 yr), and likewise compact (R neb <~ 0.15 pc), PNe with closed structures and high central electron densities (ne >~ 1000 cm-3), and is rarely associated with PNe that show H2 emission and/or pronounced butterfly structures. Hb 5 is one such exception of a PN with a butterfly structure that hosts diffuse X-ray emission. Additionally, two of the five new diffuse X-ray detections (NGC 1501 and NGC 6369) host [WR]-type central stars, supporting the hypothesis that PNe with central stars of [WR]-type are likely to display diffuse X-ray emission.

  3. Segmented X-Ray Optics for Future Space Telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McClelland, Ryan S.

    2013-01-01

    Lightweight and high resolution mirrors are needed for future space-based X-ray telescopes to achieve advances in high-energy astrophysics. The slumped glass mirror technology in development at NASA GSFC aims to build X-ray mirror modules with an area to mass ratio of approx.17 sq cm/kg at 1 keV and a resolution of 10 arc-sec Half Power Diameter (HPD) or better at an affordable cost. As the technology nears the performance requirements, additional engineering effort is needed to ensure the modules are compatible with space-flight. This paper describes Flight Mirror Assembly (FMA) designs for several X-ray astrophysics missions studied by NASA and defines generic driving requirements and subsequent verification tests necessary to advance technology readiness for mission implementation. The requirement to perform X-ray testing in a horizontal beam, based on the orientation of existing facilities, is particularly burdensome on the mirror technology, necessitating mechanical over-constraint of the mirror segments and stiffening of the modules in order to prevent self-weight deformation errors from dominating the measured performance. This requirement, in turn, drives the mass and complexity of the system while limiting the testable angular resolution. Design options for a vertical X-ray test facility alleviating these issues are explored. An alternate mirror and module design using kinematic constraint of the mirror segments, enabled by a vertical test facility, is proposed. The kinematic mounting concept has significant advantages including potential for higher angular resolution, simplified mirror integration, and relaxed thermal requirements. However, it presents new challenges including low vibration modes and imperfections in kinematic constraint. Implementation concepts overcoming these challenges are described along with preliminary test and analysis results demonstrating the feasibility of kinematically mounting slumped glass mirror segments.

  4. Segmented X-ray optics for future space telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McClelland, R. S.

    Lightweight and high resolution mirrors are needed for future space-based X-ray telescopes to achieve advances in high-energy astrophysics. The slumped glass mirror technology in development at NASA GSFC aims to build X-ray mirror modules with an area to mass ratio of ~17 cm2/kg at 1 keV and a resolution of 10 arc-sec Half Power Diameter (HPD) or better at an affordable cost. As the technology nears the performance requirements, additional engineering effort is needed to ensure the modules are compatible with space-flight. This paper describes Flight Mirror Assembly (FMA) designs for several X-ray astrophysics missions studied by NASA and defines generic driving requirements and subsequent verification tests necessary to advance technology readiness for mission implementation. The requirement to perform X-ray testing in a horizontal beam, based on the orientation of existing facilities, is particularly burdensome on the mirror technology, necessitating mechanical over-constraint of the mirror segments and stiffening of the modules in order to prevent self-weight deformation errors from dominating the measured performance. This requirement, in turn, drives the mass and complexity of the system while limiting the testable angular resolution. Design options for a vertical X-ray test facility alleviating these issues are explored. An alternate mirror and module design using kinematic constraint of the mirror segments, enabled by a vertical test facility, is proposed. The kinematic mounting concept has significant advantages including potential for higher angular resolution, simplified mirror integration, and relaxed thermal requirements. However, it presents new challenges including low vibration modes and imperfections in kinematic constraint. Implementation concepts overcoming these challenges are described along with preliminary test and analysis results demonstrating the feasibility of kinematically mounting slumped glass mirror segments.

  5. Metrology Requirements of Future X-Ray Telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gubarev, Mikhail

    2010-01-01

    Fundamental needs for future x-ray telescopes: a) Sharp images => excellent angular resolution. b) High throughput => large aperture areas. Generation-X optics technical challenges: a) High resolution => precision mirrors & alignment. b) Large apertures => lots of lightweight mirrors. Innovation needed for technical readiness: a) 4 top-level error terms contribute to image size. b) There are approaches to controlling those errors. Innovation needed for manufacturing readiness: Programmatic issues are at least as severe

  6. Demonstration of the feasibility of an integrated x ray laboratory for planetary exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Franco, E. D.; Kerner, J. A.; Koppel, L. N.; Boyle, M. J.

    1993-01-01

    The identification of minerals and elemental compositions is an important component in the geological and exobiological exploration of the solar system. X ray diffraction and fluorescence are common techniques for obtaining these data. The feasibility of combining these analytical techniques in an integrated x ray laboratory compatible with the volume, mass, and power constraints imposed by many planetary missions was demonstrated. Breadboard level hardware was developed to cover the range of diffraction lines produced by minerals, clays, and amorphous; and to detect the x ray fluorescence emissions of elements from carbon through uranium. These breadboard modules were fabricated and used to demonstrate the ability to detect elements and minerals. Additional effort is required to establish the detection limits of the breadboard modules and to integrate diffraction and fluorescence techniques into a single unit. It was concluded that this integrated x ray laboratory capability will be a valuable tool in the geological and exobiological exploration of the solar system.

  7. Synchrotron Area X-ray Detectors, Present and Future

    SciTech Connect

    Gruner, Sol M.

    2010-06-23

    X-ray experiments are very frequently detector limited at today's storage ring synchrotron radiation (SR) sources, and will be even more so at future Energy Recovery Linac and X-ray Free Electron Laser sources. Image plate and phosphor-coupled CCD detectors that predominate at present-day sources were outgrowths of technologies initially developed for the medical and astronomical communities, respectively, with resultant limitations for SR. These limitations are enumerated. The growth of commercial silicon foundries and design tools enabling the production of large, customized integrated circuits is beginning to have a profound impact on SR detectors and is ushering in the age of 'designer detectors'. Novel area Pixel Array Detectors (PADs) are starting to appear in which each pixel has dedicated, complex circuitry capable of high speed and, in some cases, significant data processing power for specific applications. PADs now at, or near the horizon will be described. Integrated circuit methods continue to develop at a rapid pace. Implications for future x-ray detectors will be discussed.

  8. The evolution of planetary nebulae. V. The diffuse X-ray emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steffen, M.; Schönberner, D.; Warmuth, A.

    2008-10-01

    Context: Observations with space-borne X-ray telescopes revealed the existence of soft, diffuse X-ray emission from the inner regions of planetary nebulae. Although the existing images support the idea that this emission arises from the hot shocked central-star wind which fills the inner cavity of a planetary nebula, existing models have difficulties to explain the observations consistently. Aims: We investigate how the inclusion of thermal conduction changes the physical parameters of the hot shocked wind gas and the amount of X-ray emission predicted by time-dependent hydrodynamical models of planetary nebulae with central stars of normal, hydrogen-rich surface composition. Methods: We upgraded our 1D hydrodynamics code NEBEL by to account for energy transfer due to heat conduction, which is of importance at the interface separating the hot shocked wind gas (“hot bubble”) from the much cooler nebular material. With this new version of NEBEL we recomputed a selection of our already existing hydrodynamical sequences and obtained synthetic X-ray spectra for representative models along the evolutionary tracks by means of the freely available CHIANTI package. Results: Heat conduction leads to lower temperatures and higher densities within a bubble and brings the physical properties of the X-ray emitting domain into close agreement with the values derived from observations. The amount of X-rays emitted during the course of evolution depends on the energy dumped into the bubble by the fast stellar wind, on the efficiency of “evaporating” cool nebular gas via heat conduction, and on the bubble's expansion rate. We find from our models that the X-ray luminosity of a planetary nebula increases during its evolution across the HR diagram until stellar luminosity and wind power decline. Depending on the central-star mass and the evolutionary phase, our models predict X-ray [ 0.45-2.5 keV] luminosities between 10-8 and 10-4 of the stellar bolometric luminosities, in

  9. Novel Hybrid CMOS X-ray Detector Developments for Future Large Area and High Resolution X-ray Astronomy Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falcone, Abe

    In the coming years, X-ray astronomy will require new soft X-ray detectors that can be read very quickly with low noise and can achieve small pixel sizes over a moderately large focal plane area. These requirements will be present for a variety of X-ray missions that will attempt to address science that was highly ranked by the Decadal Review, including missions with science that over-laps with that of IXO and ATHENA, as well as other missions addressing science topics beyond those of IXO and ATHENA. An X-ray Surveyor mission was recently endorsed by the NASA long term planning document entitled "Enduring Quests, Daring Visions," and a detailed description of one possible realization of such a mission has been referred to as SMART-X, which was described in a recent NASA RFI response. This provides an example of a future mission concept with these requirements since it has high X-ray throughput and excellent spatial resolution. We propose to continue to modify current active pixel sensor designs, in particular the hybrid CMOS detectors that we have been working with for several years, and implement new in-pixel technologies that will allow us to achieve these ambitious and realistic requirements on a timeline that will make them available to upcoming X-ray missions. This proposal is a continuation of our program that has been working on these developments for the past several years.

  10. Full Field X-Ray Fluorescence Imaging Using Micro Pore Optics for Planetary Surface Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sarrazin, P.; Blake, D. F.; Gailhanou, M.; Walter, P.; Schyns, E.; Marchis, F.; Thompson, K.; Bristow, T.

    2016-01-01

    Many planetary surface processes leave evidence as small features in the sub-millimetre scale. Current planetary X-ray fluorescence spectrometers lack the spatial resolution to analyse such small features as they only provide global analyses of areas greater than 100 mm(exp 2). A micro-XRF spectrometer will be deployed on the NASA Mars 2020 rover to analyse spots as small as 120m. When using its line-scanning capacity combined to perpendicular scanning by the rover arm, elemental maps can be generated. We present a new instrument that provides full-field XRF imaging, alleviating the need for precise positioning and scanning mechanisms. The Mapping X-ray Fluorescence Spectrometer - "Map-X" - will allow elemental imaging with approximately 100µm spatial resolution and simultaneously provide elemental chemistry at the scale where many relict physical, chemical and biological features can be imaged in ancient rocks. The arm-mounted Map-X instrument is placed directly on the surface of an object and held in a fixed position during measurements. A 25x25 mm(exp 2) surface area is uniformly illuminated with X-rays or alpha-particles and gamma-rays. A novel Micro Pore Optic focusses a fraction of the emitted X-ray fluorescence onto a CCD operated at a few frames per second. On board processing allows measuring the energy and coordinates of each X-ray photon collected. Large sets of frames are reduced into 2d histograms used to compute higher level data products such as elemental maps and XRF spectra from selected regions of interest. XRF spectra are processed on the ground to further determine quantitative elemental compositions. The instrument development will be presented with an emphasis on the characterization and modelling of the X-ray focussing Micro Pore Optic. An outlook on possible alternative XRF imaging applications will be discussed.

  11. A High Speed, Radiation Hard X-Ray Imaging Spectroscometer for Planetary Investigations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kraft, R. P.; Kenter, A. T.; Murray, S. S.; Martindale, A.; Pearson, J.; Gladstone, R.; Branduardi-Raymont, G.; Elsner, R.; Kimura, T.; Ezoe, Y.; Grant, C.; Roediger, E.; Howell, R.; Elvis, M.; Smith, R.; Campbell, B.; Morgenthaler, J.; Kravens, T.; Steffl, A. J.; Hong, J.

    2014-01-01

    X-ray observations provide a unique window into fundamental processes in planetary physics, and one that is complementary to observations obtained at other wavelengths. We propose to develop an X-ray imaging spectrometer (0.1-10 keV band) that, on orbital planetary missions, would measure the elemental composition, density, and temperature of the hot plasma in gas giant magnetospheres, the interaction of the Solar wind with the upper atmospheres of terrestrial planets, and map the elemental composition of the surfaces of the Galilean moons and rocky or icy airless systems on spatial scales as small as a few meters. The X-ray emission from gas giants, terrestrial planets and moons with atmospheres, displays diverse characteristics that depend on the Solar wind's interaction with their upper atmospheres and/or magnetospheres. Our imaging spectrometer, as part of a dedicated mission to a gas giant, will be a paradigm changing technology. On a mission to the Jovian system, our baseline instrument would map the elemental composition of the rocky and icy surfaces of the Galilean moons via particle-induced X-ray fluorescence. This instrument would also measure the temperature, density and elemental abundance of the thermal plasma in the magnetosphere and in the Io plasma torus (IPT), explore the interaction of the Solar wind with the magnetosphere, and characterize the spectrum, flux, and temporal variability of X-ray emission from the polar auroras. We will constrain both the mode of energy transport and the effective transport coefficients in the IPT and throughout the Jovian magnetosphere by comparing temporal and spatial variations of the X-ray emitting plasma with those seen from the cooler but energetically dominant 5 eV plasma.

  12. THE BORN-AGAIN PLANETARY NEBULA A78: AN X-RAY TWIN OF A30

    SciTech Connect

    Toalá, J. A.; Guerrero, M. A.; Marquez-Lugo, R. A.; Fang, X.; Schönberner, D.; Ramos-Larios, G.

    2015-01-20

    We present the XMM-Newton discovery of X-ray emission from the planetary nebula (PN) A78, the second born-again PN detected in X-rays apart from A30. These two PNe share similar spectral and morphological characteristics: they harbor diffuse soft X-ray emission associated with the interaction between the H-poor ejecta and the current fast stellar wind and a point-like source at the position of the central star (CSPN). We present the spectral analysis of the CSPN, using for the first time an NLTE code for expanding atmospheres that takes line blanketing into account for the UV and optical spectra. The wind abundances are used for the X-ray spectral analysis of the CSPN and the diffuse emission. The X-ray emission from the CSPN in A78 can be modeled by a single C VI emission line, while the X-ray emission from its diffuse component is better described by an optically thin plasma emission model with a temperature of kT = 0.088 keV (T ≈ 1.0 × 10{sup 6} K). We estimate X-ray luminosities in the 0.2-2.0 keV energy band of L {sub X,} {sub CSPN} = (1.2 ± 0.3) × 10{sup 31} erg s{sup –1} and L {sub X,} {sub DIFF} = (9.2 ± 2.3) × 10{sup 30} erg s{sup –1} for the CSPN and diffuse components, respectively.

  13. Planetary Protection: X-ray Super-Flares Aid Formation of "Solar Systems"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2005-05-01

    New results from NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory imply that X-ray super-flares torched the young Solar System. Such flares likely affected the planet-forming disk around the early Sun, and may have enhanced the survival chances of Earth. By focusing on the Orion Nebula almost continuously for 13 days, a team of scientists used Chandra to obtain the deepest X-ray observation ever taken of this or any star cluster. The Orion Nebula is the nearest rich stellar nursery, located just 1,500 light years away. These data provide an unparalleled view of 1400 young stars, 30 of which are prototypes of the early Sun. The scientists discovered that these young suns erupt in enormous flares that dwarf - in energy, size, and frequency -- anything seen from the Sun today. Illustration of Large Flares Illustration of Large Flares "We don't have a time machine to see how the young Sun behaved, but the next best thing is to observe Sun-like stars in Orion," said Scott Wolk of Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics in Cambridge, Mass. "We are getting a unique look at stars between one and 10 million years old - a time when planets form." A key result is that the more violent stars produce flares that are a hundred times as energetic as the more docile ones. This difference may specifically affect the fate of planets that are relatively small and rocky, like the Earth. "Big X-ray flares could lead to planetary systems like ours where Earth is a safe distance from the Sun," said Eric Feigelson of Penn State University in University Park, and principal investigator for the international Chandra Orion Ultradeep Project. "Stars with smaller flares, on the other hand, might end up with Earth-like planets plummeting into the star." Animation of X-ray Flares from a Young Sun Animation of X-ray Flares from a "Young Sun" According to recent theoretical work, X-ray flares can create turbulence when they strike planet-forming disks, and this affects the position of rocky planets as they

  14. DETECTION OF DIFFUSE X-RAY EMISSION FROM PLANETARY NEBULAE WITH NEBULAR O VI

    SciTech Connect

    Ruiz, N.; Guerrero, M. A.; Jacob, R.; Schoenberner, D.; Steffen, M.

    2013-04-10

    The presence of O VI ions can be indicative of plasma temperatures of a few Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 5} K that are expected in heat conduction layers between the hot shocked stellar wind gas at several 10{sup 6} K and the cooler (10{sup 4} K) nebular gas of planetary nebulae (PNe). We have used FUSE observations of PNe to search for nebular O VI emission or absorption as a diagnostic of the conduction layer to ensure the presence of hot interior gas. Three PNe showing nebular O VI, namely IC 418, NGC 2392, and NGC 6826, have been selected for Chandra observations and diffuse X-ray emission is indeed detected in each of these PNe. Among the three, NGC 2392 has peculiarly high diffuse X-ray luminosity and plasma temperature compared with those expected from its stellar wind's mechanical luminosity and terminal velocity. The limited effects of heat conduction on the plasma temperature of a hot bubble at the low terminal velocity of the stellar wind of NGC 2392 may partially account for its high plasma temperature, but the high X-ray luminosity needs to be powered by processes other than the observed stellar wind, probably the presence of an unseen binary companion of the central star of the PN (CSPN) of NGC 2392. We have compiled relevant information on the X-ray, stellar, and nebular properties of PNe with a bubble morphology and found that the expectations of bubble models including heat conduction compare favorably with the present X-ray observations of hot bubbles around H-rich CSPNe, but have notable discrepancies for those around H-poor [WR] CSPNe. We note that PNe with more massive central stars can produce hotter plasma and higher X-ray surface brightness inside central hot bubbles.

  15. REBIRTH OF X-RAY EMISSION FROM THE BORN-AGAIN PLANETARY NEBULA A30

    SciTech Connect

    Guerrero, M. A.; Ruiz, N.; Toala, J. A.; Chu, Y.-H.; Gruendl, R. A.; Schoenberner, D.; Steffen, M.; Blair, W. P.

    2012-08-20

    The planetary nebula A30 is believed to have undergone a very late thermal pulse resulting in the ejection of knots of hydrogen-poor material. Using multi-epoch Hubble Space Telescope images, we have detected the angular expansion of these knots and derived an age of 850{sup +280}{sub -150} yr. To investigate the spectral and spatial properties of the soft X-ray emission detected by ROSAT, we have obtained Chandra and XMM-Newton deep observations of A30. The X-ray emission from A30 can be separated into two components: a point source at the central star and diffuse emission associated with the hydrogen-poor knots and the cloverleaf structure inside the nebular shell. To help us assess the role of the current stellar wind in powering this X-ray emission, we have determined the stellar parameters and wind properties of the central star of A30 using a non-LTE model fit to its optical and UV spectra. The spatial distribution and spectral properties of the diffuse X-ray emission are highly suggestive that it is generated by the post-born-again and present fast stellar winds interacting with the hydrogen-poor ejecta of the born-again event. This emission can be attributed to shock-heated plasma, as the hydrogen-poor knots are ablated by the stellar winds, under which circumstances the efficient mass loading of the present fast stellar wind raises its density and damps its velocity to produce the observed diffuse soft X-rays. Charge transfer reactions between the ions of the stellar winds and material of the born-again ejecta have also been considered as a possible mechanism for the production of diffuse X-ray emission, and upper limits on the expected X-ray production by this mechanism have been derived. The origin of the X-ray emission from the central star of A30 is puzzling: shocks in the present fast stellar wind and photospheric emission can be ruled out, while the development of a new, compact hot bubble confining the fast stellar wind seems implausible.

  16. Suzaku Reveals He-burning Products in the X-ray Emitting Planetary Nebula BD +30deg 3639

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murashima, M.; Kokubun, M.; Makishima, K.; Kotoku, J.; Murakami, H.; Matsushita, K.; Hayashida, K.; Hamaguchi, K.; Matsumoto, H.

    2004-01-01

    BD +30deg 3639, the brightest planetary nebula at X-ray energies, was observed with Suzaku, an X-ray observatory launched on 2005 July 10. Using the X-ray Imaging Spectrometer, the K-lines from C VI, O VII, and O VIII were resolved for the first time, and C/O, N/O, and Ne/O abundance ratios determined. The C/O abundance ratio exceeds the solar value by nearly two orders of magnitude, and that of Ne/O by at least a factor of 5. These results indicate that the X-rays are emitted mainly by helium shell-burning products.

  17. Hard x-rays nanoscale fluorescence imaging of Earth and Planetary science samples

    SciTech Connect

    Bleuet, Pierre; Cloetens, Peter; Tucoulou, Remi; Susini, Jean; Simionovici, Alexandre; Lemelle, Laurence; Ferroir, Tristan

    2008-05-26

    A hard x-ray nanoprobe has been implemented at the synchrotron in Grenoble, France, allowing nondestructive trace element imaging of thick samples. Its advantages are nanometer spatial resolution on samples of several tens of micrometer, very high flux, and achromaticity. Nanometer imaging of a cometary grain from the NASA Stardust mission shows the sensitivity and resolution gains obtained while radically changing our understanding of the composition of heterogeneous samples. The probe opens unique possibilities in the study of minute, fragile samples fundamental to the earth and planetary sciences, which until now were out of the reach of direct analytical methods.

  18. X-Ray Diffraction and Fluorescence Measurements for In Situ Planetary Instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansford, G.; Hill, K. S.; Talboys, D.; Vernon, D.; Ambrosi, R.; Bridges, J.; Hutchinson, I.; Marinangeli, L.

    2011-12-01

    The ESA/NASA ExoMars mission, due for launch in 2018, has a combined X-ray fluorescence/diffraction instrument, Mars-XRD, as part of the onboard analytical laboratory. The results of some XRF (X-ray fluorescence) and XRD (X-ray diffraction) tests using a laboratory chamber with representative performance are reported. A range of standard geological reference materials and analogues were used in these tests. The XRD instruments are core components of the forthcoming NASA Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) and ESA/NASA ExoMars missions and will provide the first demonstrations of the capabilities of combined XRD/XRF instrumentation in situ on an extraterrestrial planetary surface. The University of Leicester team is part of the Italy-UK collaboration that is responsible for building the ExoMars X-ray diffraction instrument, Mars-XRD [1,2]. Mars-XRD incorporates an Fe-55 radioisotope source and three fixed-position charge-coupled devices (CCDs) to simultaneously acquire an X-ray fluorescence spectrum and a diffraction pattern providing a measurement of both elemental and mineralogical composition. The CCDs cover an angular range of 2θ = 6° to 73° enabling the analysis of a wide range of geologically important minerals including phyllosilicates, feldspars, oxides, carbonates and evaporites. The identification of hydrous minerals may help identify past Martian hydrothermal systems capable of preserving traces of life. Here we present some initial findings from XRF and XRD tests carried out at the University of Leicester using an Fe-55 source and X-ray sensitive CCD. The XRF/XRD test system consists of a single CCD on a motorised arm, an Fe-55 X-ray source, a collimator and a sample table which approximately replicate the reflection geometry of the Mars-XRD instrument. It was used to test geological reference standard materials and Martian analogues. This work was funded by the Science and Technology Facilities Council, UK. References [1] Marinangeli, L., Hutchinson, I

  19. Opportunities for X-ray Science in Future Computing Architectures

    SciTech Connect

    Foster, Ian

    2011-02-09

    The world of computing continues to evolve rapidly. In just the past 10 years, we have seen the emergence of petascale supercomputing, cloud computing that provides on-demand computing and storage with considerable economies of scale, software-as-a-service methods that permit outsourcing of complex processes, and grid computing that enables federation of resources across institutional boundaries. These trends show no sign of slowing down. The next 10 years will surely see exascale, new cloud offerings, and other terabit networks. This talk reviews various of these developments and discusses their potential implications for x-ray science and x-ray facilities.

  20. Future prospects for high resolution X-ray spectrometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Canizares, C. R.

    1981-01-01

    Capabilities of the X-ray spectroscopy payloads were compared. Comparison of capabilities of AXAF in the context of the science to be achieved is reported. The Einstein demonstrated the tremendous scientific power of spectroscopy to probe deeply the astrophysics of all types of celestial X-ray source. However, it has limitations in sensitivity and resolution. Each of the straw man instruments has a sensitivity that is at least an order of magnitude better than that of the Einstein FPSC. The AXAF promises powerful spectral capability.

  1. THE CHANDRA X-RAY SURVEY OF PLANETARY NEBULAE (CHANPLANS): PROBING BINARITY, MAGNETIC FIELDS, AND WIND COLLISIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Kastner, J. H.; Montez, R. Jr.; Rapson, V.; Balick, B.; Frew, D. J.; De Marco, O.; Parker, Q. A.; Miszalski, B.; Sahai, R.; Blackman, E.; Frank, A.; Chu, Y.-H.; Guerrero, M. A.; Zijlstra, A.; Behar, E.; Bujarrabal, V.; Corradi, R. L. M.; Nordhaus, J.; Sandin, C. E-mail: soker@physics.technion.ac.il; and others

    2012-08-15

    We present an overview of the initial results from the Chandra Planetary Nebula Survey (CHANPLANS), the first systematic (volume-limited) Chandra X-Ray Observatory survey of planetary nebulae (PNe) in the solar neighborhood. The first phase of CHANPLANS targeted 21 mostly high-excitation PNe within {approx}1.5 kpc of Earth, yielding four detections of diffuse X-ray emission and nine detections of X-ray-luminous point sources at the central stars (CSPNe) of these objects. Combining these results with those obtained from Chandra archival data for all (14) other PNe within {approx}1.5 kpc that have been observed to date, we find an overall X-ray detection rate of {approx}70% for the 35 sample objects. Roughly 50% of the PNe observed by Chandra harbor X-ray-luminous CSPNe, while soft, diffuse X-ray emission tracing shocks-in most cases, 'hot bubbles'-formed by energetic wind collisions is detected in {approx}30%; five objects display both diffuse and point-like emission components. The presence (or absence) of X-ray sources appears correlated with PN density structure, in that molecule-poor, elliptical nebulae are more likely to display X-ray emission (either point-like or diffuse) than molecule-rich, bipolar, or Ring-like nebulae. All but one of the point-like CSPNe X-ray sources display X-ray spectra that are harder than expected from hot ({approx}100 kK) central stars emitting as simple blackbodies; the lone apparent exception is the central star of the Dumbbell nebula, NGC 6853. These hard X-ray excesses may suggest a high frequency of binary companions to CSPNe. Other potential explanations include self-shocking winds or PN mass fallback. Most PNe detected as diffuse X-ray sources are elliptical nebulae that display a nested shell/halo structure and bright ansae; the diffuse X-ray emission regions are confined within inner, sharp-rimmed shells. All sample PNe that display diffuse X-ray emission have inner shell dynamical ages {approx}< 5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup

  2. X-RAY EMISSION FROM THE BINARY CENTRAL STARS OF THE PLANETARY NEBULAE HFG 1, DS 1, AND LOTR 5

    SciTech Connect

    Montez, Rodolfo; Kastner, Joel H.; De Marco, Orsola; Chu, You-Hua

    2010-10-01

    Close binary systems undergoing mass transfer or common envelope interactions can account for the morphological properties of some planetary nebulae. The search for close binary companions in planetary nebulae is hindered by the difficulty of detecting cool, late-type, main-sequence companions in binary systems with hot pre-white-dwarf primaries. However, models of binary planetary nebula progenitor systems predict that mass accretion or tidal interactions can induce rapid rotation in the companion, leading to X-ray-emitting coronae. To test such models, we have searched for, and detected, X-ray emission from three binary central stars within planetary nebulae: the post-common envelope close binaries in HFG 1 and DS 1 consisting of O-type subdwarfs with late-type, main-sequence companions and the binary system in LoTr 5 consisting of O-type subdwarf and rapidly rotating, late-type giant companion. The X-ray emission in each case is best characterized by spectral models consisting of two optically thin thermal plasma components with characteristic temperatures of {approx}10 MK and 15-40 MK and total X-ray luminosities {approx}10{sup 30} erg s{sup -1}. We consider the possible origin of the X-ray emission from these binary systems and conclude that the most likely origin is, in each case, a corona around the late-type companion, as predicted by models of interacting binaries.

  3. Laboratory Tests of a Handheld X-Ray Fluorescence Spectrometer: A Tool for Planetary Exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, K. E.; Evans, C. A.; Hodges, K.

    2011-12-01

    Maximizing the science return from a mission to another planetary surface involves the integration of science objectives with deployable technologies that enable the collection of data and samples. For long duration manned missions, it is likely that more samples will be collected than can be returned to Earth due to mass limits. A niche exists for technologies that help prioritize samples for return, provide data for future sample handling and curation, and characterization for samples that are not returned to Earth. To fill this niche, hardware and protocols for field instruments are currently being developed and evaluated at NASA Johnson Space Center and Arizona State University. Our goal is to develop an easily used, environmentally isolated facility as part of the astronaut surface habitat for preliminary sample characterization and down-selection. NASA has constructed a prototype, GeoLab, as a testbed for evaluating the scientific applicability and operational considerations of various analytical instruments. One instrument under evaluation is a small, portable x-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectrometer that can be also be used by astronaut explorers as part of their field gear while on scientific sorties, or on robotic field assistants. We report on preliminary usability tests for commercially available handheld XRF instruments. These instruments collect data by contacting the surface of a rock or sediment sample with an 8 mm-wide sensor window. Within 60 seconds, the devices can provide relatively precise data on the abundance of major and trace elements heavier than Na. Lab-based handheld XRF analyses of terrestrial and lunar samples, compared with those made with full-scale laboratory XRF systems, show good correlation, but we continue to investigate potential sources of error and the need for careful calibration with standards of known composition. Specifically, we use a suite of five terrestrial and five lunar basalts, all well characterized by conventional

  4. THE CHANDRA PLANETARY NEBULA SURVEY (ChanPlaNS). III. X-RAY EMISSION FROM THE CENTRAL STARS OF PLANETARY NEBULAE

    SciTech Connect

    Montez, R. Jr.; Kastner, J. H.; Freeman, M.; and others

    2015-02-10

    We present X-ray spectral analysis of 20 point-like X-ray sources detected in Chandra Planetary Nebula Survey observations of 59 planetary nebulae (PNe) in the solar neighborhood. Most of these 20 detections are associated with luminous central stars within relatively young, compact nebulae. The vast majority of these point-like X-ray-emitting sources at PN cores display relatively ''hard'' (≥0.5 keV) X-ray emission components that are unlikely to be due to photospheric emission from the hot central stars (CSPN). Instead, we demonstrate that these sources are well modeled by optically thin thermal plasmas. From the plasma properties, we identify two classes of CSPN X-ray emission: (1) high-temperature plasmas with X-ray luminosities, L {sub X}, that appear uncorrelated with the CSPN bolometric luminosity, L {sub bol} and (2) lower-temperature plasmas with L {sub X}/L {sub bol} ∼ 10{sup –7}. We suggest these two classes correspond to the physical processes of magnetically active binary companions and self-shocking stellar winds, respectively. In many cases this conclusion is supported by corroborative multiwavelength evidence for the wind and binary properties of the PN central stars. By thus honing in on the origins of X-ray emission from PN central stars, we enhance the ability of CSPN X-ray sources to constrain models of PN shaping that invoke wind interactions and binarity.

  5. The Chandra Planetary Nebula Survey (ChanPlaNS). III. X-Ray Emission from the Central Stars of Planetary Nebulae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montez, R., Jr.; Kastner, J. H.; Balick, B.; Behar, E.; Blackman, E.; Bujarrabal, V.; Chu, Y.-H.; Corradi, R. L. M.; De Marco, O.; Frank, A.; Freeman, M.; Frew, D. J.; Guerrero, M. A.; Jones, D.; Lopez, J. A.; Miszalski, B.; Nordhaus, J.; Parker, Q. A.; Sahai, R.; Sandin, C.; Schonberner, D.; Soker, N.; Sokoloski, J. L.; Steffen, M.; Toalá, J. A.; Ueta, T.; Villaver, E.; Zijlstra, A.

    2015-02-01

    We present X-ray spectral analysis of 20 point-like X-ray sources detected in Chandra Planetary Nebula Survey observations of 59 planetary nebulae (PNe) in the solar neighborhood. Most of these 20 detections are associated with luminous central stars within relatively young, compact nebulae. The vast majority of these point-like X-ray-emitting sources at PN cores display relatively "hard" (>=0.5 keV) X-ray emission components that are unlikely to be due to photospheric emission from the hot central stars (CSPN). Instead, we demonstrate that these sources are well modeled by optically thin thermal plasmas. From the plasma properties, we identify two classes of CSPN X-ray emission: (1) high-temperature plasmas with X-ray luminosities, L X, that appear uncorrelated with the CSPN bolometric luminosity, L bol and (2) lower-temperature plasmas with L X/L bol ~ 10-7. We suggest these two classes correspond to the physical processes of magnetically active binary companions and self-shocking stellar winds, respectively. In many cases this conclusion is supported by corroborative multiwavelength evidence for the wind and binary properties of the PN central stars. By thus honing in on the origins of X-ray emission from PN central stars, we enhance the ability of CSPN X-ray sources to constrain models of PN shaping that invoke wind interactions and binarity.

  6. Soft x-ray shock loading and momentum coupling in meteorite and planetary materials.

    SciTech Connect

    Lawrence, R. Jeffery; Remo, John L.; Furnish, Michael David

    2010-12-01

    X-ray momentum coupling coefficients, C{sub M}, were determined by measuring stress waveforms in planetary materials subjected to impulsive radiation loading from the Sandia National Laboratories Z-machine. Results from the velocity interferometry (VISAR) diagnostic provided limited equation-of-state data as well. Targets were iron and stone meteorites, magnesium rich olivine (dunite) solid and powder ({approx}5--300 {mu}m), and Si, Al, and Fe calibration targets. All samples were {approx}1 mm thick and, except for Si, backed by LiF single-crystal windows. The x-ray spectrum included a combination of thermal radiation (blackbody 170--237 eV) and line emissions from the pinch material (Cu, Ni, Al, or stainless steel). Target fluences 0.4--1.7 kJ/cm{sup 2} at intensities 43--260 GW/cm{sup 2} produced front surface plasma pressures 2.6--12.4 GPa. Stress waves driven into the samples were attenuating due to the short ({approx}5 ns) duration of the drive pulse. Attenuating wave impulse is constant allowing accurate C{sub M} measurements provided mechanical impedance mismatch between samples and the window are known. Impedance-corrected C{sub M} determined from rear-surface motion was 1.9--3.1 x 10{sup -5} s/m for stony meteorites, 2.7 and 0.5 x 10{sup -5} s/m for solid and powdered dunite, 0.8--1.4 x 10{sup -5}.

  7. Planetary X ray experiment: Supporting research for outer planets mission: Experiment definition phase

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hurley, K.; Anderson, K. A.

    1972-01-01

    Models of Jupiter's magnetosphere were examined to predict the X-ray flux that would be emitted in auroral or radiation zone processes. Various types of X-ray detection were investigated for energy resolution, efficiency, reliability, and background. From the model fluxes it was determined under what models Jovian X-rays could be detected.

  8. Present and Future X-ray Tomographic Microscopy at TOMCAT

    SciTech Connect

    Marone, F.; Mokso, R.; Mikuljan, G.; Isenegger, A.; Modregger, P.; Pinzer, B.; Thuering, T.; Mader, K.; Stampanoni, M.; Fife, J.

    2011-09-09

    During its first four years of life, the TOMCAT beamline at the Swiss Light Source has established itself as a state-of-the art hard x-ray tomographic microscopy endstation for experiments on a large variety of samples, ranging from the fields of biology to materials science. It routinely performs absorption as well as phase-contrast imaging with an isotropic voxel size ranging from 0.360 up to 14.8 microns. Phase contrast is obtained either with simple edge-enhancement, a modified transport of intensity approach or grating interferometry. Typical acquisition times are on the order of a few minutes, depending on energy and resolution. A recently implemented automatic sample exchanger is now available for high-throughput studies. In addition to further developments in phase-contrast imaging, current scientific activities at the beamline focus on pushing spatial and temporal resolution by a few orders of magnitude, aiming at nano- and 'real-time' tomography.

  9. The Role of X-Rays in Future Space Navigation and Communication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winternitz, Luke M. B.; Gendreau, Keith C.; Hasouneh, Monther A.; Mitchell, Jason W.; Fong, Wai H.; Lee, Wing-Tsz; Gavriil, Fotis; Arzoumanian, Zaven

    2013-01-01

    In the near future, applications using X-rays will enable autonomous navigation and time distribution throughout the solar system, high capacity and low-power space data links, highly accurate attitude sensing, and extremely high-precision formation flying capabilities. Each of these applications alone has the potential to revolutionize mission capabilities, particularly beyond Earth orbit. This paper will outline the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center vision and efforts toward realizing the full potential of X-ray navigation and communications.

  10. Electron-multiplying CCDs for future soft X-ray spectrometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tutt, J. H.; Holland, A. D.; Murray, N. J.; Harriss, R. D.; Hall, D. J.; Soman, M.

    2012-02-01

    CCDs have been used in several high resolution soft X-ray spectrometers for both space and terrestrial applications such as the Reflection Grating Spectrometer on XMM-Newton and the Super Advanced X-ray Emission Spectrometer at the Paul Scherrer Institut in Switzerland. However, with their ability to use multiplication gain to amplify signal and suppress readout noise, EM-CCDs are being considered instead of CCDs for future soft X-ray spectrometers. When detecting low energy X-rays, EM-CCDs are able to increase the Signal-to-Noise ratio of the device, making the X-rays much easier to detect. If the signal is also significantly split between neighbouring pixels, the increase in the size of the signal will make complete charge collection and techniques such as centroiding easier to accomplish. However, multiplication gain from an EM-CCD does cause a degradation of the energy resolution of the device and there are questions about how the high field region in an EM-CCD will behave over time in high radiation environments. This paper analyses the possible advantages and disadvantages of using EM-CCDs for high resolution soft X-ray spectroscopy and suggests in which situations using them would not only be possible, but also beneficial to the instrument.

  11. The X-ray response of CdZnTe detectors to be used as future spectroscopic detectors for X-ray astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kraft, S.; Bavdaz, M.; Castelletto, B.; Peacock, A.; Scholze, F.; Ulm, G.; Gagliardi, M.-A.; Nenonen, S.; Tuomi, T.; Juvonen, M.; Rantamäki, R.

    1998-12-01

    The next generation of X-ray astrophysics missions may well extend the energy range beyond the current limit of about 10keV studied by the existing X-ray Astrophysics space missions such as ASCA or future missions such as AXAF and XMM to be launched in the next few years. To address with a high degree of sensitivity the astrophysical problems associated with X-ray emission in the X-ray band from 0.2 to 100keV a significant extension of the capabilities of focusing X-ray optics and imaging broad band hard X-ray detectors will be required. Future missions such as INTEGRAL, BASIS and EXIST will make use of CdZnTe or CdTe detectors for imaging spectroscopy down to about 5keV with a spectral resolution between 3% and 7% at 100keV. This is about a factor of 10 away from what is theoretically possible and mainly caused by the poor crystal quality. In this paper experimental results on the study of the X-ray response of CdZnTe detectors are presented. The detector response to photons with energies between 1 and 5keV has been investigated using synchrotron radiation and a preliminary model to describe the detector response developed. The limitations on the energy resolution, due to incomplete charge collection and spatial non-uniformities, are presented based on the detailed mapping of the energy response of a detector exposed to highly monochromatised synchrotron radiation. At higher energies results have been obtained using a 241Am radioactive source and an electron cyclotron resonance source so as to establish the detector performance and overall response to medium- and higher-energy X-ray photons up to 60keV. Based on these results the performance of the detectors are compared with Si(Li) and HPGe solid-state detectors.

  12. Development of precision Wolter mirrors for future solar x-ray observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakao, Taro; Matsuyama, Satoshi; Kime, Ayumi; Goto, Takumi; Nishihara, Akihiko; Nakamori, Hiroki; Yamauchi, Kazuto; Kohmura, Yoshiki; Miyake, Akira; Hashizume, Hirokazu; Maezawa, Tadakazu; Suematsu, Yoshinori; Narukage, Noriyuki

    2015-09-01

    High resolution imagery of the solar X-ray corona provides a crucial key to understand dynamics and heating processes of plasma particles there. However, X-ray imagery of the Sun with sub-arcsecond resolution has yet to be conducted due to severe technical difficulty in fabricating precision Wolter mirrors. For future X-ray observations of the Sun's corona, we are attempting to realize precision Wolter mirrors with sub-arcsecond resolution by adopting advanced surface polish and metrology methods based on nano-technology to sector mirrors which consist of a portion of an entire annulus. Following fabrication of the first engineering mirror and subsequent evaluation on the X-ray focusing performance in 2013, the second engineering mirror was made with improvements in both precision polish and metrology introduced. Measurement of focusing performance on the second mirror at SPring-8 synchrotron facility with 8 keV X-rays has demonstrated that the FWHM size of the PSF core reached down to 0.2" while its HPD (Half Power Diameter) size remained at ~3" due to the presence of small-angle scatter just outside of the core. Also, there was notable difference in the focal length between sagittal and meridional focusing which could have been caused by an error in the sag in the meridional direction of <10 nm in the mirror area. Further improvements to overcome these issues have been planned for the next engineering mirror.

  13. Future Probes of the Neutron Star Equation of State Using X-ray Bursts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strohmayer, Tod E.

    2004-01-01

    Observations with NASA s Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) have resulted in the discovery of fast (200 - 600 Hz), coherent X-ray intensity oscillations (hereafter, %urstoscillations ) during thermonuclear X-ray bursts from 12 low mass X-ray binaries (LMXBs). Although many of their detailed properties remain to be fully understood, it is now beyond doubt that these oscillations result from spin modulation of the thermonuclear burst flux from the neutron star surface. Among the new timing phenomena revealed by RXTE the burst oscillations are perhaps the best understood, in the sense that many of their properties can be explained in the framework of this relatively simple model. Because of this, detailed modelling of burst oscillations can be an extremely powerful probe of neutron star structure, and thus the equation of state (EOS) of supra-nuclear density matter. Both the compactness parameter beta = GM/c(sup 2)R, and the surface velocity, nu(sub rot) = Omega(sub spin)R, are encoded in the energy-dependent amplitude and shape of the modulation pulses. The new discoveries have spurred much new theoretical work on thermonuclear burning and propagation on neutron stars, so that in the near future it is not unreasonable to think that detailed physical models of the time dependent flux from burning neutron stars will be available for comparison with the observed pulse profiles from a future, large collecting area X-ray timing observatory. In addition, recent high resolution burst spectroscopy with XMM/Newton suggests the presence of redshifted absorption lines from the neutron star surface during bursts. This leads to the possibility of using large area, high spectral resolution measurements of X-ray bursts as a precise probe of neutron star structure. In this work I will explore the precision with which constraints on neutron star structure, and hence the dense matter EOS, can be made with the implementation of such programs.

  14. High-energy density experiments on planetary materials using high-power lasers and X-ray free electron laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozaki, Norimasa

    2015-06-01

    Laser-driven dynamic compression allows us to investigate the behavior of planetary and exoplanetary materials at extreme conditions. Our high-energy density (HED) experiments for applications to planetary sciences began over five years ago. We measured the equation-of-state of cryogenic liquid hydrogen under laser-shock compression up to 55 GPa. Since then, various materials constituting the icy giant planets and the Earth-like planets have been studied using laser-driven dynamic compression techniques. Pressure-volume-temperature EOS data and optical property data of water and molecular mixtures were obtained at the planetary/exoplanetary interior conditions. Silicates and oxides data show interesting behaviors in the warm-dense matter regime due to their phase transformations. Most recently the structural changes of iron were observed for understanding the kinetics under the bcc-hcp transformation phenomena on a new HED science platform coupling power-lasers and the X-ray free electron laser (SACLA). This work was performed under the joint research project at the Institute of Laser Engineering, Osaka University. It was partially supported by a Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (Grant Nos. 20654042, 22224012, 23540556, and 24103507) and also by grants from the Core-to-Core Program of JSPS on International Alliance for Material Science in Extreme States with High Power Laser and XFEL, and the X-ray Free Electron Laser Priority Strategy Program of MEXT.

  15. The X-Ray Spectrum of a Planetary Nebula at High Resolution: Chandra Gratings Spectroscopy of BD +30°3639

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Young Sam; Nordon, Raanan; Kastner, Joel H.; Houck, John; Behar, Ehud; Soker, Noam

    2009-01-01

    We present the results of the first X-ray gratings spectroscopy observations of a planetary nebula (PN)—the X-ray-bright, young BD +30°3639. We observed BD +30°3639 for a total of ~300 ks with the Chandra X-ray Observatory's Low Energy Transmission Gratings in combination with its Advanced CCD Imaging Spectrometer (LETG/ACIS-S). The LETG/ACIS-S spectrum of BD +30°3639 is dominated by H-like resonance lines of O VIII and C VI and the He-like triplet line complexes of Ne IX and O VII. Other H-like resonance lines, such as N VII, and lines of highly-ionized Fe are weak or absent. Continuum emission is evident over the range 6-18 Å. Spectral modeling indicates the presence of a range of plasma temperatures from Tx ~ 1.7 × 106 K to 2.9 × 106 K and an intervening absorbing column NH ~ 2.4 × 1021 cm-2. The same modeling conclusively demonstrates that C and Ne are highly enhanced, with abundance ratios of C/O ~ 15-45 and Ne/O ~ 3.3-5.0 (90% confidence ranges, relative to the solar ratios), while N and Fe are depleted, with abundances N/O ~ 0.0-1.0 and Fe/O ~ 0.1-0.4, respectively. The intrinsic luminosity of the X-ray source determined from the modeling and the measured flux (FX = 4.1 × 10-13 ergs cm-2 s-1) is LX ~ 8.6 × 1032 erg s-1 (assuming D = 1.2 kpc). These gratings spectroscopy results are generally consistent with earlier results obtained from X-ray CCD imaging spectroscopy of BD +30°3639, but are far more precise. Hence, the Chandra/LETG-S results for BD +30°3639 place severe new constraints on models of PN wind-wind interactions in which X-ray emitting gas within PNs is generated via shocks and the plasma temperature is moderated by effects such as heat conduction or rapid evolution of the fast wind. The tight constraints placed on the (nonsolar) abundances directly implicate the present-day central star—hence, ultimately, the intershell region of the progenitor asymptotic giant branch star—as the origin of the shocked plasma now emitting in X-rays.

  16. Future lunar mission Active X-ray Spectrometer development: Surface roughness and geometry studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naito, M.; Hasebe, N.; Kusano, H.; Nagaoka, H.; Kuwako, M.; Oyama, Y.; Shibamura, E.; Amano, Y.; Ohta, T.; Kim, K. J.; Lopes, J. A. M.

    2015-07-01

    The Active X-ray Spectrometer (AXS) is considered as one of the scientific payload candidates for a future Japanese mission, SELENE-2. The AXS consists of pyroelectric X-ray generators and a Silicon Drift Detector to conduct X-Ray Fluorescence spectroscopy (XRF) on the Moon to measure major elements: Mg, Al, Si, Ca, Ti, and Fe; minor elements: Na, K, P, S, Cr and Mn; and the trace element Ni depending on their concentration. Some factors such as roughness, grain size and porosity of sample, and the geometry of X-ray incidence, emission and energy will affect the XRF measurements precision. Basic studies on the XRF are required to develop the AXS. In this study, fused samples were used to make homogeneous samples free from the effect of grain size and porosity. Experimental and numerical studies on the XRF were conducted to evaluate the effects from incidence and emission angles and surface roughness. Angle geometry and surface roughness will be optimized for the design of the AXS on future missions from the results of the experiment and the numerical simulation.

  17. Plasma-driven Z-pinch X-ray loading and momentum coupling in meteorite and planetary materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Remo, John L.; Furnish, Michael D.; Lawrence, R. Jeffery; Lawrence

    2013-04-01

    X-ray momentum coupling coefficients, C M, were determined by measuring stress waveforms in planetary materials subjected to impulsive radiation loading from the Sandia National Laboratories Z-machine. Velocity interferometry (VISAR) diagnostics provided equation-of-state data. Targets were iron and stone meteorites, magnesium-rich olivine (dunite) solid and powder (~5-300 μm), and Si, Al, and Fe calibration targets. Samples were ~1-mm thick and, except for Si, backed by LiF single-crystal windows. X-ray spectra combined thermal radiation (blackbody 170-237 eV) and line emissions from pinch materials (Cu, Ni, Al, or stainless steel). Target fluences of 0.4-1.7 kJ/cm2 at intensities of 43-260GW/cm2 produced plasma pressures of 2.6-12.4 GPa. The short (~5 ns) drive pulses gave rise to attenuating stress waves in the samples. The attenuating wave impulse is constant, allowing accurate C M measurements from rear-surface motion. C M was 1.9 - 3.1 × 10-5 s/m for stony meteorites, 2.7 and 0.5 × 10-5 s/m for solid and powdered dunite, 0.8 - 1.4 × 10-5 s/m for iron meteorites, and 0.3, 1.8, and 2.7 × 10-5 s/m respectively for Si, Fe, and Al calibration targets. Results are consistent with geometric scaling from recent laser hohlraum measurements. CTH hydrocode modeling of X-ray coupling to porous silica corroborated experimental measurements and supported extrapolations to other materials. CTH-modeled C M for porous materials was low and consistent with experimental results. Analytic modeling (BBAY) of X-ray radiation-induced momentum coupling to selected materials was also performed, often producing higher C M values than experimental results. Reasons for the higher values include neglect of solid ejecta mechanisms, turbulent mixing of heterogeneous phases, variances in heats of melt/vaporization, sample inhomogeneities, wave interactions at the sample/window boundary, and finite sample/window sizes. The measurements validate application of C M to (inhomogeneous

  18. Future Japanese X-ray TES Calorimeter Satellite: DIOS (Diffuse Intergalactic Oxygen Surveyor)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamada, S.; Ohashi, T.; Ishisaki, Y.; Ezoe, Y.; Miyazaki, N.; Kuwabara, K.; Kuromaru, G.; Suzuki, S.; Mitsuda, K.; Yamasaki, N. Y.; Takei, Y.; Sakai, K.; Nagayoshi, K.; Yamamoto, R.; Hayashi, T.; Muramatsu, H.; Tawara, Y.; Mitsuishi, I.; Babazaki, Y.; Nakamichi, R.; Bandai, A.; Yuasa, T.; Ota, N.

    2016-08-01

    We present the latest update and progress on the future Japanese X-ray satellite mission Diffuse Intergalactic Oxygen Surveyor (DIOS). DIOS is proposed to JAXA as a small satellite mission, and would be launched with an Epsilon rocket. DIOS would carry on the legacy of ASTRO-H, which carries semiconductor-based microcalorimeters and is scheduled to be launched in 2016, in high-resolution X-ray spectroscopy. A 400-pixel array of transition-edge sensors (TESs) would be employed, so DIOS would also provide valuable lessons for the next ESA X-ray mission ATHENA on TES operation and cryogen-free cooling in space. We have been sophisticating the entire design of the satellite to meet the requirement for the Epsilon payload for the next call. The primary goal of the mission is to search for warm-hot intergalactic medium with high-resolution X-ray spectroscopy by detecting redshifted emission lines from OVII and OVIII ions. The results would have significant impacts on our understanding of the nature of "dark baryons," their total amount and spatial distribution, as well as their evolution over cosmological timescales.

  19. Dynamical Studies Using Coherent X-rays: A Short Review and Prospects for the Future

    SciTech Connect

    Sinha, Sunil K.

    2010-07-07

    The use of coherent x-ray beams for studying the structure and dynamics of both surfaces and bulk materials is rapidly increasing due to the advent of new high-brilliance x-ray sources. The field of x-ray photon correlation spectroscopy (XPCS) has steadily grown from demonstration experiments carried out some 15 years ago, to studies addressing real problems at the forefront of condensed matter and has attracted increasing numbers of users. the principal applications have been in the fields of soft condensed matter and nanoscience, but extension to the study of slow fluctuations in magnetic systems will undoubtedly grow. This talk will attempt to survey some of the recent applications at the limits of currently existing instruments, and present a wish list for XPCS-capable beamlines of the future for attacking certain important problems in condensed matter and materials science. This talk will also present a new formulation of the scattering of partially coherent radiation by condensed matter, which will enable us to go beyond the simple, kinematic approximation that is usually made, but which breaks down for grazing incidence small-angle x-ray scattering geometry.

  20. Future Development Trajectories for Imaging X-rays Spectrometers Based on Microcalorimeters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kilbourne, Caroline A.; Bandler, Simon R.

    2013-01-01

    Future development trajectories for imaging x-ray spectrometers based on microcalorimeters. Since their invention 30 years ago, the capability of X-ray microcalorimeters has increased steadily, with continual improvements in energy resolution, speed, and array size. Arrays of up to 1024 pixels have been produced, and resolution better than 1 eV at 1.5 keV has been achieved. These detectors can be optimized for the highest priority science, such as designing for the highest resolving power at low energies at the expense of dynamic range, or the greatest focal-plane coverage at the expense of speed. Three types of X-ray microcalorimeters presently dominate the field, each characterized by the thermometer technology. The first two types use temperature-sensitive resistors: semiconductors in the metal-insulator transition and superconductors operated in the superconducting-normal transition. The third type uses a magnetically coupled thermometer, and is at an earlier stage of development than the other two. The Soft X-ray Spectrometer (SXS) on Astro-H, expected to launch in 2015, will use an array of silicon thermistors with HgTe X-ray absorbers that will operate at 50 mK. Both the semiconductor and superconductor calorimeters have been implemented in small arrays. Kilopixel arrays of the superconducting calorimeters are being produced, and much larger arrays may require the non-dissipative advantage of magnetically coupled thermometers. I will project the development trajectories of these detectors and their read-out technologies and assess what their capabilities and limitations will be 10 - 20 years from now.

  1. Remote X-ray fluorescence experiments for future missions to Mercury

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, P. E.; Trombka, J. I.

    1997-01-01

    To date, the only deep space mission to Mercury, Mariner 10, as well as ground-based observations have failed to provide direct measurements of that planet's composition. Such measurements are fundamental for the understanding of Mercury's origin and the inner solar system's history. The spin-stabilized Mercury Orbiter proposed for launch in the first or second decade of the twenty-first century as part of the ESA's Horizon 2000-plus plan could address this problem by including the X-ray spectrometer proposed here. X-ray spectrometers act as detectors for the X-ray emission induced by the solar flux incident on planetary surfaces. This emission is strongly dependent on the chemical composition of the surface as well as on the solar spectrum. Characteristic fluorescent lines, the most prominent being the K-alpha lines, are of sufficient intensity for major elements (Mg, Al, Si, Ca, Fe) to allow orbital measurement by remote X-ray detectors. The X-ray spectrometers described here will all have established heritage for space missions by 2000. These instruments have previously flown, are being flown as part of the NASA NEAR (Near Earth Asteroid Rendezvous) or Clark SSTI (Small Science and Technology Initiative) missions, or are now under development as part of NASA Facility Instrument Development Program. The instrument package would probably consist of an array of solid state detectors for surface measurements, as well as one which would act as a solar monitor. Calculations of anticipated results have been done for a variety of orbital and instrument configurations, and a variety of lunar soil compositions which could be analogous: anorthositie gabbro bearing soils from lunar highlands (Apollo 16), high-Mg basalt-rich soils from a KREEP-bearing area (Apollo 15), and mare basalt bearing soils (Apollo 12). The mission being considered here should result in maps of abundances of major elements, including Mg, Al, Si, Ca, and Fe, for much of Mercury's surface, with

  2. Athena and future plans of the X-ray astronomy in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsumoto, Hiro

    2015-09-01

    High-Energy AstroPhysics Association in Japan (HEAPA) officially decided to contribute to the success of Athena based on our expertise through the development of ASTRO-H, Suzaku, and other satellites. The Athena Working Group (WG) of ISAS/JAXA was set up and the WG applied to the call for the MoO mission of ISAS/JAXA. In this talk, we would like to explain the Japanese contribution to the Athena satellite. Also we would like to talk about the future plan of Japanese X-ray astronomy missions. For example, Diffuse Intergalactic Oxygen Surveyor (DIOS) and Next-Generation Hard X-ray Telescope (NGHXT) will be introduced, and the relation between the Athena project and those missions will be given.

  3. X-ray Microscopy Beamlines at SSRF--Present Status and Future Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, H.; Yu, X.; Tai, R.

    2011-09-09

    The Shanghai Synchrotron Radiation Facility (SSRF) is a 3.5-GeV third-generation light source. The facility has been open for user experiments since May, 2009. This high-brightness x-ray source is an ideal platform for x-ray microscopy. Presently, SSRF has three beamlines related to x-ray microscopy or imaging, namely the soft x-ray spectromicroscopy beamline (STXM), the hard x-ray microfocusing beamline, and the x-ray imaging beamline. The construction of SSRF phase-II beamlines will be carried out during 2011-2017. Seven additional beamlines for x-ray microscopy or imaging will be built.

  4. Combined Backscatter Moessbauer Spectrometer and X Ray Fluorescence analyzer (BaMS/XRF) for planetary surface materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Agresti, D. G.; Shelfer, T. D.; Pimperl, M. M.; Wills, E. L.; Morris, R. V.

    1991-01-01

    A backscatter Moessbauer spectrometer (BaMS) with included x ray fluorescence (XRF) capability for the Mars Environment Survey (MESUR) Mission, which has been proposed by NASA for 1998, is being developed. The instrument will also be suitable for other planetary missions such as those to the Moon, asteroids, and other solid solar-system objects. The BaMS would be unique for MESUR in providing information about iron mineralogy in rocks, clays, and other surface materials, including relative proportions of iron-bearing minerals. It requires no sample preparation and can identify all the normal oxidation states of iron (3+, 2+, 0). Thus, BaMS is diagnostic for weathering and other soil-forming processes. Backscatter design allows the addition of XRF elemental analysis with little or no modification. The BaMS/XRF instrument complements the thermal analyzer with evolved gas analyzer (TA-EGA) and the alpha-proton x-ray spectrometer (APXS) proposed (along with BaMS) for geochemical analysis on MESUR.

  5. Performance of a Borehole X-ray Fluorescence Spectrometer for Planetary Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelliher, Warren C.; Carlberg, Ingrid A.; Elam, W. T.; Willard-Schmoe, Ella

    2008-01-01

    We have designed and constructed a borehole X-ray Fluorescence Spectrometer (XRFS) as part of the Mars Subsurface Access program [1]. It can be used to determine the composition of the Mars regolith at various depths by insertion into a pre-drilled borehole. The primary requirements and performance metrics for the instrument are to obtain parts-per-million (ppm) lower limits of detection over a wide range of elements in the periodic table (Magnesium to Lead). Power consumption during data collection was also measured. The prototype instrument is complete and preliminary testing has been performed. Terrestrial soil Standard Reference Materials were used as the test samples. Detection limits were about 10 weight ppm for most elements, with light elements being higher, up to 1.4 weight percent for magnesium. Power consumption (excluding ground support components) was 12 watts.

