Science.gov

Sample records for future topics include

  1. The future of topical analgesics.

    PubMed

    Arnstein, Paul M

    2013-07-01

    Topically applied analgesic therapies have been used throughout history to treat a variety of patient conditions that present with pain. Before modem pharmaceuticals became readily available, mud-based emollients, salves, cold therapies, and other natural remedies were often used. Now we have effective therapies and are developing advanced topical analgesics as we learn more about the physiology and pathophysiology of pain. The use of topical analgesics may be associated with fewer patient systemic side effects than are seen with oral, parenteral, or transdermally administered agents, making the topical route of administration attractive to prescribers and patients. With further refinement of existing drugs and the development of novel agents, topical analgesics may offer relief for treating patient pain conditions that are currently challenging to treat, such as pain resulting from burns, wound debridement, and pressure ulcers. Recognizing the value of a multimodal approach, topical analgesics may offer a therapeutic option that can become part of a comprehensive treatment plan for the patient. With continued advancements in targeted drug-delivery systems, topical analgesics may be able to provide a method to prevent or reverse the phenomena of peripheral and central sensitization, or the neuroplastic changes believed to be responsible for the transition from acute to chronic pain states in patients. For those patients at risk for developing chronic pain states, such as complex regional pain syndrome, the combination of cutaneous stimulation (achieved through rubbing during application) and analgesic effects produced by the drug itself may prevent the disabling pain that often emerges during the subacute phase of disease. In summary, better utilization of currently available topical analgesics and continued research promise to ensure that topical analgesics are, and will continue to be, important tools in the treatment of patients with resistant pain. PMID

  2. Topical tar: Back to the future

    SciTech Connect

    Paghdal, K.V.; Schwartz, R.A.

    2009-08-15

    The use of medicinal tar for dermatologic disorders dates back to the ancient times. Although coal tar is utilized more frequently in modern dermatology, wood tars have also been widely employed. Tar is used mainly in the treatment of chronic stable plaque psoriasis, scalp psoriasis, atopic dermatitis, and seborrheic dermatitis, either alone or in combination therapy with other medications, phototherapy, or both. Many modifications have been made to tar preparations to increase their acceptability, as some dislike its odor, messy application, and staining of clothing. One should consider a tried and true treatment with tar that has led to clearing of lesions and prolonged remission times. Occupational studies have demonstrated the carcinogenicity of tar; however, epidemiologic studies do not confirm similar outcomes when used topically. This article will review the pharmacology, formulations, efficacy, and adverse effects of crude coal tar and other tars in the treatment of selected dermatologic conditions.

  3. Helicopter aeroelastic stability and response - Current topics and future trends

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friedmann, Peretz P.

    1990-01-01

    This paper presents several current topics in rotary wing aeroelasticity and concludes by attempting to anticipate future trends and developments. These topics are: (1) the role of geometric nonlinearities; (2) structural modeling, and aeroelastic analysis of composite rotor blades; (3) aeroelastic stability and response in forward flight; (4) modeling of coupled rotor/fuselage aeromechanical problems and their active control; and (5) the coupled rotor-fuselage vibration problem and its alleviation by higher harmonic control. Selected results illustrating the fundamental aspects of these topics are presented. Future developments are briefly discussed.

  4. Future ultraviolet experiments, including FUSE/COLUMBUS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boggess, A.

    1984-01-01

    Several new facilities for ultraviolet astronomy are under construction or study for launch within the coming decade. These include the Hubble Space Telescope to be launched in 1986 with instruments for spectroscopy, imaging, and photopolarimetry in the ultraviolet; the ASTRO Spacelab payload, also to be launched in 1986 with a similar range of instrumentation; STARLAB, a combined Canadian, Australian and U.S. mission concentrating primarily on imagery; and the Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer (FUSE), which was renamed COLUMBUS. COLUMBUS is currently under study by NASA and ESA as a future joint mission for spectroscopic studies of astrophysical plasmas covering a temperature range from approximately 10 to the 3rd power to approximately 10 to the 7th power k. In order to achieve this objective, the optics should be optimized for wavelengths below 1200 Angstroms, with a total wavelength range from approximately 2000 to approximately 100 Angstroms. The operational concept will be based on experience with IUE, but changes in communications techniques since IUE was designed suggest some interesting new approaches to observing.

  5. [Patient safety: a topic of the future, the future of the topic].

    PubMed

    Schrappe, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    Almost 10 years ago, the German Coalition for Patient Safety (Aktionsbündnis Patientensicherheit) was founded as a cooperation covering most institutions of the German health care system. As in other countries facing the issue of patient safety, methods for the analysis of "never events" have been developed, instruments for the identification of the "unknown unknowns" have been established (e.g., CIRS), and the paradigm of individual blame has been replaced by organizational, team and management factors. After these first steps, further developments can only be achieved in so far as patient safety is understood as a system property, which leads to specific implications for the further evolution of the healthccare system. The "patient safety movement" has to participate in this discussion in order to avoid misuse of the patient safety concept as a defensive means, merely confined to overcome the adverse events of payment and structural incentives (e.g., diagnosis related groups in the inpatient sector). Because the dominant requirements for the future healthcare system consist of care for an elderly population with chronic and multiple diseases, the focus has to be shifted away from acute and surgical procedures and diseases, as given in the present quality assurance programs in Germany, to prevention and coordination of chronic care. Efforts to improve drug and medication safety of elderly people can be regarded as perfect examples, but other efforts are still missing. Second, the structural problems as the sector-associated optimization of care should be addressed, because typical safety issues are not limited to single sectors but represent problems of missing integration and suboptimal population care (e.g., MRSA). In the third line, the perspectives of society and institutions on safety (and quality of care) must urgently be enlarged to the perspectives of patients on the one hand and the benefit of treatments (e.g., overuse) on the other hand. All these

  6. Innovations in Teaching: How Novice Teaching Assistants Include LGBTQ Topics in the Writing Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaekel, Kathryn S.

    2016-01-01

    This article examines how three novice graduate teaching assistants included lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer topics in their first-year writing classrooms. Findings suggest that inclusion of these topics can be successfully done through attention to identity in the classroom, including current-day events, and structuring classroom…

  7. Prioritization of future research topics for children's hospice care by its key stakeholders: a Delphi study.

    PubMed

    Malcolm, C; Knighting, K; Forbat, L; Kearney, N

    2009-07-01

    The Delphi process, widely used in health research to seek consensus on key issues amongst large stakeholder groups, was adopted to allow families, hospice staff/volunteers and linked professionals to identify and prioritize future research priorities for children's hospice care. In the qualitative Round 1, interviews with families (n = 5), linked professionals (n = 18) and focus groups with hospice staff and volunteers (n = 44) led to the generation of 56 research topics categorised within 14 broad themes. To give a larger number of stakeholders (n = 621) (including families n = 293; hospice staff/volunteers n = 216 and professionals n = 112) the opportunity to rate the importance of each research topic and seek group consensus on the future research priorities for children's hospice care, subsequent Rounds 2 and 3 involved the use of postal questionnaires. Response rates to questionnaires were 44% in Round 2 (274/621) and 83% in Round 3 (204/247). Participants prioritized research topics relating to 1) hospice and respite care needs of young people (aged 16 +), 2) pain and symptom management and 3) bereavement and end-of-life care. There was wide acknowledgement by those took part in the process of the difficulty in rating the topics, and emphasis on the fact that all of the topics raised during the project are of high importance and merit further research. The current salient issues perceived by key stakeholders as being the research priorities for children's hospice care were identified. Addressing these priority topics for research would further contribute to the development of a much needed evidence base in children's hospice and palliative care research and optimise the delivery of children's hospice services that are underpinned by valid and robust research.

  8. Reliability based design including future tests and multiagent approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villanueva, Diane

    The initial stages of reliability-based design optimization involve the formulation of objective functions and constraints, and building a model to estimate the reliability of the design with quantified uncertainties. However, even experienced hands often overlook important objective functions and constraints that affect the design. In addition, uncertainty reduction measures, such as tests and redesign, are often not considered in reliability calculations during the initial stages. This research considers two areas that concern the design of engineering systems: 1) the trade-off of the effect of a test and post-test redesign on reliability and cost and 2) the search for multiple candidate designs as insurance against unforeseen faults in some designs. In this research, a methodology was developed to estimate the effect of a single future test and post-test redesign on reliability and cost. The methodology uses assumed distributions of computational and experimental errors with re-design rules to simulate alternative future test and redesign outcomes to form a probabilistic estimate of the reliability and cost for a given design. Further, it was explored how modeling a future test and redesign provides a company an opportunity to balance development costs versus performance by simultaneously designing the design and the post-test redesign rules during the initial design stage. The second area of this research considers the use of dynamic local surrogates, or surrogate-based agents, to locate multiple candidate designs. Surrogate-based global optimization algorithms often require search in multiple candidate regions of design space, expending most of the computation needed to define multiple alternate designs. Thus, focusing on solely locating the best design may be wasteful. We extended adaptive sampling surrogate techniques to locate multiple optima by building local surrogates in sub-regions of the design space to identify optima. The efficiency of this method

  9. Modelling topical photodynamic therapy treatment including the continuous production of Protoporphyrin IX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, C. L.; Brown, C. T. A.; Wood, K.; Moseley, H.

    2016-11-01

    Most existing theoretical models of photodynamic therapy (PDT) assume a uniform initial distribution of the photosensitive molecule, Protoporphyrin IX (PpIX). This is an adequate assumption when the prodrug is systematically administered; however for topical PDT this is no longer a valid assumption. Topical application and subsequent diffusion of the prodrug results in an inhomogeneous distribution of PpIX, especially after short incubation times, prior to light illumination. In this work a theoretical simulation of PDT where the PpIX distribution depends on the incubation time and the treatment modality is described. Three steps of the PpIX production are considered. The first is the distribution of the topically applied prodrug, the second in the conversion from the prodrug to PpIX and the third is the light distribution which affects the PpIX distribution through photobleaching. The light distribution is modelled using a Monte Carlo radiation transfer model and indicates treatment depths of around 2 mm during daylight PDT and approximately 3 mm during conventional PDT. The results suggest that treatment depths are not only limited by the light penetration but also by the PpIX distribution.

  10. Mapping epidemiology's past to inform its future: metaknowledge analysis of epidemiologic topics in leading journals, 1974-2013.

    PubMed

    Trinquart, Ludovic; Galea, Sandro

    2015-07-15

    An empiric perspective on what epidemiology has studied over time might inform discussions about future directions for the discipline. We aimed to identify the main areas of epidemiologic inquiry and determine how they evolved over time in 5 high-impact epidemiologic journals. We analyzed the titles and abstracts of 20,895 articles that were published between 1974 and 2013. In 5 time periods that reflected approximately equal numbers of articles, we identified the main topics by clustering terms based on co-occurrence. Infectious disease and cardiovascular disease epidemiology were the prevailing topics over the 5 periods. Cancer epidemiology was a major topic from 1974 to 2001 but disappeared thereafter. Nutritional epidemiology gained relative importance from 1974 to 2013. Environmental epidemiology appeared during 1996-2001 and continued to be important, whereas 2 clusters related to methodology and meta-analysis in genetics appeared during 2008-2013. Several areas of epidemiology, including injury or psychiatric epidemiology, did not make an appearance as major topics at any time. In an ancillary analysis of 6 high-impact general medicine journals, we found patterns of epidemiologic articles that were overall consistent with the findings in epidemiologic journals. This metaknowledge investigation allowed identification of the dominant topics in and conversely those that were absent from 5 major epidemiologic journals. We discuss implications for the field.

  11. Mapping epidemiology's past to inform its future: metaknowledge analysis of epidemiologic topics in leading journals, 1974-2013.

    PubMed

    Trinquart, Ludovic; Galea, Sandro

    2015-07-15

    An empiric perspective on what epidemiology has studied over time might inform discussions about future directions for the discipline. We aimed to identify the main areas of epidemiologic inquiry and determine how they evolved over time in 5 high-impact epidemiologic journals. We analyzed the titles and abstracts of 20,895 articles that were published between 1974 and 2013. In 5 time periods that reflected approximately equal numbers of articles, we identified the main topics by clustering terms based on co-occurrence. Infectious disease and cardiovascular disease epidemiology were the prevailing topics over the 5 periods. Cancer epidemiology was a major topic from 1974 to 2001 but disappeared thereafter. Nutritional epidemiology gained relative importance from 1974 to 2013. Environmental epidemiology appeared during 1996-2001 and continued to be important, whereas 2 clusters related to methodology and meta-analysis in genetics appeared during 2008-2013. Several areas of epidemiology, including injury or psychiatric epidemiology, did not make an appearance as major topics at any time. In an ancillary analysis of 6 high-impact general medicine journals, we found patterns of epidemiologic articles that were overall consistent with the findings in epidemiologic journals. This metaknowledge investigation allowed identification of the dominant topics in and conversely those that were absent from 5 major epidemiologic journals. We discuss implications for the field. PMID:25977517

  12. Topical therapy for psoriasis: a promising future. Focus on JAK and phosphodiesterase-4 inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Rafael, Adilia; Torres, Tiago

    2016-01-01

    Psoriasis is a common, chronic and disabling skin disorder affecting approximately 2% of the population, associated with significant negative impact on the patient's quality of life. Approximately 80% of those affected with psoriasis have mild-to-moderate forms and are usually treated with topical therapy, whereas phototherapy and systemic therapies are used for those with severe disease. In the past three decades, the major advances in psoriasis therapy have been in systemic agents for the treatment of moderate-to-severe psoriasis, particularly new immunomodulatory and biological molecules, while topical therapies have remained relatively unchanged over the past decades. Indeed, topical corticosteroids and vitamin D3 analogs are still the gold standard of therapy for mild-to-moderate psoriasis. Thus, there is a need to develop new and more effective topical agents in the short and long term, with a better efficacy and safety profile than corticosteroids and vitamin D3 analogs. Over the past five years, investigation into topical therapy has expanded, with exciting new drugs being developed. Preliminary results of these emerging agents that selectively target disease-defining pathogenic pathways seem to be promising, although long-term and large-scale studies assessing safety and efficacy are still lacking. The aim of this article was to review the clinical and research data of some emerging topical agents, focusing on Janus kinase-signal transducer and activator of transcription and phosphodiesterase type 4 inhibitors, which are currently being investigated.

  13. Novel alginate-based nanocarriers as a strategy to include high concentrations of hydrophobic compounds in hydrogels for topical application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, H. T. P.; Munnier, E.; Souce, M.; Perse, X.; David, S.; Bonnier, F.; Vial, F.; Yvergnaux, F.; Perrier, T.; Cohen-Jonathan, S.; Chourpa, I.

    2015-06-01

    The cutaneous penetration of hydrophobic active molecules is of foremost concern in the dermatology and cosmetic formulation fields. The poor solubility in water of those molecules limits their use in hydrophilic forms such as gels, which are favored by patients with chronic skin disease. The aim of this work is to design a novel nanocarrier of hydrophobic active molecules and to determine its potential as an ingredient of a topical form. The nanocarrier consists of an oily core surrounded by a protective shell of alginate, a natural polysaccharide isolated from brown algae. These calcium alginate-based nanocarriers (CaANCs) were prepared at room temperature and without the use of organic solvent by an accelerated nanoemulsification-polymer crosslinking method. The size (hydrodynamic diameter ˜200 nm) and surface charge (zeta potential ˜ - 30 mV) of the CaANCs are both compatible with their application on skin. CaANCs loaded with a fluorescent label were stable in model hydrophilic galenic forms under different storage conditions. Curcumin was encapsulated in CaANCs with an efficiency of ˜95%, fully retaining its antioxidant activity. The application of the curcumin-loaded CaANCs on excised human skin led to a significant accumulation of the active molecules in the upper layers of the skin, asserting the potential of these nanocarriers in active pharmaceutical and cosmetic ingredients topical delivery.

  14. TOPICAL REVIEW: The discovery, development and future of GMR: The Nobel Prize 2007

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, Sarah M.

    2008-05-01

    One hundred and one years after J J Thomson was awarded the Nobel Prize for the discovery of the electron, the 2007 Nobel Prize for Physics was awarded to Professors Peter Grünberg and Albert Fert for the discovery of giant magnetoresistance (GMR) in which the spin as well as the charge of the electron is manipulated and exploited in nanoscale magnetic materials. The journey to GMR started with Lord Kelvin who 150 years ago in 1857 made the first observations of anisotropic magnetoresistance and includes Sir Neville Mott who in 1936 realized that electric current in metals could be considered as two independent spin channels. Modern technology also has a significant role to play in the award of this Nobel Prize: GMR is only manifest in nanoscale materials, and the development of nanotechnology growth techniques was a necessary pre-requisite; further, the considerable demands of the magnetic data storage industry to drive up the data density stored on a hard disk fuelled an enormous international research effort following the initial discovery with the result that more than 5 billion GMR read heads have been manufactured since 1997, ubiquitous in hard disks today. This technology drive continues to inspire exploration of the spin current in the field now known as spintronics, generating new ideas and applications. This review explores the science underpinning GMR and spintronics, the different routes to its discovery taken by Professors Grünberg and Fert, the new science, materials and applications that the discovery has triggered and the considerable potential for the future.

  15. Still Far from Personal Learning: Key Aspects and Emergent Topics about How Future Professionals' PLEs Are

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prendes Espinosa, María Paz; Castañeda, Linda; Gutierrez, Isabel; Román, Mª del Mar

    2016-01-01

    The CAPPLE project is an exploratory research project that aims to analyse the PLEs of future Spanish professionals. An ad-hoc survey about their habits for learning was conducted using a sample of 2054 university students from the last year of a degree. After data collection, two main processes were carried out: (1) the analysis of some of the…

  16. Antrim shale workshop. Held in Mt. Pleasant, Michigan on December 14, 1993. (Collection of speaker visuals including tables, charts, illustrations). Topical report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-12-01

    The collection of speaker visuals includes tables, charts, illustrations, schematics, and other graphical and textual summaries, of presentations at the 1993 Antrim Shale workshop, where the following topics were discussed: applied well testing; stimulating the shale; procedures to identify recompletion candidates; pipeline systems for the shale development; mineralogic, petrophysical, and organic geochemical properties of the shale; natural fracture identification and implications for production; application of coiled tubing downhole tools; control of normally occurring radioactive materials; and regional hydrogeochemistry.

  17. Symbionts, including pathogens, of the predatory mite Metaseiulus occidentalis: current and future analysis methods.

    PubMed

    Hoy, Marjorie A; Jeyaprakash, A

    2008-12-01

    Metaseiulus (= Typhlodromus or Galendromus) occidentalis (Nesbitt) (Acari: Phytoseiidae) is an effective natural enemy of pest mites in a variety of crops around the world, although it is considered to be endemic in the western USA. A broad understanding of much of its biology, ecology, behavior, and genetics has been obtained over the past 60 years, but the role(s) symbionts play, which includes pathogens and other microorganisms, remains to be resolved fully. Until molecular tools became available, analysis methods were limited primarily to microscopic observations; some viruses and rickettsia-like organisms were observed infecting 'diseased' M. occidentalis, but it is not clear which one(s) was the causal agent(s) of the disease(s). Subsequent to the development of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and genome sequencing, we identified putative gut symbionts and reproductive tract symbionts in M. occidentalis, as well as a microsporidian pathogen. A new phylogenetic analysis of the Bacteroidetes-Flavobacterium group suggests the unnamed Bacteroidetes in M. occidentalis is associated with the digestive tract. However, much of our current information about the role these microorganisms play in the biology of M. occidentalis is based on correlation, lacking the strength of fulfilling Koch's postulates. We also currently lack any knowledge of the importance of these microorganisms under field conditions. In the future, it should be possible to learn what role(s) these organisms play in the biology of this important predator using metagenomics approaches to analyze the transcriptome and to determine their relative abundance within their hosts with the quantitative PCR. We have just begun to resolve these relationships.

  18. Do the Future Plans of Educated Black Women Include Black Mates?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porter, Margaret M.; Bronzaft, Arline L.

    1995-01-01

    Examines the future plans of black, undergraduate females about their education, careers, marriage, dating, and choice of marriage partners. Responses from 70 undergraduates attending an urban university reveal that four-fifths plan postgraduate study, 90% hope for a career, and 15% percent chose to remain single. Reasons for remaining single and…

  19. Key Factors in Planning a Sustainable Energy Future Including Hydrogen and Fuel Cells

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hedstrom, Lars; Saxe, Maria; Folkesson, Anders; Wallmark, Cecilia; Haraldsson, Kristina; Bryngelsson, Marten; Alvfors, Per

    2006-01-01

    In this article, a number of future energy visions, especially those basing the energy systems on hydrogen, are discussed. Some often missing comparisons between alternatives, from a sustainability perspective, are identified and then performed for energy storage, energy transportation, and energy use in vehicles. It is shown that it is important…

  20. A general review of concepts for reducing skin friction, including recommendations for future studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fischer, M. C.; Ash, R. L.

    1974-01-01

    Four main concepts which have significantly reduced skin friction in experimental studies are discussed; suction, gaseous injection, particle additives, and compliant wall. It is considered possible that each of these concepts could be developed and applied in viable skin friction reduction systems for aircraft application. Problem areas with each concept are discussed, and recommendations for future studies are made.

  1. Present-day and future global bottom-up ship emission inventories including polar routes.

    PubMed

    Paxian, Andreas; Eyring, Veronika; Beer, Winfried; Sausen, Robert; Wright, Claire

    2010-02-15

    We present a global bottom-up ship emission algorithm that calculates fuel consumption, emissions, and vessel traffic densities for present-day (2006) and two future scenarios (2050) considering the opening of Arctic polar routes due to projected sea ice decline. Ship movements and actual ship engine power per individual ship from Lloyd's Marine Intelligence Unit (LMIU) ship statistics for six months in 2006 and further mean engine data from literature serve as input. The developed SeaKLIM algorithm automatically finds the most probable shipping route for each combination of start and destination port of a certain ship movement by calculating the shortest path on a predefined model grid while considering land masses, sea ice, shipping canal sizes, and climatological mean wave heights. The resulting present-day ship activity agrees well with observations. The global fuel consumption of 221 Mt in 2006 lies in the range of previously published inventories when undercounting of ship numbers in the LMIU movement database (40,055 vessels) is considered. Extrapolated to 2007 and ship numbers per ship type of the recent International Maritime Organization (IMO) estimate (100,214 vessels), a fuel consumption of 349 Mt is calculated which is in good agreement with the IMO total of 333 Mt. The future scenarios show Arctic polar routes with regional fuel consumption on the Northeast and Northwest Passage increasing by factors of up to 9 and 13 until 2050, respectively. PMID:20088494

  2. Present-day and future global bottom-up ship emission inventories including polar routes.

    PubMed

    Paxian, Andreas; Eyring, Veronika; Beer, Winfried; Sausen, Robert; Wright, Claire

    2010-02-15

    We present a global bottom-up ship emission algorithm that calculates fuel consumption, emissions, and vessel traffic densities for present-day (2006) and two future scenarios (2050) considering the opening of Arctic polar routes due to projected sea ice decline. Ship movements and actual ship engine power per individual ship from Lloyd's Marine Intelligence Unit (LMIU) ship statistics for six months in 2006 and further mean engine data from literature serve as input. The developed SeaKLIM algorithm automatically finds the most probable shipping route for each combination of start and destination port of a certain ship movement by calculating the shortest path on a predefined model grid while considering land masses, sea ice, shipping canal sizes, and climatological mean wave heights. The resulting present-day ship activity agrees well with observations. The global fuel consumption of 221 Mt in 2006 lies in the range of previously published inventories when undercounting of ship numbers in the LMIU movement database (40,055 vessels) is considered. Extrapolated to 2007 and ship numbers per ship type of the recent International Maritime Organization (IMO) estimate (100,214 vessels), a fuel consumption of 349 Mt is calculated which is in good agreement with the IMO total of 333 Mt. The future scenarios show Arctic polar routes with regional fuel consumption on the Northeast and Northwest Passage increasing by factors of up to 9 and 13 until 2050, respectively.

  3. Salmonella as a biological "Trojan horse" for neoplasia: future possibilities including brain cancer.

    PubMed

    Mlynarczyk, Gregory S A; Berg, Carrie A; Withrock, Isabelle C; Fick, Meghan E; Anderson, Stephen J; Laboissonniere, Lauren A; Jefferson, Matthew A; Brewer, Matthew T; Stock, Matthew L; Lange, Jennifer K; Luna, K C; Acharya, Sreemoyee; Kanuri, Sriharsha; Sharma, Shaunik; Kondru, Naveen C; McCormack, Garrett R; Carlson, Steve A

    2014-09-01

    This manuscript considers available evidence that a specific Salmonella strain could be used as an effective orally-administered option for cancer therapy involving the brain. It has been established that Salmonella preferentially colonizes neoplastic tissue and thrives as a facultative anaerobe in the intra-tumor environment. Although Salmonella accumulates in tumors by passive processes, it is still possible for lipopolysaccharide to cause sepsis and endotoxic shock during the migration of bacteria to the tumor site. An LPS-free version of a recently identified Salmonella isolate may have the capability to circumvent the blood brain barrier and provide a safer method of reaching brain tumors. This isolate merits further research as a "Trojan horse" for future oral biotherapy of brain cancer.

  4. Wide-field x-ray imaging for future missions, including XEUS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conconi, Paolo; Pareschi, Giovanni; Campana, Sergio; Chincarini, Guido; Tagliaferri, Gianpiero

    2004-02-01

    It is well known that the Wolter I design for focusing X-ray telescopes provides perfect on-axis images, while, despite the absence of spherical aberration, the off-axis angular resolution rapidly degrades because of coma, field curvature and astigmatism. However, more general mirror designs than Wolter's exist in which primary and secondary mirror profiles can be described by polynomial equations. These power series solutions are particularly well indicated to be optimized, in order to achieve high imaging performances even at large off-axis incidence angles, despite a small degradation of the on-axis response. The concept, derived from the Ritchey-Chretien telescope widely used in optical astronomy, has already been experimentally proven for X-ray astronomical applications at the Brera Astronomical Observatory (Italy), in the context of the feasibility study of the Wide Field X-ray Telescope mission. Here we present a new design (including a model for slope errors and mechanical tolerances) for a X-ray telescope of medium-size class assuming monolithic mirror shells made of glass, optimized to have a Half Energy Width better than 5 arcsec over a 30 arcmin field of view (radius) and an effective area almost twice that one of Chandra. The use of polynomial mirrors seems extremely well suited also for the case of the XEUS optics. Indeed, the small aspect-ratio between the large focal length of the XEUS telescope (50 m) and the total mirror height (1 m) makes it very favorable to diminish the aberration effects due to the field curvature. With the assumption of mirror shells with polynomial profile it would be possible to achieve for XEUS an imaging response almost constant up to a field of view of 20 arcmin in radius.

  5. Comparison of efficacy of silicone gel, silicone gel sheeting, and topical onion extract including heparin and allantoin for the treatment of postburn hypertrophic scars.

    PubMed

    Karagoz, Huseyin; Yuksel, Fuat; Ulkur, Ersin; Evinc, Rahmi

    2009-12-01

    We compared the efficacy of silicone gel (Scarfade), silicone gel sheet (Epi-Derm), and topical onion extract including heparin and allantoin (Contractubex) for the treatment of hypertrophic scars. Forty-five postburn scars were included in the study. Patients with scars less than 6 months from injury were assigned at random to three groups each containing 15 scars, and their treatment was continued for 6 months. Scars were treated with Scarfade, Epiderm and Contractubex. Scar assessment was performed at the beginning of the treatment, and at the end of the sixth month when the treatment was completed by using the Vancouver scar scale. The difference between before and after treatment scores for each three groups was statistically significant. The difference between Scarfade group and Epi-Derm group was not significant; however, the differences of the other groups (Scarfade-Contractubex, Epiderm-Contractubex) were significant. Silicone products, either in gel or sheet, are superior to Contractubex in the treatment of the hypertrophic scar. The therapist should select the most appropriate agent according to the patient's need and guidelines of these signs. PMID:19766399

  6. Topical Therapies for Pruritus

    PubMed Central

    Elmariah, Sarina B.; Lerner, Ethan A.

    2011-01-01

    Itch, or pruritus, is the predominant symptom associated with acute and chronic cutaneous disease and in some cases, may be debilitating. To date, there is no single universally effective anti-itch treatment. As the pathophysiology of itch in most cutaneous or systemic disorders remains unclear, anti-pruritic therapy is often directed against a variety of targets, including the epidermal barrier, immune system, or the nervous system. Topical therapy is the mainstay of dermatologic management of acute or localized itch or in patients with contraindications to systemic therapies. This review will summarize current topical therapies to treat pruritus and discuss potential future therapies. PMID:21767774

  7. Evaluating future flooding risks by using a probabilistic approach to include wave height distributions in sea level variations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leijala, Ulpu; Björkqvist, Jan-Victor; Kahma, Kimmo K.; Johansson, Milla M.; Pellikka, Hilkka; Särkkä, Jani

    2016-04-01

    Assessing sea flood risks has an essential role in future coastal planning as climate change drives forward the global sea level rise. Safe planning of land utilization and building in coastal areas requires capability to estimate sea level behaviour all the way to 100-200 years ahead. The coastal effect of the sea level is always affected also by the wave conditions, which may vary greatly depending on location. An archipelago acts as an efficient shield against the largest waves penetrating to the shoreline. However, part of the energy of the waves passes through the archipelago and coastal wave height conditions, depending for example on the shape of the shoreline and topography of the seabed, must be evaluated close to the shore separately. The probability of high sea level and wind generated high waves occurring simultaneously is lower than the probability of one of the components occurring alone. Summing the maximum sea level and maximum wave height components together can thus lead to an overestimation of the joint effect. For this reason a method based on probability distributions is reasonable and preferable. In this study, a method of combining sea level and wave height distributions using a location specific probability approach is introduced. First estimates of the joint effect of high sea level and high waves at several locations at the archipelago area on the southern coast of Finland are presented. Constructing sea level scenarios including the effect of wind waves until the end of the century demands knowledge of both sea level and wave height variability in the past, and global mean sea level predictions for the future. In our study, an estimate of short-term sea level variability is based on 30 years (1982-2011) of hourly data from the Helsinki tide gauge located on the coast of the Gulf of Finland. Future predictions for the long-term mean sea level changes at Helsinki are based on scenarios taking into account the global mean sea level rise

  8. ADVANCED SAMPLING AND ANALYSIS OF FINE PARTICULATES. Final Topical Report which includes semiannual for the period of January 1, 1998 - June 30, 1998

    SciTech Connect

    Donald P. McCollor; Kurt E. Eylands; Patricia L. Kleven

    1998-10-01

    Sampling tests indicated that the polycarbonate filters were marginally acceptable for in-stack fine-particle collection because of their 230 F melting point as well as requiring carbon coating to reduce charging effects. Vitreous carbon substrates, although not porous, have acceptable thermal stability as well as acceptable levels of charging. A porous silver membrane filter is also being considered for future testing. Pure reference samples of secondary aerosols have been successfully been collected on vitreous carbon substrates with good dispersion and found suitable for direct examination by scanning electron microscope (SEM) without prior coating or preparation. These samples will be used to develop optimum SEM measurement and quantification techniques related to the analysis of fine secondary aerosols.

  9. Perceptions and Expectations of Youth with Disabilities. A Special Topic Report on Findings from the National Longitudinal Study-2 (NLTS2): Chapter 6--Youth's Expectations for the Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagner, Mary; Newman, Lynn; Cameto, Renee; Levine, Phyllis; Marder, Camille

    2007-01-01

    At 15 to 19 years old, National Longitudinal Study-2 (NLTS2) youth are on the threshold of adulthood. As they look toward their future adult roles, what are their academic, occupational, and independence expectations? Multiple factors have been found to be associated with aspirations and expectations, including individual abilities and social…

  10. Freshman Health Topics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hovde, Karen

    2011-01-01

    This article examines a cluster of health topics that are frequently selected by students in lower division classes. Topics address issues relating to addictive substances, including alcohol and tobacco, eating disorders, obesity, and dieting. Analysis of the topics examines their interrelationships and organization in the reference literature.…

  11. Bexarotene Topical

    MedlinePlus

    ... You may bathe, shower, or swim during your treatment with topical bexarotene, but you should use only a mild, ... your treatment. If you become pregnant during your treatment with topical bexarotene, call your doctor immediately.tell your doctor ...

  12. Mechanism of Human Tooth Eruption: Review Article Including a New Theory for Future Studies on the Eruption Process

    PubMed Central

    Kjær, Inger

    2014-01-01

    Human eruption is a unique developmental process in the organism. The aetiology or the mechanism behind eruption has never been fully understood and the scientific literature in the field is extremely sparse. Human and animal tissues provide different possibilities for eruption analyses, briefly discussed in the introduction. Human studies, mainly clinical and radiological, have focused on normal eruption and gender differences. Why a tooth begins eruption and what enables it to move eruptively and later to end these eruptive movements is not known. Pathological eruption courses contribute to insight into the aetiology behind eruption. A new theory on the eruption mechanism is presented. Accordingly, the mechanism of eruption depends on the correlation between space in the eruption course, created by the crown follicle, eruption pressure triggered by innervation in the apical root membrane, and the ability of the periodontal ligament to adapt to eruptive movements. Animal studies and studies on normal and pathological eruption in humans can support and explain different aspects in the new theory. The eruption mechanism still needs elucidation and the paper recommends that future research on eruption keeps this new theory in mind. Understanding the aetiology of the eruption process is necessary for treating deviant eruption courses. PMID:24688798

  13. Efinaconazole Topical

    MedlinePlus

    ... treat fungal toenail infections (infections that may cause nail discoloration, splitting, or pain). Efinaconazole topical solution is ... antifungals. It works by stopping the growth of nail fungus.

  14. Future-Oriented Geography: An Exciting Prospect.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Austin, Murray

    1979-01-01

    Identifies 31 research topics concerning the future that geographers can explore. Suggests how various research topics will benefit society as well as geographic education. Topics include malnutrition as a cause of social instability, cultural exclusion of the aged, global firewood shortage, and vulnerability of water supplies. (Author/DB)

  15. Clindamycin Topical

    MedlinePlus

    ... topical clindamycin.you should know that abrasive or medicated soaps and skin products that contain alcohol may ... in, tightly closed, and out of reach of children. Store it at room temperature and away from ...

  16. Fluorouracil Topical

    MedlinePlus

    ... caused by years of too much exposure to sunlight). Fluorouracil cream and topical solution are also used ... plan to avoid unnecessary or prolonged exposure to sunlight and UV light (such as tanning booths) and ...

  17. Mometasone Topical

    MedlinePlus

    Mometasone comes as a topical cream, ointment, and lotion. It usually is applied externally once a day. ... affected skin areas once daily.To apply the lotion, place a few drops on the affected areas ...

  18. Dapsone Topical

    MedlinePlus

    Dapsone topical is used to treat acne. Dapsone is in a class of medications called sulfone antibiotics. It works ... taking, as well as any products such as vitamins, minerals, or other dietary supplements. You should bring ...

  19. Bimatoprost Topical

    MedlinePlus

    ... much medication. Talk to your doctor about using topical bimatoprost if you are also using the eyedrops.tell your doctor and pharmacist what other prescription and nonprescription medications, vitamins, nutritional supplements, and herbal products you are taking ...

  20. Spotlight Topics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    A Spotlight Topic consists of a set of two or more review articles focused on a specific subject in surface science. The topics are recommended by the Board of Editors. A topic may be chosen because it is particularly new or fast-breaking, thus deserving introduction to the general readership. Or, it may be because a topic is especially controversial or confusing, requiring clarification by experts. Each review will give a critical assessment rather than an encyclopedic report. While our editors always will insist on fairness and accuracy, any review which forwards an opinion is bound to be somewhat subjective. Therefore, it is the editors' wish that the set of reviews written by different authors on the same subject matter will provide a broad and balanced viewpoint. It is often the case that an author who is an expert in a technique or method may be especially enthusiastic or critical about this technique or method. A companion review in the set may provide a different viewpoint. We are hopeful that the reader, after studying these reviews and checking some of the key references, will obtain an informed opinion of the subject. We think the set of reviews in a spotlight area will considerably shorten the ``learning time'' that a nonexpert would otherwise need to become knowledgeable about a subject. In this issue, we feature a spotlight topic on oxide surfaces. The set contains an overview article by Jacques Jupille, and four articles written by G. Pacchioni, F. Cosandey and T. E. Madey, B. G. Daniels, R. Lindsay and G. Thornton, and C. Noguera respectively. Of these, the article by Pacchioni has already appeared in SRL 7, 277 (2000). The other three articles appear in this issue. A reader who wishes to suggest a spotlight topic or recommend authors to write such reviews should contact the Editor-in-Chief. We would like to hear from you.

  1. Work Requirements in Transformation, Competence for the Future: A Critical Look at the Consequences of Current Positions. IAB Labour Market Research Topics No. 45.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plath, Hans-Eberhard

    In Germany and elsewhere, the literature on current and future work requirements rarely discusses the effects of globalization, internationalization, computerization, and other factors from the point of view of workers. Some have suggested that a blurring of limits will be one of the main changes in work in the future. This blurring will involve…

  2. Topical anesthesia.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Mritunjay; Chawla, Rajiv; Goyal, Manish

    2015-01-01

    Topical anesthetics are being widely used in numerous medical and surgical sub-specialties such as anesthesia, ophthalmology, otorhinolaryngology, dentistry, urology, and aesthetic surgery. They cause superficial loss of pain sensation after direct application. Their delivery and effectiveness can be enhanced by using free bases; by increasing the drug concentration, lowering the melting point; by using physical and chemical permeation enhancers and lipid delivery vesicles. Various topical anesthetic agents available for use are eutectic mixture of local anesthetics, ELA-max, lidocaine, epinephrine, tetracaine, bupivanor, 4% tetracaine, benzocaine, proparacaine, Betacaine-LA, topicaine, lidoderm, S-caine patch™ and local anesthetic peel. While using them, careful attention must be paid to their pharmacology, area and duration of application, age and weight of the patients and possible side-effects.

  3. Topical anesthesia

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Mritunjay; Chawla, Rajiv; Goyal, Manish

    2015-01-01

    Topical anesthetics are being widely used in numerous medical and surgical sub-specialties such as anesthesia, ophthalmology, otorhinolaryngology, dentistry, urology, and aesthetic surgery. They cause superficial loss of pain sensation after direct application. Their delivery and effectiveness can be enhanced by using free bases; by increasing the drug concentration, lowering the melting point; by using physical and chemical permeation enhancers and lipid delivery vesicles. Various topical anesthetic agents available for use are eutectic mixture of local anesthetics, ELA-max, lidocaine, epinephrine, tetracaine, bupivanor, 4% tetracaine, benzocaine, proparacaine, Betacaine-LA, topicaine, lidoderm, S-caine patch™ and local anesthetic peel. While using them, careful attention must be paid to their pharmacology, area and duration of application, age and weight of the patients and possible side-effects. PMID:26702198

  4. Topical Steroids.

    PubMed

    Oakley, Gretchen M; Harvey, Richard J

    2016-01-01

    Chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps (CRSwNP) is an inflammatory condition with heterogeneous pathophysiology. A cornerstone of the management of this condition is the use of anti-inflammatory agents. Corticosteroids are very effective and the most commonly used, but other drugs with immunodulatory activity such as anti-IL5, doxycycline (Th2), and macrolides (anti-neutrophilic/IL8) have been shown to have efficacy. Although systemic corticosteroids have shown benefit in managing this condition, the frequency of use often required in this condition is associated with significant adverse effects. Topical corticosteroids, particularly when utilized after endoscopic sinus surgery and delivered in a high volume, high pressure manner, provide the desired anti-inflammatory effects with nearly negligible systemic absorption. Studies assessing the long-term use of second generation topical corticosteroids have demonstrated no significant effects on cortisol levels, growth rate, intraocular pressures or lens opacification, or local mucosal atrophy. Patients who often respond most favorably to corticosteroid treatment are those with a Th2-mediated, highly eosinophilic CRSwNP. However, there is a subset of patients who are steroid resistant. In the case of a predominantly neutrophilic CRSwNP, it is important to be aware that patients may respond well to the use of macrolide therapy. Additionally, the use of verapamil has shown promise in increasing steroid responsiveness in a difficult to treat group of patients with steroid resistance. Topical corticosteroids play a key role in the long term management of this complicated inflammatory condition by providing the much needed pharmacologic local control with minimal systemic adverse effects. PMID:27466854

  5. MIT: Shaping the Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manning, Kenneth R., Ed.

    This book provides 16 essays by faculty and staff of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) concerning what MIT is like today and offering a guide to its possible future. Emphasis is placed on local, national, and global issues, providing a current sampling of the state of concerns and opinions around MIT. Topics include the question of…

  6. The Future Revisited.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, Marilyn Gell

    1996-01-01

    Reviews earlier predictions about technological change in libraries, finds that providing equal access to information remains the library's mission, and forecasts the future. Topics include ownership versus access, electronic resources, information infrastructure, users, levels of service fees, circulation, librarians as "information specialists,"…

  7. Computers in Libraries 2004 Ponders Past and Future: Unforeseen Privacy Issues, Aggregation, Digital Storage, and "Dissing" Google among the Hot Topics at Annual Show

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedman, Stan, Sr.

