Science.gov

Sample records for future rapid environmental

  1. Future of environmental pollution.

    PubMed

    Barnes, D G

    1996-02-01

    In recent years, the concept of pollution prevention has overtaken end-of-pipe controls as the paradigm of choice for effecting environmental protection. Through cooperative mechanisms, significant progress is being made to reduce or eliminate upstream processes and practices that can lead to downstream pollution. These efforts, coupled with productive interactions with the public, are making an impact. The Science Advisory Board released a report in January that described the "next wave" of pollution prevention. Specifically, the report described approaches for anticipating environmental problems of tomorrow so that preventive actions can be taken today. The potential of air pollution problems figures prominently in the Board's vision of the future.

  2. CHALLENGES FOR THE FUTURE IN ENVIRONMENTAL MUTAGENESIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    CHALLENGES FOR THE FUTURE IN ENVIRONMENTAL MUTAGENESIS
    Michael D. Waters
    US Environmental Protection Agency, MD-51A, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711 USA

    Our rapidly growing understanding of the structure of the human genome is forming the basis for numerous new...

  3. Future Scenarios and Environmental Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kopnina, Helen

    2014-01-01

    This article explores a number of questions about visions of the future and their implications for environmental education (EE). If the future were known, what kind of actions would be needed to maintain the positive aspects and reverse the negative ones? How could these actions be translated into the aims of EE? Three future scenarios are…

  4. Educating Future Environmental Health Professionals

    PubMed Central

    Knechtges, Paul L; Kelley, Timothy R

    2015-01-01

    Future environmental health problems will require a new generation of educated and trained professionals. Efforts to enhance the environmental public health workforce have been promoted by several organizations. While progress has been measured by these organizations, many environmental health academic programs are experiencing budget reductions and lower enrollments. One of the reasons for this trend is the so-called higher education crisis. We argue that training is not equivalent to education in the environmental health sciences, albeit the two terms are often used interchangeably. Organizations involved with the education, training, and credentialing of environmental health professionals must work together to ensure the viability and effectiveness of environmental health academic programs. PMID:26617460

  5. Energy structures and environmental futures

    SciTech Connect

    Haugland, T.; Bergesen, H.O.; Roland, K.

    1998-11-01

    Energy is not only a basis for modern society, but also a product of it. This book is a study of the close and ever-changing relationship between the energy sector and the society that surrounds it. At the end of the twentieth century this relationship faces two fundamental challenges: First, the national confinement of modern energy systems is undermined by technological progress, making long-distance trade increasingly attractive, and by the broad trend towards economic internationalization in general and political integration in Europe in particular. Second, the risk of climate change may lead governments and publics to demand a profound restructuring of the entire energy sector. The purpose is to analyze how these two fundamental challenges, and the connection between them, can affect future energy developments in Europe. The analysis must be rooted in a firm understanding of the past. The first part of the book is therefore devoted to a systematic description and analysis of the energy sector in Europe as it has developed over the past twenty-five years, by major subsectors and with examples from the most important countries. Part 1 discusses trends and policies related to energy demand, energy sector developments in oil, coal, natural gas, and electricity, achievements and challenges in the environment, and the role of international policy bodies. Part 2 forecasts future developments in 1995--2020, by discussing the following: Paths for future developments; National rebound scenario; Liberalization and trade; Liberalization versus national rebound; and Environmental futures.

  6. Future Studies and Environmental Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard, Jeanne

    1981-01-01

    Compares and discusses implications of future scenarios proposed by Herman Kahn and the Hudson River Institute and by the Club of Rome. Includes a decision-tree exercise appropriate for the classroom which involves five different future scenarios. (DC)

  7. Future generations, environmental ethics, and global environmental change

    SciTech Connect

    Tonn, B.E.

    1994-12-31

    The elements of a methodology to be employed by the global community to investigate the consequences of global environmental change upon future generations and global ecosystems are outlined in this paper. The methodology is comprised of two major components: A possible future worlds model; and a formal, citizen-oriented process to judge whether the possible future worlds potentially inheritable by future generations meet obligational standards. A broad array of descriptors of future worlds can be encompassed within this framework, including survival of ecosystems and other species and satisfaction of human concerns. The methodology expresses fundamental psychological motivations and human myths journey, renewal, mother earth, and being-in-nature-and incorporates several viewpoints on obligations to future generations-maintaining options, fairness, humility, and the cause of humanity. The methodology overcomes several severe drawbacks of the economic-based methods most commonly used for global environmental policy analysis.

  8. Rapid Response Teams: Policy Implications and Recommendations for Future Research.

    PubMed

    Stolldorf, Deonni

    2008-07-01

    Health care organizations are continually challenged with improving the safety of and the quality of care delivered to patients. Research studies often bring to the forefront interventions that health care organizations may choose to institute in an effort to provide evidence-based, quality care. Rapid response teams are one such intervention. Rapid response teams were introduced by the Institute for Healthcare Improvement as part of their "100,000 Lives" Campaign. Rapid response teams are one initiative health care organizations can implement in an effort to improve the quality of care delivered to patients. This article uses Donabedian's model of structure, process, and outcomes to discuss the United States health care systems, rapid response teams, and the outcomes of rapid response teams. National and organizational policy implications associated with rapid response teams are discussed and recommendations made for future research.

  9. Final rapid reactivation project environmental assessment

    SciTech Connect

    1999-02-10

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared an environmental assessment (EA) for the Rapid Reactivation Project at Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico. The EA analyzes the potential effects of a proposal to increase production of neutron generators from the current capability of 600 units per year up to 2,000 units per year. The project would use existing buildings and infrastructure to the maximum extent possible to meet the additional production needs. The increased production levels would necessitate modifications and additions involving a total area of approximately 26,290 gross square feet at Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico, Technical Area 1. Additional production equipment would be procured and installed. The no-action alternative would be to continue production activities at the current capability of 600 units per year. The EA analyzes effects on health, safety, and air quality, resulting from construction and operation and associated cumulative effects. A detailed description of the proposed action and its environmental consequences is presented in the EA.

  10. Environmental education: Ensuring a sustainable future

    SciTech Connect

    Rogers, D.P.; Lee, J.C.

    1997-12-31

    It is important to remember that personal actions and decisions have a significant impact on the environment. Although they may sometimes forget, today`s school children are the policy and decision makers of tomorrow. Today`s students must be exposed to factual information about the environment so they will be able to make responsible and informed ecological decisions. Since the National Environmental Education Act was signed into law in 1990, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has taken an active role in ensuring a sustainable future through environmental education. Through its education programs, the EPA strives to increase environmental literacy throughout the country and encourages young people to pursue careers in math, science, engineering, communications, and other fields essential to a sustainable environment. The US Environmental Protection Agency`s Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards (OAQPS), located in Research Triangle Park, North Carolina, is an international center for air quality research and information. One of the ways OAQPS invests in the environmental preservation of the Nation is through unique environmental education programs that target teachers and students of all ages. To be sure that environmental education programs incorporate a complete look at the environment, including issues associated with air quality, the EPA works with North Carolina teachers and students through the Education and Outreach Group`s Environmental Education Program. The EPA recognizes that the key to a sustainable future is engaging teachers and others in significant environmental education experiences. They will in turn instill a sense of environmental stewardship in America`s young people. There is hope that by the year 2000, every citizen will be fluent in the principles of ecology.

  11. Future space development scenarios: Environmental considerations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tangum, Richard

    1992-01-01

    The formation of positive attitudes and values concerning the environment of space, as the basis for assuming a wise stewardship role, is becoming increasingly important as many nations begin their journeys into space. A strong emphasis should be placed on fostering an international space environmental ethics. The object of environmental assessment and management in space should be to define what interplanetary regulatory procedures are needed to avoid unnecessary environmental damage and to monitor the effectiveness of such avoidance. The first requirement for research is to narrow the field of concern to areas where there could be an increased scale of development in space in the immediate future. Research needs to be focused on methodologies for defining the environmental systems involved (e.g., the lunar surface) and then recognizing key variables in the system that are fragile and need to be respected. Criteria for environmental quality should emerge which identify, in the case of lunar surface, how much mining activity can be safely undertaken and what quantity of exhaust gases can be released over a given period of time. Only then will humans be most able to evaluate the likely consequences of ventures into space.

  12. Environmental scanning: a strategy for the future.

    PubMed

    Wolfe, P L; Stanton, M P

    1992-03-01

    The rapidity of change confronting nursing at all levels will continue to challenge nursing's ultimate capacity to adapt and remain a viable profession in the 21st century. The process of meeting the challenges can be proactive based on assessment of needs and available resources, or reactive based on the reaction to challenges. A strategy identified by the authors that can be used at all levels of nursing practice, administration, education, and research is environmental scanning. This methodology has been used effectively in other disciplines for strategic, long-term planning and can be readily adapted to a wide variety of nursing service, academic, or professional associations. PMID:1593290

  13. Potential environmental impacts of future halocarbon emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Holmes, K.J.; Ellis, J.H.

    1996-08-01

    An integrated analysis of future halocarbon emissions and their environmental impacts shows that strict global compliance is required if the Montreal Protocol is to accomplish the goal of eliminating the lower stratospheric ozone hole. This analysis is integrated in the sense that demographic, economic, and regulatory processes controlling future production were linked explicitly to the technological factors translating production into emissions and the environmental processes transforming emissions into environmental impacts. Given current models of halocarbon transformation and atmospheric response, this research suggests that if a small percentage of nations continues to expand production at modest rates, the ozone hole will not be eliminated. In addition, high growth rate assumptions for halocarbon production by noncompliance nations will result in significantly increased ozone depletion. This research also shows that the continued use of small amounts of ozone-depleting substances for essential uses and the failure to adequately replace all ozone-depleting substances can eliminate the possibility of returning the atmosphere to pre-ozone hole conditions. The global climate change potential of halocarbons is fairly small if growth rates for chlorofluorocarbon substitutes remain low. If growth rates return to precontrol levels, these substitutes could contribute significantly to global climate change. 41 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  14. Biological responses to environmental heterogeneity under future ocean conditions.

    PubMed

    Boyd, Philip W; Cornwall, Christopher E; Davison, Andrew; Doney, Scott C; Fourquez, Marion; Hurd, Catriona L; Lima, Ivan D; McMinn, Andrew

    2016-08-01

    Organisms are projected to face unprecedented rates of change in future ocean conditions due to anthropogenic climate-change. At present, marine life encounters a wide range of environmental heterogeneity from natural fluctuations to mean climate change. Manipulation studies suggest that biota from more variable marine environments have more phenotypic plasticity to tolerate environmental heterogeneity. Here, we consider current strategies employed by a range of representative organisms across various habitats - from short-lived phytoplankton to long-lived corals - in response to environmental heterogeneity. We then discuss how, if and when organismal responses (acclimate/migrate/adapt) may be altered by shifts in the magnitude of the mean climate-change signal relative to that for natural fluctuations projected for coming decades. The findings from both novel climate-change modelling simulations and prior biological manipulation studies, in which natural fluctuations are superimposed on those of mean change, provide valuable insights into organismal responses to environmental heterogeneity. Manipulations reveal that different experimental outcomes are evident between climate-change treatments which include natural fluctuations vs. those which do not. Modelling simulations project that the magnitude of climate variability, along with mean climate change, will increase in coming decades, and hence environmental heterogeneity will increase, illustrating the need for more realistic biological manipulation experiments that include natural fluctuations. However, simulations also strongly suggest that the timescales over which the mean climate-change signature will become dominant, relative to natural fluctuations, will vary for individual properties, being most rapid for CO2 (~10 years from present day) to 4 decades for nutrients. We conclude that the strategies used by biota to respond to shifts in environmental heterogeneity may be complex, as they will have to

  15. Responsibilities to future generations: environmental ethics

    SciTech Connect

    Partridge, E.

    1980-01-01

    The moral question of our responsibilities to future generations, which have no voice in the decision, is addressed in this anthology of 25 essays. The essays focus on such issues as our duty to posterity and our motivation to provide for future generations, the rights of future generations, and how policies relating to food, energy, population, and eugenics should apply to these issues. The authors note that we know and can monitor the threats to our world that are resulting from our activities. This obligates us to develop the historical consciousness and moral judgement to ensure future generations the necessities of life. 356 references. (DCK)

  16. Advanced technologies for future environmental satellite systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dittberner, Gerald J.; Crison, Michael J.; Bajpai, Shyam; Diedrich, Benjamin L.

    2004-09-01

    Environmental satellites today are designed to meet the most requirements possible within the constraints of budget, reliability, availability, robustness, manufacturability, and the state of the art in affordable technology. As we learn more and more about observing and forecasting, requirements continue to be developed and validated for measurements that can benefit from for advances in technology. The goal is to incorporate new technologies into operational systems as quickly as possible. Technologies that exist or are being developed in response to growing requirements can be categorized as "requirements pull" whereas technologies rooted in basic research and engineering exploration fall in to a "technology push" category. NOAA has begun exploration into technologies for future NOAA satellite systems. Unmet requirements exist that drive the need to locate, explore, exploit, assess, and encourage development in several technologies. Areas needing advanced technologies include: atmospheric aerosols; cloud parameters; precipitation; profiles of temperature, moisture, pressure, and wind; atmospheric radiation; trace gas abundance and distribution; land surface; ocean surface; and space weather components such as neutral density and electron density. One of the more interesting ideas in the technology push category is a constellation of satellites at Medium Earth Orbit (MEO) altitudes, here described as circular orbits near 11,000 km altitude. Consider the vision of being able to observe the environment anywhere on the Earth, at anytime, with any repeat look frequency, and being able to communicate these measurements to anyone, anywhere, anytime, in real time. Studies suggest that a constellation of MEO satellites occupying equatorial and polar orbits (inclination = 90 degrees) could, in principle, accomplish this task. Also new on the horizon is solar sail technology. NOAA has been looking at solar sails as providing a propulsive system that could be used to

  17. Caring about Tomorrow: Future Orientation, Environmental Attitudes and Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carmi, Nurit

    2013-01-01

    Almost any pro-environmental behavior arouses a temporal conflict, as protecting long-term interests requires the sacrifice of short-term ones. Similarly, many health promoting behaviors may involve present discomfort for the sake of future well-being. In both contexts, health or environmental, developed future orientation (FO) is required to…

  18. Environmental OMICS: Current Status and Future Directions.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Objectives: Applications of OMICS to high throughput studies of changes of genes, RNAs, proteins and metabolites, and their associated functions in cells or organisms exposed to environmental chemicals has led to the emergence of a very active research field: environmental OMICS....

  19. An Environmental Agenda for the Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, John H.; And Others

    Early in 1981 the chief executives of ten major environmental and conservation organizations began meeting for the purpose of enhancing the effectiveness of their organizations in helping to protect the nation's environmental quality. This agenda represents 4 years of work by these and other individuals, and it attempts to collectively reflect the…

  20. Assessing potential future environmental legal events

    SciTech Connect

    Tonn, B.; Petrich, C.

    1997-10-28

    This report addresses the topic of environmental citizenship in the United States. The term refers to responsibilities each of us have with respect to helping our communities and nation make sound environmental decisions. This research centers on the citizens and what we ought to be doing, as opposed to what the government ought to be doing for us, to improve environmental citizenship. This report examines four central questions: What are the requirements (i.e., responsibilities) of citizenship vis-a-vis environmental decision- making processes; what constraints limit people`s ability to meet these requirements; what does our form of governance do to help or hinder in meeting these requirements; and what recommendations can be put forth to improve public participation in environmental decision making?

  1. Alternative Futures for Environmental Policy Planning: 1975-2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elgin, Duane S.; And Others

    This report explores a range of alternative futures covering the next 25 years (1975-2000). These concentrate on the United States, but place this nation's future experience in a world context. It is believed that by exploring the uncertainty of the near future and placing boundaries on it, environmental policy planners will be provided with an…

  2. Future of Environmental Satellite Program Uncertain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zielinski, Sarah

    2006-04-01

    The National Polar-orbiting environmental Satellite System (NPOESS), over budget and behind schedule, is undergoing a mandatory review process that could leave the program cut back or cancelled. However, the outcome of the review will not be known until June, witnesses testified at a 30 March hearing before the U.S. Senate Commerce, Science, and Transportation Subcommittee on Disaster Prevention and Prediction. NPOESS is a set of six satellites that are intended to replace the U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA) Polar-orbiting Operational environmental Satellite (POES) program and the U.S. Department of Defense (DOD) Defense Meteorological Satellite Program, which collects weather data for the military. POeS supports many of NOAA's environmental monitoring programs.

  3. Program Environmental Assurance: Shuttle Environmental Assurance and the Future

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glover, Steve E.

    2008-01-01

    Material availability continues to be impacted by domestic and international environmental health and safety (EH&S) regulations, industrial pollution prevention goals and related vendor economics. SEA is an integrated team that works to identify, communicate and address safety and environmentally driven materials obsolescence issues and pollution prevention opportunities.

  4. Environmental Education for a Sustainable Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlesinger, William H.

    2004-01-01

    The American public is now faced with a baffling array of new environmental issues--much more complicated than the problems people faced 30 years ago. Scientists recognize new threats to the biosphere, the fabric of natural ecosystems, and the diversity of plants and animals that inhabit them. Unlike the obvious, toxic pollutants that spurred the…

  5. A Rapid History of Futures Thought: From Montgolfier to the Manhattan Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarke, I. F.

    1984-01-01

    The literature of future studies has grown up rapidly in times of technological innovation and social change. Particular events and publications that have contributed most to the development of the futures movement around the world are highlighted. (Author/RM)

  6. RAPID DETERMINATION OF RA-226 IN ENVIRONMENTAL SAMPLES

    SciTech Connect

    Maxwell, S.

    2012-01-03

    A new rapid method for the determination of {sup 226}Ra in environmental samples has been developed at the Savannah River Site Environmental Lab (Aiken, SC, USA) that can be used for emergency response or routine sample analyses. The need for rapid analyses in the event of a Radiological Dispersive Device or Improvised Nuclear Device event is well-known. In addition, the recent accident at Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant in March, 2011 reinforces the need to have rapid analyses for radionuclides in environmental samples in the event of a nuclear accident. {sup 226}Ra (T1/2 = 1,620 years) is one of the most toxic of the long-lived alpha-emitters present in the environment due to its long life and its tendency to concentrate in bones, which increases the internal radiation dose of individuals. The new method to determine {sup 226}Ra in environmental samples utilizes a rapid sodium hydroxide fusion method for solid samples, calcium carbonate precipitation to preconcentrate Ra, and rapid column separation steps to remove interferences. The column separation process uses cation exchange resin to remove large amounts of calcium, Sr Resin to remove barium and Ln Resin as a final purification step to remove {sup 225}Ac and potential interferences. The purified {sup 226}Ra sample test sources are prepared using barium sulfate microprecipitation in the presence of isopropanol for counting by alpha spectrometry. The method showed good chemical recoveries and effective removal of interferences. The determination of {sup 226}Ra in environmental samples can be performed in less than 16 h for vegetation, concrete, brick, soil, and air filter samples with excellent quality for emergency or routine analyses. The sample preparation work takes less than 6 h. {sup 225}Ra (T1/2 = 14.9 day) tracer is used and the {sup 225}Ra progeny {sup 217}At is used to determine chemical yield via alpha spectrometry. The rapid fusion technique is a rugged sample digestion method that ensures that any

  7. Environmental assessment process needs and future directions

    SciTech Connect

    Gustafson, P.F.

    1985-01-01

    The environmental assessment process as legislatively mandated by the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA) constitutes a double-edged sword as regards the successful management and disposal of radioactive waste. On the one hand, NEPA requires identification and disclosure of the environmental and societal consequences of a given major federal action, consideration of alternatives and/or mitigative measures leading to the same end result, a balancing of costs and benefits, and provides for and encourages public participation in the decision-making process regarding the proposed action(s). On the other hand, public participation supported by judicial decisions, based more upon procedural than substantive issues, may delay, alter, or indeed prohibit a proposed course of action. If the cognizant federal agencies (DOE and NRC in the radioactive waste area) comply with both the spirit and the letter of NEPA a framework for the successful management of radioactive wastes on all types can be developed. If however, these agencies are less than earnest in their NEPA compliance actions or if public opposition is backed by overzealous court action, any radioactive waste management/disposal action (however technically sound) can be hoisted upon a petard from which it may not be freed until well into the next century.

  8. Environmental enrichment restores neurogenesis and rapid acquisition in aged rats.

    PubMed

    Speisman, Rachel B; Kumar, Ashok; Rani, Asha; Pastoriza, Jessica M; Severance, Jamie E; Foster, Thomas C; Ormerod, Brandi K

    2013-01-01

    Strategies combatting cognitive decline among the growing aging population are vital. We tested whether environmental enrichment could reverse age-impaired rapid spatial search strategy acquisition concomitantly with hippocampal neurogenesis in rats. Young (5-8 months) and aged (20-22 months) male Fischer 344 rats were pair-housed and exposed to environmental enrichment (n = 7 young, 9 aged) or housed individually (n = 7 young, 7 aged) for 10 weeks. After 5 weeks, hidden platform trials (5 blocks of 3 trials; 15 m inter-block interval), a probe trial, and then visible platform trials (5 blocks of 3 trials; 15 m inter-block interval) commenced in the water maze. One week after testing, rats were given 5 daily intraperitoneal bromodeoxyuridine (50 mg/kg) injections and perfused 4 weeks later to quantify neurogenesis. Although young rats outperformed aged rats, aged enriched rats outperformed aged individually housed rats on all behavioral measures. Neurogenesis decreased with age but enrichment enhanced new cell survival, regardless of age. The novel correlation between new neuron number and behavioral measures obtained in a rapid water maze task among aged rats, suggests that environmental enrichment increases their ability to rapidly acquire and flexibly use spatial information along with neurogenesis.

  9. Environmental software guide: Accessing the future

    SciTech Connect

    1997-01-01

    New systems and those in development will give mankind a closer look at the earth`s environment than ever before. High resolution commercial satellite sources are also in development. Programs are going on to map the terrain of the earth, the three-dimensional earth`s surface and make that kind of data more readily accessible globally. The emphasis has shifted to pollution prevention. This article includes a review of software developments and trends, as well as listings of environmental software suppliers.

  10. Whither environmentalism. The future political path of the environmental movement

    SciTech Connect

    Buttel, F.H.; Larson, O.W. III

    1980-04-01

    The principal assumption of this paper is that the form that environmentalism takes, i.e., the organization, social bases, ideology, and structure, is extremely important and will susbstantially shape the impact of environmental reform on different sectors of the society and society as a whole. It is argued that the possible forms of environmentalism can be described adequately in terms of the notions of left, right, and center. The authors are concerned with developing notes toward a theory of the prospective origins of environmentalism. The emergence of resource scarcity in the coming decades likely will be a pivotal juncture for socio-political change in the United States and other advanced societies. It is crucial to recognize that this juncture may yield progressive or regressive social changes. Anticipating the range of choices that are available or possible may enable those whose needs are not met adequately by the present society to help construct a more-beneficient society over the coming decades. 41 notes, 2 tables. (SAC)

  11. Planned Environmental Microbiology Aspects of Future Lunar and Mars Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ott, C. Mark; Castro, Victoria A.; Pierson, Duane L.

    2006-01-01

    With the establishment of the Constellation Program, NASA has initiated efforts designed similar to the Apollo Program to return to the moon and subsequently travel to Mars. Early lunar sorties will take 4 crewmembers to the moon for 4 to 7 days. Later missions will increase in duration up to 6 months as a lunar habitat is constructed. These missions and vehicle designs are the forerunners of further missions destined for human exploration of Mars. Throughout the planning and design process, lessons learned from the International Space Station (ISS) and past programs will be implemented toward future exploration goals. The standards and requirements for these missions will vary depending on life support systems, mission duration, crew activities, and payloads. From a microbiological perspective, preventative measures will remain the primary techniques to mitigate microbial risk. Thus, most of the effort will focus on stringent preflight monitoring requirements and engineering controls designed into the vehicle, such as HEPA air filters. Due to volume constraints in the CEV, in-flight monitoring will be limited for short-duration missions to the measurement of biocide concentration for water potability. Once long-duration habitation begins on the lunar surface, a more extensive environmental monitoring plan will be initiated. However, limited in-flight volume constraints and the inability to return samples to Earth will increase the need for crew capabilities in determining the nature of contamination problems and method of remediation. In addition, limited shelf life of current monitoring hardware consumables and limited capabilities to dispose of biohazardous trash will drive flight hardware toward non-culture based methodologies, such as hardware that rapidly distinguishes biotic versus abiotic surface contamination. As missions progress to Mars, environmental systems will depend heavily on regeneration of air and water and biological waste remediation and

  12. Environmental Consequences of Rapid Urbanization in Zhejiang Province, East China

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Xuchao; Yue, Wenze; Xu, Honghui; Wu, Jingsheng; He, Yue

    2014-01-01

    Since reforms carried out in the late 1970s, China has experienced unprecedented rates of urban growth. Remote sensing data and surface observational data are used to investigate the urbanization process and related environmental consequences, focusing on extreme heat events and air pollution, in Zhejiang Province (ZJP, East China). Examination of satellite-measured nighttime light data indicates rapid urbanization in ZJP during the past decade, initially forming three urban clusters. With rapid urban sprawl, a significant Urban Heat Island (UHI) effect has emerged. During extreme heat events in summer, the UHI effect significantly exacerbates nocturnal heat stress in highly urbanized areas. Taking a long-term view, urbanization also causes additional hot days and hot degree days in urban areas. Urbanization also imposes a heavy burden on local and regional air quality in ZJP. Degraded visibility and an increase in haze days are observed at most meteorological stations, especially in the three urban clusters. The results show that urbanization has led to serious environmental problems in ZJP, not only on the city scale, but also on the regional scale. Maintaining a balance between the continuing process of urbanization and environmental sustainability is a major issue facing the local government. PMID:25019266

  13. Environmental consequences of rapid urbanization in zhejiang province, East china.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xuchao; Yue, Wenze; Xu, Honghui; Wu, Jingsheng; He, Yue

    2014-07-11

    Since reforms carried out in the late 1970s, China has experienced unprecedented rates of urban growth. Remote sensing data and surface observational data are used to investigate the urbanization process and related environmental consequences, focusing on extreme heat events and air pollution, in Zhejiang Province (ZJP, East China). Examination of satellite-measured nighttime light data indicates rapid urbanization in ZJP during the past decade, initially forming three urban clusters. With rapid urban sprawl, a significant Urban Heat Island (UHI) effect has emerged. During extreme heat events in summer, the UHI effect significantly exacerbates nocturnal heat stress in highly urbanized areas. Taking a long-term view, urbanization also causes additional hot days and hot degree days in urban areas. Urbanization also imposes a heavy burden on local and regional air quality in ZJP. Degraded visibility and an increase in haze days are observed at most meteorological stations, especially in the three urban clusters. The results show that urbanization has led to serious environmental problems in ZJP, not only on the city scale, but also on the regional scale. Maintaining a balance between the continuing process of urbanization and environmental sustainability is a major issue facing the local government.

  14. Environmental consequences of rapid urbanization in zhejiang province, East china.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xuchao; Yue, Wenze; Xu, Honghui; Wu, Jingsheng; He, Yue

    2014-07-01

    Since reforms carried out in the late 1970s, China has experienced unprecedented rates of urban growth. Remote sensing data and surface observational data are used to investigate the urbanization process and related environmental consequences, focusing on extreme heat events and air pollution, in Zhejiang Province (ZJP, East China). Examination of satellite-measured nighttime light data indicates rapid urbanization in ZJP during the past decade, initially forming three urban clusters. With rapid urban sprawl, a significant Urban Heat Island (UHI) effect has emerged. During extreme heat events in summer, the UHI effect significantly exacerbates nocturnal heat stress in highly urbanized areas. Taking a long-term view, urbanization also causes additional hot days and hot degree days in urban areas. Urbanization also imposes a heavy burden on local and regional air quality in ZJP. Degraded visibility and an increase in haze days are observed at most meteorological stations, especially in the three urban clusters. The results show that urbanization has led to serious environmental problems in ZJP, not only on the city scale, but also on the regional scale. Maintaining a balance between the continuing process of urbanization and environmental sustainability is a major issue facing the local government. PMID:25019266

  15. Rapid environmental change during dynastic transitions in Yunnan Province, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hillman, Aubrey L.; Yu, JunQing; Abbott, Mark B.; Cooke, Colin A.; Bain, Daniel J.; Steinman, Byron A.

    2014-08-01

    Pollution and eutrophication of Chinese lakes are widely perceived to be 20th century phenomena. However, China has a long history of deforestation, agriculture, mineral resource extraction, and other anthropogenic activities that impact the environment. Here, we present a sediment record from Xing Yun Lake in the Yunnan Province of China that reveals significant alterations to the lake, its ecosystem, and its watershed beginning as early as 500 AD. A comprehensive suite of biogeochemical and isotopic proxies reveal several rapid transitions related to changes in agriculture and lake-level management that coincides with cultural and dynastic transitions. The deterioration of contemporary environmental conditions at Xing Yun arises from a long history of anthropogenic manipulation, eutrophication, and pollution of the lake and its watershed. This study highlights the importance of using historical records of industrial and agricultural activities, including landscape modification, in conjunction with records of climate change, to place present day environmental concerns into a long-term context.

  16. Perceptual indicators of environmental health, future land use, and stewardship.

    PubMed

    Burger, Joanna; Myers, O; Boring, C S; Dixon, C; Jeitner, J C; Leonard, J; Lord, C; McMahon, M; Ramos, R; Shukla, S; Gochfeld, Michael

    2003-12-01

    There are important linkages between the health of humans and the environment, restoration of degraded lands, and long-term stewardship of public lands, yet most environmental indicators deal only with assessing the physical and biological aspects of ecosystems. In this article, we examine the ratings of perceptions of several environmental problems for their utility as indicators of environmental quality, and examine perceptions of future land use by people interviewed in Santa Fe, New Mexico, near the Department of Energy's (DOE) Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). Overall, people with lower incomes rated environmental problems as more severe than others, were more willing to spend federal funds to solve them, and were consistent in their ratings of severity of environmental problems and their willingness to spend federal funds. Cleaning up LANL and other Department of Energy sites, received the highest rating for expenditure of federal funds. The highest rated future uses for DOE sites were for recreation and for National Environmental Research Parks. People with less education generally gave higher ratings to most future land uses for DOE than did those with more education. However, those with higher education gave higher ratings to nuclear reprocessing, and nuclear material storage. Where there were differences, the people interviewed at Santa Fe rated all environmental problems (except pesticides) as more severe than did those previously interviewed in Albuquerque (located farther from the LANL site), and they were more willing to spend federal funds on these problems. Ratings for all future land uses did not differ between the Santa Fe and Albuquerque respondents. These perception-based indicators show general agreement among people living close and farther away from LANL with respect to cleaning up LANL and the future land uses for the site. These indicators should be considered by regulators, site personnel, and policy makers in future management and

  17. Middle Holocene rapid environmental changes and human adaptation in Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lespez, Laurent; Glais, Arthur; Lopez-Saez, José-Antonio; Le Drezen, Yann; Tsirtsoni, Zoï; Davidson, Robert; Biree, Laetitia; Malamidou, Dimitra

    2016-03-01

    Numerous researchers discuss of the collapse of civilizations in response to abrupt climate change in the Mediterranean region. The period between 6500 and 5000 cal yr BP is one of the least studied episodes of rapid climate change at the end of the Late Neolithic. This period is characterized by a dramatic decline in settlement and a cultural break in the Balkans. High-resolution paleoenvironmental proxy data obtained in the Lower Angitis Valley enables an examination of the societal responses to rapid climatic change in Greece. Development of a lasting fluvio-lacustrine environment followed by enhanced fluvial activity is evident from 6000 cal yr BP. Paleoecological data show a succession of dry events at 5800-5700, 5450 and 5000-4900 cal yr BP. These events correspond to incursion of cold air masses to the eastern Mediterranean, confirming the climatic instability of the middle Holocene climate transition. Two periods with farming and pastural activities (6300-5600 and 5100-4700 cal BP) are evident. The intervening period is marked by environmental changes, but the continuous occurrence of anthropogenic taxa suggests the persistence of human activities despite the absence of archaeological evidence. The environmental factors alone were not sufficient to trigger the observed societal changes.

  18. An Exploration of Future Trends in Environmental Education Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ardoin, Nicole M.; Clark, Charlotte; Kelsey, Elin

    2013-01-01

    This article describes future trends in environmental education (EE) research based on a mixed-methods study where data were collected through a content analysis of peer-reviewed articles published in EE journals between 2005 and 2010; interviews with experts engaged in EE research and sustainability-related fields; surveys with current EE…

  19. Environmental Field Surveys, EMF Rapid Program, Engineering Project No.3

    SciTech Connect

    Enertech Consultants

    1996-04-01

    The EMF Research and Public Information Dissemination Program (RAPID) includes several engineering research in the area of exposure assessment and source characterization. RAPID engineering project No. 3: ''Environmental Field Surveys'' was performed to obtain information on the levels and characteristics of different environments, for which only limited data were available, especially in comparison to magnetic field data for the residential environment and for electric utility facilities, such as power lines and substations. This project was also to provide information on the contribution of various field sources in the surveyed environments. Magnetic field surveys were performed at four sites for each of five environments: schools, hospitals, office buildings, machine shops, and grocery stores. Of the twenty sites surveyed, 11 were located in the San Francisco Bay Area and 9 in Massachusetts. The surveys used a protocol based on magnetic field measurements and observation of activity patterns, designed to provide estimates of magnetic field exposure by type of people and by type of sources. The magnetic field surveys conducted by this project produced a large amount of data which will form a part of the EMF measurement database Field and exposure data were obtained separately for ''area exposure'' and ''at exposure points''. An exposure point is a location where persons engage in fixed, site specific activities near a local source that creates a significant increase in the area field. The area field is produced by ''area sources'', whose location and field distribution is in general not related to the location of the people in the area.

  20. Rapid determination of 226Ra in environmental samples

    SciTech Connect

    Maxwell, Sherrod L.; Culligan, Brian K.

    2012-02-04

    A new rapid method for the determination of {sup 228}Ra in natural water samples has been developed at the SRNL/EBL (Savannah River National Lab/ Environmental Bioassay Laboratory) that can be used for emergency response or routine samples. While gamma spectrometry can be employed with sufficient detection limits to determine {sup 228}Ra in solid samples (via {sup 228}Ac) , radiochemical methods that employ gas flow proportional counting techniques typically provide lower MDA (Minimal Detectable Activity) levels for the determination of {sup 228}Ra in water samples. Most radiochemical methods for {sup 228}Ra collect and purify {sup 228}Ra and allow for {sup 228}Ac daughter ingrowth for ~36 hours. In this new SRNL/EBL approach, {sup 228}Ac is collected and purified from the water sample without waiting to eliminate this delay. The sample preparation requires only about 4 hours so that {sup 228}Ra assay results on water samples can be achieved in < 6 hours. The method uses a rapid calcium carbonate precipitation enhanced with a small amount of phosphate added to enhance chemical yields (typically >90%), followed by rapid cation exchange removal of calcium. Lead, bismuth, uranium, thorium and protactinium isotopes are also removed by the cation exchange separation. {sup 228}Ac is eluted from the cation resin directly onto a DGA Resin cartridge attached to the bottom of the cation column to purify {sup 228}Ac. DGA Resin also removes lead and bismuth isotopes, along with Sr isotopes and {sup 90}Y. La is used to determine {sup 228}Ac chemical yield via ICP-MS, but {sup 133}Ba can also be used instead if ICP-MS assay is not available. Unlike some older methods, no lead or strontium holdback carriers or continual readjustment of sample pH is required.

  1. Historical development and future perspectives of Environmental Specimen Bank in China: a mini review.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Fang; Meng, Xiang-Zhou; Qiu, Yan-Ling; Huang, Qing-Hui; Liu, Ying; Wu, Ling-Ling; Xiao, Qian-Fen; Sun, Ya-Jie; Wang, Rui; Zhou, Yi-Hui; Yu, Zhen-Yang; Yin, Da-Qiang; Zhu, Zhi-Liang; Zhao, Jian-Fu

    2015-02-01

    Environmental problems as well as their related ecosystem stress and human health risk in China have raised wide concerns along with the rapid economic development in recent years. Numerous studies with a sharp increase in publication number have addressed the ubiquitous of anthropogenic chemicals in various environmental compartments and human tissues. However, very few data were available to clarify the temporal trend and to give the retrospective analysis of chemical pollution in China. Environmental Specimen Bank (ESB) is a system for the systematic collection and long-term storage of specimens, which has been established since the 1970s in developed counties and recognized as a fundamental complement for environmental monitoring and scientific research. Currently, the value of ESB is becoming more broadly recognized globally, and China is still at the early stage. This article described the history and status and put forwarded the future key points of Chinese ESB development for illustrating the intensive environmental changes in China and the world.

  2. Rapid collection, detection, and assessment of environmental petroleum spills

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, B.T.; Huckins, J.N.; Petty, J.D.

    1995-12-31

    The bioavailability and toxicity of petroleum oil spills were determined by a new tandem monitoring approach with a passive sorptive device for collection and concentration, and luminescent bacteria for detection. Crude oil, fuel oil, jet fuel, gasoline, and recycled motor oil, as model contaminants, were collected over eight weeks from sediment:water microcosms simulating environmental petroleum spills. Bioremediation strategies for removal of oil contaminants with organic and inorganic nutrients, heterotrophic bacterial strains, and detergent were monitored for efficacy. Air and waterborne oil contaminants was collected with a semipermeable membrane device (SPMD) that contains a thin film of triolein. Analytes were extracted from SPMDs by either dialysis or diluted with organic solvents. Acute toxicity and genotoxicity of analytes were determined with the luminescent bacterial assays Microtox{reg_sign} and Mutatox{reg_sign}. Changes in the bioavailability and toxicity of different oil products as well as influences of different bioremediation treatments were successfully monitored in aquatic microcosms over time. SPMDs and the Microtox-Mutatox systems used in combination offered a sensitive, rapid and cost-effective toxicological screening tool to assess the bioavailability of hazardous environmental oil contaminants.

  3. Rapid screening of environmental chemicals for estrogen receptor binding capacity.

    PubMed Central

    Bolger, R; Wiese, T E; Ervin, K; Nestich, S; Checovich, W

    1998-01-01

    Over the last few years, an increased awareness of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) and their potential to affect wildlife and humans has produced a demand for practical screening methods to identify endocrine activity in a wide range of environmental and industrial chemicals. While it is clear that in vivo methods will be required to identify adverse effects produced by these chemicals, in vitro assays can define particular mechanisms of action and have the potential to be employed as rapid and low-cost screens for use in large scale EDC screening programs. Traditional estrogen receptor (ER) binding assays are useful for characterizing a chemical's potential to be an estrogen-acting EDC, but they involve displacement of a radioactive ligand from crude receptor preparations at low temperatures. The usefulness of these assays for realistically determining the ER binding interactions of weakly estrogenic environmental and industrial compounds that have low aqueous solubility is unclear. In this report, we present a novel fluorescence polarization (FP) method that measures the capacity of a competitor chemical to displace a high affinity fluorescent ligand from purified, recombinant human ER-[alpha] at room temperature. The ER-[alpha] binding interactions generated for 15 natural and synthetic compounds were found to be similar to those determined with traditional receptor binding assays. We also discuss the potential to employ this FP technology to binding studies involving ER-ss and other receptors. Thus, the assay introduced in this study is a nonradioactive receptor binding method that shows promise as a high throughput screening method for large-scale testing of environmental and industrial chemicals for ER binding interactions. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:9721254

  4. [Environmental health in Mexico: current situation and future prospects].

    PubMed

    Riojas-Rodríguez, Horacio; Schilmann, Astrid; López-Carrillo, Lizbeth; Finkelman, Jacobo

    2013-12-01

    Environmental health has been established in Mexico as a discipline since the early nineties resuming the sanitarian tradition developed over the past century and incorporating new knowledge generated by environmental toxicology and epidemiology. During the last decade there has been some progress in reviewing and updating the regulations, designing programs and policies to reduce exposure to pollutants and consolidating research groups and teaching in the area. However, the most prevalent problems previously diagnosed still remain and new risks have emerged due to environmental degradation (air pollution, toxics exposure and climate change among others) have been incorporated. If this trend persists, the environmental risks will continue to increase and multiply. The environmental health governance in Mexico has to be redesigned involving a transectoral approach. Future proposals might include: establishment of a National Environmental Health Program, update the situational diagnosis at national and regional level, strengthening teaching and graduate programs in environmental health as well as increase support for research in the area and development of an integrated environmental health surveillance system.

  5. Planetary Habitability and Rapid Environmental Change: The Biological Perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulze-Makuch, D.; Fairen, A.; Irwin, L.

    2012-12-01

    Environmental conditions can change drastically and rapidly during the natural history of a planetary body. We have detailed evidence of these dramatic events from Venus, Earth, Mars, and Titan. Most of these occurrences seem to be triggered by astronomical events such as asteroid impacts or supernova explosions; others are triggered by the planet or moon itself (e.g., supervolcano eruptions). The associated question is always how these events affect the habitability of a planet, particularly the origin and presence of life. Under what conditions would such a drastic event be so catastrophic that it would prohibit the origin of life or be so devastating to existing organisms, that life would not be able to recover and be all but extinguished from a planet? Under what conditions would such an event be positive for the evolution of life, for example spurring life via mass extinctions and associated vacant habitats to the invention of new body plans and higher complexity? Here, we provide insights of what we can learn from the natural history of our own planet, which experienced many environmental disasters and abrupt climate changes, from the impact event that created the Moon to the extinction of the dinosaurs. We apply these insights to other planetary bodies and the question about the presence of life. One example is Mars, which underwent drastic environmental changes at the end of the Noachian period. Assuming that microbial life became established on Mars, could it have survived, perhaps by retreating to environmental niches? Life just starting out would have certainly been more vulnerable to extinction. But how far would it have to have evolved to be more resistant to potential extinction events? Would it have to be global in distribution to survive? Another example is Venus. Should Venus be seen as an example where life, which possibly arose in the first few hundred million years when the planet was still in the habitable zone, would have had no chance to

  6. Studying the Future Through Environmental Education. Environmental Education Digest No. 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Disinger, John F.

    This digest reviews briefly several futures-oriented efforts of pertinence to educational endeavors, focusing primarily on their environmental aspects. These efforts are considered under headings in the form of six questions. They are: (1) Are future studies scientific? (2) How are projections developed? (3) What do recent futuristic projections…

  7. Toxicity and Environmental Risks of Nanomaterials: Challenges and Future Needs

    PubMed Central

    Ray, Paresh Chandra; Yu, Hongtao; Fu, Peter P.

    2010-01-01

    Nanotechnology has gained a great deal of public interest due to the needs and applications of nanomaterials in many areas of human endeavors including industry, agriculture, business, medicine and public health. Environmental exposure to nanomaterials is inevitable as nanomaterials become part of our daily life, and as a result, nanotoxicity research is gaining attention. This review presents a summary of recent research efforts on fate, behavior and toxicity of different classes of nanomaterials in the environment. A critical evaluation of challenges and future needs for the safe environmental nanotechnology has been discussed. PMID:19204862

  8. Environmental effects of the Big Rapids dam remnant removal, Big Rapids, Michigan, 2000-02

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Healy, Denis F.; Rheaume, Stephen J.; Simpson, J. Alan

    2003-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the city of Big Rapids, investigated the environmental effects of removal of a dam-foundation remnant and downstream cofferdam from the Muskegon River in Big Rapids, Mich. The USGS applied a multidiscipline approach, which determined the water quality, sediment character, and stream habitat before and after dam removal. Continuous water-quality data and discrete water-quality samples were collected, the movement of suspended and bed sediment were measured, changes in stream habitat were assessed, and streambed elevations were surveyed. Analyses of water upstream and downstream from the dam showed that the dam-foundation remnant did not affect water quality. Dissolved-oxygen concentrations downstream from the dam remnant were depressed for a short period (days) during the beginning of the dam removal, in part because of that removal effort. Sediment transport from July 2000 through March 2002 was 13,800 cubic yards more at the downstream site than the upstream site. This increase in sediment represents the remobilized sediment upstream from the dam, bank erosion when the impoundment was lowered, and contributions from small tributaries between the sites. Five habitat reaches were monitored before and after dam-remnant removal. The reaches consisted of a reference reach (A), upstream from the effects of the impoundment; the impoundment (B); and three sites below the impoundment where habitat changes were expected (C, D, and E, in downstream order). Stream-habitat assessment reaches varied in their responses to the dam-remnant removal. Reference reach A was not affected. In impoundment reach B, Great Lakes and Environmental Assessment Section (GLEAS) Procedure 51 ratings went from fair to excellent. For the three downstream reaches, reach C underwent slight habitat degradation, but ratings remained good; reach D underwent slight habitat degradation with ratings changing from excellent to good; and, in an area

  9. Towards a global environmental sociology? Legacies, trends and future directions

    PubMed Central

    Lidskog, Rolf; Mol, Arthur PJ; Oosterveer, Peter

    2014-01-01

    A current debate on environmental sociology involves how the subdiscipline should conceptualise and investigate the environment and whether it should be prescriptive and deliver policy recommendations. Taking this debate as a point of departure this article discusses the current and future role of sociology in a globalised world. It discusses how environmental sociology in the US and Europe differ in their understandings of sociology’s contribution to the study of the environment. Particular stress is placed on how these two regions differ with respect to their use of the tradition of sociological thought, views on what constitutes the environment and ways of institutionalising environmental sociology as a sociological field. In conclusion, the question is raised of whether current versions of environmental sociology are appropriate for analysing a globalised world environment; or whether environmental sociology’s strong roots in European and US cultures make it less relevant when facing an increasingly globalised world. Finally, the article proposes some new rules for a global environmental sociology and describes some of their possible implications for the sociological study of climate change. PMID:25937642

  10. Environmental engineering education for developing countries: framework for the future.

    PubMed

    Ujang, Z; Henze, M; Curtis, T; Schertenleib, R; Beal, L L

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents the existing philosophy, approach, criteria and delivery of environmental engineering education (E3) for developing countries. In general, environmental engineering is being taught in almost all major universities in developing countries, mostly under civil engineering degree programmes. There is an urgent need to address specific inputs that are particularly important for developing countries with respect to the reality of urbanisation and industrialisation. The main component of E3 in the near future will remain on basic sanitation in most developing countries, with special emphasis on the consumer-demand approach. In order to substantially overcome environmental problems in developing countries, E3 should include integrated urban water management, sustainable sanitation, appropriate technology, cleaner production, wastewater minimisation and financial framework.

  11. Insulin Resistance and Environmental Pollutants: Experimental Evidence and Future Perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Vanparys, Caroline; Van Gaal, Luc F.; Jorens, Philippe G.; Covaci, Adrian; Blust, Ronny

    2013-01-01

    Background: The metabolic disruptor hypothesis postulates that environmental pollutants may be risk factors for metabolic diseases. Because insulin resistance is involved in most metabolic diseases and current health care prevention programs predominantly target insulin resistance or risk factors thereof, a critical analysis of the role of pollutants in insulin resistance might be important for future management of metabolic diseases. Objectives: We aimed to critically review the available information linking pollutant exposure to insulin resistance and to open the discussion on future perspectives for metabolic disruptor identification and prioritization strategies. Methods: We searched PubMed and Web of Science for experimental studies reporting on linkages between environmental pollutants and insulin resistance and identified a total of 23 studies as the prime literature. Discussion: Recent studies specifically designed to investigate the effect of pollutants on insulin sensitivity show a potential causation of insulin resistance. Based on these studies, a summary of viable test systems and end points can be composed, allowing insight into what is missing and what is needed to create a standardized insulin resistance toxicity testing strategy. Conclusions: It is clear that current research predominantly relies on top-down identification of insulin resistance–inducing metabolic disruptors and that the development of dedicated in vitro or ex vivo screens to allow animal sparing and time- and cost-effective bottom-up screening is a major future research need. Citation: Hectors TL, Vanparys C, Van Gaal LF, Jorens PG, Covaci A, Blust R. 2013. Insulin resistance and environmental pollutants: experimental evidence and future perspectives. Environ Health Perspect 121:1273–1281; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1307082 PMID:24058052

  12. Coastal Rapid Environmental Assessment in the Northern Adriatic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simoncelli, Simona; Pinardi, Nadia; Oddo, Paolo; Mariano, Arthur J.; Montanari, Giuseppe; Rinaldi, Attilio; Deserti, Marco

    2011-09-01

    A new Coastal Rapid Environmental Assessment (CREA) methodology, based on an operational regional forecasting system and coastal monitoring networks of opportunity, has been developed and successfully applied to the Northern Adriatic Sea. The methodology aims at improving the initial condition estimates by combining operational coarse model fields with coastal observations to improve medium to short range predictability which is required by coastal zone and emergency management. The CREA modeling framework system consists of a high resolution, O(800 m), Adriatic SHELF model (ASHELF) nested into the Adriatic Forecasting System (AFS) at 2.2 km resolution. The CREA observational system is composed of coastal networks sampling the water column temperature and salinity between depths of 5 and 40 m. The initialization technique blends the AFS fields with the available observations using a multi-input, multi-scale optimal interpolation technique and a spin-up period for the high resolution ASHELF model to dynamically adjust initial conditions from the coarser resolution AFS model. The high resolution spin up period has been investigated through a dedicated set of experiments and it was found that a week time is enough to have new energetic features in the model initial condition field estimates to be blended with observations. Five CREA study cases have been analyzed for different months of the year, one per month from May to September 2003, chosen on the basis of the availability of the coastal observations for both model initialization and validation. The CREA 7-days forecasts show skill improvements in the coastal area salinity and temperature profiles, deriving from the blending and the spin-up period in the initialization methodology. The main conclusion is that forecasting in coastal areas by nesting necessitates of the observations to correct the coarse resolution model fields providing informations where parent and child model topographies mismatch. Results

  13. Integrated environmental modeling: a vision and roadmap for the future

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Laniak, Gerard F.; Olchin, Gabriel; Goodall, Jonathan; Voinov, Alexey; Hill, Mary; Glynn, Pierre; Whelan, Gene; Geller, Gary; Quinn, Nigel; Blind, Michiel; Peckham, Scott; Reaney, Sim; Gaber, Noha; Kennedy, Philip R.; Hughes, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    Integrated environmental modeling (IEM) is inspired by modern environmental problems, decisions, and policies and enabled by transdisciplinary science and computer capabilities that allow the environment to be considered in a holistic way. The problems are characterized by the extent of the environmental system involved, dynamic and interdependent nature of stressors and their impacts, diversity of stakeholders, and integration of social, economic, and environmental considerations. IEM provides a science-based structure to develop and organize relevant knowledge and information and apply it to explain, explore, and predict the behavior of environmental systems in response to human and natural sources of stress. During the past several years a number of workshops were held that brought IEM practitioners together to share experiences and discuss future needs and directions. In this paper we organize and present the results of these discussions. IEM is presented as a landscape containing four interdependent elements: applications, science, technology, and community. The elements are described from the perspective of their role in the landscape, current practices, and challenges that must be addressed. Workshop participants envision a global scale IEM community that leverages modern technologies to streamline the movement of science-based knowledge from its sources in research, through its organization into databases and models, to its integration and application for problem solving purposes. Achieving this vision will require that the global community of IEM stakeholders transcend social, and organizational boundaries and pursue greater levels of collaboration. Among the highest priorities for community action are the development of standards for publishing IEM data and models in forms suitable for automated discovery, access, and integration; education of the next generation of environmental stakeholders, with a focus on transdisciplinary research, development, and

  14. Reducing the global environmental impacts of rapid infrastructure expansion.

    PubMed

    Laurance, William F; Peletier-Jellema, Anna; Geenen, Bart; Koster, Harko; Verweij, Pita; Van Dijck, Pitou; Lovejoy, Thomas E; Schleicher, Judith; Van Kuijk, Marijke

    2015-03-30

    Infrastructures, such as roads, mines, and hydroelectric dams, are proliferating explosively. Often, this has serious direct and indirect environmental impacts. We highlight nine issues that should be considered by project proponents to better evaluate and limit the environmental risks of such developments.

  15. Reducing the global environmental impacts of rapid infrastructure expansion.

    PubMed

    Laurance, William F; Peletier-Jellema, Anna; Geenen, Bart; Koster, Harko; Verweij, Pita; Van Dijck, Pitou; Lovejoy, Thomas E; Schleicher, Judith; Van Kuijk, Marijke

    2015-03-30

    Infrastructures, such as roads, mines, and hydroelectric dams, are proliferating explosively. Often, this has serious direct and indirect environmental impacts. We highlight nine issues that should be considered by project proponents to better evaluate and limit the environmental risks of such developments. PMID:25754645

  16. Rapid Detection of Microorganisms--State of Art and Future Directions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, George

    2008-03-01

    For the last several decades, nutrient-based culture growth methods have been accepted as the standard for microorganism detection and identification. However, since the discovery of nucleic acids and molecular breakthrough technologies such as restriction enzymes and polymerase chain reactions, the detection and identification of microorganisms have advanced to culture-independent methods that fall under the category of rapid microbial detections. Here, we present an overview of major rapid microbial detection technologies. These technologies will include both amplification and non-amplification based methods for the detection and identification of target microorganisms. The technologies described can be applied to detecting a wide variety of microorganisms, including bacteria, viruses, mycoplasma, and fungi and have the potential sensitivity to detect a single microorganism. Also in this presentation, we will present examples of real-life applications as well as future challenges for the advancement of the field of rapid microbiology.

  17. Environmental risks and future generations: Criteria for public policy

    SciTech Connect

    Howarth, R.B.

    1992-10-01

    This paper examines alternative normative approaches to the policy challenges posed by long-term environmental problems such as toxic and radioactive waste disposal, stratospheric ozone depletion, and climate change. The paper argues that cost-benefit analysis is limited in its ability to handle the issues of intergenerational equity and uncertainty that are intrinsic to such problems. Also considered is the precautionary principle, which holds that policies should seek to reduce threats to the welfare of future generations if the costs of doing so would not significantly reduce the subjective well-being of existing persons. Although the precautionary principle depends on an explicit value judgement, it yields a policy criterion that is operationally decisive under a wide array of circumstances.

  18. Assessing potential future environmental legislative, regulatory, and judicial events

    SciTech Connect

    Tonn, B.; Schweitzer, M.; Godfrey, G.; Wagner, C.; MacGregor, D.G.

    1998-03-01

    This report describes a methodology to proactively and methodically assess future potential environmental legislative, regulatory, and judicial events. This is an important endeavor because new, revised, and reauthorized legislation, proposed and final regulations, and outcomes of judicial proceedings have the potential to impose new actions, directions, and costs of many organizations in the United States (related to capital investments, operating approaches, and research and development) and to affect the quality of life. The electric power industry is particularly impacted by environmental regulatory events (the term `regulatory` is used to cover all the types of legal events listed above), as the generation, transmission, and distribution of electricity affects air and water quality, require disposal of solid, hazardous, and radioactive wastes, and at times, impacts wetlands and endangered species. Numerous potential regulatory events, such as the reauthorization of the Clean Water Act and new regulations associated with global climate change, can greatly affect the power industry. Organizations poised to respond proactively to such events will improve their competitive positions, reduce their costs in the long-term, and improve their public images.

  19. Environmental consequences of future biogas technologies based on separated slurry.

    PubMed

    Hamelin, Lorie; Wesnæs, Marianne; Wenzel, Henrik; Petersen, Bjørn M

    2011-07-01

    This consequential life cycle assessment study highlights the key environmental aspects of producing biogas from separated pig and cow slurry, a relatively new but probable scenario for future biogas production, as it avoids the reliance on constrained carbon cosubstrates. Three scenarios involving different slurry separation technologies have been assessed and compared to a business-as-usual reference slurry management scenario. The results show that the environmental benefits of such biogas production are highly dependent upon the efficiency of the separation technology used to concentrate the volatile solids in the solid fraction. The biogas scenario involving the most efficient separation technology resulted in a dry matter separation efficiency of 87% and allowed a net reduction of the global warming potential of 40%, compared to the reference slurry management. This figure comprises the whole slurry life cycle, including the flows bypassing the biogas plant. This study includes soil carbon balances and a method for quantifying the changes in yield resulting from increased nitrogen availability as well as for quantifying mineral fertilizers displacement. Soil carbon balances showed that between 13 and 50% less carbon ends up in the soil pool with the different biogas alternatives, as opposed to the reference slurry management.

  20. RAPID SCREENING OF ENVIRONMENTAL CHEMICALS FOR ESTROGEN RECEPTOR BINDING CAPACITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Over the last few years, an increased awareness of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) and their potential to affect wildlife and humans has produced a demand for practical screening methods to identify endocrine activity in a wide range of environmental and industrial chemical...

  1. Rapid polyvalent screening for largescale environmental Spiroplasma surveys

    PubMed Central

    French, Frank E.; Whitcomb, Robert F.; Williamson, David L.; Regassa, Laura B.

    2009-01-01

    Surface serology is an important determinant in Spiroplasma systematics. Reciprocal antigen/antibody reactions between spiroplasmas and individual antisera delineate the 38 described groups and species. However, reciprocal serology is impractical for large-scale studies. This report describes a successful, streamlined polyvalent screening approach used to examine isolates from an environmental survey. PMID:24031412

  2. Structured Multi-level Data Fusion and Modelling of Heterogeneous Environmental Data for Future Internet Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabeur, Zoheir; Chakravarthy, Ajay; Bashevoy, Maxim; Modafferi, Stefano

    2013-04-01

    The rapid increase in environmental observations which are conducted by Small to Medium Enterprise communities and volunteers using affordable in situ sensors at various scales, in addition to the more established observatories set up by environmental and space agencies using airborne and space-borne sensing technologies is generating serious amounts of BIG data at ever increasing speeds. Furthermore, the emergence of Future Internet technologies and the urgent requirements for the deployment of specific enablers for the delivery of processed environmental knowledge in real-time with advanced situation awareness to citizens has reached paramount importance. Specifically, it has become highly critical now to build and provide services which automate the aggregation of data from various sources, while surmounting the semantic gaps, conflicts and heterogeneity in data sources. The early stage aggregation of data will enable the pre-processing of data from multiple sources while reconciling the temporal gaps in measurement time series, and aligning their respective a-synchronicities. This low level type of data fusion process needs to be automated and chained to more advanced level of data fusion services specialising in observation forecasts at spaces where sensing is not deployed; or at time slices where sensing has not taken place yet. As a result, multi-level fusion services are required among the families of specific enablers for monitoring environments and spaces in the Future Internet. These have been intially deployed and piloted in the ongoing ENVIROFI project of the FI-PPP programme [1]. Automated fusion and modelling of in situ and remote sensing data has been set up and the experimentation successfully conducted using RBF networks for the spatial fusion of water quality parameters measurements from satellite and stationary buoys in the Irish Sea. The RBF networks method scales for the spatial data fusion of multiple types of observation sources. This

  3. New insights from coral growth band studies in an era of rapid environmental change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lough, Janice M.; Cooper, Timothy F.

    2011-10-01

    The rapid formation of calcium carbonate coral skeletons (calcification) fuelled by the coral-algal symbiosis is the backbone of tropical coral reef ecosystems. However, the efficacy of calcification is measurably influenced by the sea's physico-chemical environment, which is changing rapidly. Warming oceans have already led to increased frequency and severity of coral bleaching, and ocean acidification has a demonstrable potential to cause reduced rates of calcification. There is now general agreement that ocean warming and acidification are attributable to human activities increasing greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere, and the large part of the extra carbon dioxide (the main greenhouse gas) that is absorbed by oceans. Certain massive corals provide historical perspectives on calcification through the presence of dateable annual density banding patterns. Each band is a page in an environmental archive that reveals past responses of growth (linear extension, skeletal density and calcification rate) and provides a basis for prediction of future of coral growth. A second major line of research focuses on the measurement of various geochemical tracers incorporated into the growth bands, allowing the reconstruction of past marine climate conditions (i.e. palaeoclimatology). Here, we focus on the structural properties of the annual density bands themselves (viz. density; linear extension), exploring their utility in providing both perspectives on the past and pointers to the future of calcification on coral reefs. We conclude that these types of coral growth records, though relatively neglected in recent years compared to the geochemical studies, remain immensely valuable aids to unravelling the consequences of anthropogenic climate change on coral reefs. Moreover, an understanding of coral growth processes is an essential pre-requisite for proper interpretation of studies of geochemical tracers in corals.

  4. GLIMPSE: a rapid decision framework for energy and environmental policy.

    PubMed

    Akhtar, Farhan H; Pinder, Robert W; Loughlin, Daniel H; Henze, Daven K

    2013-01-01

    Over the coming decades, new energy production technologies and the policies that oversee them will affect human health, the vitality of our ecosystems, and the stability of the global climate. The GLIMPSE decision model framework provides insights about the implications of technology and policy decisions on these outcomes. Using GLIMPSE, decision makers can identify alternative techno-policy futures, examining their air quality, health, and short- and long-term climate impacts. Ultimately, GLIMPSE will support the identification of cost-effective strategies for simultaneously achieving performance goals for these metrics. Here, we demonstrate the utility of GLIMPSE by analyzing several future energy scenarios under existing air quality regulations and potential CO2 emission reduction policies. We find opportunities for substantial cobenefits in setting both climate change mitigation and health-benefit based air quality improvement targets. Though current policies which prioritize public health protection increase near-term warming, establishing policies that also reduce greenhouse gas emissions may offset warming in the near-term and lead to significant reductions in long-term warming.

  5. Predicting environmental risk: A road map for the future.

    PubMed

    Jager, Tjalling

    2016-01-01

    Frameworks for environmental risk assessment (ERA) focus on comparing results from separate exposure and effect assessments. Exposure assessment generally relies on mechanistic fate models, whereas the effects assessment is anchored in standard test protocols and descriptive statistics. This discrepancy prevents a useful link between these two pillars of ERA, and jeopardizes the realism and efficacy of the entire process. Similar to exposure assessment, effects assessment requires a mechanistic approach to translate the output of fate models into predictions for impacts on populations and food webs. The aim of this study was to discuss (1) the central importance of the individual level, (2) different strategies of dealing with biological complexity, and (3) the role that toxicokinetic-toxicodynamic (TKTD) models, energy budgets, and molecular biology play in a mechanistic revision of the ERA framework. Consequently, an outline for a risk assessment paradigm was developed that incorporates a mechanistic effects assessment in a consistent manner, and a "roadmap for the future." Such a roadmap may play a critical role to eventually arrive at a more scientific and efficient ERA process, and needs to be used to shape our long-term research agendas. PMID:27484139

  6. Rapid population growth and environmental degradation: ultimate versus proximate factors.

    PubMed

    Shaw, R P

    1989-01-01

    This philosophical review of 2 arguments about responsibility for and solutions to environmental degradation concludes that both sides are correct: the ultimate and the proximal causes. Ultimate causes of pollution are defined as the technology responsible for a given type of pollution, such as burning fossil fuel; proximate causes are defined as situation-specific factors confounding the problem, such as population density or rate of growth. Commoner and others argue that developed countries with low or negative population growth rates are responsible for 80% of world pollution, primarily in polluting technologies such as automobiles, power generation, plastics, pesticides, toxic wastes, garbage, warfaring, and nuclear weapons wastes. Distortionary policies also contribute; examples are agricultural trade protection, land mismanagement, urban bias in expenditures, and institutional rigidity., Poor nations are responsible for very little pollution because poverty allows little waste or expenditures for polluting, synthetic technologies. The proximal causes of pollution include numbers and rate of growth of populations responsible for the pollution. Since change in the ultimate cause of pollution remains out of reach, altering the numbers of polluters can make a difference. Predictions are made for proportions of the world's total waste production, assuming current 1.6 tons/capita for developed countries and 0.17 tons/capita for developing countries. If developing countries grow at current rates and become more wealthy, they will be emitting half the world's waste by 2025. ON the other hand, unsustainable population growth goes along with inadequate investment in human capital: education, health, employment, infrastructure. The solution is to improve farming technologies in the 117 non-self-sufficient countries, fund development in the most unsustainable enclaves of growing countries, break institutionalized socio-political rigidity in these enclaves, and focus on

  7. Rapid population growth and environmental degradation: ultimate versus proximate factors.

    PubMed

    Shaw, R P

    1989-01-01

    This philosophical review of 2 arguments about responsibility for and solutions to environmental degradation concludes that both sides are correct: the ultimate and the proximal causes. Ultimate causes of pollution are defined as the technology responsible for a given type of pollution, such as burning fossil fuel; proximate causes are defined as situation-specific factors confounding the problem, such as population density or rate of growth. Commoner and others argue that developed countries with low or negative population growth rates are responsible for 80% of world pollution, primarily in polluting technologies such as automobiles, power generation, plastics, pesticides, toxic wastes, garbage, warfaring, and nuclear weapons wastes. Distortionary policies also contribute; examples are agricultural trade protection, land mismanagement, urban bias in expenditures, and institutional rigidity., Poor nations are responsible for very little pollution because poverty allows little waste or expenditures for polluting, synthetic technologies. The proximal causes of pollution include numbers and rate of growth of populations responsible for the pollution. Since change in the ultimate cause of pollution remains out of reach, altering the numbers of polluters can make a difference. Predictions are made for proportions of the world's total waste production, assuming current 1.6 tons/capita for developed countries and 0.17 tons/capita for developing countries. If developing countries grow at current rates and become more wealthy, they will be emitting half the world's waste by 2025. ON the other hand, unsustainable population growth goes along with inadequate investment in human capital: education, health, employment, infrastructure. The solution is to improve farming technologies in the 117 non-self-sufficient countries, fund development in the most unsustainable enclaves of growing countries, break institutionalized socio-political rigidity in these enclaves, and focus on

  8. The Sulu-Sulawesi Sea: environmental and socioeconomic status, future prognosis and ameliorative policy options.

    PubMed

    DeVantier, Lyndon; Alcala, Angel; Wilkinson, Clive

    2004-02-01

    The Sulu-Sulawesi Sea, with neighboring Indonesian Seas and South China Sea, lies at the center of the world's tropical marine biodiversity. Encircled by 3 populous, developing nations, the Philippines, Indonesia and Malaysia, the Sea and its adjacent coastal and terrestrial ecosystems, supports ca. 33 million people, most with subsistence livelihoods heavily reliant on its renewable natural resources. These resources are being impacted severely by rapid population growth (> 2% yr-1, with expected doubling by 2035) and widespread poverty, coupled with increasing international market demand and rapid technological changes, compounded by inefficiencies in governance and a lack of awareness and/or acceptance of some laws among local populations, particularly in parts of the Philippines and Indonesia. These key root causes all contribute to illegal practices and corruption, and are resulting in severe resource depletion and degradation of water catchments, river, lacustrine, estuarine, coastal, and marine ecosystems. The Sulu-Sulawesi Sea forms a major geopolitical focus, with porous borders, transmigration, separatist movements, piracy, and illegal fishing all contributing to environmental degradation, human suffering and political instability, and inhibiting strong trilateral support for interventions. This review analyzes these multifarious environmental and socioeconomic impacts and their root causes, provides a future prognosis of status by 2020, and recommends policy options aimed at amelioration through sustainable management and development. PMID:15083654

  9. The Sulu-Sulawesi Sea: environmental and socioeconomic status, future prognosis and ameliorative policy options.

    PubMed

    DeVantier, Lyndon; Alcala, Angel; Wilkinson, Clive

    2004-02-01

    The Sulu-Sulawesi Sea, with neighboring Indonesian Seas and South China Sea, lies at the center of the world's tropical marine biodiversity. Encircled by 3 populous, developing nations, the Philippines, Indonesia and Malaysia, the Sea and its adjacent coastal and terrestrial ecosystems, supports ca. 33 million people, most with subsistence livelihoods heavily reliant on its renewable natural resources. These resources are being impacted severely by rapid population growth (> 2% yr-1, with expected doubling by 2035) and widespread poverty, coupled with increasing international market demand and rapid technological changes, compounded by inefficiencies in governance and a lack of awareness and/or acceptance of some laws among local populations, particularly in parts of the Philippines and Indonesia. These key root causes all contribute to illegal practices and corruption, and are resulting in severe resource depletion and degradation of water catchments, river, lacustrine, estuarine, coastal, and marine ecosystems. The Sulu-Sulawesi Sea forms a major geopolitical focus, with porous borders, transmigration, separatist movements, piracy, and illegal fishing all contributing to environmental degradation, human suffering and political instability, and inhibiting strong trilateral support for interventions. This review analyzes these multifarious environmental and socioeconomic impacts and their root causes, provides a future prognosis of status by 2020, and recommends policy options aimed at amelioration through sustainable management and development.