  6. SERENDIPITOUS DETECTION OF X-RAY EMISSION FROM THE HOT BORN-AGAIN CENTRAL STAR OF THE PLANETARY NEBULA K 1-16

    SciTech Connect

    Montez, Rodolfo Jr.; Kastner, Joel H. E-mail: jhk@cis.rit.edu

    2013-03-20

    We report the serendipitous detection of point-like X-ray emission from the hot, PG1159-type central star of the planetary nebula (CSPN) K 1-16 by the XMM-Newton and Chandra X-Ray Observatories. The CSPN lies superimposed on a galaxy cluster that includes an X-ray-bright quasar, but we have successfully isolated the CSPN X-ray emission from the strong diffuse background contributed by the quasar and intracluster gas. We have modeled the XMM-Newton and Chandra X-ray data, taking advantage of the contrasting detection efficiencies of the two observatories to better constrain the low-energy spectral response of Chandra's Advanced CCD Imaging Spectrometer. We find that the CSPN X-ray spectrum is well characterized by the combination of a non-local thermodynamic equilibrium model atmosphere with T{sub *} {approx} 135 kK and a carbon-rich, optically thin thermal plasma with T{sub X} {approx} 1 MK. These results for X-ray emission from the K 1-16 CSPN, combined with those obtained for other PG1159-type objects, lend support to the 'born-again' scenario for Wolf-Rayet and PG1159 CSPNe, wherein a late helium shell flash dredges up carbon-rich intershell material and ejects this material into the circumstellar environment.

  7. Development of a TES-Based Anti-Coincidence Detector for Future X-ray Observatories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, Catherine

    2011-01-01

    Microcalorimeters onboard future x-ray observatories require an anti-coincidence detector to remove environmental backgrounds. In order to most effectively integrate this anticoincidence detector with the main microcalorimeter array, both instruments should use similar read-out technology. The detectors used in the Cryogenic Dark Matter Search (CDMS) use a phonon measurement technique that is well suited for an anti-coincidence detector with a microcalorimeter array using SQUID readout. This technique works by using a transition-edge sensor (TES) connected to superconducting collection fins to measure the athermal phonon signal produced when an event occurs in the substrate crystal. Energy from the event propagates through the crystal to the superconducting collection fins, creating quasiparticles, which are then trapped as they enter the TES where they produce a signal. We are currently developing a prototype anti-coincidence detector for future x-ray missions and have recently fabricated test devices with Mo/Au TESs and Al collection fins. We will present results from the first tests of these devices which indicate a proof of concept that quasiparticle trapping is occurring in these materials.

  8. Development of a TES-Based Anti-Coincidence Detector for Future X-Ray Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, Catherine N.; Adams, J. S.; Bandler, S. R.; Eckart, M. E.; Ewin, A. J.; Finkbeiner, F. M.; Kelley, R. L.; Kilbourne, C. A.; Porter, F. S.; Sadleir, J. E.; Smith, S. J.; Sultana, M.

    2012-01-01

    Microcalorimeters onboard future x-ray observatories require an anticoincidence detector to remove environmental backgrounds. In order to most effectively integrate this anti-coincidence detector with the main microcalorimeter array, both instruments should use similar read-out technology. The detectors used in the Cryogenic Dark Matter Search (CDMS) use a phonon measurement technique that is well suited for an anti-coincidence detector with a microcalorimeter array using SQUID readout. This technique works by using a transition-edge sensor (TES) connected to superconducting collection fins to measure the athermal phonon signal produced when an event occurs in the substrate crystal. Energy from the event propagates through the crystal to the superconducting collection fins, creating quasiparticles, which are then trapped as they enter the TES where they produce a signal. We are currently developing a prototype anti-coincidence detector for future x-ray missions and have recently fabricated test devices with Mo/Au TESs and Al collection fins. We present results from the first tests of these devices which indicate a proof of concept that quasiparticle trapping is occurring in these materials.

  9. Development of mirrors made of chemically tempered glass foils for future X-ray telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salmaso, Bianca; Civitani, Marta; Brizzolari, Claudia; Basso, Stefano; Ghigo, Mauro; Pareschi, Giovanni; Spiga, Daniele; Proserpio, Laura; Suppiger, Yves

    2015-10-01

    Thin slumped glass foils are considered good candidates for the realization of future X-ray telescopes with large effective area and high spatial resolution. However, the hot slumping process affects the glass strength, and this can be an issue during the launch of the satellite because of the high kinematical and static loads occurring during that phase. In the present work we have investigated the possible use of Gorilla® glass (produced by Corning®), a chemical tempered glass that, thanks to its strength characteristics, would be ideal. The un-tempered glass foils were curved by means of an innovative hot slumping technique and subsequently chemically tempered. In this paper we show that the chemical tempering process applied to Gorilla® glass foils does not affect the surface micro-roughness of the mirrors. On the other end, the stress introduced by the tempering process causes a reduction in the amplitude of the longitudinal profile errors with a lateral size close to the mirror length. The effect of the overall shape changes in the final resolution performance of the glass mirrors was studied by simulating the glass foils integration with our innovative approach based on glass reinforcing ribs. The preliminary tests performed so far suggest that this approach has the potential to be applied to the X-ray telescopes of the next generation.

  10. First Year PIDDP Report on gamma-ray and x-ray spectroscopy: X-ray remote sensing and in situ spectroscopy for planetary exploration missions and gamma-ray remote sensing and in situ spectroscopy for planetary exploration missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mahdavi, M.; Giboni, K. L.; Vajda, S.; Schweitzer, J. S.; Truax, J. A.

    1994-01-01

    Detectors that will be used for planetary missions must have their responses calibrated in a reproducible manner. In addition, it is important to characterize a detector system at uneven portions of its life cycle, for example after exposure to different amounts of radiation. A calibration and response characterization facility has been constructed at Schlumberger-Doll Research for all types of gamma- and x-ray detectors that may be used for planetary measurement. This facility is currently being tested. Initial use is expected for the MARS 94 detectors. The facility will then also be available for calibrating other detectors as well as arrays of detectors such as the NEAR detector with its central Nal(TI) crystal surrounded with a large BGO crystal. Cadmium telluride detectors are investigated for applications in space explorations. These detectors show an energy resolution of 5 keV for the 122 keV 57Co line. Earlier reported polarization effects are not observed. The detectors can be used at temperatures up to 100 C, although with reduced energy resolution. The thickness of standard detectors is limited to 2 mm. These detectors become fully efficient at bias voltages above 200 V. Initial results for a 1 cm thick detector show that the quality of the material is inferior to the thinner standard detectors and hole trapping affects the pulse height. A detailed characterization of the detector is in progress. Prototypes of photomultipliers based on a Channel Electron Multiplier (CEM) are being built to study their performance. Such photomultipliers promise better timing characteristics and a higher dynamic range while being more compact and of lower in weight.

  11. Indirect glass slumping for future x-ray missions: overview, status and progress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winter, Anita; Breunig, Elias; Friedrich, Peter; Proserpio, Laura; Döhring, Thorsten

    2015-09-01

    Future X-ray telescopes aim for large effective area within the given mass limits of the launcher. A promising method is the hot shaping of thin glass sheets via a thermal slumping process. This paper presents the status and progress of the indirect glass slumping technology developed at the Max-Planck-Institut for extraterrestrial Physics (MPE). Recent developments in our research include the use of the mould material Cesic under vacuum, as well as the fabrication of a high-precision slumping mould, which meets the requirements of large, high angular resolution missions like ATHENA. We describe the way forward to optimise the slumping process on these materials, the force-free integration concept and its progress, as well as the first test on reflective coating application.

  12. X-Ray Emission from the Wind-blown Bubble in the Planetary Nebula BD +30 degrees 3639

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnaud, Keith; Borkowski, Kazimierz J.; Harrington, J. Patrick

    1996-05-01

    An X-ray spectrum of a wind-blown bubble in the planetary nebula BD +30 deg3639, acquired by the Advanced Satellite for Cosmology and Astrophysics (ASCA), shows the presence of hot (T = 3 x 106 K) gas dominated by the Ne K alpha line complex. There is circumstantial evidence for the enhanced abundances of other H- and He-burning products, although O is not as abundant as in the extremely C-rich stellar wind of the W-R central star. The temperature of the hot gas is several times lower than expected behind the shock from the 700 km s-1 stellar wind. This might be caused by variations in the stellar wind speed and its chemical abundances induced by the central star evolution, and possibly aided by mixing of the stellar wind gas with the nebular material. Mixing is hinted by the discovery of small (0."2) dusty clumps in the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) narrowband images of the nebula in [S III] lambda 9532 and [O II] lambda 3727 emission lines. These clumps are projected against an axisymmetric, nearly square nebular shell and are most likely associated with the neutral and molecular envelope surrounding the wind-blown bubble and the wind-swept shell.

  13. XMM-Newton Observations of HD189733 During Planetary Transits. X-rays Interaction Between Hot Jupiters and the Host Star.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pillitteri, Ignazio; Wolk, S. J.; Cohen, O.; Kashyap, V.; Knutson, H.; Lisse, C. M.

    2010-03-01

    The irradiation of X-rays from host stars on their nearby gas-giant planets can cause excess heating of the planet which can induce mass loss. Further, it has been argued that the magnetic fields of the two bodies can interact. We present XMM-Newton observations of HD 189733 during the eclipse and planetary transit of its hot jupiter planet HD 189733b in order to investigate any effects of the interaction between the host star and the planet in X-rays. We observe a softening of X-ray spectrum at level of 2 sigmas during the 2009 secondary eclipse. It is followed at 3 ks by an enhancement of the X-ray flux likely due to a flare. No remarkable effects are seen in 2007 transit. Magneto-Hydro-Dynamical (MHD) simulations show that the plasma spectrum could get softer during the eclipse. Further, a region of high plasma density on the stellar corona, and displaced from the planet-star line, should form due to the interaction of magnetic fields of star and planet. The magnetic activity in this region is enhanced and should cause frequent transients. The X-ray observations suggest that these model predictions are globally correct. Despite the simple model adopted and the lack of precise parameters, effects of the interaction of stars and their nearby planets appear to observable in X-rays. X-ray observations allow to probe the structuring and the strength of the complex magnetosphere of the star+planet system.

  14. Characterization of a Prototype TES-Based Anti-coincidence Detector for Use with Future X-ray Calorimeter Arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Busch, S. E.; Yoon, W. S.; Adams, J. S.; Bailey, C. N.; Bandler, S. R.; Chervenak, J. A.; Eckart, M. E.; Ewin, A. J.; Finkbeiner, F. M.; Kelley, R. L.; Kilbourne, C. A.; Lee, S.-J.; Porst, J.-P.; Porter, F. S.; Sadleir, J. E.; Smith, S. J.; Sultana, M.

    2016-07-01

    For future X-ray observatories utilizing transition-edge sensor (TES) microcalorimeters, an anti-coincidence detector (anti-co) is required to discriminate X-ray (˜ 0.1-10 keV) signals from non-X-ray background events, such as ionizing particles. We have developed a prototype anti-co that utilizes TESs, which will be compatible with the TES focal-plane arrays planned for future X-ray observatories. This anti-co is based upon the cryogenic dark matter search II detector design. It is a silicon wafer covered with superconducting collection fins and TES microcalorimeters. Minimum ionizing particles deposit energy while passing through the silicon. The athermal phonons produced by these events are absorbed in the superconducting fins, breaking Cooper pairs. The resulting quasiparticles diffuse along the superconducting fin, producing a signal when they reach the TES. By determining a correlation between detections in the anti-co and the X-ray detector one can identify and flag these background events. We have fabricated and tested a single-channel prototype anti-co device on a 1.5 × 1.9 cm^2 chip. We have measured the signals in this device from photons of several energies between 1.5 and 60 keV, as well as laboratory background events, demonstrating a threshold ˜ 100 times lower than is needed to detect minimum ionizing particles.

  15. SOFT-X RAY DIAGNOSTICS AND TREATMENTS FOR FUTURE REAL TIME APPLICATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Pacella, D.; Mazon, D.

    2008-03-12

    This paper offers a preliminary review of the present diagnostics and data analysis techniques in the domain of Soft X-ray (SXR) emissions of fusion magnetic plasmas, including a short description of the theoretical background as well. Particular attention is devoted to the wide use of SXR tomography and impurity transport simulation. In their actual form, these techniques are not adequate to future real time applications. For this goal a step forward in the diagnosing and analysis of SXR emissions is required. The following part of the paper is therefore dedicated to the discussion of these improvements. The first one is the SXR tomography optimized for real time applications, like that one developed at Tore Supra (Cadarache, France). Fast 2-D tomographic inversions using different techniques (regularisation of Minimum Fisher, Maximum entropy, Zernicke polynomial expansions), will be optimized to be performed in a few millisecond time scale, crucial for MHD analysis, mode detection and localisation. The other goal to be pursued is the energy resolved imaging, now possible with a gas Micro Pattern Gas Detector with pixel read-out, as recently demonstrated at FTU (Frascati, Italy) and at NSTX (Princeton NJ, US), together with an ad hoc modeling of SXR emissions, compatible with future real time applications.

  16. The Future of Spatially-Resolved Polychromatic Neutron and X-Ray Microdiffraction

    SciTech Connect

    Ice, Gene E.

    2009-09-25

    Polychromatic microdiffraction is an emerging materials-characterization tool made practical by powerful X-ray and neutron sources, and by advanced optics and software. With polychromatic techniques, local crystalline properties including phase, texture (orientation), elastic strain, and defect density can be mapped with submicron spatial resolution in three dimensions. Here, we describe the evolving ability to nondestructively map local crystal structure in three dimensions and discuss how future advances will help address long-standing issues of inhomogeneous grain growth, deformation, fracture, and elastic strain. Current and future applications impact virtually all materials including electronic, solar, and light-emitting-diode (LED) materials, nanomaterials, structural materials, and joining materials. In addition, the ability to focus small beams on small samples dramatically increases signal-to-noise and greatly reduces the cost for extreme environmental chambers required for high-pressure, high-temperature, high-magnetic field or corrosive environments. Polychromatic techniques efficiently use source brilliance and minimize the required sample volume, which is essential for hard-to-make materials, irreplaceable materials, and for radioactive, toxic, or otherwise dangerous materials. New polychromatic neutron capabilities will significantly extend the range of samples that can be studied with neutrons and presents important new scientific opportunities for studies of magnetic materials, low Z elements, fragile crystal structures, and small samples in extreme environments.

  17. Development of Instruments onboard ASTRO-H for Future X-ray Studies of Tori

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noda, H.

    2015-09-01

    The next astronomical X-ray satellite ASTRO-H will be launched by Japan Aerospace eXploration Agency (JAXA) in this Japanese fiscal year. It allows us to combine a simultaneous coverage of the 0.4-600 keV band, and a high energy-resolution spectroscopy in the 0.3-12 keV band with an FWHM energy resolution of < 7 eV at 6 keV. The wide-band capability is provided by several instruments; X-ray CCD cameras cover the 0.4-12 keV band at a focal plane of soft X-ray telescopes, a hard X-ray imager covers the 5-80 keV range with multilayer coating hard X-ray mirrors, and a non-focusing soft gamma-ray detector covers the 40-600 keV band. The high energy-resolution spectroscopy is realized by the X-ray micro-calorimeter array operated at 50 mK on a focal plane of the soft X-ray telescope. With the unprecedented performances, the ASTRO-H observations of active galactic nuclei are expected to give us important X-ray information about tori including their dynamics, size, ionization state and so on. In the present talk, we introduce the current status of developments of the instruments onboard ASTRO-H, especially focusing on the performance of the X-ray micro-calorimeter derived in the ongoing ground testing and calibration.

  18. The Prospects for Constraining Dark Energy withFuture X-ray Cluster Gas Mass Fraction Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Rapetti, David; Allen, Steven W.

    2007-10-15

    We examine the ability of a future X-ray observatory, with capabilities similar to those planned for the Constellation-X mission, to constrain dark energy via measurements of the cluster X-ray gas mass fraction, fgas. We find that fgas measurements for a sample of {approx}500 hot (kT{approx}> 5keV), X-ray bright, dynamically relaxed clusters, to a precision of {approx}5 percent, can be used to constrain dark energy with a Dark Energy Task Force (DETF; Albrecht et al. 2006) figure of merit of 20-50. Such constraints are comparable to those predicted by the DETF for other leading, planned 'Stage IV' dark energy experiments. A future fgas experiment will be preceded by a large X-ray or SZ survey that will find hot, X-ray luminous clusters out to high redshifts. Short 'snapshot' observations with the new X-ray observatory should then be able to identify a sample of {approx}500 suitably relaxed systems. The redshift, temperature and X-ray luminosity range of interest has already been partially probed by existing X-ray cluster surveys which allow reasonable estimates of the fraction of clusters that will be suitably relaxed for fgas work to be made; these surveys also show that X-ray flux contamination from point sources is likely to be small for the majority of the targets of interest. Our analysis uses a Markov Chain Monte Carlo method which fully captures the relevant degeneracies between parameters and facilities the incorporation of priors and systematic uncertainties in the analysis. We explore the effects of such uncertainties, for scenarios ranging from optimistic to pessimistic. We conclude that the fgas experiment offers a competitive and complementary approach to the best other large, planned dark energy experiments. In particular, the fgas experiment will provide tight constraints on the mean matter and dark energy densities, with a peak sensitivity for dark energy work at redshifts midway between those of supernovae and baryon acoustic oscillation

  19. X-ray binaries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    Satellite X-ray experiments and ground-based programs aimed at observation of X-ray binaries are discussed. Experiments aboard OAO-3, OSO-8, Ariel 5, Uhuru, and Skylab are included along with rocket and ground-based observations. Major topics covered are: Her X-1, Cyg X-3, Cen X-3, Cyg X-1, the transient source A0620-00, other possible X-ray binaries, and plans and prospects for future observational programs.

  20. TES-based microcalorimeter for future X-ray astronomy missions. Software development for instrument calibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fraga-Encinas, R.; Cobo, B.; Ceballos, M.; Schuurmans, J.; van der Kuur, J.; Carrera, F.; Barcons, X.

    2013-05-01

    The XMS (X-ray Microcalorimeter Spectrometer) is an instrument prototype with imaging capability in X-rays and high-spectral resolution. This instrument is a microcalorimeter based on transition edge sensors. As part of the Spanish contribution to the advancement of the XMS, we present the work carried out by the X-ray astronomy group at the Instituto de Física de Cantabria in collaboration with The Netherlands Institute for Space Research. The main work hereby presented includes the development and testing of software for this prototype with the purpose of instrument calibration and characterization, X-ray pulse detection and energy resolution calculations (Bergmann 2004, Tekst. Proefschrift Universiteit Utrecht; Boyce et al. 1999, Proc SPIE 3765; Den Herder et al. 2011, SRON-XMS-RP-2011-033; ATHENA Assessment Study Report, ESA/SRE(2011)17)

  1. Microanalysis by monochromatic microprobe x-ray fluorescence—physical basis, properties, and future prospects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Z. W.; Wittry, D. B.

    1998-07-01

    A monochromatic microprobe for x-ray fluorescence is obtained by a doubly-curved crystal diffractor which focuses characteristic radiation from a small laboratory-based x-ray source. Monochromatic microprobe x-ray fluorescence (MMXRF) provides unique advantages over conventional XRF, i.e., smaller analytical volume, higher sensitivity for the detection of impurities, and more accurate quantitation. Possible photon energies, voltage for the x-ray source, and type of diffractor geometry are discussed. Calculations of geometric aberration, collection solid angle, and beam intensity are given for a Johann-based diffractor. Properties of a mica diffractor used to focus Cu Kα1 x rays are predicted by ray tracing and experimentally verified by x-ray topographs and images of the focal spot. With the mica diffractor and a 20 μm x-ray source at 30 kV and 0.1 mA, ˜1.1×108 photons/s were obtained in a probe of 57 μm×43 μm and probes less than 10 μm appear to be theoretically possible. Energy dispersive spectra for bulk specimens of Si, GaAs, Mg, and Muscovite obtained with the Cu Kα1 probe exhibited extremely high signal/background ratios. The sources of background and reasons for low values are discussed. The low background resulted in predicted detection limits as low as 1.6 ppm for a measurement time of 500 s. Detection limits in the ppb range should be possible with higher power for the x-ray source, better detectors for energy dispersive spectrometry, improved diffractor fabrication and appropriate selection of the exciting photon energy.

  2. Hard x-ray/soft gamma-ray telescope designs for future astrophysics missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Della Monica Ferreira, Desiree; Christensen, Finn E.; Pivovaroff, Michael J.; Brejnholt, Nicolai; Fernandez-Perea, Monica; Westergaard, Niels Jørgen S.; Jakobsen, Anders C.; Descalle, Marie-Anne; Soufli, Regina; Vogel, Julia K.

    2013-09-01

    We present several concept designs of hard X-ray/soft λ-ray focusing telescopes for future astrophysics missions. The designs are based on depth graded multilayer coatings. These have been successfully employed on the NuSTAR mission for energies up to 80 keV. Recent advances in demonstrating theoretical reflectivities for candidate multilayer material combinations up to 400 keV including effects of incoherent scatter has given an experimental base for extending this type of designs to the soft λ-ray range. At the same time, the calibration of the in-flight performance of the NuSTAR mission has given a solid understanding and modelling of the relevant effects influencing the performance, including optical constants, roughness, scatter, non-uniformities and figure error. This allows for a realistic extension for designs going to much higher energies. Similarly, both thin slumped glass and silicon pore optics has been developed to a prototype stage which promises imaging resolution in the sub 10 arcsecond range. We present designs based on a 20 m and 50 m focal lengths with energy ranges up to 200 keV and 600 keV.

  3. Surface charging and x-ray emission from insulator surfaces induced by collisions with highly charged ions : relevance to cometary and planetary sp

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Djuric, N.; Lozano, J. A.; Smith, S. J.; Chutjian, A.

    2005-01-01

    Characteristic X-ray emission lines are detected from simulants of comet surfaces as they undergo collisions with highly charged ions (HCIs). The HCI projectiles are O+2-O+7. Ion energies are varied in the range (2-7)q keV, where q is the ion charge state. The targets are the insulator minerals olivine, augite, and quartz. It is found that the emission of characteristic K-L, K-M X-rays appears to proceed during positive charging of the surface by the HCI beam. When one uses low-energy, flood-gun electrons to neutralize the surface charge, the X-ray emission is eliminated or greatly reduced, depending on the flood-gun current. Acceleration of background electrons onto the charged surface results in excitation of elemental transitions, including the K-L2 and K-L3 target X-ray emission lines of Mg and Si located spectroscopically at 1253.6 and 1739.4 eV, respectively. Also observed are emission lines from O, Na, Ca, Al, and Fe atoms in the target and charge-exchange lines via surface extraction of electrons by the O+q electric field. Good agreement is found in the ratio of the measured X-ray yields for Mg and Si relative to the ratio of their electron-impact K-shell ionization cross sections. The present study may serve as a guide to astronomers as to specific observing X-ray energies indicative of solar/stellar wind or magnetospheric ion interactions with a comet, planetary surface, or circumstellar dust.

  4. Soft X-ray study of solar wind charge exchange from the Earth's magnetosphere : Suzaku observations and a future X-ray imaging mission concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ezoe, Y.; Ishisaki, Y.; Ohashi, T.; Ishikawa, K.; Miyoshi, Y.; Fujimoto, R.; Terada, N.; Kasahara, S.; Fujimoto, M.; Mitsuda, K.; Nishijo, K.; Noda, A.

    2013-12-01

    Soft X-ray observations of solar wind charge exchange (SWCX) emission from the Earth's magnetosphere using the Japanese X-ray astronomy satellite Suzaku are shown, together with our X-ray imaging mission concept to characterize the solar wind interaction with the magnetosphere. In recent years, the SWCX emission from the Earth's magnetosphere, originally discovered as unexplained noise during the soft X-ray all sky survey (Snowden et al. 1994), is receiving increased attention on studying geospace. The SWCX is a reaction between neutrals in exosphere and highly charged ions in the magnetosphere originated from solar wind. Robertson et al. (2005) modeled the SWCX emission as seen from an observation point 50 Re from Earth. In the resulting X-ray intensities, the magnetopause, bow shock and cusp were clearly visible. High sensitivity soft X-ray observation with CCDs onboard recent X-ray astronomy satellites enables us to resolve SWCX emission lines and investigate time correlation with solar wind as observed with ACE and WIND more accurately. Suzaku is the 5th Japanese X-ray astronomy satellite launched in 2005. The line of sight direction through cusp is observable, while constraints on Earth limb avoidance angle of other satellites often limits observable regions. Suzaku firstly detected the SWCX emission while pointing in the direction of the north ecliptic pole (Fujimoto et al. 2007). Using the Tsyganenko 1996 magnetic field model, the distance to the nearest SWCX region was estimated as 2-8 Re, implying that the line of sight direction can be through magnetospheric cusp. Ezoe et al. (2010) reported SWCX events toward the sub-solar side of the magnetosheath. These cusp and sub-solar side magnetosheath regions are predicted to show high SWCX fluxes by Robertson et al. (2005). On the other hand, Ishikawa et al. (2013) discovered a similarly strong SWCX event when the line of sight direction did not transverse these two regions. Motivated by these detections

  5. X-Ray Microanalysis and Electron Energy Loss Spectrometry in the Analytical Electron Microscope: Review and Future Directions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldstein, J. I.; Williams, D. B.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reviews and discusses future directions in analytical electron microscopy for microchemical analysis using X-ray and Electron Energy Loss Spectroscopy (EELS). The technique of X-ray microanalysis, using the ratio method and k(sub AB) factors, is outlined. The X-ray absorption correction is the major barrier to the objective of obtaining I% accuracy and precision in analysis. Spatial resolution and Minimum Detectability Limits (MDL) are considered with present limitations of spatial resolution in the 2 to 3 microns range and of MDL in the 0.1 to 0.2 wt. % range when a Field Emission Gun (FEG) system is used. Future directions of X-ray analysis include improvement in X-ray spatial resolution to the I to 2 microns range and MDL as low as 0.01 wt. %. With these improvements the detection of single atoms in the analysis volume will be possible. Other future improvements include the use of clean room techniques for thin specimen preparation, quantification available at the I% accuracy and precision level with light element analysis quantification available at better than the 10% accuracy and precision level, the incorporation of a compact wavelength dispersive spectrometer to improve X-ray spectral resolution, light element analysis and MDL, and instrument improvements including source stability, on-line probe current measurements, stage stability, and computerized stage control. The paper reviews the EELS technique, recognizing that it has been slow to develop and still remains firmly in research laboratories rather than in applications laboratories. Consideration of microanalysis with core-loss edges is given along with a discussion of the limitations such as specimen thickness. Spatial resolution and MDL are considered, recognizing that single atom detection is already possible. Plasmon loss analysis is discussed as well as fine structure analysis. New techniques for energy-loss imaging are also summarized. Future directions in the EELS technique will be

  6. High-energy synchrotron radiation x-ray microscopy: Present status and future prospects

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, K.W.; Gordon, B.M.; Spanne, P. ); Rivers, M.L.; Sutton, S.R. )

    1991-01-01

    High-energy radiation synchrotron x-ray microscopy is used to characterize materials of importance to the chemical and materials sciences and chemical engineering. The x-ray microscope (XRM) forms images of elemental distributions fluorescent x rays or images of mass distributions by measurement of the linear attenuation coefficient of the material. Distributions of sections through materials are obtained non-destructively using the technique of computed microtomography. The energy range of the x rays used for the XRM ranges from a few keV at the minimum value to more than 100 keV, which is sufficient to excite the K-edge of all naturally occurring elements. The work in progress at the Brookhaven NSLS X26 and X17 XRM is described in order to show the current status of the XRM. While there are many possible approaches to the XRM instrumentation, this instrument gives state-of-the-art performance in most respects and serves as a reasonable example of the present status of the instrumentation in terms of the spatial resolution and minimum detection limits obtainable. The examples of applications cited give an idea of the types of research fields that are currently under investigation. They can be used to illustrate how the field of x-ray microscopy will benefit from the use of bending magnets and insertion devices at the Advanced Photon Source. 8 refs., 5 figs.

  7. Evaluating Handheld X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) Technology in Planetary Exploration: Demonstrating Instrument Stability and Understanding Analytical Constraints and Limits for Basaltic Rocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, K. E.; Hodges, K. V.; Evans, C. A.

    2012-01-01

    While large-footprint X-ray fluorescence (XRF) instruments are reliable providers of elemental information about geologic samples, handheld XRF instruments are currently being developed that enable the collection of geochemical data in the field in short time periods (approx.60 seconds) [1]. These detectors are lightweight (1.3kg) and can provide elemental abundances of major rock forming elements heavier than Na. While handheld XRF detectors were originally developed for use in mining, we are working with commercially available instruments as prototypes to explore how portable XRF technology may enable planetary field science [2,3,4]. If an astronaut or robotic explorer visited another planetary surface, the ability to obtain and evaluate geochemical data in real-time would be invaluable, especially in the high-grading of samples to determine which should be returned to Earth. We present our results on the evaluation of handheld XRF technology as a geochemical tool in the context of planetary exploration.

  8. Priorities for Future Research on Planetary Dunes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Titus, Timothy N.; Lancaster, Nick; Hayward, Rose; Fenton, Lori; Bourke, Mary

    2008-11-01

    Planetary Dunes Workshop: A Record of Climate Change; Alamogordo, New Mexico, 28 April to 2 May 2008; Landforms and deposits created by the dynamic interactions between granular material and airflow (eolian processes) occur on several planetary bodies, including Earth, Mars, Titan, and Venus. To address many of the outstanding questions within planetary dune research, a workshop was organized by the U.S. Geological Survey, the Planetary Science Institute, the Desert Research Institute, and the Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence Institute and was sponsored by the Lunar and Planetary Institute and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. The workshop brought together researchers from diverse backgrounds, ranging from image analysis and modeling to terrestrial analog studies. The group of approximately 45 international researchers had intense discussions in an attempt to identify the most promising approaches to understanding planetary dune systems. On the basis of these discussions, the group identified the following 10 priorities for future planetary dune research.

  9. X-rays from Pre-Main Sequence Stars: Recent Results and Future Challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skinner, S.

    2016-08-01

    I will summarize recent results of X-ray observations of pre-main sequence (PMS) stars, focusing on XMM-Newton RGS and Chandra HETG observations of RY Tau. These observations provide the best grating spectra obtained so far of a jet-driving T Tauri star. I will also identify key questions regarding the origin and nature of X-ray emission from PMS stars that have emerged from 16 years of XMM-Newton and Chandra observations and which present challenges for the next decade.

  10. Accretion Disk Signatures in Type I X-Ray Bursts: Prospects for Future Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keek, L.; Wolf, Z.; Ballantyne, D. R.

    2016-07-01

    Type I X-ray bursts and superbursts from accreting neutron stars illuminate the accretion disk and produce a reflection signal that evolves as the burst fades. Examining the evolution of reflection features in the spectra will provide insight into the burst-disk interaction, a potentially powerful probe of accretion disk physics. At present, reflection has been observed during only two bursts of exceptional duration. We investigate the detectability of reflection signatures with four of the latest well-studied X-ray observatory concepts: Hitomi, Neutron Star Interior Composition Explorer (NICER), Athena, and Large Observatory For X-ray Timing (LOFT). Burst spectra are modeled for different values for the flux, temperature, and the disk ionization parameter, which are representative for most known bursts and sources. The effective area and throughput of a Hitomi-like telescope are insufficient for characterizing burst reflection features. NICER and Athena will detect reflection signatures in Type I bursts with peak fluxes ≳10-7.5 erg cm-2 s-1 and also effectively constrain the reflection parameters for bright bursts with fluxes of ˜10-7 erg cm-2 s-1 in exposures of several seconds. Thus, these observatories will provide crucial new insight into the interaction of accretion flows and X-ray bursts. For sources with low line-of-sight absorption, the wide bandpass of these instruments allows for the detection of soft X-ray reflection features, which are sensitive to the disk metallicity and density. The large collecting area that is part of the LOFT design would revolutionize the field by tracing the evolution of the accretion geometry in detail throughout short bursts.

  11. Wide-field x-ray imaging for future missions, including XEUS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conconi, Paolo; Pareschi, Giovanni; Campana, Sergio; Chincarini, Guido; Tagliaferri, Gianpiero

    2004-02-01

    It is well known that the Wolter I design for focusing X-ray telescopes provides perfect on-axis images, while, despite the absence of spherical aberration, the off-axis angular resolution rapidly degrades because of coma, field curvature and astigmatism. However, more general mirror designs than Wolter's exist in which primary and secondary mirror profiles can be described by polynomial equations. These power series solutions are particularly well indicated to be optimized, in order to achieve high imaging performances even at large off-axis incidence angles, despite a small degradation of the on-axis response. The concept, derived from the Ritchey-Chretien telescope widely used in optical astronomy, has already been experimentally proven for X-ray astronomical applications at the Brera Astronomical Observatory (Italy), in the context of the feasibility study of the Wide Field X-ray Telescope mission. Here we present a new design (including a model for slope errors and mechanical tolerances) for a X-ray telescope of medium-size class assuming monolithic mirror shells made of glass, optimized to have a Half Energy Width better than 5 arcsec over a 30 arcmin field of view (radius) and an effective area almost twice that one of Chandra. The use of polynomial mirrors seems extremely well suited also for the case of the XEUS optics. Indeed, the small aspect-ratio between the large focal length of the XEUS telescope (50 m) and the total mirror height (1 m) makes it very favorable to diminish the aberration effects due to the field curvature. With the assumption of mirror shells with polynomial profile it would be possible to achieve for XEUS an imaging response almost constant up to a field of view of 20 arcmin in radius.

  12. Biological X-ray Microanalysis: The Past, Present Practices, and Future Prospects.

    PubMed

    Echlin, Patrick

    2001-03-01

    Abrief description is given of the events surrounding the development of biological X-ray microanalysis during the last 30 years, with particular emphasis on the contribution made by research workers in Cambridge, UK. There then follows a broad review of some applications of biological X-ray microanalysis. A more detailed consideration is given to the main thrust of current procedures and applications that are, for convenience, considered as four different kinds of samples. Thin frozen dried sections which are analyzed at ambient temperatures in a transmission electron microscope (TEM); semithin frozen dried sections which are analyzed at low temperature in a scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM); thick frozen hydrated sections which are analyzed at low temperature in a scanning electron microscope (SEM), and bulk samples which are analyzed at low temperature in the same type of instrument. A brief outline is given of the advantages and disadvantages of performing low-voltage, low-temperature X-ray microanalysis on frozen hydrated bulk biological material. The article concludes with a consideration of alternative approaches to in situ analysis using either high-energy beams or visible and near-visible photons.

  13. Proportional counter for X-ray analysis of lunar and planetary surfaces. [a position sensitive scintillating imaging proportional counter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    A position sensitive proportional scintillation detector was developed and evaluated for use in applications involving X-ray imaging as well as spectroscopy. Topics covered include limitations of the proportional scintillation counter for use in space; purification of the xenon gas in the detector, and the operation of the detector system. Results show that the light signal in a proportional scintillation detector remains well localized. With modest electric fields in xenon, the primary electrons from a photoelectric absorption of an X-ray can be brought a distance of a few millimeters to a higher field region without spreading more than a millimeter or so. Therefore, it is possible to make a proportional scintillation detector with good position sensitivity that could be used to calibrate out the difference in light collection over its sensitive volume.

  14. Miniature lightweight X-ray optics (MiXO) for surface elemental composition mapping of asteroids and comets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Jaesub; Romaine, Suzanne

    2016-02-01

    The compositions of diverse planetary bodies are of fundamental interest to planetary science, providing clues to the formation and evolutionary history of the target bodies and the solar system as a whole. Utilizing the X-ray fluorescence unique to each atomic element, X-ray imaging spectroscopy is a powerful diagnostic tool of the chemical and mineralogical compositions of diverse planetary bodies. Until now the mass and volume of focusing X-ray optics have been too large for resource-limited in situ missions, so near-target X-ray observations of planetary bodies have been limited to simple collimator-type X-ray instruments. We introduce a new Miniature lightweight Wolter-I focusing X-ray Optics (MiXO) using metal-ceramic hybrid X-ray mirrors based on electroformed nickel replication and plasma thermal spray processes. MiXO can enable compact, powerful imaging X-ray telescopes suitable for future planetary missions. We illustrate the need for focusing X-ray optics in observing relatively small planetary bodies such as asteroids and comet nuclei. We present a few example configurations of MiXO telescopes and demonstrate their superior performance in comparison to an alternative approach, micro-pore optics, which is being employed for the first planetary focusing X-ray telescope, the Mercury Imaging X-ray Spectrometer-T onboard Bepicolumbo. X-ray imaging spectroscopy using MiXO will open a large new discovery space in planetary science and will greatly enhance our understanding of the nature and origin of diverse planetary bodies.

  15. The flying mirror: future brightest x-ray and γ-ray source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esirkepov, T. Z.; Bulanov, S. V.; Kando, M.; Pirozhkov, A. S.; Zhidkov, A. G.

    2009-05-01

    An ultra-bright high-power X-ray and γ-ray source is proposed. A relativistic flying mirror reflects a counterpropagating electromagnetic radiation causing its frequency multiplication and intensification, while the role of the mirror is played by a solid-density thin plasma slab accelerating in the radiation pressure dominant regime. Frequencies of high harmonics generated at the flying mirror by a relativistically strong counter-propagating radiation undergo multiplication with the same factor as the fundamental frequency of the reflected radiation, approximately equal to the quadruple of the square of the mirror Lorentz factor. The theory of the reflectivity of a moving thin plasma slab is presented.

  16. A setup for soft proton irradiation of X-ray detectors for future astronomical space missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diebold, Sebastian; Azzarello, Philipp; Del Monte, Ettore; Feroci, Marco; Jochum, Josef; Kendziorra, Eckhard; Perinati, Emanuele; Rachevski, Alexandre; Santangelo, Andrea; Tenzer, Christoph; Vacchi, Andrea; Zampa, Gianluigi; Zampa, Nicola

    2013-09-01

    Protons that are trapped in the Earth's magnetic field are one of the main threats to astronomical X-ray observatories. Soft protons, in the range from tens of keV up to a few MeV, impinging on silicon X-ray detectors can lead to a significant degradation of the detector performance. Especially in low earth orbits an enhancement of the soft proton flux has been found. A setup to irradiate detectors with soft protons has been constructed at the Van-de-Graaff accelerator of the Physikalisches Institut of the University of Tübingen. Key advantages are a high flux uniformity over a large area, to enable irradiations of large detectors, and a monitoring system for the applied fluence, the beam uniformity, and the spectrum, that allows testing of detector prototypes in early development phases, when readout electronics are not yet available. Two irradiation campaigns have been performed so far with this setup. The irradiated detectors are silicon drift detectors, designated for the use on-board the LOFT space mission. This paper gives a description of the experimental setup and the associated monitoring system.

  17. Evaluation of a SOI pixel sensor with thick depletion layer for future X-ray astronomical missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakashima, Shinya; Ryu, Sykyo Gando; Tsuru, Takeshi Go; Takeda, Ayaki; Arai, Yasuo; Miyoshi, Toshinobu; Ichimiya, Ryo; Ikemoto, Yukiko; Imamura, Toshifumi; Ohmoto, Takafumi; Iwata, Atsushi

    2012-03-01

    We report on the evaluation test of our novel pixel sensor named "XRPIX1-FZ" which is developed for the future X-ray astronomy mission. The mean gain of XRPIX1-FZ is 3.3 µV/e. and the dispersion of the gain among the pixels is 1% in the standard deviation. We confirmed the energy resolution of 260 eV in FWHM at 8 keV. We achieved the full depletion (250 µm) at 30 V back bias voltage.

  18. The Swift Supergiant Fast X-Ray Transients Project:. [A Review, New Results and Future Perspectives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Romano, P.; Mangano, V.; Ducci, L.; Esposito, P.; Vercellone, S.; Bocchino, F.; Burrows, D. N.; Kennea, J. A.; Krimm, H. A.; Gehrels, N.; Farinelli, R.; Ceccobello, C.

    2013-01-01

    We present a review of the Supergiant Fast X-ray Transients (SFXT) Project, a systematic investigation of the properties of SFXTs with a strategy that combines Swift monitoring programs with outburst follow-up observations. This strategy has quickly tripled the available sets of broad-band data of SFXT outbursts, and gathered a wealth of out-of-outburst data, which have led us to a broad-band spectral characterization, an assessment of the fraction of the time these sources spend in each phase, and their duty cycle of inactivity. We present some new observational results obtained through our outburst follow-ups, as fitting examples of the exceptional capabilities of Swift in catching bright flares and monitor them panchromatically.

  19. Soft X-ray Studies of Pu Electronic Structure: Past Lessons and Future Directions

    SciTech Connect

    Tobin, J G; Yu, S W

    2008-02-07

    Photoelectron Spectroscopy (PES) and X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy (XAS, Figure 1) have contributed greatly to our improved understanding of Pu electronic structure. From these and related measurements, the following has been determined: (1) The Pu 5f spin-orbit splitting is large; (2) The number of Pu5f electrons is near 5; and (3) The Pu 5f spin-orbit splitting effect dominates 5f itineracy. Significant questions remain concerning the nature of Pu electronic structure. Perhaps the missing piece of the puzzle is the direct experimental determination of the unoccupied electronic structure using high energy inverse photoelectron spectroscopy or Bremstrahlung Isochromat Spectroscopy (BIS). Past BIS studies of Th and U indicate the feasibility and utility of Pu studies.

  20. Fourier transform spectroscopy for future planetary missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brasunas, John C.; Hewagama, Tilak; Kolasinski, John R.; Kostiuk, Theodor

    2015-11-01

    Thermal-emission infrared spectroscopy is a powerful tool for exploring the composition, temperature structure, and dynamics of planetary atmospheres; and the temperature of solid surfaces. A host of Fourier transform spectrometers (FTS) such as Mariner IRIS, Voyager IRIS, and Cassini CIRS from NASA Goddard have made and continue to make important new discoveries throughout the solar system.Future FTS instruments will have to be more sensitive (when we concentrate on the colder, outer reaches of the solar system), and less massive and less power-hungry as we cope with decreasing resource allotments for future planetary science instruments. With this in mind, NASA Goddard was funded via the Planetary Instrument Definition and Development Progrem (PIDDP) to develop CIRS-lite, a smaller version of the CIRS FTS for future planetary missions. Following the initial validation of CIRS-lite operation in the laboratory, we have been acquiring atmospheric data in the 8-12 micron window at the 1.2 m telescope at the Goddard Geophysical and Astronomical Observatory (GGAO) in Greenbelt, MD. Targets so far have included Earth's atmosphere (in emission, and in absorption against the moon), and Venus.We will present the roadmap for making CIRS-lite a viable candidate for future planetary missions.

  1. The PixFEL project: development of advanced X-ray pixel detectors for application at future FEL facilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rizzo, G.; Comotti, D.; Fabris, L.; Grassi, M.; Lodola, L.; Malcovati, P.; Manghisoni, M.; Ratti, L.; Re, V.; Traversi, G.; Vacchi, C.; Batignani, G.; Bettarini, S.; Casarosa, G.; Forti, F.; Morsani, F.; Paladino, A.; Paoloni, E.; Dalla Betta, G.-F.; Pancheri, L.; Verzellesi, G.; Xu, H.; Mendicino, R.; Benkechkache, M. A.

    2015-02-01

    The PixFEL project aims to develop an advanced X-ray camera for imaging suited for the demanding requirements of next generation free electron laser (FEL) facilities. New technologies can be deployed to boost the performance of imaging detectors as well as future pixel devices for tracking. In the first phase of the PixFEL project, approved by the INFN, the focus will be on the development of the microelectronic building blocks, carried out with a 65 nm CMOS technology, implementing a low noise analog front-end channel with high dynamic range and compression features, a low power ADC and high density memory. At the same time PixFEL will investigate and implement some of the enabling technologies to assembly a seamless large area X-ray camera composed by a matrix of multilayer four-side buttable tiles. A pixel matrix with active edge will be developed to minimize the dead area of the sensor layer. Vertical interconnection of two CMOS tiers will be explored to build a four-side buttable readout chip with small pixel pitch and all the on-board required functionalities. The ambitious target requirements of the new pixel device are: single photon resolution, 1 to 104 photons @ 1 keV to 10 keV input dynamic range, 10-bit analog to digital conversion up to 5 MHz, 1 kevent in-pixel memory and 100 μm pixel pitch. The long term goal of PixFEL will be the development of a versatile X-ray camera to be operated either in burst mode (European XFEL), or in continuous mode to cope with the high frame rates foreseen for the upgrade phase of the LCLS-II at SLAC.

  2. Scientific Needs for Future X-Ray Sources in the U.S.: A White Paper

    SciTech Connect

    Falcone , Roger; Stohr, Joachim; Bergmann, Uwe; Corlett, John; Galayda, John; Hastings, Jerry; Robert Hettel, Zahid Hussain; Kirz, Janos; McCurdy, Bill; Raubenheimer, Tor; Fernando Sannibale, John Seeman; Shen, Z.-X.; Schoenlein, Robert; Zholents, Alexander; /SLAC /LBL, Berkeley

    2008-10-22

    Many of the important challenges facing humanity, including developing alternative sources of energy and improving health, are being addressed by advances that demand the improved understanding and control of matter. While the visualization, exploration, and manipulation of macroscopic matter have long been technological goals, scientific developments in the twentieth century have focused attention on understanding matter on the atomic scale through the underlying framework of quantum mechanics. Of special interest is matter that consists of natural or artificial nanoscale building blocks defined either by atomic structural arrangements or by electron or spin formations created by collective correlation effects (Figure 1.1). The essence of the challenge to the scientific community has been expressed in five grand challenges for directing matter and energy recently formulated by the Basic Energy Sciences Advisory Committee. These challenges focus on increasing our understanding of, and ultimately control of, matter at the level of atoms, electrons, and spins, as illustrated in Figure 1.1. Meeting these challenges will require new tools that extend our reach into regions of higher spatial, temporal, and energy resolution. Since the fundamental interaction that holds matter together is of electromagnetic origin, it is intuitively clear that electromagnetic radiation is the critical tool in the study of material properties. On the level of atoms, electrons and spins, x rays have proved especially valuable.

  3. Scientific Needs for Future X-ray Sources in the U.S. -- A White Paper

    SciTech Connect

    Falcone, Roger; Stohr, Joachim; Bergmann, Uwe; Corlett, John; Galayda, John; Hastings, Jerry; Hettel, Bob; Hussain, Zahid; Kirz, Janos; McCurdy, Bill; Raubenheimer, Tor; Sannibale, Fernando; Seeman, John; Shen, Z.-X.; Schoenlein, Bob; Zholents, Alexander

    2008-10-16

    Many of the important challenges facing humanity, including developing alternative sources of energy and improving heath, are being addressed by advances that demand the improved understanding and control of matter. While the visualization, exploration, and manipulation of macroscopic matter have long been technological goals, scientific developments in the twentieth century have focused attention on understanding matter on the atomic scale through the underlying framework of quantum mechanics. Of special interest is matter that consists of natural or artificial nanoscale building blocks defined either by atomic structural arrangements or by electron or spin formations created by collective correlation effects. The essence of the challenge to the scientific community has been expressed in five grand challenges for directing matter and energy recently formulated by the Basic Energy Sciences Advisory Committee. These challenges focus on increasing our understanding of, and ultimately control of, matter at the level of atoms, electrons. and spins, as illustrated in Figure 1.1. Meeting these challenges will require new tools that extend our reach into regions of higher spatial, temporal, and energy resolution. Since the fundamental interaction that holds matter together is of electromagnetic origin, it is intuitively clear that electromagnetic radiation is the critical tool in the study of material properties. On the level of atoms, electrons and spins, x rays have proved especially valuable.

  4. Development and characterization of the latest X-ray SOI pixel sensor for a future astronomical mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakashima, Shinya; Gando Ryu, Syukyo; Tanaka, Takaaki; Go Tsuru, Takeshi; Takeda, Ayaki; Arai, Yasuo; Imamura, Toshifumi; Ohmoto, Takafumi; Iwata, Atsushi

    2013-12-01

    We have been developing active pixel sensors based on silicon-on-insulator technology for future X-ray astronomy missions. Recently we fabricated the new prototype named “XRPIX2”, and investigated its spectroscopic performance. For comparison and evaluation of different chip designs, XRPIX2 consists of 3 pixel types: Small Pixel, Large Pixel 1, and Large Pixel 2. In Small Pixel, we found that the gains of the 68% pixels are within 1.4% of the mean value, and the energy resolution is 656 eV (FWHM) for 8 keV X-rays, which is the best spectroscopic performance in our development. The pixel pitch of Large Pixel 1 and Large Pixel 2 is twice as large as that of Small Pixel. Charge sharing events are successfully reduced for Large Pixel 1. Moreover Large Pixel 2 has multiple nodes for charge collection in a pixel. We confirmed that the multi-nodes structure is effective to increase charge collection efficiency.

  5. Soft X-Ray Studies of Pu Electronic Structure: Past Lessons From XAS and Future Direction With BIS

    SciTech Connect

    Tobin, J G; Yu, S W; Chung, B W; Waddill, G D; Kutepov, A L

    2008-12-10

    Synchrotron-radiation-based spectroscopies such as X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy (XAS) have contributed greatly to our improved understanding of Pu electronic structure. However, significant questions remain concerning the nature of Pu electronic structure. Perhaps the missing piece of the puzzle is the direct experimental determination of the unoccupied electronic structure using high energy inverse photoelectron spectroscopy (IPES) or Bremstrahlung Isochromat Spectroscopy (BIS). Past BIS studies of Th and U indicate the feasibility and utility of Pu studies. To this end, a new BIS capability has been developed in our laboratory. Electron stimulated emission of photons has been carried out using the XES-350 monochromator and detector system. Our preliminary results and future plans will be presented.

  6. LIMITS ON [O III] 5007 EMISSION FROM NGC 4472'S GLOBULAR CLUSTERS: CONSTRAINTS ON PLANETARY NEBULAE AND ULTRALUMINOUS BLACK HOLE X-RAY BINARIES IN GLOBULAR CLUSTERS

    SciTech Connect

    Peacock, Mark B.; Zepf, Stephen E.; Maccarone, Thomas J.

    2012-06-20

    We have searched for [O III] 5007 emission in high-resolution spectroscopic data from FLAMES/GIRAFFE Very Large Telescope observations of 174 massive globular clusters (GCs) in NGC 4472. No planetary nebulae (PNe) are observed in these clusters, constraining the number of PNe per bolometric luminosity, {alpha} < 0.8 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -7} PN/L{sub Sun }. This is significantly lower than the rate predicted from stellar evolution, if all stars produce PNe. Comparing our results to populations of PNe in galaxies, we find most galaxies have a higher {alpha} than these GCs (more PNe per bolometric luminosity-though some massive early-type galaxies do have similarly low {alpha}). The low {alpha} required in these GCs suggests that the number of PNe per bolometric luminosity does not increase strongly with decreasing mass or metallicity of the stellar population. We find no evidence for correlations between the presence of known GC PNe and either the presence of low-mass X-ray binaries (LMXBs) or the stellar interaction rates in the GCs. This, and the low {alpha} observed, suggests that the formation of PNe may not be enhanced in tight binary systems. These data do identify one [O III] emission feature, this is the (previously published) broad [O III] emission from the cluster RZ 2109. This emission is thought to originate from the LMXB in this cluster, which is accreting at super-Eddington rates. The absence of any similar [O III] emission from the other clusters favors the hypothesis that this source is a black hole LMXB, rather than a neutron star LMXB with significant geometric beaming of its X-ray emission.

  7. Joint x-ray

    MedlinePlus

    X-ray - joint; Arthrography; Arthrogram ... x-ray technologist will help you position the joint to be x-rayed on the table. Once in place, pictures are taken. The joint may be moved into other positions for more ...

  8. Chest X-Ray

    MedlinePlus

    ... by: Image/Video Gallery Your radiologist explains chest x-ray. Transcript Welcome to Radiology Info dot org! Hello, ... you about chest radiography also known as chest x-rays. Chest x-rays are the most commonly performed ...

  9. Cosmic x ray physics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccammon, Dan; Cox, D. P.; Kraushaar, W. L.; Sanders, W. T.

    1991-01-01

    The annual progress report on Cosmic X Ray Physics for the period 1 Jan. to 31 Dec. 1990 is presented. Topics studied include: soft x ray background, new sounding rocket payload: x ray calorimeter, and theoretical studies.

  10. Cosmic x ray physics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccammon, Dan; Cox, D. P.; Kraushaar, W. L.; Sanders, W. T.

    1990-01-01

    The annual progress report on Cosmic X Ray Physics is presented. Topics studied include: the soft x ray background, proportional counter and filter calibrations, the new sounding rocket payload: X Ray Calorimeter, and theoretical studies.

  11. Measuring redshifts using X-ray spectroscopy of galaxy clusters: results from Chandra data and future prospects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, H.; Tozzi, P.; Borgani, S.; Rosati, P.; Zhu, Z.-H.

    2011-05-01

    Context. The ubiquitous presence of the Fe line complex in the X-ray spectra of galaxy clusters offers the possibility of measuring their redshift without resorting to spectroscopic follow-up observations. In practice, the blind search of the Fe line in X-ray spectra is a difficult task and is affected not only by limited S/N (particularly at high redshift), but also by several systematic errors, associated with varying Fe abundance values, ICM temperature gradients, and instrumental characteristics. Aims: We assess the accuracy with which the redshift of galaxy clusters can be recovered from an X-ray spectral analysis of Chandra archival data. We present a strategy to compile large surveys of clusters whose identification and redshift measurement are both based on X-ray data alone. Methods: We apply a blind search for K-shell and L-shell Fe line complexes in X-ray cluster spectra using Chandra archival observations of galaxy clusters. The Fe line can be detected in the ICM spectra by simply analyzing the C-statistics variation ΔCstat as a function of the redshift parameter, when all the other model parameters are frozen to the best-fit values. We repeat the measurement under different conditions, and compare the X-ray derived redshift zX with the one obtained by means of optical spectroscopy zo. We explore how a number of priors on metallicity and luminosity can be effectively used to reduce catastrophic errors. The ΔCstat provides the most effective means of discarding wrong redshift measurements and estimating the actual error in zX. Results: We identify a simple and efficient procedure for optimally measuring the redshifts from the X-ray spectral analysis of clusters of galaxies. When this procedure is applied to mock catalogs extracted from high sensitivity, wide-area cluster surveys, such as those proposed with Wide Field X-ray Telescope (WFXT) mission, it is possible to obtain complete samples of X-ray clusters with reliable redshift measurements, thus

  12. X-ray remote sensing and in-situ spectroscopy for planetary exploration missions and gamma-ray remote sensing and in-situ spectroscopy for planetary exploration missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mahdavi, M.; Giboni, K. L.; Vajda, S.; Schweitzer, J.

    1994-01-01

    Detectors that will be used for planetary missions must have their responses calibrated in a reproducible manner. A calibration facility is being constructed at Schlumberger-Doll Research for gamma and x ray detectors. With this facility the detector response can be determined in an invariant and reproducible fashion. Initial use of the facility is expected for the MARS94 detectors. Work is continuing to better understand the rare earth oxyorthosilicates and to define their characteristics. This will allow a better use of these scintillators for planetary missions. In a survey of scintillating materials two scintillators were identified as promising candidates besides GSO, LSO, and YSO. These are CdWO4 and CsI(Tl). It will be investigated if a detector with a better overall performance can be assembled with various photon converters. Considerable progress was achieved in photomultiplier design. The length of an 1 inch diameter PMT could be reduced from 4.2 to 2.5 inches without performance degradation. This technology is being employed in the gamma ray detector for the NEAR project. A further weight and size reduction of the detector package can be achieved with miniaturized integrated power supplies.

  13. Shaped silicon wafers obtained by hot plastic deformation: performance evaluation for future astronomical x-ray telescopes

    SciTech Connect

    Ezoe, Yuichiro; Shirata, Takayuki; Mitsuishi, Ikuyuki; Ishida, Manabu; Mitsuda, Kazuhisa; Morishita, Kohei; Nakajima, Kazuo

    2009-07-01

    In order to develop lightweight and high angular resolution x-ray mirrors, we have investigated hot plastic deformation of 4 in. silicon (111) wafers. A sample wafer was deformed using hemispherical dies with a curvature radius of 1000 mm. The measured radius of the deformed wafer was 1030 mm, suggesting that further conditioning is indispensable for better shaping. For the first time to our knowledge, x-ray reflection on a deformed wafer was detected at Al K{alpha} 1.49 keV. An estimated surface roughness of <1 nm from the x-ray reflection profile was comparable to that of a bare silicon wafer without deformation. Hence, no significant degradation of the microroughness was seen.

  14. A small RTG for future planetary missions

    SciTech Connect

    Cockfield, R.D.; Kull, R.A.

    1997-01-01

    A design study was conducted to characterize conceptual designs for a small Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (RTG), one that might be suitable for future planetary missions. Conceptual design configurations were derived from the General Purpose Heat Source{emdash}RTG (GPHS-RTG), with the design goal of providing 70 watts of electrical power at the end of a ten year mission life. Design improvements for mass minimization were evaluated, considering also the technical risk of the corresponding engineering development required. It was concluded that an RTG mass of 18 kg could be achieved with moderate risk. Further studies are recommended to define in detail the testing and other development activities that would be required to bring the conceptual design for such an RTG to reality. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  15. Chest x-ray

    MedlinePlus

    Chest radiography; Serial chest x-ray; X-ray - chest ... You stand in front of the x-ray machine. You will be told to hold your breath when the x-ray is taken. Two images are usually taken. You will ...

