Science.gov

Sample records for future scientists engineers

  1. Creating Future Scientists and Engineers. 2013 Keynote Speech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hicks, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    This article presents a summary of the keynote speech presented at the ITEEA Conference in Columbus, OH, March 4, 2013, by Steven Hicks. Hicks is former Director, Research & Development, Flavor & Fragrance Development Global Capability, for the Procter & Gamble Company. Educated as a chemical engineer, his outside interests include…

  2. Inspiring Future Scientists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Betteley, Pat; Lee, Richard E., Jr.

    2009-01-01

    In an integrated science/language arts/technology unit called "How Scientists Learn," students researched famous scientists from the past and cutting-edge modern-day scientists. Using biography trade books and the internet, students collected and recorded data on charts, summarized important information, and inferred meaning from text. Then they…

  3. Scientists vs. Engineers

    SciTech Connect

    Wiley, H. S.

    2010-07-01

    In the past, I have heard there was conflict between the “two cultures” of science and the humanities. I don’t see a lot of evidence for that type of conflict today, mostly because my scientific friends all are big fans of the arts and literature. However, the two cultures that I do see a great deal of conflict between are those of science and engineering.

  4. Supply and Demand for Scientists and Engineers. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vetter, Betty M.

    This report, which includes 51 tables and charts, examines past, present, and future imbalances in the supply of and demand for scientists and engineers. The supply is assessed by source and by field, and compared with current and short-range demand for new graduates and for experienced scientists and engineers, including assessment of the…

  5. NASA Space Science Days: An Out of School Program Using National Partnerships to Further Influence Future Scientists and Engineers.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Galindo, Charles; Allen, Jaclyn; Garcia, Javier; Hrrera, Stephanie

    2012-01-01

    The National Math and Science Initiative states that American students are falling behind in the essential subjects of math and science, putting our position in the global economy at risk a foreboding statement that has caused the U.S. to re-evaluate how we view STEM education. Developing science and engineering related out of school programs that expose middle school students to math and science in a nontraditional university environment has the potential to motivate young students to look at the physical sciences in an exciting out of the norm environment.

  6. How Middle Schoolers Draw Engineers and Scientists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fralick, Bethany; Kearn, Jennifer; Thompson, Stephen; Lyons, Jed

    2009-02-01

    The perceptions young students have of engineers and scientists are often populated with misconceptions and stereotypes. Although the perceptions that young people have of engineers and of scientists have been investigated separately, they have not been systematically compared. The research reported in this paper explores the question "How are student perceptions of engineers and scientists similar and how are they different?" Approximately 1,600 middle school students from urban and suburban schools in the southeastern United States were asked to draw either an engineer or a scientist at work. Drawings included space for the students to explain what their person was doing in the picture. A checklist to code the drawings was developed and used by two raters. This paper discusses similarities and differences in middle school perceptions of scientists and engineers. Results reveal that the students involved in this study frequently perceive scientists as working indoors conducting experiments. A large fraction of the students have no perception of engineering. Others frequently perceive engineers as working outdoors in manual labor. The findings have implications for the development and implementation of engineering outreach efforts.

  7. Emeritus Scientists, Mathematicians and Engineers (ESME) program

    SciTech Connect

    Sharlin, H.I.

    1992-09-01

    The Emeritus Scientists, Mathematicians and Engineers (ESME) program matches retired scientists and engineers with wide experience with elementary school children in order to fuel the children's natural curiosity about the world in which they live. The long-range goal is to encourage students to maintain the high level of mathematical and science capability that they exhibit at an early age by introducing them to the fun and excitement of the world of scientific investigation and engineering problem solving. Components of the ESME program are the emeriti, established teacher-emeriti teams that work to produce a unit of 6 class hours of demonstration or hands-on experiments, and the encounter by students with the world of science/engineering through the classroom sessions and a field trip to a nearby plant or laboratory.

  8. Scientist and Engineer Shortage: Myth or Reality?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Post, Jan F.

    2006-01-01

    With clockwork regularity, the real or perceived shortage of scientists and engineers in the US pops up as a topic of debate in academic and industry circles. Discussions of an imminent shortage have deep impact for education, career prospects, immigration, and "The American Dream." The purpose of this article is twofold. First, it poses a…

  9. Modern Mathematics for Engineers and Scientists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, J. P.

    2003-01-01

    Recommends a change in the way mathematics is taught to engineers and scientists. Espouses a shift away from traditional methods to an approach that makes significant use of algebra packages. Suggests that teaching the language comprised of the notation and grammar of mathematics would be of more use and more accessible than focusing entirely on…

  10. Visualization tool for the scientist/engineer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Appino, Perry A.; Farrell, Edward J.; Mandelman, Jack A.; Linton, Thomas D., Jr.

    1990-08-01

    Continuing advances in supercomputer technology give the scientist/engineer the ability to run increasingly complex computational experiments and simulations. Gaining insight from the flood of simulation resuits is a difficult task for the scientist. This paper presents the Visual interpretation System (VIS), an easy to use, interactive, discipline-independent tool for understanding multidimensional data sets. Components of the VIS are a database manager, a user interface, and a visualization manager. The database manager facilitates discipline-independent visualization and lets the scientist manipulate data with familiar names and attributes. The visualization manager uses an optical model to generate 3D images with a variety of options including opaque and transparent structures, cutouts, and region highlighting. The effectiveness ofthe VIS is demonstrated using data from a 3D simulation of a transistor device.

  11. Business planning for scientists and engineers

    SciTech Connect

    Servo, J.C.; Hauler, P.D.

    1992-03-01

    Business Planning for Scientists and Engineers is a combination text/workbook intended for use by individuals and firms having received Phase II SBIR funding (Small Business Innovation Research). It is used to best advantage in combination with other aspects of the Commercialization Assistance Project developed by Dawnbreaker for the US Department of Energy. Although there are many books on the market which indicate the desired contents of a business plan, there are none which clearly indicate how to find the needed information. This book focuses on the how of business planning: how to find the needed information; how to keep yourself honest about the market potential; how to develop the plan; how to sell and use the plan.

  12. The Young Engineers and Scientists Mentorship Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boice, D. C.; Jahn, J.; Hummel, P.

    2003-12-01

    The Young Engineers and Scientists (YES) Program is a ommunity partnership between Southwest Research Institute (SwRI), and local high schools in San Antonio, Texas (USA). It provides talented high school juniors and seniors a bridge between classroom instruction and real-world, research experiences in physical sciences (including space science and astronomy) and engineering. YES consists of two parts: 1) an intensive three-week summer workshop held at SwRI where students experience the research environment first-hand; develop skills and acquire tools for solving scientific problems, attend mini-courses and seminars on electronics, computers and the Internet, careers, science ethics, and other topics; and select individual research projects to be completed during the academic year; and 2) a collegial mentorship where students complete individual research projects under the guidance of their mentors during the academic year and earn honors credit. At the end of the school year, students publicly present and display their work, acknowledging their accomplishments and spreading career awareness to other students and teachers. YES has been highly successful during the past 10 years. All YES graduates have entered college, several have worked for SwRI, and three scientific publications have resulted. Student evaluations indicate the effectiveness of YES on their academic preparation and choice of college majors. We gratefully acknowledge partial funding for the YES Program from a NASA EPO grant.

  13. The Young Engineers and Scientists Mentorship Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boice, D. C.; Lin, C.; Clarac, T.

    2004-12-01

    The Young Engineers and Scientists (YES) Program is a community partnership between Southwest Research Institute (SwRI), and local high schools in San Antonio, Texas (USA). It provides talented high school juniors and seniors a bridge between classroom instruction and real-world, research experiences in physical sciences (including space science and astronomy) and engineering. YES consists of two parts: 1) an intensive three-week summer workshop held at SwRI where students experience the research environment first-hand; develop skills and acquire tools for solving scientific problems, attend mini-courses and seminars on electronics, computers and the Internet, careers, science ethics, and other topics; and select individual research projects to be completed during the academic year; and 2) a collegial mentorship where students complete individual research projects under the guidance of their mentors during the academic year and earn honors credit. At the end of the school year, students publicly present and display their work, acknowledging their accomplishments and spreading career awareness to other students and teachers. YES has been highly successful during the past 12 years. All YES graduates have entered college, several have worked for SwRI, and three scientific publications have resulted. Student evaluations indicate the effectiveness of YES on their academic preparation and choice of college majors. We acknowledge funding from local charitable foundations and the NASA E/PO program.

  14. Young Engineers and Scientists: a Mentorship Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boice, Daniel C.; Wuest, Martin; Marilyn, Koch B.

    The Young Engineers and Scientists (YES) Program is a community partnership between Southwest Research Institute (SwRI) and local high schools in San Antonio Texas (USA). It provides talented high school juniors and seniors a bridge between classroom instruction and real-world research experiences in physical sciences and engineering. YES consists of two parts: 1) an intensive three-week summer workshop held at SwRI where students experience the research environment first-hand; develop skills and acquire tools for solving scientific problems attend mini-courses and seminars on electronics computers and the Internet careers science ethics and other topics; and select individual research projects to be completed during the academic year; and 2) a collegial mentorship where students complete individual research projects under the guidance of their mentors during the academic year and earn honors credit. At the end of the school year students publicly present and display their work acknowledging their accomplishments and spreading career awareness to other students and teachers. YES has been highly successful during the past 10 years. All YES graduates have entered college several have worked for SwRI and three scientific publications have resulted. Student evaluations indicate the effectiveness of YES on their academic preparation and choice of college majors.

  15. Scientists, senators, and "software": the keys to unlocking our future.

    PubMed

    Kelley, R O

    1999-02-01

    Scientists, educators, and researchers in the nation's medical schools, teaching hospitals, and research universities have responsibilities for ensuring a bright future for medical research. First, they must define science and communicate its wonder to their students, be their role models and mentors, and nurture and encourage the best and brightest to enter careers in medical research, since they are a precious resource for solving the many challenging and complex research problems that await them and which can bring great benefits to society. Second, they must learn to participate even more effectively and actively in the ongoing partnerships between the federal government, private enterprise, and the medical school and in the processes that lead to appropriations for the funding necessary to support the research enterprise. And finally, they need to recognize the importance of the increasingly interdisciplinary nature of medical research by urging support for the physical and social sciences, mathematics, and engineering.

  16. MATHEMATICAL ROUTINES FOR ENGINEERS AND SCIENTISTS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kantak, A. V.

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this package is to provide the scientific and engineering community with a library of programs useful for performing routine mathematical manipulations. This collection of programs will enable scientists to concentrate on their work without having to write their own routines for solving common problems, thus saving considerable amounts of time. This package contains sixteen subroutines. Each is separately documented with descriptions of the invoking subroutine call, its required parameters, and a sample test program. The functions available include: maxima, minima, and sort of vectors; factorials; random number generator (uniform or Gaussian distribution); complimentary error function; fast Fourier Transformation; Simpson's Rule integration; matrix determinate and inversion; Bessel function (J Bessel function for any order, and modified Bessel function for zero order); roots of a polynomial; roots of non-linear equation; and the solution of first order ordinary differential equations using Hamming's predictor-corrector method. There is also a subroutine for using a dot matrix printer to plot a given set of y values for a uniformly increasing x value. This package is written in FORTRAN 77 (Super Soft Small System FORTRAN compiler) for batch execution and has been implemented on the IBM PC computer series under MS-DOS with a central memory requirement of approximately 28K of 8 bit bytes for all subroutines. This program was developed in 1986.

  17. Researchers Dispute Notion that America Lacks Scientists and Engineers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monastersky, Richard

    2007-01-01

    Researchers who track the American labor market told Congress last week that, contrary to conventional wisdom, the United States has more than enough scientists and engineers and that federal agencies and universities should reform the way they train young scientists to better match the supply of scientists with the demand for researchers. At a…

  18. Engaging Students in Research -- Young Engineers & Scientists (YES)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boice, D. C.; Asbell, H. E.; Reiff, P. H.

    2009-03-01

    Young Engineers and Scientists (YES) is a community partnership between SwRI and local high schools in San Antonio, Texas. It provides high school students a bridge between classroom instruction and real world, research experiences in science and engineering.

  19. Developing Earth and Space Scientists for the Future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manduca, Cathryn A.; Cifuentes, Inés

    2007-09-01

    As the world's largest organization of Earth and space scientists, AGU safeguards the future of pioneering research by ensuring that ``the number and diversity of Earth and space scientists continue to grow through the flow of young talent into the field'' (AGU Strategic Plan 2008, Goal IV). Achieving this goal is the focus of the AGU Committee on Education and Human Resources (CEHR), one of the Union's three outreach committees.

  20. A systems engineering primer for every engineer and scientist

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, William R.

    2001-12-10

    The Systems Engineering (SE) staff at LBNL has generated the following artifacts to assist projects with implementing a systems approach: (1) The present document that focuses on the what, why, and when of SE. It also provides a simple case-study to illustrate several SE tasks. (2) A web site with primary emphasis on the project life-cycle and workflow, (http://www-eng.LBNL.gov/Systems/index.html). It includes: SE guidelines and principles; A list of in-house tools; Templates; Case studies with ''how to'' examples; and Links to useful SE material. These sources are living documents to be updated as necessary. The viewpoint adopted in this document is that what LBNL engineers and scientists need is a set of principles and guiding practices for developing R and D systems rather than a ''cookbook''. There are many excellent ''how to'' resources such as the ''INCOSE Systems Engineering Handbook'' to guide those in search of more details. The SE staff is another resource available to consult and support projects. This document specifies SE principles and activities that are applicable to all LBNL projects independent of their specific differences. Each project should tailor the SE implementation to meet its individual needs and culture including project-specific resources, procedures, products, and tools.

  1. Training scientists and engineers for the year 2000

    SciTech Connect

    Trivelpiece, A.W.

    1990-05-08

    This paper is a transcript of testimony by Alvin W. Trivelpiece, director of ORNL, before Congressional Subcommittee on Science, Technology, and Space. Dr. Trivelpiece discusses the importance of training scientist and engineers for the year 2000. (FSD)

  2. The Big Bang: UK Young Scientists' and Engineers' Fair 2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allison, Simon

    2010-01-01

    The Big Bang: UK Young Scientists' and Engineers' Fair is an annual three-day event designed to promote science, technology, engineering and maths (STEM) careers to young people aged 7-19 through experiential learning. It is supported by stakeholders from business and industry, government and the community, and brings together people from various…

  3. Age distribution among NASA scientists and engineers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ciancone, Michael L.

    1989-01-01

    The loss of technical expertise through attrition in NASA and the aerospace industry is discussed. This report documents historical age-related information for scientific and engineering personnel in general and the NASA Lewis Research Center in particular, for 1968 through 1987. Recommendations are made to promote discussion and to establish the groundwork for action.

  4. Handbook of applied mathematics for engineers and scientists

    SciTech Connect

    Kurtz, M.

    1991-12-31

    This book is intended to be reference for applications of mathematics in a wide range of topics of interest to engineers and scientists. An unusual feature of this book is that it covers a large number of topics from elementary algebra, trigonometry, and calculus to computer graphics and cybernetics. The level of mathematics covers high school through about the junior level of an engineering curriculum in a major univeristy. Throughout, the emphasis is on applications of mathematics rather than on rigorous proofs.

  5. Your Career and Nuclear Weapons: A Guide for Young Scientists and Engineers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albrecht, Andreas; And Others

    This four-part booklet examines various issues related to nuclear weapons and how they will affect an individual working as a scientist or engineer. It provides information about the history of nuclear weapons, about the weapons industry which produces them, and about new weapons programs. Issues are raised so that new or future graduates may make…

  6. Going "Green": Environmental Jobs for Scientists and Engineers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramey, Alice

    2009-01-01

    Green is often used as a synonym for environmental or ecological, especially as it relates to products and activities aimed at minimizing damage to the planet. Scientists and engineers have long had important roles in the environmental movement. Their expertise is focused on a variety of issues, including increasing energy efficiency, improving…

  7. Doctoral Scientists and Engineers in the United States: 1995 Profile.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Science Foundation, Arlington, VA. Div. of Science Resources Studies.

    This report profiles the demographic and employment characteristics of doctorate-level scientists and engineers in the United States. The data presented were collected through the 1995 Survey of Doctorate Recipients (SDR). The purpose of the SDR is to estimate the number of people holding research doctorates from U.S. institutions in science and…

  8. Educational and Demographic Characteristics of Energy-Related Scientists and Engineers, 1976.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finn, Michael G.; Bain, Trevor

    Presented is an analysis of the education, training, and age distribution of experienced scientists, engineers, energy-related scientists, and energy-related engineers. Data are from the 1976 National Survey of Natural and Social Scientists and Engineers, which is one of a series of longitudinal studies of 50,000 scientists in the labor force at…

  9. Advancing Sustainable Surface Engineering: Challenges & Future Opportunities

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-11-01

    2013 Noblis , Inc. Advancing Sustainable Surface Engineering: Challenges & Future Opportunities Dr. Jeffrey Marqusee Chief Scientist...NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) Noblis Inc,3150 Fairview Park Drive,Falls Church,VA...unclassified b. ABSTRACT unclassified c. THIS PAGE unclassified Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39-18 2 © 2013 Noblis , Inc

  10. Shaping the Future of Research: a perspective from junior scientists

    PubMed Central

    MacKellar, Drew C.; Mazzilli, Sarah A.; Pai, Vaibhav P.; Goodwin, Patricia R.; Walsh, Erica M.; Robinson-Mosher, Avi; Bowman, Thomas A.; Kraemer, James; Erb, Marcella L.; Schoenfeld, Eldi; Shokri, Leila; Jackson, Jonathan D.; Islam, Ayesha; Mattozzi, Matthew D.; Krukenberg, Kristin A.; Polka, Jessica K.

    2015-01-01

    The landscape of scientific research and funding is in flux as a result of tight budgets, evolving models of both publishing and evaluation, and questions about training and workforce stability. As future leaders, junior scientists are uniquely poised to shape the culture and practice of science in response to these challenges. A group of postdocs in the Boston area who are invested in improving the scientific endeavor, planned a symposium held on October 2 nd and 3 rd, 2014, as a way to join the discussion about the future of US biomedical research. Here we present a report of the proceedings of participant-driven workshops and the organizers’ synthesis of the outcomes. PMID:25653845

  11. Work Attitudes of Scientists and Engineers in AFLC.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-09-01

    PROB Engineers 2083 4.53 1.69 0.04 Scientists 117 5.04 1.61 0.15 1.10 -3.16 2198 0.00 Investigative Question Pa . This investigative question provides the...would have no effect on my AFLC career plans. PROFSSIONAL CGQTHUlNG EDUCAION 16. Does your Job require that you must take professional continuing

  12. Advantage, Absence of Advantage, and Disadvantage Among Scientists and Engineers

    SciTech Connect

    Nancy DiTomaso

    2008-09-23

    DiTomaso talks about survey data on the career experiences of 3,200 scientists and engineers from 24 major companies. Her survey findings indicate that most people who do well in their careers and make significant contributions to their organizations get assistance from others in their workplace in many forms, including offering opportunities such as good projects, providing resources that make good performance more likely, and opening up networking possibilities.

  13. Identifying Future Scientists: Predicting Persistence into Research Training

    PubMed Central

    2007-01-01

    This study used semistructured interviews and grounded theory to look for characteristics among college undergraduates that predicted persistence into Ph.D. and M.D./Ph.D. training. Participants in the summer undergraduate and postbaccalaureate research programs at the Mayo Clinic College of Medicine were interviewed at the start, near the end, and 8–12 months after their research experience. Of more than 200 themes considered, five characteristics predicted those students who went on to Ph.D. and M.D./Ph.D. training or to M.D. training intending to do research: 1) Curiosity to discover the unknown, 2) Enjoyment of problem solving, 3) A high level of independence, 4) The desire to help others indirectly through research, and 5) A flexible, minimally structured approach to the future. Web-based surveys with different students confirmed the high frequency of curiosity and/or problem solving as the primary reason students planned research careers. No evidence was found for differences among men, women, and minority and nonminority students. Although these results seem logical compared with successful scientists, their constancy, predictive capabilities, and sharp contrast to students who chose clinical medicine were striking. These results provide important insights into selection and motivation of potential biomedical scientists and the early experiences that will motivate them toward research careers. PMID:18056303

  14. Identifying future scientists: predicting persistence into research training.

    PubMed

    McGee, Richard; Keller, Jill L

    2007-01-01

    This study used semistructured interviews and grounded theory to look for characteristics among college undergraduates that predicted persistence into Ph.D. and M.D./Ph.D. training. Participants in the summer undergraduate and postbaccalaureate research programs at the Mayo Clinic College of Medicine were interviewed at the start, near the end, and 8-12 months after their research experience. Of more than 200 themes considered, five characteristics predicted those students who went on to Ph.D. and M.D./Ph.D. training or to M.D. training intending to do research: 1) Curiosity to discover the unknown, 2) Enjoyment of problem solving, 3) A high level of independence, 4) The desire to help others indirectly through research, and 5) A flexible, minimally structured approach to the future. Web-based surveys with different students confirmed the high frequency of curiosity and/or problem solving as the primary reason students planned research careers. No evidence was found for differences among men, women, and minority and nonminority students. Although these results seem logical compared with successful scientists, their constancy, predictive capabilities, and sharp contrast to students who chose clinical medicine were striking. These results provide important insights into selection and motivation of potential biomedical scientists and the early experiences that will motivate them toward research careers.

  15. Cultivating Scientist- and Engineer-Educators 2010: The Evolving Professional Development Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hunter, L.; Metevier, A. J.; Seagroves, S.; Kluger-Bell, B.; Porter, J.; Raschke, L.; Jonsson, P.; Shaw, J.; Quan, T. K.; Montgomery, R.

    2010-12-01

    The Professional Development Program (PDP) is at the heart of the education programs of the Institute for Scientist & Engineer Educators. The PDP was originally developed by the Center for Adaptive Optics, and since has been instrumental in developing and advancing a growing community of scientist- and engineer-educators. Participants come to the PDP early in their careers—most as graduate students—and they emerge as leaders who integrate research and education in their professional practice. The PDP engages participants in the innovative teaching and learning strategies of inquiry. Participants put new knowledge into action by designing inquiry activities and teaching their activities in undergraduate science and engineering laboratory settings. In addition to inquiry, members of the PDP community value and intentionally draw from diversity and equity studies and strategies, assessment strategies, education research, knowledge about effective education practices, and interdisciplinary dialogue. This paper describes the PDP, including goals, rationale, format, workshop sessions, outcomes from ten years, and future directions.

  16. Physics for Scientists and Engineers, 5th edition - Volume 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tipler, Paul A.; Mosca, Gene P.

    For nearly 30 years, Paul Tipler's Physics for Scientists and Engineers has set the standard in the introductory calculus-based physics course for clarity, accuracy, and precision. In this fifth edition, Paul has recruited Gene Mosca to bring his years of teaching experience to bear on the text, to scrutinize every explanation and example from the perspective of the freshman student. The result is a teaching tool that retains its precision and rigor, but offers struggling students the support they need to solve problems strategically and to gain real understanding of physical concepts.

  17. Manpower assessment brief: Employment of energy related doctoral scientists and engineers increased between 1981 and 1985

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-01-01

    In 1985, the nearly 45,000 energy-related doctoral scientists and engineers represented 11% of all employed doctoral scientists and engineers. Engineers comprised 40%, physical scientists, 21%, and earth scientists, almost 10% of those involved in energy-related activities - a significantly different distribution than occurs among all Ph.D. scientists and engineers. Between 1981 and 1985, by far the largest increase in energy-related Ph.D.'s occurred in employment in the life sciences - up over 120%. Employment in the social sciences and pyschology (primarily the latter) grew by 17% and in engineering by 7%.

  18. Citation Analysis: A Case Study of Korean Scientists and Engineers in Electrical and Electronics Engineering.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rieh, Hae-young

    1993-01-01

    Describes a study that investigated the citation patterns of publications by scientists and engineers in electrical and electronics engineering in Korea. Citation behavior of personnel in government, universities, and industry is compared; and citation patterns from articles in Korean and non-Korean publications are contrasted. (Contains 27…

  19. The future of complexity engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frei, Regina; Di Marzo Serugendo, Giovanna

    2012-06-01

    Complexity Engineering encompasses a set of approaches to engineering systems which are typically composed of various interacting entities often exhibiting self-* behaviours and emergence. The engineer or designer uses methods that benefit from the findings of complexity science and often considerably differ from the classical engineering approach of "divide and conquer". This article provides an overview on some very interdisciplinary and innovative research areas and projects in the field of Complexity Engineering, including synthetic biology, chemistry, artificial life, self-healing materials and others. It then classifies the presented work according to five types of nature-inspired technology, namely: (1) using technology to understand nature, (2) nature-inspiration for technology, (3) using technology on natural systems, (4) using biotechnology methods in software engineering, and (5) using technology to model nature. Finally, future trends in Complexity Engineering are indicated and related risks are discussed.

  20. CosmoAcademy Training and Certification for Scientists and Engineers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noel-Storr, Jacob; Buxner, Sanlyn; Grier, Jennifer A.; Gay, Pamela L.; CosmoQuest Team

    2016-10-01

    CosmoQuest is a virtual research facility bringing together scientists, citizens, and learners of all ages. CosmoQuest offers classes, training, and learning opportunities online through CosmoAcademy, offering opportunities for all kinds of learners to become more connected to the science of the Universe. In this poster we describe CosmoAcademy opportunities for Subject Matter Experts (SMEs), scientists and engineers who are interested in broadening their impact of their work by providing learning opportunities for those outside of the scientific community. CosmoAcademy offers SME programs at a variety of levels and across a variety of topics in formal and informal education and outreach -- ranging from sharing the results of your work on social media, through delivering an online class series, to partnering with teachers and schools. SMEs may combine sequences of training to earn certification at various levels for their participation in the CosmoAcademy programs. SMEs who have been trained may also apply to teach CosmoAcademy classes for the community on subjects of their expertise to build a rich and engaging learning resource for members of society who wish to understand more about the Universe.

  1. Predicting the performance and innovativeness of scientists and engineers.

    PubMed

    Keller, Robert T

    2012-01-01

    A study of 644 scientists and engineers from 5 corporate research and development organizations investigated hypotheses generated from an interactionist framework of 4 individual characteristics as longitudinal predictors of performance and innovativeness. An innovative orientation predicted 1-year-later and 5-years-later supervisory job performance ratings and 5-years-later counts of patents and publications. An internal locus of control predicted 5-years-later patents and publications, and self-esteem predicted performance ratings for both times and patents. Team-level nonroutine tasks moderated the individual-level relationships between an innovative orientation and performance ratings and patents such that the relationships were stronger in a nonroutine task environment. Implications for an interactionist framework of performance and innovativeness for knowledge workers are discussed.

  2. Ethical considerations for biomedical scientists and engineers: issues for the rank and file.

    PubMed

    Kwarteng, K B

    2000-01-01

    Biomedical science and engineering is inextricably linked with the fields of medicine and surgery. Yet, while physicians and surgeons, nurses, and other medical professionals receive instruction in ethics during their training and must abide by certain codes of ethics during their practice, those engaged in biomedical science and engineering typically receive no formal training in ethics. In fact, the little contact that many biomedical science and engineering professionals have with ethics occurs either when they participate in government-funded research or submit articles for publication in certain journals. Thus, there is a need for biomedical scientists and engineers as a group to become more aware of ethics. Moreover, recent advances in biomedical technology and the ever-increasing use of new devices virtually guarantee that biomedical science and engineering will become even more important in the future. Although they are rarely in direct contact with patients, biomedical scientists and engineers must become aware of ethics in order to be able to deal with the complex ethical issues that arise from our society's increasing reliance on biomedical technology. In this brief communication, the need for ethical awareness among workers in biomedical science and engineering is discussed in terms of certain conflicts that arise in the workaday world of the biomedical scientist in a complex, modern society. It is also recognized that inasmuch as workers in the many branches of bioengineering are not regulated like their counterparts in medicine and surgery, perhaps academic institutions and professional societies are best equipped to heighten ethical awareness among workers in this important field.

  3. The Young Engineers and Scientists (YES) mentorship program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boice, D. C.; Clarac, T.

    The Young Engineers and Scientists (YES) Program is a community partnership between Southwest Research Institute (SwRI), and local high schools in San Antonio, Texas (USA). It provides talented high school juniors and seniors a bridge between classroom instruction and real-world, research experiences in physical sciences (including space science and astronomy) and engineering. YES consists of two parts: 1) an intensive three-week summer workshop held at SwRI where students experience the research environment first-hand; develop skills and acquire tools for solving scientific problems, attend mini-courses and seminars on electronics, computers and the Internet, careers, science ethics, and other topics; and select individual research projects to be completed during the academic year; and 2) a collegial mentorship where students complete individual research projects under the guidance of their mentors during the academic year and earn honors credit. At the end of the school year, students publicly present and display their work, acknowledging their accomplishments and spreading career awareness to other students and teachers. YES has been highly successful during the past 11 years. All YES graduates have entered college, several have worked for SwRI, and three scientific publications have resulted. Student evaluations indicate the effectiveness of YES on their academic preparation and choice of college majors.

  4. The Young Engineers and Scientists (YES) Mentorship Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boice, D. C.; Clarac, T.; Lin, C.

    2004-11-01

    The Young Engineers and Scientists (YES) Program is a community partnership between Southwest Research Institute (SwRI), and local high schools in San Antonio, Texas (USA). It provides talented high school juniors and seniors a bridge between classroom instruction and real-world, research experiences in physical sciences (including space science and astronomy) and engineering. YES consists of two parts: 1) an intensive three-week summer workshop held at SwRI where students experience the research environment first-hand; develop skills and acquire tools for solving scientific problems, attend mini-courses and seminars on electronics, computers and the Internet, careers, science ethics, and other topics; and select individual research projects to be completed during the academic year; and 2) a collegial mentorship where students complete individual research projects under the guidance of their mentors during the academic year and earn honors credit. At the end of the school year, students publicly present and display their work, acknowledging their accomplishments and spreading career awareness to other students and teachers. YES has been highly successful during the past 11 years. All YES graduates have entered college, several have worked for SwRI, and three scientific publications have resulted. Student evaluations indicate the effectiveness of YES on their academic preparation and choice of college majors. We acknowledge funding from local charitable foundations and the NASA E/PO program.

  5. Next Generation Lunar Scientists and Engineers Group: EPO for the NextGen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petro, N. E.; Bleacher, L.; Bleacher, J. E.; Santiago, D.; Noble, S. K.

    2010-12-01

    With the recent lunar missions and increase in funding opportunities for lunar science, the number of early career lunar scientists and engineers has grown substantially in the last few years. With plans for future US and international orbital and landed spacecraft, the Moon will continue to be a place of intense scientific scrutiny. The Next Generation Lunar Scientists and Engineers (NGLSE) is a grass-roots effort at fostering the growing community of early career lunar scientists and engineers. We are fortunate to be in a position to develop the next generation of lunar enthusiasts with the support of the first generation of lunar scientists and engineers, ensuring continuity of a base of lunar knowledge. The need to foster the next generation of lunar scientists is recognized within NASA and the international community (e.g., International Lunar Exploration Working Group, Lunar Explorers Society, and the Canadian Lunar Research Network). A primary goal of the NASA Lunar Science Institute is to support “...the development of the lunar science community and training the next generation of lunar science researchers.” Additionally, NASA’s Optimizing Science and Exploration Working Group, which is comprised of representatives from several NASA Directorates and Centers, is tasked with the integration of science and engineering for the successful exploration of the Moon. In much the same way, the NGLSE aims to bring early career scientists and engineers together in order to create and support a network of next generation lunar scientists and engineers who will be able to work effectively together. Currently with over 150 members from academia, industry, and NASA, the NGLSE is building a representative cross-section of the lunar science and engineering communities. The NGLSE has received NASA funding to host workshops in association with major lunar conferences, most recently the 2010 NLSI Lunar Science Forum. At this workshop, participants worked with science

  6. Outreach to Scientists and Engineers at the Hanford Technical Library

    SciTech Connect

    Buxton, Karen A.

    2008-06-17

    Staff at the Hanford Technical Library has developed a suite of programs designed to help busy researchers at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) make better use of library products and services. Programs include formal training classes, one-on-one consultations, and targeted email messages announcing new materials to researchers in specific fields. A staple of outreach has been to teach classes to library clients covering research tools in their fields. These classes started out in the library classroom and then expanded to other venues around PNNL. Class surveys indicated that many researchers desired a practical approach to learning rather than the traditional lecture format. The library instituted “Library Learning Day” and hosted classes in the PNNL computer training room to provide lab employees with a hands-on learning experience. Classes are generally offered at noon and lab staff attends classes on their lunch hour. Many just do not have time to spend a full hour in training. Library staff added some experimental half-hour mini classes in campus buildings geared to the projects and interests of researchers there to see if this format was more appealing. As other programs have developed librarians are teaching fewer classes but average attendance figures has remained fairly stable from 2005-2007. In summer of 2004 the library began the Traveling Librarian program. Librarians call-on groups and individuals in 24 buildings on the Richland Washington campus. Five full-time and two part-time librarians are involved in the program. Librarians usually send out email announcements prior to visits and encourage scientists and engineers to make appointments for a brief 15 minute consultation in the researcher’s own office. During the meeting lab staff learn about products or product features that can help them work more productively. Librarians also make cold calls to staff that do not request a consultation and may not be making full use of the

  7. Education and training of future wetland scientists and managers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilcox, D.A.

    2008-01-01

    Wetland science emerged as a distinct discipline in the 1980s. In response, courses addressing various aspects of wetland science and management were developed by universities, government agencies, and private firms. Professional certification of wetland scientists began in the mid-1990s to provide confirmation of the quality of education and experience of persons involved in regulatory, management, restoration/construction, and research involving wetland resources. The education requirements for certification and the need for persons with specific wetland training to fill an increasing number of wetland-related positions identified a critical need to develop curriculum guidelines for an undergraduate wetland science and management major for potential accreditation by the Society of Wetland Scientists. That proposed major contains options directed toward either wetland science or management. Both options include required basic courses to meet the general education requirements of many universities, required upper-level specialized courses that address critical aspects of physical and biological sciences applicable to wetlands, and a minimum of four additional upper-level specialized courses that can be used to tailor a degree to students' interests. The program would be administered by an independent review board that would develop guidelines and evaluate university applications for accreditation. Students that complete the required coursework will fulfill the education requirements for professional wetland scientist certification and possess qualifications that make them attractive candidates for graduate school or entry-level positions in wetland science or management. Universities that offer this degree program could gain an advantage in recruiting highly qualified students with an interest in natural resources. Alternative means of educating established wetland scientists are likewise important, especially to provide specialized knowledge and experience or

  8. Young Engineers and Scientists (YES) -engaging students in research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boice, Daniel; Reiff, Patricia

    Young Engineers and Scientists (YES) has been a community partnership between local high schools in San Antonio, Texas (USA), and Southwest Research Institute (SwRI) during the past 18 years. The goals of YES are to increase the number of high school students, especially those from underrepresented groups, seeking careers in science and engineering and to enhance their success in entering the college and major of their choice. This is accomplished by expanding career awareness, including information on "hot" career areas through seminars and laboratory tours by SwRI staff, and allowing students to interact on a continuing basis with role models at SwRI in a real-world research experiences in physical sciences (including space sciences), information sciences, and a variety of engineering fields. YES consists of two parts: 1) An intensive three-week summer workshop held at SwRI where students experience the research environment and 2) a collegial mentorship where students complete individual research projects under the guidance of SwRI mentors during the academic year. At the end of the school year, students publicly present and display their work, spreading career awareness to other students and teachers. YES students develop a website (yesserver.space.swri.edu) for topics in space science and high school science teachers develop space-related lessons for classroom presentation. Partnerships between research institutes, local high schools, and community foundations, like the YES Program, can positively affect students' preparation for STEM careers via real-world research experiences with mentorship teams consisting of professional staff and qualified teachers. Acknowledgements. We acknowledge support from the NASA MMS Mission, Texas Space Grant Consortium, SwRI, and local charitable foundations.

  9. Students Engaged in Research - Young Engineers and Scientists (YES)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boice, Daniel C.

    2009-09-01

    During the past 17 years, Young Engineers and Scientists (YES) has been a community partnership between local high schools in San Antonio, Texas (USA), and Southwest Research Institute (SwRI). The goals of YES are to increase the number of high school students, especially those from underrepresented groups, seeking careers in science and engineering and to enhance their success in entering the college and major of their choice. This is accomplished by expanding career awareness, including information on "hot" career areas through seminars and laboratory tours by SwRI staff, and allowing students to interact on a continuing basis with role models at SwRI in a real-world research experiences in physical sciences (including geosciences), information sciences, and a variety of engineering fields. YES consists of two parts: 1) An intensive three-week summer workshop held at SwRI where students experience the research environment and 2) a collegial mentorship where students complete individual research projects under the guidance of SwRI mentors during the academic year. At the end of the school year, students publicly present and display their work, spreading career awareness to other students and teachers. YES students develop a website (yesserver.space.swri.edu) for topics in space science and high school science teachers develop space-related lessons for classroom presentation. Partnerships between research institutes, local high schools, and community foundations, like the YES Program, can positively affect students’ preparation for STEM careers via real-world research experiences with mentorship teams consisting of professional staff and qualified teachers. Acknowledgements. We acknowledge support from the NASA MMS Mission, Texas Space Grant Consortium, SwRI, and local charitable foundations.

  10. Inspiring future experimental scientists through questions related to colour

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fairchild, Mark D.; Melgosa, Manuel

    2014-07-01

    In general, it can be stated that unfortunately in most countries the number of students interested in traditional scientific disciplines (e.g. physics, chemistry, biology, mathematics, etc.) for his/her future professional careers has considerably decreased during the past years. It is likely that among the reasons of this trend we can find that many students feel that these disciplines are particularly difficult, complex, abstract, and even boring, while they consider applied sciences (e.g. engineering) as much more attractive options to them. Here we aim to attract people of very different ages to traditional scientific disciplines, and promote scientific knowledge, using a set of colour questions related to everyday experiences. From our answers to these questions we hope that people can understand and learn science in a rigorous, relaxed and amusing way, and hopefully they will be inspired to continue exploring on their own. Examples of such colour questions can be found at the free website http://whyiscolor.org from Mark D. Fairchild. For a wider dissemination, most contents of this website have been recently translated into Spanish language by the authors, and published in the book entitled "La tienda de las curiosidades sobre el color" (Editorial University of Granada, Spain, ISBN: 9788433853820). Colour is certainly multidisciplinary, and while it can be said that it is mainly a perception, optics is a key discipline to understand colour stimuli and phenomena. The classical first approach in colour science as the result of the interaction of light, objects, and the human visual system will be also reviewed.

  11. The futures of climate engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Low, Sean

    2017-01-01

    This piece examines the need to interrogate the role of the conceptions of the future, as embedded in academic papers, policy documents, climate models, and other artifacts that serve as currencies of the science-society interface, in shaping scientific and policy agendas in climate engineering. Growing bodies of work on framings, metaphors, and models in the past decade serve as valuable starting points, but can benefit from integration with science and technology studies work on the sociology of expectations, imaginaries, and visions. Potentially valuable branches of work to come might be the anticipatory use of the future: the design of experimental spaces for exploring the future of an engineered climate in service of responsible research and innovation, and the integration of this work within the unfolding context of the Paris Agreement.

  12. YES 2K5: Young Engineers and Scientists Mentorship Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boice, D. C.; Asbell, H. E.

    2005-12-01

    The Young Engineers and Scientists (YES) Program is a community partnership between Southwest Research Institute (SwRI), and local high schools in San Antonio, Texas (USA). YES has been highly successful during the past 13 years, and YES 2K5 continued this trend. It provides talented high school juniors and seniors a bridge between classroom instruction and real-world, research experiences in physical sciences (including space science and astronomy) and engineering. YES 2K5 consists of two parts: 1) an intensive three-week summer workshop held at SwRI where students experience the research environment first-hand; develop skills and acquire tools for solving scientific problems, attend mini-courses and seminars on electronics, computers and the Internet, careers, science ethics, and other topics; and select individual research projects to be completed during the academic year; and 2) a collegial mentorship where students complete individual research projects under the guidance of their mentors during the academic year and earn honors credit. At the end of the school year, students publicly present and display their work, acknowledging their accomplishments and spreading career awareness to other students and teachers. YES 2K5 developed a website for the Magnetospheric Multiscale Mission (MMS) from the perspective of a high school student. Over the past 13 years, all YES graduates have entered college, several have worked for SwRI, and three scientific publications have resulted. Student evaluations indicate the effectiveness of YES on their academic preparation and choice of college majors. We acknowledge funding from the NASA MMS Mission, the NASA E/PO program, and local charitable foundations.

  13. Young Engineers and Scientists (YES) - A Science Education Partnership

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boice, D. C.; Asbell, H. E.; Reiff, P. H.

    2007-12-01

    Young Engineers and Scientists (YES) is a community partnership between Southwest Research Institute (SwRI), and local high schools in San Antonio, Texas (USA). YES has been highly successful during the past 15 years and YES 2K7 continued this trend. The YES program provides talented high school juniors and seniors a bridge between classroom instruction and real world, research experiences in physical sciences (including space science and astronomy) and engineering. YES consists of two parts: 1) an intensive three-week summer workshop held at SwRI where students experience the research environment first-hand; develop skills and acquire tools for solving scientific problems, attend mini-courses and seminars on electronics, computers and the Internet, careers, science ethics, and other topics; and select individual research projects to be completed during the academic year; and 2) a collegial mentorship where students complete individual research projects under the guidance of their mentors during the academic year and earn honors credit. At the end of the school year, students publicly present and display their work, acknowledging their accomplishments and spreading career awareness to other students and teachers. YES 2K7 developed a website for the Magnetospheric Multiscale Mission (MMS) from the perspective of 20 high school students (yesserver.space.swri.edu). Over the past 15 years, all YES graduates have entered college, several have worked for SwRI, and three scientific publications have resulted. Student evaluations indicate the effectiveness of YES on their academic preparation and choice of college majors. Acknowledgements: We acknowledge funding and support from the NASA MMS Mission, SwRI, Northside Independent School District, and local charitable foundations.

  14. Engaging Students in Space Research: Young Engineers and Scientists 2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boice, D. C.; Asbell, H. E.; Reiff, P. H.

    2008-12-01

    Young Engineers and Scientists (YES) is a community partnership between Southwest Research Institute (SwRI), and local high schools in San Antonio, Texas (USA) during the past 16 years. The YES program provides talented high school juniors and seniors a bridge between classroom instruction and real world, research experiences in physical sciences (including space science) and engineering. YES consists of an intensive three-week summer workshop held at SwRI and a collegial mentorship where students complete individual research projects under the guidance of their professional mentors during the academic year. During the summer workshop, students experience the research environment first-hand; develop skills and acquire tools for solving scientific problems, attend mini-courses and seminars on electronics, computers and the Internet, careers, science ethics, and other topics; and select individual research projects to be completed during the academic year. At the end of the school year, students publicly present and display their work, acknowledging their accomplishments and spreading career awareness to other students and teachers. YES has developed a website for topics in space science from the perspective of high school students, including NASA's Magnetospheric Multiscale Mission (MMS) (http://yesserver.space.swri.edu). Student evaluations indicate the effectiveness of YES on their academic preparation and choice of college majors. Over the past 16 years, all YES graduates have entered college, several have worked for SwRI, one business has started, and three scientific publications have resulted. Acknowledgements. We acknowledge funding and support from the NASA MMS Mission, Texas Space Grant Consortium, Northside Independent School District, SwRI, and several local charitable foundations.

  15. Young engineers and scientists - a mentorship program emphasizing space education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boice, Daniel; Asbell, Elaine; Reiff, Patricia

    Young Engineers and Scientists (YES) is a community partnership between Southwest Research Institute (SwRI), and local high schools in San Antonio, Texas (USA) during the past 16 years. The YES program provides talented high school juniors and seniors a bridge between classroom instruction and real world, research experiences in physical sciences (including space science) and engineering. The first component of YES is an intensive three-week summer workshop held at SwRI where students experience the research environment first-hand; develop skills and acquire tools for solving scientific problems, attend mini-courses and seminars on electronics, computers and the Internet, careers, science ethics, and other topics; and select individual research projects to be completed during the academic year. Afterwards, students complete individual research projects under the guidance of their mentors during the academic year and earn honors credit. At the end of the school year, students publicly present and display their work, acknowledging their accomplishments and spreading career awareness to other students and teachers. During these years, YES has developed a website for topics in space science from the perspective of high school students, including NASA's Magnetospheric Multiscale Mission (MMS) (http://yesserver.space.swri.edu). High school science teachers participate in the workshop and develop space-related lessons for classroom presentation in the academic year. Student evaluations indicate the effectiveness of YES on their academic preparation and choice of college majors. Over the past 16 years, all YES graduates have entered college, several have worked for SwRI, one business has started, and three scientific publications have resulted. Acknowledgements. We acknowledge funding and support from the NASA MMS Mission, Texas Space Grant Consortium, Northside Independent School District, SwRI, and several local charitable foundations.

  16. Tissue Engineering: Current Strategies and Future Directions

    PubMed Central

    Olson, Jennifer L.; Atala, Anthony

    2011-01-01

    Novel therapies resulting from regenerative medicine and tissue engineering technology may offer new hope for patients with injuries, end-stage organ failure, or other clinical issues. Currently, patients with diseased and injured organs are often treated with transplanted organs. However, there is a shortage of donor organs that is worsening yearly as the population ages and as the number of new cases of organ failure increases. Scientists in the field of regenerative medicine and tissue engineering are now applying the principles of cell transplantation, material science, and bioengineering to construct biological substitutes that can restore and maintain normal function in diseased and injured tissues. In addition, the stem cell field is a rapidly advancing part of regenerative medicine, and new discoveries in this field create new options for this type of therapy. For example, new types of stem cells, such as amniotic fluid and placental stem cells that can circumvent the ethical issues associated with embryonic stem cells, have been discovered. The process of therapeutic cloning and the creation of induced pluripotent cells provide still other potential sources of stem cells for cell-based tissue engineering applications. Although stem cells are still in the research phase, some therapies arising from tissue engineering endeavors that make use of autologous, adult cells have already entered the clinical setting, indicating that regenerative medicine holds much promise for the future. PMID:22111050

  17. Energy-related doctoral scientists and engineers in the United States, 1977

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-04-01

    Information is compiled about the number and characteristics of doctoral-level engineers and scientists in primarily energy-related activities. These data are for the year 1977 and are part of the data base for a program of continuing studies on the employment and utilization of all scientists and engineers involved in energy-related activities. Data on mathematics, physics, chemistry, environmental engineering, engineering, life sciences, psychology, and social sciences doctoral degree specialties are included.

  18. SESTAT: A Tool for Studying Scientists and Engineers in the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kannankutty, Nirmala; Wilkinson, R. Keith

    The Scientists and Engineers Statistical Data System (SESTAT) is a comprehensive and integrated system of information about scientists and engineers in the United States. It comprises data collected through three national sample surveys supported by the National Science Foundation (NSF): The National Survey of College Graduates, the National…

  19. The UCSC Institute for Scientist & Engineer Educators: Supporting Multi-Level STEM Workforce Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    St. John, Mark; Castori, Pam

    2014-01-01

    The Institute for Scientist & Engineer Educators (ISEE) is a national effort to improve STEM education and workforce development by transforming how the next generation of scientists and engineers teach and mentor. Housed at the University of California, Santa Cruz, ISEE is the legacy of the educational side of the Center for Adaptive Optics…

  20. The Regional Distribution of Energy-Related Scientists and Engineers, 1976. Research Memorandum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finn, Michael G.; Blair, Philip

    Examined are several factors related to regional variations in the number of energy-related scientists and engineers and how this subgroup differs from the base group of scientists and engineers. The emphasis of this research project was to determine the influence of regional differences in industry mix and in staffing patterns within industries…

  1. Inspiring the Next Generation of Engineers and Scientists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tambara, Kevin

    2013-04-01

    Students are usually not excited about abstract concepts, and teachers struggle to inject "pizzazz" into many of their lessons. K-12 teachers need opportunities and the associated pedagogical training to bring meaningful and authentic learning to their students. The professional educator community needs to develop a learning environment which connects desired content knowledge with science and engineering practices that students need to be successful future technology leaders. Furthermore, this environment must foster student exploration and discovery by encouraging them to use their natural creativity with newly acquired technical skills to complete assigned projects. These practices are explicitly listed in the US "Next Generation Science Standards" document that is due for final publication in the very near future. Education in America must unleash students' desires to create and make with their hands, using their intellect, and growing academic knowledge. In this submission I will share various student projects that I have created and implemented for middle and high school. For each project, students were required to learn and implement engineering best practices while designing, building, and testing prototype models, according to pre-assigned teacher specifications. As in all real-world engineering projects, students were required to analyze test data, re-design their models accordingly, and iterate the design process several times to meet specifications. Another key component to successful projects is collaboration between student team members. All my students come to realize that nothing of major significance is ever accomplished alone, that is, without the support of a team. I will highlight several projects that illustrate key engineering practices as well as lessons learned, for both student and teacher. Projects presented will include: magnetically levitated vehicles (maglev) races, solar-powered and mousetrap-powered cars and boats, Popsicle stick

  2. Young Engineers & Scientists (YES) - Engaging Teachers in Space Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boice, D. C.; Reiff, P. H.

    2011-12-01

    The Young Engineers and Scientists (YES) Program is a community partnership between Southwest Research Institute (SwRI) and local high schools in San Antonio. It provides talented high school juniors and seniors a bridge between classroom instruction and real world, research experiences in physical sciences, information sciences, and engineering. YES consists of two parts: 1) An intensive three-week summer workshop held at SwRI where students experience the research environment first-hand; develop skills and acquire tools for solving scientific problems, attend mini-courses and seminars on electronics, C++ programming, the Internet, careers, science ethics, social impact of technology, and other topics; and select their individual research project with their mentor (SwRI staff member) to be completed during the academic year; and 2) A collegial mentorship where students complete individual research projects under the guidance of their mentors and teachers during the academic year and earn honors credit. At the end of the school year, students publicly present and display their work, acknowledging their accomplishments and spreading career awareness to other students and teachers. YES has been highly successful during the past nineteen (19) years. A total of 258 students have completed or are currently enrolled in YES. Of these students, 38% are females and 57% are ethnic minorities, reflecting the local diversity of the San Antonio area. All YES graduates have entered college, several work or have worked for SwRI, two businesses have formed, and three scientific publications have resulted. Sixteen (16) teacher participants have attended the YES workshop and have developed classroom materials based on their experiences in research at SwRI in the past three (3) years. In recognition of its excellence, YES received the Celebrate Success in 1996 and the Outstanding Campus Partner-of-the-Year Award in 2005, both from Northside Independent School District (San Antonio

  3. System Engineering Challenges of Future Space Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hyde, Tristam Tupper

    2005-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation on the system engineering challenges that face NASA's future space missions is shown. The topics include: 1) Future Space Missions; 2) Trends; and 3) Developing System Engineers.

  4. Nanomedical Engineering: shaping future nanomedicines

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Dandan; Carter, Kevin A; Lovell, Jonathan F

    2014-01-01

    Preclinical research in the field of nanomedicine continues to produce a steady stream of new nanoparticles with unique capabilities and complex properties. With improvements come promising treatments for diseases, with the ultimate goal of clinical translation and better patient outcomes compared to current standards of care. Here, we outline engineering considerations for nanomedicines, with respect to design criteria, targeting and stimuli-triggered drug release strategies. General properties, clinical relevance and current research advances of various nanomedicines are discussed in light of how these will realize their potential and shape the future of the field. PMID:25377691

  5. The MY NASA DATA Project: Preparing Future Earth and Environmental Scientists, and Future Citizens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chambers, L. H.; Phelps, C. S.; Phipps, M.; Holzer, M.; Daugherty, P.; Poling, E.; Vanderlaan, S.; Oots, P. C.; Moore, S. W.; Diones, D. D.