    2004-01-01

    This article describes the results of the 19th annual Computers in Libraries Conference in Washington, DC on March 10-12, 2004. The conference peered into the future, drew lessons from the past, and ran like clockwork. Program chair Jane Dysart and her organizing committee are by now old hands, bringing together three keynote addresses, 100…

  8. Topical Therapy Primer for Nondermatologists.

    PubMed

    Jewell, Jolene R; Myers, Sarah A

    2015-11-01

    A representative assortment of topical therapies is discussed here with the goal of emphasizing the most commonly encountered diagnoses and treatments for nondermatologists. When using topical therapies, carefully consider the proper active ingredient, potency, vehicle, and quantity of medication. If topical therapy is ineffective, question whether the medication is being used properly, whether the diagnosis is correct, and whether the topical may be contributing to the problem. Examples of the topical contributing to the problem include tinea incognito exacerbated by topical steroid use and allergic contact dermatitis to topical steroid excipients. For some patients, even maximum topical therapy is insufficient and systemic treatment is required. At this point, consultation with a dermatologist may be helpful.

  9. Identification of key research needs for topical therapy treatment of psoriasis - a consensus paper by the International Psoriasis Council.

    PubMed

    Wu, J J; Lynde, C W; Kleyn, C E; Iversen, L; van der Walt, J M; Carvalho, A; Kirby, B; Bissonnette, R

    2016-07-01

    In this age of expanding choices of therapy for psoriasis, topical therapies still play an important part in the management of patients. There are many knowledge gaps in topical therapy for psoriasis with regard to efficacy and safety as well as various combinations including topical therapy with phototherapy or with systemic agents. Councillors of the International Psoriasis Council comprised a topical therapy working group to describe these gaps in order to help direct future research endeavours. Herein, we present the results of this analysis, discuss topical agents in clinical development and the attributes of the ideal topical treatment for psoriasis.

  10. The role of natural gas as a primary fuel in the near future, including comparisons of acquisition, transmission and waste handling costs of as with competitive alternatives.

    PubMed

    Liang, Fang-Yu; Ryvak, Marta; Sayeed, Sara; Zhao, Nick

    2012-04-23

    Natural gas comprises about a quarter of the United States' energy use. It is more environmentally friendly than oil and coal due to lower carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions per unit, less costly per unit of energy and more readily available domestically in abundant supply. However, due to a number of barriers in the political, infrastructural, pricing and other arenas, the use of natural gas as a significant energy source in the United States has been limited. In our paper, we highlight the favorable qualities of natural gas and its benefits for the consumer, producer, and environment, having compared the costs of the various components of the natural gas business such as drilling and transport to that of coal and oil. Moreover, we touch upon the major issues that have prevented a more prevalent use of the gas, such as the fact that the infrastructure of natural gas is more costly since it is transported though pipelines whereas other energy sources such as oil and coal have flexible systems that use trains, trucks and ships. In addition, the powerful lobbies of the coal and oil businesses, along with the inertia in the congress to pass a national climate change bill further dampens incentives for these industries to invest in natural gas, despite its various attractive qualities. We also include discussions of policy proposals to incentive greater use of natural gas in the future.

  11. The role of natural gas as a primary fuel in the near future, including comparisons of acquisition, transmission and waste handling costs of as with competitive alternatives

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Natural gas comprises about a quarter of the United States’ energy use. It is more environmentally friendly than oil and coal due to lower carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions per unit, less costly per unit of energy and more readily available domestically in abundant supply. However, due to a number of barriers in the political, infrastructural, pricing and other arenas, the use of natural gas as a significant energy source in the United States has been limited. In our paper, we highlight the favorable qualities of natural gas and its benefits for the consumer, producer, and environment, having compared the costs of the various components of the natural gas business such as drilling and transport to that of coal and oil. Moreover, we touch upon the major issues that have prevented a more prevalent use of the gas, such as the fact that the infrastructure of natural gas is more costly since it is transported though pipelines whereas other energy sources such as oil and coal have flexible systems that use trains, trucks and ships. In addition, the powerful lobbies of the coal and oil businesses, along with the inertia in the congress to pass a national climate change bill further dampens incentives for these industries to invest in natural gas, despite its various attractive qualities. We also include discussions of policy proposals to incentive greater use of natural gas in the future. PMID:22540989

  12. The role of natural gas as a primary fuel in the near future, including comparisons of acquisition, transmission and waste handling costs of as with competitive alternatives.

    PubMed

    Liang, Fang-Yu; Ryvak, Marta; Sayeed, Sara; Zhao, Nick

    2012-01-01

    Natural gas comprises about a quarter of the United States' energy use. It is more environmentally friendly than oil and coal due to lower carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions per unit, less costly per unit of energy and more readily available domestically in abundant supply. However, due to a number of barriers in the political, infrastructural, pricing and other arenas, the use of natural gas as a significant energy source in the United States has been limited. In our paper, we highlight the favorable qualities of natural gas and its benefits for the consumer, producer, and environment, having compared the costs of the various components of the natural gas business such as drilling and transport to that of coal and oil. Moreover, we touch upon the major issues that have prevented a more prevalent use of the gas, such as the fact that the infrastructure of natural gas is more costly since it is transported though pipelines whereas other energy sources such as oil and coal have flexible systems that use trains, trucks and ships. In addition, the powerful lobbies of the coal and oil businesses, along with the inertia in the congress to pass a national climate change bill further dampens incentives for these industries to invest in natural gas, despite its various attractive qualities. We also include discussions of policy proposals to incentive greater use of natural gas in the future. PMID:22540989

  13. Teacher Topics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chemecology, 1995

    1995-01-01

    Includes articles and classroom activities about chemicals in the body entitled: "Your Body's Chemical Factory,""Testing for Catalase Activity,""How Sweet It IS...,""Milking Calcium for All It's Worth," and "Testing for Starch in Plant Products." (MKR)

  14. Topical Drug Delivery for Chronic Rhinosinusitis

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Jonathan; Lane, Andrew P.

    2013-01-01

    Chronic rhinosinusitis is a multifactorial disorder that may be heterogeneous in presentation and clinical course. While the introduction of endoscopic sinus surgery revolutionized surgical management and has led to significantly improved patient outcomes, medical therapy remains the foundation of long-term care of chronic rhinosinusitis, particularly in surgically recalcitrant cases. A variety of devices and pharmaceutical agents have been developed to apply topical medical therapy to the sinuses, taking advantage of the access provided by endoscopic surgery. The goal of topical therapy is to address the inflammation, infection, and mucociliary dysfunction that underlies the disease. Major factors that impact success include the patient’s sinus anatomy and the dynamics of the delivery device. Despite a growing number of topical treatment options, the evidence-based literature to support their use is limited. In this article, we comprehensively review current delivery methods and the available topical agents. We also discuss biotechnological advances that promise enhanced delivery in the future, and evolving pharmacotherapeutical compounds that may be added to rhinologist’s armamentarium. A complete understand of topical drug delivery is increasingly essential to the management of chronic rhinosinusitis when traditional forms of medical therapy and surgery have failed. PMID:23525506

  15. [Fifty years of research on tuberculosis. Lessons I have learnt during 50 years and topics to be investigated in the future].

    PubMed

    Shimao, T

    2000-07-01

    I have engaged in the research on tuberculosis for 50 years, and lessons I have learnt during this period could be summarized in the following ten topics. First is great research achievements by our predecessors on the establishment of so-called primary infection theory on the pathogenesis of TB, planning of TB control principles based on the theory and development of new technologies used for TB control, such as mass miniature X-ray examination and BCG vaccination in 1920s and 1930s. TB control law was enforced in 1951, and the modern TB programme was initiated. Second, the field is a treasure house of interesting data. Several interesting data on TB soon after the World War II in Tokyo and a rural area were collected and analyzed from the mass health examination. Third, looking at the increase of tuberculin positivity with age, it was found that the tuberculin negativity decreased as the exponential function of age, and the current concept of the annual risk of TB infection was already developed in late 1940s. It was 18.1% in male and 11.6% in female in Tokyo in late 1940s. Based on this concept, age specific TB mortality was analyzed by the type of TB, and the rates of miliary TB and TB meningitis were similar to the rate of newly infected to the total population, while the rate of all forms could be divided into early and late death as shown in Fig. 1. Fourth, I suffered from TB by myself from 1951 to 1953, receiving first thoracoplasty in two stages under local anaesthesia, then right upper lobectomy and segmentectomy of superior segment of right lower lobe. From this experience, I learnt a lot about the psychology and suffering of TB patients. Fifth, the importance of recognition of real magnitude of the problem in such a disease as TB in which many TB cases did not aware of their disease. The answer to this was the first TB prevalence survey in 1953 using stratified random sampling method, and based on the results of the survey, the mass health examination

  16. Hot topics for leadership development.

    PubMed

    Bleich, Michael R

    2015-02-01

    Three areas stand out from a health systems perspective that should be on the development agenda for all leaders. These topics include population health, predictive analytics, and supply chain management. Together, these topics address access, quality, and cost management. PMID:25633301

  17. Topical and peripheral ketamine as an analgesic.

    PubMed

    Sawynok, Jana

    2014-07-01

    Ketamine, in subanesthetic doses, produces systemic analgesia in chronic pain settings, an action largely attributed to block of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors in the spinal cord and inhibition of central sensitization processes. N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors also are located peripherally on sensory afferent nerve endings, and this provided the initial impetus for exploring peripheral applications of ketamine. Ketamine also produces several other pharmacological actions (block of ion channels and receptors, modulation of transporters, anti-inflammatory effects), and while these may require higher concentrations, after topical (e.g., as gels, creams) and peripheral application (e.g., localized injections), local tissue concentrations are higher than those after systemic administration and can engage lower affinity mechanisms. Peripheral administration of ketamine by localized injection produced some alterations in sensory thresholds in experimental trials in volunteers and in complex regional pain syndrome subjects in experimental settings, but many variables were unaltered. There are several case reports of analgesia after topical application of ketamine given alone in neuropathic pain, but controlled trials have not confirmed such effects. A combination of topical ketamine with several other agents produced pain relief in case, and case series, reports with response rates of 40% to 75% in retrospective analyses. In controlled trials of neuropathic pain with topical ketamine combinations, there were improvements in some outcomes, but optimal dosing and drug combinations were not clear. Given orally (as a gargle, throat swab, localized peritonsillar injections), ketamine produced significant oral/throat analgesia in controlled trials in postoperative settings. Topical analgesics are likely more effective in particular conditions (patient factors, disease factors), and future trials of topical ketamine should include a consideration of factors that could predispose

  18. SpaceWire Architectures: Present and Future

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rakow, Glen Parker

    2006-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation on current and future spacewire architectures is shown. The topics include: 1) Current Spacewire Architectures: Swift Data Flow; 2) Current SpaceWire Architectures : LRO Data Flow; 3) Current Spacewire Architectures: JWST Data Flow; 4) Current SpaceWire Architectures; 5) Traditional Systems; 6) Future Systems; 7) Advantages; and 8) System Engineer Toolkit.

  19. The Future of the Book?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, Margaret; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Includes five articles that focus on the theme of "the future of the book" in Australia. Topics are library acquisitions and the impact of electronic publishing, censorship of networked communications in public libraries, copyright law reform in the digital environment, technology's implications for library facility design, and preserving digital…

  20. Biomedical HIV Prevention Including Pre-exposure Prophylaxis and Opiate Agonist Therapy for Women Who Inject Drugs: State of Research and Future Directions.

    PubMed

    Page, Kimberly; Tsui, Judith; Maher, Lisa; Choopanya, Kachit; Vanichseni, Suphak; Mock, Philip A; Celum, Connie; Martin, Michael

    2015-06-01

    Women who inject drugs (WWID) are at higher risk of HIV compared with their male counterparts as a result of multiple factors, including biological, behavioral, and sociostructural factors, yet comparatively little effort has been invested in testing and delivering prevention methods that directly target this group. In this article, we discuss the need for expanded prevention interventions for WWID, focusing on 2 safe, effective, and approved, yet underutilized biomedical prevention methods: opiate agonist therapy (OAT) and oral pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP). Although both interventions are well researched, they have not been well examined in the context of gender. We discuss the drivers of women injectors' higher HIV risk, review the effectiveness of OAT and PrEP interventions among women, and explain why these new HIV prevention tools should be prioritized for WWID. There is substantial potential for impact of OAT and PrEP programs for WWID in the context of broader gender-responsive HIV prevention initiatives. Although awaiting efficacy data on other biomedical approaches in the HIV prevention research "pipeline," we propose that the scale-up and implementation of these proven, safe, and effective interventions are needed now.

  1. Biomedical HIV prevention including pre-exposure prophylaxis and opiate agonist therapy for women who inject drugs: State of research and future directions

    PubMed Central

    Page, Kimberly; Tsui, Judith; Maher, Lisa; Choopanya, Kachit; Vanichseni, Suphak; Mock, Philip A.; Celum, Connie; Martin, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Women who inject drugs are at higher risk of HIV compared to their male counterparts as a result of multiple factors including biological, behavioral and socio-structural, yet comparatively little effort has been invested in testing and delivering prevention methods that directly target this group. In this paper, we discuss the need for expanded prevention interventions for women who inject drugs, focusing on two safe, effective, and approved, yet underutilized biomedical prevention methods: opiate agonist therapy (OAT) and oral pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP). While both interventions are well researched they have not been well examined in the context of gender. We discuss the drivers of women injectors’ higher HIV risk, review the effectiveness of OAT and PrEP interventions among women, and explain why these new HIV prevention tools should be prioritized for women who inject drugs. There is substantial potential for impact of OAT and PrEP programs for women who inject drugs in the context of broader gender-responsive HIV prevention initiatives. While awaiting efficacy data on other biomedical approaches in the HIV prevention research ‘pipeline’, we propose that the scale up and implementation of these proven, safe, and effective interventions are needed now. PMID:25978484

  2. Topics and Terms in Environmental Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holum, John R.

    This reference is an expanded glossary of topics and terms currently related to environmental problems. These topics and terms are associated with energy, air pollution, water pollution, wastes, and pesticides. Included are 239 main entries ranging from acaricide to weathering. Each entry briefly describes the topic or term and often presents a…

  3. Esther Dyson's Vision of the Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Runyan, Andy

    1999-01-01

    Discusses a vision of the future based on Esther Dyson's views of the proliferation of the Internet. Topics include the Internet as a communication medium; electronic commerce; the role of education, including the role of teachers; intellectual property rights; and friction freedom in a new digital economy relating to pricing. (LRW)

  4. Hot topics from the Tevatron

    SciTech Connect

    Glenzinski, D.; /Fermilab

    2008-01-01

    The Tevatron Run-II began in March 2001. To date, both the CDF and D0 experiments have collected 1 fb{sup -1} of data each. The results obtained from this data set were summarized at this conference in 39 parallel session presentations covering a wide range of topics. The author summarizes the most important of those results here and comments on some of the prospects for the future.

  5. Futures Conditional.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Theobald, Robert

    The readings presented here are designed to help the reader perceive the future more vividly. Part one of the book suggests the various ways in which the future can be seen; it includes science fiction and the views of various analysts as to what the future holds. Part two collects printed materials about the future from various sources, including…

  6. Topical treatments for hypertrophic scars.

    PubMed

    Zurada, Joanna M; Kriegel, David; Davis, Ira C

    2006-12-01

    Hypertrophic scars represent an abnormal, exaggerated healing response after skin injury. In addition to cosmetic concern, scars may cause pain, pruritus, contractures, and other functional impairments. Therapeutic modalities include topical medications, intralesional corticosteroids, laser therapy, and cryosurgery. Topical therapies, in particular, have become increasingly popular because of their ease of use, comfort, noninvasiveness, and relatively low cost. This review will discuss the properties and effectiveness of these agents, including pressure therapy, silicone gel sheeting and ointment, polyurethane dressing, onion extract, imiquimod 5% cream, and vitamins A and E in the prevention and treatment of hypertrophic scars. PMID:17097399

  7. Topical Microbicides and HIV Prevention in the Female Genital Tract

    PubMed Central

    Cottrell, Mackenzie L; Kashuba, Angela D. M.

    2014-01-01

    Worldwide, HIV disproportionately affects women who are often unable to negotiate traditional HIV preventive strategies such as condoms. In the absence of an effective vaccine or cure, chemoprophylaxis may be a valuable self-initiated alternative. Topical microbicides have been investigated as one such option. The first generation topical microbicides were non-specific, broad-spectrum antimicrobial agents, including surfactants, polyanions, and acid buffering gels, that generally exhibited contraceptive properties. After extensive clinical study, none prevented HIV infection, and their development was abandoned. Second generation topical microbicides include agents with selective mechanisms of antiviral activity. Most are currently being used for, or have previously been explored as, drugs for treatment of HIV. The most advanced of these is tenofovir 1% gel: the first topical agent shown to significantly reduce HIV infection by 39% compared to placebo. This review summarizes the evolution of topical microbicides for HIV chemoprophylaxis, highlights important concepts learned, and offers current and future considerations for this area of research. PMID:24664786

  8. A Theme-Based Course: Hydrogen as the Fuel of the Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shultz, Mary Jane; Kelly, Matthew; Paritsky, Leonid; Wagner, Julia

    2009-01-01

    A theme-based course focusing on the potential role of hydrogen as a future fuel is described. Numerous topics included in typical introductory courses can be directly related to the issue of hydrogen energy. Beginning topics include Avogadro's number, the mole, atomic mass, gas laws, and the role of electrons in chemical transformations. Reaction…

  9. [Topical therapy of rosacea].

    PubMed

    Schöfer, H

    2013-07-01

    Metronidazole and azelaic acid are the only topical medications approved for rosacea. All other topical treatments for rosacea and its special forms are used off-label. Topical steroids are not indicated in rosacea, because of their side effects (induction of steroid rosacea, high risk of facial skin atrophy, and high risk of rebound after cessation of therapy). Topical as well as systemic steroids are allowed only as initial and short term therapy for acute forms of rosacea (e.g. rosacea fulminans). Papular and pustular rosacea is the major indication for topical therapy. Sebaceous gland and connective tissue hyperplasia in glandular-hypertrophic rosacea as well as erythema in erythematous rosacea do not respond well to topical measures. A new active substance, the alpha-2-adrenoreceptor agonist brimonidine, will be approved soon for the topical treatment of erythema in rosacea. All severe forms of rosacea should initially be treated with a combination of topical and systemic agents. After improvement of the clinical symptoms, topical treatment alone is usually adequate to maintain the control.

  10. Vocational Education Today: Topical Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenway, Jane, Ed.; Tregenza, Karen, Ed.; Watkins, Peter, Ed.

    This book contains 13 papers examining topical issues in vocational education and training (VET) in Victoria, Australia. The following papers are included: "Vocational Education and Schooling: The Changing Scene" (Jane Kenway, Sue Willis, Peter Watkins, Karen Tregenza); "The Enterprise Approach" (James Mulraney); "VET Programs at James Harrison…

  11. Major research topics in combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Hussaini, M.Y.; Kumar, A.; Voigt, R.G.

    1992-01-01

    The Institute for Computer Applications in Science and Engineering (ICASE) and NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) hosted a workshop on October 2--4, 1989 to discuss some combustion problems of technological interest to LaRC and to foster interaction with the academic community in these research areas. The topics chosen for this purpose were flame structure, flame holding/extinction, chemical kinetics, turbulence-kinetics interaction, transition to detonation, and reacting free shear layers. This document contains the papers and edited versions of general discussions on these topics. The lead paper set the stage for the meeting by discussing the status and issues of supersonic combustion relevant to the scramjet engine. Experts were then called upon to review the current knowledge in the aforementioned areas, to focus on how this knowledge can be extended and applied to high-speed combustion, and to suggest future directions of research in these areas.

  12. Communications and the Future: Prospects, Promises, and Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Didsbury, Howard F., Jr., Ed.

    The 45 papers that comprise this book view the current telecommunications revolution and its developments and effects from a wide range of perspectives. Specific topics discussed in the papers include the following: (1) the future of literature; (2) Brazil and the information societies of the next century; (3) the future of language; (4)…

  13. Haloprogin: a Topical Antifungal Agent

    PubMed Central

    Harrison, E. F.; Zwadyk, P.; Bequette, R. J.; Hamlow, E. E.; Tavormina, P. A.; Zygmunt, W. A.

    1970-01-01

    Haloprogin was shown to be a highly effective agent for the treatment of experimentally induced topical mycotic infections in guinea pigs. Its in vitro spectrum of activity also includes yeasts, yeastlike fungi (Candida species), and certain gram-positive bacteria. The in vitro and in vivo antifungal activity of haloprogin against dermatophytes was equal to that observed with tolnaftate. The striking differences between the two agents were the marked antimonilial and selective antibacterial activities shown by haloprogin, contrasted with the negligible activities found with tolnaftate. Addition of serum decreased the in vitro antifungal activity of haloprogin to a greater extent than that of tolnaftate; however, diminished antifungal activity was not observed when haloprogin was applied topically to experimental dermatophytic infections. Based on its broad spectrum of antimicrobial activity, haloprogin may prove to be a superior topical agent in the treatment of dermatophytic and monilial infections in man. PMID:5422306

  14. Salicylic Acid Topical

    MedlinePlus

    ... skin blemishes in people who have acne. Topical salicylic acid is also used to treat skin conditions that involve scaling or overgrowth of skin ... water for 15 minutes.Do not apply topical salicylic acid to skin that is broken, red, swollen, irritated, or infected. ...

  15. Itch Management: Topical Agents.

    PubMed

    Metz, Martin; Staubach, Petra

    2016-01-01

    Chronic pruritus is a common problem in patients with inflammatory skin diseases as well as in subjects with dry or sensitive skin. Regardless of the underlying cause of the pruritus, a topical therapy is not only useful but most often necessary to achieve symptom control. A good topical therapy should fulfill different functions. An optimal basic therapy based on the condition of the skin is important to repair epithelial barrier defects and to rehydrate the skin. An adequate disease-specific topical therapy is crucial for inflamed skin, e.g. anti-inflammatory topical therapy is an important part in the treatment of atopic dermatitis. Finally, the use of specific antipruritic substances can help to improve pruritus in patients irrespective of the underlying disease. Here, we summarize topical agents used in the treatment of chronic pruritus. PMID:27578070

  16. Wind Shear radar program future plans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robertson, Roy E.

    1991-01-01

    The status of the Windshear Radar Program at the Collins Air Transport Division of Rockwell International is given in viewgraph form. Topics covered include goals, modifications to the WXR-700 system, flight test plans, technical approaches, design considerations, system considerations, certification, and future plans.

  17. The Bright Future of Integrated Learning Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bracey, Gerald W.

    1992-01-01

    Considers the future of integrated learning systems (ILSs) and examines hypermedia as the most promising new interactive technology for education. Topics discussed include changes in technology; the use of computers in schools; the value of video games; the impact of ILSs on schools; and cognitive science and cognitive psychology. (LRW)

  18. Teaching about the Future Is No Joke.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerlach, Ronald A.

    1980-01-01

    Presents teaching methods and learning activities to help social studies classroom teachers as they develop legal education programs with a futures orientation. Topics include the power of the courts, the media and the law, juvenile justice, government regulation of advertising, and legal assistance. Questions, games, and vocabulary exercises are…

  19. Building Better Career Futures: Facilitator Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bezanson, Lynne; Hopkins, Sareena

    This guide, designed to be used by facilitators of the Building Better Career Futures, a comprehensive career development program for young adults, is to be used in conjunction with the Backgrounder and the Portfolio Builder. It includes an introduction to the full program and lesson plans for all topics. Each lesson plan begins with a cover sheet…

  20. TOPICAL REVIEW: Biopolymeric nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sundar, Sushmitha; Kundu, Joydip; Kundu, Subhas C.

    2010-02-01

    This review on nanoparticles highlights the various biopolymers (proteins and polysaccharides) which have recently revolutionized the world of biocompatible and degradable natural biological materials. The methods of their fabrication, including emulsification, desolvation, coacervation and electrospray drying are described. The characterization of different parameters for a given nanoparticle, such as particle size, surface charge, morphology, stability, structure, cellular uptake, cytotoxicity, drug loading and drug release, is outlined together with the relevant measurement techniques. Applications in the fields of medicine and biotechnology are discussed along with a promising future scope.

  1. Selected Topics in Overset Technology Development and Applications At NASA Ames Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chan, William M.; Kwak, Dochan (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents a general overview of overset technology development and applications at NASA Ames Research Center. The topics include: 1) Overview of overset activities at NASA Ames; 2) Recent developments in Chimera Grid Tools; 3) A general framework for multiple component dynamics; 4) A general script module for automating liquid rocket sub-systems simulations; and 5) Critical future work.

  2. Powering the Future of Science and Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miley, Steven C.

    2009-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews NASA's future of science and space exploration. The topics include: 1) NASA's strategic goals; 2) NASA around the Country; 3) Marshall's History; 4) Marshall's Missions; 5) Marshall Statistics: From Exploration to Opportunity; 6) Propulsion and Transportation Systems; 7) Life Support systems; 8) Earth Science; 9) Space Science; 10) NASA Innovation Creates New Jobs, Markets, and Technologies; 11) NASA Inspires Future Generations of Explorers; and 12) Why Explore?

  3. Topical diclofenac solution.

    PubMed

    Moen, Marit D

    2009-01-01

    Topical diclofenac solution (Pennsaid) is a liquid formulation containing the NSAID diclofenac sodium (1.5% w/w). The solution base contains 45% w/w dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) to enhance the absorption of diclofenac through the skin. Topical diclofenac solution is applied directly to the knee for treatment of symptoms associated with osteoarthritis of the knee. In well designed 4- to 12-week trials in patients with primary osteoarthritis of the knee, topical diclofenac solution (40 drops four times daily) was significantly more effective than placebo or vehicle control (carrier solution without diclofenac) for improving Western Ontario and McMaster Universities (WOMAC) Osteoarthritis Index pain and physical function, and improving patient global assessment (PGA) and/or patient overall health assessment scores from baseline to the final assessments. Topical diclofenac solution (50 drops three times daily) was as effective as oral diclofenac 150 mg/day for improving WOMAC pain and physical function and PGA scores in a 12-week double-blind study in patients with osteoarthritis of the knee. Topical diclofenac solution was generally well tolerated. The most common treatment-emergent adverse event experienced by topical diclofenac solution recipients was dry skin at the application site. Gastrointestinal adverse events and abnormal laboratory parameters were less common with topical diclofenac solution than with oral diclofenac. PMID:19943711

  4. Topical diclofenac solution.

    PubMed

    Moen, Marit D

    2009-01-01

    Topical diclofenac solution (Pennsaid) is a liquid formulation containing the NSAID diclofenac sodium (1.5% w/w). The solution base contains 45% w/w dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) to enhance the absorption of diclofenac through the skin. Topical diclofenac solution is applied directly to the knee for treatment of symptoms associated with osteoarthritis of the knee. In well designed 4- to 12-week trials in patients with primary osteoarthritis of the knee, topical diclofenac solution (40 drops four times daily) was significantly more effective than placebo or vehicle control (carrier solution without diclofenac) for improving Western Ontario and McMaster Universities (WOMAC) Osteoarthritis Index pain and physical function, and improving patient global assessment (PGA) and/or patient overall health assessment scores from baseline to the final assessments. Topical diclofenac solution (50 drops three times daily) was as effective as oral diclofenac 150 mg/day for improving WOMAC pain and physical function and PGA scores in a 12-week double-blind study in patients with osteoarthritis of the knee. Topical diclofenac solution was generally well tolerated. The most common treatment-emergent adverse event experienced by topical diclofenac solution recipients was dry skin at the application site. Gastrointestinal adverse events and abnormal laboratory parameters were less common with topical diclofenac solution than with oral diclofenac.

  5. PREFACE: CEWQO Topical Issue CEWQO Topical Issue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bozic, Mirjana; Man'ko, Margarita

    2009-09-01

    This topical issue of Physica Scripta collects selected peer-reviewed contributions based on invited and contributed talks and posters presented at the 15th Central European Workshop on Quantum Optics (CEWQO) which took place in Belgrade 29 May-3 June 2008 (http://cewqo08.phy.bg.ac.yu). On behalf of the whole community took place in Belgrade 29 May-3 June 2008 (http://cewqo08.phy.bg.ac.yu, cewqo08.phy.bg.ac.yu). On behalf of the whole community of the workshop, we thank the referees for their careful reading and useful suggestions which helped to improve all of the submitted papers. A brief description of CEWQO The Central European Workshop on Quantum Optics is a series of conferences started informally in Budapest in 1992. Sometimes small events transform into important conferences, as in the case of CEWQO. Professor Jozsef Janszky, from the Research Institute of Solid State Physics and Optics, is the founder of this series. Margarita Man'ko obtained the following information from Jozsef Janszky during her visit to Budapest, within the framework of cooperation between the Russian and Hungarian Academies of Sciences in 2005. He organized a small workshop on quantum optics in Budapest in 1992 with John Klauder as a main speaker. Then, bearing in mind that a year before Janszky himself was invited by Vladimir Buzek to give a seminar on the same topic in Bratislava, he decided to assign the name 'Central European Workshop on Quantum Optics', considering the seminar in Bratislava to be the first workshop and the one in Budapest the second. The third formal workshop took place in Bratislava in 1993 organized by Vladimir Buzek, then in 1994 (Budapest, by Jozsef Janszky), 1995 and 1996 (Budmerice, Slovakia, by Vladimir Buzek), 1997 (Prague, by Igor Jex), 1999 (Olomouc, Czech Republic, by Zdenek Hradil), 2000 (Balatonfüred, Hungary, by Jozsef Janszky ), 2001 (Prague, by Igor Jex), 2002 (Szeged, Hungary, by Mihaly Benedict), 2003 (Rostock,Germany, by Werner Vogel and

  6. Women's Health Topics

    MedlinePlus

    ... Women's Health 10903 New Hampshire Avenue WO32-2333 Silver Spring, MD 20993 More in Women's Health Topics ... Food and Drug Administration 10903 New Hampshire Avenue Silver Spring, MD 20993 1-888-INFO-FDA (1- ...

  7. The treatment of rosacea with topical ivermectin.

    PubMed

    Ali, S T; Alinia, H; Feldman, S R

    2015-04-01

    The treatment of rosacea is challenging because several pathophysiologic processes may be involved, including neurovascular dysregulation and alterations in innate immune status. Demodex mites may play a role in the latter mechanism. Topical ivermectin is a new therapeutic modality which demonstrates antiparasitic and anti-inflammatory properties. This article reviews published evidence related to the efficacy and safety of topical ivermectin. PubMed was utilized to search for key words "topical ivermectin", "ivermectin cream" and "rosacea". Three clinical trials were found that studied topical ivermectin as a treatment option for rosacea. Ivermectin was effective, safe and well tolerated. PMID:26020066

  8. The treatment of rosacea with topical ivermectin.

    PubMed

    Ali, S T; Alinia, H; Feldman, S R

    2015-04-01

    The treatment of rosacea is challenging because several pathophysiologic processes may be involved, including neurovascular dysregulation and alterations in innate immune status. Demodex mites may play a role in the latter mechanism. Topical ivermectin is a new therapeutic modality which demonstrates antiparasitic and anti-inflammatory properties. This article reviews published evidence related to the efficacy and safety of topical ivermectin. PubMed was utilized to search for key words "topical ivermectin", "ivermectin cream" and "rosacea". Three clinical trials were found that studied topical ivermectin as a treatment option for rosacea. Ivermectin was effective, safe and well tolerated.

  9. The future of land warfare

    SciTech Connect

    Bellamy, C.

    1987-01-01

    Sophisticated new technology and vastly increased firepower mean that future land battles are likely to be very different to those of the past. The Iran-Iraq war and the British experience in the Falklands have shown, however, that factors such as terrain, morale and surprise continue to be of vital importance. This book is a consideration of the likely nature of (and possibilities for) land warfare during the next twenty-five years. It discusses the elements of modern warfare including weapons developments, intelligence, logistics and tactics. The book concludes with speculative predictions of future conflicts. Topics covered include hell on earth: war in the 1970s and 1980s; factors affecting air-land warfare; geography, demography and the major land powers; nuclear; biological; chemical or conventional; operational art of major land powers; weapons platforms, protection, electronic warfare (including laser and charged particle beam weapons); command, control, communications and intelligence; and the nature of future land warfare.

  10. Some Teaching Topics from Space Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balding, G. M.

    1972-01-01

    Short notes on a variety of science topics provide information derived from space sciences that can be used to add interest and up-to-date data to science lessons. Topics are arranged alphabetically from Alpha particles to X-rays, and include some from each of the physical, earth, and biological sciences. (AL)

  11. Retapamulin: a newer topical antibiotic.

    PubMed

    Dhingra, D; Parakh, A; Ramachandran, S

    2013-01-01

    Impetigo is a common childhood skin infection. There are reports of increasing drug resistance to the currently used topical antibiotics including fusidic acid and mupirocin. Retapamulin is a newer topical agent of pleuromutilin class approved by the Food and Drug Administration for treatment of impetigo in children and has been recently made available in the Indian market. It has been demonstrated to have low potential for the development of antibacterial resistance and a high degree of potency against poly drug resistant Gram-positive bacteria found in skin infections including Staphylococcus aureus strains. The drug is safe owing to low systemic absorption and has only minimal side-effect of local irritation at the site of application. PMID:23793314

  12. Future GPD Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Kaiser, Ralf

    2009-08-04

    Generalised Parton Distributions (GPDs) have grown into one of the main topics in hadron physics. They are playing a central role in the physics of the JLab 12 GeV upgrade as well as in the future physics programme of the COMPASS experiment at CERN. This paper explores the future of GPD measurements in the short, medium and long term. The short term includes the analysis of already existing data from HERMES and JLab and planned measurements at JLab before the 12 GeV upgrade. In the medium term this concerns the JLab programme after the upgrade, measurements at COMPASS and at PANDA/FAIR. The EIC project or possible alternatives form the long term perspective. The main focus of the considerations lies on DVCS measurements and related experiments.

  13. Source Book for Speakers and Writers; Our Future Is in Our Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Education Association, Washington, DC.

    This source book provides some authoritative statements, striking phrases, relevant statistics, and collections of figures on educational topics for people preparing speeches or articles. The topics examined include citizen and school responsibility for the future of education; sources and inadequacies of school financial support; cooperative…

  14. IP Internal Movement and Topicalization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuo, Pei-Jung

    2009-01-01

    In this dissertation, I investigate the phenomenon of internal topicalization cross-linguistically, using Chinese as a starting point. Internal topicalization refers to constructions in which a topic phrase is placed between the subject and the verb (in contrast to external topicalization, which involves a topic in the CP domain). I argue that…

  15. PREFACE: CEWQO Topical Issue CEWQO Topical Issue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bozic, Mirjana; Man'ko, Margarita

    2009-09-01

    This topical issue of Physica Scripta collects selected peer-reviewed contributions based on invited and contributed talks and posters presented at the 15th Central European Workshop on Quantum Optics (CEWQO) which took place in Belgrade 29 May-3 June 2008 (http://cewqo08.phy.bg.ac.yu). On behalf of the whole community took place in Belgrade 29 May-3 June 2008 (http://cewqo08.phy.bg.ac.yu, cewqo08.phy.bg.ac.yu). On behalf of the whole community of the workshop, we thank the referees for their careful reading and useful suggestions which helped to improve all of the submitted papers. A brief description of CEWQO The Central European Workshop on Quantum Optics is a series of conferences started informally in Budapest in 1992. Sometimes small events transform into important conferences, as in the case of CEWQO. Professor Jozsef Janszky, from the Research Institute of Solid State Physics and Optics, is the founder of this series. Margarita Man'ko obtained the following information from Jozsef Janszky during her visit to Budapest, within the framework of cooperation between the Russian and Hungarian Academies of Sciences in 2005. He organized a small workshop on quantum optics in Budapest in 1992 with John Klauder as a main speaker. Then, bearing in mind that a year before Janszky himself was invited by Vladimir Buzek to give a seminar on the same topic in Bratislava, he decided to assign the name 'Central European Workshop on Quantum Optics', considering the seminar in Bratislava to be the first workshop and the one in Budapest the second. The third formal workshop took place in Bratislava in 1993 organized by Vladimir Buzek, then in 1994 (Budapest, by Jozsef Janszky), 1995 and 1996 (Budmerice, Slovakia, by Vladimir Buzek), 1997 (Prague, by Igor Jex), 1999 (Olomouc, Czech Republic, by Zdenek Hradil), 2000 (Balatonfüred, Hungary, by Jozsef Janszky ), 2001 (Prague, by Igor Jex), 2002 (Szeged, Hungary, by Mihaly Benedict), 2003 (Rostock,Germany, by Werner Vogel and

  16. US Support Program Topical Meetings 1999 to 2008

    SciTech Connect

    Pepper,S.

    2008-06-10

    In 1999, the International Safeguards Project Office began organizing topical workshops to explore technical issues facing the International Atomic Energy Agency's Department of Safeguards. Representatives from IAEA member states including the United States, national laboratories and companies were invited to the workshops to discuss the technical issues. In some cases professional facilitators were hired to lead the discussions and in some cases business gaming techniques were employed. Since 1999, the following topics have been addressed Data Communication Technologies (1999), Information Security (2000), Design and Testing for High Reliability (2001), Standardization and Integration of Unattended and Remote Monitoring Systems (2002), Roadmapping: Surveillance (2003), IAEA Seals Technology Roadmapping Workshop (2004), Turning Information Into Knowledge (2004), Safeguards Tools of the Future (2005), and Advanced Sensors for Safeguards (2007). This paper will review the scope of the workshops and summarize their results.

  17. Topical ketoprofen patch.

    PubMed

    Mazières, Bernard

    2005-01-01

    Although oral nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are effective in the treatment of a variety of acute and chronic pain conditions, their use may be associated with serious systemic adverse effects, particularly gastrointestinal disorders. In order to minimise the incidence of systemic events related to such agents, topical NSAIDs have been developed. Topical NSAIDs, applied as gels, creams or sprays, penetrate the skin, subcutaneous fatty tissue and muscle in amounts that are sufficient to exert a therapeutic effect on peripheral and central mechanisms in the absence of high plasma concentrations. Data indicate that topical NSAIDs are effective at relieving pain in a number of acute and chronic pain indications. This review article discusses the pharmacokinetics, efficacy and tolerability of a new formulation of ketoprofen available as a topical patch. The topical patch containing ketoprofen 100mg as the active principle has been developed using a novel delivery system that dispenses therapeutic doses of the drug directly to the site of injury. Pharmacokinetic data indicate that although plasma levels of ketoprofen are higher when the drug is administered as a patch versus a gel, the total systemic bioavailability of ketoprofen 100 mg administered via a patch is no more than 10% of that reported for ketoprofen 100 mg administered orally. Because the patch facilitates ketoprofen delivery over a 24-hour period, the drug remains continually present in the tissue subjacent to the site of application. High tissue but low plasma ketoprofen concentrations mean that while tissue concentrations are high enough to exert a therapeutic effect, plasma concentrations remain low enough to not result in systemic adverse events caused by elevated serum NSAID levels. Phase III clinical trials in patients with non-articular rheumatism and traumatic painful soft tissue injuries showed that the topical ketoprofen patch was significantly more effective than placebo at

  18. Content Management and the Future of Academic Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Yuhfen Diana; Liu, Mengxiong

    2001-01-01

    Discusses Internet-based electronic content management in digital libraries and considers the future of academic libraries. Topics include digital technologies; content management systems; standards; bandwidth; security and privacy concerns; legal matters, including copyrights and ownership; lifecycle; and multilingual access and interface. (LRW)

  19. Housing: Topic Paper F.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Council on the Handicapped, Washington, DC.

    This paper, one of a series of topic papers assessing federal laws and programs affecting persons with disabilities, addresses the issue of housing. Major federal responsibilities are to develop additional housing opportunities for persons with disabilities and to assure that currently available housing is equally open to individuals with…

  20. Transportation: Topic Paper E.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Council on the Handicapped, Washington, DC.

    As one of a series of topic papers assessing federal laws and programs affecting persons with disabilities, this paper reviews the issue of transportation services. In the area of urban mass transit, four relevant pieces of legislation and public transportation accessibility regulations are cited, and cost issues are explored. Paratransit systems,…

  1. Topical Research: Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynn, Karen

    This lesson plan can be used in social studies, language arts, or library research. The instructional objective is for students to select a topic of study relating to Africa, write a thesis statement, collect information from media sources, and develop a conclusion. The teacher may assign the lesson for written or oral evaluation. The teacher…

  2. Topics for Mathematics Clubs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dalton, LeRoy C., Ed.; Snyder, Henry D., Ed.