  16. Slumping technique for the manufacturing of a representative x-ray grazing incidence mirror module for future space missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghigo, Mauro; Proserpio, Laura; Basso, Stefano; Citterio, Oberto; Civitani, Marta M.; Pareschi, Giovanni; Salmaso, Bianca; Sironi, Giorgia; Spiga, Daniele; Tagliaferri, Giampiero; Vecchi, Gabriele; Zambra, Alberto; Parodi, Giancarlo; Martelli, Francesco; Gallieni, Daniele; Tintori, Matteo; Bavdaz, Marcos; Wille, Eric; Ferrario, Ivan; Burwitz, Vadim

    2013-09-01

    The Astronomical Observatory of Brera (INAF-OAB, Italy), with the financing support of the European Space Agency (ESA), has concluded a study regarding a glass shaping technology for the production of grazing incidence segmented x-ray optics. This technique uses a hot slumping phase, in which pressure is actively applied on thin glass foils being shaped, to form a cylindrical approximation of Wolter I x-ray segments, and a subsequent cold slumping phase, in which the final Wolter I profile is then freeze into the glass segments during their integration in elemental X-ray Optical Units. The final goal of this study was the manufacturing of a prototype containing a number of slumped pair plates (meaning parabola and hyperbola couples) having representative dimensions to be tested both in UV light and in x-rays at the Panter facility (Germany). In this paper, the INAF-OAB slumping technique, comprising a shaping step and an integration step is described, together with the results obtained on the manufactured prototype modules: the first prototype was aimed to test the ad-hoc designed and built semi-automatic Integration MAchine (IMA) and debug its control software. The most complete module comprises 40 slumped segments of Schott D263 glass type of dimension 200 mm x 200 mm and thickness of 0.4 mm, slumped on Zerodur K20 mould and stacked together through glued BK7 glass structural ribs to form the first entire x-ray optical module ever built totally composed by glass. A last prototype was aimed at demonstrate the use of Schott glass AF32 type instead of D263. In particular, a new hot slumping experimental set-up is described whose advantage is to permit a better contact between mould and glass during the shaping process. The integration procedure of the slumped segments into the elemental module is also reviewed.

  17. Planetary Geology: Goals, Future Directions, and Recommendations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    Planetary exploration has provided a torrent of discoveries and a recognition that planets are not inert objects. This expanded view has led to the notion of comparative planetology, in which the differences and similarities among planetary objects are assessed. Solar system exploration is undergoing a change from an era of reconnaissance to one of intensive exploration and focused study. Analyses of planetary surfaces are playing a key role in this transition, especially as attention is focused on such exploration goals as returned samples from Mars. To assess how the science of planetary geology can best contribute to the goals of solar system exploration, a workshop was held at Arizona State University in January 1987. The participants discussed previous accomplishments of the planetary geology program, assessed the current studies in planetary geology, and considered the requirements to meet near-term and long-term exploration goals.

  18. Thoracic spine x-ray

    MedlinePlus

    Vertebral radiography; X-ray - spine; Thoracic x-ray; Spine x-ray; Thoracic spine films; Back films ... care provider's office. You will lie on the x-ray table in different positions. If the x-ray ...

  19. Advanced Planetary Protection Technologies for the Proposed Future Mission Set

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spry, J. Andy; Conley, Catharine A

    2013-01-01

    Planetary protection is the discipline of protecting solar system objects from harmful contamination resulting from the activities of interplanetary spacecraft, and of similarly protecting the Earth from uncontrolled release of a putative extra-terrestrial organism from returned extra-terrestrial samples. Planetary protection requirements for Mars are becoming further refined as more is understood about the nature of the Martian environment as a potential habitat. Likewise, increased understanding of the limits of life on Earth is informing planetary protection policy. This presentation will discuss recent technology developments, ongoing work and future challenges of implementing planetary protection for the proposed future mission set.

  20. Dental x-rays

    MedlinePlus

    X-ray - teeth; Radiograph - dental; Bitewings; Periapical film; Panoramic film; Digital image ... dentist's office. There are many types of dental x-rays. Some of them are: Bitewing. Shows the crown ...

  1. X-ray (image)

    MedlinePlus

    X-rays are a form of ionizing radiation that can penetrate the body to form an image on ... will be shades of gray depending on density. X-rays can provide information about obstructions, tumors, and other ...

  2. X-Ray Lasers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapline, George; Wood, Lowell

    1975-01-01

    Outlines the prospects of generating coherent x rays using high-power lasers and indentifies problem areas in their development. Indicates possible applications for coherent x rays in the fields of chemistry, biology, and crystallography. (GS)

  3. X Ray Topography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balchin, A. A.

    1974-01-01

    Discusses some aspects in X-ray topography, including formation of dislocations, characteristics of stacking faults, x-ray contrast in defect inspection, Berg-Barrett technique, and Lang traversing crystal and Borrmann's methods. (CC)

  4. X-Ray Probes of Jupiter's Auroral Zones, Galilean Moons, and the Io Plasma Torus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elsner, R. F.; Ramsey, B. D.; Swartz, D. A.; Rehak, P.; Waite, J. H., Jr.; Cooper, J. F.; Johnson, R. E.

    2005-01-01

    Remote observations from the Earth orbiting Chandra X-ray Observatory and the XMM-Newton Observatory have shown the the Jovian system is a rich and complex source of x-ray emission. The planet's auroral zones and its disk are powerful sources of x-ray emission, though with different origins. Chandra observations discovered x-ray emission from the Io plasma torus and from the Galilean moons Io, Europa, and possibly Ganymede. The emission from the moons is due to bombardment of their surfaces by highly energetic magnetospheric protons, and oxygen and sulfur ions, producing fluorescent x-ray emission lines from the elements in their surfaces against an intense background continuum. Although very faint when observed from Earth orbit, an imaging x-ray spectrometer in orbit around the icy Galilean moons would provide a detail mapping of the elemental composition in their surfaces. Here we review the results of Chandra and XMM-Newton observations of the Jovian system and describe the characteristics of X-MIME, an imaging x-ray spectrometer undergoing study for possible application to future missions to Jupiter such as JIMO. X-MIME has the ultimate goal of providing detailed high-resolution maps of the elemental abundances of the surfaces of Jupiter's icy moons and Io, as well as detailed study of the x-ray mission from the Io plasma torus, Jupiter's auroral zones, and the planetary disk.

  5. X-Ray Imaging

    MedlinePlus

    ... Brain Surgery Imaging Clinical Trials Basics Patient Information X-Ray Imaging Print This Page X-ray imaging is perhaps the most familiar type of imaging. Images produced by X-rays are due to the different absorption rates of ...

  6. X-Rays

    MedlinePlus

    X-rays are a type of radiation called electromagnetic waves. X-ray imaging creates pictures of the inside of your ... different amounts of radiation. Calcium in bones absorbs x-rays the most, so bones look white. Fat and ...

  7. Hand x-ray

    MedlinePlus

    X-ray - hand ... A hand x-ray is taken in a hospital radiology department or your health care provider's office by an ... technician. You will be asked to place your hand on the x-ray table, and keep it ...

  8. On stellar X-ray emission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosner, R.; Golub, L.; Vaiana, G. S.

    1985-01-01

    Stellar X-ray astronomy represents an entirely new astronomical discipline which has emerged during the past five years. It lies at the crossroads of solar physics, stellar physics, and general astrophysics. The present review is concerned with the main physical problems which arise in connection with a study of the stellar X-ray data. A central issue is the extent to which the extrapolation from solar physics is justified and the definition (if possible) of the limits to such extrapolation. The observational properties of X-ray emission from stars are considered along with the solar analogy and the modeling of X-ray emission from late-type stars, the modeling of X-ray emission from early-type stars, the physics of stellar X-ray emission, stellar X-ray emission in the more general astrophysical context, and future prospects.

  9. Technologies for manufacturing of high angular resolution multilayer coated optics for future new hard x-ray missions: a status report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borghi, G.; Vernani, D.; Marchi Boscolo, E.; Citterio, O.; Grisoni, G.; Kools, J.; Marioni, F.; Orlandi, A.; Ritucci, A.; Rossi, M.; Salmaso, G.; Valsecchi, G.; Basso, S.; Pareschi, G.; Spiga, D.; Tagliaferri, G.; Negri, B.

    2009-08-01

    High throughput lightweight Hard X-ray Optics manufactured via electroforming replication process from supersmooth mandrels are the primary candidate for some of future New Hard X-ray missions. Media Lario Technologies (MLT) is the industrial enabler exploiting the electroforming technology initially applied for the ESA XMM-Newton mission and further developed in cooperation with Brera Astronomical Observatory (INAF/OAB). The current and ongoing development activities in Media Lario Technologies complement the electroforming technology with a suite of critical manufacturing and assembly of the Mirror Module Unit. In this paper, the progress on mandrels manufacturing, mirror shell replication, multilayer coating deposition, mirror module integration, and relevant metrology is reported in view of the upcoming production phase. Mandrel production is a key point in terms of performances and schedule; the results from of NiP prototype mandrels fabricated using a proprietary multistep surface finishing process are reported. The progress in the replication of ultrathin Nickel and Nickel-Cobalt substrates gold coated mirror shells is reported together with the results of MLT Magnetron Sputtering multilayer coating technology for the hard x-ray waveband and its application to W/Si. Due to the criticality of low thickness mirror handling, the integration concept has been refined and tested on prototype mechanical structures under full illumination UV vertical optical bench.

  10. A Future NICER Observation of Pulsar J0437-4715 from the Perspective of the X-ray Concentators’ Performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balsamo, Erin; Gendreau, Keith; Arzoumanian, Zaven

    2014-08-01

    While on-board the International Space Station, the Neutron Star Interior Composition ExploreR (NICER) will perform high accuracy X-ray timing measurements of neutron stars. The X-ray Timing Instrument (XTI), consisting of 56, high effective area, X-ray Concentrators (XRCs) co-aligned with silicon drift detectors, provides absolute GPS-based photon time-tagging. This allows for high-quality lightcurves from long exposures compiled over many brief observation segments. Through energy-dependent lightcurve analysis of millisecond pulsar observations we can infer neutron star radii within 5% and further constrain the equations of state. One of NICER’s key targets to perform a radius measurement is PSR J0437-4715, the closest known MSP. However, the observation of this pulsar will not be as straight forward as pointing the XTI in the pulsar’s direction. One of the main reasons the XRCs have such a high effective area is the same reason this observation poses a unique challenge, concentrators cannot discriminate photons from different sources. With the XRCs’ field of view of 6 arcminutes and a bright AGN (RX J0437.4-4711) located less than 4.3’ from PSR J0437-4715, we must minimize the AGN photon contribution in order to minimize the uncertainty in the radius measurement. Even though the AGN is approximately one order of magnitude brighter than the pulsar, the XRCs’ effective area depends greatly on the photons’ incident angles. The fact that the efficiency of a source observed off-axis is much lower than one observed on-axis can be used to our advantage. Using a comprehensive analysis and thorough understanding of the XRC performance from X-ray testing at NASA Goddard’s beamlines and NICER’s raytrace code, I am developing a method for observing PSR J0437-4715. The simulations for this work include considering NICER’s pointing budget and the timing and spectral properties of these sources from previous research found in the literature.

  11. Ray-tracing simulations for the ultra-lightweight X-ray optics toward a future jupiter exploration mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitsuishi, I.; Ezoe, Y.; Ogawa, T.; Sato, M.; Nakamura, K.; Numazawa, M.; Takeuchi, K.; Ohashi, T.; Ishikawa, K.; Mitsuda, K.

    2016-01-01

    To investigate a feasibility for in situ X-ray imaging spectrometer JUXTA (Jupiter X-ray Telescope Array) onboard a Japanese Jupiter exploration mission, we demonstrated the ideal performances, i.e., angular resolution, effective area and grasp, of our original, conically-approximated Wolter type-I MEMS-processed optics, by extending the previous ray-tracing simulator. The novel simulator enables us to study both on- and off-axis responses for our optics with two-stage optical configurations for the first time. The on-axis angular resolution is restricted to ∼ 13 μm corresponding to ∼ 10 arcsec on the detector plane without considering the diffraction effect and dominated by the diffraction effect below ∼ 1 keV (e.g., 13 arcsec at 1 keV). Si optics can achieve effective area of >700 mm2 and grasp of >1600 mm2 deg2 at our interesting energy of 600 eV. Larger effective area and grasp can be attained by employing Ni as a substrate material or Ir as a reflecting surface material. However, other factors produced in the fabrication processes such as the waviness on the mirror surface and the deformation error cause the significant performance degradation. Thus, we concluded that MEMS-processed optics can satisfy all the requirements of JUXTA only if the manufacturing accuracy can be controlled.

  12. Planetary cores: current knowledge and future prospects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nimmo, F.

    2011-12-01

    Observations of planetary cores tell us about the: formation; evolution; and present-day state of silicate bodies. In this review I will highlight recent results and future prospects. Formation. Core formation is detectable geochemically from siderophile element abundances and both unstable (e.g. Hf-W [1]) and stable (e.g. Cr [2], Si [3]) isotopic systems. Hf-W studies tell us that small bodies (like Vesta and perhaps Mars [4]) underwent differentiation very early, presumably due to 26Al decay [1]. Larger silicate-dominated bodies experienced stochastic addition of core material over tens of Myr, during large impacts [5]. Bodies with massive cores may result from hit-and-run collisions [6] or mantle-stripping impacts [7]. The apparent existence of a lunar core [8] places constraints on the Moon's formation. Evolution. Core solidification results in significant volume changes and surface contraction. Surface tectonics thus provides a constraint on core evolution [e.g. 9]. Dynamo generation usually depends on the rate of core cooling/solidification, which in turn depends on the mantle's ability to remove heat. Thus, an extant or ancient dynamo tells us about the long-term thermal evolution of the body [10]. In some cases, magnetic field characteristics may be related to the details of core structure and/or solidification. In others, mechanical forcing, such as tidally-driven motion [11] or impacts [12] may cause dynamo activity. Bodies with (presumed) liquid cores but no dynamo (Io, Venus) also require explanation. Present day. A body's angular momentum and tidal response depend on core properties such as CMB topography, inner core viscosity, magnetic field strength and other factors. Thus, measurements of time-varying spin state and/or gravity can be used to infer the existence of a liquid layer [13-15] and (for the Earth) core properties such as the magnetic field strength [16]. Ground-based radar observations of Mercury [14] and (in future) Europa and Io should

  13. Thin monolithic glass shells for future high angular resolution and large collecting area x-ray telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Civitani, M. M.; Citterio, O.; Ghigo, M.; Mattaini, E.; Pareschi, G.; Parodi, G.

    2013-09-01

    One of the most difficult requests to be accomplished from the technological point of view for next generation x-ray telescopes is to combine high angular resolution and effective area. A significant increase of effective area can be reached with high precision but at the same time thin (2-3 mm thickness for mirror diameters of 30-110 cm) glass mirror shells. In the last few years the Brera Observatory has lead a development program for realizing this kind of monolithic thin glass shell. The fused silica has been chosen as shell substrate due to its thermal and mechanical properties. To bring the mirror shells to the needed accuracy, we have adopted a deterministic direct polishing method (already used for past missions as Einstein, Rosat, Chandra) to ten time thinner shells. The technological challenge has been solved using a temporary stiffening structure that allows the handling and the machining of so thin glass shells. The results obtained with a prototype shell at an intermediate stage of its development (17'' HEW measured in full illumination mode with x-ray) indicate that the working concept is feasible and can be further exploited using the very large Ion Beam Facility available in our labs for the final high accuracy figuring of the thin shells. In this paper we present the required tolerances for the shell realization, the shells production chain flow and the ion beam facility up grading. Forecast on figuring time and expected performances of the figuring will also be given on the basis on the metrological data collected during past shell development.

  14. Panoramic Dental X-Ray

    MedlinePlus

    ... X-ray? What is Panoramic X-ray? Panoramic radiography , also called panoramic x-ray , is a two- ... Exams Dental Cone Beam CT X-ray, Interventional Radiology and Nuclear Medicine Radiation Safety About this Site ...

  15. Clocking Femtosecond X-Rays

    SciTech Connect

    Cavalieri, A L; Fritz, D M; Lee, S H; Bucksbaum, P H; Reis, D A; Mills, D M; Pahl, R; Rudati, J; Fuoss, P H; Stephenson, G B; Lowney, D P; MacPhee, A G; Weinstein, D; Falcone, R W; Als-Nielsen, J; Blome, C; Ischebeck, R; Schlarb, H; Tschentscher, T; Schneider, J; Sokolowski-Tinten, K; Chapman, H N; Lee, R W; Hansen, T N; Synnergren, O; Larsson, J; Techert, S; Sheppard, J; Wark, J S; Bergh, M; Calleman, C; Huldt, G; der Spoel, D v; Timneanu, N; Hajdu, J; Bong, E; Emma, P; Krejcik, P; Arthur, J; Brennan, S; Gaffney, K J; Lindenberg, A M; Hastings, J B

    2004-10-08

    The Sub-Picosecond Pulse Source (SPPS) at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) produces the brightest ultrafast x-ray pulses in the world, and is the first to employ compressed femtosecond electron bunches for the x-ray source. Both SPPS and future X-ray Free Electron Lasers (XFEL's) will use precise measurements of individual electron bunches to time the arrival of x-ray pulses for time-resolved experiments. At SPPS we use electro-optic sampling (EOS) to perform these measurements. Here we present the first results using this method. An ultrafast laser pulse (135 fs) passes through an electro-optic crystal adjacent to the electron beam. The refractive index of the crystal is distorted by the strong electromagnetic fields of the ultra-relativistic electrons, and this transient birefringence is imprinted on the laser polarization. A polarizer decodes this signal, producing a time-dependent image of the compressed electron bunch. Our measurements yield the relative timing between an ultrafast optical laser and an ultrafast x-ray pulse to within 60 fs, making it possible to use the SPPS to observe atomic-scale ultrafast dynamics initiated by laser-matter interaction.

  16. X-ray tensor tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malecki, A.; Potdevin, G.; Biernath, T.; Eggl, E.; Willer, K.; Lasser, T.; Maisenbacher, J.; Gibmeier, J.; Wanner, A.; Pfeiffer, F.

    2014-02-01

    Here we introduce a new concept for x-ray computed tomography that yields information about the local micro-morphology and its orientation in each voxel of the reconstructed 3D tomogram. Contrary to conventional x-ray CT, which only reconstructs a single scalar value for each point in the 3D image, our approach provides a full scattering tensor with multiple independent structural parameters in each volume element. In the application example shown in this study, we highlight that our method can visualize sub-pixel fiber orientations in a carbon composite sample, hence demonstrating its value for non-destructive testing applications. Moreover, as the method is based on the use of a conventional x-ray tube, we believe that it will also have a great impact in the wider range of material science investigations and in future medical diagnostics. The authors declare no competing financial interests.

  17. Characterization of Apollo Regolith by X-Ray and Electron Microbeam Techniques: An Analog for Future Sample Return Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zeigler, Ryan A.

    2015-01-01

    The Apollo missions collected 382 kg of rock and regolith from the Moon; approximately 1/3 of the sample mass collected was regolith. Lunar regolith consists of well mixed rocks, minerals, and glasses less than 1-centimeter n size. The majority of most surface regolith samples were sieved into less than 1, 1-2, 2-4, and 4-10- millimiter size fractions; a portion of most samples was re-served unsieved. The initial characterization and classification of most Apollo regolith particles was done primarily by binocular microscopy. Optical classification of regolith is difficult because (1) the finest fraction of the regolith coats and obscures the textures of the larger particles, and (b) not all lithologies or minerals are uniquely identifiable optically. In recent years, we have begun to use more modern x-ray beam techniques [1-3], coupled with high resolution 3D optical imaging techniques [4] to characterize Apollo and meteorite samples as part of the curation process. These techniques, particularly in concert with SEM imaging of less than 1-millimeter regolith grain mounts, allow for the rapid characterization of the components within a regolith.

  18. Planetary penetrators: Their origins, history and future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorenz, Ralph D.

    2011-08-01

    Penetrators, which emplace scientific instrumentation by high-speed impact into a planetary surface, have been advocated as an alternative to soft-landers for some four decades. However, such vehicles have yet to fly successfully. This paper reviews in detail, the origins of penetrators in the military arena, and the various planetary penetrator mission concepts that have been proposed, built and flown. From the very limited data available, penetrator developments alone (without delivery to the planet) have required ˜$30M: extensive analytical instrumentation may easily double this. Because the success of emplacement and operation depends inevitably on uncontrollable aspects of the target environment, unattractive failure probabilities for individual vehicles must be tolerated that are higher than the typical '3-sigma' (99.5%) values typical for spacecraft. The two pathways to programmatic success, neither of which are likely in an austere financial environment, are a lucky flight as a 'piggyback' mission or technology demonstration, or with a substantial and unprecedented investment to launch a scientific (e.g. seismic) network mission with a large number of vehicles such that a number of terrain-induced failures can be tolerated.

  19. X-ray beamsplitter

    DOEpatents

    Ceglio, N.M.; Stearns, D.G.; Hawryluk, A.M.; Barbee, T.W. Jr.

    1987-08-07

    An x-ray beamsplitter which splits an x-ray beam into two coherent parts by reflecting and transmitting some fraction of an incident beam has applications for x-ray interferometry, x-ray holography, x-ray beam manipulation, and x-ray laser cavity output couplers. The beamsplitter is formed of a wavelength selective multilayer thin film supported by a very thin x-ray transparent membrane. The beamsplitter resonantly transmits and reflects x-rays through thin film interference effects. A thin film is formed of 5--50 pairs of alternate Mo/Si layers with a period of 20--250 A. The support membrane is 10--200 nm of silicon nitride or boron nitride. The multilayer/support membrane structure is formed across a window in a substrate by first forming the structure on a solid substrate and then forming a window in the substrate to leave a free-standing structure over the window. 6 figs.

  20. X-ray beamsplitter

    DOEpatents

    Ceglio, Natale M.; Stearns, Daniel S.; Hawryluk, Andrew M.; Barbee, Jr., Troy W.

    1989-01-01

    An x-ray beamsplitter which splits an x-ray beam into two coherent parts by reflecting and transmitting some fraction of an incident beam has applications for x-ray interferometry, x-ray holography, x-ray beam manipulation, and x-ray laser cavity output couplers. The beamsplitter is formed of a wavelength selective multilayer thin film supported by a very thin x-ray transparent membrane. The beamsplitter resonantly transmits and reflects x-rays through thin film interference effects. A thin film is formed of 5-50 pairs of alternate Mo/Si layers with a period of 20-250 A. The support membrane is 10-200 nm of silicon nitride or boron nitride. The multilayer/support membrane structure is formed across a window in a substrate by first forming the structure on a solid substrate and then forming a window in the substrate to leave a free-standing structure over the window.

  1. X-ray Spectrometry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Markowicz, Andrzej A.; Van Grieken, Rene E.

    1984-01-01

    Provided is a selective literature survey of X-ray spectrometry from late 1981 to late 1983. Literature examined focuses on: excitation (photon and electron excitation and particle-induced X-ray emission; detection (wavelength-dispersive and energy-dispersive spectrometry); instrumentation and techniques; and on such quantitative analytical…

  2. X-ray

    MedlinePlus

    ... is very low. Most experts feel that the benefits of appropriate x-ray imaging greatly outweigh any risks. Young children and babies in the womb are more sensitive to the risks of x-rays. Tell your health care provider if you think you might be pregnant.

  3. X-ray generator

    DOEpatents

    Dawson, John M.

    1976-01-01

    Apparatus and method for producing coherent secondary x-rays that are controlled as to direction by illuminating a mixture of high z and low z gases with an intense burst of primary x-rays. The primary x-rays are produced with a laser activated plasma, and these x-rays strip off the electrons of the high z atoms in the lasing medium, while the low z atoms retain their electrons. The neutral atoms transfer electrons to highly excited states of the highly striped high z ions giving an inverted population which produces the desired coherent x-rays. In one embodiment, a laser, light beam provides a laser spark that produces the intense burst of coherent x-rays that illuminates the mixture of high z and low z gases, whereby the high z atoms are stripped while the low z ones are not, giving the desired mixture of highly ionized and neutral atoms. To this end, the laser spark is produced by injecting a laser light beam, or a plurality of beams, into a first gas in a cylindrical container having an adjacent second gas layer co-axial therewith, the laser producing a plasma and the intense primary x-rays in the first gas, and the second gas containing the high and low atomic number elements for receiving the primary x-rays, whereupon the secondary x-rays are produced therein by stripping desired ions in a neutral gas and transfer of electrons to highly excited states of the stripped ions from the unionized atoms. Means for magnetically confining and stabilizing the plasma are disclosed for controlling the direction of the x-rays.

  4. The Integrated X-Ray Spectrum of Galactic Populations of Luminous Supersoft X-Ray Sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DiStefano, R.; Becker, C. M.; Fabbiano, G.

    1996-01-01

    We compute the composite X-ray spectrum of a population of unresolved SSS's in a spiral galaxy such as our own or M31. The sources are meant to represent the total underlying population corresponding to all sources which have bolometric luminosities in the range of 10(exp 37) - 10(exp 38) ergs/s and kT on the order of tens of eV. These include close-binary supersoft sources, symbiotic novae, and planetary nebulae, for example. In order to determine whether the associated X-ray signal would be detectable, we also 'seed' the galaxy with other types of X-ray sources, specifically low-mass X-ray binaries (LMXB's) and high-mass X-ray binaries (HMXB's). We find that the total spectrum due to SSS's, LMXB's, and HMXB's exhibits a soft peak which owes its presence to the SSS population. Preliminary indications are that this soft peak may be observable.

  5. X-ray crystallography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    X-rays diffracted from a well-ordered protein crystal create sharp patterns of scattered light on film. A computer can use these patterns to generate a model of a protein molecule. To analyze the selected crystal, an X-ray crystallographer shines X-rays through the crystal. Unlike a single dental X-ray, which produces a shadow image of a tooth, these X-rays have to be taken many times from different angles to produce a pattern from the scattered light, a map of the intensity of the X-rays after they diffract through the crystal. The X-rays bounce off the electron clouds that form the outer structure of each atom. A flawed crystal will yield a blurry pattern; a well-ordered protein crystal yields a series of sharp diffraction patterns. From these patterns, researchers build an electron density map. With powerful computers and a lot of calculations, scientists can use the electron density patterns to determine the structure of the protein and make a computer-generated model of the structure. The models let researchers improve their understanding of how the protein functions. They also allow scientists to look for receptor sites and active areas that control a protein's function and role in the progress of diseases. From there, pharmaceutical researchers can design molecules that fit the active site, much like a key and lock, so that the protein is locked without affecting the rest of the body. This is called structure-based drug design.

  6. Laboratory x ray lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matthews, D. L.

    1989-08-01

    One of the most innovative spinoffs of ICF technology and physics was the development of the x ray wavelength laser. The first incontrovertible demonstration of this type of laser came from LLNL in 1984 using the Novette laser to pump a selenium foil target. The power and energy of Novette were then needed to produce a column of plasma of sufficient length to achieve a sufficient gainlength product (approximately 5.5, this corresponds to an amplification of approximately 250X) that could unquestionably illustrate the lasing effect. LLNL ICF expertise was also required to develop time-resolved spectrometers used to view the lasing transitions at approximately 20 nm, a region of the XUV spectrum normally dominated by high backgrounds. The design of the x ray laser amplifier, which required maintaining nonequilibrium level populations in a tailored plasma having the proper conditions for gain and x ray laser beam propagation, was accomplished with modified versions of ICF kinetics and hydrodynamics codes. Since the first demonstration, progress in the development of the x ray laser was rapid. New achievements include production of megawatt power levels at 20 nm, amplified spontaneous emission levels approaching saturation intensity GL of approximately 17 at 20 nm, efficiency (x ray laser energy/pump energy) approximately 10(exp 6), the demonstration of double and triple pass amplification (hinting at the possibility of producing x ray wavelength resonators), the focusing of x ray lasers to pump other types of lasers and the first demonstration of an x ray hologram produced by an x ray laser. The generation of amplification at ever shorter wavelength is possible using various types of inversion schemes. We depict below this progress benchmarked against production of gain in the water window (2.2 to 4.4 nm,), where applications to biological imaging may be facilitated.

  7. Lumbosacral spine x-ray

    MedlinePlus

    X-ray - lumbosacral spine; X-ray - lower spine ... The test is done in a hospital x-ray department or your health care provider's office by an x-ray technician. You will be asked to lie on the x-ray table ...

  8. X-ray laser

    DOEpatents

    Nilsen, Joseph

    1991-01-01

    An X-ray laser (10) that lases between the K edges of carbon and oxygen, i.e. between 44 and 23 Angstroms, is provided. The laser comprises a silicon (12) and dysprosium (14) foil combination (16) that is driven by two beams (18, 20) of intense line focused (22, 24) optical laser radiation. Ground state nickel-like dysprosium ions (34) are resonantly photo-pumped to their upper X-ray laser state by line emission from hydrogen-like silicon ions (32). The novel X-ray laser should prove especially useful for the microscopy of biological specimens.

  9. Developments in glass micro pore optics for x-ray applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wallace, Kotska; Collon, Maximilien; Bavdaz, Marcos; Fairbend, Ray; Séguy, Julien; Krumrey, Michael

    2006-06-01

    ESA is developing technologies for x-ray imaging to reduce the mass and volume of future missions. Applications of x-ray optics are foreseen in future planetary x-ray imagers, x-ray timing observatories and in observatories for high-energy astrophysics. With reference to planetary x-ray imagers the use of glass micro-pore material is being investigated. This technology allows the formation of a monolithic, glass structure that can be used to focus x-rays by glancing reflections off the pore walls. A technique to form x-ray focusing plates that contain thousands of square micro-pores has been developed with Photonis. The square pores are formed in a process that fuses blocks of extruded square fibres, which can then be sliced, etched and slumped to form the segment of an optic with a specific radius. A proposed imager would be created from 2 optics, slumped with different radii, and mounted to form an approximation of a Wolter I optic configuration. Reflection can be improved by coating the channel surfaces with a heavy element, such as nickel. Continuing developments have been made to enhance the manufacturing processes and improve the characteristics of the manufactured x-ray focusing plates, such as improved surface roughness and squareness of pore walls, improved pore alignment from fibre stacking through to optic segment slumping and development of pore wall coatings. In order to measure improvements x-ray measurements are performed by ESA and cosine Research BV, using the BESSY-II synchrotron facility four-crystal monochromator beamline of the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, on multifibres, sectors and slumped sectors. A probing beam is used to investigate a number of pores to determine x-ray transmission, focussing characteristics as they relate to the overall transmission, x-ray reflectivity of channel walls, radial alignment of fibres, slumping radius and fibre position in a fused block. SEM measurements and microscope inspection have also been used

  10. X-rays and magnetism.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Peter; Ohldag, Hendrik

    2015-09-01

    Magnetism is among the most active and attractive areas in modern solid state physics because of intriguing phenomena interesting to fundamental research and a manifold of technological applications. State-of-the-art synthesis of advanced magnetic materials, e.g. in hybrid structures paves the way to new functionalities. To characterize modern magnetic materials and the associated magnetic phenomena, polarized x-rays have emerged as unique probes due to their specific interaction with magnetic materials. A large variety of spectroscopic and microscopic techniques have been developed to quantify in an element, valence and site-sensitive way properties of ferro-, ferri-, and antiferromagnetic systems, such as spin and orbital moments, and to image nanoscale spin textures and their dynamics with sub-ns time and almost 10 nm spatial resolution. The enormous intensity of x-rays and their degree of coherence at next generation x-ray facilities will open the fsec time window to magnetic studies addressing fundamental time scales in magnetism with nanometer spatial resolution. This review will give an introduction into contemporary topics of nanoscale magnetic materials and provide an overview of analytical spectroscopy and microscopy tools based on x-ray dichroism effects. Selected examples of current research will demonstrate the potential and future directions of these techniques.

  11. Portable X-ray Fluorescence Unit for Analyzing Crime Scenes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Visco, A.

    2003-12-01

    Goddard Space Flight Center and the National Institute of Justice have teamed up to apply NASA technology to the field of forensic science. NASA hardware that is under development for future planetary robotic missions, such as Mars exploration, is being engineered into a rugged, portable, non-destructive X-ray fluorescence system for identifying gunshot residue, blood, and semen at crime scenes. This project establishes the shielding requirements that will ensure that the exposure of a user to ionizing radiation is below the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission's allowable limits, and also develops the benchtop model for testing the system in a controlled environment.

  12. Hard X-Ray Emission from X-Ray Bursters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halpern, Jules P.; Kaaret, Philip

    1999-01-01

    The scientific goal of this project is to study the hard x-ray emission from x-ray bursters. One target of opportunity observation was made for this investigation during 1997. We obtained 38ks of data on the source 4UI705-44. The project is closely related to "Monitoring x-ray emission from x-ray bursters", and "Long-Term Hard X-Ray Monitoring of X-Ray Bursters."

  13. Soft X-Ray Emissions from Planets and Moons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhardwaj, A.; Gladstone, G. R.; Elsner, R. F.; Waite, J. H., Jr.; Grodent, D.; Cravens, T. E.; Howell, R. R.; Metzger, A. E.; Ostgaard, N.; Maurellis, A.; Six, N. Frank (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    A wide variety of solar system planetary bodies are now known to radiate in the soft x-ray energy (<5 keV) regime. These include planets (Earth, Jupiter, Venus, Saturn): bodies having thick atmosphere and with/without intrinsic magnetic field; planetary satellites (Moon, Io, Europa, Ganymede): bodies with no/thin atmosphere; and comets and Io plasma torus: bodies having extended tenuous atmosphere. Several different mechanisms have been proposed to explain the generation of soft x-rays from these objects. whereas in the hard x-ray energy range (>10 keV) x-rays mainly result from electron bremsstrahlung process. In this paper we present a brief review of the x-ray observations on each of the planetary bodies and discuss their characteristics and proposed source mechanisms.

  14. Planetary protection issues and future Mars missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Devincenzi, D. L.; Klein, H. P.; Bagby, J. R.

    1991-01-01

    A primary scientific theme for the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) is the search for life, extant or extinct, on Mars. Because of this, concerns have arisen about Planetary Protection (PP), the prevention of biological cross-contamination between Earth and other planets during solar system exploration missions. A recent workshop assessed the necessity for, and impact of, PP requirements on the unmanned and human missions to Mars comprising the SEI. The following ground-rules were adopted: (1) Information needed for assessing PP issues must be obtained during the unmanned precursor mission phase prior to human landings. (2) Returned Mars samples will be considered biologically hazardous until proven otherwise. (3) Deposition of microbes on Mars and exposure of the crew to martian materials are inevitable when humans land. And (4) Human landings are unlikely until it is demonstrated that there is no harmful effect of martian materials on terrestrial life forms. These ground-rules dictated the development of a conservative PP strategy for precursor missions. Key features of the proposed strategy include: to prevent forward-contamination, all orbiters will follow Mars Observer PP procedures for assembly, trajectory, and lifetime. All landers will follow Viking PP procedures for assembly, microbial load reduction, and bio-shield. And, to prevent back-contamination, all sample return missions will have PP requirements which include fail-safe sample sealing, breaking contact chain with the martian surface, and containment and quarantine analysis in Earth-based laboratory. In addition to deliberating on scientific and technical issues, the workshop made several recommendations for dealing with forward and back-contamination concerns from non-scicntific perspectives.

  15. X-ray (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... a form of electromagnetic radiation, just like visible light. Structures that are dense (such as bone) will block most of the x-ray particles, and will appear white. Metal and contrast media (special dye used to highlight ...

  16. Pelvis x-ray

    MedlinePlus

    X-ray - pelvis ... Tumors Degenerative conditions of bones in the hips, pelvis, and upper legs ... hip joint Tumors of the bones of the pelvis Sacroiliitis (inflammation of the area where the sacrum ...

  17. Medical X-Rays

    MedlinePlus

    ... Diagnostic X-Ray Equipment Compliance Program Guidance Manual CP 7386.003 Field Compliance Testing of Diagnostic (Medical) ... and Exporting Electronic Products Compliance Program Guidance Manual CP 7386.003 Field Compliance Testing of Diagnostic (Medical) ...

  18. X-Ray Diffraction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, D. K.; Smith, K. L.

    1980-01-01

    Reviews applications in research and analytical characterization of compounds and materials in the field of X-ray diffraction, emphasizing new developments in applications and instrumentation in both single crystal and powder diffraction. Cites 414 references. (CS)

  19. X-ray - skeleton

    MedlinePlus

    ... is used to look for: Fractures or broken bone Cancer that has spread to other areas of the ... 2014:chap 8. Read More Bone tumor Broken bone Cancer Metastasis Osteomyelitis X-ray Update Date 5/9/ ...

  20. Miniature lightweight x-ray optics (MiXO) for solar system exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, J.; Romaine, S.

    2014-07-01

    Over the last few decades, grazing incidence X-ray optics have been a pivotal tool for advances in X-ray astronomy. They have been successfully employed in many great observatories such as ROSAT, Chandra X-ray Observatory and XMM-Newton. In planetary science, X-ray observations of Solar system objects are a great tool to understand the nature of the target bodies and the evolutionary history of the Solar system as a whole. To date, X-ray observations in near-target planetary missions have been limited to collimator-based instruments due to tight mass and volume constraints, arising from the multi-instrument nature of planetary missions. In addition, unlike observations of astrophysical sources at virtually infinite distances, near-target observations of planetary bodies introduce a unique set of challenges. While true focusing X-ray optics can overcome these challenges, a practical implementation of focusing X-ray optics for planetary missions depends on the feasibility of compact lightweight X-ray optics. We review scientific motivations for X-ray observations of planetary bodies and illustrate the unique challenges encountered in planetary missions through a few examples. We introduce a new metal-ceramic hybrid technology for X-ray mirrors that can enable compact lightweight Wolter-I X-ray optics suitable for resource limited planetary missions.

  1. Cosmic x ray physics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccammon, Dan; Cox, D. P.; Kraushaar, W. L.; Sanders, W. T.

    1992-01-01

    This final report covers the period 1 January 1985 - 31 March 1992. It is divided into the following sections: the soft x-ray background; proportional counter and filter calibrations; sounding rocket flight preparations; new sounding rocket payload: x-ray calorimeter; and theoretical studies. Staff, publications, conference proceedings, invited talks, contributed talks, colloquia and seminars, public service lectures, and Ph. D. theses are listed.

  2. Next-Generation X-Ray Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, Nicholas E.

    2012-04-01

    This review of future timing capabilities in X-ray astronomy includes missions in implementation (astro-h, gems, srg and astrosat), those under study (currently nicer, athena and loft), and new technologies that may be the seeds for future missions, such as lobster-eye optics. Those missions and technologies will offer exciting new capabilities that will take X-ray Astronomy into a new generation of achievements.

  3. Planetary space weather: scientific aspects and future perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plainaki, Christina; Lilensten, Jean; Radioti, Aikaterini; Andriopoulou, Maria; Milillo, Anna; Nordheim, Tom A.; Dandouras, Iannis; Coustenis, Athena; Grassi, Davide; Mangano, Valeria; Massetti, Stefano; Orsini, Stefano; Lucchetti, Alice

    2016-08-01

    In this paper, we review the scientific aspects of planetary space weather at different regions of our Solar System, performing a comparative planetology analysis that includes a direct reference to the circum-terrestrial case. Through an interdisciplinary analysis of existing results based both on observational data and theoretical models, we review the nature of the interactions between the environment of a Solar System body other than the Earth and the impinging plasma/radiation, and we offer some considerations related to the planning of future space observations. We highlight the importance of such comparative studies for data interpretations in the context of future space missions (e.g. ESA JUICE; ESA/JAXA BEPI COLOMBO). Moreover, we discuss how the study of planetary space weather can provide feedback for better understanding the traditional circum-terrestrial space weather. Finally, a strategy for future global investigations related to this thematic is proposed.

  4. Calculating the X-Ray Fluorescence from the Planet Mercury Due to High-Energy Electrons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burbine, T. H.; Trombka, J. I.; Bergstrom, P. M., Jr.; Christon, S. P.

    2005-01-01

    The least-studied terrestrial planet is Mercury due to its proximity to the Sun, which makes telescopic observations and spacecraft encounters difficult. Our lack of knowledge about Mercury should change in the near future due to the recent launching of MESSENGER, a Mercury orbiter. Another mission (BepiColombo) is currently being planned. The x-ray spectrometer on MESSENGER (and planned for BepiColombo) can characterize the elemental composition of a planetary surface by measuring emitted fluorescent x-rays. If electrons are ejected from an atom s inner shell by interaction with energetic particles such as photons, electrons, or ions, electrons from an outer shell can transfer to the inner shell. Characteristic x-rays are then emitted with energies that are the difference between the binding energy of the ion in its excited state and that of the ion in its ground state. Because each element has a unique set of energy levels, each element emits x-rays at a unique set of energies. Electrons and ions usually do not have the needed flux at high energies to cause significant x-ray fluorescence on most planetary bodies. This is not the case for Mercury where high-energy particles were detected during the Mariner 10 flybys. Mercury has an intrinsic magnetic field that deflects the solar wind, resulting in a bow shock in the solar wind and a magnetospheric cavity. Electrons and ions accelerated in the magnetosphere tend to follow its magnetic field lines and can impact the surface on Mercury s dark side Modeling has been done to determine if x-ray fluorescence resulting from the impact of high-energy electrons accelerated in Mercury's magnetosphere can be detected by MESSENGER. Our goal is to understand how much bulk chemical information can be obtained from x-ray fluorescence measurements on the dark side of Mercury.

  5. Hard X-ray astrophysics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rothschild, R. E.

    1981-01-01

    Past hard X-ray and lower energy satellite instruments are reviewed and it is shown that observation above 20 keV and up to hundreds of keV can provide much valuable information on the astrophysics of cosmic sources. To calculate possible sensitivities of future arrays, the efficiencies of a one-atmosphere inch gas counter (the HEAO-1 A-2 xenon filled HED3) and a 3 mm phoswich scintillator (the HEAO-1 A-4 Na1 LED1) were compared. Above 15 keV, the scintillator was more efficient. In a similar comparison, the sensitivity of germanium detectors did not differ much from that of the scintillators, except at high energies where the sensitivity would remain flat and not rise with loss of efficiency. Questions to be addressed concerning the physics of active galaxies and the diffuse radiation background, black holes, radio pulsars, X-ray pulsars, and galactic clusters are examined.

  6. Detection of x ray sources in PROS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deponte, J.; Primini, F. A.

    1992-01-01

    The problem of detecting discrete sources in x-ray images has much in common with the problem of automatic source detection at other wavelengths. In all cases, one searches for positive brightness enhancements exceeding a certain threshold, which appear consistent with what one expects for a point source, in the presence of a (possibly) spatially variable background. Multidimensional point spread functions (e.g., dependent on detector position and photon energy) are also common. At the same time, the problem in x-ray astronomy has some unique aspects. For example, for typical x-ray exposures in current or recent observatories, the number of available pixels far exceeds the number of actual x-ray events, so Poisson, rather than Gaussian statistics apply. Further, extended cosmic x-ray sources are common, and one often desires to detect point sources in the vicinity or even within bright, diffuse x-ray emission. Finally, support structures in x-ray detectors often cast sharp shadows in x-ray images making it necessary to detect sources in a region of rapidly varying exposure. We have developed a source detection package within the IRAF/PROS environment which attempts to deal with some of the problems of x-ray source detection. We have patterned our package after the successful Einstein Observatory x-ray source detection programs. However, we have attempted to improve the flexibility and accessibility of the functions and to provide a graphical front-end for the user. Our philosophy has been to use standard IRAF tasks whenever possible for image manipulation and to separate general functions from mission-specific ones. We will report on the current status of the package and discuss future developments, including simulation tasks, to allow the user to assess detection efficiency and source significance, tasks to determine source intensity, and alternative detection algorithms.

  7. Novel active signal compression in low-noise analog readout at future X-ray FEL facilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manghisoni, M.; Comotti, D.; Gaioni, L.; Lodola, L.; Ratti, L.; Re, V.; Traversi, G.; Vacchi, C.

    2015-04-01

    This work presents the design of a low-noise front-end implementing a novel active signal compression technique. This feature can be exploited in the design of analog readout channels for application to the next generation free electron laser (FEL) experiments. The readout architecture includes the low-noise charge sensitive amplifier (CSA) with dynamic signal compression, a time variant shaper used to process the signal at the preamplifier output and a 10-bit successive approximation register (SAR) analog-to-digital converter (ADC). The channel will be operated in such a way to cope with the high frame rate (exceeding 1 MHz) foreseen for future XFEL machines. The choice of a 65 nm CMOS technology has been made in order to include all the building blocks in the target pixel pitch of 100 μm. This work has been carried out in the frame of the PixFEL Project funded by the Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Italy.

  8. X-ray microscopy using synchrotron radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, K.W.; Gordon, B.M.; Hanson, A.L.; Pounds, J.G.; Rivers, M.L.; Schidlovsky, G.; Smith, J.V.; Spanne, P.; Sutton, S.R.

    1989-01-01

    The system for x-ray microscopy now being developed at the X-26 beam line of the Brookhaven National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS) is described here. Examples of the use of x-ray microscopy for trace element geochemistry, biology and medicine, and materials investigations are given to emphasize the scientific applications of the technique. Future directions for the improvement and further development of the X-26 microscope and of the x-ray microscopy field in general are discussed. 11 refs., 7 figs.

  9. X-ray beam finder

    DOEpatents

    Gilbert, H.W.

    1983-06-16

    An X-ray beam finder for locating a focal spot of an X-ray tube includes a mass of X-ray opaque material having first and second axially-aligned, parallel-opposed faces connected by a plurality of substantially identical parallel holes perpendicular to the faces and a film holder for holding X-ray sensitive film tightly against one face while the other face is placed in contact with the window of an X-ray head.

  10. The high energy X-ray universe

    PubMed Central

    Giacconi, Riccardo

    2010-01-01

    Since its beginning in the early 1960s, the field of X-ray astronomy has exploded, experiencing a ten-billion-fold increase in sensitivity, which brought it on par with the most advanced facilities at all wavelengths. I will briefly describe the revolutionary first discoveries prior to the launch of the Chandra and XMM-Newton X-ray observatories, present some of the current achievements, and offer some thoughts about the future of this field. PMID:20404148

  11. Toward active x-ray telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Dell, Stephen L.; Atkins, Carolyn; Button, Timothy W.; Cotroneo, Vincenzo; Davis, William N.; Doel, Peter; Feldman, Charlotte H.; Freeman, Mark D.; Gubarev, Mikhail V.; Kolodziejczak, Jeffery J.; Michette, Alan G.; Ramsey, Brian D.; Reid, Paul B.; Rodriguez Sanmartin, Daniel; Saha, Timo T.; Schwartz, Daniel A.; Trolier-McKinstry, Susan; Wilke, Rudeger H. T.; Willingale, Richard; Zhang, William W.

    2011-09-01

    Future x-ray observatories will require high-resolution (< 1") optics with very-large-aperture (> 25 m2) areas. Even with the next generation of heavy-lift launch vehicles, launch-mass constraints and aperture-area requirements will limit the areal density of the grazing-incidence mirrors to about 1 kg/m2 or less. Achieving sub-arcsecond x-ray imaging with such lightweight mirrors will require excellent mirror surfaces, precise and stable alignment, and exceptional stiffness or deformation compensation. Attaining and maintaining alignment and figure control will likely involve active (in-space adjustable) x-ray optics. In contrast with infrared and visible astronomy, active optics for x-ray astronomy is in its infancy. In the middle of the past decade, two efforts began to advance technologies for adaptive x-ray telescopes: The Smart X-ray Optics (SXO) Basic Technology project in the United Kingdom (UK) and the Generation-X (Gen-X) concept studies in the United States (US). This paper discusses relevant technological issues and summarizes progress toward active x-ray telescopes.

  12. Toward Active X-ray Telescopes II

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    O'Dell, Stephen L.; Aldroft, Thomas L.; Atkins, Carolyn; Button, Timothy W.; Cotroneo, Vincenzo; Davis, William N.; Doel, Peter; Feldman, Charlotte H.; Freeman, Mark D.; Gubarev, Mikhail V.; Johnson-Wilke, Raegan L.; Kolodziejczak, Jeffery J.; Lillie, Charles F.; Michette, Alan G.; Ramsey, Brian D.; Reid, Paul B.; Sanmartin, Daniel Rodriguez; Saha, Timo T.; Schwartz, Daniel A.; Trolier-McKinstry, Susan E.; Ulmer, Melville P.; Wilke, Rudeger H. T.; Willingale, Richard; Zhang, William W.

    2012-01-01

    In the half century since the initial discovery of an astronomical (non-solar) x-ray source, the sensitivity for detection of cosmic x-ray sources has improved by ten orders of magnitude. Largely responsible for this dramatic progress has been the refinement of the (grazing-incidence) focusing x-ray telescope. The future of x-ray astronomy relies upon the development of x-ray telescopes with larger aperture areas (greater than 1 m2) and finer angular resolution (less than 1.). Combined with the special requirements of grazing-incidence optics, the mass and envelope constraints of space-borne telescopes render such advances technologically challenging.requiring precision fabrication, alignment, and assembly of large areas (greater than 100 m2) of lightweight (approximately 1 kg m2 areal density) mirrors. Achieving precise and stable alignment and figure control may entail active (in-space adjustable) x-ray optics. This paper discusses relevant programmatic and technological issues and summarizes progress toward active x-ray telescopes.

  13. Toward Adaptive X-Ray Telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    O'Dell, Stephen L.; Atkins, Carolyn; Button, Tim W.; Cotroneo, Vincenzo; Davis, William N.; Doel, Peer; Feldman, Charlotte H.; Freeman, Mark D.; Gubarev, Mikhail V.; Kolodziejczak, Jeffrey J.; Michette, Alan G.; Ramsey, Brian D.; Reid, Paul B.; Rodriguez Sanmartin, Daniel; Saha, Timo T.; Schwartz, Daniel A.; Trolier-McKinstry, Susan; Wilke, Rudeger H. T.; Willingale, Richard; Zhang, William W.

    2011-01-01

    Future x-ray observatories will require high-resolution (less than 1 inch) optics with very-large-aperture (greater than 25 square meter) areas. Even with the next generation of heavy-lift launch vehicles, launch-mass constraints and aperture-area requirements will limit the surface areal density of the grazing-incidence mirrors to about 1 kilogram per square meter or less. Achieving sub-arcsecond x-ray imaging with such lightweight mirrors will require excellent mirror surfaces, precise and stable alignment, and exceptional stiffness or deformation compensation. Attaining and maintaining alignment and figure control will likely involve adaptive (in-space adjustable) x-ray optics. In contrast with infrared and visible astronomy, adaptive optics for x-ray astronomy is in its infancy. In the middle of the past decade, two efforts began to advance technologies for adaptive x-ray telescopes: The Generation-X (Gen-X) concept studies in the United States, and the Smart X-ray Optics (SXO) Basic Technology project in the United Kingdom. This paper discusses relevant technological issues and summarizes progress toward adaptive x-ray telescopes.

  14. Multi-scale 3D X-ray Imaging Capabilities at the Advanced Photon Source - Current status and future direction (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeCarlo, F.; Xiao, X.; Khan, F.; Glowacki, A.; Schwarz, N.; Jacobsen, C.

    2013-12-01

    In x-ray computed μ-tomography (μ-XCT), a thin scintillator screen is coupled to a visible light lens and camera system to obtain micrometer-scale transmission imaging of specimens as large as a few millimeters. Recent advances in detector technology allow collecting these images at unprecedented frame rates. For a high x-ray flux density synchrotron facility like the Advanced Photon Source (APS), the detector exposure time ranges from hundreds of milliseconds to hundreds of picoseconds, making possible to acquire a full 3D micrometer-resolution dataset in less than one second. The micron resolution limitation of parallel x-ray beam projection systems can be overcame by Transmission X-ray Microscopes (TXM) where part of the image magnification is done in x-ray regime using x-ray optics like capillary condensers and Fresnel zone plates. These systems, when installed on a synchrotron x-ray source, can generate 2D images with up to 20 nm resolution with second exposure time and collect a full 3D nano-resolution dataset in few minutes. μ-XCT and TXM systems available at the x-ray imaging beamlines of the APS are routinely used in material science and geoscience applications where high-resolution and fast 3D imaging are instrumental in extracting in situ four-dimensional dynamic information. In this presentation we describe the computational challenges associated with μ-XCT and TXM systems and present the framework and infrastructure developed at the APS to allow for routine multi-scale data integration between the two systems.

  15. Multi-scale 3D X-ray Imaging Capabilities at the Advanced Photon Source - Current status and future direction (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeCarlo, F.; Xiao, X.; Khan, F.; Glowacki, A.; Schwarz, N.; Jacobsen, C.

    2011-12-01

    In x-ray computed μ-tomography (μ-XCT), a thin scintillator screen is coupled to a visible light lens and camera system to obtain micrometer-scale transmission imaging of specimens as large as a few millimeters. Recent advances in detector technology allow collecting these images at unprecedented frame rates. For a high x-ray flux density synchrotron facility like the Advanced Photon Source (APS), the detector exposure time ranges from hundreds of milliseconds to hundreds of picoseconds, making possible to acquire a full 3D micrometer-resolution dataset in less than one second. The micron resolution limitation of parallel x-ray beam projection systems can be overcame by Transmission X-ray Microscopes (TXM) where part of the image magnification is done in x-ray regime using x-ray optics like capillary condensers and Fresnel zone plates. These systems, when installed on a synchrotron x-ray source, can generate 2D images with up to 20 nm resolution with second exposure time and collect a full 3D nano-resolution dataset in few minutes. μ-XCT and TXM systems available at the x-ray imaging beamlines of the APS are routinely used in material science and geoscience applications where high-resolution and fast 3D imaging are instrumental in extracting in situ four-dimensional dynamic information. In this presentation we describe the computational challenges associated with μ-XCT and TXM systems and present the framework and infrastructure developed at the APS to allow for routine multi-scale data integration between the two systems.

  16. Planetary protection implementation on future Mars lander missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howell, Robert; Devincenzi, Donald L.

    1993-06-01

    A workshop was convened to discuss the subject of planetary protection implementation for Mars lander missions. It was sponsored and organized by the Exobiology Implementation Team of the U.S./Russian Joint Working Group on Space Biomedical and Life Support Systems. The objective of the workshop was to discuss planetary protection issues for the Russian Mars '94 mission, which is currently under development, as well as for additional future Mars lander missions including the planned Mars '96 and U.S. MESUR Pathfinder and Network missions. A series of invited presentations was made to ensure that workshop participants had access to information relevant to the planned discussions. The topics summarized in this report include exobiology science objectives for Mars exploration, current international policy on planetary protection, planetary protection requirements developed for earlier missions, mission plans and designs for future U.S. and Russian Mars landers, biological contamination of spacecraft components, and techniques for spacecraft bioload reduction. In addition, the recent recommendations of the U.S. Space Studies Board (SSB) on this subject were also summarized. Much of the discussion focused on the recommendations of the SSB. The SSB proposed relaxing the planetary protection requirements for those Mars lander missions that do not contain life detection experiments, but maintaining Viking-like requirements for those missions that do contain life detection experiments. The SSB recommendations were found to be acceptable as a guide for future missions, although many questions and concerns about interpretation were raised and are summarized. Significant among the concerns was the need for more quantitative guidelines to prevent misinterpretation by project offices and better access to and use of the Viking data base of bio-assays to specify microbial burden targets. Among the questions raised were how will the SSB recommendations be integrated with existing

  17. Planetary protection implementation on future Mars lander missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howell, Robert; Devincenzi, Donald L.

    1993-01-01

    A workshop was convened to discuss the subject of planetary protection implementation for Mars lander missions. It was sponsored and organized by the Exobiology Implementation Team of the U.S./Russian Joint Working Group on Space Biomedical and Life Support Systems. The objective of the workshop was to discuss planetary protection issues for the Russian Mars '94 mission, which is currently under development, as well as for additional future Mars lander missions including the planned Mars '96 and U.S. MESUR Pathfinder and Network missions. A series of invited presentations was made to ensure that workshop participants had access to information relevant to the planned discussions. The topics summarized in this report include exobiology science objectives for Mars exploration, current international policy on planetary protection, planetary protection requirements developed for earlier missions, mission plans and designs for future U.S. and Russian Mars landers, biological contamination of spacecraft components, and techniques for spacecraft bioload reduction. In addition, the recent recommendations of the U.S. Space Studies Board (SSB) on this subject were also summarized. Much of the discussion focused on the recommendations of the SSB. The SSB proposed relaxing the planetary protection requirements for those Mars lander missions that do not contain life detection experiments, but maintaining Viking-like requirements for those missions that do contain life detection experiments. The SSB recommendations were found to be acceptable as a guide for future missions, although many questions and concerns about interpretation were raised and are summarized. Significant among the concerns was the need for more quantitative guidelines to prevent misinterpretation by project offices and better access to and use of the Viking data base of bioassays to specify microbial burden targets. Among the questions raised were how will the SSB recommendations be integrated with existing

  18. Study of highly integrated payload architectures for future planetary missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kraft, Stefan; Moorhouse, Joseph; Mieremet, Arjan L.; Collon, Maximilien; Montella, Jarno; Beijersbergen, Marco; Harris, J.; van den Berg, Marcel L.; Atzei, Alessandro; Lyngvi, Aleksander; Renton, Daniel; Erd, Christian; Falkner, Peter

    2004-11-01

    Future planetary missions will require advanced, smart, low resource payloads and satellites to enable the exploration of our solar system in a more frequent, timely and multi-mission manner. A viable route towards low resource science instrumentation is the concept of Highly Integrated Payload Suites (HIPS), which was introduced during the re-assessment of the payload of the BepiColombo (BC) Mercury Planetary Orbiter (MPO). Considerable mass and power savings were demonstrated throughout the instrumentation by improved definition of the instrument design, a higher level of integration, and identification of resource drivers. The higher integration and associated synergy effects permitted optimisation of the payload performance at minimum investment while still meeting the demanding science requirements. For the specific example of the BepiColombo MPO, the mass reduction by designing the instruments towards a Highly Integrated Payload Suite was found to be about 60%. This has endorsed the acceptance of a number of additional instruments as core payload of the BC MPO thereby enhancing the scientific return. This promising strategic approach and concept is now applied to a set of planetary mission studies for future exploration of the solar system. Innovative technologies, miniaturised electronics and advanced remote sensing technologies are the baseline for a generic approach to payload integration, which is here investigated also in the context of largely differing mission requirements. A review of the approach and the implications to the generic concept as found from the applications to the mission studies are presented.