  10. The future of irrigated agriculture under environmental flow requirements restrictions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pastor, Amandine; Palazzo, Amanda; Havlik, Petr; Kabat, Pavel; Obersteiner, Michael; Ludwig, Fulco

    2016-04-01

    Water is not an infinite resource and demand from irrigation, household and industry is constantly increasing. This study focused on including global water availability including environmental flow requirements with water withdrawal from irrigation and other sectors at a monthly time-step in the GLOBIOM model. This model allows re-adjustment of land-use allocation, crop management, consumption and international trade. The GLOBIOM model induces an endogenous change in water price depending on water supply and demand. In this study, the focus was on how the inclusion of water resources affects land-use and, in particular, how global change will influence repartition of irrigated and rainfed lands at global scale. We used the climate change scenario including a radiative forcing of 8.5 W/m2 (RCP8.5), the socio-economic scenario (SSP2: middle-of-road), and the environmental flow method based on monthly flow allocation (the Variable Monthly Flow method) with high and low restrictions. Irrigation withdrawals were adjusted to a monthly time-step to account for biophysical water limitations at finer time resolution. Our results show that irrigated land might decrease up to 40% on average depending on the choice of EFR restrictions. Several areas were identified as future hot-spots of water stress such as the Mediterranean and Middle-East regions. Other countries were identified to be in safe position in terms of water stress such as North-European countries. Re-allocation of rainfed and irrigated land might be useful information for land-use planners and water managers at an international level to decide on appropriate legislations on climate change mitigation/adaptation when exposure and sensitivity to climate change is high and/or on adaptation measures to face increasing water demand. For example, some countries are likely to adopt measures to increase their water use efficiencies (irrigation system, soil and water conservation practices) to face water shortages, while

  11. Our U.S. Energy Future, Student Guide. Computer Technology Program Environmental Education Units.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Northwest Regional Educational Lab., Portland, OR.

    This is the student guide in a set of five computer-oriented environmental/energy education units. Contents are organized into the following parts or lessons: (1) Introduction to the U.S. Energy Future; (2) Description of the "FUTURE" programs; (3) Effects of "FUTURE" decisions; and (4) Exercises on the U.S. energy future. This guide supplements a…

  12. Integrated environmental modeling: A vision and roadmap for the future

    EPA Science Inventory

    Integrated environmental modeling (IEM) is inspired by modern environmental problems, decisions, and policies and enabled by transdisciplinary science and computer capabilities that allow the environment to be considered in a holistic way. The problems are characterized by the ex...

  13. Past, present, and future of environmental specimen banks.

    PubMed

    Koizumi, Akio; Harada, Kouji H; Inoue, Kayoko; Hitomi, Toshiaki; Yang, Hye-Ran; Moon, Chan-Seok; Wang, Peiyu; Hung, Nguyen Ngoc; Watanabe, Takao; Shimbo, Shinichiro; Ikeda, Masayuki

    2009-11-01

    Environmental specimen banks are an essential part of the infrastructure of environmental sciences. They have various functions: (1) evaluation of governmental environmental policy-making and regulations; (2) a resource for animal health evaluation; (3) research tools to investigate time trends in ecosystems; (4) detection of newly emerging chemicals in the time trends; (5) validations of computer models for environmental phenomena; (6) source identification of contaminants; (7) a tool for food safety; (8) evaluation of genetic selection pressure due to environmental changes. In this review paper, we present a detailed description of the Kyoto University Human Specimen Bank (history, protocol and questionnaires) and provide brief outlines of other representative environmental specimen banks. We then review two illustrative cases in which environmental specimen banks have unveiled insidious contaminations of polybrominated diphenyl ethers and perfluorooctanoic acids. Finally, we give a perspective of new functions for environmental specimen banks in the next 20 years.

  14. Hypothesis: Activation of Rapid Signaling by Environmental Estrogens and Epigenetic Reprogramming in Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Treviño, Lindsey S.; Wang, Quan; Walker, Cheryl L.

    2015-01-01

    Environmental and lifestyle factors are considered significant components of the increasing breast cancer risk in the last 50 years. Specifically, exposure to environmental endocrine disrupting compounds is correlated with cancer susceptibility in a variety of tissues. In both human and rodent models, the exposure to ubiquitous environmental estrogens during early life has been shown to disrupt normal mammary development and cause permanent adverse effects. Recent studies indicate that environmental estrogens not only have the ability to disrupt estrogen receptor (ER) signaling, but can also reprogram the epigenome by altering DNA and histone methylation through rapid, nongenomic ER actions. We have observed xenoestrogen-mediated activation of several nongenomic signaling pathways and have identified a target for epigenetic reprogramming in MCF-7 breast cancer cells. These observations, in addition to data from the literature, support the hypothesis that activation of rapid signaling by environmental estrogens can lead to epigenetic reprogramming and contribute to the progression of breast cancer. PMID:25554384

  15. Is rapid growth in Internet usage environmentally sustainable for Australia? An empirical investigation.

    PubMed

    Salahuddin, Mohammad; Alam, Khorshed; Ozturk, Ilhan

    2016-03-01

    This study estimates the short- and long-run effects of Internet usage and economic growth on carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions using annual time series macro data for Australia for the period 1985-2012. Autoregressive distributive lag (ARDL) bounds and Gregory-Hansen structural break cointegration tests are applied. ARDL estimates indicate no significant long-run relationship between Internet usage and CO2 emissions, which implies that the rapid growth in Internet usage is still not an environmental threat for Australia. The study further indicates that higher level of economic growth is associated with lower level of CO2 emissions; however, Internet usage and economic growth have no significant short-run relationship with CO2 emissions. Financial development has both short-run and long-run significant positive association with CO2 emissions. The findings offer support in favor of energy efficiency gains and a reduction in energy intensity in Australia. However, impulse response and variance decomposition analysis suggest that Internet usage, economic growth and financial development will continue to impact CO2 emissions in the future, and as such, this study recommends that in addition to the existing measures to combat CO2 emissions, Australia needs to exploit the potential of the Internet not only to reduce its own carbon footprint but also to utilize information and communication technology (ICT)-enabled emissions abatement potential to reduce emissions in various other sectors across the economy, such as, power, renewable energy especially in solar and wind energy, agriculture, transport and service.

  16. A Vision for the Future of Environmental Research: Creating Environmental Intelligence Centers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barron, E. J.

    2002-12-01

    The nature of the environmental issues facing our nation demands a capability that allows us to enhance economic vitality, maintain environmental quality, and limit threats to life and property through more fundamental understanding of the Earth. It is "advanced" knowledge of how the system may respond that gives environmental information most of its power and utility. This fact is evident in the demand for new forecasting products, involving air quality, energy demand, water quality and quantity, ultraviolet radiation, and human health indexes. As we demonstrate feasibility and benefit, society is likely to demand a growing number of new operational forecast products on prediction time scales of days to decades into the future. The driving forces that govern our environment are widely recognized, involving primarily weather and climate, patterns of land use and land cover, and resource use with its associated waste products. The importance of these driving forces has been demonstrated by a decade of research on greenhouse gas emissions, ozone depletion and deforestation, and through the birth of Earth System Science. But, there are also major challenges. We find the strongest intersection between human activity, environmental stresses, system interactions and human decision-making in regional analysis coupled to larger spatial scales. In addition, most regions are influenced by multiple-stresses. Multiple, cumulative, and interactive stresses are clearly the most difficult to understand and hence the most difficult to assess and to manage. Currently, we are incapable of addressing these issues in a truly integrated fashion at global scales. The lack of an ability to combine global and regional forcing and to assess the response of the system to multiple stresses at the spatial and temporal scales of interest to humans limits our ability to assess the impacts of specific human perturbations, to assess advantages and risks, and to enhance economic and societal well

  17. Commercial Dengue Rapid Diagnostic Tests for Point-of-Care Application: Recent Evaluations and Future Needs?

    PubMed Central

    Blacksell, Stuart D.

    2012-01-01

    Dengue fever, dengue haemorrhagic fever, and dengue shock syndrome (DF/DHF/DSS) are tropical diseases that cause significant humanitarian and economic hardship. It is estimated that more than 2.5 billion people are at risk of infection and more than 100 countries have endemic dengue virus transmission. Laboratory tests are essential to provide an accurate diagnosis of dengue virus infection so that appropriate treatment and patient management may be administered. In many dengue endemic settings, laboratory diagnostic resources are limited and simple rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) provide opportunities for point-of-care diagnosis. This paper addresses current issues relating to the application of commercial dengue RDTs for the diagnosis of acute dengue virus infection, recent diagnostic evaluations, and identifies future needs. PMID:22654479

  18. Commercial dengue rapid diagnostic tests for point-of-care application: recent evaluations and future needs?

    PubMed

    Blacksell, Stuart D

    2012-01-01

    Dengue fever, dengue haemorrhagic fever, and dengue shock syndrome (DF/DHF/DSS) are tropical diseases that cause significant humanitarian and economic hardship. It is estimated that more than 2.5 billion people are at risk of infection and more than 100 countries have endemic dengue virus transmission. Laboratory tests are essential to provide an accurate diagnosis of dengue virus infection so that appropriate treatment and patient management may be administered. In many dengue endemic settings, laboratory diagnostic resources are limited and simple rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) provide opportunities for point-of-care diagnosis. This paper addresses current issues relating to the application of commercial dengue RDTs for the diagnosis of acute dengue virus infection, recent diagnostic evaluations, and identifies future needs.

  19. Focus on the Future: Environmental Scanning at Columbia Basin College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knutzen, Judi, Comp.

    As the first step of the process of developing a strategic plan, the Institutional Research Director at Columbia Basin College (Washington) was asked to perform an environmental scan. Environmental scanning is a careful and continuous process of tracking and analyzing trends relevant to an institution's goals. It involves making forecasts of…

  20. Tectonic subsidence provides insight into possible coral reef futures under rapid sea-level rise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saunders, Megan I.; Albert, Simon; Roelfsema, Chris M.; Leon, Javier X.; Woodroffe, Colin D.; Phinn, Stuart R.; Mumby, Peter J.

    2016-03-01

    Sea-level rise will change environmental conditions on coral reef flats, which comprise extensive habitats in shallow tropical seas and support a wealth of ecosystem services. Rapid relative sea-level rise of 0.6 m over a relatively pristine coral reef in Solomon Islands, caused by a subduction earthquake in April 2007, generated a unique opportunity to examine in situ coral reef response to relative sea-level rise of the magnitude (but not the rate) anticipated by 2100. Extent of live coral was measured from satellite imagery in 2003, 2006, 2009 and 2012. Ecological data were obtained from microatolls and ecological surveys in May 2013. The reef was sampled at 12 locations where dense live hard coral remained absent, remained present or changed from absent to present following subsidence. Ecological data (substratum depth, live coral canopy depth, coral canopy height, substratum suitability, recruitment, diversity and Acropora presence) were measured at each location to identify factors associated with coral response to relative sea-level rise. Vertical and horizontal proliferation of coral occurred following subsidence. Lateral expansion of live coral, accomplished primarily by branching Acropora spp., resulted in lower diversity in regions which changed composition from pavement to dense live coral following subsidence. Of the ecological factors measured, biotic factors were more influential than abiotic factors; species identity was the most important factor in determining which regions of the reef responded to rapid sea-level rise. On relatively pristine reef flats under present climatic conditions, rapid relative sea-level rise generated an opportunity for hard coral to proliferate. However, the species assemblage of the existing reef was important in determining response to sea-level change, by providing previously bare substrate with a source of new coral colonies. Degraded reefs with altered species composition and slower coral growth rates may be less

  1. Status and future transition of rapid urbanizing landscape in central Western Ghats - CA based approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bharath, S..; Rajan, K. S.; Ramachandra, T. V.

    2014-11-01

    The land use changes in forested landscape are highly complex and dynamic, affected by the natural, socio-economic, cultural, political and other factors. The remote sensing (RS) and geographical information system (GIS) techniques coupled with multi-criteria evaluation functions such as Markov-cellular automata (CA-Markov) model helps in analysing intensity, extent and future forecasting of human activities affecting the terrestrial biosphere. Karwar taluk of Central Western Ghats in Karnataka state, India has seen rapid transitions in its forest cover due to various anthropogenic activities, primarily driven by major industrial activities. A study based on Landsat and IRS derived data along with CA-Markov method has helped in characterizing the patterns and trends of land use changes over a period of 2004-2013, expected transitions was predicted for a set of scenarios through 2013-2022. The analysis reveals the loss of pristine forest cover from 75.51% to 67.36% (1973 to 2013) and increase in agriculture land as well as built-up area of 8.65% (2013), causing impact on local flora and fauna. The other factors driving these changes are the aggregated level of demand for land, local and regional effects of land use activities such as deforestation, improper practices in expansion of agriculture and infrastructure development, deteriorating natural resources availability. The spatio temporal models helped in visualizing on-going changes apart from prediction of likely changes. The CA-Markov based analysis provides us insights into the localized changes impacting these regions and can be useful in developing appropriate mitigation management approaches based on the modelled future impacts. This necessitates immediate measures for minimizing the future impacts.

  2. Bridge to a sustainable future: National environmental technology strategy

    SciTech Connect

    1995-04-01

    For the past two years the Administration has sought the views of Congress, the states, communities, industry, academia, nongovernmental organizations, and interested citizens on ways to spur the development and use of a new generation of environmental technologies. This document represents the views of thousands of individuals who participated in events around the country to help craft a national environmental technology strategy that will put us on the path to sustainable development.

  3. A methodology to enable rapid evaluation of aviation environmental impacts and aircraft technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, Keith Frederick

    Commercial aviation has become an integral part of modern society and enables unprecedented global connectivity by increasing rapid business, cultural, and personal connectivity. In the decades following World War II, passenger travel through commercial aviation quickly grew at a rate of roughly 8% per year globally. The FAA's most recent Terminal Area Forecast predicts growth to continue at a rate of 2.5% domestically, and the market outlooks produced by Airbus and Boeing generally predict growth to continue at a rate of 5% per year globally over the next several decades, which translates into a need for up to 30,000 new aircraft produced by 2025. With such large numbers of new aircraft potentially entering service, any negative consequences of commercial aviation must undergo examination and mitigation by governing bodies so that growth may still be achieved. Options to simultaneously grow while reducing environmental impact include evolution of the commercial fleet through changes in operations, aircraft mix, and technology adoption. Methods to rapidly evaluate fleet environmental metrics are needed to enable decision makers to quickly compare the impact of different scenarios and weigh the impact of multiple policy options. As the fleet evolves, interdependencies may emerge in the form of tradeoffs between improvements in different environmental metrics as new technologies are brought into service. In order to include the impacts of these interdependencies on fleet evolution, physics-based modeling is required at the appropriate level of fidelity. Evaluation of environmental metrics in a physics-based manner can be done at the individual aircraft level, but will then not capture aggregate fleet metrics. Contrastingly, evaluation of environmental metrics at the fleet level is already being done for aircraft in the commercial fleet, but current tools and approaches require enhancement because they currently capture technology implementation through post

  4. Chile confronts its environmental health future after 25 years of accelerated growth

    PubMed Central

    Pino, Paulina; Iglesias, Verónica; Garreaud, René; Cortés, Sandra; Canals, Mauricio; Folch, Walter; Burgos, Soledad; Levy, Karen; Naeher, Luke P.; Steenland, Kyle

    2015-01-01

    Background Chile has recently been reclassified by the World Bank from an upper middle income country to a higher income country. There has been great progress in the last 20–30 years in relation to air and water pollution in Chile. Yet after 25 years of unrestrained growth there remain clear challenges posed by air and water, as well as climate change. Methods: In late 2013 a three-day workshop on environmental health was held in Santiago, bringing together researchers and government policy makers. As a follow-up to that workshop, here we review the progress made in environmental health in the past 20–30 years, and discuss the challenges of the future. We focus on air and water pollution, and climate change, which we believe are among the most important areas of environmental health in Chile. Results Air pollution in some cities remains among the highest in the continent. Potable water is generally available, but weak state supervision has led to serious outbreaks of infectious disease and ongoing issues with arsenic exposure in some regions. Climate change modeling in Chile is quite sophisticated, and a number of the impacts of climate change can be reasonably predicted in terms of which areas of the country are most likely to be affected by increased temperature and decreased availability of water, as well as expansion of vector territory. Some health effects, including change vector-borne diseases and excess heat mortality, can be predicted. However, there has yet to be an integration of such research with government planning. Conclusion While great progress has been made, currently there are a number of problems. We suspect that the Chilean experience in environmental health may be of some use for other Latin American countries with rapid economic development. PMID:26615070

  5. Recent Trends in Rapid Environmental Monitoring of Pathogens and Toxicants: Potential of Nanoparticle-Based Biosensor and Applications

    PubMed Central

    Koedrith, Preeyaporn; Thasiphu, Thalisa; Weon, Jong-Il; Boonprasert, Rattana; Tuitemwong, Kooranee; Tuitemwong, Pravate

    2015-01-01

    Of global concern, environmental pollution adversely affects human health and socioeconomic development. The presence of environmental contaminants, especially bacterial, viral, and parasitic pathogens and their toxins as well as chemical substances, poses serious public health concerns. Nanoparticle-based biosensors are considered as potential tools for rapid, specific, and highly sensitive detection of the analyte of interest (both biotic and abiotic contaminants). In particular, there are several limitations of conventional detection methods for water-borne pathogens due to low concentrations and interference with various enzymatic inhibitors in the environmental samples. The increase of cells to detection levels requires long incubation time. This review describes current state of biosensor nanotechnology, the advantage over conventional detection methods, and the challenges due to testing of environmental samples. The major approach is to use nanoparticles as signal reporter to increase output rather than spending time to increase cell concentrations. Trends in future development of novel detection devices and their advantages over other environmental monitoring methodologies are also discussed. PMID:25884032

  6. Recent trends in rapid environmental monitoring of pathogens and toxicants: potential of nanoparticle-based biosensor and applications.

    PubMed

    Koedrith, Preeyaporn; Thasiphu, Thalisa; Weon, Jong-Il; Boonprasert, Rattana; Tuitemwong, Kooranee; Tuitemwong, Pravate

    2015-01-01

    Of global concern, environmental pollution adversely affects human health and socioeconomic development. The presence of environmental contaminants, especially bacterial, viral, and parasitic pathogens and their toxins as well as chemical substances, poses serious public health concerns. Nanoparticle-based biosensors are considered as potential tools for rapid, specific, and highly sensitive detection of the analyte of interest (both biotic and abiotic contaminants). In particular, there are several limitations of conventional detection methods for water-borne pathogens due to low concentrations and interference with various enzymatic inhibitors in the environmental samples. The increase of cells to detection levels requires long incubation time. This review describes current state of biosensor nanotechnology, the advantage over conventional detection methods, and the challenges due to testing of environmental samples. The major approach is to use nanoparticles as signal reporter to increase output rather than spending time to increase cell concentrations. Trends in future development of novel detection devices and their advantages over other environmental monitoring methodologies are also discussed.

  7. The MY NASA DATA Project: Preparing Future Earth and Environmental Scientists, and Future Citizens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chambers, L. H.; Phelps, C. S.; Phipps, M.; Holzer, M.; Daugherty, P.; Poling, E.; Vanderlaan, S.; Oots, P. C.; Moore, S. W.; Diones, D. D.

    2008-12-01

    For the past 5 years, the MY NASA DATA (MND) project at NASA Langley has developed and adapted tools and materials aimed at enabling student access to real NASA Earth science satellite data. These include web visualization tools including Google Earth capabilities, but also GPS and graphing calculator exercises, Excel spreadsheet analyses, and more. The project team, NASA scientists, and over 80 classroom science teachers from around the country, have created over 85 lesson plans and science fair project ideas that demonstrate NASA satellite data use in the classroom. With over 150 Earth science parameters to choose from, the MND Live Access Server enables scientific inquiry on numerous interconnected Earth and environmental science topics about the Earth system. Teachers involved in the project report a number of benefits, including networking with other teachers nationwide who emphasize data collection and analysis in the classroom, as well as learning about other NASA resources and programs for educators. They also indicate that the MND website enhances the inquiry process and facilitates the formation of testable questions by students (a task that is typically difficult for students to do). MND makes science come alive for students because it allows them to develop their own questions using the same data scientists use. MND also provides educators with a rich venue for science practice skills, which are often overlooked in traditional curricula as teachers concentrate on state and national standards. A teacher in a disadvantaged school reports that her students are not exposed to many educational experiences outside the classroom. MND allows inner city students to be a part of NASA directly. They are able to use the same information that scientists are using and this gives them inspiration. In all classrooms, the MND microsets move students out of their local area to explore global data and then zoom back into their homes realizing that they are a part of the

  8. Rapid effects of estrogens on behavior: environmental modulation and molecular mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Laredo, Sarah A.; Landeros, Rosalina Villalon; Trainor, Brian C.

    2014-01-01

    Estradiol can modulate neural activity and behavior via both genomic and nongenomic mechanisms. Environmental cues have a major impact on the relative importance of these signaling pathways with significant consequences for behavior. First we consider how photoperiod modulates nongenomic estrogen signaling on behavior. Intriguingly, short days permit rapid effects of estrogens on aggression in both rodents and song sparrows. This highlights the importance of considering photoperiod as a variable in laboratory research. Next we review evidence for rapid effects of estradiol on ecologically-relevant behaviors including aggression, copulation, communication, and learning. We also address the impact of endocrine disruptors on estrogen signaling, such as those found in corncob bedding used in rodent research. Finally, we examine the biochemical mechanisms that may mediate rapid estrogen action on behavior in males and females. A common theme across these topics is that the effects of estrogens on social behaviors vary across different environmental conditions. PMID:24685383

  9. Environmental Issues and Sustainable Futures: A Critical Guide To Recent Books, Reports, and Periodicals. A "Future Survey" Guidebook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marien, Michael

    This guide seeks to sort the flood of information written about environmental issues and sustainable societies in recent years and order it in some way. A total of 450 document abstracts are presented here, most of which are on books and think tank reports. These items first appeared in "Future Survey" (journal) and were published between 1991 and…

  10. Is rapid growth in Internet usage environmentally sustainable for Australia? An empirical investigation.

    PubMed

    Salahuddin, Mohammad; Alam, Khorshed; Ozturk, Ilhan

    2016-03-01

    This study estimates the short- and long-run effects of Internet usage and economic growth on carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions using annual time series macro data for Australia for the period 1985-2012. Autoregressive distributive lag (ARDL) bounds and Gregory-Hansen structural break cointegration tests are applied. ARDL estimates indicate no significant long-run relationship between Internet usage and CO2 emissions, which implies that the rapid growth in Internet usage is still not an environmental threat for Australia. The study further indicates that higher level of economic growth is associated with lower level of CO2 emissions; however, Internet usage and economic growth have no significant short-run relationship with CO2 emissions. Financial development has both short-run and long-run significant positive association with CO2 emissions. The findings offer support in favor of energy efficiency gains and a reduction in energy intensity in Australia. However, impulse response and variance decomposition analysis suggest that Internet usage, economic growth and financial development will continue to impact CO2 emissions in the future, and as such, this study recommends that in addition to the existing measures to combat CO2 emissions, Australia needs to exploit the potential of the Internet not only to reduce its own carbon footprint but also to utilize information and communication technology (ICT)-enabled emissions abatement potential to reduce emissions in various other sectors across the economy, such as, power, renewable energy especially in solar and wind energy, agriculture, transport and service. PMID:26527347

  11. Environmental Education, Sustainable Agriculture, and CGIAR: History and Future Prospects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelles, Wayne

    2011-01-01

    The Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research (CGIAR) is a global network of 15 specialized centers employing around 2,000 international scientists and 6,000 national staff in over 100 countries. CGIAR educational approaches to environmental issues have varied amid conflicting perspectives. Inadequate policies, learning resources,…

  12. Environmentalism, Feminism, and the Future of American Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marietta, Don E., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    Two important current movements are environmentalism, respect for the natural environment and the effort to preserve it, and feminism, concern for the rights of women and the worth of values traditionally associated with the female. These two movements are closely related, both philosophically and in their concrete goals for society. (RM)

  13. Brazilian agriculture and environmental legislation: status and future challenges.

    PubMed

    Sparovek, Gerd; Berndes, Göran; Klug, Israel L F; Barretto, Alberto G O P

    2010-08-15

    Brazilian agriculture covers about one-third of the land area and is expected to expand further. We assessed the compliance of present Brazilian agriculture with environmental legislation and identified challenges for agricultural development connected to this legislation. We found (i) minor illegal land use in protected areas under public administration, (ii) a large deficit in legal reserves and protected riparian zones on private farmland, and (iii) large areas of unprotected natural vegetation in regions experiencing agriculture expansion. Achieving full compliance with the environmental laws as they presently stand would require drastic changes in agricultural land use, where large agricultural areas are taken out of production and converted back to natural vegetation. The outcome of a full compliance with environmental legislation might not be satisfactory due to leakage, where pristine unprotected areas become converted to compensate for lost production as current agricultural areas are reconverted to protected natural vegetation. Realizing the desired protection of biodiversity and natural vegetation, while expanding agriculture to meet food and biofuel demand, may require a new approach to environmental protection. New legal and regulatory instruments and the establishment of alternative development models should be considered.

  14. Increasingly intolerable boundaries: future control of environmental pollution.

    PubMed

    Scanlon, J

    2001-09-14

    In recent years, there have been a number of toxic accidents on the sea and on land which have caused pollution down current, down wind and down stream. Four were dramatic and these four have led to substantial changes in the way we deal with risk to the environment. There have also been increasing concerns about a less spectacular but equally concerning problem, acid rain, though attempts to deal with this problem have been less successful. Perhaps the drama was lacking. In all these cases, unfortunately, the less developed countries can ill afford the costs of prevention and this means they are often the home of environmentally unfriendly development. While the current approaches to such problems will continue, it is likely that the countries on the receiving end of such pollution, especially if they have economic and military power, will seek more forceful solutions. One outcome may be a UN-sponsored environmental police force.

  15. The age of citizen science: Stimulating future environmental research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burgess, S. N.

    2010-12-01

    Public awareness of the state of the ocean is growing with issues such as climate change, over-harvesting, marine pollution, coral bleaching, ocean acidification and sea level rise appearing regularly in popular media outlets. Society is also placing greater value on the range of ecosystem services the ocean provides. This increased consciousness of environmental change due to a combination of anthropogenic activities and impacts from climate change offers scientists the opportunity of engaging citizens in environmental research. The term citizen science refers to scientific research carried out by citizens and led by professionals, which involves large scale data collection whilst simultaneously engaging and educating those who participate. Most projects that engage citizen scientists have been specifically designed to provide an educational benefit to the volunteer and benefit the scientific inquiry by collecting extensive data sets over large geographical areas. Engaging the public in environmental science is not a new concept and successful projects (such as the Audobon Christmas Bird Count and Earthwatch) have been running for several decades resulting in hundreds of thousands of people conducting long-term field research in partnership with scientists based at universities worldwide. The realm of citizen science projects is continually expanding, with public engagement options ranging from science online; to backyard afternoon studies; to fully immersive experiential learning projects running for weeks at a time. Some organisations, such as Earthwatch also work in partnership with private industry; giving scientists access to more funding opportunities than those avenues traditionally available. These scientist -industry partnerships provide mutual benefits as the results of research projects in environments such as coastal ecosystems feed directly back into business risk strategies; for example mitigating shoreline erosion, storm surges, over fishing and

  16. Can environmental conditions experienced in early life influence future generations?

    PubMed Central

    Burton, Tim; Metcalfe, Neil B.

    2014-01-01

    The consequences of early developmental conditions for performance in later life are now subjected to convergent interest from many different biological sub-disciplines. However, striking data, largely from the biomedical literature, show that environmental effects experienced even before conception can be transmissible to subsequent generations. Here, we review the growing evidence from natural systems for these cross-generational effects of early life conditions, showing that they can be generated by diverse environmental stressors, affect offspring in many ways and can be transmitted directly or indirectly by both parental lines for several generations. In doing so, we emphasize why early life might be so sensitive to the transmission of environmentally induced effects across generations. We also summarize recent theoretical advancements within the field of developmental plasticity, and discuss how parents might assemble different ‘internal’ and ‘external’ cues, even from the earliest stages of life, to instruct their investment decisions in offspring. In doing so, we provide a preliminary framework within the context of adaptive plasticity for understanding inter-generational phenomena that arise from early life conditions. PMID:24807254

  17. Rapid ecosystem change challenges the adaptive capacity of Local Environmental Knowledge

    PubMed Central

    Fernández-Llamazares, Álvaro; Díaz-Reviriego, Isabel; Luz, Ana C.; Cabeza, Mar; Pyhälä, Aili; Reyes-García, Victoria

    2015-01-01

    The use of Local Environmental Knowledge has been considered as an important strategy for adaptive management in the face of Global Environmental Change. However, the unprecedented rates at which global change occurs may pose a challenge to the adaptive capacity of local knowledge systems. In this paper, we use the concept of the shifting baseline syndrome to examine the limits in the adaptive capacity of the local knowledge of an indigenous society facing rapid ecosystem change. We conducted semi-structured interviews regarding perceptions of change in wildlife populations and in intergenerational transmission of knowledge amongst the Tsimane’, a group of hunter-gatherers of Bolivian Amazonia (n = 300 adults in 13 villages). We found that the natural baseline against which the Tsimane’ measure ecosystem changes might be shifting with every generation as a result of (a) age-related differences in the perception of change and (b) a decrease in the intergenerational sharing of environmental knowledge. Such findings suggest that local knowledge systems might not change at a rate quick enough to adapt to conditions of rapid ecosystem change, hence potentially compromising the adaptive success of the entire social-ecological system. With the current pace of Global Environmental Change, widening the gap between the temporal rates of on-going ecosystem change and the timescale needed for local knowledge systems to adjust to change, efforts to tackle the shifting baseline syndrome are urgent and critical for those who aim to use Local Environmental Knowledge as a tool for adaptive management. PMID:26097291

  18. Current and future antimicrobial treatment of gonorrhoea - the rapidly evolving Neisseria gonorrhoeae continues to challenge.

    PubMed

    Unemo, Magnus

    2015-08-21

    , randomized controlled clinical trials evaluating efficacy, ideal dose, toxicity, adverse effects, cost, and pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamics data for anogenital and, importantly, also pharyngeal gonorrhoea, i.e. because treatment failures initially emerge at this anatomical site. Finally, in the future treatment at first health care visit will ideally be individually-tailored, i.e. by novel rapid phenotypic AMR tests and/or genetic point of care AMR tests, including detection of gonococci, which will improve the management and public health control of gonorrhoea and AMR. Nevertheless, now is certainly the right time to readdress the challenges of developing a gonococcal vaccine.

  19. Current and future antimicrobial treatment of gonorrhoea - the rapidly evolving Neisseria gonorrhoeae continues to challenge.

    PubMed

    Unemo, Magnus

    2015-01-01

    , randomized controlled clinical trials evaluating efficacy, ideal dose, toxicity, adverse effects, cost, and pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamics data for anogenital and, importantly, also pharyngeal gonorrhoea, i.e. because treatment failures initially emerge at this anatomical site. Finally, in the future treatment at first health care visit will ideally be individually-tailored, i.e. by novel rapid phenotypic AMR tests and/or genetic point of care AMR tests, including detection of gonococci, which will improve the management and public health control of gonorrhoea and AMR. Nevertheless, now is certainly the right time to readdress the challenges of developing a gonococcal vaccine. PMID:26293005

  20. Environmental management practices and engineering science: a review and typology for future research.

    PubMed

    Evangelinos, Konstantinos I; Allan, Stuart; Jones, Keith; Nikolaou, Ioannis E

    2014-04-01

    Current literature describes a number of environmental management practices and cleaner production methods that facilitate different industrial sectors to address their various environmental impacts. The high number of present practices makes their use especially difficult and complicated. This paper aims to shed light on this field by providing a typology of those environmental management practices (such as environmental management systems, environmental indicators assessment methodologies, and cleaner productions methods) and their limitations. It also describes the strengths and weaknesses of using such tools and thoughts for future research.

  1. Environmental Quality of the Pensacola Bay System: Retrospective Review for Future Resource Management and Rehabilitation

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objective of this report is to summarize the scattered environmental information for the PBS which is essential for understanding its current environmental condition and trend and needed for future cost-effective and science-based resource management. The management and regul...

  2. Marine biodiversity–ecosystem functions under uncertain environmental futures

    PubMed Central

    Bulling, Mark T.; Hicks, Natalie; Murray, Leigh; Paterson, David M.; Raffaelli, Dave; White, Piran C. L.; Solan, Martin

    2010-01-01

    Anthropogenic activity is currently leading to dramatic transformations of ecosystems and losses of biodiversity. The recognition that these ecosystems provide services that are essential for human well-being has led to a major interest in the forms of the biodiversity–ecosystem functioning relationship. However, there is a lack of studies examining the impact of climate change on these relationships and it remains unclear how multiple climatic drivers may affect levels of ecosystem functioning. Here, we examine the roles of two important climate change variables, temperature and concentration of atmospheric carbon dioxide, on the relationship between invertebrate species richness and nutrient release in a model benthic estuarine system. We found a positive relationship between invertebrate species richness and the levels of release of NH4-N into the water column, but no effect of species richness on the release of PO4-P. Higher temperatures and greater concentrations of atmospheric carbon dioxide had a negative impact on nutrient release. Importantly, we found significant interactions between the climate variables, indicating that reliably predicting the effects of future climate change will not be straightforward as multiple drivers are unlikely to have purely additive effects, resulting in increased levels of uncertainty. PMID:20513718

  3. Rapid and specific SPRi detection of L. pneumophila in complex environmental water samples.

    PubMed

    Foudeh, Amir M; Trigui, Hana; Mendis, Nilmini; Faucher, Sebastien P; Veres, Teodor; Tabrizian, Maryam

    2015-07-01

    Legionellosis is a very devastating disease worldwide mainly due to unpredictable outbreaks in man-made water systems. Developing a highly specific and sensitive rapid detection system that detects only metabolically active bacteria is a main priority for water quality assessment. We previously developed a versatile technique for sensitive and specific detection of synthetic RNA. In the present work, we further investigated the performance of the developed biosensor for detection of Legionella pneumophila in complex environmental samples, particularly those containing protozoa. The specificity and sensitivity of the detection system were verified using total RNA extracted from L. pneumophila in spiked water co-cultured with amoebae. We demonstrated that the expression level of ribosomal RNA (rRNA) is extremely dependent on the environmental conditions. The presence of amoebae with L. pneumophila, especially in nutrition-deprived samples, increased the amount of L. pneumophila 15-fold after 1 week as measured through the expression of 16s rRNA. Using the developed surface plasmon resonance imaging (SPRi) detection method, we were also able to successfully detect L. pneumophila within 3 h, both in the presence and absence of amoebae in the complex environmental samples obtained from a cooling water tower. These findings suggest that the developed biosensing system is a viable method for rapid, real-time and effective detection not only for L. pneumophila in environmental samples but also to assess the risk associated with the use of water contaminated with other pathogens. PMID:25935681

  4. Environmental externality and inequality in China: current status and future choices.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xiaoli; Zhang, Sufang; Fan, Chunyang

    2014-07-01

    Along with China's rapid economic growth, the environmental externality in the country is getting more and more serious. China's environmental externality is accompanied by environmental inequality, which presents two characteristics: First, the health loss caused by environmental externality is concentrated in the elderly and children. We take Beijing as an empirical analysis to conclude that children (0-4 years old) are the largest group suffered from respiratory disease; while the seniors are the largest group suffered from cardiovascular disease. Second, China's environmental inequality is mainly caused by the transfer of industries from urban to rural areas/suburbs. The villagers in poor rural areas are the biggest victims. China's environmental inequality is reflected particularly by the phenomenon of "cancer villages" which has existed ever since the end of 1970s. Finally, policy recommendations are provided for reducing China's environmental externality and inequality.

  5. Towards a global environmental sociology? Legacies, trends and future directions.

    PubMed

    Lidskog, Rolf; Mol, Arthur Pj; Oosterveer, Peter

    2015-05-01

    Le débat actuel sur la sociologie de l’environnement porte sur la façon de conceptualiser et d’examiner l’environnement et sur la nécessité de proposer une approche normative et des recommandations politiques. À partir de ce débat, cet article examine le rôle actuel et futur de la sociologie dans le contexte de la mondialisation. Il analyse dans quelle mesure les recherches sociologiques de l’environnement aux États-Unis et en Europe diffèrent dans leur compréhension de la contribution de la sociologie à l’étude de l’environnement. Un accent particulier est mis sur les différences entre les deux régions pour ce qui concerne leur utilisation de la tradition sociologique, leur vision de la nature de l’environnement et leurs moyens d’institutionnaliser la sociologie de l’environnement en tant que domaine de recherche. En conclusion, ce travail soulève la question de savoir si les approches actuelles de la sociologie de l’environnement sont appropriées à l’analyse de l’environnement mondialisé et si les origines européennes et nord-américaines de la sociologie de l’environnement la rendent moins pertinente dans un contexte de mondialisation croissante. Enfin, cet article propose de nouvelles règles pour une sociologie mondiale de l’environnement et met en évidence les incidences possibles des études sociologiques sur le changement climatique.

  6. Water Quality and Environmental Flow Management in Rapidly Urbanizing Shenzhen Estuary Area, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, H.; Su, Q.

    2011-12-01

    Shenzhen estuary is located in a rapidly urbanizing coastal region of Southeast China, and forms the administrative border between mainland China and Hong Kong. It receives the waters of the Shenzhen River, where it enters the Deep Bay. The estuary has great ecological importance with the internationally recognized mangrove wetlands, which provides a habitat for some rare and endangered waterfowl and migratory birds.Water quality in the esturay has deteriorated not only due to increasing wastewater discharges from domestic and industrial sources, but also as a consequence of decreasing base environmental flow during rapid urbanization in the Shenzhen River catchment since 1980s. Measures to improve water quality of the estuary include not only reducing pollutant inputs by intercepting wastewater, but also increasing environmental flow by reusing reclaimed wastewater or withdrawing nearshore seawater into the river. However, salinity alternation due to flow increase is deemed to have impacts on the mangrove wetland ecosystem. In this paper, Environmental Fluid Dynamics Code (EFDC) is used to simulate hydrodynamics, salinity, and water quality condition in the Shenzhen estuary. After calibration and validation, the model is used to evaluate effects of various control measures on water quality improvement and salinity alteration in the estuary. The results indicate that implementing different measures independently does not reach the goals of water quality improvement; furthermore, increasing environmental flow by importing nearshore seawater may greatly increase the salinity in the Shenzhen River, destroy the fresh ecosystem of the river and have non-negligible impacts on the mangrove wetland ecosystem. Based on the effectiveness and impacts of the measures, an integrated measure, which combine pollutant loads reduction and environmental flow increase by reusing reclaimed wastewater, is proposed to achieve water environmental sustainability in the study area.

  7. Position paper: Rapid responses to steroids: current status and future prospects.

    PubMed

    Wendler, Alexandra; Baldi, Elisabetta; Harvey, Brian J; Nadal, Angel; Norman, Anthony; Wehling, Martin

    2010-05-01

    Steroids exert their actions through several pathways. The classical genomic pathway, which involves binding of steroids to receptors and subsequent modulation of gene expression, is well characterized. Besides this, rapid actions of steroids have been shown to exist. Since 30 years, research on rapid actions of steroids is an emerging field of science. Today, rapid effects of steroids are well established, and are shown to exist for every type of steroid. The classical steroid receptors have been shown to be involved in rapid actions, but there is also strong evidence that unrelated structures mediate these rapid effects. Despite increasing knowledge about the mechanisms and structures which mediate these actions, there is still no unanimous acceptance of this category. This article briefly reviews the history of the field including current controversies and challenges. It is not meant as a broad review of literature, but should increase the awareness of the endocrinology society for rapid responses to steroids. As members of the organizing committee of the VI International Meeting on Rapid Responses to Steroid Hormones 2009, we propose a research agenda focusing on the identification of new receptoral structures and the identification of mechanisms of actions at physiological steroid concentrations. Additionally, efforts for the propagation of translational studies, which should finally lead to clinical benefit in the area of rapid steroid action research, should be intensified.

  8. A rapid method for assessing the environmental performance of commercial farms in the Pampas of Argentina.

    PubMed

    Viglizzo, E F; Frank, F; Bernardos, J; Buschiazzo, D E; Cabo, S

    2006-06-01

    The generation of reliable updated information is critical to support the harmonization of socio-economic and environmental issues in a context of sustainable development. The agro-environmental assessment and management of agricultural systems often relies on indicators that are necessary to make sound decisions. This work aims to provide an approach to (a) assess the environmental performance of commercial farms in the Pampas of Argentina, and (b) propose a methodological framework to calculate environmental indicators that can rapidly be applied to practical farming. 120 commercial farms scattered across the Pampas were analyzed in this study during 2002 and 2003. Eleven basic indicators were identified and calculation methods described. Such indicators were fossil energy (FE) use, FE use efficiency, nitrogen (N) balance, phosphorus (P) balance, N contamination risk, P contamination risk, pesticide contamination risk, soil erosion risk, habitat intervention, changes in soil carbon stock, and balance of greenhouse gases. A model named Agro-Eco-Index was developed on a Microsoft-Excel support to incorporate on-farm collected data and facilitate the calculation of indicators by users. Different procedures were applied to validate the model and present the results to the users. Regression models (based on linear and non-linear models) were used to validate the comparative performance of the study farms across the Pampas. An environmental dashboard was provided to represent in a graphical way the behavior of farms. The method provides a tool to discriminate environmentally friendly farms from those that do not pay enough attention to environmental issues. Our procedure might be useful for implementing an ecological certification system to reward a good environmental behavior in society (e.g., through tax benefits) and generate a commercial advantage (e.g., through the allocation of green labels) for committed farmers.

  9. A rapid method for assessing the environmental performance of commercial farms in the Pampas of Argentina.

    PubMed

    Viglizzo, E F; Frank, F; Bernardos, J; Buschiazzo, D E; Cabo, S

    2006-06-01

    The generation of reliable updated information is critical to support the harmonization of socio-economic and environmental issues in a context of sustainable development. The agro-environmental assessment and management of agricultural systems often relies on indicators that are necessary to make sound decisions. This work aims to provide an approach to (a) assess the environmental performance of commercial farms in the Pampas of Argentina, and (b) propose a methodological framework to calculate environmental indicators that can rapidly be applied to practical farming. 120 commercial farms scattered across the Pampas were analyzed in this study during 2002 and 2003. Eleven basic indicators were identified and calculation methods described. Such indicators were fossil energy (FE) use, FE use efficiency, nitrogen (N) balance, phosphorus (P) balance, N contamination risk, P contamination risk, pesticide contamination risk, soil erosion risk, habitat intervention, changes in soil carbon stock, and balance of greenhouse gases. A model named Agro-Eco-Index was developed on a Microsoft-Excel support to incorporate on-farm collected data and facilitate the calculation of indicators by users. Different procedures were applied to validate the model and present the results to the users. Regression models (based on linear and non-linear models) were used to validate the comparative performance of the study farms across the Pampas. An environmental dashboard was provided to represent in a graphical way the behavior of farms. The method provides a tool to discriminate environmentally friendly farms from those that do not pay enough attention to environmental issues. Our procedure might be useful for implementing an ecological certification system to reward a good environmental behavior in society (e.g., through tax benefits) and generate a commercial advantage (e.g., through the allocation of green labels) for committed farmers. PMID:16917702

  10. Rapid CE-UV binding tests of environmentally hazardous compounds with polymer-modified magnetic nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Iqbal, Zafar; Alsudir, Samar; Miah, Musharraf; Lai, Edward P C

    2011-08-01

    Hazardous compounds and bacteria in water have an adverse impact on human health and environmental ecology. Polydopamine (or polypyrrole)-coated magnetic nanoparticles and polymethacrylic acid-co-ethylene glycol dimethacrylate submicron particles were investigated for their fast binding kinetics with bisphenol A, proflavine, naphthalene acetic acid, and Escherichia coli. A new method was developed for the rapid determination of % binding by sequential injection of particles first and compounds (or E. coli) next into a fused-silica capillary for overlap binding during electrophoretic migration. Only nanolitre volumes of compounds and particles were sufficient to complete a rapid binding test. After heterogeneous binding, separation of the compounds from the particles was afforded by capillary electrophoresis. % binding was influenced by applied voltage but not current flow. In-capillary coating of particles affected the % binding of compounds. PMID:21766478

  11. From Sensor to Observation Web with Environmental Enablers in the Future Internet

    PubMed Central

    Havlik, Denis; Schade, Sven; Sabeur, Zoheir A.; Mazzetti, Paolo; Watson, Kym; Berre, Arne J.; Mon, Jose Lorenzo

    2011-01-01

    This paper outlines the grand challenges in global sustainability research and the objectives of the FP7 Future Internet PPP program within the Digital Agenda for Europe. Large user communities are generating significant amounts of valuable environmental observations at local and regional scales using the devices and services of the Future Internet. These communities’ environmental observations represent a wealth of information which is currently hardly used or used only in isolation and therefore in need of integration with other information sources. Indeed, this very integration will lead to a paradigm shift from a mere Sensor Web to an Observation Web with semantically enriched content emanating from sensors, environmental simulations and citizens. The paper also describes the research challenges to realize the Observation Web and the associated environmental enablers for the Future Internet. Such an environmental enabler could for instance be an electronic sensing device, a web-service application, or even a social networking group affording or facilitating the capability of the Future Internet applications to consume, produce, and use environmental observations in cross-domain applications. The term “envirofied” Future Internet is coined to describe this overall target that forms a cornerstone of work in the Environmental Usage Area within the Future Internet PPP program. Relevant trends described in the paper are the usage of ubiquitous sensors (anywhere), the provision and generation of information by citizens, and the convergence of real and virtual realities to convey understanding of environmental observations. The paper addresses the technical challenges in the Environmental Usage Area and the need for designing multi-style service oriented architecture. Key topics are the mapping of requirements to capabilities, providing scalability and robustness with implementing context aware information retrieval. Another essential research topic is handling

  12. From Sensor to Observation Web with environmental enablers in the Future Internet.

    PubMed

    Havlik, Denis; Schade, Sven; Sabeur, Zoheir A; Mazzetti, Paolo; Watson, Kym; Berre, Arne J; Mon, Jose Lorenzo

    2011-01-01

    This paper outlines the grand challenges in global sustainability research and the objectives of the FP7 Future Internet PPP program within the Digital Agenda for Europe. Large user communities are generating significant amounts of valuable environmental observations at local and regional scales using the devices and services of the Future Internet. These communities' environmental observations represent a wealth of information which is currently hardly used or used only in isolation and therefore in need of integration with other information sources. Indeed, this very integration will lead to a paradigm shift from a mere Sensor Web to an Observation Web with semantically enriched content emanating from sensors, environmental simulations and citizens. The paper also describes the research challenges to realize the Observation Web and the associated environmental enablers for the Future Internet. Such an environmental enabler could for instance be an electronic sensing device, a web-service application, or even a social networking group affording or facilitating the capability of the Future Internet applications to consume, produce, and use environmental observations in cross-domain applications. The term "envirofied" Future Internet is coined to describe this overall target that forms a cornerstone of work in the Environmental Usage Area within the Future Internet PPP program. Relevant trends described in the paper are the usage of ubiquitous sensors (anywhere), the provision and generation of information by citizens, and the convergence of real and virtual realities to convey understanding of environmental observations. The paper addresses the technical challenges in the Environmental Usage Area and the need for designing multi-style service oriented architecture. Key topics are the mapping of requirements to capabilities, providing scalability and robustness with implementing context aware information retrieval. Another essential research topic is handling data

  13. From Sensor to Observation Web with environmental enablers in the Future Internet.

    PubMed

    Havlik, Denis; Schade, Sven; Sabeur, Zoheir A; Mazzetti, Paolo; Watson, Kym; Berre, Arne J; Mon, Jose Lorenzo

    2011-01-01

    This paper outlines the grand challenges in global sustainability research and the objectives of the FP7 Future Internet PPP program within the Digital Agenda for Europe. Large user communities are generating significant amounts of valuable environmental observations at local and regional scales using the devices and services of the Future Internet. These communities' environmental observations represent a wealth of information which is currently hardly used or used only in isolation and therefore in need of integration with other information sources. Indeed, this very integration will lead to a paradigm shift from a mere Sensor Web to an Observation Web with semantically enriched content emanating from sensors, environmental simulations and citizens. The paper also describes the research challenges to realize the Observation Web and the associated environmental enablers for the Future Internet. Such an environmental enabler could for instance be an electronic sensing device, a web-service application, or even a social networking group affording or facilitating the capability of the Future Internet applications to consume, produce, and use environmental observations in cross-domain applications. The term "envirofied" Future Internet is coined to describe this overall target that forms a cornerstone of work in the Environmental Usage Area within the Future Internet PPP program. Relevant trends described in the paper are the usage of ubiquitous sensors (anywhere), the provision and generation of information by citizens, and the convergence of real and virtual realities to convey understanding of environmental observations. The paper addresses the technical challenges in the Environmental Usage Area and the need for designing multi-style service oriented architecture. Key topics are the mapping of requirements to capabilities, providing scalability and robustness with implementing context aware information retrieval. Another essential research topic is handling data

  14. Rapid In-Situ Measurement of Gamma Activity in Soil for Environmental Assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Honeycutt, T. K.

    2003-12-01

    In-situ measurements of gamma radiation in soil are used as a rapid, low-cost, non-intrusive alternative to conventional sampling and analysis methods in the preliminary assessment of environmental impacts to watersheds at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The method resolves the ambient gamma-radiation field near ground surface into background and residual components and provides radionuclide-specific soil activity determination. The efficacy of the method has been evaluated and compares favorably with conventional gamma-PHA soil analyses and aerial survey data. The method has garnered regulatory approval and is being successfully deployed to evaluate the impact of Cs-137 contamination from CERCLA sites.

  15. Rapid Acquisition of Environmental Information after Accidents with Hazardous Cargo Through Remote Sensing by Uav

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Longhitano, G. A.; Quintanilh, J. A.

    2013-05-01

    The aim of the study was to present procedures of using remote sensing by UAV to aid in the rapid evaluation and monitoring of environmental impacts caused by accidents involving transport of dangerous cargoes on highways. From the data collected and the UAV model defined, it was developed a methodology of operating a UAV to generate the potential benefits identified in the application. A Mini UAV or Close Range class was considered appropriate. It was created the procedures for imaging, the emergency activation of an UAV, the generation parameters of the images and forms of environmental information extraction. The study does not eliminate the necessity of testing the technology for this application, but indicates the possibility of generating more detailed and faster information.

  16. A primer on environmental law and some directions for the future

    SciTech Connect

    Blumm, M.C.

    1992-12-31

    Modern environmental law is only a generation old. Just twenty-two years ago, President Nixon began the modern era by signing into law the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA). Prior to the signing of NEPA, there was no effective national environmental legislation in the United States. Prompted by exposes such as Rachel Carson`s Silent Spring and the Ralph Nader studies on air and water pollution, Congress enacted a rapid succession of legislative initiatives in the 1970s. By 1980, the United States had virtually all of its major environmental statutes in place. The last fifteen years have largely been years of implementation and fine-tuning, not years of creation. That might soon change, however, as we reach the limits of what the first generation of environmental law can reasonably produce. This essay will introduce and discuss a number of characteristics of modern American environmental law, including the process for assessing environmental impact, the legislation for pollution control and the program of environmental cleanup. I will also mention, but not discuss in detail, a number of other environmental initiatives concerning chemical regulation, area-wide protection and species preservation. Finally, the essay will discuss the direction in which American environmental policy is heading and conclude with some personal hopes about the course that direction might take.

  17. Like a Swallow, Moving Forward in Circles: On the Future Dimension of Environmental Care and Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Postma, Dirk Willem; Smeyers, Paul

    2012-01-01

    After the moral framework of sustainable development, the focus on climate change appears to take a lead in the practice and theory of environmental education. Inherent in this perspective is an apocalyptic message: if we do not rapidly change our use of energy resources, we will severely harm the life conditions of our children and grandchildren.…

  18. Rapid Detection of Viable Bacillus anthracis Spores in Environmental Samples by Using Engineered Reporter Phages.

    PubMed

    Sharp, Natasha J; Molineux, Ian J; Page, Martin A; Schofield, David A

    2016-04-01

    Bacillus anthracis, the causative agent of anthrax, was utilized as a bioterrorism agent in 2001 when spores were distributed via the U.S. postal system. In responding to this event, the Federal Bureau of Investigation used traditional bacterial culture viability assays to ascertain the extent of contamination of the postal facilities within 24 to 48 h of environmental sample acquisition. Here, we describe a low-complexity, second-generation reporter phage assay for the rapid detection of viableB. anthracis spores in environmental samples. The assay uses an engineered B. anthracis reporter phage (Wβ::luxAB-2) which transduces bioluminescence to infected cells. To facilitate low-level environmental detection and maximize the signal response, expression of luxABin an earlier version of the reporter phage (Wβ::luxAB-1) was optimized. These alterations prolonged signal kinetics, increased light output, and improved assay sensitivity. Using Wβ::luxAB-2, detection of B. anthracis spores was 1 CFU in 8 h from pure cultures and as low as 10 CFU/g in sterile soil but increased to 10(5)CFU/g in unprocessed soil due to an unstable signal and the presence of competing bacteria. Inclusion of semiselective medium, mediated by a phage-expressed antibiotic resistance gene, maintained signal stability and enabled the detection of 10(4)CFU/g in 6 h. The assay does not require spore extraction and relies on the phage infecting germinating cells directly in the soil sample. This reporter phage displays promise for the rapid detection of low levels of spores on clean surfaces and also in grossly contaminated environmental samples from complex matrices such as soils. PMID:26873316

  19. Rapid Detection of Viable Bacillus anthracis Spores in Environmental Samples by Using Engineered Reporter Phages

    PubMed Central

    Sharp, Natasha J.; Molineux, Ian J.; Page, Martin A.

    2016-01-01

    Bacillus anthracis, the causative agent of anthrax, was utilized as a bioterrorism agent in 2001 when spores were distributed via the U.S. postal system. In responding to this event, the Federal Bureau of Investigation used traditional bacterial culture viability assays to ascertain the extent of contamination of the postal facilities within 24 to 48 h of environmental sample acquisition. Here, we describe a low-complexity, second-generation reporter phage assay for the rapid detection of viable B. anthracis spores in environmental samples. The assay uses an engineered B. anthracis reporter phage (Wβ::luxAB-2) which transduces bioluminescence to infected cells. To facilitate low-level environmental detection and maximize the signal response, expression of luxAB in an earlier version of the reporter phage (Wβ::luxAB-1) was optimized. These alterations prolonged signal kinetics, increased light output, and improved assay sensitivity. Using Wβ::luxAB-2, detection of B. anthracis spores was 1 CFU in 8 h from pure cultures and as low as 10 CFU/g in sterile soil but increased to 105 CFU/g in unprocessed soil due to an unstable signal and the presence of competing bacteria. Inclusion of semiselective medium, mediated by a phage-expressed antibiotic resistance gene, maintained signal stability and enabled the detection of 104 CFU/g in 6 h. The assay does not require spore extraction and relies on the phage infecting germinating cells directly in the soil sample. This reporter phage displays promise for the rapid detection of low levels of spores on clean surfaces and also in grossly contaminated environmental samples from complex matrices such as soils. PMID:26873316

  20. Scientific commentary: Strategic analysis of environmental policy risks--heat maps, risk futures and the character of environmental harm.

    PubMed

    Prpich, G; Dagonneau, J; Rocks, S A; Lickorish, F; Pollard, S J T

    2013-10-01

    We summarise our recent efforts on the policy-level risk appraisal of environmental risks. These have necessitated working closely with policy teams and a requirement to maintain crisp and accessible messages for policy audiences. Our comparative analysis uses heat maps, supplemented with risk narratives, and employs the multidimensional character of risks to inform debates on the management of current residual risk and future threats. The policy research and ensuing analysis raises core issues about how comparative risk analyses are used by policy audiences, their validation and future developments that are discussed in the commentary below.

  1. Rapid Filtration Separation-Based Sample Preparation Method for Bacillus Spores in Powdery and Environmental Matrices

    PubMed Central

    Isabel, Sandra; Boissinot, Maurice; Charlebois, Isabelle; Fauvel, Chantal M.; Shi, Lu-E; Lévesque, Julie-Christine; Paquin, Amélie T.; Bastien, Martine; Stewart, Gale; Leblanc, Éric; Sato, Sachiko

    2012-01-01

    Authorities frequently need to analyze suspicious powders and other samples for biothreat agents in order to assess environmental safety. Numerous nucleic acid detection technologies have been developed to detect and identify biowarfare agents in a timely fashion. The extraction of microbial nucleic acids from a wide variety of powdery and environmental samples to obtain a quality level adequate for these technologies still remains a technical challenge. We aimed to develop a rapid and versatile method of separating bacteria from these samples and then extracting their microbial DNA. Bacillus atrophaeus subsp. globigii was used as a simulant of Bacillus anthracis. We studied the effects of a broad variety of powdery and environmental samples on PCR detection and the steps required to alleviate their interference. With a benchmark DNA extraction procedure, 17 of the 23 samples investigated interfered with bacterial lysis and/or PCR-based detection. Therefore, we developed the dual-filter method for applied recovery of microbial particles from environmental and powdery samples (DARE). The DARE procedure allows the separation of bacteria from contaminating matrices that interfere with PCR detection. This procedure required only 2 min, while the DNA extraction process lasted 7 min, for a total of <10 min. This sample preparation procedure allowed the recovery of cleaned bacterial spores and relieved detection interference caused by a wide variety of samples. Our procedure was easily completed in a laboratory facility and is amenable to field application and automation. PMID:22210204

  2. Rapid sample preparation and fast GC-MS/MS for the analysis of pesticides and environmental contaminants in fish

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A rapid high-throughput analytical method for the simultaneous determination of pesticides and environmental contaminants, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and flame retardants (FRs) in fish was developed and ...

  3. Environmental enrichment is associated with rapid volumetric brain changes in adult mice.

    PubMed

    Scholz, Jan; Allemang-Grand, Rylan; Dazai, Jun; Lerch, Jason P

    2015-04-01

    Environmental enrichment is a model of increased structural brain plasticity. Previous histological observations have shown molecular and cellular changes in a few pre-determined areas of the rodent brain. However, little is known about the time course of enrichment-induced brain changes and how they distribute across the whole brain. Here we expose adult mice to three weeks of environmental enrichment using a novel re-configurable maze design. In-vivo MRI shows volumetric brain changes in brain areas related to spatial memory, navigation, and sensorimotor experience, such as the hippocampal formation and the sensorimotor cortex. Evidence from a second cohort of mice indicates that these plastic changes might occur as early as 24h after exposure. This suggests that novel experiences are powerful modulators of plasticity even in the adult brain. Understanding and harnessing the underlying molecular mechanisms could advance future treatments of neurological disease.

  4. Paleoclimatic evidence for future ice-sheet instability and rapid sea-level rise

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Overpeck, J.T.; Otto-Bliesner, B. L.; Miller, G.H.; Muhs, D.R.; Alley, R.B.; Kiehl, J.T.

    2006-01-01

    Sea-level rise from melting of polar ice sheets is one of the largest potential threats of future climate change. Polar warming by the year 2100 may reach levels similar to those of 130,000 to 127,000 years ago that were associated with sea levels several meters above modern levels; both the Greenland Ice Sheet and portions of the Antarctic Ice Sheet may be vulnerable. The record of past ice-sheet melting indicates that the rate of future melting and related sea-level rise could be faster than widely thought.

  5. International evaluation of current and future requirements for environmental engineering education.

    PubMed

    Morgenroth, E; Daigger, G T; Ledin, A; Keller, J

    2004-01-01

    The field of environmental engineering is developing as a result of changing environmental requirements. In response, environmental engineering education (E3) needs to ensure that it provides students with the necessary tools to address these challenges. In this paper the current status and future development of E3 is evaluated based on a questionnaire sent to universities and potential employers of E3 graduates. With increasing demands on environmental quality, the complexity of environmental engineering problems to be solved can be expected to increase. To find solutions environmental engineers will need to work in interdisciplinary teams. Based on the questionnaire there was a broad agreement that the best way to prepare students for these future challenges is to provide them with a fundamental education in basic sciences and related engineering fields. Many exciting developments in the environmental engineering profession will be located at the interface between engineering, science, and society. Aspects of all three areas need to be included in E3 and the student needs to be exposed to the tensions associated with linking the three.

  6. 20+ Years of Environmental Education Centers in Greece: Teachers' Perceptions and Future Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yanniris, Constantinos

    2015-01-01

    For the first time after decades of expansion and systematic innovative practice, environmental education in Greece faces an uncertain future as a result of the contemporary political and economic crisis. This research aims to contribute to the international exchange of good practices by focusing on the effects and functions of the Greek network…

  7. GENOMIC ANALYSIS OF SURROGATE TISSUES FOR ASSESSING ENVIRONMENTAL EXPOSURES AND FUTURE DISEASE STATES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Genomic Analysis of Surrogate Tissues for Assessing Environmental Exposures and Future Disease States

    John C. Rockett, Chad R. Blystone, Amber K. Goetz, Rachel N. Murrell, Hongzu Ren, Judith E. Schmid, Jessica Stapelfeldt, Lillian F. Strader, Kary E. Thompson, Douglas B. T...

  8. Environmental change and water-related, vector borne diseases in eastern Africa: the HEALTHY FUTURES project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, David; Kienberger, Stefan; Tompkins, Adrian

    2015-04-01

    Pathogens that spend time outside the human body, and any organisms involved in their transmission, have particular ecological requirements; as environment, including climate, conditions change, then the transmission characteristics of associated pathogens - and the diseases caused - are also likely to vary. Relationships between environment and health in many parts of the world remain poorly studied and are often overlooked, however. This is particularly the case in developing countries, because of budgetary and available expertise constraints. Moreover the relationship is often confounded by other factors. These other factors contribute to human vulnerability, and thus to the overall disease risk due to environmental change. This presentation will highlight the importance of environmental, including climate, change information to a better understanding of the risks to health of projected future environmental changes, and to the more efficient and effective use of scarce health resources in the developing world. The paper will focus on eastern Africa, and in particular the health effects of future projected environmental change impacts on water-related, vector borne diseases in the East African Community region. Moreover the paper will highlight how the EU FP7-funded project HEALTHY FUTURES is, through a broadly-based, integrative approach that distinguishes environmental change-induced health hazard from health risk aims to support the health decisions making process, thereby attempting to help mitigate negative health impacts.

  9. Analysis of environmental constraints on expanding reserves in current and future reservoirs in wetlands. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Harder, B.J.

    1995-03-01

    Louisiana wetlands require careful management to allow exploitation of non-renewable resources without destroying renewable resources. Current regulatory requirements have been moderately successful in meeting this goal by restricting development in wetland habitats. Continuing public emphasis on reducing environmental impacts of resource development is causing regulators to reassess their regulations and operators to rethink their compliance strategies. We examined the regulatory system and found that reducing the number of applications required by going to a single application process and having a coherent map of the steps required for operations in wetland areas would reduce regulatory burdens. Incremental changes can be made to regulations to allow one agency to be the lead for wetland permitting at minimal cost to operators. Operators need cost effective means of access that will reduce environmental impacts, decrease permitting time, and limit future liability. Regulators and industry must partner to develop incentive based regulations that can provide significant environmental impact reduction for minimal economic cost. In addition regulators need forecasts of future E&P trends to estimate the impact of future regulations. To determine future activity we attempted to survey potential operators when this approach was unsuccessful we created two econometric models of north and south Louisiana relating drilling activity, success ratio, and price to predict future wetland activity. Results of the econometric models indicate that environmental regulations have a small but statistically significant effect on drilling operations in wetland areas of Louisiana. We examined current wetland practices and evaluated those practices comparing environmental versus economic costs and created a method for ranking the practices.

  10. Characterizing the Leaching Behavior of Coal Combustion Residues using the Leaching Environmental Assessment Framework (LEAF) to Inform Future Management Decisions

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract for presentation on Characterizing the Leaching Behavior of Coal Combustion Residues using the Leaching Environmental Assessment Framework (LEAF) to Inform Future Management Decisions. The abstract is attached.

  11. Evolution and behavioural responses to human-induced rapid environmental change

    PubMed Central

    Sih, Andrew; Ferrari, Maud C O; Harris, David J

    2011-01-01

    Almost all organisms live in environments that have been altered, to some degree, by human activities. Because behaviour mediates interactions between an individual and its environment, the ability of organisms to behave appropriately under these new conditions is crucial for determining their immediate success or failure in these modified environments. While hundreds of species are suffering dramatically from these environmental changes, others, such as urbanized and pest species, are doing better than ever. Our goal is to provide insights into explaining such variation. We first summarize the responses of some species to novel situations, including novel risks and resources, habitat loss/fragmentation, pollutants and climate change. Using a sensory ecology approach, we present a mechanistic framework for predicting variation in behavioural responses to environmental change, drawing from models of decision-making processes and an understanding of the selective background against which they evolved. Where immediate behavioural responses are inadequate, learning or evolutionary adaptation may prove useful, although these mechanisms are also constrained by evolutionary history. Although predicting the responses of species to environmental change is difficult, we highlight the need for a better understanding of the role of evolutionary history in shaping individuals’ responses to their environment and provide suggestion for future work. PMID:25567979

  12. [Present and future perspectives for the rapid molecular diagnosis of TB and MDR-TB].

    PubMed

    Tanasescu, Mihaela; Didilescu, Cristian; Marica, Constantin

    2013-01-01

    Tuberculosis is still one of the diseases with a major medical and social impact, and in terms of early diagnosis (which would imply a fair treatment and established at the time), difficulties related to the delay bacilli isolation in culture, decreased susceptibility testing methods to antituberculosis drugs, lack of methods for differentiation of M. Tuberculosis complex germs of non-TB Mycobacteria, may have important clinical implications. Traditional testing of anti-TB drug susceptibility on solid Löwenstein-Jensen medium (gold standard) or liquid media can only be performed using grown samples. Determining the time it takes up to 42 days on solid media and 12 days for liquid media. For MDR/XDR TB cases itis absolutely essential to reduce the detection time. In these cases rapid diagnostic methods prove their usefulness. Automatic testing in liquid medium, molecular hybridization methods are currently recommended by the current WHO guidelines. Rapid diagnosis of MDR-TBis extremely useful for the early establishment of an effective treatment tailored more accurately on the spectrum of sensitivity of the resistant strain (thus reducing the risk of developing additional resistance to other drugs) and control the spread of these strains. Genetic diagnostic methods, approved and recommended by the WHO, can reduce the time of diagnosis of TB case and, importantly, the case of MDR-TB. They do not replace the current standard diagnostic methods and resistance profile, but complete them in selected cases. PMID:24734352

  13. [Present and future perspectives for the rapid molecular diagnosis of TB and MDR-TB].

    PubMed

    Tanasescu, Mihaela; Didilescu, Cristian; Marica, Constantin

    2013-01-01

    Tuberculosis is still one of the diseases with a major medical and social impact, and in terms of early diagnosis (which would imply a fair treatment and established at the time), difficulties related to the delay bacilli isolation in culture, decreased susceptibility testing methods to antituberculosis drugs, lack of methods for differentiation of M. Tuberculosis complex germs of non-TB Mycobacteria, may have important clinical implications. Traditional testing of anti-TB drug susceptibility on solid Löwenstein-Jensen medium (gold standard) or liquid media can only be performed using grown samples. Determining the time it takes up to 42 days on solid media and 12 days for liquid media. For MDR/XDR TB cases itis absolutely essential to reduce the detection time. In these cases rapid diagnostic methods prove their usefulness. Automatic testing in liquid medium, molecular hybridization methods are currently recommended by the current WHO guidelines. Rapid diagnosis of MDR-TBis extremely useful for the early establishment of an effective treatment tailored more accurately on the spectrum of sensitivity of the resistant strain (thus reducing the risk of developing additional resistance to other drugs) and control the spread of these strains. Genetic diagnostic methods, approved and recommended by the WHO, can reduce the time of diagnosis of TB case and, importantly, the case of MDR-TB. They do not replace the current standard diagnostic methods and resistance profile, but complete them in selected cases.

  14. Turtles outsmart rapid environmental change: The role of cognition in navigation.

    PubMed

    Krochmal, Aaron R; Roth, Timothy C; Rush, Sage; Wachter, Katrina

    2015-01-01

    Animals inhabiting changing environments show high levels of cognitive plasticity. Cognition may be a means by which animals buffer the impact of environmental change. However, studies examining the evolution of cognition seldom compare populations where change is rapid and selection pressures are strong. We investigated this phenomenon by radiotracking experienced and naïve Eastern painted turtles (Chrysemys picta) as they sought new habitats when their pond was drained. Resident adults repeatedly used specific routes to permanent water sources with exceptional precision, while adults translocated to the site did not. Naïve 1-3 y olds from both populations used the paths taken by resident adults, an ability lost by age 4. Experience did not, however, influence the timing of movement or the latency to begin navigation. This suggests that learning during a critical period may be important for how animals respond to changing environments, highlighting the importance of incorporating cognition into conservation. PMID:27065017

  15. Turtles outsmart rapid environmental change: The role of cognition in navigation

    PubMed Central

    Krochmal, Aaron R; Roth, Timothy C; Rush, Sage; Wachter, Katrina

    2015-01-01

    Animals inhabiting changing environments show high levels of cognitive plasticity. Cognition may be a means by which animals buffer the impact of environmental change. However, studies examining the evolution of cognition seldom compare populations where change is rapid and selection pressures are strong. We investigated this phenomenon by radiotracking experienced and naïve Eastern painted turtles (Chrysemys picta) as they sought new habitats when their pond was drained. Resident adults repeatedly used specific routes to permanent water sources with exceptional precision, while adults translocated to the site did not. Naïve 1–3 y olds from both populations used the paths taken by resident adults, an ability lost by age 4. Experience did not, however, influence the timing of movement or the latency to begin navigation. This suggests that learning during a critical period may be important for how animals respond to changing environments, highlighting the importance of incorporating cognition into conservation. PMID:27065017

  16. Rapid Bioassessment and In Situ Bioassay: Cost Effective Tools for Environmental Impact Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Wike, L.D.