    The ten chapters in this booklet cover topics not ordinarily discussed in the classroom: Fibonacci sequences, projective geometry, groups, infinity and transfinite numbers, Pascal's Triangle, topology, experiments with natural numbers, non-Euclidean geometries, Boolean algebras, and the imaginary and the infinite in geometry. Each chapter is…

  3. Differential Topic Models.

    PubMed

    Chen, Changyou; Buntine, Wray; Ding, Nan; Xie, Lexing; Du, Lan

    2015-02-01

    In applications we may want to compare different document collections: they could have shared content but also different and unique aspects in particular collections. This task has been called comparative text mining or cross-collection modeling. We present a differential topic model for this application that models both topic differences and similarities. For this we use hierarchical Bayesian nonparametric models. Moreover, we found it was important to properly model power-law phenomena in topic-word distributions and thus we used the full Pitman-Yor process rather than just a Dirichlet process. Furthermore, we propose the transformed Pitman-Yor process (TPYP) to incorporate prior knowledge such as vocabulary variations in different collections into the model. To deal with the non-conjugate issue between model prior and likelihood in the TPYP, we thus propose an efficient sampling algorithm using a data augmentation technique based on the multinomial theorem. Experimental results show the model discovers interesting aspects of different collections. We also show the proposed MCMC based algorithm achieves a dramatically reduced test perplexity compared to some existing topic models. Finally, we show our model outperforms the state-of-the-art for document classification/ideology prediction on a number of text collections. PMID:26353238

  4. Compounded Topical Analgesics for Chronic Pain.

    PubMed

    Cline, Abigail E; Turrentine, Jake E

    2016-01-01

    Analgesic medications compounded for topical use are gaining popularity for the management of chronic pain. The advantages of topical pain medications include reduction of systemic adverse effects, improved patient acceptance, few drug interactions, ease of dose determination, avoidance of first-pass metabolism, and direct access to the target site. Compounded topical medications typically use a mixture of 3 or more single medications to achieve multiple complementary effects at lower doses of each individual medication. Herein, we review the mechanisms, adverse effects, and evidence for some of the most commonly used medications in topical compounds for pain management. Because more topical medications are used for chronic pain, dermatologists can expect an increase in irritant and allergic contact dermatitis related to these medications. PMID:27649348

  5. Topical antioxidants in radiodermatitis: a clinical review.

    PubMed

    Kodiyan, Joyson; Amber, Kyle T

    2015-09-01

    Radiation-induced skin toxicity is the most prevalent side effect of radiation therapy. Not only does it have a significant effect on patients' quality of life, but it also results in poor follow-up and early termination of radiotherapy treatment. Several skin care practices and topical applications have been studied in the field of radiodermatitis, including skin washing, topical steroids, and mechanical skin barriers. Aside from these methods, many patients turn to complementary and alternative medicine for the prevention and treatment of radiodermatitis. Many of these alternative therapies are topically applied antioxidants. While the rationale behind the use of antioxidants in treating radiodermatitis is strong, clinical studies have been far less consistent. Even in large scale randomised controlled trials, findings have been limited by the inconsistent use of topical vehicles and placebos. In this article, the authors review the role of topical antioxidants to better help the practitioner navigate through different available skin directed antioxidants.

  6. Topical diphenhydramine toxicity.

    PubMed

    Bernhardt, D T

    1991-08-01

    This paper will review an acute onset of mental confusion associated with hallucinations secondary to vigorous administration of topical Caladryl lotion and Benadryl spray in an 8-year-old boy with chickenpox. The article discusses the toxicity of both oral and topical diphenhydramine use, along with the differentiation of varicella encephalitis from diphenhydramine toxicity. Delirium can be described as an acute clouding of consciousness associated with visual and tactile hallucinations, disorientation, and misperceptions. In a child who is already suffering from an infectious illness, encephalitis must be high on the list of the physician's differential diagnosis. The physician, however, must never overlook ingestions, even from topical, over-the-counter medications. The case described illustrates this point. Although this appears to be the fourth case report on this subject, the diagnosis was partially obscured by the fact that the local pharmacist could not find any documented cases despite a computer search of diphenhydramine toxicity at the time of admission and the report of only one or two cases by the Parke-Davis pharmacist.

  7. EFF HOT Topics: Strategies and Tools for Teaching with EFF. Volume 3, Number 1, Fall 2003

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Potts, Meta, Ed.

    2003-01-01

    "EFF HOT (Highlights on Teaching Topics) Topics" is a publication of the EFF (Equipped for the Future) Center for Training and Technical Assistance. Each issue concentrates on a specific topic, highlighting examples of actual practice and offering strategies and tools for using EFF in the classroom. In this issue, "HOT Topics" focuses on the EFF…

  8. Timely topics in pediatric psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Dineen Wagner, Karen

    2014-11-01

    This section of Focus on Childhood and Adolescent Mental Health presents findings on an array of topics including inflammation and child and adolescent depression, glutamatergic dysregulation and pediatric psychiatric disorders, predictors of bipolar disorder in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and the continuum between obsessive-compulsive personality disorder (OCPD) and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). There is increased interest in the role of inflammation in psychiatric disorders. Kim and colleagues conducted a systematic literature review to examine the relationships between inflammatory processes, inflammation, medical conditions, and depression and suicidality in children and adolescents. PMID:25470084

  9. Topic- and Time-Oriented Visual Text Analysis.

    PubMed

    Dou, Wenwen; Liu, Shixia

    2016-01-01

    To facilitate the process of converting textual data into actionable knowledge, visual text analysis has become a popular topic with active research efforts contributed by researchers worldwide. Here the authors present the benefits of combing text analysis (topic models in particular) with interactive visualization. They then highlight examples from prior work on topic- and time-oriented visual text analysis and discuss challenges that warrant additional future research. PMID:27514029

  10. Learner-Based Factors in L2 Reading Comprehension and Processing Grammatical Form: Topic Familiarity and Working Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leeser, Michael J.

    2007-01-01

    This study examines how topic familiarity and working memory capacity affect beginning Spanish learners' reading comprehension and their processing of future tense morphology. Participants included 94 adult learners from an accelerated, beginning Spanish course. In addition to completing a computerized version of a reading span test as a measure…

  11. Students' Interest in Geoscience Topics, Contexts and Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hemmer, Ingrid; Bayrhuber, Horst; Haubler, Peter; Hemmer, Michael; Hlawatsch, Sylke; Hoffmann, Lore; Raffelsiefer, Marion

    2007-01-01

    Geoscience topics are playing an increasingly important role with regard to the future of our planet. Consequently, they have been moving into the educational foreground because of their societal relevance. The question is, however: Are pupils interested in these topics? This is important didactically, for interest is both a prerequisite and a…

  12. Viral vaccines: selected topics.

    PubMed

    Kańtoch, M

    1996-01-01

    Significant role of viruses in pathology, their dominating position in etiology of infectious diseases point at the special position of active prophylactic procedures based on vaccination. The real role and value of viral vaccines of classic and modern generations, the limitation of immune potency in suppression of defence mechanisms, some problems of immunization against virus vertical transmission are presented in the paper. The reader may find tables which cumulate selected but significant patterns of viral vaccines and vaccinations, and selected papers devoted to topics discussed. PMID:9017153

  13. Topical urea in dermatology.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, P K; Choudhury, A K; Panja, S K

    1990-03-01

    For years research has been conducted to find a cutaneous moisturizer that is effective, easily available and relatively inexpensive urea, as a atopical agent, is all of this and is also a mild keratolytic. A trial was conducted over 200 patients suffering from a variety of disorders that were selected and using urea topically as urea 10 (10%), urea-20 lotion (20%), Urea-HC (with hydrocartisanl). The agent was applied twice daily for a maximum period of 8 weeks. Results indicate that urea is an effective moisturizer and in promotes the penetration of hydrocelisone into the skin.

  14. Topically induced diphenhydramine toxicity.

    PubMed

    Reilly, J F; Weisse, M E

    1990-01-01

    We report the case of a 2 1/2-year-old child who manifested acute anticholinergic toxicity after the applications of a topical calamine-antihistamine lotion. This mechanism of diphenhydramine toxicity is uncommon, with only a few other case reports noted in the literature. This case is also intriguing in that this child had an underlying varicella illness with fever that tended to obscure the picture. This report describes the characteristic history and physical examination pertinent to anticholinergic toxicity, varicella complication considerations, and case management.

  15. Novel topical therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Bleier, Benjamin S

    2010-06-01

    Intranasal drug delivery is a rapidly growing field that offers the potential for enhanced treatment of local and systemic disease. Novel preclinical screening tools such as in vitro assays and 3-dimensional imaging are currently being used to improve drug design and delivery. In addition, new evidence has emerged underlining the importance of surgical marsupialization of the sinuses to allow for improved topical delivery. Although multiple barriers to administration and absorption exist, implantable therapeutics using new classes of drug-eluting polymers allow for prolonged, site-specific drug delivery and hold great promise in overcoming these obstacles.

  16. Recent topics in Japan.

    PubMed

    Inaba, Y

    1996-08-01

    In Japan, the concern about ethical issues in preventive medicine, especially in epidemiological investigation, has been gradually increasing in recent years. In this paper I introduce the following four topics: 1. privacy protection and the computer, 2. informed consent and publication, 3. the attitudes toward ethics among epidemiologists, 4. the attitudes toward epidemiological investigation among examinees. In my opinion, Japanese epidemiologists should give more attention to general ethical principles (Respect for persons, Beneficence) and to the practical methods to apply them in their research works.

  17. Nuclear Chemistry: Include It in Your Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atwood, Charles H.; Sheline, R. K.

    1989-01-01

    Some of the topics that might be included in a nuclear chemistry section are explored. Offers radioactivity, closed shells in nuclei, energy of nuclear processes, nuclear reactions, and fission and fusion as topics of interest. Provided are ideas and examples for each. (MVL)

  18. Chemistry {ampersand} Materials Science progress report summary of selected research and development topics, FY97

    SciTech Connect

    Newkirk, L.

    1997-12-01

    This report contains summaries of research performed in the Chemistry and Materials Science division. Topics include Metals and Ceramics, High Explosives, Organic Synthesis, Instrument Development, and other topics.

  19. Aircraft Research and Technology for Future Fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    The potential characteristics of future aviation turbine fuels and the property effects of these fuels on propulsion system components are examined. The topics that are discussed include jet fuel supply and demand trends, the effects of refining variables on fuel properties, shekle oil processing, the characteristics of broadened property fuels, the effects of fuel property variations on combustor and fuel system performance, and combuster and fuel system technology for broadened property fuels.

  20. The Topical Evolution: Free Ions, Orthomolecular Agents, Phytochemicals, and Insect-Produced Substances

    PubMed Central

    Conner-Kerr, Teresa

    2014-01-01

    Significance: A variety of topical antiseptic substances have been used historically to treat open wounds with suspected tissue infection or that are slow to heal. However, the effectiveness of these substances in treating infected or recalcitrant wounds remains controversial. Recent Advances: Newly formulated topical antiseptics delivered through differing dressing technologies, such as ionic substances, hold the potential to limit the development of and treat antibiotic-resistant microbes in open wounds. Other topically delivered substances, such as insect-derived substances, orthomolecular agents, and phytochemicals, also present opportunities to optimize wound healing by decreasing tissue bioburden and facilitating the wound healing process. Critical Issues: Limited systemic perfusion of open wounds in individuals with certain diagnoses, such as peripheral arterial disease or necrotizing infection and the increasing number of antibiotic-resistant wound pathogens, suggests a continued role for topically applied antiseptic agents. Likewise, the failure of wounds to heal when treated with standard of care therapy opens the door to innovative treatment approaches that include the natural substances described in this article. Future Directions: Evidence for the use of select topical antiseptic agents from each of the aforementioned categories will be discussed in this article. Additional well-controlled clinical studies are needed to provide definitive recommendations for many of these topical agents. PMID:25126473

  1. The Topical Evolution: Free Ions, Orthomolecular Agents, Phytochemicals, and Insect-Produced Substances.

    PubMed

    Conner-Kerr, Teresa

    2014-08-01

    Significance: A variety of topical antiseptic substances have been used historically to treat open wounds with suspected tissue infection or that are slow to heal. However, the effectiveness of these substances in treating infected or recalcitrant wounds remains controversial. Recent Advances: Newly formulated topical antiseptics delivered through differing dressing technologies, such as ionic substances, hold the potential to limit the development of and treat antibiotic-resistant microbes in open wounds. Other topically delivered substances, such as insect-derived substances, orthomolecular agents, and phytochemicals, also present opportunities to optimize wound healing by decreasing tissue bioburden and facilitating the wound healing process. Critical Issues: Limited systemic perfusion of open wounds in individuals with certain diagnoses, such as peripheral arterial disease or necrotizing infection and the increasing number of antibiotic-resistant wound pathogens, suggests a continued role for topically applied antiseptic agents. Likewise, the failure of wounds to heal when treated with standard of care therapy opens the door to innovative treatment approaches that include the natural substances described in this article. Future Directions: Evidence for the use of select topical antiseptic agents from each of the aforementioned categories will be discussed in this article. Additional well-controlled clinical studies are needed to provide definitive recommendations for many of these topical agents. PMID:25126473

  2. The Topical Evolution: Free Ions, Orthomolecular Agents, Phytochemicals, and Insect-Produced Substances.

    PubMed

    Conner-Kerr, Teresa

    2014-08-01

    Significance: A variety of topical antiseptic substances have been used historically to treat open wounds with suspected tissue infection or that are slow to heal. However, the effectiveness of these substances in treating infected or recalcitrant wounds remains controversial. Recent Advances: Newly formulated topical antiseptics delivered through differing dressing technologies, such as ionic substances, hold the potential to limit the development of and treat antibiotic-resistant microbes in open wounds. Other topically delivered substances, such as insect-derived substances, orthomolecular agents, and phytochemicals, also present opportunities to optimize wound healing by decreasing tissue bioburden and facilitating the wound healing process. Critical Issues: Limited systemic perfusion of open wounds in individuals with certain diagnoses, such as peripheral arterial disease or necrotizing infection and the increasing number of antibiotic-resistant wound pathogens, suggests a continued role for topically applied antiseptic agents. Likewise, the failure of wounds to heal when treated with standard of care therapy opens the door to innovative treatment approaches that include the natural substances described in this article. Future Directions: Evidence for the use of select topical antiseptic agents from each of the aforementioned categories will be discussed in this article. Additional well-controlled clinical studies are needed to provide definitive recommendations for many of these topical agents.

  3. Religious Identity and Value Systems of Future Preschool Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petrova, Valentina F.

    2016-01-01

    This topic is urgent in Tatarstan (RF region) nowadays as young people, including students, future preschool teachers, actively join religious organizations. This paper presents facts of young people showing latent national and religious aggression, which can lead to religious extremism. The purpose of the research is to elicit the specific nature…

  4. Educational Technology in Turkey: Past, Present and Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akkoyunlu, Buket

    2002-01-01

    Explains the past, discusses the present, and makes projections for the future of educational technology in Turkey. Topics include historical background of Turkey and of educational technology in Turkey; the role of the Ministry of National Education; distance education; technology-based education; and the national information infrastructure.…

  5. An Agenda for the Future of Research in Honors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mariz, George

    2016-01-01

    Research in honors has become a priority for the National Collegiate Honors Council (NCHC), and the phrase presents the honors community with an interesting ambiguity about the appropriate focus for future studies. Potential topics might include the progress of honors students in comparison to their non-honors cohorts; the criteria for selecting…

  6. A Two-Century-Old Vision for the Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuchs, Ira H.

    1988-01-01

    Discusses the necessity of acquiring and developing technological advances for use in the classroom to provide a vision for the future. Topics discussed include microcomputers; workstations; software; networks; cooperative endeavors in industry and academia; artificial intelligence; and the necessity for financial support. (LRW)

  7. The Future in Education: Problems, Possibilities and Promise.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kierstead, Fred D., Ed.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    The nine articles in this special issue discuss topics on the future of education, including educational priorities for the 1990's, teacher education, educational technology, and culture and synergy as tools for educational and social reconstruction. Journal available from University of Oklahoma, College of Education, 434 Hawthorn Street, Norman,…

  8. Assessment of Emerging Networks to Support Future NASA Space Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Younes, Badri; Chang, Susan; Berman, Ted; Burns, Mark; LaFontaine, Richard; Lease, Robert

    1998-01-01

    Various issues associated with assessing emerging networks to support future NASA space operations are presented in viewgraph form. Specific topics include: 1) Emerging commercial satellite systems; 2) NASA LEO satellite support through commercial systems; 3) Communications coverage, user terminal assessment and regulatory assessment; 4) NASA LEO missions overview; and 5) Simulation assumptions and results.

  9. Fear and Trembling: Hong Kong Librarians Face Their Uncertain Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chepesiuk, Ron

    1992-01-01

    Discussion of the possible changes in Hong Kong in 1997 when rule passes to the People's Republic of China focuses on the uncertain future of libraries and librarians. Topics discussed include the political climate; the departure of qualified Chinese librarians; and the growth of libraries and computerized systems. (LRW)

  10. Topic-Prominence in Interlanguage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuller, Judith W.; Gundel, Jeannette K.

    1987-01-01

    Investigates the role of topic-comment structure and the frequency of topic-prominence in the oral interlanguage of Chinese- Japanese-, Korean-, Arabic-, Farsi-, and Spanish-speaking adult students of English as a second language. Results indicate that second language learning is generally characterized by an early topic-comment stage, independent…

  11. Current Topics in Postnatal Behavioral Testing.

    PubMed

    Henck, Judith W; Elayan, Ikram; Vorhees, Charles; Fisher, J Edward; Morford, LaRonda L

    2016-09-01

    The study of developmental neurotoxicity (DNT) continues to be an important component of safety evaluation of candidate therapeutic agents and of industrial and environmental chemicals. Developmental neurotoxicity is considered to be an adverse change in the central and/or peripheral nervous system during development of an organism and has been primarily evaluated by studying functional outcomes, such as changes in behavior, neuropathology, neurochemistry, and/or neurophysiology. Neurobehavioral evaluations are a component of a wide range of toxicology studies in laboratory animal models, whereas neurochemistry and neurophysiology are less commonly employed. Although the primary focus of this article is on neurobehavioral evaluation in pre- and postnatal development and juvenile toxicology studies used in pharmaceutical development, concepts may also apply to adult nonclinical safety studies and Environmental Protection Agency/chemical assessments. This article summarizes the proceedings of a symposium held during the 2015 American College of Toxicology annual meeting and includes a discussion of the current status of DNT testing as well as potential issues and recommendations. Topics include the regulatory context for DNT testing; study design and interpretation; behavioral test selection, including a comparison of core learning and memory systems; age of testing; repeated testing of the same animals; use of alternative animal models; impact of findings; and extrapolation of animal results to humans. Integration of the regulatory experience and scientific concepts presented during this symposium, as well as from subsequent discussion and input, provides a synopsis of the current state of DNT testing in safety assessment, as well as a potential roadmap for future advancement.

  12. Organization's Orderly Interest Exploration: Inception, Development and Insights of AIAA's Topics Database

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marshall, Jospeh R.; Morris, Allan T.

    2007-01-01

    Since 2003, AIAA's Computer Systems and Software Systems Technical Committees (TCs) have developed a database that aids technical committee management to map technical topics to their members. This Topics/Interest (T/I) database grew out of a collection of charts and spreadsheets maintained by the TCs. Since its inception, the tool has evolved into a multi-dimensional database whose dimensions include the importance, interest and expertise of TC members and whether or not a member and/or a TC is actively involved with the topic. In 2005, the database was expanded to include the TCs in AIAA s Information Systems Group and then expanded further to include all AIAA TCs. It was field tested at an AIAA Technical Activities Committee (TAC) Workshop in early 2006 through live access by over 80 users. Through the use of the topics database, TC and program committee (PC) members can accomplish relevant tasks such as: to identify topic experts (for Aerospace America articles or external contacts), to determine the interest of its members, to identify overlapping topics between diverse TCs and PCs, to guide new member drives and to reveal emerging topics. This paper will describe the origins, inception, initial development, field test and current version of the tool as well as elucidate the benefits and insights gained by using the database to aid the management of various TC functions. Suggestions will be provided to guide future development of the database for the purpose of providing dynamics and system level benefits to AIAA that currently do not exist in any technical organization.

  13. Systemic and topical drugs for aging skin.

    PubMed

    Kockaert, Michael; Neumann, Martino

    2003-08-01

    The rejuvenation of aging skin is a common desire for our patients, and several options are available. Although there are some systemic methods, the most commonly used treatments for rejuvenation of the skin are applied topically. The most frequently used topical drugs include retinoids, alpha hydroxy acids (AHAs), vitamin C, beta hydroxy acids, anti-oxidants, and tocopherol. Combination therapy is frequently used; particularly common is the combination of retinoids and AHAs. Systemic therapies available include oral retinoids and vitamin C. Other available therapies such as chemical peels, face-lifts, collagen, and botulinum toxin injections are not discussed in this article. PMID:12884471

  14. Additional EIPC Study Analysis: Interim Report on High Priority Topics

    SciTech Connect

    Hadley, Stanton W

    2013-11-01

    Between 2010 and 2012 the Eastern Interconnection Planning Collaborative (EIPC) conducted a major long-term resource and transmission study of the Eastern Interconnection (EI). With guidance from a Stakeholder Steering Committee (SSC) that included representatives from the Eastern Interconnection States Planning Council (EISPC) among others, the project was conducted in two phases. Phase 1 involved a long-term capacity expansion analysis that involved creation of eight major futures plus 72 sensitivities. Three scenarios were selected for more extensive transmission- focused evaluation in Phase 2. Five power flow analyses, nine production cost model runs (including six sensitivities), and three capital cost estimations were developed during this second phase. The results from Phase 1 and 2 provided a wealth of data that could be examined further to address energy-related questions. A list of 13 topics was developed for further analysis; this paper discusses the first five.

  15. Topics in b-physics

    SciTech Connect

    Bjorken, J.D.

    1988-09-01

    We discuss a few issues in the burgeoning field of physics of hadrons containing the b-quark. These include: A simple parameterization of the Kobayashi-Maskawa matrix featuring a triangle in the complex plane, a review of B/sub s/ and B/sub d/ mixing with special attention given to width-mixing and the CP-violating same-sign dilepton asymmetry, a discussion of the CP-violating decay B/sub d/ ..-->.. /psi/..pi../sup +/..pi../sup /minus//, and a discussion of Cp-violating rate asymmetries in the two-body decays ..lambda../sub b/ ..-->.. p..pi../sup /minus// and ..lambda../sub b/ ..-->.. pK/sup /minus//. The concluding discussion concerns generalizations beyond these specific topics. 22 refs., 6 figs.

  16. Topics in statistical mechanics

    SciTech Connect

    Elser, V.

    1984-05-01

    This thesis deals with four independent topics in statistical mechanics: (1) the dimer problem is solved exactly for a hexagonal lattice with general boundary using a known generating function from the theory of partitions. It is shown that the leading term in the entropy depends on the shape of the boundary; (2) continuum models of percolation and self-avoiding walks are introduced with the property that their series expansions are sums over linear graphs with intrinsic combinatorial weights and explicit dimension dependence; (3) a constrained SOS model is used to describe the edge of a simple cubic crystal. Low and high temperature results are derived as well as the detailed behavior near the crystal facet; (4) the microscopic model of the lambda-transition involving atomic permutation cycles is reexamined. In particular, a new derivation of the two-component field theory model of the critical behavior is presented. Results for a lattice model originally proposed by Kikuchi are extended with a high temperature series expansion and Monte Carlo simulation. 30 references.

  17. Discovering Health Topics in Social Media Using Topic Models

    PubMed Central

    Paul, Michael J.; Dredze, Mark

    2014-01-01

    By aggregating self-reported health statuses across millions of users, we seek to characterize the variety of health information discussed in Twitter. We describe a topic modeling framework for discovering health topics in Twitter, a social media website. This is an exploratory approach with the goal of understanding what health topics are commonly discussed in social media. This paper describes in detail a statistical topic model created for this purpose, the Ailment Topic Aspect Model (ATAM), as well as our system for filtering general Twitter data based on health keywords and supervised classification. We show how ATAM and other topic models can automatically infer health topics in 144 million Twitter messages from 2011 to 2013. ATAM discovered 13 coherent clusters of Twitter messages, some of which correlate with seasonal influenza (r = 0.689) and allergies (r = 0.810) temporal surveillance data, as well as exercise (r = .534) and obesity (r = −.631) related geographic survey data in the United States. These results demonstrate that it is possible to automatically discover topics that attain statistically significant correlations with ground truth data, despite using minimal human supervision and no historical data to train the model, in contrast to prior work. Additionally, these results demonstrate that a single general-purpose model can identify many different health topics in social media. PMID:25084530

  18. Current topics on sonoelectrochemistry.

    PubMed

    González-García, José; Esclapez, María Deseada; Bonete, Pedro; Hernández, Yolanda Vargas; Garretón, Luís Gaete; Sáez, Verónica

    2010-02-01

    Sonoelectrochemistry is undergoing a reemerging activity in the last years with an increasing number of papers appearing in a wide range of peer review journals. Applied studies which cover environmental treatments, synthesis or characterization of nanostructures, polymeric materials synthesis, analytical procedures, films preparations, membrane preparations among other interesting applications have been reviewed. The revised fundamental analyses trying to elucidate the mechanism of the interactions between the ultrasound and electrical fields, are focused on test electrochemical processes, on the use of unconventional solvents and combination with other techniques. After the review of the achievements and faults of sonoelectrochemistry, future research lines are suggested. PMID:19853270

  19. Evaluating supervised topic models in the presence of OCR errors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, Daniel; Ringger, Eric; Seppi, Kevin

    2013-01-01

    Supervised topic models are promising tools for text analytics that simultaneously model topical patterns in document collections and relationships between those topics and document metadata, such as timestamps. We examine empirically the effect of OCR noise on the ability of supervised topic models to produce high quality output through a series of experiments in which we evaluate three supervised topic models and a naive baseline on synthetic OCR data having various levels of degradation and on real OCR data from two different decades. The evaluation includes experiments with and without feature selection. Our results suggest that supervised topic models are no better, or at least not much better in terms of their robustness to OCR errors, than unsupervised topic models and that feature selection has the mixed result of improving topic quality while harming metadata prediction quality. For users of topic modeling methods on OCR data, supervised topic models do not yet solve the problem of finding better topics than the original unsupervised topic models.

  20. Topical fat reduction.

    PubMed

    Greenway, F L; Bray, G A; Heber, D

    1995-11-01

    The fat on women's thighs is more difficult to mobilize due to increased alpha-2 adrenergic receptor activity induced by estrogen. Lipolysis can be initiated through adipocyte receptor stimulation (beta adrenergic) or inhibition (adenosine or alpha-2 adrenergic) or by inhibition of phosphodiesterase. Since many women desire regional thigh fat loss, a series of clinical trials were initiated using one thigh as a double-blinded control. Trial #1: Five overweight women had injections of isoproterenol at intervals around the thigh three times a week for 4 weeks with diet and walking. Trial #2: Five overweight woman had ointment containing forskolin, yohimbine and aminophylline applied to the thigh five times a week for 4 weeks after hypertonic warm soaks with a diet and walking. Trial #3: Eighteen overweight women were divided into three groups of six and trial #2 was repeated with each agent alone vs. placebo using forskolin, yohimbine or aminophylline in separate ointments. Trial #4: Thirty overweight women had 10% aminophylline ointment applied to the thigh five times a week for 6 weeks with diet and walking. Chemistry panel, theophylline level and patch testing were performed. Trial #5: Twelve women had trial #4 repeated with 2% aminophylline cream without a diet or walking. Trial #6: Trial #5 was repeated with 0.5% aminophylline cream. All trials except yohimbine ointment gave significantly more girth loss from the treated thigh (p < 0.05 to p < 0.001). Chemistry panel showed no toxicity. Theophylline was undetectable and patch testing was negative. We conclude that topical fat reduction for women's thighs can be achieved without diet or exercise. PMID:8697059

  1. Bacterial resistance and topical antimicrobial wash products.

    PubMed

    Jones, R D

    1999-08-01

    Current scientific evidence has not shown that a link exists between the use of topical antimicrobial formulations and antiseptic or antibiotic resistance. As a result of the extensive history and varied use of antiseptic products and ingredients, any selective pressure for antibiotic resistance that may be occurring or may be uncovered in the future because of antiseptic use would be expected to be insignificant compared with the selective pressure because of antibiotic use. This review illustrates the effectiveness of topical antimicrobial wash products against antibiotic-resistant and antiseptic-resistant bacteria in use settings as well as the studies performed (antiseptic, deodorant, and oral care) demonstrating the lack of development of resistance in long-term clinical studies. Although these studies illustrate that the use of topical antimicrobial products have not been shown to play a role in the fluctuations of the specific composition or resistance of the skin flora, changes in skin flora have been shown to occur. Based on current knowledge, the benefit from use of topical antimicrobial wash products in combination with standard infection control and personal hygiene practices far outweighs the risk of increased antibiotic resistance.

  2. Topics in complex nonlinear systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ying, Linghang

    In the dissertation, I include two topics of my research in nonlinear dynamic systems. In the first topic, we use numerical optimization techniques to investigate the behavior of the success rates for two- and three-qubit entangling gates, first for perfect fidelity, and then extended to imperfect gates. We find that as the perfect fidelity condition is relaxed, the maximum attainable success rates increase in a predictable fashion depending on the size of the system, and we compare that rate of increase for several gates. Finally, we propose an experiment to test our imperfect LOQC gates using number-resolving photon detectors. We suggest a relatively simple physical apparatus capable of producing CZ gates with controllable fidelity less than 1 and success rates higher than the current theoretical maximum (S=2/27) for perfect fidelity. These experimental setups are within the reach of many experimental groups and would provide an interesting experiment in photonic quantum computing. In the second topic, we quantitatively study nonlinear effects on the evolution of surface gravity waves on the ocean, to explore systematically the effects of various input parameters on the probability of rogue wave formation. The fourth-order current-modified nonlinear Schrodinger equation (CNLS4) is employed to describe the wave evolution. First, we show that when the average wave steepness is small and nonlinear wave effects are subleading, the wave height distribution is well explained by a single "freak index" parameter, which describes the strength of (linear) wave scattering by random currents relative to the angular spread of the incoming random sea. When the average steepness is large, the wave height distribution takes a very similar functional form, but the key variables determining the probability distribution are the steepness, and the angular and frequency spread of the incoming waves. Then, we obtain quantitative predictions for the wave height distribution as a

  3. Future Mission Trends and their Implications for the Deep Space Network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abraham, Douglas S.

    2006-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation discusses the direction of future missions and it's significance to the Deep Space Network. The topics include: 1) The Deep Space Network (DSN); 2) Past Missions Driving DSN Evolution; 3) The Changing Mission Paradigm; 4) Assessing Future Mission Needs; 5) Link Support Trends; 6) Downlink Rate Trends; 7) Uplink Rate Trends; 8) End-to-End Link Difficulty Trends; 9) Summary: Future Mission Trend Drivers; and 10) Conclusion: Implications for the DSN.

  4. Current Research Topics in Learning Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bursuck, William D.; Epstein, Michael H.

    1987-01-01

    A survey of 66 experts in learning disabilities (LD) found treatment maintenance, generalization, and assessment and remediation of academic problems ranked highest as research priorities. Analysis of two leading LD journals found current topics to include academic assessment and remediation, while ignoring generalization and maintenance of…

  5. Water: A Topic for All Sciences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davies, Malonne I.; Seimears, C. Matt

    2008-01-01

    The authors illustrate an effective lesson-planning technique known as unpacking for the broad topic of water. Interconnections among science disciplines are shown for numerous possible subtopics. Two lesson sets are included, the first dealing with properties of water and the second dealing with water as a resource. (Contains 1 table and 4…

  6. Sea Changes. Topics in Marine Earth Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Awkerman, Gary L.

    This publication is designed for use in standard science curricula to develop oceanologic manifestations of certain science topics. Included are teacher guides, student activities, and demonstrations designed to impart ocean science understanding to high school students. The principal theme of Changes in the Sea is presented in this particular…

  7. Topics in millimeter wave technology. Volume 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Button, Kenneth John

    Topics dicussed include fin-line characteristics and circuits, millimeter-wave planar integrated-circuit filters, and H-plane millimeter-wave planar transmission lines and circuits. Attention is also given to modal power dynamics in multimode optical fibers and to a miniaturized monopulse assembly constructed in planar waveguide with multimode scalar horn feeds.

  8. Albanian Area Studies: Bibliography Arranged by Topics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Defense Language Inst., Monterey, CA.

    This bibliography on Albanian area studies is a guide of reference material for the student of Albanian language and culture. The first section on area background includes topics on history, physical and economic geography, natural resources, communication, transportation, demography, public utilities, industry, and agriculture. The next sections…

  9. Environmental Topics for Introductory Physics Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodges, Laurent

    1974-01-01

    Presents selected environmental references with comparatively detailed descriptions for the purpose of helping high school and college physics teachers in selecting materials for their course. The topics include thermal pollution, space heating and cooling, atmospheric temperature distribution, radiation balance of the earth, sound and noises, and…

  10. Teaching Difficult Topics with Primary Sources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Potter, Lee Ann

    2011-01-01

    "Difficult" or "challenging" topics to teach include racism, violence, genocide, bullying, gangs, abuse (physical, emotional, and substance), slavery, suffering, hatred, terrorism, war, disease, loss, addiction, and more. But by confronting them with students, in the safety of a classroom through thoughtfully constructed lessons (ones that take…

  11. Quality Randomized Clinical Trials of Topical Diabetic Foot Ulcer Healing Agents

    PubMed Central

    Bolton, Laura L.

    2016-01-01

    Significance: Diabetic foot ulcers (DFU) significantly add to global economic, social, and clinical burdens. Healing a DFU fast and well limits complications that can lead to lower extremity amputation, morbidity, and mortality. Recent Advances: Many promising topical DFU healing agents have been studied in randomized clinical trials (RCT), but only one, becaplermin, has been cleared for this use by the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Critical Issues: This critical review of DFU topical healing RCTs summarizes issues identified in their design and conduct, highlighting ways to improve study quality so researchers can increase the likelihood of RCT success in propelling effective topical DFU healing agents toward clinical use. Key issues include (1) inadequate sample size, (2) risk of bias, (3) irrelevant or unreported inclusion criteria, (4) substandard outcome measures, (5) unmatched group characteristics that predict nonhealing at baseline, (6) unequal or uncontrolled concurrent interventions or standard of care, (7) heterogeneous subject or DFU samples (8) unblinded allocation, treatment, or outcome measures, or (9) inadequate follow-up for clinical relevance. These can add bias or unexplained variability to RCT outcomes, limiting clinical or statistical significance and accuracy of results. Future Directions: This critical review summarizes ways to overcome these deficiencies to optimize DFU clinical trial design and conduct. It provides a blueprint for future excellence in RCTs testing safety and efficacy of topical DFU healing agents and smoothing the path to their clinical use. PMID:26989579

  12. Ingenol Mebutate Topical

    MedlinePlus

    ... growths on the skin caused by too much sun exposure). Ingenol mebutate is in a class of medications ... problems, including side effects from other treatments or sunburn, in the area you will be treating. You ...

  13. Erythema Dyschromicum Perstans: Response to Topical Tacrolimus

    PubMed Central

    Mahajan, Vikram K; Chauhan, Pushpinder S; Mehta, Karaninder S; Sharma, Anju Lath

    2015-01-01

    Background: Erythema dyschromicum perstans, a rare dermatosis of obscure etiopathogenesis and significant cosmetic morbidity, have no satisfactory treatment. Observations: Two patients with having characteristic asymptomatic and slowly progressive, slate-grey macular lesions with distinct red borders involving the face, neck, upper trunk and limbs were diagnosed clinicopathologically as erythema dyschromicum perstans. Both were treated successfully with topical tacrolimus 0.1% ointment. Conclusions: Overall, response to several therapeutic modalities including clofazimine and dapsone therapy is said to vary from complete failure to variable or inconsistent. Topical tarolimus provides an effective and safe alternative therapeutic option in erythema dyschromicum perstans. PMID:26538750

  14. What Future? What Child? Ontario Association for Curriculum Development Annual Conference (27th, Canada, November 9-11, 1978).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DuBois, Sheilagh V. C., Ed.

    Presented in this document are a series of conference reports dealing with the future of education and the role of the child in education. Some of the topics discussed under the heading of "What Future?" include alternative curriculum directions, basic education, modes of education, economics as a primary determiner of educational objectives, open…

  15. Topical liposome drugs to come: what the patent literature tells us. A review.

    PubMed

    Korting, H C; Blecher, P; Schäfer-Korting, M; Wendel, A

    1991-12-01

    Drug-containing liposomes for topical use in dermatology have been devised during the last 10 years. Most recently the clinical superiority to a conventional gel of a topical glucocorticosteroid liposome preparation for eczema has been demonstrated. To get more insight from what may be expected from future liposome preparations for topical treatment, the pertinent patent literature has been reviewed.

  16. Resources for Topics in Art.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Noate, Judith, Comp.

    This guide for conducting library research on topics in art or the work of a particular artist presents suggestions for utilizing four categories of resources: books, dictionaries and encyclopedias, indexes, and a periodicals and serials list (PASL). Three topics are researched as examples: the contemporary artist and author Frank Stella, the…

  17. Working Topics for Students' Papers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marting, Janet

    Students enrolled in composition classes may provide the answer to the dilemma of coming up with a writing topic: work--the "four letter word." Most, if not all, students have already become part of the labor force. The theme of "work" is naturally successful because it centers around a topic students know well, something that is within their…

  18. Discourse Structure, Topicality, and Questioning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Kuppevelt, Jan

    1995-01-01

    This paper presents an alternative approach to discourse structure according to which topicality is the general organizing principle in discourse. This approach accounts for the fact that the segmentation structure of discourse is in correspondence with the hierarchy of topics defined for the discourse units. (52 references) (JL)

  19. Linguistic Extensions of Topic Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyd-Graber, Jordan

    2010-01-01

    Topic models like latent Dirichlet allocation (LDA) provide a framework for analyzing large datasets where observations are collected into groups. Although topic modeling has been fruitfully applied to problems social science, biology, and computer vision, it has been most widely used to model datasets where documents are modeled as exchangeable…

  20. Organic solvent topical report

    SciTech Connect

    Cowley, W.L.

    1998-04-30

    This report is the technical basis for the accident and consequence analyses used in the Hanford Tank Farms Basis for Interim Operation. The report also contains the scientific and engineering information and reference material needed to understand the organic solvent safety issue. This report includes comments received from the Chemical Reactions Subcommittee of the Tank Advisory Panel.

  1. Language Arts Topics Papers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailey, Jane M.; And Others

    This document brings together six papers on language skills and language arts teaching of gifted students. "The State of the Art Issues in Language Study for High Ability Learners: Thinking about Language with Gifted Children" (Michael Clay Thompson) considers two areas traditionally included in discussions of language study--grammar and…

  2. Topics in Mathematics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Posey, Johnsie Jo, Ed.; And Others

    This manual is a collection of materials and teaching strategies to motivate the development of mathematical ideas in secondary school mathematics programs or in beginning college mathematics programs. The unit is written for the instructor with step-by-step procedures including lists of needed materials. The exercises in this unit also appear in…

  3. Australia's IT&T Future: A Strategic Analysis Report 1 July 1998.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Australian Library Journal, 1998

    1998-01-01

    Summarizes the GartnerGroup's views on issues in the information technology and telecommunications (IT&T) industry debate in Australia. Topics include attracting overseas investment to create a globally competitive industry; the government's role; perceived problems; the Internet and electronic commerce; and future issues, including leadership.…

  4. The Effects of Projected Future Demand Including Very Light Jet Air-Taxi Operations on U.S. National Airspace System Delays as a Function of Next Generation Air Transportation System Airspace Capacity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Jerry; Viken, Jeff; Dollyhigh, Samuel; Trani, Antonio; Baik, Hojong; Hinze, Nicholas; Ashiabor, Senanu

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents the results from a study which investigates the potential effects of the growth in air traffic demand including projected Very Light Jet (VLJ) air-taxi operations adding to delays experienced by commercial passenger air transportation in the year 2025. The geographic region studied is the contiguous United States (U.S.) of America, although international air traffic to and from the U.S. is included. The main focus of this paper is to determine how much air traffic growth, including VLJ air-taxi operations will add to enroute airspace congestion and determine what additional airspace capacity will be needed to accommodate the expected demand. Terminal airspace is not modeled and increased airport capacity is assumed.

  5. Mining nonterrestrial resources: Information needs and research topics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daemen, Jaak J. K.

    1992-01-01

    An outline of topics we need to understand better in order to apply mining technology to a nonterrestrial environment is presented. The proposed list is not intended to be complete. It aims to identify representative topics that suggest productive research. Such research will reduce the uncertainties associated with extrapolating from conventional earthbound practice to nonterrestrial applications. One objective is to propose projects that should put future discussions of nonterrestrial mining on a firmer, less speculative basis.

  6. 34 CFR 303.15 - Include; including.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Include; including. 303.15 Section 303.15 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF SPECIAL EDUCATION AND REHABILITATIVE SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION EARLY INTERVENTION PROGRAM FOR INFANTS AND TODDLERS...

  7. Review of topical beta blockers as treatment for infantile hemangiomas.

    PubMed

    Painter, Sally L; Hildebrand, Göran Darius

    2016-01-01

    The treatment of infantile hemangiomas changed from the use of oral corticosteroids to oral propranolol on the serendipitous discovery of propanolol's clinical effectiveness in 2008. Since then, clinicians have begun to use topical beta blockers--in particular, timolol maleate 0.5% gel forming solution--with good effect. Topical beta blockers are now used for lesions with both deep and superficial components and those that are amblyogenic. When initiated in the proliferative phase of the lesion, the effectiveness of the treatment can be seen within days. There is no consensus on dosing, treatment bioavailability, or clinical assessment of lesions, but these are topics for future research.