  19. 5.8 X-ray Calorimeters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Porter, F. Scott

    2008-01-01

    X-ray calorimeter instruments for astrophysics have seen rapid development since they were invented in 1984. The prime instrument on all currently planned X-ray spectroscopic observatories is based on calorimeter technology. This relatively simple detection concept that senses the energy of an incident photon by measuring the temperature rise of an absorber material at very low temperatures, can form the basis of a very high performance, non-dispersive spectrometer. State-of-the-art calorimeter instruments have resolving powers of over 3000, large simultaneous band-passes, and near unit efficiency. This coupled with the intrinsic imaging capability of a pixilated x-ray calorimeter array, allows true spectral-spatial instruments to be constructed. In this chapter I briefly review the detection scheme, the state-of-the-art in X-ray calorimeter instruments and the future outlook for this technology.

  20. Optics Developments for X-Ray Astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramsey, Brian

    2014-01-01

    X-ray optics has revolutionized x-ray astronomy. The degree of background suppression that these afford, have led to a tremendous increase in sensitivity. The current Chandra observatory has the same collecting area (approx. 10(exp 3)sq cm) as the non-imaging UHURU observatory, the first x-ray observatory which launched in 1970, but has 5 orders of magnitude more sensitivity due to its focusing optics. In addition, its 0.5 arcsec angular resolution has revealed a wealth of structure in many cosmic x-ray sources. The Chandra observatory achieved its resolution by using relatively thick pieces of Zerodur glass, which were meticulously figured and polished to form the four-shell nested array. The resulting optical assembly weighed around 1600 kg, and cost approximately $0.5B. The challenge for future x-ray astronomy missions is to greatly increase the collecting area (by one or more orders of magnitude) while maintaining high angular resolution, and all within realistic mass and budget constraints. A review of the current status of US optics for x-ray astronomy will be provided along with the challenges for future developments.

  1. Breadboard micro-pore optic development for x-ray imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wallace, Kotska; Collon, Maximilien J.; Beijersbergen, Marco W.; Oemrawsingh, Sumant; Bavdaz, Marcos; Schyns, Emile

    2007-09-01

    Technology associated with x-ray optics for missions such as ESA's XMM-Newton are not compatible with the demanding mass requirements for planetary explorers. Glass micro-pore optics are an enabling technology for future ESA missions to fly remote, planetary, x-ray imagers, by facilitating mass and volume reduction. Activities pursued by ESA have developed manufacturing techniques for micro-channel plates to produce high quality, square fibres, which are used to form glass plates containing square micro-channel pores, with diameters from 10 μm and fill factors around 60%. Matched pairs of plates can be deformed under heat and pressure to form spherical surfaces, such that each plate approximates the radius of one part of the tandem pair of a Wolter I configuration. In such a configuration the tangential walls of the concentric rings of pores are used as the grazing incidence, reflective surfaces that focus x-rays. The monolithic structure of the plates allows dense packing of the rings of x-ray mirrors and simplifies mounting, especially with respect to thermal and mechanical considerations. To improve x-ray reflectivity, processes to coat the channel surfaces with elements such as Ni and Ir have also been investigated. This paper discusses the design of a structure to support the optic segments and assembly of the optics into a structure. Pairs of plates must be aligned into tandems and fixed to form segments of the x-ray optic. Each tandem pair must be aligned into a structure which will support the plates through thermal and mechanical loading. A structure has been designed to allow assembly of the optic within tolerances justified by analysis. Replacement of individual tandems is possible. Thermal and mechanical analyses have been performed to assess the performance and survivability of the optic under loads. An assembly plan has been designed to allow maximisation of the effective area of the optic and ensure its best performance.

  2. Active x-ray optics for the next generation of x-ray telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atkins, Carolyn; Wang, Hongchang; Doel, Peter; Brooks, David; Thompson, Samantha; Feldman, Charlotte; Willingale, Richard; Button, Tim; Rodriguez Sanmartin, Daniel; Zhang, Dou; James, Ady; Theobald, Craig; Willis, Graham; Smith, Andrew D.

    2009-05-01

    The immediate future for X-ray astronomy is the need for high sensitivity, requiring large apertures and collecting areas, the newly combined NASA, ESA and JAXA mission IXO (International X-ray Observatory) is specifically designed to meet this need. However, looking beyond the next decade, there have been calls for an X-ray space telescope that can not only achieve this high sensitivity, but could also boast an angular resolution of 0.1 arc-seconds, a factor of five improvement on the Chandra X-ray Observatory. NASA's proposed Generation-X mission is designed to meet this demand; it has been suggested that the X-ray optics must be active in nature in order to achieve this desired resolution. The Smart X-ray Optics (SXO) project is a UK based consortium looking at the application of active/adaptive optics to both large and small scale devices, intended for astronomical and medical purposes respectively. With Generation-X in mind, an active elliptical prototype has been designed by the SXO consortium to perform point-to-point X-ray focussing, while simultaneously manipulating its optical surface to improve its initial resolution. Following the completion of the large scale SXO prototype, presented is an overview of the production and operation of the prototype, with emphasis on the X-ray environment and preliminary results.

  3. X-ray lithography masking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Henry I. (Inventor); Lim, Michael (Inventor); Carter, James (Inventor); Schattenburg, Mark (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    X-ray masking apparatus includes a frame having a supporting rim surrounding an x-ray transparent region, a thin membrane of hard inorganic x-ray transparent material attached at its periphery to the supporting rim covering the x-ray transparent region and a layer of x-ray opaque material on the thin membrane inside the x-ray transparent region arranged in a pattern to selectively transmit x-ray energy entering the x-ray transparent region through the membrane to a predetermined image plane separated from the layer by the thin membrane. A method of making the masking apparatus includes depositing back and front layers of hard inorganic x-ray transparent material on front and back surfaces of a substrate, depositing back and front layers of reinforcing material on the back and front layers, respectively, of the hard inorganic x-ray transparent material, removing the material including at least a portion of the substrate and the back layers of an inside region adjacent to the front layer of hard inorganic x-ray transparent material, removing a portion of the front layer of reinforcing material opposite the inside region to expose the surface of the front layer of hard inorganic x-ray transparent material separated from the inside region by the latter front layer, and depositing a layer of x-ray opaque material on the surface of the latter front layer adjacent to the inside region.

  4. X-ray Spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Porter, F. Scott

    2004-01-01

    The X-ray Spectrometer (XRS) instrument is a revolutionary non-dispersive spectrometer that will form the basis for the Astro-E2 observatory to be launched in 2005. We have recently installed a flight spare X R S microcalorimeter spectrometer at the EBIT-I facility at LLNL replacing the XRS from the earlier Astro-E mission and providing twice the resolution. The X R S microcalorimeter is an x-ray detector that senses the heat deposited by the incident photon. It achieves a high energy resolution by operating at 0.06K and by carefully controlling the heat capacity and thermal conductance. The XRS/EBIT instrument has 32 pixels in a square geometry and achieves an energy resolution of 6 eV at 6 keV, with a bandpass from 0.1 to 12 keV (or more at higher operating temperature). The instrument allows detailed studies of the x-ray line emission of laboratory plasmas. The XRS/EBIT also provides an extensive calibration "library" for the Astro-E2 observatory.

  5. X-Ray Astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, S. T.

    2000-01-01

    Dr. S. N. Zhang has lead a seven member group (Dr. Yuxin Feng, Mr. XuejunSun, Mr. Yongzhong Chen, Mr. Jun Lin, Mr. Yangsen Yao, and Ms. Xiaoling Zhang). This group has carried out the following activities: continued data analysis from space astrophysical missions CGRO, RXTE, ASCA and Chandra. Significant scientific results have been produced as results of their work. They discovered the three-layered accretion disk structure around black holes in X-ray binaries; their paper on this discovery is to appear in the prestigious Science magazine. They have also developed a new method for energy spectral analysis of black hole X-ray binaries; four papers on this topics were presented at the most recent Atlanta AAS meeting. They have also carried Monte-Carlo simulations of X-ray detectors, in support to the hardware development efforts at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). These computation-intensive simulations have been carried out entirely on the computers at UAH. They have also carried out extensive simulations for astrophysical applications, taking advantage of the Monte-Carlo simulation codes developed previously at MSFC and further improved at UAH for detector simulations. One refereed paper and one contribution to conference proceedings have been resulted from this effort.

  6. Monitoring X-Ray Emission from X-Ray Bursters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaaret, Philip

    1998-01-01

    The goal of this investigation was to use the All-Sky Monitor on the Rossi X-Ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) in combination with the Burst and Transient Source Experiment on the Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory to simultaneously measure the x-ray (2-12 keV) and hard x-ray (20-100 keV) emission from x-ray bursters. The investigation was successful. We made the first simultaneous measurement of hard and soft x-ray emission and found a strong anticorrelation of hard and soft x-ray emission from the X-Ray Burster 4U 0614+091. The monitoring performed under this investigation was also important in triggering target of opportunity observations of x-ray bursters made under the investigation hard x-ray emission of x-ray bursters approved for RXTE cycles 1 and 2. These observations lead to a number of papers on high-frequency quasi-periodic oscillations and on hard x-ray emission from the x-ray bursters 4U 0614+091 and 4U 1705-44.

  7. Soft X-ray imaging techniques for calculating the Earth's dayside boundaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Connor, Hyunju; Kuntz, Kip; Sibeck, David; Collier, Michael; Aryan, Homayon; Branduardi-Raymont, Graziella; Collado-Vega, Yaireska; Porter, Frederick; Purucker, Michael; Snowden, Steven; Raeder, Joachim; Thomas, Nicholas; Walsh, Brian

    2016-04-01

    Charged particles and neutral atoms exchange electrons in many space plasma venues. Soft X-rays are emitted when highly charged solar wind ions, such as C6+. O7+, and Fe13+, interact with Hydrogen and Helium atoms. Soft X-ray images can be a powerful technique to remotely probe the plasma and neutral density structures created when the solar wind interacts with planetary exospheres, such as those at the Earth, Moon, Mars, Venus, and comets. The recently selected ESA-China joint spacecraft mission, "Solar wind - Magnetosphere - Ionosphere Link Explorer (SMILE)" will have a soft X-ray imager on board and provide pictures of the Earth's dayside system after its launch in 2021. In preparation for this future mission, we simulate soft X-ray images of the Earth's dayside system, using the OpenGGCM global magnetosphere MHD model and the Hodges model of the Earth's exosphere. Then, we discuss techniques to determine the location of the Earth's dayside boundaries (bow shock and magnetopause) from the soft X-ray images.

  8. Aerodynamic Decelerators for Planetary Exploration: Past, Present, and Future

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cruz, Juna R.; Lingard, J. Stephen

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, aerodynamic decelerators are defined as textile devices intended to be deployed at Mach numbers below five. Such aerodynamic decelerators include parachutes and inflatable aerodynamic decelerators (often known as ballutes). Aerodynamic decelerators play a key role in the Entry, Descent, and Landing (EDL) of planetary exploration vehicles. Among the functions performed by aerodynamic decelerators for such vehicles are deceleration (often from supersonic to subsonic speeds), minimization of descent rate, providing specific descent rates (so that scientific measurements can be obtained), providing stability (drogue function - either to prevent aeroshell tumbling or to meet instrumentation requirements), effecting further aerodynamic decelerator system deployment (pilot function), providing differences in ballistic coefficients of components to enable separation events, and providing height and timeline to allow for completion of the EDL sequence. Challenging aspects in the development of aerodynamic decelerators for planetary exploration missions include: deployment in the unusual combination of high Mach numbers and low dynamic pressures, deployment in the wake behind a blunt-body entry vehicle, stringent mass and volume constraints, and the requirement for high drag and stability. Furthermore, these aerodynamic decelerators must be qualified for flight without access to the exotic operating environment where they are expected to operate. This paper is an introduction to the development and application of aerodynamic decelerators for robotic planetary exploration missions (including Earth sample return missions) from the earliest work in the 1960s to new ideas and technologies with possible application to future missions. An extensive list of references is provided for additional study.

  9. Fluctuation X-Ray Scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Saldin, PI: D. K.; Co-I's: J. C. H. Spence and P. Fromme

    2013-01-25

    The work supported by the grant was aimed at developing novel methods of finding the structures of biomolecules using x-rays from novel sources such as the x-ray free electron laser and modern synchrotrons

  10. Dual X-ray absorptiometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altman, Albert; Aaron, Ronald

    2012-07-01

    Dual X-ray absorptiometry is widely used in analyzing body composition and imaging. Both the method and its limitations are related to the Compton and photoelectric contributions to the X-ray attenuation coefficients of materials.

  11. A million X-ray detections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webb, N.; XMM-Newton Survey Science Centre (SSC)

    2016-06-01

    Part of the XMM-Newton Survey Science Centre responsibilities include producing an X-ray catalogue of all X-ray sources detected with XMM-Newton. The latest version, 3XMM, takes advantage of improvements made to the source characterisation, reducing the number of spurious detections, but providing better astrometric precision, greater net sensitivity, as well as spectra and timeseries for a quarter of all catalogue detections. The data release 5 (3XMM-DR5, April 2015) is derived from the first 13 years of observations with XMM-Newton. 3XMM-DR5 includes 565962 X-ray detections and 396910 unique sources, detected as many as 48 times. 3XMM-DR5 is therefore the largest X-ray source catalogue. 3XMM-DR6 will be made available during 2016 and will augment the catalogue with 70000 X-ray detections. Over the next decade the catalogue will reach 1 million X-ray detections, including galaxy clusters, galaxies, tidal disruption events, gamma-ray bursts, stars, stellar mass compact objects, supernovae, planets, comets and many other systems. Thanks to the wide range of data products for each catalogue detection, the catalogue is an excellent resource for finding populations of sources as well as new and extreme objects. Here we present results achieved from searching the catalogue and discuss improvements that will be provided in future versions.

  12. X-ray emission from normal stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosner, Robert

    1990-01-01

    The paper addresses the potential for future X-ray missions to determine the fundamental cause of stellar X-ray emissions based on available results and existing analyses. The determinants of stellar X-ray emission are listed, and the relation of stellar X-ray emissions to the 'universal' activity-rotation connection is discussed. The specific rotation-activity connection for evolved stars is mentioned, and the 'decay' of stellar activity at the low-mass end of the main sequence is related to observational data. The data from Einstein and EXOSAT missions that correspond to these issues are found to be sparse, and more observational work is found to be necessary. Also, it is concluded that some issues need to be addressed, such as the X-ray dividing line in evolved stars and the absence of X-ray emission from dA stars. The related observational requirements and instrumental capabilities are given for each significant research focus.

  13. Tunable X-ray source

    DOEpatents

    Boyce, James R.

    2011-02-08

    A method for the production of X-ray bunches tunable in both time and energy level by generating multiple photon, X-ray, beams through the use of Thomson scattering. The method of the present invention simultaneously produces two X-ray pulses that are tunable in energy and/or time.

  14. X-ray Crystallography Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Edward Snell, a National Research Council research fellow at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), prepares a protein crystal for analysis by x-ray crystallography as part of NASA's structural biology program. The small, individual crystals are bombarded with x-rays to produce diffraction patterns, a map of the intensity of the x-rays as they reflect through the crystal.

  15. X-ray satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    An overview of the second quarter 1985 development of the X-ray satellite project is presented. It is shown that the project is proceeding according to plan and that the projected launch date of September 9, 1987 is on schedule. An overview of the work completed and underway on the systems, subsystems, payload, assembly, ground equipment and interfaces is presented. Problem areas shown include cost increases in the area of focal instrumentation, the star sensor light scattering requirements, and postponements in the data transmission subsystems.

  16. SMM x ray polychromator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saba, J. L. R.

    1993-01-01

    The objective of the X-ray Polychromator (XRP) experiment was to study the physical properties of solar flare plasma and its relation to the parent active region to understand better the flare mechanism and related solar activity. Observations were made to determine the temperature, density, and dynamic structure of the pre-flare and flare plasma as a function of wavelength, space and time, the extent to which the flare plasma departs from thermal equilibrium, and the variation of this departure with time. The experiment also determines the temperature and density structure of active regions and flare-induced changes in the regions.

  17. Soft x-ray lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Matthews, D.L.; Rosen, M.D.

    1988-12-01

    One of the elusive dreams of laser physicists has been the development of an x-ray laser. After 25 years of waiting, the x-ray laser has at last entered the scientific scene, although those now in operation are still laboratory prototypes. They produce soft x rays down to about five nanometers. X-ray lasers retain the usual characteristics of their optical counterparts: a very tight beam, spatial and temporal coherence, and extreme brightness. Present x-ray lasers are nearly 100 times brighter that the next most powerful x-ray source in the world: the electron synchrotron. Although Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is widely known for its hard-x-ray laser program which has potential applications in the Strategic Defense Initiative, the soft x-ray lasers have no direct military applications. These lasers, and the scientific tools that result from their development, may one day have a place in the design and diagnosis of both laser fusion and hard x-ray lasers. The soft x-ray lasers now in operation at the LLNL have shown great promise but are still in the primitive state. Once x-ray lasers become reliable, efficient, and economical, they will have several important applications. Chief among them might be the creation of holograms of microscopic biological structures too small to be investigated with visible light. 5 figs.

  18. X-ray lithography source

    DOEpatents

    Piestrup, M.A.; Boyers, D.G.; Pincus, C.

    1991-12-31

    A high-intensity, inexpensive X-ray source for X-ray lithography for the production of integrated circuits is disclosed. Foil stacks are bombarded with a high-energy electron beam of 25 to 250 MeV to produce a flux of soft X-rays of 500 eV to 3 keV. Methods of increasing the total X-ray power and making the cross section of the X-ray beam uniform are described. Methods of obtaining the desired X-ray-beam field size, optimum frequency spectrum and eliminating the neutron flux are all described. A method of obtaining a plurality of station operation is also described which makes the process more efficient and economical. The satisfying of these issues makes transition radiation an excellent moderate-priced X-ray source for lithography. 26 figures.

  19. X-ray lithography source

    DOEpatents

    Piestrup, Melvin A.; Boyers, David G.; Pincus, Cary

    1991-01-01

    A high-intensity, inexpensive X-ray source for X-ray lithography for the production of integrated circuits. Foil stacks are bombarded with a high-energy electron beam of 25 to 250 MeV to produce a flux of soft X-rays of 500 eV to 3 keV. Methods of increasing the total X-ray power and making the cross section of the X-ray beam uniform are described. Methods of obtaining the desired X-ray-beam field size, optimum frequency spectrum and elminating the neutron flux are all described. A method of obtaining a plurality of station operation is also described which makes the process more efficient and economical. The satisfying of these issues makes transition radiation an exellent moderate-priced X-ray source for lithography.

  20. Monitoring X-Ray Emission from X-Ray Bursters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halpern, Jules P.; Kaaret, Philip

    1999-01-01

    The scientific goal of this project was to monitor a selected sample of x-ray bursters using data from the All-Sky Monitor (ASM) on the Rossi X-Ray Timing Explorer together with data from the Burst and Transient Source Experiment (BATSE) on the Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory to study the long-term temporal evolution of these sources in the x-ray and hard x-ray bands. The project was closely related to "Long-Term Hard X-Ray Monitoring of X-Ray Bursters", NASA project NAG5-3891, and and "Hard x-ray emission of x-ray bursters", NASA project NAG5-4633, and shares publications in common with both of these. The project involved preparation of software for use in monitoring and then the actual monitoring itself. These efforts have lead to results directly from the ASM data and also from Target of Opportunity Observations (TOO) made with the Rossi X-Ray Timing Explorer based on detection of transient hard x-ray outbursts with the ASM and BATSE.

  1. Past missions - the best way to train future planetary researchers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozlova, Natalia; Solodovnikova, Anastasiya; Zubarev, Anatoly; Garov, Andrey; Patraty, Vyacheslav; Kokhanov, Alexander; Karachevtseva, Irina; Nadezhdina, Irina; Konopikhin, Anatoly; Oberst, Juergen

    2015-04-01

    Practice shows that it is much more interesting and useful to learn from real examples than on imaginary tasks from exercise books. The more technologies and software improves and develops, the more information and new products can be obtained from new processing of archive information collected by past planetary missions. So at MIIGAiK we carry out modern processing of lunar panoramic images obtained by Soviet Lunokhod missions (1970-1973). During two years of the study, which is a part of PRoViDE project (http://www.provide-space.eu/), many students, PhD students, young scientists, as well as professors have taken part in this research. Processing of the data obtained so long ago requires development of specific methods, techniques, special software and extraordinary approach. All these points help to interest young people in planetary science and develop their skills as researchers. Another advantage of data from previous missions is that you can compare your results with the ones obtained during the mission. This also helps to test the developed techniques and software on real data and adjust them for implementation in future missions. The work on Lunokhod data processing became the basis of master and PhD theses of MIIGAiK students and scientists at MExLab. Acknowledgments: The research leading to these results has received funding from the European Community's Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007-2013) under grant agreement No 312377 PRoViDE.

  2. Hard X-Ray Emission of X-Ray Bursters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaaret, P.

    1999-01-01

    The primary goal of this proposal was to perform an accurate measurement of the broadband x-ray spectrum of a neutron-star low-mass x-ray binary found in a hard x-ray state. This goal was accomplished using data obtained under another proposal, which has provided exciting new information on the hard x-ray emission of neutron-star low-mass x-ray binaries. In "BeppoSAX Observations of the Atoll X-Ray Binary 4U0614+091", we present our analysis of the spectrum of 4U0614+091 over the energy band from 0.3-150 keV. Our data confirm the presence of a hard x-ray tail that can be modeled as thermal Comptonization of low-energy photons on electrons having a very high temperature, greater than 220 keV, or as a non-thermal powerlaw. Such a very hard x-ray spectrum has not been previously seen from neutron-star low-mass x-ray binaries. We also detected a spectral feature that can be interpreted as reprocessing, via Compton reflection, of the direct emission by an optically-thick disk and found a correlation between the photon index of the power-law tail and the fraction of radiation reflected which is similar to the correlation found for black hole candidate x-ray binaries and Seyfert galaxies. A secondary goal was to measure the timing properties of the x-ray emission from neutronstar low-mass x-ray binaries in their low/hard states.

  3. X-Ray Detector Research at MSFC for Space Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaskin, Jessica

    2006-01-01

    NASA's Vision for Space Exploration has specific goals aimed at exploring the Solar System. This vision, under presidential mandate includes landing humans on the moon before the end of the next decade, paving the way for eventual journeys to Mars and beyond. The first missions to the moon will be in the form of both Orbiters and Landers, with the goal of paving the way for human return. One of the instruments we are currently working on,in collaboration with Brookhaven National Laboratory, is a lunar orbiter fluorescent x-ray spectrometer to finely map the light elements (down to Carbon) on surface of the moon. Funded NASA s Planetary Instrument Definition and Development Program the instrument is based on silicon drift detector arrays read out by custom ASICs. These offer the promise of high spectral resolution, necessary for resolving weak lines against a strong background continuum, and very low power requirements, necessary for large areas (greater than 500 square centimeters) required for future lunar missions. Further, the inherent radiation hardness of these detectors makes them ideal candidates for exploring the Jovian system, where the harsh radiation environment from Jupiter s radiation belts creates unfavorable detector conditions. Looking beyond our solar system, in the hard x-ray regime (20-80keV.), we are studying Cadmium-Zinc-Telluride pixilated detectors as feasible candidates for focal plane detectors of a hard x-ray telescope. This energy region bridges the gap between thermal and non-thermal x-ray emission from astronomical sources, will allow us to better understand supernovae nucleosynthesis (such as through the Ti-44 lines at 68keV and 78keV), Active Galactic Nuclei and other compact objects, more completely. The detectors that we are characterizing are 2mm in thickness and are pixilated with a 16x16 array of 300 micrometer pitch pixels (50micometer gap). These detectors are designed at Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, material is from e

  4. The past, present and future of Galactic planetary nebula surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parker, Quentin A.; Frew, David J.; Acker, Agnes; Miszalski, Brent

    2012-08-01

    Over the last decade Galactic planetary nebula discoveries have entered a golden age due to the emergence of high sensitivity, high resolution narrow-band surveys of the Galactic plane. These have been coupled with access to complimentary, deep, multi-wavelength surveys across near-IR, mid-IR and radio regimes in particular from both ground-based and space-based telescopes. These have provided powerful diagnostic and discovery capabilities. In this review these advances are put in the context of what has gone before, what we are uncovering now and through the window of opportunity that awaits in the future. The astrophysical potential of this brief but key phase of late stage stellar evolution is finally being realised.

  5. Ultraviolet Pulsations from X-Ray Pulsars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bless, Robert

    1991-07-01

    We propose to obtain high-speed photometry at ultraviolet wavelengths of all the pulsing X-ray heated stellar atmospheres of the companion stars to the neutron stars in the binaries and to create list of X-ray pulsars with optical pulsations that can be further observed for such purposes as determining the mass ratios of the binary system. Revision History: Prepared for future cycles submission-- BJW 4/24/92; Cycle 3 to cycle 2; PRISM to SINGLE-- BJW 8/27/92;

  6. X-ray Induced Pinhole Closure in Point Projection X-ray Radiography

    SciTech Connect

    Bullock, A B; Landen, O L; Blue, B E; Edwards, J; Bradley, D K

    2006-01-13

    In pinhole-assisted point-projection x-ray radiography (or ''backlighting''), pinholes are placed between the sample of interest and an x-ray source (or ''backlighter'') to effectively limit the source size and hence improve the spatial resolution of the system. Pinholes are generally placed close to such x-ray backlighters to increase the field-of-view, leading to possible vaporization and pinhole closure due to x-ray driven ablation, thereby potentially limiting the usefulness of this method. An experimental study and modeling of time-dependent closure and resolution is presented. The pinhole closure timescale is studied for various pinhole sizes, pinhole to backlighter separations and filtering conditions. In addition the time-dependent resolution is extracted from one-dimensional wire imaging prior to pinhole closure. Cylindrical hydrodynamic modeling of the pinhole closure shows reasonable agreement with data, giving us a predictive capability for pinhole closure in future experiments.

  7. Thin Shell, Segmented X-Ray Mirrors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petre, Robert

    2010-01-01

    Thin foil mirrors were introduced as a means of achieving high throughput in an X-ray astronomical imaging system in applications for which high angular resolution were not necessary. Since their introduction, their high filling factor, modest mass, relative ease of construction, and modest cost have led to their use in numerous X-ray observatories, including the Broad Band X-ray Telescope, ASCA, and Suzaku. The introduction of key innovations, including epoxy replicated surfaces, multilayer coatings, and glass mirror substrates, has led to performance improvements, and in their becoming widely used for X-ray astronomical imaging at energies above 10 keV. The use of glass substrates has also led to substantial improvement in angular resolution, and thus their incorporation into the NASA concept for the International X-ray Observatory with a planned 3 in diameter aperture. This paper traces the development of foil mirrors from their inception in the 1970's through their current and anticipated future applications.

  8. Solar X-ray physics

    SciTech Connect

    Bornmann, P.L. )

    1991-01-01

    Research on solar X-ray phenomena performed by American scientists during 1987-1990 is reviewed. Major topics discussed include solar images observed during quiescent times, the processes observed during solar flares, and the coronal, interplanetary, and terrestrial phenomena associated with solar X-ray flares. Particular attention is given to the hard X-ray emission observed at the start of the flare, the energy transfer to the soft X-ray emitting plasma, the late resolution of the flare as observed in soft X-ray, and the rate of occurrence of solar flares as a function of time and latitude. Pertinent aspects of nonflaring, coronal X-ray emission and stellar flares are also discussed. 175 refs.

  9. Miniature x-ray source

    DOEpatents

    Trebes, James E.; Stone, Gary F.; Bell, Perry M.; Robinson, Ronald B.; Chornenky, Victor I.

    2002-01-01

    A miniature x-ray source capable of producing broad spectrum x-ray emission over a wide range of x-ray energies. The miniature x-ray source comprises a compact vacuum tube assembly containing a cathode, an anode, a high voltage feedthru for delivering high voltage to the anode, a getter for maintaining high vacuum, a connection for an initial vacuum pump down and crimp-off, and a high voltage connection for attaching a compact high voltage cable to the high voltage feedthru. At least a portion of the vacuum tube wall is highly x-ray transparent and made, for example, from boron nitride. The compact size and potential for remote operation allows the x-ray source, for example, to be placed adjacent to a material sample undergoing analysis or in proximity to the region to be treated for medical applications.

  10. Why bother with x-ray lithography?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Henry I.; Schattenburg, Mark L.

    1992-07-01

    The manufacture of state-of-the-art integrated circuits uses UV optical projection lithography. Conventional wisdom (i.e., the trade journals) holds that this technology will take the industry to quarter-micrometer minimum features sizes and below. So, why bother with X-ray lithography? The reason is that lithography is a 'system problem', and proximity X-ray lithography is better matched to that system problem than any other technology, once the initial investment is surmounted. X-ray lithography offers the most cost-effective path to the future of ultra-large-scale integrated circuits with feature sizes of tenth micrometer and below (i.e., gigascale electronics and quantum-effect electronics).

  11. Back to the future: the role of the ISS and future space stations in planetary exploration.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muller, Christian; Moreau, Didier

    2010-05-01

    Space stations as stepping stones to planets appear already in the1954 Disney-von Braun anticipation TV show but the first study with a specific planetary scientific objective was the ANTEUS project of 1978. This station was an evolution of SPACELAB hardware and was designed to analyse Mars samples with better equipment than the laboratory of the VIKING landers. It would have played the role of the reception facility present in the current studies of Mars sample return, after analysis, the "safe" samples would have been returned to earth by the space shuttle. This study was followed by the flights of SPACELAB and MIR. Finally after 35 years of development, the International Space Station reaches its final configuration in 2010. Recent developments of the international agreement between the space agencies indicate a life extending to 2025, it is already part of the exploration programme as its crews prepare the long cruise flights and missions to the exploration targets. It is now time to envisage also the use of this stable 350 tons spacecraft for planetary and space sciences. Planetary telescopes are an obvious application; the present SOLAR payload on COLUMBUS is an opportunity to use the target pointing capabilities from the ISS. The current exposure facilities are also preparing future planetary protection procedures. Other applications have already been previously considered as experimental collision and impact studies in both space vacuum and microgravity. Future space stations at the Lagrange points could simultaneously combine unique observation platforms with an actual intermediate stepping stone to Mars.

  12. Topological X-Rays Revisited

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynch, Mark

    2012-01-01

    We continue our study of topological X-rays begun in Lynch ["Topological X-rays and MRI's," iJMEST 33(3) (2002), pp. 389-392]. We modify our definition of a topological magnetic resonance imaging and give an affirmative answer to the question posed there: Can we identify a closed set in a box by defining X-rays to probe the interior and without…

  13. X-RAY POLARIZATION FROM HIGH-MASS X-RAY BINARIES

    SciTech Connect

    Kallman, T.; Blondin, J.

    2015-12-10

    X-ray astronomy allows study of objects that may be associated with compact objects, i.e., neutron stars or black holes, and also may contain strong magnetic fields. Such objects are categorically nonspherical, and likely noncircular when projected on the sky. Polarization allows study of such geometric effects, and X-ray polarimetry is likely to become feasible for a significant number of sources in the future. Potential targets for future X-ray polarization observations are the high-mass X-ray binaries (HMXBs), which consist of a compact object in orbit with an early-type star. In this paper we show that X-ray polarization from HMXBs has a distinct signature that depends on the source inclination and orbital phase. The presence of the X-ray source displaced from the star creates linear polarization even if the primary wind is spherically symmetric whenever the system is viewed away from conjunction. Direct X-rays dilute this polarization whenever the X-ray source is not eclipsed; at mid-eclipse the net polarization is expected to be small or zero if the wind is circularly symmetric around the line of centers. Resonance line scattering increases the scattering fraction, often by large factors, over the energy band spanned by resonance lines. Real winds are not expected to be spherically symmetric, or circularly symmetric around the line of centers, owing to the combined effects of the compact object gravity and ionization on the wind hydrodynamics. A sample calculation shows that this creates polarization fractions ranging up to tens of percent at mid-eclipse.

  14. X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Yano, Junko; Yachandra, Vittal K.

    2009-07-09

    This review gives a brief description of the theory and application of X-ray absorption spectroscopy, both X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) and extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS), especially, pertaining to photosynthesis. The advantages and limitations of the methods are discussed. Recent advances in extended EXAFS and polarized EXAFS using oriented membranes and single crystals are explained. Developments in theory in understanding the XANES spectra are described. The application of X-ray absorption spectroscopy to the study of the Mn4Ca cluster in Photosystem II is presented.

  15. Multilayers for next generation x-ray sources

    SciTech Connect

    Bajt, S; Chapman, H N; Spiller, E; Hau-Riege, S; Alameda, J; Nelson, A J; Walton, C C; Kjornrattanawanich, B; Aquila, A; Dollar, F; Gullikson, E; Tarrio, C

    2007-05-04

    Multilayers are artificially layered structures that can be used to create optics and optical elements for a broad range of x-ray wavelengths, or can be optimized for other applications. The development of next generation x-ray sources (synchrotrons and x-ray free electron lasers) requires advances in x-ray optics. Newly developed multilayer-based mirrors and optical elements enabled efficient band-pass filtering, focusing and time resolved measurements in recent FLASH (Free Electron LASer in Hamburg) experiments. These experiments are providing invaluable feedback on the response of the multilayer structures to high intensity, short pulsed x-ray sources. This information is crucial to design optics for future x-ray free electron lasers and to benchmark computer codes that simulate damage processes.

  16. Development of mercuric iodide uncooled x ray detectors and spectrometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iwanczyk, Jan S.

    1990-01-01

    The results obtained in the development of miniature, lowpower, light weight mercuric iodide, HgI2, x ray spectrometers for future space missions are summarized. It was demonstrated that HgI2 detectors can be employed in a high resolution x ray spectrometer, operating in a scanning electron microscope. Also, the development of HgI2 x ray detectors to augment alpha backscattering spectrometers is discussed. These combination instruments allow for the identification of all chemical elements, with the possible exception of hydrogen, and their respective concentrations. Additionally, further investigations of questions regarding radiation damage effects in the HgI2 x ray detectors are reported.

  17. Traverse Planning Experiments for Future Planetary Surface Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, S. J.; Voels, S. A.; Mueller, R. P.; Lee, P. C.

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the results of a recent (July-August 2010 and July 2011) planetary surface traverse planning experiment. The purpose of this experiment was to gather data relevant to robotically repositioning surface assets used for planetary surface exploration. This is a scenario currently being considered for future human exploration missions to the Moon and Mars. The specific scenario selected was a robotic traverse on the lunar surface from an outpost at Shackleton Crater to the Malapert Massif. As these are exploration scenarios, the route will not have been previously traversed and the only pre-traverse data sets available will be remote (orbital) observations. Devon Island was selected as an analog location where a traverse route of significant length could be planned and then traveled. During the first half of 2010, a team of engineers and scientists who had never been to Devon Island used remote sensing data comparable to that which is likely to be available for the Malapert region (eg., 2-meter/pixel imagery, 10-meter interval topographic maps and associated digital elevation models, etc.) to plan a 17-kilometer (km) traverse. Surface-level imagery data was then gathered on-site that was provided to the planning team. This team then assessed whether the route was actually traversable or not. Lessons learned during the 2010 experiment were then used in a second experiment in 2011 for which a much longer traverse (85 km) was planned and additional surface-level imagery different from that gathered in 2010 was obtained for a comparative analysis. This paper will describe the route planning techniques used, the data sets available to the route planners and the lessons learned from the two traverses planned and carried out on Devon Island.

  18. Supernova remnants: the X-ray perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vink, Jacco

    2012-12-01

    Supernova remnants are beautiful astronomical objects that are also of high scientific interest, because they provide insights into supernova explosion mechanisms, and because they are the likely sources of Galactic cosmic rays. X-ray observations are an important means to study these objects. And in particular the advances made in X-ray imaging spectroscopy over the last two decades has greatly increased our knowledge about supernova remnants. It has made it possible to map the products of fresh nucleosynthesis, and resulted in the identification of regions near shock fronts that emit X-ray synchrotron radiation. Since X-ray synchrotron radiation requires 10-100 TeV electrons, which lose their energies rapidly, the study of X-ray synchrotron radiation has revealed those regions where active and rapid particle acceleration is taking place. In this text all the relevant aspects of X-ray emission from supernova remnants are reviewed and put into the context of supernova explosion properties and the physics and evolution of supernova remnants. The first half of this review has a more tutorial style and discusses the basics of supernova remnant physics and X-ray spectroscopy of the hot plasmas they contain. This includes hydrodynamics, shock heating, thermal conduction, radiation processes, non-equilibrium ionization, He-like ion triplet lines, and cosmic ray acceleration. The second half offers a review of the advances made in field of X-ray spectroscopy of supernova remnants during the last 15 year. This period coincides with the availability of X-ray imaging spectrometers. In addition, I discuss the results of high resolution X-ray spectroscopy with the Chandra and XMM-Newton gratings. Although these instruments are not ideal for studying extended sources, they nevertheless provided interesting results for a limited number of remnants. These results provide a glimpse of what may be achieved with future microcalorimeters that will be available on board future X-ray

  19. X-ray microtomography of porous media at BNL

    SciTech Connect

    Dowd, B.

    1997-02-01

    This session is comprised of pertinent information about the historical aspects, current status of research, technical achievements, and future plans in X-ray computed microtomography at Brookhaven National Laboratories. An explanation with specifications and diagrams of X-ray instrumentation is provided. Several high resolution 3-D color images of reservoir rock drill cores and other materials are included.

  20. X-ray beam pointer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, C. W.

    1980-01-01

    Inexpensive, readily assembled pointer aims X-ray machine for welded assembly radiographs. Plumb bob used for vertical alinement and yardstick used to visualize X-ray paths were inconvenient and inaccurate. Pointer cuts alinement time by one-half and eliminates necessity of retakes. For 3,000 weld radiographs, pointer will save 300 worker-hours and significant materials costs.

  1. X-ray based extensometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jordan, E. H.; Pease, D. M.

    1988-01-01

    A totally new method of extensometry using an X-ray beam was proposed. The intent of the method is to provide a non-contacting technique that is immune to problems associated with density variations in gaseous environments that plague optical methods. X-rays are virtually unrefractable even by solids. The new method utilizes X-ray induced X-ray fluorescence or X-ray induced optical fluorescence of targets that have melting temperatures of over 3000 F. Many different variations of the basic approaches are possible. In the year completed, preliminary experiments were completed which strongly suggest that the method is feasible. The X-ray induced optical fluorescence method appears to be limited to temperatures below roughly 1600 F because of the overwhelming thermal optical radiation. The X-ray induced X-ray fluorescence scheme appears feasible up to very high temperatures. In this system there will be an unknown tradeoff between frequency response, cost, and accuracy. The exact tradeoff can only be estimated. It appears that for thermomechanical tests with cycle times on the order of minutes a very reasonable system may be feasible. The intended applications involve very high temperatures in both materials testing and monitoring component testing. Gas turbine engines, rocket engines, and hypersonic vehicles (NASP) all involve measurement needs that could partially be met by the proposed technology.

  2. X-Ray Tomographic Reconstruction

    SciTech Connect

    Bonnie Schmittberger

    2010-08-25

    Tomographic scans have revolutionized imaging techniques used in medical and biological research by resolving individual sample slices instead of several superimposed images that are obtained from regular x-ray scans. X-Ray fluorescence computed tomography, a more specific tomography technique, bombards the sample with synchrotron x-rays and detects the fluorescent photons emitted from the sample. However, since x-rays are attenuated as they pass through the sample, tomographic scans often produce images with erroneous low densities in areas where the x-rays have already passed through most of the sample. To correct for this and correctly reconstruct the data in order to obtain the most accurate images, a program employing iterative methods based on the inverse Radon transform was written. Applying this reconstruction method to a tomographic image recovered some of the lost densities, providing a more accurate image from which element concentrations and internal structure can be determined.

  3. Focusing X-Ray Telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    O'Dell, Stephen; Brissenden, Roger; Davis, William; Elsner, Ronald; Elvis, Martin; Freeman, Mark; Gaetz, Terrance; Gorenstein, Paul; Gubarev, Mikhall; Jerlus, Diab; Juda, Michael; Kolodziejczak, Jeffrey; Murray, Stephen; Petre, Robert; Podgorski, William; Ramsey, Brian; Reid, Paul; Saha, Timo; Wolk, Scott; Troller-McKinstry, Susan; Weisskopf, Martin; Wilke, Rudeger; Zhang, William

    2010-01-01

    During the half-century history of x-ray astronomy, focusing x-ray telescopes, through increased effective area and finer angular resolution, have improved sensitivity by 8 orders of magnitude. Here, we review previous and current x-ray-telescope missions. Next, we describe the planned next-generation x-ray-astronomy facility, the International X-ray Observatory (IXO). We conclude with an overview of a concept for the next next-generation facility, Generation X. Its scientific objectives will require very large areas (about 10,000 sq m) of highly-nested, lightweight grazing-incidence mirrors, with exceptional (about 0.1-arcsec) resolution. Achieving this angular resolution with lightweight mirrors will likely require on-orbit adjustment of alignment and figure.

  4. X-ray shearing interferometer

    DOEpatents

    Koch, Jeffrey A.

    2003-07-08

    An x-ray interferometer for analyzing high density plasmas and optically opaque materials includes a point-like x-ray source for providing a broadband x-ray source. The x-rays are directed through a target material and then are reflected by a high-quality ellipsoidally-bent imaging crystal to a diffraction grating disposed at 1.times. magnification. A spherically-bent imaging crystal is employed when the x-rays that are incident on the crystal surface are normal to that surface. The diffraction grating produces multiple beams which interfere with one another to produce an interference pattern which contains information about the target. A detector is disposed at the position of the image of the target produced by the interfering beams.

  5. A new planetary mapping for future space missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karachevtseva, Irina; Kokhanov, Alexander; Rodionova, Janna; Zubarev, Anatoliy; Nadezhdina, Irina; Kreslavsky, Mikhail; Oberst, Jürgen

    2015-04-01

    The wide studies of Solar system, including different planetary bodies, were announced by new Russian space program. Their geodesy and cartography support provides by MIIGAiK Extraterrestrial Laboratory (http://mexlab.miigaik.ru/eng) in frames of the new project "Studies of Fundamental Geodetic Parameters and Topography of Planets and Satellites". The objects of study are satellites of the outer planets (satellites of Jupiter - Europa, Calisto and Ganymede; Saturnine satellite Enceladus), some planets (Mercury and Mars) and the satellites of the terrestrial planets - Phobos (Mars) and the Moon (Earth). The new research project, which started in 2014, will address the following important scientific and practical tasks: - Creating new three-dimensional geodetic control point networks of satellites of the outer planets using innovative photogrammetry techniques; - Determination of fundamental geodetic parameters and study size, shape, and spin parameters and to create the basic framework for research of their surfaces; - Studies of relief of planetary bodies and comparative analysis of general surface characteristics of the Moon, Mars, and Mercury, as well as studies of morphometric parameters of volcanic formations on the Moon and Mars; - Modeling of meteoritic bombardment of celestial bodies and the study of the dynamics of particle emissions caused by a meteorite impacts; - Development of geodatabase for studies of planetary bodies, including creation of object catalogues, (craters and volcanic forms, etc.), and thematic mapping using GIS technology. The significance of the project is defined both by necessity of obtaining fundamental characteristics of the Solar System bodies, and practical tasks in preparation for future Russian and international space missions to the Jupiter system (Laplace-P and JUICE), the Moon (Luna-Glob and Luna-Resource), Mars (Exo-Mars), Mercury (Bepi-Colombo), and possible mission to Phobos (project Boomerang). For cartographic support of

  6. Hard X-Ray Emission of X-Ray Bursters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaaret, Phillip

    1997-01-01

    The main results from this investigation were serendipitous. The long observation approved for the study of the hard X-ray emission of X-ray bursters lead, instead, to one of the largest early samples of the behavior of fast quasi-periodic oscillations (QPOS) in an atoll sources. Our analysis of this data set lead to the several important discoveries including the existence of a robust correlation between QPO frequency and the flux of a soft blackbody component of the X-ray spectrum in the atoll source 4U 0614+091.

  7. Monolithic CMOS imaging x-ray spectrometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kenter, Almus; Kraft, Ralph; Gauron, Thomas; Murray, Stephen S.

    2014-07-01

    The Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory (SAO) in collaboration with SRI/Sarnoff is developing monolithic CMOS detectors optimized for x-ray astronomy. The goal of this multi-year program is to produce CMOS x-ray imaging spectrometers that are Fano noise limited over the 0.1-10keV energy band while incorporating the many benefits of CMOS technology. These benefits include: low power consumption, radiation "hardness", high levels of integration, and very high read rates. Small format test devices from a previous wafer fabrication run (2011-2012) have recently been back-thinned and tested for response below 1keV. These devices perform as expected in regards to dark current, read noise, spectral response and Quantum Efficiency (QE). We demonstrate that running these devices at rates ~> 1Mpix/second eliminates the need for cooling as shot noise from any dark current is greatly mitigated. The test devices were fabricated on 15μm, high resistivity custom (~30kΩ-cm) epitaxial silicon and have a 16 by 192 pixel format. They incorporate 16μm pitch, 6 Transistor Pinned Photo Diode (6TPPD) pixels which have ~40μV/electron sensitivity and a highly parallel analog CDS signal chain. Newer, improved, lower noise detectors have just been fabricated (October 2013). These new detectors are fabricated on 9μm epitaxial silicon and have a 1k by 1k format. They incorporate similar 16μm pitch, 6TPPD pixels but have ~ 50% higher sensitivity and much (3×) lower read noise. These new detectors have undergone preliminary testing for functionality in Front Illuminated (FI) form and are presently being prepared for back thinning and packaging. Monolithic CMOS devices such as these, would be ideal candidate detectors for the focal planes of Solar, planetary and other space-borne x-ray astronomy missions. The high through-put, low noise and excellent low energy response, provide high dynamic range and good time resolution; bright, time varying x-ray features could be temporally and

  8. X-Ray photonics: X-rays inspire electron movies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vrakking, Marc J. J.; Elsaesser, Thomas

    2012-10-01

    The advent of high-energy, short-pulse X-ray sources based on free-electron lasers, laser plasmas and high-harmonic generation is now making it possible to probe the dynamics of electrons within molecules.

  9. Soft X-ray and ENA imaging of the Earth's dayside magnetosphere : OpenGGCM modeling results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Connor, H. K.; Sibeck, D. G.; Collier, M. R.; Kuntz, K. D.; Raeder, J.

    2014-12-01

    Charged ions and neutral atoms exchange electrons in many space plasma venues. Soft X-rays are emitted when highly charged solar wind ions, such as C6+, O7+, and Fe13+, interact with Hydrogen and Helium atoms. Energetic Neutral Atoms (ENAs) are produced when solar wind protons encounter neutral atoms. Consequently ENA and soft x-ray images can be a powerful technique to probe remotely the plasma and neutral density structures created when the solar wind interacts with planetary exospheres, such as those at the Earth, Moon, Mars, Venus, and comets. Here, we use the OpenGGCM global magnetosphere-ionosphere MHD model and the Hodges model for the Earth's exosphere to simulate both soft X-ray and ENA images of Earth's dayside cusps and magnetosheath in preparation for future mission planning. We consider several solar wind and IMF scenarios, such as a sudden increase in the solar wind dynamic pressure and southward IMF turning. We then predict the time-dependent variations in X-Ray and ENA images that would be observed by spacecraft far outside the magnetosphere. As expected, strong signals appear near to and define the positions of the bow shock, magnetopause, and cusps. The soft X-ray imager observes changes in the dayside system nearly instantaneously, while the ENA imager measures the changes later due to the finite travel time of ENAs from the dayside systems to the spacecraft location.

  10. Be/X-ray binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reig, Pablo

    2011-03-01

    The interest in X/ γ-ray Astronomy has grown enormously in the last decades thanks to the ability to send X-ray space missions above the Earth’s atmosphere. There are more than half a million X-ray sources detected and over a hundred missions (past and currently operational) devoted to the study of cosmic X/ γ rays. With the improved sensibilities of the currently active missions new detections occur almost on a daily basis. Among these, neutron-star X-ray binaries form an important group because they are among the brightest extra-solar objects in the sky and are characterized by dramatic variability in brightness on timescales ranging from milliseconds to months and years. Their main source of power is the gravitational energy released by matter accreted from a companion star and falling onto the neutron star in a relatively close binary system. Neutron-star X-ray binaries divide into high-mass and low-mass systems according to whether the mass of the donor star is above ˜8 or below ˜2 M⊙, respectively. Massive X-ray binaries divide further into supergiant X-ray binaries and Be/X-ray binaries depending on the evolutionary status of the optical companion. Virtually all Be/X-ray binaries show X-ray pulsations. Therefore, these systems can be used as unique natural laboratories to investigate the properties of matter under extreme conditions of gravity and magnetic field. The purpose of this work is to review the observational properties of Be/X-ray binaries. The open questions in Be/X-ray binaries include those related to the Be star companion, that is, the so-called “Be phenomenon”, such as, timescales associated to the formation and dissipation of the equatorial disc, mass-ejection mechanisms, V/ R variability, and rotation rates; those related to the neutron star, such as, mass determination, accretion physics, and spin period evolution; but also, those that result from the interaction of the two constituents, such as, disc truncation and mass

  11. X-ray burst sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewin, W. H. G.

    1986-01-01

    There are about 100 bright X-ray sources in the Galaxy that are accretion-driven systems composed of a neutron star and a low mass companion that fills its critical Roche lobe. Many of these systems generate recurring X-ray bursts that are the result of thermonuclear flashes in the neutron star's surface layers, and are accompanied by a somewhat delayed optical burst due to X-ray heating of accretion disk. The Rapid Burster discovered in 1976 exhibits an interval between bursts that is strongly correlated with the energy in the preceding burst. There is no optical identification for this object.

  12. X-Ray Imaging System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1986-01-01

    The FluoroScan Imaging System is a high resolution, low radiation device for viewing stationary or moving objects. It resulted from NASA technology developed for x-ray astronomy and Goddard application to a low intensity x-ray imaging scope. FlouroScan Imaging Systems, Inc, (formerly HealthMate, Inc.), a NASA licensee, further refined the FluoroScan System. It is used for examining fractures, placement of catheters, and in veterinary medicine. Its major components include an x-ray generator, scintillator, visible light image intensifier and video display. It is small, light and maneuverable.

  13. X-ray microtomographic scanners

    SciTech Connect

    Syryamkin, V. I. Klestov, S. A.

    2015-11-17

    The article studies the operating procedures of an X-ray microtomographic scanner and the module of reconstruction and analysis 3D-image of a test sample in particular. An algorithm for 3D-image reconstruction based on image shadow projections and mathematical methods of the processing are described. Chapter 1 describes the basic principles of X-ray tomography and general procedures of the device developed. Chapters 2 and 3 are devoted to the problem of resources saving by the system during the X-ray tomography procedure, which is achieved by preprocessing of the initial shadow projections. Preprocessing includes background noise removing from the images, which reduces the amount of shadow projections in general and increases the efficiency of the group shadow projections compression. In conclusion, the main applications of X-ray tomography are presented.

  14. Imaging X-ray spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grant, P. A.; Jackson, J. W., Jr.; Alcorn, G. E.; Marshall, F. E. (Inventor)

    1984-01-01

    An X-ray spectrometer for providing imaging and energy resolution of an X-ray source is described. This spectrometer is comprised of a thick silicon wafer having an embedded matrix or grid of aluminum completely through the wafer fabricated, for example, by thermal migration. The aluminum matrix defines the walls of a rectangular array of silicon X-ray detector cells or pixels. A thermally diffused aluminum electrode is also formed centrally through each of the silicon cells with biasing means being connected to the aluminum cell walls and causes lateral charge carrier depletion between the cell walls so that incident X-ray energy causes a photoelectric reaction within the silicon producing collectible charge carriers in the form of electrons which are collected and used for imaging.

  15. X-ray fiducial foils

    SciTech Connect

    Alford, C.; Serduke, F.; Makowiecki, D.; Jankowski, A.; Wall, M.

    1991-03-13

    An x-ray spectrum from a laser fusion experiment was passed through an Al, Si, Y multilayer foil. The position of the absorption edges of the Al, Si, and Y was used to calibrate the x-ray energy spectrum recorded on photographic film. The foil consisted of 4000 {angstrom} of Al, 6000 {angstrom} of Si and 4000 {angstrom} of Y sputter deposited on a 1.5 {mu}m thick Mylar{reg sign} film. It was necessary to layer the structure in order to achieve the required mechanical strength and dimensional stability. The results include analysis of the x-ray energy spectrum and microstructural characterization of the foil using x-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy.

  16. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    MedlinePlus

    ... bone x-ray is used to: diagnose fractured bones or joint dislocation. demonstrate proper alignment and stabilization of bony fragments following treatment of a fracture. guide orthopedic surgery, ...

  17. X-Ray Imaging System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The Model 60007A InnerView Real-time X-ray Imaging System, produced by National Imaging Systems, a division of FlouroScan Imaging Systems, Inc. (formerly HealthMate, Inc.), Northbrook, IL, is a third generation spinoff from x-ray astronomy technology. Goddard Space Flight Center developed the original technology into the Lixiscope, a small, portable, minimal radiation x-ray instrument that could be used at the scene of an accident. FlouroScan Imaging Systems, Inc., adapted this technology to develop the FlouroScan, a low-intensity, x-ray system that could be used without the lead aprons, film badges and lead-lined walls that conventional systems require. The InnerView is a spinoff of non-destructive testing and product inspection.

  18. Miniature x-ray source

    DOEpatents

    Trebes, James E.; Bell, Perry M.; Robinson, Ronald B.

    2000-01-01

    A miniature x-ray source utilizing a hot filament cathode. The source has a millimeter scale size and is capable of producing broad spectrum x-ray emission over a wide range of x-ray energies. The miniature source consists of a compact vacuum tube assembly containing the hot filament cathode, an anode, a high voltage feedthru for delivering high voltage to the cathode, a getter for maintaining high vacuum, a connector for initial vacuum pump down and crimp-off, and a high voltage connection for attaching a compact high voltage cable to the high voltage feedthru. At least a portion of the vacuum tube wall is fabricated from highly x-ray transparent materials, such as sapphire, diamond, or boron nitride.

  19. Abdomen X-Ray (Radiography)

    MedlinePlus

    ... have very controlled x-ray beams and dose control methods to minimize stray (scatter) radiation. This ensures that those parts of a patient's body not being imaged receive minimal radiation exposure. top ...

  20. X-Ray Exam: Finger

    MedlinePlus

    ... KidsHealth in the Classroom What Other Parents Are Reading Upsetting News Reports? What to Say Vaccines: Which ... Results A radiologist, a doctor specially trained in reading and interpreting X-ray images, will look at ...

  1. X-Ray Exam: Hip

    MedlinePlus

    ... KidsHealth in the Classroom What Other Parents Are Reading Upsetting News Reports? What to Say Vaccines: Which ... For older kids, be sure to explain the importance of keeping still while the X-ray is ...

  2. X-Ray Exam: Foot

    MedlinePlus

    ... KidsHealth in the Classroom What Other Parents Are Reading Upsetting News Reports? What to Say Vaccines: Which ... For older kids, be sure to explain the importance of staying still while the X-ray is ...

  3. X-Ray Exam: Ankle

    MedlinePlus

    ... KidsHealth in the Classroom What Other Parents Are Reading Upsetting News Reports? What to Say Vaccines: Which ... For older kids, be sure to explain the importance of staying still while the X-ray is ...

  4. X-Ray Exam: Pelvis

    MedlinePlus

    ... KidsHealth in the Classroom What Other Parents Are Reading Upsetting News Reports? What to Say Vaccines: Which ... For older kids, be sure to explain the importance of keeping still while the X-ray is ...

  5. X-Ray Exam: Forearm

    MedlinePlus

    ... KidsHealth in the Classroom What Other Parents Are Reading Upsetting News Reports? What to Say Vaccines: Which ... For older kids, be sure to explain the importance of staying still while the X-ray is ...

  6. X-Ray Exam: Wrist

    MedlinePlus

    ... KidsHealth in the Classroom What Other Parents Are Reading Upsetting News Reports? What to Say Vaccines: Which ... For older kids, be sure to explain the importance of staying still while the X-ray is ...

  7. Electromechanical x-ray generator

    DOEpatents

    Watson, Scott A; Platts, David; Sorensen, Eric B

    2016-05-03

    An electro-mechanical x-ray generator configured to obtain high-energy operation with favorable energy-weight scaling. The electro-mechanical x-ray generator may include a pair of capacitor plates. The capacitor plates may be charged to a predefined voltage and may be separated to generate higher voltages on the order of hundreds of kV in the AK gap. The high voltage may be generated in a vacuum tube.

  8. X-Rays, Pregnancy and You

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Procedures Medical Imaging Medical X-ray Imaging X-Rays, Pregnancy and You Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it ... the decision with your doctor. What Kind of X-Rays Can Affect the Unborn Child? During most x- ...

  9. Why Do I Need X-Rays?

    MedlinePlus

    ... to your desktop! more... Why Do I Need X-Rays? Article Chapters Why Do I Need X-Rays? ... of tooth decay. Updated: January 2012 Related Articles: X-Rays The Academy of General Dentistry (AGD) Sets the ...

  10. Nanometer x-ray lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartley, Frank T.; Khan Malek, Chantal G.

    1999-10-01

    New developments for x-ray nanomachining include pattern transfer onto non-planar surfaces coated with electrodeposited resists using synchrotron radiation x-rays through extremely high-resolution mask made by chemically assisted focused ion beam lithography. Standard UV photolithographic processes cannot maintain sub-micron definitions over large variation in feature topography. The ability of x-ray printing to pattern thin or thick layers of photoresist with high resolution on non-planar surfaces of large and complex topographies with limited diffraction and scattering effects and no substrate reflection is known and can be exploited for patterning microsystems with non-planar 3D geometries as well as multisided and multilayered substrates. Thin conformal coatings of electro-deposited positive and negative tone photoresist have been shown to be x-ray sensitive and accommodate sub-micro pattern transfer over surface of extreme topographical variations. Chemically assisted focused ion beam selective anisotropic erosion was used to fabricate x-ray masks directly. Masks with feature sizes less than 20 nm through 7 microns of gold were made on bulk silicon substrates and x-ray mask membranes. The technique is also applicable to other high density materials. Such masks enable the primary and secondary patterning and/or 3D machining of Nano-Electro-Mechanical Systems over large depths or complex relief and the patterning of large surface areas with sub-optically dimensioned features.

  11. Tokamak x ray diagnostic instrumentation

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, K.W.; Beiersdorfer, P.; Bitter, M.; Fredrickson, E.; Von Goeler, S.; Hsuan, H.; Johnson, L.C.; Liew, S.L.; McGuire, K.; Pare, V.