    2002-08-23

    Environmental impact can be difficult to assess, especially at the ecosystem level. Any impact assessment methodology that can give cost effective and timely results is highly desirable. Rapid bioassessment (RBA) is cost effective and produces timely results. Several types of RBA have been used at the Savannah River Site (SRS) to assess stream conditions, including the Index of Biotic Integrity (IBI) based on fish community characteristics, and various techniques using aquatic macroinvertebrate species diversity and abundance. In an attempt to broaden the applicability of the RBA concept, we have also begun to develop RBA techniques for seep-fed wetlands and terrestrial habitats. These techniques will focus on vertebrate and macroinvertebrate assemblages for seep-fed wetlands and arthropod assemblages for terrestrial habitats. In situ bioassay is another technique that could be used for rapid and economical assessment of the effects of anthropogenic disturbance. We propose the development of two methods of in situ bioassay that can address bioavailability of constituents of concern. The use of caged bioassay organisms can be applied to terrestrial systems such as capped or existing waste sites using the common house cricket. Another proposed bioassay could use a resident species, such as the imported red fire ant, which is found in disturbed habitats and open areas such as waste sites. Combining in situ techniques with RBA methodologies has the potential to provide a comprehensive assessment of chemical and physical impacts to a wide range of ecosystem types.

  17. Environmental concerns and future oil and gas developments in Coastal Wetlands of Louisiana

    SciTech Connect

    John, C.J.; Harder, B.J.; Groat, C.G. )

    1993-09-01

    Recent studies have confirmed that much oil and natural gas have been overlooked and increases in future recoverable reserves will come from drilling in these areas. Increased production will result from identifying unexploited compartmentalized reservoirs, new infield reservoirs, and bypassed reservoirs, and by using enhanced recovery technologies for hydrocarbon recovery in incompletely drained reservoirs previously left unproduced for economic reasons. Most of southern Louisiana's hydrocarbon reserves underlie coastal wetland areas of the state. Major environmental concerns associated with the future development of existing reserves are canal dredging and destruction of wildlife habitat, use and disposal of oil-based muds, mitigation for wetland damage, and the recent emerging issue of surface contamination by naturally occurring radioactive materials with potential liabilities and future remedial regulation. To reduce wetland environmental damage caused by access canals to drilling sites, the Coastal Management Division of the Louisiana Department of Natural Resources instituted a geologic reviews program to review drilling permit application in the coastal wetlands. This process provides a mechanism for state and federal agencies to comment on the requested drilling permit. As a result of this process, the total average wetland disturbed area has been reduced from 767 ac per year in 1982 to approximately 76 ac per year in 1991. Average lengths of access canals also have been reduced by approximately 78% during the period. Oil and gas companies are becoming increasingly aware of the environmental consequences of drilling in wetlands and are considering them in planning for development activities. In the current climate of increasing public consciousness about the environment, addressing environmental concerns in the planning state will go a long way in helping alleviate future environmental problems.

  18. DARPP-32 interaction with adducin may mediate rapid environmental effects on striatal neurons.

    PubMed

    Engmann, Olivia; Giralt, Albert; Gervasi, Nicolas; Marion-Poll, Lucile; Gasmi, Laila; Filhol, Odile; Picciotto, Marina R; Gilligan, Diana; Greengard, Paul; Nairn, Angus C; Hervé, Denis; Girault, Jean-Antoine

    2015-01-01

    Environmental enrichment has multiple effects on behaviour, including modification of responses to psychostimulant drugs mediated by striatal neurons. However, the underlying molecular and cellular mechanisms are not known. Here we show that DARPP-32, a hub signalling protein in striatal neurons, interacts with adducins, which are cytoskeletal proteins that cap actin filaments' fast-growing ends and regulate synaptic stability. DARPP-32 binds to adducin MARCKS domain and this interaction is modulated by DARPP-32 Ser97 phosphorylation. Phospho-Thr75-DARPP-32 facilitates β-adducin Ser713 phosphorylation through inhibition of a cAMP-dependent protein kinase/phosphatase-2A cascade. Caffeine or 24-h exposure to a novel enriched environment increases adducin phosphorylation in WT, but not T75A mutant mice. This cascade is implicated in the effects of brief exposure to novel enriched environment on dendritic spines in nucleus accumbens and cocaine locomotor response. Our results suggest a molecular pathway by which environmental changes may rapidly alter responsiveness of striatal neurons involved in the reward system. PMID:26639316

  19. Rapidly shifting environmental baselines among fishers of the Gulf of California

    PubMed Central

    Sáenz-Arroyo, Andrea; Roberts, Callum M; Torre, Jorge; Cariño-Olvera, Micheline; Enríquez-Andrade, Roberto R

    2005-01-01

    Shifting environmental baselines are inter-generational changes in perception of the state of the environment. As one generation replaces another, people's perceptions of what is natural change even to the extent that they no longer believe historical anecdotes of past abundance or size of species. Although widely accepted, this phenomenon has yet to be quantitatively tested. Here we survey three generations of fishers from Mexico's Gulf of California (N=108), where fish populations have declined steeply over the last 60 years, to investigate how far and fast their environmental baselines are shifting. Compared to young fishers, old fishers named five times as many species and four times as many fishing sites as once being abundant/productive but now depleted (Kruskal–Wallis tests, both p<0.001) with no evidence of a slowdown in rates of loss experienced by younger compared to older generations (Kruskal–Wallis test, n.s. in both cases). Old fishers caught up to 25 times as many Gulf grouper Mycteroperca jordani as young fishers on their best ever fishing day (regression r2=0.62, p<0.001). Despite times of plentiful large fish still being within living memory, few young fishers appreciated that large species had ever been common or nearshore sites productive. Such rapid shifts in perception of what is natural help explain why society is tolerant of the creeping loss of biodiversity. They imply a large educational hurdle in efforts to reset expectations and targets for conservation. PMID:16191603

  20. DARPP-32 interaction with adducin may mediate rapid environmental effects on striatal neurons.

    PubMed

    Engmann, Olivia; Giralt, Albert; Gervasi, Nicolas; Marion-Poll, Lucile; Gasmi, Laila; Filhol, Odile; Picciotto, Marina R; Gilligan, Diana; Greengard, Paul; Nairn, Angus C; Hervé, Denis; Girault, Jean-Antoine

    2015-12-07

    Environmental enrichment has multiple effects on behaviour, including modification of responses to psychostimulant drugs mediated by striatal neurons. However, the underlying molecular and cellular mechanisms are not known. Here we show that DARPP-32, a hub signalling protein in striatal neurons, interacts with adducins, which are cytoskeletal proteins that cap actin filaments' fast-growing ends and regulate synaptic stability. DARPP-32 binds to adducin MARCKS domain and this interaction is modulated by DARPP-32 Ser97 phosphorylation. Phospho-Thr75-DARPP-32 facilitates β-adducin Ser713 phosphorylation through inhibition of a cAMP-dependent protein kinase/phosphatase-2A cascade. Caffeine or 24-h exposure to a novel enriched environment increases adducin phosphorylation in WT, but not T75A mutant mice. This cascade is implicated in the effects of brief exposure to novel enriched environment on dendritic spines in nucleus accumbens and cocaine locomotor response. Our results suggest a molecular pathway by which environmental changes may rapidly alter responsiveness of striatal neurons involved in the reward system.

  1. DARPP-32 interaction with adducin may mediate rapid environmental effects on striatal neurons

    PubMed Central

    Engmann, Olivia; Giralt, Albert; Gervasi, Nicolas; Marion-Poll, Lucile; Gasmi, Laila; Filhol, Odile; Picciotto, Marina R.; Gilligan, Diana; Greengard, Paul; Nairn, Angus C.; Hervé, Denis; Girault, Jean-Antoine

    2015-01-01

    Environmental enrichment has multiple effects on behaviour, including modification of responses to psychostimulant drugs mediated by striatal neurons. However, the underlying molecular and cellular mechanisms are not known. Here we show that DARPP-32, a hub signalling protein in striatal neurons, interacts with adducins, which are cytoskeletal proteins that cap actin filaments' fast-growing ends and regulate synaptic stability. DARPP-32 binds to adducin MARCKS domain and this interaction is modulated by DARPP-32 Ser97 phosphorylation. Phospho-Thr75-DARPP-32 facilitates β-adducin Ser713 phosphorylation through inhibition of a cAMP-dependent protein kinase/phosphatase-2A cascade. Caffeine or 24-h exposure to a novel enriched environment increases adducin phosphorylation in WT, but not T75A mutant mice. This cascade is implicated in the effects of brief exposure to novel enriched environment on dendritic spines in nucleus accumbens and cocaine locomotor response. Our results suggest a molecular pathway by which environmental changes may rapidly alter responsiveness of striatal neurons involved in the reward system. PMID:26639316

  2. Rapid screening of flonicamid residues in environmental and agricultural samples by a sensitive enzyme immunoassay.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhenjiang; Zhang, Zhen; Zhu, Gangbing; Sun, Jianfan; Zou, Bin; Li, Ming; Wang, Jiagao

    2016-05-01

    A fast and sensitive polyclonal antibody-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was developed for the analysis of flonicamid in environmental and agricultural samples. Two haptens of flonicamid differing in spacer arm length were synthesized and conjugated to proteins to be used as immunogens for the production of polyclonal antibodies. To obtain most sensitive combination of antibody/coating antigen, two antibodies were separately screened by homologous and heterologous assays. After optimization, the flonicamid ELISA showed that the 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50 value) was 3.86mgL(-1), and the limit of detection (IC20 value) was 0.032mgL(-1). There was no cross-reactivity to similar tested compounds. The recoveries obtained after the addition of standard flonicamid to the samples, including water, soil, carrot, apple and tomato, ranged from 79.3% to 116.4%. Moreover, the results of the ELISA for the spiked samples were largely consistent with the gas chromatography (R(2)=0.9891). The data showed that the proposed ELISA is an alternative tool for rapid, sensitive and accurate monitoring of flonicamid in environmental and agricultural samples. PMID:26897400

  3. Neurophysiological basis of rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder: informing future drug development.

    PubMed

    Jennum, Poul; Christensen, Julie Ae; Zoetmulder, Marielle

    2016-01-01

    Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behavior disorder (RBD) is a parasomnia characterized by a history of recurrent nocturnal dream enactment behavior and loss of skeletal muscle atonia and increased phasic muscle activity during REM sleep: REM sleep without atonia. RBD and associated comorbidities have recently been identified as one of the most specific and potentially sensitive risk factors for later development of any of the alpha-synucleinopathies: Parkinson's disease, dementia with Lewy bodies, and other atypical parkinsonian syndromes. Several other sleep-related abnormalities have recently been identified in patients with RBD/Parkinson's disease who experience abnormalities in sleep electroencephalographic frequencies, sleep-wake transitions, wake and sleep stability, occurrence and morphology of sleep spindles, and electrooculography measures. These findings suggest a gradual involvement of the brainstem and other structures, which is in line with the gradual involvement known in these disorders. We propose that these findings may help identify biomarkers of individuals at high risk of subsequent conversion to parkinsonism. PMID:27186147

  4. Neurophysiological basis of rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder: informing future drug development

    PubMed Central

    Jennum, Poul; Christensen, Julie AE; Zoetmulder, Marielle

    2016-01-01

    Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behavior disorder (RBD) is a parasomnia characterized by a history of recurrent nocturnal dream enactment behavior and loss of skeletal muscle atonia and increased phasic muscle activity during REM sleep: REM sleep without atonia. RBD and associated comorbidities have recently been identified as one of the most specific and potentially sensitive risk factors for later development of any of the alpha-synucleinopathies: Parkinson’s disease, dementia with Lewy bodies, and other atypical parkinsonian syndromes. Several other sleep-related abnormalities have recently been identified in patients with RBD/Parkinson’s disease who experience abnormalities in sleep electroencephalographic frequencies, sleep–wake transitions, wake and sleep stability, occurrence and morphology of sleep spindles, and electrooculography measures. These findings suggest a gradual involvement of the brainstem and other structures, which is in line with the gradual involvement known in these disorders. We propose that these findings may help identify biomarkers of individuals at high risk of subsequent conversion to parkinsonism. PMID:27186147

  5. Detection and rapid recovery of the Sutter's Mill meteorite fall as a model for future recoveries worldwide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fries, Marc; Le Corre, Lucille; Hankey, Mike; Fries, Jeff; Matson, Robert; Schaefer, Jake; Reddy, Vishnu

    2014-11-01

    The Sutter's Mill C-type meteorite fall occurred on 22 April 2012 in and around the town of Coloma, California. The exact location of the meteorite fall was determined within hours of the event using a combination of eyewitness reports, weather radar imagery, and seismometry data. Recovery of the first meteorites occurred within 2 days and continued for months afterward. The recovery effort included local citizens, scientists, and meteorite hunters, and featured coordination efforts by local scientific institutions. Scientific analysis of the collected meteorites revealed characteristics that were available for study only because the rapid collection of samples had minimized terrestrial contamination/alteration. This combination of factors—rapid and accurate location of the event, participation in the meteorite search by the public, and coordinated scientific investigation of recovered samples—is a model that was widely beneficial and should be emulated in future meteorite falls. The tools necessary to recreate the Sutter's Mill recovery are available, but are currently underutilized in much of the world. Weather radar networks, scientific institutions with interest in meteoritics, and the interested public are available globally. Therefore, it is possible to repeat the Sutter's Mill recovery model for future meteorite falls around the world, each for relatively little cost with a dedicated researcher. Doing so will significantly increase the number of fresh meteorite falls available for study, provide meteorite material that can serve as the nuclei of new meteorite collections, and will improve the public visibility of meteoritics research.

  6. Scenario analysis in environmental impact assessment: Improving explorations of the future

    SciTech Connect

    Duinker, Peter N. . E-mail: peter.duinker@dal.ca; Greig, Lorne A. . E-mail: lgreig@essa.com

    2007-04-15

    Scenarios and scenario analysis have become popular approaches in organizational planning and participatory exercises in pursuit of sustainable development. However, they are little used, at least in any formal way, in environmental impact assessment (EIA). This is puzzling because EIA is a process specifically dedicated to exploring options for more-sustainable (i.e., less environmentally damaging) futures. In this paper, we review the state of the art associated with scenarios and scenario analysis, and describe two areas where scenario analysis could be particularly helpful in EIA: (a) in defining future developments for cumulative effects assessment; and (b) in considering the influence of contextual change - e.g. climate change - on impact forecasts for specific projects. We conclude by encouraging EIA practitioners to learn about the promise of scenario-based analysis and implement scenario-based methods so that EIA can become more effective in fostering sustainable development.

  7. Future-Look: An Examination of the Future of the Community College from the Perspective of the Environmental, Economic, and Educational Influences on Courses, Programs, and Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Lyndon E.

    An examination is provided of the environmental, economic, and educational factors that will influence the courses, programs, and services of the community college in the future. Introductory remarks provide an overview of the future of the community college, detailing factors affecting the institutions such as the tax revolution, declining…

  8. Advanced situation awareness with localised environmental community observatories in the Future Internet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabeur, Z. A.; Denis, H.; Nativi, S.

    2012-04-01

    The phenomenal advances in information and communication technologies over the last decade have led to offering unprecedented connectivity with real potentials for "Smart living" between large segments of human populations around the world. In particular, Voluntary Groups(VGs) and individuals with interest in monitoring the state of their local environment can be connected through the internet and collaboratively generate important localised environmental observations. These could be considered as the Community Observatories(CO) of the Future Internet(FI). However, a set of FI enablers are needed to be deployed for these communities to become effective COs in the Future Internet. For example, these communities will require access to services for the intelligent processing of heterogeneous data and capture of advancend situation awarness about the environment. This important enablement will really unlock the communities true potential for participating in localised monitoring of the environment in addition to their contribution in the creation of business entreprise. Among the eight Usage Areas(UA) projects of the FP7 FI-PPP programme, the ENVIROFI Integrated Project focuses on the specifications of the Future Internet enablers of the Environment UA. The specifications are developed under multiple environmental domains in context of users needs for the development of mash-up applications in the Future Internet. It will enable users access to real-time, on-demand fused information with advanced situation awareness about the environment at localised scales. The mash-up applications shall get access to rich spatio-temporal information from structured fusion services which aggregate COs information with existing environmental monitoring stations data, established by research organisations and private entreprise. These applications are being developed in ENVIROFI for the atmospheric, marine and biodiversity domains, together with a potential to be extended to other

  9. Rapid environmental degradation in a subarctic ecosystem influences resource use of a keystone avian herbivore.

    PubMed

    Winiarski, Kristopher J; McWilliams, Scott R; Rockwell, Robert F

    2012-09-01

    1. Environmental degradation can change resource use strategies of animals and thereby affect survival and fitness. Arctic herbivores may be especially susceptible to the effects of such environmental change because their rapid growth rates demand high-quality forage, which may be limited as environmental conditions deteriorate. We studied the consequences of a trophic cascade, driven by Lesser Snow Goose (Chen caerulescens caerulescens) overgrazing on the south-west coast of Hudson Bay, Canada, which has caused tidal marsh (TM) degradation and the reduction in high-quality forage plants, on gosling growth and resource use. 2. We compared resource use and body size of goslings that inhabited tidal and freshwater marsh (FM) to determine how current foraging strategies influence growth and to test the hypothesis that during early growth goslings require and so consume high-quality TM plants, but that during later growth they may switch to foraging in lower-quality FM. 3. To investigate gosling resource use throughout growth, we measured once a week for 28 days the body size of goslings as well as stable isotope ratios (δ(34) S, δ(15) N and δ(13) C) in multiple tissues of goslings that were collected from both TM and nearby FM. We also measured the stable isotope ratios in forage plants sampled along transects and from gosling foreguts. We used an isotope-mixing model to determine the contribution of FM plants to gosling tissues. 4. Contrary to the proposed hypothesis, goslings inhabiting FM or TM primarily consumed FM plants during early growth. Furthermore, goslings that foraged extensively in FM had similar growth rates and grew to a similar size and body mass, as goslings that foraged in the degraded TM. However, goslings that currently inhabit freshwater or TM were significantly smaller than goslings that inhabited TM in the 1980s prior to habitat degradation. 5. Consequences of smaller overall body size include decreased survival and fecundity for arctic

  10. Increased Future Sea Level Rise due to Rapid Decay of the Greenland Ice Sheet?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greve, R.

    2008-12-01

    In the Fourth Assessment Report (AR4) of the United Nations Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), an increase of the mean global sea level by 18-59 cm for the 21st century is projected for the six SRES marker scenarios B1, B2, A1B, A1T, A2 and A1FI. The main causes for this sea level rise are thermal expansion of sea water and melting of glaciers and small ice caps, and to a lesser extent changes of the surface mass balance of the Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets. However, recent observations suggest that ice flow dynamics could lead to additional sea level rise, and this problem is explicitly stated in the AR4. These conjectured dynamical processes are (i) surface-meltwater-induced acceleration of basal sliding, and (ii) increased ice discharge due to reduced buttressing from surrounding ice shelves. The former process is probably more relevant for the Greenland ice sheet, whereas the latter may affect the stability of the West Antarctic ice sheet. On the observational side, recent results from satellite gravity measurements for the period 2002-2005 indicate surprisingly large mass losses of 239±23 km3 a-1 (0.66± 0.06 mm a-1 sea level equivalent) for the Greenland ice sheet. Furthermore, major outlet glaciers (Jacobshavn ice stream, Kangerdlugssuaq and Helheim glaciers) have sped up drastically during the last 15 years. It is attempted to quantify the range of uncertainty of future sea level rise due to dynamical processes of the Greenland ice sheet by numerical simulations with a high-resolution version of the 3-D dynamic/thermodynamic model SICOPOLIS. Results suggest that ice-dynamical processes can speed up the decay of the Greenland ice sheet significantly, but not catastrophically, in the 21st century and beyond.

  11. Chicago Clean Air, Clean Water Project: Environmental Monitoring for a Healthy, Sustainable Urban Future

    SciTech Connect

    none, none; Tuchman, Nancy

    2015-11-11

    The U.S. Department of Energy awarded Loyola University Chicago and the Institute of Environmental Sustainability (IES) $486,000.00 for the proposal entitled “Chicago clean air, clean water project: Environmental monitoring for a healthy, sustainable urban future.” The project supported the purchase of analytical instruments for the development of an environmental analytical laboratory. The analytical laboratory is designed to support the testing of field water and soil samples for nutrients, industrial pollutants, heavy metals, and agricultural toxins, with special emphasis on testing Chicago regional soils and water affected by coal-based industry. Since the award was made in 2010, the IES has been launched (fall 2013), and the IES acquired a new state-of-the-art research and education facility on Loyola University Chicago’s Lakeshore campus. Two labs were included in the research and education facility. The second floor lab is the Ecology Laboratory where lab experiments and analyses are conducted on soil, plant, and water samples. The third floor lab is the Environmental Toxicology Lab where lab experiments on environmental toxins are conducted, as well as analytical tests conducted on water, soil, and plants. On the south end of the Environmental Toxicology Lab is the analytical instrumentation collection purchased from the present DOE grant, which is overseen by a full time Analytical Chemist (hired January 2016), who maintains the instruments, conducts analyses on samples, and helps to train faculty and undergraduate and graduate student researchers.

  12. Rapid-Viability PCR Method for Detection of Live, Virulent Bacillus anthracis in Environmental Samples ▿

    PubMed Central

    Létant, Sonia E.; Murphy, Gloria A.; Alfaro, Teneile M.; Avila, Julie R.; Kane, Staci R.; Raber, Ellen; Bunt, Thomas M.; Shah, Sanjiv R.

    2011-01-01

    In the event of a biothreat agent release, hundreds of samples would need to be rapidly processed to characterize the extent of contamination and determine the efficacy of remediation activities. Current biological agent identification and viability determination methods are both labor- and time-intensive such that turnaround time for confirmed results is typically several days. In order to alleviate this issue, automated, high-throughput sample processing methods were developed in which real-time PCR analysis is conducted on samples before and after incubation. The method, referred to as rapid-viability (RV)-PCR, uses the change in cycle threshold after incubation to detect the presence of live organisms. In this article, we report a novel RV-PCR method for detection of live, virulent Bacillus anthracis, in which the incubation time was reduced from 14 h to 9 h, bringing the total turnaround time for results below 15 h. The method incorporates a magnetic bead-based DNA extraction and purification step prior to PCR analysis, as well as specific real-time PCR assays for the B. anthracis chromosome and pXO1 and pXO2 plasmids. A single laboratory verification of the optimized method applied to the detection of virulent B. anthracis in environmental samples was conducted and showed a detection level of 10 to 99 CFU/sample with both manual and automated RV-PCR methods in the presence of various challenges. Experiments exploring the relationship between the incubation time and the limit of detection suggest that the method could be further shortened by an additional 2 to 3 h for relatively clean samples. PMID:21764960

  13. Detection of Rapid Events at Mantle Depth by Future Gravity Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivins, Erik; Watkins, Michael

    2015-04-01

    The robust detection of gravity changes associated with relatively shallow subduction zone earthquakes (0-50 km depth co-seismic rupture) has been one of the success stories of the GRACE (e.g., Han et al. 2013, JGR-B, doi:10.1002/jgrb.50116) and GOCE (e.g., Fuchs et al., 2013, JGR-B, doi: 10.1002/jgrb.50381) missions. This surprise is a testament to the sensitivity of the measurement system, for the satellites must map the gravity potential field changes while flying at orbital altitudes exceeding 400 km (in the case of GRACE). It is clear that these observations contribute to advancing our understanding of large subduction zone earthquakes, if for no other reason than they allow comprehensive observation over the ocean covered solid Earth. The observations aid studies of both the mass transport associated with coseismic and post-seismic. Measurement capability for missions proposed to be flown after GRACE-2 are anticipated to be an order of magnitude, or greater, in accuracy and resolution (e.g., Wiese et al., 2012, J. Geodesy, doi: 10.1007/s00190-011-0493-8; Elsaka et al. 2014, J. Geodesy, doi: 10.1007/s00190-013-0665-9). Deep subduction zone earthquakes have not been detected, nor have any other non-seismic solid Earth deformations - with the exception of the glacial isostatic adjustment vertical response to the last glacial age. We examine the possibility that earthquakes occurring at, or near, the major transition zone in the mantle should be detected in the region where mantle phases become unstable and undergoes transition to a stable perovskite phase below 660 km depth. The Mw 8.2 1994 Bolivian Earthquake and the May 24, 2013 Mw 8.3 earthquake beneath the Sea of Okhotsk, Russia, are prototypes of events that can be studied with future gravity missions. Observation of gravity changes associated with deep subduction zone earthquakes could provide new clues on the enigmatic questions currently in debate over faulting mechanism (e.g., Zhan et al., 2014, Science

  14. Roadmapping or development of future investments in environmental science and technology

    SciTech Connect

    Wilburn, D.

    2002-01-01

    This paper will summarize efforts in roadmapping SCFA technical targets, which could be used for selection of future projects. The timely lessons learned and insights will be valuable to other programs desiring to roadmap large amounts of workscope, but unsure how to successfully complete it, by adequately defining a strategy to develop alternatives and core technologies to ensure needed environmental technologies are available and allow delivery of viable alternatives. In early FY02, Los Alamos National Laboratory's Environmental Science and Waste Technology Program Office was working jointly with Idaho National Environmental Engineering Laboratory to define and develop science and technology mini-roadmaps. We were defining and developing these mini-roadmaps to provide direction and guidance for DOE's Environmental Management's (DOE-EM) Subsurface Contaminants Focus Area (SCFA) in their development of target technologies. DOE EM's Strategic Plan for Science and Technology provides guidance for meeting science and technology needs with a view of the desired future and the long-term strategy to attain it. Program and technology mini-roadmapping were to be used to establish priorities, set program and project direction, and identify the high-priority science and technology need areas according to this document. In the past, EM science and technology needs collection is achieved through the DOE Site Technology Coordination Groups (STCG) across the complex. A future system for needs collection has not been defined. However, there is a need for gap analyses and a technical approach for the prioritization of these needs for DOE-EM to be strategic and successful in their technology research, development, demonstration, and deployments. To define the R&D projects needed to solve particular problems and select the project with the largest potential payoff will require analysis for project selection. Mini-roadmaps could be used for setting goals and priorities for future

  15. Htr2a Expression Responds Rapidly to Environmental Stimuli in an Egr3-Dependent Manner.

    PubMed

    Maple, Amanda M; Zhao, Xiuli; Elizalde, Diana I; McBride, Andrew K; Gallitano, Amelia L

    2015-07-15

    Pharmacologic and genetic findings have implicated the serotonin 2A receptor (5-HT2AR) in the etiology of schizophrenia. Recent studies have shown reduced 5-HT2AR levels in schizophrenia patients, yet the cause of this difference is unknown. Environmental factors, such as stress, also influence schizophrenia risk, yet little is known about how environment may affect this receptor. To determine if acute stress alters 5-HT2AR expression, we examined the effect of sleep deprivation on cortical Htr2a mRNA in mice. We found that 6 h of sleep deprivation induces a twofold increase in Htr2a mRNA, a more rapid effect than has been previously reported. This effect requires the immediate early gene early growth response 3 (Egr3), as sleep deprivation failed to induce Htr2a expression in Egr3-/- mice. These findings provide a functional link between two schizophrenia candidate genes and an explanation of how environment may influence a genetic predisposition for schizophrenia. PMID:25857407

  16. Rapid Analysis of Glibenclamide Using an Environmentally Benign Stability-Indicating RP-HPLC Method

    PubMed Central

    Haq, Nazrul; Alanazi, Fars Kaed; Alsarra, Ibrahim Abdullah; Shakeel, Faiyaz

    2014-01-01

    An environmentally benign RP-HPLC approach for rapid analysis of glibenclamide in pure form, developed nanoemulsion and commercial tablets was developed and validated in present investigation. The green chromatographic identification was performed on Lichrosphere 250 X 4.0 mm RP C8 column having a 5 μm packing as a stationary phase using a combination of ethanol: methanol (50:50 % v/v) as a mobile phase, at a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min with UV detection at 245 nm. The proposed method was validated for linearity, selectivity, accuracy, precision, robustness, sensitivity and specificity as per international conference on harmonization (ICH) guidelines. The utility of proposed method was verified by assay of glibenclamide in developed nanoemulsion and commercial tablets. The proposed method was found to be satisfactory in terms of selectivity, precision, accuracy, robustness, sensitivity and specificity. The content of glibenclamide in developed nanoemulsion and commercial tablets was found to be 100.50 % and 99.15 % respectively. The proposed method successfully resoled glibenclamide peak in the presence of its all type of degradation products which indicated stability-indicating property of the proposed method. These results indicated that the green chromatographic method could be successfully employed for routine analysis of glibenclamide in pure drug and various commercial formulations. PMID:25276186

  17. Temperature-Dependent Sex Determination under Rapid Anthropogenic Environmental Change: Evolution at a Turtle's Pace?

    PubMed

    Refsnider, Jeanine M; Janzen, Fredric J

    2016-01-01

    Organisms become adapted to their environment by evolving through natural selection, a process that generally transpires over many generations. Currently, anthropogenically driven environmental changes are occurring orders of magnitude faster than they did prior to human influence, which could potentially outpace the ability of some organisms to adapt. Here, we focus on traits associated with temperature-dependent sex determination (TSD), a classic polyphenism, in a model turtle species to address the evolutionary potential of species with TSD to respond to rapid climate change. We show, first, that sex-ratio outcomes in species with TSD are sensitive to climatic variation. We then identify the evolutionary potential, in terms of heritability, of TSD and quantify the evolutionary potential of 3 key traits involved in TSD: pivotal temperature, maternal nest-site choice, and nesting phenology. We find that these traits display different patterns of adaptive potential: pivotal temperature exhibits moderate heritable variation, whereas nest-site choice and nesting phenology, with considerable phenotypic plasticity, have only modest evolutionary potential to alter sex ratios. Therefore, the most likely response of species with TSD to anthropogenically induced climate change may be a combination of microevolution in thermal sensitivity of the sex-determining pathway and of plasticity in maternal nesting behavior. PMID:26245920

  18. Molecularly imprinted ionic liquid magnetic microspheres for the rapid isolation of organochlorine pesticides in environmental water.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Fengxia; Gao, Mengmeng; Yan, Hongyuan

    2016-04-01

    A new type of molecularly imprinted ionic liquid magnetic microspheres was synthesized by aqueous suspension polymerization, using 4,4'-dichlorobenzhydrol as a dummy template, and 1-allyl-3-ethylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate and methacrylic acid as co-functional monomers. The results of morphology and magnetic property evaluation of the obtained microspheres demonstrated that it was monodispersed spherical, possessed a rough surface, and an outstanding magnetic properties. Binding experiments revealed that it had a substantial adsorption capacity and strong recognition ability to organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in aqueous solution. Then the microspheres were applied as an adsorbent of magnetic dispersive solid-phase extraction for the selective recognition and rapid determination of OCPs in environmental water. Under the optimum conditions, good linearity of the three types of OCPs (dicofol, tetradifon, and p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane) was achieved in the range of 1.0-100 ng/mL (r ≥ 0.9994). The recoveries at three spiking levels ranged from 82.6 to 100.4% with the RSDs less than 6.9%.

  19. Htr2a expression responds rapidly to environmental stimuli in an Egr3-dependent manner

    PubMed Central

    Maple, Amanda M.; Zhao, Xiuli; Elizalde, Diana I.; McBride, Andrew K.; Gallitano, Amelia L

    2015-01-01

    Pharmacologic and genetic findings have implicated the serotonin 2A receptor (5-HT2AR) in the etiology of schizophrenia. Recent studies have shown reduced 5-HT2AR levels in schizophrenia patients, yet the cause of this difference is unknown. Environmental factors, such as stress, also influence schizophrenia risk, yet little is known about how environment may affect this receptor. To determine if acute stress alters 5-HT2AR expression, we examined the effect of sleep deprivation on cortical Htr2a mRNA in mice. We found that 6 hours of sleep deprivation induces a 2-fold increase in Htr2a mRNA, a more rapid effect than has been previously reported. This effect requires the immediate early gene early growth response 3 (Egr3), as sleep deprivation failed to induce Htr2a expression in Egr3−/− mice. These findings provide a functional link between two schizophrenia candidate genes and an explanation of how environment may influence a genetic predisposition for schizophrenia. PMID:25857407

  20. Environmental legislation and aquatic ecotoxicology in Mexico: past, present and future scenarios.

    PubMed

    Mendoza-Cantú, Ania; Ramírez-Romero, Patricia; Pica-Granados, Yolanda

    2007-08-01

    The consolidation of environmental legislation is fundamental for governments that wish to support and promote different actions focused on reducing pollution and protecting natural water resources in order to maintain the present and future benefits that water provides for human beings and wild life. Environmental laws are essential for sustaining human activities and health, preserving biodiversity and promoting sustainable development. In this context, it is important that environmental regulations concentrate on preventing or reducing the harmful impact of pollutants on organisms and ecosystems. The introduction of toxicity bioassays in environmental regulations is a positive step toward achieving this goal. In Mexico, the development of environmental legislation and the introduction of bioassays in water regulation are part of a very recent and complex journey. This article describes how aquatic ecotoxicology tools, particularly bioassays, have influenced water pollution policies in Mexico. Three scenarios are reviewed: the background of Mexican legislation on water protection and Mexico's participation in the Watertox project; the actual efforts of SEMARNAT to develop bioassay batteries for this country; and, the challenges and perspectives of ecotoxicological bioassays as regulatory instruments.

  1. Arsenic and Environmental Health: State of the Science and Future Research Opportunities

    PubMed Central

    Carlin, Danielle J.; Naujokas, Marisa F.; Bradham, Karen D.; Cowden, John; Heacock, Michelle; Henry, Heather F.; Lee, Janice S.; Thomas, David J.; Thompson, Claudia; Tokar, Erik J.; Waalkes, Michael P.; Birnbaum, Linda S.; Suk, William A.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Exposure to inorganic and organic arsenic compounds is a major public health problem that affects hundreds of millions of people worldwide. Exposure to arsenic is associated with cancer and noncancer effects in nearly every organ in the body, and evidence is mounting for health effects at lower levels of arsenic exposure than previously thought. Building from a tremendous knowledge base with > 1,000 scientific papers published annually with “arsenic” in the title, the question becomes, what questions would best drive future research directions? Objectives: The objective is to discuss emerging issues in arsenic research and identify data gaps across disciplines. Methods: The National Institutes of Health’s National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences Superfund Research Program convened a workshop to identify emerging issues and research needs to address the multi-faceted challenges related to arsenic and environmental health. This review summarizes information captured during the workshop. Discussion: More information about aggregate exposure to arsenic is needed, including the amount and forms of arsenic found in foods. New strategies for mitigating arsenic exposures and related health effects range from engineered filtering systems to phytogenetics and nutritional interventions. Furthermore, integration of omics data with mechanistic and epidemiological data is a key step toward the goal of linking biomarkers of exposure and susceptibility to disease mechanisms and outcomes. Conclusions: Promising research strategies and technologies for arsenic exposure and adverse health effect mitigation are being pursued, and future research is moving toward deeper collaborations and integration of information across disciplines to address data gaps. Citation: Carlin DJ, Naujokas MF, Bradham KD, Cowden J, Heacock M, Henry HF, Lee JS, Thomas DJ, Thompson C, Tokar EJ, Waalkes MP, Birnbaum LS, Suk WA. 2016. Arsenic and environmental health: state of the

  2. New parsimonious simulation methods and tools to assess future food and environmental security of farm populations

    PubMed Central

    Antle, John M.; Stoorvogel, Jetse J.; Valdivia, Roberto O.

    2014-01-01

    This article presents conceptual and empirical foundations for new parsimonious simulation models that are being used to assess future food and environmental security of farm populations. The conceptual framework integrates key features of the biophysical and economic processes on which the farming systems are based. The approach represents a methodological advance by coupling important behavioural processes, for example, self-selection in adaptive responses to technological and environmental change, with aggregate processes, such as changes in market supply and demand conditions or environmental conditions as climate. Suitable biophysical and economic data are a critical limiting factor in modelling these complex systems, particularly for the characterization of out-of-sample counterfactuals in ex ante analyses. Parsimonious, population-based simulation methods are described that exploit available observational, experimental, modelled and expert data. The analysis makes use of a new scenario design concept called representative agricultural pathways. A case study illustrates how these methods can be used to assess food and environmental security. The concluding section addresses generalizations of parametric forms and linkages of regional models to global models. PMID:24535388

  3. New parsimonious simulation methods and tools to assess future food and environmental security of farm populations.

    PubMed

    Antle, John M; Stoorvogel, Jetse J; Valdivia, Roberto O

    2014-04-01

    This article presents conceptual and empirical foundations for new parsimonious simulation models that are being used to assess future food and environmental security of farm populations. The conceptual framework integrates key features of the biophysical and economic processes on which the farming systems are based. The approach represents a methodological advance by coupling important behavioural processes, for example, self-selection in adaptive responses to technological and environmental change, with aggregate processes, such as changes in market supply and demand conditions or environmental conditions as climate. Suitable biophysical and economic data are a critical limiting factor in modelling these complex systems, particularly for the characterization of out-of-sample counterfactuals in ex ante analyses. Parsimonious, population-based simulation methods are described that exploit available observational, experimental, modelled and expert data. The analysis makes use of a new scenario design concept called representative agricultural pathways. A case study illustrates how these methods can be used to assess food and environmental security. The concluding section addresses generalizations of parametric forms and linkages of regional models to global models.

  4. Rapid Environmental Change Drives Increased Land Use by an Arctic Marine Predator

    PubMed Central

    Atwood, Todd C.; Peacock, Elizabeth; McKinney, Melissa A.; Lillie, Kate; Wilson, Ryan; Douglas, David C.; Miller, Susanne; Terletzky, Pat

    2016-01-01

    In the Arctic Ocean’s southern Beaufort Sea (SB), the length of the sea ice melt season (i.e., period between the onset of sea ice break-up in summer and freeze-up in fall) has increased substantially since the late 1990s. Historically, polar bears (Ursus maritimus) of the SB have mostly remained on the sea ice year-round (except for those that came ashore to den), but recent changes in the extent and phenology of sea ice habitat have coincided with evidence that use of terrestrial habitat is increasing. We characterized the spatial behavior of polar bears spending summer and fall on land along Alaska’s north coast to better understand the nexus between rapid environmental change and increased use of terrestrial habitat. We found that the percentage of radiocollared adult females from the SB subpopulation coming ashore has tripled over 15 years. Moreover, we detected trends of earlier arrival on shore, increased length of stay, and later departure back to sea ice, all of which were related to declines in the availability of sea ice habitat over the continental shelf and changes to sea ice phenology. Since the late 1990s, the mean duration of the open-water season in the SB increased by 36 days, and the mean length of stay on shore increased by 31 days. While on shore, the distribution of polar bears was influenced by the availability of scavenge subsidies in the form of subsistence-harvested bowhead whale (Balaena mysticetus) remains aggregated at sites along the coast. The declining spatio-temporal availability of sea ice habitat and increased availability of human-provisioned resources are likely to result in increased use of land. Increased residency on land is cause for concern given that, while there, bears may be exposed to a greater array of risk factors including those associated with increased human activities. PMID:27249673

  5. Rapid Environmental Change Drives Increased Land Use by an Arctic Marine Predator.

    PubMed

    Atwood, Todd C; Peacock, Elizabeth; McKinney, Melissa A; Lillie, Kate; Wilson, Ryan; Douglas, David C; Miller, Susanne; Terletzky, Pat

    2016-01-01

    In the Arctic Ocean's southern Beaufort Sea (SB), the length of the sea ice melt season (i.e., period between the onset of sea ice break-up in summer and freeze-up in fall) has increased substantially since the late 1990s. Historically, polar bears (Ursus maritimus) of the SB have mostly remained on the sea ice year-round (except for those that came ashore to den), but recent changes in the extent and phenology of sea ice habitat have coincided with evidence that use of terrestrial habitat is increasing. We characterized the spatial behavior of polar bears spending summer and fall on land along Alaska's north coast to better understand the nexus between rapid environmental change and increased use of terrestrial habitat. We found that the percentage of radiocollared adult females from the SB subpopulation coming ashore has tripled over 15 years. Moreover, we detected trends of earlier arrival on shore, increased length of stay, and later departure back to sea ice, all of which were related to declines in the availability of sea ice habitat over the continental shelf and changes to sea ice phenology. Since the late 1990s, the mean duration of the open-water season in the SB increased by 36 days, and the mean length of stay on shore increased by 31 days. While on shore, the distribution of polar bears was influenced by the availability of scavenge subsidies in the form of subsistence-harvested bowhead whale (Balaena mysticetus) remains aggregated at sites along the coast. The declining spatio-temporal availability of sea ice habitat and increased availability of human-provisioned resources are likely to result in increased use of land. Increased residency on land is cause for concern given that, while there, bears may be exposed to a greater array of risk factors including those associated with increased human activities. PMID:27249673

  6. Satellite Sensornet Gateway Technology Infusion Through Rapid Deployments for Environmental Sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benzel, T.; Silva, F.; Deschon, A.; Ye, W.; Cho, Y.

    2008-12-01

    The Satellite Sensornet Gateway (SSG) is an ongoing ESTO Advanced Information Systems Technology project, at the University of Southern California. The major goal of SSG is to develop a turnkey solution for building environmental observation systems based on sensor networks. Our system has been developed through an iterative series of deployment-driven design, build, test, and revise which maximizes technology infusion to the earth scientist. We have designed a robust and flexible sensor network called Sensor Processing and Acquisition Network (SPAN). Our SPAN architecture emphasizes a modular and extensible design, such that core building blocks can be reused to develop different scientific observation systems. To support rapid deployment at remote locations, we employ satellite communications as the backhaul to relay in-situ sensor data to a central database. To easily support various science applications, we have developed a unified sensor integration framework that allows streamlined integration of different sensors to the system. Our system supports heterogeneous sets of sensors, from industry-grade products to research- specific prototypes. To ensure robust operation in harsh environments, we have developed mechanisms to monitor system status and recover from potential failures along with additional remote configuration and QA/QC functions. Here we briefly describe the deployments, the key science missions of the deployments and the role that the SSG technology played in each mission. We first deployed our SSG technology at the James Reserve in February 2007. In a joint deployment with the NEON project, SDSC, and UC Riverside, we set up a meteorological station, using a diverse set of sensors, with the objective of validating our basic technology components in the field. This system is still operational and streaming live sensor data. At Stunt Ranch, a UC Reserve near Malibu, CA, we partnered with UCLA biologist Phillip Rundel in order to study the drought

  7. Modelling Multidecadal Fluvial Sediment Fluxes to Deltas Under Future Environmental Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunn, F. E.; Darby, S. E.; Nicholls, R. J.

    2015-12-01

    As low lying coastal regions deltas are prone to land loss, degradation, and flooding due to relative sea level rise. These processes endanger delta populations and infrastructure, a situation which is increasingly exacerbated by anthropogenic activities. The flux of fluvial sediment to deltas is a first order control on delta aggradation and thus the potential for the surface elevation of a delta to be maintained or rise relative to sea level. Aggradation may occur without anthropogenic interference, but it can also be induced by controlled flooding. This research investigates how future environmental changes through to 2100 will influence fluvial sediment delivery to a selection of 10 vulnerable deltas, thereby contributing to the understanding of relative sea level change projections for these fragile coastal systems. The key environmental changes investigated in this study include anthropogenic climate change, reservoir construction, and land cover changes induced by changes in agricultural practices and vegetation cover. The effects of these environmental changes on fluvial sediment delivery are being evaluated using the catchment numerical model WBMsed, which is being calibrated for the selection of deltas using historical reference data. As a test case, the inputs for modelling current and future sediment fluxes to the Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna delta are refined using economic and population projections as proxies for anthropogenic influences on delta catchments. This research will contribute to the prognosis for vulnerable deltas and inform their short- and long-term management by indicating the consequences of anthropogenic activities which affect delta elevation and sustainability via altering fluvial sediment processes. While this could give forewarning for the residents and managers of unsustainable deltas, it could also be used as an argument for or against various anthropogenic activities.

  8. Molecularly imprinted fluorescent hollow nanoparticles as sensors for rapid and efficient detection λ-cyhalothrin in environmental water.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jixiang; Qiu, Hao; Shen, Hongqiang; Pan, Jianming; Dai, Xiaohui; Yan, Yongsheng; Pan, Guoqing; Sellergren, Börje

    2016-11-15

    Molecularly imprinted fluorescent polymers have shown great promise in biological or chemical separations and detections, due to their high stability, selectivity and sensitivity. In this work, molecularly imprinted fluorescent hollow nanoparticles, which could rapidly and efficiently detect λ-cyhalothrin (a toxic insecticide) in water samples, was reported. The molecularly imprinted fluorescent sensor showed excellent sensitivity (the limit of detection low to 10.26nM), rapid detection rate (quantitative detection of λ-cyhalothrin within 8min), regeneration ability (maintaining good fluorescence properties after 8 cycling operation) and appreciable selectivity over several structural analogs. Moreover, the fluorescent sensor was further used to detect λ-cyhalothrin in real samples form the Beijing-Hangzhou Grand Canal Water. Despite the relatively complex components of the environmental water, the molecularly imprinted fluorescent hollow nanosensor still showed good recovery, clearly demonstrating the potential value of this smart sensor nanomaterial in environmental monitoring. PMID:27208472

  9. Rapid climate and environmental changes in the western Iberian Peninsula since the last glacial period

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Etourneau, Johan; Kim, Jung-Hyun; Kang, Sujin; Oliveira, Dulce; Gal, Jong-Ku; Choi, Bohyung; Shin, Kyung-Hoon; Penaud, Aurélie; Fernanda Sanchez Goni, Maria

    2016-04-01

    The warm and saline Mediterranean Outflow Waters (MOW) affect density structure of the North Atlantic current, thereby altering the Atlantic Meridional Overturning circulation and thus global climate. Previous studies on southwestern European margin sequences have demonstrated their capability to reconstruct past changes in atmospheric and oceanic conditions at orbital and millennial time scales. However, the detailed evolution of the climate and environmental variability during the last climatic transition, especially during the last major abrupt climate events (e.g. the Dansgaard-Oeschger, Heinrich and 8.2 kyr events), is not well documented. Furthermore, the potential impact of changes in the Mediterranean Outflow Waters (MOW) on the North Atlantic and climate are far from being understood. Here we scrutinize changes in MOW over the last 25 kyrs by investigating sediment core MD99-2339 (35.89°N, 7.53°W, 1170 m water depth) collected in the Gulf of Cadiz. We analyzed alkenones (UK'37) to gain information on the sea surface temperatures. We also analyzed n-alkanes and their associated carbon (d13C) isotopes that we combined to pollen assemblages to reconstruct vegetation and humidity changes. We find that the cold alkenone-derived SST periods (Last Glacial Maximum (LGM), Younger Dryas (YD) and Heinrich Stadial 1 (HS1)) might be associated to a regional increase in the upwelling activity driven by stronger coastal off-shore winds that supply this area by cold deep waters. Stronger upwelling intensity may be linked to a greater export of MOW. In comparison, the d13C n-alkanes indicate drier conditions during HS1 and YD, and wetter conditions during the LGM and Holocene, which is opposite to the recorded precipitation signal by pollen assemblages. This inverse relationship suggest an opposite trend in seasonal precipitation (summer vs winter) which might imply a distinct forcing since the last glacial period. Alternatively, the signals of d13C n-alkanes might

  10. The photovoltaic industry on the path to a sustainable future--environmental and occupational health issues.

    PubMed

    Bakhiyi, Bouchra; Labrèche, France; Zayed, Joseph

    2014-12-01

    As it supplies solar power, a priori considered harmless for the environment and human health compared with fossil fuels, the photovoltaic (PV) industry seems to contribute optimally to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and, overall, to sustainable development. However, considering the forecast for rapid growth, its use of potentially toxic substances and manufacturing processes presenting health and safety problems may jeopardize its benefits. This paper aims to establish a profile of the PV industry in order to determine current and emerging environmental and health concerns. A review of PV system life cycle assessments, in light of the current state of the industry and its developmental prospects, reveals information deficits concerning some sensitive life cycle indicators and environmental impacts, together with incomplete information on toxicological data and studies of workers' exposure to different chemical and physical hazards. Although solar panel installation is generally considered relatively safe, the occupational health concerns related to the growing number of hazardous materials handled in the PV industry warrants an all-inclusive occupational health and safety approach in order to achieve an optimal equilibrium with sustainability. To prevent eco-health problems from offsetting the benefits currently offered by the PV industry, manufacturers should cooperate actively with workers, researchers and government agencies toward improved and more transparent research, the adoption of specific and stricter regulations, the implementation of preventive risk management of occupational health and safety and, lastly, greater responsibilization toward PV systems from their design until their end of life. PMID:25168128

  11. The photovoltaic industry on the path to a sustainable future--environmental and occupational health issues.

    PubMed

    Bakhiyi, Bouchra; Labrèche, France; Zayed, Joseph

    2014-12-01

    As it supplies solar power, a priori considered harmless for the environment and human health compared with fossil fuels, the photovoltaic (PV) industry seems to contribute optimally to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and, overall, to sustainable development. However, considering the forecast for rapid growth, its use of potentially toxic substances and manufacturing processes presenting health and safety problems may jeopardize its benefits. This paper aims to establish a profile of the PV industry in order to determine current and emerging environmental and health concerns. A review of PV system life cycle assessments, in light of the current state of the industry and its developmental prospects, reveals information deficits concerning some sensitive life cycle indicators and environmental impacts, together with incomplete information on toxicological data and studies of workers' exposure to different chemical and physical hazards. Although solar panel installation is generally considered relatively safe, the occupational health concerns related to the growing number of hazardous materials handled in the PV industry warrants an all-inclusive occupational health and safety approach in order to achieve an optimal equilibrium with sustainability. To prevent eco-health problems from offsetting the benefits currently offered by the PV industry, manufacturers should cooperate actively with workers, researchers and government agencies toward improved and more transparent research, the adoption of specific and stricter regulations, the implementation of preventive risk management of occupational health and safety and, lastly, greater responsibilization toward PV systems from their design until their end of life.

  12. Simulating future trends in urban stormwater quality for changing climate, urban land use and environmental controls.

    PubMed

    Borris, Matthias; Viklander, Maria; Gustafsson, Anna-Maria; Marsalek, Jiri

    2013-01-01

    The effects of climatic changes, progressing urbanization and improved environmental controls on the simulated urban stormwater quality in a northern Sweden community were studied. Future scenarios accounting for those changes were developed and their effects simulated with the Storm Water Management Model (SWMM). It was observed that the simulated stormwater quality was highly sensitive to the scenarios, mimicking progressing urbanization with varying catchment imperviousness and area. Thus, land use change was identified as one of the most influential factors and in some scenarios, urban growth caused changes in runoff quantity and quality exceeding those caused by a changing climate. Adaptation measures, including the reduction of directly connected impervious surfaces (DCIS) through the integration of more green spaces into the urban landscape, or disconnection of DCIS were effective in reducing runoff volume and pollutant loads. Furthermore, pollutant source control measures, including material substitution, were effective in reducing pollutant loads and significantly improving stormwater quality.

  13. Summary of Current and Future MSFC International Space Station Environmental Control and Life Support System Activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ray, Charles D.; Carrasquillo, Robyn L.; Minton-Summers, Silvia

    1997-01-01

    This paper provides a summary of current work accomplished under technical task agreement (TTA) by the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) regarding the Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) as well as future planning activities in support of the International Space Station (ISS). Current activities include ECLSS computer model development, component design and development, subsystem integrated system testing, life testing, and government furnished equipment delivered to the ISS program. A long range plan for the MSFC ECLSS test facility is described whereby the current facility would be upgraded to support integrated station ECLSS operations. ECLSS technology development efforts proposed to be performed under the Advanced Engineering Technology Development (AETD) program are also discussed.

  14. Ecological models supporting environmental decision making: a strategy for the future

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schmolke, Amelie; Thorbek, Pernille; DeAngelis, Donald L.; Grimm, Volker

    2010-01-01

    Ecological models are important for environmental decision support because they allow the consequences of alternative policies and management scenarios to be explored. However, current modeling practice is unsatisfactory. A literature review shows that the elements of good modeling practice have long been identified but are widely ignored. The reasons for this might include lack of involvement of decision makers, lack of incentives for modelers to follow good practice, and the use of inconsistent terminologies. As a strategy for the future, we propose a standard format for documenting models and their analyses: transparent and comprehensive ecological modeling (TRACE) documentation. This standard format will disclose all parts of the modeling process to scrutiny and make modeling itself more efficient and coherent.

  15. Understanding the future impacts of rapid ocean warming and acidification on the carbonate balance of coral reefs. ecosystems.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoegh-Guldberg, O.; Dove, S. G.

    2011-12-01

    Marine organisms and ecosystems are undergoing fundamental changes as a consequence of ocean warming and acidification, which must be understood if we are to anticipate and respond to the resulting changes to ecosystem services and functions. We have been investigating potential changes to the calcification and bioerosion rates of coral reefs using flow-through mesocosms at Heron Island on the southern Great Barrier Reef. In these experiments, we have been manipulating the temperature and pCO2 in order to simulate future ocean conditions described by IPCC scenarios (specifically B2, A1FI). We have also created pre-industrial conditions for comparison. Importantly, our system not only provides fine control over experimental conditions but also allows temperature and pCO2 to fluctuate with daily and seasonal changes measured (integrated over 3 h) at specific locations of interest on the Heron Island Reef, which allows a more 'realistic' analysis of the combined influences of ocean warming and acidification. In our first set of experiments, we have examined the impact of IPCC scenarios (year 2100) for a range of ecosystem phenomena relating to the carbonate balance of coral reefs including (1) phototrophic microborers within the dead skeletons of two coral species; (2) calcareous coralline algae, (3) turf algal communities in the presence and absence of grazing damselfish; (4) the calcification, growth, mortality and recruitment of the reef-building corals, and (5) microbial communities associated with corals. The overall conclusion of the studies conducted to date strongly suggests rapid movement to a negative carbonate balance for shallow water tropical coral reefs even under medium (B2) climate scenarios that involve SST increases of approximately +1.5oC and +250 ppm pCO2. Our conclusion is based on observations regarding key organisms that are involved in establishing the carbonate balance of coral reef organisms, and on the observed impacts of these conditions on

  16. A Framework Predicting Water Availability in a Rapidly Growing, Semi-Arid Region under Future Climate Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, B.; Benner, S. G.; Glenn, N. F.; Lindquist, E.; Dahal, K. R.; Bolte, J.; Vache, K. B.; Flores, A. N.

    2014-12-01

    Climate change can lead to dramatic variations in hydrologic regime, affecting both surface water and groundwater supply. This effect is most significant in populated semi-arid regions where water availability are highly sensitive to climate-induced outcomes. However, predicting water availability at regional scales, while resolving some of the key internal variability and structure in semi-arid regions is difficult due to the highly non-linearity relationship between rainfall and runoff. In this study, we describe the development of a modeling framework to evaluate future water availability that captures elements of the coupled response of the biophysical system to climate change and human systems. The framework is built under the Envision multi-agent simulation tool, characterizing the spatial patterns of water demand in the semi-arid Treasure Valley area of Southwest Idaho - a rapidly developing socio-ecological system where urban growth is displacing agricultural production. The semi-conceptual HBV model, a population growth and allocation model (Target), a vegetation state and transition model (SSTM), and a statistically based fire disturbance model (SpatialAllocator) are integrated to simulate hydrology, population and land use. Six alternative scenarios are composed by combining two climate change scenarios (RCP4.5 and RCP8.5) with three population growth and allocation scenarios (Status Quo, Managed Growth, and Unconstrained Growth). Five-year calibration and validation performances are assessed with Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency. Irrigation activities are simulated using local water rights. Results show that in all scenarios, annual mean stream flow decreases as the projected rainfall increases because the projected warmer climate also enhances water losses to evapotranspiration. Seasonal maximum stream flow tends to occur earlier than in current conditions due to the earlier peak of snow melting. The aridity index and water deficit generally increase in the

  17. Threshold and resilience management of coupled urbanization and water environmental system in the rapidly changing coastal region.

    PubMed

    Li, Yangfan; Li, Yi; Wu, Wei

    2016-01-01

    The concept of thresholds shows important implications for environmental and resource management. Here we derived potential landscape thresholds which indicated abrupt changes in water quality or the dividing points between exceeding and failing to meet national surface water quality standards for a rapidly urbanizing city on the Eastern Coast in China. The analysis of landscape thresholds was based on regression models linking each of the seven water quality variables to each of the six landscape metrics for this coupled land-water system. We found substantial and accelerating urban sprawl at the suburban areas between 2000 and 2008, and detected significant nonlinear relations between water quality and landscape pattern. This research demonstrated that a simple modeling technique could provide insights on environmental thresholds to support more-informed decision making in land use, water environmental and resilience management.

  18. Threshold and resilience management of coupled urbanization and water environmental system in the rapidly changing coastal region.

    PubMed

    Li, Yangfan; Li, Yi; Wu, Wei

    2016-01-01

    The concept of thresholds shows important implications for environmental and resource management. Here we derived potential landscape thresholds which indicated abrupt changes in water quality or the dividing points between exceeding and failing to meet national surface water quality standards for a rapidly urbanizing city on the Eastern Coast in China. The analysis of landscape thresholds was based on regression models linking each of the seven water quality variables to each of the six landscape metrics for this coupled land-water system. We found substantial and accelerating urban sprawl at the suburban areas between 2000 and 2008, and detected significant nonlinear relations between water quality and landscape pattern. This research demonstrated that a simple modeling technique could provide insights on environmental thresholds to support more-informed decision making in land use, water environmental and resilience management. PMID:26371989

  19. Complex Response of White Pines to Past Environmental Variability Increases Understanding of Future Vulnerability

    PubMed Central

    Iglesias, Virginia; Krause, Teresa R.; Whitlock, Cathy

    2015-01-01

    Ecological niche models predict plant responses to climate change by circumscribing species distributions within a multivariate environmental framework. Most projections based on modern bioclimatic correlations imply that high-elevation species are likely to be extirpated from their current ranges as a result of rising growing-season temperatures in the coming decades. Paleoecological data spanning the last 15,000 years from the Greater Yellowstone region describe the response of vegetation to past climate variability and suggest that white pines, a taxon of special concern in the region, have been surprisingly resilient to high summer temperature and fire activity in the past. Moreover, the fossil record suggests that winter conditions and biotic interactions have been critical limiting variables for high-elevation conifers in the past and will likely be so in the future. This long-term perspective offers insights on species responses to a broader range of climate and associated ecosystem changes than can be observed at present and should be part of resource management and conservation planning for the future. PMID:25885810

  20. CURRENT PROGRESS AND FUTURE PLANS FOR THE DOE OFFICE OF ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT INTERNATIONAL PROGRAM

    SciTech Connect

    Marra, J; Kurt D Gerdes, K; David Peeler, D; John Harbour, J; Kevin Fox, K

    2007-11-16

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Environmental Management (EM) has collaborated with various international institutes for many years on radioactive waste management challenges of mutual concern. Currently, DOE-EM is performing collaborative work with researchers at the Khlopin Radium Institute and the SIA Radon Institute in Russia and the Ukraine's International Radioecology Laboratory to explore issues related to high-level waste and to investigate experience and technologies that could support DOE-EM site cleanup needs. Specific initiatives include: (1) Application of the Cold Crucible Induction Heated Melter to DOE Wastes--SIA Radon and Savannah River National Laboratory; (2) Improved Solubility and Retention of Troublesome Components in SRS and Hanford Waste Glasses--Khlopin Radium Institute, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory and Savannah River National Laboratory; and (3) Long-term Impacts from Radiation/Contamination within the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone--International Radioecology Laboratory and Savannah River National Laboratory. This paper provides an overview of the status of the current International Program task activities. The paper will also provide insight into the future direction for the program. Specific ties to the current DOE-EM technology development multi-year planning effort will be highlighted as well as opportunities for future international collaborations.

  1. Inland sea as a unit for environmental history: East Asian inland seas from prehistory to future.

    PubMed

    Lindstrom, Kati; Uchiyama, Junzo

    2012-04-01

    The boundaries of landscape policies often coincide with political or economic boundaries, thus creating a situation where a unit of landscape protection or management reflects more its present political status than its historico-geographical situation, its historical function and formation. At the same time, it is evident that no unit can exist independently of the context that has given birth to it and that environmental protection in isolated units cannot be very effective. The present paper will discuss inland sea as a landscape unit from prehistory to modern days and its implications for future landscape planning, using EastAsian inland sea (Japan Sea and East China Sea) rim as an example. Historically an area of active communication, EastAsian inland sea rim has become a politically very sharply divided area. The authors will bring examples to demonstrate how cultural communication on the inland sea level has influenced the formation of several landscape features that are now targets for local or national landscape protection programs, and how a unified view could benefit the future of landscape policies in the whole region.

  2. Complex response of white pines to past environmental variability increases understanding of future vulnerability.

    PubMed

    Iglesias, Virginia; Krause, Teresa R; Whitlock, Cathy

    2015-01-01

    Ecological niche models predict plant responses to climate change by circumscribing species distributions within a multivariate environmental framework. Most projections based on modern bioclimatic correlations imply that high-elevation species are likely to be extirpated from their current ranges as a result of rising growing-season temperatures in the coming decades. Paleoecological data spanning the last 15,000 years from the Greater Yellowstone region describe the response of vegetation to past climate variability and suggest that white pines, a taxon of special concern in the region, have been surprisingly resilient to high summer temperature and fire activity in the past. Moreover, the fossil record suggests that winter conditions and biotic interactions have been critical limiting variables for high-elevation conifers in the past and will likely be so in the future. This long-term perspective offers insights on species responses to a broader range of climate and associated ecosystem changes than can be observed at present and should be part of resource management and conservation planning for the future. PMID:25885810

  3. Current Progress and Future Plans for the DOE Office of Environmental Management International Program

    SciTech Connect

    Gerdes, K.D.; Marra, J. C.; Peeler, D.K.; Harbour, M.J.J.R.; Fox, K.M.; Vienna, J.D.; Aloy, A.S.; Stefanovsky, S.V.; Bondarkov, M.D.

    2008-07-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Environmental Management (EM) has collaborated with various international institutes for many years on radioactive waste management challenges of mutual concern. Currently, DOE-EM is performing collaborative work with researchers at the Khlopin Radium Institute and the SIA Radon Institute in Russia and the Ukraine's International Radioecology Laboratory to explore issues related to high-level waste and to investigate experience and technologies that could support DOE-EM site cleanup needs. Specific initiatives include: - Application of the Cold Crucible Induction Heated Melter to DOE Wastes - SIA Radon and Savannah River National Laboratory; - Improved Solubility and Retention of Troublesome Components in SRS and Hanford Waste Glasses - Khlopin Radium Institute, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory and Savannah River National Laboratory; - Long-term Impacts from Radiation/Contamination within the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone, International Radioecology Laboratory and Savannah River National Laboratory. This paper provides an overview of the status of the current International Program task activities. The paper will also provide insight into the future direction for the program. Specific ties to the current DOE-EM technology development multi-year planning effort will be highlighted as well as opportunities for future international collaborations. (authors)

  4. Future research directions to characterize environmental mutagens in highly polluted area.

    PubMed Central

    Srám, R J

    1996-01-01

    Population monitoring using methods of molecular epidemiology combined with reliable data on exposure is an extremely powerful approach to determine the effect of mutagens on human populations. Although human blood and urine have traditionally been used for biomonitoring, an increase in the use of placental and buccal smear samples should be expected. As biomarkers of exposure, DNA strand breaks and hemoglobin and albumin adducts seem to be most sensitive. As biomarkers of response, cytogenetic analysis determining chromosome aberrations or micronuclei has been widely used Additional information can be obtained by using the chromosome painting technique and by determining gene mutations at the hprt locus: however, epidemiological studies exhibiting a relationship between these biomarkers and environmental pollution are still lacking. The use of sperm to analyze the effect of environmental mutagens in germ cells (e.g, sperm morphology and sperm aneuploidy) should be encouraged. The determination of susceptibility by analyzing genetic polymorphism, which is responsible for individual differences in the biotransformation of mutagens and carcinogens, will gain importance for risk assessment. Future research should include validating molecular methods, studying adaptive response to chemical carcinogens, and studying the modulatory effect of antioxidants, as well as the effect of carcinogens on immunity. PMID:8781390

  5. Environmental analysis of present and future fuels in 2D simple model marine gas tubines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Gohary, M. Morsy

    2013-12-01

    Increased worldwide concerns about fossil fuel costs and effects on the environment lead many governments and scientific societies to consider the hydrogen as the fuel of the future. Many researches have been made to assess the suitability of using the hydrogen gas as fuel for internal combustion engines and gas turbines; this suitability was assessed from several viewpoints including the combustion characteristics, the fuel production and storage and also the thermodynamic cycle changes with the application of hydrogen instead of ordinary fossil fuels. This paper introduces the basic environmental differences happening when changing the fuel of a marine gas turbine from marine diesel fuel to gaseous hydrogen for the same power output. Environmentally, the hydrogen is the best when the CO2 emissions are considered, zero carbon dioxide emissions can be theoretically attained. But when the NOx emissions are considered, the hydrogen is not the best based on the unit heat input. The hydrogen produces 270% more NOx than the diesel case without any control measures. This is primarily due to the increased air flow rate bringing more nitrogen into the combustion chamber and the increased combustion temperature (10% more than the diesel case). Efficient and of course expensive NOx control measures are a must to control these emissions levels.

  6. Salmon Futures: Stakeholder-driven salmon management scenarios under changing environmental conditions on Alaska's Kenai Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trammell, E. J.; Krupa, M.

    2015-12-01

    Understanding the adaptive capacity of individuals within natural resource management agencies is a key component of assessing the vulnerability of salmon to future environmental change. We seek to explore the adaptive capacity of natural resource agencies on Alaska's Kenai Peninsula by exploring the drivers and implications of different salmon allocation scenarios through participatory workshops with managers. We present here the initial results from the first workshop, which explores the various drivers responsible for changes in salmon allocation. Ranging from global to local, and biophysical to socioeconomic, these drivers are also linked to specific actors in the region. These complex interactions comprise the Kenai Peninsula's social-ecological system and determine its ability to react to change. Using a stakeholder-driven scenario framework, we aim to: 1) explore the adaptive capacity of natural resource agencies in the region by exploring and exposing managers to different but logically coherent salmon allocation scenarios; 2) build stakeholder confidence in the science of environmental change on the Kenai Peninsula; and 3) develop a decision support tool that helps regional resource managers better understand their changing environment. We utilize and present the scenario framework as a platform for integrating hydrologic, landscape, and cultural change information into actionable decisions, crafted by the stakeholders, so that landscape change on the Kenai becomes more coordinated.

  7. Human response to environmental change in the perspective of future, global climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butzer, Karl W.

    1983-05-01

    Human response to severe environmental stress is conceived and implemented by individuals, but must be approved by the group. These decisions are made with respect to perceived circumstances. Societies are enmeshed within adaptive systems that provide a matrix of opportunities and constraints for a wide range of potential behavioral variability. Such systems repeatedly readjust to short-term crises, e.g., droughts, but persistent and severe environmental stress may require substantial revision of adaptive strategies. The Sahel drought of 1968-1973 is an example of a brief but severe crisis, recurring along the Saharan margins perhaps once every 30 years. Closer inspection shows links between intensified intertribal warfare and ecological stress in the lower Omo Valley. The decline of the Egyptian New Kingdom during the 12th century B.C., in response to economic stagnation, sociopolitical instability, dynastic weakness, foreign pressures, and poor Nile floods over 50-70 years, represents a more complex and fundamental modification, with systemic simplification lasting 450 years. Such insights can be applied to future, global climatic change due to increasing atmospheric CO 2. Simulation and paleoclimatic experience suggest a drier climate for the North American and Soviet breadbaskets, to threaten world food supplies at a time of maximum demographic pressures and declining resources. Public perception and remedial planning should receive the attention of Quaternary scientists, in order to preempt an involuntary, global, systemic simplification.

  8. Acetylcholinesterase as a Biomarker in Environmental and Occupational Medicine: New Insights and Future Perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Caricato, Roberto; Calisi, Antonio; Giordano, Maria Elena; Schettino, Trifone

    2013-01-01

    Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) is a key enzyme in the nervous system. It terminates nerve impulses by catalysing the hydrolysis of neurotransmitter acetylcholine. As a specific molecular target of organophosphate and carbamate pesticides, acetylcholinesterase activity and its inhibition has been early recognized to be a human biological marker of pesticide poisoning. Measurement of AChE inhibition has been increasingly used in the last two decades as a biomarker of effect on nervous system following exposure to organophosphate and carbamate pesticides in occupational and environmental medicine. The success of this biomarker arises from the fact that it meets a number of characteristics necessary for the successful application of a biological response as biomarker in human biomonitoring: the response is easy to measure, it shows a dose-dependent behavior to pollutant exposure, it is sensitive, and it exhibits a link to health adverse effects. The aim of this work is to review and discuss the recent findings about acetylcholinesterase, including its sensitivity to other pollutants and the expression of different splice variants. These insights open new perspective for the future use of this biomarker in environmental and occupational human health monitoring. PMID:23936791

  9. Environmental radioactivity measurements and applications - Difficulties, current status and future trends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anagnostakis, Marios J.