    2008-12-01

    For the past 5 years, the MY NASA DATA (MND) project at NASA Langley has developed and adapted tools and materials aimed at enabling student access to real NASA Earth science satellite data. These include web visualization tools including Google Earth capabilities, but also GPS and graphing calculator exercises, Excel spreadsheet analyses, and more. The project team, NASA scientists, and over 80 classroom science teachers from around the country, have created over 85 lesson plans and science fair project ideas that demonstrate NASA satellite data use in the classroom. With over 150 Earth science parameters to choose from, the MND Live Access Server enables scientific inquiry on numerous interconnected Earth and environmental science topics about the Earth system. Teachers involved in the project report a number of benefits, including networking with other teachers nationwide who emphasize data collection and analysis in the classroom, as well as learning about other NASA resources and programs for educators. They also indicate that the MND website enhances the inquiry process and facilitates the formation of testable questions by students (a task that is typically difficult for students to do). MND makes science come alive for students because it allows them to develop their own questions using the same data scientists use. MND also provides educators with a rich venue for science practice skills, which are often overlooked in traditional curricula as teachers concentrate on state and national standards. A teacher in a disadvantaged school reports that her students are not exposed to many educational experiences outside the classroom. MND allows inner city students to be a part of NASA directly. They are able to use the same information that scientists are using and this gives them inspiration. In all classrooms, the MND microsets move students out of their local area to explore global data and then zoom back into their homes realizing that they are a part of the

  6. Reflections on the current and future roles of clinician-scientists.

    PubMed

    Baumal, Reuben; Benbassat, Jochanan; Van, Julie A D

    2014-08-01

    "Clinician-scientists" is an all-inclusive term for board-certified specialists who engage in patient care and laboratory-based (biomedical) research, patient-based (clinical) research, or population-based (epidemiological) research. In recent years, the number of medical graduates who choose to combine patient care and research has declined, generating concerns about the future of medical research. This paper reviews: a) the various current categories of clinician-scientists, b) the reasons proposed for the declining number of medical graduates who opt for a career as clinician-scientists, c) the various interventions aimed at reversing this trend, and d) the projections for the future role of clinician-scientists. Efforts to encourage students to combine patient care and research include providing financial and institutional support, and reducing the duration of the training of clinician-scientists. However, recent advances in clinical and biomedical knowledge have increased the difficulties in maintaining the dual role of care-providers and scientists. It was therefore suggested that rather than expecting clinician-scientists to compete with full-time clinicians in providing patient care, and with full-time investigators in performing research, clinician-scientists will increasingly assume the role of leading/coordinating interdisciplinary teams. Such teams would focus either on patient-based research or on the clinical, biomedical and epidemiological aspects of specific clinical disorders, such as hypertension and diabetes.

  7. U.S. Scientists and Engineers: 1982, Volume 2. Surveys of Science Resources Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Science Foundation, Washington, DC. Div. of Science Resources Studies.

    The data contained in this volume are the product of the National Science Foundations Scientific and Technical Personnel Data System. They represent estimates of demographic, employment, and educational characteristics of scientists and engineers in 1982. These data come from three different sources: (1) The Postcensal Survey of Scientists and…

  8. The McBride Honors Program in Public Affairs for Scientists and Engineers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrison, W. J.; Miller, R. L.; Olds, B. M.; Sacks, A. B.

    2006-12-01

    The McBride Honors Program in Public Affairs at The Colorado School of Mines (CSM), instituted in 1978, is an award-winning exemplar in the liberal arts which provides a select number of CSM engineering students an opportunity to cross the boundaries of their technical expertise in engineering and applied science, and to gain the understanding and appreciation of the contexts in which engineering and applied science and all human systems reside, and specifically to explore and integrate the social, cultural, ethical and environmental implications of their future professional judgments and their roles as citizens in varied and complex settings. The 27 semester-hour program of seminars, courses, and off-campus activities features small seminars; a cross-disciplinary approach; and opportunities for one-on-one faculty tutorials, instruction and practice in oral and written communication, a Washington, D.C. public policy seminar, a practicum experience (internship or foreign study). Circumstances external to the McBride Program itself, which include the development and growth of the field of Public Affairs nationally and the persistence of legacy courses, have created the need to revitalize and refocus the historically cross-departmental Program. A recent curriculum reform effort has achieved a more thoroughly interdisciplinary learning experience to educate engineers and scientists who, as called for in the National Academy of Engineering's The Engineer of 2020 "will assume leadership positions from which they can serve as positive influences in the making of public policy and in the administration of government and industry". In this presentation we showcase best practices in curriculum reform, exemplified by a seminar in National policy analysis where students and faculty have recently investigated federal science funding decisions in support of natural hazards including earthquakes, tsunamis, wildland fires, and pandemic disease.

  9. Impact of Entrepreneurship Teaching in Higher Education on the Employability of Scientists and Engineers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Leary, Simon

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores the impact effective entrepreneurship teaching has on the employability of scientists and engineers. Business teaching, guest speakers and work placements are part of many science and engineering degrees and this research indicates that entrepreneurship and related issues are also being addressed in a variety of ways and having…

  10. Lived Experiences and Perceptions on Mentoring among Latina Scientists and Engineers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    San Miguel, Anitza M.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study was to reveal the lived mentoring experiences of Latinas in science and engineering. The study also sought to understand how Latina scientists and engineers achieved high-level positions within their organizations and the impediments they encountered along their professional journey. The theoretical framework…

  11. Characteristics of Doctoral Scientists and Engineers in the United States: 1997. Detailed Statistical Tables.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kang, Kelly H.

    This report presents data on the demographic and employment characteristics of the nation's doctoral scientists and engineers. Data were developed as part of the Longitudinal Doctorate Project. Current information on the supply and utilization of doctoral personnel in science and engineering reflects the results of the 1997 Survey of Doctorate…

  12. Characteristics of Doctoral Scientists and Engineers in the United States: 1995. Detailed Statistical Tables.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkinson, R. Keith

    This report presents data on the demographic and employment characteristics of the nation's doctoral scientists and engineers. Data were developed as part of the Longitudinal Doctorate Project. Current information on the supply and utilization of doctoral personnel in science and engineering reflects the results of the 1995 Survey of Doctorate…

  13. An Analysis of Specific Mathematics Course Content for Scientists and Engineers, Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, G. H.

    Reported are the results of a pilot study which attempted to determine general patterns of common course content for scientists and engineers, and what specific course content would be of most value to them. Questionnaires were mailed to biologists, chemists, physicists, and engineers in nine states. Over two hundred of these respondents were…

  14. An Evaluation of the 1973 Survey of Doctoral Scientists and Engineers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Academy of Sciences - National Research Council, Washington, DC. Commission on Human Resources.

    The Survey of Doctoral Scientists and Engineers (SDSE) itself was the first of a planned series of biennial surveys of manpower in the physical, life and social sciences, mathematics, and engineering, prepared for the National Science Foundation by the Commission on Human Resources of the National Research Council. This evaluation report attempted…

  15. Successful Latina Scientists and Engineers: Their Lived Mentoring Experiences and Career Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    San Miguel, Anitza M.; Kim, Mikyong Minsun

    2015-01-01

    Utilizing a phenomenological perspective and method, this study aimed to reveal the lived career mentoring experiences of Latinas in science and engineering and to understand how selected Latina scientists and engineers achieved high-level positions. Our in-depth interviews revealed that (a) it is important to have multiple mentors for Latinas'…

  16. Scientists and Engineers in the Federal Personnel System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Civil Service Commission, Washington, DC. Bureau of Policies and Standards.

    This pamphlet is designed to help science and engineering managers in Government laboratories understand the relevant features and flexibilities of the Federal personnel system. The various sections deal with staff recruitment procedures, academic qualifications for each entering grade, short term appointments, the Federal pay system, position…

  17. Understanding the INTERNET: A guide for materials scientists and engineers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meltsner, Kenneth J.

    1995-04-01

    Newspapers and magazines are full of stories about the Internet and the coming "information superhighway." Predictions for the future range from on-line video rentals and 500 channels of cable television to video telephones and global electronic libraries. Unfortunately, "infobahn" metaphors and hyperbole have obscured the fact that the the Internet is useful now and that it connects a significant fraction of the United States and the world. This article describes, without too many metaphors, the current and near-future capabilities of the Internet and provides basic information about access methods, popular services, and planned changes. In addition, the article also offers a brief introduction to "Net" culture and etiquette.

  18. Study of Scientists and Engineers in DoD Laboratories

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-09-01

    shortages, since such sho..ages are very closely linked to the future economic picture, a subject of much spec- ulation and unpredictability. The study panel...also took advantage of personal experience from the laboratory community, including interviews with knowledge- able people at the director...supervisor and non-supervisory S&E level, as well as person - nel experts and people from headquarters. Finally, the study group reviewed other studies that had

  19. Asian-born scientists and engineers: their immigration flow and labor market adjustment.

    PubMed

    Lee, M

    1993-07-01

    "This paper examines the flow of Asian-born scientists and engineers and their labor market adjustment. First, main elements to affect their immigration flow are described: supply, demand, and institution....The scarcity of domestic workers is the most important factor affecting demand of immigration. Institution, such as immigration policies, is another element to influence the immigration flow....Second, by using the 1980 U.S. Census data set, their labor market adjustment is explored in terms of hourly wages. Compared to the native-born white, there is no evidence that Asian-born scientists and engineers receive lower wages or lower return on human capital."

  20. Connecting NASA Airborne Scientists, Engineers, and Pilots to K-12 Classrooms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaller, E. L.

    2015-12-01

    The NASA Airborne Science Program (ASP) conducts Earth system science research missions with NASA aircraft all over the world. During ASP missions, NASA scientists, engineers and pilots are deployed to remote parts of the world such as Greenland, Antarctica, Chile, and Guam. These ASP mission personnel often have a strong desire to share the excitement of their mission with local classrooms near their deployment locations as well as classrooms back home in the United States. Here we discuss ongoing efforts to connect NASA scientists, engineers and pilots in the field directly with K-12 classrooms through both in-person interactions and remotely via live web-based chats.

  1. 76 FR 72004 - Request for Comments on the Intent To Conduct an Evaluation of the Scientists and Engineers...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-21

    ... Request for Comments on the Intent To Conduct an Evaluation of the Scientists and Engineers Statistical... notice announces the intent of the National Center for Science and Engineering Statistics (NCSES) at the... comprise the Scientists and Engineers Statistical Data System (SESTAT). This notice is in response...

  2. Microbiome engineering: Current applications and its future.

    PubMed

    Foo, Jee Loon; Ling, Hua; Lee, Yung Seng; Chang, Matthew Wook

    2017-03-01

    Microbiomes exist in all ecosystems and are composed of diverse microbial communities. Perturbation to microbiomes brings about undesirable phenotypes in the hosts, resulting in diseases and disorders, and disturbs the balance of the associated ecosystems. Engineering of microbiomes can be used to modify structures of the microbiota and restore ecological balance. Consequently, microbiome engineering has been employed for improving human health and agricultural productivity. The importance and current applications of microbiome engineering, particularly in humans, animals, plants and soil is reviewed. Furthermore, we explore the challenges in engineering microbiome and the future of this field, thus providing perspectives and outlook of microbiome engineering.

  3. Future of Software Engineering Standards

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poon, Peter T.

    1997-01-01

    In the new millennium, software engineering standards are expected to continue to influence the process of producing software-intensive systems which are cost-effetive and of high quality. These sytems may range from ground and flight systems used for planetary exploration to educational support systems used in schools as well as consumer-oriented systems.

  4. Emeritus Scientists, Mathematicians and Engineers (ESME) program. Summary of activities for school year 1991--1992

    SciTech Connect

    Sharlin, H.I.

    1992-09-01

    The Emeritus Scientists, Mathematicians and Engineers (ESME) program matches retired scientists and engineers with wide experience with elementary school children in order to fuel the children`s natural curiosity about the world in which they live. The long-range goal is to encourage students to maintain the high level of mathematical and science capability that they exhibit at an early age by introducing them to the fun and excitement of the world of scientific investigation and engineering problem solving. Components of the ESME program are the emeriti, established teacher-emeriti teams that work to produce a unit of 6 class hours of demonstration or hands-on experiments, and the encounter by students with the world of science/engineering through the classroom sessions and a field trip to a nearby plant or laboratory.

  5. NASA Science Mission Directorate Forum Support of Scientists and Engineers to Engage in Education and Outreach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buxner, S.; Grier, J.; Meinke, B. K.; Schneider, N. M.; Low, R.; Schultz, G. R.; Manning, J. G.; Fraknoi, A.; Gross, N. A.; Shipp, S. S.

    2015-12-01

    For the past six years, the NASA Science Education and Public Outreach (E/PO) Forums have supported the NASA Science Mission Directorate (SMD) and its E/PO community by enhancing the coherency and efficiency of SMD-funded E/PO programs. The Forums have fostered collaboration and partnerships between scientists with content expertise and educators with pedagogy expertise. As part of this work, in collaboration with the AAS Division of Planetary Sciences, we have interviewed SMD scientists, and more recently engineers, to understand their needs, barriers, attitudes, and understanding of education and outreach work. Respondents told us that they needed additional resources and professional development to support their work in education and outreach, including information about how to get started, ways to improve their communication, and strategies and activities for their teaching and outreach. In response, the Forums have developed and made available a suite of tools to support scientists and engineers in their E/PO efforts. These include "getting started" guides, "tips and tricks" for engaging in E/PO, vetted lists of classroom and outreach activities, and resources for college classrooms. NASA Wavelength (http://nasawavelength.org/), an online repository of SMD funded activities that have been reviewed by both educators and scientists for quality and accuracy, provides a searchable database of resources for teaching as well as ready-made lists by topic and education level, including lists for introductory college classrooms. Additionally, we have also supported scientists at professional conferences through organizing oral and poster sessions, networking activities, E/PO helpdesks, professional development workshops, and support for students and early careers scientists. For more information and to access resources for scientists and engineers, visit http://smdepo.org.

  6. Genotyping the future: scientists' expectations about race/ ethnicity after BiDil.

    PubMed

    Tutton, Richard; Smart, Andrew; Martin, Paul A; Ashcroft, Richard; Ellison, George T H

    2008-01-01

    The ongoing debate about the FDA approval of BiDil in 2005 demonstrates how the first racially/ethnically licensed drug is entangled in both Utopian and dystopian future visions about the continued saliency of race/ethnicity in science and medicine. Drawing on the sociology of expectations, this paper analyzes how scientists in the field of pharmacogenetics are constructing certain visions of the future with respect to the use of social categories of race/ethnicity and the impact of high-throughput genotyping technologies that promise to transform scientific practices.

  7. Innovation Development--An Action Learning Programme for Medical Scientists and Engineers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beniston, Lee; Ellwood, Paul; Gold, Jeff; Roberts, James; Thorpe, Richard

    2014-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that action learning is valuable in a higher education setting. This paper goes on to report a personal development programme, based on principles of critical action learning, where the aim is to equip early-career scientists and engineers working in a university setting with the knowledge, skills and confidence to…

  8. Characteristics of Doctoral Scientists and Engineers in the United States: 1999. Detailed Statistical Tables.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kang, Kelly H.

    This report presents detailed statistical tables that reflect the demographic and employment characteristics of doctoral degree holding scientists and engineers in the United States. The data were collected from the 1999 Survey of Doctorate Recipients (SDR) with the purpose of providing information to researchers and policymakers in their decision…

  9. Older Doctoral Scientists and Engineers: Selected Labor Force Characteristics. Special Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Robert P.

    This report presents the labor force characteristics of older doctoral scientists and engineers using data from the National Science Foundation's (NSF) Survey of Doctorate Recipients (SDR) from 1997. The information presented in the report includes employment, education, and demographic data on all graduate degrees considering the age factor. (YDS)

  10. Technology Transfer - A Useful Metaphor for University Level Mathematics Courses for Engineers and Scientists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maass, Juergen

    In Exeter (ALM 2, 1995), Wolfgang Schloeglmann and the author presented some results of their research. One of these results is a useful metaphor: Teaching mathematics to engineers and scientists who have finished their university studies and have worked for many years in, for example, industry, is structurally similar to the technology transfer…

  11. Modelling the Information Seeking Patterns of Engineers and Research Scientists in an Industrial Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, David; Haugan, Merete

    1997-01-01

    Engineers and research scientists at Statoil's Research Center in Trondheim, Norway were interviewed to determine information-seeking patterns. Eight characteristics were identified: surveying, chaining, monitoring, browsing, distinguishing, filtering, extracting, and ending. The results showed that although there were differences in the features…

  12. Eye of the Forehead and Eye of the Mind: How Engineers and Scientists See

    SciTech Connect

    Lienhard, John

    2004-07-12

    Public radio host Dr. John Lienhard gives a talk titled "Eye of the Forehead and Eye of the Mind: How Engineers and Scientists See". Lienhard contends that spatial visualization is the subtlest of abilities. In his talk, he traces its evolution through the past five centuries and explains how remarkable aids to seeing may have been placing mental visualization under threat.

  13. Eye of the Forehead and Eye of the Mind: How Engineers and Scientists See

    ScienceCinema

    Lienhard, John [NPR, United States

    2016-07-12

    Public radio host Dr. John Lienhard gives a talk titled "Eye of the Forehead and Eye of the Mind: How Engineers and Scientists See". Lienhard contends that spatial visualization is the subtlest of abilities. In his talk, he traces its evolution through the past five centuries and explains how remarkable aids to seeing may have been placing mental visualization under threat.

  14. Connecting Ocean Scientists with Future Educators - COSEE Florida's Research Experience for Pre-Service Teachers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, S.; Cetrulo, B.; Capers, J.

    2012-12-01

    To bring real world ocean science into the classroom, COSEE Florida's Research Experience for Pre-Service Teachers (REPT) program provides an opportunity for future science teachers to work with marine scientists on research projects. In 2011 and 2012, eleven middle school education majors at Indian River State College in Fort Pierce, FL, participated in a seven week summer experience. Scientist teams at Harbor Branch Oceanographic Institute of Florida Atlantic University, the Smithsonian Marine Station, and the Ocean Research & Conservation Association each mentored two students for 20 hours of research per week with 5 hours of support from Indian River State College (IRSC) faculty. Mentors helped students develop a scientific poster describing their research and guided them in the production of a video vignette called a CSTAR (COSEE Student Teachers as Researchers). The CSTAR videos address a 'nature of science' Florida state standard, have been shown to a variety of audiences in and out of the classroom and are expected to be a more frequently used educational product than a single lesson plan. To showcase the REPT intern accomplishments, an 'end-of-program' symposium open to the COSEE and IRSC communities was held at IRSC. Evaluation data indicate that the first two iterations of the COSEE Florida REPT program have given future teachers an authentic and deeper understanding of scientific practices and have provided ocean scientists with a meaningful opportunity to contribute to ocean science education.

  15. Inspiring the Next Generation of Naval Scientists and Engineers in Mississippi and Louisiana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breland-Mensi, S.; Calantoni, J.

    2012-12-01

    In 2011, the American Institute of Physics ranked Mississippi 50th out of 50 states in preparing students for science, technology, engineering and math (STEM) careers. Louisiana placed 48th on the list. [1] The Naval Research Laboratory - Stennis Space Center detachment (NRL-SSC) is located on the Mississippi Gulf Coast, approximately 2 miles from the Louisiana state line. In response to a growing need for NRL-SSC to sustain recruitment and retention of the best and brightest scientists and engineers (S&Es), NRL-SSC became a National Defense Education Program (NDEP) site in August 2009. NDEP's mission is to support a new generation of S&Es who will apply their talents in U.S. Defense laboratories. As an NDEP site, NRL-SSC receives funding to promote STEM at K-12 institutions geographically local to NRL-SSC. NDEP funding allows present Department of Defense civilian S&Es to collaborate with teachers to enrich student learning in the classroom environment through various programs, events, training and activities. Since NRL-SSC's STEM program's inception, more than 30 S&Es have supported an array of STEM outreach activities in over 30 different local schools. An important part of the K-12 outreach from NRL-SSC is to provide professional development opportunities for local teachers. During the summer of 2012, in collaboration with STEM programs sponsored by the Office of Naval Research (ONR), we provided a series of professional development opportunities for 120 local science and mathematics teachers across K-12. The foundation of NRL-SSC STEM programs includes MATHCOUNTS, FIRST and SeaPerch—all nationally recognized, results-driven programs. We will discuss the breadth of participation in these programs and how these programs will support NRL-SSC future recruitment goals.

  16. Engineering the Future: Cell 6

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stahl, P. H.

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the development of the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST), explaining the development using a systems engineering methodology. Included are slides showing the organizational chart, the JWST Science Goals, the size of the primary mirror, and full scale mockups of the JSWT. Also included is a review of the JWST Optical Telescope Requirements, a review of the preliminary design and analysis, the technology development required to create the JWST, with particular interest in the specific mirror technology that was required, and views of the mirror manufacturing process. Several slides review the process of verification and validation by testing and analysis, including a diagram of the Cryogenic Test Facility at Marshall, and views of the primary mirror while being tested in the cryogenic facility.

  17. Scientists versus regulators: precaution, novelty & regulatory oversight as predictors of perceived risks of engineered nanomaterials.

    PubMed

    Beaudrie, Christian E H; Satterfield, Terre; Kandlikar, Milind; Harthorn, Barbara H

    2014-01-01

    Engineered nanoscale materials (ENMs) present a difficult challenge for risk assessors and regulators. Continuing uncertainty about the potential risks of ENMs means that expert opinion will play an important role in the design of policies to minimize harmful implications while supporting innovation. This research aims to shed light on the views of 'nano experts' to understand which nanomaterials or applications are regarded as more risky than others, to characterize the differences in risk perceptions between expert groups, and to evaluate the factors that drive these perceptions. Our analysis draws from a web-survey (N = 404) of three groups of US and Canadian experts: nano-scientists and engineers, nano-environmental health and safety scientists, and regulatory scientists and decision-makers. Significant differences in risk perceptions were found across expert groups; differences found to be driven by underlying attitudes and perceptions characteristic of each group. Nano-scientists and engineers at the upstream end of the nanomaterial life cycle perceived the lowest levels of risk, while those who are responsible for assessing and regulating risks at the downstream end perceived the greatest risk. Perceived novelty of nanomaterial risks, differing preferences for regulation (i.e. the use of precaution versus voluntary or market-based approaches), and perceptions of the risk of technologies in general predicted variation in experts' judgments of nanotechnology risks. Our findings underscore the importance of involving a diverse selection of experts, particularly those with expertise at different stages along the nanomaterial lifecycle, during policy development.

  18. George Washington University Visa Project-Streamlining Our Visa and Immigration Systems for Scientists and Engineers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teich, Albert H.

    2014-03-01

    Many scientists believe that current U.S. visa and immigration systems are out of sync with today's increasingly globalized science and technology. This talk will highlight specific proposals that would facilitate the recruitment of promising STEM students by U.S. universities and better enable international scientists and engineers to visit the United States for scientific conferences and research collaboration. Most of these proposals could be implemented without additional resources and without compromising U.S. security. The talk is based on the results of an 18 month study conducted at the George Washington University's Center for International Science & Technology Policy.

  19. PREFACE: International Scientific Conference of Young Scientists: Advanced Materials in Construction and Engineering (TSUAB2014)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kopanitsa, Natalia O.

    2015-01-01

    In October 15-17, 2014 International Scientific Conference of Young Scientists: Advanced Materials in Construction and Engineering (TSUAB2014) took place at Tomsk State University of Architecture and Building (Tomsk, Russia). The Conference became a discussion platform for researchers in the fields of studying structure and properties of advanced building materials and included open lectures of leading scientists and oral presentations of master, postgraduate and doctoral students. A special session was devoted to reports of school children who further plan on starting a research career. The Conference included an industrial exhibition where companies displayed the products and services they supply. The companies also gave presentations of their products within the Conference sessions.

  20. Energy-Related Scientists and Engineers: A Statistical Profile of Recent Entrants Into the Work Force, 1978.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Sharon E.; And Others

    Examined are the educational and employment characteristics of scientists and engineers who graduated during the years 1972, 1974, 1975, and 1976, with special attention to those whose work involves energy. The characteristics of energy-related graduates to those of more experienced scientists and engineers involved in energy activities are…

  1. Inspiring our future citizens and scientists: follow the Blue Paths (Percorsi nel Blu)!

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mioni, Erika; Stroobant, Mascha; Merlino, Silvia; Traverso, Roberto

    2016-04-01

    Very often we hear about scientific communication and education as separate and disconnected domains: in fact while the first one is seen more as a moment of disclosure for disseminating results and latest achievements and consequences (a look to our direct future), the second is, instead, identified as a formative moment in the long term, that often is based on obsolete and dated programs that refer to the past. What would happen if these two domains were, instead, considered as inseparable? As stated by Andrea Schleicher (OECD): "Schools have to prepare students for jobs that have not yet been created, technologies that have not yet been invented and problems that we don't know will arise." How to manage this challenge? The European Commission has proposed seven recommendations to follow for improving Science education and to bring more and more young people closer to STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics) disciplines. Especially three of them (Reccomendation n. 1, 4 and 7) pin out the to-do list for improving communication an education in Science, indicating that "a primary goal of science education across the EU should be to educate students both about the major explanations of the material world that science offers and about the way science works. Moreover teachers of science of the highest quality should be provided for students in primary and lower secondary school; moreover the emphasis in science education before 14 should be on engaging students with science and scientific phenomena (extended investigative work and 'hands-on' experimentation and not through a stress on the acquisition of canonical concepts). Last but not least: good quality teachers, with up to date knowledge and skills, are the foundation of any system of formal science education. Systems to ensure the recruitment, retention and continuous professional training of such individuals must be a policy priority in Europe". Blue Paths (Percorsi nel Blu) is a transversal

  2. HBCU Future Engineering Faculty Fellowship Program

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-03-31

    of Michigan he has not only been an ONR HBEC Future Faculty Fellow, but also a Rackham Merit Fellow, a 2-time Martin Luther King Jr. Spirit Award...only been an ONR HBEC Future Faculty Fellow, but also a Rackham Merit Fellow, a 2-time Martin Luther King Jr. Spirit Award Winner and a National...Faculty Fellow, but also a Rackham Merit Fellow, a 2-time Martin Luther King Jr. Spirit Award Winner and a National Society of Black Engineers - Graduate

  3. 1981 national survey of compensation paid scientists and engineers engaged in research and development activities

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-12-01

    The results of a compensation survey conducted by the Columbus Laboratories of Battelle are presented. The survey was entitled A National Survey of Compensation Paid to Scientists and Engineers Engaged in Research and Development Activities. Information is included on the: sampling procedures; basic data for survey analysis; beginning salaries for recent graduates with bachelor, master, or doctorate degrees; salary trends; geographic analysis; interpretation of results; and salary tables. (LCL)

  4. NASA and Earth Science Week: a Model for Engaging Scientists and Engineers in Education and Outreach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwerin, T. G.; deCharon, A.; Brown de Colstoun, E. C.; Chambers, L. H.; Woroner, M.; Taylor, J.; Callery, S.; Jackson, R.; Riebeek, H.; Butcher, G. J.

    2014-12-01

    Earth Science Week (ESW) - the 2nd full week in October - is a national and international event to help the public, particularly educators and students, gain a better understanding and appreciation for the Earth sciences. The American Geosciences Institute (AGI) organizes ESW, along with partners including NASA, using annual themes (e.g., the theme for 2014 is Earth's Connected Systems). ESW provides a unique opportunity for NASA scientists and engineers across multiple missions and projects to share NASA STEM, their personal stories and enthusiasm to engage and inspire the next generation of Earth explorers. Over the past five years, NASA's ESW campaign has been planned and implemented by a cross-mission/cross-project group, led by the NASA Earth Science Education and Pubic Outreach Forum, and utilizing a wide range of media and approaches (including both English- and Spanish-language events and content) to deliver NASA STEM to teachers and students. These included webcasts, social media (blogs, twitter chats, Google+ hangouts, Reddit Ask Me Anything), videos, printed and online resources, and local events and visits to classrooms. Dozens of NASA scientists, engineers, and communication and education specialists contribute and participate each year. This presentation will provide more information about this activity and offer suggestions and advice for others engaging scientists and engineers in education and outreach programs and events.

  5. The Future of Engineering Education--Revisited

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wankat, Phillip C.; Bullard, Lisa G.

    2016-01-01

    This paper revisits the landmark CEE series, "The Future of Engineering Education," published in 2000 (available free in the CEE archives on the internet) to examine the predictions made in the original paper as well as the tools and approaches documented. Most of the advice offered in the original series remains current. Despite new…

  6. Future heavy duty trucking engine requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strawhorn, L. W.; Suski, V. A.

    1985-01-01

    Developers of advanced heavy duty diesel engines are engaged in probing the opportunities presented by new materials and techniques. This process is technology driven, but there is neither assurance that the eventual users of the engines so developed will be comfortable with them nor, indeed, that those consumers will continue to exist in either the same form, or numbers as they do today. To ensure maximum payoff of research dollars, the equipment development process must consider user needs. This study defines motor carrier concerns, cost tolerances, and the engine parameters which match the future projected industry needs. The approach taken to do that is to be explained and the results presented. The material to be given comes basically from a survey of motor carrier fleets. It provides indications of the role of heavy duty vehicles in the 1998 period and their desired maintenance and engine performance parameters.

  7. Engineering a Cause and Cure to Climate Change; Working a culture change with our Future Engineers.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hudier, E. J. J.

    2014-12-01

    Where scientist unravel the laws of nature giving the human race the means to remodel their environment, engineers are the tools that put together the very technologies that give humans this power. Early on, along our first steps through this industrialization era, development was the key word, nature could digest our waste products no matter what. We have managed to tamper with our atmosphere's gas composition and the climate is slowly remodelling our way of life. Engineers are now expected to be a key part of the solution. Engineering programs have evolved to include new dimensions such as ethics, communication and environment. We want future engineers to put these dimensions first while working on new machine designs, concepts and procedures. As undergraduate students with a deep science background we also want them to be a source of information for their co-workers and more. How well are we getting through? How good teachers our future engineers will be? This work take a look at the teaching/learning successes comparing engineering students with students attending an undergraduate program in biology. Methods emphasizing the acquisition of knowledge through lectures and reading assignments are tested along with activities aiming at unraveling the scientific fundamental behind environmental issues and putting forward original solutions to specific problematic. Concept knowledge scores, communications' quality and activities evaluations by students are discussed.

  8. Future Cities Engineering: Early Engineering Interventions in the Middle Grades

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCue, Camille; James, David

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes qualitative and quantitative research conducted with middle school students participating in a Future Cities Engineering course. Insights were sought regarding both affective and cognitive changes which transpired during the one-semester schedule of activities focused on modeling the infrastructure of a city built 150 years in…

  9. Scientists versus Regulators: Precaution, Novelty & Regulatory Oversight as Predictors of Perceived Risks of Engineered Nanomaterials

    PubMed Central

    Beaudrie, Christian E. H.; Satterfield, Terre; Kandlikar, Milind; Harthorn, Barbara H.

    2014-01-01

    Engineered nanoscale materials (ENMs) present a difficult challenge for risk assessors and regulators. Continuing uncertainty about the potential risks of ENMs means that expert opinion will play an important role in the design of policies to minimize harmful implications while supporting innovation. This research aims to shed light on the views of ‘nano experts’ to understand which nanomaterials or applications are regarded as more risky than others, to characterize the differences in risk perceptions between expert groups, and to evaluate the factors that drive these perceptions. Our analysis draws from a web-survey (N = 404) of three groups of US and Canadian experts: nano-scientists and engineers, nano-environmental health and safety scientists, and regulatory scientists and decision-makers. Significant differences in risk perceptions were found across expert groups; differences found to be driven by underlying attitudes and perceptions characteristic of each group. Nano-scientists and engineers at the upstream end of the nanomaterial life cycle perceived the lowest levels of risk, while those who are responsible for assessing and regulating risks at the downstream end perceived the greatest risk. Perceived novelty of nanomaterial risks, differing preferences for regulation (i.e. the use of precaution versus voluntary or market-based approaches), and perceptions of the risk of technologies in general predicted variation in experts' judgments of nanotechnology risks. Our findings underscore the importance of involving a diverse selection of experts, particularly those with expertise at different stages along the nanomaterial lifecycle, during policy development. PMID:25222742

  10. Biomedical engineering continues to make the future.

    PubMed

    Fantini, Sergio; Bennis, Caoimhe; Kaplan, David

    2011-01-01

    Biomedical engineering (BME) continues to make the future, not just respond to the present, by anticipating the needs of interface engineering and clinical medicine. In many respects, BME is the educational mode of the future, fostering collaboration among disciplines at its core by building on basic concepts in engineering and biology. We strive to educate where the needs, opportunities, and jobs are and will be in the future. The bridge between engineering, biology, and medicine is a growing link, and there is no sign that this interface will slow. With an aging population, dynamic changes in health care, as well as global economies and related themes upon us, we are only at the very beginning of the impact that BME will have on medicine and the quality of life. Those of us in BME are excited to be setting this agenda and welcome your participation. In part, this is why we have designed our BME major to cover both the depth and breadth, always a challenge, but one that we are committed to. The depth of the design projects, research experience, coursework, study abroad options, and internships all convenes to establish a solid foundation for our students as they embark on their career paths.

  11. An examination of undergraduate engineering students' stereotype of scientists and their career intentions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stara, Michelle M.

    The US Government Accountability Office (GAO) (2013) has acknowledged that additional graduates are needed in engineering and related STEM fields. However, the GAO has also noted that it is difficult to determine if the additional graduates will align with employer demand at the time of entry into the workforce. This research study attempts to examine undergraduate engineering students' perceptions of scientists and if they were related to students' intentions to pursue science by examining the constructs of Stereotypes of Scientists (SOS) and Career Intentions in Science (CIS). While results of data analysis were not significant, patterns were seen that provided valuable information with regard to the variability of undergraduate engineering students and the complexity of what goes into stereotype formation and career choice. As a practitioner, there were pertinent applications that could be implemented from the results of this and related studies. From the perspective of practitioners, the findings may be used to target recruitment, retention, and specific teaching strategies to increase enrollment and graduate numbers in the lesser known engineering and STEM fields.

  12. Some Future Software Engineering Opportunities and Challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boehm, Barry

    This paper provides an update and extension of a 2006 paper, “Some Future Trends and Implications for Systems and Software Engineering Processes,” Systems Engineering, Spring 2006. Some of its challenges and opportunities are similar, such as the need to simultaneously achieve high levels of both agility and assurance. Others have emerged as increasingly important, such as the challenges of dealing with ultralarge volumes of data, with multicore chips, and with software as a service. The paper is organized around eight relatively surprise-free trends and two “wild cards” whose trends and implications are harder to foresee. The eight surprise-free trends are:

  13. A woman like you: Women scientists and engineers at Brookhaven National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Benkovitz, Carmen; Bernholc, Nicole; Cohen, Anita; Eng, Susan; Enriquez-Leder, Rosario; Franz, Barbara; Gorden, Patricia; Hanson, Louise; Lamble, Geraldine; Martin, Harriet; Mastrangelo, Iris; McLane, Victoria; Villela, Maria-Alicia; Vivirito, Katherine; Woodhead, Avril

    1991-01-01

    This publication by the women in Science and Engineering introduces career possibilities in science and engineering. It introduces what work and home life are like for women who have already entered these fields. Women at Brookhaven National Laboratory work in a variety of challenging research roles -- from biologist and environmental scientist to safety engineer, from patent lawyer to technician. Brookhaven National Laboratory is a multi-program laboratory which carries out basic and applied research in the physical, biomedical and environmental sciences and in selected energy technologies. The Laboratory is managed by Associated University, Inc., under contract with the US Department of Energy. Brookhaven and the other national laboratories, because of their enormous research resources, can play a critical role in a education and training of the workforce.

  14. A woman like you: Women scientists and engineers at Brookhaven National Laboratory. Careers in action

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-12-31

    This publication by the women in Science and Engineering introduces career possibilities in science and engineering. It introduces what work and home life are like for women who have already entered these fields. Women at Brookhaven National Laboratory work in a variety of challenging research roles -- from biologist and environmental scientist to safety engineer, from patent lawyer to technician. Brookhaven National Laboratory is a multi-program laboratory which carries out basic and applied research in the physical, biomedical and environmental sciences and in selected energy technologies. The Laboratory is managed by Associated University, Inc., under contract with the US Department of Energy. Brookhaven and the other national laboratories, because of their enormous research resources, can play a critical role in a education and training of the workforce.

  15. PREFACE: PAGES 1st Young Scientists Meeting (YSM) - 'Retrospective views on our planet's future'

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cléroux, Caroline; Fehrenbacher, Jennifer; Phipps, Steven; Rupper, Summer; Williams, Branwen; Kiefer, Thorsten

    2010-03-01

    'Retrospective views on our planet's future' - This was the theme of a tandem of meetings held by Past Global Changes (PAGES; http://www.pages-igbp.org), a project of the International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme (IGBP). It reflects the philosophy of PAGES and its community of scientists that the past holds the key to better projections of the future. Climatic and environmental evidence from the past can be used to sharpen future projections of global change, thereby informing political and societal decisions on mitigation and adaptation. Young scientists are critical to the future of this endeavour, which we call 'paleoscience'. Their scientific knowledge, interdisciplinarity, international collaboration, and leadership skills will be required if this field is to continue to thrive. Meanwhile, it is also important to remember that science develops not only by applying new strategies and new tools to make new observations, but also by building upon existing knowledge. Modern research in paleoscience began around fifty years ago, and one could say that the third generation of researchers is now emerging. It is a wise investment to ensure that existing skills and knowledge are transferred to this generation. This will enable them to lead the science towards new accomplishments, and to make important contributions towards the wider field of global change science. Motivated by such considerations, PAGES organized its first Young Scientists Meeting (YSM), held in Corvallis (Oregon, USA) in July 2009 (http://www.pages-osm.org/ysm/index.html). The meeting took place immediately before the much larger 3rd PAGES Open Science Meeting (OSM; http://www.pages-osm.org/osm/index.html). The YSM brought together 91 early-career scientists from 21 different nations. During the two-day meeting, PhD students, postdoctoral researchers, and new faculty met to present their work and build networks across geographical and disciplinary borders. Several experienced and well

  16. Work Activities of Employed Doctoral Scientists and Engineers in the U.S. Labor Force, July 1973. Reviews of Data on Science Resources, No. 24.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Science Foundation, Washington, DC. Div. of Science Resources Studies.

    This report presents tabular and graphical data on the characteristics of U.S. employed doctoral scientists and engineers, and includes data of the 1973 cohort; it augments data in a previous report, "Characteristics of Doctoral Scientists and Engineers in the United States, 1973," which reported on scientists and engineers who had…

  17. The journey of a science teacher: Preparing female students in the Training Future Scientists after school program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson-Hill, Rona M.

    What affect does female participation in the Training Future Scientist (TFS) program based on Vygotsky's sociocultural theory and Maslow's Hierarchies of Needs have on female adolescents' achievement levels in science and their attitude toward science and interest in science-based careers? The theoretical framework for this study was developed through a constructivist perspective, using dialogic engagement, coinciding with Lev Vygotsky's sociocultural learning theory. This action research project used mixed methods research design, targeted urban adolescent females who were members of Boys & Girls Club of Greater St. Louis (BGCGSTL) after-school program. The data collection measures were three qualitative instruments (semi-structured interviews, reflective journal entries and attitudinal survey open-ended responses) and two quantitative instruments (pre-test and posttests over the content from the Buckle-down Curriculum and attitudinal survey scaled responses). The goal was to describe the impact the Training Future Scientist (TFS) after-school program has on the girls' scientific content knowledge, attitude toward choosing a science career, and self-perception in science. Through the TFS after-school program participants had access to a secondary science teacher-researcher, peer leaders that were in the 9th--12th grade, and Science, Technology, Engineering and Math (STEM) role models from Washington University Medical School Young Scientist Program (YSP) graduate and medical students and fellows as volunteers. The program utilized the Buckle-down Curriculum as guided, peer-led cooperative learning groups, hands-on labs and demonstrations facilitated by the researcher, trained peer leaders and/or role models that used constructivist science pedagogy to improve test-taking strategies. The outcomes for the TFS study were an increase in science content knowledge, a positive trend in attitude change, and a negative trend in choosing a science career. Keywords: informal

  18. The Design of Future Airbreathing Engine Systems within an Intelligent Synthesis Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malone, J. B.; Housner, J. M.; Lytle, J. K.

    1999-01-01

    This paper describes a new Initiative proposed by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). The purpose of this initiative is to develop a future design environment for engineering and science mission synthesis for use by NASA scientists and engineers. This new initiative is called the Intelligent Synthesis Environment (ISE). The paper describes the mission of NASA, future aerospace system characteristics, the current engineering design process, the ISE concept, and concludes with a description of possible ISE applications for the decision of air-breathing propulsion systems.

  19. The Relationship between Doctoral Completion Time, Gender, and Future Salary Prospects for Physical Scientists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Potvin, Geoff; Tai, Robert H.

    2012-03-01

    Drawing from a national survey of Ph.D.-holding physical scientists, we present evidence that doctoral completion time is a strong predictor of future salary prospects: each additional year in graduate school corresponds to a substantially lower average salary. This is true even while controlling for typical measures of scientific merit (grant funding and publication rates) and several other structural and career factors expected to influence salaries. Extending this picture to include gender effects, we show that women earn significantly less than men overall and experience no effect of doctoral completion time on their salaries, while men see a significant gain in salary stemming from earlier completion times. Doctoral completion time is shown to be largely unconnected to measures of prior academic success, research independence, and scientific merit suggesting that doctoral completion time is, to a great extent, out of the control of individual graduate students. Nonetheless, it can be influential on an individual's future career prospects, as can gender-related effects.

  20. Priming the Innovation Pump: America Needs More Scientists, Engineers, and Basic Research

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-01

    students through its Science, Mathematics, and Research for Transforma- tion ( SMART ) program. SMART funds U.S. S&E students’ education costs in exchange...slide 5). Through its Engineers in the Classroom program, LM is building school partnerships to create a pipeline of future S&E employees. From high... Classroom need to expand in size and numbers, because it can take 22–25 years to grow an experienced engineer from entry-level talent. Meanwhile, the

  1. Designers' Perspectives on Effective Professional Development for Scientist- and Engineer-Educators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seagroves, S.; Metevier, A. J.; Hunter, L.; Porter, J.; Brown, C.; Jonsson, P.; Kluger-Bell, B.; Raschke, L.

    2010-12-01

    While preparing a formal description of the CfAO's Professional Development Program (PDP), some of the PDP's designers and instructors described its core values and unique aspects, for internal reference. However, these ideas are worth sharing, as they represent the insiders' perspectives on what makes the PDP successful. No single attribute described is completely unique to the PDP, but taken together these values and aspects combine and inter-relate to strengthen and distinguish the program. These attributes include: (1) the PDP's main participants, who are practicing scientists and engineers rather than pre-service teachers; (2) the importance of community among these participants; (3) the interdisciplinarity of the participants and the interdisciplinary nature of science/engineering education itself; (4) respect for education research and best practices; (5) a focus on diversity and equity in science/engineering education; (6) the university-level science/engineering lab (as opposed to the lecture) as a venue for innovation; (7) a focus on inquiry as an exemplar of effective science/engineering education; (8) an emphasis on being intentional with one's choices as an educator; (9) a cycle of experience-reflection-innovation-reflection; and (10) the agility of the PDP program and staff to nimbly try new ideas and/or respond to participants' needs. The authors believe that the PDP's unique combination of these values and aspects leads to such successes as high return-participation and over-subscription rates, and contributes to the program's success overall.

  2. Mandibular Tissue Engineering: Past, Present, Future.

    PubMed

    Konopnicki, Sandra; Troulis, Maria J

    2015-12-01

    Almost 2 decades ago, the senior author's (M.T.J.) first article was with our mentor, Dr Leonard B. Kaban, a review article titled "Distraction Osteogenesis: Past, Present, Future." In 1998, many thought it would be impossible to have a remotely activated, small, curvilinear distractor that could be placed using endoscopic techniques. Currently, a U.S. patent for a curvilinear automated device and endoscopic techniques for minimally invasive access for jaw reconstruction exist. With minimally invasive access for jaw reconstruction, the burden to decrease donor site morbidity has increased. Distraction osteogenesis (DO) is an in vivo form of tissue engineering. The DO technique eliminates a donor site, is less invasive, requires a shorter operative time than usual procedures, and can be used for multiple reconstruction applications. Tissue engineering could further reduce morbidity and cost and increase treatment availability. The purpose of the present report was to review our experience with tissue engineering of bone: the past, present, and our vision for the future. The present report serves as a tribute to our mentor and acknowledges Dr Kaban for his incessant tutelage, guidance, wisdom, and boundless vision.

  3. Antibody Engineering for Pursuing a Healthier Future

    PubMed Central

    Saeed, Abdullah F. U. H.; Wang, Rongzhi; Ling, Sumei; Wang, Shihua

    2017-01-01

    Since the development of antibody-production techniques, a number of immunoglobulins have been developed on a large scale using conventional methods. Hybridoma technology opened a new horizon in the production of antibodies against target antigens of infectious pathogens, malignant diseases including autoimmune disorders, and numerous potent toxins. However, these clinical humanized or chimeric murine antibodies have several limitations and complexities. Therefore, to overcome these difficulties, recent advances in genetic engineering techniques and phage display technique have allowed the production of highly specific recombinant antibodies. These engineered antibodies have been constructed in the hunt for novel therapeutic drugs equipped with enhanced immunoprotective abilities, such as engaging immune effector functions, effective development of fusion proteins, efficient tumor and tissue penetration, and high-affinity antibodies directed against conserved targets. Advanced antibody engineering techniques have extensive applications in the fields of immunology, biotechnology, diagnostics, and therapeutic medicines. However, there is limited knowledge regarding dynamic antibody development approaches. Therefore, this review extends beyond our understanding of conventional polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies. Furthermore, recent advances in antibody engineering techniques together with antibody fragments, display technologies, immunomodulation, and broad applications of antibodies are discussed to enhance innovative antibody production in pursuit of a healthier future for humans.

  4. NASA GSFC Science Communication Working Group: Addressing Barriers to Scientist and Engineer Participation in Education and Public Outreach Activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bleacher, L.; Hsu, B. C.; Campbell, B. A.; Hess, M.

    2011-12-01

    The Science Communication Working Group (SCWG) at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) has been in existence since late 2007. The SCWG is comprised of education and public outreach (E/PO) professionals, public affairs specialists, scientists, and engineers. The goals of the SCWG are to identify barriers to scientist and engineer engagement in E/PO activities and to enable those scientists and engineers who wish to contribute to E/PO to be able to do so. SCWG members have held meetings with scientists and engineers across GSFC to determine barriers to their involvement in E/PO. During these meetings, SCWG members presented examples of successful, ongoing E/PO projects, encouraged active research scientists and engineers to talk about their own E/PO efforts and what worked for them, discussed the E/PO working environment, discussed opportunities for getting involved in E/PO (particularly in high-impact efforts that do not take much time), handed out booklets on effective E/PO, and asked scientists and engineers what they need to engage in E/PO. The identified barriers were consistent among scientists in GSFC's four science divisions (Earth science, planetary science, heliophysics, and astrophysics). Common barriers included 1) lack of time, 2) lack of funding support, 3) lack of value placed on doing E/PO by supervisors, 4) lack of training on doing appropriate/effective E/PO for different audiences, 5) lack of awareness and information about opportunities, 6) lack of understanding of what E/PO really is, and 7) level of effort required to do E/PO. Engineers reported similar issues, but the issues of time and funding support were more pronounced due to their highly structured work day and environment. Since the barriers were identified, the SCWG has taken a number of steps to address and rectify them. Steps have included holding various events to introduce scientists and engineers to E/PO staff and opportunities including an E/PO Open House, brown bag seminars on

  5. Next generation of scientists and engineers: Who`s in the pipeline

    SciTech Connect

    Babco, E.L.

    1995-12-31

    Our ability to produce the next generation of scientists and engineers is dependent upon two important demographic changes: the trends in the number of births and the increasingly diverse racial and ethnic backgrounds of those already born. The number of births dropped 25% from 1956 to 1976. As a consequence, the number of high school graduates dropped from 3.1 million in 1977 to 2.4 million in 1992 and will not reach the 1977 high until after 2000. More than half of these graduates are women, and one of every four is a member of minority group. Women now make up more than half of all undergraduates and almost half of all graduate students, but are underrepresented in the natural science and engineering fields. Minority students are about half as likely to be enrolled in college as white students. About 32% of all precollege students and 20% of all college students are members of minority groups. Based on current graduate enrollment figures in natural science and engineering, there will be little increase in women`s share of doctorates in the next several years. The number of PhDs earned by American minorities continues to be very small. Not known is when our economy will require more professionals trained in science and engineering. But any serious attempt to increase the number of students eligible to choose college majors in science or engineering must take both sex and race/ethnicity into account. The nation cannot afford to waste the talent in two-thirds of our increasingly diverse population.

  6. The Journey of a Science Teacher: Preparing Female Students in the Training Future Scientists after School Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson-Hill, Rona M.

    2013-01-01

    What affect does female participation in the Training Future Scientist (TFS) program based on Vygotsky's sociocultural theory and Maslow's Hierarchies of Needs have on female adolescents' achievement levels in science and their attitude toward science and interest in science-based careers? The theoretical framework for this study was developed…

  7. Role of military scientists and engineers in space (1980-2000)

    SciTech Connect

    Angelo, J.A. Jr

    1981-01-01

    The Space Transportation System provides military scientists and engineers exciting new capabilities to conduct a variety of pioneering experiments on orbit, taking unique advantage of the space environment itself or observing the planet firsthand from the vantage point of space. The reusable Shuttle/Spacelab configuration permits a more effective use of the human and material resources being committed to the space program in the next decade, and ensures the presence of man in space on a routine basis. However, full-scale exploitation of space for national defense will depend to a great extent on the skillful and successful utilization of the military payload specialists, who will fly and operate various Shuttle-based DoD experiments. This paper explores the doctrine, role, function, and training requirements for DoD payload specialists. The unique advantage of man-in-the-loop activities and the orbiting military scientist conducting experiments in situ is addressed in light of previous US manned space flight experience and the projected capabilities of the Shuttle. 4 figures.

  8. Statistics for nuclear engineers and scientists. Part 1. Basic statistical inference

    SciTech Connect

    Beggs, W.J.

    1981-02-01

    This report is intended for the use of engineers and scientists working in the nuclear industry, especially at the Bettis Atomic Power Laboratory. It serves as the basis for several Bettis in-house statistics courses. The objectives of the report are to introduce the reader to the language and concepts of statistics and to provide a basic set of techniques to apply to problems of the collection and analysis of data. Part 1 covers subjects of basic inference. The subjects include: descriptive statistics; probability; simple inference for normally distributed populations, and for non-normal populations as well; comparison of two populations; the analysis of variance; quality control procedures; and linear regression analysis.

  9. An Investigation of Factors Affecting How Engineers and Scientists Seek Information

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Claire J; Glassman, Myron; McAfee, R. Bruce; Pinelli, Thomas

    2001-01-01

    This study investigated how 872 US aerospace scientists and engineers select information carriers. When considering oral and written information carriers, the principle of least effort was supported with a strong preference for oral communication over written communication. In examining how the respondents select written carriers, the decision to use or not to use a written carrier was found to be primarily a function of the perceived importance of the carrier's information to a person's work. Task uncertainty and task complexity were found to be significant, but not the primary nor a totally consistent criteria. The perceived quality and accessibility of written carriers were not found significant. The findings reinforce the need for firms to hire knowledgeable employees, to provide them with comprehensive training programs, and to develop formal and informal communication networks.

  10. STEMujeres: A case study of the life stories of first-generation Latina engineers and scientists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vielma, Karina I.