    1987-01-01

    Three classes of x-ray diagnostic instruments enable measurement of a variety of tokamak physics parameters from different features of the x-ray emission spectrum. (1) The soft x-ray (1 to 50 keV) pulse-height-analysis (PHA) diagnostic measures impurity concentrations from characteristic line intensities and the continuum enhancement, and measures the electron temperature from the continuum slope. (2) The Bragg x-ray crystal spectrometer (XCS) measures the ion temperature and neutral-beam-induced toroidal rotation velocity from the Doppler broadening and wavelength shift, respectively, of spectral lines of medium-Z impurity ions. Impurity charge state distributions, precise wavelengths, and inner-shell excitation and recombination rates can also be studied. X rays are diffracted and focused by a bent crystal onto a position-sensitive detector. The spectral resolving power E/..delta..E is greater than 10/sup 4/ and time resolution is 10 ms. (3) The x-ray imaging system (XIS) measures the spatial structure of rapid fluctuations (0.1 to 100 kHZ) providing information on MHD phenomena, impurity transport rates, toroidal rotation velocity, plasma position, and the electron temperature profile. It uses an array of silicon surface-barrier diodes which view different chords of the plasma through a common slot aperture and operate in current (as opposed to counting) mode. The effectiveness of shields to protect detectors from fusion-neutron radiation effects has been studied both theoretically and experimentally.

  12. High-Resolution X-Ray Telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    ODell, Stephen L.; Brissenden, Roger J.; Davis, William; Elsner, Ronald F.; Elvis, Martin; Freeman, Mark; Gaetz, Terry; Gorenstein, Paul; Gubarev, Mikhail V.

    2010-01-01

    Fundamental needs for future x-ray telescopes: a) Sharp images => excellent angular resolution. b) High throughput => large aperture areas. Generation-X optics technical challenges: a) High resolution => precision mirrors & alignment. b) Large apertures => lots of lightweight mirrors. Innovation needed for technical readiness: a) 4 top-level error terms contribute to image size. b) There are approaches to controlling those errors. Innovation needed for manufacturing readiness. Programmatic issues are comparably challenging.

  13. X-ray Photon Counting and Two-Color X-ray Imaging Using Indirect Detection

    PubMed Central

    Dierickx, Bart; Yao, Qiang; Witvrouwen, Nick; Uwaerts, Dirk; Vandewiele, Stijn; Gao, Peng

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we report on the design and performance of a 1 cm2, 90 × 92-pixel image sensor. It is made X-ray sensitive by the use of a scintillator. Its pixels have a charge packet counting circuit topology with two channels, each realizing a different charge packet size threshold and analog domain event counting. Here, the sensor’s performance was measured in setups representative of a medical X-ray environment. Further, two-energy-level photon counting performance is demonstrated, and its capabilities and limitations are documented. We then provide an outlook on future improvements. PMID:27240362

  14. Implications of X-ray tube parameter deviations in X-ray reference fields.

    PubMed

    Behnke, B; Hupe, O; Ambrosi, P

    2016-02-01

    For the purpose of radiation protection, ICRU Report 57/ICRP Publication 74 provides a list of monoenergetic conversion coefficients to be used with, among others, photon reference fields generated with X-ray tubes. A comprehensive definition of these photon reference fields can be found in international standard ISO 4037; however, it lacks thorough indication of the allowed deviations of essential parameters that influence these X-ray reference fields. These parameters are the high-voltage tube potential, the thickness of the beryllium window and the purity and thickness of the filter materials used to create different radiation qualities. Small variations of these parameters can lead to significant changes in the created X-ray spectra and, hence, the spectra-dependent conversion coefficients for phantom-related radiation-protection quantities. This can lead to situations in which the conversion coefficients listed in ISO 4037 cannot be used, resulting in time-consuming spectrometry measurements. In this work, the impact on the resulting conversion coefficients is investigated using a simplified mathematical approximation model. The findings are validated with an independent X-ray spectra calculation programme. As a result, well-founded upper limit values on the allowed deviations of the essential X-ray tube parameters are proposed to be used in a future revision of ISO 4037. PMID:25889609

  15. A Comparative View of X-rays from the Solar System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhardwaj, Anil; Elsner, Ron; Gladstone, Randy; Cravens, Tom; Waite, Hunter; Branduardi-Raymont, Graziella; Ostgaard, Nikolai; Dennerl, Konrad; Lisse, Carey; Kharchenko, Vasili

    2005-01-01

    With the advent of sophisticated X-ray observatories, viz., Chandra and XMM-Newton, the field of planetary X-ray astronomy is advancing at a faster pace. Several new solar system objects are now know to shine in X-rays at energies generally below 2 keV. Jupiter, Saturn, and Earth, all three magnetized planets, have been observed by Chandra and XMM-Newton. At Jupiter, both auroral and non-auroral disk X-ray emissions have been observed. The first soft X-ray observation of Earth's aurora by Chandra shows that it is highly variable. X-rays have been detected from Saturn's disk, but no convincing evidence of X-ray aurora has been seen. Several comets have been observed in X-rays by Chandra and XMM-Newton. Cometary X-rays are produced due to change exchange of solar wind ions with cold cometary neutrals. Soft X-rays have also been observed from Venus, Mars, Moon, Io, Europa, Io plasma torus, and heliosphere. The non-auroral X-ray emissions from Jupiter, Saturn, and Earth, and those from sunlit disk of Mars, Venus, and Moon are produced due to scattering of solar X-rays. The spectral characteristics of X-ray emission from comets, heliosphere, darkside of Moon, and Martian halo are quite similar, but they appear to be quite different from those of Jovian auroral X-rays. The X- ray aurora on Earth is generated by electron bremsstrahlung and on Jupiter by precipitation of highly-ionized energetic heavy ions. In this paper we will present a comparative overview of X-ray emission from different solar system objects and make an attempt to synthesize a coherent picture.

  16. Center for X-Ray Optics, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-08-01

    This report discusses the following topics: Center for X-Ray Optics; Soft X-Ray Imaging wit Zone Plate Lenses; Biological X-Ray microscopy; Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography for Nanoelectronic Pattern Transfer; Multilayer Reflective Optics; EUV/Soft X-ray Reflectometer; Photoemission Microscopy with Reflective Optics; Spectroscopy with Soft X-Rays; Hard X-Ray Microprobe; Coronary Angiography; and Atomic Scattering Factors.

  17. X-ray spectra of galactic X-ray sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holt, S. S.

    1980-01-01

    The spectroscopic properties of the various classes of Galactic X-ray sources are discussed, with particular emphasis on binary sources containing an accreting compact object, where post-emission scattering in an accretion disk often prevents the initially produced X-radiation from being observed directly. Theoretical interpretations and X-ray observations are considered for the cataclysmic variables, binary systems with a white dwarf as the compact object and which suffer relatively less from Thomson scattering, and the similar phenomenological spectral characteristics of the bulge sources, including soft transients, bursters and steady X-ray sources with thermal spectra, thought to represent an accreting neutron star, are pointed out. The spectral characteristics of X-ray pulsars in accreting binary systems (rather than the Crab pulsar, which is losing rotational kinetic energy with time) are then presented and interpreted in terms of accretion in the polar regions, and mechanisms for the newly discovered X-ray emission from late-type RS CVn stars are considered.

  18. Future studies of planetary rings by space probes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stone, E. C.

    1984-01-01

    Recent space probe observations of the rings of Jupiter and Saturn have furnished a substantial enhancement of the current understanding of the outer planets' rings. Voyager 2 offers further opportunities for the study of the Neptune and Uranus ring systems. The Galileo mission to Jupiter furnishes the first opportunity for long term space probe studies of a planetary ring system. It is suggested that an appropriately instrumented Saturn orbiter would not only provide a similar opportunity for the study of the Saturn rings, but may also be the only means by which to adequately address the nature of the diverse phenomena displayed by this prototypical planetary ring system.

  19. High Resolution Adjustable Mirror Control for X-ray Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trolier-McKinstry, Susan

    The goal of the proposed program is to enable increased angular resolution and collection areas for future major X-ray observatories by incorporating control of the mirror surfaces after fab-rication and mounting. We propose to develop and implement a method for preparing adjustable optics with integrated control elements on curved mirror segments for future X-ray space telescopes. Development of such mirror elements will provide a major advance to the field of X-ray astronomy, by enabling mirrors with half an arcsecond angular resolution using thin, lightweight glass to significantly increase the collection area. This is an enabling technology for mission concepts such as the X-ray Surveyor. This proposal supports NASA's goals of technical advancement of technologies suitable for future missions, and training of graduate students.

  20. Ultrafast X-ray Sources

    SciTech Connect

    George Neil

    2010-04-19

    Since before the scattering of X-rays off of DNA led to the first understanding of the double helix structure, sources of X-rays have been an essential tool for scientists examining the structure and interactions of matter. The resolution of a microscope is proportional to the wavelength of light so x-rays can see much finer structures than visible light, down to single atoms. In addition, the energy of X-rays is resonant with the core atomic levels of atoms so with appropriate wavelengths the placement of specific atoms in a large molecule can be determined. Over 10,000 scientists use synchrotron sources, storage rings of high energy electrons, each year worldwide. As an example of such use, virtually every picture of a protein or drug molecule that one sees in the scientific press is a reconstruction based on X-ray scattering of synchrotron light from the crystallized form of that molecule. Unfortunately those pictures are static and proteins work through configuration (shape) changes in response to energy transfer. To understand how biological systems work requires following the energy flow to these molecules and tracking how shape changes drive their interaction with other molecules. We'd like to be able to freeze the action of these molecules at various steps along the way with an X-ray strobe light. How fast does it have to be? To actually get a picture of a molecule in a fixed configuration requires X-ray pulses as short as 30 femtoseconds (1/30 of a millionth of a millionth of a second). To capture the energy flow through changes in electronic levels requires a faster strobe, less than 1 femtosecond! And to acquire such information in smaller samples with higher accuracy demands brighter and brighter X-rays. Unfortunately modern synchrotrons (dubbed 3rd Generation Light Sources) cannot deliver such short bright pulses of X-rays. An entirely new approach is required, linear-accelerator (linac-)-based light sources termed 4th or Next Generation Light Sources

  1. X-ray Echo Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Shvyd'ko, Yuri

    2016-02-26

    X-ray echo spectroscopy, a counterpart of neutron spin echo, is being introduced here to overcome limitations in spectral resolution and weak signals of the traditional inelastic x-ray scattering (IXS) probes. An image of a pointlike x-ray source is defocused by a dispersing system comprised of asymmetrically cut specially arranged Bragg diffracting crystals. The defocused image is refocused into a point (echo) in a time-reversal dispersing system. If the defocused beam is inelastically scattered from a sample, the echo signal acquires a spatial distribution, which is a map of the inelastic scattering spectrum. The spectral resolution of the echo spectroscopy does not rely on the monochromaticity of the x rays, ensuring strong signals along with a very high spectral resolution. Particular schemes of x-ray echo spectrometers for 0.1-0.02 meV ultrahigh-resolution IXS applications (resolving power >10^{8}) with broadband ≃5-13  meV dispersing systems are introduced featuring more than 10^{3} signal enhancement. The technique is general, applicable in different photon frequency domains. PMID:26967404

  2. X-rays surgical revolution.

    PubMed

    Toledo-Pereyra, Luis H

    2009-01-01

    Wilhelm Roentgen (1845-1923) created a surgical revolution with the discovery of the X-rays in late 1895 and the subsequent introduction of this technique for the management of surgical patients. No other physician or scientist had ever imagined such a powerful and worthwhile discovery. Other scientists paved the way for Roentgen to approach the use of these new X-rays for medical purposes. In this way, initially, and prior to Roentgen, Thompson, Hertz, and Lenard applied themselves to the early developments of this technology. They made good advances but never reached the clearly defined understanding brought about by Roentgen. The use of a Crookes tube, a barium platinocyanide screen, with fluorescent light and the generation of energy to propagate the cathode rays were the necessary elements for the conception of an X-ray picture. On November 8, 1895, Roentgen began his experiments on X-ray technology when he found that some kind of rays were being produced by the glass of the tube opposite to the cathode. The development of a photograph successfully completed this early imaging process. After six intense weeks of research, on December 22, he obtained a photograph of the hand of his wife, the first X-ray ever made. This would be a major contribution to the world of medicine and surgery.

  3. X-ray Echo Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Shvyd'ko, Yuri

    2016-02-26

    X-ray echo spectroscopy, a counterpart of neutron spin echo, is being introduced here to overcome limitations in spectral resolution and weak signals of the traditional inelastic x-ray scattering (IXS) probes. An image of a pointlike x-ray source is defocused by a dispersing system comprised of asymmetrically cut specially arranged Bragg diffracting crystals. The defocused image is refocused into a point (echo) in a time-reversal dispersing system. If the defocused beam is inelastically scattered from a sample, the echo signal acquires a spatial distribution, which is a map of the inelastic scattering spectrum. The spectral resolution of the echo spectroscopy does not rely on the monochromaticity of the x rays, ensuring strong signals along with a very high spectral resolution. Particular schemes of x-ray echo spectrometers for 0.1-0.02 meV ultrahigh-resolution IXS applications (resolving power >10^{8}) with broadband ≃5-13  meV dispersing systems are introduced featuring more than 10^{3} signal enhancement. The technique is general, applicable in different photon frequency domains.

  4. X-ray Crystallography Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    University of Alabama engineer Stacey Giles briefs NASA astronaut Dr. Bornie Dunbar about the design and capabilities of the X-ray Crystallography Facility under development at the Center for Macromolecular Crystallography of the University of Alabama at Birmingham, AL, April 21, 1999. The X-ray Crystallography Facility is designed to speed the collection of protein structure information from crystals grown aboard the International Space Station. By measuring and mapping the protein crystal structure in space, researchers will avoid exposing the delicate crystals to the rigors of space travel and make important research data available to scientists much faster. The X-ray Crystallography facility is being designed and developed by the Center for Macromolecular Crystallography of the University of Alabama at Birmingham, a NASA Commercial Space Center.

  5. X-ray Crystallography Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    University of Alabama engineer Lance Weiss briefs NASA astronaut Dr. Bornie Dunbar about the design and capabilities of the X-ray Crystallography Facility under development at the Center for Macromolecular Crystallography of the University of Alabama at Birmingham, AL, April 21, 1999. The X-ray Crystallography Facility is designed to speed the collection of protein structure information from crystals grown aboard the International Space Station. By measuring and mapping the protein crystal structure in space, researchers will avoid exposing the delicate crystals to the rigors of space travel and make important research data available to scientists much faster. The X-ray Crystallography facility is being designed and developed by the Center for Macromolecular Crystallography of the University of Alabama at Birmingham, a NASA Commercial Space Center.

  6. Micro-System Technology for X-ray Astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schattenburg, Mark L.

    2002-01-01

    This research investigation was devoted to developing micro-system and nanotechnology for x-ray astronomy optics. The goal was to develop and demonstrate new types of lightweight, high accuracy x-ray optics for future high throughput, high resolution x-ray telescopes such as Constellation X (Con-X) and MAXIM. A number of significant accomplishments were reported under this program, which are summarized below. Most of this work has been reported in journal and conference proceedings and in presentations to NASA and at international meeting (see Bibliography).

  7. X-ray imaging: Perovskites target X-ray detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heiss, Wolfgang; Brabec, Christoph

    2016-05-01

    Single crystals of perovskites are currently of interest to help fathom fundamental physical parameters limiting the performance of perovskite-based polycrystalline solar cells. Now, such perovskites offer a technology platform for optoelectronic devices, such as cheap and sensitive X-ray detectors.

  8. Portable X-Ray Device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    Portable x-ray instrument developed by NASA now being produced commercially as an industrial tool may soon find further utility as a medical system. The instrument is Lixiscope - Low Intensity X-Ray Imaging Scope -- a self-contained, battery-powered fluoroscope that produces an instant image through use of a small amount of radioactive isotope. Originally developed by Goddard Space Flight Center, Lixiscope is now being produced by Lixi, Inc. which has an exclusive NASA license for one version of the device.

  9. Cosmic X-ray physics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccammon, D.; Cox, D. P.; Kraushaar, W. L.; Sanders, W. T.

    1986-01-01

    The analysis of the beryllium-filtered data from Flight 17.020 was completed. The data base provided by the Wisconsin diffuse X-ray sky survey is being analyzed by correlating the B and C band emission with individual velocity components of neutral hydrogen. Work on a solid state detector to be used in high resolution spectroscopy of diffuse or extend X-ray sources is continuing. A series of 21 cm observations was completed. A paper on the effects of process parameter variation on the reflectivity of sputter-deposited tungsten-carvon multilayers was published.

  10. Next-Generation X-Ray Astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, Nicholas E.

    2011-01-01

    The future timing capabilities in X-ray astronomy will be reviewed. This will include reviewing the missions in implementation: Astro-H, GEMS, SRG, and ASTROSAT; those under study: currently ATHENA and LOFT; and new technologies that may enable future missions e.g. Lobster eye optics. These missions and technologies will bring exciting new capabilities across the entire time spectrum from micro-seconds to years that e.g. will allow us to probe close to the event horizon of black holes and constrain the equation of state of neutron stars.

  11. Traverse Planning Experiments for Future Planetary Surface Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, Stephen J.; Voels, Stephen A.; Mueller, Robert P.; Lee, Pascal C.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the investigation is to evaluate methodology and data requirements for remotely-assisted robotic traverse of extraterrestrial planetary surface to support human exploration program, assess opportunities for in-transit science operations, and validate landing site survey and selection techniques during planetary surface exploration mission analog demonstration at Haughton Crater on Devon Island, Nunavut, Canada. Additionally, 1) identify quality of remote observation data sets (i.e., surface imagery from orbit) required for effective pre-traverse route planning and determine if surface level data (i.e., onboard robotic imagery or other sensor data) is required for a successful traverse, and if additional surface level data can improve traverse efficiency or probability of success (TRPF Experiment). 2) Evaluate feasibility and techniques for conducting opportunistic science investigations during this type of traverse. (OSP Experiment). 3) Assess utility of remotely-assisted robotic vehicle for landing site validation survey. (LSV Experiment).

  12. Plate tectonics and planetary habitability: current status and future challenges.

    PubMed

    Korenaga, Jun

    2012-07-01

    Plate tectonics is one of the major factors affecting the potential habitability of a terrestrial planet. The physics of plate tectonics is, however, still far from being complete, leading to considerable uncertainty when discussing planetary habitability. Here, I summarize recent developments on the evolution of plate tectonics on Earth, which suggest a radically new view on Earth dynamics: convection in the mantle has been speeding up despite its secular cooling, and the operation of plate tectonics has been facilitated throughout Earth's history by the gradual subduction of water into an initially dry mantle. The role of plate tectonics in planetary habitability through its influence on atmospheric evolution is still difficult to quantify, and, to this end, it will be vital to better understand a coupled core-mantle-atmosphere system in the context of solar system evolution. PMID:22256796

  13. Plate tectonics and planetary habitability: current status and future challenges.

    PubMed

    Korenaga, Jun

    2012-07-01

    Plate tectonics is one of the major factors affecting the potential habitability of a terrestrial planet. The physics of plate tectonics is, however, still far from being complete, leading to considerable uncertainty when discussing planetary habitability. Here, I summarize recent developments on the evolution of plate tectonics on Earth, which suggest a radically new view on Earth dynamics: convection in the mantle has been speeding up despite its secular cooling, and the operation of plate tectonics has been facilitated throughout Earth's history by the gradual subduction of water into an initially dry mantle. The role of plate tectonics in planetary habitability through its influence on atmospheric evolution is still difficult to quantify, and, to this end, it will be vital to better understand a coupled core-mantle-atmosphere system in the context of solar system evolution.

  14. X-ray imaging with photostimulable phosphors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Seggern, Heinz

    1992-11-01

    Image plates based on photostimulable X-ray storage phosphors establish a promissing alternative to conventionally utilized two-dimensional X-ray detectors. These image plates consist of a layer of powdered X-ray storage phosphor, usually the alkaline-earth halide BaFBr:Eu 2+, mixed with an organic binder and mounted on a polymeric film. Upon absorption of ionizing radiation, electrons and holes are produced efficiently. Both species are trapped in the immediate surrounding of their creation thereby forming a latent image. The readout of this image occurs by photostimulation whereby the trapped electrons are liberated and recombine radiatively with the trapped holes under emission of Eu 2+ light. In the present paper the principle of the imaging system is introduced followed by a brief review of the underlying physics explaining the nature of the involved traps and the mechanism of photostimulation. Advantages and disadvantages of image plate detectors and their physical nature are discussed and possible improvements suggested. Present and future fields of application are presented.

  15. A compact X-ray lithography lattice using superferric magnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swenson, C. A.; Huson, F. R.; Mackay, W. W.; Chen, L. K.; Ohnuma, S.

    A conceptual lattice design for a very compact superconducting synchrotron dedicated to X-ray lithography is presented. The synchrotron radiation produced in the high field superconducting magnets has a critical wavelength of 10 angstrom at a beam energy of about 787 MeV. The size and angular divergence of the beam in this lattice can satisfy future requirements for X-ray lithography. An optimization of the lithography parameters is presented.

  16. X-ray and gamma ray astronomy detectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Decher, Rudolf; Ramsey, Brian D.; Austin, Robert

    1994-01-01

    X-ray and gamma ray astronomy was made possible by the advent of space flight. Discovery and early observations of celestial x-rays and gamma rays, dating back almost 40 years, were first done with high altitude rockets, followed by Earth-orbiting satellites> once it became possible to carry detectors above the Earth's atmosphere, a new view of the universe in the high-energy part of the electromagnetic spectrum evolved. Many of the detector concepts used for x-ray and gamma ray astronomy were derived from radiation measuring instruments used in atomic physics, nuclear physics, and other fields. However, these instruments, when used in x-ray and gamma ray astronomy, have to meet unique and demanding requirements related to their operation in space and the need to detect and measure extremely weak radiation fluxes from celestial x-ray and gamma ray sources. Their design for x-ray and gamma ray astronomy has, therefore, become a rather specialized and rapidly advancing field in which improved sensitivity, higher energy and spatial resolution, wider spectral coverage, and enhanced imaging capabilities are all sought. This text is intended as an introduction to x-ray and gamma ray astronomy instruments. It provides an overview of detector design and technology and is aimed at scientists, engineers, and technical personnel and managers associated with this field. The discussion is limited to basic principles and design concepts and provides examples of applications in past, present, and future space flight missions.

  17. Compact x-ray source and panel

    DOEpatents

    Sampayon, Stephen E.

    2008-02-12

    A compact, self-contained x-ray source, and a compact x-ray source panel having a plurality of such x-ray sources arranged in a preferably broad-area pixelized array. Each x-ray source includes an electron source for producing an electron beam, an x-ray conversion target, and a multilayer insulator separating the electron source and the x-ray conversion target from each other. The multi-layer insulator preferably has a cylindrical configuration with a plurality of alternating insulator and conductor layers surrounding an acceleration channel leading from the electron source to the x-ray conversion target. A power source is connected to each x-ray source of the array to produce an accelerating gradient between the electron source and x-ray conversion target in any one or more of the x-ray sources independent of other x-ray sources in the array, so as to accelerate an electron beam towards the x-ray conversion target. The multilayer insulator enables relatively short separation distances between the electron source and the x-ray conversion target so that a thin panel is possible for compactness. This is due to the ability of the plurality of alternating insulator and conductor layers of the multilayer insulators to resist surface flashover when sufficiently high acceleration energies necessary for x-ray generation are supplied by the power source to the x-ray sources.

  18. X-Ray Diffractive Optics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dennis, Brian; Li, Mary; Skinner, Gerald

    2013-01-01

    X-ray optics were fabricated with the capability of imaging solar x-ray sources with better than 0.1 arcsecond angular resolution, over an order of magnitude finer than is currently possible. Such images would provide a new window into the little-understood energy release and particle acceleration regions in solar flares. They constitute one of the most promising ways to probe these regions in the solar atmosphere with the sensitivity and angular resolution needed to better understand the physical processes involved. A circular slit structure with widths as fine as 0.85 micron etched in a silicon wafer 8 microns thick forms a phase zone plate version of a Fresnel lens capable of focusing approx. =.6 keV x-rays. The focal length of the 3-cm diameter lenses is 100 microns, and the angular resolution capability is better than 0.1 arcsecond. Such phase zone plates were fabricated in Goddard fs Detector Development Lab. (DDL) and tested at the Goddard 600-microns x-ray test facility. The test data verified that the desired angular resolution and throughput efficiency were achieved.

  19. Focused X-ray source

    DOEpatents

    Piestrup, M.A.; Boyers, D.G.; Pincus, C.I.; Maccagno, P.

    1990-08-21

    Disclosed is an intense, relatively inexpensive X-ray source (as compared to a synchrotron emitter) for technological, scientific, and spectroscopic purposes. A conical radiation pattern produced by a single foil or stack of foils is focused by optics to increase the intensity of the radiation at a distance from the conical radiator. 8 figs.

  20. Focused X-ray source

    DOEpatents

    Piestrup, Melvin A.; Boyers, David G.; Pincus, Cary I.; Maccagno, Pierre

    1990-01-01

    An intense, relatively inexpensive X-ray source (as compared to a synchrotron emitter) for technological, scientific, and spectroscopic purposes. A conical radiation pattern produced by a single foil or stack of foils is focused by optics to increase the intensity of the radiation at a distance from the conical radiator.

  1. Alpha proton x ray spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rieder, Rudi; Waeke, H.; Economou, T.

    1994-01-01

    Mars Pathfinder will carry an alpha-proton x ray spectrometer (APX) for the determination of the elemental chemical composition of Martian rocks and soils. The instrument will measure the concentration of all major and some minor elements, including C, N, and O at levels above typically 1 percent.

  2. Hard X-Ray Nanoprobe based on Refractive X-Ray Lenses

    SciTech Connect

    Schroer, C. G.; Patommel, J.; Boye, P.; Feldkamp, J.; Kurapova, O.; Lengeler, B.; Burghammer, M.; Riekel, C.; Vincze, L.; Hart, A. van der; Kuechler, M.

    2007-01-19

    At synchrotron radiation sources, parabolic refractive x-ray lenses allow one to built both full field and scanning microscopes in the hard x-ray range. The latter microscope can be operated in transmission, fluorescence, and diffraction mode, giving chemical, elemental, and structural contrast. For scanning microscopy, a small and intensive microbeam is required. Parabolic refractive x-ray lenses with a focal distance in the centimeter range, so-called nanofocusing lenses (NFLs), can generate hard x-ray nanobeams in the range of 100 nm and below, even at short distances, i. e., 40 to 70 m from the source. Recently, a 47 x 55 nm2 beam with 1.7 {center_dot} 108 ph/s at 21 keV (monochromatic, Si 111) was generated using silicon NFLs in crossed geometry at a distance of 47m from the undulator source at beamline ID13 of ESRF. This beam is not diffraction limited, and smaller beams may become available in the future. Lenses made of more transparent materials, such as boron or diamond, could yield an increase in flux of one order of magnitude and have a larger numerical aperture. For these NFLs, diffraction limits below 20 nm are conceivable. Using adiabatically focusing lenses, the diffraction limit can in principle be pushed below 5 nm.

  3. Normal and Starburst Galaxies in Deep X-ray Surveys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hornschemeier, Ann

    2006-01-01

    This talk will cover progress of the last several years in unraveling the nature of normal and starburst galaxies in deep X-ray surveys. This includes discussion of the normal galaxy X-ray Luminosity Function in deep field and cluster surveys and what it tells us about the binary populations in galaxies. The utility of broad band X-ray emission, especially as compared to other multiwavelength measurements of current/recent star formation, will be reviewed. These broad band X-ray measurements of star formation are based upon X-ray/Star Formation Rate correlations that span the currently available redshift range (0 < z < 1). I will also discuss new efforts underway to systematically characterize the X-ray emission from galaxies in group and cluster environments, including a new effort underway in the Coma cluster of galaxies. I will finish with discussion of the redshift frontier for studies of X-ray star formation, currently 2 approx.4, where the UV-selected Lyman Break galaxies are the best glimpse we have into X-ray emission from star formation in the early Universe. Lyman Break galaxies are of particular interest due to the overlap in basic properties with starburst galaxies in the more local Universe. Understanding the outflows in such starburst galaxies is of critical importance to constraining the "stellar" portion of cosmic feedback. The talk will close with a brief discussion of distant normal galaxy science with future X-ray observatories such as the upcoming Con-X/XEUS mission(s).

  4. The search for life's origins: Progress and future directions in planetary biology and chemical evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    The current state is reviewed of the study of chemical evolution and planetary biology and the probable future is discussed of the field, at least for the near term. To this end, the report lists the goals and objectives of future research and makes detailed, comprehensive recommendations for accomplishing them, emphasizing those issues that were inadequately discussed in earlier Space Studies Board reports.

  5. X-ray reprocessing in binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paul, Biswajit

    2016-07-01

    We will discuss several aspects of X-ray reprocessing into X-rays or longer wavelength radiation in different kinds of binary systems. In high mass X-ray binaries, reprocessing of hard X-rays into emission lines or lower temperature black body emission is a useful tool to investigate the reprocessing media like the stellar wind, clumpy structures in the wind, accretion disk or accretion stream. In low mass X-ray binaries, reprocessing from the surface of the companion star, the accretion disk, warps and other structures in the accretion disk produce signatures in longer wavelength radiation. X-ray sources with temporal structures like the X-ray pulsars and thermonuclear burst sources are key in such studies. We will discuss results from several new investigations of X-ray reprocessing phenomena in X-ray binaries.

  6. X-ray imaging detectors for synchrotron and XFEL sources

    PubMed Central

    Hatsui, Takaki; Graafsma, Heinz

    2015-01-01

    Current trends for X-ray imaging detectors based on hybrid and monolithic detector technologies are reviewed. Hybrid detectors with photon-counting pixels have proven to be very powerful tools at synchrotrons. Recent developments continue to improve their performance, especially for higher spatial resolution at higher count rates with higher frame rates. Recent developments for X-ray free-electron laser (XFEL) experiments provide high-frame-rate integrating detectors with both high sensitivity and high peak signal. Similar performance improvements are sought in monolithic detectors. The monolithic approach also offers a lower noise floor, which is required for the detection of soft X-ray photons. The link between technology development and detector performance is described briefly in the context of potential future capabilities for X-ray imaging detectors. PMID:25995846

  7. Accretion Disk Dynamics in X-Ray Binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulz, Norbert S.; Ji, Li; Nowak, M.; Canizares, C. R.; Kallman, T.

    2009-09-01

    The last decade of X-ray observations was an era of true discovery in the study of accretion phenomena in X-ray binaries. With the launch of high resolution X-ray spectrometers on board the Chandra X-ray Observatory and XMM Newton we gained novel insights in feedback processes in accretion disks. At the forefront are dynamics in winds and outflows. Recent observations now also not only reveal properties of accretion disk coronal phenomena but point us to highly variable activity in their appearance. Amongst others these include heating along the spectral branches in the Z-source Cyg X-2, short and longterm variations in the photo-ionized emissions in Cir X-1, highly variable and dynamic Ne edges in the ultra-compact binary 4U 0614+091. This presentation summarizes these recent developments and provides an outlook towards more dynamical accretion disk coronal models and perspectives for future missions.

  8. New lightweight x-ray optics: alternative materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skulinova, M.; Hudec, R.; Sik, J.; Lorenc, M.; Pina, L.; Semencova, V.

    2009-05-01

    Future space X-ray astronomy and astrophysics projects require accurate but light and high throughput multiple nested X-ray optics. The Czech Republic started being the full member of ESA in November, 2008 and the participant in the innovative technology developments for the new space mission represents the natural continuation of the efforts of the Czech team in development of innovative X-ray telescopes, focusing on particular demands and requirements of a concrete project, with emphasis on fully new and light-weight technologies. We will report not only on silicon or glass but also on other alternative materials such as SiC or glossy carbon, which could be considered as suitable materials for the producing of precise light weight X-ray optics due to their physical and chemical properties.

  9. Enhanced X-ray Emission from Early Universe Analog Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brorby, Matthew; Kaaret, Philip; Prestwich, Andrea H.; Mirabel, I. Felix; Feng, Hua

    2016-04-01

    X-rays from binaries containing compact objects may have played an important role in heating the early Universe. Here we discuss our findings from X-ray studies of blue compact dwarf galaxies (BCDs), Lyman break analogs (LBAs), and Green Pea galaxies (GP), all of which are considered local analogs to high redshift galaxies. We find enhanced X-ray emission per unit star-formation rate which strongly correlates with decreasing metallicity. We find evidence for the existence of a L_X-SFR-Metallicity plane for star-forming galaxies. The exact properties of X-ray emission in the early Universe affects the timing and morphology of reionization, both being observable properties of current and future radio observations of the redshifted 21cm signal from neutral hydrogen.

  10. Aviation security x-ray detection challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harvey, T.

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, a review of the background and some drivers are provided for X-ray screening for aviation security. Some of the key considerations are highlighted along with impacts of the image-based approaches and signature approaches. The role of information theory is discussed along with some recent work that may influence the technical direction by posing the question: "what measurements, parameters and metrics should be considered in future system design?" A path forward should be based on information theory, however electronic machines will likely interface with humans and be dollar-cost driven, so ultimately solutions must consider additional parameters other than only technical performance factors.

  11. Center for X-Ray Optics, 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-07-01

    The Center for X-Ray Optics has made substantial progress during the past year on the development of very high resolution x-ray technologies, the generation of coherent radiation at x-ray wavelengths, and, based on these new developments, had embarked on several scientific investigations that would not otherwise have been possible. The investigations covered in this report are topics on x-ray sources, x-ray imaging and applications, soft x-ray spectroscopy, synchrotron radiation, advanced light source and magnet structures for undulators and wigglers. (LSP)

  12. Recent and Future Observations in the X-ray and Gamma-ray Bands: Chandra, Suzaku, GLAST, and NuSTAR

    SciTech Connect

    Madejski, Greg; /SLAC /KIPAC, Menlo Park

    2005-12-02

    This paper presents a brief overview of the accomplishments of the Chandra satellite that are shedding light on the origin of high energy particles in astrophysical sources, with the emphasis on clusters of galaxies. It also discusses the prospects for the new data to be collected with instruments recently launched--such as Suzaku--or those to be deployed in the near future, and this includes GLAST and NuSTAR.

  13. New developments in high pressure x-ray spectroscopy beamline at High Pressure Collaborative Access Team

    SciTech Connect

    Xiao, Y. M. Chow, P.; Boman, G.; Bai, L. G.; Rod, E.; Bommannavar, A.; Kenney-Benson, C.; Sinogeikin, S.; Shen, G. Y.

    2015-07-15

    The 16 ID-D (Insertion Device - D station) beamline of the High Pressure Collaborative Access Team at the Advanced Photon Source is dedicated to high pressure research using X-ray spectroscopy techniques typically integrated with diamond anvil cells. The beamline provides X-rays of 4.5-37 keV, and current available techniques include X-ray emission spectroscopy, inelastic X-ray scattering, and nuclear resonant scattering. The recent developments include a canted undulator upgrade, 17-element analyzer array for inelastic X-ray scattering, and an emission spectrometer using a polycapillary half-lens. Recent development projects and future prospects are also discussed.

  14. Application of solar electric propulsion to future planetary missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sauer, Carl G., Jr.

    1987-01-01

    Application of solar electric propulsion (SEP) to several near term planetary missions has been investigated and is described in this paper. The missions under consideration include a comet rendezvous-asteroid flyby mission (CRAF), an orbiter mission to Saturn (CASSINI) and a comet nucleus sample return mission (CNSR). Advances in both thruster and solar array technology indicate that these missions could benefit by use of a moderate size solar electric propulsion system. The trajectory scenarios considered in this paper include a solar electric earth gravity assist (SEEGA) mode for all three missions and a SEP rendezvous mode for both the CRAF and CNSR missions. In addition an all SEP propulsion mode and a hybrid SEP-chemical propulsion mode is described for the CNSR mission.

  15. Current and Future Applications of Laser Altimetry to Planetary Geodesy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neumann, G. A.

    2004-12-01

    Planetary orbital lidar mapping, first used by the Apollo Orbiters in 1971-72, achieved a new status with the mapping of Mars by the MOLA instrument aboard Mars Global Surveyor, 1998-2001. A new geodetic control network has been tied to MOLA altimetry, providing the basis for subsequent missions, and the crustal and lithospheric structure of Mars has been resolved. Further applications included measurement of seasonally-varying polar topography, atmospheric properties, orbital decay of Phobos due to tidal dissipation, and surface modifications produced by volatiles. The MLA instrument on the MESSENGER mission will measure the shape of Mercury and determine the amplitude of forced libration from orbit. Lidar instruments on earlier missions to the Moon and asteroid 433 Eros, in combination with radio tracking, have also revealed internal structure. We summarize the state of the art of lidar mapping and discuss advances in determination of gravity potential of solid bodies using altimetric crossovers.

  16. Guidance, Navigation, and Control Technology Assessment for Future Planetary Science Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beauchamp, Pat; Cutts, James; Quadrelli, Marco B.; Wood, Lincoln J.; Riedel, Joseph E.; McHenry, Mike; Aung, MiMi; Cangahuala, Laureano A.; Volpe, Rich

    2013-01-01

    Future planetary explorations envisioned by the National Research Council's (NRC's) report titled Vision and Voyages for Planetary Science in the Decade 2013-2022, developed for NASA Science Mission Directorate (SMD) Planetary Science Division (PSD), seek to reach targets of broad scientific interest across the solar system. This goal requires new capabilities such as innovative interplanetary trajectories, precision landing, operation in close proximity to targets, precision pointing, multiple collaborating spacecraft, multiple target tours, and advanced robotic surface exploration. Advancements in Guidance, Navigation, and Control (GN&C) and Mission Design in the areas of software, algorithm development and sensors will be necessary to accomplish these future missions. This paper summarizes the key GN&C and mission design capabilities and technologies needed for future missions pursuing SMD PSD's scientific goals.

  17. Microgap x-ray detector

    DOEpatents

    Wuest, Craig R.; Bionta, Richard M.; Ables, Elden

    1994-01-01

    An x-ray detector which provides for the conversion of x-ray photons into photoelectrons and subsequent amplification of these photoelectrons through the generation of electron avalanches in a thin gas-filled region subject to a high electric potential. The detector comprises a cathode (photocathode) and an anode separated by the thin, gas-filled region. The cathode may comprise a substrate, such a beryllium, coated with a layer of high atomic number material, such as gold, while the anode can be a single conducting plane of material, such as gold, or a plane of resistive material, such as chromium/silicon monoxide, or multiple areas of conductive or resistive material, mounted on a substrate composed of glass, plastic or ceramic. The charge collected from each electron avalanche by the anode is passed through processing electronics to a point of use, such as an oscilloscope.

  18. Microgap x-ray detector

    DOEpatents

    Wuest, C.R.; Bionta, R.M.; Ables, E.

    1994-05-03

    An x-ray detector is disclosed which provides for the conversion of x-ray photons into photoelectrons and subsequent amplification of these photoelectrons through the generation of electron avalanches in a thin gas-filled region subject to a high electric potential. The detector comprises a cathode (photocathode) and an anode separated by the thin, gas-filled region. The cathode may comprise a substrate, such a beryllium, coated with a layer of high atomic number material, such as gold, while the anode can be a single conducting plane of material, such as gold, or a plane of resistive material, such as chromium/silicon monoxide, or multiple areas of conductive or resistive material, mounted on a substrate composed of glass, plastic or ceramic. The charge collected from each electron avalanche by the anode is passed through processing electronics to a point of use, such as an oscilloscope. 3 figures.

  19. Near Edge X-Ray Absorption Fine Structure Spectroscopy with X-Ray Free-Electron Lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Bernstein, D.P.; Acremann, Y.; Scherz, A.; Burkhardt, M.; Stohr, J.; Beye, M.; Schlotter, W.F.; Beeck, T.; Sorgenfrei, F.; Pietzsch, A.; Wurth, W.; Fohlisch, A.; /Hamburg U.

    2009-12-11

    We demonstrate the feasibility of Near Edge X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (NEXAFS) spectroscopy on solids by means of femtosecond soft x-ray pulses from a free-electron laser (FEL). Our experiments, carried out at the Free-Electron Laser at Hamburg (FLASH), used a special sample geometry, spectrographic energy dispersion, single shot position-sensitive detection and a data normalization procedure that eliminates the severe fluctuations of the incident intensity in space and photon energy. As an example we recorded the {sup 3}D{sub 1} N{sub 4,5}-edge absorption resonance of La{sup 3+}-ions in LaMnO{sub 3}. Our study opens the door for x-ray absorption measurements on future x-ray FEL facilities.

  20. X-Ray-powered Macronovae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kisaka, Shota; Ioka, Kunihito; Nakar, Ehud

    2016-02-01

    A macronova (or kilonova) was observed as an infrared excess several days after the short gamma-ray burst GRB 130603B. Although the r-process radioactivity is widely discussed as an energy source, it requires a huge mass of ejecta from a neutron star (NS) binary merger. We propose a new model in which the X-ray excess gives rise to the simultaneously observed infrared excess via thermal re-emission, and explore what constraints this would place on the mass and velocity of the ejecta. This X-ray-powered model explains both the X-ray and infrared excesses with a single energy source such as the central engine like a black hole, and allows for a broader parameter region than the previous models, in particular a smaller ejecta mass ˜ {10}-3{--}{10}-2{M}⊙ and higher iron abundance mixed as suggested by general relativistic simulations for typical NS-NS mergers. We also discuss the other macronova candidates in GRB 060614 and GRB 080503, and the implications for the search of electromagnetic counterparts to gravitational waves.

  1. X-Ray Crystallography Reagent

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrison, Dennis R. (Inventor); Mosier, Benjamin (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    Microcapsules prepared by encapsulating an aqueous solution of a protein, drug or other bioactive substance inside a semi-permeable membrane by are disclosed. The microcapsules are formed by interfacial coacervation under conditions where the shear forces are limited to 0-100 dynes per square centimeter at the interface. By placing the microcapsules in a high osmotic dewatering solution. the protein solution is gradually made saturated and then supersaturated. and the controlled nucleation and crystallization of the protein is achieved. The crystal-filled microcapsules prepared by this method can be conveniently harvested and stored while keeping the encapsulated crystals in essentially pristine condition due to the rugged. protective membrane. Because the membrane components themselves are x-ray transparent, large crystal-containing microcapsules can be individually selected, mounted in x-ray capillary tubes and subjected to high energy x-ray diffraction studies to determine the 3-D smucture of the protein molecules. Certain embodiments of the microcapsules of the invention have composite polymeric outer membranes which are somewhat elastic, water insoluble, permeable only to water, salts, and low molecular weight molecules and are structurally stable in fluid shear forces typically encountered in the human vascular system.

  2. Next Generation X-ray Polarimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill-Kittle, Joe

    sources that were previously unobtainable within realistic observation times e.g. Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN). Standard photoelectric X-ray polarimeter designs are both quantum efficiency (QE) limited and challenging to calibrate due to diffusion of electron signal as it drifts through the gas. Drifting negative ions decreases diffusion to the thermal limit thereby decoupling sensitivity from drift distance and enabling larger detector areas that can be at the focus of larger diameter mirrors and single reflection concentrator optics. NITPCs also allow the selection of constituent gasses and pressures to be based on the optimization of modulation and QE rather than diffusion properties. This versatility enables a large improvement in sensitivity without driving cost and with only moderate increase to mass and power of the detector and/or instrument. Furthermore, the energy band of NGXP will be tunable to maximize the science return. Following the efforts of this proposal NGXP will be proposed as sounding rocket experiment and as a candidate instrument for future opportunities. The GSFC polarimeter group has demonstrated NITPCs for several detector concepts. This proposal leverages the previous effort and team expertise with goals to establish the NITPC as the baseline for narrow field observations of faint persistent sources and to improve the technology readiness of associated technologies such as stainless steel gas electron multipliers and finer readout pitch.

  3. Stellar X-ray Emission From Magnetically Funneled Shocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guenther, Hans

    Stars and planets form in giant molecular clouds, so they are deeply embedded in their early stages. When they become optically visible, the young stars are still surrounded by a proto-planetary disk, where planets evolve. These stars are called classical T Tauri stars (CTTS). A key, yet poorly constrained, parameter for the disk evolution is the stellar high-energy emission. It can ionize the outer layers of the disk, change its chemistry and even drive photoevaporation of the disk. Thus the spectral shape and the temporal variability of the stellar X-ray and UV emission shapes the gas and dust properties in some regions of the disk. It sets the photoevaporation timescale which provides an upper limit for planet formation. CTTS still actively accrete mass from their disk. The infalling matter is funneled by the stellar magnetic field and impacts on the star close to free fall velocity. A hot accretion shock develops, which emits X-rays which are distinct from any coronal X-rays. Eventually the disk disperses and bulk planet formation comes to an end. X-ray emitting shocks can still occur at a later stage in stellar evolution, if e.g. the magnetic field is strong enough to funnel the stellar wind to collide in the disk midplane. This so-called magnetically confined wind shock model was originally developed for the A0p star IQ Aur. The magnetically funneled accretion model has been successfully tested for CTTS in a small mass range only; the magnetically confined wind shock model lacks a comparison for high-resolution X-ray grating spectra for all but the most massive stars. In this proposal we request funding to analyze three XMM-Newton observations, which will probe X-ray emitting shocks in stars with magnetic fields: DN Tau (observed as category C target in cycle 8), a CTTS with much lower mass than previous CTTS with X- ray grating spectroscopy; MN Lup (to be observed in cycle 9), a prime candidate for simultaneous X-ray/Doppler-imaging studies; and IQ Aur (to

  4. Aspergillosis - chest x-ray (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... usually occurs in immunocompromised individuals. Here, a chest x-ray shows that the fungus has invaded the lung ... are usually seen as black areas on an x-ray. The cloudiness on the left side of this ...

  5. Tuberculosis, advanced - chest x-rays (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... tissue, and can cause tissue death. These chest x-rays show advanced pulmonary tuberculosis. There are multiple light ... location of cavities within these light areas. The x-ray on the left clearly shows that the opacities ...

  6. Producing X-rays at the APS

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    An introduction and overview of the Advanced Photon Source at Argonne National Laboratory, the technology that produces the brightest X-ray beams in the Western Hemisphere, and the research carried out by scientists using those X-rays.

  7. Producing X-rays at the APS

    SciTech Connect

    2011-01-01

    An introduction and overview of the Advanced Photon Source at Argonne National Laboratory, the technology that produces the brightest X-ray beams in the Western Hemisphere, and the research carried out by scientists using those X-rays.

  8. Discovery of Diffuse Hard X-ray Emission Around Jupiter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ezoe, Yuichiro; Ishikawa, K.; Ohashi, T.; Terada, N.; Miyoshi, Y.; Uchiyama, Y.

    2009-09-01

    Our discovery of diffuse hard (1-5 keV) X-ray emission around Jupiter is reported. Recent Chandra and XMM-Newton observations revealed several types of X-rays in the vicinity of Jupiter such as auroral and disk emission from Jupiter and faint diffuse X-rays from the Io Plasma Torus (see Bhardwaj et al. 2007 for review). To investigate possible diffuse hard X-ray emission around Jupiter with the highest sensitivity, we conducted data analysis of Suzaku XIS observations of Jupiter on Feb 2006. After removing satellite and planetary orbital motions, we detected a significant diffuse X-ray emission extending to 6 x 3 arcmin with the 1-5 keV X-ray luminosity of 3e15 erg/s. The emitting region very well coincided with the Jupiter's radiation belts and the bright spot seemed to move according to the Io's motion. The 1-5 keV X-ray spectrum was represented by a simple power law model with a photon index of 1.4. Such a flat continuum strongly suggests non-thermal origin. We hence examined three mechanisms: bremsstrahlung by keV electrons, synchrotron emission by TeV electrons, and inverse Compton scattering of solar photons by MeV electrons. The former two can be rejected because of the X-ray spectral shape and implausible existence of TeV electrons around Jupiter, respectively. The last possibility was found to be possible because tens MeV electrons, which have been confirmed in inner radiation belts (Bolton et al. 2002), can kick solar photons to the keV energy range and provide a simple power-law continuum. We estimated an average electron density from the X-ray luminosity assuming the oblate spheroid shaped emitting region with 8 x 8 x 4 Jovian radii. The necessary density was 0.02 1/cm3 for 50 MeV electrons. Hence, our results may suggest a new particle acceleration phenomenon related to Io.

  9. Phase-sensitive X-ray imager

    DOEpatents

    Baker, Kevin Louis

    2013-01-08

    X-ray phase sensitive wave-front sensor techniques are detailed that are capable of measuring the entire two-dimensional x-ray electric field, both the amplitude and phase, with a single measurement. These Hartmann sensing and 2-D Shear interferometry wave-front sensors do not require a temporally coherent source and are therefore compatible with x-ray tubes and also with laser-produced or x-pinch x-ray sources.

  10. A short working distance multiple crystal x-ray spectrometer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dickinson, B.; Seidler, G.T.; Webb, Z.W.; Bradley, J.A.; Nagle, K.P.; Heald, S.M.; Gordon, R.A.; Chou, I.-Ming

    2008-01-01

    For x-ray spot sizes of a few tens of microns or smaller, a millimeter-sized flat analyzer crystal placed ???1 cm from the sample will exhibit high energy resolution while subtending a collection solid angle comparable to that of a typical spherically bent crystal analyzer (SBCA) at much larger working distances. Based on this observation and a nonfocusing geometry for the analyzer optic, we have constructed and tested a short working distance (SWD) multicrystal x-ray spectrometer. This prototype instrument has a maximum effective collection solid angle of 0.14 sr, comparable to that of 17 SBCA at 1 m working distance. We find good agreement with prior work for measurements of the Mn K?? x-ray emission and resonant inelastic x-ray scattering for MnO, and also for measurements of the x-ray absorption near-edge structure for Dy metal using L??2 partial-fluorescence yield detection. We discuss future applications at third- and fourth-generation light sources. For concentrated samples, the extremely large collection angle of SWD spectrometers will permit collection of high-resolution x-ray emission spectra with a single pulse of the Linac Coherent Light Source. The range of applications of SWD spectrometers and traditional multi-SBCA instruments has some overlap, but also is significantly complementary. ?? 2008 American Institute of Physics.

  11. Are Atom-sized X-ray Experiments Possible?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bilderback, Donald H.; Huang, Rong

    2004-05-01

    The success of advanced microbeam facilities at third generation synchrotron sources have inspired us to ask ultimate questions such as how small an x-ray beam diameter can be made. With the hope of more brilliant Energy Recovery Linac or X-ray Free Electron Laser sources due to arrive in the next decade, it appears possible to think of fluorescent x-ray experiments that can be performed on even a single impurity atom in a silicon wafer, for instance. Not all x-ray optical developers are yet convinced, however, so there is critical need to assess whether in principle this can really be done or not. We are optimistic that 1 nm diameter x-ray beams can be made of sufficient flux from future sources or even demonstration experiments at lower count rates from 3rd generation sources if it turns out to be worthwhile to actively develop optics and methods that vastly exceed the current x-ray microbeam capabilities.

  12. Review of soft x-ray lasers and their applications

    SciTech Connect

    Skinner, C.H.

    1991-03-01

    The emerging technology of soft x-ray lasers is in a transition phase between the first laboratory demonstrations of gain and the acceptance of soft x-ray lasers as practical tools for novel applications. Current research is focused on several fronts. The operational wavelength range has been extended to the water window'', important for applications in the life sciences. Gain has also been generated with substantially simpler technology (such as a 6J laser) and this augurs well for the commercially availability in the near future of soft x-ray lasers for a variety of applications. Advanced soft x-ray laser concepts are being developed from investigations into ultra-high intensity laser/matter interactions. The first paper a brief historical perspective of x-ray microscopy and holography have begun. In this paper a brief historical perspective of x-ray laser development will be followed by a review of recent advances in recombination, collisional and photo-pumped systems and applications. A summary of current gain-length performance achieved in laboratories worldwide is presented. Near term prospects for applications to novel fields are discussed. 81 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  13. Are Atom-sized X-ray Experiments Possible?

    SciTech Connect

    Bilderback, Donald H.; Huang Rong

    2004-05-12

    The success of advanced microbeam facilities at third generation synchrotron sources have inspired us to ask ultimate questions such as how small an x-ray beam diameter can be made. With the hope of more brilliant Energy Recovery Linac or X-ray Free Electron Laser sources due to arrive in the next decade, it appears possible to think of fluorescent x-ray experiments that can be performed on even a single impurity atom in a silicon wafer, for instance. Not all x-ray optical developers are yet convinced, however, so there is critical need to assess whether in principle this can really be done or not. We are optimistic that 1 nm diameter x-ray beams can be made of sufficient flux from future sources or even demonstration experiments at lower count rates from 3rd generation sources if it turns out to be worthwhile to actively develop optics and methods that vastly exceed the current x-ray microbeam capabilities.

  14. Populations III.1 and III.2 gamma-ray bursts: constraints on the event rate for future radio and X-ray surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Souza, R. S.; Yoshida, N.; Ioka, K.

    2011-09-01

    Aims: We calculate the theoretical event rate of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) from the collapse of massive first-generation (Population III; Pop III) stars. The Pop III GRBs could be super-energetic with the isotropic energy up to Eiso ≳ 1055-57 erg, providing a unique probe of the high-redshift Universe. Methods: We consider both the so-called Pop III.1 stars (primordial) and Pop III.2 stars (primordial but affected by radiation from other stars). We employ a semi-analytical approach that considers inhomogeneous hydrogen reionization and chemical evolution of the intergalactic medium. Results: We show that Pop III.2 GRBs occur more than 100 times more frequently than Pop III.1 GRBs, and thus should be suitable targets for future GRB missions. Interestingly, our optimistic model predicts an event rate that is already constrained by the current radio transient searches. We expect ~10-104 radio afterglows above ~0.3 mJy on the sky with ~1 year variability and mostly without GRBs (orphans), which are detectable by ALMA, EVLA, LOFAR, and SKA, while we expect to observe maximum of N < 20 GRBs per year integrated over at z > 6 for Pop III.2 and N < 0.08 per year integrated over at z > 10 for Pop III.1 with EXIST, and N < 0.2 for Pop III.2 GRBs per year integrated over at z > 6 with Swift.

  15. Center for X-ray Optics, 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-04-01

    This report briefly reviews the following topics: soft-x-ray imaging; reflective optics for hard x-rays; coherent XUV sources; spectroscopy with x-rays; detectors for coronary artery imaging; synchrotron-radiation optics; and support for the advanced light source.

  16. Student X-Ray Fluorescence Experiments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fetzer, Homer D.; And Others

    1975-01-01

    Describes the experimental arrangement for x-ray analysis of samples which involves the following: the radioisotopic x-ray disk source; a student-built fluorescence chamber; the energy dispersive x-ray detector, linear amplifier and bias supply; and a multichannel pulse height analyzer. (GS)

  17. Cryotomography x-ray microscopy state

    DOEpatents

    Le Gros, Mark; Larabell, Carolyn A.

    2010-10-26

    An x-ray microscope stage enables alignment of a sample about a rotation axis to enable three dimensional tomographic imaging of the sample using an x-ray microscope. A heat exchanger assembly provides cooled gas to a sample during x-ray microscopic imaging.

  18. Synchrotron Radiation from Outer Space and the Chandra X-Ray Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weisskopf, M. C.

    2006-01-01

    The universe provides numerous extremely interesting astrophysical sources of synchrotron X radiation. The Chandra X-ray Observatory and other X-ray missions provide powerful probes of these and other cosmic X-ray sources. Chandra is the X-ray component of NASA's Great Observatory Program which also includes the Hubble Space telescope, the Spitzer Infrared Telescope Facility, and the now defunct Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory. The Chandra X-Ray Observatory provides the best angular resolution (sub-arcsecond) of any previous, current, or planned (for the foreseeable near future) space-based X-ray instrumentation. We present here a brief overview of the technical capability of this X-Ray observatory and some of the remarkable discoveries involving cosmic synchrotron sources.

  19. Data needs for X-ray astronomy satellites

    SciTech Connect

    Kallman, T.

    2013-07-11

    I review the current status of atomic data for X-ray astronomy satellites. This includes some of the astrophysical issues which can be addressed, current modeling and analysis techniques, computational tools, the limitations imposed by currently available atomic data, and the validity of standard assumptions. I also discuss the future: challenges associated with future missions and goals for atomic data collection.

  20. Planetary protection issues and the future exploration of Mars.

    PubMed

    DeVincenzi, D L

    1992-01-01

    A primary scientific theme for the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) is the search for life, extant or extinct, on Mars. Because of this, concerns about Planetary Protection (PP), the prevention of biological cross-contamination between Earth and other planets during solar system exploration missions, have arisen. A recent workshop assessed the necessity for, and impact of, PP requirements on the unmanned and human missions to Mars comprising the SEI. The following ground-rules were adopted: 1) information needed for assessing PP issues must be obtained during the unmanned precursor mission phase prior to human landings; 2) returned Mars samples will be considered biologically hazardous until proven otherwise; 3) deposition of microbes on Mars and exposure of the crew to Martian materials are inevitable when humans land; and, 4) human landings are unlikely until it is demonstrated that there is no harmful effect of Martian materials on terrestrial life forms. These ground-rules dictated the development of a conservative PP strategy for precursor missions. Key features of the proposed strategy include: 1) for prevention of forward contamination, all orbiters will follow Mars Observer PP procedures for assembly, trajectory, and lifetime. All landers will follow Viking PP procedures for assembly, microbial load reduction, and bioshield; and, 2) for prevention of back contamination, all sample return missions will have PP requirements which include fail-safe sample sealing, breaking contact chain with the Martian surface, and containment and quarantine analysis in an Earth-based lab. In addition to deliberating on scientific and technical issues, the workshop made several recommendations for dealing with forward and back contamination concerns from non-scientific perspectives.