    2015-11-01

    For several decades natural and artificial radioactivity in the environment have been extensively studied all around the world. Nuclear accidents - mainly that of Chernobyl - have led to the development of the field of radioecology, while detector systems and techniques - with predominant that of γ-spectrometry - have been continuously developed through the years to meet researchers' needs. The study of natural radionuclides that was originally limited to 226Ra, 232Th and 40K was then extended to include radionuclides such as 234Th, 210Pb, 235U and 7Be, which allowed the study of radioactive equilibrium. Besides their importance from the radiation protection point of view, many radionuclides are also used as tracers of environmental processes, such as aerosol and transportation of air masses studies (7Be, 10Be, 22Na), soil erosion, sedimentation and geochronology (210Pb, 137Cs), marine ecosystems studies and studies related to climate change. All these studies require specialized samplings strategies and sampling preparation techniques as well as high quality measurements, while the improvement of detection limits is often of vital importance. This work is a review of environmental radioactivity measurements and applications, mainly focused in the field of γ-spectrometry, for which difficulties and limitations will be presented, together with future trends, new challenges and applications.

  10. Rapid Determination of Mercury in Seafood in an Introductory Environmental Science Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rice, Jeanette K.; Jenkins, J. David; Manley, A. Citabria; Sorel, Eric; Smith, C. Jimmy

    2005-01-01

    An experiment is described which allows easy, rapid determination of mercury levels in commercially seafood samples from a contaminated area. Students gain experience in the preparation of a calibration curve, the determination of unknown concentrations, and risk assessment based on experimentally determined data.

  11. On the dense water cascading in the Southern Adriatic Sea during 2012: Setup of a Rapid Environmental Assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langone, Leonardo

    2013-04-01

    In the North Adriatic, Dense Shelf Water (DSW) forms during cold and dry winters by cooling and evaporation. DSW spreads southward along the western shelf reaching the southern Adriatic basin (1200 m deep) after 1-2 months, where sinks through cascading events. In February 2012, a large Siberian High caused blocking of the Atlantic flow and a westward flow of dry and cold air masses from eastern Russia toward Europe. The North Adriatic experienced a cold spell with large decrease of surface temperature (3° -6° C) associated to severe cold and dry Bora wind. The result was the formation of extremely dense shelf water, further made possible by the very limited discharge of the Po river in the preceding autumn. As contribution to the Italian research programme RITMARE (Italian Research for the Sea), CNR-ISMAR set up a Rapid Environmental Assessment (REA) experiment to study the occurrence, amount, timing and properties of the newly formed DSW. Setting up REA strategies is crucial for several scientific and practical reasons: (i) capturing extreme events to improve our understanding of natural systems in a global-change scenario; (ii) to evaluate their impact on marine systems and the biota; (iii) to address issues related to fluctuating fish stocks as well as (iv) C export and sequestration in the deep sea. The experiment was designed with an integrated approach, including modeling simulations, mooring deployments and quick-response oceanographic cruises. Based on numerical model ensemble, the arrival time of the DSW at the Gargano Cape was forecasted likely starting after March 15, 2012, thus moorings were deployed few days before. Five moorings were deployed in sites selected on the basis of modelling predictions and geology-driven inferences defining areas where the passage of dense shelf water is most likely to occur. Moorings were equipped with down-looking ADCPs, automatic sediment traps, temperature loggers, recorders of temperature, conductivity and

  12. SDIX RapidChek Listeria F.A.S.T. environmental test system for the detection of Listeria species on environmental surfaces.

    PubMed

    Muldoon, Mark T; Allen, Ann-Christine Olsson; Gonzalez, Vera; Sutzko, Meredith; Klaus, Lindpaintner

    2012-01-01

    The SDIX RapidChek Listeria F.A.S.T. test system was validated against the U.S. Department of Agriculture-Food Safety and Inspection Service (USDA-FSIS) cultural reference method for the detection of Listeria species on stainless steel, plastic, rubber, and painted concrete. The SDIX method uses a proprietary RapidChek Listeria enrichment media for a one-step, 24-40 h enrichment at 30 degrees C, and detects Listeria on an immunochromatographic lateral flow device in 10 min. Different Listeria species were used to spike each of the environmental surfaces. Environmental surfaces were spiked at levels ranging from 50 to 400 CFU/surface (1 in.2 swabs for painted concrete, 4 in.(2) for sponge). A total of 120 spiked samples were tested by the SDIX method at 24 and 40 h and the cultural reference method. Total confirmed positives were 49, 54, and 48 for the SDIX 24 h method, the SDIX 40 h method, and the USDA-FSIS cultural reference method, respectively. Nonspiked samples from all environmental surfaces were reported as negative for Listeria spp. by all methods. The overall Chi square was 0.017 (P = 0.104) and 0.611 (P= 0.566) after a 24 and 40 h enrichment, respectively, indicating that the test method was equivalent in performance to the reference method at both enrichment times. The SDIX method was evaluated for the detection of 50 Listeria and 35 non-Listeria bacterial strains. All 50 Listeria strains were detected by the method (100% sensitivity). Five out of 35 non-Listeria species gave light test signals when grown in nonselective broth culture and tested undiluted. However, when grown in the RapidChek Listeria F.A.S.T. proprietary media, only one bacterial strain (Staphylococcus aureus) was detected, giving a very low test signal (97% specificity). The method was shown to be robust toward several alterations in testing and storage conditions.

  13. Modelling nitrogen in the Yeşilirmak River catchment in Northern Turkey: impacts of future climate and environmental change and implications for nutrient management.

    PubMed

    Hadjikakou, Michalis; Whitehead, Paul G; Jin, Li; Futter, Martyn; Hadjinicolaou, Panos; Shahgedanova, Maria

    2011-05-15

    Recent research in catchments of rapidly developing countries such as Brazil and China suggests that many catchments of the developing world are already showing signs of nitrogen pollution reminiscent of past experiences in developed countries. This paper looks at both the individual and combined effects of future climate change and other likely environmental changes on in-stream nitrate concentrations in a catchment in Northern Turkey. A model chain comprised of simulated future temperature and precipitation from a Regional Circulation Model (RCM), a conceptual hydrological model (HBV) and a widely tested integrated catchment nitrogen model (INCA-N) is used to model future changes in nitrate concentrations. Two future periods (2021-2050 and 2069-2098) are compared to the 1961-1990 baseline period in order to assess the effectiveness of several possible interventions available to catchment authorities. The simulations show that in the urbanised part of the catchment, the effects of climate change and other environmental changes act in the same direction, leading to peak nitrate concentrations of 7.5 mg N/l for the 2069-2098 period, which corresponds to a doubling of the baseline values. Testing different available policy options reveals that the installation of wastewater treatment works (WWTWs) in all major settlements of the catchment could ensure nitrate levels are kept at near their baseline values for the 2021-2050 period. Nevertheless, a combination of measures including WWTWs, meadow creation, international agreements to reduce atmospheric N concentrations and controls on agricultural practises will be required for 2069-2098. The approach presented in this article could be employed in order to anticipate future pollution problems and to test appropriate solutions, some of which will necessitate international co-operation, in other catchments around the world.

  14. Assessing environmental impacts of offshore wind farms: lessons learned and recommendations for the future.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Helen; Brookes, Kate L; Thompson, Paul M

    2014-01-01

    Offshore wind power provides a valuable source of renewable energy that can help reduce carbon emissions. Technological advances are allowing higher capacity turbines to be installed and in deeper water, but there is still much that is unknown about the effects on the environment. Here we describe the lessons learned based on the recent literature and our experience with assessing impacts of offshore wind developments on marine mammals and seabirds, and make recommendations for future monitoring and assessment as interest in offshore wind energy grows around the world. The four key lessons learned that we discuss are: 1) Identifying the area over which biological effects may occur to inform baseline data collection and determining the connectivity between key populations and proposed wind energy sites, 2) The need to put impacts into a population level context to determine whether they are biologically significant, 3) Measuring responses to wind farm construction and operation to determine disturbance effects and avoidance responses, and 4) Learn from other industries to inform risk assessments and the effectiveness of mitigation measures. As the number and size of offshore wind developments increases, there will be a growing need to consider the population level consequences and cumulative impacts of these activities on marine species. Strategically targeted data collection and modeling aimed at answering questions for the consenting process will also allow regulators to make decisions based on the best available information, and achieve a balance between climate change targets and environmental legislation. PMID:25250175

  15. Responses of terrestrial ecosystems and carbon budgets to current and future environmental variability

    PubMed Central

    Medvigy, David; Wofsy, Steven C.; Munger, J. William; Moorcroft, Paul R.

    2010-01-01

    We assess the significance of high-frequency variability of environmental parameters (sunlight, precipitation, temperature) for the structure and function of terrestrial ecosystems under current and future climate. We examine the influence of hourly, daily, and monthly variance using the Ecosystem Demography model version 2 in conjunction with the long-term record of carbon fluxes measured at Harvard Forest. We find that fluctuations of sunlight and precipitation are strongly and nonlinearly coupled to ecosystem function, with effects that accumulate through annual and decadal timescales. Increasing variability in sunlight and precipitation leads to lower rates of carbon sequestration and favors broad-leaved deciduous trees over conifers. Temperature variability has only minor impacts by comparison. We also find that projected changes in sunlight and precipitation variability have important implications for carbon storage and ecosystem structure and composition. Based on Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change model estimates for changes in high-frequency meteorological variability over the next 100 years, we expect that terrestrial ecosystems will be affected by changes in variability almost as much as by changes in mean climate. We conclude that terrestrial ecosystems are highly sensitive to high-frequency meteorological variability, and that accurate knowledge of the statistics of this variability is essential for realistic predictions of ecosystem structure and functioning. PMID:20404190

  16. Assessing environmental impacts of offshore wind farms: lessons learned and recommendations for the future

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Offshore wind power provides a valuable source of renewable energy that can help reduce carbon emissions. Technological advances are allowing higher capacity turbines to be installed and in deeper water, but there is still much that is unknown about the effects on the environment. Here we describe the lessons learned based on the recent literature and our experience with assessing impacts of offshore wind developments on marine mammals and seabirds, and make recommendations for future monitoring and assessment as interest in offshore wind energy grows around the world. The four key lessons learned that we discuss are: 1) Identifying the area over which biological effects may occur to inform baseline data collection and determining the connectivity between key populations and proposed wind energy sites, 2) The need to put impacts into a population level context to determine whether they are biologically significant, 3) Measuring responses to wind farm construction and operation to determine disturbance effects and avoidance responses, and 4) Learn from other industries to inform risk assessments and the effectiveness of mitigation measures. As the number and size of offshore wind developments increases, there will be a growing need to consider the population level consequences and cumulative impacts of these activities on marine species. Strategically targeted data collection and modeling aimed at answering questions for the consenting process will also allow regulators to make decisions based on the best available information, and achieve a balance between climate change targets and environmental legislation. PMID:25250175

  17. Next-generation environmental diversity surveys of foraminifera: preparing the future.

    PubMed

    Pawlowski, J; Lejzerowicz, F; Esling, P

    2014-10-01

    Foraminifera are commonly defined as marine testate protists, and their diversity is mainly assessed on the basis of the morphology of their agglutinated or mineralized tests. Diversity surveys based on environmental DNA (eDNA) have dramatically changed this view by revealing an unexpected diversity of naked and organic-walled lineages as well as detecting foraminiferal lineages in soil and freshwater environments. Moreover, single-cell analyses have allowed discrimination among genetically distinctive types within almost every described morphospecies. In view of these studies, the foraminiferal diversity appeared to be largely underestimated, but its accurate estimation was impeded by the low speed and coverage of a cloning-based eDNA approach. With the advent of high-throughput sequencing (HTS) technologies, these limitations disappeared in favor of exhaustive descriptions of foraminiferal diversity in numerous samples. Yet, the biases and errors identified in early HTS studies raised some questions about the accuracy of HTS data and their biological interpretation. Among the most controversial issues affecting the reliability of HTS diversity estimates are (1) the impact of technical and biological biases, (2) the sensitivity and specificity of taxonomic sequence assignment, (3) the ability to distinguish rare species, and (4) the quantitative interpretation of HTS data. Here, we document the lessons learned from previous HTS surveys and present the current advances and applications focusing on foraminiferal eDNA. We discuss the problems associated with HTS approaches and predict the future trends and avenues that hold promises for surveying foraminiferal diversity accurately and efficiently.

  18. Responses of terrestrial ecosystems and carbon budgets to current and future environmental variability.

    PubMed

    Medvigy, David; Wofsy, Steven C; Munger, J William; Moorcroft, Paul R

    2010-05-01

    We assess the significance of high-frequency variability of environmental parameters (sunlight, precipitation, temperature) for the structure and function of terrestrial ecosystems under current and future climate. We examine the influence of hourly, daily, and monthly variance using the Ecosystem Demography model version 2 in conjunction with the long-term record of carbon fluxes measured at Harvard Forest. We find that fluctuations of sunlight and precipitation are strongly and nonlinearly coupled to ecosystem function, with effects that accumulate through annual and decadal timescales. Increasing variability in sunlight and precipitation leads to lower rates of carbon sequestration and favors broad-leaved deciduous trees over conifers. Temperature variability has only minor impacts by comparison. We also find that projected changes in sunlight and precipitation variability have important implications for carbon storage and ecosystem structure and composition. Based on Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change model estimates for changes in high-frequency meteorological variability over the next 100 years, we expect that terrestrial ecosystems will be affected by changes in variability almost as much as by changes in mean climate. We conclude that terrestrial ecosystems are highly sensitive to high-frequency meteorological variability, and that accurate knowledge of the statistics of this variability is essential for realistic predictions of ecosystem structure and functioning. PMID:20404190

  19. Assessing environmental impacts of offshore wind farms: lessons learned and recommendations for the future.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Helen; Brookes, Kate L; Thompson, Paul M

    2014-01-01

    Offshore wind power provides a valuable source of renewable energy that can help reduce carbon emissions. Technological advances are allowing higher capacity turbines to be installed and in deeper water, but there is still much that is unknown about the effects on the environment. Here we describe the lessons learned based on the recent literature and our experience with assessing impacts of offshore wind developments on marine mammals and seabirds, and make recommendations for future monitoring and assessment as interest in offshore wind energy grows around the world. The four key lessons learned that we discuss are: 1) Identifying the area over which biological effects may occur to inform baseline data collection and determining the connectivity between key populations and proposed wind energy sites, 2) The need to put impacts into a population level context to determine whether they are biologically significant, 3) Measuring responses to wind farm construction and operation to determine disturbance effects and avoidance responses, and 4) Learn from other industries to inform risk assessments and the effectiveness of mitigation measures. As the number and size of offshore wind developments increases, there will be a growing need to consider the population level consequences and cumulative impacts of these activities on marine species. Strategically targeted data collection and modeling aimed at answering questions for the consenting process will also allow regulators to make decisions based on the best available information, and achieve a balance between climate change targets and environmental legislation.

  20. Responses of terrestrial ecosystems and carbon budgets to current and future environmental variability.

    PubMed

    Medvigy, David; Wofsy, Steven C; Munger, J William; Moorcroft, Paul R

    2010-05-01

    We assess the significance of high-frequency variability of environmental parameters (sunlight, precipitation, temperature) for the structure and function of terrestrial ecosystems under current and future climate. We examine the influence of hourly, daily, and monthly variance using the Ecosystem Demography model version 2 in conjunction with the long-term record of carbon fluxes measured at Harvard Forest. We find that fluctuations of sunlight and precipitation are strongly and nonlinearly coupled to ecosystem function, with effects that accumulate through annual and decadal timescales. Increasing variability in sunlight and precipitation leads to lower rates of carbon sequestration and favors broad-leaved deciduous trees over conifers. Temperature variability has only minor impacts by comparison. We also find that projected changes in sunlight and precipitation variability have important implications for carbon storage and ecosystem structure and composition. Based on Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change model estimates for changes in high-frequency meteorological variability over the next 100 years, we expect that terrestrial ecosystems will be affected by changes in variability almost as much as by changes in mean climate. We conclude that terrestrial ecosystems are highly sensitive to high-frequency meteorological variability, and that accurate knowledge of the statistics of this variability is essential for realistic predictions of ecosystem structure and functioning.

  1. Experience with environmental issues in GM crop production and the likely future scenarios.

    PubMed

    Gaugitsch, Helmut

    2002-02-28

    In the Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety, standards for risk assessment of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) have been set. The criteria and information basis for the risk assessment of GMOs have been modified by the EU Directive 2001/18/EC. Various approaches to further improve the criteria for environmental risk assessment of GMOs are described in this study. Reports on the ecological impacts of the cultivation of certain non-transgenic crop plants with novel or improved traits as analogy models to transgenic plants showed that the effects of agricultural practice can be at least equally important as the effects of gene transfer and invasiveness, although the latter currently play a major role in risk assessment of transgenic crops. Based on these results the applicability of the methodology of 'Life Cycle Analysis (LCA)' for genetically modified plants in comparison with conventionally bred and organically grown crop plants was evaluated. The methodology was regarded as applicable with some necessary future improvements. In current projects, the assessment of toxicology and allergenicity of GM crops are analysed, and suggestions for standardization are developed. Based on results and recommendations from these efforts there are still the challenges of how to operationalize the precautionary principle and how to take into account ecologically sensitive ecosystems, including centres of origin and centres of genetic diversity.

  2. Risk perception, future land use and stewardship: comparison of attitudes about Hanford Site and Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory.

    PubMed

    Burger, J; Sanchez, J; Roush, D; Gochfeld, M

    2001-04-01

    With the ending of the Cold War, the Department of Energy (DOE) is evaluating mission, future land use and stewardship of departmental facilities. This paper compares the environmental concerns and future use preferences of 351 people interviewed at Lewiston, Idaho, about the Hanford Site and Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL), two of DOE's largest sites. Although most subjects lived closer to Hanford than INEEL, most resided in the same state as INEEL. Therefore their economic interests might be more closely allied with INEEL, while their health concerns might be more related to Hanford. Few lived close enough to either site to be directly affected economically. We test the null hypotheses that there are no differences in environmental concerns and future land-use preferences as a function of DOE site, sex, age and education. When asked to list their major concerns about the sites, more people listed human health and safety, and environmental concerns about Hanford compared to INEEL. When asked to list their preferred future land uses, 49% of subjects did not have any for INEEL, whereas only 35% did not know for Hanford. The highest preferred land uses for both sites were as a National Environmental Research Park (NERP), and for camping, hunting, hiking, and fishing. Except for returning the land to the tribes and increased nuclear storage, subjects rated all future uses as more preferred at INEEL than Hanford. Taken together, these data suggest that the people interviewed know more about Hanford, are more concerned about Hanford, rate recreational uses and NERP as their highest preferred land use, and feel that INEEL is more suited for most land uses than Handford. Overall rankings for future land uses were remarkably similar between the sites, indicating that for these stakeholders, DOE lands should be preserved for research and recreation. These preferences should be taken into account when planning for long-term stewardship at

  3. Linking Present Environmental Change on Earth to Rapid Climate Change on Mars at the Noachian/Hesperian Boundary: Implications for Habitability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nastan, A.; Cabrol, N. A.; Phillips, C. B.

    2012-12-01

    Earth has undergone numerous periods of climatic fluctuations over geologic time, but the abrupt and global change currently ongoing offers a unique opportunity to observe Earth's climate evolution in real time. This provides the chance to both better understand current and past changes on our own planet and extend our knowledge of other planetary climates. Mineralogy and morphology show that Mars underwent a period of rapid environmental change between 3.7 and 3.2 Ga, transitioning from a wet and possibly warm climate to the arid, cold environment seen presently. Here, we present results of satellite imagery studies and orbital remote sensing data acquired for four sites, over a period of almost a decade but extending to three decades in some instances. These locations were chosen as Mars analog environments on Earth, and are currently undergoing rapid environmental change. We use these studies to establish parameters that both characterize the nature and rapidity of the changes observed and could be employed to detect evidence of past global change on Mars. Using NASA's Giovanni databases, we have extracted aerosols, UV radiation, ozone levels, precipitation and atmospheric data such as relative humidity, air temperature, surface pressure, and others for four locations in the Andes: Aguas Calientes (23.21 S, 67.40 W); Llullaillaco (24.43 S, 68.32 W); Laguna Negra (33.38 S, 70.07 W); and Cipreses (34.42 S, 70.20 W). Initial results show a steady increase in carbon dioxide fraction. Temperature at the surface and throughout the atmosphere has remained stable in the past decade (2003-2011). H2O mass mixing ratios show a more varied result, with stable values at all atmospheric elevations above the surface, but larger variations often observed at ground level. Relative humidity values showed significant yearly fluctuations at all elevations in the atmosphere. In contrast, total aerosol levels appear to have decreased by almost a third in recent years (2000

  4. Livestock waste treatment systems of the future: A challenge to environmental quality, food safety, and sustainability. OECD Workshop

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This Special Issue of Bioresource Technology is dedicated to selected contributions presented at the international Workshop: “Livestock waste treatment systems of the future: A challenge to environmental quality, food safety, and sustainability,” held 2-4 April, 2008, in Florence, South Carolina (US...

  5. An alert system for triggering different levels of coastal management urgency: Tunisia case study using rapid environmental assessment data.

    PubMed

    Price, A R G; Jaoui, K; Pearson, M P; Jeudy de Grissac, A

    2014-03-15

    Rapid environmental assessment (REA) involves scoring abundances of ecosystems/species groups and magnitude of pressures, concurrently, using the same logarithmic (0-6) assessment scale. We demonstrate the utility of REA data for an alert system identifying different levels of coastal management concern. Thresholds set for abundances/magnitudes, when crossed, trigger proposed responses. Kerkennah, Tunisia, our case study, has significant natural assets (e.g. exceptional seagrass and invertebrate abundances), subjected to varying levels of disturbance and management concern. Using REA thresholds set, fishing, green algae/eutrophication and oil occurred at 'low' levels (scores 0-1): management not (currently) necessary. Construction and wood litter prevailed at 'moderate' levels (scores 2-4): management alerted for (further) monitoring. Solid waste densities were 'high' (scores 5-6): management alerted for action; quantities of rubbish were substantial (20-200 items m⁻¹ beach) but not unprecedented. REA is considered a robust methodology and complementary to other rapid assessment techniques, environmental frameworks and indicators of ecosystem condition.

  6. A Brief Targeted Review of Susceptibility Factors, Environmental Exposures, Asthma Incidence, and Recommendations for Future Asthma Incidence Research

    PubMed Central

    Yeatts, Karin; Sly, Peter; Shore, Stephanie; Weiss, Scott; Martinez, Fernando; Geller, Andrew; Bromberg, Philip; Enright, Paul; Koren, Hillel; Weissman, David; Selgrade, MaryJane

    2006-01-01

    Relative to research on effects of environmental exposures on exacerbation of existing asthma, little research on incident asthma and environmental exposures has been conducted. However, this research is needed to better devise strategies for the prevention of asthma. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences held a conference in October 2004 to collaboratively discuss a future research agenda in this area. The first three articles in this mini-monograph summarize the discussion on potential putative environmental exposure; they include an overview of asthma and conclusions of the workshop participants with respect to public health actions that could currently be applied to the problem and research needs to better understand and control the induction and incidence of asthma, the potential role of indoor/outdoor air pollutants in the induction of asthma), and biologics in the induction of asthma. Susceptibility is a key concept in the U.S. EPA “Asthma Research Strategy” document and is associated with the U.S. EPA framework of protecting vulnerable populations from potentially harmful environmental exposures. Genetics, age, and lifestyle (obesity, diet) are major susceptibility factors in the induction of asthma and can interact with environmental exposures either synergistically or antagonistically. Therefore, in this fourth and last article we consider a number of “susceptibility factors” that potentially influence the asthmatic response to environmental exposures and propose a framework for developing research hypotheses regarding the effects of environmental exposures on asthma incidence and induction. PMID:16581558

  7. Forensic aerial photography: projected 3-D exhibits facilitating rapid environmental justice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pope, Robert A.

    2009-02-01

    Forensic stereoscopic analysis of historical aerial photography is successfully identifying the causes of environmental degradation, including erosion and unlawful releases of hazardous wastes into the environment. The photogrammetric evidence can successfully pinpoint the specific locations of undocumented hazardous waste landfills and other types of unlawful releases of chemicals and wastes into the environment, providing location data for targeted investigation, characterization, and subsequent remediation. The findings of these studies are being effectively communicated in a simple, memorable, and compelling way by projecting the three-dimensional (3-D) sequences of historical aerial photography utilizing polarized 3-D presentation methods.

  8. The effects of antidepressants appear to be rapid and at environmentally relevant concentrations.

    PubMed

    Ford, Alex T; Fong, Peter P

    2016-04-01

    The effects of antidepressants on wildlife are currently raising some concern because of an increased number of publications indicating biological effects at environmentally relevant concentrations (<100 ng/L). These results have been met with some scepticism because of the higher concentrations required to detect effects in some species and the perceived slowness to therapeutic effects recorded in humans and other vertebrates. Because their mode of action is thought to be by modulation of the neurotransmitters serotonin, dopamine, and norepinephrine, aquatic invertebrates that possess transporters and receptors sensitive to activation by these pharmaceuticals are potentially affected by them. The authors highlight studies on the effects of antidepressants, particularly on crustacean and molluskan groups, showing that they are susceptible to a wide variety of neuroendocrine disruptions at environmentally relevant concentrations. Interestingly, some effects observed in these species can be observed within minutes to hours of exposure. For example, exposure of amphipod crustaceans to several selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors can invoke changes in swimming behavior within hours. In mollusks, exposure to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors can induce spawning in male and female mussels and foot detachment in snails within minutes of exposure. In the light of new studies indicating effects on the human brain from selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors using magnetic resonance imaging scans, the authors discuss possible reasons for the discrepancy in former results in relation to the read-across hypothesis, variation in biomarkers used, modes of uptake, phylogenetic distance, and the affinity to different targets and differential sensitivity to receptors. PMID:26031210

  9. Uranium monitoring tool for rapid analysis of environmental samples based on automated liquid-liquid microextraction.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Rogelio; Avivar, Jessica; Ferrer, Laura; Leal, Luz O; Cerdà, Víctor

    2015-03-01

    A fully automated in-syringe (IS) magnetic stirring assisted (MSA) liquid-liquid microextraction (LLME) method for uranium(VI) determination was developed, exploiting a long path-length liquid waveguide capillary cell (LWCC) with spectrophotometric detection. On-line extraction of uranium was performed within a glass syringe containing a magnetic stirrer for homogenization of the sample and the successive reagents: cyanex-272 in dodecane as extractant, EDTA as interference eliminator, hydrochloric acid to make the back-extraction of U(VI) and arsenazo-III as chromogenic reagent to accomplish the spectrophotometric detection at 655 nm. Magnetic stirring assistance was performed by a specially designed driving device placed around the syringe body creating a rotating magnetic field in the syringe, and forcing the rotation of the stirring bar located inside the syringe. The detection limit (LOD) of the developed method is 3.2 µg L(-1). Its good interday precision (Relative Standard Deviation, RSD 3.3%), and its high extraction frequency (up to 6 h(-1)) makes of this method an inexpensive and fast screening tool for monitoring uranium(VI) in environmental samples. It was successfully applied to different environmental matrices: channel sediment certified reference material (BCR-320R), soil and phosphogypsum reference materials, and natural water samples, with recoveries close to 100%. PMID:25618721

  10. Quantification of rapid environmental redox processes with quick-scanning x-ray absorption spectroscopy (Q-XAS).

    PubMed

    Ginder-Vogel, Matthew; Landrot, Gautier; Fischel, Jason S; Sparks, Donald L

    2009-09-22

    Quantification of the initial rates of environmental reactions at the mineral/water interface is a fundamental prerequisite to determining reaction mechanisms and contaminant transport modeling and predicting environmental risk. Until recently, experimental techniques with adequate time resolution and elemental sensitivity to measure initial rates of the wide variety of environmental reactions were quite limited. Techniques such as electron paramagnetic resonance and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopies suffer from limited elemental specificity and poor sensitivity to inorganic elements, respectively. Ex situ analysis of batch and stirred-flow systems provides high elemental sensitivity; however, their time resolution is inadequate to characterize rapid environmental reactions. Here we apply quick-scanning x-ray absorption spectroscopy (Q-XAS), at sub-second time-scales, to measure the initial oxidation rate of As(III) to As(V) by hydrous manganese(IV) oxide. Using Q-XAS, As(III) and As(V) concentrations were determined every 0.98 s in batch reactions. The initial apparent As(III) depletion rate constants (t < 30 s) measured with Q-XAS are nearly twice as large as rate constants measured with traditional analytical techniques. Our results demonstrate the importance of developing analytical techniques capable of analyzing environmental reactions on the same time scale as they occur. Given the high sensitivity, elemental specificity, and time resolution of Q-XAS, it has many potential applications. They could include measuring not only redox reactions but also dissolution/precipitation reactions, such as the formation and/or reductive dissolution of Fe(III) (hydr)oxides, solid-phase transformations (i.e., formation of layered-double hydroxide minerals), or almost any other reaction occurring in aqueous media that can be measured using x-ray absorption spectroscopy. PMID:19805269

  11. Mass mortality events in atoll lagoons: environmental control and increased future vulnerability.

    PubMed

    Andréfouët, Serge; Dutheil, Cyril; Menkes, Christophe E; Bador, Margot; Lengaigne, Matthieu

    2015-01-01

    Coral reefs and lagoons worldwide are vulnerable environments. However, specific geomorphological reef types (fringing, barrier, atoll, bank for the main ones) can be vulnerable to specific disturbances that will not affect most other reefs. This has implications for local management and science priorities. Several geomorphologically closed atolls of the Pacific Ocean have experienced in recent decades mass benthic and pelagic lagoonal life mortalities, likely triggered by unusually calm weather conditions lasting for several weeks. These events, although poorly known, reported, and characterized, pose a major threat for resource sustainability. Based on a sample of eleven events on eight atolls from the central South Pacific occurring between 1993 and 2012, the conservative environmental thresholds required to trigger such events are identified using sea surface temperature, significant wave height and wind stress satellite data. Using these thresholds, spatial maps of potential risk are produced for the central South Pacific region, with the highest risk zone lying north of Tuamotu Archipelago. A regional climate model, which risk map compares well with observations over the recent period (r=0.97), is then used to downscale the projected future climate. This allows us to estimate the potential change in risk by the end of the 21st century and highlights a relative risk increase of up to 60% for the eastern Tuamotu atolls. However, the small sample size used to train the analysis led to the identification of conservative thresholds that overestimated the observed risk. The results of this study suggest that long-term monitoring of the biophysical conditions of the lagoons at risk would enable more precise identification of the physical thresholds and better understanding of the biological processes involved in these rare, but consequential, mass mortality events. PMID:25088977

  12. Mass mortality events in atoll lagoons: environmental control and increased future vulnerability.

    PubMed

    Andréfouët, Serge; Dutheil, Cyril; Menkes, Christophe E; Bador, Margot; Lengaigne, Matthieu

    2015-01-01

    Coral reefs and lagoons worldwide are vulnerable environments. However, specific geomorphological reef types (fringing, barrier, atoll, bank for the main ones) can be vulnerable to specific disturbances that will not affect most other reefs. This has implications for local management and science priorities. Several geomorphologically closed atolls of the Pacific Ocean have experienced in recent decades mass benthic and pelagic lagoonal life mortalities, likely triggered by unusually calm weather conditions lasting for several weeks. These events, although poorly known, reported, and characterized, pose a major threat for resource sustainability. Based on a sample of eleven events on eight atolls from the central South Pacific occurring between 1993 and 2012, the conservative environmental thresholds required to trigger such events are identified using sea surface temperature, significant wave height and wind stress satellite data. Using these thresholds, spatial maps of potential risk are produced for the central South Pacific region, with the highest risk zone lying north of Tuamotu Archipelago. A regional climate model, which risk map compares well with observations over the recent period (r=0.97), is then used to downscale the projected future climate. This allows us to estimate the potential change in risk by the end of the 21st century and highlights a relative risk increase of up to 60% for the eastern Tuamotu atolls. However, the small sample size used to train the analysis led to the identification of conservative thresholds that overestimated the observed risk. The results of this study suggest that long-term monitoring of the biophysical conditions of the lagoons at risk would enable more precise identification of the physical thresholds and better understanding of the biological processes involved in these rare, but consequential, mass mortality events.

  13. International Trends in Heritage and Environmental Interpretation: Future Directions for Australian Research and Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ballantyne, Roy; Uzzell, David

    1999-01-01

    In the past decade, heritage and environmental interpretation shifted from technical emphasis to social perspective, reflected in five international trends: growing concern with theory, increasing ecotourism and consequent changes in environmental interpretation, reactions to globalization (homogeneity versus uniqueness), interpretation of…

  14. Projecting Future Urbanization with Prescott College's Spatial Growth Model to Promote Environmental Sustainability and Smart Growth, A Case Study in Atlanta, Georgia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Estes, Maurice G., Jr.; Crosson, William; Limaye, Ashutosh; Johnson, Hoyt; Quattrochi, Dale; Lapenta, William; Khan, Maudood

    2006-01-01

    Planning is an integral element of good management and necessary to anticipate events not merely respond to them. Projecting the quantity and spatial distribution of urban growth is essential to effectively plan for the delivery of city services and to evaluate potential environmental impacts. The major drivers of growth in large urban areas are increasing population, employment opportunities, and quality of life attractors such as a favorable climate and recreation opportunities. The spatial distribution of urban growth is dictated by the amount and location of developable land, topography, energy and water resources, transportation network, climate change, and the existing land use configuration. The Atlanta region is growing very rapidly both in population and the consumption of forestland or low-density residential development. Air pollution and water availability are significant ongoing environmental issues. The Prescott Spatial Growth Model (SGM) was used to make growth projections for the metropolitan Atlanta region to 2010,2020 and 2030 and results used for environmental assessment in both business as usual and smart growth scenarios. The Prescott SGM is a tool that uses an ESRI ArcView extension and can be applied at the parcel level or more coarse spatial scales and can accommodate a wide range of user inputs to develop any number of growth rules each of which can be weighted depending on growth assumptions. These projections were used in conjunction with meteorological and air quality models to evaluate future environmental impacts. This presentation will focus on the application of the SGM to the 13-County Atlanta Regional Commission planning jurisdiction as a case study. The SGM will be described, including how rule sets are developed and the decision process for allocation of future development to available land use categories. Data inputs required to effectively run the model will be discussed. Spatial growth projections for ten, twenty, and thirty

  15. Amines free environmentally friendly rapid synthesis of Cu2SnS3 nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lokhande, A. C.; Pawar, S. A.; Jo, Eunjin; He, Mingrui; Shelke, A.; Lokhande, C. D.; Kim, Jin Hyeok

    2016-08-01

    Cubic and tetragonal structured Cu2SnS3 (CTS) nanoparticles are rapidly synthesized within a short reaction time of 5 min using low cost amine free octadecene (ODE) solvent by hot injection technique. The effects of precursor concentration, sulfur source and reaction time on the CTS nanoparticle synthesis are studied. The crystal structure, size, phase purity, atomic composition, oxidation state and optical properties of these nanoparticles are studied in detail by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Raman, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and UV-visible spectroscopy techniques. Spherical shaped particles in the size range of 25-30 nm are obtained with atomic composition in close agreement with the stoichiometry of Cu2SnS3. The reaction mechanism of CTS nanoparticle formation is proposed. The synthesized cubic and tetragonal structured CTS nanoparticles exhibit optimal band gaps of 1.23 eV and 1.45 eV, respectively, suitable for use in photovoltaic applications.

  16. Stomatal Control and Leaf Thermal and Hydraulic Capacitances under Rapid Environmental Fluctuations

    PubMed Central

    Schymanski, Stanislaus J.; Or, Dani; Zwieniecki, Maciej

    2013-01-01

    Leaves within a canopy may experience rapid and extreme fluctuations in ambient conditions. A shaded leaf, for example, may become exposed to an order of magnitude increase in solar radiation within a few seconds, due to sunflecks or canopy motions. Considering typical time scales for stomatal adjustments, (2 to 60 minutes), the gap between these two time scales raised the question whether leaves rely on their hydraulic and thermal capacitances for passive protection from hydraulic failure or over-heating until stomata have adjusted. We employed a physically based model to systematically study effects of short-term fluctuations in irradiance on leaf temperatures and transpiration rates. Considering typical amplitudes and time scales of such fluctuations, the importance of leaf heat and water capacities for avoiding damaging leaf temperatures and hydraulic failure were investigated. The results suggest that common leaf heat capacities are not sufficient to protect a non-transpiring leaf from over-heating during sunflecks of several minutes duration whereas transpirative cooling provides effective protection. A comparison of the simulated time scales for heat damage in the absence of evaporative cooling with observed stomatal response times suggested that stomata must be already open before arrival of a sunfleck to avoid over-heating to critical leaf temperatures. This is consistent with measured stomatal conductances in shaded leaves and has implications for water use efficiency of deep canopy leaves and vulnerability to heat damage during drought. Our results also suggest that typical leaf water contents could sustain several minutes of evaporative cooling during a sunfleck without increasing the xylem water supply and thus risking embolism. We thus submit that shaded leaves rely on hydraulic capacitance and evaporative cooling to avoid over-heating and hydraulic failure during exposure to typical sunflecks, whereas thermal capacitance provides limited protection

  17. Neolithic agriculture, freshwater resources and rapid environmental changes on the lower Yangtze, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Jungan; Taylor, David; Atahan, Pia; Zhang, Xinrong; Wu, Guoxuan; Dodson, John; Zheng, Hongbo; Itzstein-Davey, Freea

    2011-01-01

    Analyses of sedimentary evidence in the form of spores, pollen, freshwater algae, dinoflagellate cysts, phytoliths and charcoal from AMS 14C-dated, Holocene-aged sequences provide an excellent opportunity to examine the responses of Neolithic agriculturalists in the lower Yangtze to changing environments. Evidence from two sites close to the southern margin of the Yangtze delta and separated by what is now Hangzhou Bay attests the critical importance to early attempts at food production of access to freshwater resources. More readily, if episodically, available freshwater resources during the early to mid-Holocene on the Hangjiahu plain may have encouraged an early reliance on rice-based agriculture, which in turn facilitated the accumulation of agricultural surpluses and cultural diversification. Cultural change was relatively attenuated and human population pressures possibly lower on the Ningshao plain, seemingly because of much more profound environmental impacts of variations in local hydrological conditions, and because predominantly saline conditions, associated with rising relative sea level, hampered the early development of irrigated agriculture. The evidence, although largely dating to the early and middle parts of the Holocene, provides a timely warning of the complexity of vulnerability to climate change-induced processes of agriculture, and indeed human activities more generally, on megadeltas in Asia.

  18. Chemopreventive Agents Attenuate Rapid Inhibition of Gap Junctional Intercellular Communication Induced by Environmental Toxicants.

    PubMed

    Babica, Pavel; Čtveráčková, Lucie; Lenčešová, Zuzana; Trosko, James E; Upham, Brad L

    2016-07-01

    Altered gap junctional intercellular communication (GJIC) has been associated with chemical carcinogenesis, where both chemical tumor promoters and chemopreventive agents (CPAs) are known to conversely modulate GJIC. The aim of this study was to investigate whether attenuation of chemically inhibited GJIC represents a common outcome induced by different CPAs, which could be effectively evaluated using in vitro methods. Rat liver epithelial cells WB-F344 were pretreated with a CPA for either 30 min or 24 h, and then exposed to GJIC-inhibiting concentration of a selected tumor promoter or environmental toxicant [12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA), lindane, fluoranthene, 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(4-chlorophenyl)ethane (DDT), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), or pentachlorophenol]. Out of nine CPAs tested, quercetin and silibinin elicited the most pronounced effects, preventing the dysregulation of GJIC by all the GJIC inhibitors, but DDT. Metformin and curcumin attenuated the effects of three GJIC inhibitors, whereas the other CPAs prevented the effects of two (diallyl sulfide, emodin) or one (indole-3-carbinol, thymoquinone) GJIC inhibitor. Significant attenuation of chemically induced inhibition of GJIC was observed in 27 (50%) out of 54 possible combinations of nine CPAs and six GJIC inhibitors. Our data demonstrate that in vitro evaluation of GJIC can be used as an effective screening tool for identification of chemicals with potential chemopreventive activity. PMID:27266532

  19. Chemopreventive Agents Attenuate Rapid Inhibition of Gap Junctional Intercellular Communication Induced by Environmental Toxicants.

    PubMed

    Babica, Pavel; Čtveráčková, Lucie; Lenčešová, Zuzana; Trosko, James E; Upham, Brad L

    2016-07-01

    Altered gap junctional intercellular communication (GJIC) has been associated with chemical carcinogenesis, where both chemical tumor promoters and chemopreventive agents (CPAs) are known to conversely modulate GJIC. The aim of this study was to investigate whether attenuation of chemically inhibited GJIC represents a common outcome induced by different CPAs, which could be effectively evaluated using in vitro methods. Rat liver epithelial cells WB-F344 were pretreated with a CPA for either 30 min or 24 h, and then exposed to GJIC-inhibiting concentration of a selected tumor promoter or environmental toxicant [12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA), lindane, fluoranthene, 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(4-chlorophenyl)ethane (DDT), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), or pentachlorophenol]. Out of nine CPAs tested, quercetin and silibinin elicited the most pronounced effects, preventing the dysregulation of GJIC by all the GJIC inhibitors, but DDT. Metformin and curcumin attenuated the effects of three GJIC inhibitors, whereas the other CPAs prevented the effects of two (diallyl sulfide, emodin) or one (indole-3-carbinol, thymoquinone) GJIC inhibitor. Significant attenuation of chemically induced inhibition of GJIC was observed in 27 (50%) out of 54 possible combinations of nine CPAs and six GJIC inhibitors. Our data demonstrate that in vitro evaluation of GJIC can be used as an effective screening tool for identification of chemicals with potential chemopreventive activity.

  20. Environmental and social influences on emerging infectious diseases: past, present and future.

    PubMed Central

    McMichael, A J

    2004-01-01

    During the processes of human population dispersal around the world over the past 50 000-100 000 years, along with associated cultural evolution and inter-population contact and conflict, there have been several major transitions in the relationships of Homo sapiens with the natural world, animate and inanimate. Each of these transitions has resulted in the emergence of new or unfamiliar infectious diseases.The three great historical transitions since the initial advent of agriculture and livestock herding, from ca. 10 000 years ago, occurred when: (i) early agrarian-based settlements enabled sylvatic enzootic microbes to make contact with Homo sapiens; (ii) early Eurasian civilizations (such as the Greek and Roman empires, China and south Asia) came into military and commercial contact, ca. 3000-2000 years ago, swapping their dominant infections; and (iii) European expansionism, over the past five centuries, caused the transoceanic spread of often lethal infectious diseases. This latter transition is best known in relation to the conquest of the Americas by Spanish conquistadores, when the inadvertent spread of measles, smallpox and influenza devastated the Amerindian populations.Today, we are living through the fourth of these great transitional periods. The contemporary spread and increased lability of various infectious diseases, new and old, reflect the combined and increasingly widespread impacts of demographic, environmental, behavioural, technological and other rapid changes in human ecology. Modern clinical medicine has, via blood transfusion, organ transplantation, and the use of hypodermic syringes, created new opportunities for microbes. These have contributed to the rising iatrogenic problems of hepatitis C, HIV/AIDS and several other viral infections. Meanwhile, the injudicious use of antibiotics has been a rare instance of human action actually increasing 'biodiversity'.Another aspect of this fourth transition is that modern hyper-hygienic living

  1. Environmental and social influences on emerging infectious diseases: past, present and future.

    PubMed

    McMichael, A J

    2004-07-29

    During the processes of human population dispersal around the world over the past 50 000-100 000 years, along with associated cultural evolution and inter-population contact and conflict, there have been several major transitions in the relationships of Homo sapiens with the natural world, animate and inanimate. Each of these transitions has resulted in the emergence of new or unfamiliar infectious diseases. The three great historical transitions since the initial advent of agriculture and livestock herding, from ca. 10 000 years ago, occurred when: (i) early agrarian-based settlements enabled sylvatic enzootic microbes to make contact with Homo sapiens; (ii) early Eurasian civilizations (such as the Greek and Roman empires, China and south Asia) came into military and commercial contact, ca. 3000-2000 years ago, swapping their dominant infections; and (iii) European expansionism, over the past five centuries, caused the transoceanic spread of often lethal infectious diseases. This latter transition is best known in relation to the conquest of the Americas by Spanish conquistadores, when the inadvertent spread of measles, smallpox and influenza devastated the Amerindian populations.Today, we are living through the fourth of these great transitional periods. The contemporary spread and increased lability of various infectious diseases, new and old, reflect the combined and increasingly widespread impacts of demographic, environmental, behavioural, technological and other rapid changes in human ecology. Modern clinical medicine has, via blood transfusion, organ transplantation, and the use of hypodermic syringes, created new opportunities for microbes. These have contributed to the rising iatrogenic problems of hepatitis C, HIV/AIDS and several other viral infections. Meanwhile, the injudicious use of antibiotics has been a rare instance of human action actually increasing 'biodiversity'. Another aspect of this fourth transition is that modern hyper-hygienic living

  2. Geohazards and myths: ancient memories of rapid coastal change in the Asia-Pacific region and their value to future adaptation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nunn, Patrick D.

    2014-12-01

    Rapid coastal change is common in the Asia-Pacific region yet an understanding of its causes, recurrence times, and impacts is not always clear through the use of conventional geological methods. It is suggested that myths (traditional [oral] tales) are underutilized sources of information about coastal change in this region. This is illustrated by consideration of myths likely to recall (early) Holocene sea-level rise, particularly along the coasts of India and Australia, as well as myths recalling rapid episodic coastal emergence and submergence, the latter including the disappearance of entire landmasses (islands). Two examples of how details in such myths can inform geological understanding of coastal change are given. The first argues that myths recalling the rapid flooding of coastal cities/lowlands are likely to represent memories of extreme wave events superimposed on a rising (postglacial) sea level. The second suggests that many myths about landmass/island disappearance fail to report the occurrence of rapid (coseismic and aseismic) subsidence even though they provide inferential evidence that this occurred. Few such myths are known to the author from many parts of Asia yet it is likely they exist and could, as elsewhere in the world, help illuminate the understanding of the nature and chronology of rapid coastal change. The challenges involved in helping communities in the Asia-Pacific region adapt to future coastal changes might be partly overcome by the use of appropriate myths to demonstrate precedents and engender local participation in adaptation strategies.

  3. Rapid, controllable and environmentally benign fabrication of thermoplastic nanofibers and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Dong

    abundant active epoxy groups on surfaces were fabricated through above technique. The prepared PE-co-GMA nanofibers were aminated by reacting the epoxy groups with 1,3-diaminopropane. The resulting aminated PE-co-GMA nanofibers were subsequently biotinylated and then successfully applied to immobilize streptavidin-horseradish peroxidase (HRP) conjugate via specific, strong and rapid binding of biotin and streptavidin. The high activity, efficiency, sensitivity as well as good reusability of the streptavidin-HRP immobilized PE-co-GMA nanofibers demonstrated that PE-co-GMA nanofibers could be a promising candidate as solid support materials for potential biosensor applications.

  4. [Rapid determination of 137Cs in environmental samples--purification of 137Cs by ammonium molybdophosphate column separation].

    PubMed

    Nonaka, N; Sato, K; Higuchi, H; Hamaguchi, H

    1976-10-01

    A rapid method for the determination of 137Cs in environmental samples was proposed. The principal technic employed in this study is based on column separation of 137Cs using ammonium molybdophosphate mixed with glass fiber to eliminate contribution of natural radionuclides such as 40K and 87Rb. The separation of cesium from potassium and rubidium was performed by the elution with 0.5m ammonium nitrate solution. The time required for separation of cesium was five hours as compared with the conventional cation exchange separation which required thirteen hours. The chemical yield of cesium carrier was normally more than 90 percent. The results obtained were compared with that by the conventional methods using Bio-Rex cation exchange separation and the good agreement between the two methods was obtained. PMID:1037401

  5. Human domination of the biosphere: Rapid discharge of the earth-space battery foretells the future of humankind.

    PubMed

    Schramski, John R; Gattie, David K; Brown, James H

    2015-08-01

    Earth is a chemical battery where, over evolutionary time with a trickle-charge of photosynthesis using solar energy, billions of tons of living biomass were stored in forests and other ecosystems and in vast reserves of fossil fuels. In just the last few hundred years, humans extracted exploitable energy from these living and fossilized biomass fuels to build the modern industrial-technological-informational economy, to grow our population to more than 7 billion, and to transform the biogeochemical cycles and biodiversity of the earth. This rapid discharge of the earth's store of organic energy fuels the human domination of the biosphere, including conversion of natural habitats to agricultural fields and the resulting loss of native species, emission of carbon dioxide and the resulting climate and sea level change, and use of supplemental nuclear, hydro, wind, and solar energy sources. The laws of thermodynamics governing the trickle-charge and rapid discharge of the earth's battery are universal and absolute; the earth is only temporarily poised a quantifiable distance from the thermodynamic equilibrium of outer space. Although this distance from equilibrium is comprised of all energy types, most critical for humans is the store of living biomass. With the rapid depletion of this chemical energy, the earth is shifting back toward the inhospitable equilibrium of outer space with fundamental ramifications for the biosphere and humanity. Because there is no substitute or replacement energy for living biomass, the remaining distance from equilibrium that will be required to support human life is unknown. PMID:26178196

  6. Human domination of the biosphere: Rapid discharge of the earth-space battery foretells the future of humankind.

    PubMed

    Schramski, John R; Gattie, David K; Brown, James H

    2015-08-01

    Earth is a chemical battery where, over evolutionary time with a trickle-charge of photosynthesis using solar energy, billions of tons of living biomass were stored in forests and other ecosystems and in vast reserves of fossil fuels. In just the last few hundred years, humans extracted exploitable energy from these living and fossilized biomass fuels to build the modern industrial-technological-informational economy, to grow our population to more than 7 billion, and to transform the biogeochemical cycles and biodiversity of the earth. This rapid discharge of the earth's store of organic energy fuels the human domination of the biosphere, including conversion of natural habitats to agricultural fields and the resulting loss of native species, emission of carbon dioxide and the resulting climate and sea level change, and use of supplemental nuclear, hydro, wind, and solar energy sources. The laws of thermodynamics governing the trickle-charge and rapid discharge of the earth's battery are universal and absolute; the earth is only temporarily poised a quantifiable distance from the thermodynamic equilibrium of outer space. Although this distance from equilibrium is comprised of all energy types, most critical for humans is the store of living biomass. With the rapid depletion of this chemical energy, the earth is shifting back toward the inhospitable equilibrium of outer space with fundamental ramifications for the biosphere and humanity. Because there is no substitute or replacement energy for living biomass, the remaining distance from equilibrium that will be required to support human life is unknown.

  7. Integrating environmental and human health databases in the great lakes basin: themes, challenges and future directions.

    PubMed

    Bassil, Kate L; Sanborn, Margaret; Lopez, Russ; Orris, Peter

    2015-04-01

    Many government, academic and research institutions collect environmental data that are relevant to understanding the relationship between environmental exposures and human health. Integrating these data with health outcome data presents new challenges that are important to consider to improve our effective use of environmental health information. Our objective was to identify the common themes related to the integration of environmental and health data, and suggest ways to address the challenges and make progress toward more effective use of data already collected, to further our understanding of environmental health associations in the Great Lakes region. Environmental and human health databases were identified and reviewed using literature searches and a series of one-on-one and group expert consultations. Databases identified were predominantly environmental stressors databases, with fewer found for health outcomes and human exposure. Nine themes or factors that impact integration were identified: data availability, accessibility, harmonization, stakeholder collaboration, policy and strategic alignment, resource adequacy, environmental health indicators, and data exchange networks. The use and cost effectiveness of data currently collected could be improved by strategic changes to data collection and access systems to provide better opportunities to identify and study environmental exposures that may impact human health.

  8. Environmental monitoring using next generation sequencing: rapid identification of macroinvertebrate bioindicator species

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Invertebrate communities are central to many environmental monitoring programs. In freshwater ecosystems, aquatic macroinvertebrates are collected, identified and then used to infer ecosystem condition. Yet the key step of species identification is often not taken, as it requires a high level of taxonomic expertise, which is lacking in most organizations, or species cannot be identified as they are morphologically cryptic or represent little known groups. Identifying species using DNA sequences can overcome many of these issues; with the power of next generation sequencing (NGS), using DNA sequences for routine monitoring becomes feasible. Results In this study, we test if NGS can be used to identify species from field-collected samples in an important bioindicator group, the Chironomidae. We show that Cytochrome oxidase I (COI) and Cytochrome B (CytB) sequences provide accurate DNA barcodes for chironomid species. We then develop a NGS analysis pipeline to identifying species using megablast searches of high quality sequences generated using 454 pyrosequencing against comprehensive reference libraries of Sanger-sequenced voucher specimens. We find that 454 generated COI sequences successfully identified up to 96% of species in samples, but this increased up to 99% when combined with CytB sequences. Accurate identification depends on having at least five sequences for a species; below this level species not expected in samples were detected. Incorrect incorporation of some multiplex identifiers (MID’s) used to tag samples was a likely cause, and most errors could be detected when using MID tags on forward and reverse primers. We also found a strong quantitative relationship between the number of 454 sequences and individuals showing that it may be possible to estimate the abundance of species from 454 pyrosequencing data. Conclusions Next generation sequencing using two genes was successful for identifying chironomid species. However, when detecting

  9. River response to rapid Holocene environmental change: evidence and explanation in British catchments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macklin, Mark G.; Jones, Anna F.; Lewin, John

    2010-07-01

    Since the late 1980s our understanding of the relationship between climate, land-use and Holocene river development in Britain has changed radically. Conceptually simplistic and data-poor models of people-river environment interaction, many of which considered human activity alone to be the control of Holocene flooding and alluviation, have been replaced by more data-rich models that explain river behaviour in terms of a continuum of climate and anthropogenic drivers, individually operating over a range of temporal and spatial scales. One of the key factors in this paradigm shift has been the significant increase in the number of 14C-dated fluvial units that has itself recently facilitated the application of meta-analysis techniques to large fluvial data sets. These analyses have produced the first probability-based national and regional reconstructions of Holocene flooding in the British Isles that can be correlated with independent, high-resolution hydro-climate records. This paper critically reviews the major findings of this new research focusing on process-based causality relationships in fluvial systems and quantifying how environmental signals are propagated in river basins and preserved in landform and sedimentary sequences. By using cumulative probability density function (CPDF) plots of fluvial 14C dates that have been classified on the basis of sedimentary environment and evidence for changing depositional regime, 17 multi-centennial length periods of flooding and river instability during the Holocene are identified in the UK. The scale and timing of these episodes vary regionally and correlations can be made with a range of climate proxy records, including the North Atlantic drift-ice index, glacier variations in Europe, and mire surface wetness and water-table reconstructions. A new analysis of overbank floodplain sedimentation rates points to an acceleration after ca 1000 cal. BP, which can be related to the agricultural revolution of the Middle Ages

  10. Rapid molecular detection of invasive species in ballast and harbor water by integrating environmental DNA and light transmission spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Egan, Scott P; Grey, Erin; Olds, Brett; Feder, Jeffery L; Ruggiero, Steven T; Tanner, Carol E; Lodge, David M

    2015-04-01

    Invasive species introduced via the ballast water of commercial ships cause enormous environmental and economic damage worldwide. Accurate monitoring for these often microscopic and morphologically indistinguishable species is challenging but critical for mitigating damages. We apply eDNA sampling, which involves the filtering and subsequent DNA extraction of microscopic bits of tissue suspended in water, to ballast and harbor water sampled during a commercial ship's 1400 km voyage through the North American Great Lakes. Using a lab-based gel electrophoresis assay and a rapid, field-ready light transmission spectroscopy (LTS) assay, we test for the presence of two invasive species: quagga (Dreissena bugensis) and zebra (D. polymorpha) mussels. Furthermore, we spiked a set of uninfested ballast and harbor samples with zebra mussel tissue to further test each assay's detection capabilities. In unmanipulated samples, zebra mussel was not detected, while quagga mussel was detected in all samples at a rate of 85% for the gel assay and 100% for the LTS assay. In the spiked experimental samples, both assays detected zebra mussel in 94% of spiked samples and 0% of negative controls. Overall, these results demonstrate that eDNA sampling is effective for monitoring ballast-mediated invasions and that LTS has the potential for rapid, field-based detection. PMID:25686279

  11. Rapid molecular detection of invasive species in ballast and harbor water by integrating environmental DNA and light transmission spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Egan, Scott P; Grey, Erin; Olds, Brett; Feder, Jeffery L; Ruggiero, Steven T; Tanner, Carol E; Lodge, David M

    2015-04-01

    Invasive species introduced via the ballast water of commercial ships cause enormous environmental and economic damage worldwide. Accurate monitoring for these often microscopic and morphologically indistinguishable species is challenging but critical for mitigating damages. We apply eDNA sampling, which involves the filtering and subsequent DNA extraction of microscopic bits of tissue suspended in water, to ballast and harbor water sampled during a commercial ship's 1400 km voyage through the North American Great Lakes. Using a lab-based gel electrophoresis assay and a rapid, field-ready light transmission spectroscopy (LTS) assay, we test for the presence of two invasive species: quagga (Dreissena bugensis) and zebra (D. polymorpha) mussels. Furthermore, we spiked a set of uninfested ballast and harbor samples with zebra mussel tissue to further test each assay's detection capabilities. In unmanipulated samples, zebra mussel was not detected, while quagga mussel was detected in all samples at a rate of 85% for the gel assay and 100% for the LTS assay. In the spiked experimental samples, both assays detected zebra mussel in 94% of spiked samples and 0% of negative controls. Overall, these results demonstrate that eDNA sampling is effective for monitoring ballast-mediated invasions and that LTS has the potential for rapid, field-based detection.

  12. The Historical, Present and Future "ness" of Environmental Education in India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Almeida, Sylvia; Cutter-Mackenzie, Amy

    2011-01-01

    What is distinctive or indistinctive about environmental education in schools and other formal education settings in India? In essence, what is the "ness" of environmental education in the Indian education system? Our responses to these important questions form the focus of this paper, shedding light on the historical, present and future…

  13. Building on the Past, Shaping the Future: The Environmental Mutagenesis and Genomics Society

    EPA Science Inventory

    In late 2012 the members of the Environmental Mutagen Society voted to change its name to the Environmental Mutagenesis and Genomics Society. Here we describe the thought process that led to adoption of the new name, which both respects the rich history of a Society founded in 19...

  14. Activation of HSPA1A promoter by environmental pollutants: An early and rapid response to cellular damage.

    PubMed

    Xin, Lili; Wang, Jianshu; Fan, Guoqiang; Wu, Yanhu; Guo, Sifan

    2015-05-01

    We established the HepG2-luciferase cells containing a luciferase reporter gene regulated by human HSPA1A promoter. The screening of heat shock and three typical environmental toxicants revealed differences in their capacities to activate HSPA1A promoter in HepG2-luciferase cells. After heat shock, a progressive time-dependent increase in relative luciferase activity was detected peaking at 8h of recovery. Benzo[a]pyrene, formaldehyde and sodium bisulfite induced significant time-dependent elevation of relative luciferase activity, which were positively correlated with MDA concentration, Olive tail moment and micronuclei frequency. The significant increase in relative luciferase activity was already evident after 4h of benzo[a]pyrene, 1h of formaldehyde and sodium bisulfite exposure, when no increases in cellular damage were detected by other toxicity tests. Therefore, the HepG2-luciferase cells are useful model for examining the overall cellular responses to oxidative stress and genotoxic damage, and provide a reporter system for rapid and sensitive screening of environmental pollutants. PMID:25863329

  15. Human domination of the biosphere: Rapid discharge of the earth-space battery foretells the future of humankind

    PubMed Central

    Schramski, John R.; Gattie, David K.; Brown, James H.

    2015-01-01

    Earth is a chemical battery where, over evolutionary time with a trickle-charge of photosynthesis using solar energy, billions of tons of living biomass were stored in forests and other ecosystems and in vast reserves of fossil fuels. In just the last few hundred years, humans extracted exploitable energy from these living and fossilized biomass fuels to build the modern industrial-technological-informational economy, to grow our population to more than 7 billion, and to transform the biogeochemical cycles and biodiversity of the earth. This rapid discharge of the earth’s store of organic energy fuels the human domination of the biosphere, including conversion of natural habitats to agricultural fields and the resulting loss of native species, emission of carbon dioxide and the resulting climate and sea level change, and use of supplemental nuclear, hydro, wind, and solar energy sources. The laws of thermodynamics governing the trickle-charge and rapid discharge of the earth’s battery are universal and absolute; the earth is only temporarily poised a quantifiable distance from the thermodynamic equilibrium of outer space. Although this distance from equilibrium is comprised of all energy types, most critical for humans is the store of living biomass. With the rapid depletion of this chemical energy, the earth is shifting back toward the inhospitable equilibrium of outer space with fundamental ramifications for the biosphere and humanity. Because there is no substitute or replacement energy for living biomass, the remaining distance from equilibrium that will be required to support human life is unknown. PMID:26178196

  16. Applying an improved rapid impact assessment matrix method to strategic environmental assessment of urban planning in China

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Wei Xie, Yuanbo Hao, Fanghua

    2014-04-01

    Strategic environmental assessment (SEA) has become an increasingly important decision-support tool for providing information on the environmental implications of a policy, plan, or program. The goal is to safeguard the environment and promote sustainable development at the strategic level. Despite major progress in implementing SEA practices internationally, developing countries, such as China, often lag behind in applying SEA methodology. Lack of available data and time constraints arising from tight schedules create problems. The rapid impact assessment matrix (RIAM) is a potential resource for breaking through such difficulties. Our analysis of RIAM applications suggested that it could become a tool for evaluating strategic alternatives because of its applicability in interdisciplinary settings, its transparency, and its short implementation timeframe. To make it more suitable for the SEA context, we have developed two major improvements to the conventional RIAM process: assignment of weights to assessment indicators and the development of an integrated environmental assessment score (IES). The improved RIAM process was employed in an SEA of the development plan for the Nansha District in Guangzhou, the capital city of Guangdong Province in China. It was used to assess five alternatives for development in Wanqingsha (WQS), a subunit of Nansha, where important ecological resources are located and where industrial development could impact the air quality in the neighboring Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (HKSAR). The evaluation identified WQS-A04 as the preferred alternative. This alternative involved a minimal amount of industrial development – 10% compared with the most intense development alternative – and included important wetland preservation plans. The assessment results have been incorporated into the officially approved development plan for Nansha. The improved RIAM methodology is well adapted to the technical aims of SEA and decision

  17. Rapid On-Site Environmental Sampling and Analysis of Propellant Stabilizers and their Decomposition Products by Portable Sampling and Thin-Layer Chromotography Kits

    SciTech Connect

    Haas, J S; Gonzalez, M A

    2003-08-04

    Sustainable future use of land containing unexploded ordnance requires extensive field assessments, cleanup, and restoration. The ordnance is generally semi-exposed or buried in pits and, because of aging, needs to be handled with caution. Being able to characterize the ordnance in the field to minimize handling, as well as to distinguish it from inert mock material, greatly facilitates assessments and clean-up. We have developed unique sample preparation methodologies and a portable thin-layer chromatography (TLC) kit technology for rapid field screening and quantitative assessment of stabilizer content in propellants and, energetic materials (explosives) in environmental scenarios. Major advantages of this technology include simultaneous chromatography of multiple samples and standards for high sample throughput, high resolution, very low detection limits, and ease of operation. The TLC kit technology, sponsored by the Defense Ammunition Center (DAC) of the U.S. Army, is now patented and has been completely transitioned to our commercial partners, Ho'olana Technologies, located in Hilo, Hawaii. Once fully deployed in the field, the new technology will demonstrate a cost-effective and efficient means for determining the percent of effective stabilizer that is remaining on-site and at munitions clean-up sites, as well as munitions storage facilities. The TLC kit technology is also readily applicable for analysis at military or commercial facilities, for a variety of emergency and non-emergency scenarios, and for situations where public concern is high.

  18. Applying comprehensive environmental assessment to research planning for multiwalled carbon nanotubes: Refinements to inform future stakeholder engagement.

    PubMed

    Powers, Christina M; Grieger, Khara; Meacham, Connie A; Gooding, Meredith Lassiter; Gift, Jeffrey S; Lehmann, Geniece M; Hendren, Christine O; Davis, J Michael; Burgoon, Lyle

    2016-01-01

    Risk assessments and risk management efforts to protect human health and the environment can benefit from early, coordinated research planning by researchers, risk assessors, and risk managers. However, approaches for engaging these and other stakeholders in research planning have not received much attention in the environmental scientific literature. The Comprehensive Environmental Assessment (CEA) approach under development by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) is a means to manage complex information and input from diverse stakeholder perspectives on research planning that will ultimately support environmental and human health decision making. The objectives of this article are to 1) describe the outcomes of applying lessons learned from previous CEA applications to planning research on engineered nanomaterial, multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and 2) discuss new insights and refinements for future efforts to engage stakeholders in research planning for risk assessment and risk management of environmental issues. Although framed in terms of MWCNTs, this discussion is intended to enhance research planning to support assessments for other environmental issues as well. Key insights for research planning include the potential benefits of 1) ensuring that participants have research, risk assessment, and risk management expertise in addition to diverse disciplinary backgrounds; 2) including an early scoping step before rounds of formal ratings; 3) using a familiar numeric scale (e.g., US dollars) versus ordinal rating scales of "importance"; 4) applying virtual communication tools to supplement face-to-face interaction between participants; and 5) refining criteria to guide development of specific, actionable research questions.

  19. [The present and future prospects in rapid molecular diagnosis of tuberculosis and MDR-TB (First Part)].

    PubMed

    Tănăsescu, Mihaela; Didilescu, Cristian; Marica, Constantin

    2013-01-01

    Tuberculosis is still one of the diseases with a major medical and social impact, and in terms of early diagnosis (which would imply a fair treatment and established at the time), difficulties related to the delay bacilli isolation in culture, decreased susceptibility testing methods to antituberculosis drugs, lack of methods for differentiation of M. Tuberculosis complex germs of non TB Mycobacteria, may have important clinical implications. Traditional testing of anti-TB drug susceptibility on solid Löwenstein-Jensen medium (gold standard) or liquid media can only be performed using grown samples. Determining the time it takes up to 42 days on solid media and 12 days for liquid media. For MDR/XDR TB cases is absolutely essential to reduce the detection time. In these cases prove their usefulness rapid diagnostic methods. Automatic testing in liquid medium, molecular hybridization methods are currently recommended by the current WHO guidelines. Rapid diagnosis of MDR-TB is extremely useful for the early establishment of an effective treatment tailored more accurately on the spectrum of sensitivity of the resistant strain (thus reducing the risk of developing additional resistance to other drugs) and control the spread of these strains. Genetic diagnostic methods, approved and recommended by the WHO, can reduce the time of diagnosis of TB case and, importantly, the case of MDR TB. They do not replace the current standard diagnostic methods and resistance profile, but complete them in selected cases. PMID:24273995

  20. [The present and future prospects in rapid molecular diagnosis of tuberculosis and MDR-TB (First Part)].

    PubMed

    Tănăsescu, Mihaela; Didilescu, Cristian; Marica, Constantin

    2013-01-01

    Tuberculosis is still one of the diseases with a major medical and social impact, and in terms of early diagnosis (which would imply a fair treatment and established at the time), difficulties related to the delay bacilli isolation in culture, decreased susceptibility testing methods to antituberculosis drugs, lack of methods for differentiation of M. Tuberculosis complex germs of non TB Mycobacteria, may have important clinical implications. Traditional testing of anti-TB drug susceptibility on solid Löwenstein-Jensen medium (gold standard) or liquid media can only be performed using grown samples. Determining the time it takes up to 42 days on solid media and 12 days for liquid media. For MDR/XDR TB cases is absolutely essential to reduce the detection time. In these cases prove their usefulness rapid diagnostic methods. Automatic testing in liquid medium, molecular hybridization methods are currently recommended by the current WHO guidelines. Rapid diagnosis of MDR-TB is extremely useful for the early establishment of an effective treatment tailored more accurately on the spectrum of sensitivity of the resistant strain (thus reducing the risk of developing additional resistance to other drugs) and control the spread of these strains. Genetic diagnostic methods, approved and recommended by the WHO, can reduce the time of diagnosis of TB case and, importantly, the case of MDR TB. They do not replace the current standard diagnostic methods and resistance profile, but complete them in selected cases.