  8. CDF Hot Topics

    SciTech Connect

    Casal, Bruno

    2007-06-01

    We present recent CDF results based on approximately 1 fb{sup -1} of p{bar p} collisions at {radical}s = 1.96 TeV delivered at Fermilab Tevatron. Results shown include the observation of the B{sub s} oscillation frequency, the first observation of bottom baryon {Sigma}{sub b}{sup (*){+-}} states, updates on B hadrons lifetimes, and searches for rare decays in the b {yields} s{mu}{sup +}{mu}{sup -} transition and in charmless two-body B decays.

  9. Mental mechanisms for topics identification.

    PubMed

    Massey, Louis

    2014-01-01

    Topics identification (TI) is the process that consists in determining the main themes present in natural language documents. The current TI modeling paradigm aims at acquiring semantic information from statistic properties of large text datasets. We investigate the mental mechanisms responsible for the identification of topics in a single document given existing knowledge. Our main hypothesis is that topics are the result of accumulated neural activation of loosely organized information stored in long-term memory (LTM). We experimentally tested our hypothesis with a computational model that simulates LTM activation. The model assumes activation decay as an unavoidable phenomenon originating from the bioelectric nature of neural systems. Since decay should negatively affect the quality of topics, the model predicts the presence of short-term memory (STM) to keep the focus of attention on a few words, with the expected outcome of restoring quality to a baseline level. Our experiments measured topics quality of over 300 documents with various decay rates and STM capacity. Our results showed that accumulated activation of loosely organized information was an effective mental computational commodity to identify topics. It was furthermore confirmed that rapid decay is detrimental to topics quality but that limited capacity STM restores quality to a baseline level, even exceeding it slightly. PMID:24744775

  10. Mental mechanisms for topics identification.

    PubMed

    Massey, Louis

    2014-01-01

    Topics identification (TI) is the process that consists in determining the main themes present in natural language documents. The current TI modeling paradigm aims at acquiring semantic information from statistic properties of large text datasets. We investigate the mental mechanisms responsible for the identification of topics in a single document given existing knowledge. Our main hypothesis is that topics are the result of accumulated neural activation of loosely organized information stored in long-term memory (LTM). We experimentally tested our hypothesis with a computational model that simulates LTM activation. The model assumes activation decay as an unavoidable phenomenon originating from the bioelectric nature of neural systems. Since decay should negatively affect the quality of topics, the model predicts the presence of short-term memory (STM) to keep the focus of attention on a few words, with the expected outcome of restoring quality to a baseline level. Our experiments measured topics quality of over 300 documents with various decay rates and STM capacity. Our results showed that accumulated activation of loosely organized information was an effective mental computational commodity to identify topics. It was furthermore confirmed that rapid decay is detrimental to topics quality but that limited capacity STM restores quality to a baseline level, even exceeding it slightly.

  11. Topic Model for Graph Mining.

    PubMed

    Xuan, Junyu; Lu, Jie; Zhang, Guangquan; Luo, Xiangfeng

    2015-12-01

    Graph mining has been a popular research area because of its numerous application scenarios. Many unstructured and structured data can be represented as graphs, such as, documents, chemical molecular structures, and images. However, an issue in relation to current research on graphs is that they cannot adequately discover the topics hidden in graph-structured data which can be beneficial for both the unsupervised learning and supervised learning of the graphs. Although topic models have proved to be very successful in discovering latent topics, the standard topic models cannot be directly applied to graph-structured data due to the "bag-of-word" assumption. In this paper, an innovative graph topic model (GTM) is proposed to address this issue, which uses Bernoulli distributions to model the edges between nodes in a graph. It can, therefore, make the edges in a graph contribute to latent topic discovery and further improve the accuracy of the supervised and unsupervised learning of graphs. The experimental results on two different types of graph datasets show that the proposed GTM outperforms the latent Dirichlet allocation on classification by using the unveiled topics of these two models to represent graphs.

  12. Topical Steroid-Damaged Skin

    PubMed Central

    Abraham, Anil; Roga, Gillian

    2014-01-01

    Topical steroids, commonly used for a wide range of skin disorders, are associated with side effects both systemic and cutaneous. This article aims at bringing awareness among practitioners, about the cutaneous side effects of easily available, over the counter, topical steroids. This makes it important for us as dermatologists to weigh the usefulness of topical steroids versus their side effects, and to make an informed decision regarding their use in each individual based on other factors such as age, site involved and type of skin disorder. PMID:25284849

  13. Topics in cancer risk assessment.

    PubMed Central

    Olin, S S; Neumann, D A; Foran, J A; Scarano, G J

    1997-01-01

    The estimation of carcinogenic risks from exposure to chemicals has become an integral part of the regulatory process in the United States within the past decade. With it have come considerable controversy and debate over the scientific merits and shortcomings of the methods and their impact on risk management decisions. In this paper we highlight selected topics of current interest in the debate. As an indication of the level of public concern, we note the major recent reports on risk assessment from the National Academy of Sciences and the U.S Environmental Protection Agency's proposed substantial revisions to its Guidelines for Carcinogen Risk Assessment. We identify and briefly frame several key scientific issues in cancer risk assessment, including the growing recognition of the importance of understanding the mode of action of carcinogenesis in experimental animals and in humans, the methodologies and challenges in quantitative extrapolation of cancer risks, and the question of how to assess and account for human variability in susceptibility to carcinogens. In addition, we discuss initiatives in progress that may fundamentally alter the carcinogenesis testing paradigm. PMID:9114281

  14. Conversational topics in transsexual persons.

    PubMed

    Van Borsel, John; Cayzeele, Miet; Heirman, Eva; T'sjoen, Guy

    2014-06-01

    Abstract In general, speech language therapy for transsexual persons focuses on pitch and pitch variation and more recently also on resonance. Other communicative aspects are dealt with far less often, especially language. This study investigated to what extent conversational topics might need attention in therapy for transsexual persons. A total of 111 males, 116 females, 28 male-to-female and 18 female-to-male transsexuals were asked to indicate on a list with 34 topics how often they speak about each topic (never, sometimes, often) in conversations with males, with females and in a gender mixed group. Results showed that transsexual persons behave in accordance with the desired gender. However, they also tend to adopt a position depending on the gender of their conversational partner. It can be concluded that in general it is not necessary to pay attention to conversational topics in therapy for transsexual persons.

  15. Erythromycin and Benzoyl Peroxide Topical

    MedlinePlus

    ... doctor and pharmacist what prescription and nonprescription medications, vitamins, nutritional supplements, and herbal products you are taking. Be sure to mention other topical medications for acne. Your doctor may need to ...

  16. Rosacea-like eruption due to topical pimecrolimus.

    PubMed

    El-Heis, S; Buckley, D A

    2015-05-18

    Topical calcineurin inhibitors have been used outside their approved indications for a number of conditions, including topical steroid-induced rosacea. However, tacrolimus ointment itself has been reported to trigger rosacea in a small number of cases. We report a case of a rosacea-like eruption in a 39-year-old woman occurring after the use of pimecrolimus cream for 12 months for atopic dermatitis. Withdrawal of pimecrolimus combined with treatment with oral lymecycline, topical metronidazole, and an emollient resulted in resolution of the eruption. There have been 5 previously reported cases of a topical pimecrolimus-induced rosacea-like eruption suggesting that this rare side-effect may be a class effect of all topical calcineurin inhibitors. Dermatologists prescribing these drugs should be aware of this uncommon complication and may wish to warn patients of its occurrence as a potential side-effect when using topical calcineurin inhibitors in facial skin in adults.

  17. Topical Pimecrolimus 1% Cream in the Treatment of Seborrheic Dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Grace K.

    2013-01-01

    Seborrheic dermatitis is a multifactorial skin disease characterized by a chronic course with periods of exacerbation and remission. Although topical corticosteroids have been the mainstay of treatment, alternative therapies are often needed to avoid protracted use of topical corticosteroid therapy in order to avert side effects and to sustain control of the disorder. Topical pimecrolimus, a calcinuerin inhibitor, is a safe alternative for seborrheic dermatitis and is more ideal for long-term use. More specifically, topical pimecrolimus not only has an attractive safety profile with no risk of many of the potential side effects seen with topical corticosteroids, but also has favorable efficacy data, including more data on long-term use. This is a review of literature evaluating the efficacy and safety profile of topical pimecrolimus 1% cream for the treatment of seborrheic dermatitis. PMID:23441238

  18. Topical NSAIDs for acute pain in adults

    PubMed Central

    Massey, Thomas; Derry, Sheena; Moore, R Andrew; McQuay, Henry J

    2014-01-01

    Background Use of topical NSAIDs to treat acute musculoskeletal conditions is widely accepted in some parts of the world, but not in others. Their main attraction is their potential to provide pain relief without associated systemic adverse events. Objectives To review the evidence from randomised, double-blind, controlled trials on the efficacy and safety of topically applied NSAIDs in acute pain. Search methods We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, The Cochrane Library, and our own in-house database to December 2009. We sought unpublished studies by asking personal contacts and searching on-line clinical trial registers and manufacturers web sites. Selection criteria We included randomised, double-blind, active or placebo (inert carrier)-controlled trials in which treatments were administered to adult patients with acute pain resulting from strains, sprains or sports or overuse-type injuries (twisted ankle, for instance). There had to be at least 10 participants in each treatment arm, with application of treatment at least once daily. Data collection and analysis Two review authors independently assessed trial quality and validity, and extracted data. Numbers of participants achieving each outcome were used to calculate relative risk and numbers needed to treat (NNT) or harm (NNH) compared to placebo or other active treatment. Main results Forty-seven studies were included; most compared topical NSAIDs in the form of a gel, spray, or cream with a similar placebo, with 3455 participants in the overall analysis of efficacy. For all topical NSAIDs combined, compared with placebo, the number needed to treat to benefit (NNT) for clinical success, equivalent to 50% pain relief, was 4.5 (3.9 to 5.3) for treatment periods of 6 to 14 days. Topical diclofenac, ibuprofen, ketoprofen, and piroxicam were of similar efficacy, but indomethacin and benzydamine were not significantly better than placebo. Local skin reactions were generally mild and transient, and did not differ from

  19. Topics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathematics Teaching, 1971

    1971-01-01

    Problems involving divisibility, the ten coin triangle, five times a week with 4 D, a nomogram for the lens formula, the box and ladder problem, chains of circles, tessellating hexagons, topological woggles, and numbers of triangles are discussed. (CT)

  20. Topics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathematics Teaching, 1971

    1971-01-01

    Notes on De Morgan's rules; a perpetual calendar; the use of coloured rods; a balance problem; a graphical approach to natural logarithms; a problem in geometric probability; and the parallelogram law of forces. (MM)

  1. Family Counseling and Therapy: Major Issues and Topics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Robert L.; Stevens-Smith, Patricia

    The six chapters of this book on family counseling and therapy focus on healthy family functioning; marriage and family counseling theories; the practice of marriage and family counseling; training marriage and family counselors/therapists; issues and topics in family therapy; and images and projections for the future. The 33 articles distributed…

  2. Topical therapies in hyperhidrosis care.

    PubMed

    Pariser, David M; Ballard, Angela

    2014-10-01

    Primary focal hyperhidrosis affects 3% of the US population; about the same number as psoriasis. More than half of these patients have primary focal axillary hyperhidrosis: sweating that is beyond what is anticipated or necessary for thermoregulation. Most topical therapies are based on aluminum salts, which work by a chemical reaction that forms plugs in the eccrine sweat ducts. Topical anticholinergics may also be used. Instruction on proper methods and timing of antiperspirants enhances effect and may be effective alone or in combination with other treatments in patients with hyperhidrosis.

  3. Topical therapies in hyperhidrosis care.

    PubMed

    Pariser, David M; Ballard, Angela

    2014-10-01

    Primary focal hyperhidrosis affects 3% of the US population; about the same number as psoriasis. More than half of these patients have primary focal axillary hyperhidrosis: sweating that is beyond what is anticipated or necessary for thermoregulation. Most topical therapies are based on aluminum salts, which work by a chemical reaction that forms plugs in the eccrine sweat ducts. Topical anticholinergics may also be used. Instruction on proper methods and timing of antiperspirants enhances effect and may be effective alone or in combination with other treatments in patients with hyperhidrosis. PMID:25152341

  4. Teaching Physics to Future Presidents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobsen, Bob

    2015-03-01

    We present Berkeley's ``Physics for Future Presidents'' course. Created by Prof. Richard Muller, this is an introductory course aimed at preparing our students to make decisions in a physical, technological world. Organized around large topical areas like ``Energy,'' ``Gravity and Force,'' ``Nuclei and Radioactivity,'' and ``Invisible Light,'' we can cover in some depth the scientific issues involved in large-scale energy production via renewable and non-renewable resources, satellites including capabilities and limitations, nuclear power production including risk and waste, UV exposure including discussion of the ozone layer and cancer risk, etc. Although only a small bit of algebra is used, it's a deeply quantitative course. The class is structured around (1) traditional text readings and homework for basic material (2) demo- and discussion-based lectures and (3) readings and essays based on current articles and events. This third component raises student engagement and improves their reasoning & skeptical skills. It also makes the course challenging for both STEM and non-STEM students, and for future teachers.

  5. Project Prometheus and Future Entry Probe Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spilker, Thomas R.

    2005-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation on project Prometheus and future entry probe missions is shown. The topics include: 1) What Is Project Prometheus?; 2) What Capabilities Can Project Prometheus Offer? What Mission Types Are Being Considered?; 3) Jupiter Icy Moons Orbiter (JIMO); 4) How Are Mission Opportunities Changing?; 5) Missions Of Interest a Year Ago; 6) Missions Now Being Considered For Further Study; 7) Galileo-Style (Conventional) Probe Delivery; 8) Galileo-Style Probe Support; 9) Conventional Delivery and Support of Multiple Probes; 10) How Entry Probe Delivery From an NEP Vehicle Is Different; and 11) Concluding Remarks.

  6. Preparing Students for a Changing Future: How One New York School District Restructured Its Educational Focus with Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lauber, Gerald

    1997-01-01

    Describes how to restructure education to better prepare students for the future based on the plan developed at the South Huntington Union Free School District (New York). Topics include the need for a paradigm shift in education; technology as a tool for learning, including interactive courseware; inservice teacher training; the home-school…

  7. The North American Collections Inventory Project: Implications for the Future of Coordinated Management of Research Collections.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farrell, David; Reed-Scott, Jutta

    1989-01-01

    Describes the accomplishments of a cooperative effort to develop an online inventory of research library collections. Topics covered include the development of collection mapping tools and resources; the establishment of general requirements and policies; and the implications for the future of coordinated management of research collections. (20…

  8. Gaining Perspective for the Future of Distance Education from Early Leaders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bunker, Ellen L.

    1998-01-01

    Highlights the work of early leaders in the field of distance education based on an analysis of conference proceedings of the International Council for Distance Education (ICDE). Topics include a historical background of the ICDE conferences and visions of the future. (LRW)

  9. The Database Business: Managing Today--Planning for Tomorrow. Issues and Futures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aitchison, T. M.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Current issues and the future of the database business are discussed in five papers. Topics covered include aspects relating to the quality of database production; international ownership in the U.S. information marketplace; an overview of pricing strategies in the electronic information industry; and pricing issues from the viewpoints of online…

  10. Future of color

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ladson, Jack A.; Turner, Laraine B.; Green-Armytage, Paul; Hunt, Robert W. G.

    2002-06-01

    We live in a world in which styles and technologies are nearly the same from place to place, but change daily. This changing global culture is unprecedented, and reinforced by emerging new technologies that affect us all. The Future of Color, examines new technologies, how they will affect the selection and promulgation of color in the near future, and their impact upon us. We examine this topic from many perspectives - technological, business and commercial. Most importantly, as we understand how our world is emerging, we can position ourselves strategically for tomorrow.

  11. Topical antifungals for seborrhoeic dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    Okokon, Enembe O; Verbeek, Jos H; Ruotsalainen, Jani H; Ojo, Olumuyiwa A; Bakhoya, Victor Nyange

    2015-01-01

    Background Seborrhoeic dermatitis is a chronic inflammatory skin condition that is distributed worldwide. It commonly affects the scalp, face and flexures of the body. Treatment options include antifungal drugs, steroids, calcineurin inhibitors, keratolytic agents and phototherapy. Objectives To assess the effects of antifungal agents for seborrhoeic dermatitis of the face and scalp in adolescents and adults. A secondary objective is to assess whether the same interventions are effective in the management of seborrhoeic dermatitis in patients with HIV/AIDS. Search methods We searched the following databases up to December 2014: the Cochrane Skin Group Specialised Register, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (2014, Issue 11), MEDLINE (from 1946), EMBASE (from 1974) and Latin American Caribbean Health Sciences Literature (LILACS) (from 1982). We also searched trials registries and checked the bibliographies of published studies for further trials. Selection criteria Randomised controlled trials of topical antifungals used for treatment of seborrhoeic dermatitis in adolescents and adults, with primary outcome measures of complete clearance of symptoms and improved quality of life. Data collection and analysis Review author pairs independently assessed eligibility for inclusion, extracted study data and assessed risk of bias of included studies. We performed fixed-effect meta-analysis for studies with low statistical heterogeneity and used a random-effects model when heterogeneity was high. Main results We included 51 studies with 9052 participants. Of these, 45 trials assessed treatment outcomes at five weeks or less after commencement of treatment, and six trials assessed outcomes over a longer time frame. We believe that 24 trials had some form of conflict of interest, such as funding by pharmaceutical companies. Among the included studies were 12 ketoconazole trials (N = 3253), 11 ciclopirox trials (N = 3029), two lithium trials (N = 141

  12. Topical Knowledge and ESL Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    He, Ling; Shi, Ling

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates the effects of topical knowledge on ESL (English as a Second Language) writing performance in the English Language Proficiency Index (LPI), a standardized English proficiency test used by many post-secondary institutions in western Canada. The participants were 50 students with different levels of English proficiency…

  13. Conducting Surveys on Sensitive Topics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pryor, John H.

    2004-01-01

    Many institutions are surveying students about sensitive topics such as alcohol and drug use, sexual behavior, and academic dishonesty. Yet these can be some of the most difficult surveys to administer successfully, given reluctance on the part of respondents both to participate and to provide truthful answers. (Contains 1 table.)

  14. Topical pharmacology of imidazole antifungals.

    PubMed

    Holt, R J

    1976-01-01

    Four imidazole derivatives have now undergone extensive open and comparative trials as topical agents in dermatomycoses and vaginal candidosis. They are chlormidazole (Chemie Grünenthal), clotrimazole (Bayer), miconazole (Janssen) and econazole (Janssen, Cilag-Chemie); all also have some antibacterial activity. Many other imidazoles have been marketed, usually as antiprotozoal or anthelminthic agents, and some of these have some antimycotic activity as well as other miscellaneous therapeutic properties. The mode of action of imidazole antimycotic agents is discussed; after prolonged topical application to animals and human subjects, systemic absorption is negligible. All four agents which are available as cream, powder, lotion or vaginal tablets have many sucessful studies to their credit, often with clinical and mycological cure rates of over 80% in a variety of dermatomycoses and in vaginal candidosis. The relative value of these topical agents is discussed, and it is suggested that in severe and extensive dermatomycoses consideration should be given to the systemic use of miconazole in support of topical therapy.

  15. Topic Development in USENET Newsgroups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osborne, Larry N.

    1998-01-01

    USENET newsgroup topics are created, and they evolve, mutate, and become extinct in ways fundamentally different from spoken dialog. These differences can be explained partially by the asynchronous nature of electronic communication, as well as by other factors unique to such wide-scale multi-user media. (Author)

  16. Topics in Biomedical Optics: Introduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hebden, Jeremy C.; Boas, David A.; George, John S.; Durkin, Anthony J.

    2003-06-01

    The field of biomedical optics is experiencing tremendous growth. Biomedical technologies contribute in the creation of devices used in healthcare of various specialties (ophthalmology, cardiology, anesthesiology, and immunology, etc.). Recent research in biomedical optics is discussed. Overviews of meetings held at the 2002 Optical Society of America Biomedical Topical Meetings are presented.

  17. Seven topics in perturbative QCD

    SciTech Connect

    Buras, A.J.

    1980-09-01

    The following topics of perturbative QCD are discussed: (1) deep inelastic scattering; (2) higher order corrections to e/sup +/e/sup -/ annihilation, to photon structure functions and to quarkonia decays; (3) higher order corrections to fragmentation functions and to various semi-inclusive processes; (4) higher twist contributions; (5) exclusive processes; (6) transverse momentum effects; (7) jet and photon physics.

  18. The Health Curriculum: 500 Topics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byrd, Oliver E.

    2001-01-01

    This 1958 paper divides 500 health topics into 20 categories: health as a social accomplishment/social problem; nutrition; physical fitness; mental health and disease; heredity/eugenics; infection/immunity; chronic and degenerative disease; substance abuse; skin care; vision, hearing, and speech; dental health; safety; physical environment; health…

  19. Topics in optics and music

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sparks, Andrew W.

    2012-10-01

    While the use of optics in the playback of music has been a tremendously successful technology and laser light shows are a common occurrence, other intersections of optics and music tend to be less well known. Topics such as optics-based instruments, performance tools and effects, instrument characterization and manufacturing, recording, playback, and signal processing are explored.

  20. The pharmacology of topical analgesics.

    PubMed

    Barkin, Robert L

    2013-07-01

    Pain management of patients continues to pose challenges to clinicians. Given the multiple dimensions of pain--whether acute or chronic, mild, moderate, or severe, nociceptive or neuropathic--a multimodal approach may be needed. Fortunately, clinicians have an array of nonpharmacologic and pharmacologic treatment choices; however, each modality must be chosen carefully, because some often used oral agents are associated with safety and tolerability issues that restrict their use in certain patients. In particular, orally administered nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs, opioids, antidepressants, and anticonvulsants are known to cause systemic adverse effects in some patients. To address this problem, a number of topical therapies in various therapeutic classes have been developed to reduce systemic exposure and minimize the risks of patients developing adverse events. For example, topical nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug formulations produce a site-specific effect (ie, cyclo-oxygenase inhibition) while decreasing the systemic exposure that may lead to undesired effects in patients. Similarly, derivatives of acetylsalicylic acid (ie, salicylates) are used in topical analgesic formulations that do not significantly enter the patient's systemic circulation. Salicylates, along with capsaicin, menthol, and camphor, compose the counterirritant class of topical analgesics, which produce analgesia by activating and then desensitizing epidermal nociceptors. Additionally, patches and creams that contain the local anesthetic lidocaine, alone or co-formulated with other local anesthetics, are also used to manage patients with select acute and chronic pain states. Perhaps the most common topical analgesic modality is the cautious application of cutaneous cold and heat. Such treatments may decrease pain not by reaching the target tissue through systemic distribution, but by acting more directly on the affected tissue. Despite the tolerability benefits associated with avoiding

  1. Software Past, Present, and Future: Views from Government, Industry and Academia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holcomb, Lee; Page, Jerry; Evangelist, Michael

    2000-01-01

    Views from the NASA CIO NASA Software Engineering Workshop on software development from the past, present, and future are presented. The topics include: 1) Software Past; 2) Software Present; 3) NASA's Largest Software Challenges; 4) 8330 Software Projects in Industry Standish Groups 1994 Report; 5) Software Future; 6) Capability Maturity Model (CMM): Software Engineering Institute (SEI) levels; 7) System Engineering Quality Also Part of the Problem; 8) University Environment Trends Will Increase the Problem in Software Engineering; and 9) NASA Software Engineering Goals.

  2. Combining Chemistry and Music to Engage Student Interest: Using Songs to Accompany Selected Chemical Topics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Last, Arthur M.

    2009-01-01

    The use of recorded music to add interest to a variety of lecture topics is described. Topics include the periodic table, the formation of ionic compounds, thermodynamics, carbohydrates, nuclear chemistry, and qualitative analysis. (Contains 1 note.)

  3. Help Desk Answers: What's the most effective topical Tx for scalp psoriasis?

    PubMed

    Thomas, Stephanie K; Hamilton, Tanya

    2016-06-01

    Single-agent therapy with a very potent or potent topical corticosteroid appears more effective than other topical agents, including vitamin D₃ analogues, for treating scalp psoriasis. PMID:27474825

  4. Workshops of the Fifth International Brain-Computer Interface Meeting: Defining the Future.

    PubMed

    Huggins, Jane E; Guger, Christoph; Allison, Brendan; Anderson, Charles W; Batista, Aaron; Brouwer, Anne-Marie A-M; Brunner, Clemens; Chavarriaga, Ricardo; Fried-Oken, Melanie; Gunduz, Aysegul; Gupta, Disha; Kübler, Andrea; Leeb, Robert; Lotte, Fabien; Miller, Lee E; Müller-Putz, Gernot; Rutkowski, Tomasz; Tangermann, Michael; Thompson, David Edward

    2014-01-01

    The Fifth International Brain-Computer Interface (BCI) Meeting met June 3-7(th), 2013 at the Asilomar Conference Grounds, Pacific Grove, California. The conference included 19 workshops covering topics in brain-computer interface and brain-machine interface research. Topics included translation of BCIs into clinical use, standardization and certification, types of brain activity to use for BCI, recording methods, the effects of plasticity, special interest topics in BCIs applications, and future BCI directions. BCI research is well established and transitioning to practical use to benefit people with physical impairments. At the same time, new applications are being explored, both for people with physical impairments and beyond. Here we provide summaries of each workshop, illustrating the breadth and depth of BCI research and high-lighting important issues for future research and development.

  5. Workshops of the Fifth International Brain-Computer Interface Meeting: Defining the Future

    PubMed Central

    Huggins, Jane E.; Guger, Christoph; Allison, Brendan; Anderson, Charles W.; Batista, Aaron; Brouwer, Anne-Marie (A.-M.); Brunner, Clemens; Chavarriaga, Ricardo; Fried-Oken, Melanie; Gunduz, Aysegul; Gupta, Disha; Kübler, Andrea; Leeb, Robert; Lotte, Fabien; Miller, Lee E.; Müller-Putz, Gernot; Rutkowski, Tomasz; Tangermann, Michael; Thompson, David Edward

    2014-01-01

    The Fifth International Brain-Computer Interface (BCI) Meeting met June 3–7th, 2013 at the Asilomar Conference Grounds, Pacific Grove, California. The conference included 19 workshops covering topics in brain-computer interface and brain-machine interface research. Topics included translation of BCIs into clinical use, standardization and certification, types of brain activity to use for BCI, recording methods, the effects of plasticity, special interest topics in BCIs applications, and future BCI directions. BCI research is well established and transitioning to practical use to benefit people with physical impairments. At the same time, new applications are being explored, both for people with physical impairments and beyond. Here we provide summaries of each workshop, illustrating the breadth and depth of BCI research and high-lighting important issues for future research and development. PMID:25485284

  6. Precession electron diffraction – a topical review

    PubMed Central

    Midgley, Paul A.; Eggeman, Alexander S.

    2015-01-01

    In the 20 years since precession electron diffraction (PED) was introduced, it has grown from a little-known niche technique to one that is seen as a cornerstone of electron crystallography. It is now used primarily in two ways. The first is to determine crystal structures, to identify lattice parameters and symmetry, and ultimately to solve the atomic structure ab initio. The second is, through connection with the microscope scanning system, to map the local orientation of the specimen to investigate crystal texture, rotation and strain at the nanometre scale. This topical review brings the reader up to date, highlighting recent successes using PED and providing some pointers to the future in terms of method development and how the technique can meet some of the needs of the X-ray crystallography community. Complementary electron techniques are also discussed, together with how a synergy of methods may provide the best approach to electron-based structure analysis. PMID:25610633

  7. 1st meeting on topical drug delivery to the nail.

    PubMed

    Murdan, Sudaxshina

    2007-07-01

    The first ever symposium dedicated solely to drug delivery to the nail following topical application was held on the 2nd April 2007, in London, UK, organised by Dr Clive Roper (Charles River Laboratories, Scotland) and Dr Sudaxshina Murdan (School of Pharmacy, University of London, UK), under the auspices of Skin Forum. The 1-day meeting was attended by approximately 35 delegates from industry, academia and hospitals, and provided a much-needed forum for the presentation and discussion of research and problems in this emerging field. Topical drug delivery is especially suitable for onychomycosis (fungal infections of the nail plate and/or nail bed) and nail psoriasis, which affect 2 - 13 and 1 - 3% of the general population, respectively, and make up the bulk of nail disorders. Topical therapy would avoid the adverse events and drug interactions of systemic antifungal agents and the pain of injection when antipsoriatic agents are injected into affected nail folds. However, successful topical therapy is extremely challenging due to the very low permeability of the nail plate. Five speakers spoke about various aspects of topical drug delivery to the nail, including review of the nail plate structure, function, diseases, their existing therapies (systemic and topical), limitations and global sales. The need for effective topical drug delivery to the nail to overcome the problems associated with present treatment, and the fact that there are few topical formulations available for the treatment of nail fungal infections and psoriasis, and the even fewer effective formulations, was highlighted. PMID:17683257

  8. 1st meeting on topical drug delivery to the nail.

    PubMed

    Murdan, Sudaxshina

    2007-07-01

    The first ever symposium dedicated solely to drug delivery to the nail following topical application was held on the 2nd April 2007, in London, UK, organised by Dr Clive Roper (Charles River Laboratories, Scotland) and Dr Sudaxshina Murdan (School of Pharmacy, University of London, UK), under the auspices of Skin Forum. The 1-day meeting was attended by approximately 35 delegates from industry, academia and hospitals, and provided a much-needed forum for the presentation and discussion of research and problems in this emerging field. Topical drug delivery is especially suitable for onychomycosis (fungal infections of the nail plate and/or nail bed) and nail psoriasis, which affect 2 - 13 and 1 - 3% of the general population, respectively, and make up the bulk of nail disorders. Topical therapy would avoid the adverse events and drug interactions of systemic antifungal agents and the pain of injection when antipsoriatic agents are injected into affected nail folds. However, successful topical therapy is extremely challenging due to the very low permeability of the nail plate. Five speakers spoke about various aspects of topical drug delivery to the nail, including review of the nail plate structure, function, diseases, their existing therapies (systemic and topical), limitations and global sales. The need for effective topical drug delivery to the nail to overcome the problems associated with present treatment, and the fact that there are few topical formulations available for the treatment of nail fungal infections and psoriasis, and the even fewer effective formulations, was highlighted.

  9. Topical antifungals for seborrhoeic dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    Okokon, Enembe O; Verbeek, Jos H; Ruotsalainen, Jani H; Ojo, Olumuyiwa A; Bakhoya, Victor Nyange

    2015-01-01

    Background Seborrhoeic dermatitis is a chronic inflammatory skin condition that is distributed worldwide. It commonly affects the scalp, face and flexures of the body. Treatment options include antifungal drugs, steroids, calcineurin inhibitors, keratolytic agents and phototherapy. Objectives To assess the effects of antifungal agents for seborrhoeic dermatitis of the face and scalp in adolescents and adults. A secondary objective is to assess whether the same interventions are effective in the management of seborrhoeic dermatitis in patients with HIV/AIDS. Search methods We searched the following databases up to December 2014: the Cochrane Skin Group Specialised Register, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (2014, Issue 11), MEDLINE (from 1946), EMBASE (from 1974) and Latin American Caribbean Health Sciences Literature (LILACS) (from 1982). We also searched trials registries and checked the bibliographies of published studies for further trials. Selection criteria Randomised controlled trials of topical antifungals used for treatment of seborrhoeic dermatitis in adolescents and adults, with primary outcome measures of complete clearance of symptoms and improved quality of life. Data collection and analysis Review author pairs independently assessed eligibility for inclusion, extracted study data and assessed risk of bias of included studies. We performed fixed-effect meta-analysis for studies with low statistical heterogeneity and used a random-effects model when heterogeneity was high. Main results We included 51 studies with 9052 participants. Of these, 45 trials assessed treatment outcomes at five weeks or less after commencement of treatment, and six trials assessed outcomes over a longer time frame. We believe that 24 trials had some form of conflict of interest, such as funding by pharmaceutical companies. Among the included studies were 12 ketoconazole trials (N = 3253), 11 ciclopirox trials (N = 3029), two lithium trials (N = 141

  10. Topic Analysis Using a Finite Mixture Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Hang; Yamanishi, Kenji

    2003-01-01

    Presents a single framework for conducting topic analysis that performs both topic identification and text segmentation. Key characteristics of the framework are: representing a topic by means of a cluster of words closely related to the topic; and employing a stochastic model, called a finite mixture model, to represent a word distribution within…

  11. FutureCoast: "Listen to your futures"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pfirman, S. L.; Eklund, K.; Thacher, S.; Orlove, B. S.; Diane Stovall-Soto, G.; Brunacini, J.; Hernandez, T.

    2014-12-01

    Two science-arts approaches are emerging as effective means to convey "futurethinking" to learners: systems gaming and experiential futures. FutureCoast exemplifies the latter: by engaging participants with voicemails supposedly leaking from the cloud of possible futures, the storymaking game frames the complexities of climate science in relatable contexts. Because participants make the voicemails themselves, FutureCoast opens up creative ways for people to think about possibly climate-changed futures and personal ways to talk about them. FutureCoast is a project of the PoLAR Partnership with a target audience of informal adult learners primarily reached via mobile devices and online platforms. Scientists increasingly use scenarios and storylines as ways to explore the implications of environmental change and societal choices. Stories help people make connections across experiences and disciplines and link large-scale events to personal consequences. By making the future seem real today, FutureCoast's framework helps people visualize and plan for future climate changes. The voicemails contributed to FutureCoast are spread through the game's intended timeframe (2020 through 2065). Based on initial content analysis of voicemail text, common themes include ecosystems and landscapes, weather, technology, societal issues, governance and policy. Other issues somewhat less frequently discussed include security, food, industry and business, health, energy, infrastructure, water, economy, and migration. Further voicemail analysis is examining: temporal dimensions (salient time frames, short vs. long term issues, intergenerational, etc.), content (adaptation vs. mitigation, challenges vs. opportunities, etc.), and emotion (hopeful, resigned, etc. and overall emotional context). FutureCoast also engaged audiences through facilitated in-person experiences, geocaching events, and social media (Tumblr, Twitter, Facebook, YouTube). Analysis of the project suggests story

  12. Using NASA Space Imaging Technology to Teach Earth and Sun Topics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verner, E.; Bruhweiler, F. C.; Long, T.

    2011-12-01

    We teach an experimental college-level course, directed toward elementary education majors, emphasizing "hands-on" activities that can be easily applied to the elementary classroom. This course, Physics 240: "The Sun-Earth Connection" includes various ways to study selected topics in physics, earth science, and basic astronomy. Our lesson plans and EPO materials make extensive use of NASA imagery and cover topics about magnetism, the solar photospheric, chromospheric, coronal spectra, as well as earth science and climate. In addition we are developing and will cover topics on ecosystem structure, biomass and water on Earth. We strive to free the non-science undergraduate from the "fear of science" and replace it with the excitement of science such that these future teachers will carry this excitement to their future students. Hands-on experiments, computer simulations, analysis of real NASA data, and vigorous seminar discussions are blended in an inquiry-driven curriculum to instill confident understanding of basic physical science and modern, effective methods for teaching it. The course also demonstrates ways how scientific thinking and hands-on activities could be implemented in the classroom. We have designed this course to provide the non-science student a confident basic understanding of physical science and modern, effective methods for teaching it. Most of topics were selected using National Science Standards and National Mathematics Standards that are addressed in grades K-8. The course focuses on helping education majors: 1) Build knowledge of scientific concepts and processes; 2) Understand the measurable attributes of objects and the units and methods of measurements; 3) Conduct data analysis (collecting, organizing, presenting scientific data, and to predict the result); 4) Use hands-on approaches to teach science; 5) Be familiar with Internet science teaching resources. Here we share our experiences and challenges we face while teaching this course.

  13. [Topical cimetidine treatment of acne].

    PubMed

    Schmidt, J B; Spona, J

    1986-08-01

    We present first results of topically applied cimetidine in acne. Ten patients suffering from papulopustular and comedone acne administered 2% cimetidine in indifferent lotion on their face twice a day. Clinical controls were performed every two weeks; sebum was monthly determined. After treatment of 13 weeks on the average, the clinical success was generally good. Comedones responded best, followed by papules. Pustules were hardly reduced. There was no significant reduction of SER and the lipid fractions at the end of treatment. Low concentration or insufficient penetration might be possible explanations. The efficient reduction of comedones might be an antiandrogenic effect due to modulation of the keratinization in the follicle excretory duct. Immune-modulatory effects of cimetidine and effects on the skin vessels are other possible explanations for the clinical efficacy of topical application of cimetidine in acne.

  14. Topicality and Impact in Social Media: Diverse Messages, Focused Messengers

    PubMed Central

    Weng, Lilian; Menczer, Filippo

    2015-01-01

    We have a limited understanding of the factors that make people influential and topics popular in social media. Are users who comment on a variety of matters more likely to achieve high influence than those who stay focused? Do general subjects tend to be more popular than specific ones? Questions like these demand a way to detect the topics hidden behind messages associated with an individual or a keyword, and a gauge of similarity among these topics. Here we develop such an approach to identify clusters of similar hashtags in Twitter by detecting communities in the hashtag co-occurrence network. Then the topical diversity of a user’s interests is quantified by the entropy of her hashtags across different topic clusters. A similar measure is applied to hashtags, based on co-occurring tags. We find that high topical diversity of early adopters or co-occurring tags implies high future popularity of hashtags. In contrast, low diversity helps an individual accumulate social influence. In short, diverse messages and focused messengers are more likely to gain impact. PMID:25710685

  15. Pump apparatus including deconsolidator

    SciTech Connect

    Sonwane, Chandrashekhar; Saunders, Timothy; Fitzsimmons, Mark Andrew

    2014-10-07

    A pump apparatus includes a particulate pump that defines a passage that extends from an inlet to an outlet. A duct is in flow communication with the outlet. The duct includes a deconsolidator configured to fragment particle agglomerates received from the passage.

  16. Topical Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs for Macular Edema

    PubMed Central

    Parmeggiani, Francesco; Romano, Mario R.; dell'Omo, Roberto

    2013-01-01

    Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are nowadays widely used in ophthalmology to reduce eye inflammation, pain, and cystoid macular edema associated with cataract surgery. Recently, new topical NSAIDs have been approved for topical ophthalmic use, allowing for greater drug penetration into the vitreous. Hence, new therapeutic effects can be achieved, such as reduction of exudation secondary to age-related macular degeneration or diabetic maculopathy. We provide an updated review on the clinical use of NSAIDs for retinal diseases, with a focus on the potential future applications. PMID:24227908

  17. TOPTRAC: Topical Trajectory Pattern Mining

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Younghoon; Han, Jiawei; Yuan, Cangzhou

    2015-01-01

    With the increasing use of GPS-enabled mobile phones, geo-tagging, which refers to adding GPS information to media such as micro-blogging messages or photos, has seen a surge in popularity recently. This enables us to not only browse information based on locations, but also discover patterns in the location-based behaviors of users. Many techniques have been developed to find the patterns of people's movements using GPS data, but latent topics in text messages posted with local contexts have not been utilized effectively. In this paper, we present a latent topic-based clustering algorithm to discover patterns in the trajectories of geo-tagged text messages. We propose a novel probabilistic model to capture the semantic regions where people post messages with a coherent topic as well as the patterns of movement between the semantic regions. Based on the model, we develop an efficient inference algorithm to calculate model parameters. By exploiting the estimated model, we next devise a clustering algorithm to find the significant movement patterns that appear frequently in data. Our experiments on real-life data sets show that the proposed algorithm finds diverse and interesting trajectory patterns and identifies the semantic regions in a finer granularity than the traditional geographical clustering methods. PMID:26709365

  18. Selected topics in robotics for space exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Montgomery, Raymond C. (Editor); Kaufman, Howard (Editor)

    1993-01-01

    Papers and abstracts included represent both formal presentations and experimental demonstrations at the Workshop on Selected Topics in Robotics for Space Exploration which took place at NASA Langley Research Center, 17-18 March 1993. The workshop was cosponsored by the Guidance, Navigation, and Control Technical Committee of the NASA Langley Research Center and the Center for Intelligent Robotic Systems for Space Exploration (CIRSSE) at RPI, Troy, NY. Participation was from industry, government, and other universities with close ties to either Langley Research Center or to CIRSSE. The presentations were very broad in scope with attention given to space assembly, space exploration, flexible structure control, and telerobotics.

  19. Current Topics In STEM Education Policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glembo, Tyler

    2015-04-01

    The role of the federal government in education is a hotly debated topic in Congress, causing education to become deeply embedded in politics. Federal funding of education, although covering only about ten percent of total cost, has large impact in the classroom, from testing standards to low interest student loans. This talk will examine the current landscape in physics education including issues facing the community at a national/federal level and also legislation such as the Elementary and Secondary Education Act. We will also examine how stakeholders can develop effective messages and participate in discussions with policy makers.