    Research points to the many obstacles that first-generation, Latina students face when attempting to enter fields in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics, STEM. This qualitative, case study examined the personal and educational experiences of first-generation Latina women who successfully navigated the STEM educational pipeline earning bachelor's, master's, and doctoral degrees in various fields of engineering. Three research questions guided the study: (1) How does a first-generation Latina engineer and scientist describe her life experiences as she became interested in STEM? (2) How does she describe her educational experiences as she navigated the educational pipeline in the physics, mathematics, and/or engineering field(s)? (3) How did she respond to challenges, obstacles and microaggressions, if any, while navigating the STEM educational pipeline? The study was designed using a combination of Critical Race Theory frameworks---Chicana feminist theory and racial microaggressions. Through a life history case study approach, the women shared their stories of success. With the participants' help, influential persons in their educational paths were identified and interviewed. Data were analyzed using crystallization and thematic results indicated that all women in this study identified their parents as planting the seed of interest through the introduction of mathematics. The women unknowingly prepared to enter the STEM fields by taking math and science coursework. They were guided to apply to STEM universities and academic programs by others who knew about their interest in math and science including teachers, counselors, and level-up peers---students close in age who were just a step more advanced in the educational pipeline. The women also drew from previous familial struggles to guide their perseverance and motivation toward educational degree completion. The lives of the women where complex and intersected with various forms of racism including

  11. Teaching the Next Generation of Scientists and Engineers the NASA Design Process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caruso, Pamela W.; Benfield, Michael P. J.; Justice, Stefanie H.

    2011-01-01

    The Integrated Product Team (IPT) program, led by The University of Alabama in Huntsville (UAH), is a multidisciplinary, multi-university, multi-level program whose goal is to provide opportunities for high school and undergraduate scientists and engineers to translate stakeholder needs and requirements into viable engineering design solutions via a distributed multidisciplinary team environment. The current program supports three projects. The core of the program is the two-semester senior design experience where science, engineering, and liberal arts undergraduate students from UAH, the College of Charleston, Southern University at Baton Rouge, and Ecole Suprieure des Techniques Aronautiques et de Construction Automobile (ESTACA) in Paris, France form multidisciplinary competitive teams to develop system concepts of interest to the local aerospace community. External review boards form to provide guidance and feedback throughout the semester and to ultimately choose a winner from the competing teams. The other two projects, the Innovative Student Project for the Increased Recruitment of Engineering and Science Students (InSPIRESS) Level I and Level II focus exclusively on high school students. InSPIRESS Level I allows high schools to develop a payload to be accommodated on the system being developed by senior design experience teams. InSPIRESS Level II provides local high school students first-hand experience in the senior design experience by allowing them to develop a subsystem or component of the UAH-led system over the two semesters. This program provides a model for NASA centers to engage the local community to become more involved in design projects.

  12. Key Future Engineering Capabilities for Human Capital Retention

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sivich, Lorrie

    Projected record retirements of Baby Boomer generation engineers have been predicted to result in significant losses of mission-critical knowledge in space, national security, and future scientific ventures vital to high-technology corporations. No comprehensive review or analysis of engineering capabilities has been performed to identify threats related to the specific loss of mission-critical knowledge posed by the increasing retirement of tenured engineers. Archival data from a single diversified Fortune 500 aerospace manufacturing engineering company's engineering career database were analyzed to ascertain whether relationships linking future engineering capabilities, engineering disciplines, and years of engineering experience could be identified to define critical knowledge transfer models. Chi square, logistic, and linear regression analyses were used to map patterns of discipline-specific, mission-critical knowledge using archival data of engineers' perceptions of engineering capabilities, key developmental experiences, and knowledge learned from their engineering careers. The results from the study were used to document key engineering future capabilities. The results were then used to develop a proposed human capital retention plan to address specific key knowledge gaps of younger engineers as veteran engineers retire. The potential for social change from this study involves informing leaders of aerospace engineering corporations on how to build better quality mentoring or succession plans to fill the void of lost knowledge from retiring engineers. This plan can secure mission-critical knowledge for younger engineers for current and future product development and increased global competitiveness in the technology market.

  13. YES 2K6: A mentorship program for young engineers and scientists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boice, D. C.; Asbell, H. E.

    The Young Engineers and Scientists 2006 YES 2K6 Program is a community partnership between Southwest Research Institute SwRI and local high schools in San Antonio Texas USA YES has been highly successful during the past 14 years and YES 2K6 continues this trend This program provides talented high school juniors and seniors a bridge between classroom instruction and real world research experiences in physical sciences including space science and astronomy and engineering YES 2K6 consists of two parts 1 an intensive three-week summer workshop held at SwRI where students experience the research environment first-hand develop skills and acquire tools for solving scientific problems attend mini-courses and seminars on electronics computers and the Internet careers science ethics and other topics and select individual research projects to be completed during the academic year and 2 a collegial mentorship where students complete individual research projects under the guidance of their mentors during the academic year and earn honors credit At the end of the school year students publicly present and display their work acknowledging their accomplishments and spreading career awareness to other students and teachers YES 2K6 developed a website for the Magnetospheric Multiscale Mission MMS from the perspective of high school students Over the past 14 years all YES graduates have entered college several have worked for SwRI and three scientific publications have resulted Student evaluations indicate the effectiveness of YES on

  14. Comprehensive approach to photonics education for technicians, engineers, and scientists in 4+2+2 programs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pedrotti, Leno S.; Massa, Nicholas J.; Soulsby, Eric P.; Enderle, John; Roychoudhuri, Chandrasekhar

    1995-10-01

    This paper outlines a curricular plan for the education of photonics technicians, engineers, and scientists in 4 + 2 + 2 programs. These programs begin at the 9th grade in high school and end either at the 14th grade (4 + 2 programs) with an associate of applied science degree, or at the 16th grade (4 + 2 + 2 programs) with a bachelor of science degrees. Beginning with comprehensive lists of appropriate tasks for photonics technicians - as identified by phonics-related industries - extrapolation is made to specific courses, sequences of courses, and suggested programs. The foundations are set in place first in four-year high school programs, with emphasis on basics in mathematics, science, communications and introductory technology courses. The postsecondary level programs, through the 13th and 14th year, present the breadth and depth of skills required for the development of entry-level photonics technicians. Finally articulated programs from two-year colleges on to four-year colleges are outlined for those who opt to continue on for a bachelor of science degree and who plan to enter the phonics workforce with concentration in electrical engineering and/or optics.

  15. Young Engineers and Scientists (YES) - Engaging Students and Teachers in Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boice, Daniel C.; Reiff, P.

    2012-10-01

    Young Engineers and Scientists (YES) has been a community partnership between local high schools in San Antonio, Texas (USA), and Southwest Research Institute (SwRI) for the past 20 years. The goals of YES are to increase the number of high school students, especially those from underrepresented groups, seeking careers in science and engineering and to enhance their success in entering the college and major of their choice. This is accomplished by expanding career awareness, including information on "hot" career areas through seminars and laboratory tours by SwRI staff, and allowing students to interact on a continuing basis with role models at SwRI in a real-world research experiences in physical sciences (including astronomy), information sciences, and a variety of engineering fields. YES consists of two parts: 1) An intensive three-week summer workshop held at SwRI where students experience the research environment and 2) a collegial mentorship where students complete individual research projects under the guidance of SwRI mentors during the academic year. At the end of the school year, students publicly present and display their work, spreading career awareness to other students and teachers. Twenty-one YES 2012 students developed a website for the Dawn Mission (yesserver.space.swri.edu) and five high school science teachers are developing space-related lessons for classroom presentation. Partnerships between research institutes, local high schools, and community foundations, like the YES Program, positively affect students’ preparation for STEM careers via real-world research experiences with mentorship teams consisting of professional staff and qualified teachers. Acknowledgements. We acknowledge support from the NASA MMS Mission, SwRI, and local charitable foundations.

  16. The landscape of Wageningen as an inspiring teaching environment for future environmental scientists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keesstra, Saskia; Sonneveld, Marthijn

    2013-04-01

    Practical field work is an essential component in training future soil scientists. This is facilitated when a wide variety of geological materials geomorphological phenomena and soil patterns are within reach. One of the leading universities in soil science in the Netherlands, Wageningen University, was founded some hundred years ago in the small city of Wageningen because of the rich variety of soils and landscapes in its vicinity. Being located in the central part of the Netherlands, its region is famous because here Late-Pleistocene and Late-Holocene deposits meet. Wageningen is located on the slope of an ice pushed ridge which dates from the Saalien ice age, bordering a glacial tongue basin The ridge is mainly composed of pushed coarse grained fluvial deposits. In the Weichselien ice age cover sands have been deposited on the sides of this ridge. During the Holocene the ridge was eroded on the southern side, where the river Rhine has cut into the older deposits and deposited mainly fine grained fluvial deposits. Peat formation took place in the lower parts of the basin. In addition this region has been inhabited by people, who have worked, and fertilized the soil, creating a thickened A-horizon in some locations around Wageningen. This geological setting has created a palette of different sedimentary deposits which serve as mother material for a variety of soil types like podzols, brown forest soils, , fluvial clay to loamy soils, plaggen soils and peat soils. In our education we frequently use the soils in the surrounding as a teaching environment for our students. They are send out to use all their senses and look, feel, hear and sometimes even taste the soils. They use these impressions to describe the soils and understand why the soils are on that specific place in the landscape where we find it. We feel students benefit from this playground in our backyard, because, even though students work more and more in an individual and virtual environment where they

  17. Technical Uncertainty and Project Complexity as Correlates of Information Use by U.S. Industry-Affiliated Aerospace Engineers and Scientists: Results of an Exploratory Investigation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-09-01

    Project Complexity as Correlates of Information Use by U.S. Industry-Affiliated Aerospace Engineers and Scientists: Results of an Exploratory Investigation...information environment in which U.S. aerospace engineers and scientists work and the factors that influence their use of scientific and technical...aerospace engineers and scientists. The work of Paisley (1980), Wilson (1981), Roberts (1982), Dervin (1983), and Taylor (1991) regarding "information

  18. From Science to Business: Preparing Female Scientists and Engineers for Successful Transitions into Entrepreneurship--Summary of a Workshop

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Didion, Catherine Jay; Guenther, Rita S.; Gunderson, Victoria

    2012-01-01

    Scientists, engineers, and medical professionals play a vital role in building the 21st- century science and technology enterprises that will create solutions and jobs critical to solving the large, complex, and interdisciplinary problems faced by society: problems in energy, sustainability, the environment, water, food, disease, and healthcare.…

  19. Management Development of Scientists and Engineers in the Federal Government; An Analysis of Basic Behavioral and Systems Considerations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berniklau, Vladimir V.

    Focusing on management development of scientists and engineers within the Federal government, this study was done to form a framework of factors (mainly attitudes, motives or needs, and leadership styles) to be evaluated before choosing suitable techniques and alternatives. Such variables as differing program objectives, characteristics of…

  20. Scientists, Engineers, and Technicians in Manufacturing Industries: 1983. Detailed Tables and Charts. Surveys of Science Resources Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Science Foundation, Washington, DC. Div. of Science Resources Studies.

    This report presents national estimates of employment of scientists, engineers, and technicians (SETs) in manufacturing industries in 1983. The estimates are provided as data in five charts and three detailed statistical tables. Data in charts include: SETs by sector of employment; employment growth in high-technology and other manufacturing…

  1. Preparing a New Generation of Citizens and Scientists to Face Earth's Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bralower, Timothy J.; Feiss, P. Geoffrey; Manduca, Cathryn A.

    2008-01-01

    As the research interests and the focus of traditional earth scientists are transformed, so too must education in earth system science at colleges and universities across the country change. The required change involves not only the methods used to teach this new science, but also the essential place of the earth sciences in the panoply of…

  2. Young Engineers and Scientists (YES 2K6): Independent and Group Mentorship Projects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boice, D. C.; Asbell, H. E.

    2006-12-01

    The Young Engineers and Scientists (YES) Program is a community partnership between Southwest Research Institute (SwRI), and local high schools in San Antonio, Texas (USA). YES has been highly successful during the past 14 years, and YES 2K6 continued this trend. It provides talented high school juniors and seniors a bridge between classroom instruction and real-world, research experiences in physical sciences and engineering. YES 2K6 consists of two parts: 1) a three-week summer workshop and 2) a mentorship where students complete individual research projects during their academic year. The intensive workshop is held at SwRI where students experience the research environment first-hand. They also develop skills and acquire tools for solving scientific problems, attend mini-courses and seminars on electronics, computers and the Internet, careers, science ethics, and other topics; and select individual research projects to be completed during the academic year. YES 2K6 students developed a website for the Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) Mission from the perspective of a high school student. The collegial mentorship takes place during their academic year where students complete individual research projects under the guidance of their mentors and earn honors credit. At the end of the school year, students publicly present and display their work at their schools. This acknowledges their accomplishments and spreads career awareness to other students and teachers. Over the past 14 years, all YES graduates have entered college, several have worked for SwRI, and three scientific publications have resulted. Student evaluations indicate the benefits of YES for their academic preparation and choice of college majors. We acknowledge E/PO funding from the NASA MMS Mission and local charitable foundations.

  3. YES 2K7: A Mentorship Program for Young Engineers and Scientists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boice, Daniel C.; Asbell, E.; Reiff, P.

    2007-10-01

    The Young Engineers and Scientists 2007 (YES 2K7) Program is a community partnership between Southwest Research Institute (SwRI), and local high schools in San Antonio, Texas (USA). YES has been highly successful during the past 15 years, with YES 2K7 continuing this trend. The YES program provides talented high school juniors and seniors a bridge between classroom instruction and real world, research experiences in physical sciences (including space science and astronomy) and engineering. YES 2K7 consists of two parts: 1) an intensive three-week summer workshop held at SwRI where students experience the research environment first-hand; develop skills and acquire tools for solving scientific problems, attend mini-courses and seminars on electronics, computers and the Internet, careers, science ethics, and other topics; and select individual research projects to be completed during the academic year; and 2) a collegial mentorship where students complete individual research projects under the guidance of their mentors during the academic year and earn honors credit. At the end of the school year, students publicly present and display their work, acknowledging their accomplishments and spreading career awareness to other students and teachers. YES 2K7 developed a website for the Magnetospheric Multiscale Mission (MMS) from the perspective of 20 high school students (yesserver.space.swri.edu). Over the past 15 years, all YES graduates have entered college, several have worked for SwRI, and three scientific publications have resulted. Student evaluations indicate the effectiveness of YES on their academic preparation and choice of college majors. Acknowledgements: We acknowledge funding and support from the NASA MMS Mission, SwRI, Northside Independent School District, and local charitable foundations.

  4. 1990 National Compensation Survey of Research and Development Scientists and Engineers

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-11-01

    This report presents the results of the fourth in a new series of surveys of compensation and benefits for research and development (R D) scientists and engineers (S Es). The 1990 Survey represents the largest nationwide database of its kind, covering 104 establishments which provided data on almost 41,000 degreed researchers in the hard'' sciences. The fundamental nature of the survey has not changed: the focus is still on medium- and large-sized establishments which employ at least 100 degreed S Es in R D. The 1990 Survey contains data which cover about 18% of all establishments eligible to participate, encompassing approximately 18% of all eligible employees. As in the last three years, the survey sample constitutes a fairly good representation of the entire population of eligible establishments on the basis of business sector, geographic location, and size. Maturity-based analyses of salaries for some 34,000 nonsupervisory researchers are provided, as are job content-based analyses of more than 27,000 individual contributors and almost 5000 first level supervisors and division directors. Compensation policies and practices data are provided for 102 establishments, and benefits plans for 62 establishments are analyzed.

  5. Helping Students Build Their Future in Engineering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    English, Vincent

    2014-01-01

    EngineeringUK estimates that the UK will require 87,000 new engineers a year over the next ten years. However, with skills shortages threatening to derail the UK's engineering industry, it is clear that immediate action needs to be taken if this quota is to be met. In this article, Vincent English, managing director of Vernier Europe, offers his…

  6. Public Outreach at RAL: Engaging the Next Generation of Scientists and Engineers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corbett, G.; Ryall, G.; Palmer, S.; Collier, I. P.; Adams, J.; Appleyard, R.

    2015-12-01

    The Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (RAL) is part of the UK's Science and Technology Facilities Council (STFC). As part of the Royal Charter that established the STFC, the organisation is required to generate public awareness and encourage public engagement and dialogue in relation to the science undertaken. The staff at RAL firmly support this activity as it is important to encourage the next generation of students to consider studying Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) subjects, providing the UK with a highly skilled work-force in the future. To this end, the STFC undertakes a variety of outreach activities. This paper will describe the outreach activities undertaken by RAL, particularly focussing on those of the Scientific Computing Department (SCD). These activities include: an Arduino based activity day for 12-14 year-olds to celebrate Ada Lovelace day; running a centre as part of the Young Rewired State - encouraging 11-18 year-olds to create web applications with open data; sponsoring a team in the Engineering Education Scheme - supporting a small team of 16-17 year-olds to solve a real world engineering problem; as well as the more traditional tours of facilities. These activities could serve as an example for other sites involved in scientific computing around the globe.

  7. The Future of Engineering Science & Engineering Technology: Collision or Convergence?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenyon, Richard A.

    1985-01-01

    Discusses differences and similarities of engineering (theoretical/abstract) and engineering technology (practical/application-oriented) programs which the author believes are artificially divided. The fields overlap and should be reunited, but this will need more effective interaction among all engineering professionals and revision of…

  8. Potential impact of future fuels on small gas turbine engines

    SciTech Connect

    Saintsbury, J.A.; Sampath, P.

    1982-01-01

    A review is made of the consequences of shortages of aviation gasoline on small aircraft turbine engines and the air traffic. Since the future of fuels is uncertain and supplies deplete the design modification for alternate fuels are considered. The need to develop approximate engines is emphasized. Data are given of some experimental engines with fuels not currently considered as aviation fuels. 11 refs.

  9. Research and the Future of Engineering Psychology

    DTIC Science & Technology

    The vigor of engineering psychology as an applied discipline in engineering and psychology is dependent upon the robustness of the scientific...knowledge that it applies to the design of man-machine systems. As a field, engineering psychology mostly has its practitioners applying knowledge and...comparatively few generating new knowledge, with the result that the capability for system innovation is not as strong as it should be. Project Hindsight of

  10. Educating future nursing scientists: Recommendations for integrating omics content in PhD programs.

    PubMed

    Conley, Yvette P; Heitkemper, Margaret; McCarthy, Donna; Anderson, Cindy M; Corwin, Elizabeth J; Daack-Hirsch, Sandra; Dorsey, Susan G; Gregory, Katherine E; Groer, Maureen W; Henly, Susan J; Landers, Timothy; Lyon, Debra E; Taylor, Jacquelyn Y; Voss, Joachim

    2015-01-01

    Preparing the next generation of nursing scientists to conduct high-impact, competitive, sustainable, innovative, and interdisciplinary programs of research requires that the curricula for PhD programs keep pace with emerging areas of knowledge and health care/biomedical science. A field of inquiry that holds great potential to influence our understanding of the underlying biology and mechanisms of health and disease is omics. For the purpose of this article, omics refers to genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, epigenomics, exposomics, microbiomics, and metabolomics. Traditionally, most PhD programs in schools of nursing do not incorporate this content into their core curricula. As part of the Council for the Advancement of Nursing Science's Idea Festival for Nursing Science Education, a work group charged with addressing omics preparation for the next generation of nursing scientists was convened. The purpose of this article is to describe key findings and recommendations from the work group that unanimously and enthusiastically support the incorporation of omics content into the curricula of PhD programs in nursing. The work group also calls to action faculty in schools of nursing to develop strategies to enable students needing immersion in omics science and methods to execute their research goals.

  11. Technological Innovation and Technical Communications: Their Place in Aerospace Engineering Curricula. A Survey of European, Japanese and US Aerospace Engineers and Scientists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinelli, Thomas E.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Reports on results from 260 aerospace engineers and scientists in United States, Europe, and Japan regarding their opinions about professional importance of technical communications; generation and utilization of technical communications; and relevant content of an undergraduate course in technical communications. The fields of cryogenics,…

  12. The Demand for New Faculty in Science and Engineering. Proceedings of the Workshop of Specialists in Forecasts of Demand for Scientists and Engineers, 1979.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McPherson, Michael S., Ed.

    Presented are selected analytical papers from a Workshop of Specialists in Forecasts of Demand for Scientists and Engineers, convened in 1979 in Washington, D.C. This workshop was part of a study by the Commission on Human Resources of the National Research Council charged with evaluating existing projections of the demand for young faculty in the…

  13. Snecma Liquid Rocket Engine Concepts for Future ELV and RLV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Excoffon, Tony; de Spiegeleer, Guy

    2002-01-01

    Snecma is the prime contractor for the development of the storable and cryogenic liquid rocket engines of the Ariane launcher, including the Viking storable engine, HM7 cryogenic engine, Vulcain and Vulcain 2 cryogenic engines. The new cryogenic engine Vinci is under development and qualification is planned by 2006. This paper presents the results of a study which has been performed over the last 2 years to define the most suitable engines for the future versions of expendable launchers as well as future reusable vehicles. A family of new engines is introduced including LOX/LH2 engines and LOX/CH4 engines. Particularly, a cryogenic staged combustion fuel-rich engine has been designed and optimized in two versions. The first one is dedicated to an expendable launcher and could be developed first. It offers high performance and reliability at the minimum cost. The second version is a derivative which offers reusability and increased performance for future RLV application. The development and production of the expandable version will allow to achieve and demonstrate high reliability and to better evaluate the potential for reusability through the development test campaigns which usually requires as many as 20 tests with the same engines. Only some critical components would be changed to achieve reusability. This approach allows to minimize the development cost and to keep the production cost low for both versions by using a learning curve over a large number of engines.

  14. Environmental engineering - historical, current, and future perspectives

    SciTech Connect

    Gloyna, E.F.

    1986-10-01

    This paper traces environmental engineering from its limited beginning in water- and vector-borne disease control to its current level of professional involvement. Environmental engineering has changed from a profession concerned primarily with the resolution of sanitation problems to a complex multidisciplinary enterprise embodying the complete spectrum of environmental effects on health and ecology. The modern activities of the profession embrace the full implementation of 21st century science to solve complex pollution problems and, perhaps equally important, involvement in the development of public policy. As more environmental issues surface, concerns about potential health problems increase. This paper directs attention to the changing characteristics of the profession, the management of the environmental movement, the needs of the environmental engineering profession, the effective application of scientific discoveries, the practice of engineering within a risk-sensitive society, and the development of a coordinated waste management methodology.

  15. Scholarship program to benefit future engineers

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-02-01

    ASDSO this year launched a new scholarship program for undergraduate students interested in dam safety engineering as a career. Two scholarships of $2,500 each will be granted to one junior and one senior, beginning with the 1993 school year. Students taking a full college course load and majoring in civil or agricultural engineering, geology, or a related field, were elgible. ASDSO, which plans to name the recipients by May 1993, received about two dozen applications for the scholarships.

  16. Addressing the Misconceptions of Middle School Students About Becoming a Scientist or Engineer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newsom, H. E.; Sorge, C.; Hagerty, J. J.

    2000-01-01

    Assessment of our educational outreach program shows that students and their parents are excited about space science, but stereotypes about science and scientists drastically effect student attitudes about science and pursuing a technical career.

  17. Sea-level rise modeling handbook: Resource guide for coastal land managers, engineers, and scientists

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Doyle, Thomas W.; Chivoiu, Bogdan; Enwright, Nicholas M.

    2015-08-24

    ; utility options for setting sea-level rise and climate change scenarios; and ease or difficulty of storing, displaying, or interpreting model output. Coastal land managers, engineers, and scientists can benefit from this synthesis of tools and models that have been developed for projecting causes and consequences of sea-level change on the landscape and seascape.

  18. Medical Engineering and Microneurosurgery: Application and Future.

    PubMed

    Morita, Akio; Sora, Shigeo; Nakatomi, Hirofumi; Harada, Kanako; Sugita, Naohiko; Saito, Nobuhito; Mitsuishi, Mamoru

    2016-10-15

    Robotics and medical engineering can convert traditional surgery into digital and scientific procedures. Here, we describe our work to develop microsurgical robotic systems and apply engineering technology to assess microsurgical skills. With the collaboration of neurosurgeons and an engineering team, we have developed two types of microsurgical robotic systems. The first, the deep surgical systems, enable delicate surgical procedures such as vessel suturing in a deep and narrow space. The second type allows for super-fine surgical procedures such as anastomosing artificial vessels of 0.3 mm in diameter. Both systems are constructed with master and slave manipulator robots connected to local area networks. Robotic systems allowed for secure and accurate procedures in a deep surgical field. In cadaveric models, these systems showed a good potential of being useful in actual human surgeries, but mechanical refinements in thickness and durability are necessary for them to be established as clinical systems. The super-fine robotic system made the very intricate surgery possible and will be applied in clinical trials. Another trial included the digitization of surgical technique and scientific analysis of surgical skills. Robotic and human hand motions were analyzed in numerical fashion as we tried to define surgical skillfulness in a digital format. Engineered skill assessment is also feasible and should be useful for microsurgical training. Robotics and medical engineering should bring science into the surgical field and training of surgeons. Active collaboration between medical and engineering teams and academic and industry groups is mandatory to establish such medical systems to improve patient care.

  19. Medical Engineering and Microneurosurgery: Application and Future

    PubMed Central

    MORITA, Akio; SORA, Shigeo; NAKATOMI, Hirofumi; HARADA, Kanako; SUGITA, Naohiko; SAITO, Nobuhito; MITSUISHI, Mamoru

    2016-01-01

    Robotics and medical engineering can convert traditional surgery into digital and scientific procedures. Here, we describe our work to develop microsurgical robotic systems and apply engineering technology to assess microsurgical skills. With the collaboration of neurosurgeons and an engineering team, we have developed two types of microsurgical robotic systems. The first, the deep surgical systems, enable delicate surgical procedures such as vessel suturing in a deep and narrow space. The second type allows for super-fine surgical procedures such as anastomosing artificial vessels of 0.3 mm in diameter. Both systems are constructed with master and slave manipulator robots connected to local area networks. Robotic systems allowed for secure and accurate procedures in a deep surgical field. In cadaveric models, these systems showed a good potential of being useful in actual human surgeries, but mechanical refinements in thickness and durability are necessary for them to be established as clinical systems. The super-fine robotic system made the very intricate surgery possible and will be applied in clinical trials. Another trial included the digitization of surgical technique and scientific analysis of surgical skills. Robotic and human hand motions were analyzed in numerical fashion as we tried to define surgical skillfulness in a digital format. Engineered skill assessment is also feasible and should be useful for microsurgical training. Robotics and medical engineering should bring science into the surgical field and training of surgeons. Active collaboration between medical and engineering teams and academic and industry groups is mandatory to establish such medical systems to improve patient care. PMID:27464471

  20. Human Microbiome Engineering: The Future and Beyond

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Microbial flora of skin and mucosal surface are vital component of human biology. Current research indicates that this microbial constellation, rather than being inert commensals, has greater implications in health and disease. They play essential role in metabolism, immunity, inflammation, neuro-endocrine regulation and even moderate host response to cancer. Genetic engineering was a major breakthrough in medical research in 1970’s and it opened up newer dimensions in vaccinology, large-scale synthesis of bio-molecule and drug development. Engineering human microbiome is a novel concept. Recombinant DNA technology can be employed to modify the genome of critical components of resident microflora to achieve unprecedented goals. PMID:26500908

  1. Human Microbiome Engineering: The Future and Beyond.

    PubMed

    Kali, Arunava

    2015-09-01

    Microbial flora of skin and mucosal surface are vital component of human biology. Current research indicates that this microbial constellation, rather than being inert commensals, has greater implications in health and disease. They play essential role in metabolism, immunity, inflammation, neuro-endocrine regulation and even moderate host response to cancer. Genetic engineering was a major breakthrough in medical research in 1970's and it opened up newer dimensions in vaccinology, large-scale synthesis of bio-molecule and drug development. Engineering human microbiome is a novel concept. Recombinant DNA technology can be employed to modify the genome of critical components of resident microflora to achieve unprecedented goals.

  2. NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Paper 14: An analysis of the technical communications practices reported by Israeli and US aerospace engineers and scientists

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barclay, Rebecca O.; Pinelli, Thomas E.; Elazar, David; Kennedy, John M.

    1991-01-01

    As part of Phase 4 of the NASA/DoD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project, two pilot studies were conducted that investigated the technical communications practices of Israeli and U.S. aerospace engineers and scientists. Both studies had the same five objectives: first, to solicit the opinions of aerospace engineers and scientists regarding the importance of technical communications to their profession; second, to determine the use and production of technical communications by aerospace engineers and scientists; third, to seek their view about the appropriate content of an undergraduate course in technical communications; fourth, to determine aerospace engineers' and scientists' use of libraries, technical information centers, and on-line databases; and fifth, to determine the use and importance of computer and information technology to them. A self-administered questionnaire was mailed to randomly selected U.S. aerospace engineers and scientists who are working in cryogenics, adaptive walls, and magnetic suspension. A slightly modified version was sent to Israeli aerospace engineers and scientists working at Israel Aircraft Industries, LTD. Responses of the Israeli and U.S. aerospace engineers and scientists to selected questions are presented in this paper.

  3. Wind Energy Status and Future Wind Engineering Challenges: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Thresher, R.; Schreck, S.; Robinson, M.; Veers, P.

    2008-08-01

    This paper describes the current status of wind energy technology, the potential for future wind energy development and the science and engineering challenges that must be overcome for the technology to meet its potential.

  4. The Black Engineer: Is There Hope for the Future?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berardi, Linda; Harris, Tracy

    1992-01-01

    Explores the past and future level of participation for African Americans in the engineering profession. Looks specifically at trends in higher education, levels of academic preparedness, and the effects of social and environmental conditions on engineering participation levels. Concludes by presenting overview of University of Pittsburgh's…

  5. UCS-PROMOVE: The Engineer of the Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Villas-Boas, V.

    2010-01-01

    The Universidade de Caxias do Sul (UCS) elaborated the cooperative project called "The engineer of the future", with the objective of promoting science and engineering among high school teachers and students. This project aims to improve the quality of the teaching and to increase the interest of students in technological areas, leading…

  6. Plug engine systems for future launch vehicle applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Immich, H.; Koelle, D. E.; Parsley, R. C.

    1992-08-01

    Several feasible design options are presented for plug engine systems designed for future launch vehicle applications, including a plug nozzle engine with an annular combustion chamber, a segmented modular design, and an integration of a number of conventional engines around a common plug. The advantages and disadvantages of these options are discussed for a range of potential applications, which include single-stage-to-orbit vehicles and upper stage vehicles such as the second stage of the Saenger HTOL launch vehicle concept.

  7. Alliance for NanoHealth (ANH) Training Program for the development of future generations of interdisciplinary scientists and collaborative research focused upon the advancement of nanomedicine

    SciTech Connect

    Gorenstein, David

    2013-12-23

    The objectives of this program are to promote the mission of the Department of Energy (DOE) Science, Technology, Engineering, Math (STEM) Program by recruiting students to science and engineering disciplines with the intent of mentoring and supporting the next generation of scientists; to foster interdisciplinary and collaborative research under the sponsorship of ANH for the discovery and design of nano-based materials and devices with novel structures, functions, and properties; and to prepare a diverse work force of scientists, engineers, and clinicians by utilizing the unique intellectual and physical resources to develop novel nanotechnology paradigms for clinical application.

  8. Astrobiobound! Search for Life in the Solar System: Scientists and Engineers Bringing their Challenges to K-12 Students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klug Boonstra, S. L.; Swann, J.; Manfredi, L.; Zippay, A.; Boonstra, D.

    2014-12-01

    The Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) brought many dynamic opportunities and capabilities to the K-12 science classroom - especially with the inclusion of engineering. Using science as a context to help students engage in the engineering practices and engineering disciplinary core ideas is an essential step to students' understanding of how science drives engineering and how engineering enables science. Real world examples and applications are critical for students to see how these disciplines are integrated. Furthermore, the interface of science and engineering raise the level of science understanding, and facilitate higher order thinking skills through relevant experiences. Astrobiobound! is designed for the NGSS (Next Generation Science Standards) and CCSS (Common Core State Standards). Students also practice and build 21st Century Skills. Astrobiobound! help students see how science and systems engineering are integrated to achieve a focused scientific goal. Students engage in the engineering design process to design a space mission which requires them to balance the return of their science data with engineering limitations such as power, mass and budget. Risk factors also play a role during this simulation and adds to the excitement and authenticity. Astrobiobound! presents the authentic first stages of NASA mission design process. This simulation mirrors the NASA process in which the science goals, type of mission, and instruments to return required data to meet mission goals are proposed within mission budget before any of the construction part of engineering can begin. NASA scientists and engineers were consulted in the development of this activity as an authentic simulation of their mission proposal process.

  9. Engineering the Future: The Social Necessity of Communicative Engineers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ravesteijn, Wim; De Graaff, Erik; Kroesen, Otto

    2006-01-01

    It is a long and winding road from invention to innovation. Starting from this observation, this paper presents a historical perspective on the capabilities engineers should possess to do their work. The importance of the "communicative competence" involved in creating a social base for innovation is underpinned. We will present a…

  10. Periodontics--tissue engineering and the future.

    PubMed

    Douglass, Gordon L

    2005-03-01

    Periodontics has a long history of utilizing advances in science to expand and improve periodontal therapies. Recently the American Academy of Periodontology published the findings of the Contemporary Science Workshop, which conducted state-of-the-art evidence-based reviews of current and emerging areas in periodontics. The findings of this workshop provide the basis for an evidence-based approach to periodontal therapy. While the workshop evaluated all areas of periodontics, it is in the area of tissue engineering that the most exciting advances are becoming a reality.

  11. Engineering photorespiration: current state and future possibilities.

    PubMed

    Peterhansel, C; Krause, K; Braun, H-P; Espie, G S; Fernie, A R; Hanson, D T; Keech, O; Maurino, V G; Mielewczik, M; Sage, R F

    2013-07-01

    Reduction of flux through photorespiration has been viewed as a major way to improve crop carbon fixation and yield since the energy-consuming reactions associated with this pathway were discovered. This view has been supported by the biomasses increases observed in model species that expressed artificial bypass reactions to photorespiration. Here, we present an overview about the major current attempts to reduce photorespiratory losses in crop species and provide suggestions for future research priorities.

  12. Engineering the Future: Embedding Engineering Permanently across the School-University Interface

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacBride, G.; Hayward, E. L.; Hayward, G.; Spencer, E.; Ekevall, E.; Magill, J.; Bryce, A. C.; Stimpson, B.

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the design, implementation, and evaluation of an educational program. Engineering the Future (EtF) sought to promote a permanent, informed awareness within the school community of high-level engineering by embedding key aspects of engineering within the education curriculum. The Scottish education system is used for a case…

  13. Molecular engineering of industrial enzymes: recent advances and future prospects.

    PubMed

    Yang, Haiquan; Li, Jianghua; Shin, Hyun-Dong; Du, Guocheng; Liu, Long; Chen, Jian

    2014-01-01

    Many enzymes are efficiently produced by microbes. However, the use of natural enzymes as biocatalysts has limitations such as low catalytic efficiency, low activity, and low stability, especially under industrial conditions. Many protein engineering technologies have been developed to modify natural enzymes and eliminate these limitations. Commonly used protein engineering strategies include directed evolution, site-directed mutagenesis, truncation, and terminal fusion. This review summarizes recent advances in the molecular engineering of industrial enzymes and discusses future prospects in this field. We expect this review to increase interest in and advance the molecular engineering of industrial enzymes.

  14. Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) Options for the Future Shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jue, Fred; Kuck, Fritz; McCool, Alex (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The main engines for the Future Shuttle will focus on improved safety and operability. Performance enhancements may also be required for vehicle safety purposes to achieve more desirable abort scenarios. This paper discusses the potential improvements that will be considered for implementation into the Future Shuttle. Integrated engine and vehicle health management systems will achieve additional system-level reliability improvements over those currently in development. Advanced instrumentation for detecting leaks, analyzing component wear and degradation, and providing sophisticated operational data will be used for reliable engine control and scheduling maintenance operations. A new nozzle and main combustion chamber (MCC) will reduce failure probability by 50% and allow for higher thrust capability without requiring the entire engine to be redesigned. Turbopump improvements may range from minor component improvements to using 3rd-generation pumps built on the advanced concepts demonstrated by the Integrated Powerhead Development (IPD) program and the Space Launch Initiative (SLI) prototype engines.The main engines for the Future Shuttle will focus on improved safety and operability. Performance enhancements may also be required for vehicle safety purposes to achieve more desirable abort scenarios. This paper discusses the potential improvements that will be considered for implementation into the Future Shuttle. Integrated engine and vehicle health management systems will achieve additional system-level reliability improvements over those currently in development. Advanced instrumentation for detecting leaks, analyzing component wear and degradation, and providing sophisticated operational data will be used for reliable engine control and scheduling maintenance operations. A new nozzle and main combustion chamber (MCC) will reduce failure probability by 50% and allow for higher thrust capability without requiring the entire engine to be redesigned. Turbopump

  15. Inspiring future scientists in middle-schools through synergy between classroom learning and water cycle research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noone, D. C.; Kellagher, E.; Berkelhammer, M. B.; Raudzens Bailey, A.; Kaushik, A.

    2012-12-01

    Water is at the core of many issues in environmental change from local to global scales, and learning about the water cycle offers students an opportunity to explore core scientific concepts and their local environment. In climate research, there are significant uncertainties in the role water plays in the climate system. Water also acts as a central theme that provides opportunities for experiential science education at all levels. The "Water Spotters" program underway at University of Colorado exploits the synergy between needs for enrichment of middle-school science education and the needs for water sample collection to provide primary data for climate research. The program takes advantage of the prominent agricultural landscape of the region in eastern Colorado, which is a poignant example of how society influences the climate through irrigation, evaporation/transpiration and run-off and whose productivity is influenced by the climate system. Both natural grasslands and alpine ecosystems in the surrounding regions serve as examples of the native landscape. In coordination with the St. Vrain Valley School District MESA (Math Engineering Science Achievement) program, middle-school students collect rain water samples that are analyzed and used as a core component of the research goals. In concert, new lessons have been developed in coordination with science teachers that emphasize both core scientific standards and application learning about the water cycle. We present the new curriculum modules developed for the program and that are distributed to middle-school teachers. The modules include original lessons and lessons with expanded original material to teach about water and water isotopes. Curriculum packages that include media resources are increasingly important to teachers. The Water Spotters program uses video to teach collection protocols and give background on the project. Weather station data from schools are disseminated online alongside the rainwater

  16. Energy-Related Scientists and Engineers: Statistical Profile of New Entrants Into the Work Force, 1976.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rall, Jane E.

    Reported are data which describe the 1976 employment and educational characteristics of recent science and engineering graduates involved in energy-related activities. This information is from the 1976 National Survey of Recent Science and Engineering Graduates, a survey of about 9,800 persons who received bachelor's or master's degrees between…

  17. Asian and Pacific Islander women scientists and engineers: A narrative exploration of model minority, gender, and racial stereotypes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chinn, Pauline W. U.

    2002-04-01

    This qualitative study uses narrative methodology to understand what becoming a scientist or engineer entails for women stereotyped as model minorities. Interviews with four Chinese and Japanese women focused on the social contexts in which science is encountered in classrooms, families, and community. Interpretation was guided by theories that individuals construct personal narratives mediated by cultural symbolic systems to make meaning of experiences. Narratives revealed that Confucian cultural scripts shaped gender expectations even in families several generations in America. Regardless of parents' level of education, country of birth, and number of children, educational expectations, and resources were lower for daughters. Parents expected daughters to be compliant, feminine, and educated enough to be marriageable. Findings suggest K-12 gender equity science practices encouraged development of the women's interests and abilities but did not affect parental beliefs. The author's 1999 study of Hawaiians/Pacific Islander and Filipina female engineers is included in implications for teacher education programs sensitive to gender, culture, ethnicity, and language.

  18. Enhancing Diversity in the Public Health Research Workforce: The Research and Mentorship Program for Future HIV Vaccine Scientists

    PubMed Central

    Adamson, Blythe Jane S.; Andrasik, Michele P.; Flood, Danna M.; Wakefield, Steven F.; Stoff, David M.; Cook, Ryan S.; Kublin, James G.; Fuchs, Jonathan D.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We developed and evaluated a novel National Institutes of Health–sponsored Research and Mentorship Program for African American and Hispanic medical students embedded within the international, multisite HIV Vaccine Trials Network, and explored its impact on scientific knowledge, acquired skills, and future career plans. Methods. Scholars conducted social, behavioral, clinical, or laboratory-based research projects with HIV Vaccine Trials Network investigators over 8 to 16 weeks (track 1) or 9 to 12 months (track 2). We conducted an in-depth, mixed-methods evaluation of the first 2 cohorts (2011–2013) to identify program strengths, areas for improvement, and influence on professional development. Results. A pre–post program assessment demonstrated increases in self-reported knowledge, professional skills, and interest in future HIV vaccine research. During in-depth interviews, scholars reported that a supportive, centrally administered program; available funding; and highly involved mentors and staff were keys to the program’s early success. Conclusions. A multicomponent, mentored research experience that engages medical students from underrepresented communities and is organized within a clinical trials network may expand the pool of diverse public health scientists. Efforts to sustain scholar interest over time and track career trajectories are warranted. PMID:25122028

  19. `You caught me off guard': Probing the futures of complex engineered nanomaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadowski, Jathan; Guston, David H.

    2016-07-01

    This paper applies principles and methods from the framework of anticipatory governance to the case of what the National Research Council calls "complex engineered nanomaterials" (CENM). This framework does not aim to generate crystal ball visions or definitive answers, but rather provides guidance for uncovering, understanding, and addressing social, ethical, environmental, and policy issues that stem from emerging technologies. Thus, in anticipation of increased CENM research, CENM products, and their different governance challenges, we aim to lay the groundwork for the anticipatory governance of CENMs by mapping out what—according to the engineers and scientists, we interviewed who are working at the research level of these CENMs—will be the main issues and themes that we need to pay attention to in the near future. The structured interviews focused on three groups of questions: (1) potential and/or actual applications and/or products from the participant's research; (2) environmental health and safety issues pertaining to both the participant's research and CENMs generally; and (3) the future of CENMs. Without a foundational understanding to build on, social scientists, policymakers, and regulatory agencies will be at a loss about how to govern CENMs before they are widely implemented in society.

  20. A Comparison of the Technical Communications Practices of Japanese and U.S. Aerospace Engineers and Scientists

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pinelli, Thomas E.; Holloway, Karen; Sato, Yuko; Barclay, Rebecca O.; Kennedy, John M.

    1996-01-01

    To understand the diffusion of aerospace knowledge, it is necessary to understand the communications practices and the information-seeking behaviors of those involved in the production, transfer, and use of aerospace knowledge at the individual, organizational, national, and international levels. In this paper, we report selected results from a survey of Japanese and U.S. aerospace engineers and scientists that focused on communications practices and information-seeking behaviors in the workplace. Data are presented for the following topics: importance of and time spent communicating information, collaborative writing, need for an undergraduate course in technical communications, use of libraries, the use and importance of electronic (computer) networks, and the use and importance of foreign and domestically produced technical reports. The responses of the survey respondents are placed within the context of the Japanese culture. We assume that differences in Japanese and U.S. cultures influence the communications practices and information-seeking behaviors of Japanese and U.S. aerospace engineers and scientists.

  1. Study of the scientific reasoning methods: Identifying the salient reasoning characteristics exhibited by engineers and scientists in an R&D environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuhn, William F.

    At the core of what it means to be a scientist or engineer is the ability to think rationally using scientific reasoning methods. Yet, typically if asked, scientist and engineers are hard press for a reply what that means. Some may argue that the meaning of scientific reasoning methods is a topic for the philosophers and psychologist, but this study believes and will prove that the answers lie with the scientists and engineers, for who really know the workings of the scientific reasoning thought process than they. This study will provide evidence to the aims: (a) determine the fundamental characteristics of cognitive reasoning methods exhibited by engineer/scientists working in R&D projects, (b) sample the engineer/scientist community to determine their views as to the importance, frequency, and ranking of each of characteristics towards benefiting their R&D projects, (c) make concluding remarks regarding any identified competency gaps in the exhibited or expected cognitive reasoning methods of engineer/scientists working on R&D projects. To drive these aims are the following three research questions. The first, what are the salient characteristics of cognitive reasoning methods exhibited by engineer/scientists in an R&D environment? The second, what do engineer/scientists consider to be the frequency and importance of the salient cognitive reasoning methods characteristics? And the third, to what extent, if at all, do patent holders and technical fellows differ with regard to their perceptions of the importance and frequency of the salient cognitive reasoning characteristics of engineer/scientists? The methodology and empirical approach utilized and described: (a) literature search, (b) Delphi technique composed of seven highly distinguish engineer/scientists, (c) survey instrument directed to distinguish Technical Fellowship, (d) data collection analysis. The results provide by Delphi Team answered the first research question. The collaborative effort validated

  2. Conventional engine technology. Volume 3: Comparisons and future potential

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dowdy, M. W.

    1981-01-01

    The status of five conventional automobile engine technologies was assessed and the future potential for increasing fuel economy and reducing exhaust emission was discussed, using the 1980 EPA California emisions standards as a comparative basis. By 1986, the fuel economy of a uniform charge Otto engine with a three-way catalyst is expected to increase 10%, while vehicles with lean burn (fast burn) engines should show a 20% fuel economy increase. Although vehicles with stratified-charge engines and rotary engines are expected to improve, their fuel economy will remain inferior to the other engine types. When adequate NO emissions control methods are implemented to meet the EPA requirements, vehicles with prechamber diesel engines are expected to yield a fuel economy advantage of about 15%. While successful introduction of direct injection diesel engine technology will provide a fuel savings of 30 to 35%, the planned regulation of exhaust particulates could seriously hinder this technology, because it is expected that only the smallest diesel engine vehicles could meet the proposed particulate requirements.

  3. UCS-PROMOVE: The engineer of the future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villas-Boas, V.

    2010-06-01

    The Universidade de Caxias do Sul (UCS) elaborated the cooperative project called 'The engineer of the future', with the objective of promoting science and engineering among high school teachers and students. This project aims to improve the quality of the teaching and to increase the interest of students in technological areas, leading to a future career in engineering. The activities of this project were planned to give meaning and foundation to the teaching-learning process of science and for the application of theory in the solution of real problems, while articulating scientific, economic, environmental, social and political aspects and also to reinforce the important role of engineering in society. Amongst the activities to be offered to high school teachers and students are a specialisation course for teachers based upon new educational methodologies, workshops in different areas of science and technology, a programme entitled 'Encouraging girls in technology, science and engineering', science fairs and visits to the industries of the region. Activities with the engineering instructors of UCS are also being developed in order to help them to incorporate in their classes more effective pedagogical strategies for educating the engineer-to-be.

  4. Curiosity + Kindergarten = Future Scientists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flannagan, Jenny Sue; Rockenbaugh, Liesl

    2010-01-01

    Carefully crafted experiences in the early childhood classroom can create learning opportunities for children that allow one curiosity to lead to another. Learning how to find out answers to fascinating questions is what science is all about. In fact, it can be as simple as learning how an ordinary egg can be changed. For the past year, the…

  5. Second-Guessing Scientists and Engineers: Post Hoc Criticism and the Reform of Practice in Green Chemistry and Engineering.

    PubMed

    Lynch, William T

    2015-10-01

    The article examines and extends work bringing together engineering ethics and Science and Technology Studies, which had built upon Diane Vaughan's analysis of the Challenger shuttle accident as a test case. Reconsidering the use of her term "normalization of deviance," the article argues for a middle path between moralizing against and excusing away engineering practices contributing to engineering disaster. To explore an illustrative pedagogical case and to suggest avenues for constructive research developing this middle path, it examines the emergence of green chemistry and green engineering. Green chemistry began when Paul Anastas and John Warner developed a set of new rules for chemical synthesis that sought to learn from missed opportunities to avoid environmental damage in the twentieth century, an approach that was soon extended to engineering as well. Examination of tacit assumptions about historical counterfactuals in recent, interdisciplinary discussions of green chemistry illuminate competing views about the field's prospects. An integrated perspective is sought, addressing how both technical practice within chemistry and engineering and the influence of a wider "social movement" can play a role in remedying environmental problems.

  6. Suborbital Platforms as a Tool for a Symbiotic Relationship Between Scientists, Engineers, and Students

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamberlin, Phillip C.

    2011-01-01

    Sounding rockets started in-situ space experimentation over 60 years ago with scientific experiments replacing warheads on captured V- 2 German rockets. Prior to this, and still today, suborbital platforms such as airplanes and high-altitude balloons have provided advantageous remote sensing observations advancing many areas of Earth and Space science. There is still a place for first-rate science in both stand-alone missions as well as providing complimentary measurements to the larger orbital missions. Along with the aforementioned science, the cost effectiveness and development times provided by sub-orbital platforms allows for perfect hands-on and first rate educational opportunities for undergraduate and graduate students. This talk will give examples and discuss the mutually beneficial opportunities that scientists and students obtain in development of suborbital missions. Also discussed will be how the next generation of space vehicles should help eliminate the number one obstacle to these programs - launch opportunities.

  7. Academic Science, 1972-81: R & D Funds, Scientists and Engineers, Graduate Enrollment and Support. Final Report. Surveys of Science Resources Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huckenpahler, J. G.; And Others

    The results of the 1972-1981 National Science Foundation surveys on academic research and development (R&D) funds, the employment and utilization of scientists and engineers, and the characteristics of graduate students enrolled in the sciences and engineering (S/E) are presented. Findings include the following: the steady growth to university…

  8. Building Better Futures: Leveraging Action Learning at Kentz Engineers & Constructors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karallis, Takis; Sandelands, Eric

    2011-01-01

    This article provides a case study of how Kentz Engineers & Constructors, with more than 10,000 employees in 26 countries, are leveraging learning to "Build better futures" for its stakeholders: clients, shareholders, employees and communities. Kentz provide opportunities for learning at all levels, ensuring that "no one is left behind". This case…

  9. Chemical Reaction Engineering: Current Status and Future Directions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dudukovic, M. P.

    1987-01-01

    Describes Chemical Reaction Engineering (CRE) as the discipline that quantifies the interplay of transport phenomena and kinetics in relating reactor performance to operating conditions and input variables. Addresses the current status of CRE in both academic and industrial settings and outlines future trends. (TW)

  10. Changing Employment Patterns of Scientists, Engineers, and Technicians in Manufacturing Industries: 1977-80. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Science Foundation, Washington, DC.

    This report presents an analysis of science, engineering, and technician (SET) employment within manufacturing industries based on data from the 1977 and 1980 Occupational Employment Statistics survey. The purposes of the report are to: (1) summarize employment data for detailed SET occupations in manufacturing to describe demand patterns; (2)…

  11. The Journals of German University and Engineering School Scientists Before and After National Reunification.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stankus, Tony

    1996-01-01

    Discusses scientific journals in East and West Germany before and after reunification. Topics include scientific research in university and engineering schools, industrial research labs, and industrial firms; publication patterns; market share of journal articles; competition with American journals; and German versus English language. (LRW)

  12. Early Identification Using Self-Assessment in Measuring Management Potential in Young Scientists and Engineers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stutzman, Thomas M.; Jawetz, Karen A.

    The demand for managers with strong technical skills has led to increased interest in the selection and development of persons who have the potential to be successful managers. To learn more about early identification of persons possessing aptitude to manage, 82 engineering and science students completed a questionnaire describing behaviors they…

  13. Overview of USPAS and its role in educating the next generation of accelerator scientists and engineers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barletta, William

    2008-04-01

    Accelerators are essential engines of discovery in fundamental physics, biology, and chemistry. Particle beam based instruments in medicine, industry and national security constitute a multi-billion dollar per year industry. More than 55,000 peer-reviewed papers having accelerator as a keyword are available on the Web. Yet only a handful of universities offer any formal training in accelerator science. Several reasons can be cited: 1) The science and technology of particle beams and other non-neutral plasmas cuts across traditional academic disciplines. 2) Electrical engineering departments have evolved toward micro- and nano-technology and computing science. 3) Nuclear engineering departments have atrophied at many major universities. 4) With few exceptions, interest at individual universities is not extensive enough to support a strong faculty line. The United States Particle Accelerator School (USPAS) is National Graduate Educational Program that has developed a highly successful educational paradigm that, over the past twenty-years, has granted more university credit in accelerator / beam science and technology than any university in the world. Governed and supported by a consortium of nine DOE laboratories and two NSF university laboratories, USPAS offers a responsive and balanced curriculum of science, engineering, computational and hands-on courses. Sessions are held twice annually, hosted by major US research universities that approve course credit, certify the USPAS faculty, and grant course credit. The USPAS paradigm is readily extensible to other rapidly developing, cross-disciplinary research areas such as high energy density physics.