  1. Lessons from Environmental Education: Developing Strategies for Public Consultation with the Georgia Basin Futures Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Janet

    2002-01-01

    Describes an interdisciplinary project involving university researchers, community groups, and industry partners in a collaborative dialogue about sustainability. Focuses on the Georgia Basin Futures Project. (Contains 20 references.) (DDR)

  2. Water Quality Pollution, Treatment and Control in Contemporary and Future Environmental Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zoller, Uri

    1988-01-01

    Deals with the issue of water education, including problems, what should be done, what can be done, and what to do. Presents two curricular units on water and two interdisciplinary, environmentally oriented courses for use in Israel. (YP)

  3. THE ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY'S CHILDREN'S HEALTH PROGRAMS: REVIEW OF PROGRESS AND RECOMMENDATIONS FOR FUTURE DIRECTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    While trend data indicate aggregate levels of environmental pollution in the United States is decreasing, the health effects associated with such pollution in children appear to be increasing. The rising recognition that behavioral, developmental, and metabolic differences in chi...

  4. Integrating Omic Technologies into Aquatic Ecological Risk Assessment and Environmental Monitoring: Hurdles, Achievements and Future Outlook

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background: In this commentary we present the findings from an international consortium on fish toxicogenomics sponsored by the UK Natural Environment Research Council (NERC) with a remit of moving omic technologies into chemical risk assessment and environmental monitoring. Obj...

  5. PREDICTIVE UNCERTAINTY IN HYDROLOGIC AND WATER QUALITY MODELING: APPROACHES, APPLICATION TO ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT, AND FUTURE CHALLENGES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Extant process-based hydrologic and water quality models are indispensable to water resources planning and environmental management. However, models are only approximations of real systems and often calibrated with incomplete and uncertain data. Reliable estimates, or perhaps f...

  6. 78 FR 26319 - Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill; Proposal of Future Early Restoration Projects and Environmental Reviews

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-06

    ... Restoration Projects and Environmental Reviews AGENCY: National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration... Horizon oil spill (Trustees) intend to propose the additional early restoration projects described below to continue the process of using early restoration funding to restore natural resources,...

  7. Integrating Omic Technologies into Aquatic Ecological Risk Assessment and Environmental Monitoring: Hurdles, Achievements and Future Outlook

    EPA Science Inventory

    In this commentary we present the findings from an international consortium on fish toxicogenomics sponsored by the UK Natural Environment Research Council (NERC) with an objective of moving omic technologies into chemical risk assessment and environmental monitoring. Objectiv...

  8. Mapping the Future of Environmental Health and Nursing: Strategies for Integrating National Competencies into Nursing Practice

    PubMed Central

    Larsson, Laura S.; Butterfield, Patricia

    2016-01-01

    Nurses are increasingly the primary contact for clients concerned about health problems related to their environment. In response to the need for nursing expertise in the field of environmental health, the Institute of Medicine (IOM), Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR), and National Institute of Nursing Research (NINR) have designed core competencies for the nursing profession. The IOM competencies focus on four areas: (1) knowledge and concepts; (2) assessment and referral; advocacy, ethics, and risk communication; and (4) legislation and regulation. The competencies establish a baseline of knowledge and awareness in order for nurses to prevent and minimize health problems associated with exposure to environmental agents. To address the known difficulties of incorporating new priorities into established practice, nurses attending an environmental health short course participated in a nominal group process focusing on the question, “What specific actions can we take to bring environmental health into the mainstream of nursing practice?” This exercise was designed to bring the concepts of the national initiatives (IOM, NINR, ATSDR) to the awareness of individual nurses involved in the direct delivery of care. Results include 38 action items nurses identified as improving awareness and utilization of environmental health principles. The top five ideas were: (1) get environmental health listed as a requirement or competency in undergraduate nursing education; (2) improve working relationships with interdepartmental persons—a team approach; (3) strategically place students in essential organizations such as NIOSH, ATSDR, or CDC; (4) educate nurse educators; and (5) create environmental health awards in nursing. The 38 original ideas were also reorganized into a five-tiered conceptual model. The concepts of this model include: (1) developing partnerships; (2) strengthening publications; (3) enhancing continuing education; (4) updating nursing

  9. Rapid environmental change over the past decade revealed by isotopic analysis of the California mussel in the northeast Pacific.

    PubMed

    Pfister, Catherine A; McCoy, Sophie J; Wootton, J Timothy; Martin, Pamela A; Colman, Albert S; Archer, David

    2011-01-01

    The anthropogenic input of fossil fuel carbon into the atmosphere results in increased carbon dioxide (CO(2)) into the oceans, a process that lowers seawater pH, decreases alkalinity and can inhibit the production of shell material. Corrosive water has recently been documented in the northeast Pacific, along with a rapid decline in seawater pH over the past decade. A lack of instrumentation prior to the 1990s means that we have no indication whether these carbon cycle changes have precedence or are a response to recent anthropogenic CO(2) inputs. We analyzed stable carbon and oxygen isotopes (δ(13)C, δ(18)O) of decade-old California mussel shells (Mytilus californianus) in the context of an instrumental seawater record of the same length. We further compared modern shells to shells from 1000 to 1340 years BP and from the 1960s to the present and show declines in the δ(13)C of modern shells that have no historical precedent. Our finding of decline in another shelled mollusk (limpet) and our extensive environmental data show that these δ(13)C declines are unexplained by changes to the coastal food web, upwelling regime, or local circulation. Our observed decline in shell δ(13)C parallels other signs of rapid changes to the nearshore carbon cycle in the Pacific, including a decline in pH that is an order of magnitude greater than predicted by an equilibrium response to rising atmospheric CO(2), the presence of low pH water throughout the region, and a record of a similarly steep decline in δ(13)C in algae in the Gulf of Alaska. These unprecedented changes and the lack of a clear causal variable underscores the need for better quantifying carbon dynamics in nearshore environments.

  10. Environmentally benign formation of polymeric microspheres by rapid expansion of supercritical carbon dioxide solution with a nonsolvent.

    PubMed

    Matsuyama, K; Mishima, K; Umemoto, H; Yamaguchi, S

    2001-10-15

    A novel method is reported for forming polymer microparticles, which reduce atmospheric emissions of environmentally harmful volatile organic compounds such as toluene and xylene used as paint solvent in paint industry. The polymer microparticles have formed through rapid expansion from supercritical solution with a nonsolvent (RESS-N). Solubilization of poly(styrene)-b-(poly(methyl methacrylate)-co-poly (glycidyl methacrylate)) copolymer(PS-b-(PMMA-co-PGMA), MW = 5000, PS/PMMA/PGMA = 2/5/3), poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG, M. W = 4000), bisphenol A type epoxy resin (EP, MW = 3000), poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA; MW = 15000, 75000, 120000), and poly(oxyalkylene) alkylphenyl ether (MW = 4000) in carbon dioxide (CO2) was achieved with the use of small alcohols as cosolvents. The solubility of the PS-b-(PMMA-co-PGMA) is extremely low in either CO2 or ethanol but becomes 20 wt % in a mixture of the two. Because ethanol is a nonsolvent for the polymer, it can be used as a cosolvent in rapid expansion from supercritical solution to produce 1-3 microm particles that do not agglomerate. Obtained polymer particles by RESS-N were applied as powder coatings. The resulting coatings have a smooth and coherent film. The particle size distribution of microspheres was controlled by changing the polymer concentration, preexpansion pressure, temperature, and injection distance. The feed compositions were more effective than the other factors in controlling the particle size. The polymeric microparticles formed by RESS-N method can be utilized to make the thin coating film without anytoxic organic solvents and/or surfactants. PMID:11686380

  11. Rapid Environmental Change over the Past Decade Revealed by Isotopic Analysis of the California Mussel in the Northeast Pacific

    PubMed Central

    Pfister, Catherine A.; McCoy, Sophie J.; Wootton, J. Timothy; Martin, Pamela A.; Colman, Albert S.; Archer, David

    2011-01-01

    The anthropogenic input of fossil fuel carbon into the atmosphere results in increased carbon dioxide (CO2) into the oceans, a process that lowers seawater pH, decreases alkalinity and can inhibit the production of shell material. Corrosive water has recently been documented in the northeast Pacific, along with a rapid decline in seawater pH over the past decade. A lack of instrumentation prior to the 1990s means that we have no indication whether these carbon cycle changes have precedence or are a response to recent anthropogenic CO2 inputs. We analyzed stable carbon and oxygen isotopes (δ13C, δ18O) of decade-old California mussel shells (Mytilus californianus) in the context of an instrumental seawater record of the same length. We further compared modern shells to shells from 1000 to 1340 years BP and from the 1960s to the present and show declines in the δ13C of modern shells that have no historical precedent. Our finding of decline in another shelled mollusk (limpet) and our extensive environmental data show that these δ13C declines are unexplained by changes to the coastal food web, upwelling regime, or local circulation. Our observed decline in shell δ13C parallels other signs of rapid changes to the nearshore carbon cycle in the Pacific, including a decline in pH that is an order of magnitude greater than predicted by an equilibrium response to rising atmospheric CO2, the presence of low pH water throughout the region, and a record of a similarly steep decline in δ13C in algae in the Gulf of Alaska. These unprecedented changes and the lack of a clear causal variable underscores the need for better quantifying carbon dynamics in nearshore environments. PMID:21991348

  12. What weight should be assigned to future environmental impacts? A probabilistic cost benefit analysis using recent advances on discounting.

    PubMed

    Almansa, Carmen; Martínez-Paz, José M

    2011-03-01

    Cost-benefit analysis is a standard methodological platform for public investment evaluation. In high environmental impact projects, with a long-term effect on future generations, the choice of discount rate and time horizon is of particular relevance, because it can lead to very different profitability assessments. This paper describes some recent approaches to environmental discounting and applies them, together with a number of classical procedures, to the economic evaluation of a plant for the desalination of irrigation return water from intensive farming, aimed at halting the degradation of an area of great ecological value, the Mar Menor, in South Eastern Spain. A Monte Carlo procedure is used in four CBA approaches and three time horizons to carry out a probabilistic sensitivity analysis designed to integrate the views of an international panel of experts in environmental discounting with the uncertainty affecting the market price of the project's main output, i.e., irrigation water for a water-deprived area. The results show which discounting scenarios most accurately estimate the socio-environmental profitability of the project while also considering the risk associated with these two key parameters. The analysis also provides some methodological findings regarding ways of assessing financial and environmental profitability in decisions concerning public investment in the environment.

  13. Environmental variability drives rapid and dramatic changes in nutrient limitation of tropical macroalgae with different ecological strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clausing, Rachel J.; Fong, Peggy

    2016-06-01

    Nitrogen (N) or phosphorus (P) limits primary productivity in nearly every ecosystem worldwide, yet how limitation changes over time, particularly in connection to variation in environmental drivers, remains understudied. We evaluated temporal and species-specific variability in the relative importance of N and P limitation among tropical macroalgae in two-factor experiments conducted twice after rains and twice after dry conditions to explore potential linkages to environmental drivers. We studied three common macroalgal species with varying ecological strategies: a fast-growing opportunist, Dictyota bartayresiana; and two calcifying species likely to be slower growing, Galaxaura fasciculata and Padina boryana. On the scale of days to weeks, nutrient responses ranged among and within species from no limitation to increases in growth by 20 and 40 % over controls in 3 d with N and P addition, respectively. After light rain or dry conditions, Dictyota grew rapidly (up to ~60 % in 3 d) with little indication of nutrient limitation, while Padina and Galaxaura shifted between N, P, or no limitation. All species grew slowly or lost mass after a large storm, presumably due to unfavorable conditions on the reef prior to the experiment that limited nutrient uptake. Padina and Galaxaura both became nutrient limited 3 d post-storm, while Dictyota did not. These results suggest that differing capabilities for nutrient uptake and storage dictate the influence of nutrient history and thus drive nutrient responses and, in doing so, may allow species with differing ecological strategies to coexist in a fluctuating environment. Moreover, the great variability in species' responses indicates that patterns of nutrient limitation are more complex than previously recognized, and generalizations about N versus P limitation of a given system may not convey the inherent complexity in governing conditions and processes.

  14. CARD-FISH for Environmental Microorganisms: Technical Advancement and Future Applications

    PubMed Central

    Kubota, Kengo

    2013-01-01

    Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) has become a standard technique in environmental microbiology. More than 20 years have passed since this technique was first described, and it is currently used for the detection of ribosomal RNA, messenger RNA, and functional genes encoded on chromosomes. This review focuses on the advancement and applications of FISH combined with catalyzed reporter deposition (CARD, also known as tyramide signal amplification or TSA), in the detection of environmental microorganisms. Significant methodological improvements have been made in CARD-FISH technology, including its combination with other techniques and instruments. PMID:23124765

  15. A Deeper Shade of Green: The Future of Green Jobs and Environmental Adult Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Robert J.

    2013-01-01

    The body of literature on adult learning and education for and about the environment has grown over the decades since 1970, the year of the first Earth Day. However, more than 40 years later, the question must be posed: "Are we really making the momentous progress that is essential for an ecosustainable future?" At least a partial answer may lie…

  16. Environmentalism in the Future: Reducing its Dogmatism and Pseudo-Scientism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maruyama, Magoroh

    This paper examines fallacious assumptions from which the environmentalist movement of the future must free itself. The first is the fallacy of zero sum game assumption, believing that in order to protect the environment, industry must be decreased. We are beginning to see some clever, positive sum use of industry in relation to the environment.…

  17. Environmental assessment of waste management in Greenland: current practice and potential future developments.

    PubMed

    Eisted, Rasmus; Christensen, Thomas H

    2013-05-01

    The majority of the waste in Greenland is disposed of in open dumps or incinerated in simple small-scale incinerators. There are relatively few environmental regulations that control the emissions of leachate, landfill gas and/or flue gases from incineration. Only some scrap metal and hazardous waste are collected separately and exported to Europe. The impacts from the current waste management system were modelled from a life-cycle perspective using the LCA-waste model EASEWASTE. Impacts with regard to global warming, acidification, etc. are small (a few hundred person-equivalents (PE) for a system serving 56 000 inhabitants), but significant environmental loads are caused by air emissions from the incinerators and leachate from the landfills. Several alternative management scenarios were modelled and results show that increased use of incineration, full utilization of the heat production for district heating and separation of hazardous waste probably could improve Greenland's waste management system. Segregation of recyclable materials as paper, cardboard and biowaste will do little to environmentally improve the waste management system due to loss of energy recovery from incineration and the long transport of the recyclables to markets. Export of waste to Denmark for incineration at modern waste incinerators with advanced flue gas cleaning could also be considered as a means to achieve better environmental performance of the waste management system.

  18. Environmental impact assessment in the Philippines: Progress, problems, and directions for the future

    SciTech Connect

    Ross, W.A. )

    1994-07-01

    The environmental impact statement (EIS) system of the Philippines is reviewed, identifying progress made in its effective implementation since 1986. Improvement in coverage is noted and real commitment to good environmental impact assessment (EIA) practice is found in those responsible for the EIS system. Project proponents show a modest acceptance of the system. Major problems remaining are: (1) the EIS system is seen as a bureaucratic requirement needed to obtain project approvals; (2) political interference determines the outcome of some environmental reviews; (3) questionable practices by public servants serve to discredit the system; and (4) the treatment of projects in environmentally critical areas is less than satisfactory. Based on the principle that it is essential to establish a credible process seen to work effectively by the public, politicians, the government bureaucracy, and proponents, suggestions for improvement are made. They deal with the treatment of EISs for projects already under construction, EIA training courses, and simple adjustments to the EIS system to focus it on the most important projects.

  19. The Green Launching Plan for New Hampshire's Environmental and Economic Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gittell, Ross

    2010-01-01

    Economic vitality and environmental protection have long been linked in New England, and will be again with efforts to address climate change in the region. There is an emerging body of literature to support the potential economic benefits of a so-called "green economy" in the region and the nation. In New Hampshire, economic studies of both the…

  20. Statement of National Environmental Health Assocation on Future National Health Legislation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pohlit, Nicholas; And Others

    1974-01-01

    This article concerns the need for more preventative health legislation to cutback increasing curative medical costs. Preventative action would provide better nutrition, better housing, and more effective controls on food, water, and solid wastes. Environmental health specialists would play a major role in the staffing of the new health systems.…

  1. Land-Use and Environmental Pressures Resulting from Current and Future Bioenergy Crop Expansion: A Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miyake, Saori; Renouf, Marguerite; Peterson, Ann; McAlpine, Clive; Smith, Carl

    2012-01-01

    Recent energy and climate policies, particularly in the developed world, have increased demand for bioenergy as an alternative, which has led to both direct and indirect land-use changes and an array of environmental and socio-economic concerns. A comprehensive understanding of the land-use dynamics of bioenergy crop production is essential for…

  2. Critical education in resource and environmental management: Learning and empowerment for a sustainable future

    SciTech Connect

    Diduck, A.

    1999-10-01

    Changing rom current patterns of resource use to a sustainable and equitable economy is a complex and intractable problem. This paper suggests that critical education may form part of the solution. Critical environmental assessment (EA) education, the model explored in this paper, offers a tool for resource and environmental managers to use in managing public involvement processes. This model challenges current patterns of resource use and addresses criticisms of public involvement processes. Critical EA education, involving both cognitive development and personal empowerment, focuses on critical intelligence, problem solving and social action. The concept is offered as a means to facilitate and improve public involvement and, thereby, empower local communities to take greater control of resource use decisions affecting their lives. Positive implications of critical EA education for change, complexity, uncertainty and conflict, which are four enduring themes in resource and environmental management, are discussed in the paper. The implications include: cognitive development and personal empowerment at the level of local resource communities; simplification of the often complex discourse encountered in resource management; reduction in feelings of powerlessness often experienced by members of the public in environmental assessment scenarios; a reduction of ignorance and indeterminacy regarding resource management issues; conflict resolution at the cognitive level; and, clarification of the opposing values, interests or actions at the heart of a conflict.

  3. Sowing Seeds for Future Generations: Development of Generative Concern and Its Relation to Environmental Narrative Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jia, Fanli; Soucie, Kendall; Alisat, Susan; Pratt, Michael

    2016-01-01

    In this longitudinal study, we examined the relationship between the trajectory of generative concern measured at ages 23, 26 and 32 and environmental narrative identity at age 32. Canadian participants completed a questionnaire on generative concern at ages 23, 26 and 32 and were then interviewed about their personal experiences with the…

  4. The Roots of Environmental Education: How the Past Supports the Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCrea, Edward J.

    2006-01-01

    The field of environmental education has sometimes been compared to a thriving, robust tree with the tree's many branches representing the diversity and variety in the field. Given the differing definitions, the many programs, the plethora of materials, and the fractal like growth of the field, perhaps the comparison with a tree is apt. But, what…

  5. Training Future Science Librarians: A Successful Partnership between Academia and the United States Environmental Protection Agency.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roland, Kristen Conahan

    2000-01-01

    Describes a partnership between the School of Information and Library Science at the University of North Carolina (Chapel Hill) and the Environmental Protection Agency library in Research Park Triangle that provides the opportunity for master's level students to acquire practical experience working in a science library while taking classes.…

  6. Our U.S. Energy Future, Teacher Guide. Computer Technology Program Environmental Education Units.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Northwest Regional Educational Lab., Portland, OR.

    This is the teacher's guide to accompany the student guide which together comprise one of five computer-oriented environmental/energy education units. This unit explores the possible effects of the thirteen main energy-related decisions proposed in President Ford's 1975 State of the Union Address. The computer program at the base of the unit…

  7. Rapid Assessment of Environmental Health Impacts for Policy Support: The Example of Road Transport in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Briggs, David; Mason, Kylie; Borman, Barry

    2016-01-01

    An integrated environmental health impact assessment of road transport in New Zealand was carried out, using a rapid assessment. The disease and injury burden was assessed from traffic-related accidents, air pollution, noise and physical (in)activity, and impacts attributed back to modal source. In total, road transport was found to be responsible for 650 deaths in 2012 (2.1% of annual mortality): 308 from traffic accidents, 283 as a result of air pollution, and 59 from noise. Together with morbidity, these represent a total burden of disease of 26,610 disability-adjusted life years (DALYs). An estimated 40 deaths and 1874 DALYs were avoided through active transport. Cars are responsible for about 52% of attributable deaths, but heavy goods vehicles (6% of vehicle kilometres travelled, vkt) accounted for 21% of deaths. Motorcycles (1 per cent of vkt) are implicated in nearly 8% of deaths. Overall, impacts of traffic-related air pollution and noise are low compared to other developed countries, but road accident rates are high. Results highlight the need for policies targeted at road accidents, and especially at heavy goods vehicles and motorcycles, along with more general action to reduce the reliance on private road transport. The study also provides a framework for national indicator development.

  8. Rapid Assessment of Environmental Health Impacts for Policy Support: The Example of Road Transport in New Zealand

    PubMed Central

    Briggs, David; Mason, Kylie; Borman, Barry

    2015-01-01

    An integrated environmental health impact assessment of road transport in New Zealand was carried out, using a rapid assessment. The disease and injury burden was assessed from traffic-related accidents, air pollution, noise and physical (in)activity, and impacts attributed back to modal source. In total, road transport was found to be responsible for 650 deaths in 2012 (2.1% of annual mortality): 308 from traffic accidents, 283 as a result of air pollution, and 59 from noise. Together with morbidity, these represent a total burden of disease of 26,610 disability-adjusted life years (DALYs). An estimated 40 deaths and 1874 DALYs were avoided through active transport. Cars are responsible for about 52% of attributable deaths, but heavy goods vehicles (6% of vehicle kilometres travelled, vkt) accounted for 21% of deaths. Motorcycles (1 per cent of vkt) are implicated in nearly 8% of deaths. Overall, impacts of traffic-related air pollution and noise are low compared to other developed countries, but road accident rates are high. Results highlight the need for policies targeted at road accidents, and especially at heavy goods vehicles and motorcycles, along with more general action to reduce the reliance on private road transport. The study also provides a framework for national indicator development. PMID:26703699

  9. Rapid Assessment of Environmental Health Impacts for Policy Support: The Example of Road Transport in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Briggs, David; Mason, Kylie; Borman, Barry

    2016-01-01

    An integrated environmental health impact assessment of road transport in New Zealand was carried out, using a rapid assessment. The disease and injury burden was assessed from traffic-related accidents, air pollution, noise and physical (in)activity, and impacts attributed back to modal source. In total, road transport was found to be responsible for 650 deaths in 2012 (2.1% of annual mortality): 308 from traffic accidents, 283 as a result of air pollution, and 59 from noise. Together with morbidity, these represent a total burden of disease of 26,610 disability-adjusted life years (DALYs). An estimated 40 deaths and 1874 DALYs were avoided through active transport. Cars are responsible for about 52% of attributable deaths, but heavy goods vehicles (6% of vehicle kilometres travelled, vkt) accounted for 21% of deaths. Motorcycles (1 per cent of vkt) are implicated in nearly 8% of deaths. Overall, impacts of traffic-related air pollution and noise are low compared to other developed countries, but road accident rates are high. Results highlight the need for policies targeted at road accidents, and especially at heavy goods vehicles and motorcycles, along with more general action to reduce the reliance on private road transport. The study also provides a framework for national indicator development. PMID:26703699

  10. Modeling aeolian transport of soil-bound plutonium: considering infrequent but normal environmental disturbances is critical in estimating future dose.

    PubMed

    Michelotti, Erika A; Whicker, Jeffrey J; Eisele, William F; Breshears, David D; Kirchner, Thomas B

    2013-06-01

    Dose assessments typically consider environmental systems as static through time, but environmental disturbances such as drought and fire are normal, albeit infrequent, events that can impact dose-influential attributes of many environmental systems. These phenomena occur over time frames of decades or longer, and are likely to be exacerbated under projected warmer, drier climate. As with other types of dose assessment, the impacts of environmental disturbances are often overlooked when evaluating dose from aeolian transport of radionuclides and other contaminants. Especially lacking are predictions that account for potential changing vegetation cover effects on radionuclide transport over the long time frames required by regulations. A recently developed dynamic wind-transport model that included vegetation succession and environmental disturbance provides more realistic long-term predictability. This study utilized the model to estimate emission rates for aeolian transport, and compare atmospheric dispersion and deposition rates of airborne plutonium-contaminated soil into neighboring areas with and without environmental disturbances. Specifically, the objective of this study was to utilize the model results as input for a widely used dose assessment model (CAP-88). Our case study focused on low levels of residual plutonium found in soils from past operations at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), in Los Alamos, NM, located in the semiarid southwestern USA. Calculations were conducted for different disturbance scenarios based on conditions associated with current climate, and a potential future drier and warmer climate. Known soil and sediment concentrations of plutonium were used to model dispersal and deposition of windblown residual plutonium, as a function of distance and direction. Environmental disturbances that affected vegetation cover included ground fire, crown fire, and drought, with reoccurrence rates for current climate based on site historical

  11. Environmental & economic life cycle assessment of current & future sewage sludge to energy technologies.

    PubMed

    Mills, N; Pearce, P; Farrow, J; Thorpe, R B; Kirkby, N F

    2014-01-01

    The UK Water Industry currently generates approximately 800GWh pa of electrical energy from sewage sludge. Traditionally energy recovery from sewage sludge features Anaerobic Digestion (AD) with biogas utilisation in combined heat and power (CHP) systems. However, the industry is evolving and a number of developments that extract more energy from sludge are either being implemented or are nearing full scale demonstration. This study compared five technology configurations: 1 - conventional AD with CHP, 2 - Thermal Hydrolysis Process (THP) AD with CHP, 3 - THP AD with bio-methane grid injection, 4 - THP AD with CHP followed by drying of digested sludge for solid fuel production, 5 - THP AD followed by drying, pyrolysis of the digested sludge and use of the both the biogas and the pyrolysis gas in a CHP. The economic and environmental Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) found that both the post AD drying options performed well but the option used to create a solid fuel to displace coal (configuration 4) was the most sustainable solution economically and environmentally, closely followed by the pyrolysis configuration (5). Application of THP improves the financial and environmental performance compared with conventional AD. Producing bio-methane for grid injection (configuration 3) is attractive financially but has the worst environmental impact of all the scenarios, suggesting that the current UK financial incentive policy for bio-methane is not driving best environmental practice. It is clear that new and improving processes and technologies are enabling significant opportunities for further energy recovery from sludge; LCA provides tools for determining the best overall options for particular situations and allows innovation resources and investment to be focused accordingly. PMID:24060290

  12. Enabling the environmentally clean air transportation of the future: a vision of computational fluid dynamics in 2030

    PubMed Central

    Slotnick, Jeffrey P.; Khodadoust, Abdollah; Alonso, Juan J.; Darmofal, David L.; Gropp, William D.; Lurie, Elizabeth A.; Mavriplis, Dimitri J.; Venkatakrishnan, Venkat

    2014-01-01

    As global air travel expands rapidly to meet demand generated by economic growth, it is essential to continue to improve the efficiency of air transportation to reduce its carbon emissions and address concerns about climate change. Future transports must be ‘cleaner’ and designed to include technologies that will continue to lower engine emissions and reduce community noise. The use of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) will be critical to enable the design of these new concepts. In general, the ability to simulate aerodynamic and reactive flows using CFD has progressed rapidly during the past several decades and has fundamentally changed the aerospace design process. Advanced simulation capabilities not only enable reductions in ground-based and flight-testing requirements, but also provide added physical insight, and enable superior designs at reduced cost and risk. In spite of considerable success, reliable use of CFD has remained confined to a small region of the operating envelope due, in part, to the inability of current methods to reliably predict turbulent, separated flows. Fortunately, the advent of much more powerful computing platforms provides an opportunity to overcome a number of these challenges. This paper summarizes the findings and recommendations from a recent NASA-funded study that provides a vision for CFD in the year 2030, including an assessment of critical technology gaps and needed development, and identifies the key CFD technology advancements that will enable the design and development of much cleaner aircraft in the future. PMID:25024413

  13. Enabling the environmentally clean air transportation of the future: a vision of computational fluid dynamics in 2030.

    PubMed

    Slotnick, Jeffrey P; Khodadoust, Abdollah; Alonso, Juan J; Darmofal, David L; Gropp, William D; Lurie, Elizabeth A; Mavriplis, Dimitri J; Venkatakrishnan, Venkat

    2014-08-13

    As global air travel expands rapidly to meet demand generated by economic growth, it is essential to continue to improve the efficiency of air transportation to reduce its carbon emissions and address concerns about climate change. Future transports must be 'cleaner' and designed to include technologies that will continue to lower engine emissions and reduce community noise. The use of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) will be critical to enable the design of these new concepts. In general, the ability to simulate aerodynamic and reactive flows using CFD has progressed rapidly during the past several decades and has fundamentally changed the aerospace design process. Advanced simulation capabilities not only enable reductions in ground-based and flight-testing requirements, but also provide added physical insight, and enable superior designs at reduced cost and risk. In spite of considerable success, reliable use of CFD has remained confined to a small region of the operating envelope due, in part, to the inability of current methods to reliably predict turbulent, separated flows. Fortunately, the advent of much more powerful computing platforms provides an opportunity to overcome a number of these challenges. This paper summarizes the findings and recommendations from a recent NASA-funded study that provides a vision for CFD in the year 2030, including an assessment of critical technology gaps and needed development, and identifies the key CFD technology advancements that will enable the design and development of much cleaner aircraft in the future. PMID:25024413

  14. Impact of the Diamond Light Source on research in Earth and environmental sciences: current work and future perspectives.

    PubMed

    Burke, Ian T; Mosselmans, J Frederick W; Shaw, Samuel; Peacock, Caroline L; Benning, Liane G; Coker, Victoria S

    2015-03-01

    Diamond Light Source Ltd celebrated its 10th anniversary as a company in December 2012 and has now accepted user experiments for over 5 years. This paper describes the current facilities available at Diamond and future developments that enhance its capacities with respect to the Earth and environmental sciences. A review of relevant research conducted at Diamond thus far is provided. This highlights how synchrotron-based studies have brought about important advances in our understanding of the fundamental parameters controlling highly complex mineral-fluid-microbe interface reactions in the natural environment. This new knowledge not only enhances our understanding of global biogeochemical processes, but also provides the opportunity for interventions to be designed for environmental remediation and beneficial use.

  15. Impact of the Diamond Light Source on research in Earth and environmental sciences: current work and future perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Burke, Ian T.; Mosselmans, J. Frederick W.; Shaw, Samuel; Peacock, Caroline L.; Benning, Liane G.; Coker, Victoria S.

    2015-01-01

    Diamond Light Source Ltd celebrated its 10th anniversary as a company in December 2012 and has now accepted user experiments for over 5 years. This paper describes the current facilities available at Diamond and future developments that enhance its capacities with respect to the Earth and environmental sciences. A review of relevant research conducted at Diamond thus far is provided. This highlights how synchrotron-based studies have brought about important advances in our understanding of the fundamental parameters controlling highly complex mineral–fluid–microbe interface reactions in the natural environment. This new knowledge not only enhances our understanding of global biogeochemical processes, but also provides the opportunity for interventions to be designed for environmental remediation and beneficial use. PMID:25624516

  16. Impact of the Diamond Light Source on research in Earth and environmental sciences: current work and future perspectives.

    PubMed

    Burke, Ian T; Mosselmans, J Frederick W; Shaw, Samuel; Peacock, Caroline L; Benning, Liane G; Coker, Victoria S

    2015-03-01

    Diamond Light Source Ltd celebrated its 10th anniversary as a company in December 2012 and has now accepted user experiments for over 5 years. This paper describes the current facilities available at Diamond and future developments that enhance its capacities with respect to the Earth and environmental sciences. A review of relevant research conducted at Diamond thus far is provided. This highlights how synchrotron-based studies have brought about important advances in our understanding of the fundamental parameters controlling highly complex mineral-fluid-microbe interface reactions in the natural environment. This new knowledge not only enhances our understanding of global biogeochemical processes, but also provides the opportunity for interventions to be designed for environmental remediation and beneficial use. PMID:25624516

  17. Environmental Physiology at the Johnson Space Center: Past, Present, and Future

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conkin, Johnny

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the work in environmental physiology done at Johnson Space Center (JSC). The work is aimed at keeping astronauts healthy. This is a different approach than treating the sick, and is more of an occupational health model. The reduction of risks is the main emphasis for this work. They emphasis is to reduce the risk of decompression sickness (DCS) and acute mountain sickness (AMS). The work in environmental physiology encompasses the following areas: (1) Pressure: hypobaric and hyperbaric (2) Gases: hypoxia and hyperoxia, hypercapnia--closed space issues, inert gas physiology / respiration (3) Temperature: hypothermia and hyperthermia, thermal comfort, Protective clothing diving, aviation, mountaineering, and space (4) Acceleration (5) Noise and Vibration (6) Exercise / Performance (6) Acclimatization / Adaptation: engineering solutions when necessary. This presentation reviews the work done at JSC in the areas of DCS and AMS.

  18. Toward a mechanistic understanding of human-induced rapid environmental change: A case study linking energy development, avian nest predation, and predators

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hethcoat, Matthew G.; Chalfoun, Anna D.

    2015-01-01

    Synthesis and applications. We demonstrate one mechanism, that is the local augmentation of predators, by which human-induced rapid environmental change can influence the demography of local populations. Given the accelerating trajectory of global energy demands, an important next step will be to understand why the activity and/or abundance of rodent predators increased with surrounding habitat loss from energy development activities.

  19. Current and Future Environmental Balance of Small-Scale Run-of-River Hydropower.

    PubMed

    Gallagher, John; Styles, David; McNabola, Aonghus; Williams, A Prysor

    2015-05-19

    Globally, the hydropower (HP) sector has significant potential to increase its capacity by 2050. This study quantifies the energy and resource demands of small-scale HP projects and presents methods to reduce associated environmental impacts based on potential growth in the sector. The environmental burdens of three (50-650 kW) run-of-river HP projects were calculated using life cycle assessment (LCA). The global warming potential (GWP) for the projects to generate electricity ranged from 5.5-8.9 g CO2 eq/kWh, compared with 403 g CO2 eq/kWh for UK marginal grid electricity. A sensitivity analysis accounted for alternative manufacturing processes, transportation, ecodesign considerations, and extended project lifespan. These findings were extrapolated for technically viable HP sites in Europe, with the potential to generate 7.35 TWh and offset over 2.96 Mt of CO2 from grid electricity per annum. Incorporation of ecodesign could provide resource savings for these HP projects: avoiding 800 000 tonnes of concrete, 10 000 tonnes of steel, and 65 million vehicle miles. Small additional material and energy contributions can double a HP system lifespan, providing 39-47% reductions for all environmental impact categories. In a world of finite resources, this paper highlights the importance of HP as a resource-efficient, renewable energy system. PMID:25909899

  20. Current and Future Environmental Balance of Small-Scale Run-of-River Hydropower.

    PubMed

    Gallagher, John; Styles, David; McNabola, Aonghus; Williams, A Prysor

    2015-05-19

    Globally, the hydropower (HP) sector has significant potential to increase its capacity by 2050. This study quantifies the energy and resource demands of small-scale HP projects and presents methods to reduce associated environmental impacts based on potential growth in the sector. The environmental burdens of three (50-650 kW) run-of-river HP projects were calculated using life cycle assessment (LCA). The global warming potential (GWP) for the projects to generate electricity ranged from 5.5-8.9 g CO2 eq/kWh, compared with 403 g CO2 eq/kWh for UK marginal grid electricity. A sensitivity analysis accounted for alternative manufacturing processes, transportation, ecodesign considerations, and extended project lifespan. These findings were extrapolated for technically viable HP sites in Europe, with the potential to generate 7.35 TWh and offset over 2.96 Mt of CO2 from grid electricity per annum. Incorporation of ecodesign could provide resource savings for these HP projects: avoiding 800 000 tonnes of concrete, 10 000 tonnes of steel, and 65 million vehicle miles. Small additional material and energy contributions can double a HP system lifespan, providing 39-47% reductions for all environmental impact categories. In a world of finite resources, this paper highlights the importance of HP as a resource-efficient, renewable energy system.

  1. Game theory, international law, and future environmental cooperation in the Middle East

    SciTech Connect

    Hirsch, M.

    1998-12-31

    Through the use of game theory, this article explores some of the principal factors influencing the emergence and maintenance of international cooperation in order to develop legal guidelines for establishing an effective environmental mechanism in the Middle East. As this article shows, game theory concepts and models provide a valuable tool for analyzing the phenomenon of cooperation, enabling international lawyers to shape legal norms which will enhance the prospects for environmental cooperation in the Middle East. Part 2 of this article sets for the basic concepts and models of game theory and its relationship to modern international relations theory. Part 3 presents a game theoretical analysis of two major environmental settings in the Middle East: marine pollution in the Gulf of Aqaba and water contamination of the Mountain Aquifer. It then suggests some legal mechanisms to enhance the likelihood of cooperation in these settings. Part 4 concludes the article by exploring the options nd limits of combining game theory and international law as an instrument to improve the prospects of cooperation. The article ultimately states that this combination offers scholars and policy-makers important insights into better legal mechanisms for long-term international cooperation.

  2. Shaping the future: A strategic plan for natural resources and environmental management education

    SciTech Connect

    1994-02-01

    As the 21st century nears, the use of natural resources and the preservation of environmental quality are the focus of increased worldwide attention. The Cooperative Extension System (CES) thereby is presented with expanded opportunities and responsibilities for outreach education in natural resources and environmental management (NREM). To meet this challenge, a 17-member team of Extension professionals-selected to represent the geographic, academic, and cultural diversity of the CES-has prepared this report. This document is a plan to guide the Cooperative Extension System in strengthening programs in the area of natural resources and environmental management education. The implementation of this systemwide Strategic Plan and of similar state plans will expand the scope and effectiveness of NREM education and facilitate better service to diverse customers. State NREM support teams will be established to provide leadership, coordinate educational needs and priorities, and increase the resources available for NREM programming. A national NREM support team also will be formed to provide national coordination, resource development, and accountability.

  3. Impacts of global environmental change on future health and health care in tropical countries.

    PubMed

    McMichael, A J; Patz, J; Kovats, R S

    1998-01-01

    The aggregate human impact on the environment now exceeds the limits of absorption or regeneration of various major biophysical systems, at global and regional levels. The resultant global environmental changes include altered atmospheric composition, widespread land degradation, depletion of fisheries, freshwater shortages, and biodiversity losses. The drive for further social and economic development, plus an unavoidable substantial increase in population size by 2050--especially in less developed countries--will tend to augment these large-scale environmental problems. Disturbances of the Earth's life-support systems (the source of climatic stability, food, freshwater, and robust ecosystems) will affect disproportionately the resource-poor and geographically vulnerable populations in many tropical countries. Ecological disturbances will alter the pattern of various pests and pathogens in plants, livestock and humans. Overall, these large-scale environmental changes are likely to increase the range and seasonality of various (especially vector-borne) infectious diseases, food insecurity, of water stress, and of population displacement with its various adverse health consequences.

  4. How Blogging on Earth and Environmental Science Changed One Student's Passion, Perception, and Future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dufoe, A.

    2013-12-01

    In 2011, I started a WordPress blog to engage more with my undergraduate education field of study - communications. Starting out with blog posts about social media, this blog's initial goal was to showcase my interest in the media as well as to blog about my first conference attendance and presentations. However, blogging turned into more than that for me. As I was pursuing a minor in Environmental Inquiry and therefore taking more Earth and environmental science classes, I learned that I love to write about environmental issues, particularly about how issues can be addressed and resolved. Because of this shift in my personal and professional interests, I began to blog about global topics such as global water consumption, environmental conservation and arctic sea ice. This change in direction was unprecedented, but helped define my online presence. Over the two years I have been writing my blog, the science posts have been the most successful, with WordPress.com users liking and reading the posts. Readers from all over the globe are brought to my blog from search engines, as shown through the analytics on the WordPress dashboard. However, the impact of my blog on others is challenging to quantify apart from the analytics, because most people do not comment on the posts. Regardless, and most importantly, my blog has changed MY perception of science. Before I started blogging about science topics, I was unaware of how complicated and connected Earth's processes are, including climate change, natural disasters, human actions and pollution. Overall, this blog has been important to me because it helped define my interests academically, leading me to apply and be accepted to a Masters program at the University of Montana starting in August 2013. The program in Environmental Science and Natural Resource Journalism umbrellas over both my training in communications and my love for the environment. Because of my personal growth through my blog, I am also motivated to create

  5. Strategic effects of future environmental policy commitments: climate change, solar radiation management and correlated air pollutants.

    PubMed

    Qu, Jingwen; Silva, Emilson Caputo Delfino

    2015-03-15

    We study the effects of environmental policy commitments in a futuristic world in which solar radiation management (SRM) can be utilized to reduce climate change damages. Carbon and sulfur dioxide emissions (correlated pollutants) can be reduced through tradable permits. We show that if nations simultaneously commit to carbon permit policies, national SRM levels rise with carbon quotas. Alternatively, if they simultaneously commit to SRM policies, the global temperature falls with each unit increase in the global SRM level. A nation always wishes to be a leader in policymaking, but prefers carbon to SRM policymaking. The globe prefers SRM policy commitments.

  6. A direct competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for rapid detection of anilofos residues in agricultural products and environmental samples.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yan; Gao, Ai H; Liu, Bing; Sheng, Wei; Tan, Chao; Yuan, Meng; Wang, Shuo

    2013-01-01

    A direct competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (dc-ELISA) was developed to measure anilofos levels in agricultural and environmental samples. The ELISA was developed using rabbit polyclonal antibodies against a hapten-protein conjugate of anilofos-bovine serum albumin. The limit of detection was 0.1 μg L(-1), and there was no cross-reactivity with other related pesticides or structurally similar compounds. The matrix effects of rice (aromatic rice, white rice, brown rice), corn, barley, wheat and soil were measured and removed by extraction and dilution with phosphate buffered saline with 0.05% Tween-20. For water samples (tap water and river water), the matrix effects were also removed by dilution with phosphate buffered saline with Tween-20. The detection limits for anilofos in authentic samples (aromatic rice, white rice, brown rice, corn, barley, wheat, soil, tap water and river water) were 2, 2, 2, 3, 2, 2, and 2 μg kg(-1), and 0.5 and 1 μg L(-1), respectively . The anilofos recovery ranged from 81.0-116.0% with a coefficient of variation of 1.7-9.0%. The method was validated using GC, and the results showed good correlation with the dc-ELISA data (r(2) = 0.9795). Forty-two cereal samples were randomly collected from different supermarkets and analyzed using the developed dc-ELISA. No anilofos was found in these products. The developed immunoassay is suitable for rapid quantitation of anilofos residues. PMID:23030434

  7. Mining Available Data from the United States Environmental Protection Agency to Support Rapid Life Cycle Inventory Modeling of Chemical Manufacturing.

    PubMed

    Cashman, Sarah A; Meyer, David E; Edelen, Ashley N; Ingwersen, Wesley W; Abraham, John P; Barrett, William M; Gonzalez, Michael A; Randall, Paul M; Ruiz-Mercado, Gerardo; Smith, Raymond L

    2016-09-01

    Demands for quick and accurate life cycle assessments create a need for methods to rapidly generate reliable life cycle inventories (LCI). Data mining is a suitable tool for this purpose, especially given the large amount of available governmental data. These data are typically applied to LCIs on a case-by-case basis. As linked open data becomes more prevalent, it may be possible to automate LCI using data mining by establishing a reproducible approach for identifying, extracting, and processing the data. This work proposes a method for standardizing and eventually automating the discovery and use of publicly available data at the United States Environmental Protection Agency for chemical-manufacturing LCI. The method is developed using a case study of acetic acid. The data quality and gap analyses for the generated inventory found that the selected data sources can provide information with equal or better reliability and representativeness on air, water, hazardous waste, on-site energy usage, and production volumes but with key data gaps including material inputs, water usage, purchased electricity, and transportation requirements. A comparison of the generated LCI with existing data revealed that the data mining inventory is in reasonable agreement with existing data and may provide a more-comprehensive inventory of air emissions and water discharges. The case study highlighted challenges for current data management practices that must be overcome to successfully automate the method using semantic technology. Benefits of the method are that the openly available data can be compiled in a standardized and transparent approach that supports potential automation with flexibility to incorporate new data sources as needed. PMID:27517866

  8. Mining Available Data from the United States Environmental Protection Agency to Support Rapid Life Cycle Inventory Modeling of Chemical Manufacturing.

    PubMed

    Cashman, Sarah A; Meyer, David E; Edelen, Ashley N; Ingwersen, Wesley W; Abraham, John P; Barrett, William M; Gonzalez, Michael A; Randall, Paul M; Ruiz-Mercado, Gerardo; Smith, Raymond L

    2016-09-01

    Demands for quick and accurate life cycle assessments create a need for methods to rapidly generate reliable life cycle inventories (LCI). Data mining is a suitable tool for this purpose, especially given the large amount of available governmental data. These data are typically applied to LCIs on a case-by-case basis. As linked open data becomes more prevalent, it may be possible to automate LCI using data mining by establishing a reproducible approach for identifying, extracting, and processing the data. This work proposes a method for standardizing and eventually automating the discovery and use of publicly available data at the United States Environmental Protection Agency for chemical-manufacturing LCI. The method is developed using a case study of acetic acid. The data quality and gap analyses for the generated inventory found that the selected data sources can provide information with equal or better reliability and representativeness on air, water, hazardous waste, on-site energy usage, and production volumes but with key data gaps including material inputs, water usage, purchased electricity, and transportation requirements. A comparison of the generated LCI with existing data revealed that the data mining inventory is in reasonable agreement with existing data and may provide a more-comprehensive inventory of air emissions and water discharges. The case study highlighted challenges for current data management practices that must be overcome to successfully automate the method using semantic technology. Benefits of the method are that the openly available data can be compiled in a standardized and transparent approach that supports potential automation with flexibility to incorporate new data sources as needed.

  9. Future Weather Forecasting in the Year 2020-Investing in Technology Today: Improving Weather and Environmental Predictions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anthes, Richard; Schoeberl, Mark

    2000-01-01

    Fast-forward twenty years to the nightly simultaneous TV/webcast. Accurate 8-14 day regional forecasts will be available as will be a whole host of linked products including economic impact, travel, energy usage, etc. On-demand, personalized street-level forecasts will be downloaded into your PDA. Your home system will automatically update the products of interest to you (e.g. severe storm forecasts, hurricane predictions, etc). Short and long range climate forecasts will be used by your "Quicken 2020" to make suggest changes in your "futures" investment portfolio. Through a lively and informative multi-media presentation, leading Space-Earth Science Researchers and Technologists will share their vision for the year 2020, offering a possible futuristic forecast enabled through the application of new technologies under development today. Copies of the 'broadcast' will be available on Beta Tape for your own future use. If sufficient interest exists, the program may also be made available for broadcasters wishing to do stand-ups with roll-ins from the San Francisco meeting for their viewers back home.

  10. Reducing children's exposure to environmental tobacco smoke: the empirical evidence and directions for future research

    PubMed Central

    Hovell, M.; Zakarian, J.; Wahlgren, D.; Matt, G.

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To summarise the issues and empirical evidence for reduction of children's residential environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure.
DATA SOURCES—Literature was obtained by computer search, with emphasis on studies that included quantitative measures of ETS exposure in children's residences and interventions based on social learning theory.
STUDY SELECTION—Review and empirical articles concerning ETS exposure were included and inferences were drawn based on a synthesis of these studies as contrasted with a quantitative meta-analysis.
DATA SYNTHESIS—Interventions designed for residential/child ETS exposure control have included policy/legal regulations, minimal clinical services, and counselling services. Divorce court and adoption services have limited custody to protect children from ETS exposure. Controlled trials of clinicians' one time counselling services have shown null results. One controlled trial found that repeated physician ETS counselling increased parent cessation. Three trials found that repeated counselling/shaping procedures reduced quantitative estimates of ETS exposure in asthmatic children.
CONCLUSIONS—Insufficient controlled studies of repeated session counselling procedures have been completed to determine efficacy for ETS exposure reduction, but evidence is promising. One time minimal interventions appear ineffective, but large scale studies may be warranted. No studies have been conducted to assess court or adoption agency regulations; no community ordinances for regulating residential ETS exposure have been invoked. Ethical and enforcement issues are discussed.


Keywords: environmental tobacco smoke; passive smoking; interventions; counselling PMID:10841590

  11. Environmental risks of HBCDD from construction and demolition waste: a contemporary and future issue.

    PubMed

    Nie, Zhiqiang; Yang, Ziliang; Fang, Yanyan; Yang, Yufei; Tang, Zhenwu; Wang, Xingrun; Die, Qingqi; Gao, Xingbao; Zhang, Fengsong; Wang, Qi; Huang, Qifei

    2015-11-01

    Hexabromocyclododecane (HBCDD), as one of the most widely used brominated flame retardants (BFRs), is of great concern globally because of its persistence in the environment and negative impacts on humans and animals. HBCDD has been mainly used in flame-retarded expanded (EPS) and extruded (XPS) polystyrene foams for insulation in the construction industry. Most of these products will become a part of the construction and demolition (C&D) waste at the end of their life cycle (30-50 years) which is typically disposed of into landfills or incineration. However, the recycling of this material takes quite a low share compared with landfill and incineration. Consequently, high environmental risks will exist in these disposal approaches due to the HBCDD in C&D waste. Currently, XPS or EPS products containing HBCDD in the construction industry have not reached the end of their life cycle in most countries. Relatively little attention has been paid to this emergency issue by either the government or public. Furthermore, C&D waste is most likely disposed of by direct dumping, simple stacking, or open burning in developing countries. Therefore, this paper highlights the global environmental risks of HBCDD from C&D waste. Areas of research for key problems of HBCDD contained in C&D waste are suggested to help control and finally eliminate the impact.

  12. Factors Influencing Uptake of Rapid HIV and Hepatitis C Screening Among Drug Misusing Adult Emergency Department Patients: Implications for Future HIV/HCV Screening Interventions.

    PubMed

    Merchant, Roland C; DeLong, Allison K; Liu, Tao; Baird, Janette R

    2015-11-01

    In this randomized, controlled trial among 957 English- or Spanish-speaking drug misusing adult emergency department (ED) patients, we determined if a tailored brief intervention (BI) increased uptake of rapid HIV/HCV screening, and identified factors associated with greater screening uptake. Rapid HIV/HCV screening uptake was greater in the control than the BI arm (45 vs. 38 %; p < 0.04). Screening uptake depended on elapsed study time and which research staff member offered testing. In the control arm, uptake was lowest for those spending <30 or ≥90 min in the study. In the BI arm, screening uptake generally increased over time. Tailored BI content specifically addressing participant HIV/HCV knowledge, HIV/HCV risk behaviors, or need for HIV/HCV screening was not associated with greater screening uptake. These study findings suggested factors that should be considered when designing future ED-based screening initiatives, such as elapsed study time, who offers testing, and the content of interventions. PMID:26036465

  13. Factors Influencing Uptake of Rapid HIV and Hepatitis C Screening Among Drug Misusing Adult Emergency Department Patients: Implications for Future HIV/HCV Screening Interventions.

    PubMed

    Merchant, Roland C; DeLong, Allison K; Liu, Tao; Baird, Janette R

    2015-11-01

    In this randomized, controlled trial among 957 English- or Spanish-speaking drug misusing adult emergency department (ED) patients, we determined if a tailored brief intervention (BI) increased uptake of rapid HIV/HCV screening, and identified factors associated with greater screening uptake. Rapid HIV/HCV screening uptake was greater in the control than the BI arm (45 vs. 38 %; p < 0.04). Screening uptake depended on elapsed study time and which research staff member offered testing. In the control arm, uptake was lowest for those spending <30 or ≥90 min in the study. In the BI arm, screening uptake generally increased over time. Tailored BI content specifically addressing participant HIV/HCV knowledge, HIV/HCV risk behaviors, or need for HIV/HCV screening was not associated with greater screening uptake. These study findings suggested factors that should be considered when designing future ED-based screening initiatives, such as elapsed study time, who offers testing, and the content of interventions.

  14. Future global environmental changes: Comparison with past and present rates of change

    SciTech Connect

    Cole, K.L. )

    1993-06-01

    Quantification of past and present rates of vegetation change provides a yardstick for the evaluation of future rates of change. Holocene and post-settlement rates of vegetation change were measured at Channel Islands and Capitol Reef National Parks, and at Indiana Dunes and Pictured Rocks National Lakeshores, using various paleoecological proxy data. Vegetation changes were quantified using several multivariate ordination techniques. Comparison of past vegetation changes due to climatic shifts, plant succession, and plant migration, with ongoing changes due to grazing, logging, exotic species invasions, and modified fire regimes, demonstrates that plant communities are presently suffering rates of change which are unprecedented in their severity for the Last 5000 years. The climatic warming projected for the next 50 years will exacerbate these ongoing changes, but win only be one of many variables operating in the unplanned experimental redesign our natural ecosystems.

  15. Modelling past and future sediment transfer in catchment-lake systems using integrated records of environmental change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Hugh; Sellami, Haykel; Sangster, Heather; Riley, Mark; Chiverrell, Richard; Boyle, John

    2016-04-01

    Agricultural change has caused significant environmental impacts with the onset of modern practices and intensification over the past century. In response, many current policy and management initiatives aim to reduce soil erosion and river pollution by fine sediment. However, there is a lack of detailed, longer-term baseline information extending beyond the instrumental record against which to measure the success or otherwise of such efforts. Furthermore, future reductions in the magnitude of impacts on soil erosion achievable under a changing climate remain unclear. Here, we provide an overview of an integrated approach for reconstructing impacts from past agricultural change based on social and environmental records coupled with multi-model simulations of catchment erosion and lake sediment dating. We aim to model soil erosion and sediment transfer responses to climatic variability and land use changes spanning the last ca. 100 years using variants of the RUSLE and Morgan-Morgan-Finney models. The study focuses on six lake catchments in Britain which cover a range of agricultural environments from intensively-farmed lowlands to upland catchments subject to lower-intensity livestock grazing. Land use reconstructions are based on historic aerial photography (1940s-2000s) and satellite-derived land cover maps (1990-2007) in combination with annual parish-level agricultural census data (1890s-1970s) and farmer interviews. Radionuclide dating of lake sediments coupled with pollen analysis provides independent data on decadal sedimentation rates and vegetation cover for comparison with model outputs and land use reconstructions. This combination of social and environmental records, soil erosion modelling and dating of lake sedimentary archives forms a powerful platform from which to project impacts from future agricultural scenarios under a changing climate.

  16. Vegetation Fires in the Coupled Human-Earth System Under Future Environmental and Policy Perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    le page, Y.; Morton, D. C.; Hurtt, G. C.

    2013-12-01

    Fires play a major role in terrestrial ecosystems dynamics and the carbon cycle. Potential changes in fire regimes due to climate change, land use change, or human management could have substantial ecological, climatic and socio-economic impacts, and have recently been emphasized as a source of uncertainty for policy-makers and climate mitigation cost estimates. Anticipating these interactions thus entails interdisciplinary models. Here we describe the development of a new fire modeling framework, which features the essential integration of climatic, vegetation and anthropogenic drivers. The model is an attempt to realistically account for ignition, spread and termination processes, on a 12-hour time step and at 1 degree spatial resolution globally. Because the quantitative influence of fire drivers on these processes are often poorly constrained, the framework includes an optimization procedure whereby key parameters (e.g. influence of moisture on fire spread, probability of cloud-to-ground lightning flashes to actually ignite a fire, human ignition frequency as a function of land use density) are determined to maximize the agreement between modeled and observed burned area over the past decade. The model performs surprisingly well across all biomes, and shows good agreement on non-optimized features, such as seasonality and fire size, which suggests some potential for robust projections. We couple the model to an integrated assessment model and explore the consequences of mitigation policies, land use decisions and climate change on future fire regimes with a focus on the Amazon basin. The coupled model future projections show that business-as-usual land use expansion would increase the frequency of escaped fires in the remaining forest, especially when combined with models projecting a drier climate. Inversely, climate mitigation policies as projected in the IPCC RCP4.5 scenario achieve synergistic benefits, with increased forest extent, less fire ignitions, and

  17. How technology megatrends are shaping the future of safety, health, and environmental monitoring.

    PubMed

    Brauch, Rob

    2015-05-01

    The Safety, Health and Environmental professional will soon be able to choose from a wider number of solutions that incorporate the latest developments in electronics, cellular and wireless communication, sensors, and software, all of which are driven by and are essential components of three "megatrends"--IoT, Big Data, and Social Networking. This will fundamentally alter the way in which we go about collecting information for risk assessment, exposure assessment, and thus how we implement better and more cost-effective solutions for protecting workers' lives and well-being. The more we become aware of these trends and developments, the better we will be able to integrate them into our sampling strategies and analysis methods, which creates greater value from our daily work as safety and health professionals.

  18. Microbial protein: future sustainable food supply route with low environmental footprint.

    PubMed

    Matassa, Silvio; Boon, Nico; Pikaar, Ilje; Verstraete, Willy

    2016-09-01

    Microbial biotechnology has a long history of producing feeds and foods. The key feature of today's market economy is that protein production by conventional agriculture based food supply chains is becoming a major issue in terms of global environmental pollution such as diffuse nutrient and greenhouse gas emissions, land use and water footprint. Time has come to re-assess the current potentials of producing protein-rich feed or food additives in the form of algae, yeasts, fungi and plain bacterial cellular biomass, producible with a lower environmental footprint compared with other plant or animal-based alternatives. A major driver is the need to no longer disintegrate but rather upgrade a variety of low-value organic and inorganic side streams in our current non-cyclic economy. In this context, microbial bioconversions of such valuable matters to nutritive microbial cells and cell components are a powerful asset. The worldwide market of animal protein is of the order of several hundred million tons per year, that of plant protein several billion tons of protein per year; hence, the expansion of the production of microbial protein does not pose disruptive challenges towards the process of the latter. Besides protein as nutritive compounds, also other cellular components such as lipids (single cell oil), polyhydroxybuthyrate, exopolymeric saccharides, carotenoids, ectorines, (pro)vitamins and essential amino acids can be of value for the growing domain of novel nutrition. In order for microbial protein as feed or food to become a major and sustainable alternative, addressing the challenges of creating awareness and achieving public and broader regulatory acceptance are real and need to be addressed with care and expedience. PMID:27389856

  19. High-speed rail with emerging automobiles and aircraft can reduce environmental impacts in California’s future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chester, Mikhail; Horvath, Arpad

    2012-09-01

    Sustainable mobility policy for long-distance transportation services should consider emerging automobiles and aircraft as well as infrastructure and supply chain life-cycle effects in the assessment of new high-speed rail systems. Using the California corridor, future automobiles, high-speed rail and aircraft long-distance travel are evaluated, considering emerging fuel-efficient vehicles, new train designs and the possibility that the region will meet renewable electricity goals. An attributional per passenger-kilometer-traveled life-cycle inventory is first developed including vehicle, infrastructure and energy production components. A consequential life-cycle impact assessment is then established to evaluate existing infrastructure expansion against the construction of a new high-speed rail system. The results show that when using the life-cycle assessment framework, greenhouse gas footprints increase significantly and human health and environmental damage potentials may be dominated by indirect and supply chain components. The environmental payback is most sensitive to the number of automobile trips shifted to high-speed rail, and for greenhouse gases is likely to occur in 20-30 years. A high-speed rail system that is deployed with state-of-the-art trains, electricity that has met renewable goals, and in a configuration that endorses high ridership will provide significant environmental benefits over existing modes. Opportunities exist for reducing the long-distance transportation footprint by incentivizing large automobile trip shifts, meeting clean electricity goals and reducing material production effects.

  20. Ecological genomics meets community-level modelling of biodiversity: mapping the genomic landscape of current and future environmental adaptation.

    PubMed

    Fitzpatrick, Matthew C; Keller, Stephen R

    2015-01-01

    Local adaptation is a central feature of most species occupying spatially heterogeneous environments, and may factor critically in responses to environmental change. However, most efforts to model the response of species to climate change ignore intraspecific variation due to local adaptation. Here, we present a new perspective on spatial modelling of organism-environment relationships that combines genomic data and community-level modelling to develop scenarios regarding the geographic distribution of genomic variation in response to environmental change. Rather than modelling species within communities, we use these techniques to model large numbers of loci across genomes. Using balsam poplar (Populus balsamifera) as a case study, we demonstrate how our framework can accommodate nonlinear responses of loci to environmental gradients. We identify a threshold response to temperature in the circadian clock gene GIGANTEA-5 (GI5), suggesting that this gene has experienced strong local adaptation to temperature. We also demonstrate how these methods can map ecological adaptation from genomic data, including the identification of predicted differences in the genetic composition of populations under current and future climates. Community-level modelling of genomic variation represents an important advance in landscape genomics and spatial modelling of biodiversity that moves beyond species-level assessments of climate change vulnerability.

  1. European Environmental Education for Our Common Future. European Regional Seminar Report. Report from the Norwegian National Commission for UNESCO Seminar (Lillehammer, Norway, May 7-12, 1989).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France). Environmental Education Section.

    A seminar on the promotion of international cooperation and peace through environmental education (EE) within the framework of the UNESCO Associated Schools Project was held in Norway. The seminar was held against the background of increasing concern about environmental questions and an increasing awareness that the well-being and the future of…

  2. Back to the Future -Precipitation Extremes, Climate Variability, Environmental Planning and Adaptation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barros, A. P.

    2008-12-01

    uncertainty and separating climatic variability and change from model error. Nonstationarity and persistence at multiple scales confound the problem. From an economics perspective, the unprecedented success of environmental control and "conservation" in the 20th century, present another yet challenge in terms of social expectations and human development, including the right to sustainable (high) quality of life. In this presentation, we illustrate these challenges by considering first the estimation of Probable Maximum Precipitation, an engineering design criterion typically used in dam design, and examine how it varies spatially across the continental US according to physiographic region and as a function of climate regime. Second, we explore the spatial and temporal scales that link climate variability to macroscale environmental planning, and the notion of place-based adaptive riskgrade analysis.

  3. Environmental impact assessment and monetary ecosystem service valuation of an ecosystem under different future environmental change and management scenarios; a case study of a Scots pine forest.

    PubMed

    Schaubroeck, Thomas; Deckmyn, Gaby; Giot, Olivier; Campioli, Matteo; Vanpoucke, Charlotte; Verheyen, Kris; Rugani, Benedetto; Achten, Wouter; Verbeeck, Hans; Dewulf, Jo; Muys, Bart

    2016-05-15

    For a sustainable future, we must sustainably manage not only the human/industrial system but also ecosystems. To achieve the latter goal, we need to predict the responses of ecosystems and their provided services to management practices under changing environmental conditions via ecosystem models and use tools to compare the estimated provided services between the different scenarios. However, scientific articles have covered a limited amount of estimated ecosystem services and have used tools to aggregate services that contain a significant amount of subjective aspects and that represent the final result in a non-tangible unit such as 'points'. To resolve these matters, this study quantifies the environmental impact (on human health, natural systems and natural resources) in physical units and uses an ecosystem service valuation based on monetary values (including ecosystem disservices with associated negative monetary values). More specifically, the paper also focuses on the assessment of ecosystem services related to pollutant removal/generation flows, accounting for the inflow of eutrophying nitrogen (N) when assessing the effect of N leached to groundwater. Regarding water use/provisioning, evapotranspiration is alternatively considered a disservice because it implies a loss of (potential) groundwater. These approaches and improvements, relevant to all ecosystems, are demonstrated using a Scots pine stand from 2010 to 2089 for a combination of three environmental change and three management scenarios. The environmental change scenarios considered interannual climate variability trends and included alterations in temperature, precipitation, nitrogen deposition, wind speed, Particulate matter (PM) concentration and CO2 concentration. The addressed flows/ecosystem services, including disservices, are as follows: particulate matter removal, freshwater loss, CO2 sequestration, wood production, NOx emissions, NH3 uptake and nitrogen pollution/removal. The monetary

  4. Environmental impact assessment and monetary ecosystem service valuation of an ecosystem under different future environmental change and management scenarios; a case study of a Scots pine forest.

    PubMed

    Schaubroeck, Thomas; Deckmyn, Gaby; Giot, Olivier; Campioli, Matteo; Vanpoucke, Charlotte; Verheyen, Kris; Rugani, Benedetto; Achten, Wouter; Verbeeck, Hans; Dewulf, Jo; Muys, Bart

    2016-05-15

    For a sustainable future, we must sustainably manage not only the human/industrial system but also ecosystems. To achieve the latter goal, we need to predict the responses of ecosystems and their provided services to management practices under changing environmental conditions via ecosystem models and use tools to compare the estimated provided services between the different scenarios. However, scientific articles have covered a limited amount of estimated ecosystem services and have used tools to aggregate services that contain a significant amount of subjective aspects and that represent the final result in a non-tangible unit such as 'points'. To resolve these matters, this study quantifies the environmental impact (on human health, natural systems and natural resources) in physical units and uses an ecosystem service valuation based on monetary values (including ecosystem disservices with associated negative monetary values). More specifically, the paper also focuses on the assessment of ecosystem services related to pollutant removal/generation flows, accounting for the inflow of eutrophying nitrogen (N) when assessing the effect of N leached to groundwater. Regarding water use/provisioning, evapotranspiration is alternatively considered a disservice because it implies a loss of (potential) groundwater. These approaches and improvements, relevant to all ecosystems, are demonstrated using a Scots pine stand from 2010 to 2089 for a combination of three environmental change and three management scenarios. The environmental change scenarios considered interannual climate variability trends and included alterations in temperature, precipitation, nitrogen deposition, wind speed, Particulate matter (PM) concentration and CO2 concentration. The addressed flows/ecosystem services, including disservices, are as follows: particulate matter removal, freshwater loss, CO2 sequestration, wood production, NOx emissions, NH3 uptake and nitrogen pollution/removal. The monetary

  5. Assessing the environmental costs and benefits of plantations under future carbon pricing scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, R. B.; Barrett, D. J.; Farley, K.; Guenther, A.; Jobbágy, E. G.; Murray, B. C.; McCarl, B. A.; Schlesinger, W. H.

    2004-12-01

    Carbon sequestration programs are gaining attention globally as a means to offset increasing fossil fuel emissions and atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations. We are examining scenarios of C sequestration in four regions of the world: the U.S., South America, China, and Australia. The analysis uses economic models to predict where the plantations will be grown and then categorizes the other biogeochemical changes that will likely occur. The goals of the project include: 1) Evaluating the assumptions behind C sequestration programs for plantations, including the importance of rotation rates, a full accounting of carbon costs (e.g., planting and site preparation), and how the C would be stored and safeguarded. 2) Examining the scale of the process needed to make a substantial contribution to offset fossil fuel emissions (see below). The scenario we have chosen to evaluate is one that addresses the consequences of storing 1 PgC yr-1 for 50 years. 3) Determining and summarizing the evidence for other biogeochemical changes that will likely occur. Some of the factors to be evaluated include soil acidification, changes in water fluxes and water-table dynamics, nutrient losses, changes in soil fauna and biodiversity, volatile organic carbon emissions, and erosion. 4) A final goal of the project is to make concrete recommendations for where plantations may be the most beneficial in terms of C storage and other environmental benefits, such as the amelioration of salinity and groundwater upwelling in Australia.

  6. The landscape of Wageningen as an inspiring teaching environment for future environmental scientists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keesstra, Saskia; Sonneveld, Marthijn

    2013-04-01

    Practical field work is an essential component in training future soil scientists. This is facilitated when a wide variety of geological materials geomorphological phenomena and soil patterns are within reach. One of the leading universities in soil science in the Netherlands, Wageningen University, was founded some hundred years ago in the small city of Wageningen because of the rich variety of soils and landscapes in its vicinity. Being located in the central part of the Netherlands, its region is famous because here Late-Pleistocene and Late-Holocene deposits meet. Wageningen is located on the slope of an ice pushed ridge which dates from the Saalien ice age, bordering a glacial tongue basin The ridge is mainly composed of pushed coarse grained fluvial deposits. In the Weichselien ice age cover sands have been deposited on the sides of this ridge. During the Holocene the ridge was eroded on the southern side, where the river Rhine has cut into the older deposits and deposited mainly fine grained fluvial deposits. Peat formation took place in the lower parts of the basin. In addition this region has been inhabited by people, who have worked, and fertilized the soil, creating a thickened A-horizon in some locations around Wageningen. This geological setting has created a palette of different sedimentary deposits which serve as mother material for a variety of soil types like podzols, brown forest soils, , fluvial clay to loamy soils, plaggen soils and peat soils. In our education we frequently use the soils in the surrounding as a teaching environment for our students. They are send out to use all their senses and look, feel, hear and sometimes even taste the soils. They use these impressions to describe the soils and understand why the soils are on that specific place in the landscape where we find it. We feel students benefit from this playground in our backyard, because, even though students work more and more in an individual and virtual environment where they

  7. Rapid Loss of Andean Alpine Glaciers: A Reflection on Cotopaxi´s Long-Distance Historical Lahars and Future Lahar Scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mothes, P. A.; Hall, M. L.; Samaniego, P.; Francou, B.; Castro, M.; Hidalgo, X.