  20. Preface to Special Topic: Marine Renewable Energy

    SciTech Connect

    Pinto, F. T.; Iglesias, G.; Santos, P. R.; Deng, Zhiqun

    2015-12-30

    Marine renewable energy (MRE) is generates from waves, currents, tides, and thermal resources in the ocean. MRE has been identified as a potential commercial-scale source of renewable energy. This special topic presents a compilation of works selected from the 3rd IAHR Europe Congress, held in Porto, Portugal, in 2014. It covers different subjects relevant to MRE, including resource assessment, marine energy sector policies, energy source comparisons based on levelized cost, proof-of-concept and new-technology development for wave and tidal energy exploitation, and assessment of possible inference between wave energy converters (WEC).

  1. Optical modulator including grapene

    DOEpatents

    Liu, Ming; Yin, Xiaobo; Zhang, Xiang

    2016-06-07

    The present invention provides for a one or more layer graphene optical modulator. In a first exemplary embodiment the optical modulator includes an optical waveguide, a nanoscale oxide spacer adjacent to a working region of the waveguide, and a monolayer graphene sheet adjacent to the spacer. In a second exemplary embodiment, the optical modulator includes at least one pair of active media, where the pair includes an oxide spacer, a first monolayer graphene sheet adjacent to a first side of the spacer, and a second monolayer graphene sheet adjacent to a second side of the spacer, and at least one optical waveguide adjacent to the pair.

  2. Formulation, pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of topical microbicides.

    PubMed

    Adams, Jessica L; Kashuba, Angela D M

    2012-08-01

    The development of safe topical microbicides that effectively prevent human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is a major goal in curbing the human immunodeficiency virus pandemic. A number of past failures resulting from mucosal toxicity or lack of efficacy have informed the field. Products that caused toxicity to the female genital tract mucosa, and thereby increased the likelihood of HIV acquisition, included nonoxynol 9, cellulose sulfate, and C31 G vaginal gel Savvy. Topical products that were ineffective in preventing HIV infection include BufferGel, Carraguard, and PRO 2000. Antiretroviral drugs such as tenofovir and dapivirine formulated into microbicide products have shown promise, but there is much to learn about ideal product formulation and acceptability, and drug distribution and disposition (pharmacokinetics). Current formulations for water-soluble molecules include vaginally or rectally applied gels, vaginal rings, films and tablets. Dosing strategies (e.g. coitally dependent or independent) will be based on the pharmacokinetics of the active ingredient and the tolerance for less than perfect adherence. PMID:22306523

  3. Integrating ethical topics in a traditional computer science course

    SciTech Connect

    Winrich, L.B.

    1994-12-31

    It is never hard to find additional, often unconventional, topics which seem to beg inclusion in standard courses. A dynamic discipline like computer science usually provides a steady stream of new technical ideas to vie for time and attention with more traditional material. As difficult as it may be to keep standard CS courses up-to-date with technical innovations, it often seems even more difficult to include non-technical topics even when there is universal agreement on their importance, Inevitably the question of whether or not such inclusion will compromise the technical content of the course arises. This paper describes an attempt to include two such topics in a traditional course in data structures. The two topics are writing and ethics and, although the effort concentrates on the inclusion of ethical questions in a standard CS course, writing is the vehicle for accomplishing this goal. Furthermore, the inclusion writing in the CS curriculum is certainly recognized as a desirable outcome.

  4. Future trends.

    PubMed

    Friedberg, Richard C; Weiss, Ronald L

    2007-12-01

    Several current forces have set anticipated future changes in health care in motion, or, at least, have set the stage for change. End-consumer demand increasingly drives the market; as a result, entire businesses are transforming or emerging anew to meet these demands. In general, consumers demand high quality at reasonable cost, to be delivered as fast as possible with minimal inconvenience. The health care consumer takes this expectation further, to include the desire for all helpful information regarding one's health to be made readily available for him/her to make the best decision and minimize morbidity, mortality, misdiagnosis, and inconvenience. This article addresses the impact upon the laboratory by considering four key interrelated dynamics that affect these trends: market, medicine, technology, and information systems. PMID:17950906

  5. Statement of Stephen S. Trott, Associate Attorney General, United States Department of Justice before the Select Committee on Narcotics Abuse and Control. House of Representatives concerning the Federal Government's Present and Future Efforts in Eradication, Interdiction, Law Enforcement, Education and Treatment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Justice, Washington, DC.

    Testimony of Associate Attorney General Stephen S. Trott on the federal government's present and future efforts in drug law enforcement before the Congressional Select Committee on Narcotics Abuse and Control is presented in this document. Three topic areas are included in the testimony. The first topic of management initiatives discusses…

  6. Future of energy demand in Saudi Arabia

    SciTech Connect

    Elshayal, I.M.; Al-Zakri, A.S.

    1981-01-01

    In this study, the most recent papers on this topic were reviewed to examine the future use of nuclear energy in seawater desalination and electric power generation, as well as its impact on the environment in Saudi Arabia. 14 refs.

  7. Topical antimicrobials for burn infections - an update.

    PubMed

    Sevgi, Mert; Toklu, Ani; Vecchio, Daniela; Hamblin, Michael R

    2013-12-01

    The relentless rise in antibiotic resistance among pathogenic bacteria and fungi, coupled with the high susceptibility of burn wounds to infection, and the difficulty of systemically administered antibiotics to reach damaged tissue, taken together have made the development of novel topical antimicrobials for burn infections a fertile area of innovation for researchers and companies. We previously covered the existing patent literature in this area in 2010, but the notable progress made since then, has highlighted the need for an update to bring the reader up to date on recent developments. New patents in the areas of topically applied antibiotics and agents that can potentiate the action of existing antibiotics may extend their useful lifetime. Developments have also been made in biofilm-disrupting agents. Antimicrobial peptides are nature's way for many life forms to defend themselves against attack by pathogens. Silver has long been known to be a highly active antimicrobial but new inorganic metal derivatives based on bismuth, copper and gallium have emerged. Halogens such as chlorine and iodine can be delivered by novel technologies. A variety of topically applied antimicrobials include chitosan preparations, usnic acid, ceragenins and XF porphyrins. Natural product derived antimicrobials such as tannins and essential oils have also been studied. Novel techniques to deliver reactive oxygen species and nitric oxide in situ have been developed. Light-mediated techniques include photodynamic therapy, ultraviolet irradiation, blue light, low-level laser therapy and titania photocatalysis. Passive immunotherapy employs antibodies against pathogens and their virulence factors. Finally an interesting new area uses therapeutic microorganisms such as phages, probiotic bacteria and protozoa to combat infections.

  8. Opportunities in the Fusion Energy Sciences Program [Includes Appendix C: Topical Areas Characterization

    SciTech Connect

    1999-06-01

    Recent years have brought dramatic advances in the scientific understanding of fusion plasmas and in the generation of fusion power in the laboratory. Today, there is little doubt that fusion energy production is feasible. The challenge is to make fusion energy practical. As a result of the advances of the last few years, there are now exciting opportunities to optimize fusion systems so that an attractive new energy source will be available when it may be needed in the middle of the next century. The risk of conflicts arising from energy shortages and supply cutoffs, as well as the risk of severe environmental impacts from existing methods of energy production, are among the reasons to pursue these opportunities.

  9. Dan Goldin Presentation: Pathway to the Future

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    In the "Path to the Future" presentation held at NASA's Langley Center on March 31, 1999, NASA's Administrator Daniel S. Goldin outlined the future direction and strategies of NASA in relation to the general space exploration enterprise. NASA's Vision, Future System Characteristics, Evolutions of Engineering, and Revolutionary Changes are the four main topics of the presentation. In part one, the Administrator talks in detail about NASA's vision in relation to the NASA Strategic Activities that are Space Science, Earth Science, Human Exploration, and Aeronautics & Space Transportation. Topics discussed in this section include: space science for the 21st century, flying in mars atmosphere (mars plane), exploring new worlds, interplanetary internets, earth observation and measurements, distributed information-system-in-the-sky, science enabling understanding and application, space station, microgravity, science and exploration strategies, human mars mission, advance space transportation program, general aviation revitalization, and reusable launch vehicles. In part two, he briefly talks about the future system characteristics. He discusses major system characteristics like resiliencey, self-sufficiency, high distribution, ultra-efficiency, and autonomy and the necessity to overcome any distance, time, and extreme environment barriers. Part three of Mr. Goldin's talk deals with engineering evolution, mainly evolution in the Computer Aided Design (CAD)/Computer Aided Engineering (CAE) systems. These systems include computer aided drafting, computerized solid models, virtual product development (VPD) systems, networked VPD systems, and knowledge enriched networked VPD systems. In part four, the last part, the Administrator talks about the need for revolutionary changes in communication and networking areas of a system. According to the administrator, the four major areas that need cultural changes in the creativity process are human-centered computing, an infrastructure

  10. Future accelerators (?)

    SciTech Connect

    John Womersley

    2003-08-21

    I describe the future accelerator facilities that are currently foreseen for electroweak scale physics, neutrino physics, and nuclear structure. I will explore the physics justification for these machines, and suggest how the case for future accelerators can be made.

  11. A Content Analysis Exploring Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Topics in Foundations of Education Textbooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macgillivray, Ian K.; Jennings, Todd

    2008-01-01

    This research analyzed the most widely used foundations of education textbooks for lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) content. Because foundations of education coursework routinely introduces other diversity topics in education, the authors hold it is a good place to introduce LGBT topics. The ways in which LGBT topics are included in…

  12. A Content Analysis of Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Topics in Multicultural Education Textbooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jennings, Todd; Macgillivray, Ian K.

    2011-01-01

    This research examines the treatment of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) topics in 12 popular multicultural education textbooks. Following a line-by-line analysis of each textbook, the findings report the extent to which LGBT topics were included in each text and the themes that became apparent in how LGBT topics were treated. The…

  13. Earth Science Supplement to the Syllabus, Part 2, Topics 5-8, 1970 Edition. 1974 Reprint.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of Secondary Curriculum Development.

    This document contains investigation topics 5-8 in the earth science course developed by the University of the State of New York for secondary schools. Topics include energy in earth processes, insulation and the earth's surface, energy exchanges in the atmosphere, moisture and energy budgets, and environmental change. Each topic is preceded by…

  14. Incorporating Women and Crime Topics into Criminology Classes: Assignments, Exercises, and Projects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Richard A.

    1987-01-01

    Recommends a variety of books, assignments, exercises, and projects which can be incorporated into introductory criminology classes to compensate for the omission of topics on women and crime in textbooks and curricula. Includes a list of potential topics for writing assignments and a selection of films covering such topics as sexual harassment,…

  15. New patents on topical anesthetics.

    PubMed

    Cantisani, Carmen; Macaluso, Laura; Frascani, Federica; Paolino, Giovanni; D'Andrea, Vito; Richetta, Antonio G; Calvieri, Stefano

    2014-01-01

    Anesthesia is defined as a total or partial loss of sensation and it may be general, local or topical, depending on the method of drug administration and area of the body affected. General anesthesia is a reversible state of unconsciousness produced by anesthetic agents, characterized by amnesia, muscle relaxation and loss of sensitivity to pain of the whole body. General anesthetic drugs can be classified into two main groups according to their predominant molecular pharmacological effects: volatile and intravenous agents. Local anesthesia produce a reversible loss of sensation in a portion of the body and it reversibly block impulse conduction along nerve axons and other excitable membrane. All local anesthetics (LA) are membrane stabilizing drugs; they reversibly decrease the rate of depolarization and repolarization of excitable membranes. They act mainly by inhibiting sodium influx through sodium-specific ion channels in the neuronal cell membrane, in particular the voltage-gated sodium channels. When the influx of sodium is interrupted, an action potential cannot arise and signal conduction is inhibited. The main local anesthetic (LA) agents for skin anesthesia are benzocaine (aminoester), prilocaine and lidocaine (aminoamides) which are commercially available as gels, ointments and creams (benzocaine and eutectic mixture of lidocaine and prilocaine) or as a bioadhesive (lidocaine) with different compositions (vehicles and excipients) for adults or pediatric use. Topical anesthetics decrease anxiety, pain and discomfort during cutaneous procedures and provide effective analgesia with rapid onset, prolonged duration and minimal side effects. This article outlines the different classes of topical anesthetics available and gives an overview of the mechanism of action, metabolism of each different class, of the possible complications that can occur because of their use and their possible treatment options and new patents.

  16. Listening to Include

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veck, Wayne

    2009-01-01

    This paper attempts to make important connections between listening and inclusive education and the refusal to listen and exclusion. Two lines of argument are advanced. First, if educators and learners are to include each other within their educational institutions as unique individuals, then they will need to listen attentively to each other.…

  17. Effects of topical oxygen therapy on ischemic wound healing.

    PubMed

    Rao, Congqiang; Xiao, Liling; Liu, Hongwei; Li, Shenghong; Lu, Jinqiang; Li, Jiangxuan; Gu, Shixing

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study evaluated the effects of topical oxygen therapy on the hind limb wounds of rats under ischemic conditions. [Subjects and Methods] Twelve injured rats were treated with topical oxygen on skin wounds located on the hind limb and compared with twelve injured control rats. Indexes including gross morphology of the wound, wound healing time, wound healing rate, and histological and immunohistochemical staining of sections of wound tissue were examined at different time points after intervention. [Results] The wound healing time was shorter in the topical oxygen therapy group than the control group. The wound healing rate and granulation tissue formation in the topical oxygen therapy group showed significant improvement on days 3, 7, and 14. Through van Gieson staining, the accumulation of collagen fiber in the topical oxygen therapy group was found to have improved when compared with the control group on day 7. Through semiquantitative immunohistochemical staining, many more new vessels were found in the topical oxygen therapy group compared with the model control group on day 7. [Conclusion] The results of the experiment showed that topical oxygen therapy improved ischemic wound healing.

  18. Future Spacelift Requirements Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    This study addresses future space applications and the derived requirements these potential applications will have on future spacelift systems. This NASA sponsored activity is a comprehensive study of potential missions including those of the military, civil, and commercial users. The study objectively evaluated the key architectural requirements for future launch systems. The results of this study are technical, economic, and policy analyses of future spacelift systems. It is intended to assist NASA and DOD decision-makers in planning technical investments and establishing policy for future U.S. spacelift systems.

  19. Melanoma Prevention Using Topical PBISe

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Chin-Ying; Madhunapantula, SubbaRao V.; Desai, Dhimant; Amin, Shantu; Robertson, Gavin P.

    2012-01-01

    Malignant melanoma is the deadliest form of skin cancer, known for its drug resistance and high metastatic potential. Deregulated PI3 and MAP kinase pathways promote early melanocytic lesion development and confer drug resistance. No agent exists to target these deregulated pathways to prevent cutaneous non-invasive melanocytic cells or invasive melanomas from developing into more aggressive widely disseminated metastatic disease. In this study, a selenium containing isosteric analogue of PBIT [S,S′-1,4-phenylenebis(1,2-ethanediyl)bis-isothiourea] called PBISe [Se,Se′-1,4-phenylenebis(1,2-ethanediyl)bis-isoselenourea] is shown to moderate these two major signaling pathways to prevent cutaneous melanocytic lesion or melanoma development. Topical application of PBISe retarded melanocytic lesion development in laboratory-generated skin by 70-80% and in animal skin by ∼50%. Mechanistically, prevention of lesion development occurred due to decreased Akt3 signaling, which increased MAP kinase pathway activity to inhibitory levels. The combined effect of targeting these pathways led to decreased cell proliferation and increased apoptotic cell death thereby preventing melanoma development. Thus, topically applied PBISe treatment has potential to prevent non-invasive melanocytic lesion and invasive metastatic melanoma development in skin. PMID:21367959

  20. Career Futures for Exceptional Individuals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kokaska, Charles J., Ed.

    The 33 selected papers from the National Topical Conference on Career Education for Exceptional Individuals are divided into six sections: career education (overview and future perspectives); programing and instruction; vocational assessment and training; counseling and career information; community involvement; and preparation of training…

  1. Current topics in sports-related head injuries: a review.

    PubMed

    Nagahiro, Shinji; Mizobuchi, Yoshifumi

    2014-01-01

    We review the current topic in sports-related head injuries including acute subdural hematoma (ASDH), concussion, and chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE). Sports-related ASDH is a leading cause of death and severe morbidity in popular contact sports like American football in the USA and judo in Japan. It is thought that rotational acceleration is most likely to produce not only cerebral concussion but also ASDH due to the rupture of a parasagittal bridging vein, depending on the severity of the rotational acceleration injury. Repeated sports head injuries increase the risk for future concussion, cerebral swelling, ASDH or CTE. To avoid fatal consequences or CTE resulting from repeated concussions, an understanding of the criteria for a safe post-concussion return to play (RTP) is essential. Once diagnosed with a concussion, the athlete must not be allowed to RTP the same day and should not resume play before the concussion symptoms have completely resolved. If brain damage has been confirmed or a subdural hematoma is present, the athlete should not be allowed to participate in any contact sports. As much remains unknown regarding the pathogenesis and pathophysiology of sports-related concussion, ASDH, and CTE, basic and clinical studies are necessary to elucidate the crucial issues in sports-related head injuries.

  2. TOPICAL REVIEW: Progress in cold roll bonding of metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Long; Nagai, Kotobu; Yin, Fuxing

    2008-04-01

    Layered composite materials have become an increasingly interesting topic in industrial development. Cold roll bonding (CRB), as a solid phase method of bonding same or different metals by rolling at room temperature, has been widely used in manufacturing large layered composite sheets and foils. In this paper, we provide a brief overview of a technology using layered composite materials produced by CRB and discuss the suitability of this technology in the fabrication of layered composite materials. The effects of process parameters on bonding, mainly including process and surface preparation conditions, have been analyzed. Bonding between two sheets can be realized when deformation reduction reaches a threshold value. However, it is essential to remove surface contamination layers to produce a satisfactory bond in CRB. It has been suggested that the degreasing and then scratch brushing of surfaces create a strong bonding between the layers. Bonding mechanisms, in which the film theory is expressed as the major mechanism in CRB, as well as bonding theoretical models, have also been reviewed. It has also been showed that it is easy for fcc structure metals to bond compared with bcc and hcp structure metals. In addition, hardness on bonding same metals plays an important part in CRB. Applications of composites produced by CRB in industrial fields are briefly reviewed and possible developments of CRB in the future are also described. Corrections were made to the abstract and conclusion of this article on 18 June 2008. The corrected electronic version is identical to the print version.

  3. Current Topics in Sports-related Head Injuries: A Review

    PubMed Central

    NAGAHIRO, Shinji; MIZOBUCHI, Yoshifumi

    2014-01-01

    We review the current topic in sports-related head injuries including acute subdural hematoma (ASDH), concussion, and chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE). Sports-related ASDH is a leading cause of death and severe morbidity in popular contact sports like American football in the USA and judo in Japan. It is thought that rotational acceleration is most likely to produce not only cerebral concussion but also ASDH due to the rupture of a parasagittal bridging vein, depending on the severity of the rotational acceleration injury. Repeated sports head injuries increase the risk for future concussion, cerebral swelling, ASDH or CTE. To avoid fatal consequences or CTE resulting from repeated concussions, an understanding of the criteria for a safe post-concussion return to play (RTP) is essential. Once diagnosed with a concussion, the athlete must not be allowed to RTP the same day and should not resume play before the concussion symptoms have completely resolved. If brain damage has been confirmed or a subdural hematoma is present, the athlete should not be allowed to participate in any contact sports. As much remains unknown regarding the pathogenesis and pathophysiology of sports-related concussion, ASDH, and CTE, basic and clinical studies are necessary to elucidate the crucial issues in sports-related head injuries. PMID:25367588

  4. Selected Topics in CVD Diamond Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koizumi, Satoshi; Nebel, Christoph E.; Nesladek, Milos

    2006-10-01

    Since the discovery of Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) diamond growth in 1976, the steady scientific progress often resulted in surprising new discoveries and breakthroughs. This brought us to the idea to publish the special issue Selected Topics in CVD Diamond Research in physica status solidi (a), reflecting such advancements and interesting results at the leading edge of diamond research.The present issue summarizes this progress in the CVD diamond field by selecting contributions from several areas such as superconductivity, super-excitonic radiation, quantum computing, bio-functionalization, surface electronic properties, the nature of phosphorus doping, transport properties in high energy detectors, CVD growth and properties of nanocrystalline diamond. In all these directions CVD diamond appears to be very competitive in comparison with other semiconducting materials.As Editors of this special issue, we must admit that the selection is biased by our opinion. Nonetheless, we are sure that each contribution introduces new ideas and results which will improve the understanding of the current level of physics and chemistry of this attractive wide-bandgap semiconductor and which will help to bring it closer to applications.All submissions were invited based on the contributions of the authors to their specific research field. The Feature Articles have the format of topical reviews to give the reader a comprehensive summary. Partially, however, they are written in research paper style to report new results of ongoing research.We hope that this issue will attract the attention of a broad community of scientists and engineers, and that it will facilitate the utilization of diamond in electronic applications and technologies of the future.

  5. Future perspectives on space psychology: Recommendations on psychosocial and neurobehavioural aspects of human spaceflight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De La Torre, Gabriel G.; van Baarsen, Berna; Ferlazzo, Fabio; Kanas, Nick; Weiss, Karine; Schneider, Stefan; Whiteley, Iya

    2012-12-01

    Recently the psychological effects of space flight have gained in attention. In uncovering the psychological challenges that individuals and teams can face, we need research options that integrate psychosocial aspects with behavioral, performance, technical and environmental issues. Future perspectives in Space Psychology and Human Spaceflight are reviewed in this paper. The topics covered include psychosocial and neurobehavioural aspects, neurocognitive testing tools, decision making, autonomy and delayed communications, well being, mental health, situational awareness, and methodology. Authors were members of a European Space Agency (ESA) Research Topical Team on Psychosocial and Behavioral Aspects of Human Spaceflight. They discuss the different topics under a common perspective of a theoretical and practical framework, showing interactions, relationships and possible solutions for the different aspects and variables in play. Recommendations for every topic are offered and summarized for future research in the field. The different proposed research ideas can be accomplished using analogs and simulation experiments, short- and long-duration bed rest, and in-flight microgravity studies. These topics are especially important for future Moon and Mars mission design and training.

  6. Topical Application of Fingolimod Perturbs Cutaneous Inflammation.

    PubMed

    Sun, Wai Y; Dimasi, David P; Pitman, Melissa R; Zhuang, YiZhong; Heddle, Robert; Pitson, Stuart M; Grimbaldeston, Michele A; Bonder, Claudine S

    2016-05-01

    The prevalence of allergies, including rhinitis, eczema, and anaphylaxis, is rising dramatically worldwide. This increase is especially problematic in children who bear the greatest burden of this rising trend. Increasing evidence identifies neutrophils as primary perpetrators of the more severe and difficult to manage forms of inflammation. A newly recognized mechanism by which neutrophils are recruited during the early phase of histamine-induced inflammation involves the sphingosine kinase (SK)/sphingosine-1-phosphate axis. This study examines whether topical application of fingolimod, an established SK/sphingosine-1-phosphate antagonist already in clinical use to treat multiple sclerosis, may be repurposed to treat cutaneous inflammation. Using two mouse models of ear skin inflammation (histamine- and IgE-mediated passive cutaneous anaphylaxis) we topically applied fingolimod prophylactically, as well as after establishment of the inflammatory response, and examined ear swelling, SK activity, vascular permeability, leukocyte recruitment, and production of proinflammatory mediators. The present study reveals that when applied topically, fingolimod attenuates both immediate and late-phase responses to histamine with reduced extravasation of fluid, SK-1 activity, proinflammatory cytokine and chemokine production, and neutrophil influx and prevents ear swelling. Intravital microscopy demonstrates that histamine-induced neutrophil rolling and adhesion to the postcapillary venules in the mouse ears is significantly attenuated even after 24 h. More importantly, these effects are achievable even once inflammation is established. Translation into humans was also accomplished with epicutaneous application of fingolimod resolving histamine-induced and allergen-induced inflammatory reactions in forearm skin. Overall, this study demonstrates, to our knowledge for the first time, that fingolimod may be repurposed to treat cutaneous inflammation. PMID:27001955

  7. Local wound care and topical management of hidradenitis suppurativa.

    PubMed

    Alavi, Afsaneh; Kirsner, Robert S

    2015-11-01

    Hidradenitis suppurativa (HS) is a chronic, recurrent, debilitating disease predominantly involving apocrine gland-bearing skin. The folliculoinfundibular dysfunction and an aberrant cutaneous immune response to commensal bacteria are recognized as potential contributors. Topical antibiotics, such as clindamycin, and keratolytic agents have been used in the management of early stages of HS. Proper wound care is a key part of management, particularly in patients with advanced HS. The evidence for the optimal topical therapy or optimal local wound care is limited. As such, a multidisciplinary approach is necessary to address all aspects of HS, including topical therapy, systemic therapy, and proper wound care. The focus of this paper is to review the evidence for the topical management and local wound care strategies in patients with HS.

  8. Workplace Safety and Health Topics: Safety & Prevention

    MedlinePlus

    ... message, please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Workplace Safety and Health Topics Industries & Occupations Hazards & Exposures Diseases & ... Pinterest Twitter YouTube NIOSH Homepage NIOSH A-Z Workplace Safety & Health Topics Publications and Products Programs Contact NIOSH ...

  9. Topical Pain Relievers May Cause Burns

    MedlinePlus

    ... For Consumers Home For Consumers Consumer Updates Topical Pain Relievers May Cause Burns Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it ... ts If you've ever rubbed a topical pain reliever—a cream, gel or other product applied to ...

  10. Generic development of topical dermatologic products, Part II: quality by design for topical semisolid products.

    PubMed

    Chang, Rong-Kun; Raw, Andre; Lionberger, Robert; Yu, Lawrence

    2013-07-01

    The emergence of quality by design as a relatively new systematic science and risk-based approach has added a new dimension to pharmaceutical development and manufacturing. This review attempts to discuss the quality by design elements and concepts applied for topical semisolid products. Quality by design begins with defining a quality target product profile as well as critical quality attributes. Subsequently, this is followed by risk identification/risk analysis/risk evaluation to recognize critical material attributes and critical process parameters, in conjunction with design of experiments or other appropriate methods to establish control strategies for the drug product. Several design-of-experiment examples are included as practical strategies for the development and optimization of formulation and process for topical drug products.

  11. Echoes from the Future: Challenges for New Learning Systems. Proceedings of the Annual Conference on Distance Teaching and Learning (6th, Madison, Wisconsin, August 8-10, 1990).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibson, Chere Campbell, Comp.

    Presentations at this conference focused on future developments in distance education and innovative uses of learning technologies. Ten papers from the general sessions, including keynote addresses and a panel, are presented in the first of two sections. Topics covered include planning for new priorities in distance education; trends for the…

  12. Topical therapy for fungal infections.

    PubMed

    Kyle, Amber A; Dahl, Mark V

    2004-01-01

    Fungi often infect the skin surface and subsequently invade the stratum corneum to avoid being shed from the skin surface by desquamation. Pharmacologic agents applied to the surface of the skin in the form of creams, lotions, or sprays, readily penetrate into the stratum corneum to kill the fungi (fungicidal agents), or at least render them unable to grow or divide (fungistatic agents). Thus, topical therapies work well to rid the skin of topical fungi and yeasts. Azole drugs such as miconazole, clotrimazole, and ketoconazole are fungistatic, limiting fungal growth but depending on epidermal turnover to shed the still-living fungus from the skin surface. Allylamines and benzylamines such as terbinafine, naftifine, and butenafine are fungicidal, actually killing the fungal organisms. Fungicidal drugs are often preferred over fungistatic drugs for treatment of dermatophytic fungal infections, since treatment times as short as one application daily for 1 week are associated with high cure rates. Furthermore, patients often stop treatments when the skin appears healed, usually after about a week of treatment. If this short-term treatment is stopped, fungi recur more often when fungistatic, rather than fungicidal, drugs have been used. Yeast infections such as those caused by Candida albicans respond less well to allylamine drugs. The azole drugs are often preferred for these types of infections. Nail infections are difficult to cure with topical therapies because the infections usually occur under the nail instead of on top of it and products penetrate poorly, if at all, through the nail plate. Infections of hair follicles, nails, and widespread infections often require systemic treatments. Antifungal agents are compounded into many different types of vehicles. Patients often prefer to treat weeping infections with spray formulations. Most physicians prescribe branded products in cream or lotion bases. Cost is a factor dictating prescription choice, especially since

  13. Supervisory Conferences: An Exploration of Some Difficult Topics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopez-Real, Francis; Stimpson, Philip; Bunton, David

    2001-01-01

    Investigated student teachers' and university supervisors' views regarding difficult areas to discuss in conferences and how to tackle the problem. Students and supervisors had many similar perceptions. Difficult topics included possible failure, general attitude, and lack of presence, commitment, and enthusiasm. Solutions included identifying the…

  14. Good and Bad Topics for Moral Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davidman, Patricia; And Others

    This paper reports the opinions about moral topics expressed by 140 elementary and secondary student teachers, 49 in Indiana and 91 in California. Teachers' judgments of the suitability of topics were collected via a questionnaire containing 20 topics in two versions. The presentation consists of: (1) a description of the opinionnaire teachers…

  15. Multimedia. TAM Topical Guide #1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boone, Randall, Ed.; Higgins, Kyle, Ed.

    Educational multimedia and hypermedia systems, which integrate computer-generated text and graphics with full-motion video and stereo sound, dominate much discussion about the future of computer use in education. This guide brings together the thoughts, ideas, and experience of elementary school students, classroom teachers, administrators,…

  16. [Topical therapy in erectile dysfunction].

    PubMed

    Floth, A

    2000-01-01

    All forms of pharmacological therapy result in a relaxation of the corporeal smooth muscle. Intracorporeal injection of vasoactive drugs was introduced around 15 years ago and still is the most effective therapy in erectile dysfunction. Resulting in a consistent success rate of 70-80% this form of therapy will find numerous applications, even after the introduction of effective oral agents such as sildenafil. Prostaglandin E1 and--less frequently used--the combination of papaverine and phentolamine are the mainstay of intracorporeal injection therapy. Intraurethral prostaglandin (MUSE) has recently become available and is somewhat less effective than injection therapy. Externally applied drugs (nitroglycerin paste on the penile shaft and minoxidil solution on the glans penis) have not succeeded in the long run. Vacuum erection devices represent a form of physical topical therapy that is very versatile and also effective but rather infrequently applied. PMID:10746290

  17. Topical Immunotherapy in Alopecia Areata

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Gurcharan; Lavanya, MS

    2010-01-01

    Alopecia Areata (AA) is a common non-scarring alopecia directed against the anagenic hair follicle. Various treatment modalities have been used for the treatment of severe AA. Topical immunotherapy is the best documented treatment so far for severe and refractory AA. Dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB), squaric acid dibutylester (SADBE), and diphencyprone (DPCP) are the contact allergens used for this purpose. DNCB has been found to be mutagenic by the Ames test and is largely replaced by DPCP and SADBE. DPCP and SADBE are both known to be non-mutagenic compounds and have comparable efficacy results and relapse rates. SADBE requires special solvents and additives to maintain its potency and is more expensive than the rest. DPCP has a response rate varying from 60% in severe Alopecia Areata to 17% in patients with alopecia totalis or universalis, and shows about 88 to 100% high response rate in patients with patchy Alopecia Areata. PMID:21188022

  18. Hierarchical models of very large problems, dilemmas, prospects, and an agenda for the future

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richardson, J. M., Jr.

    1975-01-01

    Interdisciplinary approaches to the modeling of global problems are discussed in terms of multilevel cooperation. A multilevel regionalized model of the Lake Erie Basin is analyzed along with a multilevel regionalized world modeling project. Other topics discussed include: a stratified model of interacting region in a world system, and the application of the model to the world food crisis in south Asia. Recommended research for future development of integrated models is included.

  19. Current Topics in Epilepsy Surgery

    PubMed Central

    USUI, Naotaka

    2016-01-01

    This article reviews the current topics in the field of epilepsy surgery. Each type of epilepsy is associated with a different set of questions and goals. In mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE) with hippocampal sclerosis (HS), postoperative seizure outcome is satisfactory. A recent meta-analysis revealed superior seizure outcome after anterior temporal lobectomy compared with selective amygdalohippocampectomy; in terms of cognitive outcome; however, amygdalohippocampectomy may be beneficial. In temporal lobe epilepsy with normal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), postoperative seizure outcome is not as favorable as it is in MTLE with HS; further improvement of seizure outcome in these cases is necessary. Focal cortical dysplasia is the most common substrate in intractable neocortical epilepsy, especially in children, as well as in MRI-invisible neocortical epilepsy. Postoperative seizure-free outcome is approximately 60–70%; further diagnostic and therapeutic improvement is required. Regarding diagnostic methodology, an important topic currently under discussion is wideband electroencephalogram (EEG) analysis. Although high-frequency oscillations and ictal direct current shifts are considered important markers of epileptogenic zones, the clinical significance of these findings should be clarified further. Regarding alternatives to surgery, neuromodulation therapy can be an option for patients who are not amenable to resective surgery. In addition to vagus nerve stimulation, intracranial stimulation such as responsive neurostimulation or anterior thalamic stimulation is reported to have a modest seizure suppression effect. Postoperative management such as rehabilitation and antiepileptic drug (AED) management is important. It has been reported that postoperative rehabilitation improves postoperative employment status. Pre- and post-operative comprehensive care is mandatory for postoperative improvement of quality of life. PMID:26984452

  20. SPECIAL TOPIC: ITER L mode confinement database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaye, S. M.; Greenwald, M.; Stroth, U.; Kardaun, O.; Kus, A.; Schissel, D.; DeBoo, J.; Bracco, G.; Thomsen, K.; Cordey, J. G.; Miura, Y.; Matsuda, T.; Tamai, H.; Takizuda, T.; Hirayama, T.; Kikuchi, H.; Naito, O.; Chudnovskij, A.; Ongena, J.; Hoang, G.

    1997-09-01

    This special topic describes the contents of an L mode database that has been compiled with data from Alcator C-Mod, ASDEX, DIII, DIII-D, FTU, JET, JFT-2M, JT-60, PBX-M, PDX, T-10, TEXTOR, TFTR and Tore Supra. The database consists of a total of 2938 entries, 1881 of which are in the L phase while 922 are ohmically heated only (ohmic). Each entry contains up to 95 descriptive parameters, including global and kinetic information, machine conditioning and configuration. The special topic presents a description of the database and the variables contained therein, and it also presents global and thermal scalings along with predictions for ITER. The L mode thermal confinement time scaling, determined from a subset of 1312 entries for which the τE,th are provided, is τE,th = 0.023Ip0.96BT0.03R1.83(R/a)0.06 κ0.64ne0.40Meff0.20P-0.73 in units of seconds, megamps, teslas, metres, -, -, 10-9 m-1

  1. Future Facilities Summary

    SciTech Connect

    Albert De Roeck, Rolf Ent

    2009-10-01

    For the session on future facilities at DIS09 discussions were organized on DIS related measurements that can be expected in the near and medium –or perhaps far– future, including plans from JLab, CERN and FNAL fixed target experiments, possible measurements and detector upgrades at RHIC, as well as the plans for possible future electron proton/ion colliders such as the EIC and the LHeC project.

  2. 77 FR 46445 - Environmental Topics Related to the International Maritime Organization's Development of a...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-03

    ... FR 3316). Public Meeting The Coast Guard will hold a public meeting regarding environmental topics... Harmful Anti- fouling Systems on Ships; and Other considerations including voyage planning,...

  3. Repurposing celecoxib as a topical antimicrobial agent

    PubMed Central

    Thangamani, Shankar; Younis, Waleed; Seleem, Mohamed N.

    2015-01-01

    There is an urgent need for new antibiotics and alternative strategies to combat multidrug-resistant bacterial pathogens, which are a growing clinical issue. Repurposing existing approved drugs with known pharmacology and toxicology is an alternative strategy to accelerate antimicrobial research and development. In this study, we show that celecoxib, a marketed inhibitor of cyclooxygenase-2, exhibits broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive pathogens from a variety of genera, including Staphylococcus, Streptococcus, Listeria, Bacillus, and Mycobacterium, but not against Gram-negative pathogens. However, celecoxib is active against all of the Gram-negative bacteria tested, including strains of, Acinetobacter, and Pseudomonas, when their intrinsic resistance is artificially compromised by outer membrane permeabilizing agents such as colistin. The effect of celecoxib on incorporation of radioactive precursors into macromolecules in Staphylococcus aureus was examined. The primary antimicrobial mechanism of action of celecoxib was the dose-dependent inhibition of RNA, DNA, and protein synthesis. Further, we demonstrate the in vivo efficacy of celecoxib in a methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) infected Caenorhabditis elegans whole animal model. Topical application of celecoxib (1 and 2%) significantly reduced the mean bacterial count in a mouse model of MRSA skin infection. Further, celecoxib decreased the levels of all inflammatory cytokines tested, including tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-6, interleukin-1 beta, and monocyte chemo attractant protein-1 in wounds caused by MRSA infection. Celecoxib also exhibited synergy with many conventional antimicrobials when tested against four clinical isolates of S. aureus. Collectively, these results demonstrate that celecoxib alone, or in combination with traditional antimicrobials, has a potential to use as a topical drug for the treatment of bacterial skin infections. PMID:26284040

  4. The Future of Career.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collin, Audrey, Ed.; Young, Richard A., Ed.

    This book presents many views of the concept of "career," reviewing its past and considering its future in an international context including viewpoints from sociology, psychology, and human resources management. Following an introduction, "Framing the Future of Career" (Richard Young and Audrey Collin), the book contains the following 17…

  5. Recent advances in topical formulation carriers of antifungal agents.

    PubMed

    Bseiso, Eman Ahmed; Nasr, Maha; Sammour, Omaima; Abd El Gawad, Nabaweya A

    2015-01-01

    Fungal infections are amongst the most commonly encountered diseases affecting the skin. Treatment approaches include both topical and oral antifungal agents. The topical route is generally preferred due to the possible side effects of oral medication. Advances in the field of formulation may soon render outdated conventional products such as creams, ointments and gels. Several carrier systems loaded with antifungal drugs have demonstrated promising results in the treatment of skin fungal infections. Examples of these newer carriers include micelles, lipidic systems such as solid lipid nanoparticles and nanostructured lipid carriers, microemulsions and vesicular systems such as liposomes, niosomes, transfersomes, ethosomes, and penetration enhancer vesicles. PMID:26261140

  6. Critical review of topical management of oral hairy leukoplakia.

    PubMed

    Brasileiro, Cláudia B; Abreu, Mauro Henrique Ng; Mesquita, Ricardo A

    2014-07-16

    Oral hairy leukoplakia (OHL) is a disease associated with Epstein-Barr virus and human immunodeficiency virus infections. OHL is usually an asymptomatic lesion, but in some cases treatment is recommended to reestablish the normal characteristics of the tongue, to eliminate pathogenic microorganisms, to improve patient comfort and for cosmetic reasons. Proposed treatments for this condition include surgery, systemic antiviral treatment and topical management. Topical treatment is an inexpensive and safe therapy that is easy to apply, noninvasive, free of systemic adverse effects and effective over a long period of time. The aim of this study was to present a review of the literature for topical therapy for OHL. Gentian violet, retinoids, podophyllin, acyclovir and podophyllin associated with topical antiviral drugs were used to treat OHL. Reports with this focus are limited, and since 2010, no new studies have been published that discuss the efficacy of topical treatments for OHL. Podophyllin with acyclovir cream was found to be effective, causing regression of lesions with no recurrences. Additional searches are necessary to provide clinical evidence of topical management effectiveness. PMID:25032199

  7. Future flavour physics experiments

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The current status of flavour physics and the prospects for present and future experiments will be reviewed. Measurements in B‐physics, in which sensitive probes of new physics are the CKM angle γ, the Bs mixing phase ϕs, and the branching ratios of the rare decays B(s)0→μ+μ− , will be highlighted. Topics in charm and kaon physics, in which the measurements of ACP and the branching ratios of the rare decays K→πνν¯ are key measurements, will be discussed. Finally the complementarity of the future heavy flavour experiments, the LHCb upgrade and Belle‐II, will be summarised. PMID:26877543

  8. Identifying Topics in Microblogs Using Wikipedia.

    PubMed

    Yıldırım, Ahmet; Üsküdarlı, Suzan; Özgür, Arzucan

    2016-01-01

    Twitter is an extremely high volume platform for user generated contributions regarding any topic. The wealth of content created at real-time in massive quantities calls for automated approaches to identify the topics of the contributions. Such topics can be utilized in numerous ways, such as public opinion mining, marketing, entertainment, and disaster management. Towards this end, approaches to relate single or partial posts to knowledge base items have been proposed. However, in microblogging systems like Twitter, topics emerge from the culmination of a large number of contributions. Therefore, identifying topics based on collections of posts, where individual posts contribute to some aspect of the greater topic is necessary. Models, such as Latent Dirichlet Allocation (LDA), propose algorithms for relating collections of posts to sets of keywords that represent underlying topics. In these approaches, figuring out what the specific topic(s) the keyword sets represent remains as a separate task. Another issue in topic detection is the scope, which is often limited to specific domain, such as health. This work proposes an approach for identifying domain-independent specific topics related to sets of posts. In this approach, individual posts are processed and then aggregated to identify key tokens, which are then mapped to specific topics. Wikipedia article titles are selected to represent topics, since they are up to date, user-generated, sophisticated articles that span topics of human interest. This paper describes the proposed approach, a prototype implementation, and a case study based on data gathered during the heavily contributed periods corresponding to the four US election debates in 2012. The manually evaluated results (0.96 precision) and other observations from the study are discussed in detail. PMID:26991442

  9. Identifying Topics in Microblogs Using Wikipedia

    PubMed Central

    Yıldırım, Ahmet; Üsküdarlı, Suzan; Özgür, Arzucan

    2016-01-01

    Twitter is an extremely high volume platform for user generated contributions regarding any topic. The wealth of content created at real-time in massive quantities calls for automated approaches to identify the topics of the contributions. Such topics can be utilized in numerous ways, such as public opinion mining, marketing, entertainment, and disaster management. Towards this end, approaches to relate single or partial posts to knowledge base items have been proposed. However, in microblogging systems like Twitter, topics emerge from the culmination of a large number of contributions. Therefore, identifying topics based on collections of posts, where individual posts contribute to some aspect of the greater topic is necessary. Models, such as Latent Dirichlet Allocation (LDA), propose algorithms for relating collections of posts to sets of keywords that represent underlying topics. In these approaches, figuring out what the specific topic(s) the keyword sets represent remains as a separate task. Another issue in topic detection is the scope, which is often limited to specific domain, such as health. This work proposes an approach for identifying domain-independent specific topics related to sets of posts. In this approach, individual posts are processed and then aggregated to identify key tokens, which are then mapped to specific topics. Wikipedia article titles are selected to represent topics, since they are up to date, user-generated, sophisticated articles that span topics of human interest. This paper describes the proposed approach, a prototype implementation, and a case study based on data gathered during the heavily contributed periods corresponding to the four US election debates in 2012. The manually evaluated results (0.96 precision) and other observations from the study are discussed in detail. PMID:26991442

  10. Identifying Topics in Microblogs Using Wikipedia.

    PubMed

    Yıldırım, Ahmet; Üsküdarlı, Suzan; Özgür, Arzucan

    2016-01-01

    Twitter is an extremely high volume platform for user generated contributions regarding any topic. The wealth of content created at real-time in massive quantities calls for automated approaches to identify the topics of the contributions. Such topics can be utilized in numerous ways, such as public opinion mining, marketing, entertainment, and disaster management. Towards this end, approaches to relate single or partial posts to knowledge base items have been proposed. However, in microblogging systems like Twitter, topics emerge from the culmination of a large number of contributions. Therefore, identifying topics based on collections of posts, where individual posts contribute to some aspect of the greater topic is necessary. Models, such as Latent Dirichlet Allocation (LDA), propose algorithms for relating collections of posts to sets of keywords that represent underlying topics. In these approaches, figuring out what the specific topic(s) the keyword sets represent remains as a separate task. Another issue in topic detection is the scope, which is often limited to specific domain, such as health. This work proposes an approach for identifying domain-independent specific topics related to sets of posts. In this approach, individual posts are processed and then aggregated to identify key tokens, which are then mapped to specific topics. Wikipedia article titles are selected to represent topics, since they are up to date, user-generated, sophisticated articles that span topics of human interest. This paper describes the proposed approach, a prototype implementation, and a case study based on data gathered during the heavily contributed periods corresponding to the four US election debates in 2012. The manually evaluated results (0.96 precision) and other observations from the study are discussed in detail.