  14. THE CURRENT EMPLOYMENT MARKET FOR ENGINEERS, SCIENTISTS, AND TECHNICIANS, DECEMBER 1966.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    AUSMUS, NORMA F.; AND OTHERS

    FIELD REPORTS ON JUNE 1966 CONDITIONS IN 30 MAJOR LABOR AREAS FOR ENGINEERING, SCIENTIFIC, AND TECHNICAL OCCUPATIONS, PROVIDED BY AFFILIATES OF THE BUREAU OF EMPLOYMENT SECURITY, WERE THE BASIS FOR THIS SEMIANNUAL REPORT. THE NUMBER OF APPLICANTS HAD DECLINED 48 PERCENT TO A NEW 8-YEAR LOW, WHILE OPENINGS HAD RISEN TO 9,600, 58 PERCENT OVER THE…

  15. THE CURRENT EMPLOYMENT MARKET FOR ENGINEERS, SCIENTISTS, AND TECHNICIANS, OCTOBER 1965.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    AUSMUS, NORMA F.; SAILE, ALVIN W.

    DATA ON JOB OPENINGS FOR SELECTED ENGINEERING, SCIENTIFIC, AND TECHNICAL OCCUPATIONS, PROVIDED BY THE BUREAU OF EMPLOYMENT SECURITY AFFILIATES FROM FIELD REPORTS ON JUNE 1965 CONDITIONS IN 30 MAJOR LABOR AREAS, ARE PRESENTED IN THIS SEMIANNUAL REPORT. NATIONWIDE DEMAND IN THESE JOB CATEGORIES INCREASED AND BACKLOGS OF APPLICANTS DECREASED BECAUSE…

  16. Graduate Education. Experiences and Preferences of WES (Waterways Experiment Station) Engineers and Scientists.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-03-01

    processing and % artificial intelligence courses should also be conducted. (020) Advance schedule of courses to be offered - course sequencing. (022) Teach...Random Data .4 Applied Complex Variables (2) Applied Mathematics Artificial Intelligence (3) Asphalt Materials Beach Processes Benthic Ecology...any intelligent engineer or others from a stand- point of improved capabilities. (111) Work hard but also enjoyed the college activities (which

  17. Starting Early: Increasing Elementary (K-8) Student Science Achievement with Retired Scientists and Engineers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Judith; Krakowsky, Arthur M.; Herget, Charles J.

    2010-01-01

    Teaching Opportunities for Partners in Science (TOPS) is an outreach program using volunteers (the "partners") for: 1) assisting teachers in grades K-8 with preparation and delivery of science and engineering (S&E) lessons in the classroom; 2) providing content knowledge to teachers when needed to teach quality science and…

  18. Data Management Practices and Perspectives of Atmospheric Scientists and Engineering Faculty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiley, Christie; Mischo, William H.

    2016-01-01

    This article analyzes 21 in-depth interviews of engineering and atmospheric science faculty at the University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign (UIUC) to determine faculty data management practices and needs within the context of their research activities. A detailed literature review of previous large-scale and institutional surveys and interviews…

  19. External Labor Markets and the Distribution of Black Scientists and Engineers in Academia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kulis, Stephen; Shaw, Heather; Chong, Yinong

    2000-01-01

    Analyzes data from the 1989 Survey of Doctorate Recipients to evaluate racial segmentation of the academic labor market along geographic and disciplinary lines. Finds that black faculty in the sciences and engineering are found disproportionately in southern, historically black institutions; areas with sizable black populations; and, independent…

  20. The Barrett Foundation: Undergraduate Research Program for Environmental Engineers and Scientists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rizzo, D. M.; Paul, M.; Farmer, C.; Larson, P.; Matt, J.; Sentoff, K.; Vazquez-Spickers, I.; Pearce, A. R.

    2007-12-01

    A new program sponsored by The Barrett Foundation in the University of Vermont College of Engineering and Mathematical Sciences (UVM) supports undergraduate students in Environmental Engineering, Earth and Environmental Sciences to pursue independent summer research projects. The Barrett Foundation, a non-profit organization started by a UVM Engineering alum, provided a grant to support undergraduate research. Students must work with at least two different faculty advisors to develop project ideas, then independently prepare a research proposal and submit it to a faculty panel for review. The program was structured as a scholarship to foster a competitive application process. In the last three years, fourteen students have participated in the program. The 2007 Barrett Scholars projects include: - Using bacteria to change the chemistry of subsurface media to encourage calcite precipitation for soil stability and pollutant sequestration - Assessing structural weaknesses in a historic post and beam barn using accelerometers and wireless data collection equipment - Using image processing filters to 1) evaluate leaf wetness, a leading indicator of disease in crops and 2) assess the movement of contaminants through building materials. - Investigating the impact of increased water temperature on cold-water fish species in two Vermont streams. - Studying the impacts of light duty vehicle tailpipe emissions on air quality This program supports applied and interdisciplinary environmental research and introduces students to real- world engineering problems. In addition, faculty from different research focuses are presented the opportunity to establish new collaborations around campus through the interdisciplinary projects. To date, there is a successful publication record from the projects involving the Barrett scholars, including students as authors. One of the objectives of this program was to provide prestigious, competitive awards to outstanding undergraduate engineers

  1. Designing and Evaluating a Climate Change Course for Upper-Division Engineers and Scientists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samson, P. J.

    2002-12-01

    AOSS 300, GLOBAL ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT OF TECHNOLOGICAL CHANGE, was created to provide a mechanism for scientific exploration of the unexpected global environmental side effects of technological innovation with emphasis on issues of the atmosphere and oceans. The course is specifically designed to contribute to the desired Accreditation Board for Engineering and Technology (ABET) outcomes that engineering and science graduates possess "the broad education necessary to understand the impact of solutions in a global and societal context." To facilitate this new course a new suite of coupled Flash/PHP/MySQL tools have been created that allow personalization of the students' learning space and interaction with faculty. Using these tools students are challenged to actively participate in the construction of knowledge through development of on-line portfolios that influence course content. This paper reports on lessons learned in the first semester that will guide further course development.

  2. Genetically Engineered Plants and Foods: A Scientist's Analysis of the Issues (Part I).

    PubMed

    Lemaux, Peggy G

    2008-01-01

    Through the use of the new tools of genetic engineering, genes can be introduced into the same plant or animal species or into plants or animals that are not sexually compatible-the latter is a distinction with classical breeding. This technology has led to the commercial production of genetically engineered (GE) crops on approximately 250 million acres worldwide. These crops generally are herbicide and pest tolerant, but other GE crops in the pipeline focus on other traits. For some farmers and consumers, planting and eating foods from these crops are acceptable; for others they raise issues related to safety of the foods and the environment. In Part I of this review some general and food issues raised regarding GE crops and foods will be addressed. Responses to these issues, where possible, cite peer-reviewed scientific literature. In Part II to appear in 2009, issues related to environmental and socioeconomic aspects of GE crops and foods will be covered.

  3. NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Report 18: A comparison of the technical communication practices of aerospace engineers and scientists in India and the United States

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pinelli, Thomas E.; Barclay, Rebecca O.; Kennedy, John M.

    1993-01-01

    As part of Phase 4 of the NASA/DoD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project, two studies were conducted that investigated the technical communications practices of India and U.S. aerospace engineers and scientists. Both studies have the same seven objectives: first, to solicit the opinions of aerospace engineers and scientists regarding the importance of technical communications to their profession; second, to determine the use and production of technical communications by aerospace engineers and scientists; third, to seek their views about the appropriate content of an undergraduate course in technical communications; fourth, to determine aerospace engineers' and scientists' use of libraries, technical information centers, and on-line data bases; fifth, to determine the use and importance of computer and information technology to them; sixth, to determine their use of electronic networks; and seventh, to determine their use of foreign and domestically produced technical reports. A self-administered questionnaire was distributed to aerospace engineers and scientists at the Indian Institute of Science and the NASA Langley Research Center. The completion rates for the India and U.S. surveys were 48 and 53 percent, respectively. Responses of the India and U.S. participants to selected questions are presented in this report.

  4. NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Paper 28: The technical communication practices of Russian and US aerospace engineers and scientists

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pinelli, Thomas E.; Barclay, Rebecca O.; Keene, Michael L.; Flammia, Madelyn; Kennedy, John M.

    1993-01-01

    As part of Phase 4 of the NASA/DoD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project, two studies were conducted that investigated the technical communication practices of Russian and U.S. aerospace engineers and scientists. Both studies had the same five objectives: first, to solicit the opinions of aerospace engineers and scientists regarding the importance of technical communication to their professions; second, to determine the use and production of technical communication by aerospace engineers and scientists; third, to seek their views about the appropriate content of the undergraduate course in technical communication; fourth, to determine aerospace engineers' and scientists' use of libraries, technical information centers, and on-line databases; and fifth, to determine the use and importance of computer and information technology to them. A self administered questionnaire was distributed to Russian aerospace engineers and scientists at the Central Aero-Hydrodynamic Institute (TsAGI) and to their U.S. counterparts at the NASA Ames Research Center and the NASA Langley Research Center. The completion rates for the Russian and U.S. surveys were 64 and 61 percent, respectively. Responses of the Russian and U.S. participants to selected questions are presented in this paper.

  5. NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Report 17: A comparison of the technical communication practices of Dutch and US aerospace engineers and scientists

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barclay, Rebecca O.; Pinelli, Thomas E.; Kennedy, John M.

    1993-01-01

    As part of Phase 4 of the NASA/DoD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project, two studies were conducted that investigated the technical communications practices of Dutch and U.S. aerospace engineers and scientists. Both studies have the same seven objectives: first, to solicit the opinions of aerospace engineers and scientists regarding the importance of technical communications to their profession; second, to determine the use and production of technical communications by aerospace engineers and scientists; third, to seek their views about the appropriate content of an undergraduate course in technical communications; fourth, to determine aerospace engineers' and scientists' use of libraries, technical information centers, and on-line data bases; fifth, to determine the use and importance of computer and information technology to them; sixth, to determine their use of electronic networks; and seventh, to determine their use of foreign and domestically produced technical reports. A self-administered questionnaire was distributed to aerospace engineers and scientists at the National Aerospace Laboratory (NLR), and NASA Ames Research Center, and the NASA Langley Research Center. The completion rates for the Dutch and U.S. surveys were 55 and 61 percent, respectively. Responses of the Dutch and U.S. participants to selected questions are presented.

  6. NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Report 29: A comparison of the technical communications practices of Japanese and US aerospace engineers and scientists

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pinelli, Thomas E.; Barclay, Rebecca O.; Kennedy, John M.

    1994-01-01

    As part of Phase 4 of the NASA/DoD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project, two studies were conducted that investigated the technical communications practices of Japanese and U.S. aerospace engineers and scientists. Both studies have the same seven objectives: first, to solicit the opinions of aerospace engineers and scientists regarding the importance of technical communications to their profession; second, to determine the use and production of technical communications by aerospace engineers and scientists; third; to seek their views about the appropriate content of an undergraduate course in technical communications; fourth, to determine aerospace engineers' and scientists' use of libraries, technical information centers, and on-line data bases; fifth, to determine the use and importance of computer and information technology to them; sixth, to determine their use of electronic networks; and seventh, to determine their use of foreign and domestically produced technical reports. A self-administered questionnaire was distributed to aerospace engineers and scientists in Japan and at the NASA Ames Research Center and the NASA Langley Research Center. The completion rates for the Japanese and U.S. surveys were 85 and 61 percent, respectively. Responses of the Japanese and U.S. participants to selected questions are presented in this report.

  7. NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Paper 16: A comparison of the technical communications practices of Russian and US aerospace engineers and scientists

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pinelli, Thomas E.; Kennedy, John M.; Barclay, Rebecca O.

    1993-01-01

    As part of Phase 4 of the NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Project, two studies were conducted that investigated the technical communications practices of Russian and U.S. aerospace engineers and scientists. Both studies have the same five objectives: first, to solicit the opinions of aerospace engineers and scientists regarding the importance of technical communications to their profession; second, to determine the use and production of technical communications by aerospace engineers and scientists; third, to seek their views about the appropriate content of an undergraduate course in technical communications; fourth, to determine aerospace engineers' and scientists' use of libraries, technical information centers, and on-line data bases; and fifth, to determine the use and importance of computer and information technology to them. A self-administered questionnaire was distributed to aerospace engineers and scientists at the Central Aero-Hydrodynamic Institute (TsAGI), NASA ARC, and NASA LaRC. The completion rates for the Russian and U.S. surveys were 64 and 61 percent, respectively. The responses of the Russian and U.S. participants, to selected questions, are presented in this report.

  8. Integrated Tools for Future Distributed Engine Control Technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Culley, Dennis; Thomas, Randy; Saus, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    Turbine engines are highly complex mechanical systems that are becoming increasingly dependent on control technologies to achieve system performance and safety metrics. However, the contribution of controls to these measurable system objectives is difficult to quantify due to a lack of tools capable of informing the decision makers. This shortcoming hinders technology insertion in the engine design process. NASA Glenn Research Center is developing a Hardware-inthe- Loop (HIL) platform and analysis tool set that will serve as a focal point for new control technologies, especially those related to the hardware development and integration of distributed engine control. The HIL platform is intended to enable rapid and detailed evaluation of new engine control applications, from conceptual design through hardware development, in order to quantify their impact on engine systems. This paper discusses the complex interactions of the control system, within the context of the larger engine system, and how new control technologies are changing that paradigm. The conceptual design of the new HIL platform is then described as a primary tool to address those interactions and how it will help feed the insertion of new technologies into future engine systems.

  9. Primary-School Children's Attitudes towards Science, Engineering and Technology and Their Images of Scientists and Engineers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silver, Anne; Rushton, Brian S.

    2008-01-01

    The attitudes of Year 5 primary-school children towards science, engineering and technology (SET) were examined prior to studying the effects of the Horsham Greenpower Goblin Challenge (HGGC), a hands-on SET project. The data collection centred on pupil, parent and teacher questionnaires using Likert scales and picture/word images of scientists…

  10. Training and Mentoring the Next Generation of Scientists and Engineers to Secure Continuity and Successes of the US DOE's Environmental Remediation Efforts - 13387

    SciTech Connect

    Lagos, L.

    2013-07-01

    The DOE Office of Environmental Management (DOE-EM) oversees one of the largest and most technically challenging cleanup programs in the world. The mission of DOE-EM is to complete the safe cleanup of the environmental legacy from five decades of nuclear weapons development and government-sponsored nuclear energy research. Since 1995, Florida International University's Applied Research Center (FIU-ARC) has supported the DOE-EM mission and provided unique research capabilities to address some of these highly technical and difficult challenges. This partnership has allowed FIU-ARC to create a unique infrastructure that is critical for the training and mentoring of science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) students and has exposed many STEM students to 'hands-on' DOE-EM applied research, supervised by the scientists and engineers at ARC. As a result of this successful partnership between DOE and FIU, DOE requested FIU-ARC to create the DOE-FIU Science and Technology Workforce Development Initiative in 2007. This innovative program was established to create a 'pipeline' of minority STEM students trained and mentored to enter DOE's environmental cleanup workforce. The program was designed to help address DOE's future workforce needs by partnering with academic, government and private companies (DOE contractors) to mentor future minority scientists and engineers in the research, development, and deployment of new technologies and processes addressing DOE's environmental cleanup challenges. Since its inception in 2007, the program has trained and mentored 78 FIU STEM minority students. Although, the program has been in existence for only five years, a total of 75 internships have been conducted at DOE National Laboratories, DOE sites, DOE Headquarters and field offices, and DOE contractors. Over 85 DOE Fellows have participated in the Waste Management Symposia since 2008 with a total of 68 student posters and 7 oral presentations given at WM. The DOE Fellows

  11. From the wizard to the doubter: prototypes of scientists and engineers in fiction and non-fiction media aimed at Dutch children and teenagers.

    PubMed

    Van Gorp, Baldwin; Rommes, Els; Emons, Pascale

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this paper is to gain insight into the prototypical scientists as they appear in fiction and non-fiction media consumed by children and teenagers in The Netherlands. A qualitative-interpretive content analysis is used to identify seven prototypes and the associated characteristics in a systematic way. The results show that the element of risk is given more attention in fiction than in non-fiction. Also, eccentric scientists appear more often in fiction. In non-fiction, the dimension useful/useless is more important. Furthermore, fictional scientists are loners, although in practice scientists more often work in a team. In both fiction and non-fiction, the final product of the scientific process gets more attention than the process itself. The prototype of the doubter is introduced as an alternative to the dominant representations because it represents scientists and engineers in a more nuanced way.

  12. Technical communications in aerospace - An analysis of the practices reported by U.S. and European aerospace engineers and scientists

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pinelli, Thomas E.; Barclay, Rebecca O.; Kennedy, John M.; Glassman, Myron

    1990-01-01

    The flow of scientific and technical information (STI) at the individual, organizational, national, and international levels is studied. The responses of U.S and European aerospace engineers and scientists to questionnaires concerning technical communications in aerospace are examined. Particular attention is given to the means used to communicate information and the social system of the aerospace knowledge diffusion process. Demographic data about the survey respondents are provided. The methods used to communicate technical data and the sources utilized to solve technical problems are described. The importance of technical writing skills and the use of computer technology in the aerospace field are discussed. The derived data are useful for R&D and information managers in order to improve access to and utilization of aerospace STI.

  13. The National Supply of Scientists, Mathematicians, and Engineers. Volume 1. Introduction, Methodology, and Findings

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-05-01

    and racial/ ethnic minorities who pursue SME studies will increase to compensate for the decline in population of white, 18-to-24-year-old males (the...3- 1 Background ........................................ 3- 1 V CONTENTS (Continued) Page Populations and Ages of College Students...trends may signal that the future supply of SMEs will be inadequate to satisfy demand. The trends most often cited are: "* The U.S. population in

  14. Pathways to space: A mission to foster the next generation of scientists and engineers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dougherty, Kerrie; Oliver, Carol; Fergusson, Jennifer

    2014-06-01

    The first education project funded under the Australian Government's Australian Space Research Program (ASRP), Pathways to Space was a unique project combining education, science communication research and research in astrobiology and robotics. It drew upon the challenges of space exploration to inspire students to consider study and careers in science and engineering. A multi-faceted program, Pathways to Space provided hands-on opportunities for high school and university students to participate in realistic simulations of a robotic Mars exploration mission for astrobiology. Its development was a collaboration between the Australian Centre for Astrobiology (University of New South Wales), the Australian Centre for Field Robotics (University of Sydney), the Powerhouse Museum and industry partner, Cisco. Focused on students in Years 9-10 (15-16 years of age), this program provided them with the opportunity to engage directly with space engineers and astrobiologists, while carrying out a simulated Mars mission using the digital learning facilities available at the Powerhouse Museum. As a part of their program, the students operated robotic mini-rovers in the Powerhouse Museum's “Mars Yard”, a highly accurate simulation of the Martian surface, where university students also carry out the development and testing of experimental Mars roving vehicles. This aspect of the program has brought real science and engineering research into the public space of the museum. As they undertook the education program, the students participated in a research study aimed at understanding the effectiveness of the project in achieving its key objective - encouraging students to consider space related courses and careers. This paper outlines the development and operation of the Pathways to Space project over its 3-year funding period, during which it met and exceeded all the requirements of its ASRP grant. It will look at the goals of the project, the rationale behind the education and

  15. The graduate education of scientists and engineers: Myths, facts, and recommendations

    SciTech Connect

    Griffiths, P.A.

    1995-12-31

    The graduate schools of the United States have served as a model for the world. However, changes in science and in the needs of employers are placing new stresses on the system. Critics emphasize the excess of graduate students to job opportunities. Statistical data is provided on employment of graduate students and the major areas of employment at present. The author describes how we got to the current situation and what should be done to improve the future for students of science and technology.

  16. Regenerative endodontics and tissue engineering: what the future holds?

    PubMed

    Goodis, Harold E; Kinaia, Bassam Michael; Kinaia, Atheel M; Chogle, Sami M A

    2012-07-01

    The work performed by researchers in regenerative endodontics and tissue engineering over the last decades has been superb; however, many questions remain to be answered. The basic biologic mechanisms must be elucidated that will allow the development of dental pulp and dentin in situ. Stress must be placed on the many questions that will lead to the design of effective, safe treatment options and therapies. This article discusses those questions, the answers to which may become the future of regenerative endodontics. The future remains bright, but proper support and patience are required.

  17. Environmental engineering education for developing countries: framework for the future.

    PubMed

    Ujang, Z; Henze, M; Curtis, T; Schertenleib, R; Beal, L L

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents the existing philosophy, approach, criteria and delivery of environmental engineering education (E3) for developing countries. In general, environmental engineering is being taught in almost all major universities in developing countries, mostly under civil engineering degree programmes. There is an urgent need to address specific inputs that are particularly important for developing countries with respect to the reality of urbanisation and industrialisation. The main component of E3 in the near future will remain on basic sanitation in most developing countries, with special emphasis on the consumer-demand approach. In order to substantially overcome environmental problems in developing countries, E3 should include integrated urban water management, sustainable sanitation, appropriate technology, cleaner production, wastewater minimisation and financial framework.

  18. The NGWA Experience with Education and Core Competencies for Groundwater Scientists and Engineers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCray, K. B.

    2014-12-01

    Since 1988, the National Ground Water Association has formally supported recognition, through certification or some other means, of the unique qualifications necessary to perform hydrogeologic investigations. NGWA has believed reliance on professional engineers or individuals certified in an allied field without a determination as to their knowledge of groundwater science is not a justified position. Observation today suggests a need remains for greater hydrogeologic awareness among those that may create infrastructure intrusions into the groundwater environment, such as those designing and installing large-scale installations of geothermal heating and cooling systems. NGWA has responded with development of hydrogeologic guidelines for such projects. Also in partial response to the above named circumstances, the Association has begun development of an ANSI/NGWA standard defining the skills and competencies of groundwater personnel - from the trades to the science, and has explored the potential value of creating a career pathways guidance document for groundwater science professionals. Historically, NGWA scientific members have resisted the idea of accreditation of academic geosciences programs, including those for hydrogeology, although such discussions continue to be raised from time to time by groups such as the Geological Society of America and the American Geosciences Institute. The resistance seems to have been born out of recognition of the multi-disciplinary reality of groundwater science. NGWA funded research found that more than half of the respondents to a study of the business development practices for consulting groundwater professionals had been involved with groundwater issues for more than 20 years, and less than one percent had worked in the field for fewer than two years, raising the question of whether too few young people are being attracted to hydrogeology. Some speculate the seemingly minor emphasis on Earth science education in the U.S. K-12

  19. Real cases study through computer applications for futures Agricultural Engineers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moratiel, R.; Durán, J. M.; Tarquis, A. M.

    2010-05-01

    One of the huge concerns on the higher engineer education is the lag of real cases study that the future professionals need in the work and corporation market. This concern was reflected in Bologna higher education system including recommendations in this respect. The knowhow as why this or other methodology is one of the keys to resolve this problem. In the last courses given in Department of Crop Production, at the Agronomy Engineer School of Madrid (Escuela Técnica Superior de Ingenieros Agrónomos, UPM) we have developed more than one hundred applications in Microsoft Excel®. Our aim was to show different real scenarios which the future Agronomic Engineers can be found in their professional life and with items related to crop production field. In order to achieve our target, each application in Excel presents a file text in which is explained the theoretical concepts and the objectives, as well as some resources used from Excel syntax. In this way, the student can understand and use of such application, even they can modify and customize it for a real case presented in their context and/or master project. This electronic monograph gives an answer to the need to manage data in several real scenarios showed in lectures, calculus resolution, information analysis and manage worksheets in a professional and student level.

  20. The Birth of a Notion: The Windfalls and Pitfalls of Tailoring an SoTL-Like Concept to Scientists, Mathematicians, and Engineers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connolly, Mark R.; Bouwma-Gearhart, Jana L.; Clifford, Matthew A.

    2007-01-01

    Despite calls for greater agreement in defining the Scholarship of Teaching and Learning (SoTL), terms that resemble SoTL are proliferating. An NSF-sponsored center for teaching and learning coined its own term, "teaching-as-research" (TAR), believing it would resonate better with research-active scientists, engineers, and mathematicians. To…

  1. The End of Mandatory Retirement for Doctoral Scientists and Engineers in Postsecondary Institutions: Retirement Patterns 10 Years Later. InfoBrief. NSF 11-302

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffer, Thomas B.; Sederstrom, Scott; Harper, Deborah

    2010-01-01

    Mandatory retirement in postsecondary educational institutions ended in 1994. In this paper, examination of retirements in 1993 (just before the end of this practice) and again 10 years later shows that by 2003, the age distribution of doctoral scientists and engineers working in postsecondary institutions had shifted, with a larger proportion…

  2. Culture and Workplace Communications: A Comparison of the Technical Communications Practices of Japanese and U.S. Aerospace Engineers and Scientists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinelli, Thomas E.; Sato, Yuko; Barclay, Rebecca O.; Kennedy, John M.

    1997-01-01

    Japanese (n=94) and U.S. (n=340) aerospace scientists/engineers described time spent communicating information, collaborative writing, importance of technical communication courses, and the use of libraries, computer networks, and technical reports. Japanese respondents had greater language fluency; U.S. respondents spent more time with…

  3. The Relationship between Seven Variables and the Use of U.S. Government Technical Reports by U.S. Aerospace Engineers and Scientists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinelli, Thomas E.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Describes a project sponsored by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the Department of Defense that investigated the relationship between the use of U.S. government technical reports by aerospace engineers and scientists and seven independent sociometric variables. The conceptual framework is explained, and relevant…

  4. NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Paper 41: Technical communication practices of Dutch and US aerospace engineers and scientists: International perspective on aerospace

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barclay, Rebecca O.; Pinelli, Thomas E.; Kennedy, John M.

    1994-01-01

    As part of Phase 4 of the NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project, studies were conducted that investigated the technical communications practices of Dutch and U.S. aerospace engineers and scientists. The studies had the following objectives: (1) to solicit the opinions of aerospace engineers and scientists regarding the importance of technical communication to their professions, (2) to determine the use and production of technical communication by aerospace engineers and scientists, (3) to investigate their use of libraries and technical information centers, (4) to investigate their use of and the importance to them of computer and information technology, (5) to examine their use of electronic networks, and (6) to determine their use of foreign and domestically produced technical reports. Self-administered (mail) questionnaires were distributed to Dutch aerospace engineers and scientists at the National Aerospace Laboratory (NLR) in the Netherlands, the NASA Ames Research Center in the U.S., and the NASA Langley Research Center in the U.S. Responses of the Dutch and U.S. participants to selected questions are presented in this paper.

  5. A Review of Engine Seal Performance and Requirements for Current and Future Army Engine Platforms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delgado, Irebert R.; Proctor, Margaret P.

    2008-01-01

    Sand ingestion continues to impact combat ground and air vehicles in military operations in the Middle East. The T-700 engine used in Apache and Blackhawk helicopters has been subjected to increased overhauls due to sand and dust ingestion during desert operations. Engine component wear includes compressor and turbine blades/vanes resulting in decreased engine power and efficiency. Engine labyrinth seals have also been subjected to sand and dust erosion resulting in tooth tip wear, increased clearances, and loss in efficiency. For the current investigation, a brief overview is given of the history of the T-700 engine development with respect to sand and dust ingestion requirements. The operational condition of labyrinth seals taken out of service from 4 different locations of the T-700 engine during engine overhauls are examined. Collaborative efforts between the Army and NASA to improve turbine engine seal leakage and life capability are currently focused on noncontacting, low leakage, compliant designs. These new concepts should be evaluated for their tolerance to sand laden air. Future R&D efforts to improve seal erosion resistance and operation in desert environments are recommended

  6. Software architecture and engineering for patient records: current and future.

    PubMed

    Weng, Chunhua; Levine, Betty A; Mun, Seong K

    2009-05-01

    During the "The National Forum on the Future of the Defense Health Information System," a track focusing on "Systems Architecture and Software Engineering" included eight presenters. These presenters identified three key areas of interest in this field, which include the need for open enterprise architecture and a federated database design, net centrality based on service-oriented architecture, and the need for focus on software usability and reusability. The eight panelists provided recommendations related to the suitability of service-oriented architecture and the enabling technologies of grid computing and Web 2.0 for building health services research centers and federated data warehouses to facilitate large-scale collaborative health care and research. Finally, they discussed the need to leverage industry best practices for software engineering to facilitate rapid software development, testing, and deployment.

  7. Tissue engineering for the management of chronic wounds: current concepts and future perspectives.

    PubMed

    Wong, Victor W; Gurtner, Geoffrey C

    2012-10-01

    Chronic wounds constitute a significant and growing biomedical burden. With the increasing growth of populations prone to dysfunctional wound healing, there is an urgent and unmet need for novel strategies to both prevent and treat these complications. Tissue engineering offers the potential to create functional skin, and the synergistic efforts of biomedical engineers, material scientists, and molecular and cell biologists have yielded promising therapies for non-healing wounds. However, traditional paradigms for wound healing focus largely on the role of inflammatory cells and fail to incorporate more recent research highlighting the importance of stem cells and matrix dynamics in skin repair. Approaches to chronic wound healing centred on inflammation alone are inadequate to guide the development of regenerative medicine-based technologies. As the molecular pathways and biologic defects underlying non-healing wounds are further elucidated, multifaceted bioengineering systems must advance in parallel to exploit this knowledge. In this viewpoint essay, we highlight the current concepts in tissue engineering for chronic wounds and speculate on areas for future research in this increasingly interdisciplinary field.

  8. Future market for ceramics in vehicle engines and their impacts

    SciTech Connect

    Vyas, A.; Hanson, D.; Stodolsky, F. |

    1995-02-01

    Ceramic engine components have potential to improve vehicle fuel economy. Some recent tests have also shown their environmental benefits, particularly in reducing particulate emissions in heavy-duty diesel engines. The authors used the data from a survey of the US vehicle engine and component manufacturers relating to ceramic engine components to develop a set of market penetration models. The survey identified promising ceramic components and provided data on the timing of achieving introductory shares in light and heavy-duty markets. Some ceramic components will penetrate the market when the pilot-scale costs are reduced to one-fifth of their current values, and many more will enter the market when the costs are reduced to one-tenth of the current values. An ongoing ceramics research program sponsored by the US Department of Energy has the goal of achieving such price reductions. The size and value of the future ceramic components market and the impacts of this market in terms of fuel savings, reduction in carbon dioxide emissions, and potential reduction in other criteria pollutants are presented. The future ceramic components market will be 9 million components worth $29 million within 5 years of introduction and will expand to 692 million components worth $3,484 million within 20 years. The projected annual energy savings are 3.8 trillion Btu by 5 years, increasing to 526 trillion Btu during the twentieth year. These energy savings will reduce carbon dioxide emissions by 41 million tons during the twentieth year. Ceramic components will help reduce particulate emissions by 100 million tons in 2030 and save the nation`s urban areas $152 million. The paper presents the analytical approach and discusses other economic impacts.

  9. Mechatronics: the future of mechanical engineering; past, present, and a vision for the future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramasubramanian, M. K.

    2001-08-01

    Mechatronics is the synergistic integration of precision mechanical engineering, electronics, computational hardware and software in the design of products and processes. Mechatronics, the term coined in Japan in the '70s, has evolved to symbolize what mechanical design engineers do today worldwide. The revolutionary introduction of the microprocessor (or microcontroller) in the early '80s and ever increasing performance-cost ratio has changed the paradigm of mechanical design forever, and has broadened the original definition of mechatronics to include intelligent control and autonomous decision-making. Today, increasing number of new products is being developed at the intersection between traditional disciplines of Engineering, and Computer and Material Sciences. New developments in these traditional disciplines are being absorbed into mechatronics design at an ever-increasing pace. In this paper, a brief history of mechatronics, and several examples of this rapid adaptation of technologies into product design is presented. With the ongoing information technology revolution, especially in wireless communication, smart sensors design (enabled by MEMS technology), and embedded systems engineering, mechatronics design is going through another step change in capabilities and scope. The implications of these developments in mechatronics design in the near future are discussed. Finally, deficiencies in our engineering curriculum to address the needs of the industry to cope up with these rapid changes, and proposed remedies, will also be discussed.

  10. A life scientist, an engineer and a social scientist walk into a lab: challenges of dual-use engagement and education in synthetic biology.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Brett; Kelle, Alexander

    2012-01-01

    The discussion of dual-use education is often predicated on a discrete population of practicing life scientists exhibiting certain deficiencies in awareness or expertise. This has lead to the claim that there is a greater requirement for awareness raising and education amongst this population. However, there is yet to be an inquiry into the impact of the 'convergent' nature of emerging techno-sciences upon the prospects of dual-use education. The field of synthetic biology, although often portrayed as homogeneous, is in fact composed of various sub-fields and communities. Its practitioners have diverse academic backgrounds. The research institutions that have fostered its development in the UK often have their own sets of norms and practices in engagement with ethical, legal and social issues associated with scientific knowledge and technologies. The area is also complicated by the emergence of synthetic biologists outside traditional research environments, the so called 'do-it-yourself' or 'garage biologists'. This paper untangles some of the complexities in the current state of synthetic biology and addresses the prospects for dual-use education for practitioners. It provides a short overview of the field and discusses identified dual-use issues. There follows a discussion of UK networks in synthetic biology, including their engagement with ethical, legal, social and dual-use issues and limited educational efforts in relation to these. It concludes by outlining options for developing a more systematic dual-use education strategy for synthetic biology.

  11. Increasing Awareness of Sustainable Water Management for Future Civil Engineers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ilic, Suzana; Karleusa, Barbara; Deluka-Tibljas, Aleksandra

    2010-05-01

    There are more than 1.2 billion people around the world that do not have access to drinking water. While there are plans under the United Nations Millennium Development Goals to halve this number by 2015, there are a number of regions that will be exposed to water scarcity in the coming future. Providing sufficient water for future development is a great challenge for planners and designers of water supply systems. In order to design sustainable water supplies for the future, it is important to learn how people consume water and how water consumption can be reduced. The education of future civil engineers should take into account not only technical aspects of the water supply but also the accompanying social and economical issues, and appreciated the strengths and weaknesses of traditional solutions. The Faculty of Civil Engineering, at the University of Rijeka, has begun incorporating a series of activities that engage undergraduate students and the local community to develop a mutual understanding of the future needs for sustainable management. We present one of the activities, collaboration with the Lancaster Environment Centre at Lancaster University in the UK through the field course Water and environmental management in Mediterranean context. The course, which is designed for the Lancaster University geography students, features a combination of field trips and visits to provide an understanding of the socio-economic and environmental context of water management in two counties (Istra and Primorsko-Goranska). Students from Lancaster visit the Croatian water authority and a regional water company, where they learn about current management practices and problems in managing water supplies and demand through the year. They make their own observations of current management practices in the field and learn about water consumption from the end users. One day field visit to a village in the area that is still not connected to the main water supply system is

  12. John Mather public policy internship: Perspectives on science policy as an intern at Scientists and Engineers for America (SEA) and Congressman Bill Foster's office

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tuna, Alexander

    2011-04-01

    In the summer of 2010, I participated in the John Mather public policy internship through AIP and SPS. I spent six weeks as an intern at Scientists and Engineers for America (SEA), a nonprofit, nonpartisan organization that encourages technically-trained citizens to become more engaged in US politics and the policy-making process, and six weeks as an intern for Congressman Bill Foster (D-Il 14) in the House of Representatives. These internships offered two distinct perspectives on how American science policy is crafted and showed me many ways in which scientists can be engaged in the political process.

  13. Finding a new continent versus mapping all the rivers: Recognition, ownership, and the scientific epistemological development of practicing scientists and engineers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verdan, Andrea Marie

    Maintaining our nation's standing as a leader of innovative and premier science and engineering research requires that those on the trajectory of these careers receive both rigorous and exceptional training. In addition to educating students in the content knowledge of these disciplines, it is also necessary to train them in the professional skills associated with being competent and conscientious scientists and engineers. In the attempts to understand the best strategies to teach these skills, research during the past few decades has shown a steadily increasing interest in improving the scientific literacy of students in science and engineering disciplines. Researchers agree that fostering this literacy---particularly with respect to understanding the nature of science, i.e., scientific epistemology---is an important component in developing students' abilities to become successful practitioners of science and engineering. This research was motivated by the need to further elucidate the formative experiences that contribute to science and engineering faculty members' personal epistemologies of science. To examine the development of these epistemologies, a phenomenographical study was designed to elucidate academic scientists' and engineers' understandings of contributions, collaborations, and credit assignment. The results and inductive, grounded-theory analysis of interviews with faculty members in the College of Engineering and Science at a large, southeastern institution revealed a model of scientific epistemological development and its possible ties to professional identity development. This model can help inform changes in mentorship and training practices to better prepare students to manage the challenges posed by being scientists and engineers in the 21st-century.

  14. Medical Scientists

    MedlinePlus

    ... scientists typically have a Ph.D., usually in biology or a related life science. Some medical scientists ... specialize in this field seek to understand the biology of aging and investigate ways to improve the ...

  15. Systems engineering in the global environment : a wicked future.

    SciTech Connect

    Griego, Regina M.

    2010-12-01

    This presentation discusses the following questions: (1) What are the Global Problems that require Systems Engineering; (2) Where is Systems Engineering going; (3) What are the boundaries of Systems Engineering; (4) What is the distinction between Systems Thinking and Systems Engineering; (5) Can we use Systems Engineering on Complex Systems; and (6) Can we use Systems Engineering on Wicked Problems?

  16. Future Jet Technologies. Part B. F-35 Future Risks v. JS-Education of Pilots & Engineers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gal-Or, Benjamin

    2011-09-01

    Design of “Next-Generation” airframes based on supermarket-jet-engine-components is nowadays passé. A novel integration methodology [Gal-Or, “Editorial-Review, Part A”, 2011, Gal-Or, “Vectored Propulsion, Supermaneuverability and Robot Aircraft”, Springer Verlag, Gal-Or, Int'l. J. of Thermal and Fluid Sciences 7: 1-6, 1998, “Introduction”, 2011] is nowadays in. For advanced fighter aircraft it begins with JS-based powerplant, which takes up to three times longer to mature vis-à-vis the airframe, unless “committee's design” enforces a dormant catastrophe. Jet Steering (JS) or Thrust Vectoring Flight Control, is a classified, integrated engine-airframe technology aimed at maximizing post-stall-maneuverability, flight safety, efficiency and flight envelopes of manned and unmanned air vehicles, especially in the “impossible-to-fly”, post-stall flight domains where the 100+ years old, stall-spin-limited, Conventional Flight Control fails. Worldwide success in adopting the post-stall, JS-revolution, opens a new era in aviation, with unprecedented design variables identified here for a critical review of F-35 future risks v. future fleets of jet-steered, pilotless vehicles, like the X-47B/C. From the educational point of view, it is also instructive to comprehend the causes of long, intensive opposition to adopt post-stall, JS ideas. A review of such debates may also curb a future opposition to adopt more advanced, JS-based technologies, tests, strategies, tactics and missions within the evolving air, marine and land applications of JS. Most important, re-education of pilots and engineers requires adding post-stall, JS-based studies to curriculum & R&D.

  17. Engineering brain-computer interfaces: past, present and future.

    PubMed

    Hughes, M A

    2014-06-01

    Electricity governs the function of both nervous systems and computers. Whilst ions move in polar fluids to depolarize neuronal membranes, electrons move in the solid-state lattices of microelectronic semiconductors. Joining these two systems together, to create an iono-electric brain-computer interface, is an immense challenge. However, such interfaces offer (and in select clinical contexts have already delivered) a method of overcoming disability caused by neurological or musculoskeletal pathology. To fulfill their theoretical promise, several specific challenges demand consideration. Rate-limiting steps cover a diverse range of disciplines including microelectronics, neuro-informatics, engineering, and materials science. As those who work at the tangible interface between brain and outside world, neurosurgeons are well placed to contribute to, and inform, this cutting edge area of translational research. This article explores the historical background, status quo, and future of brain-computer interfaces; and outlines the challenges to progress and opportunities available to the clinical neurosciences community.

  18. [NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Paper 4:] Technical communications in aerospace: An analysis of the practices reported by US and European aerospace engineers and scientists

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pinelli, Thomas E.; Barclay, Rebecca O.; Kennedy, John M.; Glassman, Myron

    1990-01-01

    Two pilot studies were conducted that investigated the technical communications practices of U.S. and European aerospace engineers and scientists. Both studies had the same five objectives: (1) solicit opinions regarding the importance of technical communications; (2) determine the use and production of technical communications; (3) seek views about the appropriate content of an undergraduate course in technical communications; (4) determine use of libraries, information centers, and online database; (5) determine use and importance of computer and information technology to them. A self-administered questionnaire was mailed to randomly selected aerospace engineers and scientists, with a slightly modified version sent to European colleagues. Their responses to selected questions are presented in this paper.

  19. Reading about Real Scientists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cummins, Sunday

    2015-01-01

    Although students do need hands-on experiences to master key skills in science, technology, and engineering, Cummins asserts, K-12 teachers should also help students understand key STEM concepts by reading, writing, and talking about the work of professional scientists and engineers. Cummins lists high-quality texts that help young people…

  20. Science Writer-At-Sea: A New InterRidge Education Outreach Project Joining Scientists and Future Journalists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kusek, K. M.; Freitag, K.; Devey, C.

    2005-12-01

    The Science Writer-at-Sea program is one small step in a marathon need for improved coverage of science and environmental issues. It targets two significant links in the Earth science communication pipeline: marine scientists and journalists; and attempts to reconnect people with the Earth by boosting their understanding of Earth science and its relevance to society. How it works: Journalism graduate students are invited to participate in oceanographic expeditions affiliated with InterRidge, an international organization dedicated to promoting ocean ridge research. InterRidge's outreach coordinator and science writer prepares each student for the expedition experience using materials she developed based on years of at-sea reporting. The students work side-by-side with the science writer and the scientists to research and write innovative journalistic stories for a general audience that are featured on a uniquely designed multimedia website that includes videos and images. The science, journalism and public communities benefit from this cost-effective program: science research is effectively showcased, scientists benefit from interactions with journalists, science outreach objectives are accomplished; student journalists enjoy a unique hands-on, `boot camp' experience; and the website enhances public understanding of `real' Earth science reported `on scene at sea.' InterRidge completed its first pilot test of the program in August 2005 aboard a Norwegian research cruise. A student writer entering the science journalism program at Columbia University participated. The results exceeded expectations. The team discovered the world's northernmost vent fields on the cruise, which expanded the original scope of the website to include a section specifically designed for the international press. The student was inspired by the cruise, amazed at how much she learned, and said she entered graduate school with much more confidence than she had prior to the program. The site

  1. Developmental Potential among Creative Scientists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Culross, Rita R.

    2008-01-01

    The world of creative scientists is dramatically different in the 21st century than it was during previous centuries. Whether biologists, chemists, physicists, engineers, mathematicians, or computer scientists, the livelihood of research scientists is dependent on their abilities of creative expression. The view of a solitary researcher who…

  2. Past, present and future of vehicular engines in Japan

    SciTech Connect

    Goto, S.

    1987-01-01

    For the purpose of reviewing the research trends of vehicular engines in Japan, the data of engine data books were put into the computer to calculate the data and to create graphs. The engine characteristics were systematically investigated and the trends of engines were well grasped with exhaust gas and noise regulations.

  3. Shortage of Engineers and Scientists. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Science, Technology, and Space of the Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation. United States Senate One Hundred First Congress, Second Session on Training Scientists and Engineers for the Year 2000--The National Science Foundation's Role.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation.

    This document is the transcript of a Congressional hearing focusing on the status of the training of scientists and engineers in the United States and the role of the federal government in the improvement of this situation. Included are opening statements from Senators Albert Gore, Jr. (Tennessee), Robert W. Kasten, Jr. (Wisconsin), and Larry…

  4. Engineering the future with America's high school students

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farrance, M. A.; Jenner, J. W.

    1993-01-01

    The number of students enrolled in engineering is declining while the need for engineers is increasing. One contributing factor is that most high school students have little or no knowledge about what engineering is, or what engineers do. To teach young students about engineering, engineers need good tools. This paper presents a course of study developed and used by the authors in a junior college course for high school students. Students learned about engineering through independent student projects, in-class problem solving, and use of career information resources. Selected activities from the course can be adapted to teach students about engineering in other settings. Among the most successful techniques were the student research paper assignments, working out a solution to an engineering problem as a class exercise, and the use of technical materials to illustrate engineering concepts and demonstrate 'tools of the trade'.

  5. Famous Scientists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steinheimer, Margaret

    1998-01-01

    Presents ways to incorporate discussion of the lives of famous scientists into the classroom. Suggests a monthly focus on a different scientist with students researching each subject and using the information in a poster or timeline project toward the end of the year. (DDR)

  6. Tissue engineering and regenerative medicine: past, present, and future.

    PubMed

    Salgado, António J; Oliveira, Joaquim M; Martins, Albino; Teixeira, Fábio G; Silva, Nuno A; Neves, Nuno M; Sousa, Nuno; Reis, Rui L

    2013-01-01

    Tissue and organ repair still represents a clinical challenge. Tissue engineering and regenerative medicine (TERM) is an emerging field focused on the development of alternative therapies for tissue/organ repair. This highly multidisciplinary field, in which bioengineering and medicine merge, is based on integrative approaches using scaffolds, cell populations from different sources, growth factors, nanomedicine, gene therapy, and other techniques to overcome the limitations that currently exist in the clinics. Indeed, its overall objective is to induce the formation of new functional tissues, rather than just implanting spare parts. This chapter aims at introducing the reader to the concepts and techniques of TERM. It begins by explaining how TERM have evolved and merged into TERM, followed by a short overview of some of its key aspects such as the combinations of scaffolds with cells and nanomedicine, scaffold processing, and new paradigms of the use of stem cells for tissue repair/regeneration, which ultimately could represent the future of new therapeutic approaches specifically aimed at clinical applications.

  7. J-2X, The Engine of the Future

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Gail

    2009-01-01

    My project was two-fold, with both parts involving the J-2X Upper Stage engine (which will be used on both the Ares I and V). Mainly, I am responsible for using a program called Iris to create visual represen tations of the rocket engine's telemetry data. Also, my project includes the application of my newly acquired Pro Engineer skills in develo ping a 3D model of the engine's nozzle.

  8. How Can Engineering Education Contribute to a Sustainable Future?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pritchard, J.; Baillie, C.

    2006-01-01

    In the present paper we question how engineering education (and engineering) can support greater participation and inclusiveness in decision making and science and technology. We consider the work "relating" to engineering and society that is conducted by the scholars of science and technology studies, but which is rarely read or considered by the…

  9. NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Paper 36: Technical uncertainty as a correlate of information use by US industry-affiliated aerospace engineers and scientists

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pinelli, Thomas E.; Glassman, Nanci A.; Affelder, Linda O.; Hecht, Laura M.; Kennedy, John M.; Barclay, Rebecca O.

    1994-01-01

    This paper reports the results of an exploratory study that investigated the influence of technical uncertainty on the use of information and information sources by U.S. industry-affiliated aerospace engineers and scientists in completing or solving a project, task, or problem. Data were collected through a self-administered questionnaire. Survey participants were U.S. aerospace engineers and scientists whose names appeared on the Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) mailing list. The results support the findings of previous research and the following study assumptions. Information and information-source use differ for projects, problems, and tasks with high and low technical uncertainty. As technical uncertainty increases, information-source use changes from internal to external and from informal to formal sources. As technical uncertainty increases, so too does the use of federally funded aerospace research and development (R&D). The use of formal information sources to learn about federally funded aerospace R&D differs for projects, problems, and tasks with high and low technical uncertainty.

  10. Urban Futures - Innovation Engines or Slums? A Stellar Evolution Model of Urban Growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shutters, S. T.; Timmes, F.; Desouza, K.

    2015-12-01

    Why, as cities grow in size and density, do some "ignite" into global engines of innovation and prosperity while others grow into dense slums? This is our overarching question as we explore a novel framework for thinking about the evolution of cities and, more specifically, the divergent trajectories they may take. We develop a speculative framework by examining the analogies between the evolution of cities and the evolution of stars. Like cities, stellar gas clouds can grow in mass, eventually reaching temperature and density thresholds at which they ignite the hydrogen fuel in their cores to become full-fledged stars. But not all gas and dust clouds share this fate. Some never achieve the critical conditions and do not unleash the energy we witness emanating from our own star. Some stars, after exhaustion of their initial fuel, evolve to incredible density but lack the temperature to ignite the next fuel needed to maintain the critical interactions that release so much energy. Instead they fade away to an object of intense density, but without the vibrant emission of light and energy associated with non-degenerate stars. The fate of cities, too, depends on the density of interactions - not of gas molecules, but of people. This elevated rate of face-to-face interactions in an urban core is critical for the transition to an innovative and creative economy. Yet, density is not enough, as evidenced both by many megacities in the developing world and degenerate stars. What is this missing element that, along with density, ignites a city and turns it into an innovation engine? With these analogies in mind, we explore whether they are useful for framing future research on cities, what questions they may help pose, and, more broadly, how physical, social, and natural scientists can all contribute to an interdisciplinary endeavor to understand cities more deeply.

  11. Future of Chemical Engineering: Integrating Biology into the Undergraduate ChE Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mosto, Patricia; Savelski, Mariano; Farrell, Stephanie H.; Hecht, Gregory B.

    2007-01-01

    Integrating biology in the chemical engineering curriculum seems to be the future for chemical engineering programs nation and worldwide. Rowan University's efforts to address this need include a unique chemical engineering curriculum with an intensive biology component integrated throughout from freshman to senior years. Freshman and Sophomore…

  12. Engineering Education--Finding the Centre or 'Back to the Future'.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    John, Vernon

    2000-01-01

    Attempts to list the body of knowledge and skills that future engineers will need and how such knowledge and skills can best be transferred to students during the engineering education process. Discusses some of the problems facing higher education today presents some ideas for cross border harmonization of engineering education. (Author/SAH)

  13. Organizational stress and individual strain: A social-psychological study of risk factors in coronary heart disease among administrators, engineers, and scientists

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caplan, R. D.

    1971-01-01

    It is hypothesized that organizational stresses, such as high quantitative work load, responsibility for persons, poor relations with role senders, and contact with alien organizational territories, may be associated with high levels of psychological and physiological strain which are risk factors in coronary heart disease. It is further hypothesized that persons with coronary-prone Type A personality characteristics are most likely to exhibit strain under conditions of organizational stress. Measures of these stresses, personality traits, and strains were obtained from 205 male NASA administrators, engineers, and scientists. Type A personality measures included sense of time urgency, persistence, involved striving, leadership, and preference for competitive and environmentally overburdening situations.

  14. Attitudes of Research and Development Professional Federal Employees Toward Value Systems and Operative Goals: A Study of Scientists, Engineers and Managers at a Federal Installation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-01-01

    Table III). It would seem that great concern should be taken to reverse the tr6nd by implementing (l) improvement of the quality of working life; (2...Operativi Research Paper Goals; A Study of Scientists, Engineers and Mana- gers at a Federal Installation. READ INSTRUCTIONS BEFORE COMPLETING...8217Th^Tele^h Y^enms^0^nSogSSIS^Ii ^g^lt^si^s^fi paper that was presented to the Department of Advanced Programs, The Uni-rersity of Oklahoma in

  15. Current and future engine applications of Gr/PI composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cavano, P. J.; Schmid, T. E.

    1985-01-01

    The application of organic matrix composites to gas turbine engine components has been the subject of numerous government and company funded programs since the 1960's. The possibility of significant weight reductions, performance improvements and lower component costs have made the organic matrix composites extremely attractive to aircraft engine designers. Very little of this potential was incorporated into production engines over the years even though a significant number of components were designed, fabricated and tested. Some of the reasons behind the slow rate of incorporation include the following: (1) criticality; (2) engine operating temperature; (3) small component size; (4) small production volume; (5) high production cost; and (6) interfacing with metal parts.