  1. Nanopore-based instruments as biosensors for future planetary missions.

    PubMed

    Rezzonico, Fabio

    2014-04-01

    Data from automated orbiters and landers have dashed humankind's hopes of finding complex life-forms elsewhere in the Solar System. The focus of exobiological research was thus forced to shift from the detection of life through simple visual imaging to complex biochemical experiments aimed at the detection of microbial activity. Searching for biosignatures over interplanetary distances is a formidable task and poses the dilemma of what are the proper experiments that can be performed on-site to maximize the chances of success if extraterrestrial life is present but not evident. Despite their astonishing morphological diversity, all known organisms on Earth share the same basic molecular architecture; thus the vast majority of our detection and identification techniques are b(i)ased on Terran biochemistry. There is, however, a distinct possibility that life may have emerged elsewhere by using other molecular building blocks, a fact that is likely to make the outcome of most of the current molecular biological and biochemical life-detection protocols difficult to interpret if not completely ineffective. Nanopore-based sensing devices allow the analysis of single molecules, including the sequence of informational biopolymers such as DNA or RNA, by measuring current changes across an electrically resistant membrane when the analyte flows through an embedded transmembrane protein or a solid-state nanopore. Under certain basic assumptions about their physical properties, this technology has the potential to discriminate and possibly analyze biopolymers, in particular genetic information carriers, without prior detailed knowledge of their fundamental chemistry and is sufficiently portable to be used for automated analysis in planetary exploration, all of which makes it the ideal candidate for the search for life signatures in remote watery environments such as Mars, Europa, or Enceladus.

  2. Nanopore-based instruments as biosensors for future planetary missions.

    PubMed

    Rezzonico, Fabio

    2014-04-01

    Data from automated orbiters and landers have dashed humankind's hopes of finding complex life-forms elsewhere in the Solar System. The focus of exobiological research was thus forced to shift from the detection of life through simple visual imaging to complex biochemical experiments aimed at the detection of microbial activity. Searching for biosignatures over interplanetary distances is a formidable task and poses the dilemma of what are the proper experiments that can be performed on-site to maximize the chances of success if extraterrestrial life is present but not evident. Despite their astonishing morphological diversity, all known organisms on Earth share the same basic molecular architecture; thus the vast majority of our detection and identification techniques are b(i)ased on Terran biochemistry. There is, however, a distinct possibility that life may have emerged elsewhere by using other molecular building blocks, a fact that is likely to make the outcome of most of the current molecular biological and biochemical life-detection protocols difficult to interpret if not completely ineffective. Nanopore-based sensing devices allow the analysis of single molecules, including the sequence of informational biopolymers such as DNA or RNA, by measuring current changes across an electrically resistant membrane when the analyte flows through an embedded transmembrane protein or a solid-state nanopore. Under certain basic assumptions about their physical properties, this technology has the potential to discriminate and possibly analyze biopolymers, in particular genetic information carriers, without prior detailed knowledge of their fundamental chemistry and is sufficiently portable to be used for automated analysis in planetary exploration, all of which makes it the ideal candidate for the search for life signatures in remote watery environments such as Mars, Europa, or Enceladus. PMID:24684166

  3. Planetary protection issues and the future exploration of Mars.

    PubMed

    DeVincenzi, D L

    1992-01-01

    A primary scientific theme for the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) is the search for life, extant or extinct, on Mars. Because of this, concerns about Planetary Protection (PP), the prevention of biological cross-contamination between Earth and other planets during solar system exploration missions, have arisen. A recent workshop assessed the necessity for, and impact of, PP requirements on the unmanned and human missions to Mars comprising the SEI. The following ground-rules were adopted: 1) information needed for assessing PP issues must be obtained during the unmanned precursor mission phase prior to human landings; 2) returned Mars samples will be considered biologically hazardous until proven otherwise; 3) deposition of microbes on Mars and exposure of the crew to Martian materials are inevitable when humans land; and, 4) human landings are unlikely until it is demonstrated that there is no harmful effect of Martian materials on terrestrial life forms. These ground-rules dictated the development of a conservative PP strategy for precursor missions. Key features of the proposed strategy include: 1) for prevention of forward contamination, all orbiters will follow Mars Observer PP procedures for assembly, trajectory, and lifetime. All landers will follow Viking PP procedures for assembly, microbial load reduction, and bioshield; and, 2) for prevention of back contamination, all sample return missions will have PP requirements which include fail-safe sample sealing, breaking contact chain with the Martian surface, and containment and quarantine analysis in an Earth-based lab. In addition to deliberating on scientific and technical issues, the workshop made several recommendations for dealing with forward and back contamination concerns from non-scientific perspectives. PMID:11538130

  4. International cooperation in planetary exploration - Past success and future prospects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosendhal, Jeffrey D.

    1987-01-01

    A review is given of the ways in which the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has participated in international efforts to explore the solar system. Past examples of successful international cooperative programs are described. Prospects for future cooperative efforts are discussed with emphasis placed on current events, issues, and trends which are likely to affect possibilities for cooperation over the next 5 to 10 years. Key factors which will play a major role in shaping future prospects for cooperation include the move towards balancing the budget in the United States and the impact of the Challenger accident on the NASA program.

  5. Design and implementation of an x-ray reflectometer system for testing x-ray optics coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gurgew, Danielle N.; Broadway, David; Gubarev, Mikhail; Ramsey, Brian

    2015-09-01

    We have developed an X-ray reflectometer (XRR) system for the characterization of various soft and hard X-ray optic coatings being developed at Marshall Space Flight Center. The XRR system generates X-ray radiation with a highoutput Rigaku rotating anode source (RAS), operational at a voltage range of 5 - 35 kV, a current range of 10-150 mA. A series of precision slits, adjustable down to approximately 25 micrometers, positioned in the beam path limit the extent of the x-ray beam and control the resolution of the XRR measurement while a goniometer consisting of two precision rotary stages controls the angular position of the coating sample and X-ray detector with respect to the beam. With the high count rate capability of the RAS, a very-high-speed silicon drift detector, the Amptek Fast Silicon Drift Detector (SDD), is implemented to achieve good count rate efficiency and improve reflectivity measurements of coatings at larger graze angles. The coating sample can be adjusted using a series of linear and tipping stages to perfectly align the center of the sample with the center of the incident X-ray beam. These stages in conjunction with the goniometer components are integrated through original control software resulting in full automation of the XRR system. We will show some initial XRR measurements of both single and multilayer coatings made with this system. These results and future measurements are used to characterize potential X-ray optic coatings culminating in the production of highly reflective coatings operational at a large range of X-ray energies.

  6. Cosmic X-ray physics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccammon, D.; Cox, D. P.; Kraushaar, W. L.; Sanders, W. T.

    1987-01-01

    The soft X-ray sky survey data are combined with the results from the UXT sounding rocket payload. Very strong constraints can then be placed on models of the origin of the soft diffuse background. Additional observational constraints force more complicated and realistic models. Significant progress was made in the extraction of more detailed spectral information from the UXT data set. Work was begun on a second generation proportional counter response model. The first flight of the sounding rocket will have a collimator to study the diffuse background.

  7. {sup 30}S Beam Development and X-ray Bursts

    SciTech Connect

    Kahl, D.; Kubono, S.; Binh, D. N.; Hashimoto, T.; Hayakawa, S.; Kurihara, Y.; Ohshiro, Y.; Yamaguchi, H.; Chen, A. A.; Chen, J.; Setoodeh nia, K.; Kaji, D.; Nishimura, S.; Kim, A.; Lee, N. H.; Wakabayashi, Y.

    2010-03-01

    Over the past three years, we have worked on developing a well-characterized {sup 30}S radioactive beam to be used in a future experiment aiming to directly measure to extrapolate the {sup 30}S(alpha,p) stellar reaction rate within the Gamow window of Type I X-ray bursts. The importance of the {sup 30}S(alpha,p) reaction to X-ray bursts is discussed. Given the astrophysical motivation, the successful results of and challenges involved in the production of a low-energy {sup 30}S beam are detailed. Finally, an overview of our future plans regarding this on-going project are presented.

  8. Lifting the veil on the X-ray universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1999-11-01

    ESA's X-ray Multi Mirror mission - XMM - is the second Cornerstone in ESA's Long Term Scientific Programme (*). This new X-ray space telescope promises even more discoveries. With the large collecting area of its mirrors and the high sensitivity of its cameras, XMM is expected to increase radically our understanding of high-energy sources - clues to a mysterious past, and keys to understanding the future of the Universe. 174 wafer-thin X-ray mirrors X-rays coming from celestial objects are highly energetic and elusive. They can best be measured and studied after focusing a sufficient number upon sensitive detectors. To achieve this, XMM's Mirror Modules have been given a gargantuan appetite for X-rays. The space observatory combines three barrel-shaped telescope modules. In each are nested 58 wafer-thin concentric mirror shells highly polished and subtly shaped. Passing through at an extremely shallow angle, the so-called "grazing incidence", the X-rays will be beamed to the science instruments situated on the focal plane at the other extremity of the satellite. The three mirror modules have a total mirror surface of over 120m2 - practically the size of a tennis court.. The collecting power of XMM's three telescopes is the greatest ever seen on an X-ray space mission, many times more than the most recently launched X-ray satellite. The design and assembly of the mirror modules, their testing for operation in space and their precise calibration constitute one of the greatest achievements of the XMM programme. The flimsy mirror shells, with their gold reflective surface on a nickel backing, were made by replication like carbon copies from master moulds. They were shaped to an accuracy of a thousandth of a millimetre, and then polished to a smoothness a thousand times better than that. Packaged one within another like Russian dolls, each mirror was focused and centred with respect to its neighbour to an accuracy of 25 microns - a quarter of the width of a human hair

  9. X-ray Spectroscopy of Cooling Cluster

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, J.R.; Fabian, A.C.; /Cambridge U., Inst. of Astron.

    2006-01-17

    We review the X-ray spectra of the cores of clusters of galaxies. Recent high resolution X-ray spectroscopic observations have demonstrated a severe deficit of emission at the lowest X-ray temperatures as compared to that expected from simple radiative cooling models. The same observations have provided compelling evidence that the gas in the cores is cooling below half the maximum temperature. We review these results, discuss physical models of cooling clusters, and describe the X-ray instrumentation and analysis techniques used to make these observations. We discuss several viable mechanisms designed to cancel or distort the expected process of X-ray cluster cooling.

  10. Comets: mechanisms of x-ray activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibadov, Subhon

    2016-07-01

    Basic mechanisms of X-ray activity of comets are considered, including D-D mechanism corresponding to generation of X-rays due to production of hot short-living plasma clumps at high-velocity collisions between cometary and interplanetary dust particles as well as M-M one corresponding to production of X-rays due to recombination of multicharge ions of solar wind plasma via charge exchange process at their collisions with molecules/atoms of the cometary atmospheres. Peculiarities of the variation of the comet X-ray spectrum and X-ray luminosity with variation of its heliocentric distance are revealed.

  11. X-ray transmissive debris shield

    DOEpatents

    Spielman, R.B.

    1996-05-21

    An X-ray debris shield for use in X-ray lithography that is comprised of an X-ray window having a layer of low density foam exhibits increased longevity without a substantial increase in exposure time. The low density foam layer serves to absorb the debris emitted from the X-ray source and attenuate the shock to the window so as to reduce the chance of breakage. Because the foam is low density, the X-rays are hardly attenuated by the foam and thus the exposure time is not substantially increased.

  12. X-ray transmissive debris shield

    DOEpatents

    Spielman, Rick B.

    1996-01-01

    An X-ray debris shield for use in X-ray lithography that is comprised of an X-ray window having a layer of low density foam exhibits increased longevity without a substantial increase in exposure time. The low density foam layer serves to absorb the debris emitted from the X-ray source and attenuate the shock to the window so as to reduce the chance of breakage. Because the foam is low density, the X-rays are hardly attenuated by the foam and thus the exposure time is not substantially increased.

  13. X-ray imaging for palaeontology.

    PubMed

    Hohenstein, P

    2004-05-01

    Few may be aware that X-ray imaging is used in palaeontology and has been used since as early as 1896. The X-raying, preparation and exposure of Hunsrück slate fossils are described. Hospital X-ray machines are used by the author in his work. An X-ray is vital to provide evidence that preparation of a slate is worthwhile as well as to facilitate preparation even if there is little external sign of what lies within. The beauty of the X-ray exposure is an added bonus.

  14. Ionospheric effects of solar x-rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danskin, Donald

    2016-07-01

    The ionospheric absorption of radio waves caused by solar x-ray bursts is measured directly by Riometers from the Canada Riometer Array. The absorption is found to be proportional to the square root of the flux intensity of the X-ray burst with time delays of 18-20 seconds between the peak X-ray emission and absorption in the ionosphere. A detailed analysis showed that some X-ray flares during 2011-2014 are more effective at producing absorption than others. Solar longitude of X-ray burst for several X-class flares shows no consistent pattern of enhancement in the absorption.

  15. Atmospheric electron x-ray spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feldman, Jason E. (Inventor); George, Thomas (Inventor); Wilcox, Jaroslava Z. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    The present invention comprises an apparatus for performing in-situ elemental analyses of surfaces. The invention comprises an atmospheric electron x-ray spectrometer with an electron column which generates, accelerates, and focuses electrons in a column which is isolated from ambient pressure by a:thin, electron transparent membrane. After passing through the membrane, the electrons impinge on the sample in atmosphere to generate characteristic x-rays. An x-ray detector, shaping amplifier, and multi-channel analyzer are used for x-ray detection and signal analysis. By comparing the resultant data to known x-ray spectral signatures, the elemental composition of the surface can be determined.

  16. Challenges for Synchrotron X-Ray Optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freund, Andreas K.

    2002-12-01

    It is the task of x-ray optics to adapt the raw beam generated by modern sources such as synchrotron storage rings to a great variety of experimental requirements in terms of intensity, spot size, polarization and other parameters. The very high quality of synchrotron radiation (source size of a few microns and beam divergence of a few micro-radians) and the extreme x-ray flux (power of several hundred Watts in a few square mm) make this task quite difficult. In particular the heat load aspect is very important in the conditioning process of the brute x-ray power to make it suitable for being used on the experimental stations. Cryogenically cooled silicon crystals and water-cooled diamond crystals can presently fulfill this task, but limits will soon be reached and new schemes and materials must be envisioned. A major tendency of instrument improvement has always been to concentrate more photons into a smaller spot utilizing a whole variety of focusing devices such as Fresnel zone plates, refractive lenses and systems based on bent surfaces, for example, Kirkpatrick-Baez systems. Apart from the resistance of the sample, the ultimate limits are determined by the source size and strength on one side, by materials properties, cooling, mounting and bending schemes on the other side, and fundamentally by the diffraction process. There is also the important aspect of coherence that can be both a nuisance and a blessing for the experiments, in particular for imaging techniques. Its conservation puts additional constraints on the quality of the optical elements. The overview of the present challenges includes the properties of present and also mentions aspects of future x-ray sources such as the "ultimate" storage ring and free electron lasers. These challenges range from the thermal performances of monochromators to the surface quality of mirrors, from coherence preservation of modern multilayers to short pulse preservation by crystals, and from micro- and nano

  17. X-ray lithography using holographic images

    DOEpatents

    Howells, Malcolm R.; Jacobsen, Chris

    1995-01-01

    A non-contact X-ray projection lithography method for producing a desired X-ray image on a selected surface of an X-ray-sensitive material, such as photoresist material on a wafer, the desired X-ray image having image minimum linewidths as small as 0.063 .mu.m, or even smaller. A hologram and its position are determined that will produce the desired image on the selected surface when the hologram is irradiated with X-rays from a suitably monochromatic X-ray source of a selected wavelength .lambda.. On-axis X-ray transmission through, or off-axis X-ray reflection from, a hologram may be used here, with very different requirements for monochromaticity, flux and brightness of the X-ray source. For reasonable penetration of photoresist materials by X-rays produced by the X-ray source, the wavelength X, is preferably chosen to be no more than 13.5 nm in one embodiment and more preferably is chosen in the range 1-5 nm in the other embodiment. A lower limit on linewidth is set by the linewidth of available microstructure writing devices, such as an electron beam.

  18. X-ray diffraction at Matter in Extreme Conditions endstation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xing, Zhou; Galtier, Eric; Lee, Hae Ja; Nagler, Bob

    2015-11-01

    Understanding dynamic response at the atomic level under extreme conditions is highly sought after goal to science frontiers studying warm dense matter, high pressure, geoscience, astrophysics, and planetary science. Thus it is of importance to determine the high pressure phases or metastable phases of material under shock compression. In situ X-ray diffraction technique using LCLS free electron laser X-ray is a powerful tool to record structural behavior and microstructure evolution in dense matter. Shock-induced compression and phase transitions of material lead to changes of the lattice spacing or evolution of new X-ray diffraction patterns. In this talk, we describe a platform dedicated for the X-ray diffraction studies at Matter in Extreme Conditions (MEC), which can be used to reconstruct a complete diffraction pattern from numerous detectors, optimize detector positioning in a timely manner, extract the lattice spacing profiles and texture features. This platform is available to the user community for real-time analysis. We will also discuss experimental results, using this platform, on the crystalline silicon phase transitions up to 60 GPa.

  19. Extended range X-ray telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoover, R. B. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    An X-ray telescope system is described which is comprised of a tubular mount having a collecting region remote from the one axial end. A soft X-ray/XUV subsystem associated with the collecting region directs only relatively soft, near on-axis X-rays/XUV radiation incident on a first portion of the collecting region into a first detector sensitive to relatively soft X-rays/XUV radiation. A hard X-ray subsystem associated with the collecting region directs only relatively hard near on-axis X-rays incident on a second portion of the collecting region into a second detector sensitive to relatively hard X-rays.

  20. Evolution of X-ray astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rossj, B.

    1981-01-01

    The evolution of X-ray astronomy up to the launching of the Einstein observatory is presented. The evaluation proceeded through the following major steps: (1) discovery of an extrasolar X-ray source, Sco X-1, orders of magnitude stronger than astronomers believed might exist; (2) identification of a strong X-ray source with the Crab Nebula; (3) identification of Sco X-1 with a faint, peculiar optical object; (4) demonstration that X-ray stars are binary systems, each consisting of a collapsed object accreting matter from an ordinary star; (5) discovery of X-ray bursts; (6) discovery of exceedingly strong X-ray emission from active galaxies, quasars and clusters of galaxies; (7) demonstration that the principal X-ray source is a hot gas filling the space between galaxies.

  1. X ray imaging microscope for cancer research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoover, Richard B.; Shealy, David L.; Brinkley, B. R.; Baker, Phillip C.; Barbee, Troy W., Jr.; Walker, Arthur B. C., Jr.

    1991-01-01

    The NASA technology employed during the Stanford MSFC LLNL Rocket X Ray Spectroheliograph flight established that doubly reflecting, normal incidence multilayer optics can be designed, fabricated, and used for high resolution x ray imaging of the Sun. Technology developed as part of the MSFC X Ray Microscope program, showed that high quality, high resolution multilayer x ray imaging microscopes are feasible. Using technology developed at Stanford University and at the DOE Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Troy W. Barbee, Jr. has fabricated multilayer coatings with near theoretical reflectivities and perfect bandpass matching for a new rocket borne solar observatory, the Multi-Spectral Solar Telescope Array (MSSTA). Advanced Flow Polishing has provided multilayer mirror substrates with sub-angstrom (rms) smoothnesss for the astronomical x ray telescopes and x ray microscopes. The combination of these important technological advancements has paved the way for the development of a Water Window Imaging X Ray Microscope for cancer research.

  2. SphinX x-ray spectrophotometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kowaliński, Mirosław

    2012-05-01

    This paper presents assumptions to a PhD thesis. The thesis will be based on the construction of Solar Photometer in X-rays (SphinX). SphinX was an instrument developed to detect the soft X-rays from the Sun. It was flown on board the Russian CORONAS-Photon satellite from January 30, 2009 to the end of November, 2009. During 9 months in orbit SphinX provided an excellent and unique set of observations. It revealed about 750 flares and brightenings. The instrument observed in energy range 1.0 - 15.0 keV with resolution below ~0.5 keV. Here, the SphinX instrument objectives, design, performance and operation principle are described. Below results of mechanical and thermal - vacuum tests necessary to qualify the instrument to use in space environment are presented. Also the calibration results of the instrument are discussed. In particular detail it is described the Electrical Ground Support Equipment (EGSE) for SphinX. The EGSE was used for all tests of the instrument. At the end of the paper results obtained from the instrument during operation in orbit are discussed. These results are compared with the other similar measurements performed from the separate spacecraft instruments. It is suggested design changes in future versions of SphinX.

  3. X-ray deconvolution microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Ehn, Sebastian; Epple, Franz Michael; Fehringer, Andreas; Pennicard, David; Graafsma, Heinz; Noël, Peter; Pfeiffer, Franz

    2016-01-01

    Recent advances in single-photon-counting detectors are enabling the development of novel approaches to reach micrometer-scale resolution in x-ray imaging. One example of such a technology are the MEDIPIX3RX-based detectors, such as the LAMBDA which can be operated with a small pixel size in combination with real-time on-chip charge-sharing correction. This characteristic results in a close to ideal, box-like point spread function which we made use of in this study. The proposed method is based on raster-scanning the sample with sub-pixel sized steps in front of the detector. Subsequently, a deconvolution algorithm is employed to compensate for blurring introduced by the overlap of pixels with a well defined point spread function during the raster-scanning. The presented approach utilizes standard laboratory x-ray equipment while we report resolutions close to 10 μm. The achieved resolution is shown to follow the relationship pn with the pixel-size p of the detector and the number of raster-scanning steps n. PMID:27446649

  4. X-ray omni microscopy.

    PubMed

    Paganin, D; Gureyev, T E; Mayo, S C; Stevenson, A W; Nesterets, Ya I; Wilkins, S W

    2004-06-01

    The science of wave-field phase retrieval and phase measurement is sufficiently mature to permit the routine reconstruction, over a given plane, of the complex wave-function associated with certain coherent forward-propagating scalar wave-fields. This reconstruction gives total knowledge of the information that has been encoded in the complex wave-field by passage through a sample of interest. Such total knowledge is powerful, because it permits the emulation in software of the subsequent action of an infinite variety of coherent imaging systems. Such 'virtual optics', in which software forms a natural extension of the 'hardware optics' in an imaging system, may be useful in contexts such as quantitative atom and X-ray imaging, in which optical elements such as beam-splitters and lenses can be realized in software rather than optical hardware. Here, we develop the requisite theory to describe such hybrid virtual-physical imaging systems, which we term 'omni optics' because of their infinite flexibility. We then give an experimental demonstration of these ideas by showing that a lensless X-ray point projection microscope can, when equipped with the appropriate software, emulate an infinite variety of optical imaging systems including those which yield interferograms, Zernike phase contrast, Schlieren imaging and diffraction-enhanced imaging.

  5. X-ray deconvolution microscopy.

    PubMed

    Ehn, Sebastian; Epple, Franz Michael; Fehringer, Andreas; Pennicard, David; Graafsma, Heinz; Noël, Peter; Pfeiffer, Franz

    2016-04-01

    Recent advances in single-photon-counting detectors are enabling the development of novel approaches to reach micrometer-scale resolution in x-ray imaging. One example of such a technology are the MEDIPIX3RX-based detectors, such as the LAMBDA which can be operated with a small pixel size in combination with real-time on-chip charge-sharing correction. This characteristic results in a close to ideal, box-like point spread function which we made use of in this study. The proposed method is based on raster-scanning the sample with sub-pixel sized steps in front of the detector. Subsequently, a deconvolution algorithm is employed to compensate for blurring introduced by the overlap of pixels with a well defined point spread function during the raster-scanning. The presented approach utilizes standard laboratory x-ray equipment while we report resolutions close to 10 μm. The achieved resolution is shown to follow the relationship [Formula: see text] with the pixel-size p of the detector and the number of raster-scanning steps n. PMID:27446649

  6. Observational Aspects of Hard X-ray Polarimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chattopadhyay, Tanmoy

    2016-04-01

    Sensitive polarization measurements in X-ray may address a wealth of astrophysical phenomena, which so far remain beyond our understanding through available X-ray spectroscopic, imaging, and timing studies. Though scientific potential of X-ray polarimetry was realized long ago, there has not been any significant advancement in this field for the last four decades since the birth of X-ray astronomy. The only successful polarization measurement in X-rays dates back to 1976, when a Bragg polarimeter onboard OSO-8 measured polarization of Crab nebula. Primary reason behind the lack in progress is its extreme photon hungry nature, which results in poor sensitivity of the polarimeters. Recently, in the last decade or so, with the advancement in detection technology, X-ray polarimetry may see a significant progress in near future, especially in soft X-rays with the invention of photoelectron tracking polarimeters. Though photoelectric polarimeters are expected to provide sensitive polarization measurements of celestial X-ray sources, they are sensitive only in soft X-rays, where the radiation from the sources is dominated by thermal radiation and therefore expected to be less polarized. On the other hand, in hard X-rays, sources are ex-pected to be highly polarized due to the dominance of nonthermal emission over its thermal counterpart. Moreover, polarization measurements in hard X-rays promises to address few interesting scientific issues regarding geometry of corona for black hole sources, emission mechanism responsible for the higher energy peak in the blazars, accretion geometry close to the magnetic poles in accreting neutron star systems and acceleration mechanism in solar flares. Compton polarimeters provide better sensitivity than photoelectric polarimeters in hard X-rays with a broad energy band of operation. Recently, with the development of hard X-ray focusing optics e.g. NuSTAR, Astro-H, it is now possible to conceive Compton polarimeters at the focal plane

  7. Characterization of New Hard X-ray Cataclysmic Variables

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bernardini, F.; deMartino, D.; Falanga, M.; Mukai, K.; Matt, G.; Bonnet-Bidaud, J.-M.; Masetti, N.; Mouchet, M.

    2012-01-01

    Aims. We aim at characterizing a sample of nine new hard X-ray selected Cataclysmic Variable (CVs), to unambiguously identify them as magnetic systems of the Intermediate Polar (IP) type. Methods. We performed detailed timing and spectral analysis by using X-ray, and simultaneous UV and optical data collected by XMM-Newton, complemented with hard X-ray data provided by INTEGRAL and Swift. The pulse arrival time were used to estimate the orbital periods. The broad band X-ray spectra were fitted using composite models consisting of different absorbing columns and emission components. Results. Strong X-ray pulses at the White Dwarf (WD) spin period are detected and found to decrease with energy. Most sources are spin-dominated systems in the X-rays, though four are beat dominated at optical wavelengths. We estimated the orbital period in all system (except for IGR J16500-3307), providing the first estimate for IGRJ08390-4833, IGRJ18308-1232, and IGR J18173-2509. All X-ray spectra are multi-temperature. V2069 Cyg and RX J0636+3535 poses a soft X-ray optically thick component at kT approx. 80 eV. An intense K (sub alpha) Fe line at 6.4 keV is detected in all sources. An absorption edge at 0.76 keV from OVII is detected in IGR J08390-4833. The WD masses and lower limits to the accretion rates are also estimated. Conclusions. We found all sources to be IPs. IGR J08390-4833, V2069 Cyg, and IGR J16500-3307 are pure disc accretors, while IGR J18308-1232, IGR J1509-6649, IGR J17195-4100, and RX J0636+3535 display a disc-overflow accretion mode. All sources show a temperature gradient in the post-shock regions and a highly absorbed emission from material located in the pre-shock flow which is also responsible for the X-ray pulsations. Reflection at the WD surface is likely the origin of the fluorescent iron line. There is an increasing evidence for the presence of a warm absorber in IPs, a feature that needs future exploration. The addition of two systems to the subgroup of

  8. A High Efficiency Grazing Incidence Pumped X-ray Laser

    SciTech Connect

    Dunn, J; Keenan, R; Price, D F; Patel, P K; Smith, R F; Shlyaptsev, V N

    2006-08-31

    The main objective of the project is to demonstrate a proof-of-principle, new type of high efficiency, short wavelength x-ray laser source that will operate at unprecedented high repetition rates (10Hz) that could be scaled to 1kHz or higher. The development of a high average power, tabletop x-ray laser would serve to complement the wavelength range of 3rd and future 4th generation light sources, e.g. the LCLS, being developed by DOE-Basic Energy Sciences. The latter are large, expensive, central, synchrotron-based facilities while the tabletop x-ray laser is compact, high-power laser-driven, and relatively inexpensive. The demonstration of such a unique, ultra-fast source would allow us to attract funding from DOE-BES, NSF and other agencies to pursue probing of diverse materials undergoing ultrafast changes. Secondly, this capability would have a profound impact on the semiconductor industry since a coherent x-ray laser source would be ideal for ''at wavelength'' {approx}13 nm metrology and microscopy of optics and masks used in EUV lithography. The project has major technical challenges. We will perform grazing-incidence pumped laser-plasma experiments in flat or groove targets which are required to improve the pumping efficiency by ten times. Plasma density characterization using our existing unique picosecond x-ray laser interferometry of laser-irradiated targets is necessary. Simulations of optical laser propagation as well as x-ray laser production and propagation through freely expanding and confined plasma geometries are essential. The research would be conducted using the Physics Directorate Callisto and COMET high power lasers. At the end of the project, we expect to have a high-efficiency x-ray laser scheme operating below 20 nm at 10Hz with a pulse duration of {approx}2 ps. This will represent the state-of-the-art in x-ray lasers and would be a major step forward from our present picosecond laser-driven x-ray lasers. There is an added bonus of creating

  9. Lunar and Planetary Science XXXV: The Future of Mars Surface Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    The session The Future of Mars Surface Exploration includes the following topics: 1) High Resolution Laser Scanning Techniques for Rock Abrasion and Texture Analyses on Mars and Earth; 2) Definitive Mineralogical Analysis of Mars Analog Rocks Using the CheMin XRD/XRF Instrument; 3) Quantitative Mineralogical Analysis of Mars Analogues Using CHEMIN Data and Rietveld Refinement; 4) In Situ Analytical Strategy for Mars Combining X-Ray and Optical Techniques; 5) In-Situ Dating on Mars: The Potential of OSL Dating; 6) Experiment of Dynamic Albedo of Neutrons (DAN): Searching for Water-rich Spots from the Rover on the Surface of Mars; and 7) Developing an Automated Science Analysis System for Mars Surface Exploration for MSL and Beyond.

  10. Soft X-ray spectroscopy of astrophysical plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kahn, Steven M.

    These lectures are intended to provide a review of the basic physics necessary for the interpretation of high resolution soft X-ray spectra of astrophysical sources. While many of the topics I discuss can be found at the requisite level of sophistication in standard textbooks on atomic physics and spectroscopy, I have made an attempt to highlight those aspects which are especially important for X-ray transitions, and which are relevant at the characteristic temperatures and densities typically found in various types of X-ray emitting astrophysical plasmas. My emphasis is on discrete atomic transitions, which dominate the spectra of most cosmic sources in the soft X-ray band (100eV≤E≤10 keV). I do not discuss basic continuum processes like bremsstrahlung, synchrotron emission, and inverse Compton emission, as these are covered well in the usual texts used to introduce students to radiative processes in astrophysics. The organization is as follows: I provide a brief introduction to the role of X-ray spectroscopy in astrophysics, and the physical conditions in various types of cosmic X-ray sources. Chapters 1 through 3 cover the essentials of atomic physics: classical and quantum radiation theory, atomic structure, and electron-ion collisional processes, respectively. In Chap. 4, I discuss the various types of equilibria that apply in astrophysical plasmas, and in Chap. 5, I provide a relatively brief review of the most important discrete-line spectral diagnostics that fall in the soft X-ray band. Chapter 6 includes a set of concluding remarks and some thoughts on where this field might be headed in the future.

  11. High Mass X-ray Binary Pulsars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naik, Sachindra

    2016-07-01

    High Mass X-ray Binaries (HMXBs) are interesting objects that provide a wide range of observational probes to the nature of the two stellar components, accretion process, stellar wind and orbital parameters of the systems. Most of the transient HMXBs are found to Be/X-ray binaries (~67%), consisting of a compact object (neutron star) in orbit around the companion Be star. The orbit of the compact object around the Be star is wide and highly eccentric. Be/X-ray binaries are generally quiescent in X-ray emission. The transient X-ray outbursts seen in these objects are known to be due to interaction between the compact object and the circumstellar disk surrounding the Be star. In the recent years, another class of transient HMXBs have been found which have supergiant companions and show shorter X-ray outbursts. X-ray, infrared and optical observations of these HMXBs provide vital information regarding these systems. The timing and broad-band X-ray spectral properties of a few HMXB pulsars, mainly Be/X-ray binary pulsars during regular X-ray outbursts will be discussed.

  12. Controlling X-rays With Light

    SciTech Connect

    Glover, Ernie; Hertlein, Marcus; Southworth, Steve; Allison, Tom; van Tilborg, Jeroen; Kanter, Elliot; Krassig, B.; Varma, H.; Rude, Bruce; Santra, Robin; Belkacem, Ali; Young, Linda

    2010-08-02

    Ultrafast x-ray science is an exciting frontier that promises the visualization of electronic, atomic and molecular dynamics on atomic time and length scales. A largelyunexplored area of ultrafast x-ray science is the use of light to control how x-rays interact with matter. In order to extend control concepts established for long wavelengthprobes to the x-ray regime, the optical control field must drive a coherent electronic response on a timescale comparable to femtosecond core-hole lifetimes. An intense field is required to achieve this rapid response. Here an intense optical control pulse isobserved to efficiently modulate photoelectric absorption for x-rays and to create an ultrafast transparency window. We demonstrate an application of x-ray transparencyrelevant to ultrafast x-ray sources: an all-photonic temporal cross-correlation measurement of a femtosecond x-ray pulse. The ability to control x-ray/matterinteractions with light will create new opportunities at current and next-generation x-ray light sources.

  13. Single photon energy dispersive x-ray diffraction.

    PubMed

    Higginbotham, Andrew; Patel, Shamim; Hawreliak, James A; Ciricosta, Orlando; Collins, Gilbert W; Coppari, Federica; Eggert, Jon H; Suggit, Matthew J; Tang, Henry; Wark, Justin S

    2014-03-01

    With the pressure range accessible to laser driven compression experiments on solid material rising rapidly, new challenges in the diagnosis of samples in harsh laser environments are emerging. When driving to TPa pressures (conditions highly relevant to planetary interiors), traditional x-ray diffraction techniques are plagued by increased sources of background and noise, as well as a potential reduction in signal. In this paper we present a new diffraction diagnostic designed to record x-ray diffraction in low signal-to-noise environments. By utilising single photon counting techniques we demonstrate the ability to record diffraction patterns on nanosecond timescales, and subsequently separate, photon-by-photon, signal from background. In doing this, we mitigate many of the issues surrounding the use of high intensity lasers to drive samples to extremes of pressure, allowing for structural information to be obtained in a regime which is currently largely unexplored.

  14. Single photon energy dispersive x-ray diffraction

    SciTech Connect

    Higginbotham, Andrew; Patel, Shamim; Ciricosta, Orlando; Suggit, Matthew J.; Wark, Justin S.; Hawreliak, James A.; Collins, Gilbert W.; Coppari, Federica; Eggert, Jon H.; Tang, Henry

    2014-03-15

    With the pressure range accessible to laser driven compression experiments on solid material rising rapidly, new challenges in the diagnosis of samples in harsh laser environments are emerging. When driving to TPa pressures (conditions highly relevant to planetary interiors), traditional x-ray diffraction techniques are plagued by increased sources of background and noise, as well as a potential reduction in signal. In this paper we present a new diffraction diagnostic designed to record x-ray diffraction in low signal-to-noise environments. By utilising single photon counting techniques we demonstrate the ability to record diffraction patterns on nanosecond timescales, and subsequently separate, photon-by-photon, signal from background. In doing this, we mitigate many of the issues surrounding the use of high intensity lasers to drive samples to extremes of pressure, allowing for structural information to be obtained in a regime which is currently largely unexplored.

  15. Inelastic X-ray Scattering from Shocked Liquid Deuterium

    SciTech Connect

    Regan, S. P.; Falk, K.; Gregori, G.; Radha, P. B.; Hu, S. X.; Boehly, T. R.; Crowley, B.; Glenzer, S. H.; Landen, O.; Gericke, D. O.; Doeppner, T.; Meyerhofer, D. D.; Murphy, C. D.; Sangster, T. C.; Vorberger, J.

    2012-12-28

    The Fermi-degenerate plasma conditions created in liquid deuterium by a laser-ablation—driven shock wave were probed with noncollective, spectrally resolved, inelastic x-ray Thomson scattering employing Cl Lyα line emission at 2.96 keV. Thus, these first x-ray Thomson scattering measurements of the microscopic properties of shocked deuterium show an inferred spatially averaged electron temperature of 8±5 eV, an electron density of 2.2(±0.5)×1023 cm-3, and an ionization of 0.8 (-0.25, +0.15). Our two-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations using equation-of-state models suited for the extreme parameters occurring in inertial confinement fusion research and planetary interiors are consistent with the experimental results.

  16. Inelastic X-ray Scattering from Shocked Liquid Deuterium

    DOE PAGES

    Regan, S. P.; Falk, K.; Gregori, G.; Radha, P. B.; Hu, S. X.; Boehly, T. R.; Crowley, B.; Glenzer, S. H.; Landen, O.; Gericke, D. O.; et al

    2012-12-28

    The Fermi-degenerate plasma conditions created in liquid deuterium by a laser-ablation—driven shock wave were probed with noncollective, spectrally resolved, inelastic x-ray Thomson scattering employing Cl Lyα line emission at 2.96 keV. Thus, these first x-ray Thomson scattering measurements of the microscopic properties of shocked deuterium show an inferred spatially averaged electron temperature of 8±5 eV, an electron density of 2.2(±0.5)×1023 cm-3, and an ionization of 0.8 (-0.25, +0.15). Our two-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations using equation-of-state models suited for the extreme parameters occurring in inertial confinement fusion research and planetary interiors are consistent with the experimental results.

  17. Next Generation X-ray Optics: High Angular Resolution, Light Weight, and Low Production Cost

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, William

    2014-08-01

    Every conceivable future x-ray astronomical mission would require x-ray optics. These optics must meet the three-fold requirements of angular resolution, effective area, and cost.In this poster we will present the rationale, technical approach, and status of an x-ray optics technology development program that has been underway at Goddard Space Flight Center and Marshall Space Flight Center.

  18. Resource Letter on Stimulated Inelastic X-ray Scattering at an XFEL

    SciTech Connect

    Patterson, Bruce D.; /SLAC

    2010-09-02

    At sufficient X-ray intensity, stimulated effects in inelastic scattering will become important. These coherent, non-linear optical phenomena may be used to impulsively produce a high degree of collective excitation in, for example, correlated electron materials, suitable for performing ultrafast time-resolved spectroscopy. This Resource Letter collects information on fundamental aspects of stimulated X-ray scattering and evaluates the prospect for successful experiments at a present or future X-ray free electron laser (XFEL) facility.

  19. Diffractive X-Ray Telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Skinner, Gerald K.

    2010-01-01

    Diffractive X-ray telescopes, using zone plates, phase Fresnel lenses, or related optical elements have the potential to provide astronomers with true imaging capability with resolution many orders of magnitude better than available in any other waveband. Lenses that would be relatively easy to fabricate could have an angular resolution of the order of micro-arc-seconds or even better, that would allow, for example, imaging of the distorted spacetime in the immediate vicinity of the super-massive black holes in the center of active galaxies. What then is precluding their immediate adoption? Extremely long focal lengths, very limited bandwidth, and difficulty stabilizing the image are the main problems. The history, and status of the development of such lenses is reviewed here and the prospects for managing the challenges that they present are discussed.

  20. Ultraluminous X-ray Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gladstone, Jeanette

    2012-07-01

    The first black hole was observed almost 50 years ago, ˜ 1 year after Sco X-1 (although its nature was not confirmed for ˜ 11 years). Observations of black holes have been ongoing since then, falling in to two distinct categories; stellar-mass (sMBHs; 3 - 80 M_{⊙}) and super-massive black holes (10^6 - 10^9 M_⊙). The missing link between these two types, intermediate mass black holes, has been the target of many searches due to their cosmological implications. Ultraluminous X-ray sources (ULXs) have been proposed to harbor such objects, but recent observational evidence has strongly suggested that the majority contain sMBHs. However, a handful of the brightest ULXs are so luminous that they defy this explanation. Here we will discuss the nature of both standard ULXs and this new bright subgroup of this population.

  1. Industrial X-Ray Imaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    In 1990, Lewis Research Center jointly sponsored a conference with the U.S. Air Force Wright Laboratory focused on high speed imaging. This conference, and early funding by Lewis Research Center, helped to spur work by Silicon Mountain Design, Inc. to break the performance barriers of imaging speed, resolution, and sensitivity through innovative technology. Later, under a Small Business Innovation Research contract with the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, the company designed a real-time image enhancing camera that yields superb, high quality images in 1/30th of a second while limiting distortion. The result is a rapidly available, enhanced image showing significantly greater detail compared to image processing executed on digital computers. Current applications include radiographic and pathology-based medicine, industrial imaging, x-ray inspection devices, and automated semiconductor inspection equipment.

  2. Soft x-ray interferometry

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-09-01

    The purpose of the soft x-ray interferometry workshop held at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory was to discuss with the scientific community the proposed technical design of the soft x-ray Fourier-transform spectrometer being developed at the ALS. Different design strategies for the instrument`s components were discussed, as well as detection methods, signal processing issues, and how to meet the manufacturing tolerances that are necessary for the instrument to achieve the desired levels of performance. Workshop participants were encouraged to report on their experiences in the field of Fourier transform spectroscopy. The ALS is developing a Fourier transform spectrometer that is intended to operate up to 100 eV. The motivation is solely improved resolution and not the throughput (Jaquinot) or multiplex (Fellgett) advantage, neither of which apply for the sources and detectors used in this spectral range. The proposed implementation of this is via a Mach-Zehnder geometry that has been (1) distorted from a square to a rhombus to get grazing incidence of a suitable angle for 100 eV and (2) provided with a mirror-motion system to make the path difference between the interfering beams tunable. The experiment consists of measuring the emergent light intensity (I(x)) as a function of the path difference (x). The resolving power of the system is limited by the amount of path difference obtainable that is 1 cm (one million half-waves at 200{angstrom} wavelength) in the design thus allowing a resolving power of one million. The free spectral range of the system is limited by the closeness with which the function I(x) is sampled. It is proposed to illuminate a helium absorption cell with roughly 1%-band-width light from a monochromator thus allowing one hundred aliases without spectral overlap even for sampling of I(x) at one hundredth of the Nyquist frequency.

  3. Mass Spectrometry for Planetary Probes: Past, Present and Future

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Niemann, Hasso B.; Harpold, Dan N.; Jamieson, Brian G.; Mahaffy, Paul R.

    2005-01-01

    Atmospheric entry probes present a unique opportunity for performing quantitative analysis of extra-terrestrial atmospheres in cases where remote sensing alone may not be sufficient and measurements with balloons or aircraft is not practical. An entry probe can provide a complete vertical profile of atmospheric parameters including chemical composition, which cannot be obtained with most other techniques. There are, however, unique challenges associated with building instruments for an entry probe, as compared to orbiters, landers, or rovers. Conditions during atmospheric entry are extreme, there are inherent time constraints due to the short duration of the experiment, and the instrument experiences rapid environmental changes in temperature and pressure as it descends. In addition, there are resource limitations, i.e. mass, power, size and bandwidth. Finally, the demands on the instrument design are determined in large part by conditions (pressure, temperature, composition) unique to the particular body under study, and as a result there is no one-size-fits-all instrument for an atmospheric probe. Many of these requirements can be more easily met by miniaturizing the probe instrument. Our experience building mass spectrometers for atmospheric entry probes leads us to believe that the time is right for a fundamental change in the way spaceflight mass spectrometers are built. The emergence over the past twenty years of Micro-electro- mechanical Systems (MEMS), utilizing lithographic semiconductor fabrication techniques to produce instrument systems in miniature, holds great promise for application to spaceflight mass spectrometry. A highly miniaturized, high performance and low-power mass spectrometer would be an enormous benefit to future entry probe missions, allowing, for example, parallel measurements (e.g., multiple simultaneous gas chromatographic analyses and direct atmospheric leaks.) Such an instrument would also enable mass spectrometry on board small

  4. (Bayesian) Inference for X-ray Timing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huppenkothen, Daniela

    2016-07-01

    Fourier techniques have been incredibly successful in describing variability of X-ray binaries (XRBs) and Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN). The detection and characterization of both broadband noise components and quasi-periodic oscillations as well as their behavior in the context of spectral changes during XRB outbursts has become an important tool for studying the physical processes of accretion and ejection in these systems. In this talk, I will review state-of-the-art techniques for characterizing variability in compact objects and show how these methods help us understand the causes of the observed variability and how we may use it to probe fundamental physics. Despite numerous successes, however, it has also become clear that many scientific questions cannot be answered with traditional timing methods alone. I will therefore also present recent advances, some in the time domain like CARMA, to modeling variability with generative models and discuss where these methods might lead us in the future.

  5. X-ray Reflection Gratings: Technology Development Status Update

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McEntaffer, Randall L.

    2016-04-01

    We present the current status in the development of X-ray reflection gratings. Gratings mounted in the off-plane configuration are capable of achieving high spectral resolving power concurrently with high diffraction efficiency. This will enable key soft X-ray spectroscopy science goals to be achieved. We have identified hurdles to practically achieving the theoretical performance goals. Here we present our methodologies to overcome these challenges. Furthermore, we discuss how we test these methods to quantify performance capabilities. The results of these tests are placed in the context of Technology Readiness Level (TRL) in order to demonstrate our current status and to discuss our plans for the future.

  6. Replicated Nickel Optics for the Hard-X-Ray Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramsey, Brian

    2005-01-01

    Replicated nickel optics has been used extensively in x-ray astronomy, most notable for the XMM/Newton mission. Thc combination of relative ease of fabrication and the inherent stability of full shell optics, make them FIJI attractive approach for medium-resolution, high-throughput applications. MSFC has been developing these optics for use in the hard-x-ray region. Efforts at improving the resolution of these, particularly the very-thin shells required to meet thc weight budget of future missions, will be described together with the prospects for significant improvements down to the 5-arcsec level.

  7. Ancient administrative handwritten documents: X-ray analysis and imaging.

    PubMed

    Albertin, F; Astolfo, A; Stampanoni, M; Peccenini, Eva; Hwu, Y; Kaplan, F; Margaritondo, G

    2015-03-01

    Handwritten characters in administrative antique documents from three centuries have been detected using different synchrotron X-ray imaging techniques. Heavy elements in ancient inks, present even for everyday administrative manuscripts as shown by X-ray fluorescence spectra, produce attenuation contrast. In most cases the image quality is good enough for tomography reconstruction in view of future applications to virtual page-by-page `reading'. When attenuation is too low, differential phase contrast imaging can reveal the characters from refractive index effects. The results are potentially important for new information harvesting strategies, for example from the huge Archivio di Stato collection, objective of the Venice Time Machine project. PMID:25723946

  8. X-Ray astronomy the 1980's. [conferences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holt, S. S. (Editor)

    1981-01-01

    The status of the current understanding of important problems to which X-ray astronomical techniques can be applied is summarized and the prospects for such research in the future is discussed. Relatively near-term X-ray astronomical research objectives are presented. The importance of a continuing program of balloon-borne research as a cost effective means by which studies at energies in excess of 20 keV may be performed is emphasized. The scientific opportunities presented by the Space Transpotation System to develop low cost experiments which are beyond the scope of balloon-borne capabilities are also highlighted.

  9. Advanced X-Ray Sources Ensure Safe Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    Ames Research Center awarded inXitu Inc. (formerly Microwave Power Technology), of Mountain View, California, an SBIR contract to develop a new design of electron optics for forming and focusing electron beams that is applicable to a broad class of vacuum electron devices. This technology offers an inherently rugged and more efficient X-ray source for material analysis; a compact and rugged X-ray source for smaller rovers on future Mars missions; and electron beam sources to reduce undesirable emissions from small, widely distributed pollution sources; and remediation of polluted sites.

  10. Hard X-Ray Measurements of Polycapillary Optics for Astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kolodziejczak, Jeffery J.; Joy, Marshall K.; Russell, Christine H.; Gibson, Walter M.; Gubarev, MikhailV.

    1999-01-01

    Results from hard x-ray tests of a polycapillary optic will be presented. A prototype polycapillary optic consisting of about 2500 individual capillary bundles was provided by X-ray Optical Systems, Inc. The optic was tested at the 100m-long stray-light facility at Marshall Space Flight Center over the 8-50 keV energy band using a CZT detector. Significantly improved high-energy response was observed over previous versions. Implications of these results for future balloon and space astronomy missions will also be reviewed.

  11. EUV spectroscopy of high-redshift x-ray objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kowalski, M. P.; Wolff, M. T.; Wood, K. S.; Barbee, T. W., Jr.; Barstow, M. A.

    2010-07-01

    As astronomical observations are pushed to cosmological distances (z>3) the spectral energy distributions of X-ray objects, AGN for example, will be redshifted into the EUV waveband. Consequently, a wealth of critical spectral diagnostics, provided by, for example, the Fe L-shell complex and the O VII/VIII lines, will be lost to future planned X-ray missions (e.g., IXO, Gen-X) if operated at traditional X-ray energies. This opens up a critical gap in performance located at short EUV wavelengths, where critical X-ray spectral transitions occur in high-z objects. However, normal-incidence multilayer-grating technology, which performs best precisely at such wavelengths, together with advanced nanolaminate replication techniques have been developed and are now mature to the point where advanced EUV instrument designs with performance complementary to IXO and Gen-X are practical. Such EUV instruments could be flown either independently or as secondary instruments on these X-ray missions. We present here a critical examination of the limits placed on extragalactic EUV measurements by ISM absorption, the range where high-z measurements are practical, and the requirements this imposes on next-generation instrument designs. We conclude with a discussion of a breakthrough technology, nanolaminate replication, which enables such instruments.

  12. X-ray optic developments at NASA's MSFC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atkins, C.; Ramsey, B.; Kilaru, K.; Gubarev, M.; O'Dell, S.; Elsner, R.; Swartz, D.; Gaskin, J.; Weisskopf, M.

    2013-05-01

    NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) has a successful history of fabricating optics for astronomical x-ray telescopes. In recent years optics have been created using electroforming replication for missions such as the balloon payload HERO (High energy replicated optics) and the rocket payload FOXSI (Focusing Optics x-ray Solar Imager). The same replication process is currently being used in the creation seven x-ray mirror modules (one module comprising of 28 nested shells) for the Russian ART-XC (Astronomical Rontgen Telescope) instrument aboard the Spectrum-Roentgen-Gamma mission and for large-diameter mirror shells for the Micro-X rocket payload. In addition to MSFC's optics fabrication, there are also several areas of research and development to create the high resolution light weight optics which are required by future x-ray telescopes. Differential deposition is one technique which aims to improve the angular resolution of lightweight optics through depositing a filler material to smooth out fabrication imperfections. Following on from proof of concept studies, two new purpose built coating chambers are being assembled to apply this deposition technique to astronomical x-ray optics. Furthermore, MSFC aims to broaden its optics fabrication through the recent acquisition of a Zeeko IRP 600 robotic polishing machine. This paper will provide a summary of the current missions and research and development being undertaken at NASA's MSFC.

  13. Fluence thresholds for grazing incidence hard x-ray mirrors

    SciTech Connect

    Aquila, A.; Ozkan, C.; Sinn, H.; Tschentscher, T.; Mancuso, A. P.; Gaudin, J.; Sobierajski, R.; Klepka, M. T.; Dłużewski, P.; Morawiec, K.; Störmer, M.; Bajt, S.; Ohashi, H.; Koyama, T.; Tono, K.; Inubushi, Y. [RIKEN and others

    2015-06-15

    X-ray Free Electron Lasers (XFELs) have the potential to contribute to many fields of science and to enable many new avenues of research, in large part due to their orders of magnitude higher peak brilliance than existing and future synchrotrons. To best exploit this peak brilliance, these XFEL beams need to be focused to appropriate spot sizes. However, the survivability of X-ray optical components in these intense, femtosecond radiation conditions is not guaranteed. As mirror optics are routinely used at XFEL facilities, a physical understanding of the interaction between intense X-ray pulses and grazing incidence X-ray optics is desirable. We conducted single shot damage threshold fluence measurements on grazing incidence X-ray optics, with coatings of ruthenium and boron carbide, at the SPring-8 Angstrom compact free electron laser facility using 7 and 12 keV photon energies. The damage threshold dose limits were found to be orders of magnitude higher than would naively be expected. The incorporation of energy transport and dissipation via keV level energetic photoelectrons accounts for the observed damage threshold.

  14. Fluence thresholds for grazing incidence hard x-ray mirrors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aquila, A.; Sobierajski, R.; Ozkan, C.; Hájková, V.; Burian, T.; Chalupský, J.; Juha, L.; Störmer, M.; Bajt, S.; Klepka, M. T.; DłuŻewski, P.; Morawiec, K.; Ohashi, H.; Koyama, T.; Tono, K.; Inubushi, Y.; Yabashi, M.; Sinn, H.; Tschentscher, T.; Mancuso, A. P.; Gaudin, J.

    2015-06-01

    X-ray Free Electron Lasers (XFELs) have the potential to contribute to many fields of science and to enable many new avenues of research, in large part due to their orders of magnitude higher peak brilliance than existing and future synchrotrons. To best exploit this peak brilliance, these XFEL beams need to be focused to appropriate spot sizes. However, the survivability of X-ray optical components in these intense, femtosecond radiation conditions is not guaranteed. As mirror optics are routinely used at XFEL facilities, a physical understanding of the interaction between intense X-ray pulses and grazing incidence X-ray optics is desirable. We conducted single shot damage threshold fluence measurements on grazing incidence X-ray optics, with coatings of ruthenium and boron carbide, at the SPring-8 Angstrom compact free electron laser facility using 7 and 12 keV photon energies. The damage threshold dose limits were found to be orders of magnitude higher than would naively be expected. The incorporation of energy transport and dissipation via keV level energetic photoelectrons accounts for the observed damage threshold.

  15. Progress and prospects in soft x-ray holographic microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Howells, M.R.; Jacobsen, C.; Kirz, J.; McQuaid, K.; Rothman, S.S.

    1987-12-01

    We report some of the latest developments in x-ray holography experiments and make some speculations about the limits of performance of the approaches currently in use. We also make some suggestions about where the technique can (and cannot) go in the future. 32 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  16. Neutron Stars and Thermonuclear X-ray Bursts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhattacharyya, Supid

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation describes neutron stars and thermonuclear x ray bursts. The contents include: 1) Neutron Stars: why do we care?; 2) Thermonuclear Bursts: why do we care?; 3) Neutron Stars: Mass, Radius and Spin: a. Continuum Spectroscopy of Bursts b. Spectral Lines from Bursts c. Timing Properties of Bursts; 4) Neutron Star Atmosphere: Thermonuclear Flame Spreading; and 5) Future Prospects and Conclusions.

  17. X-rays for medical use

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hessenbruch, A.

    1995-11-01

    1995 is the centenary of the discovery of X-rays by the German physicist Wilhelm C Rontgen. In the past hundred years, the new rays have developed from being unknown to finding application in many walks of life, not least in medicine. This is so much so that in common speech the word `x-ray` refers not to a form of radiation but to an X-ray photograph taken for the purposes of diagnosis (as in: `I had an X-ray done to see if my leg was broken`). X-rays are now used routinely, and they are used both for diagnosis and for therapy. This paper will give an outline of the use of X-rays in medicine throughout our present century.

  18. Towards practical soft X-ray spectromicroscopy of biomaterials.

    PubMed

    Hitchcock, A P; Morin, C; Heng, Y M; Cornelius, R M; Brash, J L

    2002-01-01

    Scanning transmission X-ray microscopy (STXM) is being developed as a new tool to study the surface chemical morphology and biointeractions of candidate biomaterials with emphasis on blood compatible polymers. STXM is a synchrotron based technique which provides quantitative chemical mapping at a spatial resolution of 50 nm. Chemical speciation is provided by the near edge X-ray absorption spectral (NEXAFS) signal. We show that STXM can detect proteins on soft X-ray transparent polymer thin films with monolayer sensitivity. Of great significance is the fact that measurements can be made in situ, i.e. in the presence of an overlayer of the protein solution. The strengths, limitations and future potential of STXM for studies of biomaterials are discussed.

  19. Charge-coupled device area x-ray detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gruner, Sol M.; Tate, Mark W.; Eikenberry, Eric F.

    2002-08-01

    Charge-coupled device (CCD) area x-ray detector technology is reviewed. CCD detectors consist of a serial chain of signal components, such as phosphors, fiber optics or lenses, image intensifiers and the CCD which serve to convert the x-ray energy to light or electron-hole pairs and to record the spatially resolved image. The various combinations of components that have been used to make CCD detectors are described and the properties of each of the critical components are discussed. Calibration and correction procedures required for accurate data collection are described. The review closes with a brief description of future directions for solid-state area x-ray detectors.

  20. Technology Development for Nickel X-Ray Optics Enhancement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bubarev, Mikhail; Ramsey, Brian; Engelhaupt, Darell

    2008-01-01

    We are developing grazing-incidence x-ray optics for high-energy astrophysics using the electroform-nickel replication process. In this process, mirror shells are fabricated by replication off super-polished cylindrical mandrels. The mirrors fabricated using this process have a demonstrated optical performance at the level of 11-12 arc seconds resolution (HPD) for 30 keV x rays. Future missions demand ever higher angular resolutions and this places stringent requirements on the quality of the mandrels, the precision of the metrology, and the mounting and alignment of the mirror shells in their housings. A progress report on recent technology developments in all these areas will be presented along with a discussion on possible post fabrication, in-situ improvement of the x-ray mirrors quality.

  1. Probing Transient Electron Dynamics Using Ultrafast X Rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bucksbaum, Philip

    2016-05-01

    Linear x-ray absorption in atoms or molecules creates highly excited multi-electron quantum systems, which relax rapidly by fluorescence or Auger emission. These relaxation rates are usually less than a few femtoseconds in duration, and so they can reveal transient elecronic states in molecules as they undergo photo-induced transformations. I will show recent results from femtosecond x-ray experiments that display this phenomenon. There are efforts underway to push the temporal resolving power of ultrafast x-ray pulses into the attosecond regime, using stronger fields to initiate nonlinear absorption processes such as transient stimulated electronic Raman scattering. I will discuss current progress and future prospects for research in this area. This research is supported through Stanford PULSE Institute, SLAC National Accelerator Lab by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Science Program.

  2. Nested mirrors for X-rays and Neutrons

    SciTech Connect

    Ice, Gene E; Barabash, Rozaliya; Khounsary, Ali

    2009-01-01

    Montel (nested) Kirkpatrick-Baez mirrors can focus X-ray and neutron beams with larger divergences into small beams than is possible with standard (sequential) Kirkpatrick-Baez optics. They also provide for a more compact focusing system and higher fluxes into small beams than with current alternatives. These attributes make Montel optics critically important for both achromatic neutron and X-ray focusing. Here we describe design rules that optimize mirror performance under various constraints, including diffraction-limited, and flux-limited focusing. We also describe first tests of optical designs that employ nesting as a way to improve neutron microfocusing optics and suggest future directions for X-ray nanofocusing optics.