  11. Public understanding of geoscientific topics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Münch, Ute; Lauterjung, Jörn

    2014-05-01

    Geoscientific topics and their consequences for the society are becoming more and more important for our daily life. Natural hazards such as flood and storm or the consequences of the climate change are urgent tasks and great challenges we have to tackle. Cascading natural hazards or environmental risks, can't be evaluated as single events by one scientific discipline, they rather need the expertise of different experts. The same applies for slowly progressive processes such as the climate change and its different aftereffects. More than ever politicians, decision makers, but also the public are asking for comprehensive background information and data to discuss activity options and to develop sustainable solutions. The improvement of public knowledge about science, their assets and drawbacks, chances and risks is getting crucial. To paint a comprehensive picture of different factors, correlations and dependencies the pooling of expertise is required. Thus eight research centres of the research field "Earth and Environment" of the Helmholtz-Association, Germany's largest scientific research organisation are currently building up a knowledge platform. Scientists of different disciplines will provide background information and explain their latest findings in an understandable way. Infographics, maps and animations will be applied to simplify and interpret complicated facts and findings. In addition to the web presence target group-specific products and activities will be organized. To meet the expectations of the different stakeholders an intensive dialog is aspired: round table discussions, exhibitions in museums and public places, tweeds are envisaged. In the beginning the partners will concentrate on the topics "consequences of the climate change", "pollutant dispersion" and "natural hazards/meteorological extreme events". The project is called Earth System Knowledge Platform (ESKP) coordinated by the German Research Centre for Geosciences (GFZ) and the Helmholtz

  12. Organic Optoelectronic Materials: A Topical Workshop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The topics covered include the following: Introduction to Nonlinear Optics of Organics and the Use of Second Harmonic Generation as a Polymer Probe; Experimental Characterization of Second Order Nonlinear Optical Chromophores; Chi(2) Structure-Property Relationship on the Colligative Scale; The Stability of the Poled Order in Crosslinked Systems; Corona Electric Filed Poling of Nonlinear Polymers and Femtosecond Optical Applications; Synthesis and Characterization of Photosensitive Polymers for Optical Waveguide Definition; Light-Emitting Diodes Based on Conjugated Polymers; The Relationship Between Chemical Structure and Second-Order Optical Nonlinearities or Organic Molecules; Theory and Structure/Property of chi(3) Materials; Synthesis of Well-Defined Thiophene Oligomers and Planar Conjugated Polymers for chi(3) Studies; and Spectroscopy as a Probe of chi(3) in Conjugated Materials.

  13. Current topics in clinical FES in Japan.

    PubMed

    Handa, Y

    1997-12-01

    This paper reviews recent topics of clinical application of functional electrical stimulation (FES) for the paralyzed extremities in Japan. Transcutaneous and percutaneous FES systems have been clinically used in Japan. Candidates of extremity FES arer mostly stroke and spinal cord injury patients. By using percutaneous FES system, all of the joints of the upper extremity including the shoulder have been controlled for activities of daily living in the hemiplegic patient. Simultaneous FES control of the hand and wrist and the bilateral hands have also been achieved in C5 and C6 quadriplegics, respectively. Hybrid FES systems using percutaneous and surface electrodes, where FES is used in combination with orthoses, have been applied to the paraplegics because they are highly practical for assisting their locomotive activities. Percutaneous FES have been also provided the amyotropic lateral sclerosis patients with standing up motion. A total implant FES system with 16 output channels is currently developing as a next generation FES system.

  14. Biomedical applications reviewed: Hot topic areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bradley, D. A.; Wells, K.

    2013-04-01

    Making reference to the British Journal of Radiology and competitor journal titles, we look at the general area of biomedical physics, reviewing some of the associated topics in ionising radiation research attracting interest over the past 2 years. We also reflect on early developments that have paved the way for these endeavours. The talk is illustrated by referring to a number of biomedical physics areas in which this group has been directly involved, including novel imaging techniques that address compositional and structural makeup as well as use of elastically scattered X-ray phase contrast, radiation damage linking to possible pericardial effects in radiotherapy, simulation of microvascularity and oxygenation with a focus of radiation resistant hypoxic tumours, issues of high spatial resolution dosimetry and tissue interface radiotherapy with doses enhanced through use of high atomic number photoelectron conversion media.

  15. Assessment of activity of topical virucidal agents.

    PubMed

    O' Connor, T

    2000-01-01

    There is currently considerable interest in the possibility of developing a potent, nontoxic anti-HIV agent that could be used intravaginally to reduce the risks of transmission of HIV. Worldwide up to 80% of HIV infections have been acquired heterosexually. Projections suggest that by the year 2000 approx 25 million individuals worldwide will have been infected by heterosexual transmission. This spread of infection is particularly rapid in parts of Africa, Asia, and Latin America. In the absence of a prophylactic vaccine, there is an urgent need to develop safe, effective, female-controlled, topical virucidal preparations to prevent sexual transmission of HIV and other sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). Many assays directed against the virus have had problems with removal of the presumptive agents, which in many cases are toxic to the cell culture system. Methods have includes dilution, centrifugation, and erythrocyte ghost preparations, but these have problems with virus dilution and an inability to examine the kinetics of inactivation. PMID:21331911

  16. Is there a future for electricity futures?

    SciTech Connect

    Hettrick, J.R.; Chittenden, W.T.

    1998-12-31

    The market for electricity based commodity trading, including futures and options, is in its infancy in the United States. Formal trading of electricity futures started on the New York Mercantile Exchange (NYMEX) on March 29, 1996 with Options trading following on April 26, 1996. NYMEX started two new contracts, one based at the California-Oregon border (COB) and one based at the Palo Verde switchyard (Palo Verde). NYMEX is the commodity futures exchange in the United States that specializes in energy contracts, historically launching futures contracts in energy sectors immediately after the deregulation of the market and after the formation of a competitive cash or spot market. In the case of electricity, NYMEX established the new electricity futures contracts prior to the deregulation of the market and in the middle of the formation of a working spot market. Several questions remain including if there is enough interest in the market, who will be the participants, how will the physical properties of electricity mold the terms for futures contracts, and how will deregulation affect the outcome?

  17. Topics in theoretical surface science

    SciTech Connect

    Todd, R.

    1991-10-25

    The energetics and structures of clean and adsorbate covered surfaces are investigated in this dissertation. First, the formalism, within the Corrected Effective Medium (CEM) method, for calculating the surface energy of a clean surface is derived. The surface energies for many different metals and their low index surfaces are presented. The minimization of the surface energy is then used to predict the multilayer relaxation of the Al(111), (100), Ni(100), (110) and Fe(100) surfaces. Extensions of the surface CEM formalism to calculate the binding energies of ordered adsorbates on metals surfaces are also derived. The minimization of the binding energy allowed determination of the binding heights, sites and the extent of induced multilayer relaxation for H and N atoms on the Fe(110), (100) and W(110) surfaces. The last topic deals with the dynamics of the epitaxial growth of metals on metal surfaces. The CEM method was first modified by making approximations to enable faster evaluations of the potential and its corresponding forces for molecular dynamics simulations. The goal of these simulations was to identify the important steps in the formation of equilibrium epitaxial structures. 180 refs., 31 figs., 18 tabs.

  18. Selected topics of hypoglycemia care

    PubMed Central

    Koch, Bernd

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To review 4 topics in hypoglycemia (HoG) care: diagnosis, circumstances predisposing to HoG, risk of adverse effects, and prevention. QUALITY OF EVIDENCE MEDLINE was searched using the words hypoglycemia and diabetes mellitus. Other relevant sources were hand searched. Evidence was mostly level III and IV from consensus, from observation, and from the author’s clinical experience. MAIN MESSAGES Hypoglycemia can be diagnosed using clinical criteria or using a glucometer; it cannot be diagnosed after death. Capillary blood glucose testing for HoG is required only for patients taking insulin and insulin secretagogues. With intensified treatment of diabetes, a greater incidence of HoG is inevitable. Chronic morbidity and mortality resulting from HoG are believed to be rare. There are no reliable data on HoG-related mortality for idiopathic or accidental sudden death. Interventions by friends, family, colleagues, and teachers can prevent HoG. CONCLUSION Clinical diagnosis of HoG deserves greater emphasis; when patients are unaware of having HoG, physicians must rely on blood glucose testing. Patients not taking insulin or insulin secretagogues need neither fear nor test for HoG. The risk of HoG should not preclude efforts to achieve best possible control of blood sugar. Patients with unstable cardiac arrhythmias, drivers of motor vehicles, and those in high-risk industrial occupations require special vigilance for HoG. PMID:16639972

  19. Decision Point 1 Topical Report

    SciTech Connect

    Yablonsky, Al; Barsoumian, Shant; Legere, David

    2013-05-01

    This Topical Report addresses accomplishments achieved during Phase 2a of the SkyMine® Carbon Mineralization Pilot Project. The primary objectives of this project are to design, construct, and operate a system to capture CO2 from a slipstream of flue gas from a commercial coal-fired cement kiln, convert that CO2 to products having commercial value (i.e., beneficial use), show the economic viability of the CO2 capture and conversion process, and thereby advance the technology to the point of readiness for commercial scale demonstration and proliferation. The overall process is carbon negative, resulting in mineralization of CO2 that would otherwise be released into the atmosphere. The project will also substantiate market opportunities for the technology by sales of chemicals into existing markets, and identify opportunities to improve technology performance and reduce costs at the commercial scale. The project is being conducted in two phases. The primary objectives of Phase 1 were to elaborate proven SkyMine® process chemistry to commercial pilot-scale operation and complete the preliminary design for the pilot plant to be built and operated in Phase 2, complete a NEPA evaluation, and develop a comprehensive carbon life cycle analysis. The objective of the current Phase (2a) is to complete the detailed design of the pilot plant to be built in Phase 2b.

  20. Man Quests the Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frazier, Robert

    1984-01-01

    Trends noted in four literary works discussing the future are discussed. Works include (1) "The People Puzzle" (Morris Massey); (2) "Megatrends" (John Naisbitt); (3) "The Third Wave" (Alvin Toffler); and (4) "A Vision" (William B. Yeats). (CJB)

  1. Conclusions: Future Directions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobson, Harvey K.

    1978-01-01

    Various aspects of the institutional evaluation process are discussed including: pitfalls to avoid, choice of indicators, audience, accountability, futures research, technological change, program termination, data sources, longitudinal data, political aspects, advertising, marketing, and internal v external evaluators. (Author/SF)

  2. Systemic Change: Touchstones for the Future School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenlink, Patrick, Ed.

    Given the current social and economic changes, American education must change in order to connect students to the future. This book is comprised of a collection of essays on the topic of systemic change in education. The book focuses on reform for the future by bringing together systems theory with detailed examples of strategies and cases that…

  3. ``Family Guides" to Hot Topics in Space Science and Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morrow, C. A.; Dyches, P.; Wilkerson, A. D.; McLain, B. D.; Garvin-Doxas, K.

    2003-12-01

    We have undertaken the development, field testing, and dissemination of a new series of "Family Guides" on hot topics in space science and astronomy. Each Guide includes an innovative collection of puzzles, pictures, poetry, and projects, all designed to stimulate enjoyable co-learning, inquiry-based experiences between kids aged 6-12 and the caring adults in their lives. Family Guides generally intend to raise awareness and understanding of Earth's place in the wondrous Universe in which we live. The Guides endeavor to be accessible to those who are not familiar with astronomy. They coach adults how to lead inquiry with kids without knowing all the answers. They provide background on questions commonly asked by children and they challenge common misconceptions. The Guides also provide leads to more information and useful products related to family learning. Guide content is related to national science education standards and is valuable to home-schooled students as well as to educators who run family education programs or after-school programs. Although primarily intended for use in informal educational settings, many classroom teachers have expressed interest in the Guide's activities as engagement pieces for more formal lessons. We released the field test version of the Family Guide to the Sun in late summer 2003. In December 2003 we released the field test version of the Family Guide to Mars in time for use with educational programs associated with the Mars Exploration Rover landings. Future projects include Guides to Saturn and to the Search for Life Elsewhere. This paper will provide details of the Guides' contents and early results from field testing in various educational settings. We are still exploring the best ways to publish and effectively disseminate the Guides.

  4. Discussion topic and observed behavior in couples' problem-solving conversations: do problem severity and topic choice matter?

    PubMed

    Williamson, Hannah C; Hanna, Mariam A; Lavner, Justin A; Bradbury, Thomas N; Karney, Benjamin R

    2013-04-01

    Communication behavior is an integral part of relationship functioning and, therefore, a common target of relationship interventions. Between-couple variability in observed behaviors is commonly interpreted as reflecting their underlying skill in communication, but other factors, including perceived difficulty of the problem and the topic being discussed, may also covary with communication behavior. The current study examined this possibility by testing whether these two aspects of discussion topics were associated with communication behavior. Ethnically diverse newlywed couples (N = 402 couples) were observed in their homes as they engaged in conflict resolution tasks. Resulting behavioral codes were examined in relation to perceived difficulty of the problem and the topic of the discussion. Higher levels of husband-reported problem difficulty were associated with higher levels of husband and wife negativity, independent of relationship satisfaction. After controlling for problem difficulty and relationship satisfaction, the topic of the discussion was associated with husband and wife positivity, husband and wife negativity, and wife effectiveness, indicating that some topics elicited better or worse communication than others. The substantive focus of couples' conflicts may play an important role in how they communicate, suggesting that the topic of discussion merits close attention in studies of couples and in relationship interventions.

  5. Topical rubefacients for acute and chronic pain in adults

    PubMed Central

    Matthews, Paul; Derry, Sheena; Moore, R Andrew; McQuay, Henry J

    2014-01-01

    Background Rubefacients (containing salicylates or nicotinamides) cause irritation of the skin, and are believed to relieve various musculoskeletal pains. They are available on prescription, and are common components in over-the-counter remedies. A non-Cochrane review in 2004 found limited evidence for efficacy. Objectives To review current evidence for efficacy and safety of topically applied rubefacients in acute and chronic painful musculoskeletal conditions in adults. Search methods Cochrane CENTRAL, MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Oxford Pain Relief Database, and reference lists of articles were searched; last search December 2008. Selection criteria Randomised, double blind, placebo or active controlled clinical trials of topical rubefacient for musculoskeletal pain in adults, with at least 10 participants per treatment arm, and reporting outcomes at close to 7 (minimum 3, maximum 10) days for acute conditions and 14 (minimum 7) days or longer for chronic conditions. Data collection and analysis Two review authors independently assessed trials for inclusion and quality, and extracted data. Relative benefit or risk and number needed to treat to benefit or harm (NNT or NNH) were calculated with 95% confidence intervals (CI). Acute and chronic conditions were analysed separately. Main results Six placebo and one active controlled studies (560 and 137 participants) in acute pain, and seven placebo and two active controlled studies (489 and 90 participants) in chronic pain were included. All used topical salicylates. The evidence in acute conditions was not robust; using only better quality, valid studies, there was no difference between topical rubefacient and topical control, though overall, including lower quality studies, the NNT for clinical success compared with placebo was 3.2 (95% CI: 2.4 to 4.9). In chronic conditions the NNT was 6.2 (95% CI: 4.0 to 13) compared with topical placebo. Adverse events and withdrawals occurred more often with rubefacients than placebo

  6. HierarchicalTopics: visually exploring large text collections using topic hierarchies.

    PubMed

    Dou, Wenwen; Yu, Li; Wang, Xiaoyu; Ma, Zhiqiang; Ribarsky, William

    2013-12-01

    Analyzing large textual collections has become increasingly challenging given the size of the data available and the rate that more data is being generated. Topic-based text summarization methods coupled with interactive visualizations have presented promising approaches to address the challenge of analyzing large text corpora. As the text corpora and vocabulary grow larger, more topics need to be generated in order to capture the meaningful latent themes and nuances in the corpora. However, it is difficult for most of current topic-based visualizations to represent large number of topics without being cluttered or illegible. To facilitate the representation and navigation of a large number of topics, we propose a visual analytics system--HierarchicalTopic (HT). HT integrates a computational algorithm, Topic Rose Tree, with an interactive visual interface. The Topic Rose Tree constructs a topic hierarchy based on a list of topics. The interactive visual interface is designed to present the topic content as well as temporal evolution of topics in a hierarchical fashion. User interactions are provided for users to make changes to the topic hierarchy based on their mental model of the topic space. To qualitatively evaluate HT, we present a case study that showcases how HierarchicalTopics aid expert users in making sense of a large number of topics and discovering interesting patterns of topic groups. We have also conducted a user study to quantitatively evaluate the effect of hierarchical topic structure. The study results reveal that the HT leads to faster identification of large number of relevant topics. We have also solicited user feedback during the experiments and incorporated some suggestions into the current version of HierarchicalTopics.

  7. Topical herbal therapies for treating osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Cameron, Melainie; Chrubasik, Sigrun

    2014-01-01

    Background Before extraction and synthetic chemistry were invented, musculoskeletal complaints were treated with preparations from medicinal plants. They were either administered orally or topically. In contrast to the oral medicinal plant products, topicals act in part as counterirritants or are toxic when given orally. Objectives To update the previous Cochrane review of herbal therapy for osteoarthritis from 2000 by evaluating the evidence on effectiveness for topical medicinal plant products. Search methods Databases for mainstream and complementary medicine were searched using terms to include all forms of arthritis combined with medicinal plant products. We searched electronic databases (Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL),MEDLINE, EMBASE, AMED, CINAHL, ISI Web of Science, World Health Organization Clinical Trials Registry Platform) to February 2013, unrestricted by language. We also searched the reference lists from retrieved trials. Selection criteria Randomised controlled trials of herbal interventions used topically, compared with inert (placebo) or active controls, in people with osteoarthritis were included. Data collection and analysis Two review authors independently selected trials for inclusion, assessed the risk of bias of included studies and extracted data. Main results Seven studies (seven different medicinal plant interventions; 785 participants) were included. Single studies (five studies, six interventions) and non-comparable studies (two studies, one intervention) precluded pooling of results. Moderate evidence from a single study of 174 people with hand osteoarthritis indicated that treatment with Arnica extract gel probably results in similar benefits as treatment with ibuprofen (non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug) with a similar number of adverse events. Mean pain in the ibuprofen group was 44.2 points on a 100 point scale; treatment with Arnica gel reduced the pain by 4 points after three weeks: mean difference (MD

  8. Selected topics of fluid mechanics

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kindsvater, Carl E.

    1958-01-01

    the Euler, Froude, Reynolds, Weber, and Cauchy numbers are defined as essential tools for interpreting and using experimental data. The derivations of the energy and momentum equations are treated in detail. One-dimensional equations for steady nonuniform flow are developed, and the restrictions applicable to the equations are emphasized. Conditions of uniform and gradually varied flow are discussed, and the origin of the Chezy equation is examined in relation to both the energy and the momentum equations. The inadequacy of all uniform-flow equations as a means of describing gradually varied flow is explained. Thus, one of the definitive problems of river hydraulics is analyzed in the light of present knowledge. This report is the outgrowth of a series of short schools conducted during the spring and summer of 1953 for engineers of the Surface Water Branch, Water Resources Division, U. S. Geological Survey. The topics considered are essentially the same as the topics selected for inclusion in the schools. However, in order that they might serve better as a guide and outline for informal study, the arrangement of the writer's original lecture notes has been considerably altered. The purpose of the report, like the purpose of the schools which inspired it, is to build a simple but strong framework of the fundamentals of fluid mechanics. It is believed that this framework is capable of supporting a detailed analysis of most of the practical problems met by the engineers of the Geological Survey. It is hoped that the least accomplishment of this work will be to inspire the reader with the confidence and desire to read more of the recent and current technical literature of modern fluid mechanics.

  9. Topics in strongly correlated electrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berdnikov, Ilya

    The thesis is a collection of three topics connected together by the common themes of strong interactions, magnetism and quantum phases, such as the Aharonov-Bohm or Berry phase. The first part of the present dissertation discusses the possibility of examining microscopic origins of magnetism in strongly interacting systems by exploiting the setting of ultra-cold atomic gases in optical lattices. We discuss signatures of correlation in the trap, and propose an experiment to measure the phase diagram of itinerant magnetism directly. The second part focuses on the exotic phase of matter exhibiting the Fractional Quantum Hall Effect, which emerges when interacting particles are placed in a very strong magnetic field. We propose a trial ground state wave-function and prove that it is the unique highest density ground state of a well-motivated pseudo-potential Hamiltonian. The exchange statistics of quasiparticles are shown to be exotic, and overlaps with results of exact diagonalization are also discussed. The final part of the thesis studies frustrated magnetic systems, in which competing forces cannot not be satisfied simultaneously, doped with electrons. The interplay of frustration and itinerant behavior generates Berry phases associated with charge transport. We study the effects of these phases on electronic behavior, as well as the effect electrons have on the underlying magnetic textures. In the quasi-classical limit, we conjecture a field-driven metal-insulator transition, and discuss persistent currents arising in ground states selected by the presence of charge. In the quantum regime we derive the full Hamiltonian and discuss small fluctuations about the classical results.

  10. Microcirculatory effect of topical vapocoolants

    PubMed Central

    Galdyn, Izabela; Swanson, Edward; Gordon, Chad; Kwiecien, Grzegorz; Bena, James; Siemionow, Maria; Zins, James

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Vapocoolant sprays are commonly used to minimize pain following minor interventions such as venipuncture, shave biopsy or needle insertion. Although these sprays have been widely used in clinical practice, little is known about their effect on microcirculation or cutaneous blood flow. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the real-time effect of a topical vapocoolant using a well-established, rat cremaster muscle microcirculatory model, allowing direct measurement of changes in vessel diameter, capillary density and leukocyte behaviour. METHODS: Fifty rats were divided into a control and four experimental groups: group 1: 4 s spray with vapocoolant at 18 cm distance; group 2: 10 s spray at 18 cm distance; group 3: 4 s spray at 8 cm distance; and group 4: 10 s spray at 8 cm distance. Vessel diameters, capillary density and leukocyte behaviour were monitored for 1 h thereafter. Muscle was harvested for immunohistochemistry analysis of proangiogenic markers (vascular endothelial growth factor and von Willebrand factor), leukocyte behaviour markers (E-selectin, vascular cell adhesion molecule, intercellular adhesion molecule), pimonidazole-hypoxia staining and ApopTag (Millipore, USA) staining for apoptosis. Gene expression for inflammatory markers (interleukin [IL]-1β, IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, tumour necrosis factor-alpha and interferon-gamma) was evaluated using polymerase chain reaction and myeloperoxidase assay for inflammation was performed. RESULTS: The use of refrigerant spray decreased vessel diameter and capillary density initially, although none of these decreases were statistically significant. Polymerase chain reaction showed no significant changes. The myeloperoxidase assay showed statistically significant increase in myeloperoxidase activity in groups 2, 3 and 4. Immunohistochemistry was negative for angiogenic and proinflammatory markers. CONCLUSIONS: The lack of statistically significant changes in vessel diameter and inflammatory markers corroborated the

  11. Topics in topological band systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Zhoushen

    The discovery of integer quantum Hall effect and its subsequent theoretical formulation heralded a new paradigm of thinking in condensed matter physics, which has by now blossomed into the rapidly growing field of topological phases. In this work we investigate several mutually related topics in the framework of topological band theory. In Chapter 2, we study solutions to boundary states on a lattice and see how they are related to the bulk topology. To elicit a real space manifestation of the non-trivial topology, the presence of a physical edge is not strictly necessary. We study two other possibilities, namely the entanglement spectrum associated with an imaginary spatial boundary, and the localization centers of Wannier functions, in Chapters 3,4, and 5. Topological classification through discrete indices is so far possible only for systems described by pure quantum states---in the existing scheme, quantization is lost for systems in mixed states. In Chapter 6, we present a program through which discrete topological indices can be defined for topological band systems at finite temperature, based on Uhlmann's parallel transport of density matrices. The potential of topologocal insulators in realistic applications lies in the existence of Dirac nodes on its surface spectrum. Dirac physics, however, is not exclusive to TI surfaces. In a recently discovered class of materials known as Weyl semimetals, energy nodes which emit linear dispersions also occur in the bulk material. In Chapter 7, we study the possibility of resonance states induced by localized impurities near the nodal energy in Weyl semimetals, which will help us in understanding the stability of density-of-state suppression at the energy nodes. Finally, in Chapter 8, we apply the topological characterization developed for noninteracting particles to a class of interacting spin models in 3D, which are generalizations of Kitaev's honeycomb model, and identify several exotic quantum phases such as spin

  12. High Priority Future Research Needs for Obstructive Sleep Apnea Diagnosis and Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Kamal; Moorthy, Denish; Chan, Jeffrey A.; Concannon, Thomas W.; Ratichek, Sara J.; Chung, Mei; Balk, Ethan M.

    2013-01-01

    Study Objectives: To identify and prioritize future research needs (FRN) topics for diagnosis and treatment of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Methods: Twenty-one panel members represented six stake-holder categories: patients and the public, providers; purchasers of health care, payers, policymakers, and principal investigators. Building on a recently completed comparative effectiveness review, stakeholders nominated and discussed potential FRN topics. Stakeholders then nominated their top priority FRN topics based on the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality Effective Health Care Program Selection Criteria. From these nominations, the highest priority FRN topics were determined and were elaborated upon to include possible study designs to address the topics. Results: Thirty-seven topics were discussed and prioritized. The nine highest priority FRN topics included: cost-effectiveness of management strategies, defining age- and sex-specific criteria for OSA, evaluating routine preoperative screening for OSA, evaluating involvement of a sleep medicine specialist in diagnosis of OSA, evaluating clinical prediction rules, assessing the effect of treating sleep disordered breathing and long-term clinical outcomes, comparing treatments for patients who do not tolerate positive airway pressure, evaluating strategies to improve treatment compliance, and evaluating the association between sleep apnea severity and long-term clinical outcomes. Conclusions: While there are numerous specific research questions with low or insufficient strength of evidence for OSA management, OSA patients, their healthcare providers, and society at large would benefit from refocusing research efforts into the prioritized research questions and away from simple comparisons of short-term outcomes between specific interventions. Citation: Patel K; Moorthy D; Chan JA; Concannon TW. High priority future research needs for obstructive sleep apnea diagnosis and treatment. J Clin Sleep Med 2013

  13. Usage-Oriented Topic Maps Building Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellouze, Nebrasse; Lammari, Nadira; Métais, Elisabeth; Ben Ahmed, Mohamed

    In this paper, we present a collaborative and incremental construction approach of multilingual Topic Maps based on enrichment and merging techniques. In recent years, several Topic Map building approaches have been proposed endowed with different characteristics. Generally, they are dedicated to particular data types like text, semi-structured data, relational data, etc. We note also that most of these approaches take as input monolingual documents to build the Topic Map. The problem is that the large majority of resources available today are written in various languages, and these resources could be relevant even to non-native speakers. Thus, our work is driven towards a collaborative and incremental method for Topic Map construction from textual documents available in different languages. To enrich the Topic Map, we take as input a domain thesaurus and we propose also to explore the Topic Map usage which means available potential questions related to the source documents.

  14. Future Studies and Environmental Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard, Jeanne

    1981-01-01

    Compares and discusses implications of future scenarios proposed by Herman Kahn and the Hudson River Institute and by the Club of Rome. Includes a decision-tree exercise appropriate for the classroom which involves five different future scenarios. (DC)

  15. Tracking topic birth and death in LDA.

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, Andrew T.; Robinson, David Gerald

    2011-09-01

    Most topic modeling algorithms that address the evolution of documents over time use the same number of topics at all times. This obscures the common occurrence in the data where new subjects arise and old ones diminish or disappear entirely. We propose an algorithm to model the birth and death of topics within an LDA-like framework. The user selects an initial number of topics, after which new topics are created and retired without further supervision. Our approach also accommodates many of the acceleration and parallelization schemes developed in recent years for standard LDA. In recent years, topic modeling algorithms such as latent semantic analysis (LSA)[17], latent Dirichlet allocation (LDA)[10] and their descendants have offered a powerful way to explore and interrogate corpora far too large for any human to grasp without assistance. Using such algorithms we are able to search for similar documents, model and track the volume of topics over time, search for correlated topics or model them with a hierarchy. Most of these algorithms are intended for use with static corpora where the number of documents and the size of the vocabulary are known in advance. Moreover, almost all current topic modeling algorithms fix the number of topics as one of the input parameters and keep it fixed across the entire corpus. While this is appropriate for static corpora, it becomes a serious handicap when analyzing time-varying data sets where topics come and go as a matter of course. This is doubly true for online algorithms that may not have the option of revising earlier results in light of new data. To be sure, these algorithms will account for changing data one way or another, but without the ability to adapt to structural changes such as entirely new topics they may do so in counterintuitive ways.

  16. Topical Products for the Aging Face.

    PubMed

    McCook, John P

    2016-07-01

    This article focuses on nonprescription home-use topical treatment technologies for the aging face and is intended to serve as a guide for the core cosmeceutical technologies currently used and to help educate and assist the selection of topical antiaging products by the professional staff and their patients. Antiaging topical treatments for patient home use should be nonirritating, compatible with the patient skin type, effective, and complementary to surgical and minimally invasive office procedures, and aesthetically elegant. New topical antiaging technologies, formulated as monotherapy or as combinations with well-known cosmeceuticals, should present adequate clinical studies to support their selection for use. PMID:27363774

  17. "Two Cultures" Topics for General Studies Science Courses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larson, James H.

    1982-01-01

    Theses proposed in C. P. Snow's book "The Two Cultures," including uncommunicative scientific and literary groups, gap between rich and poor, overpopulation, and nuclear war remain viable topics. Discusses the scientific and literary cultural gap and what can be done in general studies science courses to ameliorate the condition. (Author/JN)

  18. Topics in Finance: Part II--Financial Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laux, Judy

    2010-01-01

    The second article in a series designed to supplement the introductory financial management course, this essay addresses financial statement analysis, including its impact on stock valuation, disclosure, and managerial behavior. [For "Topics in Finance Part I--Introduction and Stockholder Wealth Maximization," see EJ1060345.

  19. Fifth Topical Meeting on the Technology of Fusion Energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1983-04-01

    s are presented of the approximately 250 papers that were presented at the conference. Some of the main topics included the following: (1) next generation devices, (2) tritium, (3) hybrids, (4) alternate fuels, (5) materials engineering, (6) blanket and first wall engineering, and (7) inertial confinement.

  20. Arts Education: An ASCD Topic Pack. Revised for 2000-2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development, Alexandria, VA.

    This topic pack, revised for 2000-2001, is designed to provide timely information on arts education. The topic pack includes the following: full-text articles from the Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development's (ASCD) publications which have been carefully chosen and may include articles from "Educational Leadership" magazine,…

  1. Selected topics in gauge theories

    SciTech Connect

    Beg, M.A.G.; Hernandez Galeana, A.

    1986-06-20

    Developments in gauge field theory in the past fourteen years are discussed. The canonical description of electroweak and strong interactions is described including the role played by QCD and QFD. The Salam-Weinberg theory of electroweak interactions is reviewed with emphasis on Higgs mass and renormalization group analysis. Implications of hyper-color theories are discussed. Composite models of quarks and leptons are considered including hyperfermions as part of a subquark multiplet. (AIP)

  2. Constructing topic models of Internet of Things for information processing.

    PubMed

    Xin, Jie; Cui, Zhiming; Zhang, Shukui; He, Tianxu; Li, Chunhua; Huang, Haojing

    2014-01-01

    Internet of Things (IoT) is regarded as a remarkable development of the modern information technology. There is abundant digital products data on the IoT, linking with multiple types of objects/entities. Those associated entities carry rich information and usually in the form of query records. Therefore, constructing high quality topic hierarchies that can capture the term distribution of each product record enables us to better understand users' search intent and benefits tasks such as taxonomy construction, recommendation systems, and other communications solutions for the future IoT. In this paper, we propose a novel record entity topic model (RETM) for IoT environment that is associated with a set of entities and records and a Gibbs sampling-based algorithm is proposed to learn the model. We conduct extensive experiments on real-world datasets and compare our approach with existing methods to demonstrate the advantage of our approach.

  3. Using Conversation Topics for Predicting Therapy Outcomes in Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Howes, Christine; Purver, Matthew; McCabe, Rose

    2013-01-01

    Previous research shows that aspects of doctor-patient communication in therapy can predict patient symptoms, satisfaction and future adherence to treatment (a significant problem with conditions such as schizophrenia). However, automatic prediction has so far shown success only when based on low-level lexical features, and it is unclear how well these can generalize to new data, or whether their effectiveness is due to their capturing aspects of style, structure or content. Here, we examine the use of topic as a higher-level measure of content, more likely to generalize and to have more explanatory power. Investigations show that while topics predict some important factors such as patient satisfaction and ratings of therapy quality, they lack the full predictive power of lower-level features. For some factors, unsupervised methods produce models comparable to manual annotation. PMID:23943658

  4. Constructing Topic Models of Internet of Things for Information Processing

    PubMed Central

    Xin, Jie; Cui, Zhiming; Zhang, Shukui; He, Tianxu; Li, Chunhua; Huang, Haojing

    2014-01-01

    Internet of Things (IoT) is regarded as a remarkable development of the modern information technology. There is abundant digital products data on the IoT, linking with multiple types of objects/entities. Those associated entities carry rich information and usually in the form of query records. Therefore, constructing high quality topic hierarchies that can capture the term distribution of each product record enables us to better understand users' search intent and benefits tasks such as taxonomy construction, recommendation systems, and other communications solutions for the future IoT. In this paper, we propose a novel record entity topic model (RETM) for IoT environment that is associated with a set of entities and records and a Gibbs sampling-based algorithm is proposed to learn the model. We conduct extensive experiments on real-world datasets and compare our approach with existing methods to demonstrate the advantage of our approach. PMID:25110737

  5. Topical ciclosporin in the treatment of ocular surface disorders

    PubMed Central

    Tatlipinar, S; Akpek, E K

    2005-01-01

    Mounting evidence suggests that inflammation is the key factor in the pathogenesis of various ocular surface diseases, with a complex interplay of genetic, environmental, and psychosocial factors. Management of these conditions is often challenging. Topical corticosteroids, with their associated side effects, are the mainstay of current treatments for patients with vision threatening disease. Ciclosporin A is an immunomodulator that specifically inhibits T lymphocyte proliferation. Recently, a topical ciclosporin preparation was approved by the US Food and Drug Administration and became available for use in ophthalmology. Given the increasing use of ciclosporin eye drops, the goal of this article is to provide the reader with an overview of the well established uses of ciclosporin and to help refine the questions that should be addressed by future investigations. PMID:16170133

  6. Application of Nail Polish During Topical Management of Onychomycosis

    PubMed Central

    Del Rosso, James Q.

    2016-01-01

    Topical antifungal management of toenail onychomycosis has been fraught with several therapeutic challenges including difficulty gaining access to the site of infection and the need for prolonged durations of therapy. In addition, there has been a marked lack of information on the impact of toenail polish application on drug penetration after application. This article reviews available data from studies evaluating the effect of nail polish on antifungal drag penetration using ex vivo laboratory models with cadaver fingernail plates with both tavaborole 5% solution and efinaconazole 10% solution. In addition, changes in nail polish appearance and color transfer to applicators are also discussed, with changes noted with topical efinaconazole. Importantly, there are no data on whether or not nail polish application alters the efficacy of these topical agents.

  7. Application of Nail Polish During Topical Management of Onychomycosis

    PubMed Central

    Del Rosso, James Q.

    2016-01-01

    Topical antifungal management of toenail onychomycosis has been fraught with several therapeutic challenges including difficulty gaining access to the site of infection and the need for prolonged durations of therapy. In addition, there has been a marked lack of information on the impact of toenail polish application on drug penetration after application. This article reviews available data from studies evaluating the effect of nail polish on antifungal drag penetration using ex vivo laboratory models with cadaver fingernail plates with both tavaborole 5% solution and efinaconazole 10% solution. In addition, changes in nail polish appearance and color transfer to applicators are also discussed, with changes noted with topical efinaconazole. Importantly, there are no data on whether or not nail polish application alters the efficacy of these topical agents. PMID:27672416

  8. Skin permeation and antinociception of topical gabapentin formulations.

    PubMed

    Bryson, Evan; Asbill, Scott; Sweitzer, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    Chronic pain affects greater than 116 million Americans each year. Even with the best pain management approaches, many chronic pain patients still suffer from moderate to severe pain. An alternative therapy to treat chronic pain includes compounded topical formulations of common analgesics. Compounded dosage forms of gabapentin are commonly used for pain management, however, the penetration and efficacy of gabapentin in these compounded topical formulations has not been fully studied. In this study, the transdermal penetration of gabapentin was studied in Franz diffusion cells using porcine skin. Gabapentin was compounded in two commercially available bases; Lipobase, Lipoderm, and a standard poloxamer lecithin organogel. The penetration and retention of gabapentin in the skin was dependent upon the base. The most rapid and greatest penetration and retention of gabapentin in the skin occurred with a poloxamer lecithin organogel base. Lipobase and Lipoderm bases produced slow and smaller penetration and retention of gabapentin as compared to poloxamer lecithin organogel base. Gabapentin 1% and 5% compounded in Lipoderm were tested in the in vivo preclinical formalin pain model. Topical 5% gabapentin produced a similar reduction in nociception in both Phase 1 and Phase 2 of the formalin response as systemic subcutaneous gabapentin (100 mg/kg). Topical 1% gabapentin reduced Phase 2, but not Phase 1 formalin-induced nociceptive behaviors. These findings suggest that topical administration of gabapentin may produce local antinociception.