  16. Editorial: Looking to the Future of Hydrologic Engineering

    EPA Science Inventory

    Being one of the more recent journals of the American Society of Civil Engineers, the Journal of Hydrologic Engineering (JHE) has made significant strides under the forward-thinking leadership of previous editors (M. Levent Kavvas 1996-2004, and V. P. Singh, 2004-2012) si...

  17. Engineering Education: The Key to a Sustainable Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Jason

    2012-01-01

    It is obvious that engineering played a significant role in the development of the world. Many contributions engineers have given are visible in the world and in people's daily lives. Unfortunately, humans often learn through trial and error, and much of the world has been developed in ways that did not contribute to the well-being of the planet…

  18. The Future for Industrial Engineers: Education and Research Opportunities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mummolo, Giovanni

    2007-01-01

    EU graduation and the recruitment of industrial engineers (IEs) have been investigated. An increasing demand is observed for graduates in almost all industrial engineering (IE) subjects. The labour market in the EU is evolving towards the service sector even if manufacturing still represents a significant share of both IE employment and gross…

  19. SI Engine Trends: A Historical Analysis with Future Projections

    SciTech Connect

    Pawlowski, Alexander; Splitter, Derek A

    2015-01-01

    It is well known that spark ignited engine performance and efficiency is closely coupled to fuel octane number. The present work combines historical and recent trends in spark ignition engines to build a database of engine design, performance, and fuel octane requirements over the past 80 years. The database consists of engine compression ratio, required fuel octane number, peak mean effective pressure, specific output, and combined unadjusted fuel economy for passenger vehicles and light trucks. Recent trends in engine performance, efficiency, and fuel octane number requirement were used to develop correlations of fuel octane number utilization, performance, specific output. The results show that historically, engine compression ratio and specific output have been strongly coupled to fuel octane number. However, over the last 15 years the sales weighted averages of compression ratios, specific output, and fuel economy have increased, while the fuel octane number requirement has remained largely unchanged. Using the developed correlations, 10-year-out projections of engine performance, design, and fuel economy are estimated for various fuel octane numbers, both with and without turbocharging. The 10-year-out projection shows that only by keeping power neutral while using 105 RON fuel will allow the vehicle fleet to meet CAFE targets if only the engine is relied upon to decrease fuel consumption. If 98 RON fuel is used, a power neutral fleet will have to reduce vehicle weight by 5%.

  20. Plug engine systems for future launch vehicle applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Immich, H.; Parsley, R. C.

    1993-06-01

    Based on improved viability resulting from modern analysis techniques, plug nozzle rocket engines are once again being investigated with respect to advanced launch vehicle concepts. The advantage of these engines is the external expansion, which self-adapts to external pressure variation, as well as the short compact design for high expansion ratios. This paper describes feasible design options ranging from a plug nozzle engine with an annular combustion chamber to a segmented modular design, to the integration of a number of conventional engines around a common plug. The advantages and disadvantages of these options are discussed for a range of potential applications including single-stage-to-orbit (SSTO) vehicles, as well as upper stage vehicles such as the second stage of the SAeNGER HTOL launch vehicle concept. Also included is a discussion of how maturing computational fluid dynamic (CFD) modeling techniques could significantly reduce installed performance uncertainties, reducing plug engine development risk.

  1. NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Report 31: The technical communications practices of US aerospace engineers and scientists: Results of the phase 1 SME mail survey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pinelli, Thomas E.; Barclay, Rebecca O.; Kennedy, John M.

    1994-01-01

    The U.S. government technical report is a primary means by which the results of federally funded research and development (R&D) are transferred to the U.S. aerospace industry. However, little is known about this information product in terms of its actual use, importance, and value in the transfer of federally funded R&D. To help establish a body of knowledge, the U.S. government technical report is being investigated as part of the NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. In this report, we summarize the literature on technical reports and provide a model that depicts the transfer of federally funded aerospace R&D via the U.S. government technical report. We present results from our investigation of aerospace knowledge diffusion vis-a-vis the U.S. government technical communications practices of U.S. aerospace engineers and scientists affiliated with, not necessarily belonging to, the Society of Manufacturing Engineers (SME).

  2. New opportunities for future, small, General-Aviation Turbine Engines (GATE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strack, W. C.

    1980-01-01

    The results of four independent contracted studies to explore the opportunities for future small turbine engines are summarized in a composite overview. Candidate advanced technologies are screened, various cycles and staging arrangements are parametrically evaluated, and optimum conceptual engines are identified for a range of 300 to 600 horsepower applications. Engine improvements of 20 percent in specific fuel consumption and 40 percent in engine cost were forecast using high risk technologies that could be technically demonstrated by 1988. The ensuing economic benefits are in the neighborhood of 20 to 30 percent for twin-engine aircraft currently powered by piston engines.

  3. Process for Generating Engine Fuel Consumption Map: Future Atkinson Engine with Cooled EGR and Cylinder Deactivation

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This document summarizes the process followed to utilize GT-POWER modeled engine and laboratory engine dyno test data to generate a full engine fuel consumption map which can be used by EPA's ALPHA vehicle simulations.

  4. Diversity in engineering: managing the workforce of the future

    SciTech Connect

    Layne, Peggy; Arenberg, Carol

    2002-07-03

    On October 29-30, 2001, the National Academy of Engineering Committee on Diversity in the Engineering Workforce brought together representatives of corporations that have been recognized for their successful diversity programs and members of the NAE Forum on Diversity to participate in a workshop entitled ''Best Practices in Managing Diversity''. The purpose of the workshop was to identify and describe corporate programs that have successfully recruited, retained, and advanced women and minorities in engineering careers and to discuss metrics by which to evaluate diversity programs.

  5. NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Paper 52: A comparison of the technical communications practices of Japanese and US aerospace engineers and scientists

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pinelli, Thomas E.; Holloway, Karen; Sato, Yuko; Barclay, Rebecca O.; Kennedy, John M.

    1995-01-01

    To understand the diffusion of aerospace knowledge, it is necessary to understand the communications practices and the information-seeking behaviors of those involved in the production, transfer, and use of aerospace knowledge at the individual, organizational, national, and international levels. In this paper, we report selected results from a survey of Japanese and U.S. aerospace engineers and scientists that focused on communications practices and information-seeking behaviors in the workplace. Data are presented for the following topics: importance of and time spent communicating information, collaborative writing, need for an undergraduate course in technical communications, use of libraries, the use and importance of electronic (computer) networks, and the use and importance of foreign and domestically produced technical reports. The responses of the survey respondents are placed within the context of the Japanese culture. We assume that differences in Japanese and U.S. cultures influence the communications practices and information-seeking behaviors of Japanese and U.S. aerospace engineers and scientists.

  6. [NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Paper 4:] Technical communications in aerospace: An analysis of the practices reported by US and European aerospace engineers and scientists

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pinelli, Thomas E.; Barclay, Rebecca O.; Kennedy, John M.; Glassman, Myron

    1990-01-01

    Results are reported from pilot surveys on the use of scientific and technical information (STI) by U.S. and NATO-nation aerospace scientists and engineers, undertaken as part of the NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. The survey procedures and the demographic characteristics of the 67 scientists and engineers who responded to the survey are summarized, and the results are presented in a series of tables and discussed in detail. Findings emphasized include: (1) both U.S. and NATO respondents spend around 60 percent of their work week producing or using STI products; (2) NATO respondents are more likely than their U.S. counterparts to use 'formal' STI products (like technical reports and papers) and the services of librarians and online data bases; (3) most of the respondents use computers and information technology in preparing STI products; and (4) respondents who had taken courses in technical communication agreed on the value and ideal subject matter of such courses.

  7. Life cycle cost assessment of future low heat rejection engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petersen, D. R.

    1986-01-01

    The Adiabatic Diesel Engine Component Development (ADECD) represents a project which has the objective to accelerate the development of highway truck engines with advanced technology aimed at reduced fuel consumption. The project comprises three steps, including the synthesis of a number of engine candidate designs, the coupling of each with a number of systems for utilizing exhaust gas energy, and the evaluation of each combination in terms of desirability. Particular attention is given to the employed evaluation method and the development of this method. The objective of Life Cycle Cost (LCC) evaluation in the ADECD program was to select the best from among 42 different low heat rejection engine (LHRE)/exhaust energy recovery system configurations. The LCC model is discussed along with a maintenance cost model, the evaluation strategy, the selection of parameter ranges, and a full factorial analysis.

  8. NASA Now: Engineering Design: Tilt Rotors, Aircraft of the Future

    NASA Video Gallery

    Meet Carl Russell, a research aerospace engineer who is working on developing new innovations for air travel. Russell discusses how tilt rotors work, including a demonstration on how rotors use Ber...

  9. Future fuels and engines for railroad locomotives. Volume 1: Summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liddle, S. G.; Bonzo, B. B.; Purohit, G. P.; Stallkamp, J. A.

    1981-01-01

    The potential for reducing the dependence of railroads on petroleum fuel, particularly Diesel No. 2 was investigated. Two approaches are studied: (1) to determine how the use of Diesel No. 2 can be reduced through increased efficiency and conservation, and (2) to use fuels other than Diesel No. 2 both in Diesel and other types of engines. Because synthetic hydrocarbon fuels are particularly suited to medium speed diesel engines, the first commercial application of these fuels may be by the railroad industry.

  10. Turbine Engine Clearance Control Systems: Current Practices and Future Directions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lattime, Scott B.; Steinetz, Bruce M.

    2002-01-01

    Improved blade tip sealing in the high pressure compressor (HPC) and high pressure turbine (HPT) can provide dramatic reductions in specific fuel consumption (SFC), time-on-wing, compressor stall margin, and engine efficiency as well as increased payload and mission range capabilities. Maintenance costs to overhaul large commercial gas turbine engines can easily exceed $1M. Engine removal from service is primarily due to spent exhaust gas temperature (EGT) margin caused mainly by the deterioration of HPT components. Increased blade tip clearance is a major factor in hot section component degradation. As engine designs continue to push the performance envelope with fewer parts and the market drives manufacturers to increase service life, the need for advanced sealing continues to grow. A review of aero gas turbine engine HPT performance degradation and the mechanisms that promote these losses are discussed. Benefits to the HPT due to improved clearance management are identified. Past and present sealing technologies are presented along with specifications for next generation engine clearance control systems.

  11. The gate studies: Assessing the potential of future small general aviation turbine engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strack, W. C.

    1979-01-01

    Four studies were completed that explore the opportunities for future General Aviation turbine engines (GATE) in the 150-1000 SHP class. These studies forecasted the potential impact of advanced technology turbine engines in the post-1988 market, identified important aircraft and missions, desirable engine sizes, engine performance, and cost goals. Parametric evaluations of various engine cycles, configurations, design features, and advanced technology elements defined baseline conceptual engines for each of the important missions identified by the market analysis. Both fixed-wing and helicopter aircraft, and turboshaft, turboprop, and turbofan engines were considered. Sizable performance gains (e.g., 20% SFC decrease), and large engine cost reductions of sufficient magnitude to challenge the reciprocating engine in the 300-500 SHP class were predicted.

  12. Playing Scientist

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Ashley

    2012-01-01

    Engaging students in the study of genetics is essential to building a deep understanding of heredity, a core idea in the life sciences (NRC 2012). By integrating into the curriculum the stories of famous scientists who studied genetics (e.g., Mendel, Franklin, Watson, and Crick), teachers remind their students that science is a human endeavor.…

  13. Citizen Scientists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, Katherine

    2010-01-01

    The Harvard Forest Schoolyard Ecology Program provides teachers and students with the opportunity and materials to participate in regionally focused ecological studies under the guidance of a mentor scientist working on a similar study. The Harvard Forest is part of a national network of ecological research sites known as the Long Term Ecological…

  14. NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Report 13: Source selection and information use by US aerospace engineers and scientists: Results of a telephone survey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pinelli, Thomas E.; Glassman, Nanci A.

    1992-01-01

    A telephone survey of U.S. aerospace engineers and scientists belonging to the Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) was conducted between December 4, 1991 and January 5, 1992. The survey was undertaken to (1) validate the telephone survey as an appropriate technique for collecting data from U.S. aerospace engineers and scientists; (2) collect information about how the results of NASA/DoD aerospace research are used in the R&D process; (3) identify those selection criteria which affect the use of federally-funded aerospace R&D; and (4) obtain information that could be used to develop a self-administered mail questionnaire for use with the same population. The average rating of importance of U.S. government technical reports was 2.5 (on a 4-point scale); The mean/median number of times U.S. government technical reports were used per 6 months was 8/2. Factors scoring highest for U.S. government technical reports were technical accuracy (2.9), reliable data and technical information (2.8), and contains comprehensive data and information (2.7) on a 4-point system. The factors scoring highest for influencing the use of U.S. government technical reports were relevance (3.1), technical accuracy (3.06), and reliable data/information (3.02). Ease of use, familiarity, technical accuracy, and relevance correlated with use of U.S. government technical reports. Survey demographics, survey questionnaire, and the NASA/DoD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project publications list are included.

  15. Advanced technology programs for small turboshaft engines; Past, present, future

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, E.T. ); Lindsay, H. )

    1991-01-01

    This paper addresses approximately 15 years of advanced technology programs sponsored by the United States Army Aviation Applied Technology Directorate and its predecessor organizations and conducted by GE Aircraft Engines (GEAE). Included in these programs is the accomplishment of (1) the 1500 shp demonstrator (GE12), which led to the 1700, and (2) the 5000 shp Modern Technology Demonstrator Engine (MTDE/GE27). Also included are several advanced technology component programs that have been completed or are ongoing through the early 1990s. The goals for the next generation of tri-service small advanced gas generator demonstration programs are shown. A prediction is thus made of the advancements required to fulfill the aircraft propulsion system established by the DoD/NASA Integrated High-Performance Turbine Engine Technology (IHPTET) initiative through the year 2000.

  16. Characteristics of Doctoral Scientists and Engineers in the United States: 2006. Detailed Statistical Tables. NSF 09-317

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foley, Daniel J.

    2009-01-01

    This report presents data from the 2006 Survey of Doctorate Recipients (SDR). The SDR is a panel survey that collects longitudinal data, biennially, on demographic and general employment characteristics of individuals who have received a doctorate in a science, engineering, or health field from a U.S. academic institution. Sampled individuals are…

  17. Access and Success for African American Engineers and Computer Scientists: A Case Study of Two Predominantly White Public Research Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newman, Christopher Bufford

    2011-01-01

    Over the past decade, three rationales have emerged for emphasizing the reinforcement of the United States' science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) pipeline. The first rationale pertains to U.S. global competitiveness, the second revolves around the benefits of a diverse workforce, and the third argument points to social justice…

  18. Charting the pipeline: Identifying the critical elements in the development of successful African American scientists, engineers, and mathematicians

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Brian Anthony

    Many educational researchers are concerned with the apparent poor performance of different racial and ethnic groups in the fields of science, engineering, and mathematics in the United States. Despite improvements in the performance of African Americans, Hispanic Americans, and Native Americans in these areas over the past decade, these groups are still less likely to enroll in advanced math and science courses or score at or above the proficient level in mathematics. Furthermore, these groups continue to be underrepresented in the nation's technical and scientific workforce. The purpose of this study was to identify the critical elements related to the success of African Americans in science, engineering, and mathematics. Specifically, this study was designed to answer the following questions as they pertained to African American graduate students: What factors were perceived to have contributed to the students' initial interest in science, engineering, or mathematics? What factors were perceived to have contributed to the students' decisions to continue their studies in their specific areas of interest? What factors, associated with the K--12 schooling experience, were perceived to have contributed to the students' success in science, engineering, or mathematics? The data for the study were acquired from interviews with 32 African American students (16 males and 16 females) who were engaged in graduate work in science, engineering, or mathematics. Four major themes emerged from the analysis of the interview data. The first was that all students were involved in experiences that allowed a significant level of participation in science, engineering, and mathematics. Second, all of the students experienced some form of positive personal intervention by another person. Third, all students possessed perceptions of these fields that involved some sort of positive outcome. Finally, all of the of the students believed they possessed intrinsic qualities that qualified and

  19. Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine in Iran: Current State of Research and Future Outlook.

    PubMed

    Mobini, Sahba; Khanmohammadi, Manijeh; Heidari-Vala, Hamed; Samadikuchaksaraei, Ali; Moshiri, Ali; Kazemnejad, Somaieh

    2015-07-01

    During two decades ago, Iran has exhibited remarkable increase in scientific publication in different aspects including tissue engineering and regenerative medicine (TERM). The field of TERM in Iran dates comes back to the early part of the 1990 and the advent of stem cell researches. Nowadays, Iran is one of the privileged countries in stem cell therapy in the Middle East. The next major milestone in TERM was application and fabrication of scaffolds for tissue engineering in the early 2000s with a focus on engineering bone and cartilage tissue. A good amount of thoughtful works has also yielded prototypes of other tissue substitutes such as nerve conduits, liver, and even heart. However, forward movement to clinical application of these products is still far from offering clinically acceptable solutions. In this study, we have presented a comprehensive review on the efforts of Iranian scientists in different issues of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine field.

  20. Automation and Engineering Psychology: A Look to the Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parsons, H. McIlvaine

    Various aspects of automation are explained to differentiate it from technology and mechanization and to show the difference between using equipment to help humans and using equipment to replace humans. Five reasons are given for engineering psychology to focus its attention on automation. Automation issues in a number of areas are discussed,…

  1. Introducing Future Engineers to Sustainable Ecology Problems: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Filipkowski, A.

    2011-01-01

    The problem of Earth environmental destruction by human activities is becoming dangerous. Engineers responsible for the production of any goods should be well aware of the negative influence of their activities on the state of the planet. This is why the understanding of ecological problems is essential for people responsible for production and…

  2. Sea floor engineering geomorphology: recent achievements and future directions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prior, David B.; Hooper, James R.

    1999-12-01

    New mapping technology is providing perspectives of the sea floor "as if there were no ocean", revealing that ocean floors exhibit a wide variety of relief, sediment properties, and active geologic processes such as erosion, faulting, fluid expulsion, and landslides. The development of coastal and offshore resources, such as oil and gas and minerals, involves sea floor engineering in remote, complex, and sometimes hazardous environments. Optimum engineering design and construction practice require detailed surveys of sea floor geomorphology, geologic conditions on the sea bed and to various depths beneath it, combined with geotechnical properties of the sediments and oceanographic information. Integrated site survey models attempt to predict conditions and process frequencies and magnitudes relevant to the engineering design lifetimes of sea floor installations, such as cables, pipelines, production platforms, as well as supporting coastal infrastructure such as jetties, wharves, bridges and harbors. Recent use of deep water areas for oil and gas production, pipelines, and cable routes are also showing that the "world's greatest slopes", beyond the continental shelves contain exciting, exotic, and enigmatic geomorphological features and processes. Safe and cost-effective engineering use of these regions depends upon exciting new technical and conceptual advances for understanding sea floor geomorphology — a task which has barely begun.

  3. The Status and Future of Aerospace Engineering Education in Turkey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hale, Francis J.

    There is no aerospace industry in Turkey, and the level of operational activity is low even though the potential for the exploitation of aviation is high. The government of Turkey hopes to establish an aircraft factory in conjunction with a foreign contractor and is aware of the need for aerospace engineering education. This paper describes the…

  4. A Vision of the Chemical Engineering Curriculum of the Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armstrong, Robert C.

    2006-01-01

    A dramatic shift in chemical engineering undergraduate education is envisioned, based on discipline-wide workshop discussions that have taken place over the last two years. Faculty from more than 53 universities and industry representatives from 19 companies participated. Through this process broad consensus has been developed regarding basic…

  5. Exploring Native American Students' Perceptions of Scientists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laubach, Timothy A.; Crofford, Geary Don; Marek, Edmund A.

    2012-07-01

    The purpose of this descriptive study was to explore Native American (NA) students' perceptions of scientists by using the Draw-A-Scientist Test and to determine if differences in these perceptions exist between grade level, gender, and level of cultural tradition. Data were collected for students in Grades 9-12 within a NA grant off-reservation boarding school. A total of 133 NA students were asked to draw a picture of a scientist at work and to provide a written explanation as to what the scientist was doing. A content analysis of the drawings indicated that the level of stereotype differed between all NA subgroups, but analysis of variance revealed that these differences were not significant between groups except for students who practised native cultural tradition at home compared to students who did not practise native cultural tradition at home (p < 0.05). The results suggest that NA students who practise cultural traditions at home are more able to function fluidly between indigenous knowledge and modern western science than their non-practising counterparts. Overall, these NA students do not see themselves as scientists, which may influence their educational and career science, technology, engineering, and mathematics paths in the future. The educational implication is that once initial perceptions are identified, researchers and teachers can provide meaningful experiences to combat the stereotypes.

  6. A Strategic Approach for Supporting the Future of Civil Engineering Education in Europe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Angelides, Demos C.; Loukogeorgaki, Eva

    2005-01-01

    A new strategic vision of the extensively debated European higher education is proposed with focus on civil engineering. Civil engineering education for the future is considered with relevance to potential world-wide trends and anticipated societal requirements and, therefore, required employee qualifications of the construction-related providers…

  7. National science policy and scientific manpower: Funding effects on job mobility of scientists and engineers in the United States, 1958--1972

    SciTech Connect

    Lyman, K.L.

    1993-01-01

    Science policy in the United States between 1958 and 1972 was intended to influence the research and development (R D) labor force indirectly, through government funding. An event history analysis of professional R D jobs in five scientific disciplines shows that, while federal funding influences the job mobility of scientists and engineers, other social and economic factors are also significant in explaining mobility patterns. Federal funding significantly decreases the rates of job mobility in all disciplines during the period, stabilizing the employment structure. Indicators of reward-resource arguments-salary, age, and education-significantly affect job mobility. Consistent with human capital and job matching arguments, salary and age significantly reduce mobility. Education is significant only in life science, physical science, and engineering, where higher education leads to increased mobility. Indicators of limited opportunity arguments-socioeconomic background, sex, and ethnicity-show mixed empirical results. Labour markets also significantly affect mobility. In engineering and physical science, a neo-institutional model, which accounts for the degree of government oversight, fits the data best. Social science and life science are best fit by performance sectors, which highlight the importance of universities as employers for these disciplines. Mathematical science is best fit by a model of industrial sectors, consistent with differential expansion of the economy that disproportionately affected this discipline. Federal funding has acted to institutionalize R D in the economy and stabilize employment; it has not insulated workers from general socioeconomic factors such as human capital, discrimination and labour markets.

  8. Investing in the Best and Brightest: Increased Fellowship Support for American Scientists and Engineers. Discussion Paper 2006-09

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freeman, Richard B.

    2006-01-01

    There is widespread concern that the United States faces a problem in maintaining its position as the scientific and technological leader in the world and that loss of leadership threatens future economic well-being and national security. Business, science, and education groups have issued reports that highlight the value to the country of…

  9. Biomimetics: forecasting the future of science, engineering, and medicine

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Jangsun; Jeong, Yoon; Park, Jeong Min; Lee, Kwan Hong; Hong, Jong Wook; Choi, Jonghoon

    2015-01-01

    Biomimetics is the study of nature and natural phenomena to understand the principles of underlying mechanisms, to obtain ideas from nature, and to apply concepts that may benefit science, engineering, and medicine. Examples of biomimetic studies include fluid-drag reduction swimsuits inspired by the structure of shark’s skin, velcro fasteners modeled on burrs, shape of airplanes developed from the look of birds, and stable building structures copied from the backbone of turban shells. In this article, we focus on the current research topics in biomimetics and discuss the potential of biomimetics in science, engineering, and medicine. Our report proposes to become a blueprint for accomplishments that can stem from biomimetics in the next 5 years as well as providing insight into their unseen limitations. PMID:26388692

  10. Biomimetics: forecasting the future of science, engineering, and medicine.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Jangsun; Jeong, Yoon; Park, Jeong Min; Lee, Kwan Hong; Hong, Jong Wook; Choi, Jonghoon

    2015-01-01

    Biomimetics is the study of nature and natural phenomena to understand the principles of underlying mechanisms, to obtain ideas from nature, and to apply concepts that may benefit science, engineering, and medicine. Examples of biomimetic studies include fluid-drag reduction swimsuits inspired by the structure of shark's skin, velcro fasteners modeled on burrs, shape of airplanes developed from the look of birds, and stable building structures copied from the backbone of turban shells. In this article, we focus on the current research topics in biomimetics and discuss the potential of biomimetics in science, engineering, and medicine. Our report proposes to become a blueprint for accomplishments that can stem from biomimetics in the next 5 years as well as providing insight into their unseen limitations.

  11. NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Paper 11: The Voice of the User: How US Aerospace Engineers and Scientists View DoD Technical Reports

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pinelli, Thomas E.; Kennedy, John M.

    1991-01-01

    The project examines how the results of NASA/DOD research diffuse into the aerospace R&D process, and empirically analyzes the implications of the aerospace knowledge diffusion process. Specific issues considered are the roles played by government technical reports, the recognition of the value of scientific and technical information (STI), and the optimization of the STI aerospace transfer system. Information-seeking habits are assessed for the U.S. aerospace community, the general community, the academic sector, and the international community. U.S. aerospace engineers and scientists use 65 percent of working time to communicate STI, and prefer 'internal' STI over 'external' STI. The isolation from 'external' information is found to be detrimental to U.S. aerospace R&D in general.

  12. NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Paper 53: From student to entry-level professional: Examining the technical communications practices of early career-stage US aerospace engineers and scientists

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pinelli, Thomas E.; Holloway, Karen; Barclay, Rebecca O.; Kennedy, John M.

    1995-01-01

    Studies indicate that communications and information-related activities take up a substantial portion of an engineer's work week; therefore, effective communications and information-use skills are one of the key engineering competencies that early career-stage aerospace engineers and scientists must possess to be successful. Feedback from industry rates communications and information-use skills high in terms of their importance to engineering practice; however, this same feedback rates the communications and information-use skills of early career-stage engineers low. To gather adequate and generalizable data about the communications and information-related activities of entry-level aerospace engineers and scientists, we surveyed 264 members of the AIAA who have no more than 1-5 years of aerospace engineering work experience. To learn more about the concomitant communications norms, we compared the results of this study with data (1,673 responses) we collected from student members of the AIAA and with data (341 responses) we collected from a study of aerospace engineering professionals. In this paper, we report selected results from these studies that focused on the communications practices and information-related activities of early career-stage U.S. aerospace engineers and scientists in the workplace.

  13. Report on 1985 national survey of compensation paid scientists and engineers engaged in research and development activities

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-11-01

    In November of 1966, the US DOE awarded a contract to the Columbus Division of Battelle to design a survey of compensation paid to scientific and engineering personnel engaged in research and development in the United States. The contract provided that such a survey would utilize the maturity or ''age-wage'' approach, under which salary data would be related to years since receipt of degree or chronological age. This document reports the results of the seventeenth annual survey, with a salary effective date of February 1, 1985.

  14. Report on 1986 national survey of compensation paid scientists and engineers engaged in research and development activities

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-01-01

    In November of 1966, the United States Department of Energy awarded a contract to the Columbus Division of Battelle to design a survey of compensation paid to scientific and engineering personnel engaged in research and development in the United States. This survey utilized the maturity or ''age-wage'' approach, under which salary data would be related to years since receipt or degree of chronological age. This document reports the results of the eighteenth annual survey, with a salary effective data of February 1, 1986.

  15. Culture and Workplace Communications: A Comparison of the Technical Communications Practices of Japanese and U.S. Aerospace Engineers and Scientists

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pinelli, Thomas E. (Editor); Sato, Yuko (Editor); Barclay, Rebecca O. (Editor); Kennedy, John M. (Editor)

    1997-01-01

    The advent of global markets elevates the role and importance of culture as a mitigating factor in the diffusion of knowledge and technology and in product and process innovation. This is especially true in the large commercial aircraft (LCA) sector where the production and market aspects are becoming increasingly international. As firms expand beyond their national borders, using such methods as risk-sharing partnerships, joint ventures, outsourcing, and alliances, they have to contend with national and corporate cultures. Our focus is on Japan, a program participant in the production of the Boeing Company's 777. The aspects of Japanese culture and workplace communications will be examined: (1) the influence of Japanese culture on the diffusion of knowledge and technology in aerospace at the national and international levels; (2) those cultural determinants-the propensity to work together, a willingness to subsume individual interests to a greater good, and an emphasis on consensual decision making-that have a direct bearing on the ability of Japanese firms to form alliances and compete in international markets; (3) and those cultural determinants thought to influence the information-seeking behaviors and workplace communication practices of Japanese aerospace engineers and scientists. In this article, we report selective results from a survey of Japanese and U.S. aerospace engineers and scientists that focused on workplace communications. Data are presented for the following topics: importance of and time spent communicating information, collaborative writing, need for an undergraduate course in technical communication, use of libraries, use and importance of electronic (computer) networks, and the use and importance of foreign and domestically produced technical reports.

  16. History and future of genetically engineered food animal regulation: an open request.

    PubMed

    Wells, Kevin D

    2016-06-01

    Modern biotechnology resulted from of a series of incremental improvements in the understanding of DNA and the enzymes that nature evolved to manipulate it. As the potential impact of genetic engineering became apparent, scientists began the process of trying to identify the potential unintended consequences. Restrictions to recombinant DNA experimentation were at first self-imposed. Collaborative efforts between scientists and lawyers formalized an initial set of guidelines. These guidelines have been used to promulgate regulations around world. However, the initial guidelines were only intended as a starting point and were motivated by a specific set of concerns. As new data became available, the guidelines and regulations should have been adapted to the new knowledge. Instead, other social drivers drove the development of regulations. For most species and most applications, the framework that was established has slowly allowed some products to reach the market. However, genetically engineered livestock that are intended for food have been left in a regulatory state of limbo. To date, no genetically engineered food animal is available in the marketplace. A short history and a U.S.-based genetic engineer's perspective are presented. In addition, a request to regulatory agencies is presented for consideration as regulation continues to evolve. Regulators appear to have shown preference for the slow, random progression of evolution over the efficiency of intentional design.

  17. Recruiting Future Engineers Through Effective Guest Speaking In Elementary School Classrooms

    SciTech Connect

    Kevin Young

    2007-11-01

    In this paper, the author describes how engineers can increase the number of future engineers by volunteering as guest speakers in the elementary school classroom. The paper is divided into three main subjects. First, the importance of engineers speaking directly with young students is discussed. Next, several best practice techniques for speaking with young students are described. Finally, information on getting started as a guest speaker is presented, and a list of resources available to guest speakers is provided. The guest engineer speaking to an elementary school audience (ages 6-11) performs a critical role in encouraging young students to pursue a career in engineering. Often, he or she is the first engineer these students meet in person, providing a crucial first impression of the engineering career field and a positive visual image of what an engineer really looks like. A dynamic speaker presenting a well-delivered talk creates a lasting, positive impression on students, influencing their future decisions to pursue careers in engineering. By reaching these students early in life, the guest speaker will help dispel the many prevailing stereotypes about engineers which discourage so many students, especially young women, from considering this career. The guest speaker can ensure young students gain a positive first impression of engineers and the engineering career field by following some best practice techniques in preparing for and delivering their presentation. The author, an electrical engineer, developed these best practice techniques over the past 10 years while presenting over 350 talks on engineering subjects to elementary school students as a volunteer speaker with the U.S. Department of Energy, Idaho National Laboratory’s Speakers Bureau. Every engineer can make a meaningful contribution toward reversing the predicted shortfall of future engineers by volunteering to speak with young students at the elementary school level. Elementary school

  18. Mapping the Future: Optimizing Joint Geospatial Engineering Support

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-05-16

    Environment. Maxwell Air Force Base, AL.: Air University, 1990. Babbage , Ross and Desmond Ball. Geographic Information Systems: Defence Applications...Joint Pub 4-04. Washington, DC: 27 September 2001. Wertz, Charles J. The Data Dictionary, Concepts and Uses. Wellesley, MA: QED Information...Force Defense Mapping for Future Operations, Washington, DC: September 1995, 1-7. 18 Charles J. Wertz, The Data Dictionary, Concepts and Uses

  19. Engineering Lessons Learned and Technical Standards Integration: Capturing Key Technologies for Future Space Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mellen, Daniele P.; Garcia, Danny; Vaughan, William W.

    2003-01-01

    Capturing engineering lessons learned derived from past experiences and new technologies, then integrating them with technical standards, provides a viable process for enhancing engineering capabilities. The development of future space missions will require ready access, not only to the latest technical standards, but also to lessons learned derived from past experiences and new technologies. The integration of this information such that it is readily accessible by engineering and programmatic personnel is a key aspect of enabling technology. This paper addresses the development of a new and innovative Lessons Learned/Best Practices/Applications Notes--Standards Integration System, including experiences with its initial implementation as a pilot effort within the NASA Technical Standards Program. Included are metrics on the Program, feedbacks from users, future plans, and key issues that are being addressed to expand the System's utility. The objective is the enhancement of engineering capabilities on all aspects of systems development applicable to the success of future space missions.

  20. Energy supplies and future engines for land, sea, and air.

    PubMed

    Wilson, David Gordon

    2012-06-01

    The years 2012 and beyond seem likely to record major changes in energy use and power generation. The Japanese tsunami has resulted in large countries either scaling back or abolishing the future use of nuclear energy. The discovery of what seems like vast amounts of economically deliverable natural gas has many forecasting a rapid switch from coal- to gas-fired generating plants. On the other hand, environmentalists have strong objections to the production of natural gas and of petroleum by hydraulic fracturing from shale, or by extraction of heavy oil. They believe that global warming from the use of fossil fuels is now established beyond question. There has been rapid progress in the development of alternative energy supplies, particularly from on-shore and off-shore wind. Progress toward a viable future energy mix has been slowed by a U.S. energy policy that seems to many to be driven by politics. The author will review the history of power and energy to put all of the above in context and will look at possible future developments. He will propose what he believes to be an idealized energy policy that could result in an optimum system that would be arrived at democratically.

  1. Uterine Tissue Engineering and the Future of Uterus Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Hellström, Mats; Bandstein, Sara; Brännström, Mats

    2016-12-19

    The recent successful births following live donor uterus transplantation are proof-of-concept that absolute uterine factor infertility is a treatable condition which affects several hundred thousand infertile women world-wide due to a dysfunctional uterus. This strategy also provides an alternative to gestational surrogate motherhood which is not practiced in most countries due to ethical, religious or legal reasons. The live donor surgery involved in uterus transplantation takes more than 10 h and is then followed by years of immunosuppressive medication to prevent uterine rejection. Immunosuppression is associated with significant adverse side effects, including nephrotoxicity, increased risk of serious infections, and diabetes. Thus, the development of alternative approaches to treat absolute uterine factor infertility would be desirable. This review discusses tissue engineering principles in general, but also details strategies on how to create a bioengineered uterus that could be used for transplantation, without risky donor surgery and any need for immunosuppression. We discuss scaffolds derived from decellularized organs/tissues which may be recellularized using various types of autologous somatic/stem cells, in particular for uterine tissue engineering. It further highlights the hurdles that lay ahead in developing an alternative to an allogeneic source for uterus transplantation.

  2. Final project memorandum: sea-level rise modeling handbook: resource guide for resource managers, engineers, and scientists

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Doyle, Thomas W.

    2015-01-01

    Coastal wetlands of the Southeastern United States are undergoing retreat and migration from increasing tidal inundation and saltwater intrusion attributed to climate variability and sea-level rise. Much of the literature describing potential sea-level rise projections and modeling predictions are found in peer-reviewed academic journals or government technical reports largely suited to reading by other Ph.D. scientists who are more familiar or engaged in the climate change debate. Various sea-level rise and coastal wetland models have been developed and applied of different designs and scales of spatial and temporal complexity for predicting habitat and environmental change that have not heretofore been synthesized to aid natural resource managers of their utility and limitations. Training sessions were conducted with Federal land managers with U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, National Park Service, and NOAA National Estuarine Research Reserves as well as state partners and nongovernmental organizations across the northern Gulf Coast from Florida to Texas to educate and to evaluate user needs and understanding of concepts, data, and modeling tools for projecting sea-level rise and its impact on coastal habitats and wildlife. As a result, this handbook was constructed from these training and feedback sessions with coastal managers and biologists of published decision-support tools and simulation models for sea-level rise and climate change assessments. A simplified tabular context was developed listing the various kinds of decision-support tools and ecological models along with criteria to distinguish the source, scale, and quality of information input and geographic data sets, physical and biological constraints and relationships, datum characteristics of water and land elevation components, utility options for setting sea-level rise and climate change scenarios, and ease or difficulty of storing, displaying, or interpreting model output. The handbook is designed

  3. Sustainable Scientists

    SciTech Connect

    Mills, Evan

    2008-12-31

    Scientists are front and center in quantifying and solving environmental problems. Yet, as a spate of recent news articles in scientific journals point out, much can be done to enhance sustainability within the scientific enterprise itself, particularly by trimming the energy use associated with research facilities and the equipment therein (i,ii,iii, iv). Sponsors of research unwittingly spend on the order of $10 billion each year on energy in the U.S. alone, and the underlying inefficiencies drain funds from the research enterprise while causing 80 MT CO2-equivalent greenhouse-gas emissions (see Box). These are significant sums considering the opportunity costs in terms of the amount of additional research that could be funded and emissions that could be reduced if the underlying energy was used more efficiently. By following commercially proven best practices in facility design and operation, scientists--and the sponsors of science--can cost-effectively halve these costs, while doing their part to put society on alow-carbon diet.

  4. Present and Future in Quality Assurance of Engineering Education in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aoki, Kyosuke; Nozawa, Tsunenori

    The quality of engineering education in our country should be assured by the self-assessment of the institution that conducts education. Recent evaluation and/or accreditation are intended to assist and promote such achievement. The certified evaluation and accreditation for colleges of technology and the audit by the Japan Accreditation Board for Engineering Education (JABEE) have been carried out on the engineering education. In this article we will discuss the ways of accreditation of both systems and try to consider future for the quality assurance of the engineering education in Japan.

  5. Fewer scientists immigrating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    A recent decline in the number of scientists and engineers immigrating to the United States could indicate that a surge throughout the 1980s and early 1990s may have been temporary.The number of people with science and engineering degrees admitted to the United States on permanent visas with work certificates dropped 26% between 1993 and 1994—from 23,534 to 17,403—according to a new National Science Foundation (NSF) data brief that analyzes information from the Immigration and Naturalization Service. A lack of demand for employment-based admissions caused the decline, according to the INS.

  6. Combatting Obsolescence Using Perceived Discrepancies in Job Expectations of Research Managers and Scientists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrett, Gerald V.; And Others

    The "Exercise Future" questionnaire, which covers individual preferences and expectations about conditions in one's future sphere of work, was completed by 143 research and development scientists, engineers, and managers as part of an experiment to test effects on subsequent self-development activities. Three fourths saw the importance of…

  7. NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Report 24: The technical communications practices of US aerospace engineers and scientists: Results of the phase 1 SAE mail survey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pinelli, Thomas E.; Barclay, Rebecca O.; Kennedy, John M.

    1994-01-01

    The U.S. government technical report is a primary means by which the results of federally funded research and development (R&D) are transferred to the U.S. aerospace industry. However, little is known about this information product in terms of its actual use, importance, and value in the transfer of federally funded R&D. To help establish a body of knowledge, the U.S. government technical report is being investigated as part of the NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. In this report, we summarize the literature on technical reports and provide a model that depicts the transfer of federally funded aerospace R&D via the U.S. government technical report. We present results from our investigation of aerospace knowledge diffusion vis-a-vis the U.S. government technical report, and present the results of research that investigated aerospace knowledge diffusion vis-a-vis the technical communications practices of U.S. aerospace engineers and scientists affiliated with the Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE).

  8. Engineering America's Future in Space: Systems Engineering Innovations for Sustainable Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dumbacher, Daniel L.; Caruso, Pamela W.; Jones, Carl P.

    2008-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews systems engineering innovations for Ares I and Ares V launch vehicles. The contents include: 1) NASA's Exploratoin Roadmap; 2) Launch Vehicle Comparisons; 3) Designing the Ares I and Ares V in House; 4) Exploring the Moon; and 5) Systems Engineering Adds Value Throughout the Project Lifecycle.

  9. Diversity in Engineering Teaching--Views from Future Engineering Faculty. Research Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sattler, Brook; Yellin, Jessica; Huang, Yi-Min; Turns, Jennifer

    2007-01-01

    Even though diversity issues have not always been addressed in engineering education, addressing diversity has emerged as an important issue in the engineering education community as the student population in colleges and universities has become increasingly more diverse. Despite these changes in student populations, attrition from engineering…

  10. The Academy for Future Science Faculty: randomized controlled trial of theory-driven coaching to shape development and diversity of early-career scientists

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Approaches to training biomedical scientists have created a talented research community. However, they have failed to create a professional workforce that includes many racial and ethnic minorities and women in proportion to their representation in the population or in PhD training. This is particularly true at the faculty level. Explanations for the absence of diversity in faculty ranks can be found in social science theories that reveal processes by which individuals develop identities, experiences, and skills required to be seen as legitimate within the profession. Methods/Design Using the social science theories of Communities of Practice, Social Cognitive Career Theory, identity formation, and cultural capital, we have developed and are testing a novel coaching-based model to address some of the limitations of previous diversity approaches. This coaching intervention (The Academy for Future Science Faculty) includes annual in-person meetings of students and trained faculty Career Coaches, along with ongoing virtual coaching, group meetings and communication. The model is being tested as a randomized controlled trial with two cohorts of biomedical PhD students from across the U.S., one recruited at the start of their PhDs and one nearing completion. Stratification into the experimental and control groups, and to coaching groups within the experimental arms, achieved equal numbers of students by race, ethnicity and gender to the extent possible. A fundamental design element of the Academy is to teach and make visible the social science principles which highly influence scientific advancement, as well as acknowledging the extra challenges faced by underrepresented groups working to be seen as legitimate within the scientific communities. Discussion The strategy being tested is based upon a novel application of the well-established principles of deploying highly skilled coaches, selected and trained for their ability to develop talents of others. This

  11. Genetic engineering of radish: current achievements and future goals.

    PubMed

    Curtis, Ian S

    2011-05-01

    Radish is a major root crop grown in the Far East and is especially important to some low-income countries where it is consumed on a daily basis. Developments in gene technology systems have helped to accelerate the production of useful germplasms, but progress has been slow, though achieved, via in planta methods and useful traits have been introduced. In the wake of the new Millennium, future goals in terms of improving transformation efficiency and selection of new traits for generating late-flowering radish are described. Furthermore, the techniques available for incorporating pharmaceutical proteins into radish to deliver edible proteins on-site are discussed. Finally, the concerns of releasing transgenic radish to the field in terms of pollen-mediated gene transfer are also reviewed. Such a report identifies key areas of research that is required to allow the crop satisfy the need of poor impoverished countries in the Far East.

  12. NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Paper 21: Technological innovation and technical communications: Their place in aerospace engineering curricula. A survey of European, Japanese, and US Aerospace Engineers and Scientists

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pinelli, Thomas E.; Barclay, Rebecca O.; Holland, Maurita Peterson; Keene, Michael L.; Kennedy, John M.

    1991-01-01

    Aerospace engineers and scientists from Western Europe, Japan, and the United States were surveyed as part of the NASA/DoD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Questionnaires were used to solicit their opinions regarding the following: (1) the importance of technical communications to their profession; (2) the use and production of technical communications; and (3) their views about the appropriate content of an undergraduate course in technical communications. The ability to communicate technical information effectively was very important to the aerospace engineers and scientists who participated in the study. A considerable portion of their working week is devoted to using and producing technical information. The types of technical communications used and produced varied within and among the three groups. The type of technical communication product used and produced appears to be related to respondents' professional duties. Respondents from the three groups made similar recommendations regarding the principles, mechanics, and on-the-job communications to be included in an undergraduate technical communications course for aerospace majors.

  13. Sustainable water management under future uncertainty with eco-engineering decision scaling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poff, N. Leroy; Brown, Casey M.; Grantham, Theodore E.; Matthews, John H.; Palmer, Margaret A.; Spence, Caitlin M.; Wilby, Robert L.; Haasnoot, Marjolijn; Mendoza, Guillermo F.; Dominique, Kathleen C.; Baeza, Andres

    2016-01-01

    Managing freshwater resources sustainably under future climatic and hydrological uncertainty poses novel challenges. Rehabilitation of ageing infrastructure and construction of new dams are widely viewed as solutions to diminish climate risk, but attaining the broad goal of freshwater sustainability will require expansion of the prevailing water resources management paradigm beyond narrow economic criteria to include socially valued ecosystem functions and services. We introduce a new decision framework, eco-engineering decision scaling (EEDS), that explicitly and quantitatively explores trade-offs in stakeholder-defined engineering and ecological performance metrics across a range of possible management actions under unknown future hydrological and climate states. We illustrate its potential application through a hypothetical case study of the Iowa River, USA. EEDS holds promise as a powerful framework for operationalizing freshwater sustainability under future hydrological uncertainty by fostering collaboration across historically conflicting perspectives of water resource engineering and river conservation ecology to design and operate water infrastructure for social and environmental benefits.

  14. Sustainable water management under future uncertainty with eco-engineering decision scaling

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Poff, N LeRoy; Brown, Casey M; Grantham, Theodore E.; Matthews, John H; Palmer, Margaret A.; Spence, Caitlin M; Wilby, Robert L.; Haasnoot, Marjolijn; Mendoza, Guillermo F; Dominique, Kathleen C; Baeza, Andres

    2015-01-01

    Managing freshwater resources sustainably under future climatic and hydrological uncertainty poses novel challenges. Rehabilitation of ageing infrastructure and construction of new dams are widely viewed as solutions to diminish climate risk, but attaining the broad goal of freshwater sustainability will require expansion of the prevailing water resources management paradigm beyond narrow economic criteria to include socially valued ecosystem functions and services. We introduce a new decision framework, eco-engineering decision scaling (EEDS), that explicitly and quantitatively explores trade-offs in stakeholder-defined engineering and ecological performance metrics across a range of possible management actions under unknown future hydrological and climate states. We illustrate its potential application through a hypothetical case study of the Iowa River, USA. EEDS holds promise as a powerful framework for operationalizing freshwater sustainability under future hydrological uncertainty by fostering collaboration across historically conflicting perspectives of water resource engineering and river conservation ecology to design and operate water infrastructure for social and environmental benefits.

  15. University/Science Center Collaborations (A Science Center Perspective): Developing an Infrastructure of Partnerships with Science Centers to Support the Engagement of Scientists and Engineers in Education and Outreach for Broad Impact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marshall, Eric

    2009-03-01

    Science centers, professional associations, corporations and university research centers share the same mission of education and outreach, yet come from ``different worlds.'' This gap may be bridged by working together to leverage unique strengths in partnership. Front-end evaluation results for the development of new resources to support these (mostly volunteer-based) partnerships elucidate the factors which lead to a successful relationship. Maintaining a science museum-scientific community partnership requires that all partners devote adequate resources (time, money, etc.). In general, scientists/engineers and science museum professionals often approach relationships with different assumptions and expectations. The culture of science centers is distinctly different from the culture of science. Scientists/engineers prefer to select how they will ultimately share their expertise from an array of choices. Successful partnerships stem from clearly defined roles and responsibilities. Scientists/engineers are somewhat resistant to the idea of traditional, formal training. Instead of developing new expertise, many prefer to offer their existing strengths and expertise. Maintaining a healthy relationship requires the routine recognition of the contributions of scientists/engineers. As professional societies, university research centers and corporations increasingly engage in education and outreach, a need for a supportive infrastructure becomes evident. Work of TryScience.org/VolTS (Volunteers TryScience), the MRS NISE Net (Nanoscale Informal Science Education Network) subcommittee, NRCEN (NSF Research Center Education Network), the IBM On Demand Community, and IEEE Educational Activities exemplify some of the pieces of this evolving infrastructure.

  16. Development of Alternative Continuing Educational Systems for Preventing the Technological Obsolescence of Air Force Scientists and Engineers. Volume 2. Survey of Continuing Educational Programs Within Selected Industries and Universities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lisez, Louis; Slebodnick, Edward B.

    Survey data obtained from industries and universities are summarized and analyzed from the standpoint of the Air Force's requirement for updating its military scientists and engineers.It is concluded that the wide range of innovative methods of continuing education (CE), in use or in development within selected industries and universities, can be…

  17. A STUDY OF THE RE-EMPLOYMENT AND UNEMPLOYMENT EXPERIENCES OF SCIENTISTS AND ENGINEERS LAID OFF FROM 62 AEROSPACE AND ELECTRONICS FIRMS IN THE SAN FRANCISCO BAY AREA DURING 1963-65. FINAL REPORT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LOOMBA, R.P.

    THE PURPOSE OF THIS STUDY WAS (1) TO ANALYZE SELECTED ASPECTS OF UNEMPLOYMENT AND REEMPLOYMENT EXPERIENCES OF 1,184 ENGINEERS AND SCIENTISTS WHO WERE PERMANENTLY LAID OFF BY 62 DEFENSE-ORIENTED AEROSPACE AND ELECTRONICS COMPANIES DURING AN 18-MONTH PERIOD ENDING MARCH 31, 1965, AND (2) TO DESCRIBE THE MAGNITUDE OF THE SAN FRANCISCO BAY AREA'S…

  18. International evaluation of current and future requirements for environmental engineering education.

    PubMed

    Morgenroth, E; Daigger, G T; Ledin, A; Keller, J

    2004-01-01

    The field of environmental engineering is developing as a result of changing environmental requirements. In response, environmental engineering education (E3) needs to ensure that it provides students with the necessary tools to address these challenges. In this paper the current status and future development of E3 is evaluated based on a questionnaire sent to universities and potential employers of E3 graduates. With increasing demands on environmental quality, the complexity of environmental engineering problems to be solved can be expected to increase. To find solutions environmental engineers will need to work in interdisciplinary teams. Based on the questionnaire there was a broad agreement that the best way to prepare students for these future challenges is to provide them with a fundamental education in basic sciences and related engineering fields. Many exciting developments in the environmental engineering profession will be located at the interface between engineering, science, and society. Aspects of all three areas need to be included in E3 and the student needs to be exposed to the tensions associated with linking the three.

  19. [Communique on the present status and future of anthropology taken from the meeting of department heads and principle scientists from the Society of Anthropology (GfA)].

    PubMed

    Rühli, F; Schiefenhivel, W

    2009-09-01

    are arising parallel to the disappearance of specific scientific areas. Yet some of these influences are proving advantageous and offer the potential for future avenues of work. The field's high visibility has led to substantial student registration potentially yielding a large base of young scientists. Within the framework of Bologna, both interdisciplinary cooperation and the methodological diversity offered by the field will allow for an attractive curriculum. The recent introduction of tuition fees has also resulted in new money for anthropology programs.

  20. NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Report 34: How early career-stage US aerospace engineers and scientists produce and use information

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pinelli, Thomas E.; Barclay, Rebecca O.; Kennedy, John M.

    1995-01-01

    The U.S. government technical report is a primary means by which the results of federally funded research and development (R&D) are transferred to the U.S. aerospace industry. However, little is known about this information product in terms of its actual use, importance, and value in the transfer of federally funded R&D. To help establish a body of knowledge, the U.S. government technical report is being investigated as part of the NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. In this report, we summarize the literature on technical reports and provide a model that depicts the transfer of federally funded aerospace R&D via the U.S. government technical report. We present results from our investigation of aerospace knowledge diffusion vis-a-vis the U.S. government technical report, and present the results of research that investigated aerospace knowledge diffusion vis-a-vis the production and use of information by U.S. aerospace engineers and scientists who had changed their American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA) membership from student to professional in the past five years.

  1. NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Report 33: The technical communications practices of US aerospace engineers and scientists: Results of the phase 1 AIAA mail survey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pinelli, Thomas E.; Barclay, Rebecca O.; Kennedy, John M.