    2007-05-01

    Andean alpine glaciers are in rapid retreat, as witnessed by actual measurements, comparative imagery and popular memory. Overall glacier losses will diminish future water availability for human consumption as well as for lahar generation, the product of mixing incandescent eruptive materials with glacial ice and snow. The field study and modeling of long-distance historical lahars from Cotopaxi volcano, Ecuador has shown them to be some of the most voluminous and longest reported. Based on back calculations, peak discharges were commonly between 45,000-60,000 m3/sec, velocities reached 70 km/hr, and run outs attained 325 km. The last "super" debris flow was produced at Cotopaxi in 1877. Observations made after the 1877 eruption reported that the glacier had suffered about 10 meters of ice stripped off the top and the incision of deep gullies from melting and erosion by the scoria block-rich pyroclastic flows. Average reductions of 45% and 60%, respectively, of the area and volume of Cotopaxi´s 19 alpine glaciers during the last 30 years have left an ice cap of only 13 km2 and a volume of 0.60 km3. Descriptions by astute 18th and 19th century observers lead us to conclude that Cotopaxi glaciers were much more robust then, surpassing a total area of about 30 km2, a fact which contributed to generating large volume lahars and high discharges, during the waning "Little Ice Age". If an eruption similar to that of 1877 occurs at Cotopaxi in the future, reduced glacier sizes and the glaciers´ preferential distribution upon the cone will likely attenuate volcano-ice interactions and will lower the probability of "super" lahars being produced during eruptive periods. However, in the last 2000 years of eruptive activity, explosive eruptions display a large size span-- from weakly explosive events (VEI= 2) to highly explosive eruptive cycles (VEI= 4-5). Given the uncertainty of the size of the next explosive eruption of Cotopaxi, several scenarios for lahar generation must

  8. Application of GNSS-RTK derived topographical maps for rapid environmental monitoring: a case study of Jack Finnery Lake (Perth, Australia).

    PubMed

    Schloderer, Glen; Bingham, Matthew; Awange, Joseph L; Fleming, Kevin M

    2011-09-01

    In environmental monitoring, environmental impact assessments and environmental audits, topographical maps play an essential role in providing a means by which the locations of sampling sites may be selected, in assisting with the interpretation of physical features, and in indicating the impact or potential impact on an area due to changes in the system being monitored (e.g., spatially changing features such as wetlands). Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) are hereby presented as a rapid method for monitoring spatial changes to support environmental monitoring decisions and policies. To validate the GNSS-based method, a comparison is made of results from a small-scale topographic survey using radio-based real-time kinematic GNSS (GNSS-RTK) and total station survey methods at Jack Finnery Lake, Perth, Australia. The accuracies achieved by the total station in this study were 2 cm horizontally and 6 cm vertically, while the GNSS-RTK also achieved an accuracy of 2 cm horizontally, but only 28 cm vertically. While the GNSS-RTK measurements were less accurate in the height component compared to those from the total station method, it is still capable of achieving accuracies sufficient for a topographic map at a scale of 1:1,750 that could support environmental monitoring tasks such as identifying spatial changes in small water bodies or wetlands. The time taken to perform the survey using GNSS-RTK, however, was much shorter compared to the total station method, thereby making it quite suitable for monitoring spatial changes within an environmental context, e.g., dynamic mining activities that require rapid surveys and the updating of the monitored data at regular intervals.

  9. ENVIRONMENTAL AND SUSTAINABLE TECHNOLOGY EVALUATION: BIOMASS CO-FIRING IN INDUSTRIAL BOILERS--MINNESOTA POWER'S RAPIDS ENERGY CENTER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. EPA operates the Environmental and Sustainable Technology Evaluation (ESTE) program to facilitate the deployment of innovative technologies through performance verification and information dissemination. This ESTE project involved evaluation of co-firing common woody bio...

  10. Study of Environmental Arctic Change (SEARCH): Scientific Understanding of Arctic Environmental Change to Help Society Understand and Respond to a Rapidly Changing Arctic.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiggins, H. V.; Myers, B.

    2015-12-01

    The Study of Environmental Arctic Change (SEARCH) is a U.S. program with a mission to provide a foundation of Arctic change science through collaboration with the research community, funding agencies, and other stakeholders. To achieve this mission, SEARCH: Generates and synthesizes research findings and promotes Arctic science and scientific discovery across disciplines and among agencies. Identifies emerging issues in Arctic environmental change. Provides scientific information to Arctic stakeholders, policy-makers, and the public to help them understand and respond to arctic environmental change. Facilitates research activities across local-to-global scales, with an emphasis on addressing needs of decision-makers. Collaborates with national and international science programs integral to SEARCH goals. This poster presentation will present SEARCH activities and plans, highlighting those focused on providing information for decision-makers. http://www.arcus.org/search

  11. Development of a Rapid and Sensitive Immunoassay for Detection and Subsequent Recovery of Bacillus anthracis Spores in Environmental Samples

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bacillus anthracis is considered a major threat as an agent of bioterrorism. B. anthracis spores are readily dispersed as aerosols, are very persistent, and are resistant to normal disinfection treatments. Immunoassays have been developed to rapidly detect B. anthracis spores at high concentration...

  12. Exposure information in environmental health research: Current opportunities and future directions for particulate matter, ozone, and toxic air pollutants

    SciTech Connect

    McKone, Thomas E.; Ryan, P. Barry; Ozkaynak, Haluk

    2007-02-01

    Understanding and quantifying outdoor and indoor sources of human exposure are essential but often not adequately addressed in health-effects studies for air pollution. Air pollution epidemiology, risk assessment, health tracking and accountability assessments are examples of health-effects studies that require but often lack adequate exposure information. Recent advances in exposure modeling along with better information on time-activity and exposure factors data provide us with unique opportunities to improve the assignment of exposures for both future and ongoing studies linking air pollution to health impacts. In September 2006, scientists from the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) along with scientists from the academic community and state health departments convened a symposium on air pollution exposure and health in order to identify, evaluate, and improve current approaches for linking air pollution exposures to disease. This manuscript presents the key issues, challenges and recommendations identified by the exposure working group, who used cases studies of particulate matter, ozone, and toxic air pollutant exposure to evaluate health-effects for air pollution. One of the over-arching lessons of this workshop is that obtaining better exposure information for these different health-effects studies requires both goal-setting for what is needed and mapping out the transition pathway from current capabilities to meeting these goals. Meeting our long-term goals requires definition of incremental steps that provide useful information for the interim and move us toward our long-term goals. Another over-arching theme among the three different pollutants and the different health study approaches is the need for integration among alternate exposure assessment approaches. For example, different groups may advocate exposure indicators, biomonitoring, mapping methods (GIS), modeling, environmental media

  13. Forecasting landscape effects of Mississippi River diversions on elevation and accretion in Louisiana deltaic wetlands under future environmental uncertainty scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hongqing; Steyer, Gregory D.; Couvillion, Brady R.; Rybczyk, John M.; Beck, Holly J.; Sleavin, William J.; Meselhe, Ehab A.; Allison, Mead A.; Boustany, Ronald G.; Fischenich, Craig J.; Rivera-Monroy, Victor H.

    2014-02-01

    Large sediment diversions are proposed and expected to build new wetlands to alleviate the extensive wetland loss (5000 km2) affecting coastal Louisiana during the last 78 years. Current assessment and prediction of the impacts of sediment diversions have focused on the capture and dispersal of both water and sediment on the adjacent river side and the immediate outfall marsh area. However, little is known about the effects of sediment diversions on existing wetland surface elevation and vertical accretion dynamics in the receiving basin at the landscape scale. In this study, we used a spatial wetland surface elevation model developed in support of Louisiana's 2012 Coastal Master Plan to examine such landscape-scale effects of sediment diversions. Multiple sediment diversion projects were incorporated in the model to simulate surface elevation and vertical accretion for the next 50 years (2010-2060) under two environmental (moderate and less optimistic) scenarios. Specifically, we examined landscape-scale surface elevation and vertical accretion trends under diversions with different geographical locations, diverted discharge rates, and geomorphic characteristics of the receiving basin. Model results indicate that small diversions (<283 m3 s-1) tend to have limited effects of reducing landscape-scale elevation loss (<3%) compared to a future without action (FWOA) condition. Large sediment diversions (>1500 m3 s-1) are required to achieve landscape-level benefits to promote surface elevation via vertical accretion to keep pace with rising sea level.

  14. Summary of some current and possible future environmental problems related to geology and hydrology at Memphis, Tennessee

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parks, William Scott; Lounsbury, Richard W.

    1976-01-01

    This report summarizes information concerning many aspects of the geology and hydrology at Memphis, Tenn. It also outlines some of the current problems related to the local geology and hydrology or ones that may arise as a result of urbanization and industrialization of the area. The city is in the Coastal Plain physiographic province and is underlain at shallow depths by sand, clay, silt, gravel, and lignite. These post-Midway strata (Wilcox and younger) make up geologic units belonging to the uppermost Paleocene, Eocene, and Pliocene ( ) Series of the Tertiary System and to the Pleistocene and Holocene Series of the Quaternary System. Environmental problems of immediate or future concern are associated with six general topics: (1) aggregate resources, (2) foundation materials, (3) earthquake hazards, (4) flood hazards, (5) water resources, and (6) solid waste disposal. Consideration of these topics provide an overall insight into the close interrelation of the problems and the need for coordinated studies of the geology and hydrology at Memphis. (Woodard-USGS)

  15. Forecasting landscape effects of Mississippi River diversions on elevation and accretion in Louisiana deltaic wetlands under future environmental uncertainty scenarios

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wang, Hongqing; Steyer, Gregory D.; Couvillion, Brady R.; John M. Rybczyk,; Beck, Holly J.; William J. Sleavin,; Ehab A. Meselhe,; Mead A. Allison,; Ronald G. Boustany,; Craig J. Fischenich,; Victor H. Rivera-Monroy,

    2014-01-01

    Large sediment diversions are proposed and expected to build new wetlands to alleviate the extensive wetland loss (5,000 km2) affecting coastal Louisiana during the last 78 years. Current assessment and prediction of the impacts of sediment diversions have focused on the capture and dispersal of both water and sediment on the adjacent river side and the immediate outfall marsh area. However, little is known about the effects of sediment diversions on existing wetland surface elevation and vertical accretion dynamics in the receiving basin at the landscape scale. In this study, we used a spatial wetland surface elevation model developed in support of Louisiana's 2012 Coastal Master Plan to examine such landscape-scale effects of sediment diversions. Multiple sediment diversion projects were incorporated in the model to simulate surface elevation and vertical accretion for the next 50 years (2010-2060) under two environmental (moderate and less optimistic) scenarios. Specifically, we examined landscape-scale surface elevation and vertical accretion trends under diversions with different geographical locations, diverted discharge rates, and geomorphic characteristics of the receiving basin. Model results indicate that small diversions (< 283 m3 s-1) tend to have limited effects of reducing landscape-scale elevation loss (< 3%) compared to a future without action (FWOA) condition. Large sediment diversions (> 1,500 m3 s-1) are required to achieve landscape-level benefits to promote surface elevation via vertical accretion to keep pace with rising sea level.

  16. The Role of Latin America’s Land and Water Resources for Global Food Security: Environmental Trade-Offs of Future Food Production Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Flachsbarth, Insa; Willaarts, Bárbara; Xie, Hua; Pitois, Gauthier; Mueller, Nathaniel D.; Ringler, Claudia; Garrido, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    One of humanity’s major challenges of the 21st century will be meeting future food demands on an increasingly resource constrained-planet. Global food production will have to rise by 70 percent between 2000 and 2050 to meet effective demand which poses major challenges to food production systems. Doing so without compromising environmental integrity is an even greater challenge. This study looks at the interdependencies between land and water resources, agricultural production and environmental outcomes in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC), an area of growing importance in international agricultural markets. Special emphasis is given to the role of LAC’s agriculture for (a) global food security and (b) environmental sustainability. We use the International Model for Policy Analysis of Agricultural Commodities and Trade (IMPACT)—a global dynamic partial equilibrium model of the agricultural sector—to run different future production scenarios, and agricultural trade regimes out to 2050, and assess changes in related environmental indicators. Results indicate that further trade liberalization is crucial for improving food security globally, but that it would also lead to more environmental pressures in some regions across Latin America. Contrasting land expansion versus more intensified agriculture shows that productivity improvements are generally superior to agricultural land expansion, from an economic and environmental point of view. Finally, our analysis shows that there are trade-offs between environmental and food security goals for all agricultural development paths. PMID:25617621

  17. The role of Latin America's land and water resources for global food security: environmental trade-offs of future food production pathways.

    PubMed

    Flachsbarth, Insa; Willaarts, Bárbara; Xie, Hua; Pitois, Gauthier; Mueller, Nathaniel D; Ringler, Claudia; Garrido, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    One of humanity's major challenges of the 21st century will be meeting future food demands on an increasingly resource constrained-planet. Global food production will have to rise by 70 percent between 2000 and 2050 to meet effective demand which poses major challenges to food production systems. Doing so without compromising environmental integrity is an even greater challenge. This study looks at the interdependencies between land and water resources, agricultural production and environmental outcomes in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC), an area of growing importance in international agricultural markets. Special emphasis is given to the role of LAC's agriculture for (a) global food security and (b) environmental sustainability. We use the International Model for Policy Analysis of Agricultural Commodities and Trade (IMPACT)-a global dynamic partial equilibrium model of the agricultural sector-to run different future production scenarios, and agricultural trade regimes out to 2050, and assess changes in related environmental indicators. Results indicate that further trade liberalization is crucial for improving food security globally, but that it would also lead to more environmental pressures in some regions across Latin America. Contrasting land expansion versus more intensified agriculture shows that productivity improvements are generally superior to agricultural land expansion, from an economic and environmental point of view. Finally, our analysis shows that there are trade-offs between environmental and food security goals for all agricultural development paths.

  18. Rapid sequential determination of Pu, 90Sr and 241Am nuclides in environmental samples using an anion exchange and Sr-Spec resins.

    PubMed

    Lee, M H; Ahn, H J; Park, J H; Park, Y J; Song, K

    2011-02-01

    This paper presents a quantitative and rapid method of sequential separation of Pu, (90)Sr and (241)Am nuclides in environmental soil samples with an anion exchange resin and Sr Spec resin. After the sample solution was passed through an anion exchange column connected to a Sr Spec column, Pu isotopes were purified from the anion exchange column. Strontium-90 was separated from other interfering elements by the Sr Spec column. Americium-241 was purified from lanthanides by the anion exchange resin after oxalate co-precipitation. Measurement of Pu and Am isotopes was carried out using an α-spectrometer. Strontium-90 was measured by a low-level liquid scintillation counter. The radiochemical procedure of Pu, (90)Sr and (241)Am nuclides investigated in this study validated by application to IAEA reference materials and environmental soil samples.

  19. The crucial role of wiping in decontamination of high-touch environmental surfaces: review of current status and directions for the future.

    PubMed

    Sattar, Syed A; Maillard, Jean-Yves

    2013-05-01

    The testing and label claims of disinfectants to wipe high-touch environmental surfaces rarely reflect their field use where contact times are in seconds with only microliters of the disinfectant deposited on a unit surface area. Therefore, such products must be properly assessed with mechanical/chemical action combined. We critically review current wipe test methods and propose future approaches.

  20. Promoting environmental public health in rapidly urbanizing areas of less-developed countries in Africa: a collaborative interdisciplinary training in Ibadan, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Shendell, Derek G; Ana, Godson R E E

    2011-01-01

    Globally, urbanization has been occurring more rapidly in small-to-medium-sized cities in less-developed countries of Africa and Asia. Studies have suggested associations between traffic and industry-related air pollutants and adverse health outcomes. These chemical and physical exposure agents have also received increased attention for environmental quality concerns like global climate change. Most research to date, however, was conducted in larger industrialized country urban centers. Ibadan, Nigeria, is a historic city characterized by urban sprawl and increasing modernization as an academic and medical training center but is lacking in the implementation of environmental laws. The authors conducted their first training in Ibadan, Nigeria, May 19-23, 2008, based on initial collaborative work during 2006-2008 as well as a trip in mid-March 2007. They describe the rationale for and components of the training, likely one of the first of its kind in Africa. The title of the training was "Advances in Community Outdoor and Indoor Air and Environmental Quality Monitoring and Exposure Assessment." Content was multimedia and interdisciplinary. The authors included lectures, group discussions, field experiences at community and industrial sites with cross-sectional environmental monitoring, and planned pilot studies including master's thesis projects based on real-time, grant-funded monitoring equipment provided to the University of Ibadan, including protocol development demonstrations.

  1. Promoting environmental public health in rapidly urbanizing areas of less-developed countries in Africa: a collaborative interdisciplinary training in Ibadan, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Shendell, Derek G; Ana, Godson R E E

    2011-01-01

    Globally, urbanization has been occurring more rapidly in small-to-medium-sized cities in less-developed countries of Africa and Asia. Studies have suggested associations between traffic and industry-related air pollutants and adverse health outcomes. These chemical and physical exposure agents have also received increased attention for environmental quality concerns like global climate change. Most research to date, however, was conducted in larger industrialized country urban centers. Ibadan, Nigeria, is a historic city characterized by urban sprawl and increasing modernization as an academic and medical training center but is lacking in the implementation of environmental laws. The authors conducted their first training in Ibadan, Nigeria, May 19-23, 2008, based on initial collaborative work during 2006-2008 as well as a trip in mid-March 2007. They describe the rationale for and components of the training, likely one of the first of its kind in Africa. The title of the training was "Advances in Community Outdoor and Indoor Air and Environmental Quality Monitoring and Exposure Assessment." Content was multimedia and interdisciplinary. The authors included lectures, group discussions, field experiences at community and industrial sites with cross-sectional environmental monitoring, and planned pilot studies including master's thesis projects based on real-time, grant-funded monitoring equipment provided to the University of Ibadan, including protocol development demonstrations. PMID:21830687

  2. An evaluation of a commercially available enzyme immunoassay test for the rapid detection of salmonellae in food and environmental samples.

    PubMed Central

    Harford, J. P.

    1987-01-01

    A total of 91 food and environmental samples were examined for the presence of salmonellae using a commercially available enzyme immunoassay kit (EIA) and a conventional culture technique. A 78% agreement was obtained, but reexamination of culture-negative, EIA-positive samples gave agreement of 86%. The problem of comparing EIA and culture results is discussed. A partially selective pre-enrichment broth was tested in 37 samples and gave better EIA ratios. Artificially contaminated cooked foods gave 100% agreement. PMID:3301373

  3. Behaviour of mobile macrofauna is a key factor in beach ecology as response to rapid environmental changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scapini, Felicita

    2014-10-01

    Sandy beach animals show behavioural adaptations that are expressed as contingencies during the life history of individuals to face periodic and episodic environmental changes. Such adaptations include activity rhythms, orientation, zonation, burrowing, escape responses and feeding strategies, the first two being common adaptations to all mobile animals. The complex conditions of a particular beach environment may be integrated in a learning process enhancing the adaptation and survival of individuals and eventually of populations. Evidence exists of genetic determination of some behavioural features that are adaptive in the long term (throughout generations) by increasing individual survival and reproductive potential. The environmental features integrated with the life history of beach animals shape the individual behaviour through ontogenetic processes, as well as population behaviour through evolutionary processes. Thus, behavioural differences among individuals may reflect environmental variation at the local and small/medium temporal scales of beach processes, whereas within-population behavioural coherence and differences among populations may reflect variation at the geographic scale. The different foci stressed by different authors and the variety of evidence dependent upon local geographical and ecological conditions have often resulted in compartmentalised explanations, making generalizations and the repeatability of behavioural studies of beach ecology challenging. There was a need to developing a more synthetic paradigm for beach animal behaviour. This paper gives a brief overview of the theoretical background and keystone studies, which have contributed to our understanding of animal behaviour in sandy beach ecology, and proposes testable hypotheses to be integrated in the beach ecology paradigm.

  4. Environmental implications of gene flow from sugar beet to wild beet--current status and future research needs.

    PubMed

    Bartsch, Detlef; Cuguen, Joel; Biancardi, Enrico; Sweet, Jeremy

    2003-01-01

    Gene flow via seed or pollen is a basic biological process in plant evolution. The ecological and genetic consequences of gene flow depend on the amount and direction of gene flow as well as on the fitness of hybrids. The assessment of potential risks of transgenic plants should take into account the fact that conventional crops can often cross with wild plants. The precautionary approach in risk management of genetically modified plants (GMPs) may make it necessary to monitor significant wild and weed populations that might be affected by transgene escape. Gene flow is hard to control in wind-pollinated plants like beet (Beta vulgaris). In addition, wild beet populations potentially can undergo evolutionary changes which might expand their geographical distribution. Unintended products of cultivated beets pollinated by wild beets are weed beets that bolt and flower during their first year of planting. Weed beets cause yield losses and can delay harvest. Wild beets are important plant genetic resources and the preservation of wild beet diversity in Europe has been considered in biosafety research. We present here the methodology and research approaches that can be used for monitoring the geographical distribution and diversity of Beta populations. It has recently been shown that a century of gene flow from Beta vulgaris ssp. vulgaris has not altered the genetic diversity of wild Beta vulgaris L. ssp. maritima (L.) Arcang. in the Italian sugar beet seed production area. Future research should focus on the potential evolution of transgenic wild beet populations in comparison to these baseline data. Two monitoring models are presented describing how endpoints can be measured: (1) "Pre-post" crop commercialization against today's baseline and (2) "Parallel" to crop commercialization against GMP free reference areas/ populations. Model 2 has the advantage of taking ongoing changes in genetic diversity and population dynamics into account. Model 1 is more applicable if

  5. Agronomic improvements can make future cereal systems in South Asia far more productive and result in a lower environmental footprint.

    PubMed

    Ladha, Jagdish Kumar; Rao, Adusumilli Narayana; Raman, Anitha K; Padre, Agnes Tirol; Dobermann, Achim; Gathala, Mahesh; Kumar, Virender; Saharawat, Yashpal; Sharma, Sheetal; Piepho, Hans Peter; Alam, Md Mursedul; Liak, Ranjan; Rajendran, Ramasamy; Reddy, Chinnagangannagari Kesava; Parsad, Rajender; Sharma, Parbodh C; Singh, Sati Shankar; Saha, Abhijit; Noor, Shamsoon

    2016-03-01

    South Asian countries will have to double their food production by 2050 while using resources more efficiently and minimizing environmental problems. Transformative management approaches and technology solutions will be required in the major grain-producing areas that provide the basis for future food and nutrition security. This study was conducted in four locations representing major food production systems of densely populated regions of South Asia. Novel production-scale research platforms were established to assess and optimize three futuristic cropping systems and management scenarios (S2, S3, S4) in comparison with current management (S1). With best agronomic management practices (BMPs), including conservation agriculture (CA) and cropping system diversification, the productivity of rice- and wheat-based cropping systems of South Asia increased substantially, whereas the global warming potential intensity (GWPi) decreased. Positive economic returns and less use of water, labor, nitrogen, and fossil fuel energy per unit food produced were achieved. In comparison with S1, S4, in which BMPs, CA and crop diversification were implemented in the most integrated manner, achieved 54% higher grain energy yield with a 104% increase in economic returns, 35% lower total water input, and a 43% lower GWPi. Conservation agriculture practices were most suitable for intensifying as well as diversifying wheat-rice rotations, but less so for rice-rice systems. This finding also highlights the need for characterizing areas suitable for CA and subsequent technology targeting. A comprehensive baseline dataset generated in this study will allow the prediction of extending benefits to a larger scale. PMID:26527502

  6. Targeting the impact of agri-environmental policy - Future scenarios in two less favoured areas in Portugal.

    PubMed

    Jones, Nadia; Fleskens, Luuk; Stroosnijder, Leo

    2016-10-01

    Targeting agri-environmental measures (AEM) improves their effectiveness in the delivery of public goods, provided the necessary coordination with other incentives. In less favoured areas (LFA) measures focusing on the conservation of extensive farming contribute to sustainable land management in these areas. In this paper we investigate the implementation of a possible AEM supporting the improvement of permanent pastures coordinated with the extensive livestock and single farm payments actually in place. Through applying a spatially-explicit mixed integer optimisation model we simulate future land use scenarios for two less favoured areas in Portugal (Centro and Alentejo) considering two policy scenarios: a 'targeted AEM', and a 'non-targeted AEM'. We then compare the results with a 'basic policy' option (reflecting a situation without AEM). This is done with regard to landscape-scale effects on the reduction of fire hazard and erosion risk, as well as effects on farm income. The results show that an AEM for permanent pastures would be more cost-effective for erosion and fire hazard mitigation if implemented within a spatially targeted framework. However when cost-effectiveness is assessed with other indicators (e.g. net farm income and share of grazing livestock) 'non-targeted AEM' implementation delivers the best outcome in Alentejo. In Centro the implementation of an AEM involves important losses of income compared to the 'basic policy'. 'Targeted AEM' tends to favour farms in very marginal conditions, i.e. targeting is demonstrated to perform best in landscapes where spatial heterogeneity is higher. The results also show the risk of farm abandonment in the two studied less favoured areas: in all three scenarios more than 30% of arable land is deemed to be abandoned. PMID:27444720

  7. Targeting the impact of agri-environmental policy - Future scenarios in two less favoured areas in Portugal.

    PubMed

    Jones, Nadia; Fleskens, Luuk; Stroosnijder, Leo

    2016-10-01

    Targeting agri-environmental measures (AEM) improves their effectiveness in the delivery of public goods, provided the necessary coordination with other incentives. In less favoured areas (LFA) measures focusing on the conservation of extensive farming contribute to sustainable land management in these areas. In this paper we investigate the implementation of a possible AEM supporting the improvement of permanent pastures coordinated with the extensive livestock and single farm payments actually in place. Through applying a spatially-explicit mixed integer optimisation model we simulate future land use scenarios for two less favoured areas in Portugal (Centro and Alentejo) considering two policy scenarios: a 'targeted AEM', and a 'non-targeted AEM'. We then compare the results with a 'basic policy' option (reflecting a situation without AEM). This is done with regard to landscape-scale effects on the reduction of fire hazard and erosion risk, as well as effects on farm income. The results show that an AEM for permanent pastures would be more cost-effective for erosion and fire hazard mitigation if implemented within a spatially targeted framework. However when cost-effectiveness is assessed with other indicators (e.g. net farm income and share of grazing livestock) 'non-targeted AEM' implementation delivers the best outcome in Alentejo. In Centro the implementation of an AEM involves important losses of income compared to the 'basic policy'. 'Targeted AEM' tends to favour farms in very marginal conditions, i.e. targeting is demonstrated to perform best in landscapes where spatial heterogeneity is higher. The results also show the risk of farm abandonment in the two studied less favoured areas: in all three scenarios more than 30% of arable land is deemed to be abandoned.

  8. A BRIEF TARGETED REVIEW OF SUSCEPTIBILITY FACTORS, ENVIRONMENTAL EXPOSURES, ASHTMA INCIDENCE, AND RECOMMENDATIONS FOR FUTURE ASHTMA INCIDENCE RESEARCH

    EPA Science Inventory

    Genetics, obesity, age, and lifestyle are major susceptibility factors in the induction of asthma and can interact with environmental exposures either synergistically or antagonistically. Different environmental exposures that increase or decrease the likelihood of developing as...

  9. Rapid determination of nine parabens and seven other environmental phenols in urine samples of German children and adults.

    PubMed

    Moos, Rebecca K; Angerer, Jürgen; Wittsiepe, Jürgen; Wilhelm, Michael; Brüning, Thomas; Koch, Holger M

    2014-11-01

    We developed a fast, selective and sensitive on-line LC/LC-MS/MS method for the simultaneous determination of nine parabens and seven environmental phenols in urine. Parabens are widely used as antimicrobial preservatives. Bisphenol A, triclosan, triclocarban, 2-phenylphenol, and benzophenones are used inter alia in disinfectants, sunscreens and in polymers. Some of these substances are suspected endocrine disruptors. Limits of quantification and analytical quality criteria fully met the needs for determining exposure levels occurring in the general population. We analyzed 157 spot urine samples from the general German population (59 females, 39 males and 59 children). For the parabens, we found methyl, ethyl and n-propyl paraben with high detection rates (77-98%), followed by n-butyl (36%), iso-butyl (17%), iso-propyl (3%) and benzyl paraben (3%). We detected no pentyl and heptyl paraben. Urinary concentrations were highest for methyl paraben (median 24.5 μg/L; 95th percentile 379 μg/L) followed by ethyl (1.4 μg/L; 35.2 μg/L) and n-propyl paraben (1.2 μg/L; 68.1 μg/L). Other environmental phenols with high detection rates were BPA (95%), triclosan (45%) and benzophenone 1 and 3 (26%). For most of the parabens/environmental phenols we found higher urinary levels in females than in males or children, probably due to differences in (personal care) product use. However, high levels (in the mg/L range) were also observed in children. Exposure to the above substances is occurring worldwide. Differences between countries do seem to exist and might be caused by different product compositions or different use habits. Human metabolism data is urgently needed to extrapolate from urinary biomarker levels to doses actually taken up.

  10. AMA Congress on Environmental Health, Annual Session, "Blueprint for the Future" (5th, Chicago, Illinois, April 28-30, 1968).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Archives of Environmental Health, 1968

    1968-01-01

    Contained are 13 papers presented at the fifth annual AMA Congress on Environmental Health. The coverage includes protecting our environment, environmental standards, government role, legal aspects, ecology and health problems, environmental health planning, urban design and transportation, energetics, educational implications, and combating…

  11. Rapid quantification and taxonomic classification of environmentalDNA from both prokaryotic and eukaryotic origins using a microarray

    SciTech Connect

    DeSantis, Todd Z.; Stone, Carol E.; Murray, Sonya R.; Moberg,Jordan P.; Andersen, Gary L.

    2005-02-22

    A microarray has been designed using 62,358 probes matched to both prokaryotic and eukaryotic small-subunit ribosomal RNA genes. The array categorized environmental DNA to specific phylogenetic clusters in under 9 h. To a background of DNA generated from natural outdoor aerosols, known quantities of rRNA gene copies from distinct organisms were added producing corresponding hybridization intensity scores that correlated well with their concentrations (r=0.917). Reproducible differences in microbial community composition were observed by altering the genomic DNA extraction method. Notably, gentle extractions produced peak intensities for Mycoplasmatales and Burkholderiales, whereas a vigorous disruption produced peak intensities for Vibrionales,Clostridiales, and Bacillales.

  12. On-chip surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS)-linked immuno-sensor assay (SLISA) for rapid environmental-surveillance of chemical toxins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhardwaj, Vinay; Srinivasan, Supriya; McGoron, Anthony J.

    2005-05-01

    The increasing threat of an intentional (attack) or accidental release of toxins, in particular chemical toxins, including chemical warfare agents (CWAs) and toxic industrial chemicals (TICs) has increased public fear. The major problem in such attacks/accidents is to detect toxins present in very low levels. Indeed, several detection techniques are currently being used for the same. However, none of them meet the most critical requirements of a RISE (Rapid, Inexpensive, Simple and Effective) detect-to-protect class of biosensors. To address this critical demand our group has developed a prototype lab-on-a-chip (LOC) using a colloidal silver-based, surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS)-linked immuno-sensor assay (SLISA). The LOC-SLISA was tested for the measurement of RAD54, a stress-marker protein expressed by yeast in response to hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), a toxin in the EPA priority list of chemical toxins. We found SLISA has good correlation in accuracy with the traditional ELISA technique and outperforms the latter by being rapid and easy-to-use. SLISA is more sensitive, provides qualitative information on immuno-sensor's chemical characterization and antigen-antibody binding, and allows direct detection with minimal or no chance of uncertainty, which is a stringent limitation of all label-based biosensor technologies including ELISA. For translational significance of our work, we correlated our results to U.S. EPA (environmental protection agency) defined risk exposure guideline levels of H2O2 to validate the commercial potential of our on-chip SLISA. The label-free, cell-based and RISE detection offered by SERS can allow development of biomedical and environmental sensor technology (BEST) needed for direct, rapid and continuous monitoring of human health and environment

  13. Rapid screening of heavy metals and trace elements in environmental samples using portable X-ray fluorescence spectrometer, A comparative study

    PubMed Central

    McComb, Jacqueline Q.; Rogers, Christian; Han, Fengxiang X.; Tchounwou, Paul B.

    2014-01-01

    With industrialization, great amounts of trace elements and heavy metals have been excavated and released on the surface of the earth and dissipated into the environments. Rapid screening technology for detecting major and trace elements as well as heavy metals in variety of environmental samples is most desired. The objectives of this study were to determine the detection limits, accuracy, repeatability and efficiency of a X-ray fluorescence spectrometer (Niton XRF analyzer) in comparison with the traditional analytical methods, inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometer (ICP-OES) and inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometer (ICP-MS) in screening of major and trace elements of environmental samples including estuary soils and sediments, contaminated soils, and biological samples. XRF is a fast and non-destructive method in measuring the total concentration of multi--elements simultaneously. Contrary to ICP-OES and ICP-MS, XRF analyzer is characterized by the limited preparation required for solid samples, non-destructive analysis, increased total speed and high throughout, the decreased production of hazardous waste and the low running costs as well as multi-elemental determination and portability in the fields. The current comparative study demonstrates that XRF is a good rapid non-destructive method for contaminated soils, sediments and biological samples containing higher concentrations of major and trace elements. Unfortunately, XRF does not have sensitive detection limits of most major and trace elements as ICP-OES or ICP-MS but it may serve as a rapid screening tool for locating hot spots of uncontaminated field soils and sediments. PMID:25861136

  14. A microplate version of the SOS/umu-test for rapid detection of genotoxins and genotoxic potentials of environmental samples.

    PubMed

    Reifferscheid, G; Heil, J; Oda, Y; Zahn, R K

    1991-12-01

    The umu-microtest is a miniaturized automated short-term test version proposed for screening of umuC-dependent mutagenic potentials of chemicals relevant to environmental pollution, river water and industrial waste water. The test is based on the SOS/umu-test and has been modified in order to allow extensive testing of environmental samples. Genetically engineered Salmonella typhimurium (TA1535/pSK1002) are incubated on a microplate rotor in a sloping position for 2 h with the test samples, followed by addition of fresh culture medium to reach a 10-fold dilution of the incubation medium. 2 h later, the activity of the beta-galactosidase, which reflects umuC induction, is determined colorimetrically. The incubation of the bacteria in the presence of the test compounds as well as the assessment of beta-galactosidase activity takes place in 96-well microplates, thus enabling simultaneous screening of large numbers of samples. Data of the genotoxic potentials are available within 8 h. Computer-controlled automation is possible by using a laboratory workstation.

  15. Asian river fishes in the Anthropocene: threats and conservation challenges in an era of rapid environmental change.

    PubMed

    Dudgeon, D

    2011-12-01

    This review compares and contrasts the environmental changes that have influenced, or will influence, fishes and fisheries in the Yangtze and Mekong Rivers. These two rivers have been chosen because they differ markedly in the type and intensity of prevailing threats. The Mekong is relatively pristine, whereas the Three Gorges Dam on the Yangtze is the world's largest dam representing the apotheosis of environmental alteration of Asian rivers thus far. Moreover, it is situated at the foot of a planned cascade of at least 12 new dams on the upper Yangtze. Anthropogenic effects of dams and pollution of Yangtze fishes will be exacerbated by plans to divert water northwards along three transfer routes, in part to supplement the flow of the Yellow River. Adaptation to climate change will undoubtedly stimulate more dam construction and flow regulation, potentially causing perfect storm conditions for fishes in the Yangtze. China has already built dams along the upper course of the Mekong, and there are plans for as many as 11 mainstream dams in People's Democratic Republic (Laos) and Cambodia in the lower Mekong Basin. If built, they could have profound consequences for biodiversity, fisheries and human livelihoods, and such concerns have stalled dam construction. Potential effects of dams proposed for other rivers (such as Nujiang-Salween) are also cause for concern. Conservation or restoration measures to sustain some semblance of the rich fish biodiversity of Asian rivers can be identified, but their implementation may prove problematic in a context of increasing Anthropocene alteration of these ecosystems.

  16. Water-compatible magnetic imprinted microspheres for rapid separation and determination of triazine herbicides in environmental water.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Fengxia; Row, Kyung Ho; Wang, Mengge

    2014-04-15

    A novel kind of water-compatible magnetic imprinted cyromazine microsphere (WCMM) was synthesized by water/oil/water suspension polymerization. The obtained WCMM was homogenously spherical with porous morphology and strong magnetic properties. The microspheres were successfully used as adsorbent in dispersive solid-phase extraction (WCMM-dSPE) to selectively extract cyanazine and atrazine from environmental water. Good linearity of the two analytes was observed in the range from 2.5 to 200.0ngmL(-1). The average recoveries at three spiking levels ranged from 84.8% to 104.3% with relative standard deviations (RSD) less than 6.9%. Compared with magnetic non-imprinted particles (WCMN), the proposed WCMM adsorbent of dSPE efficiently improved the efficiency of extracting cyanazine and atrazine from environmental water samples and eliminated the effect of cyromazine leakage on the quantitative analysis of cyanazine and atrazine. The proposed WCMM-dSPE method combined the advantages of magnetic separation, molecular imprinted microspheres and dSPE.

  17. Asian river fishes in the Anthropocene: threats and conservation challenges in an era of rapid environmental change.

    PubMed

    Dudgeon, D

    2011-12-01

    This review compares and contrasts the environmental changes that have influenced, or will influence, fishes and fisheries in the Yangtze and Mekong Rivers. These two rivers have been chosen because they differ markedly in the type and intensity of prevailing threats. The Mekong is relatively pristine, whereas the Three Gorges Dam on the Yangtze is the world's largest dam representing the apotheosis of environmental alteration of Asian rivers thus far. Moreover, it is situated at the foot of a planned cascade of at least 12 new dams on the upper Yangtze. Anthropogenic effects of dams and pollution of Yangtze fishes will be exacerbated by plans to divert water northwards along three transfer routes, in part to supplement the flow of the Yellow River. Adaptation to climate change will undoubtedly stimulate more dam construction and flow regulation, potentially causing perfect storm conditions for fishes in the Yangtze. China has already built dams along the upper course of the Mekong, and there are plans for as many as 11 mainstream dams in People's Democratic Republic (Laos) and Cambodia in the lower Mekong Basin. If built, they could have profound consequences for biodiversity, fisheries and human livelihoods, and such concerns have stalled dam construction. Potential effects of dams proposed for other rivers (such as Nujiang-Salween) are also cause for concern. Conservation or restoration measures to sustain some semblance of the rich fish biodiversity of Asian rivers can be identified, but their implementation may prove problematic in a context of increasing Anthropocene alteration of these ecosystems. PMID:22136237

  18. GLOBAL ALTERNATIVE FUTURE SCENARIOS

    EPA Science Inventory

    One way to examine possible future outcomes for environmental protection is through the development and analysis of alternative future scenarios. This type of assessment postulates two or more different paths that social and environmental development might take, using correspond...

  19. Rapid determination of plutonium isotopes in environmental samples using sequential injection extraction chromatography and detection by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Jixin; Hou, Xiaolin; Roos, Per; Miró, Manuel

    2009-10-01

    This article presents an automated method for the rapid determination of 239Pu and 240Pu in various environmental samples. The analytical method involves the in-line separation of Pu isotopes using extraction chromatography (TEVA) implemented in a sequential injection (SI) network followed by detection of isolated analytes with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The method has been devised for the determination of Pu isotopes at environmentally relevant concentrations, whereby it has been successfully applied to the analyses of large volumes/amounts of samples, for example, 100-200 g of soil and sediment, 20 g of seaweed, and 200 L of seawater following analyte preconcentration. The investigation of the separation capability of the assembled SI system revealed that up to 200 g of soil or sediment can be treated using a column containing about 0.70 g of TEVA resin. The analytical results of Pu isotopes in the reference materials showed good agreement with the certified or reference values at the 0.05 significance level. Chemical yields of Pu ranged from 80 to 105%, and the decontamination factors for uranium, thorium, mercury and lead were all above 10(4). The duration of the in-line extraction chromatographic run was <1.5 h, and the proposed setup was able to handle up to 20 samples (14 mL each) in a fully automated mode using a single chromatographic column. The SI manifold is thus suitable for rapid and automated determination of Pu isotopes in environmental risk assessment and emergency preparedness scenarios. PMID:19722516

  20. Environmental impact assessment of structural flood mitigation measures by a rapid impact assessment matrix (RIAM) technique: a case study in Metro Manila, Philippines.

    PubMed

    Gilbuena, Romeo; Kawamura, Akira; Medina, Reynaldo; Amaguchi, Hideo; Nakagawa, Naoko; Bui, Duong Du

    2013-07-01

    In recent decades, the practice of environmental impact assessment (EIA) in the planning processes of infrastructure projects has created significant awareness on the benefits of environmentally sound and sustainable urban development around the world. In the highly urbanized megacities in the Philippines, like Metro Manila, high priority is given by the national government to structural flood mitigation measures (SFMM) due to the persistently high frequency of flood-related disasters, which are exacerbated by the on-going effects of climate change. EIA thus, should be carefully and effectively executed to maximize the potential benefits of the SFMM. The common practice of EIA in the Philippines is generally qualitative and lacks clear methodology in evaluating multi-criteria systems. Thus, this study proposes the use of the rapid impact assessment matrix (RIAM) technique to provide a method that would systematically and quantitatively evaluate the socio-economic and environmental impacts of planned SFMM in Metro Manila. The RIAM technique was slightly modified to fit the requirements of this study. The scale of impact was determined for each perceived impact, and based on the results, the planned SFMM for Metro Manila will likely bring significant benefits; however, significant negative impacts may also likely occur. The proposed modifications were found to be highly compatible with RIAM, and the results of the RIAM analysis provided a clear view of the impacts associated with the implementation of SFMM projects. This may prove to be valuable in the practice of EIA in the Philippines.

  1. Rapid assessment of environmental health risks posed by mining operations in low- and middle-income countries: selected case studies.

    PubMed

    Caravanos, Jack; Ericson, Bret; Ponce-Canchihuamán, Johny; Hanrahan, David; Block, Meredith; Susilorini, Budi; Fuller, Richard

    2013-11-01

    Previous studies have evaluated associated health risks and human exposure pathways at mining sites. Others have provided estimates of the scale of the issue based in part on surveys. However, a global census of mining-related hazardous waste sites has been lacking. The Toxic Sites Identification Program (TSIP) implemented by Blacksmith Institute (New York, NY, USA) since 2009 is an ongoing effort to catalogue a wide range of chemically contaminated sites with a potential human health risk (Ericson et al., Environ Monit Assess doi:10.1007/s 10661-012-2665-2, 2012). The TSIP utilizes a rapid assessment instrument, the Initial Site Screening (ISS), to quickly and affordably identify key site criteria including human exposure pathways, estimated populations at risk, and sampling information. The resulting ISS allows for comparison between sites exhibiting different contaminants and pollution sources. This paper explores the results of a subset of ISSs completed at 131 artisanal and small-scale gold mining areas and 275 industrial mining and ore processing sites in 45 countries. The authors show that the ISS captures key data points, allowing for prioritization of sites for further investigation or remedial activity.

  2. Projecting Future Nitrous Oxide Emissions From Agriculture: Importance of Ecological Feedbacks and the Environmental Benefits of Improved Nitrogen Use Efficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanter, D.; Zhang, X.; Shevliakova, E.; Malyshev, S.; Mauzerall, D. L.

    2014-12-01

    Nitrous oxide (N2O) presents a triple threat to the global environment: it is the third most important anthropogenic greenhouse gas, the largest remaining anthropogenic contributor to stratospheric ozone depletion, and an important component of the nitrogen (N) cascade - where one atom of N can interconvert between a number of forms, each with a unique set of environmental impacts. Here we use a dynamic vegetation model (Princeton-Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Lab (GFDL) LM3 - the interactive land component of the GFDL Earth System Model) to assess how changes in future climate, land-use, and global fertilizer and manure application are projected to affect global N2O emissions from agriculture by 2050. Agricultural land is defined in this study as the sum of cropland and pasture. In a baseline scenario assuming little improvement in global N use efficiency (NUE) by 2050, the model projects a 24-31% increase in global agricultural N2O emissions (with the uncertainty range stemming from differences in climate forcing, land-use and fertilizer and manure consumption between RCP2.6 and RCP8.5, the two climate scenarios used in this study) - rising from 2.9 Tg N2O-N yr-1 in 1990-2000 to 3.6-3.8 Tg N2O-N yr-1 in 2040-2050. This emission increase is considerably less than the projected increases in global fertilizer and manure consumption (42-44%) and previously published projections of global agricultural N2O emission increases (38-75% - again, the uncertainty range reflecting the differences between the climate scenarios used). This disparity appears to be a result of ecological feedbacks captured by the model, where a considerable portion of the increase in fertilizer and manure use is absorbed by agricultural plant biomass rather than lost to the environment. In addition to this dynamic, the model projects that improvements in global NUE of 20-50% could reduce global N2O emissions significantly, delivering important climate and stratospheric ozone benefits over the period

  3. Methane and nitrous oxide emissions in the littoral zone of a Chinese reservoir: environmental controls and implications for future designs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Meng; Lei, Guangchun; Grace, John; Geng, Xuemeng; Lu, Cai; Zhou, Yan; Zhu, Yi

    2015-04-01

    We report fluxes of CH4 and N2O using the static closed chamber and gas chromatography techniques from the littoral zone of Miyun Reservoir, a large reservoir providing water for Beijing. Seasonal and spatial variations of CH4 and N2O flux and environmental factors were monitored throughout the growing season including a flood event during summer rains. The littoral zone was divided into five areas based on water level. Sites were selected ranging from locations in open water to the dry area on higher ground, to provide five contrasting environments: deep water area, shallow water area, seasonal flooded area, 'seasonally flooded control' area and permanent non-flooded area. Our results showed that flooding increased CH4 emission sharply but did not influence N2O emission significantly. CH4 flux decreased along a transect from open water to dry land, from 3.1 mg m-2 h-1 at the deep water site to approximately 1.3 mg m-2 h-1 at the shallow water site, and less than 0.01 mg m-2 h-1 in the non-flooded area. The largest emission of all was from the seasonally flooded site after the flooding event (up to 21.1 mg m-2 h-1). N2O flux ranged from -2.97 μg m-2 h-1 to 180.06 μg m-2 h-1. Non flooded dry land emitted more N2O than flooded land, no matter whether it was permanently or seasonally flooded. No significant difference was observed between seasonally flooded sites (3.56±0.86 μg m-2 h-1) and their control sites (3.68±0.59 μg m-2 h-1). CH4 fluxes were correlated with air temperature, water depth, water dissolved oxygen, biomass and soil parameters including soil water content, bulk density, pH, total carbon, total nitrogen and NH4+. N2O fluxes were correlated with wind speed, air temperature, water dissolved oxygen, soil water content and soil NO3-. Thus the emissions of the two gases are controlled in different ways, and we discuss the possibilities of developing a spatio-temporal model to assist in the design and management of future reservoirs under a changing

  4. Strategy for Environmental Education: An Approach for India.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sarabhai, Kartikeya V.

    In outlining a national strategy for environmental education in India, this document describes some current and future efforts of the Center for Environmental Education at Ahmedabad. It provides an historical account of India's environmental problems and its recent efforts at addressing those problems in light of rapid developmental efforts and…

  5. Rapid, Repeat-sample Monitoring of Crustal Deformations and Environmental Phenomena with the Uninhabited Aerial Vehicle Synthetic Aperture Radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Robert C.

    2006-01-01

    The Uninhabited Aerial Vehicle Synthetic Aperture Radar (UAVSAR) is a precision repeat-pass Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) mission being developed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory and the Dryden Flight Research Center in support of NASA s Science Mission Directorate. UAVSAR's unique ability to fly a repeatable flight path, along with an electronically steerable array, allows interferometric data to be obtained with accuracies measured in millimeters. Deploying the radar on an airborne platform will also allow for radar images to be collected and compared with images from the same area taken hours or even years later - providing for long-term trending and near real-time notification of changes and deformations. UAVSAR s data processing algorithms will provide for near-real time data reduction providing disaster planning and response teams with highly accurate data to aid in the prediction of, and response to, natural phenomena. UAVSAR data can be applied to increasing our understanding of the processes behind solid earth, cryosphere, carbon cycle and other areas of interest in earth science. Technologies developed for UAVSAR may also be applicable to a future earth-orbiting InSAR mission and possibly for missions to the Moon or Mars. The UAVSAR is expected to fly on a Gulfstream III aircraft this winter, followed by a flight test program lasting until the second half of 2007. Following radar calibration and data reduction activities, the platform will be ready for science users in the summer of 2008.

  6. The structure and stability of the bacterioplankton community in Antarctic freshwater lakes, subject to extremely rapid environmental change.

    PubMed

    Pearce, David A

    2005-06-01

    In this study, variation in the bacterioplankton community structure of three Antarctic lakes of different nutrient status, was determined in relation to physical and chemical gradients at depth and at time intervals, across the seasonal transition from winter ice-cover to the summer ice-free period. The three lakes studied were: Moss Lake (low nutrient, with typical nutrient concentrations of 80 microg l(-1) nitrate and 10 microg l(-1) dissolved reactive phosphate), Sombre Lake (low nutrient, but becoming progressively enriched, with typical nutrient concentrations of 185 microg l(-1) nitrate and 7 microg l(-1) dissolved reactive phosphate) and Heywood Lake (enriched, with typical nutrient concentrations of 1180 microg l(-1) nitrate and 124 microg l(-1) dissolved reactive phosphate). Bacterioplankton community structure was determined using a combination of PCR amplification of 16S rRNA gene fragments and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). Results indicated marked changes in this bacterioplankton community structure, which were particularly associated with the transition period. However, significant changes also occurred during the period of holomixis. Comparison of the results from lakes of different nutrient status suggest that increased levels of nutrient input, and in the timing and duration of ice cover will lead to marked changes in the structure and stability of the bacterioplankton community at existing levels of environmental change.

  7. Plastic pellets sorptive extraction: Low-cost, rapid and efficient extraction of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from environmental waters.

    PubMed

    Nika, Chrysanthi-Elisabeth; Yiantzi, Evangelia; Psillakis, Elefteria

    2016-05-30

    For the first time, plastic pellets, a low-cost and easy to reach industrial raw material, are reported as an efficient sorbent material for the laboratory extraction of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from environmental waters. The proposed methodology, termed plastic pellets sorptive extraction (P2SE), consisted of a two-step procedure whereby target analytes were initially adsorbed onto the surface of three low-density polyethylene (LDPE) pellets and then desorbed using microliters of an organic solvent. Interphase mass transfer was greatly accelerated by means of vortex agitation. Organic extracts were analyzed by means of liquid chromatography-fluorescence detection. Different experimental parameters were controlled and the optimum conditions found were: three LDPE pellets (∼80 mg) added to 20 mL aqueous sample (20% w:v NaCl) followed by vortex agitation at 3000 rpm; for desorption, the three LDPE pellets were immersed in 100 μL of acetonitrile and the mixture was shaken at 3000 rpm for 5 min using the vortex agitator. The calculated calibration curves gave high levels of linearity yielding coefficients of determination (r(2)) greater than 0.9913. The precision of the proposed method was found to be good and the limits of the detection were calculated in the low ng L(-1) level. Matrix effects were determined by applying the proposed method to spiked river water, treated municipal wastewater and seawater samples. To compensate for the low recoveries of the more hydrophobic PAHs in spiked effluent wastewater and seawater samples the standard addition methodology was applied. The proposed method was applied to the determination of target pollutants in real seawater samples using the standard addition method. Overall, the performance of the proposed P2SE method suggests that the use of inexpensive and easy to reach sorbent materials for extracting analytes in the laboratory merits more intensive investigation. PMID:27154829

  8. Real-time PCR and sequencing assays for rapid detection and identification of avian schistosomes in environmental samples.

    PubMed

    Jothikumar, Narayanan; Mull, Bonnie J; Brant, Sara V; Loker, Eric S; Collinson, Jeremy; Secor, W Evan; Hill, Vincent R

    2015-06-15

    Cercarial dermatitis, also known as swimmer's itch, is an allergenic skin reaction followed by intense itching caused by schistosome cercariae penetrating human skin. Cercarial dermatitis outbreaks occur globally and are frequently associated with freshwater lakes and are occasionally associated with marine or estuarine waters where birds reside year-round or where migratory birds reside. In this study, a broadly reactive TaqMan assay targeting 18S rRNA gene (ribosomal DNA [rDNA]) sequences that was based on a genetically diverse panel of schistosome isolates representing 13 genera and 20 species (the 18S rDNA TaqMan assay) was developed. A PCR assay was also developed to amplify a 28S rDNA region for subsequent sequencing to identify schistosomes. When applied to surface water samples seeded with Schistosoma mansoni cercariae, the 18S rDNA TaqMan assay enabled detection at a level of 5 S. mansoni cercariae in 100 liters of lake water. The 18S rDNA TaqMan and 28S rDNA PCR sequencing assays were also applied to 100-liter water samples collected from lakes in Nebraska and Wisconsin where there were reported dermatitis outbreaks. Avian schistosome DNA was detected in 11 of 34 lake water samples using the TaqMan assay. Further 28S rDNA sequence analysis of positive samples confirmed the presence of avian schistosome DNA and provided a preliminary identification of the avian schistosomes in 10 of the 11 samples. These data indicate that the broadly schistosome-reactive TaqMan assay can be effective for rapid screening of large-volume water samples for detection of avian schistosomes, thereby facilitating timely response actions to mitigate or prevent dermatitis outbreaks. Additionally, samples positive by the 18S rDNA TaqMan assay can be further assayed using the 28S rDNA sequencing assay to both confirm the presence of schistosomes and contribute to their identification.

  9. Real-Time PCR and Sequencing Assays for Rapid Detection and Identification of Avian Schistosomes in Environmental Samples

    PubMed Central

    Mull, Bonnie J.; Brant, Sara V.; Loker, Eric S.; Collinson, Jeremy; Secor, W. Evan; Hill, Vincent R.

    2015-01-01

    Cercarial dermatitis, also known as swimmer's itch, is an allergenic skin reaction followed by intense itching caused by schistosome cercariae penetrating human skin. Cercarial dermatitis outbreaks occur globally and are frequently associated with freshwater lakes and are occasionally associated with marine or estuarine waters where birds reside year-round or where migratory birds reside. In this study, a broadly reactive TaqMan assay targeting 18S rRNA gene (ribosomal DNA [rDNA]) sequences that was based on a genetically diverse panel of schistosome isolates representing 13 genera and 20 species (the 18S rDNA TaqMan assay) was developed. A PCR assay was also developed to amplify a 28S rDNA region for subsequent sequencing to identify schistosomes. When applied to surface water samples seeded with Schistosoma mansoni cercariae, the 18S rDNA TaqMan assay enabled detection at a level of 5 S. mansoni cercariae in 100 liters of lake water. The 18S rDNA TaqMan and 28S rDNA PCR sequencing assays were also applied to 100-liter water samples collected from lakes in Nebraska and Wisconsin where there were reported dermatitis outbreaks. Avian schistosome DNA was detected in 11 of 34 lake water samples using the TaqMan assay. Further 28S rDNA sequence analysis of positive samples confirmed the presence of avian schistosome DNA and provided a preliminary identification of the avian schistosomes in 10 of the 11 samples. These data indicate that the broadly schistosome-reactive TaqMan assay can be effective for rapid screening of large-volume water samples for detection of avian schistosomes, thereby facilitating timely response actions to mitigate or prevent dermatitis outbreaks. Additionally, samples positive by the 18S rDNA TaqMan assay can be further assayed using the 28S rDNA sequencing assay to both confirm the presence of schistosomes and contribute to their identification. PMID:25862226

  10. Future electricity generation: An economic and environmental life cycle perspective on near-, mid- and long-term technology options and policy implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergerson, Joule Andrea

    This thesis evaluates the cost and environmental tradeoffs of current and future electricity generation options from a life cycle perspective. Policy and technology options are considered for each critical time horizon (near-, mid-, and long-term). The framework developed for this analysis is a hybrid life cycle analysis which integrates several models and frameworks including process and input-output life cycle analysis, an integrated environmental control model, social costing, forecasting and future energy scenario analysis. The near-term analysis shows that several recent LCA studies of electricity options have contributed to our understanding of the technologies available and their relative environmental impacts. Several promising options could satisfy our electricity demands. Other options remain unproven or too costly to encourage investment in the near term but show promise for future use (e.g. photovoltaic, fuel cells). Public concerns could impede the use of some desirable technologies (e.g. hydro, nuclear). Finally, less tangible issues such as intermittency of some renewable technologies, social equity and visual and land use impacts, while difficult to quantify, must be considered in the investment decision process. In the mid-term analysis, this thesis explores alternative methods for transport of coal energy. A hybrid life cycle analysis is critical for evaluating the cost, efficiency and environmental tradeoffs of the entire system. If a small amount of additional coal is to be shipped, current rail infrastructure should be used where possible. If entirely new infrastructure is required, the mine mouth generation options are cheaper but have increased environmental impact due to the increased generation required to compensate for transmission line losses. Gasifying the coal to produce methane also shows promise in terms of lowering environmental emissions. The long-term analysis focuses on the implications of a high coal use future. This scenario

  11. Integration of molecular functions at the ecosystemic level: breakthroughs and future goals of environmental genomics and post-genomics

    PubMed Central

    Vandenkoornhuyse, Philippe; Dufresne, Alexis; Quaiser, Achim; Gouesbet, Gwenola; Binet, Françoise; Francez, André-Jean; Mahé, Stéphane; Bormans, Myriam; Lagadeuc, Yvan; Couée, Ivan

    2010-01-01

    Environmental genomics and genome-wide expression approaches deal with large-scale sequence-based information obtained from environmental samples, at organismal, population or community levels. To date, environmental genomics, transcriptomics and proteomics are arguably the most powerful approaches to discover completely novel ecological functions and to link organismal capabilities, organism–environment interactions, functional diversity, ecosystem processes, evolution and Earth history. Thus, environmental genomics is not merely a toolbox of new technologies but also a source of novel ecological concepts and hypotheses. By removing previous dichotomies between ecophysiology, population ecology, community ecology and ecosystem functioning, environmental genomics enables the integration of sequence-based information into higher ecological and evolutionary levels. However, environmental genomics, along with transcriptomics and proteomics, must involve pluridisciplinary research, such as new developments in bioinformatics, in order to integrate high-throughput molecular biology techniques into ecology. In this review, the validity of environmental genomics and post-genomics for studying ecosystem functioning is discussed in terms of major advances and expectations, as well as in terms of potential hurdles and limitations. Novel avenues for improving the use of these approaches to test theory-driven ecological hypotheses are also explored. PMID:20426792

  12. Quantification of Gas-Wall Partitioning in Teflon Environmental Chambers Using Rapid Bursts of Low-Volatility Oxidized Species Generated in Situ.

    PubMed

    Krechmer, Jordan E; Pagonis, Demetrios; Ziemann, Paul J; Jimenez, Jose L

    2016-06-01

    Partitioning of gas-phase organic compounds to the walls of Teflon environmental chambers is a recently reported phenomenon than can affect the yields of reaction products and secondary organic aerosol (SOA) measured in laboratory experiments. Reported time scales for reaching gas-wall partitioning (GWP) equilibrium (τGWE) differ by up to 3 orders of magnitude, however, leading to predicted effects that vary from substantial to negligible. A new technique is demonstrated here in which semi- and low-volatility oxidized organic compounds (saturation concentration c* < 100 μg m(-3)) were photochemically generated in rapid bursts in situ in an 8 m(3) environmental chamber, and then their decay in the absence of aerosol was measured using a high-resolution chemical ionization mass spectrometer (CIMS) equipped with an "inlet-less" NO3(-) ion source. Measured τGWE were 7-13 min (rel. std. dev. 33%) for all compounds. The fraction of each compound that partitioned to the walls at equilibrium follows absorptive partitioning theory with an equivalent wall mass concentration in the range 0.3-10 mg m(-3). Measurements using a CIMS equipped with a standard ion-molecule reaction region showed large biases due to the contact of compounds with walls. On the basis of these results, a set of parameters is proposed for modeling GWP in chamber experiments. PMID:27138683

  13. PREDICTIVE UNCERTAINTY IN HYDROLOGIC AND WATER QUALITY MODELING: APPROACHES, APPLICATION TO ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT, AND FUTURE CHALLENGES (PRESENTATION)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Extant process-based hydrologic and water quality models are indispensable to water resources planning and environmental management. However, models are only approximations of real systems and often calibrated with incomplete and uncertain data. Reliable estimates, or perhaps f...

  14. From quantal counts to mechanisms and systems: the past, present, and future of biometrics in environmental toxicology.

    PubMed

    Bailer, A J; Piegorsch, W W

    2000-06-01

    As appreciation for human impact on the environment has developed, so have the experimental systems and associated statistical tools that quantify this impact. Toxicological study in particular has grown in its complexity and its need for advanced statistical support. Within this perspective, we describe statistical practice in environmental toxicology and risk assessment. We present two case studies, one from mammalian toxicology and one from aquatic toxicology, that highlight the evolution of statistical practice in environmental toxicology.

  15. Development and characterisation of a new Sr selective resin for the rapid determination of ⁹⁰Sr in environmental water samples.

    PubMed

    Surman, J J; Pates, J M; Zhang, H; Happel, S

    2014-11-01

    A new resin selective for Sr has been developed and characterised for the direct binding of (90)Sr from environmental waters with minimal pre-treatment. The new selective resin comprises of a mixture of two extractants, 4,4'(5')-bis-t-butylcyclohexano-18-crown-6 and di(2-ethyl-hexyl)phosphoric acid, sorbed onto Amberchrom CG-71. Sr uptake is shown to be high (the distribution weight coefficient Dw >100 mL g(-1)) across a range of environmentally realistic conditions (pH 2-8 and up to 11,500 mg L(-1) NaCl, 500 mg L(-1) Ca, 400 mg L(-1) K and 1300 mg L(-1) Mg). The Sr capacity of the resin is shown to be 7.7±0.4 mg g(-1), meaning that the resin has a sufficient capacity to quantitatively remove Sr from most environmental water samples. The reasonably fast uptake kinetics of the resin (95±4% of strontium bound within 30 min) results in a resin that is applicable to both batch- and column-type separation procedures. A range of potentially co-extracted radio-elements have been identified and an elution scheme has been developed to separate interferences, including (90)Y, from (90)Sr. The clean elution of (90)Sr permits immediate measurement by radiometric means, with no need for complicated spectral processing or waiting for secular equilibrium between (90)Sr and (90)Y. The characterised resin is applicable for use in rapid determination procedures, enabling the swift analysis of water samples required by monitoring schemes at contaminated nuclear sites and in the aftermath of nuclear accidents.

  16. Environmental Barrier Coating Development for SiC/SiC Ceramic Matrix Composites: Recent Advances and Future Directions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhu, Dongming

    2016-01-01

    This presentation briefly reviews the SiC/SiC major environmental and environment-fatigue degradations encountered in simulated turbine combustion environments, and thus NASA environmental barrier coating system evolution for protecting the SiC/SiC Ceramic Matrix Composites for meeting the engine performance requirements. The presentation will review several generations of NASA EBC materials systems, EBC-CMC component system technologies for SiC/SiC ceramic matrix composite combustors and turbine airfoils, highlighting the temperature capability and durability improvements in simulated engine high heat flux, high pressure, high velocity, and with mechanical creep and fatigue loading conditions. This paper will also focus on the performance requirements and design considerations of environmental barrier coatings for next generation turbine engine applications. The current development emphasis is placed on advanced NASA candidate environmental barrier coating systems for SiC/SiC CMCs, their performance benefits and design limitations in long-term operation and combustion environments. The efforts have been also directed to developing prime-reliant, self-healing 2700F EBC bond coat; and high stability, lower thermal conductivity, and durable EBC top coats. Major technical barriers in developing environmental barrier coating systems, the coating integrations with next generation CMCs having the improved environmental stability, erosion-impact resistance, and long-term fatigue-environment system durability performance will be described. The research and development opportunities for turbine engine environmental barrier coating systems by utilizing improved compositions, state-of-the-art processing methods, and simulated environment testing and durability modeling will be briefly discussed.

  17. An Investigation for the Future Educators' Attitudes towards the Environmental Issues in the Context of Ecocentrism and Anthropocentrism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yumusak, Ahmet; Özbas, Serap; Sargin, Seyit Ahmet; Baltaci, Furkan

    2016-01-01

    In this study, it was revealed that the factors influencing the future educators' attitudes towards the environment. The survey was conducted between 2013-2014, on the freshman and the senior students studying in two different education faculties providing training within the boundaries of Turkish Cypriot. As a result, it has been found that…

  18. Environmental and Sustainability Education Research, Past and Future: Three Perspectives from Late, Mid, and Early Career Researchers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevenson, Robert; Ferreira, Jo-Anne; Emery, Sherridan

    2016-01-01

    The first research symposium, organised in conjunction with the Australian Association for Environmental Education (AAEE) biennial conference, began with a dialogue between scholars at three different academic career stages. As we all entered the field at different periods in its development, the first part of our presentation and this article…

  19. Education, Globalization and Sustainable Futures: Struggles Over Educational Aims and Purposes in a Period of Environmental and Ecological Challenge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farrell, R. V.; Papagiannis, George

    This study examines the advocacy of education for sustainability in a contemporary world driven by the powerful forces of globalization and development. A brief overview of the current ecological crisis in the world is presented, and concerns about environmental degradation, social injustice, and social inequalities are discussed. The vision of…

  20. Applying Comprehensive Environmental Assessment to Research Planning for Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes: Refinements to Inform Future Stakeholder Engagement

    EPA Science Inventory

    We previously described our collective judgment methods to engage expert stakeholders in the Comprehensive Environmental Assessment (CEA) workshop process applied to nano-TiO2 and nano-Ag research planning. We identified several lessons learned in engaging stakeholders to identif...

  1. Influences on Future UK Higher Education Students' Perceptions and Educational Choices across Geography, Earth and Environmental Sciences (GEES)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trend, Roger

    2009-01-01

    Literature on student perception is evaluated in relation to the evolution of perception of Geography, Earth and Environmental Science (GEES) through the school years. Four pervasive themes are identified. An "expectation framework" generated by family and social class exerts a dominant influence on student choice, yet rarely is it addressed in…

  2. Exposure Information in Environmental Health Research: Current Opportunities and Future Directions for Particulate Matter, Ozone, and Toxic Air Pollutants

    EPA Science Inventory

    In September 2006, scientists from the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) along with scientists from the academic community and state health departments convened a symposium on air pollution exposure and health in ord...

  3. Environmental Studies, Section II: Energy. Learning Carrel Lesson 6.6: Future Projections. Study Guide and Script.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyer, Robert; And Others

    This is one of a series of 14 instructional components of a semester-long, environmental earth science course developed for undergraduate students. The course includes lectures, discussion sessions, and individualized learning carrel lessons. Presented are the study guides and script for a learning carrel lesson on energy, energy policies, and…

  4. Religious Reconstruction for the Environmental Future, Proceedings Report (The University of Connecticut, November 30-December 2, 1972).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joranson, Philip N., Ed.; Anderson, C. Alan, Ed.

    This is the proceedings from a workshop that focused on the capacity of religious systems around the world to deal with environmental problems. Included in this publication are an introduction, the workshop schedule, a participant roster, and five papers presented at the workshop. Topics covered in the papers include: Religious Reconstruction for…

  5. Future Oil Spills and Possibilities for Intervention: A Model for the Coupled Human-Environmental Resource Extraction System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shughrue, C. M.; Werner, B.; Nugnug, P. T.

    2010-12-01

    The catastrophic Deepwater Horizon oil spill highlights the risks for widespread environmental damage resulting from petroleum resource extraction. Possibilities for amelioration of these risks depend critically on understanding the dynamics and nonlinear interactions between various components of the coupled human-environmental resource extraction system. We use a complexity analysis to identify the levels of description and time scales at which these interactions are strongest, and then use the analysis as the basis for an agent-based numerical model with which decadal trends can be analyzed. Oil industry economic and technological activity and associated oil spills are components of a complex system that is coupled to natural environment, legislation, regulation, media, and resistance systems over annual to decadal time scales. In the model, oil spills are produced stochastically with a range of magnitudes depending on a reliability-engineering-based assessment of failure for the technology employed, human factors including compliance with operating procedures, and risks associated with the drilling environment. Oil industry agents determine drilling location and technological investment using a cost-benefit analysis relating projected revenue from added production to technology cost and government regulation. Media outlet agents reporting on the oil industry and environmental damage from oil spills assess the impacts of aggressively covering a story on circulation increases, advertiser concerns and potential loss of information sources. Environmental advocacy group agents increase public awareness of environmental damage (through media and public contact), solicit memberships and donations, and apply direct pressure on legislators for policy change. Heterogeneous general public agents adjust their desire for change in the level of regulation, contact their representatives or participate in resistance via protest by considering media sources, personal

  6. Rapid ionic liquid-based ultrasound assisted dual magnetic microextraction to preconcentrate and separate cadmium-4-(2-thiazolylazo)-resorcinol complex from environmental and biological samples.