  9. The Power of Combination Topical Therapy for Psoriasis.

    PubMed

    Kircik, Leon H; Zografos, Panagiotis

    2015-10-01

    Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory skin disease where the use of topical corticosteroids is a mainstream treatment. However, the continuous use of high potency topical corticosteroids is limited by a variety of well known adverse events which include, atrophy, and telangiectasia. Also, inhibition of lipid synthesis by steroids can cause impairment of the epidermal barrier, which is already disrupted in most of the inflammatory cutaneous disorders such as psoriasis. This will further lead to increase transepidermal water loss (TEWL), decreased hydration, dry skin, and irritation. On the other hand, topical vitamin D analogs directly affect keratinocyte proliferation and differentiation as well as modulation of epidermal lipids and antimicrobial peptides. Although the exact mechanism of action of topical vitamin D analogs is not well understood in the treatment of psoriasis, their efficacy and safety has been shown in several clinical trials over the years and they are widely used for psoriasis. Therefore, combination of topical steroids and vitamin D analogs may be a logical option for the treatment of psoriasis.

  10. Burst topic discovery and trend tracing based on Storm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Shihang; Liu, Ying; Dang, Depeng

    2014-12-01

    With the rapid development of the Internet and the promotion of mobile Internet, microblogs have become a major source and route of transmission for public opinion, including burst topics that are caused by emergencies. To facilitate real time mining of a large range of burst topics, in this paper, we proposed a method to discover burst topics in real time and trace their trends based on the variation trends of word frequencies. First, for the variation trend of the words in microblogs, we adopt a non-homogeneous Poisson process model to fit the data. To represent the heat and trend of the words, we introduce heat degree factor and trend degree factor and realise the real time discovery and trend tracing of the burst topics based on these two factors. Second, to improve the computing performance, this paper was based on the Storm stream computing framework for real time computing. Finally, the experimental results indicate that by adjusting the observation window size and trend degree threshold, topics with different cycles and different burst strengths can be discovered.

  11. The Future of Nearshore Processes Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elko, N.; Feddersen, F.; Foster, D. L.; Holman, R. A.; McNinch, J.; Ozkan-Haller, H. T.; Plant, N. G.; Raubenheimer, B.; Elgar, S.; Hay, A. E.; Holland, K. T.; Kirby, J. T., Jr.; Lippmann, T. C.; Miller, J. K.; Stockdon, H. F.; Ashton, A. D.; Boehm, A. B.; Clark, D.; Cowen, E.; Dalyander, S.; Gelfenbaum, G. R.; Hapke, C. J.; MacMahan, J.; McNamara, D.; Mulligan, R. P.; Palmsten, M. L.; Ruggiero, P.; Sherwood, C. R.; Hsu, T. J.

    2014-12-01

    Over 70 members of the nearshore coastal processes research community convened in April 2014 to discuss a vision for the future of nearshore science while celebrating the memories and contributions of our recently departed colleague, Abby Sallenger. The participants reviewed community accomplishments over the past four decades. Federal agencies, including FEMA, NOAA, NPS, USGS, USACE, and NRL discussed the most pressing societal needs within the coastal zone. The group engaged in a retrospective of the last four decades of progress, assessed the current status and limitations of nearshore processes research, and developed a vision for the future that focuses on societally relevant problems. The top research topics identified included: Long-term Coastal Impacts: Meaningfully improve our understanding and prediction of the long-term coastal effects of sea level rise and changes in storminess patterns and associated efforts to protect coastal infrastructure. Extreme Events: Coastal flooding, overland flow, and concurrent morphological evolution during extreme events including the subsequent process of coastal recovery. Human and Ecosystem Health: Linkages between physical coastal processes (transport and mixing) and land-based pollution (pathogens, nutrients, toxic contaminants). Critical for addressing these research questions is enabling infrastructure, such as new observational tools and data sets, models, and nearshore-community communication and collaboration. Idea and concepts developed during the meeting (to be published in Shore and Beach) will be presented to foster collaboration and advocacy amongst the wider nearshore community. Meeting materials are available at: https://scripps.ucsd.edu/centers/nearshorefuture/.

  12. Topic Continuity in Japanese-English Interlanguage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sasaki, Miyuki

    1997-01-01

    Examined how a new topic was introduced, maintained, and changed in the Japanese-English interlanguage data of a 45- minute interview between a native and a non-native speaker of English. Findings revealed that although the topic marking system of the interlanguage shared some features with the first and second languages, it maintained features…

  13. Topic Maps e-Learning Portal Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olsevicova, Kamila

    2006-01-01

    Topic Maps, ISO/IEC 13250 standard, are designed to facilitate the organization and navigation of large collections of information objects by creating meta-level perspectives of their underlying concepts and relationships. The underlying structure of concepts and relations is expressed by domain ontologies. The Topics Maps technology can become…

  14. Anesthesia: A Topic for Interdisciplinary Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Labianca, Dominick A.; Reeves, William J.

    1977-01-01

    Describes an interdisciplinary approach for teaching the topic of anesthesia as one aspect of a chemistry-oriented course for nonscience majors which focuses on timely topics such as the energy crisis and drugs. Historical treatment with the examination of literature is emphasized in teaching. (HM)

  15. Torpedo: topic periodicity discovery from text data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jingjing; Deng, Hongbo; Han, Jiawei

    2015-05-01

    Although history may not repeat itself, many human activities are inherently periodic, recurring daily, weekly, monthly, yearly or following some other periods. Such recurring activities may not repeat the same set of keywords, but they do share similar topics. Thus it is interesting to mine topic periodicity from text data instead of just looking at the temporal behavior of a single keyword/phrase. Some previous preliminary studies in this direction prespecify a periodic temporal template for each topic. In this paper, we remove this restriction and propose a simple yet effective framework Torpedo to mine periodic/recurrent patterns from text, such as news articles, search query logs, research papers, and web blogs. We first transform text data into topic-specific time series by a time dependent topic modeling module, where each of the time series characterizes the temporal behavior of a topic. Then we use time series techniques to detect periodicity. Hence we both obtain a clear view of how topics distribute over time and enable the automatic discovery of periods that are inherent in each topic. Theoretical and experimental analyses demonstrate the advantage of Torpedo over existing work.

  16. Descriptive Discourse: Topic Familiarity and Disfluencies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merlo, Sandra; Mansur, Leticia Lessa

    2004-01-01

    This investigation was undertaken to address questions about topic familiarity and disfluencies during oral descriptive discourse of adult speakers. Participants expressed more attributes when the topic was familiar than when it was unfamiliar. Fillers and lexical pauses were the most frequent disfluencies. The mean duration of each hesitation…

  17. Common Topics and Commonplaces of Environmental Rhetoric

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, Derek G.

    2013-01-01

    Common topics are words or phrases used to develop argument, and commonplaces aid memory or catalyze frames of understanding. When used in argumentation, each may help interested parties more effectively communicate valuable scientific and environment-related information. This article describes 12 modern topics of environmental rhetoric,…

  18. Histiocytosis X: treatment with topical nitrogen mustard.

    PubMed

    Berman, B; Chang, D L; Shupack, J L

    1980-07-01

    The case histories of two elderly patients with cutaneous histiocytosis X treated topically with nitrogen mustard are presented. The cutaneous lesions cleared within 2 to 3 weeks, and remission was maintained with daily topical administration of nitrogen mustard. The clinical impression of improvement was substantiated by light and electron microscopic studies prior to and after therapy.

  19. Topics in Culture Learning, Volume 4, 1976.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brislin, Richard W., Ed.

    Volume 4 of an annual series, this issue focuses chiefly on a variety of perspectives relating to cross-cultural research. The major article is comprised of 15 topics encompassing cognitive and affective aspects of culture contact, language and communication, and culture exchange. The topics address Japanese perceptions of foreigners, learning of…

  20. Nuffield Advanced Chemistry Courses Topic 10

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education in Science, 1975

    1975-01-01

    Presents an alternative series of investigations replacing the propanone-trichloromethane system (Topic 10) in the Nuffield A-Level course. A trichloromethane-ethyl ethanoate (acetate) system presented in four experiments give good results and removed the dangers arising from the other system. Topic 10 need not be re-written, just the replacement…

  1. Infantile generalized hypertrichosis caused by topical minoxidil.

    PubMed

    Rampon, Greice; Henkin, Caroline; de Souza, Paulo Ricardo Martins; Almeida, Hiram Larangeira de

    2016-01-01

    Rare cases of hypertrichosis have been associated with topically applied minoxidil. We present the first reported case in the Brazilian literature of generalized hypertrichosis affecting a 5-year-old child, following use of minoxidil 5%, 20 drops a day, for hair loss. The laboratory investigation excluded hyperandrogenism and thyroid dysfunction. Topical minoxidil should be used with caution in children. PMID:26982785

  2. Infantile generalized hypertrichosis caused by topical minoxidil*

    PubMed Central

    Rampon, Greice; Henkin, Caroline; de Souza, Paulo Ricardo Martins; de Almeida Jr, Hiram Larangeira

    2016-01-01

    Rare cases of hypertrichosis have been associated with topically applied minoxidil. We present the first reported case in the Brazilian literature of generalized hypertrichosis affecting a 5-year-old child, following use of minoxidil 5%, 20 drops a day, for hair loss. The laboratory investigation excluded hyperandrogenism and thyroid dysfunction. Topical minoxidil should be used with caution in children. PMID:26982785

  3. Fostering Topic Knowledge: Essential for Academic Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Proske, Antje; Kapp, Felix

    2013-01-01

    Several researchers emphasize the role of the writer's topic knowledge for writing. In academic writing topic knowledge is often constructed by studying source texts. One possibility to support that essential phase of the writing process is to provide interactive learning questions which facilitate the construction of an adequate situation…

  4. Food reward system: current perspectives and future research needs.

    PubMed

    Alonso-Alonso, Miguel; Woods, Stephen C; Pelchat, Marcia; Grigson, Patricia Sue; Stice, Eric; Farooqi, Sadaf; Khoo, Chor San; Mattes, Richard D; Beauchamp, Gary K

    2015-05-01

    This article reviews current research and cross-disciplinary perspectives on the neuroscience of food reward in animals and humans, examines the scientific hypothesis of food addiction, discusses methodological and terminology challenges, and identifies knowledge gaps and future research needs. Topics addressed herein include the role of reward and hedonic aspects in the regulation of food intake, neuroanatomy and neurobiology of the reward system in animals and humans, responsivity of the brain reward system to palatable foods and drugs, translation of craving versus addiction, and cognitive control of food reward. The content is based on a workshop held in 2013 by the North American Branch of the International Life Sciences Institute. PMID:26011903

  5. Food reward system: current perspectives and future research needs.

    PubMed

    Alonso-Alonso, Miguel; Woods, Stephen C; Pelchat, Marcia; Grigson, Patricia Sue; Stice, Eric; Farooqi, Sadaf; Khoo, Chor San; Mattes, Richard D; Beauchamp, Gary K

    2015-05-01

    This article reviews current research and cross-disciplinary perspectives on the neuroscience of food reward in animals and humans, examines the scientific hypothesis of food addiction, discusses methodological and terminology challenges, and identifies knowledge gaps and future research needs. Topics addressed herein include the role of reward and hedonic aspects in the regulation of food intake, neuroanatomy and neurobiology of the reward system in animals and humans, responsivity of the brain reward system to palatable foods and drugs, translation of craving versus addiction, and cognitive control of food reward. The content is based on a workshop held in 2013 by the North American Branch of the International Life Sciences Institute.

  6. Food reward system: current perspectives and future research needs

    PubMed Central

    Woods, Stephen C.; Pelchat, Marcia; Grigson, Patricia Sue; Stice, Eric; Farooqi, Sadaf; Khoo, Chor San; Mattes, Richard D.; Beauchamp, Gary K.

    2015-01-01

    This article reviews current research and cross-disciplinary perspectives on the neuroscience of food reward in animals and humans, examines the scientific hypothesis of food addiction, discusses methodological and terminology challenges, and identifies knowledge gaps and future research needs. Topics addressed herein include the role of reward and hedonic aspects in the regulation of food intake, neuroanatomy and neurobiology of the reward system in animals and humans, responsivity of the brain reward system to palatable foods and drugs, translation of craving versus addiction, and cognitive control of food reward. The content is based on a workshop held in 2013 by the North American Branch of the International Life Sciences Institute. PMID:26011903

  7. The role of advanced technology in the future of the power generation industry

    SciTech Connect

    Bechtel, T.F.

    1994-10-01

    This presentation reviews the directions that technology has given the power generation industry in the past and how advanced technology will be the key for the future of the industry. The topics of the presentation include how the industry`s history has defined its culture, how today`s economic and regulatory climate has constrained its strategy, and how certain technology options might give some of the players an unfair advantage.

  8. Special Issue Topic: School Choice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brogan, Bernard R.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Includes "The Choice Movement" (Brogan); "Choice in American Education" (Witte); "Role of Parents in Education" (Mawdsley); "As Arrows in the Hand" (Coons); "Vouchers in Wisconsin" (Underwood); "Milwaukee Parental Choice Program (MPCP)" (Grover); "Civil Liberties and the MPCP" (Bolick); "Comments on School Choice" (Jauch); "Two Classes of…

  9. Student Investment in Political Topics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thelin, William H.

    2006-01-01

    Students in college writing courses need to understand world issues, including the oppressive effects of the global economy. But their teachers need to give them a sense of agency and authority, rather than simply telling them what political positions to take. One example of a writing assignment that might engage as well as inform students…

  10. Future Professional Communication in Astronomy II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Accomazzi, Alberto

    The present volume gathers together the talks presented at the second colloquium on the Future Professional Communication in Astronomy (FPCAII), held at the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics (Cambridge, MA) on 13-14 April 2010. This meeting provided a forum for editors, publishers, scientists, librarians and officers of learned societies to discuss the future of the field. The program included talks from leading researchers and practitioners and drew a crowd of approximately 50 attendees from 10 countries. These proceedings contain contributions from invited and contributed talks from leaders in the field, touching on a number of topics. Among them: The role of disciplinary repositories such as ADS and arXiv in astronomy and the physical sciences; Current status and future of Open Access Publishing models and their impact on astronomy and astrophysics publishing; Emerging trends in scientific article publishing: semantic annotations, multimedia content, links to data products hosted by astrophysics archives; Novel approaches to the evaluation of facilities and projects based on bibliometric indicators; Impact of Government mandates, Privacy laws, and Intellectual Property Rights on the evolving digital publishing environment in astronomy; Communicating astronomy to the public: the experience of the International Year of Astronomy 2009.

  11. Scholarly Journals at the Crossroads: A Subversive Proposal for Electronic Publishing. An Internet Discussion about Scientific and Scholarly Journals and Their Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okerson, Ann Shumelda, Ed.; O'Donnell, James J., Ed.

    This document presents an Internet discussion that took place on a number of electronic forums about scientific and scholarly journals and their future. Six principle discussants and about two dozen others advance both radical and traditional views. Topics include housing a comprehensive scientific electronic publishing system, responsibility for…

  12. Umberto Eco, l'esperanto, et le plurilinguisme de l'avenir (Umbert Eco, Esperanto, and the Multilingualism of the Future).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ertl, Istvan; Lo Jacomo, Francois

    1994-01-01

    An interview with Umberto Eco, novelist and linguist, addresses issues in international communication of the future, and particularly the role of Esperanto in a rapidly changing, culturally diverse world society. Topics discussed include translation, native language and multilingualism, and politics of language. (MSE)

  13. Innovation: Key to the future

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    The NASA Marshall Space Flight Center Annual Report is presented. A description of research and development projects is included. Topics covered include: space science; space systems; transportation systems; astronomy and astrophysics; earth sciences; solar terrestrial physics; microgravity science; diagnostic and inspection system; information, electronic, and optical systems; materials and manufacturing; propulsion; and structures and dynamics.

  14. Energy Options for the Future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheffield, John; Obenschain, Stephen; Conover, David; Bajura, Rita; Greene, David; Brown, Marilyn; Boes, Eldon; McCarthy, Kathyrn; Christian, David; Dean, Stephen; Kulcinski, Gerald; Denholm, P. L.

    2004-06-01

    This paper summarizes the presentations and discussion at the Energy Options for the Future meeting held at the Naval Research Laboratory in March of 2004. The presentations covered the present status and future potential for coal, oil, natural gas, nuclear, wind, solar, geothermal, and biomass energy sources and the effect of measures for energy conservation. The longevity of current major energy sources, means for resolving or mitigating environmental issues, and the role to be played by yet to be deployed sources, like fusion, were major topics of presentation and discussion.

  15. Futur "simple" et futur "proche" ("Simple" Future and "Immediate" Future).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franckel, Jean-Jacques

    1984-01-01

    An analysis of the use of simple and immediate future tenses in French shows that the expression of time is controlled more by context and modals than by specifically temporal cues. The role of negation in this situation is discussed. (MSE)

  16. Future Trends Program: Course Outline. (Appendix II, Futurizing the Power Industry.)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harkins, Arthur M.; And Others

    Consultants hired by a power company in the Central United States cooperated with employees to design a unique nine-month program called "Future Trends." The course, stressing the traits of man which enable him to adapt to the future, is outlined in this appendix. The course is divided into a preview and eight topic segments. A short description…

  17. Future land use plan

    SciTech Connect

    1995-08-31

    The US Department of Energy`s (DOE) changing mission, coupled with the need to apply appropriate cleanup standards for current and future environmental restoration, prompted the need for a process to determine preferred Future Land Uses for DOE-owned sites. DOE began the ``Future Land Use`` initiative in 1994 to ensure that its cleanup efforts reflect the surrounding communities` interests in future land use. This plan presents the results of a study of stakeholder-preferred future land uses for the Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), located in central Long Island, New York. The plan gives the Laboratory`s view of its future development over the next 20 years, as well as land uses preferred by the community were BNL ever to cease operations as a national laboratory (the post-BNL scenario). The plan provides an overview of the physical features of the site including its history, topography, geology/hydrogeology, biological inventory, floodplains, wetlands, climate, and atmosphere. Utility systems and current environmental operations are described including waste management, waste water treatment, hazardous waste management, refuse disposal and ground water management. To complement the physical descriptions of the site, demographics are discussed, including overviews of the surrounding areas, laboratory population, and economic and non-economic impacts.

  18. Teaching Introductory Measurement: Suggestions for What to Include and How to Motivate Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bandalos, Deborah L.; Kopp, Jason P.

    2012-01-01

    In this article, we discuss the importance of measurement literacy and some issues encountered in teaching introductory measurement courses. We present results from a survey of introductory measurement instructors, including information about the topics included in such courses and the amount of time spent on each. Topics that were included by the…

  19. Topical herbal therapies for treating osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Cameron, Melainie; Chrubasik, Sigrun

    2014-01-01

    Background Before extraction and synthetic chemistry were invented, musculoskeletal complaints were treated with preparations from medicinal plants. They were either administered orally or topically. In contrast to the oral medicinal plant products, topicals act in part as counterirritants or are toxic when given orally. Objectives To update the previous Cochrane review of herbal therapy for osteoarthritis from 2000 by evaluating the evidence on effectiveness for topical medicinal plant products. Search methods Databases for mainstream and complementary medicine were searched using terms to include all forms of arthritis combined with medicinal plant products. We searched electronic databases (Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL),MEDLINE, EMBASE, AMED, CINAHL, ISI Web of Science, World Health Organization Clinical Trials Registry Platform) to February 2013, unrestricted by language. We also searched the reference lists from retrieved trials. Selection criteria Randomised controlled trials of herbal interventions used topically, compared with inert (placebo) or active controls, in people with osteoarthritis were included. Data collection and analysis Two review authors independently selected trials for inclusion, assessed the risk of bias of included studies and extracted data. Main results Seven studies (seven different medicinal plant interventions; 785 participants) were included. Single studies (five studies, six interventions) and non-comparable studies (two studies, one intervention) precluded pooling of results. Moderate evidence from a single study of 174 people with hand osteoarthritis indicated that treatment with Arnica extract gel probably results in similar benefits as treatment with ibuprofen (non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug) with a similar number of adverse events. Mean pain in the ibuprofen group was 44.2 points on a 100 point scale; treatment with Arnica gel reduced the pain by 4 points after three weeks: mean difference (MD

  20. An Influenced Future

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Owens, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    aspect to control the temperatures inside my electrical aspect model. During my time at JSC I had effectively figured out how to create subsystem models utilizing Trick and GUNNS. I obtain essential knowledge of power and thermal subsystem design for a robotic vehicle. I also learned how to work and communicate in a team effectively to accomplish a goal. Before coming to Johnson Space Center my future career and educational goals included uncertainty, however now I have a completely new look on my path to a prosperous future. My NASA experience has unquestionably impacted me to accomplish and surpass my own particular desires. After my time at Johnson Space Center I plan to apply for a coop position for NASA. This has been a dream come true that I adored each moment being at JSC realizing that I am far fit for doing things most individuals can just long for.

  1. Topical vitamin D analogs available to treat psoriasis.

    PubMed

    Oquendo, Marcial; Abramovits, William; Morrell, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Psoriasis is a chronic and currently incurable inflammatory skin disease, affecting 2% to 3% of the US population. The cost of care in the United States for hospitalizations, outpatient physician visits, phototherapy, prescription therapies, and over-the-counter medications is estimated to be more than $650 million per year. Guidelines developed by the American Academy of Dermatology in 2009 state that approximately 80% of these patients with psoriasis have mild to moderate disease that can be managed with topical agents, including corticosteroids and vitamin D analogs. Topical vitamin D analogs provide "steroid-sparing" effects and a favorable safety profile. Many experts, including a recent consensus conference, classify topical vitamin D agents as first-line therapy for psoriasis either as monotherapy or in combination with topical steroids due to a synergistic, complementary effectiveness. Vitamin D analogs are an indispensable component of the current physician's armamentarium for psoriasis treatment. This review, therefore, is oriented to give a comprehensive understanding of this group of drugs and display the available clinical data for each formulation.

  2. Do lasers or topicals really work for nonmelanoma skin cancers?

    PubMed

    Brightman, Lori; Warycha, Melanie; Anolik, Robert; Geronemus, Roy

    2011-03-01

    Novel strategies are urgently needed to address the millions of nonmelanoma skin cancers treated in the United States annually. The need is greatest for those patients who are poor surgical candidates or those prone to numerous nonmelanoma skin cancers and therefore at risk for marked disfigurement. Traditional treatment strategies include electrosurgery with curettage, radiation therapy, cryotherapy, excision, and Mohs micrographic surgery. Alternatives to traditional treatment, including topical medications and light or laser therapies, are becoming popular; however, there are various degrees of efficacy among these alternative tactics. These alternatives include topical retinoids, peels, 5-fluorouracil, imiquimod, photodynamic therapy, and lasers. The purpose of this paper is to review the available data regarding these alternative strategies and permit the reader to have a sense of which therapies are reasonable options for care. PMID:21540017

  3. Literature survey results: Topical report

    SciTech Connect

    Willson, W.G.; Ness, R.O.; Hendrikson, J.G.; Entzminger, J.A.; Jha, M.; Sinor, J.E.

    1988-01-01

    This report reviews mild gasification processes with respect to processing conditions and configurations. Special emphasis was placed on processes which could be commercialized within five years. Detailed market information was provided by J.E. Sinor concerning markets and economic considerations of the various processing steps. Processing areas studied include coal cleaning; mild gasification; and upgrading of the char, condensables, and hydrocarbon gases. Pros and cons in the different processing areas as well as ''gaps'' in pertinent data were identified and integrated into a detailed process development program. The report begins with a summary of the market assessment and an evaluation of the co-product. The impacts of feed materials and operating parameters--including coal rank, heating rate, pressure, agglomeration, temperature, and feed gas composition--on the co- products and processes were evaluated through a literature survey. Recommendations were made as to the preferred product specifications and operating parameters for a commercial plant. A literature review of mild gasification processes was conducted and evaluated with regard to product specification and operating parameters. Two candidate processes were chosen and discussed in detail with respect to scale-up feasibility. Recommendations were then made to process development needs to further consideration of the two processes. 129 refs., 33 figs., 16 tabs.

  4. Tender Topics: Exploring Sensitive Issues with Pre-K through First Grade Children through Read-Alouds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mankiw, Sue; Strasser, Janis

    2013-01-01

    The topics including bullying, family diversity, homelessness, disabilities, and incarceration are often referred to as "tender topics." They can be difficult for teachers to explain to or discuss with children. In their work with children, families, and teachers, the authors have seen that it is not necessarily the topic that makes conversations…

  5. Recent advances and applications of probabilistic topic models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wood, Ian

    2014-12-01

    I present here an overview of recent advances in probabilistic topic modelling and related Bayesian graphical models as well as some of their more atypical applications outside of their home: text analysis. These techniques allow the modelling of high dimensional count vectors with strong correlations. With such data, simply calculating a correlation matrix is infeasible. Probabilistic topic models address this using mixtures of multinomials estimated via Bayesian inference with Dirichlet priors. The use of conjugate priors allows for efficient inference, and these techniques scale well to data sets with many millions of vectors. The first of these techniques to attract significant attention was Latent Dirichlet Allocation (LDA) [1, 2]. Numerous extensions and adaptations of LDA have been proposed: non-parametric models; assorted models incorporating authors, sentiment and other features; models regularised through the use of extra metadata or extra priors on topic structure, and many more [3]. They have become widely used in the text analysis and population genetics communities, with a number of compelling applications. These techniques are not restricted to text analysis, however, and can be applied to other types of data which can be sensibly discretised and represented as counts of labels/properties/etc. LDA and it's variants have been used to find patterns in data from diverse areas of inquiry, including genetics, plant physiology, image analysis, social network analysis, remote sensing and astrophysics. Nonetheless, it is relatively recently that probabilistic topic models have found applications outside of text analysis, and to date few such applications have been considered. I suggest that there is substantial untapped potential for topic models and models inspired by or incorporating topic models to be fruitfully applied, and outline the characteristics of systems and data for which this may be the case.

  6. ASCO Plenary Sessions: impact, legacy, future.

    PubMed

    Vandross, Andrae; Prasad, Vinay; Mailankody, Sham

    2016-06-01

    The ASCO annual meeting draws a large crowd of physicians, cancer researchers, policy makers, and industry representatives. The crown jewel of the annual events is the Plenary session where impactful, influential and visible abstracts are selected for the largest audience. Plenary topics are frequently paired with concurrent New England Journal or Lancet publications.  Here, we review 9 years of ASCO plenary sessions.  Several themes emerge.  First, many of the topics selected have indeed been practice changing, such as the use of ALK inhibitors for ALK rearranged NSCLC, or checkpoint inhibitors in metastatic melanoma.  Second, although some plenary topics seemed destined to change practice, they ultimately falter, such as the use of Cetuximab in NSCLC, vaccine therapy for follicular lymphoma, and even Bevacizumab in metastatic renal cell cancer. Who could have forseen bevacizumab displaced by several VEGF TKIs?  Third, negative trials are rare among Plenary sessions, but when they are presented they are immensely important.  Examples include a seminal study using CA-125 levels to guide treatment of relapsed ovarian cancer, the use of lapatinib combined with traztuzumab in the adjuvant treatment of HER2 + disease, and studies showing no survival benefit to upfront bevacizumab in glioblastoma multiforme.   Fourth, we note a large industry presence among Plenary sessions, as the Industry in part sponsored 62% of Plenary abstracts.  Ultimately a review of 9 years of ASCO plenary reveals the plenary for what it is: a conservative selection of abstracts that, at the time, are thought to change the face of oncology.  Time, however, is the true arbiter, and some succeed in this quest, while others falter.  ASCO plenary sessions reveal the influence, legacy and future of cancer care.

  7. Digital Social Network Mining for Topic Discovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moradianzadeh, Pooya; Mohi, Maryam; Sadighi Moshkenani, Mohsen

    Networked computers are expanding more and more around the world, and digital social networks becoming of great importance for many people's work and leisure. This paper mainly focused on discovering the topic of exchanging information in digital social network. In brief, our method is to use a hierarchical dictionary of related topics and words that mapped to a graph. Then, with comparing the extracted keywords from the context of social network with graph nodes, probability of relation between context and desired topics will be computed. This model can be used in many applications such as advertising, viral marketing and high-risk group detection.

  8. Topics in the structure of hadronic systems

    SciTech Connect

    Lebed, R. F.

    1994-04-01

    In this dissertation the author examines a variety of different problems in the physics of strongly-bound systems. Each is elucidated by a different standard method of analysis developed to probe the properties of such systems. He begins with an examination of the properties and consequences of the current algebra of weak currents in the limit of heavy quark spin-flavor symmetry. In particular, he examines the assumptions in the proof of the Ademollo-Gatto theorem in general and for spin-flavor symmetry, and exhibit the constraints imposed upon matrix elements by this theorem. Then he utilizes the renormalization-group method to create composite fermions in a three-generation electroweak model. Such a model is found to reproduce the same low energy behavior as the top-condensate electroweak model, although in general it may have strong constraints upon its Higgs sector. Next he uncovers subtleties in the nonrelativistic quark model that drastically alter the picture of the physical origins of meson electromagnetic and hyperfine mass splittings; in particular, the explicit contributions due to (m{sub d}{minus}m{sub u}) and electrostatic potentials may be overwhelmed by other effects. Such novel effects are used to explain the anomalous pattern of mass splittings recently measured in bottom mesons. Finally, he considers the topic of baryon masses in heavy fermion chiral perturbation theory, including both tree-level and loop effects.

  9. Regulatory cross-cutting topics for fuel cycle facilities.

    SciTech Connect

    Denman, Matthew R.; Brown, Jason; Goldmann, Andrew Scott; Louie, David

    2013-10-01

    This report overviews crosscutting regulatory topics for nuclear fuel cycle facilities for use in the Fuel Cycle Research & Development Nuclear Fuel Cycle Evaluation and Screening study. In particular, the regulatory infrastructure and analysis capability is assessed for the following topical areas: Fire Regulations (i.e., how applicable are current Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and/or International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) fire regulations to advance fuel cycle facilities) Consequence Assessment (i.e., how applicable are current radionuclide transportation tools to support risk-informed regulations and Level 2 and/or 3 PRA) While not addressed in detail, the following regulatory topic is also discussed: Integrated Security, Safeguard and Safety Requirement (i.e., how applicable are current Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) regulations to future fuel cycle facilities which will likely be required to balance the sometimes conflicting Material Accountability, Security, and Safety requirements.)

  10. Treatment of acne with topical antibiotics.

    PubMed

    Frank, S B

    1977-06-01

    The introduction of topical antibiotics for acne vulgaris has ushered in a new era in the treatment of this troublesome disorder. Tetracycline, erythromycin, and clindamycin can now be prepared in lotion form in vehicles that are capable of carrying the antibiotic into the follicular canal, where the primary lesion of acne occurs. Topical antibiotics are practically as effective as oral antibiotics in treating acne and are particularly useful for mild papular acne of puberty and early adolescence and papular-pustular acne of adult women. Use of topical antibiotics avoids the possibility of the adverse effects of systemic therapy; the side effects from the formulations reported here are negligible. Above all, antibiotic lotions do not produce the dryness and scaling that occur with most other topical acne preparations.

  11. NOVEL APPROACHES TO Topical Psoriasis Therapy.

    PubMed

    Koyama, Gregory; Liu, Jenny; Scaffidi, Alyse; Khazraee, Maryam; Epstein, Benjamin

    2015-01-01

    Topical corticosteroids are the cornerstone of treatment for the majority of psoriasis patients. However, potential side effects of topical corticosteroids (i.e., cutaneous atrophy, telangiectasias, hypothalamic-pituitary axis suppression), coupled with the complex pathophysiology of psoriasis and the individual needs/preferences of psoriasis patients, represent a few of the limitations associated with topical corticosteroid monotherapy. While the combination of some agents with varying mechanisms of action has proven to be an effective strategy for improving efficacy and reducing concomitant drug application, others have displayed less efficacy, harm, and/or reduced cost-effectiveness. The purpose of this article is to review novel topical therapeutic combinations for the management of psoriasis and explore the role compounding pharmacies can have in providing healthcare providers and patients with effective and affordable alternative psoriasis therapies. PMID:26775441

  12. Topical Review: Polymer gel dosimetry

    PubMed Central

    Baldock, C; De Deene, Y; Doran, S; Ibbott, G; Jirasek, A; Lepage, M; McAuley, K B; Oldham, M; Schreiner, L J

    2010-01-01

    Polymer gel dosimeters are fabricated from radiation sensitive chemicals which, upon irradiation, polymerize as a function of the absorbed radiation dose. These gel dosimeters, with the capacity to uniquely record the radiation dose distribution in three-dimensions (3D), have specific advantages when compared to one-dimensional dosimeters, such as ion chambers, and two-dimensional dosimeters, such as film. These advantages are particularly significant in dosimetry situations where steep dose gradients exist such as in intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) and stereotactic radiosurgery. Polymer gel dosimeters also have specific advantages for brachytherapy dosimetry. Potential dosimetry applications include those for low-energy x-rays, high-linear energy transfer (LET) and proton therapy, radionuclide and boron capture neutron therapy dosimetries. These 3D dosimeters are radiologically soft-tissue equivalent with properties that may be modified depending on the application. The 3D radiation dose distribution in polymer gel dosimeters may be imaged using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), optical-computerized tomography (optical-CT), x-ray CT or ultrasound. The fundamental science underpinning polymer gel dosimetry is reviewed along with the various evaluation techniques. Clinical dosimetry applications of polymer gel dosimetry are also presented. PMID:20150687

  13. Flammable gas project topical report

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, G.D.

    1997-01-29

    The flammable gas safety issue was recognized in 1990 with the declaration of an unreviewed safety question (USQ) by the U. S. Department of Energy as a result of the behavior of the Hanford Site high-level waste tank 241-SY-101. This tank exhibited episodic releases of flammable gas that on a couple of occasions exceeded the lower flammability limit of hydrogen in air. Over the past six years there has been a considerable amount of knowledge gained about the chemical and physical processes that govern the behavior of tank 241-SY-1 01 and other tanks associated with the flammable gas safety issue. This report was prepared to provide an overview of that knowledge and to provide a description of the key information still needed to resolve the issue. Items covered by this report include summaries of the understanding of gas generation, retention and release mechanisms, the composition and flammability behavior of the gas mixture, the amounts of stored gas, and estimated gas release fractions for spontaneous releases. `Me report also discusses methods being developed for evaluating the 177 tanks at the Hanford Site and the problems associated with these methods. Means for measuring the gases emitted from the waste are described along with laboratory experiments designed to gain more information regarding rates of generation, species of gases emitted and modes of gas storage and release. Finally, the process for closing the USQ is outlined as are the information requirements to understand and resolve the flammable gas issue.

  14. TOPICAL REVIEW: Microplasmas and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, K. H.; Schoenbach, K. H.; Eden, J. G.

    2006-02-01

    Atmospheric-pressure, non-equilibrium plasmas are susceptible to instabilities and, in particular, to arcing (glow-to-arc transition). Spatially confining the plasma to dimensions of 1 mm or less is a promising approach to the generation and maintenance of stable, glow discharges at atmospheric-pressure. Often referred to as microdischarges or microplasmas, these weakly-ionized discharges represent a new and fascinating realm of plasma science, where issues such as the possible breakdown of 'pd scaling' and the role of boundary-dominated phenomena come to the fore. Microplasmas are generated under conditions that promote the efficient production of transient molecular species such as the rare gas excimers, which generally are formed by three-body collisions. Pulsed excitation on a sub-microsecond time scale results in microplasmas with significant shifts in both the temperatures and energy distribution functions associated with the ions and electrons. This allows for the selective production of chemically reactive species and opens the door to a wide range of new applications of microplasmas. The implementation of semiconductor and microelectronics and MEMs microfabrication techniques has resulted in the realization of microplasma arrays as large as 250,000 devices. Fabricated in silicon or ceramics with characteristic device dimensions as small as 10 µm and at packing densities up to 104 cm-2, these arrays offer optical and electrical characteristics well suited for applications in medical diagnostics, displays and environmental sensing. Several microplasma device structures, including their fundamental properties and selected applications, will be discussed.

  15. Generic development of topical dermatologic products: formulation development, process development, and testing of topical dermatologic products.

    PubMed

    Chang, Rong-Kun; Raw, Andre; Lionberger, Robert; Yu, Lawrence

    2013-01-01

    This review presents considerations which can be employed during the development of a semi-solid topical generic product. This includes a discussion on the implementation of quality by design concepts during development to ensure the generic drug product has similar desired quality attributes to the reference-listed drug (RLD) and ensure batch to batch consistency through commercial production. This encompasses the concept of reverse-engineering to copy the RLD as a strategy during product development to ensure qualitative (Q1) and quantitative (Q2) formulation similarity, as well as similarity in formulation microstructure (Q3). The concept of utilizing in vitro skin permeation studies as a tool to justify formulation differences between the test generic product and the RLD to ensure a successful pharmacodynamic or clinical endpoint bioequivalence study is discussed. The review concludes with a discussion on drug product evaluation and quality tests as well as in vivo bioequivalence studies.

  16. Topical and oral therapeutic approach to rosacea.

    PubMed

    Helfrich, Yolanda R; Maier, Lisa M

    2016-06-01

    Rosacea is an inflammatory condition of the skin, primarily affecting the central convexities of the face. Various topical and oral therapeutic approaches exist. Most have been developed to treat the papulopustular subtype of rosacea; however, other approaches can be used to treat the erythematotelangiectatic, ocular, and phymatous subtypes. This review provides a summary of available topical and oral approaches for the treatment of rosacea. PMID:27416312

  17. Teaching Controversial Topics to Skeptical High School Students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ford, K. S.

    2012-12-01

    Tennessee passes the "Monkey Bill" (HB 0368, SB 0893), North Carolina's state government passes a law to criminalize reference in state documents to scientific models that predict sea level rise to reach at least one meter by the next century, and public concern still lags far behind the scientific community's concern on climate change. The American public and even science teachers across the country seem to have lost faith in the ability of the scientific community to unify a strong message about several important scientific lessons, including global warming in particular. This lack of a unified message has weakened the ability of science teachers to effectively teach the lesson of global warming. For science teachers in strongly conservative areas of the country, it is much easier to omit difficult topics and avoid angering parents and school board members. Teachers who do feel strongly about scientifically proven, yet publically controversial topics CAN teach these topics in conservative areas by confirming students' belief systems by being honest and open about motivations surrounding both sides of controversial topics, and by using vocabulary that avoids triggering negative perceptions about these controversial topics. For true learning and change of preconceived opinion to take place, it is important for students to come to the understanding in their own minds in an open and safe learning environment instead of having the message "preached" to them, which only serves to make them feel unintelligent and defensive if they disagree. This presentation will include lessons learned from a practicing science teacher who works in a community that overwhelmingly disputes the validity of human impacts on climate change.

  18. Earth Science Supplement to the Syllabus, Part 3, Topics 9-14, Special Edition 1970.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of Secondary Curriculum Development.

    The investigations for topics 9-14 in the earth science course developed by The University of the State of New York for secondary schools are contained in this supplement to the syllabus (ED 046 749). The topics in this supplement include the erosional process, the depositional process, the formation of rocks, the dynamic crust, interpreting…

  19. A Review of Subject Matter Topics Researched in Agricultural and Extension Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Radhakrishna, Rama B.; Xu, Wenwei

    1997-01-01

    Analysis of 402 articles in the Journal of Agricultural Education and 451 National Agricultural Education Research Meeting papers (1986-1996) yielded 30 categories of topics. The top five were secondary agriculture programs, learning styles, extension education, professionalism, and ag mechanics/engineering. Emerging topics included distance…

  20. Special Topics Courses - A Happy Medium between Mini-Courses and Full-Coverage Courses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carpenter, John R.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    Describes a special topics program which allows students some choice in content to be studied. Topics include Continental Drift and Ice Ages, Geology and National Parks, the Coast of South Carolina, and Medical Geology. Student evaluations indicate positive attitudes towards the program. (MA)

  1. Parent and Preschooler Newsletter: A Monthly Exploration of Early Childhood Topics, 2003.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolkoff, Sandra, Ed.; Schwartzberg, Neala S., Ed.

    2003-01-01

    This document consists of 10 monthly newsletter issues, in English- and Spanish-language versions, exploring topics related to early childhood behavior and parenting. Regularly appearing features include book recommendations, "Library Resources,""Preschoolers in the Kitchen,""Kids Crafts,""Research News," and "The Health Corner." Major topics of…

  2. Training and Knowledge of Professionals on Specific Topics in Child Sexual Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, James A.; Carlson, Karen

    1995-01-01

    Examines the training background and self-reported knowledge levels held by a group of professionals on specific topics in child sexual abuse. It was found that many professionals working in the area of child abuse treatment, including social workers, medical personnel, and psychologists, have not had training on topics directly related to their…

  3. Tribological Limitations in Gas Turbine Engines: A Workshop to Identify the Challenges and Set Future Directions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DellaCorte, Chris; Pinkus, Oscar

    2000-01-01

    The following report represents a compendium of selected speaker presentation materials and observations made by Prof O. Pinkus at the NASA/ASME/Industry sponsored workshop entitled "Tribological Limitations in Gas Turbine Engines" held on September 15-17, 1999 in Albany, New York. The impetus for the workshop came from the ASME's Research Committee on Tribology whose goal is to explore new tribological research topics which may become future research opportunities. Since this subject is of current interest to other industrial and government entities the conference received cosponsorship as noted above. The conference was well attended by government, industrial and academic participants. Topics discussed included current tribological issues in gas turbines as well as the potential impact (drawbacks and advantages) of future tribological technologies especially foil air bearings and magnetic beatings. It is hoped that this workshop report may serve as a starting point for continued discussions and activities in oil-free turbomachinery systems.