    1995-01-01

    The U.S. government technical report is a primary means by which the results of federally funded research and development (R&D) are transferred to the U.S. aerospace industry. However, little is known about this information product in terms of its actual use, importance, and value in the transfer of federally funded R&D. To help establish a body of knowledge, the U.S. government technical report is being investigated as part of the NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. In this report, we summarize the literature on technical reports and provide a model that depicts the transfer of federally funded aerospace R&D via the U.S. government technical report. We present results from our investigation of aerospace knowledge diffusion vis-a-vis the U.S. government technical report, and present the results of research that investigated aerospace knowledge diffusion vis-a-vis the technical communications practices of U.S. aerospace engineers and scientists who are members of the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA).

  2. CIVIL ENGINEERS AT THE CROSSROADS - HOW CONSULTING ENGINEERS CAN DRAW ON THE PAST TO FURTHER OUR EXPERTISE FOR THE FUTURE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirotani, Akihiko

    This paper first discusses the role of civil engineers in the development of Japan's infrastructure during the period of post-war reconstruction and subsequent high economic growth. The paper highlights the importance of practical skills in a world where the role of civil engineers is expected to become increasingly diverse, and emphasizes the importance of seizing opportunities to further develop international competitiveness. In the post-war era, civil engineers raised their expertise and acquired advanced technologies from overseas and made further improvements through the course of applying those technologies. By adopting many state-of-the-art technologies civil engineers helped develop the infrastructure that now serves as Japan's social and economic backbone. Current trends such as the shrinking and aging population and globalization are destined to have large-scale impacts on Japan's social systems. In the context of such dynamics, this paper discusses civil engineers' perception of our current position in history, and how we will raise the standards of our profession for the future.

  3. On the Training of Radio and Communications Engineers in the Decades of the Immediate Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klyatskin, I.G.

    A list of 11 statements relating to the change in training programs for radio and communications engineers is presented in this article, in preparation for future developments in the field. Semiconductors, decimeter and centimeter radio frequency ranges, and a statistical approach to communications systems are analyzed as the three important…

  4. Shaping the Future. Volume II: Perspectives on Undergraduate Education in Science, Mathematics, Engineering, and Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Science Foundation, Washington, DC. Directorate for Education and Human Resources.

    This is a companion study to "Shaping the Future: New Expectations for Undergraduate Education in Science, Math, Engineering, and Technology (SMET)" (NSF 96-139). Both the original report and Volume 2 focus on a collaborative approach to developing and implementing strategies to improve undergraduate SMET education. The reports, compiled…

  5. NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Paper 1: The value of scientific and technical information (STI), its relationship to Research and Development (R/D), and its use by US aerospace engineers and scientists

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pinelli, Thomas E.; Barclay, Rebecca O.; Glassman, Myron; Oliu, Walter E.

    1990-01-01

    This paper is based on the premise that scientific and technical information (STI), its use by aerospace engineers and scientists, and the aerospace research and development (R&D) process are related. We intend to support this premise with data gathered from numerous studies concerned with STI, the relationship of STI to the performance and management of R&D activities, and the information use and seeking behavior of engineers in general and aerospace engineers and scientists in particular. We intend to develop and present a synthesized appreciation of how aerospace R&D managers can improve the efficacy of the R&D process by understanding the role and value of STI in this process.

  6. Training the next generation of Space and Earth Science Engineers and Scientists through student design and development of an Earth Observation Nanosatellite, AlbertaSat-1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lange, B. A.; Bottoms, J.

    2011-12-01

    science industry through a student satellite development program is one of the best methods of developing the next generation of space and earth science engineers and scientists.

  7. An engineering dilemma: sustainability in the eyes of future technology professionals.

    PubMed

    Haase, S

    2013-09-01

    The ability to design technological solutions that address sustainability is considered pivotal to the future of the planet and its people. As technology professionals engineers are expected to play an important role in sustaining society. The present article aims at exploring sustainability concepts of newly enrolled engineering students in Denmark. Their understandings of sustainability and the role they ascribe to sustainability in their future professional practice is investigated by means of a critical discourse analysis including metaphor analysis and semiotic analysis. The sustainability construal is considered to delimit possible ways of dealing with the concept in practice along the engineering education pathway and in professional problem solving. Five different metaphors used by the engineering students to illustrate sustainability are identified, and their different connotative and interpretive implications are discussed. It is found that sustainability represents a dilemma to the engineering students that situates them in a tension between their technology fascination and the blame they find that technological progress bears. Their sustainability descriptions are collected as part of a survey containing among other questions one open-ended, qualitative question on sustainability. The survey covers an entire year group of Danish engineering students in the first month of their degree study.

  8. Tribopolymerization: An advanced lubrication concept for automotive engines and systems of the future

    SciTech Connect

    Furey, M.J.; Kajdas, C.; Kaltenbach, K.W.

    1997-12-31

    Advanced lubrication technologies based on the concept of tribopolymerization as a mechanism of boundary lubrication are described. Advantages of this approach as well as potential applications which could have an impact on the design, manufacture, and performance of existing and future automotive engines are presented and discussed. Tribopolymerization, a novel concept of molecular design developed by Furey and Kajdas, involves the continuous formation of thin polymeric films on rubbing surfaces; the protective films formed are self-replenishing. The antiwear compounds developed from this technology are effective with metals as well as ceramics and in the liquid as well as vapor phases. Furthermore, they are ashless and contain no harmful phosphorus or sulfur; and many are biodegradable. Thus, potential applications of this technology are diverse and include a variety of cost/performance/energy/environmental advantages. Examples include the following: (a) machining and cutting applications using thin films to reduce friction and ceramic tool wear; (b) the lubrication of ceramic engines (e.g., low heat rejection diesel engines) or ceramic components; (c) the development of ashless lubricants for existing and future automotive engines to reduce exhaust catalyst poisoning and environmental emissions; (d) ashless antiwear or ``lubricity`` additives for fuels, including gasoline, diesel and jet fuel; (e) vapor phase applications of this technology to high temperature gaseous systems or to fuel injector wear problems associated with the use of natural gas engines; and (f) the use of the concept of tribopolymerization as an enabling technology in the development of new engines and new automotive propulsion systems.

  9. SED Alumni---breeding ground for scientists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bederson, Benjamin

    2006-04-01

    In 1943 the US Army established the Special Engineering Detachment (SED), in which mostly drafted young soldiers possessing some scientific credentials (though usually quite minimal) were reassigned from other duties to the Manhattan Project to assist in various research and development aspects of nuclear weapons. The Los Alamos contingent, never more than a few hundred GIs, worked with more senior scientists and engineers, often assuming positions of real responsibility. An unintended consequence of this circumstance was the fact that being in the SEDs turned out to be a fortuitous breeding ground for future physicists, chemists, and engineers. SEDs benefited from their close contacts with established scientists, working with them side by side, attended lectures by luminaries, and gained invaluable experience that would help them establish academic and industrial careers later in life. I will discuss some of these individuals (I list only those of whom I am personally aware). These include Henry ``Heinz'' Barschall*, Richard Bellman*-RAND Corporation, Murray Peshkin-ANL, Peter Lax-Courant Institute, NYU, William Spindel*-NRC,NAS, Bernard Waldman- Notre Dame, Richard Davisson*-U of Washington, Arnold Kramish- RAND, UNESCO, Josef Hofmann- Acoustic Research Corp, Val Fitch- Princeton U. *deceased

  10. Genetically engineered bacteria: an emerging tool for environmental remediation and future research perspectives.

    PubMed

    Singh, Jay Shankar; Abhilash, P C; Singh, H B; Singh, Rana P; Singh, D P

    2011-07-01

    This minireview explores the environmental bioremediation mediated by genetically engineered (GE) bacteria and it also highlights the limitations and challenges associated with the release of engineered bacteria in field conditions. Application of GE bacteria based remediation of various heavy metal pollutants is in the forefront due to eco-friendly and lesser health hazards compared to physico-chemical based strategies, which are less eco-friendly and hazardous to human health. A combination of microbiological and ecological knowledge, biochemical mechanisms and field engineering designs would be an essential element for successful in situ bioremediation of heavy metal contaminated sites using engineered bacteria. Critical research questions pertaining to the development and implementation of GE bacteria for enhanced bioremediation have been identified and poised for possible future research. Genetic engineering of indigenous microflora, well adapted to local environmental conditions, may offer more efficient bioremediation of contaminated sites and making the bioremediation more viable and eco-friendly technology. However, many challenges are to be addressed concerning the release of genetically engineered bacteria in field conditions. There are possible risks associated with the use of GE bacteria in field condition, with particular emphasis on ways in which molecular genetics could contribute to the risk mitigation. Both environmental as well as public health concerns need to be addressed by the molecular biologists. Although bioremediation of heavy metals by using the genetically engineered bacteria has been extensively reviewed in the past also, but the bio-safety assessment and factors of genetic pollution have been never the less ignored.

  11. Helmet-mounted display human factor engineering design issues: past, present, and future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Licina, Joseph R.; Rash, Clarence E.; Mora, John C.; Ledford, Melissa H.

    1999-07-01

    An often overlooked area of helmet-mounted display (HMD) design is that of good human factors engineering. Systems which pass bench testing with flying colors can often find less enthusiastic acceptance during fielding when good human factors engineering principles are not adhered to throughout the design process. This paper addresses lessons learned on the fielding of the AH-64 Apache Integrated Helmet and Display Sight System (IHADSS) and the Aviator's Night Vision Imaging System (ANVIS). These lessons are used to develop guidance for future HMDs in such diverse areas as: user adjustments, anthropometry, fit and comfort, manpower and personnel requirements, and equipment compatibility.

  12. Structural integrity and durability for Space Shuttle main engine and future reusable space propulsion systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marsik, S. J.; Gawrylowicz, H. T.

    1986-01-01

    NASA is conducting a program which will establish a technology base for the orderly evolution of reusable space propulsion systems. As part of that program, NASA initiated a Structural Integrity and Durability effort for advanced high-pressure oxygen-hydrogen rocket engine technology. That effort focuses on the development of: (1) accurate analytical models to describe flow fields; aerothermodynamic loads; structural responses; and fatigue/fracture, from which life prediction codes can be evolved; and (2) advanced instrumentation with capabilities to verify the codes in an SSME-like environment as well as the potential for future use as diagnostic sensors for real-time condition monitoring of critical engine components.

  13. Engineering America's Future in Space: Systems Engineering Innovations for Sustainable Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dumbacher, Daniel L.; Jones, Carl P.

    2008-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) delivers space transportation solutions for America's complex missions, ranging from scientific payloads that expand knowledge, such as the Hubble Space Telescope, to astronauts and lunar rovers destined for voyages to the Moon. Currently, the venerable Space Shuttle, which has been in service since 1981, provides U.S. capability for both crew and cargo to low-Earth orbit to construct the International Space Station, before the Shuttle is retired in 2010, as outlined in the 2006 NASA Strategic Plan. I In the next decade, NASA will replace this system with a duo of launch vehicles: the Ares I Crew Launch Vehicle/Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle and the Ares V Cargo Launch Vehicle/Altair Lunar Lander. The goals for this new system include increased safety and reliability, coupled with lower operations costs that promote sustainable space exploration over a multi-decade schedule. This paper will provide details of the in-house systems engineering and vehicle integration work now being performed for the Ares I and planned for the Ares V. It will give an overview of the Ares I system-level test activities, such as the ground vibration testing that will be conducted in the Marshall Center's Dynamic Test Stand to verify the integrated vehicle stack's structural integrity against predictions made by modern modeling and simulation analysis. It also will give information about the work in progress for the Ares I-X developmental test flight planned in 2009 to provide key data before the Ares I Critical Design Review. Activities such as these will help prove and refine mission concepts of operation, while supporting the spectrum of design and development tasks being performed by Marshall's Engineering Directorate, ranging from launch vehicles and lunar rovers to scientific spacecraft and associated experiments. Ultimately, the work performed will lead to the fielding of a robust space transportation solution that will

  14. WFIRST CGI Adjutant Scientist

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasdin, N.

    One of the most exciting developments in exoplanet science is the inclusion of a coronagraph instrument on WFIRST. After more than 20 years of research and development on coronagraphy and wavefront control, the technology is ready for a demonstration in space and to be used for revolutionary science. Good progress has already been made at JPL and partner institutions on the coronagraph technology and instrument design and test. The next five years as we enter Phase A will be critical for raising the TRL of the coronagraph to the needed level for flight and for converging on a design that is robust, low risk, and meets the science requirements. In addition, there is growing excitement over the possibility of rendezvousing an occulter with WFIRST/AFTA as a separate mission; this would both demonstrate that important technology and potentially dramatically enhance the science reach, introducing the possibility of imaging Earth-like planets in the habitable zone of nearby stars. In this proposal I will be applying for the Coronagraph Adjutant Scientist (CAS) position. I bring to the position the background and skills needed to be an effective liaison between the project office, the instrument team, and the Science Investigation Team (SIT). My background in systems engineering before coming to Princeton (I was Chief Systems Engineer for the Gravity Probe-B mission) and my 15 years of working closely with NASA on both coronagraph and occulter technology make me well-suited to the role. I have been a lead coronagraph scientist for the WFIRST mission from the beginning, including as a member of the SDT. Together with JPL and NASA HQ, I helped organize the process for selecting the coronagraphs for the CGI, one of which, the shaped pupil, has been developed in my lab. All of the key algorithms for wavefront control (including EFC and Stroke Minimization) were originally developed by students or post-docs in my lab at Princeton. I am thus in a unique position to work with

  15. Finding Meaningful Roles for Scientists in science Education Reform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, Brenda

    Successful efforts to achieve reform in science education require the active and purposeful engagement of professional scientists. Working as partners with teachers, school administrators, science educators, parents, and other stakeholders, scientists can make important contributions to the improvement of science teaching and learning in pre-college classrooms. The world of a practicing university, corporate, or government scientist may seem far removed from that of students in an elementary classroom. However, the science knowledge and understanding of all future scientists and scientifically literate citizens begin with their introduction to scientific concepts and phenomena in childhood and the early grades. Science education is the responsibility of the entire scientific community and is not solely the responsibility of teachers and other professional educators. Scientists can serve many roles in science education reform including the following: (1) Science Content Resource, (2) Career Role Model, (3) Interpreter of Science (4) Validator for the Importance of Learning Science and Mathematics, (5) Champion of Real World Connections and Value of Science, (6) Experience and Access to Funding Sources, (7) Link for Community and Business Support, (8) Political Supporter. Special programs have been developed to assist scientists and engineers to be effective partners and advocates of science education reform. We will discuss the rationale, organization, and results of some of these partnership development programs.

  16. United States National Sewage Sludge Repository at Arizona State University – A New Resource and Research Tool for Environmental Scientists, Engineers, and Epidemiologists

    PubMed Central

    Venkatesan, Arjun K.; Done, Hansa Y.; Halden, Rolf U.

    2014-01-01

    Processed municipal sewage sludges (MSS) are an abundant, unwanted by-product of wastewater treatment, increasingly applied to agriculture and forestry for inexpensive disposal and soil conditioning. Due to their high organic-carbon and lipid contents, MSS not only is rich in carbon and nutrients but also represents a ‘sink’ for recalcitrant, hydrophobic and potentially bioaccumulative compounds. Indeed, many organics sequestered and concentrated in MSS meet the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's definition of being persistent, bioaccumulative, and toxic (PBT). In a strategic effort, our research team at the Biodesign Institute has created the National Sewage Sludge Repository (NSSR), a large repository of digested MSSs from 164 wastewater treatment plants from across the USA, as part of the Human Health Observatory (H2O) at Arizona State University (ASU). The NSSR likely represents the largest archive of digested MSS specimens in the USA. The present study summarizes key findings gleaned thus far from analysis of NSSR samples. For example, we evaluated the content of toxicants in MSS and computed estimates of nationwide inventories of mass produced chemicals that become sequestrated in sludge and later are released into the environment during sludge disposal on land. Ongoing efforts document co-occurrence of a variety of PBT compounds in both MSS and human samples, while also identifying a large number of potentially harmful MSS constituents for which human exposure data are still lacking. Finally, we summarize new future opportunities and invite collaborative use the NSSR by the research community. The H2O at ASU represents a resource and research tool for environmental scientists and the larger research community. As illustrated in this work, this repository can serve to (i) identify and prioritize emerging contaminants; (ii) provide spatial and temporal trends of contaminants; (iii) inform and evaluate the effectiveness of environmental policy

  17. United States National Sewage Sludge Repository at Arizona State University--a new resource and research tool for environmental scientists, engineers, and epidemiologists.

    PubMed

    Venkatesan, Arjun K; Done, Hansa Y; Halden, Rolf U

    2015-02-01

    Processed municipal sewage sludges (MSS) are an abundant, unwanted by-product of wastewater treatment, increasingly applied to agriculture and forestry for inexpensive disposal and soil conditioning. Due to their high organic carbon and lipid contents, MSS not only is rich in carbon and nutrients but also represents a "sink" for recalcitrant, hydrophobic, and potentially bioaccumulative compounds. Indeed, many organics sequestered and concentrated in MSS meet the US Environmental Protection Agency's definition of being persistent, bioaccumulative, and toxic (PBT). In a strategic effort, our research team at the Biodesign Institute has created the National Sewage Sludge Repository (NSSR), a large repository of digested MSSs from 164 wastewater treatment plants from across the USA, as part of the Human Health Observatory (H2O) at Arizona State University (ASU). The NSSR likely represents the largest archive of digested MSS specimens in the USA. The present study summarizes key findings gleaned thus far from analysis of NSSR samples. For example, we evaluated the content of toxicants in MSS and computed estimates of nationwide inventories of mass produced chemicals that become sequestrated in sludge and later are released into the environment during sludge disposal on land. Ongoing efforts document co-occurrence of a variety of PBT compounds in both MSS and human samples, while also identifying a large number of potentially harmful MSS constituents for which human exposure data are still lacking. Finally, we summarize future opportunities and invite collaborative use of the NSSR by the research community. The H2O at ASU represents a new resource and research tool for environmental scientists and the larger research community. As illustrated in this work, this repository can serve to (i) identify and prioritize emerging contaminants, (ii) provide spatial and temporal trends of contaminants, (iii) inform and evaluate the effectiveness of environmental policy-making and

  18. AGU scientists meet with legislators during Geosciences Congressional Visits Day

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uhlenbrock, Kristan

    2011-10-01

    This year marks the fourth annual Geosciences Congressional Visits Day (Geo-CVD), in which scientists from across the nation join together in Washington, D. C., to meet with their legislators to discuss the importance of funding for Earth and space sciences. AGU partnered with seven other Earth and space science organizations to bring more than 50 scientists, representing 23 states, for 2 days of training and congressional visits on 20-21 September 2011. As budget negotiations envelop Congress, which must find ways to agree on fiscal year (FY) 2012 budgets and reduce the deficit by $1.5 trillion over the next 10 years, Geo-CVD scientists seized the occasion to emphasize the importance of federally funded scientific research as well as science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) education. Cuts to basic research and STEM education could adversely affect innovation, stifle future economic growth and competitiveness, and jeopardize national security.

  19. Long-term land use future scenarios for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    1995-08-01

    In order to facilitate decision regarding environmental restoration activities at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), the United States Department of Energy, Idaho Operations Office (DOE-ID) conducted analyses to project reasonable future land use scenarios at the INEL for the next 100 years. The methodology for generating these scenarios included: review of existing DOE plans, policy statements, and mission statements pertaining to the INEL; review of surrounding land use characteristics and county developments policies; solicitation of input from local, county, state and federal planners, policy specialists, environmental professionals, and elected officials; and review of environmental and development constraints at the INEL site that could influence future land use.

  20. NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Paper 17: The relationship between seven variables and the use of US government technical reports by US aerospace engineers and scientists

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pinelli, Thomas E.; Barclay, Rebecca O.; Kennedy, John M.; Glassman, Nanci; Demerath, Loren

    1991-01-01

    A study was undertaken to investigate the relationship between the use of U.S. government technical reports by U.S. aerospace engineers and scientists and seven selected sociometric variables. Data were collected by means of a self-administered mail survey which was distributed to a randomly drawn sample of American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA) members. Two research questions concerning the use of conference meeting papers, journal articles, in-house technical reports, and U.S. government technical reports were investigated. Relevance, technical quality, and accessibility were found to be more important determinants of the overall extent to which U.S. government technical reports and three other information products were used by U.S. aerospace engineers and scientists.

  1. NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Paper 12: The diffusion of federally funded aerospace research and development (R/D) and the information seeking behavior of US aerospace engineers and scientists

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pinelli, Thomas E.; Kennedy, John M.; Barclay, Rebecca O.

    1991-01-01

    In this paper, the diffusion of federally funded aerospace R&D is explored from the perspective of the information-seeking behavior of U.S. aerospace engineers and scientists. The following three assumptions frame this exploration: (1) knowledge production, transfer, and utilization are equally important components of the aerospace R&D process; (2) the diffusion of knowledge resulting from federally funded aerospace R&D is indispensable for the U.S. to remain a world leader in aerospace; and (3) U.S. government technical reports, produced by NASA and DOD, play an important, but as yet undefined, role in the diffusion of federally funded aerospace R&D. A conceptual model for federally funded aerospace knowledge diffusion, one that emphasizes U.S. goverment technical reports, is presented. Data regarding three research questions concerning the information-seeking behavior of U.S. aerospace engineers and scientists are also presented.

  2. Current and future delivery systems for engineered nucleases: ZFN, TALEN and RGEN.

    PubMed

    Ul Ain, Qurrat; Chung, Jee Young; Kim, Yong-Hee

    2015-05-10

    Gene therapy by engineered nucleases is a genetic intervention being investigated for curing the hereditary disorders by targeting selected genes with specific nucleotides for establishment, suppression, abolishment of a function or correction of mutation. Here, we review the fast developing technology of targeted genome engineering using site specific programmable nucleases zinc finger nucleases (ZFNs), transcription activator like nucleases (TALENs) and cluster regulatory interspaced short palindromic repeat/CRISPR associated proteins (CRISPR/Cas) based RNA-guided DNA endonucleases (RGENs) and their different characteristics including pros and cons of genome modifications by these nucleases. We have further discussed different types of delivery methods to induce gene editing, novel development in genetic engineering other than nucleases and future prospects.

  3. 100-LBF LO2/LCH4 - Reaction Control Engine Technology Development for Future Space Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, Philip J.; Veith, Eric M.; Hurlbert, Eric A.; Jimenez, Rafael; Smith, Timothy D.

    2008-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has identified liquid oxygen (LO2)/liquid methane (LCH4) propulsion systems as promising options for some future space vehicles. NASA issued a contract to Aerojet to develop a 100-lbf (445 N) LO2/LCH4 Reaction Control Engine (RCE) aimed at reducing the risk of utilizing a cryogenic reaction control system (RCS) on a space vehicle. Aerojet utilized innovative design solutions to develop an RCE that can ignite reliably over a broad range of inlet temperatures, perform short minimum impulse bits (MIB) at small electrical pulse widths (EPW), and produce excellent specific impulse (Isp) across a range of engine mixture ratios (MR). These design innovations also provide a start transient with a benign MR, ensuring good thrust chamber compatibility and long life. In addition, this RCE can successfully operate at MRs associated with main engines, enabling the RCE to provide emergency backup propulsion to minimize vehicle propellant load and overall system mass.

  4. Forecast of jet engine exhaust emissions for future high altitude commercial aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grobman, J.; Ingebo, R. D.

    1974-01-01

    Projected minimum levels of engine exhaust emissions that may be practicably achievable for future commercial aircraft operating at high altitude cruise conditions are presented. The forecasts are based on: (1) current knowledge of emission characteristics of combustors and augmentors; (2) the current status of combustion research in emission reduction technology; (3) predictable trends in combustion systems and operating conditions as required for projected engine designs that are candidates for advanced subsonic or supersonic commercial aircraft. Results are presented for cruise conditions in terms of an emission index, g pollutant/kg fuel. Two sets of engine exhaust emission predictions are presented: the first, based on an independent NASA study and the second, based on the consensus of an ad hoc committee composed of industry, university, and government representatives. The consensus forecasts are in general agreement with the NASA forecasts.

  5. [NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Paper 1:] The value of Scientific and Technical Information (STI), its relationship to Research and Development (R&D), and its use by US aerospace engineers and scientists

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pinelli, Thomas E.; Glassman, Myron; Barclay, Rebecca O.; Oliu, Walter E.

    1990-01-01

    The relationship between scientific and technical information (STI), its use by aerospace engineers and scientists, and the aerospace R&D process is examined. Data are presented from studies of the role of STI in the performance and management of R&D activities and the behavior of engineers when using and seeking information. Consideration is given to the information sources used to solve technical problems, the production and use of technical communications, and the use of libraries, technical information centers, and on-line data bases.

  6. 2014 Future Earth Young Scientists Conference on integrated science and knowledge co-production for ecosystems and human well-being.

    PubMed

    Shiue, Ivy; Samberg, Leah; Kulohoma, Benard; Dogaru, Diana; Wyborn, Carina; Hamel, Perrine; Jørgensen, Peter Søgaard; Lussier, Paul; Sundaram, Bharath; Lim, Michelle; Tironi, Antonio

    2014-11-10

    Effective integration in science and knowledge co-production is a challenge that crosses research boundaries, climate regions, languages and cultures. Early career scientists are crucial in the identification of, and engagement with, obstacles and opportunities in the development of innovative solutions to complex and interconnected problems. On 25-31 May 2014, International Council for Science and International Social Science Council, in collaboration with the International Network of Next-Generation Ecologists and Institute for New Economic Thinking: Young Scholars Initiative, assembled a group of early career researchers with diverse backgrounds and research perspectives to reflect on and debate relevant issues around ecosystems and human wellbeing in the transition towards green economy, funded by the German Research Foundation, at Villa Vigoni, Italy. As a group of young scientists, we have come to a consensus that collaboration and communication among a diverse group of peers from different geographic regions could break down the barriers to multi-disciplinary research designed to solve complex global-scale problems. We also propose to establish a global systematic thinking to monitor global socio-ecological systems and to develop criteria for a "good" anthropocene. Finally, we aim to bridge gaps among research, the media, and education from a governance perspective linking with "sustainable development goals".

  7. Regenerative endodontics as a tissue engineering approach: past, current and future.

    PubMed

    Malhotra, Neeraj; Mala, Kundabala

    2012-12-01

    With the reported startling statistics of high incidence of tooth decay and tooth loss, the current interest is focused on the development of alternate dental tissue replacement therapies. This has led to the application of dental tissue engineering as a clinically relevant method for the regeneration of dental tissues and generation of bioengineered whole tooth. Although, tissue engineering approach requires the three main key elements of stem cells, scaffold and morphogens, a conductive environment (fourth element) is equally important for successful engineering of any tissue and/or organ. The applications of this science has evolved continuously in dentistry, beginning from the application of Ca(OH)(2) in vital pulp therapy to the development of a fully functional bioengineered tooth (mice). Thus, with advances in basic research, recent reports and studies have shown successful application of tissue engineering in the field of dentistry. However, certain practical obstacles are yet to be overcome before dental tissue regeneration can be applied as evidence-based approach in clinics. The article highlights on the past achievements, current developments and future prospects of tissue engineering and regenerative therapy in the field of endodontics and bioengineered teeth (bioteeth).

  8. Engineered skeletal muscle tissue for soft robotics: fabrication strategies, current applications, and future challenges.

    PubMed

    Duffy, Rebecca M; Feinberg, Adam W

    2014-01-01

    Skeletal muscle is a scalable actuator system used throughout nature from the millimeter to meter length scales and over a wide range of frequencies and force regimes. This adaptability has spurred interest in using engineered skeletal muscle to power soft robotics devices and in biotechnology and medical applications. However, the challenges to doing this are similar to those facing the tissue engineering and regenerative medicine fields; specifically, how do we translate our understanding of myogenesis in vivo to the engineering of muscle constructs in vitro to achieve functional integration with devices. To do this researchers are developing a number of ways to engineer the cellular microenvironment to guide skeletal muscle tissue formation. This includes understanding the role of substrate stiffness and the mechanical environment, engineering the spatial organization of biochemical and physical cues to guide muscle alignment, and developing bioreactors for mechanical and electrical conditioning. Examples of engineered skeletal muscle that can potentially be used in soft robotics include 2D cantilever-based skeletal muscle actuators and 3D skeletal muscle tissues engineered using scaffolds or directed self-organization. Integration into devices has led to basic muscle-powered devices such as grippers and pumps as well as more sophisticated muscle-powered soft robots that walk and swim. Looking forward, current, and future challenges include identifying the best source of muscle precursor cells to expand and differentiate into myotubes, replacing cardiomyocytes with skeletal muscle tissue as the bio-actuator of choice for soft robots, and vascularization and innervation to enable control and nourishment of larger muscle tissue constructs.

  9. Professional Ethics for Climate Scientists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peacock, K.; Mann, M. E.

    2014-12-01

    Several authors have warned that climate scientists sometimes exhibit a tendency to "err on the side of least drama" in reporting the risks associated with fossil fuel emissions. Scientists are often reluctant to comment on the implications of their work for public policy, despite the fact that because of their expertise they may be among those best placed to make recommendations about such matters as mitigation and preparedness. Scientists often have little or no training in ethics or philosophy, and consequently they may feel that they lack clear guidelines for balancing the imperative to avoid error against the need to speak out when it may be ethically required to do so. This dilemma becomes acute in cases such as abrupt ice sheet collapse where it is easier to identify a risk than to assess its probability. We will argue that long-established codes of ethics in the learned professions such as medicine and engineering offer a model that can guide research scientists in cases like this, and we suggest that ethical training could be regularly incorporated into graduate curricula in fields such as climate science and geology. We recognize that there are disanalogies between professional and scientific ethics, the most important of which is that codes of ethics are typically written into the laws that govern licensed professions such as engineering. Presently, no one can legally compel a research scientist to be ethical, although legal precedent may evolve such that scientists are increasingly expected to communicate their knowledge of risks. We will show that the principles of professional ethics can be readily adapted to define an ethical code that could be voluntarily adopted by scientists who seek clearer guidelines in an era of rapid climate change.

  10. WISH Inspires Future Female Explorers

    NASA Video Gallery

    Some of the next generation’s future female explorers and problem solvers got a real-world look at what it takes to be a scientist or engineer. Through the Women in STEM High School Aerospace Sch...

  11. Women Scientists in Training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Women scientists in training at Marshall Space Flight Center, (top to bottom) Carolyn Griner, Ann Whitaker, and Dr. Mary Johnston, are shown simulating weightlessness while undergoing training in the Neutral Buoyancy Simulator. These women were part of a special program dedicated to gaining a better understanding of problems involved in performing experiments in space. The three were engaged in designing and developing experiments for space, such as materials processing for Spacelabs. Dr. Johnston specialized in metallurgical Engineering, Dr. Whitaker in lubrication and surface physics, and Dr. Griner in material science. Dr. Griner went on to become Acting Center Director at Marshall Space Flight Center from January to September 1998. She was the first woman to serve

  12. NASA's Planetary Science Summer School: Training Future Mission Leaders in a Concurrent Engineering Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitchell, K. L.; Lowes, L. L.; Budney, C. J.; Sohus, A.

    2014-12-01

    NASA's Planetary Science Summer School (PSSS) is an intensive program for postdocs and advanced graduate students in science and engineering fields with a keen interest in planetary exploration. The goal is to train the next generation of planetary science mission leaders in a hands-on environment involving a wide range of engineers and scientists. It was established in 1989, and has undergone several incarnations. Initially a series of seminars, it became a more formal mission design experience in 1999. Admission is competitive, with participants given financial support. The competitively selected trainees develop an early mission concept study in teams of 15-17, responsive to a typical NASA Science Mission Directorate Announcement of Opportunity. They select the mission concept from options presented by the course sponsors, based on high-priority missions as defined by the Decadal Survey, prepare a presentation for a proposal authorization review, present it to a senior review board and receive critical feedback. Each participant assumes multiple roles, on science, instrument and project teams. They develop an understanding of top-level science requirements and instrument priorities in advance through a series of reading assignments and webinars help trainees. Then, during the five day session at Jet Propulsion Laboratory, they work closely with concurrent engineers including JPL's Advanced Projects Design Team ("Team X"), a cross-functional multidisciplinary team of engineers that utilizes concurrent engineering methodologies to complete rapid design, analysis and evaluation of mission concept designs. All are mentored and assisted directly by Team X members and course tutors in their assigned project roles. There is a strong emphasis on making difficult trades, simulating a real mission design process as accurately as possible. The process is intense and at times dramatic, with fast-paced design sessions and late evening study sessions. A survey of PSSS alumni

  13. NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Report 45; The Technical Communications Practices of US Aerospace Engineers and Scientists: Results of the Phase 3 US Aerospace Engineering Educators Survey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pinelli, Thomas E.; Barclay, Rebecca O.; Kennedy, John M.

    1996-01-01

    The U.S. government technical report is a primary means by which the results of federally funded research and development (R&D) are transferred to the U.S. aerospace industry. However, little is known about this information product in terms of its actual use, importance, and value in the transfer of federally funded R&D. Little is also known about the intermediary-based system that is used to transfer the results of federally funded R&D to the U.S. aerospace industry. To help establish a body of knowledge, the U.S. government technical report is being investigated as part of the NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. In this report, we summarize the literature on technical reports, present a model that depicts the transfer of federally funded aerospace R&D via the U.S. government technical report, and present the results of research that investigated aerospace knowledge diffusion vis-a-vis the technical communication practices of U.S. aerospace engineers and scientists who were members of the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA) and identified themselves as educators.

  14. Issues in Training Family Scientists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ganong, Lawrence H.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Issues related to graduate education in family science, especially at the doctoral level, are explored. Discusses competencies family scientists should have, as well as experiences necessary to help students acquire them. Proposes ideas for a core curriculum, identifies controversies and unresolved issues, and examines training for the future.…

  15. NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Report 15: Technical uncertainty and project complexity as correlates of information use by US industry-affiliated aerospace engineers and scientists: Results of an exploratory investigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pinelli, Thomas E.; Glassman, Nanci A.; Affelder, Linda O.; Hecht, Laura M.; Kennedy, John M.; Barclay, Rebecca O.

    1993-01-01

    An exploratory study was conducted that investigated the influence of technical uncertainty and project complexity on information use by U.S. industry-affiliated aerospace engineers and scientists. The study utilized survey research in the form of a self-administered mail questionnaire. U.S. aerospace engineers and scientists on the Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) mailing list served as the study population. The adjusted response rate was 67 percent. The survey instrument is appendix C to this report. Statistically significant relationships were found to exist between technical uncertainty, project complexity, and information use. Statistically significant relationships were found to exist between technical uncertainty, project complexity, and the use of federally funded aerospace R&D. The results of this investigation are relevant to researchers investigating information-seeking behavior of aerospace engineers. They are also relevant to R&D managers and policy planners concerned with transferring the results of federally funded aerospace R&D to the U.S. aerospace industry.

  16. Fluvial geomorphology and river engineering: future roles utilizing a fluvial hydrosystems framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilvear, David J.

    1999-12-01

    River engineering is coming under increasing public scrutiny given failures to prevent flood hazards and economic and environmental concerns. This paper reviews the contribution that fluvial geomorphology can make in the future to river engineering. In particular, it highlights the need for fluvial geomorphology to be an integral part in engineering projects, that is, to be integral to the planning, implementation, and post-project appraisal stages of engineering projects. It should be proactive rather than reactive. Areas in which geomorphologists will increasingly be able to complement engineers in river management include risk and environmental impact assessment, floodplain planning, river audits, determination of instream flow needs, river restoration, and design of ecologically acceptable channels and structures. There are four key contributions that fluvial geomorphology can make to the engineering profession with regard to river and floodplain management: to promote recognition of lateral, vertical, and downstream connectivity in the fluvial system and the inter-relationships between river planform, profile, and cross-section; to stress the importance of understanding fluvial history and chronology over a range of time scales, and recognizing the significance of both palaeo and active landforms and deposits as indicators of levels of landscape stability; to highlight the sensitivity of geomorphic systems to environmental disturbances and change, especially when close to geomorphic thresholds, and the dynamics of the natural systems; and to demonstrate the importance of landforms and processes in controlling and defining fluvial biotopes and to thus promote ecologically acceptable engineering. Challenges facing fluvial geomorphology include: gaining full acceptance by the engineering profession; widespread utilization of new technologies including GPS, GIS, image analysis of satellite and airborne remote sensing data, computer-based hydraulic modeling and

  17. Scientists' and Teachers' Perspectives about Collaboration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munson, Bruce H.; Martz, Marti Ann; Shimek, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    The emphasis on science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) education is resulting in more opportunities for scientists and teachers to collaborate. The relationships can result in failed collaborations or success. We recently completed a 6-year regional project that used several approaches to develop scientist-teacher relationships.…

  18. Student Pugwash Conference Probes Scientists' Individual Responsibility.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seltzer, Richard J.

    1985-01-01

    Students from 25 nations and senior scientists examined ethical and social dimensions of decision making about science and technology during the 1985 Student Pugwash Conference on scientists' individual responsibilities. Working groups focused on toxic wastes, military uses of space, energy and poverty, genetic engineering, and individual rights.…

  19. An Assessment of Thermodynamic Merits for Current and Potential Future Engine Operating Strategies

    SciTech Connect

    Wissink, Martin L; Splitter, Derek A; Dempsey, Adam B; Curran, Scott; Kaul, Brian C; Szybist, James P

    2017-01-01

    The present work compares the fundamental thermodynamic underpinnings (i.e., working fluid properties and heat release profile) of various combustion strategies with engine measurements. The approach employs a model that separately tracks the impacts on efficiency due to differences in rate of heat addition, volume change, mass addition, and molecular weight change for a given combi-nation of working fluid, heat release profile, and engine geometry. Comparative analysis between measured and modelled efficiencies illustrates fundamental sources of efficiency reductions or oppor-tunities inherent to various combustion regimes. Engine operating regimes chosen for analysis include stoichiometric spark-ignited combustion and lean compression-ignited combustion including HCCI, SA-HCCI, RCCI, GCI, and CDC. Within each combustion regime, effects such as engine load, combustion duration, combustion phasing, combustion chamber geometry, fuel properties, and charge dilution are explored. Model findings illustrate that even in the absence of losses such as heat transfer or incom-plete combustion, the maximum possible thermal efficiency inherent to each operating strategy varies to a significant degree. Additionally, the experimentally measured losses are observed to be unique within a given operating strategy. The findings highlight the fact that in order to create a roadmap for future directions in ICE technologies, it is important to not only compare the absolute real-world effi-ciency of a given combustion strategy, but to also examine the measured efficiency in context of what is thermodynamically possible with the working fluid and boundary conditions prescribed by a strategy.

  20. Challenging and Future of Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition Engines; an Advanced and Novel Concepts Review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elkelawy, Medhat; Yu-Sheng, Zhang; Hagar, Alm El-Din; Yu, Jing-Zhou

    The potential of HCCI combustion to reduce the internal combustion engines exhaust emissions, particularly NOX and soot emissions, and to delimit the application range of this technique as well as a detailed analysis of previous and current results of combustion chemistry, emission behaviors, the challenging facing this technique, and all controlling parameters including transient states are introduced. From HCCI combustion chemistry and emissions analysis it was found that, the heavy fuels displays two-stage heat release or two stage combustion process involving low temperature oxidation (LTO) stage followed by high temperature oxidation (HTO) stage separated by a time delay between them is attributed to negative temperature coefficient (NTC), the advantage of NOX emissions reduction from HCCI engine diminishing at high load condition, HC production is reduced with increasing the engine load, and the soot ejection is negligible during all operating conditions. Valve timing, compression ratio, inlet air temperature, and EGR show an advanced control on the HCCI combustion behaviors over a wide range of speed and load. The use of EGR in HCCI operation is limited at EGR-rates about 70% at this point the reaction rates and ignition timing are so much reduced and retarded, respectively, and leads to misfiring and production of HC-emissions. Homogenization of fuel, air, and recycled burnt gases prior to ignition in addition to the control of ignition and combustion timing, and heat release rates are obstructs that must be overcome in order to realize the advantages of HCCI engine in the future.

  1. Future Prospects for Scaffolding Methods and Biomaterials in Skin Tissue Engineering: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Chaudhari, Atul A.; Vig, Komal; Baganizi, Dieudonné Radé; Sahu, Rajnish; Dixit, Saurabh; Dennis, Vida; Singh, Shree Ram; Pillai, Shreekumar R.

    2016-01-01

    Over centuries, the field of regenerative skin tissue engineering has had several advancements to facilitate faster wound healing and thereby restoration of skin. Skin tissue regeneration is mainly based on the use of suitable scaffold matrices. There are several scaffold types, such as porous, fibrous, microsphere, hydrogel, composite and acellular, etc., with discrete advantages and disadvantages. These scaffolds are either made up of highly biocompatible natural biomaterials, such as collagen, chitosan, etc., or synthetic materials, such as polycaprolactone (PCL), and poly-ethylene-glycol (PEG), etc. Composite scaffolds, which are a combination of natural or synthetic biomaterials, are highly biocompatible with improved tensile strength for effective skin tissue regeneration. Appropriate knowledge of the properties, advantages and disadvantages of various biomaterials and scaffolds will accelerate the production of suitable scaffolds for skin tissue regeneration applications. At the same time, emphasis on some of the leading challenges in the field of skin tissue engineering, such as cell interaction with scaffolds, faster cellular proliferation/differentiation, and vascularization of engineered tissues, is inevitable. In this review, we discuss various types of scaffolding approaches and biomaterials used in the field of skin tissue engineering and more importantly their future prospects in skin tissue regeneration efforts. PMID:27898014

  2. The software engineering journey: From a naieve past into a responsible future

    SciTech Connect

    Chapa, S.K.

    1997-08-01

    All engineering fields experience growth, from early trial & error approaches, to disciplined approaches based on fundamental understanding. The field of software engineering is making the long and arduous journey, accomplished by evolution of thinking in many dimensions. This paper takes the reader along a trio of simultaneous evolutionary paths. First, the reader experiences evolution from a zero-risk mindset to a managed-risk mindset. Along this path, the reader observes three generations of security risk management and their implications for software system assurance. Next is a growth path from separate surety disciplines to an integrated systems surety approach. On the way, the reader visits safety, security, and dependability disciplines and peers into a future vision which coalesces them. The third and final evolutionary path explored here transitions the software engineering field from best practices to fundamental understanding. Along this road, the reader observes a framework for developing a {open_quotes}science behind the engineering{close_quotes}, and methodologies for software surety analysis.

  3. Future role of MR elastography in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine.

    PubMed

    Othman, Shadi F; Xu, Huihui; Mao, Jeremy J

    2015-05-01

    Tissue engineering (TE) has been introduced for more than 25 years without a boom in clinical trials. More than 70 TE-related start-up companies spent more than $600 million/year, with only two FDA-approved tissue-engineered products. Given the modest performance in clinically approved organs, TE is a tenaciously promising field. The TE community is advocating the application of clinically driven methodologies in large animal models enabling clinical translation. This challenge is hindered by the scarcity of tissue biopsies and the absence of standardized evaluation tools, but can be negated through non-invasive assessment of growth and integration, with reduced sample size and low cost. Solving this issue will speed the transition to cost-efficient clinical studies. In this paper we: (a) introduce magnetic resonance elastography to the tissue-engineering and regenerative medicine (TERM) community; (b) review recent MRE applications in TERM; and (c) discuss future directions of MRE in TERM. We have used MRE to study engineered tissues both in vitro and in vivo, where the mechanical properties of mesenchymally derived constructs were progressively monitored before and after tissues were implanted in mouse models. This study represents a stepping stone toward the applications of MRE in directing clinical trials with low cost and likely expediting the translation to more relevantly large animal models and clinical trials.

  4. An assessment of thermodynamic merits for current and potential future engine operating strategies

    DOE PAGES

    Wissink, Martin L.; Splitter, Derek A.; Dempsey, Adam B.; ...

    2017-02-01

    The present work compares the fundamental thermodynamic underpinnings (i.e., working fluid properties and heat release profile) of various combustion strategies with engine measurements. The approach employs a model that separately tracks the impacts on efficiency due to differences in rate of heat addition, volume change, mass addition, and molecular weight change for a given combination of working fluid, heat release profile, and engine geometry. Comparative analysis between measured and modeled efficiencies illustrates fundamental sources of efficiency reductions or opportunities inherent to various combustion regimes. Engine operating regimes chosen for analysis include stoichiometric spark-ignited combustion and lean compression-ignited combustion including HCCI,more » SA-HCCI, RCCI, GCI, and CDC. Within each combustion regime, effects such as engine load, combustion duration, combustion phasing, combustion chamber geometry, fuel properties, and charge dilution are explored. Model findings illustrate that even in the absence of losses such as heat transfer or incomplete combustion, the maximum possible thermal efficiency inherent to each operating strategy varies to a significant degree. Additionally, the experimentally measured losses are observed to be unique within a given operating strategy. The findings highlight the fact that in order to create a roadmap for future directions in ICE technologies, it is important to not only compare the absolute real-world efficiency of a given combustion strategy, but to also examine the measured efficiency in context of what is thermodynamically possible with the working fluid and boundary conditions prescribed by a strategy.« less

  5. Meet EPA Scientist Mehdi S. Hazari, Ph.D.

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA scientist Mehdi S. Hazari is a recipient of the 2011 Presidential Early Career Award for Scientists and Engineers. This award was for his work demonstrating how breathing in low levels of air pollutants can increase susceptibility to heart attacks

  6. EPA Scientists Receive Highest Honor from the White House

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    WASHINGTON - President Obama has named two U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) scientists as recipients of the Presidential Early Career Award for Scientists and Engineers (PECASE). This award, which is being given to EPA's Dr. Alex Marten and

  7. Would Consolidation of Army Software Engineering Organizations Help to Control Software Costs for Current and Future Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-04-16

    Would Consolidation of Army Software Engineering Organizations Help to Control Software Costs for Current and Future Systems ? Gary M. Lichvar...xi Chapter 1 – Introduction ...71 vi vii List of Figures Figure 1 – System Acquisition

  8. Computational Intelligence and Its Impact on Future High-Performance Engineering Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noor, Ahmed K. (Compiler)

    1996-01-01

    This document contains presentations from the joint UVA/NASA Workshop on Computational Intelligence held at the Virginia Consortium of Engineering and Science Universities, Hampton, Virginia, June 27-28, 1995. The presentations addressed activities in the areas of fuzzy logic, neural networks, and evolutionary computations. Workshop attendees represented NASA, the National Science Foundation, the Department of Energy, National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, industry, and academia. The workshop objectives were to assess the state of technology in the Computational intelligence area and to provide guidelines for future research.

  9. Tribological Limitations in Gas Turbine Engines: A Workshop to Identify the Challenges and Set Future Directions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DellaCorte, Chris; Pinkus, Oscar

    2000-01-01

    The following report represents a compendium of selected speaker presentation materials and observations made by Prof O. Pinkus at the NASA/ASME/Industry sponsored workshop entitled "Tribological Limitations in Gas Turbine Engines" held on September 15-17, 1999 in Albany, New York. The impetus for the workshop came from the ASME's Research Committee on Tribology whose goal is to explore new tribological research topics which may become future research opportunities. Since this subject is of current interest to other industrial and government entities the conference received cosponsorship as noted above. The conference was well attended by government, industrial and academic participants. Topics discussed included current tribological issues in gas turbines as well as the potential impact (drawbacks and advantages) of future tribological technologies especially foil air bearings and magnetic beatings. It is hoped that this workshop report may serve as a starting point for continued discussions and activities in oil-free turbomachinery systems.

  10. Scientists and Science Education: Working at the Interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeVore, E. K.

    2004-05-01

    "Are we alone?" "Where did we come from?" "What is our future?" These questions lie at the juncture of astronomy and biology: astrobiology. It is intrinsically interdisciplinary in its study of the origin, evolution and future of life on Earth and beyond. The fundamental concepts of origin and evolution--of both living and non-living systems--are central to astrobiology, and provide powerful themes for unifying science teaching, learning, and appreciation in classrooms and laboratories, museums and science centers, and homes. Research scientists play a key role in communicating the nature of science and joy of scientific discovery with the public. Communicating the scientific discoveries with the public brings together diverse professionals: research scientists, graduate and undergraduate faculty, educators, journalists, media producers, web designers, publishers and others. Working with these science communicators, research scientists share their discoveries through teaching, popular articles, lectures, broadcast and print media, electronic publication, and developing materials for formal and informal education such as textbooks, museum exhibits and documentary television. There's lots of activity in science communication. Yet, the NSF and NASA have both identified science education as needing improvement. The quality of schools and the preparation of teachers receive national attention via "No Child Left Behind" requirements. The number of students headed toward careers in science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) is not sufficient to meet national needs. How can the research community make a difference? What role can research scientists fulfill in improving STEM education? This talk will discuss the interface between research scientists and science educators to explore effective roles for scientists in science education partnerships. Astronomy and astrobiology education and outreach projects, materials, and programs will provide the context for

  11. Scientists Spot 'Teetotaler' Gene

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/news/fullstory_162265.html Scientists Spot 'Teetotaler' Gene Discovery might one day lead to drugs to ... HealthDay News) -- Scientists say they've identified a gene variant that dampens the desire to drink alcohol. ...

  12. Introduction to current and future protein therapeutics: A protein engineering perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Carter, Paul J.

    2011-05-15

    Protein therapeutics and its enabling sister discipline, protein engineering, have emerged since the early 1980s. The first protein therapeutics were recombinant versions of natural proteins. Proteins purposefully modified to increase their clinical potential soon followed with enhancements derived from protein or glycoengineering, Fc fusion or conjugation to polyethylene glycol. Antibody-based drugs subsequently arose as the largest and fastest growing class of protein therapeutics. The rationale for developing better protein therapeutics with enhanced efficacy, greater safety, reduced immunogenicity or improved delivery comes from the convergence of clinical, scientific, technological and commercial drivers that have identified unmet needs and provided strategies to address them. Future protein drugs seem likely to be more extensively engineered to improve their performance, e.g., antibodies and Fc fusion proteins with enhanced effector functions or extended half-life. Two old concepts for improving antibodies, namely antibody-drug conjugates and bispecific antibodies, have advanced to the cusp of clinical success. As for newer protein therapeutic platform technologies, several engineered protein scaffolds are in early clinical development and offer differences and some potential advantages over antibodies.

  13. Introduction to current and future protein therapeutics: a protein engineering perspective.

    PubMed

    Carter, Paul J

    2011-05-15

    Protein therapeutics and its enabling sister discipline, protein engineering, have emerged since the early 1980s. The first protein therapeutics were recombinant versions of natural proteins. Proteins purposefully modified to increase their clinical potential soon followed with enhancements derived from protein or glycoengineering, Fc fusion or conjugation to polyethylene glycol. Antibody-based drugs subsequently arose as the largest and fastest growing class of protein therapeutics. The rationale for developing better protein therapeutics with enhanced efficacy, greater safety, reduced immunogenicity or improved delivery comes from the convergence of clinical, scientific, technological and commercial drivers that have identified unmet needs and provided strategies to address them. Future protein drugs seem likely to be more extensively engineered to improve their performance, e.g., antibodies and Fc fusion proteins with enhanced effector functions or extended half-life. Two old concepts for improving antibodies, namely antibody-drug conjugates and bispecific antibodies, have advanced to the cusp of clinical success. As for newer protein therapeutic platform technologies, several engineered protein scaffolds are in early clinical development and offer differences and some potential advantages over antibodies.

  14. Multi-Disciplinary Analysis for Future Launch Systems Using NASA's Advanced Engineering Environment (AEE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Monell, Donald; Mathias, Donovan; Reuther, James; Garn, Michelle

    2003-01-01

    A new engineering environment constructed for the purposes of analyzing and designing Reusable Launch Vehicles (RLVs) is presented. The new environment has been developed to allow NASA to perform independent analysis and design of emerging RLV architectures and technologies. The new Advanced Engineering Environment (AEE) is both collaborative and distributed. It facilitates integration of the analyses by both vehicle performance disciplines and life-cycle disciplines. Current performance disciplines supported include: weights and sizing, aerodynamics, trajectories, propulsion, structural loads, and CAD-based geometries. Current life-cycle disciplines supported include: DDT&E cost, production costs, operations costs, flight rates, safety and reliability, and system economics. Involving six NASA centers (ARC, LaRC, MSFC, KSC, GRC and JSC), AEE has been tailored to serve as a web-accessed agency-wide source for all of NASA's future launch vehicle systems engineering functions. Thus, it is configured to facilitate (a) data management, (b) automated tool/process integration and execution, and (c) data visualization and presentation. The core components of the integrated framework are a customized PTC Windchill product data management server, a set of RLV analysis and design tools integrated using Phoenix Integration's Model Center, and an XML-based data capture and transfer protocol. The AEE system has seen production use during the Initial Architecture and Technology Review for the NASA 2nd Generation RLV program, and it continues to undergo development and enhancements in support of its current main customer, the NASA Next Generation Launch Technology (NGLT) program.