    PubMed

    Khan, Sumaira; Kazi, Tasneem Gul; Soylak, Mustafa

    2014-04-01

    A rapid and innovative microextraction technique named as, ionic liquid-based ultrasound-assisted dual magnetic microextraction (IL-UA-DMME) was developed for the preconcentration and extraction of trace cadmium from environmental and biological samples, prior to analyzed by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS). The proposed method has many obvious advantages, including evading the use of organic solvents and achieved high extraction yields by the combination of dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) and magnetic mediated-solid phase extraction (MM-SPE). In this approach ionic liquid (IL) 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate [C4mim][PF6] play an important role to extract the cadmium-4-(2-thiazolylazo)-resorcinol (Cd-TAR) complex from acid digested sample solutions and ultrasonic irradiation was applied to assist emulsification. After then, dispersed small amount of Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) in sample solutions to salvaged the IL and complete phase separation was attained. Some analytical parameters that influencing the efficiency of proposed (IL-UA-DMME) method, such as pH, volume of IL, ligand concentration, ultra-sonication time, amount of Fe3O4 MNPs, sample volume and matrix effect were optimized. Limit of detection (LOD) and enrichment factor (EF) of the method under optimal experimental conditions were found to be 0.40μgL(-1) and 100, respectively. The relative standard deviation (RSD) of 50μgL(-1) Cd was 4.29%. The validity and accuracy of proposed method, was assessed to analyzed certified reference materials of fortified lake water TMDA-54.4, SPS-WW2 waste water, spinach leaves 1570a and also checked by standard addition method. The obtained values showed good agreement with the certified values and sufficiently high recovery were found in the range of 98.1-101% for Cd. The proposed method was facile, rapid and successfully applied for the determination of Cd in environmental and different biological samples. PMID

  7. CAG - computer-aid-georeferencing, or rapid sharing, restructuring and presentation of environmental data using remote-server georeferencing for the GE clients. Educational and scientific implications.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hronusov, V. V.

    2006-12-01

    We suggest a method of using external public servers for rearranging, restructuring and rapid sharing of environmental data for the purpose of quick presentations in numerous GE clients. The method allows to add new philosophy for the presentation (publication) of the data (mostly static) stored in the public domain (e.g., Blue Marble, Visible Earth, etc). - The new approach is generated by publishing freely accessible spreadsheets which contain enough information and links to the data. Due to the fact that most of the large depositories of the data on the environmental monitoring have rather simple net address system as well as simple hierarchy mostly based on the date and type of the data, it is possible to develop the http-based link to the file which contains the data. Publication of new data on the server is recorded by a simple entering a new address into a cell in the spreadsheet. At the moment we use the EditGrid (www.editgrid.com) system as a spreadsheet platform. The generation of kml-codes is achieved on the basis of XML data and XSLT procedures. Since the EditGride environment supports "fetch" and similar commands, it is possible to create"smart-adaptive" KML generation on the fly based on the data streams from RSS and XML sources. The previous GIS-based methods could combine hi-definition data combined from various sources, but large- scale comparisons of dynamic processes have been usually out of reach of the technology. The suggested method allows unlimited number of GE clients to view, review and compare dynamic and static process of previously un-combinable sources, and on unprecedent scales. The ease of automated or computer-assisted georeferencing has already led to translation about 3000 raster public domain imagery, point and linear data sources into GE-language. In addition the suggested method allows a user to create rapid animations to demonstrate dynamic processes; roducts of high demand in education, meteorology, volcanology and

  8. Biological collections and ecological/environmental research: a review, some observations and a look to the future.

    PubMed

    Pyke, Graham H; Ehrlich, Paul R

    2010-05-01

    Housed worldwide, mostly in museums and herbaria, is a vast collection of biological specimens developed over centuries. These biological collections, and associated taxonomic and systematic research, have received considerable long-term public support. The work remaining in systematics has been expanding as the estimated total number of species of organisms on Earth has risen over recent decades, as have estimated numbers of undescribed species. Despite this increasing task, support for taxonomic and systematic research, and biological collections upon which such research is based, has declined over the last 30-40 years, while other areas of biological research have grown considerably, especially those that focus on environmental issues. Reflecting increases in research that deals with ecological questions (e.g. what determines species distribution and abundance) or environmental issues (e.g. toxic pollution), the level of research attempting to use biological collections in museums or herbaria in an ecological/environmental context has risen dramatically during about the last 20 years. The perceived relevance of biological collections, and hence the support they receive, should be enhanced if this trend continues and they are used prominently regarding such environmental issues as anthropogenic loss of biodiversity and associated ecosystem function, global climate change, and decay of the epidemiological environment. It is unclear, however, how best to use biological collections in the context of such ecological/environmental issues or how best to manage collections to facilitate such use. We demonstrate considerable and increasingly realized potential for research based on biological collections to contribute to ecological/environmental understanding. However, because biological collections were not originally intended for use regarding such issues and have inherent biases and limitations, they are proving more useful in some contexts than in others. Biological

  9. Restriction-Site-Specific PCR as a Rapid Test To Detect Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 Strains in Environmental Samples

    PubMed Central

    Kimura, Richard; Mandrell, Robert E.; Galland, John C.; Hyatt, Doreene; Riley, Lee W.

    2000-01-01

    Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) O157:H7 is an important food-borne pathogen in industrialized countries. We developed a rapid and simple test for detecting E. coli O157:H7 using a method based on restriction site polymorphisms. Restriction-site-specific PCR (RSS-PCR) involves the amplification of DNA fragments using primers based on specific restriction enzyme recognition sequences, without the use of endonucleases, to generate a set of amplicons that yield “fingerprint” patterns when resolved electrophoretically on an agarose gel. The method was evaluated in a blinded study of E. coli isolates obtained from environmental samples collected at beef cattle feedyards. The 54 isolates were all initially identified by a commonly used polyclonal antibody test as belonging to O157:H7 serotype. They were retested by anti-O157 and anti-H7 monoclonal antibody enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The RSS-PCR method identified all 28 isolates that were shown to be E. coli O157:H7 by the monoclonal antibody ELISA as belonging to the O157:H7 serotype. Of the remaining 26 ELISA-confirmed non-O157:H7 strains, the method classified 25 strains as non-O157:H7. The specificity of the RSS-PCR results correlated better with the monoclonal antibody ELISA than with the polyclonal antibody latex agglutination tests. The RSS-PCR method may be a useful test to distinguish E. coli O157:H7 from a large number of E. coli isolates from environmental samples. PMID:10831431

  10. Contributions of pesticide residue chemistry to improving food and environmental safety: past and present accomplishments and future challenges.

    PubMed

    Seiber, James N; Kleinschmidt, Loreen A

    2011-07-27

    The principles of modern pesticide residue chemistry were articulated in the 1950s. Early authors pointed out the advantages of systematizing and standardizing analytical methods for pesticides so that they could be widely practiced and the results could be reproduced from one laboratory to the next. The availability of improved methods has led to a much more complete understanding of pesticide behavior and fate in foods and the environment. Using methods based largely upon gas chromatography (GC) and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled increasingly with mass spectrometry (MS) and MS(n) as the detection tool, residues can be measured at parts per billion levels and below in a variety of food and environmental matrices. Development of efficient extraction and cleanup methods, techniques such as ELISA, efficient sample preparation techniques such as QuEChERS, and automated laboratory and field instrumentation has also contributed to the tools available for use in modern pesticide residue analysis. As a result, great strides have been made in improving food and worker safety and in understanding environmental behavior and fate of pesticides. There are many challenges remaining in the field of pesticide residue chemistry that will continue to stimulate analytical chemists. New chemistries are emerging, often patterned on complex natural products. Analyzing for the parent chemicals and potentially multiple breakdown products will require analytical ingenuity. The development of more sensitive bioassays and knowledge of unintended side effects will challenge residue chemistry as well, as in the case of following the fate of environmental endocrine disruptors associated with some pesticides as well as nonpesticide contaminants from packaging materials and other familiar articles. Continued funding and other resources to ensure better training, international cooperation, and accelerated research and development activities will be a constant need in

  11. An Approach to Developing Local Climate Change Environmental Public Health Indicators, Vulnerability Assessments, and Projections of Future Impacts

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Environmental public health indicators (EPHIs) are used by local, state, and federal health agencies to track the status of environmental hazards; exposure to those hazards; health effects of exposure; and public health interventions designed to reduce or prevent the hazard, exposure, or resulting health effect. Climate and health EPHIs have been developed at the state, federal, and international levels. However, they are also needed at the local level to track variations in community vulnerability and to evaluate the effectiveness of interventions designed to enhance community resilience. This review draws on a guidance document developed by the U.S. Council of State and Territorial Epidemiologists' State Environmental Health Indicators Collaborative climate change working group to present a three-tiered approach to develop local climate change EPHIs. Local climate change EPHIs can assist local health departments (LHDs) in implementing key steps of the 10 essential public health services and the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Building Resilience Against Climate Effects framework. They also allow LHDs to incorporate climate-related trends into the larger health department planning process and can be used to perform vulnerability assessments which can be leveraged to ensure that interventions designed to address climate change do not exacerbate existing health disparities. PMID:25349621

  12. Integrated landscape approaches to managing social and environmental issues in the tropics: learning from the past to guide the future.

    PubMed

    Reed, James; Van Vianen, Josh; Deakin, Elizabeth L; Barlow, Jos; Sunderland, Terry

    2016-07-01

    Poverty, food insecurity, climate change and biodiversity loss continue to persist as the primary environmental and social challenges faced by the global community. As such, there is a growing acknowledgement that conventional sectorial approaches to addressing often inter-connected social, environmental, economic and political challenges are proving insufficient. An alternative is to focus on integrated solutions at landscape scales or 'landscape approaches'. The appeal of landscape approaches has resulted in the production of a significant body of literature in recent decades, yet confusion over terminology, application and utility persists. Focusing on the tropics, we systematically reviewed the literature to: (i) disentangle the historical development and theory behind the framework of the landscape approach and how it has progressed into its current iteration, (ii) establish lessons learned from previous land management strategies, (iii) determine the barriers that currently restrict implementation of the landscape approach and (iv) provide recommendations for how the landscape approach can contribute towards the fulfilment of the goals of international policy processes. This review suggests that, despite some barriers to implementation, a landscape approach has considerable potential to meet social and environmental objectives at local scales while aiding national commitments to addressing ongoing global challenges.

  13. Integrated landscape approaches to managing social and environmental issues in the tropics: learning from the past to guide the future.

    PubMed

    Reed, James; Van Vianen, Josh; Deakin, Elizabeth L; Barlow, Jos; Sunderland, Terry

    2016-07-01

    Poverty, food insecurity, climate change and biodiversity loss continue to persist as the primary environmental and social challenges faced by the global community. As such, there is a growing acknowledgement that conventional sectorial approaches to addressing often inter-connected social, environmental, economic and political challenges are proving insufficient. An alternative is to focus on integrated solutions at landscape scales or 'landscape approaches'. The appeal of landscape approaches has resulted in the production of a significant body of literature in recent decades, yet confusion over terminology, application and utility persists. Focusing on the tropics, we systematically reviewed the literature to: (i) disentangle the historical development and theory behind the framework of the landscape approach and how it has progressed into its current iteration, (ii) establish lessons learned from previous land management strategies, (iii) determine the barriers that currently restrict implementation of the landscape approach and (iv) provide recommendations for how the landscape approach can contribute towards the fulfilment of the goals of international policy processes. This review suggests that, despite some barriers to implementation, a landscape approach has considerable potential to meet social and environmental objectives at local scales while aiding national commitments to addressing ongoing global challenges. PMID:26990574

  14. Scenario simulations of future salinity and ecological consequences in the Baltic Sea and adjacent North Sea areas–implications for environmental monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Vuorinen, Ilppo; Hänninen, Jari; Rajasilta, Marjut; Laine, Päivi; Eklund, Jan; Montesino-Pouzols, Federico; Corona, Francesco; Junker, Karin; Meier, H.E.Markus; Dippner, Joachim W.

    2015-01-01

    Substantial ecological changes occurred in the 1970s in the Northern Baltic during a temporary period of low salinity (S). This period was preceded by an episodic increase in the rainfall over the Baltic Sea watershed area. Several climate models, both global and regional, project an increase in the runoff of the Northern latitudes due to proceeding climate change. The aim of this study is to model, firstly, the effects on Baltic Sea salinity of increased runoff due to projected global change and, secondly, the effects of salinity change on the distribution of marine species. The results suggest a critical shift in the S range 5–7, which is a threshold for both freshwater and marine species distributions and diversity. We discuss several topics emphasizing future monitoring, modelling, and fisheries research. Environmental monitoring and modelling are investigated because the developing alternative ecosystems do not necessarily show the same relations to environment quality factors as the retiring ones. An important corollary is that the observed and modelled S changes considered together with species’ ranges indicate what may appear under a future climate. Consequences could include a shift in distribution areas of marine benthic foundation species and some 40–50 other species, affiliated to these. This change would extend over hundreds of kilometres, in the Baltic Sea and the adjacent North Sea areas. Potential cascading effects, in coastal ecology, fish ecology and fisheries would be extensive, and point out the necessity to develop further the “ecosystem approach in the environmental monitoring”. PMID:25737660

  15. Environmental Distributions of Benzo[a]pyrene in China: Current and Future Emission Reduction Scenarios Explored Using a Spatially Explicit Multimedia Fate Model.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Ying; Tao, Shu; Price, Oliver R; Shen, Huizhong; Jones, Kevin C; Sweetman, Andrew J

    2015-12-01

    SESAMe v3.0, a spatially explicit multimedia fate model with 50 × 50 km(2) resolution, has been developed for China to predict environmental concentrations of benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) using an atmospheric emission inventory for 2007. Model predictions are compared with environmental monitoring data obtained from an extensive review of the literature. The model performs well in predicting multimedia concentrations and distributions. Predicted concentrations are compared with guideline values; highest values with some exceedances occur mainly in the North China Plain, Mid Inner Mongolia, and parts of three northeast provinces, Xi'an, Shanghai, and south of Jiangsu province, East Sichuan Basin, middle of Guizhou and Guangzhou. Two potential future scenarios have been assessed using SESAMe v3.0 for 2030 as BaP emission is reduced by (1) technological improvement for coal consumption in energy production and industry sectors in Scenario 1 (Sc1) and (2) technological improvement and control of indoor biomass burning for cooking and indoor space heating and prohibition of open burning of biomass in 2030 in Scenario 2 (Sc2). Sc2 is more efficient in reducing the areas with exceedance of guideline values. Use of SESAMe v3.0 provides insights on future research needs and can inform decision making on options for source reduction. PMID:25942589

  16. Environmental Distributions of Benzo[a]pyrene in China: Current and Future Emission Reduction Scenarios Explored Using a Spatially Explicit Multimedia Fate Model.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Ying; Tao, Shu; Price, Oliver R; Shen, Huizhong; Jones, Kevin C; Sweetman, Andrew J

    2015-12-01

    SESAMe v3.0, a spatially explicit multimedia fate model with 50 × 50 km(2) resolution, has been developed for China to predict environmental concentrations of benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) using an atmospheric emission inventory for 2007. Model predictions are compared with environmental monitoring data obtained from an extensive review of the literature. The model performs well in predicting multimedia concentrations and distributions. Predicted concentrations are compared with guideline values; highest values with some exceedances occur mainly in the North China Plain, Mid Inner Mongolia, and parts of three northeast provinces, Xi'an, Shanghai, and south of Jiangsu province, East Sichuan Basin, middle of Guizhou and Guangzhou. Two potential future scenarios have been assessed using SESAMe v3.0 for 2030 as BaP emission is reduced by (1) technological improvement for coal consumption in energy production and industry sectors in Scenario 1 (Sc1) and (2) technological improvement and control of indoor biomass burning for cooking and indoor space heating and prohibition of open burning of biomass in 2030 in Scenario 2 (Sc2). Sc2 is more efficient in reducing the areas with exceedance of guideline values. Use of SESAMe v3.0 provides insights on future research needs and can inform decision making on options for source reduction.

  17. Celiac Disease Genomic, Environmental, Microbiome, and Metabolomic (CDGEMM) Study Design: Approach to the Future of Personalized Prevention of Celiac Disease

    PubMed Central

    Leonard, Maureen M.; Camhi, Stephanie; Huedo-Medina, Tania B.; Fasano, Alessio

    2015-01-01

    In the past it was believed that genetic predisposition and exposure to gluten were necessary and sufficient to develop celiac disease (CD). Recent studies however suggest that loss of gluten tolerance can occur at any time in life as a consequence of other environmental stimuli. Many environmental factors known to influence the composition of the intestinal microbiota are also suggested to play a role in the development of CD. These include birthing delivery mode, infant feeding, and antibiotic use. To date no large-scale longitudinal studies have defined if and how gut microbiota composition and metabolomic profiles may influence the loss of gluten tolerance and subsequent onset of CD in genetically-susceptible individuals. Here we describe a prospective, multicenter, longitudinal study of infants at risk for CD which will employ a blend of basic and applied studies to yield fundamental insights into the role of the gut microbiome as an additional factor that may play a key role in early steps involved in the onset of autoimmune disease. PMID:26569299

  18. Celiac Disease Genomic, Environmental, Microbiome, and Metabolomic (CDGEMM) Study Design: Approach to the Future of Personalized Prevention of Celiac Disease.

    PubMed

    Leonard, Maureen M; Camhi, Stephanie; Huedo-Medina, Tania B; Fasano, Alessio

    2015-11-11

    In the past it was believed that genetic predisposition and exposure to gluten were necessary and sufficient to develop celiac disease (CD). Recent studies however suggest that loss of gluten tolerance can occur at any time in life as a consequence of other environmental stimuli. Many environmental factors known to influence the composition of the intestinal microbiota are also suggested to play a role in the development of CD. These include birthing delivery mode, infant feeding, and antibiotic use. To date no large-scale longitudinal studies have defined if and how gut microbiota composition and metabolomic profiles may influence the loss of gluten tolerance and subsequent onset of CD in genetically-susceptible individuals. Here we describe a prospective, multicenter, longitudinal study of infants at risk for CD which will employ a blend of basic and applied studies to yield fundamental insights into the role of the gut microbiome as an additional factor that may play a key role in early steps involved in the onset of autoimmune disease.

  19. Projecting the environmental profile of Singapore's landfill activities: Comparisons of present and future scenarios based on LCA.

    PubMed

    Khoo, Hsien H; Tan, Lester L Z; Tan, Reginald B H

    2012-05-01

    This article aims to generate the environmental profile of Singapore's Semakau landfill by comparing three different operational options associated with the life cycle stages of landfilling activities, against a 'business as usual' scenario. Before life cycle assessment or LCA is used to quantify the potential impacts from landfilling activities, an attempt to incorporate localized and empirical information into the amounts of ash and MSW sent to the landfill was made. A linear regression representation of the relationship between the mass of waste disposed and the mass of incineration ash generated was modeled from waste statistics between years 2004 and 2009. Next, the mass of individual MSW components was projected from 2010 to 2030. The LCA results highlighted that in a 'business as usual' scenario the normalized total impacts of global warming, acidification and human toxicity increased by about 2% annually from 2011 to 2030. By replacing the 8000-tonne barge with a 10000-tonne coastal bulk carrier or freighter (in scenario 2) a grand total reduction of 48% of both global warming potential and acidification can be realized by year 2030. Scenario 3 explored the importance of having a Waste Water Treatment Plant in place to reduce human toxicity levels - however, the overall long-term benefits were not as significant as scenario 2. It is shown in scenario 4 that the option of increased recycling championed over all other three scenarios in the long run, resulting in a total 58% reduction in year 2030 for the total normalized results. A separate comparison of scenarios 1-4 is also carried out for energy utilization and land use in terms of volume of waste occupied. Along with the predicted reductions in environmental burdens, an additional bonus is found in the expanded lifespan of Semakau landfill from year 2032 (base case) to year 2039. Model limitations and suggestions for improvements were also discussed.

  20. Projecting the environmental profile of Singapore's landfill activities: Comparisons of present and future scenarios based on LCA.

    PubMed

    Khoo, Hsien H; Tan, Lester L Z; Tan, Reginald B H

    2012-05-01

    This article aims to generate the environmental profile of Singapore's Semakau landfill by comparing three different operational options associated with the life cycle stages of landfilling activities, against a 'business as usual' scenario. Before life cycle assessment or LCA is used to quantify the potential impacts from landfilling activities, an attempt to incorporate localized and empirical information into the amounts of ash and MSW sent to the landfill was made. A linear regression representation of the relationship between the mass of waste disposed and the mass of incineration ash generated was modeled from waste statistics between years 2004 and 2009. Next, the mass of individual MSW components was projected from 2010 to 2030. The LCA results highlighted that in a 'business as usual' scenario the normalized total impacts of global warming, acidification and human toxicity increased by about 2% annually from 2011 to 2030. By replacing the 8000-tonne barge with a 10000-tonne coastal bulk carrier or freighter (in scenario 2) a grand total reduction of 48% of both global warming potential and acidification can be realized by year 2030. Scenario 3 explored the importance of having a Waste Water Treatment Plant in place to reduce human toxicity levels - however, the overall long-term benefits were not as significant as scenario 2. It is shown in scenario 4 that the option of increased recycling championed over all other three scenarios in the long run, resulting in a total 58% reduction in year 2030 for the total normalized results. A separate comparison of scenarios 1-4 is also carried out for energy utilization and land use in terms of volume of waste occupied. Along with the predicted reductions in environmental burdens, an additional bonus is found in the expanded lifespan of Semakau landfill from year 2032 (base case) to year 2039. Model limitations and suggestions for improvements were also discussed. PMID:22257698

  1. Perceptions of the Year 2000: Then, Now, and In The Future. Developing the Critical Analysis Skills and Time Reference Perspective of Proactive Action Students in Environmental and Global Education Curricula.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peters, Richard Oakes

    An overview of future global environmental concerns and a strategy for teaching action skills to students are presented. Information from "The Global 2000 Report" and quotes from 11 different people provide a variety of perspectives on future problems and solutions concerning world food and hunger, economic growth, population, water, air, natural…

  2. Sensitive, accurate and rapid detection of trace aliphatic amines in environmental samples with ultrasonic-assisted derivatization microextraction using a new fluorescent reagent for high performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Chen, Guang; Liu, Jianjun; Liu, Mengge; Li, Guoliang; Sun, Zhiwei; Zhang, Shijuan; Song, Cuihua; Wang, Hua; Suo, Yourui; You, Jinmao

    2014-07-25

    A new fluorescent reagent, 1-(1H-imidazol-1-yl)-2-(2-phenyl-1H-phenanthro[9,10-d]imidazol-1-yl)ethanone (IPPIE), is synthesized, and a simple pretreatment based on ultrasonic-assisted derivatization microextraction (UDME) with IPPIE is proposed for the selective derivatization of 12 aliphatic amines (C1: methylamine-C12: dodecylamine) in complex matrix samples (irrigation water, river water, waste water, cultivated soil, riverbank soil and riverbed soil). Under the optimal experimental conditions (solvent: ACN-HCl, catalyst: none, molar ratio: 4.3, time: 8 min and temperature: 80°C), micro amount of sample (40 μL; 5mg) can be pretreated in only 10 min, with no preconcentration, evaporation or other additional manual operations required. The interfering substances (aromatic amines, aliphatic alcohols and phenols) get the derivatization yields of <5%, causing insignificant matrix effects (<4%). IPPIE-analyte derivatives are separated by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and quantified by fluorescence detection (FD). The very low instrumental detection limits (IDL: 0.66-4.02 ng/L) and method detection limits (MDL: 0.04-0.33 ng/g; 5.96-45.61 ng/L) are achieved. Analytes are further identified from adjacent peaks by on-line ion trap mass spectrometry (MS), thereby avoiding additional operations for impurities. With this UDME-HPLC-FD-MS method, the accuracy (-0.73-2.12%), precision (intra-day: 0.87-3.39%; inter-day: 0.16-4.12%), recovery (97.01-104.10%) and sensitivity were significantly improved. Successful applications in environmental samples demonstrate the superiority of this method in the sensitive, accurate and rapid determination of trace aliphatic amines in micro amount of complex samples. PMID:24925451

  3. A rapid ultrasound-assisted thiourea extraction method for the determination of inorganic and methyl mercury in biological and environmental samples by CVAAS.

    PubMed

    Krishna, M V Balarama; Ranjit, Manjusha; Karunasagar, D; Arunachalam, J

    2005-07-15

    A rapid ultrasound-assisted extraction procedure for the determination of total mercury, inorganic and methyl mercury (MM) in various environmental matrices (animal tissues, samples of plant origin and coal fly ash) has been developed. The mercury contents were estimated by cold vapour atomic absorption spectrometry (CVAAS). Inorganic mercury (IM) was determined using SnCl(2) as reducing agent whereas total mercury was determined after oxidation of methyl mercury through UV irradiation. Operational parameters such as extractant composition (HNO(3) and thiourea), sonication time and sonication amplitude found to be different for different matrices and were optimized using IAEA-350 (Fish homogenate), IM and MM loaded moss and NIST-1633b (Coal fly ash) to get quantitative extraction of total mercury. The method was further validated through the analysis of additional certified reference materials (RM): NRCC-DORM2 (Dogfish muscle), NRCC-DOLT1 (Dogfish liver) and IAEA-336 (Lichen). Quantitative recovery of total Hg was achieved using mixtures of 5% HNO(3) and 0.02% thiourea, 10% HNO(3) and 0.02% thiourea, 20% HNO(3) and 0.2% thiourea for fish tissues, plant matrices and coal fly ash samples, respectively. The results obtained were in close agreement with certified values with an overall precision in the range of 5-15%. The proposed ultrasound-assisted extraction procedure significantly reduces the time required for sample treatment for the extraction of Hg species. The extracted mercury species are very stable even after 24h of sonication. Closed microwave digestion was also used for comparison purposes. The proposed method was applied for the determination of Hg in field samples of lichens, mosses, coal fly ash and coal samples.

  4. Analytical quality of environmental analysis: Recent results and future trends of the IAEA-ILMR's Analytical Quality Control Program

    SciTech Connect

    Ballestra, S.; Vas, D.; Holm, E.; Lopez, J.J.; Parsi, P. )

    1988-01-01

    The Analytical Quality Control Services Program of the IAEA-ILMR covers a wide variety of intercalibration and reference materials. The purpose of the program is to ensure the comparability of the results obtained by the different participants and to enable laboratories engaged in low-level analyses of marine environmental materials to control their analytical performance. Within the past five years, the International Laboratory of Marine Radioactivity in Monaco has organized eight intercomparison exercises, on a world-wide basis, on natural materials of marine origin comprising sea water, sediment, seaweed and fish flesh. Results on artificial (fission and activation products, transuranium elements) and natural radionuclides were compiled and evaluated. Reference concentration values were established for a number of the intercalibration samples allowing them to become certified as reference materials available for general distribution. The results of the fish flesh sample and those of the deep-sea sediment are reviewed. The present status of three on-going intercomparison exercises on post-Chernobyl samples IAEA-306 (Baltic Sea sediment), IAEA-307 (Mediterranean sea-plant Posidonia oceanica) and IAEA-308 (Mediterranean mixed seaweed) is also described. 1 refs., 4 tabs.

  5. Recruiting the occupational and environmental medicine physicians of the future: results of a survey of current residents.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, B S; Pransky, G; Lashley, D

    1995-06-01

    In July 1994, current occupational and environmental medicine (OEM) residents (n = 180) were surveyed about their motivation for decisions to enter OEM residencies, near-term and long-term career goals, and their opinions on various strategies for recruitment to the field. A total of 151 persons responded (84%), representing all 40 accredited OEM residencies in the United States and Canada. A total of 16% first learned about OEM in medical school, and 11% were first exposed during residency training. Most respondents (62%) decided to enter OEM residency training after beginning their professional working careers. Only 11% of respondents decided to enter OEM residency training before (2%) or during (9%) medical school, whereas 24% made their decision during internship or residency. Respondents were attracted to several aspects of OEM, but the prevention focus of the field (64%), lifestyle (56%), and worker and labor issues (53%) were most commonly cited. Although only 25% of respondents stated that a role model had a significant impact on their decision to pursue training in OEM, persons influenced by a role model were more likely to have made the decision to pursue a career in OEM during medical school or clinical residency training (odds ratio = 2.4; 95% CI, 1.0-5.4; Fisher's exact two-tailed P value = 0.04). In the short term, residents were most often interested in working for industry (32%), whereas over the long term, careers in consulting were most often preferred (39%). The data have important implications for strategies to increase recruitment to residency training programs in OEM and to increase staffing in the field. PMID:7670921

  6. City of Grand Rapids Building Solar Roof Demonstration

    SciTech Connect

    DeClercq, Mark; Martinez, Imelda

    2012-08-31

    Grand Rapids, Michigan is striving to reduce it environmental footprint. The municipal government organization has established environmental sustainability policies with the goal of securing 100% of its energy from renewable sources by 2020. This report describes the process by which the City of Grand Rapids evaluated, selected and installed solar panels on the Water/Environmental Services Building. The solar panels are the first to be placed on a municipal building. Its new power monitoring system provides output data to assess energy efficiency and utilization. It is expected to generate enough clean solar energy to power 25 percent of the building. The benefit to the public includes the economic savings from reduced operational costs for the building; an improved environmentally sustainable area in which to live and work; and increased knowledge about the use of solar energy. It will serve as a model for future energy saving applications.

  7. Environmental implications of United States coal exports: a comparative life cycle assessment of future power system scenarios.

    PubMed

    Bohnengel, Barrett; Patiño-Echeverri, Dalia; Bergerson, Joule

    2014-08-19

    Stricter emissions requirements on coal-fired power plants together with low natural gas prices have contributed to a recent decline in the use of coal for electricity generation in the United States. Faced with a shrinking domestic market, many coal companies are taking advantage of a growing coal export market. As a result, U.S. coal exports hit an all-time high in 2012, fueled largely by demand in Asia. This paper presents a comparative life cycle assessment of two scenarios: a baseline scenario in which coal continues to be burned domestically for power generation, and an export scenario in which coal is exported to Asia. For the coal export scenario we focus on the Morrow Pacific export project being planned in Oregon by Ambre Energy that would ship 8.8 million tons of Powder River Basin (PRB) coal annually to Asian markets via rail, river barge, and ocean vessel. Air emissions (SOx, NOx, PM10 and CO2e) results assuming that the exported coal is burned for electricity generation in South Korea are compared to those of a business as usual case in which Oregon and Washington's coal plants, Boardman and Centralia, are retrofitted to comply with EPA emissions standards and continue their coal consumption. Findings show that although the environmental impacts of shipping PRB coal to Asia are significant, the combination of superior energy efficiency among newer South Korean coal-fired power plants and lower emissions from U.S. replacement of coal with natural gas could lead to a greenhouse gas reduction of 21% in the case that imported PRB coal replaces other coal sources in this Asian country. If instead PRB coal were to replace natural gas or nuclear generation in South Korea, greenhouse gas emissions per unit of electricity generated would increase. Results are similar for other air emissions such as SOx, NOx and PM. This study provides a framework for comparing energy export scenarios and highlights the importance of complete life cycle assessment in

  8. Environmental implications of United States coal exports: a comparative life cycle assessment of future power system scenarios.

    PubMed

    Bohnengel, Barrett; Patiño-Echeverri, Dalia; Bergerson, Joule

    2014-08-19

    Stricter emissions requirements on coal-fired power plants together with low natural gas prices have contributed to a recent decline in the use of coal for electricity generation in the United States. Faced with a shrinking domestic market, many coal companies are taking advantage of a growing coal export market. As a result, U.S. coal exports hit an all-time high in 2012, fueled largely by demand in Asia. This paper presents a comparative life cycle assessment of two scenarios: a baseline scenario in which coal continues to be burned domestically for power generation, and an export scenario in which coal is exported to Asia. For the coal export scenario we focus on the Morrow Pacific export project being planned in Oregon by Ambre Energy that would ship 8.8 million tons of Powder River Basin (PRB) coal annually to Asian markets via rail, river barge, and ocean vessel. Air emissions (SOx, NOx, PM10 and CO2e) results assuming that the exported coal is burned for electricity generation in South Korea are compared to those of a business as usual case in which Oregon and Washington's coal plants, Boardman and Centralia, are retrofitted to comply with EPA emissions standards and continue their coal consumption. Findings show that although the environmental impacts of shipping PRB coal to Asia are significant, the combination of superior energy efficiency among newer South Korean coal-fired power plants and lower emissions from U.S. replacement of coal with natural gas could lead to a greenhouse gas reduction of 21% in the case that imported PRB coal replaces other coal sources in this Asian country. If instead PRB coal were to replace natural gas or nuclear generation in South Korea, greenhouse gas emissions per unit of electricity generated would increase. Results are similar for other air emissions such as SOx, NOx and PM. This study provides a framework for comparing energy export scenarios and highlights the importance of complete life cycle assessment in

  9. Rapid Clinical Bacteriology and Its Future Impact

    PubMed Central

    Durand, Géraldine; Peyret, Michel; Chatellier, Sonia; Zambardi, Gilles; Schrenzel, Jacques; Shortridge, Dee; Engelhardt, Anette; Dunne, William Michael

    2013-01-01

    Clinical microbiology has always been a slowly evolving and conservative science. The sub-field of bacteriology has been and still is dominated for over a century by culture-based technologies. The integration of serological and molecular methodologies during the seventies and eighties of the previous century took place relatively slowly and in a cumbersome fashion. When nucleic acid amplification technologies became available in the early nineties, the predicted "revolution" was again slow but in the end a real paradigm shift did take place. Several of the culture-based technologies were successfully replaced by tests aimed at nucleic acid detection. More recently a second revolution occurred. Mass spectrometry was introduced and broadly accepted as a new diagnostic gold standard for microbial species identification. Apparently, the diagnostic landscape is changing, albeit slowly, and the combination of newly identified infectious etiologies and the availability of innovative technologies has now opened new avenues for modernizing clinical microbiology. However, the improvement of microbial antibiotic susceptibility testing is still lagging behind. In this review we aim to sketch the most recent developments in laboratory-based clinical bacteriology and to provide an overview of emerging novel diagnostic approaches. PMID:23301218

  10. Environmental chemical exposures and human epigenetics

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Lifang; Zhang, Xiao; Wang, Dong; Baccarelli, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    Every year more than 13 million deaths worldwide are due to environmental pollutants, and approximately 24% of diseases are caused by environmental exposures that might be averted through preventive measures. Rapidly growing evidence has linked environmental pollutants with epigenetic variations, including changes in DNA methylation, histone modifications and microRNAs. Environ mental chemicals and epigenetic changes All of these mechanisms are likely to play important roles in disease aetiology, and their modifications due to environmental pollutants might provide further understanding of disease aetiology, as well as biomarkers reflecting exposures to environmental pollutants and/or predicting the risk of future disease. We summarize the findings on epigenetic alterations related to environmental chemical exposures, and propose mechanisms of action by means of which the exposures may cause such epigenetic changes. We discuss opportunities, challenges and future directions for future epidemiology research in environmental epigenomics. Future investigations are needed to solve methodological and practical challenges, including uncertainties about stability over time of epigenomic changes induced by the environment, tissue specificity of epigenetic alterations, validation of laboratory methods, and adaptation of bioinformatic and biostatistical methods to high-throughput epigenomics. In addition, there are numerous reports of epigenetic modifications arising following exposure to environmental toxicants, but most have not been directly linked to disease endpoints. To complete our discussion, we also briefly summarize the diseases that have been linked to environmental chemicals-related epigenetic changes. PMID:22253299

  11. Can we compare the environmental performance of this product to that one? An update on the development of product category rules and future challenges toward alignment

    EPA Science Inventory

    When used to compare the relative environmental benefits of different products, life cycle-based, quantitative environmental claims, such as carbon footprints and environmental product declarations require common rules in order for claims to be comparable within a category. Produ...

  12. Predicting the impacts of existing, pending, and future surface water rights on environmental flows to maintain anadromous salmonids in the northern California wine country

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deitch, M.; Kondolf, G. M.; Merenlender, A.; Cover, M. R.

    2006-12-01

    We used digitized aerial photographs on a geographical information system, historical stream flow records, and water rights records to model the effects of existing, pending, and future small reservoirs on stream flow on six tributaries to the Russian River in Sonoma County. Institutions governing whether these reservoirs can operate as constructed, and as proposed, has important implications for efforts to meet human and ecological water needs in the California wine country. Beginning in 1992, state agencies rewrote the policies governing how wine grape growers meet water needs to offer protections to endangered species and public trust values. These changes caused a shift in water management institutions: wine grape growers could no longer rely on surface water appropriations to meet growing water needs for new vineyards, and instead turned to other types of water rights that placed different (and potentially more severe) pressures on aquatic ecosystems. Despite growing controversy over the ecological impacts of existing and pending surface water appropriations (primarily small onstream and offstream reservoirs) on environmental flows necessary to support endangered anadromous salmonids, no analysis has been conducted to evaluate the impacts of existing small reservoirs, pending proposed reservoirs, or future reservoirs on local or catchment-scale stream flow. Our stream flow models indicated that existing and pending small reservoirs can eliminate flow immediately downstream of small reservoirs at the onset of the rainy season (when adult salmonids begin to migrate upstream to spawn); but the cumulative effect of several small reservoirs on stream reaches suitable for spawning is dampened by the spatial distribution of small reservoirs in a drainage network. The temporal extant of local flow effects is variable; most recent and pending onstream reservoirs can impair flows late into the rainy season, but their cumulative effects on downstream flows are less

  13. Cradle-to-cradle stewardship of drugs for minimizing their environmental disposition while promoting human health. II. Drug disposal, waste reduction, and future directions.

    PubMed

    Daughton, Christian G

    2003-05-01

    Since the 1980s, the occurrence of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) as trace environmental pollutants, originating primarily from consumer use and actions rather than manufacturer effluents, continues to become more firmly established. The growing, worldwide importance of freshwater resources underscores the need for ensuring that any aggregate or cumulative impacts on (or from) water supplies are minimized. Despite a paucity of effects data from long-term, simultaneous exposure at low doses to multiple xenobiotics (particularly non-target-organism exposure to PPCPs), a wide range of proactive actions could be implemented for reducing or minimizing the introduction of PPCPs to the environment. Most of these actions fall under what could be envisioned as a holistic stewardship program--overseen by the health care industry and consumers alike. Significantly, such a stewardship program would benefit not just the environment--additional, collateral benefits could automatically accrue, including the lessening of medication expense for the consumer and improving patient health and consumer safety. In this article (the second of two parts describing the "green pharmacy") I focus on those actions and activities tied more closely to the end user (e.g., the patient) and issues associated with drug disposal/recycling that could prove useful in minimizing the environmental disposition of PPCPs. I also outline some recommendations and suggestions for further research and pose some considerations regarding the future. In this mini-monograph I attempt to capture cohesively for the first time the wide spectrum of actions available for minimizing the release of PPCPs to the environment. A major objective is to generate an active dialog or debate across the many disciplines that must become actively involved to design and implement a successful approach to life-cycle stewardship of PPCPs.

  14. Cradle-to-cradle stewardship of drugs for minimizing their environmental disposition while promoting human health. II. Drug disposal, waste reduction, and future directions.

    PubMed Central

    Daughton, Christian G

    2003-01-01

    Since the 1980s, the occurrence of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) as trace environmental pollutants, originating primarily from consumer use and actions rather than manufacturer effluents, continues to become more firmly established. The growing, worldwide importance of freshwater resources underscores the need for ensuring that any aggregate or cumulative impacts on (or from) water supplies are minimized. Despite a paucity of effects data from long-term, simultaneous exposure at low doses to multiple xenobiotics (particularly non-target-organism exposure to PPCPs), a wide range of proactive actions could be implemented for reducing or minimizing the introduction of PPCPs to the environment. Most of these actions fall under what could be envisioned as a holistic stewardship program--overseen by the health care industry and consumers alike. Significantly, such a stewardship program would benefit not just the environment--additional, collateral benefits could automatically accrue, including the lessening of medication expense for the consumer and improving patient health and consumer safety. In this article (the second of two parts describing the "green pharmacy") I focus on those actions and activities tied more closely to the end user (e.g., the patient) and issues associated with drug disposal/recycling that could prove useful in minimizing the environmental disposition of PPCPs. I also outline some recommendations and suggestions for further research and pose some considerations regarding the future. In this mini-monograph I attempt to capture cohesively for the first time the wide spectrum of actions available for minimizing the release of PPCPs to the environment. A major objective is to generate an active dialog or debate across the many disciplines that must become actively involved to design and implement a successful approach to life-cycle stewardship of PPCPs. PMID:12727607

  15. A RAPID METHOD FOR THE EXTRACTION OF FUNGAL DNA FROM ENVIRONMENTAL SAMPLES: EVALUATION IN THE QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS OF MEMNONIELLA ECHINATA CONIDIA USING REAL TIME DETECTION OF PCR PRODUCTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    New technologies are creating the potential for using nucleic acid sequence detection to perform routine microbiological analyses of environmental samples. Our laboratory has recently reported on the development of a method for the quantitative detection of Stachybotrys chartarum...

  16. The influence of coarse-scale environmental features on current and predicted future distributions of narrow-range endemic crayfish populations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dyer, Joseph J.; Brewer, Shannon K.; Worthington, Thomas A.; Bergey, Elizabeth A.

    2013-01-01

    1.A major limitation to effective management of narrow-range crayfish populations is the paucity of information on the spatial distribution of crayfish species and a general understanding of the interacting environmental variables that drive current and future potential distributional patterns. 2.Maximum Entropy Species Distribution Modeling Software (MaxEnt) was used to predict the current and future potential distributions of four endemic crayfish species in the Ouachita Mountains. Current distributions were modelled using climate, geology, soils, land use, landform and flow variables thought to be important to lotic crayfish. Potential changes in the distribution were forecast by using models trained on current conditions and projecting onto the landscape predicted under climate-change scenarios. 3.The modelled distribution of the four species closely resembled the perceived distribution of each species but also predicted populations in streams and catchments where they had not previously been collected. Soils, elevation and winter precipitation and temperature most strongly related to current distributions and represented 6587% of the predictive power of the models. Model accuracy was high for all models, and model predictions of new populations were verified through additional field sampling. 4.Current models created using two spatial resolutions (1 and 4.5km2) showed that fine-resolution data more accurately represented current distributions. For three of the four species, the 1-km2 resolution models resulted in more conservative predictions. However, the modelled distributional extent of Orconectes leptogonopodus was similar regardless of data resolution. Field validations indicated 1-km2 resolution models were more accurate than 4.5-km2 resolution models. 5.Future projected (4.5-km2 resolution models) model distributions indicated three of the four endemic species would have truncated ranges with low occurrence probabilities under the low-emission scenario

  17. [Design of a genomic, environmental, microbial and metabolomic study on celiac disease: an approach to the future of personalized prevention of celiac disease].

    PubMed

    Serena, Gloria; Leonard, Maureen M; Camhi, Stephanie; Huedo-Medina, Tania B; Fasano, Alessio

    2016-06-01

    Over recent years we have seen rising many clinical and scientific innovations about celiac disease (CE), however the most important innovation that will contribute to change the future of the research and clinic in this field is the natural history of the disease. For many years it has been though that a genetic predisposition and the exposure to gluten were necessary and sufficient to develop CE. Recent studies, however, suggest that the loss of tolerance to gluten may occur in any moment of life upon certain conditions. Furthermore, several environmental factors known to play a role in shaping the intestinal microflora have also been considered related to the development of CE. Delivery mode, the infant diet and the use of antibiotics are included among these factors. To this day no large scale studies have determined if and how the microbiome composition and its metabolomic profile may influence the loss of tolerance to gluten and the consequent development of CE. In this paper we describe a prospective, multi-centric and longitudinal study on infants at risk for CE that will use different techniques to better understand the role of the microbome during the first steps in the development of the autoimmune disease. PMID:27362724

  18. A simple, rapid, and high-throughput fluorescence polarization immunoassay for simultaneous detection of organophosphorus pesticides in vegetable and environmental water samples

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A simple, rapid, and high-throughput fluorescent polarization immunoassay (FPIA) for simultaneous determination of organophosphorus pesticides (OPs) was developed. Three haptens were labeled with a fluorescein probe and used as tracers to develop a homogenous FPIA using a broad-specificity monoclon...

  19. Molecular tools for bathing water assessment in Europe: Balancing social science research with a rapidly developing environmental science evidence-base.

    PubMed

    Oliver, David M; Hanley, Nick D; van Niekerk, Melanie; Kay, David; Heathwaite, A Louise; Rabinovici, Sharyl J M; Kinzelman, Julie L; Fleming, Lora E; Porter, Jonathan; Shaikh, Sabina; Fish, Rob; Chilton, Sue; Hewitt, Julie; Connolly, Elaine; Cummins, Andy; Glenk, Klaus; McPhail, Calum; McRory, Eric; McVittie, Alistair; Giles, Amanna; Roberts, Suzanne; Simpson, Katherine; Tinch, Dugald; Thairs, Ted; Avery, Lisa M; Vinten, Andy J A; Watts, Bill D; Quilliam, Richard S

    2016-02-01

    The use of molecular tools, principally qPCR, versus traditional culture-based methods for quantifying microbial parameters (e.g., Fecal Indicator Organisms) in bathing waters generates considerable ongoing debate at the science-policy interface. Advances in science have allowed the development and application of molecular biological methods for rapid (~2 h) quantification of microbial pollution in bathing and recreational waters. In contrast, culture-based methods can take between 18 and 96 h for sample processing. Thus, molecular tools offer an opportunity to provide a more meaningful statement of microbial risk to water-users by providing near-real-time information enabling potentially more informed decision-making with regard to water-based activities. However, complementary studies concerning the potential costs and benefits of adopting rapid methods as a regulatory tool are in short supply. We report on findings from an international Working Group that examined the breadth of social impacts, challenges, and research opportunities associated with the application of molecular tools to bathing water regulations.

  20. Rapid on-site/in-situ detection of heavy metal ions in environmental water using a structure-switching DNA optical biosensor.

    PubMed

    Long, Feng; Zhu, Anna; Shi, Hanchang; Wang, Hongchen; Liu, Jingquan

    2013-01-01

    A structure-switching DNA optical biosensor for rapid on-site/in situ detection of heavy metal ions is reported. Mercury ions (Hg²⁺), highly toxic and ubiquitous pollutants, were selected as model target. In this system, fluorescence-labeled DNA containing T-T mismatch structure was introduced to bind with DNA probes immobilized onto the sensor surface. In the presence of Hg²⁺, some of the fluorescence-labeled DNAs bind with Hg²⁺ to form T-Hg²⁺-T complexes through the folding of themselves into a hairpin structure and dehybridization from the sensor surface, which leads to decrease in fluorescence signal. The total analysis time for a single sample was less than 10 min with detection limit of 1.2 nM. The rapid on-site/in situ determination of Hg²⁺ was readily performed in natural water. This sensing strategy can be extended in principle to other metal ions by substituting the T-Hg²⁺-T complexes with other specificity structures that selectively bind to other analytes.

  1. Rapid on-site/in-situ detection of heavy metal ions in environmental water using a structure-switching DNA optical biosensor.

    PubMed

    Long, Feng; Zhu, Anna; Shi, Hanchang; Wang, Hongchen; Liu, Jingquan

    2013-01-01

    A structure-switching DNA optical biosensor for rapid on-site/in situ detection of heavy metal ions is reported. Mercury ions (Hg²⁺), highly toxic and ubiquitous pollutants, were selected as model target. In this system, fluorescence-labeled DNA containing T-T mismatch structure was introduced to bind with DNA probes immobilized onto the sensor surface. In the presence of Hg²⁺, some of the fluorescence-labeled DNAs bind with Hg²⁺ to form T-Hg²⁺-T complexes through the folding of themselves into a hairpin structure and dehybridization from the sensor surface, which leads to decrease in fluorescence signal. The total analysis time for a single sample was less than 10 min with detection limit of 1.2 nM. The rapid on-site/in situ determination of Hg²⁺ was readily performed in natural water. This sensing strategy can be extended in principle to other metal ions by substituting the T-Hg²⁺-T complexes with other specificity structures that selectively bind to other analytes. PMID:23892693

  2. Molecular tools for bathing water assessment in Europe: Balancing social science research with a rapidly developing environmental science evidence-base.

    PubMed

    Oliver, David M; Hanley, Nick D; van Niekerk, Melanie; Kay, David; Heathwaite, A Louise; Rabinovici, Sharyl J M; Kinzelman, Julie L; Fleming, Lora E; Porter, Jonathan; Shaikh, Sabina; Fish, Rob; Chilton, Sue; Hewitt, Julie; Connolly, Elaine; Cummins, Andy; Glenk, Klaus; McPhail, Calum; McRory, Eric; McVittie, Alistair; Giles, Amanna; Roberts, Suzanne; Simpson, Katherine; Tinch, Dugald; Thairs, Ted; Avery, Lisa M; Vinten, Andy J A; Watts, Bill D; Quilliam, Richard S

    2016-02-01

    The use of molecular tools, principally qPCR, versus traditional culture-based methods for quantifying microbial parameters (e.g., Fecal Indicator Organisms) in bathing waters generates considerable ongoing debate at the science-policy interface. Advances in science have allowed the development and application of molecular biological methods for rapid (~2 h) quantification of microbial pollution in bathing and recreational waters. In contrast, culture-based methods can take between 18 and 96 h for sample processing. Thus, molecular tools offer an opportunity to provide a more meaningful statement of microbial risk to water-users by providing near-real-time information enabling potentially more informed decision-making with regard to water-based activities. However, complementary studies concerning the potential costs and benefits of adopting rapid methods as a regulatory tool are in short supply. We report on findings from an international Working Group that examined the breadth of social impacts, challenges, and research opportunities associated with the application of molecular tools to bathing water regulations. PMID:26392185

  3. Rapid on-site/in-situ detection of heavy metal ions in environmental water using a structure-switching DNA optical biosensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Long, Feng; Zhu, Anna; Shi, Hanchang; Wang, Hongchen; Liu, Jingquan

    2013-07-01

    A structure-switching DNA optical biosensor for rapid on-site/in situ detection of heavy metal ions is reported. Mercury ions (Hg2+), highly toxic and ubiquitous pollutants, were selected as model target. In this system, fluorescence-labeled DNA containing T-T mismatch structure was introduced to bind with DNA probes immobilized onto the sensor surface. In the presence of Hg2+, some of the fluorescence-labeled DNAs bind with Hg2+ to form T-Hg2+-T complexes through the folding of themselves into a hairpin structure and dehybridization from the sensor surface, which leads to decrease in fluorescence signal. The total analysis time for a single sample was less than 10 min with detection limit of 1.2 nM. The rapid on-site/in situ determination of Hg2+ was readily performed in natural water. This sensing strategy can be extended in principle to other metal ions by substituting the T-Hg2+-T complexes with other specificity structures that selectively bind to other analytes.

  4. Finding of No Significant Impact and Final Environmental Assessment for the Future Location of Heat Source/Radioisotope Power System Assembly and Testing and Operations Currently Located at the Mound Site

    SciTech Connect

    N /A

    2002-08-30

    The U.S. Department of Energy (the Department) has completed an Environmental Assessment for the Future Location of the Heat Source/Radioisotope Power System Assembly and Test. Operations Currently Located at the Mound Site. Based on the analysis in the environmental assessment, the Department has determined that the proposed action, the relocation of the Department's heat source and radioisotope power system operations, does not constitute a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment within the meaning of the ''National Environmental Policy Act'' of 1969 (NEPA). Therefore, the preparation of an Environmental Impact Statement is not required, and the Department is issuing this Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI).

  5. Dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry for the rapid and sensitive determination of UV filters in environmental water samples.

    PubMed

    Negreira, N; Rodríguez, I; Rubí, E; Cela, R

    2010-09-01

    The performance of the dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) technique for the determination of eight UV filters and a structurally related personal care species, benzyl salicylate (BzS), in environmental water samples is evaluated. After extraction, analytes were determined by gas chromatography combined with mass spectrometry detection (GC-MS). Parameters potentially affecting the performance of the sample preparation method (sample pH, ionic strength, type and volume of dispersant and extractant solvents) were systematically investigated using both multi- and univariant optimization strategies. Under final working conditions, analytes were extracted from 10 mL water samples by addition of 1 mL of acetone (dispersant) containing 60 μL of chlorobenzene (extractant), without modifying either the pH or the ionic strength of the sample. Limits of quantification (LOQs) between 2 and 14 ng L(-1), inter-day variability (evaluated with relative standard deviations, RSDs) from 9% to 14% and good linearity up to concentrations of 10,000 ng L(-1) were obtained. Moreover, the efficiency of the extraction was scarcely affected by the type of water sample. With the only exception of 2-ethylhexyl-p-dimethylaminobenzoate (EHPABA), compounds were found in environmental water samples at concentrations between 6 ± 1 ng L(-1) and 26 ± 2 ng mL(-1). PMID:20652544

  6. Simultaneous determination of human and veterinary antibiotics in various environmental matrices by rapid resolution liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Li-Jun; Ying, Guang-Guo; Liu, Shan; Zhao, Jian-Liang; Chen, Feng; Zhang, Rui-Quan; Peng, Fu-Qiang; Zhang, Qian-Qian

    2012-06-29

    A robust and sensitive analytical method is presented in which 11 classes of antibiotics are simultaneously extracted and determined in surface water, lagoon wastewater, influent, effluent, sediment, manure and sludge. Water samples with different volumes were adjusted to pH 3, added with 0.2g Na₂EDTA and then extracted using Oasis hydrophilic-lipophilic balance (HLB) cartridges. Extraction of solid samples was carried out by a combination of ultrasonic and vortex mixing using a mixture of acetonitrile and citric buffer at pH 3 as the extraction solution. The extracts of the solid samples were then cleaned-up by a tandem solid phase extraction (SPE) method using a strong anion exchange cartridge (SAX) and a HLB cartridge, followed by analysis using rapid resolution liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (RRLC-MS/MS) equipped with electrospray ionization source. Among the 50 target compounds, the recoveries in the range of 50-150% were obtained for 39, 40, 36, 40, 38, 33 and 36 antibiotics in the spiked samples of surface water, lagoon wastewater, influent, effluent, sediment, manure and sludge with three concentrations, respectively. Method quantification limits (MQLs) for the target compounds (except sulfaguanidine and sulfanilamide) were in the range of 0.52-5.88 ng/L, 2.36-65.8 ng/L, 1.73-20 ng/L, 1.42-9.52 ng/L, 0.64-6.67 ng/g (except bacitracin and cloxacillin), 1.33-17.4 ng/g (except salinomycin, narasin, monensin, cloxacillin and novobiocin) and 1.50-28.6 ng/g (except salinomycin, narasin, monensin and cloxacillin) in surface water, lagoon wastewater, influent, effluent, sediment, manure and sludge, respectively. The developed analytical method was successfully applied in the determination of target compounds in wastewater and sludge samples from Huiyang wastewater treatment plants, and in ground water, lagoon wastewater, manure and sediment collected from a pig farm, in South China. PMID:22625208

  7. Assessment by Ames test and comet assay of toxicity potential of polymer used to develop field-capable rapid-detection device to analyze environmental samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hebert, Amanda; Bishop, Michelle; Bhattacharyya, Dhiman; Gleason, Karen; Torosian, Stephen

    2015-08-01

    There is need for devices that decrease detection time of food-borne pathogens from days to real-time. In this study, a rapid-detection device is being developed and assessed for potential cytotoxicity. The device is comprised of melt-spun polypropylene coupons coated via oxidative chemical vapor deposition (oCVD) with 3,4-Ethylenedioxythiophene (EDOT), for conductivity and 3-Thiopheneethanol (3TE), allowing antibody attachment. The Ames test and comet assay have been used in this study to examine the toxicity potentials of EDOT, 3TE, and polymerized EDOT-co-3TE. For this study, Salmonella typhimurium strain TA1535 was used to assess the mutagenic potential of EDOT, 3TE and the copolymer. The average mutagenic potential of EDOT, 3TE and copolymer was calculated to be 0.86, 0.56, and 0.92, respectively. For mutagenic potential, on a scale from 0 to 1, close to 1 indicates low potential for toxicity, whereas a value of 0 indicates a high potential for toxicity. The comet assay is a single-cell gel electrophoresis technique that is widely used for this purpose. This assay measures toxicity based on the area or intensity of the comet-like shape that DNA fragments produce when DNA damage has occurred. Three cell lines were assessed; FRhK-4, BHK-21, and Vero cells. After averaging the results of all three strains, the tail intensity of the copolymer was 8.8 % and tail moment was 3.0, and is most similar to the untreated control, with average tail intensity of 5.7 % and tail moment of 1.7. The assays conducted in this study provide evidence that the copolymer is non-toxic to humans.

  8. FutureCoast: "Listen to your futures"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pfirman, S. L.; Eklund, K.; Thacher, S.; Orlove, B. S.; Diane Stovall-Soto, G.; Brunacini, J.; Hernandez, T.

    2014-12-01

    Two science-arts approaches are emerging as effective means to convey "futurethinking" to learners: systems gaming and experiential futures. FutureCoast exemplifies the latter: by engaging participants with voicemails supposedly leaking from the cloud of possible futures, the storymaking game frames the complexities of climate science in relatable contexts. Because participants make the voicemails themselves, FutureCoast opens up creative ways for people to think about possibly climate-changed futures and personal ways to talk about them. FutureCoast is a project of the PoLAR Partnership with a target audience of informal adult learners primarily reached via mobile devices and online platforms. Scientists increasingly use scenarios and storylines as ways to explore the implications of environmental change and societal choices. Stories help people make connections across experiences and disciplines and link large-scale events to personal consequences. By making the future seem real today, FutureCoast's framework helps people visualize and plan for future climate changes. The voicemails contributed to FutureCoast are spread through the game's intended timeframe (2020 through 2065). Based on initial content analysis of voicemail text, common themes include ecosystems and landscapes, weather, technology, societal issues, governance and policy. Other issues somewhat less frequently discussed include security, food, industry and business, health, energy, infrastructure, water, economy, and migration. Further voicemail analysis is examining: temporal dimensions (salient time frames, short vs. long term issues, intergenerational, etc.), content (adaptation vs. mitigation, challenges vs. opportunities, etc.), and emotion (hopeful, resigned, etc. and overall emotional context). FutureCoast also engaged audiences through facilitated in-person experiences, geocaching events, and social media (Tumblr, Twitter, Facebook, YouTube). Analysis of the project suggests story

  9. Comet-assay parameters as rapid biomarkers of exposure to dietary/environmental compounds -- an in vitro feasibility study on spermatozoa and lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Baumgartner, A; Kurzawa-Zegota, M; Laubenthal, J; Cemeli, E; Anderson, D

    2012-03-18

    Twelve chemical compounds have been selected for the European NewGeneris study on the basis of their potential to damage DNA, in order to establish adequate and reliable biomarkers of exposure. These genotoxic chemicals include heterocyclic amines, organochlorines, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, mycotoxins, lipid peroxidation products and alcohol. Damage in somatic cells such as lymphocytes could give rise to cancer, while damage in germ cells could not only give rise to cancer but also to heritable defects. The alkaline Comet assay, with and without metabolic activation, as well as the neutral Comet assay were used to assess DNA integrity in spermatozoa and lymphocytes after in vitro treatment with low, middle and high doses of each chemical. DNA-reactive aldehydes generated by lipid peroxidation, food mutagens such as heterocyclic amines, nitrosamine and benzo[a]pyrene produced the highest amounts of DNA damage, even without metabolic activation. Damage seen with the neutral Comet assay - detecting primarily double-strand breaks - was lower than with the alkaline assay. In general, there was increased damage in the spermatozoa by comparison with the lymphocytes, with altered slopes in the dose-response curves. The Comet assay with sperm was generally very sensitive in assessing genotoxic damage, with the Comet parameters being good biomarkers of induced DNA damage. Establishing reliable biomarkers of exposure for the evaluation of dietary/environmental carcinogens is of utmost importance to protect our health and the health of our offspring.

  10. Rapid GIS-based profiling of West Nile virus transmission: Defining environmental factors associated with an urban-suburban outbreak in Northeast Ohio, USA

    PubMed Central

    LaBeaud, A. Desiree; Gorman, Ann-Marie; Koonce, Joe; Kippes, Christopher; McLeod, John; Lynch, Joe; Gallagher, Timothy; King, Charles H.; Mandalakas, Anna M.

    2011-01-01

    Human West Nile virus (WNV) infection was first detected in Cuyahoga County, Ohio in 2002. During that year's extensive epidemic/epizootic among non-immune human and bird populations, the county experienced 155 cases of severe human WNV neuro-invasive disease (WNND, incidence: 11.1 cases/100,000), with 11 fatalities. Structured serosurveys indicated that 1.9%, or ~ 26,000 of county residents (pop. = 1,372,303) were infected that year. In early 2003, in order to better focus monitoring and control efforts, we used a Geographic Information System (GIS) approach and spatial statistical analysis to identify the association of environmental factors and human population structure with the observed local risk for WNV transmission. Within the varied range of urban/suburban/rural habitats across the 458 mi2 (1186 km2) county, exploratory analysis indicated significant clustering of WNND risk in inner-ring suburbs. Subsequent discriminant factor analysis based on inputs of census and land-use/ land cover data was found to effectively classify sub-areas of the county having low, medium, and high WNV risk. On a 4 mi2 (1036 ha.) quadrat scale of resolution, higher risk of human infection was significantly associated with higher-income areas, increased fractionation of habitat, and older housing, while it was negatively associated with areas of agricultural land, wetland, or forest. The areal classification of WNV transmission risk has been validated over time through detection of increased local Culex spp. mosquito density (2002–2006), and increased frequency of WNV positive mosquito pools within the medium- and high-risk quadrats. This timely working identification of the transmission scale effectively focused control interventions against newly invasive WNV in a complex North American habitat. PMID:18686270

  11. A molecular approach for the rapid, selective and sensitive detection of Exophiala jeanselmei in environmental samples: development and performance assessment of a real-time PCR assay.

    PubMed

    Libert, X; Chasseur, C; Packeu, A; Bureau, F; Roosens, N H; De Keersmaecker, S J C

    2016-02-01

    Exophiala jeanselmei is an opportunistic pathogenic black yeast growing in humid environments such as water reservoirs of air-conditioning systems. Because this fungal contaminant could be vaporized into the air and subsequently cause health problems, its monitoring is recommended. Currently, this monitoring is based on culture and microscopic identification which are complex, sometimes ambiguous and time-demanding, i.e., up to 21 days. Therefore, molecular, culture-independent methods could be more advantageous for the monitoring of E. jeanselmei. In this study, we developed a SYBR®green real-time PCR assay based on the internal transcribed spacer 2 from the 18S ribosomal DNA complex for the specific detection of E. jeanselmei. The selectivity (100 %), PCR efficiency (95.5 %), dynamic range and repeatability of this qPCR assay were subsequently evaluated. The limit of detection for this qPCR assay was determined to be 1 copy of genomic DNA of E. jeanselmei. Finally, water samples collected from cooling reservoirs were analyzed using this qPCR assay to deliver a proof of concept for the molecular detection of E. jeanselmei in environmental samples. The results obtained by molecular analysis were compared with those of classical methods (i.e., culture and microscopic identification) used in routine analysis and were 100 % matching. This comparison demonstrated that this SYBR®green qPCR assay can be used as a molecular alternative for monitoring and routine investigation of samples contaminated by E. jeanselmei, while eliminating the need for culturing and thereby considerably decreasing the required analysis time to 2 days. PMID:26615400

  12. Broiler chicks with slow-feathering (K) or rapid-feathering (k+) genes: Effects of environmental stressors on physiological adaptive indicators up to 56 h posthatch.

    PubMed

    Khosravinia, H; Manafi, M

    2016-08-01

    Two experiments were conducted to examine the effects on the physiological responses of slow-feathering (K) and rapid-feathering (k(+)) genes in neonate broiler chicks subjected to posthatch fasting (PHF). In the first experiment, 300 Ross 308 chicks were denied access to feed and water for 0, 7, 14, 21, 28, 35, 42, 49, and 56 h posthatch. In the second experiment, 625 Ross 308 chicks were subjected to PHF for 0, 12, 24, 36, and 48 h. In experiment 1, the weight loss rate increased over 56 h PHF and did not differ between fast- and slow-feathering chicks up to 28 h posthatch but was greater (P < 0.05) in fast-feathering birds from 28 to 56 h posthatch. The fast-feathering genotypes demonstrated greater serum K levels following 7, 21, and 56 h (P < 0.05) and serum uric acid (UA) levels after 7, 21, 28, 49, and 56 h PHF (P < 0.01). In experiment 2, weight loss increased linearly with no difference between fast- and slow-feathering chicks through 36 h PHF but increased in fast-feathering birds when PHF continued for 48 h. Neonatal fasting periods of 12 to 48 h decreased breast and thigh percentage (P < 0.01), with no difference between feathering genotypes. The fast-feathering genotypes showed greater serum HDL levels at 24 h (P < 0.05) and greater serum UA concentration following 12, 36, and 48 h PHF (P < 0.05). The mean frequency of jumping (P < 0.01) and active wakefulness (P > 0.01) was increased as PHF continued from 12 to 48 h across genotypes. At 48 h, the fast-feathering chicks showed greater frequency of escape attempts from the test field (P < 0.01). It was concluded that slow-feathering chicks are more capable of withstanding PHF periods lasting more than 28 h. This is important to consider when day-old chicks are transported for extended periods without access to feed.

  13. A new method for the rapid analysis of 1H-Pyrrole-2,5-diones (maleimides) in environmental samples by two-dimensional gas chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Naeher, Sebastian; Lengger, Sabine K; Grice, Kliti

    2016-02-26

    Maleimides (1H-Pyrrole-2,5-diones) are monopyrrolic pigment derivatives with specific alkyl side chains that can be directly linked to their tetrapyrrole precursors, most notably chlorophylls and bacteriochlorophylls. These compounds can be used as palaeoenvironmental indicators such as algal productivity and redox conditions in ancient and modern aquatic systems. Here, we present a new method using two-dimensional gas chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC × GC-ToF-MS), which enables the rapid analysis of maleimides in complex mixtures and different matrices (e.g. sediments and soils), therefore largely simplifying the previous intricate maleimide purification protocol. This method also reduces the potential for bias associated with partial losses due to low recovery and the high volatility of maleimides. The maleimide distributions and concentrations obtained by GC × GC-ToF-MS were reproducible and in agreement with the previously used purification procedure followed by analysis with traditional gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The new method also resolved previously unrecognised, partial coelution of some maleimides with unknown compounds by quantification with the m/z 75 fragment ion. Furthermore, the higher sensitivity enabled the detection of previously unrecognised and preliminarily identified maleimides based on their relative retention times. The new, easier, rapid and more sensitive GC×GC-ToF-MS method greatly facilitates the analysis of maleimides in environmental samples to study tetrapyrrole degradation processes and will further the development of maleimides as biomarkers for palaeoenvironmental reconstructions. PMID:26850318

  14. A new method for the rapid analysis of 1H-Pyrrole-2,5-diones (maleimides) in environmental samples by two-dimensional gas chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Naeher, Sebastian; Lengger, Sabine K; Grice, Kliti

    2016-02-26

    Maleimides (1H-Pyrrole-2,5-diones) are monopyrrolic pigment derivatives with specific alkyl side chains that can be directly linked to their tetrapyrrole precursors, most notably chlorophylls and bacteriochlorophylls. These compounds can be used as palaeoenvironmental indicators such as algal productivity and redox conditions in ancient and modern aquatic systems. Here, we present a new method using two-dimensional gas chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC × GC-ToF-MS), which enables the rapid analysis of maleimides in complex mixtures and different matrices (e.g. sediments and soils), therefore largely simplifying the previous intricate maleimide purification protocol. This method also reduces the potential for bias associated with partial losses due to low recovery and the high volatility of maleimides. The maleimide distributions and concentrations obtained by GC × GC-ToF-MS were reproducible and in agreement with the previously used purification procedure followed by analysis with traditional gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The new method also resolved previously unrecognised, partial coelution of some maleimides with unknown compounds by quantification with the m/z 75 fragment ion. Furthermore, the higher sensitivity enabled the detection of previously unrecognised and preliminarily identified maleimides based on their relative retention times. The new, easier, rapid and more sensitive GC×GC-ToF-MS method greatly facilitates the analysis of maleimides in environmental samples to study tetrapyrrole degradation processes and will further the development of maleimides as biomarkers for palaeoenvironmental reconstructions.

  15. How Do Polar Marine Ecosystems Respond to Rapid Climate Change?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schofield, Oscar; Ducklow, Hugh W.; Martinson, Douglas G.; Meredith, Michael P.; Moline, Mark A.; Fraser, William R.

    2010-06-01

    Climate change will alter marine ecosystems; however, the complexity of the food webs, combined with chronic undersampling, constrains efforts to predict their future and to optimally manage and protect marine resources. Sustained observations at the West Antarctic Peninsula show that in this region, rapid environmental change has coincided with shifts in the food web, from its base up to apex predators. New strategies will be required to gain further insight into how the marine climate system has influenced such changes and how it will do so in the future. Robotic networks, satellites, ships, and instruments mounted on animals and ice will collect data needed to improve numerical models that can then be used to study the future of polar ecosystems as climate change progresses.

  16. The role of integrated resource planning, environmental externalities, and anticipation of future regulation in compliance planning under the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Bernow, S.; Biewald, B.; Wulfsberg, K.