  3. Multilayer structures for X-ray laser cavities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ceglio, N. M.; Stearns, D. G.; Hawryluk, A. M.

    1985-08-01

    Recent demonstrations of the generation of amplified spontaneous emission at soft X-ray wavelenths have spurred interest in normal incidence multilayer structures for use as X-ray laser (XRL) cavity mirrors. Calculations indicate that cavity mirrors can provide significant enhancement of RXL output, and drive the oscillations to the saturation limit. Novel ideas for cavity output coupling may expand the versatility of XRL devices, while encouraging the marriage of lithographic and multilayer technologies to the general benefit of X-ray optics. Preliminary tests of a double pass cavity have already been conducted. These tests point out the importance of detailed cavity design issues such as precision mirror alignment, mirror damage dynamics, and detailed mirror calibration, to the future success of this field.

  4. Effect of focusing optics on x-ray speckle contrast

    SciTech Connect

    Retsch, C. C.; Wang, Y.; Frigo, S. P.; McNulty, I.; Lurio, L. B.; Stephenson, G. B.

    1999-11-02

    The authors investigated the behavior of speckle contrast and size under various experimental conditions using 1.82 keV x-rays. In this paper, they report the comparison of two different setups for x-ray speckle experiments: one employing a focusing zone plate and one in which a pinhole selects the size of the coherent x-ray beam. They found a strong dependence of the speckle contrast and size on the type of setup. In general, the pinhole setup results in higher contrast but smaller speckle size. On the other hand the zone plate setup allows one to target much smaller areas of interest in the sample, down to submicron dimensions, and also to adjust the speckle size. The authors anticipate that these results will be useful in future time-correlation spectroscopy experiments.

  5. Imaging cochlear soft tissue displacement with coherent x-rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rau, Christoph; Richter, Claus-Peter

    2015-10-01

    At present, imaging of cochlear mechanics at mid-cochlear turns has not been accomplished. Although challenging, this appears possible with partially coherent hard x-rays. The present study shows results from stroboscopic x-ray imaging of a test object at audio frequencies. The vibration amplitudes were quantified. In a different set of experiments, an intact and calcified gerbil temporal bone was used to determine displacements of the reticular lamina, tectorial membrane, and Reissner’s membrane with the Lucas and Kanade video flow algorithm. The experiments validated high frequency x-ray imaging and imaging in a calcified cochlea. The present work is key for future imaging of cochlear micromechanics at a high spatial resolution.

  6. Powder X-ray Diffraction Using the Omega Laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eggert, Jon; Rygg, Ryan; Smith, Raymond; Bastea, Marina; Ping, Yuan; Shepherd, Ronnie; Collins, Gilbert

    2009-06-01

    The past several years have seen dramatic improvements in dynamic ramp-compression experiments to measure stress-density using laser and pulsed-power drivers. Goals for future experiments center on achieving pressures over 1 TPa (10 Mbar), while keeping the samples in a solid phase and applying additional diagnostics to probe the nature of these states. X-ray scattering is a natural probe for such studies due to the copious x-ray energy produced by laser sources. Such experiments allow studies of the crystal structure, texture, strength, and possibly temperature of ramp-compressed solids at unprecedented density. With this in mind we have developed a powder x-ray diffraction diagnostic fielded at the Omega laser. We will report our results on ramp-driven iron, tin and copper. This work performed under the auspices of the U.S. DOE by LLNL under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  7. X-ray transmissive debris shield

    DOEpatents

    Spielman, Rick B.

    1994-01-01

    A composite window structure is described for transmitting x-ray radiation and for shielding radiation generated debris. In particular, separate layers of different x-ray transmissive materials are laminated together to form a high strength, x-ray transmissive debris shield which is particularly suited for use in high energy fluences. In one embodiment, the composite window comprises alternating layers of beryllium and a thermoset polymer.

  8. Handbook of X-ray Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnaud, Keith; Smith, Randall; Siemiginowska, Aneta; Ellis, Richard; Huchra, John; Kahn, Steve; Rieke, George; Stetson, Peter B.

    2011-11-01

    Practical guide to X-ray astronomy for graduate students, professional astronomers and researchers. Presenting X-ray optics, basic detector physics and data analysis. It introduces the reduction and calibration of X-ray data, scientific analysis, archives, statistical issues and the particular problems of highly extended sources. The appendices provide reference material often required during data analysis. The handbook web page contains figures and tables: http://xrayastronomyhandbook.com/

  9. Topological X-Rays and MRIs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynch, Mark

    2002-01-01

    Let K be a compact subset of the interior of the unit disk D in the plane and suppose one can't see through the boundary of D and identify K. However, assume that one can take "topological X-rays" of D which measure the "density" of K along the lines of the X-rays. By taking these X-rays from all directions, a "topological MRI" is generated for…

  10. Lobster-Eye X-Ray Astronomy

    SciTech Connect

    Hudec, R.; Pina, L.; Marsikova, V.; Inneman, A.

    2010-07-15

    We report on technical and astrophysical aspects of Lobster-Eye wide-field X-ray telescopes expected to monitor the sky with high sensitivity and angular resolution of order of 1 arcmin. They will contribute essentially to study of various astrophysical objects such as AGN, SNe, Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), X-ray flashes (XRFs), galactic binary sources, stars, CVs, X-ray novae, various transient sources, etc.

  11. Applications of soft x-ray lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Skinner, C.H.

    1993-08-01

    The high brightness and short pulse duration of soft x-ray lasers provide unique advantages for novel applications. Imaging of biological specimens using x-ray lasers has been demonstrated by several groups. Other applications to fields such as chemistry, material science, plasma diagnostics, and lithography are beginning to emerge. We review the current status of soft x-ray lasers from the perspective of applications, and present an overview of the applications currently being developed.

  12. X-ray data booklet. Revision

    SciTech Connect

    Vaughan, D.

    1986-04-01

    A compilation of data is presented. Included are properties of the elements, electron binding energies, characteristic x-ray energies, fluorescence yields for K and L shells, Auger energies, energy levels for hydrogen-, helium-, and neonlike ions, scattering factors and mass absorption coefficients, and transmission bands of selected filters. Also included are selected reprints on scattering processes, x-ray sources, optics, x-ray detectors, and synchrotron radiation facilities. (WRF)

  13. High speed x-ray beam chopper

    DOEpatents

    McPherson, Armon; Mills, Dennis M.

    2002-01-01

    A fast, economical, and compact x-ray beam chopper with a small mass and a small moment of inertia whose rotation can be synchronized and phase locked to an electronic signal from an x-ray source and be monitored by a light beam is disclosed. X-ray bursts shorter than 2.5 microseconds have been produced with a jitter time of less than 3 ns.

  14. Observation of femtosecond X-ray interactions with matter using an X-ray-X-ray pump-probe scheme.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Ichiro; Inubushi, Yuichi; Sato, Takahiro; Tono, Kensuke; Katayama, Tetsuo; Kameshima, Takashi; Ogawa, Kanade; Togashi, Tadashi; Owada, Shigeki; Amemiya, Yoshiyuki; Tanaka, Takashi; Hara, Toru; Yabashi, Makina

    2016-02-01

    Resolution in the X-ray structure determination of noncrystalline samples has been limited to several tens of nanometers, because deep X-ray irradiation required for enhanced resolution causes radiation damage to samples. However, theoretical studies predict that the femtosecond (fs) durations of X-ray free-electron laser (XFEL) pulses make it possible to record scattering signals before the initiation of X-ray damage processes; thus, an ultraintense X-ray beam can be used beyond the conventional limit of radiation dose. Here, we verify this scenario by directly observing femtosecond X-ray damage processes in diamond irradiated with extraordinarily intense (∼10(19) W/cm(2)) XFEL pulses. An X-ray pump-probe diffraction scheme was developed in this study; tightly focused double-5-fs XFEL pulses with time separations ranging from sub-fs to 80 fs were used to excite (i.e., pump) the diamond and characterize (i.e., probe) the temporal changes of the crystalline structures through Bragg reflection. It was found that the pump and probe diffraction intensities remain almost constant for shorter time separations of the double pulse, whereas the probe diffraction intensities decreased after 20 fs following pump pulse irradiation due to the X-ray-induced atomic displacement. This result indicates that sub-10-fs XFEL pulses enable conductions of damageless structural determinations and supports the validity of the theoretical predictions of ultraintense X-ray-matter interactions. The X-ray pump-probe scheme demonstrated here would be effective for understanding ultraintense X-ray-matter interactions, which will greatly stimulate advanced XFEL applications, such as atomic structure determination of a single molecule and generation of exotic matters with high energy densities. PMID:26811449

  15. Observation of femtosecond X-ray interactions with matter using an X-ray-X-ray pump-probe scheme.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Ichiro; Inubushi, Yuichi; Sato, Takahiro; Tono, Kensuke; Katayama, Tetsuo; Kameshima, Takashi; Ogawa, Kanade; Togashi, Tadashi; Owada, Shigeki; Amemiya, Yoshiyuki; Tanaka, Takashi; Hara, Toru; Yabashi, Makina

    2016-02-01

    Resolution in the X-ray structure determination of noncrystalline samples has been limited to several tens of nanometers, because deep X-ray irradiation required for enhanced resolution causes radiation damage to samples. However, theoretical studies predict that the femtosecond (fs) durations of X-ray free-electron laser (XFEL) pulses make it possible to record scattering signals before the initiation of X-ray damage processes; thus, an ultraintense X-ray beam can be used beyond the conventional limit of radiation dose. Here, we verify this scenario by directly observing femtosecond X-ray damage processes in diamond irradiated with extraordinarily intense (∼10(19) W/cm(2)) XFEL pulses. An X-ray pump-probe diffraction scheme was developed in this study; tightly focused double-5-fs XFEL pulses with time separations ranging from sub-fs to 80 fs were used to excite (i.e., pump) the diamond and characterize (i.e., probe) the temporal changes of the crystalline structures through Bragg reflection. It was found that the pump and probe diffraction intensities remain almost constant for shorter time separations of the double pulse, whereas the probe diffraction intensities decreased after 20 fs following pump pulse irradiation due to the X-ray-induced atomic displacement. This result indicates that sub-10-fs XFEL pulses enable conductions of damageless structural determinations and supports the validity of the theoretical predictions of ultraintense X-ray-matter interactions. The X-ray pump-probe scheme demonstrated here would be effective for understanding ultraintense X-ray-matter interactions, which will greatly stimulate advanced XFEL applications, such as atomic structure determination of a single molecule and generation of exotic matters with high energy densities.

  16. Symbiotic Stars in X-rays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luna, G. J. M.; Sokoloski, J. L.; Mukai, K.; Nelson, T.

    2014-01-01

    Until recently, symbiotic binary systems in which a white dwarf accretes from a red giant were thought to be mainly a soft X-ray population. Here we describe the detection with the X-ray Telescope (XRT) on the Swift satellite of 9 white dwarf symbiotics that were not previously known to be X-ray sources and one that was previously detected as a supersoft X-ray source. The 9 new X-ray detections were the result of a survey of 41 symbiotic stars, and they increase the number of symbiotic stars known to be X-ray sources by approximately 30%. Swift/XRT detected all of the new X-ray sources at energies greater than 2 keV. Their X-ray spectra are consistent with thermal emission and fall naturally into three distinct groups. The first group contains those sources with a single, highly absorbed hard component, which we identify as probably coming from an accretion-disk boundary layer. The second group is composed of those sources with a single, soft X-ray spectral component, which likely arises in a region where low-velocity shocks produce X-ray emission, i.e. a colliding-wind region. The third group consists of those sources with both hard and soft X-ray spectral components. We also find that unlike in the optical, where rapid, stochastic brightness variations from the accretion disk typically are not seen, detectable UV flickering is a common property of symbiotic stars. Supporting our physical interpretation of the two X-ray spectral components, simultaneous Swift UV photometry shows that symbiotic stars with harder X-ray emission tend to have stronger UV flickering, which is usually associated with accretion through a disk. To place these new observations in the context of previous work on X-ray emission from symbiotic stars, we modified and extended the alpha/beta/gamma classification scheme for symbiotic-star X-ray spectra that was introduced by Muerset et al. based upon observations with the ROSAT satellite, to include a new sigma classification for sources with

  17. X-ray laser microscope apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Suckewer, Szymon; DiCicco, Darrell S.; Hirschberg, Joseph G.; Meixler, Lewis D.; Sathre, Robert; Skinner, Charles H.

    1990-01-01

    A microscope consisting of an x-ray contact microscope and an optical microscope. The optical, phase contrast, microscope is used to align a target with respect to a source of soft x-rays. The source of soft x-rays preferably comprises an x-ray laser but could comprise a synchrotron or other pulse source of x-rays. Transparent resist material is used to support the target. The optical microscope is located on the opposite side of the transparent resist material from the target and is employed to align the target with respect to the anticipated soft x-ray laser beam. After alignment with the use of the optical microscope, the target is exposed to the soft x-ray laser beam. The x-ray sensitive transparent resist material whose chemical bonds are altered by the x-ray beam passing through the target mater GOVERNMENT LICENSE RIGHTS This invention was made with government support under Contract No. De-FG02-86ER13609 awarded by the Department of Energy. The Government has certain rights in this invention.

  18. Separating Peaks in X-Ray Spectra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nicolas, David; Taylor, Clayborne; Wade, Thomas

    1987-01-01

    Deconvolution algorithm assists in analysis of x-ray spectra from scanning electron microscopes, electron microprobe analyzers, x-ray fluorescence spectrometers, and like. New algorithm automatically deconvolves x-ray spectrum, identifies locations of spectral peaks, and selects chemical elements most likely producing peaks. Technique based on similarities between zero- and second-order terms of Taylor-series expansions of Gaussian distribution and of damped sinusoid. Principal advantage of algorithm: no requirement to adjust weighting factors or other parameters when analyzing general x-ray spectra.

  19. An Imaging X-Ray Polarimetry Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weisskopf, Martin C.; Bellazini, Ronaldo; Costa, Enrico; Ramsey, Brian; O'Dell, Steve; Elsner, Ronald; Pavlov, George; Matt, Giorgio; Kaspi, Victoria; Tennant, Allyn; Coppi, Paolo; Wu, Kinwah; Siegmund, Oswald

    2008-01-01

    Technical progress both in x-ray optics and in polarization-sensitive x-ray detectors, which our groups have pioneered, enables a scientifically powerful---yet inexpensive---dedicated mission for imaging x-ray polarimetry. Such a mission is sufficiently sensitive to measure x-ray (linear) polarization for a broad range of cosmic sources --particularly those involving neutron stars, stellar black holes, and supermassive black holes (active galactic nuclei). We describe the technical elements, discuss a mission concept, and synopsize the important physical and astrophysical questions such a mission would address.

  20. An Imaging X-Ray Polarimetry Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weisskopf, Martin C.; Bellazini, Ronaldo; Costa, Enrico; Ramsey, Brian; O'Dell, Steve; Tennant, Allyn; Elsner, Ronald; Pavlov, George; Matt, Girogio; Kaspi, Vicky; Coppi, Paolo; Wu, Kinwah; Siegmund, Oswald

    2008-01-01

    Technical progress both in x-ray optics and in polarization-sensitive x-ray detectors, which our groups have pioneered, enables a scientifically powerful - yet inexpensive - dedicated mission for imaging x-ray polarimetry. Such a mission is sufficiently sensitive to measure x-ray (linear) polarization for a broad range of cosmic sources --- particularly those involving neutron stars, stellar black holes, and supermassive black holes (active galactic nuclei). We describe the technical elements, discuss a mission concept, and synopsiz:e the important physical and astrophysical questions such as mission would address.

  1. The Lunar X-ray Observatory (LXO)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Porter, F. Scott

    2008-01-01

    X-ray emission from charge exchange recombination between the highly ionized solar wind and neutral material i n Earth's magnetosheath has complicated x-ray observations of celestial objects with x-ray observatories including ROSAT, Chandra, XMM-Newton, and Suzaku. However, the charge-exchange emission can also be used as an important diagnostic of the solar-wind interacting with the magnetosheath. Soft x-ray observations from low-earth orbit or even the highly eccentric orbits of Chandra and XMM-Newton are likely superpositions of the celestial object of interest, the true extra-solar soft x-ray background, geospheric charge exchange, and heliospheric charge exchange. We show that with a small x-ray telescope placed either on the moon, in a similar vein as the Apollo ALSOP instruments, or at a stable orbit near L1, we can begin t o disentangle the complicated emission structure in the soft x-ray band. Here we present initial results of a feasibility study recently funded by NASA t o place a small x-ray telescope on the lunar surface. The telescope operates during lunar night to observe charge exchange interactions between the solar wind and magnetospheric neutrals, between the solar wind and the lunar atmosphere, and an unobstructed view of the soft x-ray background without the geospheric component.

  2. Colloid Coalescence with Focused X Rays

    SciTech Connect

    Weon, B. M.; Kim, J. T.; Je, J. H.; Yi, J. M.; Wang, S.; Lee, W.-K.

    2011-07-01

    We show direct evidence that focused x rays enable us to merge polymer colloidal particles at room temperature. This phenomenon is ascribed to the photochemical scission of colloids with x rays, reducing the molecular weight, glass transition temperature, surface tension, and viscosity of colloids. The observation of the neck bridge growth with time shows that the x-ray-induced colloid coalescence is analogous to viscoelastic coalescence. This finding suggests a feasible protocol of photonic nanofabrication by sintering or welding of polymers, without thermal damage, using x-ray photonics.

  3. X-rays from the youngest stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feigelson, Eric D.

    1994-01-01

    The X-ray properties of classical and weak-lined T Tauri stars are briefly reviewed, emphasizing recent results from the ROSAT satellite and prospects for ASCA. The interpretation of the high level of T Tauri X-rays as enhanced solar-type magnetic activity is discussed and criticized. The census of X-ray emitters is significantly increasing estimates of galactic star formation efficiency, and X-ray emission may be important for self-regulation of star formation. ASCA images will detect star formation regions out to several kiloparsecs and will study the magnetically heated plasma around T Tauri stars. However, images will often suffer from crowding effects.

  4. [X-ray diagnosis of histiocytosis X].

    PubMed

    Khomenko, A G; Dmitrieva, L I; Khikkel', Kh G; Stepanian, I E

    1988-01-01

    The results of a dynamic x-ray study of 27 patients suffering from histiocytosis X with lung involvement were analyzed; the study was supplemented by CT in 4 cases. X-ray semiotics of the disease was investigated with relation to its stage. X-ray symptom complexes were defined: interstitial, interstitial-granulomatous, and focal (tumorous). The authors have emphasized the fact that the small focal-cystic and pneumothoracic x-ray variants of the disease, described in literature, are not nosological entities but reflect only its stage and complications.

  5. Compound refractive X-ray lens

    DOEpatents

    Nygren, David R.; Cahn, Robert; Cederstrom, Bjorn; Danielsson, Mats; Vestlund, Jonas

    2000-01-01

    An apparatus and method for focusing X-rays. In one embodiment, his invention is a commercial-grade compound refractive X-ray lens. The commercial-grade compound refractive X-ray lens includes a volume of low-Z material. The volume of low-Z material has a first surface which is adapted to receive X-rays of commercially-applicable power emitted from a commercial-grade X-ray source. The volume of low-Z material also has a second surface from which emerge the X-rays of commercially-applicable power which were received at the first surface. Additionally, the commercial-grade compound refractive X-ray lens includes a plurality of openings which are disposed between the first surface and the second surface. The plurality of openings are oriented such that the X-rays of commercially-applicable power which are received at the first surface, pass through the volume of low-Z material and through the plurality openings. In so doing, the X-rays which emerge from the second surface are refracted to a focal point.

  6. Next Generation Astronomical X-ray Optics: High Angular Resolution, Light Weight, and Low Production Cost

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhang. W. W.; Biskach, M. P.; Blake, P. N.; Chan, K. W.; Gaskin, J. A.; Hong, M. L.; Jones, W. D.; Kolos, L. D.; Mazzarella, J. R.; McClelland, R. S.; O'Dell, S. L.; Saha, T. T.; Sharpe, M. V.

    2012-01-01

    X-ray astronomy depends on the availability of telescopes with high resolution and large photon collecting areas. Since x-ray observation can only be carried out above the atmosphere, these telescopes must be necessarily lightweight. Compounding the lightweight requirement is that an x-ray telescope consists of many nested concentric shells, which further require that x-ray mirrors must also be geometrically thin to achieve high packing efficiency. This double lightweight and geometrically thin requirement poses significant technical challenges in fabricating the mirrors and in integrating them into mirror assemblies. This paper reports on the approach, strategy and status of our x-ray optics development program whose objective is to meet these technical challenges at modest cost to enable future x-ray missions, including small Explorer missions in the near term, probe class missions in the medium term, and large flagship missions in the long term.

  7. Note: High-pressure in situ x-ray laminography using diamond anvil cell.

    PubMed

    Nomura, Ryuichi; Uesugi, Kentaro

    2016-04-01

    A high-pressure in situ X-ray laminography technique was developed using a newly designed, laterally open diamond anvil cell. A low X-ray beam of 8 keV energy was used, aiming at future application to dual energy X-ray chemical imaging techniques. The effects of the inclination angle and the imaging angle range were evaluated at ambient pressure using the apparatus. Sectional images of ruby ball samples were successfully reconstructed at high pressures, up to approximately 50 GPa. The high-pressure in situ X-ray laminography technique is expected to provide new insights into the deep Earth sciences. PMID:27131721

  8. Combined X-Ray and mm-Wave Observations of Radio Quiet Active Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behar, E.

    2016-06-01

    A connection between the X-ray and radio sources in radio quiet active galaxies (AGNs) will be demonstrated. High radio frequency, i.e., mm-wave observations are promising probes of the X-ray emitting inner regions of the accretion disks in radio quiet AGNs. An argument for simultaneous observations in X-rays and in mm waves will be made, in order to promote these as one of the future science goals of X-ray and AGN astronomy in the next decade. Preliminary results from an exploratory campaign with several space and ground based telescopes will be presented.

  9. First Images from HERO: A Hard-X-Ray Focusing Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramsey, Brian D.; Alexander, Cheryl D.; Apple, Jeff A.; Benson, Carl M.; Dietz, Kurtis L.; Elsner, Ronald F.; Engelhaupt, Darell E.; Ghosh, Kajal K.; Kolodziejczak, Jeffery J.; ODell, Stephen L.; Whitaker, Ann F. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    We are developing a balloon-borne hard-x-ray telescope that utilizes grazing incidence optics. Termed HERO, for High-Energy Replicated Optics, the instrument will provide unprecented sensitivity in the hard-x-ray region and will achieve milliCrab-level sensitivity in a typical 3-hour balloon-flight observation and 50 microCrab sensitivity on ultra-long-duration flights. A recent proof-of-concept flight, featuring a small number of mirror shells captured the first focused hard-x-ray images of galactic x-ray sources. Full details of the payload, its expected future performance and its recent measurements are provided.

  10. Note: High-pressure in situ x-ray laminography using diamond anvil cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nomura, Ryuichi; Uesugi, Kentaro

    2016-04-01

    A high-pressure in situ X-ray laminography technique was developed using a newly designed, laterally open diamond anvil cell. A low X-ray beam of 8 keV energy was used, aiming at future application to dual energy X-ray chemical imaging techniques. The effects of the inclination angle and the imaging angle range were evaluated at ambient pressure using the apparatus. Sectional images of ruby ball samples were successfully reconstructed at high pressures, up to approximately 50 GPa. The high-pressure in situ X-ray laminography technique is expected to provide new insights into the deep Earth sciences.

  11. EXACT – The Solar X-Ray Spectrometer CubeSat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knuth, Trevor; Glesener, Lindsay; Gebre-Egziabher, Demoz; Vogt, Ryan; Denis, Charles; Weiher, Hannah; Runnels, Joel; Vievering, Juliana

    2016-05-01

    The Experiment for X-ray Characterization and Timing (EXACT) mission will be a CubeSat based hard X-ray spectrometer used for viewing solar flares with high time precision. Solar flares and the related coronal mass ejections affect space weather and the near-Earth environment. EXACT can study the hard X-rays generated by the Sun in the declining phase of Solar Cycle 24 in order to probe electron acceleration in solar eruptive events while also serving as a precursor to future hard X-ray spectrometers that could monitor the Sun continuously.

  12. X-Ray Imaging Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    OBrien, Susan K.; Workman, Gary L.

    1996-01-01

    The space environment in which the Space Station Freedom and other space platforms will orbit is truly a hostile environment. For example, the currently estimated integral fluence for electrons above 1 Mev at 2000 nautical miles is above 2 x 1O(exp 10) electrons/sq cm/day and the proton integral fluence is above 1 x 10(exp 9) protons/sq cm/day. At the 200 - 400 nautical miles, which is more representative of the altitude which will provide the environment for the Space Station, each of these fluences will be proportionally less; however, the data indicates that the radiation environment will obviously have an effect on structural materials exposed to the environment for long durations. The effects of this combined environment is the issue which needs to be understood for the long term exposure of structures in space. At the same time, there will be substantial potential for collisions between the space platforms and space debris. The current NASA catalogue contains over 4500 objects floating in space which are not considered payloads. This debris can have significant effects on collision with orbiting spacecraft. In order to better understand the effect of these hostile phenomena on spacecraft, several types of studies are being performed to simulate at some level the effect of the environment. In particular the study of debris clouds produced by hypervelocity impact on the various surfaces anticipated on the Space Station is very important at this point in time. The need to assess the threat of such debris clouds on space structures is an on-going activity. The Space Debris Impact facility in Building 4612 provides a test facility to monitor the types of damage produced with hypervelocity impact. These facilities are used to simulate space environmental effects from energetic particles. Flash radiography or x-ray imaging has traditionally provided such information and as such has been an important tool for recording damage in situ with the event. The proper

  13. Laser induced x-ray `RADAR' particle physics model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lockley, D.; Deas, R.; Moss, R.; Wilson, L. A.; Rusby, D.; Neely, D.

    2016-05-01

    images from the modelled data. The simulated images show good agreement with the experimental images both in terms of the temporal and spatial response of the backscattered X-rays. The computer model has also been used to simulate scanning over an area to generate a 3D image of the test objects scanned. Range gating was applied to the simulated 3D data to show how significant signal-to-noise ratio enhancements could be achieved to resulting 2D images when compared to conventional backscatter X-ray images. Further predictions have been made using the computer simulation including the energy distribution of the backscatter X-rays, as well as multi-path and scatter effects not measured in the experiment. Multi-path effects were shown to be the primary contributor to undesirable image artefacts observed in the simulated images. The computer simulation allowed the sources of these artefacts to be identified and highlighted the importance of mitigating these effects in the experiment. These predicted effects could be explored and verified through future experiments. Additionally the model has provided insight into potential performance limitations of the X-ray RADAR concept and informed on possible solutions. Further model developments will include simulating a more realistic electron beam energy distribution and incorporating representative detector characteristics.

  14. Long-Term Hard X-Ray Monitoring of X-Ray Bursters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halpern, Jules P.; Kaaret, Philip

    1999-01-01

    The scientific goal of this project was to monitor a selected sample of x-ray bursters using data from the Burst and Transient Source Experiment (BATSE) on the Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory to characterize the hard x-ray emission of these objects over long time intervals. The project was closely related to "Monitoring x-ray emission from x-ray bursters", NASA project, and "Hard x-ray emission of x-ray bursters", NASA project, and shares publications in common with both of these. These efforts have lead to results directly from the BATSE data and also from Target of Opportunity Observations (TOO) made with the Rossi X-Ray Timing Explorer based on detection of transient hard x-ray outbursts with BATSE. The following papers have used BATSE data or data obtained with BATSE TOO triggers.

  15. Wide field x-ray telescopes: Detecting x-ray transients/afterglows related to GRBs

    SciTech Connect

    Hudec, Rene; Pina, Ladislav; Inneman, Adolf; Gorenstein, Paul

    1998-05-16

    The recent discovery of X-ray afterglows of GRBs opens the possibility of analyses of GRBs by their X-ray detections. However, imaging X-ray telescopes in current use mostly have limited fields of view. Alternative X-ray optics geometries achieving very large fields of view have been theoretically suggested in the 70's but not constructed and used so far. We review the geometries and basic properties of the wide-field X-ray optical systems based on one- and two-dimensional lobster-eye geometry and suggest technologies for their development and construction. First results of the development of double replicated X-ray reflecting flats for use in one-dimensional X-ray optics of lobster-eye type are presented and discussed. The optimum strategy for locating GRBs upon their X-ray counterparts is also presented and discussed.

  16. SN X-ray Progenitor?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    Identifying stars that explode, right before they explode, is a tricky proposition since the end of starlife comes swiftly: in thermonuclear deflagrations, in nuclear exhaustion, or maybe in a rapid swirling merger of two dead stellar cores. On the right in the image above is an image of the galaxy NGC 1404 taken by the UV/optical Telescope (UVOT) on the Swift observatory. The circle surrounds SN 2007on, a supernova of Type Ia produced by the explosion of a white dwarf star in a binary system. These types of supernovae are important since they are believed to be 'standard candles', events which have the same intrinsic brightness which can serve as an important yardstick to measure cosmic distances. On the left is an image of the same galaxy taken by the Chandra X-ray observatory four years before the supernova. Conspicuous in the SN source circle is a bright source in the Chandra image, believed to be emission from a compact object+normal star companion: a similar system to the supposed precursor of SN 2007on. If true this would be the first time a Type Ia supernova precursor has ever been seen. But astronomers are still debating whether the Chandra source really is the precursor or not; it seems there's a slight but significant difference in the location of the Chandra source and the supernova. Stay tuned for more developments.

  17. SMM X-ray polychromator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strong, Keith T.; Haisch, Bernhard M. (Compiler); Lemen, James R. (Compiler); Acton, L. W.; Bawa, H. S.; Claflin, E. S.; Freeland, S. L.; Slater, G. L.; Kemp, D. L.; Linford, G. A.

    1988-01-01

    The range of observing and analysis programs accomplished with the X-Ray Polychromator (XRP) instruments during the decline of solar cycle 21 and the rise of the solar cycle 22 is summarized. Section 2 describes XRP operations and current status. This is meant as a guide on how the instrument is used to obtain data and what its capabilities are for potential users. The science section contains a series of representative abstracts from recently published papers on major XRP science topics. It is not meant to be a complete list but illustrates the type of science that can come from the analysis of the XRP data. There then follows a series of appendixes that summarize the major data bases that are available. Appendix A is a complete bibliography of papers and presentations produced using XRP data. Appendix B lists all the spectroscopic data accumulated by the Flat Crystal Spectrometer (FCS). Appendix C is a compilation of the XRP flare catalogue for events equivalent to a GOES C-level flare or greater. It lists the start, peak and end times as well as the peak Ca XIX flux.

  18. Diffraction leveraged modulation of X-ray pulses using MEMS-based X-ray optics

    DOEpatents

    Lopez, Daniel; Shenoy, Gopal; Wang, Jin; Walko, Donald A.; Jung, Il-Woong; Mukhopadhyay, Deepkishore

    2016-08-09

    A method and apparatus are provided for implementing Bragg-diffraction leveraged modulation of X-ray pulses using MicroElectroMechanical systems (MEMS) based diffractive optics. An oscillating crystalline MEMS device generates a controllable time-window for diffraction of the incident X-ray radiation. The Bragg-diffraction leveraged modulation of X-ray pulses includes isolating a particular pulse, spatially separating individual pulses, and spreading a single pulse from an X-ray pulse-train.

  19. X-ray framing cameras for > 5 keV imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Landen, O.L.; Bell, P.M.; Costa, R.; Kalantar, D.H.; Bradley, D.K.

    1995-07-20

    Recent and proposed improvements in spatial resolution, temporal resolution, contrast, and detection efficiency for x-ray framing cameras are discussed in light of present and future laser-plasma diagnostic needs. In particular, improvements in image contrast above hard x-ray background levels is demonstrated by using high aspect ratio tapered pinholes.

  20. Note: Application of a pixel-array area detector to simultaneous single crystal x-ray diffraction and x-ray absorption spectroscopy measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Cheng-Jun Brewe, Dale L.; Heald, Steve M.; Zhang, Bangmin; Chen, Jing-Sheng; Chow, G. M.; Venkatesan, T.

    2014-04-15

    X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) are two main x-ray techniques in synchrotron radiation facilities. In this Note, we present an experimental setup capable of performing simultaneous XRD and XAS measurements by the application of a pixel-array area detector. For XRD, the momentum transfer in specular diffraction was measured by scanning the X-ray energy with fixed incoming and outgoing x-ray angles. By selecting a small fixed region of the detector to collect the XRD signal, the rest of the area was available for collecting the x-ray fluorescence for XAS measurements. The simultaneous measurement of XRD and X-ray absorption near edge structure for Pr{sub 0.67}Sr{sub 0.33}MnO{sub 3} film was demonstrated as a proof of principle for future time-resolved pump-probe measurements. A static sample makes it easy to maintain an accurate overlap of the X-ray spot and laser pump beam.

  1. Tracing the X-Ray Trail

    MedlinePlus

    What you need to know about… Tracing the X-ray Trail If you’ve just completed an x-ray, computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance (MR) Start here! or other diagnostic imaging procedure, you probably want to know when you will ... los rayos X Si acaba de hacerse una radiografía, tomografía ¡Empezar ...

  2. X-ray determination of parts alignment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, C. W.

    1985-01-01

    A method for determining the alignment of adjoining metal objects is provided. The method comprises producing an X-ray image of adjoining surfaces of the two metal objects. The X-ray beam is tangential to the point the surfaces are joined. The method is particularly applicable where the alignment of the two metal objects is not readily susceptible to visual inspection.

  3. X-Ray Determination of Weld Misalinement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, C. W.

    1985-01-01

    Simple technique uses ordinary X-ray equipment. Weld line between hemispheres of hidden spherical pressure vessel examined for misalinement between hemispheres. Central X-ray tangent to pressure vessel at weld line. Technique not limited to spheres. Also used to check alinement between insulated sections of pipelines or chemical-reaction vessels without removing insulation or interrupting flow or process.

  4. X-ray Attenuation and Absorption Calculations.

    1988-02-25

    This point-source, polychromatic, discrete energy X-ray transport and energy deposition code system calculates first-order spectral estimates of X-ray energy transmission through slab materials and the associated spectrum of energy absorbed by the material.

  5. X-rays Flares and Protoplanetary Disks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feigelson, Eric D.

    2011-04-01

    X-ray observations of star forming regions show that magnetic reconnection flares are powerful and frequent in pre-main sequence solar-type stars. Well-defined samples in the Orion Nebula Cluster and Taurus clouds exhibit flares with peak X- ray luminosities Lx˜10^29 - 10^32 erg/s, orders of magnitude stronger and more frequent than contemporary solar flares. X-rays are emitted in magnetic loops extending 0.1-10 R * above the stellar surface and thus have a favorable geometry to irradiate the protoplanetary disk. Several lines of evidence - fluorescent iron X-ray emission line, forbidden [NeII] infrared line, and excited molecular bands - support X-ray irradiation of cold material in some young systems. Several astrophysical consequences of X-ray irradiation are outlined. As ionization fractions need only reach 10-12 to induce the magnetorotational instability and associated turbulence, X-rays may be the principal determinant of the extent of the viscous "active zone" and laminar "dead zone" in the layered accretion disk. X-ray irradiation may thus play a major role in planet formation processes: particle settling; meter-size inspiral; protoplanetary migration; and dissipation of the gaseous disk.

  6. X-ray dynamical diffraction Fraunhofer holography.

    PubMed

    Balyan, Minas

    2013-09-01

    An X-ray dynamical diffraction Fraunhofer holographic scheme is proposed. Theoretically it is shown that the reconstruction of the object image by visible light is possible. The spatial and temporal coherence requirements of the incident X-ray beam are considered. As an example, the hologram recording as well as the reconstruction by visible light of an absolutely absorbing wire are discussed.

  7. Phased Contrast X-Ray Imaging

    ScienceCinema

    Erin Miller

    2016-07-12

    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is developing a range of technologies to broaden the field of explosives detection. Phased contrast X-ray imaging, which uses silicon gratings to detect distortions in the X-ray wave front, may be applicable to mail or luggage scanning for explosives; it can also be used in detecting other contraband, small-parts inspection, or materials characterization.

  8. X-Ray Emissions from Jupiter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gladstone, G. R.; Waite, J. H., Jr.; Grodent, D.; Crary, F. J.; Elsner, R. F.; Weisskopf, M. C.; Lewis, W. S.; Jahn, J.-M.; Bhardwaj, A.; Clarke, J. T.; Whitaker, Ann F. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    X-ray emissions from Jupiter have been observed for over 20 years. Jovian x-ray emissions are associated with high-latitude aurora and with solar fluorescence and/or an energetic particle source at low-latitudes as identified by past Einstein and ROSAT observations. Enhanced auroral x-rays were also observed to be associated with the impact of Comet Shoemaker-Levy 9. The high-latitude x-ray emissions are best explained by energetic sulfur and oxygen ion precipitation from the Jovian magnetosphere, a suggestion that has been confirmed by recent Chandra ACIS observations. Exciting new information about Jovian x-ray emissions has been made possible with Chandra's High Resolution Camera. We report here for the first time the detection of a forty minute oscillation associated with the Jovian x-ray aurora. With the help of ultraviolet auroral observations from Hubble Space Telescope, we pinpoint the auroral mapping of the x-rays and provide new information on the x-ray source mechanism.

  9. Course Manual for X-Ray Applications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Food and Drug Administration (DHEW), Rockville, MD. Bureau of Radiological Health.

    This publication is the third of three sequential course manuals for instructors in x-ray science and engineering. This course manual has been tested by introducing it into the Oregon State University curriculum. The publication is prepared for the purpose of improving the qualifications of x-ray users and to reduce the ionizing radiation exposure…

  10. VETA-1 x ray detection system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Podgorski, W. A.; Flanagan, Kathy A.; Freeman, Mark D.; Goddard, R. G.; Kellogg, Edwin M.; Norton, T. J.; Ouellette, J. P.; Roy, A. G.; Schwartz, Daniel A.

    1992-01-01

    The alignment and X-ray imaging performance of the Advanced X-ray Astrophysics Facility (AXAF) Verification Engineering Test Article-I (VETA-I) was measured by the VETA-I X-Ray Detection System (VXDS). The VXDS was based on the X-ray detection system utilized in the AXAF Technology Mirror Assembly (TMA) program, upgraded to meet the more stringent requirements of the VETA-I test program. The VXDS includes two types of X-ray detectors: (1) a High Resolution Imager (HRI) which provides X-ray imaging capabilities, and (2) sealed and flow proportional counters which, in conjunction with apertures of various types and precision translation stages, provide the most accurate measurement of VETA-I performance. Herein we give an overview of the VXDS hardware including X-ray detectors, translation stages, apertures, proportional counters and flow counter gas supply system and associated electronics. We also describe the installation of the VXDS into the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) X-Ray Calibration Facility (XRCF). We discuss in detail the design and performance of those elements of the VXDS which have not been discussed elsewhere; translation systems, flow counter gas supply system, apertures and thermal monitoring system.

  11. Subpicosecond Coherent Manipulation of X-Rays

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, Bernhard W.

    2004-05-12

    The Takagi-Taupin theory is synthesized with the eikonal theory in a unified space-time approach, based upon microscopic electromagnetism. It is designed specifically to address x-ray diffraction in crystal structures being modified within down to a few femtosconds. Possible applications in the subpicosecond coherent manipulation of x-rays are given.

  12. Adenocarcinoma - chest x-ray (image)

    MedlinePlus

    This chest x-ray shows adenocarcinoma of the lung. There is a rounded light spot in the right upper lung (left side ... density. Diseases that may cause this type of x-ray result would be tuberculous or fungal granuloma, and ...

  13. Accelerator-driven X-ray Sources

    SciTech Connect

    Nguyen, Dinh Cong

    2015-11-09

    After an introduction which mentions x-ray tubes and storage rings and gives a brief review of special relativity, the subject is treated under the following topics and subtopics: synchrotron radiation (bending magnet radiation, wiggler radiation, undulator radiation, brightness and brilliance definition, synchrotron radiation facilities), x-ray free-electron lasers (linac-driven X-ray FEL, FEL interactions, self-amplified spontaneous emission (SASE), SASE self-seeding, fourth-generation light source facilities), and other X-ray sources (energy recovery linacs, Inverse Compton scattering, laser wakefield accelerator driven X-ray sources. In summary, accelerator-based light sources cover the entire electromagnetic spectrum. Synchrotron radiation (bending magnet, wiggler and undulator radiation) has unique properties that can be tailored to the users’ needs: bending magnet and wiggler radiation is broadband, undulator radiation has narrow spectral lines. X-ray FELs are the brightest coherent X-ray sources with high photon flux, femtosecond pulses, full transverse coherence, partial temporal coherence (SASE), and narrow spectral lines with seeding techniques. New developments in electron accelerators and radiation production can potentially lead to more compact sources of coherent X-rays.

  14. X-Ray Detection Visits the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peralta, Luis; Farinha, Ana; Pinto, Ana

    2008-01-01

    Film has been used to detect x-rays since the early days of their discovery by Rontgen. Although nowadays superseded by other techniques, film still provides a cheap means of x-ray detection, making it attractive in high-school or undergraduate university courses. If some sort of quantitative result is required, the film's optical absorbance or…

  15. Coccidioidomycosis - chest x-ray (image)

    MedlinePlus

    This chest x-ray shows the affects of a fungal infection, coccidioidomycosis. In the middle of the left lung (seen on the ... defined borders. Other diseases that may explain these x-ray findings include lung abscesses, chronic pulmonary tuberculosis, chronic ...

  16. X-rays from intermediate mass stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robrade, Jan

    I will review the X-ray properties of intermediate mass stars and discuss possible X-ray generating mechanisms. Main-sequence stars of spectral type mid B to mid A neither drive sufficiently strong winds to produce shock generated X-rays, nor possess an outer convection zone to generate dynamo driven magnetic activity and coronae. Consequently they should be virtually X-ray dark and occasionally detected X-ray emission was usually attributed to undetected low-mass companions. However, in magnetic intermediate mass stars, the Ap/Bp stars, a different X-ray production mechanism may operate. It is termed the magnetically channeled wind-shock model, where the stellar wind from both hemispheres is channelled towards the equatorial plane, collides and forms a rigidly rotating disk around the star. The strong shocks of the nearly head-on wind collision as well as the existence of magnetically confined plasma in a dynamic circumstellar disk can lead to diverse X-ray phenomena. In this sense Ap/Bp stars bridge the 'classical' X-ray regimes of cool and hot stars.

  17. A Synthesis Of Cosmic X-ray And Infrared Background

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Yong; Helou, G.; Armus, L.; Stierwalt, S.

    2012-01-01

    We present a synthesis model of cosmic IR and X-ray background, with the goal to derive a complete census of cosmic evolution of star formation (SF) and black-hole (BH) growth by complementing advantages of X-ray and IR surveys to each other. By assuming that individual galaxies are experiencing both SF and BH accretion, our model decomposes the total IR LF into SF and BH components while taking into account the luminosity-dependent SED and its dispersion of the SF component, and the extinction-dependent SED of the BH component. The best-fit parameters are derived by fitting to the number counts and redshift distributions at X-ray including both hard and soft bands, and mid-IR to submm bands including IRAS, Spitzer, Herschel, SCUBA, Aztec and MAMBO. Based on the fit result, our models provide a series of predictions on galaxy evolution and black-hole growth. For evolution of infrared galaxies, the model predicts that the total infrared luminosity function is best described through evolution in both luminosity and density. For evolution of AGN populations, the model predicts that the evolution of X-ray LF also shows luminosity and density dependent, that the type-1/type-2 AGN fraction is a function of both luminosity and redshift, and that the Compton-thick AGN number density evolves strongly with redshift, contributing about 20% to the total cosmic BH growth. For BH growth in IR galaxies, the model predicts that the majority of BH growth at z>1 occurs in infrared luminous galaxies and the AGN fraction as a function of IR survey is a strong function of the survey depth, ranging from >50% at bright end to below 10% at faint end. We also evaluates various AGN selection techniques at X-ray and IR wavelengths and offer predictions for future missions at X-ray and IR.

  18. Nanoparticle-enhanced x-ray therapy for cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Letfullin, Renat R.; Rice, Colin E. W.; George, Thomas F.

    2016-03-01

    Photothermal therapies of nanophotohyperthermia and nanophotothermolysis utilize the light absorptive properties of nanoparticles to create heat and free radicals in a small localized region. Conjugating nanoparticles with various biomolecules allows for targeted delivery to specific tissues or even specific cells, cancerous cells being of particular interest. Previous studies have investigated nanoparticles at visible and infrared wavelengths where surface plasmon resonance leads to unique absorption characteristics. However, issues such as poor penetration depth of the visible light through biological tissues limits the effectiveness of delivery by noninvasive means. In other news, various nanoparticles have been investigated as contrast agents for traditional X-ray procedures, utilizing the strong absorption characteristics of the nanoparticles to enhance contrast of the detected X-ray image. Using X-rays to power photothermal therapies has three main advantages over visiblespectra wavelengths: the high penetration depth of X-rays through biological media makes noninvasive treatments very feasible; the high energy of individual photons means nanoparticles can be heated to desired temperatures with lower beam intensities, or activated to produce the free radicals; and X-ray sources are already common throughout the medical industry, making future implementation on existing equipment possible. This paper uses Lorenz-Mie theory to investigate the light absorption properties of various size gold nanoparticles over photon energies in the 1-100 keV range. These absorption values are then plugged into a thermal model to determine the temperatures reached by the nanoparticles for X-ray exposures of differing time and intensity. The results of these simulations are discussed in relation to the effective implementation of nanophotohyperthermia and nanophotothermolysis treatments.

  19. The Advanced X-Ray Astrophysics Facility. Observing the Universe in X-Rays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neal, V.

    1984-01-01

    An overview of the Advanced X ray Astronophysics Facility (AXAF) program is presented. Beginning with a brief introduction to X ray astrophysics, the AXAF observatory is described including the onboard instrumentation and system capabilities. Possible X ray sources suitable for AXAF observation are identified and defined.

  20. Observational Aspects of Hard X-ray Polarimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chattopadhyay, Tanmoy

    2016-04-01

    Sensitive polarization measurements in X-ray may address a wealth of astrophysical phenomena, which so far remain beyond our understanding through available X-ray spectroscopic, imaging, and timing studies. Though scientific potential of X-ray polarimetry was realized long ago, there has not been any significant advancement in this field for the last four decades since the birth of X-ray astronomy. The only successful polarization measurement in X-rays dates back to 1976, when a Bragg polarimeter onboard OSO-8 measured polarization of Crab nebula. Primary reason behind the lack in progress is its extreme photon hungry nature, which results in poor sensitivity of the polarimeters. Recently, in the last decade or so, with the advancement in detection technology, X-ray polarimetry may see a significant progress in near future, especially in soft X-rays with the invention of photoelectron tracking polarimeters. Though photoelectric polarimeters are expected to provide sensitive polarization measurements of celestial X-ray sources, they are sensitive only in soft X-rays, where the radiation from the sources is dominated by thermal radiation and therefore expected to be less polarized. On the other hand, in hard X-rays, sources are ex-pected to be highly polarized due to the dominance of nonthermal emission over its thermal counterpart. Moreover, polarization measurements in hard X-rays promises to address few interesting scientific issues regarding geometry of corona for black hole sources, emission mechanism responsible for the higher energy peak in the blazars, accretion geometry close to the magnetic poles in accreting neutron star systems and acceleration mechanism in solar flares. Compton polarimeters provide better sensitivity than photoelectric polarimeters in hard X-rays with a broad energy band of operation. Recently, with the development of hard X-ray focusing optics e.g. NuSTAR, Astro-H, it is now possible to conceive Compton polarimeters at the focal plane

  1. White beam x-ray waveguide optics

    SciTech Connect

    Jarre, A.; Salditt, T.; Panzner, T.; Pietsch, U.; Pfeiffer, F.

    2004-07-12

    We report a white beam x-ray waveguide (WG) experiment. A resonant beam coupler x-ray waveguide (RBC) is used simultaneously as a broad bandpass (or multibandpass) monochromator and as a beam compressor. We show that, depending on the geometrical properties of the WG, the exiting beam consists of a defined number of wavelengths which can be shifted by changing the angle of incidence of the white x-ray synchrotron beam. The characteristic far-field pattern is recorded as a function of exit angle and energy. This x-ray optical setup may be used to enhance the intensity of coherent x-ray WG beams since the full energetic acceptance of the WG mode is transmitted.

  2. Solar x ray astronomy rocket program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    The dynamics were studied of the solar corona through the imaging of large scale coronal structures with AS&E High Resolution Soft X ray Imaging Solar Sounding Rocket Payload. The proposal for this program outlined a plan of research based on the construction of a high sensitivity X ray telescope from the optical and electronic components of the previous flight of this payload (36.038CS). Specifically, the X ray sensitive CCD camera was to be placed in the prime focus of the grazing incidence X ray mirror. The improved quantum efficiency of the CCD detector (over the film which had previously been used) allows quantitative measurements of temperature and emission measure in regions of low x ray emission such as helmet streamers beyond 1.2 solar radii or coronal holes. Furthermore, the improved sensitivity of the CCD allows short exposures of bright objects to study unexplored temporal regimes of active region loop evolution.

  3. Handbook Of X-ray Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnaud, Keith A.; Smith, R. K.; Siemiginowska, A.; Edgar, R. J.; Grant, C. E.; Kuntz, K. D.; Schwartz, D. A.

    2011-09-01

    This poster advertises a book to be published in September 2011 by Cambridge University Press. Written for graduate students, professional astronomers and researchers who want to start working in this field, this book is a practical guide to x-ray astronomy. The handbook begins with x-ray optics, basic detector physics and CCDs, before focussing on data analysis. It introduces the reduction and calibration of x-ray data, scientific analysis, archives, statistical issues and the particular problems of highly extended sources. The book describes the main hardware used in x-ray astronomy, emphasizing the implications for data analysis. The concepts behind common x-ray astronomy data analysis software are explained. The appendices present reference material often required during data analysis.

  4. X-ray diffraction: instrumentation and applications.

    PubMed

    Bunaciu, Andrei A; Udriştioiu, Elena Gabriela; Aboul-Enein, Hassan Y

    2015-01-01

    X-ray diffraction (XRD) is a powerful nondestructive technique for characterizing crystalline materials. It provides information on structures, phases, preferred crystal orientations (texture), and other structural parameters, such as average grain size, crystallinity, strain, and crystal defects. X-ray diffraction peaks are produced by constructive interference of a monochromatic beam of X-rays scattered at specific angles from each set of lattice planes in a sample. The peak intensities are determined by the distribution of atoms within the lattice. Consequently, the X-ray diffraction pattern is the fingerprint of periodic atomic arrangements in a given material. This review summarizes the scientific trends associated with the rapid development of the technique of X-ray diffraction over the past five years pertaining to the fields of pharmaceuticals, forensic science, geological applications, microelectronics, and glass manufacturing, as well as in corrosion analysis.

  5. Apollo 15 X-ray fluorescence experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adler, I.; Trombka, J.; Gerard, J.; Schmadebeck, R.; Lowman, P.; Blodgett, H.; Yin, L.; Eller, E.; Lamothe, R.; Gorenstein, P.

    1971-01-01

    The X-ray fluorescence spectrometer, carried in the SIM bay of the command service module was employed principally for compositional mapping of the lunar surface while in lunar orbit, and secondarily, for X-ray astronomical observations during the trans-earth coast. The lunar surface measurements involved observations of the intensity and characteristics energy distribution of the secondary or fluorescent X-rays produced by the interaction of solar X-rays with the lunar surface. The astronomical observations consisted of relatively long periods of measurements of X-rays from pre-selected galactic sources such as Cyg-X-1 and Sco X-1 as well as from the galactic poles.

  6. X-rays from hot subdwarfs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mereghetti, Sandro; La Palombara, Nicola

    2016-09-01

    Thanks to the high sensitivity of the instruments on board the XMM-Newton and Chandra satellites, it has become possible to explore the properties of the X-ray emission from hot subdwarfs. The small but growing sample of hot subdwarfs detected in X-rays includes binary systems, in which the X-rays result from wind accretion onto a compact companion (white dwarf or neutron star), as well as isolated sdO stars in which X-rays are probably due to shock instabilities in the wind. X-ray observations of these low mass stars provide information which can be useful also for our understanding of the winds of more luminous and massive early-type stars and can lead to the discovery of particularly interesting binary systems.

  7. X-Rays from Green Pea Analogs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brorby, Matthew

    2014-09-01

    X-rays may have contributed to the heating and reionization of the IGM in the early universe. High mass X-ray binaries (HMXB) within small, low-metallicity galaxies are expected to be the main source of X-rays at this time. Since studying these high-redshift galaxies is currently impossible, we turn to local analogs that have the same properties the galaxies in the early are expected to have. A number of recent studies have shown an enhanced number of HMXBs in nearby low metallicity galaxies. We propose to observe a sample of metal-deficient luminous compact galaxies (LCG) in order to determine if the X-ray luminosity is enhanced relative to SFR, thereby providing further evidence to the importance of X-rays in the early universe.

  8. Ground calibrations of the X-ray detector system of the Solar Intensity X-ray Spectrometer (SIXS) on board BepiColombo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huovelin, Juhani; Lehtolainen, Arto; Genzer, Maria; Korpela, Seppo; Esko, Eero; Andersson, Hans

    2014-05-01

    SIXS includes X-ray and particle detector systems for the BepiColombo Mercury Planetary Orbiter (MPO). Its task is to monitor the direct solar X-rays and energetic particles in a wide field of view in the energy range of 1-20 keV (X-rays), 0.1-3 MeV (electrons) and 1-30 MeV (protons). The main purpose of these measurements is to provide quantitative information on the high energy radiation incident on Mercury's surface which causes the X-ray glow of the planet measured by the MIXS instrument. The X-ray and particle measurements of SIXS are also useful for investigations of the solar corona and the magnetosphere of Mercury. The ground calibrations of the X-ray detectors of the SIXS flight model were carried out in the X-ray laboratory of the Helsinki University during May and June 2012. The aim of the ground calibrations was to characterize the performance of the SIXS instrument's three High-Purity Silicon PIN X-ray detectors and verify that they fulfil their scientific performance requirements. The calibrations included the determination of the beginning of life energy resolution at different operational temperatures, determination of the detector's sensitivity within the field of view as a function of the off-axis and roll angles, pile-up tests for determining the speed of the read out electronics, measurements of the low energy threshold of the energy scale, a cross-calibration with the SMART-1 XSM flight spare detector, and the determination of the temperature dependence of the energy scale. An X-ray tube and the detectors' internal Ti coated 55Fe calibration sources were used as primary X-ray sources. In addition, two external fluorescence sources were used as secondary X-ray sources in the determination of the energy resolutions and in the comparison calibration with the SMART-1 XSM. The calibration results show that the detectors fulfill all of the scientific performance requirements. The ground calibration data combined with the instrument house-keeping data

  9. Quantitative Measurements of X-ray Intensity

    SciTech Connect

    Haugh, M. J., Schneider, M.

    2011-09-01

    This chapter describes the characterization of several X-ray sources and their use in calibrating different types of X-ray cameras at National Security Technologies, LLC (NSTec). The cameras are employed in experimental plasma studies at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), including the National Ignition Facility (NIF). The sources provide X-rays in the energy range from several hundred eV to 110 keV. The key to this effort is measuring the X-ray beam intensity accurately and traceable to international standards. This is accomplished using photodiodes of several types that are calibrated using radioactive sources and a synchrotron source using methods and materials that are traceable to the U.S. National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). The accreditation procedures are described. The chapter begins with an introduction to the fundamental concepts of X-ray physics. The types of X-ray sources that are used for device calibration are described. The next section describes the photodiode types that are used for measuring X-ray intensity: power measuring photodiodes, energy dispersive photodiodes, and cameras comprising photodiodes as pixel elements. Following their description, the methods used to calibrate the primary detectors, the power measuring photodiodes and the energy dispersive photodiodes, as well as the method used to get traceability to international standards are described. The X-ray source beams can then be measured using the primary detectors. The final section then describes the use of the calibrated X-ray beams to calibrate X-ray cameras. Many of the references are web sites that provide databases, explanations of the data and how it was generated, and data calculations for specific cases. Several general reference books related to the major topics are included. Papers expanding some subjects are cited.

  10. The Future of NASA's Deep Space Network and Applications to Planetary Probe Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deutsch, Leslie J.; Preston, Robert A.; Vrotsos, Peter

    2010-01-01

    NASA's Deep Space Network (DSN) has been an invaluable tool in the world's exploration of space. It has served the space-faring community for more than 45 years. The DSN has provided a primary communication pathway for planetary probes, either through direct- to-Earth links or through intermediate radio relays. In addition, its radiometric systems are critical to probe navigation and delivery to target. Finally, the radio link can also be used for direct scientific measurement of the target body ('radio science'). This paper will examine the special challenges in supporting planetary probe missions, the future evolution of the DSN and related spacecraft technology, the advantages and disadvantages of radio relay spacecraft, and the use of the DSN radio links for navigation and scientific measurements.

  11. Invited Article: First flight in space of a wide-field-of-view soft x-ray imager using lobster-eye optics: Instrument description and initial flight results.

    PubMed

    Collier, Michael R; Porter, F Scott; Sibeck, David G; Carter, Jenny A; Chiao, Meng P; Chornay, Dennis J; Cravens, Thomas E; Galeazzi, Massimiliano; Keller, John W; Koutroumpa, Dimitra; Kujawski, Joseph; Kuntz, Kip; Read, Andy M; Robertson, Ina P; Sembay, Steve; Snowden, Steven L; Thomas, Nicholas; Uprety, Youaraj; Walsh, Brian M

    2015-07-01

    We describe the development, launch into space, and initial results from a prototype wide field-of-view soft X-ray imager that employs lobster-eye optics and targets heliophysics, planetary, and astrophysics science. The sheath transport observer for the redistribution of mass is the first instrument using this type of optics launched into space and provides proof-of-concept for future flight instruments capable of imaging structures such as the terrestrial cusp, the entire dayside magnetosheath from outside the magnetosphere, comets, the Moon, and the solar wind interaction with planetary bodies like Venus and Mars [Kuntz et al., Astrophys. J. (in press)]. PMID:26233339

  12. Invited Article: First Flight in Space of a Wide-Field-of-View Soft X-Ray Imager Using Lobster-Eye Optics: Instrument Description and Initial Flight Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collier, Michael R.; Porter, Frederick S.; Sibeck, David G.; Carter, Jenny A.; Chiao, Meng P.; Chornay, Dennis J.; Cravens, Thomas E.; Galeazzi, Massimiliano; Keller, John W.; Koutroumpa, Dimitra; Kujawski, Joseph; Kuntz, Kip; Read, Andy M.; Robertson, Ina P.; Sembay, Steve; Snowden, Steven; Thomas, Nicholas; Uprety, Youaraj; Walsh, Brian M.