  15. The art of CHO cell engineering: A comprehensive retrospect and future perspectives.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Simon; Handrick, René; Otte, Kerstin

    2015-12-01

    Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells represent the most frequently applied host cell system for industrial manufacturing of recombinant protein therapeutics. CHO cells are capable of producing high quality biologics exhibiting human-like post-translational modifications in gram quantities. However, production processes for biopharmaceuticals using mammalian cells still suffer from cellular limitations such as limited growth, low productivity and stress resistance as well as higher expenses compared to bacterial or yeast based expression systems. Besides bioprocess, media and vector optimizations, advances in host cell engineering technologies comprising introduction, knock-out or post-transcriptional silencing of engineering genes have paved the way for remarkable achievements in CHO cell line development. Furthermore, thorough analysis of cellular pathways and mechanisms important for bioprocessing steadily unravels novel target molecules which might be addressed by functional genomic tools in order to establish superior production cell factories. This review provides a comprehensive summary of the most fundamental achievements in CHO cell engineering over the past three decades. Finally, the authors discuss the potential of novel and innovative methodologies that might contribute to further enhancement of existing CHO based production platforms for biopharmaceutical manufacturing in the future.

  16. Precision engineering for astronomy: historical origins and the future revolution in ground-based astronomy.

    PubMed

    Cunningham, Colin; Russell, Adrian

    2012-08-28

    Since the dawn of civilization, the human race has pushed technology to the limit to study the heavens in ever-increasing detail. As astronomical instruments have evolved from those built by Tycho Brahe in the sixteenth century, through Galileo and Newton in the seventeenth, to the present day, astronomers have made ever more precise measurements. To do this, they have pushed the art and science of precision engineering to extremes. Some of the critical steps are described in the evolution of precision engineering from the first telescopes to the modern generation telescopes and ultra-sensitive instruments that need a combination of precision manufacturing, metrology and accurate positioning systems. In the future, precision-engineered technologies such as those emerging from the photonics industries may enable future progress in enhancing the capabilities of instruments, while potentially reducing the size and cost. In the modern era, there has been a revolution in astronomy leading to ever-increasing light-gathering capability. Today, the European Southern Observatory (ESO) is at the forefront of this revolution, building observatories on the ground that are set to transform our view of the universe. At an elevation of 5000 m in the Atacama Desert of northern Chile, the Atacama Large Millimetre/submillimetre Array (ALMA) is nearing completion. The ALMA is the most powerful radio observatory ever and is being built by a global partnership from Europe, North America and East Asia. In the optical/infrared part of the spectrum, the latest project for ESO is even more ambitious: the European Extremely Large Telescope, a giant 40 m class telescope that will also be located in Chile and which will give the most detailed view of the universe so far.

  17. LOX-Hydrocarbon Rocket Engines and Thrust Chamber Technologies for Future Launch Vehicle Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haeseler, Dietrich; Mäding, Chris

    2002-01-01

    Recent investigations into the use of hydrocarbon fuels for launcher propulsion and in-orbit propulsion show the potential to satisfy the market's performance and cost requirements. The main expected advantages compared to current cryogenic and storable propellants are reduced handling effort and reduced safety precautions. Large liquid boosters or first stages for expendable and reusable vehicles are seen today as major application areas. Engine and stage concepts have been compared assuming various possible propellant combinations with hydrocarbon fuels. The expected characteristics like performance, dry mass, and development status are compared. Both expendable as well as reusable vehicle stages were considered. Investigations aiming at identifying the optimum hydrocarbon propellant in view of thrust chamber performance and engine system have been performed. System studies were performed to conclude on propellant selection, the propulsion system configuration, and the most economic engine cycle for the considered applications. The chamber cooling was assessed for envisaged chamber operational conditions in view of cooling limitations by propellant dissociation and coking. Since 1993 injector and combustion chamber technologies for the applications of different hydrocarbon propellant combinations are investigated by Astrium Space Infrastructure. The operation with hydrocarbon propellants was already demonstrated with an existing Aestus engine in cooperation with Boeing Propulsion and Power. Test have been performed with a subscale combustion chamber with the selected propellants LOX-methane and LOX-kerosene to confirm operation feasibility, cooling, and performance in a cooperation of Astrium with Chemieautomatics Design Bureau in Russia. Several injection concepts have been studied to allow a comparison and down-selection for future application. A continuation of this program is currently under preparation.

  18. Physiological and biochemical response of plants to engineered NMs: Implications on future design.

    PubMed

    de la Rosa, Guadalupe; García-Castañeda, Concepción; Vázquez-Núñez, Edgar; Alonso-Castro, Ángel Josabad; Basurto-Islas, Gustavo; Mendoza, Ángeles; Cruz-Jiménez, Gustavo; Molina, Carlos

    2017-01-01

    Engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) form the basis of a great number of commodities that are used in several areas including energy, coatings, electronics, medicine, chemicals and catalysts, among others. In addition, these materials are being explored for agricultural purposes. For this reason, the amount of ENMs present as nanowaste has significantly increased in the last few years, and it is expected that ENMs levels in the environment will increase even more in the future. Because plants form the basis of the food chain, they may also function as a point-of-entry of ENMs for other living systems. Understanding the interactions of ENMs with the plant system and their role in their potential accumulation in the food chain will provide knowledge that may serve as a decision-making framework for the future design of ENMs. The purpose of this paper was to provide an overview of the current knowledge on the transport and uptake of selected ENMs, including Carbon Based Nanomaterials (CBNMs) in plants, and the implication on plant exposure in terms of the effects at the macro, micro, and molecular level. We also discuss the interaction of ENMs with soil microorganisms. With this information, we suggest some directions on future design and areas where research needs to be strengthened. We also discuss the need for finding models that can predict the behavior of ENMs based on their chemical and thermodynamic nature, in that few efforts have been made within this context.

  19. Scientists: Engage the Public!

    PubMed

    Shugart, Erika C; Racaniello, Vincent R

    2015-12-22

    Scientists must communicate about science with public audiences to promote an understanding of complex issues that we face in our technologically advanced society. Some scientists may be concerned about a social stigma or "Sagan effect" associated with participating in public communication. Recent research in the social sciences indicates that public communication by scientists is not a niche activity but is widely done and can be beneficial to a scientist's career. There are a variety of approaches that scientists can take to become active in science communication.

  20. NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Paper 60: Culture and Workplace Communications: A Comparison of the Technical Communications Practices of Japanese and US Aerospace Engineers and Scientists

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pinelli, Thomas E.; Sato, Yuko; Barclay, Rebecca O.; Kennedy, John M.

    1997-01-01

    The advent of global markets elevates the role and importance of culture as a mitigating factor in the diffusion of knowledge and technology and in product and process innovation. This is especially true in the Large Commercial Aircraft (LCA) sector where the production and market aspects are becoming increasingly international. As firms expand beyond their national borders, using such methods as risk- sharing partnerships, joint ventures, outsourcing, and alliances, they have to contend with national and corporate cultures. Our focus is on Japan, a 'program participant' in the production of the Boeing Company's 777; the influence of Japanese culture on the diffusion of knowledge and technology in aerospace at the national and international levels; those cultural determinants-the propensity to work together, a willingness to subsume individual interests to a greater good, and an emphasis on consensual decisionmaking-that have a direct bearing on the ability of Japanese firms to form alliances and compete in international markets; and those cultural determinants thought to influence the information- seeking behaviors and workplace communication practices of Japanese aerospace engineers and scientists. In this paper, we report selective results from a survey of Japanese and U.S. aerospace engineers and scientists that focused on workplace communications. Data are presented for the following topics: importance of and time spent communicating information, collaborative writing, need for an undergraduate course in technical communication, use of libraries, use and importance of electronic (computer) networks, and the use and importance of foreign and domestically produced technical reports.

  1. NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Paper 37: The impact of political control on technical communications: A comparative study of Russian and US aerospace engineers and scientists

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barclay, Rebecca O.; Pinelli, Thomas E.; Flammia, Madelyn; Kennedy, John M.

    1994-01-01

    Until the recent dissolution of the Soviet Union, the Communist Party exerted a strict control of access to and dissemination of scientific and technical information (STI). This article presents models of the Soviet-style information society and the Western-style information society and discusses the effects of centralized governmental control of information on Russian technical communication practices. The effects of political control on technical communication are then used to interpret the results of a survey of Russian and U.S. aerospace engineers and scientists concerning the time devoted to technical communication, their collaborative writing practices and their attitudes toward collaboration, the kinds of technical documents they produce and use, and their use of computer technology, and their use of and the importance to them of libraries and technical information centers. The data are discussed in terms of tentative conclusions drawn from the literature. Finally, we conclude with four questions concerning government policy, collaboration, and the flow of STI between Russian and U.S. aerospace engineers and scientists.

  2. Cranial Neural Crest Cell Contribution to Craniofacial Formation, Pathology, and Future Directions in Tissue Engineering

    PubMed Central

    Snider, Taylor Nicholas; Mishina, Yuji

    2015-01-01

    This review provides an overview of the state and future directions of development and pathology in the craniofacial complex in the context of Cranial Neural Crest Cells (CNCC). CNCC are a multipotent cell population that is largely responsible for forming the vertebrate head. We focus on findings that have increased the knowledge of gene regulatory networks and molecular mechanisms governing CNCC migration and the participation of these cells in tissue formation. Pathology due to aberrant migration or cell death of CNCC, termed neurocristopathies, is discussed in addition to craniosynostoses. Finally, we discuss tissue engineering applications that take advantage of recent advancements in genome editing and the multipotent nature of CNCC. These applications have relevance to treating diseases due directly to the failure of CNCC, and also in restoring tissues lost due to a variety of reasons. PMID:25227212

  3. Design of an Advanced Expander Test Bed. [for future space engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Masters, Arthur I.; Tabata, William K.

    1991-01-01

    The Advanced Expander Test Bed (AETB) is the key element for development of technology for future space engines. The AETB will be used to validate the high pressure expander cycle concept, investigate system interactions and conduct investigations of advanced mission focused components and new health monitoring techniques. The AETB will use oxygen/hydrogen propellants and a split expander cycle with nominal operation at a combustion chamber pressure of 1200 psia, a mixture ratio of 6.0, and an equivalent vacuum thrust of 20,000 lbf. It will function over a wide range of conditions including throttling to 5 percent thrust, operation at a mixture ratio of 12.0, and operation in tank head idle and pumped idle modes.

  4. Future aerospace ground test facility requirements for the Arnold Engineering Development Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kirchner, Mark E.; Baron, Judson R.; Bogdonoff, Seymour M.; Carter, Donald I.; Couch, Lana M.; Fanning, Arthur E.; Heiser, William H.; Koff, Bernard L.; Melnik, Robert E.; Mercer, Stephen C.

    1992-01-01

    Arnold Engineering Development Center (AEDC) was conceived at the close of World War II, when major new developments in flight technology were presaged by new aerodynamic and propulsion concepts. During the past 40 years, AEDC has played a significant part in the development of many aerospace systems. The original plans were extended through the years by some additional facilities, particularly in the area of propulsion testing. AEDC now has undertaken development of a master plan in an attempt to project requirements and to plan for ground test and computational facilities over the coming 20 to 30 years. This report was prepared in response to an AEDC request that the National Research Council (NRC) assemble a committee to prepare guidance for planning and modernizing AEDC facilities for the development and testing of future classes of aerospace systems as envisaged by the U.S. Air Force.

  5. Futurism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foy, Jane Loring

    The objectives of this research report are to gain insight into the main problems of the future and to ascertain the attitudes that the general population has toward the treatment of these problems. In the first section of this report the future is explored socially, psychologically, and environmentally. The second section describes the techniques…

  6. Synchrotron imaging techniques for bone and cartilage tissue engineering: potential, current trends, and future directions.

    PubMed

    Olubamiji, Adeola Deborah; Izadifar, Zohreh; Chen, Daniel Xiongbiao

    2014-10-01

    Biomedical imaging is crucial to the success of bone/cartilage tissue engineering (TE) by providing detailed three-dimensional information on tissue-engineered scaffolds and associated bone/cartilage growth during the healing process. Synchrotron radiation (SR)-based biomedical imaging is an emerging technique for this purpose that has been drawing considerable recent attention. Due to the unique properties of synchrotron light, SR biomedical imaging can provide information that conventional X-ray imaging is not able to capture. SR biomedical imaging techniques notably differ from conventional imaging in both physics and implementation, thus varying with regard to both capability and popularity for biomedical imaging applications. In the earlier decade, synchrotron-based imaging was used in bone/cartilage TE to characterize bone/cartilage scaffolds and tissues as well as the varying degrees of success in reconstruction. However, several key issues should be addressed through research before SR biomedical imaging can be advanced to a noninvasive method for application to live animals and eventually to human patients. This review briefly presents recent developments in this area, focusing on different synchrotron-based biomedical imaging techniques and their advantages and limitations, as well as reported applications to bone and cartilage TE. Key issues and challenges are also identified and discussed along with recommendations for future research.

  7. Biologically inspired robotic inspectors: the engineering reality and future outlook (Keynote address)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bar-Cohen, Yoseph

    2005-04-01

    Human errors have long been recognized as a major factor in the reliability of nondestructive evaluation results. To minimize such errors, there is an increasing reliance on automatic inspection tools that allow faster and consistent tests. Crawlers and various manipulation devices are commonly used to perform variety of inspection procedures that include C-scan with contour following capability to rapidly inspect complex structures. The emergence of robots has been the result of the need to deal with parts that are too complex to handle by a simple automatic system. Economical factors are continuing to hamper the wide use of robotics for inspection applications however technology advances are increasingly changing this paradigm. Autonomous robots, which may look like human, can potentially address the need to inspect structures with configuration that are not predetermined. The operation of such robots that mimic biology may take place at harsh or hazardous environments that are too dangerous for human presence. Biomimetic technologies such as artificial intelligence, artificial muscles, artificial vision and numerous others are increasingly becoming common engineering tools. Inspired by science fiction, making biomimetic robots is increasingly becoming an engineering reality and in this paper the state-of-the-art will be reviewed and the outlook for the future will be discussed.

  8. Impact of future fuel properties on aircraft engines and fuel systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rudey, R. A.; Grobman, J. S.

    1978-01-01

    From current projections of the availability of high-quality petroleum crude oils, it is becoming increasingly apparent that the specifications for hydrocarbon jet fuels may have to be modified. The problems that are most likely to be encountered as a result of these modifications relate to engine performance, component durability and maintenance, and aircraft fuel-system performance. The effect on engine performance will be associated with changes in specific fuel consumption, ignition at relight limits, at exhaust emissions. Durability and maintenance will be affected by increases in combustor liner temperatures, carbon deposition, gum formation in fuel nozzles, and erosion and corrosion of turbine blades and vanes. Aircraft fuel-system performance will be affected by increased deposits in fuel-system heat exchangers and changes in the pumpability and flowability of the fuel. The severity of the potential problems is described in terms of the fuel characteristics most likely to change in the future. Recent data that evaluate the ability of current-technology aircraft to accept fuel specification changes are presented, and selected technological advances that can reduce the severity of the problems are described and discussed.

  9. Technology developments for thrust chambers of future launch vehicle liquid rocket engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Immich, H.; Alting, J.; Kretschmer, J.; Preclik, D.

    2003-08-01

    In this paper an overview of recent technology developments for thrust chambers of future launch vehicle liquid rocket engines at Astrium, Space Infrastructure Division (SI), is shown. The main technology. developments shown in this paper are: Technologies Technologies for enhanced heat transfer to the coolant for expander cycle engines Advanced injector head technologies Advanced combustion chamber manufacturing technologies. The main technologies for enhanced heat transfer investigated by subscale chamber hot-firing tests are: Increase of chamber length Hot gas side ribs in the chamber Artificially increased surface roughness. The developments for advanced injector head technologies were focused on the design of a new modular subscale chamber injector head. This injector head allows for an easy exchange of different injection elements: By this, cost effective hot-fire tests with different injection element concepts can be performed. The developments for advanced combustion chamber manufacturing technologies are based on subscale chamber tests with a new design of the Astrium subscale chamber. The subscale chamber has been modified by introduction of a segmented cooled cylindrical section which gives the possibility to test different manufacturing concepts for cooled chamber technologies by exchanging the individual segments. The main technology efforts versus advanced manufacturing technologies shown in this paper are: Soldering techniques Thermal barrier coatings for increased chamber life. A new technology effort is dedicated especially to LOX/Hydrocarbon propellant combinations. Recent hot fire tests on the subscale chamber with Kerosene and Methane as fuel have already been performed. A comprehensive engine system trade-off between the both propellant combinations (Kerosene vs. Methane) is presently under preparation.

  10. An Engineering Design Reference Mission for a Future Large-Aperture UVOIR Space Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thronson, Harley A.; Bolcar, Matthew R.; Clampin, Mark; Crooke, Julie A.; Redding, David; Rioux, Norman; Stahl, H. Philip

    2016-01-01

    From the 2010 NRC Decadal Survey and the NASA Thirty-Year Roadmap, Enduring Quests, Daring Visions, to the recent AURA report, From Cosmic Birth to Living Earths, multiple community assessments have recommended development of a large-aperture UVOIR space observatory capable of achieving a broad range of compelling scientific goals. Of these priority science goals, the most technically challenging is the search for spectroscopic biomarkers in the atmospheres of exoplanets in the solar neighborhood. Here we present an engineering design reference mission (EDRM) for the Advanced Technology Large-Aperture Space Telescope (ATLAST), which was conceived from the start as capable of breakthrough science paired with an emphasis on cost control and cost effectiveness. An EDRM allows the engineering design trade space to be explored in depth to determine what are the most demanding requirements and where there are opportunities for margin against requirements. Our joint NASA GSFC/JPL/MSFC/STScI study team has used community-provided science goals to derive mission needs, requirements, and candidate mission architectures for a future large-aperture, non-cryogenic UVOIR space observatory. The ATLAST observatory is designed to operate at a Sun-Earth L2 orbit, which provides a stable thermal environment and excellent field of regard. Our reference designs have emphasized a serviceable 36-segment 9.2 m aperture telescope that stows within a five-meter diameter launch vehicle fairing. As part of our cost-management effort, this particular reference mission builds upon the engineering design for JWST. Moreover, it is scalable to a variety of launch vehicle fairings. Performance needs developed under the study are traceable to a variety of additional reference designs, including options for a monolithic primary mirror.

  11. Lessons Learned at LPI for Scientists in Education and Public Outreach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shupla, C. B.; Kramer, G. Y.; Gross, J.; Shaner, A. J.; Dalton, H.; Grier, J.; Buxner, S.; Shipp, S. S.; Hackler, A. S.

    2015-12-01

    The Lunar and Planetary Institute (LPI) has engaged scientists in a variety of education programs, including teacher workshops, family events, public presentations, informal educator trainings, communication workshops, and outreach events. Scientists have helped conduct hands-on activities, participated in group discussions, and given talks, while sharing their own career paths and interests; these activities have provided audiences with a clearer vision of how science is conducted and how they can become engaged in science themselves. We will share the lessons we have learned through these experiences, including the value of collaborations between scientists and educators, the importance of understanding the audience's interests and knowledge, and the insights that audiences gain during unstructured discussion and interactions with scientists. LPI has also worked with the NASA Science Mission Directorate E/PO community to determine ways to enable scientists and engineers to engage in E/PO and STEM learning, including examining the research and programs for becoming involved in the preparation of future teachers (see the Menu of Opportunities at http://www.lpi.usra.edu/education/pre_service_edu/). We will share key research-based best practices that are recommended for scientists and engineers interested in participating in E/PO activities.

  12. Future NTP Development Synergy Leveraged from Current J-2X Engine Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ballard, Richard O.

    2008-01-01

    This paper is a discussion of how the many long-lead development elements required for the realization of a future nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP) system can be effectively leveraged from the ongoing work being conducted on the J-2X engine program for the Constellation Program. Development studies conducted to date for NTP forward planning have identified a number of technical areas that will require advancement to acceptable technology readiness levels (TRLs) before they can be utilized in NTP system development. These include high-temperature, high-area ratio nozzle extension; long-life, low-NPSP. turbomachinery; and low-boiloff propellant management; and a qualified nuclear fuel element. The current J-2X program is working many of these areas that can be leveraged to support NTP development in a highly compatible and synergistic fashion. In addition to supporting technical development, there are other programmatic issues being worked in the J-2X program that can be leveraged by a future NTP development program. These include compliance with recently-evolved space system requirements such as human-rating, fault tolerance and fracture control. These and other similar mandatory system requirements have been adopted by NASA and can result in a significant technical impact beyond elevation of the root technologies required by NTP. Finally, the exploitation of experience, methodologies, and procedures developed by the J-2X program in the areas of verification, qualification, certification, altitude simulation testing, and facility definition will be especially applicable to a future NTP system. The similarities in system mission (in-space propulsion) and operational environment (vacuum, zero-gee) between J-2X and NTP make this highly synergistic. Thus, it can be $hown that the collective benefit of leveraging experience and technologies developed during the J-2X program can result in significant savings in development cost and schedule for NTP.

  13. Future NTP Development Synergy Leveraged from Current J-2X Engine Development

    SciTech Connect

    Ballard, Richard O.

    2008-01-21

    This paper is a discussion of how the many long-lead development elements required for the realization of a future nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP) system can be effectively leveraged from the ongoing work being conducted on the J-2X engine program for the Constellation Program. Development studies conducted to date for NTP forward planning have identified a number of technical areas that will require advancement to acceptable technology readiness levels (TRLs) before they can be utilized in NTP system development. These include high-temperature, high-area ratio nozzle extension; long-life, low-NPSP turbomachinery; and low-boiloff propellant management, and a qualified nuclear fuel element. The current J-2X program is working many of these areas that can be leveraged to support NTP development in a highly compatible and synergistic fashion. In addition to supporting technical development, there are other programmatic issues being worked in the J-2X program that can be leveraged by a future NTP development program. These include compliance with recently-evolved space system requirements such as human-rating, fault tolerance and fracture control. These and other similar mandatory system requirements have been adopted by NASA and can result in a significant technical impact beyond elevation of the root technologies required by NTP. Finally, the exploitation of experience, methodologies, and procedures developed by the J-2X program in the areas of verification, qualification, certification, altitude simulation testing, and facility definition will be especially applicable to a future NTP system. The similarities in system mission (in-space propulsion) and operational environment (vacuum, zero-gee) between J-2X and NTP make this highly synergistic. Thus, it can be shown that the collective benefit of leveraging experience and technologies developed during the J-2X program can result in significant savings in development cost and schedule for NTP.

  14. Future NTP Development Synergy Leveraged from Current J-2X Engine Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ballard, Richard O.

    2008-01-01

    This paper is a discussion of how the many long-lead development elements required for the realization of a future nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP) system can be effectively leveraged from the ongoing work being conducted on the J-2X engine program for the Constellation Program. Development studies conducted to date for NTP forward planning have identified a number of technical areas that will require advancement to acceptable technology readiness levels (TRLs) before they can be utilized in NTP system development. These include high-temperature, high-area ratio nozzle extension; long-life, low-NPSP turbomachinery; and low-boiloff propellant management, and a qualified nuclear fuel element. The current J-2X program is working many of these areas that can be leveraged to support NTP development in a highly compatible and synergistic fashion. In addition to supporting technical development, there are other programmatic issues being worked in the J-2X program that can be leveraged by a future NTP development program. These include compliance with recently-evolved space system requirements such as human-rating, fault tolerance and fracture control. These and other similar mandatory system requirements have been adopted by NASA and can result in a significant technical impact beyond elevation of the root technologies required by NTP. Finally, the exploitation of experience, methodologies, and procedures developed by the J-2X program in the areas of verification, qualification, certification, altitude simulation testing, and facility definition will be especially applicable to a future NTP system. The similarities in system mission (in-space propulsion) and operational environment (vacuum, zero-gee) between J-2X and NTP make this highly synergistic. Thus, it can be shown that the collective benefit of leveraging experience and technologies developed during the J-2X program can result in significant savings in development cost and schedule for NTP.

  15. Scientists: Engage the Public!

    PubMed Central

    Shugart, Erika C.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Scientists must communicate about science with public audiences to promote an understanding of complex issues that we face in our technologically advanced society. Some scientists may be concerned about a social stigma or “Sagan effect” associated with participating in public communication. Recent research in the social sciences indicates that public communication by scientists is not a niche activity but is widely done and can be beneficial to a scientist’s career. There are a variety of approaches that scientists can take to become active in science communication. PMID:26695633

  16. Determining and Testing Factors Impacting upon the Supply of Minority and Women Scientists, Engineers, and Technologists for Defense Industries and Installations. Phase 1

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-06-01

    8217 Quantitative Careers-9 Technology., Blacks Higher Education Occupational Segregation, Recruitment, Women- Interventions, Occupational"Adaptation...a Black Female Electrical Engin- eering Graduate Student . o . o . . o 15 Focus Group Interview with Personnel Staff of a Defense Contractor...to determine research gaps; to identify intervention strategies utilized to increase participation by women, American Indians, Blacks , and Hispanics

  17. Finding a New Continent versus Mapping All the Rivers: Recognition, Ownership, and the Scientific Epistemological Development of Practicing Scientists and Engineers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verdan, Andrea Marie

    2012-01-01

    Maintaining our nation's standing as a leader of innovative and premier science and engineering research requires that those on the trajectory of these careers receive both rigorous and exceptional training. In addition to educating students in the content knowledge of these disciplines, it is also necessary to train them in the professional…

  18. Sex and Ethnic Differentials in Employment and Salaries Among Federal Scientists and Engineers. Reviews of Data on Science Resources, No. 34, December 1979.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Science Foundation, Washington, DC. Div. of Science Resources Studies.

    An analysis of salary differentials shows that although women and racial or ethnic minorities in the federal Civil Service science and engineering workforce earn less than their male and white counterparts, the differentials are much less than those shown by other studies for other occupations in the economy. These results show that: (1) salary…

  19. Development of Alternative Continuing Educational Systems for Preventing the Technological Obsolescence of Air Force Scientists and Engineers. Volume 1. Basic Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slebodnick, Edward B.; And Others

    Volume 1 of the study reports a work effort to define and give guidelines for the acquisition of cost-effective alternative continuing education (CE) systems to prevent the technological obsolescence of Air Force military scientific and engineering officer personnel. A detailed background survey of the problem was conducted using questionnaires,…

  20. Social scientist's viewpoint on conflict management

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ertel, Madge O.

    1990-01-01

    Social scientists can bring to the conflict-management process objective, reliable information needed to resolve increasingly complex issues. Engineers need basic training in the principles of the social sciences and in strategies for public involvement. All scientists need to be sure that that the information they provide is unbiased by their own value judgments and that fair standards and open procedures govern its use.

  1. Graphic Analysis of American and British Axial-Flow Turbojet Engine Performance Trends (Current and Future)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cesaro, Richard S.; Lazar, James

    1951-01-01

    This report presents a compilation of static sea-level data on existing or designed American and British axial-flow turbojet engines in terms of basic engine parameters such as thrust and air flow. In the data presented, changes in the over-U engine performance with time sre examined as well as the relation of the various engine parameters to each other.

  2. Educating Engineers: Designing for the Future of the Field. Book Highlights

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheppard, Sheri D.; Macatangay, Kelly; Colby, Anne; Sullivan, William M.

    2008-01-01

    This multi-year study of undergraduate engineering education in the United States initiated questions about the alignment of engineering programs with the demands of current professional engineering practice. While describing engineering education from within the classroom and the lab, the report on the study offers new possibilities for teaching…

  3. Stories of Scientists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mascazine, John R.

    2001-01-01

    Presents three biographical sketches of scientists including John Wesley Powell (first to explore the geology of the Grand Canyon), Joseph von Fraunhofer (his work in optics led to the science of spectroscopy), and Gregor Mendel (of Mendelian genetics fame). Other scientists are mentioned along with sources for additional biographical information.…

  4. Scientist Examines Tornado Vortex

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    In this Quick Time movie, a scientist examines what appears to be a tornado vortex (blue) coming out of a thunderstorm. The scientist uses 3D glasses to be able to see in 3 dimensions the different flows going out into the vortex. Earth science and weather studies are an important ongoing function of NASA and its affiliates.

  5. Just like Real Scientists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Betteley, Pat

    2009-01-01

    How do you inspire students to keep records like scientists? Share the primary research of real scientists and explicitly teach students how to keep records--that's how! Therefore, a group of third-grade students and their teacher studied the work of famous primatologist Jane Goodall and her modern-day counterpart Ian Gilby. After learning about…

  6. Misquoted Scientists Respond.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cole, John R.

    1981-01-01

    This paper points out that creationists have developed a skill unique to their trade, namely, that of misquotation and quotation out of context from the works of leading evolutionists. This tactic not only frustrates scientists but it misleads school board members, legislators, and the public. A representative sampling of scientists' responses to…

  7. Biomaterials based strategies for skeletal muscle tissue engineering: existing technologies and future trends.

    PubMed

    Qazi, Taimoor H; Mooney, David J; Pumberger, Matthias; Geissler, Sven; Duda, Georg N

    2015-01-01

    Skeletal muscles have a robust capacity to regenerate, but under compromised conditions, such as severe trauma, the loss of muscle functionality is inevitable. Research carried out in the field of skeletal muscle tissue engineering has elucidated multiple intrinsic mechanisms of skeletal muscle repair, and has thus sought to identify various types of cells and bioactive factors which play an important role during regeneration. In order to maximize the potential therapeutic effects of cells and growth factors, several biomaterial based strategies have been developed and successfully implemented in animal muscle injury models. A suitable biomaterial can be utilized as a template to guide tissue reorganization, as a matrix that provides optimum micro-environmental conditions to cells, as a delivery vehicle to carry bioactive factors which can be released in a controlled manner, and as local niches to orchestrate in situ tissue regeneration. A myriad of biomaterials, varying in geometrical structure, physical form, chemical properties, and biofunctionality have been investigated for skeletal muscle tissue engineering applications. In the current review, we present a detailed summary of studies where the use of biomaterials favorably influenced muscle repair. Biomaterials in the form of porous three-dimensional scaffolds, hydrogels, fibrous meshes, and patterned substrates with defined topographies, have each displayed unique benefits, and are discussed herein. Additionally, several biomaterial based approaches aimed specifically at stimulating vascularization, innervation, and inducing contractility in regenerating muscle tissues are also discussed. Finally, we outline promising future trends in the field of muscle regeneration involving a deeper understanding of the endogenous healing cascades and utilization of this knowledge for the development of multifunctional, hybrid, biomaterials which support and enable muscle regeneration under compromised conditions.

  8. Might More Harm Be Done than Good When Scientists and Engineers Engage with the Public about New Technology before It Is Fully Developed? The Case of Hydrogen Energy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bellaby, Paul; Clark, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    We report consultation about hydrogen energy at the Hydrogen Centre in South Wales with members of the public in the region. The Centre's research staff guided tours and outside sociologists made the independent assessment presented here. Hydrogen energy is a technology under development. The question is as follows: Does any risk to its future in…

  9. Young Scientists Discuss Recent Advances, Future Challenges.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baum, Rudy M.

    1989-01-01

    Discusses a National Academy of Science forum at which a group of outstanding young researchers in astronomy, molecular and developmental biology, physics, chemistry, mathematics, atmospheric science, and materials science met for three days of formal presentations and informal conversations. Provides a short synopsis of major speakers. (MVL)

  10. Astronomy Olympiads a Challenge for Future Scientists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ninkovic, S.

    2013-05-01

    Contests in astronomy for secondary school pupils, very often called "Astronomy Olympiads", have acquired a general recognition in many countries. They are regarded in various manners: as the best way to attract to science young talented people in general, the possibility to discriminate the most successful participants, who are then in position to be offered to become students of famous universities which is viewed as the beginning of a nice career, the possibility of affirmation of astronomy in secondary schools, the way to put together young amateur astronomers from various parts of the world, etc. On the other hand, there are some organisational problems which follow such events; they concern the relationship with the International Astronomical Union, outreach of the contests in different countries and many others. Serbia has been a member in the Astronomy-Olympiad Movement from 2002.

  11. Mentoring Among Scientists: Implications of Interpersonal Relationships within a Formal Mentoring Program

    SciTech Connect

    Bryan D. Maughan

    2006-11-01

    Mentoring is an established strategy for learning that has its root in antiquity. Most, if not all, successful scientists and engineers had an effective mentor at some point in their career. In the context of scientists and engineers, mentoring has been undefined. Reports addressing critical concerns regarding the future of science and engineering in the U.S. mention the practice of mentoring a priori, leaving organizations without guidance in its application. Preliminary results from this study imply that formal mentoring can be effective when properly defined and operationalized. Recognizing the uniqueness of the individual in a symbiotic mentor-protégé relationship significantly influences a protégé’s learning experience which carries repercussions into their career intentions. The mentor-protégé relationship is a key factor in succession planning and preserving and disseminating critical information and tacit knowledge essential to the development of leadership in the science and technological industry.

  12. Scientists Like Me: Faces of Discovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Enevoldsen, A. A. G.; Culp, S.; Trinh, A.

    2010-08-01

    During the International Year of Astronomy, Pacific Science Center is hosting a photography exhibit: Scientists Like Me: Faces of Discovery. The exhibit contains photographs of real, current astronomers and scientists working in astronomy and aerospace-related fields from many races, genders, cultural affiliations and walks of life. The photographs were taken and posters designed by Alyssa Trinh and Sarah Culp, high school interns in Discovery Corps, Pacific Science Center's youth development program. The direct contact between the scientists and the interns helps the intended audience of teachers and families personally connect with scientists. The finished posters from this exhibit are available online (http://pacificsciencecenter.org/scientists) for teachers to use in their classrooms, in addition to being displayed at Pacific Science Center and becoming part of Pacific Science Center's permanent art rotation. The objective of this project was to fill a need for representative photographs of scientists in the world community. It also met two of the goals of International Year of Astronomy: to provide a modern image of science and scientists, and to improve the gender-balanced representation of scientists at all levels and promote greater involvement by all people in scientific and engineering careers. We would like to build on the success of this project and create an annual summer internship, with different interns, focusing on creating posters for different fields of science.

  13. Investigation of the Secondary School Students' Images of Scientists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akgün, Abuzer

    2016-01-01

    The overall purpose of this study is to explore secondary school students' images of scientists. In addition to this comprehensive purpose, it is also investigated that if these students' current images of scientists and those in which they see themselves as a scientist in the near future are consistent or not. The study was designed in line with…

  14. Identity Matching to Scientists: Differences That Make a Difference?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andersen, Hanne Moeller; Krogh, Lars Brian; Lykkegaard, Eva

    2014-01-01

    Students' images of science and scientists are generally assumed to influence their related subject choices and aspirations for tertiary education within science and technology. Several research studies have shown that many young people hold rather stereotypical images of scientists, making it hard for them to see themselves as future scientists.…

  15. The History of Winter: teachers as scientists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koenig, L.; Courville, Z.; Wasilewski, P. J.; Gow, T.; Bender, K. J.

    2013-12-01

    The History of Winter (HOW) is a NASA Goddard Space Flight Center-funded teacher enrichment program that was started by Dr. Peter Wasilewski (NASA), Dr. Robert Gabrys (NASA) and Dr. Tony Gow (Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory, or CRREL) in 2001 and continues with support and involvement of scientists from both the NASA Cryospheric Sciences Laboratory and CREEL. The program brings educators mostly from middle and high schools but also from state parks, community colleges and other institutions from across the US to the Northwood School (a small, private boarding school) in Lake Placid, NY for one week to learn about several facets of winter, polar, and snow research, including the science and history of polar ice core research, lake ice formation and structure, snow pack science, winter ecology, and remote sensing including current and future NASA cryospheric missions. The program receives support from the Northwood School staff to facilitate the program. The goal of the program is to create 'teachers as scientists' which is achieved through several hands-on field experiences in which the teachers have the opportunity to work with polar researchers from NASA, CRREL and partner Universities to dig and sample snow pits, make ice thin sections from lake ice, make snow shelters, and observe under-ice lake ecology. The hands-on work allows the teachers to use the same tools and techniques used in polar research while simultaneously introducing science concepts and activities to support their classroom work. The ultimate goal of the program is to provide the classroom teachers with the opportunity to learn about current and timely cryospheric research as well as to engage in real fieldwork experiences. The enthusiasm generated during the week-long program is translated into classroom activities with guidance from scientists, teachers and educational professionals. The opportunity to engage with polar researchers, both young investigators and renowned

  16. The Design of Large-Scale Complex Engineered Systems: Present Challenges and Future Promise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bloebaum, Christina L.; McGowan, Anna-Maria Rivas

    2012-01-01

    Model-Based Systems Engineering techniques are used in the SE community to address the need for managing the development of complex systems. A key feature of the MBSE approach is the use of a model to capture the requirements, architecture, behavior, operating environment and other key aspects of the system. The focus on the model differentiates MBSE from traditional SE techniques that may have a document centric approach. In an effort to assess the benefit of utilizing MBSE on its flight projects, NASA Langley has implemented a pilot program to apply MBSE techniques during the early phase of the Materials International Space Station Experiment-X (MISSE-X). MISSE-X is a Technology Demonstration Mission being developed by the NASA Office of the Chief Technologist i . Designed to be installed on the exterior of the International Space Station (ISS), MISSE-X will host experiments that advance the technology readiness of materials and devices needed for future space exploration. As a follow-on to the highly successful series of previous MISSE experiments on ISS, MISSE-X benefits from a significant interest by the

  17. Structural Analysis and Optimization of a Composite Fan Blade for Future Aircraft Engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coroneos, Rula M.; Gorla, Rama Subba Reddy

    2012-09-01

    This paper addresses the structural analysis and optimization of a composite sandwich ply lay-up of a NASA baseline solid metallic fan blade comparable to a future Boeing 737 MAX aircraft engine. Sandwich construction with a polymer matrix composite face sheet and honeycomb aluminum core replaces the original baseline solid metallic fan model made of Titanium. The focus of this work is to design the sandwich composite blade with the optimum number of plies for the face sheet that will withstand the combined pressure and centrifugal loads while the constraints are satisfied and the baseline aerodynamic and geometric parameters are maintained. To satisfy the requirements a sandwich construction for the blade is proposed with composite face sheets and a weak core made of honeycomb aluminum material. For aerodynamic considerations, the thickness of the core is optimized where as the overall blade thickness is held fixed in order not to alter the original airfoil geometry. Weight reduction is taken as the objective function by varying the core thickness of the blade within specified upper and lower bounds. Constraints are imposed on radial displacement limitations and ply failure strength. From the optimum design, the minimum number of plies, which will not fail, is back-calculated. The ply lay-up of the blade is adjusted from the calculated number of plies and final structural analysis is performed. Analyses were carried out by utilizing the OpenMDAO Framework, developed at NASA Glenn Research Center combining optimization with structural assessment.

  18. Bioactive glass scaffolds for bone tissue engineering: state of the art and future perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Qiang; Saiz, Eduardo; Rahaman, Mohamed N.; Tomsia, Antoni P.

    2011-01-01

    The repair and regeneration of large bone defects resulting from disease or trauma remains a significant clinical challenge. Bioactive glass has appealing characteristics as a scaffold material for bone tissue engineering, but the application of glass scaffolds for the repair of load-bearing bone defects is often limited by their low mechanical strength and fracture toughness. This paper provides an overview of recent developments in the fabrication and mechanical properties of bioactive glass scaffolds. The review reveals the fact that mechanical strength is not a real limiting factor in the use of bioactive glass scaffolds for bone repair, an observation not often recognized by most researchers and clinicians. Scaffolds with compressive strengths comparable to those of trabecular and cortical bones have been produced by a variety of methods. The current limitations of bioactive glass scaffolds include their low fracture toughness (low resistance to fracture) and limited mechanical reliability, which have so far received little attention. Future research directions should include the development of strong and tough bioactive glass scaffolds, and their evaluation in unloaded and load-bearing bone defects in animal models. PMID:21912447

  19. The Tissue-Engineered Vascular Graft—Past, Present, and Future

    PubMed Central

    Pashneh-Tala, Samand; MacNeil, Sheila

    2016-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death worldwide, with this trend predicted to continue for the foreseeable future. Common disorders are associated with the stenosis or occlusion of blood vessels. The preferred treatment for the long-term revascularization of occluded vessels is surgery utilizing vascular grafts, such as coronary artery bypass grafting and peripheral artery bypass grafting. Currently, autologous vessels such as the saphenous vein and internal thoracic artery represent the gold standard grafts for small-diameter vessels (<6 mm), outperforming synthetic alternatives. However, these vessels are of limited availability, require invasive harvest, and are often unsuitable for use. To address this, the development of a tissue-engineered vascular graft (TEVG) has been rigorously pursued. This article reviews the current state of the art of TEVGs. The various approaches being explored to generate TEVGs are described, including scaffold-based methods (using synthetic and natural polymers), the use of decellularized natural matrices, and tissue self-assembly processes, with the results of various in vivo studies, including clinical trials, highlighted. A discussion of the key areas for further investigation, including graft cell source, mechanical properties, hemodynamics, integration, and assessment in animal models, is then presented. PMID:26447530

  20. In Genes We Trust: Germline Engineering, Eugenics, and the Future of the Human Genome.

    PubMed

    Powell, Russell

    2015-12-01

    Liberal proponents of genetic engineering maintain that developing human germline modification technologies is morally desirable because it will result in a net improvement in human health and well-being. Skeptics of germline modification, in contrast, fear evolutionary harms that could flow from intervening in the human germline, and worry that such programs, even if well intentioned, could lead to a recapitulation of the scientifically and morally discredited projects of the old eugenics. Some bioconservatives have appealed as well to the value of retaining our "given" human biological nature as a reason for restraining the development and use of human genetic modification technologies even where they would tend to increase well-being. In this article, I argue that germline intervention will be necessary merely to sustain the levels of genetic health that we presently enjoy for future generations-a goal that should appeal to bioliberals and bioconservatives alike. This is due to the population-genetic consequences of relaxed selection pressures in human populations caused by the increasing efficacy and availability of conventional medicine. This heterodox conclusion, which I present as a problem of intergenerational justice, has been overlooked in medicine and bioethics due to certain misconceptions about human evolution, which I attempt to rectify, as well as the sordid history of Darwinian approaches to medicine and social policy, which I distinguish from the present argument.

  1. Present Challenges, Critical Needs, and Future Technological Directions for NASA's GN and C Engineering Discipline

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dennehy, Cornelius J.

    2010-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is currently undergoing a substantial redirection. Notable among the changes occurring within NASA is the stated emphasis on technology development, integration, and demonstration. These new changes within the Agency should have a positive impact on the GN&C discipline given the potential for sizeable investments for technology development and in-space demonstrations of both Autonomous Rendezvous & Docking (AR&D) systems and Autonomous Precision Landing (APL) systems. In this paper the NASA Technical Fellow for Guidance, Navigation and Control (GN&C) provides a summary of the present technical challenges, critical needs, and future technological directions for NASA s GN&C engineering discipline. A brief overview of the changes occurring within NASA that are driving a renewed emphasis on technology development will be presented as background. The potential benefits of the planned GN&C technology developments will be highlighted. This paper will provide a GN&C State-of-the-Discipline assessment. The discipline s readiness to support the goals & objectives of each of the four NASA Mission Directorates is evaluated and the technical challenges and barriers currently faced by the discipline are summarized. This paper will also discuss the need for sustained investments to sufficiently mature the several classes of GN&C technologies required to implement NASA crewed exploration and robotic science missions.

  2. NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Paper 64: Culture and Workplace Communications: A Comparison of the Technical Communications Practices of Japanese and US Aerospace Engineers and Scientists

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pinelli, Thomas E.; Sato, Yuko; Barclay, Rebecca O.; Kennedy, John M.

    1997-01-01

    The advent of global markets elevates the role and importance of culture as a mitigating factor in the diffusion of knowledge and technology and in product and process innovation. This is especially true in the large commercial aircraft (LCA) sector where the production and market aspects are becoming increasingly international. As firms expand beyond their national borders, using such methods as risk-sharing partnerships, joint ventures, outsourcing, and alliances, they have to contend with national and corporate cultures. Our focus is on Japan, a program participant in the production of the Boeing Company's 777. The aspects of Japanese culture and workplace communications will be examined: 1.) the influence of Japanese culture on the diffusion of knowledge and technology in aerospace at the national and international levels; 2.) those cultural determinants-the propensity to work together, a willingness to subsume individual interests to a greater good, and an emphasis on consensual decision making-that have a direct bearing on the ability of Japanese firms to form alliances and compete in international markets; 3.) and those cultural determinants thought to influence the information-seeking behaviors and workplace communication practices of Japanese aerospace engineers and scientists. In this article, we report selective results from a survey of Japanese and U.S. aerospace engineers and scientists that focused on workplace communications. Data are presented for the following topics: importance of and time spent communicating information, collaborative writing, need for an undergraduate course in technical communication, use of libraries, use and importance of electronic (computer) networks, and the use and importance of foreign and domestically produced technical reports.

  3. Development of clinical scientists.

    PubMed

    Smith, R V

    1987-01-01

    The education and training of clinical scientists has served society in several ways. For academic pharmacy, the emergence of clinical science has provided research and scholarship opportunities for clinical faculty development. Clinical scientists have also begun to play important roles in industrial drug research and development. For all faculty and students, clinical science research reinforces a "research mindset" that will become increasingly important as our society moves from a production/extraction to an information-based economy. Pharmacy will best evolve by increasing its commitment to clinical science research. In the process, academic pharmacy must continue to improve and support excellent education and training programs for clinical scientists.

  4. Reproductive cloning, genetic engineering and the autonomy of the child: the moral agent and the open future

    PubMed Central

    Mameli, M

    2007-01-01

    Some authors have argued that the human use of reproductive cloning and genetic engineering should be prohibited because these biotechnologies would undermine the autonomy of the resulting child. In this paper, two versions of this view are discussed. According to the first version, the autonomy of cloned and genetically engineered people would be undermined because knowledge of the method by which these people have been conceived would make them unable to assume full responsibility for their actions. According to the second version, these biotechnologies would undermine autonomy by violating these people's right to an open future. There is no evidence to show that people conceived through cloning and genetic engineering would inevitably or even in general be unable to assume responsibility for their actions; there is also no evidence for the claim that cloning and genetic engineering would inevitably or even in general rob the child of the possibility to choose from a sufficiently large array of life plans. PMID:17264194

  5. Reproductive cloning, genetic engineering and the autonomy of the child: the moral agent and the open future.

    PubMed

    Mameli, M

    2007-02-01

    Some authors have argued that the human use of reproductive cloning and genetic engineering should be prohibited because these biotechnologies would undermine the autonomy of the resulting child. In this paper, two versions of this view are discussed. According to the first version, the autonomy of cloned and genetically engineered people would be undermined because knowledge of the method by which these people have been conceived would make them unable to assume full responsibility for their actions. According to the second version, these biotechnologies would undermine autonomy by violating these people's right to an open future. There is no evidence to show that people conceived through cloning and genetic engineering would inevitably or even in general be unable to assume responsibility for their actions; there is also no evidence for the claim that cloning and genetic engineering would inevitably or even in general rob the child of the possibility to choose from a sufficiently large array of life plans.

  6. NASA/DoD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Report Number 6. The Relationship between the Use of U.S. Government Technical Reports by U.S. Aerospace Engineers and Scientists and Selected Institutional and Sociometric Variables

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-01-01

    institutional or corporate memory. Information internal to the organization is also the information the professional is most likely to turn to first...1533-1589. Ritti, R. Richard. The Engineer in the Industrial Corporation . (NY: Columbia University Press, 1971.) Rubenstein, Albert H. "Timing and Form...Douglas, Richard D.; Ellen V. McCauley; Allen D. Kuhn; Jeanne L. Bell; and Karen W. Woolridge. DTIC 2000: A Corporate Plan for the Future. Alexandria

  7. A Modest Proposal Regarding the Future of Engineering Technology Education in America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheshier, Stephen R.

    1985-01-01

    Compares and contrasts engineering (theoretical/abstract) and engineering technology (practical/application-oriented) baccalaureate programs. Although the perpetuated independent development of the programs has created a negative impact on the profession, changes in accreditation criteria/categories might help engineering technology programs…

  8. Reaching Students: What Research Says about Effective Instruction in Undergraduate Science and Engineering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kober, Nancy

    2015-01-01

    The undergraduate years are a turning point in producing scientifically literate citizens and future scientists and engineers. Evidence from research about how students learn science and engineering shows that teaching strategies that motivate and engage students will improve their learning. So how do students best learn science and engineering?…

  9. Ask a Climate Scientist

    NASA Video Gallery

    Have a question that's always confounded you about Earth's climate? Wonder why it matters that the climate is changing now if it has changed before? Or how scientists know changes seen in recent de...

  10. Another challenge for scientists

    PubMed Central

    Christian, Laura M; Naqvi, Hassan R; Schmidt, Christian; Covarrubias, David; Mathur, Shawn

    2008-01-01

    By nature, scientists contribute to our understanding of nature and ourselves. As communities undergo significant changes, new challenges are presented. Here, we offer alternative views on recent changes in society. PMID:18637170

  11. Scientists as writers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yore, Larry D.; Hand, Brian M.; Prain, Vaughan

    2002-09-01

    This study attempted to establish an image of a science writer based on a synthesis of writing theory, models, and research literature on academic writing in science and other disciplines and to contrast this image with an actual prototypical image of scientists as writers of science. The synthesis was used to develop a questionnaire to assess scientists' writing habits, beliefs, strategies, and perceptions about print-based language. The questionnaire was administered to 17 scientists from science and applied science departments of a large Midwestern land grant university. Each respondent was interviewed following the completion of the questionnaire with a custom-designed semistructured protocol to elaborate, probe, and extend their written responses. These data were analyzed in a stepwise fashion using the questionnaire responses to establish tentative assertions about the three major foci (type of writing done, criteria of good science writing, writing strategies used) and the interview responses to verify these assertions. Two illustrative cases (a very experienced, male physical scientist and a less experienced, female applied biological scientist) were used to highlight diversity in the sample. Generally, these 17 scientists are driven by the academy's priority of publishing their research results in refereed, peer-reviewed journals. They write their research reports in isolation or as a member of a large research team, target their writing to a few journals that they also read regularly, use writing in their teaching and scholarship to inform and persuade science students and other scientists, but do little border crossing into other discourse communities. The prototypical science writer found in this study did not match the image based on a synthesis of the writing literature in that these scientists perceived writing as knowledge telling not knowledge building, their metacognition of written discourse was tacit, and they used a narrow array of genre

  12. Uncovering Scientist Stereotypes and Their Relationships with Student Race and Student Success in a Diverse, Community College Setting.

    PubMed

    Schinske, Jeffrey; Cardenas, Monica; Kaliangara, Jahana

    2015-01-01

    A number of studies have identified correlations between children's stereotypes of scientists, their science identities, and interest or persistence in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics. Yet relatively few studies have examined scientist stereotypes among college students, and the literature regarding these issues in predominantly nonwhite and 2-yr college settings is especially sparse. We piloted an easy-to-analyze qualitative survey of scientist stereotypes in a biology class at a diverse, 2-yr, Asian American and Native American Pacific Islander-Serving Institution. We examined the reliability and validity of the survey, and characterized students' comments with reference to previous research on stereotypes. Positive scientist stereotypes were relatively common in our sample, and negative stereotypes were rare. Negative stereotypes appeared to be concentrated within certain demographic groups. We found that students identifying nonstereotypical images of scientists at the start of class had higher rates of success in the course than their counterparts. Finally, evidence suggested many students lacked knowledge of actual scientists, such that they had few real-world reference points to inform their stereotypes of scientists. This study augments the scant literature regarding scientist stereotypes in diverse college settings and provides insights for future efforts to address stereotype threat and science identity.