    1993-07-01

    Utilities are developing sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) emission compliance plans to meet limitations of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (CAAA). Compliance plans will have long-term effects on resource selection, fuel choice, and system dispatch. Use of integrated resource planning (IRP) is necessary to ensure compliance plans are consistent with the overall societal goals. In particular, environmental externalities must be integrated with the compliance planning process. The focus of the CAAA is on air pollution reduction, specifically acid gases and toxics, and attainment of National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for criteria pollutants. Title IV specifically focuses on sulfur dioxide with a national allowance trading system, while further regulation of toxics and nitrogen oxides is slated for additional study. Yet, compliance planning based narrowly upon today`s environmental regulations could fail to meet the broad goals of IRP if a larger array of environmental externalities is excluded from the analysis. Compliance planning must consider a broad range of environmental effects from energy production and use to (1) protect society`s long-term stake in environmental quality, and (2) ensure that today`s plans are rich enough to accommodate potential changes in regulation and national environmental goals. The explicit recognition of environmental effects, such as those associated with CO{sub 2} release, will result in prudent compliance plans that take advantage of current opportunities for pollution avoidance and have long-term viability in the face of regulatory change. By including such considerations, the mix of resources acquired and operated (supply and demand, existing and new, conventional and renewable, fuel type and fuel quality, pollution control, and dispatch protocols) will be robust and truly least-cost.

  17. Changes in historical Iowa land cover as context for assessing the environmental benefits of current and future conservation efforts on agricultural lands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gallant, Alisa L.; Sadinski, Walt; Roth, Mark F.; Rewa, Charles A.

    2011-01-01

    Conservationists and agriculturists face unprecedented challenges trying to minimize tradeoffs between increasing demands for food, fiber, feed, and biofuels and the resulting loss or reduced values of other ecosystem services, such as those derived from wetlands and biodiversity (Millenium Ecosystem Assessment 2005a, 2005c; Maresch et al. 2008). The Food, Conservation, and Energy Act of 2008 (Pub. L. 110-234, Stat. 923, HR 2419, also known as the 2008 Farm Bill) reauthorized the USDA to provide financial incentives for agricultural producers to reduce environmental impacts via multiple conservation programs. Two prominent programs, the Wetlands Reserve Program (WRP) and the Conservation Reserve Program (CRP), provide incentives for producers to retire environmentally sensitive croplands, minimize erosion, improve water quality, restore wetlands, and provide wildlife habitat (USDA FSA 2008a, 2008b; USDA NRCS 2002). Other conservation programs (e.g., Environmental Quality Incentives Program, Conservation Stewardship Program) provide incentives to implement structural and cultural conservation practices to improve the environmental performance of working agricultural lands. Through its Conservation Effects Assessment Project, USDA is supporting evaluation of the environmental benefits obtained from the public investment in conservation programs and practices to inform decisions on where further investments are warranted (Duriancik et al. 2008; Zinn 1997).

  18. Futures Conditional.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Theobald, Robert

    The readings presented here are designed to help the reader perceive the future more vividly. Part one of the book suggests the various ways in which the future can be seen; it includes science fiction and the views of various analysts as to what the future holds. Part two collects printed materials about the future from various sources, including…

  19. Population, resources, environment: an uncertain future.

    PubMed

    Repetto, R

    1987-07-01

    This issue analyzes the economic and environmental consequences of rapid population growth in developing countries (LDC), the population decline in developed countries, the limits that life on a finite planet impose on economic and demographic expansion and progress, and the proper governmental response to promote the welfare of its current and future citizens. The links between population growth, resource use, and environmental quality are too complex to permit straightforward generalizations about direct causal relationships. However, rapid population growth has increased the number of poor people in LDC, thus contributing to degradation of the environment and the renewable resources of land, water, and nonhuman species on which humans depend. Demands of the rich industrial countries have also generated environmental pressures and have been foremost in consumption of the nonrenewable resources of fossil fuels, metals, and nonmetallic minerals. On the other hand, population and economic growth have also stimulated technological and management changes that help supply and use resources more effectively. Wide variations in the possible ultimate size of world population and accelerating technological change make future interrelationships of population, resources, and the environment uncertain as well as complex. Those interrelationships are mediated largely by government policies. Responsible governments can bring about a sustainable balance in the population/resource/environment equation by adopting population and development policies that experience has shown could reduce future population numbers in LDC below the additional 5 billion indicated in current UN medium projections. This coupled with proven management programs in both LDC and developed countries could brake and reverse the depletion and degradation of natural resources.

  20. Population, resources, environment: an uncertain future.

    PubMed

    Repetto, R

    1987-07-01

    This issue analyzes the economic and environmental consequences of rapid population growth in developing countries (LDC), the population decline in developed countries, the limits that life on a finite planet impose on economic and demographic expansion and progress, and the proper governmental response to promote the welfare of its current and future citizens. The links between population growth, resource use, and environmental quality are too complex to permit straightforward generalizations about direct causal relationships. However, rapid population growth has increased the number of poor people in LDC, thus contributing to degradation of the environment and the renewable resources of land, water, and nonhuman species on which humans depend. Demands of the rich industrial countries have also generated environmental pressures and have been foremost in consumption of the nonrenewable resources of fossil fuels, metals, and nonmetallic minerals. On the other hand, population and economic growth have also stimulated technological and management changes that help supply and use resources more effectively. Wide variations in the possible ultimate size of world population and accelerating technological change make future interrelationships of population, resources, and the environment uncertain as well as complex. Those interrelationships are mediated largely by government policies. Responsible governments can bring about a sustainable balance in the population/resource/environment equation by adopting population and development policies that experience has shown could reduce future population numbers in LDC below the additional 5 billion indicated in current UN medium projections. This coupled with proven management programs in both LDC and developed countries could brake and reverse the depletion and degradation of natural resources. PMID:12268583

  1. Hope in the Face of Climate Change: Associations with Environmental Engagement and Student Perceptions of Teachers' Emotion Communication Style and Future Orientation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ojala, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Is hope concerning climate change related to environmental engagement, or is it rather associated with unrealistic optimism and inactivity? This study on Swedish high school students identified two kinds of hope: constructive hope and hope based on denial. Constructive hope was positively associated with engagement and a perception that teachers…

  2. Future accelerators (?)

    SciTech Connect

    John Womersley

    2003-08-21

    I describe the future accelerator facilities that are currently foreseen for electroweak scale physics, neutrino physics, and nuclear structure. I will explore the physics justification for these machines, and suggest how the case for future accelerators can be made.

  3. Environmental biotechnology

    SciTech Connect

    Forster, C.F.

    1987-01-01

    Offers an up-to-date overview of the major activities in the field and appraises the principles involved in applying biotechnological techniques to environmental problems. coverage includes pollution of agricultural land, techniques of treating effluents, environmental problems caused by solid waste disposal in landfill sites, and the potential for biogas generation at such sites. It also examines the potential uses and dangers of future technologies in environmental management, such as manipulating aromatic-degrading microorganisms, use of recalcitrant xenobiotics, biological pest control, and controlling biological nitrogen fixation.

  4. Environmental outcome-based management: Using environmental goals and measures in the Chesapeake Bay program

    SciTech Connect

    1999-07-01

    Attention is focused on the following: Establishing Environmental Outcome-Based Management; Chesapeake Bay Program Environmental Indicators; Managing for Environmental Results; Future Directions; and Appendices.

  5. Regulatory and Permitting Information Desktop (RAPID) Toolkit (Poster)

    SciTech Connect

    Young, K. R.; Levine, A.

    2014-09-01

    The Regulatory and Permitting Information Desktop (RAPID) Toolkit combines the former Geothermal Regulatory Roadmap, National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) Database, and other resources into a Web-based tool that gives the regulatory and utility-scale geothermal developer communities rapid and easy access to permitting information. RAPID currently comprises five tools - Permitting Atlas, Regulatory Roadmap, Resource Library, NEPA Database, and Best Practices. A beta release of an additional tool, the Permitting Wizard, is scheduled for late 2014. Because of the huge amount of information involved, RAPID was developed in a wiki platform to allow industry and regulatory agencies to maintain the content in the future so that it continues to provide relevant and accurate information to users. In 2014, the content was expanded to include regulatory requirements for utility-scale solar and bulk transmission development projects. Going forward, development of the RAPID Toolkit will focus on expanding the capabilities of current tools, developing additional tools, including additional technologies, and continuing to increase stakeholder involvement.

  6. AN ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION (ETV) PERFORMANCE TESTING OF THREE RAPID PCR TECHNOLOGIES FOR IDAHO TECHNOLOGY R.A.I.D.® SYSTEM, APPLIED BIOSYSTEMS TAQMAN® E. COLI 0157:H7 DETECTION SYSTEM, AND INVITROGEN CORPORATION PATHALERTTM DETECTION KITS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Environmental Technology Verification (ETV) Program, beginning as an initiative of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in 1995, verifies the performance of commercially available, innovative technologies that can be used to measure environmental quality. The ETV p...

  7. The Future Community College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elsner, Paul A.

    2003-01-01

    Community colleges have encountered many factors that may reshape their future. Environmental imperatives weigh heavily on community colleges, as does the new integration of the sciences, such as breakthroughs in the biochemical sciences, such as the human genome project. It is also important to pay attention to the forms in which knowledge is…

  8. Sustainability and Alternative Futures

    EPA Science Inventory

    The goal of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 is “. . .to create and maintain conditions, under which humans and nature can exist in productive harmony, that permit fulfilling the social, economic, and other requirements of present and future generations.”...

  9. Environmental Awareness in the USSR.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winfrey, Fran

    1992-01-01

    Presents the transcript of an interview with the director of the Environmental Futures Center in Moscow to identify current environmental issues that will influence the development of international curriculum resource materials for environmental education. (MDH)

  10. Making Schools Future-Proof

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dessoff, Alan

    2011-01-01

    Under pressure to keep spending down but also keep pace with rapid technology changes, many districts are future-proofing their schools--trying to get the most out of tech spending by providing solutions they can use now and in the future without major, expensive infrastructure overhauls. In the Folsom Cordova (California) Unified School District,…

  11. Making Your Schools Future Proof

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dessoff, Alan

    2010-01-01

    Under pressure to keep spending down but also keep pace with rapid technology changes, many districts are future-proofing their schools--trying to get the most out of their tech spending by providing solutions they will be able to use now and in the future without major, expensive infrastructure overhauls. The idea is growing in popularity across…

  12. Reduced diversity and high sponge abundance on a sedimented Indo-Pacific reef system: implications for future changes in environmental quality.

    PubMed

    Powell, Abigail; Smith, David J; Hepburn, Leanne J; Jones, Timothy; Berman, Jade; Jompa, Jamaluddin; Bell, James J

    2014-01-01

    Although coral reef health across the globe is declining as a result of anthropogenic impacts, relatively little is known of how environmental variability influences reef organisms other than corals and fish. Sponges are an important component of coral reef fauna that perform many important functional roles and changes in their abundance and diversity as a result of environmental change has the potential to affect overall reef ecosystem functioning. In this study, we examined patterns of sponge biodiversity and abundance across a range of environments to assess the potential key drivers of differences in benthic community structure. We found that sponge assemblages were significantly different across the study sites, but were dominated by one species Lamellodysidea herbacea (42% of all sponges patches recorded) and that the differential rate of sediment deposition was the most important variable driving differences in abundance patterns. Lamellodysidea herbacea abundance was positively associated with sedimentation rates, while total sponge abundance excluding Lamellodysidea herbacea was negatively associated with rates of sedimentation. Overall variation in sponge assemblage composition was correlated with a number of variables although each variable explained only a small amount of the overall variation. Although sponge abundance remained similar across environments, diversity was negatively affected by sedimentation, with the most sedimented sites being dominated by a single sponge species. Our study shows how some sponge species are able to tolerate high levels of sediment and that any transition of coral reefs to more sedimented states may result in a shift to a low diversity sponge dominated system, which is likely to have subsequent effects on ecosystem functioning.

  13. Reduced Diversity and High Sponge Abundance on a Sedimented Indo-Pacific Reef System: Implications for Future Changes in Environmental Quality

    PubMed Central

    Powell, Abigail; Smith, David J.; Hepburn, Leanne J.; Jones, Timothy; Berman, Jade; Jompa, Jamaluddin; Bell, James J.

    2014-01-01

    Although coral reef health across the globe is declining as a result of anthropogenic impacts, relatively little is known of how environmental variability influences reef organisms other than corals and fish. Sponges are an important component of coral reef fauna that perform many important functional roles and changes in their abundance and diversity as a result of environmental change has the potential to affect overall reef ecosystem functioning. In this study, we examined patterns of sponge biodiversity and abundance across a range of environments to assess the potential key drivers of differences in benthic community structure. We found that sponge assemblages were significantly different across the study sites, but were dominated by one species Lamellodysidea herbacea (42% of all sponges patches recorded) and that the differential rate of sediment deposition was the most important variable driving differences in abundance patterns. Lamellodysidea herbacea abundance was positively associated with sedimentation rates, while total sponge abundance excluding Lamellodysidea herbacea was negatively associated with rates of sedimentation. Overall variation in sponge assemblage composition was correlated with a number of variables although each variable explained only a small amount of the overall variation. Although sponge abundance remained similar across environments, diversity was negatively affected by sedimentation, with the most sedimented sites being dominated by a single sponge species. Our study shows how some sponge species are able to tolerate high levels of sediment and that any transition of coral reefs to more sedimented states may result in a shift to a low diversity sponge dominated system, which is likely to have subsequent effects on ecosystem functioning. PMID:24475041

  14. Future land use plan

    SciTech Connect

    1995-08-31

    The US Department of Energy`s (DOE) changing mission, coupled with the need to apply appropriate cleanup standards for current and future environmental restoration, prompted the need for a process to determine preferred Future Land Uses for DOE-owned sites. DOE began the ``Future Land Use`` initiative in 1994 to ensure that its cleanup efforts reflect the surrounding communities` interests in future land use. This plan presents the results of a study of stakeholder-preferred future land uses for the Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), located in central Long Island, New York. The plan gives the Laboratory`s view of its future development over the next 20 years, as well as land uses preferred by the community were BNL ever to cease operations as a national laboratory (the post-BNL scenario). The plan provides an overview of the physical features of the site including its history, topography, geology/hydrogeology, biological inventory, floodplains, wetlands, climate, and atmosphere. Utility systems and current environmental operations are described including waste management, waste water treatment, hazardous waste management, refuse disposal and ground water management. To complement the physical descriptions of the site, demographics are discussed, including overviews of the surrounding areas, laboratory population, and economic and non-economic impacts.

  15. The environmental impact of growth-promoting compounds employed by the United States beef cattle industry: history, current knowledge, and future directions.

    PubMed

    Kolok, Alan S; Sellin, Marlo K

    2008-01-01

    The current state of knowledge regarding the environmental impact of growth-promoting compounds associated with the U.S. beef cattle industry is extensive in some areas but virtually nonexistent in others. The compounds administered to the cattle are quite well understood, as are bovine metabolism and excretion. If the sex and age of the cattle on the feedlot are known, the metabolites excreted by the cattle should be predictable with a great deal of accuracy. The fate, transport, and biological effects of growth-promoting compounds are just beginning to be studied. Most of the research conducted on the fate and transport of growth-promoting compounds has focused on 17beta-E2; however, much of this research was not conducted using feedlot runoff or manure. Studies are needed that focus specifically on manures and runoff from experimental or commercial feedlots. To date, the degree to which growth-promoting compounds are released from feedlots in a bioavailable form remains a point of speculation. The environmental fate and transport of TBA, P, and MGA have not been well studied. Comparisons between the fate and transport of T and 17beta-E2, however, make it clear that compounds with similar structure may behave very differently once released into the environment. Considering that 17beta-E2 is a naturally occurring estrogen and that TBA is a nonaromatizable androgen, it is not surprising that these compounds directly impact the reproductive physiology of fishes. The effects of these two compounds have been well documented, as has been described here; however, the effects of P and MGA exposures have gone largely uninvestigated. This is a serious critical gap in our knowledge base because progestogins play an important role in sex steroid synthesis and reproduction. Clearly, additional research on the consequences of exposures to P and MGA is warranted. The majority of research investigating the effects of 17beta-E2 and TBA metabolites on fish has been conducted in

  16. Adaptation to hot environmental conditions: an exploration of the performance basis, procedures and future directions to optimise opportunities for elite athletes.

    PubMed

    Guy, Joshua H; Deakin, Glen B; Edwards, Andrew M; Miller, Catherine M; Pyne, David B

    2015-03-01

    Extreme environmental conditions present athletes with diverse challenges; however, not all sporting events are limited by thermoregulatory parameters. The purpose of this leading article is to identify specific instances where hot environmental conditions either compromise or augment performance and, where heat acclimation appears justified, evaluate the effectiveness of pre-event acclimation processes. To identify events likely to be receptive to pre-competition heat adaptation protocols, we clustered and quantified the magnitude of difference in performance of elite athletes competing in International Association of Athletics Federations (IAAF) World Championships (1999-2011) in hot environments (>25 °C) with those in cooler temperate conditions (<25 °C). Athletes in endurance events performed worse in hot conditions (~3 % reduction in performance, Cohen's d > 0.8; large impairment), while in contrast, performance in short-duration sprint events was augmented in the heat compared with temperate conditions (~1 % improvement, Cohen's d > 0.8; large performance gain). As endurance events were identified as compromised by the heat, we evaluated common short-term heat acclimation (≤7 days, STHA) and medium-term heat acclimation (8-14 days, MTHA) protocols. This process identified beneficial effects of heat acclimation on performance using both STHA (2.4 ± 3.5 %) and MTHA protocols (10.2 ± 14.0 %). These effects were differentially greater for MTHA, which also demonstrated larger reductions in both endpoint exercise heart rate (STHA: -3.5 ± 1.8 % vs MTHA: -7.0 ± 1.9 %) and endpoint core temperature (STHA: -0.7 ± 0.7 % vs -0.8 ± 0.3 %). It appears that worthwhile acclimation is achievable for endurance athletes via both short-and medium-length protocols but more is gained using MTHA. Conversely, it is also conceivable that heat acclimation may be counterproductive for sprinters. As high-performance athletes are often time-poor, shorter duration protocols may

  17. Biochars multifunctional role as a novel technology in the agricultural, environmental, and industrial sectors

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biochar is utilized around the globe as an amendment to increase soil health characteristics and improve the environmental quality of water and soils systems. This rapid rise in using biochars is in response to the anticipated need to increase food production for future global nutrition demands. A...

  18. Perspectives on the future of the electric utility industry

    SciTech Connect

    Tonn, B.; Schaffhauser, A.

    1994-04-01

    This report offers perspectives on the future of the electric utility industry. These perspectives will be used in further research to assess the prospects for Integrated Resource Planning (IRP). The perspectives are developed first by examining economic, political and regulatory, societal, technological, and environmental trends that are (1) national and global in scope and (2) directly related to the electric utility industry. Major national and global trends include increasing global economic competition, increasing political and ethnic strife, rapidly changing technologies, and increasing worldwide concern about the environment. Major trends in the utility industry include increasing competition in generation; changing patterns of electricity demand; increasing use of information technology to control power systems; and increasing implementation of environmental controls. Ways in which the national and global trends may directly affect the utility industry are also explored. The trends are used to construct three global and national scenarios- ``business as usual,`` ``technotopia future,`` and ``fortress state`` -and three electric utility scenarios- ``frozen in headlights,`` ``megaelectric,`` and ``discomania.`` The scenarios are designed to be thought provoking descriptions of potential futures, not predictions of the future, although three key variables are identified that will have significant impacts on which future evolves-global climate change, utility technologies, and competition. While emphasis needs to be placed on understanding the electric utility scenarios, the interactions between the two sets of scenarios is also of interest.

  19. Environmental Toxicology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, David A.; Welbourn, Pamela

    2002-03-01

    Environmental Toxicology is a comprehensive introductory textbook dealing with most aspects of the subject, from the molecular to the ecosystem level. Early chapters deal with basic to advanced concepts, methods and approaches. The next discusses the environmental toxicology of individual or groups of substances. The third part addresses complex issues, in which many of the concepts, approaches and substances covered in earlier parts are incorporated. The fourth part includes chapters on risk assessment, rehabilitation and regulatory toxicology. The book concludes with a summary of present and future areas of emphasis. Each chapter contains a comprehensive list of references and further reading, case studies from different jurisdictions, and student exercises.

  20. Livestock production: recent trends, future prospects

    PubMed Central

    Thornton, Philip K.

    2010-01-01

    The livestock sector globally is highly dynamic. In developing countries, it is evolving in response to rapidly increasing demand for livestock products. In developed countries, demand for livestock products is stagnating, while many production systems are increasing their efficiency and environmental sustainability. Historical changes in the demand for livestock products have been largely driven by human population growth, income growth and urbanization and the production response in different livestock systems has been associated with science and technology as well as increases in animal numbers. In the future, production will increasingly be affected by competition for natural resources, particularly land and water, competition between food and feed and by the need to operate in a carbon-constrained economy. Developments in breeding, nutrition and animal health will continue to contribute to increasing potential production and further efficiency and genetic gains. Livestock production is likely to be increasingly affected by carbon constraints and environmental and animal welfare legislation. Demand for livestock products in the future could be heavily moderated by socio-economic factors such as human health concerns and changing socio-cultural values. There is considerable uncertainty as to how these factors will play out in different regions of the world in the coming decades. PMID:20713389

  1. Livestock production: recent trends, future prospects.

    PubMed

    Thornton, Philip K

    2010-09-27

    The livestock sector globally is highly dynamic. In developing countries, it is evolving in response to rapidly increasing demand for livestock products. In developed countries, demand for livestock products is stagnating, while many production systems are increasing their efficiency and environmental sustainability. Historical changes in the demand for livestock products have been largely driven by human population growth, income growth and urbanization and the production response in different livestock systems has been associated with science and technology as well as increases in animal numbers. In the future, production will increasingly be affected by competition for natural resources, particularly land and water, competition between food and feed and by the need to operate in a carbon-constrained economy. Developments in breeding, nutrition and animal health will continue to contribute to increasing potential production and further efficiency and genetic gains. Livestock production is likely to be increasingly affected by carbon constraints and environmental and animal welfare legislation. Demand for livestock products in the future could be heavily moderated by socio-economic factors such as human health concerns and changing socio-cultural values. There is considerable uncertainty as to how these factors will play out in different regions of the world in the coming decades. PMID:20713389

  2. The Environmental Protection Agency's Safety Standards for Disposal of Spent Nuclear Fuel: Potential Path Forward in Response to the Report of the Blue Ribbon Commission on America's Nuclear Future - 13388

    SciTech Connect

    Forinash, Betsy; Schultheisz, Daniel; Peake, Tom

    2013-07-01

    Following the decision to withdraw the Yucca Mountain license application, the Department of Energy created a Blue Ribbon Commission (BRC) on America's Nuclear Future, tasked with recommending a national strategy to manage the back end of the nuclear fuel cycle. The BRC issued its final report in January 2012, with recommendations covering transportation, storage and disposal of spent nuclear fuel (SNF); potential reprocessing; and supporting institutional measures. The BRC recommendations on disposal of SNF and high-level waste (HLW) are relevant to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), which shares regulatory responsibility with the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC): EPA issues 'generally applicable' performance standards for disposal repositories, which are then implemented in licensing. For disposal, the BRC endorses developing one or more geological repositories, with siting based on an approach that is adaptive, staged and consent-based. The BRC recommends that EPA and NRC work cooperatively to issue generic disposal standards-applying equally to all sites-early in any siting process. EPA previously issued generic disposal standards that apply to all sites other than Yucca Mountain. However, the BRC concluded that the existing regulations should be revisited and revised. The BRC proposes a number of general principles to guide the development of future regulations. EPA continues to review the BRC report and to assess the implications for Agency action, including potential regulatory issues and considerations if EPA develops new or revised generic disposal standards. This review also involves preparatory activities to define potential process and public engagement approaches. (authors)

  3. Future forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2011-11-01

    As Brazil debates relaxing its strong forestry laws, Nature Climate Change discusses the implications with Amazon ecologist Thomas Lovejoy, professor of environmental science at George Mason University and Biodiversity Chair at the Heinz Center in Washington DC.

  4. Careers in Environmental Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.

    This guide was developed by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to provide individuals with information about potential careers in environmental research with the agency. The brochure's introduction presents an overview of the EPA and its involvement in setting environmental standards, standards enforcement and monitoring, and future trends…

  5. Present and Future of M2M

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ono, Satoru; Watanabe, Takashi

    In recent years, the rapid progress in the development of hardware and software technologies enables tiny and low cost information devices hereinafter referred to as Machine to be widely available. M2M (Machine to Machine) has been of much attention where many tiny machines are connected to each other through networks with minimal human intervention to provide smooth and intelligent management. M2M is a promising core technology providing timely, flexible, efficient and comprehensive service at low cost. M2M has wide variety of applications including energy management system, environmental monitoring system, intelligent transport system, industrial automation system and other applications. M2M consists of terminals and networks that connect them. In this paper, we mainly focus on M2M networking and mention the future direction of the technology.

  6. Futur "simple" et futur "proche" ("Simple" Future and "Immediate" Future).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franckel, Jean-Jacques

    1984-01-01

    An analysis of the use of simple and immediate future tenses in French shows that the expression of time is controlled more by context and modals than by specifically temporal cues. The role of negation in this situation is discussed. (MSE)

  7. Future Fuel.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stover, Del

    1991-01-01

    Tough new environmental laws, coupled with fluctuating oil prices, are likely to prompt hundreds of school systems to examine alternative fuels. Literature reviews and interviews with 45 government, education, and industry officials provided data for a comparative analysis of gasoline, diesel, natural gas, methanol, and propane. (MLF)

  8. Anticipating Environmental Impacts of Future Fuels

    EPA Science Inventory

    Automotive fuels are composed of hundreds of compounds and the formulations aren’t uniform; they vary geographically and seasonally and sometimes specifically in response to regulatory requirements. As a result, very few state underground storage tank (UST) regulators know what i...

  9. Environmental Health Promotion: Progress and Future Opportunities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Srinivasan, Shobha; Dearry, Allen

    2004-01-01

    Health promotion seeks to provide practitioners of medicine and public health as well as members of the public with the information, resources, and tools that they can use to improve health and well-being. This goal is consonant with that of the National Institutes of Health (NIH), namely, to improve public health outcomes via research,…

  10. Empowering Future Educators through Environmental Sustainability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Latz, Amanda O.; Bolin, Jocelyn H.; Quick, Marilynn; Jones, Ruth; Chapman, Austin

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to provide information regarding the ways in which the authors' College's faculty use paper within their pedagogical practice. A related purpose was to ascertain faculty interest in professional development initiatives related to reducing paper usage through technological affordances.…

  11. Emerging Trends, Future Directions. Environmental Scan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mesa Community Coll., AZ.

    This paper reports on a study funded by Mesa Community College, Chandler-Gilbert Community College, and Rio Salado College in metropolitan Phoenix, Arizona. The aim of the study was to learn more about some of the external factors that are affecting or will affect these institutions. The report provides information in four major areas: (1) State…

  12. Alternative Futures and Environmental Quality. Working Papers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerba, John; Boulay, Paul

    This publication resulted from the perceived need for policy makers concerned with the quality of the environment to have information beyond that limited to rhetoric and crisis oriented material. A forum in which the ramifications of long-term viewpoints could be discussed and a mechanism for continuing dialogue between policy makers and…

  13. Achronal cosmic future.

    PubMed

    González-Díaz, Pedro F

    2004-08-13

    The spherically symmetric accretion of dark and phantom energy onto Morris-Thorne wormholes is considered. It is obtained that the accretion of phantom energy leads to a gradual increase of the wormhole throat radius which eventually overtakes the superaccelerated expansion of the Universe and becomes infinite at a time in the future before the occurrence of the big rip singularity. After that time, as it continues accreting phantom energy, the wormhole becomes an Einstein-Rosen bridge whose corresponding mass decreases rapidly and vanishes at the big rip.

  14. Looking Ahead at Environmental Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flagstad, Karen, Ed.

    1995-01-01

    This issue of the EPA (Environmental Protection Agency) Journal focuses on environmental education and its role in building a sustainable future. Articles include: (1) "Why Environmental Education?" (Carol M. Browner); (2) "EPA's Environmental Education Program" (Diane Berger); (3) "Preparing for the Next Century" (John H. Chafee); (4) "The…

  15. Environmental renaissance in Pennsylvania

    SciTech Connect

    Stevens, J.

    2009-07-15

    During centuries of rapid growth of the coal mining industry and expanded development in Pennsylvania, trees were felled, streams were diverted and strip mining caused much environmental damage. All that has now changed. The article gives examples of land and water restoration carried out by organizations such as the Susquehanna River Basin Commission, the West Branch Susquehanna Restoration Coalition and the Anthracite Region Independent Power Producers Association. The Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection directs and coordinates environmental projects. 5 photos.

  16. Food and Environmental Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Falvey, Lindsay

    1997-01-01

    Argues that intensive agriculture restricted to suitable lands will be required in the future due to global population growth, declining food prices, and extreme poverty. Discusses the challenge of balancing environmental care with food production. (DDR)

  17. Future Aspects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pilato, Louis

    There are some disturbing signs that appear on the horizon as phenolic resins enter their second century of existence. The large area of wood adhesives application (~60% of the total volume of phenolic resins in North America) is under intense pressure due to many factors that are contributing to continuing reduction in the sales volume of wood adhesives. These factors include the known slow cure speed of phenolic resins compared to Urea Formaldehyde (UF), Melamine Formaldehyde (MF), or Methylene Diphenyl Isocyanate (MDI); installation of new machinery/ equipment with fast continuous lines; continued decrease in plywood consumption at the expense of Oriented Strand Board (OSB) where phenolic resin is the preferred adhesive for plywood; further reduction in formaldehyde emissions through California Air Resources Board (CARB) Phase I and Phase II; uncertainty of whether formaldehyde will be identified as a human carcinogen pending the anticipated 2009 study; and the environmental movement to reduce or eliminate formaldehyde-containing resins in wood and thermal insulation consumer products (U.S. Green Building Council and other Environmental groups like the Sierra Club). Consumers are being urged by environmental organizations to purchase composite wood products with lower formaldehyde emission levels or none at all. This is illustrated by examining the news media reports after the Hurricane Katrina in 2005. The home trailers provided by the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) that were used for Louisiana and Mississippi residents after Katrina hurricane as temporary housing further accelerated concerns over formaldehyde emissions since higher than typical indoor exposure levels of formaldehyde in travel trailers and mobile homes were determined for the FEMA trailers.

  18. Rapid Reading, Yes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frommer, Harvey

    1971-01-01

    Recommends instruction in rapid reading fo high school and college students and asserts that flexibility of speed and reasoning provide the foundation for effective rapid reading. Describes the components of rapid reading as orientation, selection, clarification, arrangement, review, and study. (RW)

  19. Nano Sensing Devices - Future Directions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savage, Nora

    Nanotechnology offers tremendous opportunities for developing sensing and monitoring devices that are small and inexpensive with rapid response time of multiple analyte detection. In addition, there is the potential for these sensors to have "smart" or active capabilities embedded in them. These devices can help meet critical challenges identified in the environmental, occupational, biological and national security areas.

  20. Sustainability of plant-based diets: back to the future.

    PubMed

    Sabaté, Joan; Soret, Sam

    2014-07-01

    Plant-based diets in comparison to diets rich in animal products are more sustainable because they use many fewer natural resources and are less taxing on the environment. Given the global population explosion and increase in wealth, there is an increased demand for foods of animal origin. Environmental data are rapidly accumulating on the unsustainability of current worldwide food consumption practices that are high in meat and dairy products. Natural nonrenewable resources are becoming scarce, and environmental degradation is rapidly increasing. At the current trends of food consumption and environmental changes, food security and food sustainability are on a collision course. Changing course (to avoid the collision) will require extreme downward shifts in meat and dairy consumption by large segments of the world's population. Other approaches such as food waste reduction and precision agriculture and/or other technological advances have to be simultaneously pursued; however, they are insufficient to make the global food system sustainable. For millennia, meatless diets have been advocated on the basis of values, and large segments of the world population have thrived on plant-based diets. "Going back" to plant-based diets worldwide seems to be a reasonable alternative for a sustainable future. Policies in favor of the global adoption of plant-based diets will simultaneously optimize the food supply, health, environmental, and social justice outcomes for the world's population. Implementing such nutrition policy is perhaps one of the most rational and moral paths for a sustainable future of the human race and other living creatures of the biosphere that we share. PMID:24898222

  1. Knowledge Exchange Within the Rapid Climate Change Program (RAPID)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wallace, C.; Srokosz, M.

    2008-12-01

    The Rapid Climate Change Program (RAPID) is a major UK-led science program investigating the susceptibility to and risk of abrupt change in the climate system, with a particular focus on the role of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC). RAPID commenced in 2001, with initial funding to 2008 and has just entered its second phase - RAPID-WATCH - extending some aspects of the program until 2014. Scientifically, a key focus of the program has concerned the development and deployment of a continuous AMOC observing system, although the program has also supported research into a number of other aspects of rapid climate change, including paleo studies of past rapid changes, modeling of the past and future climate, and the development of methods with which to aid the quantification of future risks. Given the societal implications that abrupt climate change associated with the AMOC may have for the North Atlantic region, a major focus within the program has been the implementation of a Knowledge Exchange strategy with which to engage key decision and policy makers within the UK political and industrial sectors. This interaction is especially pertinent for those decision makers involved in the development of adaptive capacities that must incorporate resilience to so-called high-impact, low-probability class threats. We will summarize here the main aspects of our approach, outlining activities/methods used both to satisfy the obvious need to transfer key scientific findings from the program to users, but also in facilitating a return flow of knowledge which can be used by scientists to refine the impact and utility of scientific output. We will draw on particular experience gained from the program's involvement in i: personnel exchanges with central government departments; ii: interaction and co-operation with third party stakeholder organizations (e.g. the UK Climate Impacts Program); and iii: provision of written and oral briefings. Throughout, techniques

  2. Recent Advances in Nanoplasmonic Sensors for Environmental Detection and Monitoring.

    PubMed

    Choi, Inhee

    2016-05-01

    The great attention in environmental pollution urges the development of innovative monitoring system enabling rapid, sensitive, specific detection and easy operation. Recent progress in nanoplasmonic sensors allowing real-time, highly-sensitive, label-free and multiplex detection provides a promising alternative to conventional environmental analyzing techniques. This review summarizes novel nanoplasmonic approaches categorized by optical detection technologies, which include surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy, dark-field nanospectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and even naked eyes. The focus of this review will be on how plasmonic nanostructures can be utilized to detect environmental pollutants, and remarkable accomplishments to enhance the detection performances. In addition, we discuss current challenge and future direction for ubiquitous environmental sensing and monitoring. PMID:27483747

  3. The Environmental Movement: Beyond Earth Day.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Beth

    1995-01-01

    This collection of articles looks at the history of Earth Day and the future of the environmental movement and environmental organizations. Examines reasons environmental organizations are losing support while the public remains committed to the environment. (LZ)

  4. Future American energy policy

    SciTech Connect

    Crist, M.S.; Laffer, A.B.

    1982-01-01

    People from businesses, public life, public advocacy groups, and experts on international energy met in February 1980 to explore the complex issues of energy policy at a conference entitled Energy Future: Policies and Consequences. The book begins with Crist's overview of current options. David Stockman then examines damaging energy myths and their effects in producing misguided energy policies. Other authors explore the social implications of energy policy, the failure of oil-company management and government to keep energy prices in line with costs, the economic implications of domestic energy policy, international attitudes toward US policy, and the implications of alternative energy sources and conservation. Laffer describes how American presidential economic policies differ from public perceptions. The book concludes with the hope of achieving a future balance of environmental concerns and increased production.

  5. FUTURES with Jaime Escalante

    SciTech Connect

    1996-08-01

    The United States Department of Energy awarded the Foundation for Advancements in Science and Education (FASE) $826,000 as support to produce the second set of FUTURES segments consisting of 12, 15-minute programs. The programs provide motivation for students to study math by connecting math to the work place and real-life problem scenarios. The programs are broadcast in 50 states through PBS Elementary and Secondary Service (E/SS). The grant term ended on December 16, 1993 and this final report documents program and financial activity results. The 12 episodes are titled: Animal Care, Meteorology, Mass Communication, Advanced Energy, Oceanography, Graphic Design, Future Habitats, Environmental Science & Technology, Fitness & Physical Performance, Interpersonal Communications, Advanced Transportation and Product Design. Each program addresses as many as ten careers or job types within the broader field named. Minority and gender-balanced role models appear throughout the programs.

  6. Environmental Management

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    Another key aspect of the NNSS mission is Environmental Management program, which addresses the environmental legacy from historic nuclear weapons related activities while also ensuring the health and safety of present day workers, the public, and the environment as current and future missions are completed. The Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management site receives low-level and mixed low-level waste from some 28 different generators from across the DOE complex in support of the legacy clean-up DOE Environmental Management project. Without this capability, the DOE would not be able to complete the clean up and proper disposition of these wastes. The program includes environmental protection, compliance, and monitoring of the air, water, plants, animals, and cultural resources at the NNSS. Investigation and implementation of appropriate corrective actions to address the contaminated ground water facilities and soils resulting from historic nuclear testing activities, the demolition of abandoned nuclear facilities, as well as installation of ground water wells to identify and monitor the extent of ground water contamination.

  7. Environmental Management

    SciTech Connect

    2014-11-12

    Another key aspect of the NNSS mission is Environmental Management program, which addresses the environmental legacy from historic nuclear weapons related activities while also ensuring the health and safety of present day workers, the public, and the environment as current and future missions are completed. The Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management site receives low-level and mixed low-level waste from some 28 different generators from across the DOE complex in support of the legacy clean-up DOE Environmental Management project. Without this capability, the DOE would not be able to complete the clean up and proper disposition of these wastes. The program includes environmental protection, compliance, and monitoring of the air, water, plants, animals, and cultural resources at the NNSS. Investigation and implementation of appropriate corrective actions to address the contaminated ground water facilities and soils resulting from historic nuclear testing activities, the demolition of abandoned nuclear facilities, as well as installation of ground water wells to identify and monitor the extent of ground water contamination.

  8. Future trends.

    PubMed

    Friedberg, Richard C; Weiss, Ronald L

    2007-12-01

    Several current forces have set anticipated future changes in health care in motion, or, at least, have set the stage for change. End-consumer demand increasingly drives the market; as a result, entire businesses are transforming or emerging anew to meet these demands. In general, consumers demand high quality at reasonable cost, to be delivered as fast as possible with minimal inconvenience. The health care consumer takes this expectation further, to include the desire for all helpful information regarding one's health to be made readily available for him/her to make the best decision and minimize morbidity, mortality, misdiagnosis, and inconvenience. This article addresses the impact upon the laboratory by considering four key interrelated dynamics that affect these trends: market, medicine, technology, and information systems. PMID:17950906

  9. Rapid detection of microbial cell abundance in aquatic systems.

    PubMed

    Rocha, Andrea M; Yuan, Quan; Close, Dan M; O'Dell, Kaela B; Fortney, Julian L; Wu, Jayne; Hazen, Terry C

    2016-11-15

    The detection and quantification of naturally occurring microbial cellular densities is an essential component of environmental systems monitoring. While there are a number of commonly utilized approaches for monitoring microbial abundance, capacitance-based biosensors represent a promising approach because of their low-cost and label-free detection of microbial cells, but are not as well characterized as more traditional methods. Here, we investigate the applicability of enhanced alternating current electrokinetics (ACEK) capacitive sensing as a new application for rapidly detecting and quantifying microbial cellular densities in cultured and environmentally sourced aquatic samples. ACEK capacitive sensor performance was evaluated using two distinct and dynamic systems - the Great Australian Bight and groundwater from the Oak Ridge Reservation in Oak Ridge, TN. Results demonstrate that ACEK capacitance-based sensing can accurately determine microbial cell counts throughout cellular concentrations typically encountered in naturally occurring microbial communities (10(3)-10(6) cells/mL). A linear relationship was observed between cellular density and capacitance change correlations, allowing a simple linear curve fitting equation to be used for determining microbial abundances in unknown samples. This work provides a foundation for understanding the limits of capacitance-based sensing in natural environmental samples and supports future efforts focusing on evaluating the robustness ACEK capacitance-based within aquatic environments. PMID:27315516

  10. External Environmental Forecast.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lapin, Joel D.

    Representing current viewpoints of academics, futures experts, and social observers, this external environmental forecast presents projections and information of particular relevance to the future of Catonsville Community College. The following topics are examined: (1) population changes and implications for higher education; (2) state and local…

  11. Genetic analysis of interacting trophic levels in a stressed pinyon-juniper community: A model for examining community responses to a rapid and recent environmental changes. Final report, May 1, 1994--April 30, 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Keim, P.; Whithmam, T.; Cobb, N.; Gehring, C.

    1998-05-01

    The goals of this project were to examine the genetic component of a pinyon-juniper woodland that had recently experienced a dramatic environmental change. The environmental change was increased temperature and decreased water associated with the volcanic cinder field at Sunset Crater National Monument. In all of these experiments we have used adjacent soil sites as controls for the effects of the stressed locations. We have examined mycorrhizal colonization and diversity in order to understand this important component in community {open_quotes}adaptation{close_quotes} to climate change. We have examined genetic diversity in the pinyon pine populations to determine what level of genetic differentiation has occurred between stressed and nonstressed locations. In addition, we have recently expanded our environmental parameters to include elevated CO{sub 2} on mycorrhizal performance and diversity.

  12. Through the eyes of children: perceptions of environmental change in tropical forests.

    PubMed

    Pellier, Anne-Sophie; Wells, Jessie A; Abram, Nicola K; Gaveau, David; Meijaard, Erik

    2014-01-01

    This study seeks to understand children's perceptions of their present and future environments in the highly biodiverse and rapidly changing landscapes of Kalimantan, Indonesian Borneo. We analyzed drawings by children (target age 10-15 years) from 22 villages, which show how children perceive the present conditions of forests and wildlife surrounding their villages and how they expect conditions to change over the next 15 years. Analyses of picture elements and their relationships to current landscape variables indicate that children have a sophisticated understanding of their environment and how different environmental factors interact, either positively or negatively. Children appear to have landscape-dependent environmental perceptions, showing awareness of past environmental conditions and many aspects of recent trends, and translating these into predictions for future environmental conditions. The further removed their present landscape is from the originally forested one, the more environmental change they expect in the future, particularly declines in forest cover, rivers, animal diversity and increases in temperature and natural disasters. This suggests that loss of past perceptions and associated "shifting environmental baselines" do not feature strongly among children on Borneo, at least not for the perceptions we investigated here. Our findings that children have negative expectations of their future environmental conditions have important political implications. More than other generations, children have a stake in ensuring that future environmental conditions support their long-term well-being. Understanding what drives environmental views among children, and how they consider trade-offs between economic development and social and environmental change, should inform optimal policies on land use. Our study illuminates part of the complex interplay between perceptions of land cover and land use change. Capturing the views of children through artistic

  13. Through the Eyes of Children: Perceptions of Environmental Change in Tropical Forests

    PubMed Central

    Pellier, Anne-Sophie; Wells, Jessie A.; Abram, Nicola K.; Gaveau, David; Meijaard, Erik

    2014-01-01

    This study seeks to understand children's perceptions of their present and future environments in the highly biodiverse and rapidly changing landscapes of Kalimantan, Indonesian Borneo. We analyzed drawings by children (target age 10–15 years) from 22 villages, which show how children perceive the present conditions of forests and wildlife surrounding their villages and how they expect conditions to change over the next 15 years. Analyses of picture elements and their relationships to current landscape variables indicate that children have a sophisticated understanding of their environment and how different environmental factors interact, either positively or negatively. Children appear to have landscape-dependent environmental perceptions, showing awareness of past environmental conditions and many aspects of recent trends, and translating these into predictions for future environmental conditions. The further removed their present landscape is from the originally forested one, the more environmental change they expect in the future, particularly declines in forest cover, rivers, animal diversity and increases in temperature and natural disasters. This suggests that loss of past perceptions and associated “shifting environmental baselines” do not feature strongly among children on Borneo, at least not for the perceptions we investigated here. Our findings that children have negative expectations of their future environmental conditions have important political implications. More than other generations, children have a stake in ensuring that future environmental conditions support their long-term well-being. Understanding what drives environmental views among children, and how they consider trade-offs between economic development and social and environmental change, should inform optimal policies on land use. Our study illuminates part of the complex interplay between perceptions of land cover and land use change. Capturing the views of children through

  14. Through the eyes of children: perceptions of environmental change in tropical forests.

    PubMed

    Pellier, Anne-Sophie; Wells, Jessie A; Abram, Nicola K; Gaveau, David; Meijaard, Erik

    2014-01-01

    This study seeks to understand children's perceptions of their present and future environments in the highly biodiverse and rapidly changing landscapes of Kalimantan, Indonesian Borneo. We analyzed drawings by children (target age 10-15 years) from 22 villages, which show how children perceive the present conditions of forests and wildlife surrounding their villages and how they expect conditions to change over the next 15 years. Analyses of picture elements and their relationships to current landscape variables indicate that children have a sophisticated understanding of their environment and how different environmental factors interact, either positively or negatively. Children appear to have landscape-dependent environmental perceptions, showing awareness of past environmental conditions and many aspects of recent trends, and translating these into predictions for future environmental conditions. The further removed their present landscape is from the originally forested one, the more environmental change they expect in the future, particularly declines in forest cover, rivers, animal diversity and increases in temperature and natural disasters. This suggests that loss of past perceptions and associated "shifting environmental baselines" do not feature strongly among children on Borneo, at least not for the perceptions we investigated here. Our findings that children have negative expectations of their future environmental conditions have important political implications. More than other generations, children have a stake in ensuring that future environmental conditions support their long-term well-being. Understanding what drives environmental views among children, and how they consider trade-offs between economic development and social and environmental change, should inform optimal policies on land use. Our study illuminates part of the complex interplay between perceptions of land cover and land use change. Capturing the views of children through artistic

  15. Environmental Implementation Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-03-15

    The purpose of the Environmental Implementation Plan (EIP) is to show the current and future (five years) environmental plans from individual site organizations and divisions, as well as site environmental programs and initiatives which are designed to protect the environment and meet or exceed changing environmental/regulatory requirements. Communicating with site organizations, departments, and committees is essential in making the site's environmental-planning process work. The EIP gives the site the what, when, how, and why for environmental requirements. Through teamwork and proactive planning, a partnership for environmental excellence is formed to achieve the site vision for SRS to become the recognized model for Environmental Excellence in the Department of Energy's Nuclear Weapons Complex.

  16. Environmental Implementation Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-03-15

    The purpose of the Environmental Implementation Plan (EIP) is to show the current and future (five years) environmental plans from individual site organizations and divisions, as well as site environmental programs and initiatives which are designed to protect the environment and meet or exceed changing environmental/regulatory requirements. Communicating with site organizations, departments, and committees is essential in making the site`s environmental-planning process work. The EIP gives the site the what, when, how, and why for environmental requirements. Through teamwork and proactive planning, a partnership for environmental excellence is formed to achieve the site vision for SRS to become the recognized model for Environmental Excellence in the Department of Energy`s Nuclear Weapons Complex.

  17. [Application of microfluidics in aquatic environmental pollution analysis].

    PubMed

    Wang, Hu; Wei, Jun-Feng; Zheng, Guo-Xia

    2014-04-01

    Recently, a new type of chip technology, microfluidics, has received global attention for its rapid analysis speed, low reagent consumption, small size and simple operation, etc. Based on a micro-channel network and supported by a Micro-Electro-Mechanic System (MEMS), this technology integrates all the functions of a laboratory into one small piece of chip, which is called "lab on the chip". This paper presented a brief introduction about microfluidics and its representative developments. Future prospects in the aspects of instrument miniaturization, system integration, chip materials, and detection techniques, as well as the implementation of microfluidics in aquatic environmental pollutant analysis were thoroughly discussed. Some problems faced now were put forward. With the rapid progress in the microfluidics, a universal low-cost microchip capable of high speed multi-channel detection and integrated with many kinds of detection methods would be the research focus in the future.

  18. Utilizing Rapid Prototyping for Architectural Modeling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirton, E. F.; Lavoie, S. D.

    2006-01-01

    This paper will discuss our approach to, success with and future direction in rapid prototyping for architectural modeling. The premise that this emerging technology has broad and exciting applications in the building design and construction industry will be supported by visual and physical evidence. This evidence will be presented in the form of…

  19. Preserving the world second largest hypersaline lake under future irrigation and climate change.

    PubMed

    Shadkam, Somayeh; Ludwig, Fulco; van Vliet, Michelle T H; Pastor, Amandine; Kabat, Pavel

    2016-07-15

    Iran Urmia Lake, the world second largest hypersaline lake, has been largely desiccated over the last two decades resulting in socio-environmental consequences similar or even larger than the Aral Sea disaster. To rescue the lake a new water management plan has been proposed, a rapid 40% decline in irrigation water use replacing a former plan which intended to develop reservoirs and irrigation. However, none of these water management plans, which have large socio-economic impacts, have been assessed under future changes in climate and water availability. By adapting a method of environmental flow requirements (EFRs) for hypersaline lakes, we estimated annually 3.7·10(9)m(3) water is needed to preserve Urmia Lake. Then, the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) hydrological model was forced with bias-corrected climate model outputs for both the lowest (RCP2.6) and highest (RCP8.5) greenhouse-gas concentration scenarios to estimate future water availability and impacts of water management strategies. Results showed a 10% decline in future water availability in the basin under RCP2.6 and 27% under RCP8.5. Our results showed that if future climate change is highly limited (RCP2.6) inflow can be just enough to meet the EFRs by implementing the reduction irrigation plan. However, under more rapid climate change scenario (RCP8.5) reducing irrigation water use will not be enough to save the lake and more drastic measures are needed. Our results showed that future water management plans are not robust under climate change in this region. Therefore, an integrated approach of future land-water use planning and climate change adaptation is therefore needed to improve future water security and to reduce the desiccating of this hypersaline lake.

  20. Preserving the world second largest hypersaline lake under future irrigation and climate change.

    PubMed

    Shadkam, Somayeh; Ludwig, Fulco; van Vliet, Michelle T H; Pastor, Amandine; Kabat, Pavel

    2016-07-15

    Iran Urmia Lake, the world second largest hypersaline lake, has been largely desiccated over the last two decades resulting in socio-environmental consequences similar or even larger than the Aral Sea disaster. To rescue the lake a new water management plan has been proposed, a rapid 40% decline in irrigation water use replacing a former plan which intended to develop reservoirs and irrigation. However, none of these water management plans, which have large socio-economic impacts, have been assessed under future changes in climate and water availability. By adapting a method of environmental flow requirements (EFRs) for hypersaline lakes, we estimated annually 3.7·10(9)m(3) water is needed to preserve Urmia Lake. Then, the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) hydrological model was forced with bias-corrected climate model outputs for both the lowest (RCP2.6) and highest (RCP8.5) greenhouse-gas concentration scenarios to estimate future water availability and impacts of water management strategies. Results showed a 10% decline in future water availability in the basin under RCP2.6 and 27% under RCP8.5. Our results showed that if future climate change is highly limited (RCP2.6) inflow can be just enough to meet the EFRs by implementing the reduction irrigation plan. However, under more rapid climate change scenario (RCP8.5) reducing irrigation water use will not be enough to save the lake and more drastic measures are needed. Our results showed that future water management plans are not robust under climate change in this region. Therefore, an integrated approach of future land-water use planning and climate change adaptation is therefore needed to improve future water security and to reduce the desiccating of this hypersaline lake. PMID:27070383

  1. NARSTO EPA SS PITTSBURGH RAPID SPMS DATA

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-04-25

    NARSTO EPA SS PITTSBURGH RAPID SPMS DATA Project Title:  NARSTO Discipline:  ... Parameters:  Particulates Order Data:  ASDC Order Tool:   Order Data Guide Documents:  ... Earth Related Data:  Environmental Protection Agency Supersites Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania SCAR-B ...

  2. NARSTO EPA SS ATLANTA RAPID SPMS DATA

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-04-25

    NARSTO EPA SS ATLANTA RAPID SPMS DATA Project Title:  NARSTO ...   Order Data Guide Documents:  Atlanta SPMS Guide EPA Sites Get Google Earth ... Data:  Environmental Protection Agency Supersites Atlanta, Georgia SCAR-B Block:  ...

  3. Modeling microbial communities: current, developing, and future technologies for predicting microbial community interaction.

    PubMed

    Larsen, Peter; Hamada, Yuki; Gilbert, Jack

    2012-07-31

    Never has there been a greater opportunity for investigating microbial communities. Not only are the profound effects of microbial ecology on every aspect of Earth's geochemical cycles beginning to be understood, but also the analytical and computational tools for investigating microbial Earth are undergoing a rapid revolution. This environmental microbial interactome, the system of interactions between the microbiome and the environment, has shaped the planet's past and will undoubtedly continue to do so in the future. We review recent approaches for modeling microbial community structures and the interactions of microbial populations with their environments. Different modeling approaches consider the environmental microbial interactome from different aspects, and each provides insights to different facets of microbial ecology. We discuss the challenges and opportunities for the future of microbial modeling and describe recent advances in microbial community modeling that are extending current descriptive technologies into a predictive science.

  4. Modeling microbial communities: current, developing, and future technologies for predicting microbial community interaction.

    PubMed

    Larsen, Peter; Hamada, Yuki; Gilbert, Jack

    2012-07-31

    Never has there been a greater opportunity for investigating microbial communities. Not only are the profound effects of microbial ecology on every aspect of Earth's geochemical cycles beginning to be understood, but also the analytical and computational tools for investigating microbial Earth are undergoing a rapid revolution. This environmental microbial interactome, the system of interactions between the microbiome and the environment, has shaped the planet's past and will undoubtedly continue to do so in the future. We review recent approaches for modeling microbial community structures and the interactions of microbial populations with their environments. Different modeling approaches consider the environmental microbial interactome from different aspects, and each provides insights to different facets of microbial ecology. We discuss the challenges and opportunities for the future of microbial modeling and describe recent advances in microbial community modeling that are extending current descriptive technologies into a predictive science. PMID:22465599

  5. Modeling rapidly rotating stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rieutord, M.

    2006-06-01

    We review the quest of modeling rapidly rotating stars during the past 40 years and detail the challenges to be taken up by models facing new data from interferometry, seismology, spectroscopy... We then present the progress of the ESTER project aimed at giving a physically self-consistent model for the structure and evolution of rapidly rotating stars.

  6. The future of epidemiology.

    PubMed

    Ness, Roberta B; Andrews, Elizabeth B; Gaudino, James A; Newman, Anne B; Soskolne, Colin L; Stürmer, Til; Wartenberg, Daniel E; Weiss, Stanley H

    2009-11-01

    In this article, the authors discuss current challenges and opportunities in epidemiology that will affect the field's future. Epidemiology is commonly considered the methodologic backbone for the fields of public health and outcomes research because its practitioners describe patterns of disease occurrence, identify risk factors and etiologic determinants, and demonstrate the usefulness of interventions. Like most aspects of science, epidemiology is in rapid flux. Several factors that are influencing and will continue to influence epidemiology and the health of the public include factors fundamental to framing the discipline of epidemiology (i.e., its means of communication, its methodologies, its access to data, its values, its population perspective), factors relating to scientific advances (e.g., genomics, comparative effectiveness in therapeutics), and factors shaping human health (e.g., increasing globalism, the environment, disease and lifestyle, demographics, infectious disease). PMID:19858828

  7. Environmental Implementation Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-02-01

    The Environmental Implementation Plan (EIP) is a dynamic long-range environmental-protection plan for SRS. The EIP communicates the current and future (five year) environmental plans from individual organizations and divisions as well as site environmental initiatives which are designed to protect the environment and meet or exceed compliance with changing environmental/ regulatory requirements. Communication with all site organizations is essential for making the site environmental planning process work. Demonstrating environmental excellence is a high priority embodied in DOE and WSRC policy. Because of your support and participation in the three EIP initiatives; Reflections, Sectional Revision, and Integrated Planning, improvements are being made to the EIP and SRS environmental protection programs. I appreciate the ``Partnership in Environmental Excellence`` formed by the environmental coordinators and professionals who work daily toward our goal of compliance and environmental excellence. I look forward to seeing continued success and improvement in our environmental protection programs through combined efforts of all site organizations to protect our employees, the public health, and the environment. Together, we will achieve our site vision for SRS to be the recognized model for Environmental Excellence in the DOE Nuclear Weapons Complex.

  8. Microwave-Assisted Rapid Access to Bio-active Heterocycles: Synthesis of 1,3,4-Oxadiazoles, 1,3,4-Thiadiazoles, 1,3-Dioxanes, Pyrazoles, Hydrazones and 3,4-Dihydropyrimidin-2(1H)-ones under Benign Conditions

    EPA Science Inventory

    Green chemistry is a rapidly developing new field that provides us a proactive avenue for the sustainable development of future science and technologies.1 It emphasis the use of highly efficient and environmental benign synthetic protocols to deliver bio-active heterocycles, acc...

  9. The Future of Life Science Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reiss, Michael J.

    1998-01-01

    Examines the future of biology education in Great Britain and concludes that its aims and focus will need to continue to develop. Makes recommendations for teacher and student control of the curriculum, environmental education, and bioethics. Contains 16 references. (DDR)

  10. Rapid Column Extraction method for SoilRapid Column Extraction method for Soil

    SciTech Connect

    Maxwell, Sherrod, L. III; Culligan, Brian K.

    2005-11-07

    The analysis of actinides in environmental soil and sediment samples is very important for environmental monitoring as well as for emergency preparedness. A new, rapid actinide separation method has been developed and implemented that provides total dissolution of large soil samples, high chemical recoveries and effective removal of matrix interferences. This method uses stacked TEVA Resin{reg_sign}, TRU Resin{reg_sign} and DGA-Resin{reg_sign} cartridges from Eichrom Technologies (Darien, IL, USA) that allows the rapid separation of plutonium (Pu) neptunium (Np), uranium (U), americium (Am), and curium (Cm) using a single multi-stage column combined with alpha spectrometry. The method combines a rapid fusion step for total dissolution to dissolve refractory analytes and matrix removal using cerium fluoride precipitation to remove the difficult soil matrix. By using vacuum box cartridge technology with rapid flow rates, sample preparation time is minimized.

  11. Knowledge acquisition and rapid protyping of an expert system: Dealing with real world problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, Patrick A.; Doehr, Brett B.

    1988-01-01

    The knowledge engineering and rapid prototyping phases of an expert system that does fault handling for a Solid Amine, Water Desorbed CO2 removal assembly for the Environmental Control and Life Support System for space based platforms are addressed. The knowledge acquisition phase for this project was interesting because it could not follow the textbook examples. As a result of this, a variety of methods were used during the knowledge acquisition task. The use of rapid prototyping and the need for a flexible prototype suggested certain types of knowledge representation. By combining various techniques, a representative subset of faults and a method for handling those faults was achieved. The experiences should prove useful for developing future fault handling expert systems under similar constraints.

  12. Rapid Airplane Parametric Input Design (RAPID)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Robert E.

    1995-01-01

    RAPID is a methodology and software system to define a class of airplane configurations and directly evaluate surface grids, volume grids, and grid sensitivity on and about the configurations. A distinguishing characteristic which separates RAPID from other airplane surface modellers is that the output grids and grid sensitivity are directly applicable in CFD analysis. A small set of design parameters and grid control parameters govern the process which is incorporated into interactive software for 'real time' visual analysis and into batch software for the application of optimization technology. The computed surface grids and volume grids are suitable for a wide range of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulation. The general airplane configuration has wing, fuselage, horizontal tail, and vertical tail components. The double-delta wing and tail components are manifested by solving a fourth order partial differential equation (PDE) subject to Dirichlet and Neumann boundary conditions. The design parameters are incorporated into the boundary conditions and therefore govern the shapes of the surfaces. The PDE solution yields a smooth transition between boundaries. Surface grids suitable for CFD calculation are created by establishing an H-type topology about the configuration and incorporating grid spacing functions in the PDE equation for the lifting components and the fuselage definition equations. User specified grid parameters govern the location and degree of grid concentration. A two-block volume grid about a configuration is calculated using the Control Point Form (CPF) technique. The interactive software, which runs on Silicon Graphics IRIS workstations, allows design parameters to be continuously varied and the resulting surface grid to be observed in real time. The batch software computes both the surface and volume grids and also computes the sensitivity of the output grid with respect to the input design parameters by applying the precompiler tool

  13. Rapidly Progressive Dementia

    PubMed Central

    Geschwind, Michael D.; Shu, Huidy; Haman, Aissa; Sejvar, James J.; Miller, Bruce L.

    2009-01-01

    In contrast with more common dementing conditions that typically develop over years, rapidly progressive dementias can develop subacutely over months, weeks, or even days and be quickly fatal. Because many rapidly progressive dementias are treatable, it is paramount to evaluate and diagnose these patients quickly. This review summarizes recent advances in the understanding of the major categories of RPD and outlines efficient approaches to the diagnosis of the various neurodegenerative, toxic-metabolic, infectious, autoimmune, neoplastic, and other conditions that may progress rapidly. PMID:18668637

  14. Promising future energy storage systems: Nanomaterial based systems, Zn-air, and electromechanical batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koopman, R.; Richardson, J.

    1993-10-01

    Future energy storage systems will require longer shelf life, higher duty cycles, higher efficiency, higher energy and power densities, and be fabricated in an environmentally conscious process. This paper describes several possible future systems which have the potential of providing stored energy for future electric and hybrid vehicles. Three of the systems have their origin in the control of material structure at the molecular level and the subsequent nanoengineering into useful device and components: aerocapacitors, nanostructure multilayer capacitors, and the lithium ion battery. The zinc-air battery is a high energy density battery which can provide vehicles with long range (400 km in autos) and be rapidly refueled with a slurry of zinc particles and electrolyte. The electromechanical battery is a battery-sized module containing a high-speed rotor integrated with an iron-less generator mounted on magnetic bearings and housed in an evacuated chamber.

  15. Promising future energy storage systems: Nanomaterial based systems, Zn-air and electromechanical batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Koopman, R.; Richardson, J.

    1993-10-01

    Future energy storage systems will require longer shelf life, higher duty cycles, higher efficiency, higher energy and power densities, and be fabricated in an environmentally conscious process. This paper describes several possible future systems which have the potential of providing stored energy for future electric and hybrid vehicles. Three of the systems have their origin in the control of material structure at the molecular level and the subsequent nanoengineering into useful device and components: aerocapacitors, nanostructure multilayer capacitors, and the lithium ion battery. The zinc-air battery is a high energy density battery which can provide vehicles with long range (400 km in autos) and be rapidly refueled with a slurry of zinc particles and electrolyte. The electromechanical battery is a battery-sized module containing a high-speed rotor integrated with an iron-less generator mounted on magnetic bearings and housed in an evacuated chamber.

  16. RAPID and DDS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Utz, Hans Heinrich

    2011-01-01

    This talk gives an overview of the the Robot Applications Programmers Interface Delegate (RAPID) as well as the distributed systems middleware Data Distribution Service (DDS). DDS is an open software standard, RAPID is cleared for open-source release under NOSA. RAPID specifies data-structures and semantics for high-level telemetry published by NASA robotic software. These data-structures are supported by multiple robotic platforms at Johnson Space Center (JSC), Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) and Ames Research Center (ARC), providing high-level interoperability between those platforms. DDS is used as the middleware for data transfer. The feature set of the middleware heavily influences the design decision made in the RAPID specification. So it is appropriate to discuss both in this introductory talk.

  17. Global pyrogeography: the current and future distribution of wildfire.

    PubMed

    Krawchuk, Meg A; Moritz, Max A; Parisien, Marc-André; Van Dorn, Jeff; Hayhoe, Katharine

    2009-01-01

    Climate change is expected to alter the geographic distribution of wildfire, a complex abiotic process that responds to a variety of spatial and environmental gradients. How future climate change may alter global wildfire activity, however, is still largely unknown. As a first step to quantifying potential change in global wildfire, we present a multivariate quantification of environmental drivers for the observed, current distribution of vegetation fires using statistical models of the relationship between fire activity and resources to burn, climate conditions, human influence, and lightning flash rates at a coarse spatiotemporal resolution (100 km, over one decade). We then demonstrate how these statistical models can be used to project future changes in global fire patterns, highlighting regional hotspots of change in fire probabilities under future climate conditions as simulated by a global climate model. Based on current conditions, our results illustrate how the availability of resources to burn and climate conditions conducive to combustion jointly determine why some parts of the world are fire-prone and others are fire-free. In contrast to any expectation that global warming should necessarily result in more fire, we find that regional increases in fire probabilities may be counter-balanced by decreases at other locations, due to the interplay of temperature and precipitation variables. Despite this net balance, our models predict substantial invasion and retreat of fire across large portions of the globe. These changes could have important effects on terrestrial ecosystems since alteration in fire activity may occur quite rapidly, generating ever more complex environmental challenges for species dispersing and adjusting to new climate conditions. Our findings highlight the potential for widespread impacts of climate change on wildfire, suggesting severely altered fire regimes and the need for more explicit inclusion of fire in research on global

  18. Global pyrogeography: the current and future distribution of wildfire.

    PubMed

    Krawchuk, Meg A; Moritz, Max A; Parisien, Marc-André; Van Dorn, Jeff; Hayhoe, Katharine

    2009-01-01

    Climate change is expected to alter the geographic distribution of wildfire, a complex abiotic process that responds to a variety of spatial and environmental gradients. How future climate change may alter global wildfire activity, however, is still largely unknown. As a first step to quantifying potential change in global wildfire, we present a multivariate quantification of environmental drivers for the observed, current distribution of vegetation fires using statistical models of the relationship between fire activity and resources to burn, climate conditions, human influence, and lightning flash rates at a coarse spatiotemporal resolution (100 km, over one decade). We then demonstrate how these statistical models can be used to project future changes in global fire patterns, highlighting regional hotspots of change in fire probabilities under future climate conditions as simulated by a global climate model. Based on current conditions, our results illustrate how the availability of resources to burn and climate conditions conducive to combustion jointly determine why some parts of the world are fire-prone and others are fire-free. In contrast to any expectation that global warming should necessarily result in more fire, we find that regional increases in fire probabilities may be counter-balanced by decreases at other locations, due to the interplay of temperature and precipitation variables. Despite this net balance, our models predict substantial invasion and retreat of fire across large portions of the globe. These changes could have important effects on terrestrial ecosystems since alteration in fire activity may occur quite rapidly, generating ever more complex environmental challenges for species dispersing and adjusting to new climate conditions. Our findings highlight the potential for widespread impacts of climate change on wildfire, suggesting severely altered fire regimes and the need for more explicit inclusion of fire in research on global

  19. Global Pyrogeography: the Current and Future Distribution of Wildfire

    PubMed Central

    Krawchuk, Meg A.; Moritz, Max A.; Parisien, Marc-André; Van Dorn, Jeff; Hayhoe, Katharine

    2009-01-01

    Climate change is expected to alter the geographic distribution of wildfire, a complex abiotic process that responds to a variety of spatial and environmental gradients. How future climate change may alter global wildfire activity, however, is still largely unknown. As a first step to quantifying potential change in global wildfire, we present a multivariate quantification of environmental drivers for the observed, current distribution of vegetation fires using statistical models of the relationship between fire activity and resources to burn, climate conditions, human influence, and lightning flash rates at a coarse spatiotemporal resolution (100 km, over one decade). We then demonstrate how these statistical models can be used to project future changes in global fire patterns, highlighting regional hotspots of change in fire probabilities under future climate conditions as simulated by a global climate model. Based on current conditions, our results illustrate how the availability of resources to burn and climate conditions conducive to combustion jointly determine why some parts of the world are fire-prone and others are fire-free. In contrast to any expectation that global warming should necessarily result in more fire, we find that regional increases in fire probabilities may be counter-balanced by decreases at other locations, due to the interplay of temperature and precipitation variables. Despite this net balance, our models predict substantial invasion and retreat of fire across large portions of the globe. These changes could have important effects on terrestrial ecosystems since alteration in fire activity may occur quite rapidly, generating ever more complex environmental challenges for species dispersing and adjusting to new climate conditions. Our findings highlight the potential for widespread impacts of climate change on wildfire, suggesting severely altered fire regimes and the need for more explicit inclusion of fire in research on global

  20. Raising salinity tolerant rice: recent progress and future perspectives.

    PubMed

    Singh, Anil K; Ansari, Mohammad W; Pareek, Ashwani; Singla-Pareek, Sneh L

    2008-04-01

    With the rapid growth in population consuming rice as staple food and the deteriorating soil and water quality around the globe, there is an urgent need to understand the response of this important crop towards these environmental abuses. With the ultimate goal to raise rice plant with better suitability towards rapidly changing environmental inputs, intensive efforts are on worldwide employing physiological, biochemical and molecular tools to perform this task. In this regard, efforts of plant breeders need to be duly acknowledged as several salinity tolerant varieties have reached the farmers field. Parallel efforts from molecular biologists have yielded relevant knowledge related to perturbations in gene expression and proteins during stress. Employing transgenic technology, functional validation of various target genes involved in diverse processes such as signaling, transcription, ion homeostasis, antioxidant defense etc for enhanced salinity stress tolerance has been attempted in various model systems and some of them have been extended to crop plant rice too. However, the fact remains that these transgenic plants showing improved performance towards salinity stress are yet to move from 'lab to the land'. Pondering this, we propose that future efforts should be channelized more towards multigene engineering that may enable the taming of this multigene controlled trait. Recent technological achievements such as the whole genome sequencing of rice is leading to a shift from single gene based studies to genome wide analysis that may prove to be a boon in re-defining salt stress responsive targets.