    2015-01-01

    We describe the development, launch into space, and initial results from a prototype wide eld-of-view (FOV) soft X-ray imager that employs Lobster-eye optics and targets heliophysics, planetary, and astrophysics science. The Sheath Transport Observer for the Redistribution of Mass (STORM) is the rst instrument using this type of optics launched into space and provides proof-of-concept for future ight instruments capable of imaging structures such as the terrestrial cusp, the entire dayside magnetosheath from outside the magnetosphere, comets, the moon, and the solar wind interaction with planetary bodies like Venus and Mars.

  13. Invited Article: First flight in space of a wide-field-of-view soft x-ray imager using lobster-eye optics: Instrument description and initial flight results.

    PubMed

    Collier, Michael R; Porter, F Scott; Sibeck, David G; Carter, Jenny A; Chiao, Meng P; Chornay, Dennis J; Cravens, Thomas E; Galeazzi, Massimiliano; Keller, John W; Koutroumpa, Dimitra; Kujawski, Joseph; Kuntz, Kip; Read, Andy M; Robertson, Ina P; Sembay, Steve; Snowden, Steven L; Thomas, Nicholas; Uprety, Youaraj; Walsh, Brian M

    2015-07-01

    We describe the development, launch into space, and initial results from a prototype wide field-of-view soft X-ray imager that employs lobster-eye optics and targets heliophysics, planetary, and astrophysics science. The sheath transport observer for the redistribution of mass is the first instrument using this type of optics launched into space and provides proof-of-concept for future flight instruments capable of imaging structures such as the terrestrial cusp, the entire dayside magnetosheath from outside the magnetosphere, comets, the Moon, and the solar wind interaction with planetary bodies like Venus and Mars [Kuntz et al., Astrophys. J. (in press)].

  14. Invited Article: First Flight in Space of a Wide-field-of-view Soft X-Ray Imager Using Lobster-Eye Optics: Instrument Description and Initial Flight Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collier, Michael; Porter, F. Scott; Sibeck, David G.; Carter, Jenny A.; Chiao, Meng P.; Chomay, Dennis J.; Cravens, Thomas E.; Galeazzi, Massiniliano; Keller, John; Koutroumpa, Dimitra

    2015-01-01

    We describe the development, launch into space, and initial results from a prototype wide eld-of-view (FOV) soft X-ray imager that employs Lobster-eye optics and targets heliophysics, planetary, and astrophysics science. The Sheath Transport Observer for the Redistribution of Mass (STORM) is the rst instrument using this type of optics launched into space and provides proof-of-concept for future ight instruments capable of imaging structures such as the terrestrial cusp, the entire dayside magnetosheath from outside the magnetosphere, comets, the moon, and the solar wind interaction with planetary bodies like Venus and Mars.

  15. Invited Article: First flight in space of a wide-field-of-view soft x-ray imager using lobster-eye optics: Instrument description and initial flight results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collier, Michael R.; Porter, F. Scott; Sibeck, David G.; Carter, Jenny A.; Chiao, Meng P.; Chornay, Dennis J.; Cravens, Thomas E.; Galeazzi, Massimiliano; Keller, John W.; Koutroumpa, Dimitra; Kujawski, Joseph; Kuntz, Kip; Read, Andy M.; Robertson, Ina P.; Sembay, Steve; Snowden, Steven L.; Thomas, Nicholas; Uprety, Youaraj; Walsh, Brian M.

    2015-07-01

    We describe the development, launch into space, and initial results from a prototype wide field-of-view soft X-ray imager that employs lobster-eye optics and targets heliophysics, planetary, and astrophysics science. The sheath transport observer for the redistribution of mass is the first instrument using this type of optics launched into space and provides proof-of-concept for future flight instruments capable of imaging structures such as the terrestrial cusp, the entire dayside magnetosheath from outside the magnetosphere, comets, the Moon, and the solar wind interaction with planetary bodies like Venus and Mars [Kuntz et al., Astrophys. J. (in press)].

  16. Development of short pulse laser pumped x-ray lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Dunn, J; Osterheld, A L; Hunter, J R; Shlyaptsev, V N

    2000-02-22

    and low energy threshold for lasing; (c) the principal architect of this laser (Dr. Shlyaptsev) was part of the team; (d) the laser driver requirements matched closely to the existing Physics facilities. There were additional important reasons for study. The higher repetition rate and therefore total number of shots available in a smaller facility would allow a more complete characterization of the x-ray laser properties. Optimized plasma irradiation conditions should then lead to the extraction of the maximum x-ray laser energy at the shortest possible wavelength. Also, tabletop XRLs are a relatively new phenomenon and so new transient {approx}1 ps timescale atomic kinetic physics could be studied. In the remainder of this report we give a brief summary of the DRD activities and give concluding remarks with future directions. More details of the work can be found in the publications, proceedings and documents listed in the Appendix at the end of this report.

  17. Laboratory Measurements of Solar-Wind/Comet X-Ray Emission and Charge Exchange Cross Sections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chutjian, A.; Cadez, I.; Greenwood, J. B.; Mawhorter, R. J.; Smith, S. J.; Lozano, J.

    2002-01-01

    The detection of X-rays from comets such as Hyakutake, Hale-Bopp, d Arrest, and Linear as they approach the Sun has been unexpected and exciting. This phenomenon, moreover, should be quite general, occurring wherever a fast solar or stellar wind interacts with neutrals in a comet, a planetary atmosphere, or a circumstellar cloud. The process is, O(+8) + H2O --> O(+7*) + H2O(+), where the excited O(+7*) ions are the source of the X-ray emissions. Detailed modeling has been carried out of X-ray emissions in charge-transfer collisions of heavy solar-wind Highly Charged Ions (HCIs) and interstellar/interplanetary neutral clouds. In the interplanetary medium the solar wind ions, including protons, can charge exchange with interstellar H and He. This can give rise to a soft X-ray background that could be correlated with the long-term enhancements seen in the low-energy X-ray spectrum of ROSAT. Approximately 40% of the soft X-ray background detected by Exosat, ROSAT, Chandra, etc. is due to Charge Exchange (CXE): our whole heliosphere is glowing in the soft X-ray due to CXE.

  18. EUV Spectroscopy of High-redshift X-ray Objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kowalski, Michael Paul; Wolff, M. T.; Wood, K. S.; Barbee, T. W., Jr.

    2010-03-01

    As astronomical observations are pushed to cosmological distances (z>3) the spectral energy distributions of X-ray objects, AGNs for example, will have their maxima redshifted into the EUV waveband ( 90-912 Å/0.1-0.01 keV). Consequently, a wealth of spectral diagnostics, provided by, for example, the Fe L-shell complex ( 60-6 Å/0.2-2.0 keV) and the O VII/VIII lines ( 20 Å/0.5 keV), will be lost to X-ray instruments operating at traditional ( 0.5-10 keV) and higher X-ray energies. There are precedents in other wavebands. For example, HST evolutionary studies will become largely the province of JWST. Despite the successes of EUVE, the ROSAT WFC, and the Chandra LETG, the EUV continues to be unappreciated and under-utilized, partly because of a preconception that absorption by neutral galactic Hydrogen in the ISM prevents any useful extragalactic measurements at all EUV wavelengths and, until recently, by a lack of a suitable enabling technology. Thus, if future planned X-ray missions (e.g., IXO, Gen-X) are optimized again for traditional X-ray energies, their performance (effective area, resolving power) will be cut off at ultrasoft X-ray energies or at best be radically reduced in the EUV. This opens up a critical gap in performance located right at short EUV wavelengths, where the critical X-ray spectral transitions occur in high-z objects. However, normal-incidence multilayer-grating technology, which performs best precisely at such wavelengths, together with advanced nano-laminate fabrication techniques have been developed and are now mature to the point where advanced EUV instrument designs with performance complementary to IXO and Gen-X are practical. Such EUV instruments could be flown either independently or as secondary instruments on these X-ray missions. We present here a critical examination of the limits placed on extragalactic EUV measurements by ISM absorption, the range where high-z measurements are practical, and the requirements this imposes on

  19. AXIOM: Advanced X-Ray Imaging of the Magnetosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Branduardi-Raymont, G.; Sembay, S. F.; Eastwood, J. P.; Sibeck, D. G.; Abbey, A.; Brown, P.; Carter, J. A.; Carr, C. M.; Forsyth, C.; Kataria, D.; Kemble, S.; Milan, S. E.; Owen, C. J.; Peacocke, L.; Read, A. M.; Coates, A. J.; Collier, M. R.; Cowley, S. W. H.; Fazakerley, A. N.; Fraser, G. W.; Jones, G. H.; Lallement, R.; Lester, M.; Porter, F. S.; Yeoman, T. K.

    2011-01-01

    Planetary plasma and magnetic field environments can be studied in two complementary ways by in situ measurements, or by remote sensing. While the former provide precise information about plasma behaviour, instabilities and dynamics on local scales, the latter offers the global view necessary to understand the overall interaction of the magnetospheric plasma with the solar wind. Some parts of the Earth's magnetosphere have been remotely sensed, but the majority remains unexplored by this type of measurements. Here we propose a novel and more elegant approach employing remote X-ray imaging techniques, which are now possible thanks to the relatively recent discovery of solar wind charge exchange X-ray emissions in the vicinity of the Earth's magnetosphere. In this article we describe how an appropriately designed and located X-ray telescope, supported by simultaneous in situ measurements of the solar wind, can be used to image the dayside magnetosphere, magnetosheath and bow shock, with a temporal and spatial resolution sufficient to address several key outstanding questions concerning how the solar wind interacts with the Earth's magnetosphere on a global level. Global images of the dayside magnetospheric boundaries require vantage points well outside the magnetosphere. Our studies have led us to propose AXIOM: Advanced X-ray Imaging Of the Magnetosphere, a concept mission using a Vega launcher with a LISA Pathfinder-type Propulsion Module to place the spacecraft in a Lissajous orbit around the Earth Moon L1 point. The model payload consists of an X-ray Wide Field Imager, capable of both imaging and spectroscopy, and an in situ plasma and magnetic field measurement package. This package comprises a Proton-Alpha Sensor, designed to measure the bulk properties of the solar wind, an Ion Composition Analyser, to characterize the minor ion populations in the solar wind that cause charge exchange emission, and a Magnetometer, designed to measure the strength and direction

  20. AXIOM: Advanced X-ray Imaging of the Magnetosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Branduardi-Raymont, G.; Sembay, S. F.; Eastwood, J. P.; Sibeck, D. G.; Abbey, A.; Brown, P.; Carter, J. A.; Carr, C. M.; Forsyth, C.; Kataria, D.; Kemble, S.; Milan, S. E.; Owen, C. J.; Peacocke, L.; Read, A. M.; Coates, A. J.; Collier, M. R.; Cowley, S. W. H.; Fazakerley, A. N.; Fraser, G. W.; Jones, G. H.; Lallement, R.; Lester, M.; Porter, F. S.; Yeoman, T. K.

    2012-01-01

    Planetary plasma and magnetic field environments can be studied in two complementary ways - by in situ measurements, or by remote sensing. While the former provide precise information about plasma behaviour, instabilities and dynamics on local scales, the latter offers the global view necessary to understand the overall interaction of the magnetospheric plasma with the solar wind. Some parts of the Earth's magnetosphere have been remotely sensed, but the majority remains unexplored by this type of measurements. Here we propose a novel and more elegant approach employing remote X-ray imaging techniques. which are now possible thanks to the relatively recent discovery of solar wind charge exchange X-ray emissions in the vicinity of the Earth's magnetosphere. In this article we describe how an appropriately designed and located. X-ray telescope, supported by simultaneous in situ measurements of the solar wind, can be used to image the dayside magnetosphere, magnetosheath and bow shock. with a temporal and spatial resolution sufficient to address several key outstanding questions concerning how the solar wind interacts with the Earth's magnetosphere on a global level. Global images of the dayside magnetospheric boundaries require vantage points well outside the magnetosphere. Our studies have led us to propose 'AXIOM: Advanced X-ray Imaging Of the Magnetosphere', a concept mission using a Vega launcher with a LISA Pathfinder-type Propulsion Module to place the spacecraft in a Lissajous orbit around the Earth - Moon Ll point. The model payload consists of an X-ray Wide Field Imager, capable of both imaging and spectroscopy, and an in situ plasma and magnetic field measurement package. This package comprises a Proton-Alpha Sensor, designed to measure the bulk properties of the solar wind, an Ion Composition Analyser, to characterize the minor ion populations in the solar wind that cause charge exchange emission, and a Magnetometer, designed to measure the strength and

  1. AXIOM: advanced X-ray imaging of the magnetosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Branduardi-Raymont, Graziella; Sembay, Steve F.; Eastwood, Jonathan P.; Sibeck, David G.; Abbey, Tony A.; Brown, Patrick; Carter, Jenny A.; Carr, Chris M.; Forsyth, Colin; Kataria, Dhiren; Kemble, Steve; Milan, Steve E.; Owen, Chris J.; Peacocke, Lisa; Read, Andy M.; Coates, Andrew J.; Collier, Michael R.; Cowley, Stan W. H.; Fazakerley, Andrew N.; Fraser, George W.; Jones, Geraint H.; Lallement, Rosine; Lester, Mark; Porter, F. Scott; Yeoman, Tim K.

    2012-04-01

    Planetary plasma and magnetic field environments can be studied in two complementary ways—by in situ measurements, or by remote sensing. While the former provide precise information about plasma behaviour, instabilities and dynamics on local scales, the latter offers the global view necessary to understand the overall interaction of the magnetospheric plasma with the solar wind. Some parts of the Earth's magnetosphere have been remotely sensed, but the majority remains unexplored by this type of measurements. Here we propose a novel and more elegant approach employing remote X-ray imaging techniques, which are now possible thanks to the relatively recent discovery of solar wind charge exchange X-ray emissions in the vicinity of the Earth's magnetosphere. In this article we describe how an appropriately designed and located X-ray telescope, supported by simultaneous in situ measurements of the solar wind, can be used to image the dayside magnetosphere, magnetosheath and bow shock, with a temporal and spatial resolution sufficient to address several key outstanding questions concerning how the solar wind interacts with the Earth's magnetosphere on a global level. Global images of the dayside magnetospheric boundaries require vantage points well outside the magnetosphere. Our studies have led us to propose `AXIOM: Advanced X-ray Imaging of the Magnetosphere', a concept mission using a Vega launcher with a LISA Pathfinder-type Propulsion Module to place the spacecraft in a Lissajous orbit around the Earth-Moon L1 point. The model payload consists of an X-ray Wide Field Imager, capable of both imaging and spectroscopy, and an in situ plasma and magnetic field measurement package. This package comprises a Proton-Alpha Sensor, designed to measure the bulk properties of the solar wind, an Ion Composition Analyser, to characterise the minor ion populations in the solar wind that cause charge exchange emission, and a Magnetometer, designed to measure the strength and

  2. Measuring the X-ray Emission Impacting the Planets Orbiting Nearby Low-mass Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Alexander

    2013-09-01

    M dwarf planetary systems present a truly exciting opportunity to discover and study the first habitable extrasolar planets in the next 5-10 years. As part of our larger HST MUSCLES project, we propose ACIS-S observations of 4 low-mass exoplanet hosts (3 M dwarfs -- GJ581, GJ1214, GJ849, and 1 K dwarf -- HD97658) that have no existing measurements of their coronal X-ray emission. We will measure their X-ray luminosities and coronal temperatures, and derive the high energy radiation field to facilitate exoplanet atmospheric modeling. These planetary systems allow study of exoplanet atmospheric chemistry and evolution under a wide diversity of physical situations. X-ray heating enhances evaporation and atmospheric escape, which can impact the long-term stability of exoplanetary atmospheres.

  3. Composite Image of the Cat's Eye From Chandra X-Ray Observatory and Hubble Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    Left image: The x-ray data from the Chandra X-Ray Observatory (CXO) has revealed a bright central star surrounded by a cloud of multimillion-degree gas in the planetary nebula known as the Cat's Eye. This CXO image, where the intensity of the x-ray emission is correlated to the brightness of the orange coloring, captures the expulsion of material from a star that is expected to collapse into a white dwarf in a few million years. The intensity of x-rays from the central star was unexpected, and it is the first time astronomers have seen such x-ray emission from the central star of a planetary nebula. Right image: An image of Cat's Eye taken by the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). By comparing the CXO data with that from the HST, researchers are able to see where the hotter, x-ray emitting gas appears in relation to the cooler material seen in optical wavelengths by the HST. The CXO team found that the chemical abundance in the region of hot gas (its x-ray intensity is shown in purple) was not like those in the wind from the central star and different from the outer cooler material (the red and green structures.) Although still incredibly energetic and hot enough to radiate x-rays, CXO shows the hot gas to be somewhat cooler than scientists would have expected for such a system. CXO image credit: (NASA/UIUC/Y. Chu et al.) HST image credit: (NASA/HST)

  4. TRANSIT OBSERVATIONS OF THE HOT JUPITER HD 189733b AT X-RAY WAVELENGTHS

    SciTech Connect

    Poppenhaeger, K.; Wolk, S. J.; Schmitt, J. H. M. M.

    2013-08-10

    We present new X-ray observations obtained with Chandra ACIS-S of the HD 189733 system, consisting of a K-type star orbited by a transiting Hot Jupiter and an M-type stellar companion. We report a detection of the planetary transit in soft X-rays with a significantly deeper transit depth than observed in the optical. The X-ray data favor a transit depth of 6%-8%, versus a broadband optical transit depth of 2.41%. While we are able to exclude several possible stellar origins for this deep transit, additional observations will be necessary to fully exclude the possibility that coronal inhomogeneities influence the result. From the available data, we interpret the deep X-ray transit to be caused by a thin outer planetary atmosphere which is transparent at optical wavelengths, but dense enough to be opaque to X-rays. The X-ray radius appears to be larger than the radius observed at far-UV wavelengths, most likely due to high temperatures in the outer atmosphere at which hydrogen is mostly ionized. We furthermore detect the stellar companion HD 189733B in X-rays for the first time with an X-ray luminosity of log L{sub X} = 26.67 erg s{sup -1}. We show that the magnetic activity level of the companion is at odds with the activity level observed for the planet-hosting primary. The discrepancy may be caused by tidal interaction between the Hot Jupiter and its host star.

  5. Recent X-ray Variability of Eta Car Approaching The X-ray Eclipse

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Corcoran, M.; Swank, J. H.; Ishibashi, K.; Gull, T.; Humphreys, R.; Damineli, A.; Walborn, N.; Hillier, D. J.; Davidson, K.; White, S. M.

    2002-01-01

    We discuss recent X-ray spectral variability of the supermassive star Eta Car in the interval since the last X-ray eclipse in 1998. We concentrate on the interval just prior to the next X-ray eclipse which is expected to occur in June 2003. We compare the X-ray behavior during the 2001-2003 cycle with the previous cycle (1996-1998) and note similarities and differences in the temporal X-ray behavior. We also compare a recent X-ray observation of Eta Car obtained with the Chandra high energy transmission grating in October 2002 with an earlier observation from Nov 2002, and interpret these results in terms of the proposed colliding wind binary model for the star. In addition we discuss planned observations for the upcoming X-ray eclipse.

  6. Selection of patients for x-ray examinations: Chest x-ray screening examinations

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-08-01

    Five chest x-ray referral criteria statements have been developed and unanimously endorsed by a panel of physicians convened as part of a major voluntary cooperative effort between FDA's National Center for Devices and Radiological Health (NCDRH) and the medical professional community. The referral criteria statements include recommendations concerning the following applications of chest x-ray screening: mandated routine chest x-ray screening examinations, routine prenatal chest x-ray examinations, routine hospital admission chest x-ray examinations, chest x-ray examinations for tuberculosis detection and control, and routine chest x-ray examinations for occupational medicine. The complete text of the five referral criterial statements plus a brief discussion of the rationale for the development of each statement is presented.

  7. Observation of living cells by x-ray microscopy with a laser-plasma x-ray source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomie, Toshihisa; Shimizu, Hazime; Majima, Toshikazu; Yamada, Mitsuo; Kanayama, Toshihiko; Yano, M.; Kondo, H.

    1991-12-01

    We studied laser-produced plasma as an x-ray source for x-ray microscopy. Using water- window x rays, contact x-ray images of living sea urchin sperm were taken by a 500 picosecond x-ray pulse. The resist relief was examined by atomic force microscope and informations characteristic of x-ray microscopy were obtained. The finest feature noticed in the x-ray image was 0.1 micrometers .

  8. X-ray monitoring for astrophysical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pina, L.; Burrows, D.; Cash, W.; Cerna, D.; Gorenstein, P.; Hudec, R.; Inneman, A.; Jakubek, J.; Marsikova, V.; Sieger, L.; Tichy, V.

    2014-09-01

    This work addresses the issue of X-ray monitoring for astrophysical applications. The proposed wide-field optical system has not been used in space yet. The proposed novel approach is based on the use of 1D "Lobster eye" optics in combination with Timepix X-ray detector in the energy range 3 - 40 keV. The proposed project includes theoretical study and a functional sample of the Timepix X-ray detector with multifoil wide-field X-ray "Lobster eye" optics. Using optics to focus X-rays on a detector is the only solution in cases the intensity of impinging X-ray radiation is below the sensitivity of the detector, e.g. while monitoring astrophysical objects in space, or phenomena in the Earth's atmosphere. The optical system could be used in a student rocket experiment at University of Colorado. Ideal opportunity is to extend the CubeSat of Pennsylvania State University with the hard X-ray telescope demonstrator consisting of an optical module and Timepix detector.

  9. GEMS X-ray Polarimeter Performance Simulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baumgartner, Wayne H.; Strohmayer, Tod; Kallman, Tim; Black, J. Kevin; Hill, Joanne; Swank, Jean

    2012-01-01

    The Gravity and Extreme Magnetism Small explorer (GEMS) is an X-ray polarization telescope selected as a NASA small explorer satellite mission. The X-ray Polarimeter on GEMS uses a Time Projection Chamber gas proportional counter to measure the polarization of astrophysical X-rays in the 2-10 keV band by sensing the direction of the track of the primary photoelectron excited by the incident X-ray. We have simulated the expected sensitivity of the polarimeter to polarized X-rays. We use the simulation package Penelope to model the physics of the interaction of the initial photoelectron with the detector gas and to determine the distribution of charge deposited in the detector volume. We then model the charge diffusion in the detector,and produce simulated track images. Within the track reconstruction algorithm we apply cuts on the track shape and focus on the initial photoelectron direction in order to maximize the overall sensitivity of the instrument, using this technique we have predicted instrument modulation factors nu(sub 100) for 100% polarized X-rays ranging from 10% to over 60% across the 2-10 keV X-ray band. We also discuss the simulation program used to develop and model some of the algorithms used for triggering, and energy measurement of events in the polarimeter.

  10. Globular cluster x-ray sources.

    PubMed

    Pooley, David

    2010-04-20

    Globular clusters and x-ray astronomy have a long and fruitful history. Uhuru and OSO-7 revealed highly luminous (> 10(36) ergs(-1)) x-ray sources in globular clusters, and Einstein and ROSAT revealed a larger population of low-luminosity (< 10(33) ergs(-1)) x-ray sources. It was realized early on that the high-luminosity sources were low-mass x-ray binaries in outburst and that they were orders of magnitude more abundant per unit mass in globular clusters than in the rest of the galaxy. However, the low-luminosity sources proved difficult to classify. Many ideas were put forth--low-mass x-ray binaries in quiescence (qLMXBs), cataclysmic variables (CVs), active main-sequence binaries (ABs), and millisecond pulsars (MSPs)--but secure identifications were scarce. In ROSAT observations of 55 clusters, about 25 low-luminosity sources were found. Chandra has now observed over 80 Galactic globular clusters, and these observations have revealed over 1,500 x-ray sources. The superb angular resolution has allowed for many counterpart identifications, providing clues to the nature of this population. It is a heterogeneous mix of qLMXBs, CVs, ABs, and MSPs, and it has been shown that the qLMXBs and CVs are both, in part, overabundant like the luminous LMXBs. The number of x-ray sources in a cluster correlates very well with its encounter frequency. This points to dynamical formation scenarios for the x-ray sources and shows them to be excellent tracers of the complicated internal dynamics. The relation between the encounter frequency and the number of x-ray sources has been used to suggest that we have misunderstood the dynamical states of globular clusters.

  11. Quasar x-ray spectra revisited

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shastri, P.; Wilkes, B. J.; Elvis, M.; Mcdowell, J.

    1992-01-01

    A sample of 45 quasars observed by the Imaging Proportional Counter (IPC) on the Einstein satellite is used to re-examine the relationship between the soft (0.2-3.5 keV) X-ray energy index and radio-loudness. We found the following: (1) the tendency for radio-loud quasars to have systematically flatter X-ray slopes than radio-quiet quasars (RQQ's) is confirmed with the soft X-ray excess having negligible effect; (2) there is a tendency for the flatness of the X-ray slope to correlate with radio core-dominance for radio-loud quasars, suggesting that a component of the X-ray emission is relativistically beamed; (3) for the RQQ's the soft X-ray slopes, with a mean of approximately 1.0, are consistent with the slopes found at higher energies (2-10 keV) although steeper than those observed for Seyfert 1 galaxies (also 2-10 keV) where the reflection model gives a good fit to the data; (4) the correlation of FeII emission line strength with X-ray energy index is confirmed for radio-quiet quasars using a subset of 18 quasars. The radio-loud quasars show no evidence for a correlation. This relation suggests a connection between the ionizing continuum and the line emission from the broad emission line region (BELR) of radio-quiet quasars, but in the opposite sense to that predicted by current photoionization models; and (5) the correlations of X-ray slope with radio core dominance and FeII equivalent width within the radio-loud and radio-quiet sub-classes respectively imply that the observed wide range of X-ray spectral slopes is real rather than due to the large measuring uncertainties for individual objects.

  12. Globular cluster x-ray sources

    PubMed Central

    Pooley, David

    2010-01-01

    Globular clusters and x-ray astronomy have a long and fruitful history. Uhuru and OSO-7 revealed highly luminous (> 1036 ergs-1) x-ray sources in globular clusters, and Einstein and ROSAT revealed a larger population of low-luminosity (< 1033 ergs-1) x-ray sources. It was realized early on that the high-luminosity sources were low-mass x-ray binaries in outburst and that they were orders of magnitude more abundant per unit mass in globular clusters than in the rest of the galaxy. However, the low-luminosity sources proved difficult to classify. Many ideas were put forth—low-mass x-ray binaries in quiescence (qLMXBs), cataclysmic variables (CVs), active main-sequence binaries (ABs), and millisecond pulsars (MSPs)—but secure identifications were scarce. In ROSAT observations of 55 clusters, about 25 low-luminosity sources were found. Chandra has now observed over 80 Galactic globular clusters, and these observations have revealed over 1,500 x-ray sources. The superb angular resolution has allowed for many counterpart identifications, providing clues to the nature of this population. It is a heterogeneous mix of qLMXBs, CVs, ABs, and MSPs, and it has been shown that the qLMXBs and CVs are both, in part, overabundant like the luminous LMXBs. The number of x-ray sources in a cluster correlates very well with its encounter frequency. This points to dynamical formation scenarios for the x-ray sources and shows them to be excellent tracers of the complicated internal dynamics. The relation between the encounter frequency and the number of x-ray sources has been used to suggest that we have misunderstood the dynamical states of globular clusters. PMID:20404204

  13. X-ray in Zeta-Ori

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López-García, M. A.; López-Santiago, J. L.; Albacete-Colombo, J. F.; De Castro, E.

    2013-05-01

    Nearby star-forming regions are ideal laboratories to study high-energy emission processes but they usually present high absorption what makes difficult to detect the stellar population inside the molecular complex. As young late-type stars show high X-ray emission and X-ray photons are little absorbed by interstellar material, X-ray dedicated surveys are an excellent tool to detect the low-mass stellar population in optically absorbed regions. In this work, we present a study of the star-forming region Zeta-Ori and its surroundings. We combine optical, infrared and X-ray data. Properties of the X-ray emiting plasma and infrared features of the young stellar objects detected in the XMM-Newton observation are determined. The southern part of the Orion B giant molecular cloud complex harbor other star forming regions, as NGC 2023 and NGC 2024, we use this regions to compare. We study the spectral energy distribution of X-ray sources. Combining these results with infrared, the X-ray sources are classified as class I, class II and class III objects. The X-ray spectrum and ligth curve of detected X-ray sources is analyzed to found flares. We use a extincion-independent index to select the stars with circumstellar disk, and study the relationship between the present of disk and the flare energy. The results are similar to others studies and we conclude that the coronal properties of class II and class III objects in this region do not differ significantly from each other and from stars of similar infrared class in the ONC.

  14. Editorial: Focus on X-ray Beams with High Coherence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, Ian; Gruebel, Gerhard; Mochrie, Simon

    2010-03-01

    /Pd multilayer films K A Seu, R Su, S Roy, D Parks, E Shipton, E E Fullerton and S D Kevan Holographic and diffractive x-ray imaging using waveguides as quasi-point sources K Giewekemeyer, H Neubauer, S Kalbfleisch, S P Krüger and T Salditt Mapping the conformations of biological assemblies P Schwander, R Fung, G N Phillips Jr and A Ourmazd Imaging the displacement field within epitaxial nanostructures by coherent diffraction: a feasibility study Ana Diaz, Virginie Chamard, Cristian Mocuta, Rogerio Magalhães-Paniago, Julian Stangl, Dina Carbone, Till H Metzger and Günther Bauer The potential for two-dimensional crystallography of membrane proteins at future x-ray free-electron laser sources Cameron M Kewish, Pierre Thibault, Oliver Bunk and Franz Pfeiffer Coherence properties of hard x-ray synchrotron sources and x-ray free-electron lasers I A Vartanyants and A Singer Coherent imaging of biological samples with femtosecond pulses at the free-electron laser FLASH A P Mancuso, Th Gorniak, F Staier, O M Yefanov, R Barth, C Christophis, B Reime, J Gulden, A Singer, M E Pettit, Th Nisius, Th Wilhein, C Gutt, G Grübel, N Guerassimova, R Treusch, J Feldhaus, S Eisebitt, E Weckert, M Grunze, A Rosenhahn and I A Vartanyants

  15. In situ mineral identification - Raman technique in future robotic explorations on planetary surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, A.; Jolliff, B.L.; Haskin, L.A.

    1995-12-31

    Rover and lander missions are being continually planned for the characterization of planetary surface materials. With a series of simulated Raman measurements of lunar soils, rock chips and Martian analogues, we have demonstrated that mineral identification for the main phases in these planetary materials can be unambiguously achieved. We also obtained significant information on composition and structural features of important phases, such as the Mg/(Mg+Fe) ration in olivines, the dominant structural forms of pyroxenes, and the characteristics of hydrous components and cations in carbonates and sulfates, that are very important for Martian geology. Recent developments of Raman spectroscopic instrumentation make it possible to build a small, sensitive, and robust Raman system for rover and lander missions. Compared to other spectroscopic techniques (VIS-NIR, mid-IR and Moessbauer spectroscopy) that have been used or proposed for planetary application, Raman spectroscopy has many advantages, such as sharp, non-overlapping peaks in mineral spectra, no need for spectral deconvolution in order to identify the phases, and operation in visible spectral region. A rover Raman system could work nicely as a mineral indicator in future missions to Mars and Moon.

  16. Habitability on planetary surfaces: interdisciplinary preparation phase for future Mars missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peeters, Z.; Quinn, R.; Martins, Z.; Sephton, M. A.; Becker, L.; van Loosdrecht, M. C. M.; Brucato, J.; Grunthaner, F.; Ehrenfreund, P.

    2009-10-01

    Life on Earth is one of the outcomes of the formation and evolution of our solar system and has adapted to every explored environment on planet Earth. Recent discoveries have shown that life can exist in extreme environments, such as hydrothermal vents, in deserts and in ice lakes in Antarctica. These findings challenge the definition of the ‘planetary habitable zone’. The objective of future international planetary exploration programmes is to implement a long-term plan for the robotic and human exploration of solar system bodies. Mars has been a central object of interest in the context of extraterrestrial life. The search for extinct or extant life on Mars is one of the main goals of space missions to the Red Planet during the next decade. In this paper we describe the investigation of the physical and chemical properties of Mars soil analogues collected in arid deserts. We measure the pH, redox potential and ion concentrations, as well as carbon and amino acid abundances of soils collected from the Atacama desert (Chile and Peru) and the Salten Skov sediment from Denmark. The samples show large differences in their measured properties, even when taken only several meters apart. A desert sample and the Salten Skov sediment were exposed to a simulated Mars environment to test the stability of amino acids in the soils. The presented laboratory and field studies provide limits to exobiological models, evidence on the effects of subsurface mineral matrices, support current and planned space missions and address planetary protection issues.

  17. Imaging Cellular Architecture with X-rays

    PubMed Central

    Larabell, Carolyn A.; Nugent, Keith A.

    2012-01-01

    X-ray imaging of biological samples is progressing rapidly. In this paper we review the progress to date in high resolution imaging of cellular architecture. In particular we survey the progress in soft X-ray tomography and argue that the field is coming of age and that important biological insights are starting to emerge. We then review the new ideas based on coherent diffraction. These methods are at a much earlier stage of development but, as they eliminate the need for X-ray optics, have the capacity to provide substantially better spatial resolution than zone plate based methods. PMID:20869868

  18. X-ray streak crystal spectography

    SciTech Connect

    Kauffman, R.L.; Brown, T.; Medecki, H.

    1983-07-01

    We have built an x-ray streaked crystal spectrograph for making time-resolved x-ray spectral measurements. This instrument can access Bragg angles from 11/sup 0/ to 38/sup 0/ and x-ray spectra from 200 eV to greater than 10 keV. We have demonstrated resolving powers, E/..delta..E > 200 at 1 keV and time resolution less than 20 psec. A description of the instrument and an example of the data is given.

  19. X-ray phase-contrast methods

    SciTech Connect

    Lider, V. V. Kovalchuk, M. V.

    2013-11-15

    This review is devoted to a comparative description of the methods for forming X-ray phase-contrast images of weakly absorbing (phase) objects. These include the crystal interferometer method, the Talbot interferometer method, diffraction-enhanced X-ray imaging, and the in-line method. The potential of their practical application in various fields of science and technology is discussed. The publications on the development and optimization of X-ray phase-contrast methods and the experimental study of phase objects are analyzed.

  20. Diffractive Imaging Using Partially Coherent X Rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitehead, L. W.; Williams, G. J.; Quiney, H. M.; Vine, D. J.; Dilanian, R. A.; Flewett, S.; Nugent, K. A.; Peele, A. G.; Balaur, E.; McNulty, I.

    2009-12-01

    The measured spatial coherence characteristics of the illumination used in a diffractive imaging experiment are incorporated in an algorithm that reconstructs the complex transmission function of an object from experimental x-ray diffraction data using 1.4 keV x rays. Conventional coherent diffractive imaging, which assumes full spatial coherence, is a limiting case of our approach. Even in cases in which the deviation from full spatial coherence is small, we demonstrate a significant improvement in the quality of wave field reconstructions. Our formulation is applicable to x-ray and electron diffraction imaging techniques provided that the spatial coherence properties of the illumination are known or can be measured.

  1. New opportunities in X-ray tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peele, A. G.; Quiney, H. M.; Dhal, B. B.; Mancuso, A. P.; Arhatari, B.; Nugent, K. A.

    2006-11-01

    We discuss standard X-ray-imaging techniques. Phase-imaging methods and a new class of nano-focus and nano-resolution laboratory systems offer new opportunities in true laboratory-based X-ray microtomography with a host of possible applications that have mainly been demonstrated only at synchrotron sources. Notwithstanding these advances, the diffraction limit for X-ray-imaging methods is a long way off. We preview the link between high-resolution 'standard' imaging schemes and the new field of coherent diffractive imaging.

  2. Large Area X-Ray Spectroscopy Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tananbaum, H.

    1997-01-01

    The Large Area X-ray Spectroscopy (LAXS) mission concept study continues to evolve strongly following the merging of the LAXS mission with the Next Generation X-ray Observatory (NGXO, PI: Nick White) into the re-named High Throughput X-ray Spectroscopy (HTXS) Mission. HTXS retains key elements of the LAXS proposal, including the use of multiple satellites for risk-reduction and cost savings. A key achievement of the program has been the recommendation by the Structure and Evolution of the Universe (SEUS) (April 1997) for a new start for the HTXS mission in the 2000-2004 timeframe.

  3. X-ray Interferometer Using Prism Optics

    SciTech Connect

    Suzuki, Yoshio

    2004-05-12

    Two-beam X-ray interferometer using refractive optics has been developed. A prism made of acrylic resin is used as the beam deflector for hard X-ray wavefront dividing interferometer. This configuration is the same as that of the Fresnel's bi-prism interferometer or the Leith-Upatnieks type two-beam holography in visible light region. Therefore, quantitative analysis of the degree of transversal coherence can be performed by measuring the visibility of interference fringes. It is also possible to realize two-beam holographic imaging in hard X-ray regions.

  4. X-ray transmission microscope development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaukler, William F.; Rosenberger, Franz E.

    1995-01-01

    We are developing a hard x-ray microscope for direct observation of solidification dynamics in metal alloys and metal matrix composites. The Fein-Focus Inc. x-ray source was delivered in September and found to perform better than expected. Confirmed resolution of better than 2 micrometers was obtained and magnifications up to 800X were measured. Nickel beads of 30 micrometer diameter were easily detected through 6mm of aluminum. X-ray metallography was performed on several specimens showing high resolution and clear definition of 3-dimensional structures. Prototype furnace installed and tested.

  5. X-ray microscopy for neural circuit reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mizutani, Haruo; Takeda, Yoshihiro; Momose, Atsushi; Takeuchi, Akihisa; Takagi, Toshihisa

    2009-09-01

    Neural circuits in the central nervous system build our various higher brain functions. However, little is known about mechanisms underlying neuronal information processing in the brain. Anatomical graph structures of real neural networks will provide us with fundamental views to elucidate them. We aim at developing a three-dimensional atlas of neural circuits using high resolution hard X-ray microscopy by synchrotron radiation. We stained neurons of a complete brain from a mouse by the Golgi-Cox method. The heavy metals used in our procedure enhanced X-ray absorption and phase contrast. 3D images of fibriform axons and dendrites of various neurons were reconstructed by back projection. X-ray microscopy with a Talbot interferometer demonstrated finer histological structures of pyramidal neurons in the hippocampus and the cerebral cortex. This observation probably serves as a foundation for achieving a mammalian Connectome Project (identifying complete wiring diagrams of the brain) with X-ray nano-tomography in the near future.

  6. A space fiber-optic x-ray burst detector

    SciTech Connect

    Moss, C.E.; Casperson, D.E.; Echave, M.A.; Edwards, B.C.; Miller, J.R.; Saylor, W.W.; Sweet, M.R.; Valencia, J.E.

    1993-10-01

    We describe a novel, lightweight x-ray burst detector that can be embedded in a satellite structure, thus forming a ``smart skin,`` which has minimal impact on the host satellite. The design is based on two types of optical fibers coupled to photodiodes. The first is a scintillating fiber, which gives a fast signal for timing. The second is a germanium-doped silica fiber, which darkens for a few milliseconds when irradiated with a burst of x rays. The resulting slow signal is used to discriminate against electrostatic discharges. The coincidence of a fast signal from the scintillating fiber with a slow signal from the darkening fiber is the signature of an x-ray burst. The response is linear at low doses and becomes nonlinear at high doses. We have two techniques to test the instrument in a space experiment scheduled for 1994. First, a small, space-qualified flash x-ray unit can illuminate the fibers. Second, we can detect space background radiation. The cumulative dose will be monitored by RADFET dosimeters. Future work on embedding the fibers and the electronics as Application Specific Integrated Circuits (ASICs) in the spacecraft skin could lead to use of these detectors on many satellites.

  7. Measurements of Si hybrid CMOS x-ray detector characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bongiorno, Stephen D.; Falcone, Abe D.; Burrows, David N.; Cook, Robert; Bai, Yibin; Farris, Mark

    2009-08-01

    The development of Hybrid CMOS Detectors (HCDs) for X-Ray telescope focal planes will place them in contention with CCDs on future satellite missions due to their faster frame rates, flexible readout scenarios, lower power consumption, and inherent radiation hardness. CCDs have been used with great success on the current generation of X-Ray telescopes (e.g. Chandra, XMM, Suzaku, and Swift). However their bucket-brigade readout architecture, which transfers charge across the chip with discrete component readout electronics, results in clockrate limited readout speeds that cause pileup (saturation) of bright sources and an inherent susceptibility to radiation induced displacement damage that limits mission lifetime. In contrast, HCDs read pixels with low power, on-chip multiplexer electronics in a random access fashion. Faster frame rates achieved with multi-output readout design will allow the next generation's larger effective area telescopes to observe bright sources free of pileup. Radiation damaged lattice sites effect a single pixel instead of an entire row. Random access, multi-output readout will allow for novel readout modes such as simultaneous bright-source-fast/whole-chip-slow readout. In order for HCDs to be useful as X-Ray detectors, they must show noise and energy resolution performance similar to CCDs while retaining advantages inherent to HCDs. We will report on readnoise, conversion gain, and energy resolution measurements of an X-Ray enhanced Teledyne HAWAII-1RG (H1RG) HCD and describe techniques of H1RG data reduction.

  8. X-ray astronomy in the new millennium: a summary.

    PubMed

    Blandford, Roger D

    2002-09-15

    Recent X-ray observations have had a major impact on topics ranging from proto-stars to cosmology. They have also drawn attention to important and general physical processes that currently limit our understanding of thermal and non-thermal X-ray sources. These include unmeasured atomic astrophysics data (wavelengths, oscillator strengths, etc.), basic hydromagnetic processes (e.g. shock structure, reconnection), plasma processes (such as electron-ion equipartition and heat conduction) and radiative transfer (in discs and accretion columns). Progress on these problems will probably come from integrative studies that draw upon observations, throughout the electromagnetic spectrum, of different classes of source. X-ray observations are also giving a new perspective on astronomical subjects, like the nature of galactic nuclei and the evolution of stellar populations. In addition, they are helping us to address central cosmological questions, including the measurement of the matter content of the Universe, understanding its overall luminosity density, describing its chemical evolution and locating the first luminous objects. X-ray astronomy has a healthy future with several international space missions under construction and in development.

  9. Miniaturization in x ray and gamma ray spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iwanczyk, Jan S.; Wang, Yuzhong J.; Bradley, James G.

    1993-01-01

    The paper presents advances in two new sensor technologies and a miniaturized associated electronics technology which, when combined, can allow for very significant miniaturization and for the reduction of weight and power consumption in x-ray and gamma-ray spectroscopy systems: (1) Mercuric iodide (HgI2) x-ray technology, which allows for the first time the construction of truly portable, high-energy resolution, non-cryogenic x-ray fluorescence (XRF) elemental analyzer systems, with parameters approaching those of laboratory quality cryogenic instruments; (2) the silicon avalanche photodiode (APD), which is a solid-state light sensitive device with internal amplification, capable of uniquely replacing the vacuum photomultiplier tube in scintillation gamma-ray spectrometer applications, and offering substantial improvements in size, ruggedness, low power operation and energy resolution; and (3) miniaturized (hybridized) low noise, low power amplification and processing electronics, which take full advantage of the favorable properties of these new sensors and allow for the design and fabrication of advanced, highly miniaturized x-ray and gamma-ray spectroscopy systems. The paper also presents experimental results and examples of spectrometric systems currently under construction. The directions for future developments are discussed.

  10. The Chandra X-Ray Observatory: Progress Report and Highlights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weisskopf, Martin C.

    2012-01-01

    Over the past 13 years, the Chandra X-ray Observatory's ability to provide high resolution X-ray images and spectra have established it as one of the most versatile and powerful tools for astrophysical research in the 21st century. Chandra explores the hot, high-energy regions of the universe, observing X-ray sources with fluxes spanning more than 10 orders of magnitude, from the X-ray brightest, Sco X-1, to the faintest sources in the Chandra Deep Field South survey. Thanks to its continuing operational life, the Chandra mission now also provides a long observing baseline which, in and of itself, is opening new research opportunities. Observations in the past few years alone have deepened our understanding of the co-evolution of supermassive black holes and galaxies, the details of black hole accretion, the nature of dark energy and dark matter, the details of supernovae and their progenitors, the interiors of neutron stars, the evolution of massive stars, and the high-energy environment of protoplanetary nebulae and the interaction of an exo-planet with its star. Here we update the technical status, highlight some of the scientific results, and very briefly discuss future prospects. We fully expect that the Observatory will continue to provide outstanding scientific results for many years to come.

  11. Probing the Galactic center with X-ray polarimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marin, F.; Karas, V.; Kunneriath, D.; Muleri, F.; Soffitta, P.

    2014-12-01

    The Galactic center (GC) holds the closest-to-Earth supermassive black hole (SMBH), which makes it the best laboratory to study the close environment of extremely massive compact objects. Polarimetry is sensitive to geometry of the source, which makes it a particularly suitable technique to probe the medium surrounding the GC SMBH. The detection of hard X-ray spectra and prominent iron Kα fluorescence features coincident with localized gas clouds (e.g. Sgr B2, Sgr C) is known for nearly twenty years now and is commonly associated with a past outburst of the SMBH whose radiation is reprocessing onto the so-called ``reflection nebulae''. Since scattering leads to polarization, the re-emitted signal from the giant molecular clouds in the first 100 pc of the GC is expected to be polarized. X-ray polarization measurement is thus particularly adapted to probe the origin of the diffuse X-ray emission from the GC reflection nebulae and reveal the past activity of the central SMBH. In this research note, we summarize the results from past and current polarimetric simulations in order to show how a future X-ray polarimeter equipped with imaging detectors could improve our understanding of high-energy astrophysics.

  12. "X-Ray Transients in Star-Forming Regions" and "Hard X-Ray Emission from X-Ray Bursters"

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halpern, Jules P.; Kaaret, Philip

    1999-01-01

    This grant funded work on the analysis of data obtained with the Burst and Transient Experiment (BATSE) on the Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory. The goal of the work was to search for hard x-ray transients in star forming regions using the all-sky hard x-ray monitoring capability of BATSE. Our initial work lead to the discovery of a hard x-ray transient, GRO J1849-03. Follow-up observations of this source made with the Wide Field Camera on BeppoSAX showed that the source should be identified with the previously known x-ray pulsar GS 1843-02 which itself is identified with the x-ray source X1845-024 originally discovered with the SAS-3 satellite. Our identification of the source and measurement of the outburst recurrence time, lead to the identification of the source as a Be/X-ray binary with a spin period of 94.8 s and an orbital period of 241 days. The funding was used primarily for partial salary and travel support for John Tomsick, then a graduate student at Columbia University. John Tomsick, now Dr. Tomsick, received his Ph.D. from Columbia University in July 1999, based partially on results obtained under this investigation. He is now a postdoctoral research scientist at the University of California, San Diego.

  13. Mapping photopolarimeter spectrometer instrument feasibility study for future planetary flight missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Evaluations are summarized directed towards defining optimal instrumentation for performing planetary polarization measurements from a spacecraft platform. An overview of the science rationale for polarimetric measurements is given to point out the importance of such measurements for future studies and exploration of the outer planets. The key instrument features required to perform the needed measurements are discussed and applied to the requirements for the Cassini mission to Saturn. The resultant conceptual design of a spectro-polarimeter photometer for Cassini is described in detail.

  14. Chandra Studies of Planets and Comets in the X-ray

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lisse, Carey; Bhardwaj, A.; Wolk, S. J.; Christian, D. J.; Dennerl, K.; Bodewits, D.; Zurbuchen, T. H.

    2009-09-01

    The discovery of high energy x-ray emission in 1996 from C/1996 B2 (Hyakutake) created a new class of solar system x-ray emitting objects [1]. Subsequent detections of the morphology, spectra, and time dependence of the x-rays from more than 20 comets have shown that the very soft (E < 1 keV) emission is due to a charge-exchange interaction between highly charged solar wind minor ions and the comet's extended neutral atmosphere [2,3]. Several other solar system objects are now known to shine in the X-ray, including Venus, Mars, the Moon, the Earth, Jupiter, and Saturn, with total power outputs on the MW - GW scale [4]. Like comets, the X-ray emission from the Earth's geo-corona, the Jovian aurora, and the Martian halo are all driven by charge exchange between highly charged minor (heavy) ions in the solar wind and gaseous neutral species in the bodies' atmosphere. The first soft X-ray observation of Earth's aurora by Chandra shows that it is highly variable, and the Jovian aurora is a fascinating puzzle that is just beginning to yield its secrets. The non-auroral X-ray emissions from Jupiter, Saturn, and Earth, and those from disks of Mars, Venus, and the Moon are mainly produced due to scattering of solar X-rays We present a summary of recent planetary and cometary observations by the Chandra, CHIPS, EUVE, ROSAT, Swift, and XMM spacecraft, in conjunction with solar wind measurements made by the ACE, IMP-8, SOHO, and TRACE spacecraft, in order to demonstrate the richness and utility of solar system x-ray emission.References[1] C.M. Lisse et al., Science 274, 205 (1996)[2] R. Wegmann and K. Dennerl, A&A 430, L33 (2005)[3] D. Bodewits et al., A&A 469, 1183 (2007)[4] A. Bhardwaj et al., PSS 55, 1135 - 1189 (2007)

  15. Laser plasma x-ray source for ultrafast time-resolved x-ray absorption spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Miaja-Avila, L; O'Neil, G C; Uhlig, J; Cromer, C L; Dowell, M L; Jimenez, R; Hoover, A S; Silverman, K L; Ullom, J N

    2015-03-01

    We describe a laser-driven x-ray plasma source designed for ultrafast x-ray absorption spectroscopy. The source is comprised of a 1 kHz, 20 W, femtosecond pulsed infrared laser and a water target. We present the x-ray spectra as a function of laser energy and pulse duration. Additionally, we investigate the plasma temperature and photon flux as we vary the laser energy. We obtain a 75 μm FWHM x-ray spot size, containing ∼10(6) photons/s, by focusing the produced x-rays with a polycapillary optic. Since the acquisition of x-ray absorption spectra requires the averaging of measurements from >10(7) laser pulses, we also present data on the source stability, including single pulse measurements of the x-ray yield and the x-ray spectral shape. In single pulse measurements, the x-ray flux has a measured standard deviation of 8%, where the laser pointing is the main cause of variability. Further, we show that the variability in x-ray spectral shape from single pulses is low, thus justifying the combining of x-rays obtained from different laser pulses into a single spectrum. Finally, we show a static x-ray absorption spectrum of a ferrioxalate solution as detected by a microcalorimeter array. Altogether, our results demonstrate that this water-jet based plasma source is a suitable candidate for laboratory-based time-resolved x-ray absorption spectroscopy experiments. PMID:26798792

  16. Laser plasma x-ray source for ultrafast time-resolved x-ray absorption spectroscopy

    DOE PAGES

    Miaja-Avila, L.; O'Neil, G. C.; Uhlig, J.; Cromer, C. L.; Dowell, M. L.; Jimenez, R.; Hoover, A. S.; Silverman, K. L.; Ullom, J. N.

    2015-03-02

    We describe a laser-driven x-ray plasma source designed for ultrafast x-ray absorption spectroscopy. The source is comprised of a 1 kHz, 20 W, femtosecond pulsed infrared laser and a water target. We present the x-ray spectra as a function of laser energy and pulse duration. Additionally, we investigate the plasma temperature and photon flux as we vary the laser energy. We obtain a 75 μm FWHM x-ray spot size, containing ~106 photons/s, by focusing the produced x-rays with a polycapillary optic. Since the acquisition of x-ray absorption spectra requires the averaging of measurements from >107 laser pulses, we also presentmore » data on the source stability, including single pulse measurements of the x-ray yield and the x-ray spectral shape. In single pulse measurements, the x-ray flux has a measured standard deviation of 8%, where the laser pointing is the main cause of variability. Further, we show that the variability in x-ray spectral shape from single pulses is low, thus justifying the combining of x-rays obtained from different laser pulses into a single spectrum. Finally, we show a static x-ray absorption spectrum of a ferrioxalate solution as detected by a microcalorimeter array. Altogether, our results demonstrate that this water-jet based plasma source is a suitable candidate for laboratory-based time-resolved x-ray absorption spectroscopy experiments.« less

  17. Laser plasma x-ray source for ultrafast time-resolved x-ray absorption spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Miaja-Avila, L; O'Neil, G C; Uhlig, J; Cromer, C L; Dowell, M L; Jimenez, R; Hoover, A S; Silverman, K L; Ullom, J N

    2015-03-01

    We describe a laser-driven x-ray plasma source designed for ultrafast x-ray absorption spectroscopy. The source is comprised of a 1 kHz, 20 W, femtosecond pulsed infrared laser and a water target. We present the x-ray spectra as a function of laser energy and pulse duration. Additionally, we investigate the plasma temperature and photon flux as we vary the laser energy. We obtain a 75 μm FWHM x-ray spot size, containing ∼10(6) photons/s, by focusing the produced x-rays with a polycapillary optic. Since the acquisition of x-ray absorption spectra requires the averaging of measurements from >10(7) laser pulses, we also present data on the source stability, including single pulse measurements of the x-ray yield and the x-ray spectral shape. In single pulse measurements, the x-ray flux has a measured standard deviation of 8%, where the laser pointing is the main cause of variability. Further, we show that the variability in x-ray spectral shape from single pulses is low, thus justifying the combining of x-rays obtained from different laser pulses into a single spectrum. Finally, we show a static x-ray absorption spectrum of a ferrioxalate solution as detected by a microcalorimeter array. Altogether, our results demonstrate that this water-jet based plasma source is a suitable candidate for laboratory-based time-resolved x-ray absorption spectroscopy experiments.

  18. Laser plasma x-ray source for ultrafast time-resolved x-ray absorption spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Miaja-Avila, L.; O'Neil, G. C.; Uhlig, J.; Cromer, C. L.; Dowell, M. L.; Jimenez, R.; Hoover, A. S.; Silverman, K. L.; Ullom, J. N.

    2015-03-02

    We describe a laser-driven x-ray plasma source designed for ultrafast x-ray absorption spectroscopy. The source is comprised of a 1 kHz, 20 W, femtosecond pulsed infrared laser and a water target. We present the x-ray spectra as a function of laser energy and pulse duration. Additionally, we investigate the plasma temperature and photon flux as we vary the laser energy. We obtain a 75 μm FWHM x-ray spot size, containing ~106 photons/s, by focusing the produced x-rays with a polycapillary optic. Since the acquisition of x-ray absorption spectra requires the averaging of measurements from >107 laser pulses, we also present data on the source stability, including single pulse measurements of the x-ray yield and the x-ray spectral shape. In single pulse measurements, the x-ray flux has a measured standard deviation of 8%, where the laser pointing is the main cause of variability. Further, we show that the variability in x-ray spectral shape from single pulses is low, thus justifying the combining of x-rays obtained from different laser pulses into a single spectrum. Finally, we show a static x-ray absorption spectrum of a ferrioxalate solution as detected by a microcalorimeter array. Altogether, our results demonstrate that this water-jet based plasma source is a suitable candidate for laboratory-based time-resolved x-ray absorption spectroscopy experiments.

  19. Laser plasma x-ray source for ultrafast time-resolved x-ray absorption spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Miaja-Avila, L.; O'Neil, G. C.; Uhlig, J.; Cromer, C. L.; Dowell, M. L.; Jimenez, R.; Hoover, A. S.; Silverman, K. L.; Ullom, J. N.

    2015-01-01

    We describe a laser-driven x-ray plasma source designed for ultrafast x-ray absorption spectroscopy. The source is comprised of a 1 kHz, 20 W, femtosecond pulsed infrared laser and a water target. We present the x-ray spectra as a function of laser energy and pulse duration. Additionally, we investigate the plasma temperature and photon flux as we vary the laser energy. We obtain a 75 μm FWHM x-ray spot size, containing ∼106 photons/s, by focusing the produced x-rays with a polycapillary optic. Since the acquisition of x-ray absorption spectra requires the averaging of measurements from >107 laser pulses, we also present data on the source stability, including single pulse measurements of the x-ray yield and the x-ray spectral shape. In single pulse measurements, the x-ray flux has a measured standard deviation of 8%, where the laser pointing is the main cause of variability. Further, we show that the variability in x-ray spectral shape from single pulses is low, thus justifying the combining of x-rays obtained from different laser pulses into a single spectrum. Finally, we show a static x-ray absorption spectrum of a ferrioxalate solution as detected by a microcalorimeter array. Altogether, our results demonstrate that this water-jet based plasma source is a suitable candidate for laboratory-based time-resolved x-ray absorption spectroscopy experiments. PMID:26798792

  20. X-rays and magnetism: a review of program in magnetic studies with polarized soft x-rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, Peter; Ohldag, Hendrik

    2015-09-01

    Magnetism is among the most active and attractive areas in modern solid state physics because of intriguing phenomena interesting to fundamental research and a manifold of technological applications. State-of-the-art synthesis of advanced magnetic materials, e.g. in hybrid structures paves the way to new functionalities. To characterize modern magnetic materials and the associated magnetic phenomena, polarized x-rays have emerged as unique probes due to their specific interaction with magnetic materials. A large variety of spectroscopic and microscopic techniques have been developed to quantify in an element, valence and site-sensitive way properties of ferro-, ferri-, and antiferromagnetic systems, such as spin and orbital moments, and to image nanoscale spin textures and their dynamics with sub-ns time and almost 10 nm spatial resolution. The enormous intensity of x-rays and their degree of coherence at next generation x-ray facilities will open the fsec time window to magnetic studies addressing fundamental time scales in magnetism with nanometer spatial resolution. This review will give an introduction into contemporary topics of nanoscale magnetic materials and provide an overview of analytical spectroscopy and microscopy tools based on x-ray dichroism effects. Selected examples of current research will demonstrate the potential and future directions of these techniques.