  13. Uncovering Scientist Stereotypes and Their Relationships with Student Race and Student Success in a Diverse, Community College Setting

    PubMed Central

    Schinske, Jeffrey; Cardenas, Monica; Kaliangara, Jahana

    2015-01-01

    A number of studies have identified correlations between children’s stereotypes of scientists, their science identities, and interest or persistence in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics. Yet relatively few studies have examined scientist stereotypes among college students, and the literature regarding these issues in predominantly nonwhite and 2-yr college settings is especially sparse. We piloted an easy-to-analyze qualitative survey of scientist stereotypes in a biology class at a diverse, 2-yr, Asian American and Native American Pacific Islander–Serving Institution. We examined the reliability and validity of the survey, and characterized students’ comments with reference to previous research on stereotypes. Positive scientist stereotypes were relatively common in our sample, and negative stereotypes were rare. Negative stereotypes appeared to be concentrated within certain demographic groups. We found that students identifying nonstereotypical images of scientists at the start of class had higher rates of success in the course than their counterparts. Finally, evidence suggested many students lacked knowledge of actual scientists, such that they had few real-world reference points to inform their stereotypes of scientists. This study augments the scant literature regarding scientist stereotypes in diverse college settings and provides insights for future efforts to address stereotype threat and science identity. PMID:26338318

  14. Engineering for Operation of a Future Belgian Deep Geological Repository for ILW and HLW - 12379

    SciTech Connect

    Haverkamp, B.; Biurrun, E.; Nieder-Westermann, G.H.; Van Humbeeck, H.

    2012-07-01

    In Belgium, an advanced conceptual design is being elaborated for deep geologic disposal of high level waste (HLW) and for low and intermediate level waste (LILW) not amenable for surface disposal. The concept is based on a shielded steel and concrete container for disposal of HLW, i.e., the Super-container. LILW will be disposed of in separately designed concrete caissons. The reference host rock is the Boom Clay, a poorly indurated clay formation in northeastern Belgium. Investigations into the potential host rock are conducted at the HADES underground research laboratory in Mol, Belgium. In 2009 the Belgian Agency for Management of Radioactive Waste and Enriched Fissile Materials (ONDRAF/NIRAS) initiated a four year research project aimed at confirming the fundamental feasibility of building and operating a repository. The goal of the program is to demonstrate at a detailed conceptual level that the proposed geologic disposal system can be safely constructed, operated, and progressively closed. Part of the broader research efforts being conducted includes evaluations optimization of the waste transportation shaft, subsurface transportation system, ventilation system, and evaluation of backfilling and sealing concepts for the repository design. The potential for implementation of a waste retrieval strategy encompassing the first 100 years after emplacement is also considered. In the framework of a four year research program aimed at confirming the fundamental feasibility of building and operating a repository in poorly indurated clay design studies have been underway to optimize the waste transportation shaft, subsurface transportation system, and ventilation system. Additionally backfilling and sealing concepts proposed for the potential repository have been reviewed in conjunction with impacts related to the potential future inclusion of a retrievability requirement in governing regulations. The main engineering challenges in the Belgian repository concept are

  15. NASA/DoD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project: Report 43: The Technical Communication Practices of U.S. Aerospace Engineers and Scientists: Results of the Phase 1 Mail Survey -- Manufacturing and Production Perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pinelli, Thomas E.; Barclay, Rebecca O.; Kennedy, John M.

    1996-01-01

    The U.S. government technical report is a primary means by which the results of federally funded research and development (R&D) are transferred to the U.S. aerospace industry. However, little is known about this information product in terms of its actual use, importance, and value in the transfer of federally funded R&D. To help establish a body of knowledge, the U.S. government technical report is being investigated as part of the NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. In this report, we summarize the literature on technical reports and provide a model that depicts the transfer of federally funded aerospace R&D via the U.S. government technical report. We present results from our investigation of aerospace knowledge diffusion vis-a-vis the U.S. government technical report, and present the results of research that investigated aerospace knowledge diffusion vis-a-vis the technical communication practices of U.S. aerospace engineers and scientists who were members of the Society of Manufacturing Engineers.

  16. Future of the Pacific: Inspiring the Next Generation of Scientists and Engineers Through Place-Based Problem-Solving Using Innovative STEM Curriculum and Technology Tools

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-03-30

    heating effect. As the initial system is observed and proven to be functional, student groups are asked to discuss possible variables affecting...enough that students merely know their solar hot water system works, although that is certainly important. They learn how the sun is heating water by...reliance on renewable energy sources in the islands, such as wind, solar, geothermal , and wave energy.7 In 2008, Hawaii made a public commitment to

  17. Integrating Cost Engineering and Project Management in a Junior Engineering Economics Course and a Senior Capstone Project Design Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tickles, Virginia C.; Li, Yadong; Walters, Wilbur L.

    2013-01-01

    Much criticism exists concerning a lack of focus on real-world problem-solving in the science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) infrastructures. Many of these critics say that current educational infrastructures are incapable in preparing future scientists and engineers to solve the complex and multidisciplinary problems this society…

  18. Next Generation Scientists, Next Opportunities: EPA's Science To Achieve Results (STAR) Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, M.

    2004-12-01

    Scientific research is one of the most powerful tools we have for understanding and protecting our environment. It provides the foundation for what we know about our planet, how it has changed, and how it could be altered in the future. The National Center for Environmental Research (NCER) in the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Office of Research and Development (ORD) supports high-quality, extramural research by the nation's leading scientists and engineers to strengthen the basis for decisions about local and national environmental issues. NCER works with academia, state and local governments, other federal agencies, and scientists in EPA to increase human knowledge of how to protect our health and natural resources through its three major programs: · Science to Achieve Results (STAR) Grants · Small Business Innovative Research (SBIR) · Science to Achieve Results (STAR) Fellowships STAR, NCER's primary program, funds research grants and graduate fellowships in environmental science and engineering. Developing the next generation of environmental scientists and engineers is one of NCER's most important objectives. Each year, NCER helps between 80 and 160 students achieve Master's or Ph.D. degrees in environmental science and engineering through its STAR and Greater Research Opportunities (GRO) fellowships. Some of these students have moved on to careers in government while others are now full-time professors and researchers. Still others are working for state environmental agencies or furthering their studies through postdoctoral positions at universities. Since the inception of the NCER program, STAR fellowships (along with grants and SBIR projects) have been awarded in every state in the country. With the help of STAR, current and future scientists and engineers have been able to explore ways to preserve and protect human health and our precious resources.

  19. AMTD: Update of Engineering Specifications Derived from Science Requirements for Future UVOIR Space Telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stahl, H. Philip

    2014-01-01

    AMTD is using a Science Driven Systems Engineering approach to develop Engineering Specifications based on Science Measurement Requirements and Implementation Constraints. Science requirements meet the needs of both Exoplanet and General Astrophysics science. Engineering Specifications are guiding our effort to mature to TRL-6 the critical technologies needed to produce 4-m or larger flight-qualified UVOIR mirrors by 2018 so that a viable mission can be considered by the 2020 Decadal Review.

  20. High-Throughput Screening in Protein Engineering: Recent Advances and Future Perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Wójcik, Magdalena; Telzerow, Aline; Quax, Wim J.; Boersma, Ykelien L.

    2015-01-01

    Over the last three decades, protein engineering has established itself as an important tool for the development of enzymes and (therapeutic) proteins with improved characteristics. New mutagenesis techniques and computational design tools have greatly aided in the advancement of protein engineering. Yet, one of the pivotal components to further advance protein engineering strategies is the high-throughput screening of variants. Compartmentalization is one of the key features allowing miniaturization and acceleration of screening. This review focuses on novel screening technologies applied in protein engineering, highlighting flow cytometry- and microfluidics-based platforms. PMID:26492240

  1. Biographies of Women Scientists for Young Readers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bettis, Catherine; Smith, Walter S.

    The participation of women in the physical sciences and engineering woefully lags behind that of men. One significant vehicle by which students learn to identify with various adult roles is through the literature they read. This annotated bibliography lists and describes biographies on women scientists primarily focusing on publications after…

  2. Goddard Visiting Scientist Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Under this Indefinite Delivery Indefinite Quantity (IDIQ) contract, USRA was expected to provide short term (from I day up to I year) personnel as required to provide a Visiting Scientists Program to support the Earth Sciences Directorate (Code 900) at the Goddard Space Flight Center. The Contractor was to have a pool, or have access to a pool, of scientific talent, both domestic and international, at all levels (graduate student to senior scientist), that would support the technical requirements of the following laboratories and divisions within Code 900: 1) Global Change Data Center (902); 2) Laboratory for Atmospheres (Code 910); 3) Laboratory for Terrestrial Physics (Code 920); 4) Space Data and Computing Division (Code 930); 5) Laboratory for Hydrospheric Processes (Code 970). The research activities described below for each organization within Code 900 were intended to comprise the general scope of effort covered under the Visiting Scientist Program.

  3. 445 N (100-lbf) LO 2/LCH 4 reaction control engine technology development for future space vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, Philip J.; Veith, Eric M.; Hurlbert, Eric A.; Jimenez, Rafael; Smith, Timothy D.

    2010-03-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) have identified liquid oxygen (LO2)/liquid methane (LCH4) propulsion systems as promising options for some future space vehicles. NASA issued a contract to Aerojet to develop a 445 N (100-lbf) LO 2/LCH 4 Reaction Control Engine (RCE) aimed at reducing the risk of utilizing a cryogenic reaction control system (RCS) on a space vehicle. Aerojet utilized innovative design solutions to develop an RCE that can ignite reliably over a broad range of inlet temperatures, perform short minimum impulse bits (MIB) at small electrical pulse widths (EPW), and produce excellent specific impulse (Isp) across a range of engine mixture ratios (MR). These design innovations also provide a start transient with a benign mixture ratio (MR), ensuring good thrust chamber compatibility and long life. In addition, this RCE can successfully operate at MRs associated with main engines, enabling the RCE to provide emergency backup propulsion to minimize vehicle propellant load and overall system mass.

  4. 100-Lb(f) LO2/LCH4 Reaction Control Engine Technology Development for Future Space Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, Philip J.; Veith, Eric M.; Hurlbert, Eric A.; Jimenez, Rafael; Smith, Timothy D.

    2008-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has identified liquid oxygen (LO2)/liquid methane (LCH4) propulsion systems as promising options for some future space vehicles. NASA issued a contract to Aerojet to develop a 100-lbf (445 N) LO2/LCH4 Reaction Control Engine (RCE) aimed at reducing the risk of utilizing a cryogenic reaction control system (RCS) on a space vehicle. Aerojet utilized innovative design solutions to develop an RCE that can ignite reliably over a broad range of inlet temperatures, perform short minimum impulse bits (MIB) at small electrical pulse widths (EPW), and produce excellent specific impulse (Isp) across a range of engine mixture ratios (MR). These design innovations also provide a start transient with a benign MR, ensuring good thrust chamber compatibility and long life. In addition, this RCE can successfully operate at MRs associated with main engines, enabling the RCE to provide emergency backup propulsion to minimize vehicle propellant load and overall system mass.

  5. Peculiarities of Design Competence Formation in Future Clothing Engineering Educators in Ukraine and Foreign Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bilyk, Victoria

    2015-01-01

    The importance of engineering pedagogical education for the global labour market has been characterized. The peculiarities of modern engineering pedagogical education formation in foreign countries consisting in economy globalization, transition to a high quality education and international cooperation enhancing have been presented. The essence of…

  6. The Education of Future Aeronautical Engineers: Conceiving, Designing, Implementing and Operating

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crawley, Edward F.; Brodeur, Doris R.; Soderholm, Diane H.

    2008-01-01

    This paper will outline answers to the two central questions regarding improving engineering education: (1) What is the full set of knowledge, skills, and attitudes that engineering students should possess as they leave the university, and at what level of proficiency?; and (2) How can we do better at ensuring that students learn these skills? The…

  7. A Response to Advancing Technologies. Repositioning Engineering Education to Serve America's Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glower, Donald D., Ed.; Saline, Lindon E., Ed.

    This publication is a summary of 20 papers which examine the status and impact of computers and related technologies on engineering, design practices and production in the private sector, and on engineering curricula and teaching methodology; and their role in assuring social and economic vitality. Chapter 1 discusses how technology impacts the…

  8. Preparing the NDE engineers of the future: Education, training, and diversity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holland, Stephen D.

    2017-02-01

    As quantitative NDE has matured and entered the mainstream, it has created an industry need for engineers who can select, evaluate, and qualify NDE techniques to satisfy quantitative engineering requirements. NDE as a field is cross-disciplinary with major NDE techniques relying on a broad spectrum of physics disciplines including fluid mechanics, electromagnetics, mechanical waves, and high energy physics. An NDE engineer needs broad and deep understanding of the measurement physics across modalities, a general engineering background, and familiarity with shop-floor practices and tools. While there are a wide range of certification and training programs worldwide for NDE technicians, there are few programs aimed at engineers. At the same time, substantial demographic shifts are underway with many experienced NDE engineers and technicians nearing retirement, and with new generations coming from much more diverse backgrounds. There is a need for more and better education opportunities for NDE engineers. Both teaching and learning NDE engineering are inherently challenging because of the breadth and depth of knowledge required. At the same time, sustaining the field in a more diverse era will require broadening participation of previously underrepresented groups. The QNDE 2016 conference in Atlanta, GA included a session on NDE education, training, and diversity. This paper summarizes the outcomes and discussion from this session.

  9. Ethics in the Engineering Curricula: Topics, Trends and Challenges for the Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zandvoort, H.; Van de Poel, I.; Brumsen, M.

    2000-01-01

    Presents a collection of regional papers that give an overview of the present state of ethics teaching in engineering curricula. Provides historical information concerning the motivation for and the development of engineering ethics, points to important topics and trends that arise from the papers, and identifies the main challenges for the…

  10. Future directions in engineering ethics research: microethics, macroethics and the role of professional societies.

    PubMed

    Herkert, J R

    2001-07-01

    Three frames of reference for engineering ethics are discussed--individual, professional and social--which can be further broken down into "microethics" concerned with individuals and the internal relations of the engineering profession and "macroethics" referring to the collective social responsibility of the engineering profession and to societal decisions about technology. Few attempts have been made at integrating microethical and macroethical approaches to engineering ethics. The approach suggested here is to focus on the role of professional engineering societies in linking individual and professional ethics and in linking professional and social ethics. A research program is outlined using ethics support as an example of the former, and the issuance of position statements on product liability as an example of the latter.

  11. Bioinspired Engineering of Exploration Systems (BEES) - its Impact on Future Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thakoor, Sarita; Hine, Butler; Zornetzer, Steve

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes an overview of our "Bioinspired Engineering of Exploration Systems for Mars" ( "BEES for Mars") project. The BEES approach distills selected biologically inspired strategies utilizing motion cues/optic flow, bioinspired pattern recognition, biological visual and neural control systems, bioinspired sensing and communication techniques, and birds of prey inspired search and track algorithmic systems. Unique capabilities so enabled, provide potential solutions to future autonomous robotic space and planetary mission applications. With the first series of tests performed in September 2003, August 2004 and September 2004, we have demonstrated the BEES technologies at the El Mirage Dry Lakebed site in the Mojave Desert using Delta Wing experimental prototypes. We call these test flyers the "BEES flyer", since we are developing them as dedicated test platform for the newly developed bioinspired sensors, processors and algorithmic strategies. The Delta Wing offers a robust airframe that can sustain high G launches and offers ease of compact stowability and packaging along with scaling to small size and low ReynOld's number performance for a potential Mars deployment. Our approach to developing light weight, low power autonomous flight systems using concepts distilled from biology promises to enable new applications, of dual use to NASA and DoD needs. Small in size (0.5 -5 Kg) BEES Flyers are demonstrating capabilities for autonomous flight and sensor operability in Mars analog conditions. The BEES project team spans JPL, NASA Ames, Australian National University (ANU), Brigham Young University(BYU), DC Berkeiey, Analogic Computers Inc. and other institutions. The highlights from our recent flight demonstrations exhibiting new Mission enabling capabilities are described. Further, this paper describes two classes of potential new missions for Mars exploration: (1) the long range exploration missions, and (2) observation missions, for real time imaging of

  12. The Amateur Scientist.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Jearl

    1985-01-01

    Describes experiments using fluidyne engines. These engines (which have liquid pistons), started by external heat sources, are used primarily for pumping water. Examples of various engines built from U-shaped tubes or from coiled tubes in fruit jars are provided. (DH)

  13. [Past, present and future development of the project of manned space medico-engineering in China].

    PubMed

    Su, Shuang-ning

    2003-01-01

    Based on the research work of manned space medico-engineering at different stages of its development in China, the formation and development of the subject was summarized. The relations among the main fields of space medico-engineering, that is, depend on each other for existence, influence, co-operation and infiltration in the system, were discussed. Considering the ongoing tasks of manned space flight in China, directions and contents of research work of manned space medico-engineering were pointed out. And to make the ongoing tasks more successful, methods of development of the subject were put forward, namely, teaching, research and project should promote each other and develop together.

  14. Investigation into the past and future of women in science and engineering.

    PubMed

    Frize, M

    2009-01-01

    Covering the Ancient Greek era, the Middle Ages, the Renaissance, the Enlightenment, the 19th and 20th C., this paper explores the visions of the abilities of women, their access to education, and their roles in these epochs. Recent data on the participation rate of women in science and engineering, the culture in these fields, and strategies to increase their presence are discussed. The paper ends with a discussion on how science and engineering could benefit from integrating and valuing a blend of masculine and feminine perspectives. Biomedical engineering as a field frequently chosen by women is mentioned.

  15. From Atmospheric Scientist to Data Scientist

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knuth, S. L.

    2015-12-01

    Most of my career has been spent analyzing data from research projects in the atmospheric sciences. I spent twelve years researching boundary layer interactions in the polar regions, which included five field seasons in the Antarctic. During this time, I got both a M.S. and Ph.D. in atmospheric science. I learned most of my data science and programming skills throughout this time as part of my research projects. When I graduated with my Ph.D., I was looking for a new and fresh opportunity to enhance the skills I already had while learning more advanced technical skills. I found a position at the University of Colorado Boulder as a Data Research Specialist with Research Computing, a group that provides cyber infrastructure services, including high-speed networking, large-scale data storage, and supercomputing, to university students and researchers. My position is the perfect merriment between advanced technical skills and "softer" skills, while at the same time understanding exactly what the busy scientist needs to understand about their data. I have had the opportunity to help shape our university's data education system, a development that is still evolving. This presentation will detail my career story, the lessons I have learned, my daily work in my new position, and some of the exciting opportunities that opened up in my new career.

  16. Teaming Up with Scientists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moreno, Nancy P.; Chang, Kimberly A.; Tharp, Barbara Z.; Denk, James P.; Roberts, J. Kyle; Cutler, Paula H.; Rahmati, Sonia

    2001-01-01

    Introduces the Science Education Leadership Fellows (SELF) program which is an innovative cooperation program between teachers and scientists. Engages teachers in subject areas such as microbiology, molecular biology, immunology, and other professional development activities. Presents an activity in which students observe bacteria cultures and…

  17. Early Primary Invasion Scientists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spellman, Katie V.; Villano, Christine P.

    2011-01-01

    "We really need to get the government involved," said one student, holding his graph up to USDA scientist Steve Seefeldt. Dr. Steve studies methods to control "invasive" plants, plants that have been introduced to an area by humans and have potential to spread rapidly and negatively affect ecosystems. The first grader and his…

  18. Working Like Real Scientists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lunn, Stephen

    2006-01-01

    "Real" science is about formulating and trying to solve practical and conceptual problems on the basis of shared beliefs about the world. Scientists build theories and test hypotheses by observation and experiment. They try their best to eliminate personal bias, and are "extremely canny in their acceptance of the claims of others" (Ziman, 2000).…

  19. Becoming a Spider Scientist

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patrick, Patricia; Getz, Angela

    2008-01-01

    In this integrated unit, third grade students become spider scientists as they observe spiders in their classroom to debunk some common misconceptions about these intimidating creatures. "Charlotte's Web" is used to capture students' interest. In addition to addressing philosophical topics such as growing-up, death, and friendship; E.B. White's…

  20. Bringing Scientists to Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casey, Peter

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author describes how he brings scientists to life when he visits schools. Having retired from teaching Drama and Theatre Studies in Liverpool for more than thirty years, the author set up his one-man Theatre-in-Education company, Blindseer Productions, and now takes his portrayals of Darwin, Galileo and Einstein to schools…

  1. Nurturing the Child Scientist

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodgers, Lisa; Basca, Belinda

    2011-01-01

    The natural world fascinates young children. Treasured leaves, shells, stones, and twigs always find their way into the kindergarten classroom. A kindergarten study of collections channels and deepens children's innate impulse to explore and collect. It also lays the foundation for understanding how scientists approach the study of objects in…

  2. Scientists and Satisfaction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hermanowicz, Joseph C.

    2003-01-01

    Presents results from in-depth interviews in which respondents at a range of U.S. universities provided detailed accounts of their experience in, and identification with, academe. Studies satisfaction from the angle of the self-doubts scientists have about their work and careers, and investigates how self-doubts may systematically differ across…

  3. Doctoral Scientists in Oceanography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Academy of Sciences-National Research Council, Washington, DC. Assembly of Mathematical and Physical Sciences.

    The purpose of this report was to classify and count doctoral scientists in the United States trained in oceanography and/or working in oceanography. Existing data from three sources (National Research Council's "Survey of Earned Doctorates," and "Survey of Doctorate Recipients," and the Ocean Sciences Board's "U.S. Directory of Marine…

  4. Reading as Scientists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shanahan, Marie-Claire

    2010-01-01

    Using an adapted version of a recently published scientific article, a group of sixth graders worked together identifying conclusions, deciding on appropriate evidence, suggesting improvements for the study, and recommending further investigations for scientists. This experience provided opportunities for these students to use reading to decide on…

  5. Women Scientists. American Profiles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veglahn, Nancy, J.

    This book contains the life stories of 11 American female scientists who had outstanding achievements in their branch of science. The lives of the 11 women included in this book cover a combined time period of more than 120 years. This book argues against the belief that mathematics and science are not for girls and gives examples of very…

  6. Aerospace Concurrent Engineering Design Teams: Current State, Next Steps and a Vision for the Future

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hihn, Jairus; Chattopadhyay, Debarati; Karpati, Gabriel; McGuire, Melissa; Borden, Chester; Panek, John; Warfield, Keith

    2011-01-01

    Over the past sixteen years, government aerospace agencies and aerospace industry have developed and evolved operational concurrent design teams to create novel spaceflight mission concepts and designs. These capabilities and teams, however, have evolved largely independently. In today's environment of increasingly complex missions with limited budgets it is becoming readily apparent that both implementing organizations and today's concurrent engineering teams will need to interact more often than they have in the past. This will require significant changes in the current state of practice. This paper documents the findings from a concurrent engineering workshop held in August 2010 to identify the key near term improvement areas for concurrent engineering capabilities and challenges to the long-term advancement of concurrent engineering practice. The paper concludes with a discussion of a proposed vision for the evolution of these teams over the next decade.

  7. Impact of broad-specification fuels on future jet aircraft. [engine components and performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grobman, J. S.

    1978-01-01

    The effects that broad specification fuels have on airframe and engine components were discussed along with the improvements in component technology required to use broad specification fuels without sacrificing performance, reliability, maintainability, or safety.

  8. The Crosstalk between Tissue Engineering and Pharmaceutical Biotechnology: Recent Advances and Future Directions.

    PubMed

    Pacheco, Daniela P; Reis, Rui L; Correlo, Vítor M; Marques, Alexandra P

    2015-01-01

    Tissue-engineered constructs made of biotechnology-derived materials have been preferred due to their chemical and physical composition, which offers both high versatility and a support to enclose/ incorporate relevant signaling molecules and/or genes known to therapeutically induce tissue repair. Herein, a critical overview of the impact of different biotechnology-derived materials, scaffolds, and recombinant signaling molecules over the behavior of cells, another element of tissue engineered constructs, as well its regulatory role in tissue regeneration and disease progression is given. Additionally, these tissue-engineered constructs evolved to three-dimensional (3D) tissue-like models that, as an advancement of two-dimensional standard culture methods, are expected to be a valuable tool in the field of drug discovery and pharmaceutical research. Despite the improved design and conception of current proposed 3D tissue-like models, advanced control systems to enable and accelerate streamlining and automation of the numerous labor-intensive steps intrinsic to the development of tissue-engineered constructs are still to be achieved. In this sense, this review intends to present the biotechnology- derived materials that are being explored in the field of tissue engineering to generate 3D tissue-analogues and briefly highlight their foremost breakthroughs in tissue regeneration and drug discovery. It also aims to reinforce that the crosstalk between tissue engineering and pharmaceutical biotechnology has been fostering the outcomes of tissue engineering approaches through the use of biotechnology-derived signaling molecules. Gene delivery/therapy is also discussed as a forefront area that represents another cross point between tissue engineering and pharmaceutical biotechnology, in which nucleic acids can be considered a "super pharmaceutical" to drive biological responses, including tissue regeneration.

  9. Complex Systems Engineering Applications for Future Battle Management and Command and Control

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-06-01

    Yam , Yaneer, The Characteristics and Emerging Behaviors of Systems of Systems, NECSI, January 2004. [2] Bar- Yam , When Systems Engineering Fails...Toward Complex Systems Engineering, International Conference on Systems, Man & Cybernetics Vol. 2, 2003. [3] Braba, D., A. Minai, andY. Bar- Yam ...Control (IFC) “…only complex systems can perform complex tasks” [Braha, Minai, & Bar- Yam , 2006] Example: BMC2 as a Complex System of Systems .a

  10. Cost/benefit studies of advanced materials technologies for future aircraft turbine engines: Materials for advanced turbine engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stearns, M.; Wilbers, L.

    1982-01-01

    Cost benefit studies were conducted on six advanced materials and processes technologies applicable to commercial engines planned for production in the 1985 to 1990 time frame. These technologies consisted of thermal barrier coatings for combustor and high pressure turbine airfoils, directionally solidified eutectic high pressure turbine blades, (both cast and fabricated), and mixers, tail cones, and piping made of titanium-aluminum alloys. A fabricated titanium fan blisk, an advanced turbine disk alloy with improved low cycle fatigue life, and a long-life high pressure turbine blade abrasive tip and ceramic shroud system were also analyzed. Technologies showing considerable promise as to benefits, low development costs, and high probability of success were thermal barrier coating, directionally solidified eutectic turbine blades, and abrasive-tip blades/ceramic-shroud turbine systems.

  11. NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Report 25: The technical communications practices of British aerospace engineers and scientists: Results of the phase 4 RAeS mail survey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pinelli, Thomas E.; Barclay, Rebecca O.; Kennedy, John M.

    1994-01-01

    The U.S. government technical report is a primary means by which the results of federally funded research and development (R&D) are transferred to the U.S. aerospace industry. However, little is known about this information product in terms of its actual use, importance, and value in the transfer of federally funded R&D. To help establish a body of knowledge, the U.S. government technical report is being investigated as part of the NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. In this report, we summarize the literature on technical reports and provide a model that depicts the transfer of federally funded aerospace R&D via the U.S. government technical report. We present results from our investigation of aerospace knowledge diffusion vis-a-vis the U.S. government technical report, and present the results of research that investigated aerospace knowledge diffusion vis-a-vis the technical communications practices of British aerospace engineers and scientists.

  12. NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Report No. 36: The Technical Communications Practices of US Aerospace Engineers and Scientists: Results of the Phase 1 NASA Langley Research Center Mail Survey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pinelli, Thomas E.; Barclay, Rebecca O.; Kennedy, John M.

    1995-01-01

    The U.S. government technical report is a primary means by which the results of federally funded research and development (R&D) are transferred to the U.S. aerospace industry. However, little is known about this information product in terms of its actual use, importance, and value in the transfer of federally funded R&D. To help establish a body of knowledge, the U.S. government technical report is being investigated as part of the NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. In this report, we summarize the literature on technical reports and provide a model that depicts the transfer of federally funded aerospace R&D via the U.S. government technical report. We present results from our investigation of aerospace knowledge diffusion vis-a-vis the U.S. government technical report, and present the results of research that investigated aerospace knowledge diffusion vis-a-vis the technical communications practices of U.S. aerospace engineers and scientists who were assigned to the Research and Technology Group (RTG) at the NASA Langley Research Center in September 1995.

  13. Methods & Strategies: Sculpt-a-Scientist

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Julie; Rich, Ann

    2014-01-01

    Elementary science experiences help develop students' views of science and scientific interests. As a result, teachers have been charged with the task of inspiring, cultivating, recruiting, and training the scientists needed to create tomorrow's innovations and solve future problems (Business Roundtable 2005). Who will these future…

  14. Developing the next generation of nurse scientists.

    PubMed

    Burkhart, Patricia V; Hall, Lynne A

    2015-01-01

    This article describes an undergraduate nursing research internship program in which students are engaged in research with a faculty mentor. Since 2002, more than 130 undergraduate nursing students have participated. Interns coauthored publications, presented papers and posters at conferences, and received awards. This highly successful program provides a model that can be easily replicated to foster the development of future nurse scientists.

  15. Engineering America's Current and Future Space Transportation Systems: 50 Years of Systems Engineering Innovation for Sustainable Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dmbacher, Daniel L.; Lyles, Garry M.; McConnaughey, Paul

    2008-01-01

    Over the past 50 years, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has delivered space transportation solutions for America's complex missions, ranging from scientific payloads that expand knowledge, such as the Hubble Space Telescope, to astronauts and lunar rovers destined for voyages to the Moon. Currently, the venerable Space Shuttle, which has been in service since 1981, provides the United States' (U.S.) capability for both crew and heavy cargo to low-Earth orbit to' construct the International Space Station, before the Shuttle is retired in 2010. In the next decade, NASA will replace this system with a duo of launch vehicles: the Ares I Crew Launch Vehicle and the Ares V Cargo Launch Vehicle (Figure 1). The goals for this new system include increased safety and reliability coupled with lower operations costs that promote sustainable space exploration for decades to come. The Ares I will loft the Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle, while the heavy-lift Ares V will carry the Altair Lunar Lander and the equipment and supplies needed to construct a lunar outpost for a new generation of human and robotic space pioneers. This paper will provide details of the in-house systems engineering and vehicle integration work now being performed for the Ares I and planned for the Ares V. It will give an overview of the Ares I system-level test activities, such as the ground vibration testing that will be conducted in the Marshall Center's Dynamic Test Stand to verify the integrated vehicle stack's structural integrity and to validate computer modeling and simulation (Figure 2), as well as the main propulsion test article analysis to be conducted in the Static Test Stand. These activities also will help prove and refine mission concepts of operation, while supporting the spectrum of design and development work being performed by Marshall's Engineering Directorate, ranging from launch vehicles and lunar rovers to scientific spacecraft and associated experiments

  16. Intuitive engineering, human factors, and the design of future interfaces (Invited Paper)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sampson, James B.

    2005-05-01

    Human factors engineering (HFE) professionals complain that they are often called in after-the-fact to help correct human interface problems. They believe many design flaws can be avoided if design teams involve them early on. However, in the case of innovative technology, such post hoc human factors may not be avoidable unless the inventor is also a human factors engineer or the prospective user. In rare cases an inventor of a new technology has an intuitive understanding of human engineering principles and knows well the capabilities and limitations of operators. This paper outlines the importance of focusing on the user-system interface and encouraging engineers to develop their own intuitive sense of users through mental imagery. If design engineers start with a clear mental picture of a specific user and task rather than generalities of use, fewer interface problems are likely to be encountered later in development. Successful technology innovators often use a visual thinking approach in the development of new concepts. Examples are presented to illustrate the successful application of intuitive design. An approach is offered on how designers can improve their non-verbal thinking skills. The author shares the view that the mission of HFE should not be to make system developers dependent on the small community of HF experts but rather to help them learn the value of applying user-centered design techniques.

  17. Ecotoxicity of engineered nanoparticles to aquatic invertebrates: a brief review and recommendations for future toxicity testing.

    PubMed

    Baun, A; Hartmann, N B; Grieger, K; Kusk, K O

    2008-07-01

    Based on a literature review and an overview of toxic effects of engineered nanoparticles in aquatic invertebrates, this paper proposes a number of recommendations for the developing field of nanoecotoxicology by highlighting the importance of invertebrates as sensitive and relevant test organisms. Results show that there is a pronounced lack of data in this field (less than 20 peer-reviewed papers are published so far), and the most frequently tested engineered nanoparticles in invertebrate tests are C(60), carbon nanotubes, and titanium dioxide. In addition, the majority of the studies have used Daphnia magna as the test organism. To date, the limited number of studies has indicated acute toxicity in the low mg l(-1) range and higher of engineered nanoparticles to aquatic invertebrates, although some indications of chronic toxicity and behavioral changes have also been described at concentrations in the high microg l(-1) range. Nanoparticles have also been found to act as contaminant carriers of co-existing contaminants and this interaction has altered the toxicity of specific chemicals towards D. magna. We recommend that invertebrate testing is used to advance the level of knowledge in nanoecotoxicology through standardized short-term (lethality) tests with invertebrates as a basis for investigating behaviour and bioavailability of engineered nanoparticles in the aquatic environment. Based on this literature review, we further recommend that research is directed towards invertebrate tests employing long-term low exposure with chronic endpoints along with more research in bioaccumulation of engineered nanoparticles in aquatic invertebrates.

  18. Potential Applications of the Ceramic Thrust Chamber Technology for Future Transpiration Cooled Rocket Engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herbertz, Armin; Ortelt, Markus; Müller, Ilja; Hald, Hermann

    The long-term development of ceramic rocket engine thrust chambers at the German Aerospace Center(DLR) currently leads to designs of self-sustaining, transpiration-cooled, fiber-reinforced ceramic rocket engine chamber structures.This paper discusses characteristic issues and potential benefits introduced by this technology. Achievable benefits are the reduction of weight and manufacturing cost, as well as an increased reliability and higher lifetime due to thermal cycle stability.Experiments with porous Ceramic Matrix Composite(CMC) materials for rocket engine chamber walls have been conducted at the DLR since the end of the 1990s.This paper discusses the current status of DLR's ceramic thrust chamber technology and potential applications for high thrust engines.The manufacturing process and the design concept are explained.The impact of variations of engine parameters(chamber pressure and diam-eter)on the required coolant mass flow are discussed.Due to favorable scaling effects a high thrust application utilizes all benefits of the discussed technology, while avoiding the most significant performance drawbacks.

  19. The Great Scientists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meadows, Jack

    1989-11-01

    This lively history of the development of science and its relationship to society combines vivid biographies of twelve pivotal scientists, commentary on the social and historical events of their time, and over four hundred illustrations, including many in color. The biographies span from classical times to the Atomic Age, covering Aristotle, Galileo, Harvey, Newton, Lavoisier, Humboldt, Faraday, Darwin, Pasteur, Curie, Freud, and Einstein. Through the biographies and a wealth of other material, the volume reveals how social forces have influenced the course of science. Along with the highly informative color illustrations, it contains much archival material never before published, ranging from medieval woodcuts, etchings from Renaissance anatomy texts, and pages from Harvey's journal, to modern false-color x-rays and infrared photographs of solar flares. A beautifully-designed, fact-filled, stimulating work, The Great Scientists will fascinate anyone with an interest in science and how history can influence scientific discovery.

  20. STATE OF THE ART AND FUTURE DEVELOPMENTS IN NATURAL GAS ENGINE TECHNOLOGIES

    SciTech Connect

    Dunn, M

    2003-08-24

    Current, state of the art natural gas engines provide the lowest emission commercial technology for use in medium heavy duty vehicles. NOx emission levels are 25 to 50% lower than state of the art diesel engines and PM levels are 90% lower than non-filter equipped diesels. Yet, in common with diesel engines, natural gas engines are challenged to become even cleaner and more efficient to meet environmental and end-user demands. Cummins Westport is developing two streams of technologies to achieve these goals for medium-heavy and heavy-heavy duty applications. For medium-heavy duty applications, lowest possible emissions are sought on SI engines without significant increase in complexity and with improvements in efficiency and BMEP. The selected path builds on the capabilities of the CWI Plus technology and recent diesel engine advances in NOx controls, providing potential to reduce emissions to 2010 values in an accelerated manner and without the use of Selective Catalytic Reduction or NOx Storage and Reduction technology. For heavy-heavy duty applications where high torque and fuel economy are of prime concern, the Westport-Cycle{trademark} technology is in field trial. This technology incorporates High Pressure Direct Injection (HPDI{trademark}) of natural gas with a diesel pilot ignition source. Both fuels are delivered through a single, dual common rail injector. The operating cycle is entirely unthrottled and maintains the high compression ratio of a diesel engine. As a result of burning 95% natural gas rather than diesel fuel, NOx emissions are halved and PM is reduced by around 70%. High levels of EGR can be applied while maintaining high combustion efficiency, resulting in extremely low NOx potential. Some recent studies have indicated that DPF-equipped diesels emit less nanoparticles than some natural gas vehicles [1]. It must be understood that the ultrafine particles emitted from SI natural gas engines are generally accepted to consist predominantly of

  1. Postmodernism for animal scientists.

    PubMed

    Schillo, K K; Thompson, P B

    2003-12-01

    Many scientists regard the term "postmodernism" as controversial. Because postmodern theorists question whether science can be objective, some scientists view postmodernism as anti-scientific. In this paper, we argue that traditional accounts of science developed during the modern era (16th, 17th, and 18th centuries) are still influential in animal science, but are no longer plausible. In particular, the view that science automatically leads to human betterment seems to be disingenuous. A postmodern view that portrays science as a political activity seems more plausible, and offers a means to better understand contentious policy issues that involve science. Although most animal scientists accept the view that theory selection, experimental designs, and technology development require value-laden judgments, most fail to recognize that such values may be politically motivated and embrace prevailing political structures. Postmodernists such as Michel Foucault argue that through the generation of knowledge, scientific disciplines create a discourse that serves to maintain a particular social structure that has political implications. Viewed in this way, it becomes clear how various interest groups can be critical of certain scientific programs. For example, groups that oppose research dealing with cloning, genetically modified organisms, and intensive livestock production may not be as much opposed to science as they are to the political interests served by this science. In other words, such groups view these research agendas as promoting policies that place them at risk. Such a postmodern account of science, may help animal scientists better understand the nature of contentious issues, and provide a basis for reforming the animal science discipline in ways that make it more responsive to the diverse interests of a pluralistic society.

  2. Meet EPA Scientist Valerie Zartarian, Ph.D.

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Senior exposure scientist and research environmental engineer Valerie Zartarian, Ph.D. helps build computer models and other tools that advance our understanding of how people interact with chemicals.

  3. [The critical scientists' voice].

    PubMed

    Lewgoy, F

    2000-01-01

    The intricate debate over genetically modified organisms (GMOs) involves powerful economic interests, as well as ethical, legal, emotional and scientific aspects, some of which are dealt with in this paper.(It is possible to identify two main groups of scientists across the GMOs divide: the triumphalist and the critical group.) Scientists in the triumphalist group state that GMOs and their derivatives are safe for the environment and do not offer health hazards any more than similar, non-genetically modified, products. This view is disputed by the critical scientists, who are prompted by the scarcity of studies on the environmental impacts and toxicity of GMOs, and who point out flaws in tests performed by the same companies which hold the patents. They are also critical of the current state of the process of gene transference, lacking accuracy, a fact which, coupled with the scant knowledge available about 97% of the genome functions, may produce unforseeable effects with risks for the environment and public health yet to be assessed. Examples of such effects are: the transference of alien genes [??] to other species, the emergence of toxins, the creation of new viruses, the impacts on beneficial insects and on biodiversity in general.

  4. Viewgraph description of Penn State's Propulsion Engineering Research Center: Activity highlights and future plans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merkle, Charles L.

    1991-01-01

    Viewgraphs are presented that describe the progress and status of Penn State's Propulsion Engineering Research Center. The Center was established in Jul. 1988 by a grant from NASA's University Space Engineering Research Centers Program. After two and one-half years of operation, some 16 faculty are participating, and the Center is supporting 39 graduate students plus 18 undergraduates. In reviewing the Center's status, long-term plans and goals are reviewed and then the present status of the Center and the highlights and accomplishments of the past year are summarized. An overview of plans for the upcoming year are presented.

  5. Cost/benefit analysis of advanced materials technologies for future aircraft turbine engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stephens, G. E.

    1980-01-01

    The materials technologies studied included thermal barrier coatings for turbine airfoils, turbine disks, cases, turbine vanes and engine and nacelle composite materials. The cost/benefit of each technology was determined in terms of Relative Value defined as change in return on investment times probability of success divided by development cost. A recommended final ranking of technologies was based primarily on consideration of Relative Values with secondary consideration given to changes in other economic parameters. Technologies showing the most promising cost/benefits were thermal barrier coated temperature nacelle/engine system composites.

  6. Can Man Control His Biological Evolution? A Symposium on Genetic Engineering. Man's Responsibility to His Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoagland, Hudson

    1972-01-01

    Biological evolution can be carried out in the laboratory. With new knowledge available in genetics, possibilities are raised that genetic characters can be transferred in the future to embryos according to a predetermined plan. (PS)

  7. Engaging Scientists in Educator Professional Development Workshops: Lessons Learned from E/PO Professionals, and Tips for Scientists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, A. P.; Hsu, B. C.; Hessen, K.

    2013-12-01

    Scientists are often asked to speak at workshops for educators, because Education and Public Outreach (E/PO) professionals and other facilitators who organize and lead professional development workshops really like to include them. Scientists are an incredibly valuable asset to workshops - when they come prepared. We will present tips for E/PO professionals who would like to include scientists in their next workshop, and tips for scientists who have been asked or would like to give presentations at educator workshops, in order to make sure the science presentations are as valuable and enjoyable to both the scientist and the audience as possible. These recommendations come from lessons learned by the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) E/PO team after years of including scientists and engineers in the highly successful teacher professional development program, the Lunar Workshops for Educators (LWEs). Talks by scientists and engineers are consistently reported as a highlight of the workshops in participant surveys. We will present tips along with examples and relevant evaluation data from the LWEs, which we will use as a case study for how scientists can be effectively integrated into educator workshops. Noah Petro, an Associate Project Scientist for LRO, discusses the formation and evolution of the Moon with middle school science teachers participating in LRO's Lunar Workshops for Educators. John Keller, LRO's Project Scientist, discusses the latest science results from LRO with LWE teachers.

  8. Data Scientist Training for Librarians

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erdmann, C.

    2015-04-01

    Recent studies suggest that there will be a shortfall in the near future of skilled talent available to help take advantage of big data in organizations. Meanwhile, government initiatives have encouraged the research community to share their data more openly, raising new challenges for researchers. Librarians can assist in this new data-driven environment. Data Scientist Training for Librarians (or Data Savvy Librarians) is an experimental course being offered by the Harvard Library to train librarians to respond to the growing data needs of their communities. In the course, librarians familiarize themselves with the research data lifecycle, working hands-on with the latest tools for extracting, wrangling, storing, analyzing, and visualizing data. By experiencing the research data lifecycle themselves, and becoming data savvy and embracing the data science culture, librarians can begin to imagine how their services might be transformed.

  9. K-12 Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math (STEM) Education for America's Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tech Directions, 2011

    2011-01-01

    The success of the United States in the 21st century will depend on the ideas and skills of its population. These have always been the nation's most important assets. As the world becomes increasingly technological, the value of these national assets will be determined by the effectiveness of science, technology, engineering, and mathematics…

  10. Use of E-Resources of the Learning Environment in Teaching Mathematics to Future Engineers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Askhamov, Ayrat A.; Konysheva, Aliya V.; Gapsalamov, Almaz R.

    2016-01-01

    The urgency of the issue discussed in this article is determined by the fact that the modern education model aims at forming a competitive and creative personality of a student striving for continuous self-improvement and self-development. It should be emphasized that mathematical training is an integral part of engineering education. In this…

  11. Can We Expect to Recruit Future Engineers among Students Who Have Never Repaired a Toy?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Virtic, Mateja Ploj; Šorgo, Andrej

    2016-01-01

    Education has traditionally focused primarily on content and cognitive goals. While content knowledge is important, to enter to the labour market today, graduates must also develop manual skills and technical literacy. The paper deals with engineering and technology education in Slovenia. It portrays the problem of the decline in interest in…

  12. Genetic engineering and sustainable production of ornamentals: current status and future directions.

    PubMed

    Lütken, Henrik; Clarke, Jihong Liu; Müller, Renate

    2012-07-01

    Through the last decades, environmentally and health-friendly production methods and conscientious use of resources have become crucial for reaching the goal of a more sustainable plant production. Protection of the environment requires careful consumption of limited resources and reduction of chemicals applied during production of ornamental plants. Numerous chemicals used in modern plant production have negative impacts on human health and are hazardous to the environment. In Europe, several compounds have lost their approval and further legal restrictions can be expected. This review presents the more recent progress of genetic engineering in ornamental breeding, delivers an overview of the biological background of the used technologies and critically evaluates the usefulness of the strategies to obtain improved ornamental plants. First, genetic engineering is addressed as alternative to growth retardants, comprising recombinant DNA approaches targeting relevant hormone pathways, e.g. the gibberellic acid (GA) pathway. A reduced content of active GAs causes compact growth and can be facilitated by either decreased anabolism, increased catabolism or altered perception. Moreover, compactness can be accomplished by using a natural transformation approach without recombinant DNA technology. Secondly, metabolic engineering approaches targeting elements of the ethylene signal transduction pathway are summarized as a possible alternative to avoid the use of chemical ethylene inhibitors. In conclusion, molecular breeding approaches are dealt with in a way allowing a critical biological assessment and enabling the scientific community and public to put genetic engineering of ornamental plants into a perspective regarding their usefulness in plant breeding.

  13. Shaping the Future: New Expectations for Undergraduate Education in Science, Mathematics, Engineering, and Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Science Foundation, Washington, DC. Directorate for Education and Human Resources.

    This is the final report of an intensive review of the state of undergraduate education in science, mathematics, engineering and technology (SME&T) in America. It was conducted by a committee of the Advisory Committee to the Education and Human Resources Directorate of the National Science Foundation (NSF). The year-long review has revealed…

  14. A Joint Learning Activity in Process Control and Distance Collaboration between Future Engineers and Technicians

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deschênes, Jean-Sebastien; Barka, Noureddine; Michaud, Mario; Paradis, Denis; Brousseau, Jean

    2013-01-01

    A joint learning activity in process control is presented, in the context of a distance collaboration between engineering and technical-level students, in a similar fashion as current practices in the industry involving distance coordination and troubleshooting. The necessary infrastructure and the setup used are first detailed, followed by a…

  15. Career preference theory: A grounded theory describing the effects of undergraduate career preferences on student persistence in engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dettinger, Karen Marie

    This study used grounded theory in a case study at a large public research university to develop a theory about how the culture in engineering education affects students with varying interests and backgrounds. According to Career Preference Theory, the engineering education system has evolved to meet the needs of one type of student, the Physical Scientist. While this educational process serves to develop the next generation of engineering faculty members, the majority of engineering undergraduates go on to work as practicing engineers, and are far removed from working as physical scientists. According to Career Preference Theory, students with a history of success in mathematics and sciences, and a focus on career, enter engineering. These students, who actually have a wide range of interests and values, each begin seeking an identity as a practicing engineer. Career Preference Theory is developed around a concept, Career Identity Type, that describes five different types of engineering students: Pragmatic, Physical Scientist, "Social" Scientist, Designer, and Educator. According to the theory, each student must develop an identity within the engineering education system if they are to persist in engineering. However, the current undergraduate engineering education system has evolved in such a way that it meets only the needs of the Physical Scientist. Pragmatic students are also likely to succeed because they tend to be extremely goal-focused and maintain a focus on the rewards they will receive once they graduate with an engineering degree. However, "Social" Scientists, who value interpersonal relationships and giving back to society; Designers, who value integrating ideas across disciplines to create aesthetically pleasing and useful products; and Educators, who have a strong desire to give back to society by working with young people, must make some connection between these values and a future engineering career if they are to persist in engineering. According

  16. Everyone Knows What a Scientist Looks Like: The Image of a Modern Scientist

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Enevoldsen, A. A. G.

    2008-11-01

    Children are inspired to follow career paths when they can imagine themselves there. Seeing pictures of adult individuals who look like them working in a given career can provide this spark to children's imaginations. Most (though not all) of the current available posters of scientists are of Einstein, and Einstein-like scientists. This is not representative of the current face of science. To change this, Pacific Science Center will host a photography exhibit: photographs of real, current scientists from all races, genders, beliefs, and walks of life. Photos will be taken and short biographies written by Discovery Corps Interns (Pacific Science Center's youth development program) to increase the amount of direct contact between students and scientists, and to give the exhibit an emotional connection for local teachers and families. We plan to make the photographs from this exhibit available to teachers for use in their classrooms, in addition to being displayed at Pacific Science Center during the International Year of Astronomy. The objectives of this project are to fill a need for representative photographs of scientists in the world community and to meet two of the goals of the International Year of Astronomy: to provide a modern image of science and scientists, and to improve the gender-balanced representation of scientists at all levels and promote greater involvement by under-represented minorities in scientific and engineering careers.

  17. Adaptation and development of software simulation methodologies for cardiovascular engineering: present and future challenges from an end-user perspective.

    PubMed

    Díaz-Zuccarini, V; Narracott, A J; Burriesci, G; Zervides, C; Rafiroiu, D; Jones, D; Hose, D R; Lawford, P V

    2009-07-13

    This paper describes the use of diverse software tools in cardiovascular applications. These tools were primarily developed in the field of engineering and the applications presented push the boundaries of the software to address events related to venous and arterial valve closure, exploration of dynamic boundary conditions or the inclusion of multi-scale boundary conditions from protein to organ levels. The future of cardiovascular research and the challenges that modellers and clinicians face from validation to clinical uptake are discussed from an end-user perspective.

  18. Adaptation and development of software simulation methodologies for cardiovascular engineering: present and future challenges from an end-user perspective

    PubMed Central

    Díaz-Zuccarini, V.; Narracott, A.J.; Burriesci, G.; Zervides, C.; Rafiroiu, D.; Jones, D.; Hose, D.R.; Lawford, P.V.

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes the use of diverse software tools in cardiovascular applications. These tools were primarily developed in the field of engineering and the applications presented push the boundaries of the software to address events related to venous and arterial valve closure, exploration of dynamic boundary conditions or the inclusion of multi-scale boundary conditions from protein to organ levels. The future of cardiovascular research and the challenges that modellers and clinicians face from validation to clinical uptake are discussed from an end-user perspective. PMID:19487202

  19. Tribological Limitations in Gas Turbine Engines: A Workshop to Identify the Challenges and Set Future Directions. Revised

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DellaCorte, Chris; Pinkus, Oscar

    2002-01-01

    The following report represents a compendium of selected speaker presentation materials and observations made by Prof. O. Pinkus at the NASA/ASME/Industry sponsored workshop entitled "Tribological Limitations in Gas Turbine Engines" held on September 15-17, 1999 in Albany, New York. The impetus for the workshop came from the ASME's Research Committee on tribology whose goal is to explore new tribological research topics which may become future research opportunities. Since this subject is of current interest to other industrial and government entities the conference received cosponsorship as noted above. The conference was well attended by government, industrial, and academic participants. Topics discussed included current tribological issues in gas turbines as well as the potential impact (drawbacks and advantages) of future tribological technologies especially foil air bearings and magnetic bearings. It is hoped that this workshop report may serve as a starting point for continued discussions and activities in oil-free turbomachinery systems.

  20. Developing a Consensus-Driven, Core Competency Model to Shape Future Audio Engineering Technology Curriculum: A Web-Based Modified Delphi Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tough, David T.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this online study was to create a ranking of essential core competencies and technologies required by AET (audio engineering technology) programs 10 years in the future. The study was designed to facilitate curriculum development and improvement in the rapidly expanding number of small to medium sized audio engineering technology…