  4. Topics in Double Field Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwak, Seung Ki

    The existence of momentum and winding modes of closed string on a torus leads to a natural idea that the field theoretical approach of string theory should involve winding type coordinates as well as the usual space-time coordinates. Recently developed double field theory is motivated from this idea and it implements T-duality manifestly by doubling the coordinates. In this thesis we will mainly focus on the double field theory formulation of different string theories in its low energy limit: bosonic, heterotic, type II and its massive extensions, and N = 1 supergravity theory. In chapter 2 of the thesis we study the equivalence of different formulations of double field theory. There are three different formulations of double field theory: background field E formulation, generalized metric H formulation, and frame field EAM formulation. Starting from the frame field formalism and choosing an appropriate gauge, the equivalence of the three formulations of bosonic theory are explicitly verified. In chapter 3 we construct the double field theory formulation of heterotic strings. The global symmetry enlarges to O( D, D + n) for heterotic strings and the enlarged generalized metric features this symmetry. The structural form of bosonic theory can directly be applied to the heterotic theory with the enlarged generalized metric. In chapter 4 we develop a unified framework of double field theory for type II theories. The Ramond-Ramond potentials fit into spinor representations of the duality group O( D, D) and the theory displays Spin+( D, D) symmetry with its self-duality relation. For a specific form of RR 1-form the theory reduces to the massive deformation of type IIA theory due to Romans. In chapter 5 we formulate the N = 1 supersymmetric extension of double field theory including the coupling to n abelian vector multiplets. This theory features a local O(1, 9 + n) x O(1, 9) tangent space symmetry under which the fermions transform. (Copies available exclusively from

  5. Topical amitriptyline and ketamine for the treatment of neuropathic pain.

    PubMed

    Mercadante, Sebastiano

    2015-01-01

    A neuropathy is a disturbance of function or pathological change in nerves. In some cases, peripheral neuropathic pain may occur due to a lesion or disease of the peripheral somatosensory nervous system. Efficacy of different agents for peripheral neuropathic pain conditions is less than optimal. The administration of topical analgesics might be an option, due to the potential of reduced adverse effects and increased patient compliance. There is major interest in compounding topical analgesics for peripheral neuropathic pain, but several challenges remain for this approach. Topical analgesics have the potential to be a valuable additional approach for the management of peripheral neuropathic pain. Topical amitriptyline-ketamine combination (AK) is a promising agent for peripheral neuropathic pain conditions. Some studies have shown its efficacy in neuropathic pain conditions. However, this data was not uniformely obtained and its role remains still controversial. Efficacy may depend on many factors, including the choice of the vehicle, the concentration, the pain site, and specific diseases. More studies are necessary to support the use of AK in clinical practice. PMID:26488799

  6. Actinides and Rare Earths Topical Conference (Code AC)

    SciTech Connect

    Tobin, J G

    2009-11-24

    Actinide and the Rare Earth materials exhibit many unique and diverse physical, chemical and magnetic properties, in large part because of the complexity of their f electronic structure. This Topical Conference will focus upon the chemistry, physics and materials science in Lanthanide and Actinide materials, driven by 4f and 5f electronic structure. Particular emphasis will be placed upon 4f/5f magnetic structure, surface science and thin film properties. For the actinides, fundamental actinide science and its role in resolving technical challenges posed by actinide materials will be stressed. Both basic and applied experimental approaches, including synchrotron-radiation-based investigations, as well as theoretical modeling and computational simulations, are planned to be part of the Topical Conference. Of particular importance are the issues related to the potential renaissance in Nuclear Fuels, including synthesis, oxidation, corrosion, intermixing, stability in extreme environments, prediction of properties via benchmarked simulations, separation science, environmental impact and disposal of waste products.

  7. Geotechnical support and topical studies for nuclear waste geologic repositories

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-01-01

    The present report lists the technical reviews and comments made during the fiscal year 1988 and summarizes the technical progress of the topical studies. In the area of technical assistance, there were numerous activities detailed in the next section. These included 24 geotechnical support activities, including reviews of 6 Study Plans (SP) and participation in 6 SP Review Workshops, review of one whole document Site Characterization Plan (SCP) and participation in the Assembled Document SCP Review Workshops by 6 LBL reviewers; the hosting of a DOE program review, the rewriting of the project statement of work, 2 trips to technical and planning meetings; preparation of proposed work statements for two new topics for DOE, and 5 instances of technical assistance to DOE. These activities are described in a Table in the following section entitled Geoscience Technical Support for Nuclear Waste Geologic Repositories.''

  8. Tavaborole topical solution, 5% for the treatment of toenail onychomycosis.

    PubMed

    Zane, L T; Plattner, J; Chanda, S; Coronado, D; Merchant, T; Alley, M R K; Gupta, A K

    2015-10-01

    Tavaborole topical solution, 5% (tavaborole) is a novel, boron-based, antifungal pharmaceutical agent indicated for treatment of toenail onychomycosis due to the dermatophytes Trichophyton rubrum or Trichophyton mentagrophytes. In preclinical studies, tavaborole effectively penetrated through full-thickness, non-diseased cadaver fingernails, including those with up to four layers of nail polish. Limited systemic absorption was observed following topical application of tavaborole. In phase III clinical trials involving patients with distal subungual onychomycosis affecting 20-60% of a target great toenail, significantly more patients treated with tavaborole versus vehicle achieved completely clear nail with negative mycology following daily application for 48 weeks. Treatment-emergent adverse events reported by at least 1% of patients treated with tavaborole and at a greater frequency versus vehicle included ingrown toenail, exfoliation, erythema and dermatitis. Treatment discontinuations were uncommon. Results from preclinical studies and phase III clinical trials establish tavaborole as a safe and efficacious treatment for toenail onychomycosis. PMID:26583302

  9. Topical vs. systemic treatments for acute otitis media.

    PubMed

    Thornton, Kathy; Parrish, Francie; Swords, Christine

    2011-01-01

    Acute otitis media (AOM) is a common condition in children that is often treated with systemic antibiotic therapy; however, research suggests that non-complicated AOM will resolve spontaneously using only eardrops. To determine best practice for the use of systematic antibiotics compared to topical treatment of AOM, a systematic review of evidence was conducted. Cochrane, Medline, CINAHL, and other databases were searched. Inclusion criteria were studies published from 1995-2010 that included children with AOM and were randomized controlled trials (RCTs). Five systematic reviews and five RCTs were included in the review. Current evidence recommends using topical and other alternative approaches for treating non-complicated AOM in children 2 years of age or older; however, many practitioners are not currently following these recommendations for various reasons. Additional research to address these reasons may help determine how to improve practitioner adherence to best practice evidence and guidelines to help reduce the unnecessary use of systemic antibiotics.

  10. The Beginning of Life. A Topic Worthy of Discussion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Brien, Joseph

    1995-01-01

    Delineates four compelling reasons for placing bioethical issues, including abortion, in a curricular context. These include linking ethics and civics, preparing informed decision makers, public debate, and studying the future today. Includes activities and questions designed to provide students with a conceptual focus. (MJP)

  11. Topical treatment and combination approaches for vitiligo: new insights, new developments.

    PubMed

    Hossani-Madani, A R; Halder, R M

    2010-02-01

    Despite much research done involving elucidation of the pathogenesis of vitiligo, a precise cause is still not known. Prevalent hypotheses include the autoimmune, genetic, neural, self-destruction, growth factor deficiency, viral, and convergence theories, which have served as the basis for treatment formulation. Topical therapies have been a mainstay of vitiligo treatment, with or without phototherapy. Topical treatments used in the treatment of vitiligo include steroids, calcineurin inhibitors, vitamin D analogues, pseudocatalase, and depigmenting agents. Combination therapies are used to improve the success rate of repigmentation. In this article, we have examined randomized controlled trials utilizing topical treatments used as monotherapy or combination therapy. Although psoralen and khellin can be used as topical agents, used in conjunction with UV radiation, we have not included them in the review due to their inability to be used as monotherapy. We have also excluded less used or ineffective topical agents, such as melagenina, topical phenylalanine, topical L-DOPA, coal tar, anacarcin forte oil and topical minoxidil. According to current guidelines, a less than two month trial of potent or very potent topical corticosteroids or topical calcineurin inhibitors may be used for therapy of localized vitiligo (<20% skin surface area). Combinations of topical corticosteroids with excimer laser and UVA seem to be more effective than steroids alone. Pseudocatalase plus NB-UVB does not seem to be more effective than placebo with NB-UVB. Combinations of vitamin D analogues have varied efficacy based on which type is used and the type of UV light. Efficacy of calcineurin inhibitor combinations also vary based on the type used and UV light combined, with tacrolimus being more effective with excimer laser. Pimecrolimus has been effective with NB-UVB and excimer laser on facial lesions, and microdermabrasion on localized areas.

  12. Modern approach to topical treatment of aging skin.

    PubMed

    Puizina-Ivić, Neira; Mirić, Lina; Carija, Antoanela; Karlica, Dobrila; Marasović, Dujomir

    2010-09-01

    The main processes involved in skin aging are intrinsic and extrinsic. Apart from them, so called stochastic aging connotes cell damage caused by metabolic processes, free radicals and cosmic irradiation. The clinical expression of intrinsic aging include smooth, dry, and thinned skin with accentuated expression lines. It is inevitable and time dependent. Extrinsically aged skin shows signs of photodamage which include appearance of wrinkles, pigmented lesions, actinic keratoses and patchy hypopigmentations. Therapeutic modalities imply photoprotection with sunscreens that prevent sunburns and block ultraviolet irradiation. Other modalities include use of retinoids which regulate gene transcription with subsequent cellular differentiation and proliferation. The topical and peroral administration of network antioxidants, such as vitamin E and C, coenzyme Q10, alpha-lipoic acid and glutathione, enhance antiaging effect. The other antioxidants such as green tea, dehydroepiandrosterone, melatonin, selenium and resveratrol, have also antiaging and anti-inflammatory effects. Topical bleaching agents such as hydroquinone, kojic acid and azelaic acid can reduce signs of aging. Studies confirm the efficacy of these topical agents in combination with superficial and/or medium depth or deep peeling agents for photodamaged skin treatment. Indications for type of chemical peels according to various clinical diagnosis are done, as well as advantages and disadvantages of different types of chemical peels. PMID:20977120

  13. Modern approach to topical treatment of aging skin.

    PubMed

    Puizina-Ivić, Neira; Mirić, Lina; Carija, Antoanela; Karlica, Dobrila; Marasović, Dujomir

    2010-09-01

    The main processes involved in skin aging are intrinsic and extrinsic. Apart from them, so called stochastic aging connotes cell damage caused by metabolic processes, free radicals and cosmic irradiation. The clinical expression of intrinsic aging include smooth, dry, and thinned skin with accentuated expression lines. It is inevitable and time dependent. Extrinsically aged skin shows signs of photodamage which include appearance of wrinkles, pigmented lesions, actinic keratoses and patchy hypopigmentations. Therapeutic modalities imply photoprotection with sunscreens that prevent sunburns and block ultraviolet irradiation. Other modalities include use of retinoids which regulate gene transcription with subsequent cellular differentiation and proliferation. The topical and peroral administration of network antioxidants, such as vitamin E and C, coenzyme Q10, alpha-lipoic acid and glutathione, enhance antiaging effect. The other antioxidants such as green tea, dehydroepiandrosterone, melatonin, selenium and resveratrol, have also antiaging and anti-inflammatory effects. Topical bleaching agents such as hydroquinone, kojic acid and azelaic acid can reduce signs of aging. Studies confirm the efficacy of these topical agents in combination with superficial and/or medium depth or deep peeling agents for photodamaged skin treatment. Indications for type of chemical peels according to various clinical diagnosis are done, as well as advantages and disadvantages of different types of chemical peels.

  14. The first clinical experience on efficacy of topical flutamide on melasma compared with topical hydroquinone: a randomized clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Adalatkhah, Hassan; Sadeghi-Bazargani, Homayoun

    2015-01-01

    Background Treatment of melasma is unsatisfactory most of the times. Hormonal role is shown to exist in pathogenesis of the melasma, and sex-hormone related drugs may have an effect on melasma. Aim To investigate efficacy of 1% flutamide cream versus 4% hydroquinone cream on melasma. Methods In a parallel randomized clinical trial, 74 women with melasma were allocated to receive a sunscreen along with 4% hydroquinone cream or 1% flutamide cream. Melasma Area and Severity Index (MASI), mexameter melanin assay, and patient satisfaction were investigated. Results Mean age of the participants was 33.8 years. Mean length of time suffering from Melasma was 96.3 months. The subjects reported in average 1.1 hours per day of exposure to sunlight. Mean standardized total patient satisfaction score was 28.8 (standard deviation [SD] 17.2) in flutamide group patients versus 18 (SD 15.5) in control group (P<0.01). Regardless of treatment group, the skin darkness assessed upon MASI scales was reduced over the treatment course (P<0.001). Using mixed effects, longitudinal modeling showed better treatment efficacy based on MASI scale for flutamide group compared to the hydroquinone group (P<0.05). However, longitudinal analysis of mexameter scores did not reveal any significant difference in melanin measurements between flutamide and hydroquinone. Conclusion Topical flutamide appeared as effective as topical hydroquinone in treating melasma using mexameter assessment but with a better MASI improvement trend and higher patient satisfaction in flutamide treatment versus topical hydroquinone. As the present study is possibly the first clinical experience on efficacy of topical flutamide on melasma, it would be quite unreasonable to recommend clinical use of it before future studies replicate the results on its efficacy and safety. PMID:26345129

  15. Thin films: Past, present, future

    SciTech Connect

    Zweibel, K

    1995-04-01

    This report describes the characteristics of the thin film photovoltaic modules necessary for an acceptable rate of return for rural areas and underdeveloped countries. The topics of the paper include a development of goals of cost and performance for an acceptable PV system, a review of current technologies for meeting these goals, issues and opportunities in thin film technologies.

  16. Selected topics on parton distribution functions

    SciTech Connect

    Hirai, M.; Saito, K.; Kawamura, H.; Kumano, S.

    2011-12-14

    We report recent studies on structure functions of the nucleon and nuclei. First, clustering effects are investigated in the structure function F{sub 2} of {sup 9}Be for explaining an unusual nuclear correction found in a JLab experiment. We propose that high densities created by formation of clustering structure like 2{alpha}+neutron in {sup 9}Be is the origin of the unexpected JLab result by using the antisymmetrized molecular dynamics (AMD). There is an approved proposal at JLab to investigate the structure functions of light nuclei including the cluster structure, so that much details will become clear in a few years. Second, tensor-polarized quark and antiquark distributions are obtained by analyzing HERMES measurements on the structure function b{sub 1} for the deuteron. The result suggests a finite tensor polarization for antiquark distributions, which is an interesting topic for further theoretical and experimental investigations. An experimental proposal exists at JLab for measuring b{sub 1} of the deuteron as a new tensor-structure study in 2010's. Furthermore, the antiquark tensor polarization could be measured by polarized deuteron Drell-Yan processes at hadron facilities such as J-PARC and GSI-FAIR. Third, the recent CDF dijet anomaly is investigated within the standard model by considering possible modifications of the strange-quark distribution. We find that the shape of a dijet-mass spectrum changes depending on the strange-quark distribution. It indicates that the CDF excess could be partially explained as a PDF effect, particularly by the strangeness in the nucleon, within the standard model if the excess at m{sub jj}{approx_equal}140 GeV is not a sharp peak.

  17. Technologies of the Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lipson, Joseph I.; Fisher, Kathleen M.

    1985-01-01

    In the future, the requirements of industry will generate a wide range of hardware devices and software programs that will significantly alter and improve the quality of education. The driving forces behind the development of new technological devices include economics; emotional factors, e.g., the desire to develop aids for the handicapped;…

  18. Topical calcineurin inhibitors in systemic lupus erythematosus

    PubMed Central

    Lampropoulos, Christos E; D’Cruz, David P

    2010-01-01

    Cutaneous lupus erythematosus (CLE) encompasses a variety of lesions that may be refractory to systemic or topical agents. Discoid lupus erythematosus (DLE) and subacute cutaneous lupus erythematosus (SCLE) are the most common lesions in clinical practice. The topical calcineurin inhibitors, tacrolimus and pimecrolimus, have been used to treat resistant cutaneous lupus since 2002 and inhibit the proliferation and activation of T-cells and suppress immune-mediated cutaneous inflammation. This article reviews the mechanism of action, efficacy, adverse effects, and the recent concern about their possible carcinogenic effect. Although the total number of patients is small and there is only one relevant randomized controlled study, the data are encouraging. Many patients, previously resistant to systemic agents or topical steroids, improved after four weeks of treatment. DLE and SCLE lesions were less responsive, reflecting the chronicity of the lesions, although more than 50% of patients still showed improvement. Topical calcineurin inhibitors may be a safe and effective alternative to topical steroids for CLE although the only approved indication is for atopic dermatitis. PMID:20421909

  19. Chronic postsurgical pain: still a neglected topic?

    PubMed Central

    Kissin, Igor; Gelman, Simon

    2012-01-01

    Background Surgical injury can frequently lead to chronic pain. Despite the obvious importance of this problem, the first publications on chronic pain after surgery as a general topic appeared only a decade ago. This study tests the hypothesis that chronic postsurgical pain was, and still is, represented insufficiently. Methods We analyzed the presentation of this topic in journal articles covered by PubMed and in surgical textbooks. The following signs of insufficient representation in journal articles were used: (1) the lack of journal editorials on chronic pain after surgery, (2) the lack of journal articles with titles clearly indicating that they are devoted to chronic postsurgical pain, and (3) the insufficient representation of chronic postsurgical pain in the top surgical journals. Results It was demonstrated that insufficient representation of this topic existed in 1981–2000, especially in surgical journals and textbooks. Interest in this topic began to increase, however, mostly regarding one specific surgery: herniorrhaphy. It is important that the change in the attitude toward chronic postsurgical pain spreads to other groups of surgeries. Conclusion Chronic postsurgical pain is still a neglected topic, except for pain after herniorrhaphy. The change in the attitude toward chronic postsurgical pain is the important first step in the approach to this problem. PMID:23152698

  20. Through the '80s: thinking globally, acting locally. [Combined Canadian Futures Society and Third General Assembly of World Future Society

    SciTech Connect

    Feather, F.

    1980-01-01

    This volume was prepared in conjunction with the First Global Conference on the Future, held in Toronto, Canada, July 20-24, 1980. The conference combined the Third General Assembly of the World Future Society and the fifth annual conference of the Canadian Futures Society. The 59 papers presented here were selected from the very large number submitted to the conference committee; space limitations permitted only a small number of papers to be published in this volume. Included also are: the foreword, Mystery of the Future, by Edward R. Schreyer, Governor General of Canada; preface, A Time for Action, by Maurice F. Strong; introduction, Transition to Harmonic Globalism, by Frank Feather; conclusion, What We Must Do: An Agenda for Futurists; and postscript, The Challenge of the '80s, by Aurelio Peccei. The papers were presented under the following topics: The Trauma of Change (4); A Global Perspective (7); Inventorying Our Resources (7); The International Context (8); Economics: Getting Down to Business (9); Human Values: Personal, Social, Religious (6); Communications: Connecting Ourselves Together (4); Education: Learning to Meet Tomorrow (4); Health: New Approaches to Staying Fit (3); Futurism as a Way of Life (5); and Dreams into Action: Methods and Real-Life Experience (2).

  1. Exploring the Multifaceted Topic of Climate Change in Our Changing Climate and Living With Our Changing Climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brey, J. A.; Kauffman, C.; Geer, I. W.; Mills, E. W.; Nugnes, K. A.; Stimach, A. E.

    2015-12-01

    As the effects of climate change become more profound, climate literacy becomes increasingly important. The American Meteorological Society (AMS) responds to this need through the publication of Our Changing Climate and Living With Our Changing Climate. Both publications incorporate the latest scientific understandings of Earth's climate system from reports such as IPCC AR5 and the USGCRP's Third National Climate Assessment. Topic In Depth sections appear throughout each chapter and lead to more extensive, multidisciplinary information related to various topics. Additionally, each chapter closes with a For Further Exploration essay, which addresses specific topics that complement a chapter concept. Web Resources, which encourage additional exploration of chapter content, and Scientific Literature, from which chapter content was derived can also be found at the conclusion of each chapter. Our Changing Climate covers a breadth of topics, including the scientific principles that govern Earth's climate system and basic statistics and geospatial tools used to investigate the system. Released in fall 2015, Living With Our Changing Climate takes a more narrow approach and investigates human and ecosystem vulnerabilities to climate change, the role of energy choices in affecting climate, actions humans can take through adaption, mitigation, and policy to lessen vulnerabilities, and psychological and financial reasons behind climate change denial. While Living With Our Changing Climate is intended for programs looking to add a climate element into their curriculum, Our Changing Climate is part of the AMS Climate Studies course. In a 2015 survey of California University of Pennsylvania undergraduate students using Our Changing Climate, 82% found it comfortable to read and utilized its interactive components and resources. Both ebooks illuminate the multidisciplinary aspect of climate change, providing the opportunity for a more sustainable future.

  2. A proposal for including nomophobia in the new DSM-V

    PubMed Central

    Bragazzi, Nicola Luigi; Del Puente, Giovanni

    2014-01-01

    The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) is considered to be the gold standard manual for assessing the psychiatric diseases and is currently in its fourth version (DSM-IV), while a fifth (DSM-V) has just been released in May 2013. The DSM-V Anxiety Work Group has put forward recommendations to modify the criteria for diagnosing specific phobias. In this manuscript, we propose to consider the inclusion of nomophobia in the DSM-V, and we make a comprehensive overview of the existing literature, discussing the clinical relevance of this pathology, its epidemiological features, the available psychometric scales, and the proposed treatment. Even though nomophobia has not been included in the DSM-V, much more attention is paid to the psychopathological effects of the new media, and the interest in this topic will increase in the near future, together with the attention and caution not to hypercodify as pathological normal behaviors. PMID:24876797

  3. A proposal for including nomophobia in the new DSM-V.

    PubMed

    Bragazzi, Nicola Luigi; Del Puente, Giovanni

    2014-01-01

    The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) is considered to be the gold standard manual for assessing the psychiatric diseases and is currently in its fourth version (DSM-IV), while a fifth (DSM-V) has just been released in May 2013. The DSM-V Anxiety Work Group has put forward recommendations to modify the criteria for diagnosing specific phobias. In this manuscript, we propose to consider the inclusion of nomophobia in the DSM-V, and we make a comprehensive overview of the existing literature, discussing the clinical relevance of this pathology, its epidemiological features, the available psychometric scales, and the proposed treatment. Even though nomophobia has not been included in the DSM-V, much more attention is paid to the psychopathological effects of the new media, and the interest in this topic will increase in the near future, together with the attention and caution not to hypercodify as pathological normal behaviors. PMID:24876797

  4. A proposal for including nomophobia in the new DSM-V.

    PubMed

    Bragazzi, Nicola Luigi; Del Puente, Giovanni

    2014-01-01

    The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) is considered to be the gold standard manual for assessing the psychiatric diseases and is currently in its fourth version (DSM-IV), while a fifth (DSM-V) has just been released in May 2013. The DSM-V Anxiety Work Group has put forward recommendations to modify the criteria for diagnosing specific phobias. In this manuscript, we propose to consider the inclusion of nomophobia in the DSM-V, and we make a comprehensive overview of the existing literature, discussing the clinical relevance of this pathology, its epidemiological features, the available psychometric scales, and the proposed treatment. Even though nomophobia has not been included in the DSM-V, much more attention is paid to the psychopathological effects of the new media, and the interest in this topic will increase in the near future, together with the attention and caution not to hypercodify as pathological normal behaviors.

  5. A study of an ethics education topic for undergraduate nursing students.

    PubMed

    Kalaitzidis, Evdokia; Schmitz, Karl

    2012-01-01

    The study aims to explore nursing students' perceptions of the relative value of various aspects of the ethical component of the undergraduate topic, 'Ethics and Law applied to Nursing' (topic NURS2104). To enable time for reflection on ethics in nursing, sampling occurred 1 year after successful completion of the above-mentioned topic and after successful completion of all but the final clinical experience components of the Bachelor of Nursing (BN) degree. A significant proportion of respondents perceived ethics education as relevant to professional practices. It is also noteworthy that the ethical decision-making strategies that had been incorporated into the topic (NURS2104) became transformed by the clinical experience of each particular student. While results of this study are not conclusive, they nevertheless provide important information for future nursing students on the evolutionary development of ethics education.

  6. Payment Services for Global Online Systems Including Internet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seebeck, Bill; And Others

    1995-01-01

    A panel of four conference presenters address issues related to paying for services provided through online systems. Discussion includes the following topics: metering devices; electronic/digital cash; working within existing banking/credit card structures; provision of payment mechanisms in countries without extensive credit card usage; and…

  7. Methemoglobinemia from topically applied anesthetic spray.

    PubMed

    Dinneen, S F; Mohr, D N; Fairbanks, V F

    1994-09-01

    Topically applied anesthetic spray is commonly used as part of premedication for general anesthesia and for endoscopic procedures; it is rarely associated with side effects. In this report, we describe two cases of toxic methemoglobinemia that resulted from topically applied anesthetic spray used before endoscopy. In both cases, standard doses were used; however, methemoglobin levels of 45% and 38% developed within 1 hour of the procedure. Both patients had normal levels of erythrocyte methemoglobin reductase, an indication that this rare but potentially fatal side effect can occur in persons who have no predisposing factors. Because toxic methemoglobinemia is easily treated, our report emphasizes the need to recognize this problem when topically applied anesthetic sprays are used.

  8. Topical minoxidil: cardiac effects in bald man.

    PubMed Central

    Leenen, F H; Smith, D L; Unger, W P

    1988-01-01

    Systemic cardiovascular effects during chronic treatment with topical minoxidil vs placebo were evaluated using a double-blind, randomized design for two parallel groups (n = 20 for minoxidil, n = 15 for placebo). During 6 months of follow-up, blood pressure did not change, whereas minoxidil increased heart rate by 3-5 beats min-1. Compared with placebo, topical minoxidil caused significant increases in LV end-diastolic volume, in cardiac output (by 0.751 min-1) and in LV mass (by 5 g m-2). We conclude that in healthy subjects short-term use of topical minoxidil is likely not to be detrimental. However, safety needs to be established regarding ischaemic symptoms in patients with coronary artery disease as well as for the possible development of LV hypertrophy in healthy subjects during years of therapy. PMID:3191000

  9. Dynamic characteristics of tweeting and tweet topics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwon, Hyun Woong; Choi, M. Y.; Kim, Ho Sung; Lee, Keumsook

    2012-02-01

    Twitter, having more than 200 million world users and more than 4 million Korean users, is still growing fast. Because Twitter users can `tweet' about any topic within the 140-character limit, and other users who follow the users and see the tweets can `retweet' them, Twitter is regarded as a new medium of transferring and sharing information. Nevertheless, the propensities of Twitter users to tweet or to retweet still remain unclear. In order to investigate these propensities, we propose a simple model for the dynamics of the total number of tweets about specific topics. We then observe that the topics can be categorized into three kinds according to predictability and sustainability: predictable events, unpredictable events, and sustainable events. Comparing model results with real data, we infer the tweet propensities motivated by external causes as well as retweet propensities.

  10. Future Directions in Rock Magnetism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirt, A. M.

    2015-12-01

    Rock magnetism explains how a rock becomes magnetized and retains its magnetization over geologic time intervals. A wealth of information has been collected on the magnetic properties of constituent minerals. Rock magnetic methods are amongst the most sensitive in detecting iron minerals in natural or synthetic materials. However, several fundamental topics are still inadequately understood. These include the theories of multi-domain magnetism and the depositional or post-depositional acquisition of magnetism in sediments. A serious problem in working with natural materials is the variability of physical properties due to differences in composition and grain size, and interactions between grains. Great advances have been made in the synthesis of iron nanoparticles, thus controlled systems offer a key to gaining new insights into the role that physical parameters play in bulk magnetization behavior. Better models can be constructed in a system when only a few physical factors play a role. Information from these types of studies provides the basis for a better understanding of natural systems. For example, they clarify how environmental conditions affect iron mineralogy and the role of diagenetic processes in the acquisition of remanence in a sediment, and they explain conditions that lead to the growth of ferromagnetic minerals in relation to remagnetization. Experimental results have advanced our understanding of the single-crystal anisotropy of minerals and how these contribute to the total anisotropy in a rock. The combination of deformation experiments and their effects on magnetic anisotropy can provide new insights into ferromagnetic textures, which may play a role in the deflection of remanence in inclination flattening. Future progress in these fields will depend on a closer alliance between experiment, theory and modeling.

  11. Summary of SMIRT20 Preconference Topical Workshop – Identifying Structural Issues in Advanced Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    William Richins; Stephen Novascone; Cheryl O'Brien

    2009-08-01

    Summary of SMIRT20 Preconference Topical Workshop – Identifying Structural Issues in Advanced Reactors William Richins1, Stephen Novascone1, and Cheryl O’Brien1 1Idaho National Laboratory, US Dept. of Energy, Idaho Falls, Idaho, USA, e-mail: William.Richins@inl.gov The Idaho National Laboratory (INL, USA) and IASMiRT sponsored an international forum Nov 5-6, 2008 in Porvoo, Finland for nuclear industry, academic, and regulatory representatives to identify structural issues in current and future advanced reactor design, especially for extreme conditions and external threats. The purpose of this Topical Workshop was to articulate research, engineering, and regulatory Code development needs. The topics addressed by the Workshop were selected to address critical industry needs specific to advanced reactor structures that have long lead times and can be the subject of future SMiRT technical sessions. The topics were; 1) structural/materials needs for extreme conditions and external threats in contemporary (Gen. III) and future (Gen. IV and NGNP) advanced reactors and 2) calibrating simulation software and methods that address topic 1 The workshop discussions and research needs identified are presented. The Workshop successfully produced interactive discussion on the two topics resulting in a list of research and technology needs. It is recommended that IASMiRT communicate the results of the discussion to industry and researchers to encourage new ideas and projects. In addition, opportunities exist to retrieve research reports and information that currently exists, and encourage more international cooperation and collaboration. It is recommended that IASMiRT continue with an off-year workshop series on select topics.

  12. Directions: Future Planner for 11th Graders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Indiana Career and Postsecondary Advancement Center, Bloomington.

    This booklet is intended to help Indiana 11th graders plan their futures by identifying their career and educational goals and available employment and educational opportunities. The following are among the topics discussed in sections 1-4: (1) identifying goals (planning ahead, using class schedules to chart one's course, developing career and…

  13. Affirmative Action: Past, Present, and Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynch, Frederick R.

    1985-01-01

    The following topics are discussed in this special issue: affirmative action for blacks; the bases of contemporary affirmative action attitudes; reverse discrimination cases; how the media and the public react to affirmative action; and affirmative action strategies for the future. (RM)

  14. People, Law, and the Futures Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franks, Betty Barclay; Howard, Mary Kay

    The technology being developed today will create an extensive array of new legal problems for the citizens of the future. This booklet outlines a study unit designed to introduce today's students to these problems and to the factors that will have to be considered in their solution. The course is organized around five topics: the changing nature…

  15. Future of Catholic Schools: A Perception.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Laughlin, Jeanne

    1982-01-01

    Surveyed Catholic educators for future trends (1985-2000) in Catholic education. Provides trends in finance, program, personnel, governance, and students. Technology, length of school day and week, lay persons for administrators and teachers, school board role, teacher housing supplements, and handicapped and gifted are among topics covered. (AH)

  16. Enhancing the Undergraduate Industrial Engineering Curriculum: Defining Desired Characteristics and Emerging Topics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eskandari, Hamidreza; Sala-Diakanda, Serge; Furterer, Sandra; Rabelo, Luis; Crumpton-Young, Lesia; Williams, Kent

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to present the results of an initial research study conducted to identify the desired professional characteristics of an industrial engineer with an undergraduate degree and the emerging topic areas that should be incorporated into the curriculum to prepare industrial engineering (IE) graduates for the future workforce.…

  17. Toward the Greening of Our Minds: A New Special Topics Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marteel-Parrish, Anne E.

    2007-01-01

    A new special-topics course on green chemistry would help students to critically evaluate policy decisions in an environmentally conscientious manner. The actively acquired knowledge would allow students to spread the word about green chemistry in the long term to the world, where they would pursue their future goals of life.

  18. Future Imaging Sensor Capabilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carver, K. R.; Ando, K. J.

    1983-01-01

    Advanced imaging sensor technologies that are being developed for future NASA earth observation missions are discussed. These include the multilinear array, the Shuttle imaging spectrometer, and the Shuttle imaging radar. The principal specifications and functional descriptions of the instruments are presented, and it is shown that the advanced technologies will enable a synergistic approach to the use of VIS/IR and microwave imaging sensors for remote sensing research and applications. The key problems posed by these future imaging sensor technologies are discussed, with particular attention given to data rates, power consumption, and data processing.

  19. NOTES: the future.

    PubMed

    Giday, Samuel A; Magno, Priscilla; Kalloo, Anthony N

    2008-04-01

    The concept of natural orifice translumenal endoscopic surgery (NOTES) has grown in acceptance since the time of its introduction in 2000. Developments in techniques of peritoneal access and closure, surgical techniques, and equipment modification have already been published and intensive research is ongoing. Current and future endoscopists will reap the benefit of this research because many techniques and devices that are developed for NOTES will enhance the ability to perform luminal intervention, including polypectomy, endoluminal hemostasis, and submucosal resection. The authors attempt to predict the future of NOTES by describing potential applications for certain clinical scenarios and conditions.

  20. Safety of Topical Dermatologic Medications in Pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Patel, Viral M; Schwartz, Robert A; Lambert, W Clark

    2016-07-01

    Dermatologic drugs should be employed with caution in women of childbearing age who are pregnant or considering pregnancy. Topical drugs have little systemic absorption. Therefore, they are deemed safer than oral or parenteral agents and less likely to harm the fetus. However, their safety profile must be assessed cautiously, as there is limited available data. In this article, we aggregate human and animal studies and provide recommendations on using topical dermatologic medications in pregnancy.

    J Drugs Dermatol. 2016;15(7):830-834. PMID:27391632

  1. Identification of topical photosensitizing agents in humans.

    PubMed

    Kaidbey, K H; Kligman, A M

    1978-03-01

    A method is described for the detection of topical photosensitizers in humans. Test agents were applied to the untanned midback under an occlusive dressing for 6 hr and then exposed to broad-spectrum radiation containing UV-A and visible wavelengths from a Xenon arc source. Well-known topical photosensitizers were readily identified. It was found that with certain poorly-penetrating substances, such as water-soluble dyes, applications to scarified skin were necessary to reveal phototoxic activity. In addition, these dyes were activated by wavelengths in the visible region of the spectrum.

  2. Vulvar Skin Atrophy Induced by Topical Glucocorticoids

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Elisabeth; Groben, Pamela; Eanes, Alisa; Iyer, Priya; Ugoeke, Joseph; Zolnoun, Denniz

    2011-01-01

    Steroid induced skin atrophy is the most frequent and perhaps most important cutaneous side effect of topical glucocorticoid therapy. To date, it has not been described in vulvar skin. We describe a patient with significant vulvar skin atrophy following prolonged steroid application to treat vulvar dermatitis. The extensive atrophy in the perineum resulted in secondary ‘webbing’ and partial obstruction of genital hiatus and superimposed dyspareunia. Prolonged topical steroids may result in atrophic changes in vulvar skin. Therefore, further research in clinical correlates of steroid-induced atrophy in the vulvar region is warranted. PMID:22594868

  3. Illustrative EDOF topics in Fourier optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    George, Nicholas; Chen, Xi; Chi, Wanli

    2011-10-01

    In this talk we present a series of illustrative topics in Fourier Optics that are proving valuable in the design of EDOF camera systems. They are at the level of final examination problems that have been made solvable by a student or professoi having studied from one of Joseph W. Goodman's books---our tribute for his 75fr year. As time permits, four illustrative topics are l) Electromagnetic waves and Fourier optics;2) The perfect lens; 3) Connection between phase delay and radially varying focal length in an asphere and 4) tailored EDOF designs.

  4. Allergic rhinitis: meaningful and less meaningful combination treatments including reminiscences.

    PubMed

    Szelenyi, I

    2014-06-01

    Allergic rhinitis (AR) results from a complex allergen-driven mucosal inflammation in the nasal cavity. Current guideline-based therapy for allergic rhinitis include oral and nasal antihistamines, topical and systemic glucocorticoids, decongestants, antimuscarinic agents, mast cell stabilizing drugs, leukotriene-receptor antagonists, and others. In spite of guideline recommendations, most patients are using multiple therapies in an attempt to achieve symptom control. Therefore, more effective therapies for the management of AR are clearly required. Recently, a novel fixed dose combination containing azelastine and fluticasone propionate has successfully been introduced. At present, it represents the only meaningful topical drug combination. Perhaps, it will be followed by others. PMID:24974572

  5. Topical imiquimod yields systemic effects due to unintended oral uptake.

    PubMed

    Grine, Lynda; Steeland, Sophie; Van Ryckeghem, Sara; Ballegeer, Marlies; Lienenklaus, Stefan; Weiss, Siegfried; Sanders, Niek N; Vandenbroucke, Roosmarijn E; Libert, Claude

    2016-01-01

    Repetitive application of topical imiquimod is used as an experimental model for the induction of psoriasiform skin lesions in mice. The model is characterized by several inflammatory processes, including cytokine production both locally and systemically, cellular infiltration, and splenomegaly. To investigate the production of type I interferons in response to imiquimod-containing Aldara cream, IFNβ-luciferase reporter mice were imaged in vivo and ex vivo. Type I interferons were found to be produced in the skin, but also in the intestinal system caused by unintended ingestion of imiquimod by the mice. Through the use of Elizabethan collars to prevent ingestion, these effects, including psoriasiform lesions were nearly completely prevented. Our findings reveal that topical treatment with Aldara induces a psoriasiform skin inflammation, but that its mode of action depends on ingestion of the chemical, which leads to systemic responses and affects local inflammation. Therefore, potential ingestion of topical treatments during experimental procedures should be taken into account during assessment of cutaneous inflammatory parameters in skin disease models. PMID:26818707

  6. Secondary Voc Ed: Preparing the Future Workforce.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dignan, Richard

    1987-01-01

    The author discusses the current state of secondary vocational education in Wisconsin, where each public secondary school is required to offer vocational education. Topics covered include (1) goals and expectations, (2) curriculum development, and (3) educational equity. (CH)

  7. Assessment of topical versus oral ivermectin as a treatment for head lice.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Hesham M; Abdel-Azim, Eman S; Abdel-Aziz, Rasha T

    2014-01-01

    Many medications are available for treatment of pediculosis capitis including ivermectin. Our aim is to compare the efficacy and safety of topical versus oral ivermectin in treatment of pediculosis capitis. Sixty-two patients with proved head lice infestation were included and divided into group I (31 patients; received single topical application of 1% ivermectin) and group II (31 patients; received single dose of oral ivermectin). Treatment was repeated after 1 week for nonresponders. At 1 week after treatment, the eradication rates and improvement of pruritus were significantly higher among patients who received topical than oral ivermectin. When a second treatment, topical or oral, was given to nonresponders, the cure rates of infestation and pruritus was 100% and 97% among patients treated with topical and oral ivermectin, respectively with no significant difference between the two groups. This study suggests that both topical and oral ivermectin demonstrate high efficacy and tolerability in treatment of pediculosis capitis. However, a single treatment with topical ivermectin provides significantly higher cure of infestation and faster relief of pruritus than oral ivermectin. In addition, whether topical or oral ivermectin is used to treat head lice, a second dose is required in some cases to ensure complete eradication.

  8. Secure Future

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Thread Technology, Inc., developed the ZipNut, a fastening device that is pushed rather than turned. It was originally developed for space shuttle and space station applications. The ZipNut can be used for a variety of applications, including firefighting, aerospace, gas fittings, and manufacturing.

  9. Future Visions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yates, Trevor; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Includes four responses to Britain's proposed Further and Higher Education Bill: "Community Education: A Broken Shoestring" (Yates); "The Voluntary Sector: This Year, Next Year" (Woodman); "The Local Authority: Juggling with Models" (Cara); and "The Further Education College: Changing the Educational Culture" (Flint). (SK)

  10. Three Activities To Assist Biology Teachers in Presenting Conceptually Difficult Topics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Neil; Tulip, David

    1997-01-01

    Outlines three activities for different areas of biology that can serve as motivators for students or as demonstrations. Each activity is easy to organize and uses available materials. Topics include evolution, anaerobic respiration, and heat loss. (DDR)

  11. Characterization data on the topical carrier DDC642.

    PubMed

    Desmet, Eline; Bracke, Stefanie; Forier, Katrien; Taevernier, Lien; Stuart, Marc C A; De Spiegeleer, Bart; Raemdonck, Koen; Van Gele, Mireille; Lambert, Jo

    2016-06-01

    This article contains original data, figures and methods used in the characterization of the liposomal carrier 'DDC642' for topical applications, described in "An elastic liposomal formulation for RNAi-based topical treatment of skin disorders: proof-of-concept in the treatment of psoriasis" (Desmet et al., 2016) [1]. Several elastic liposomal formulations have been evaluated for their ability to encapsulate and deliver RNA interference (RNAi) molecules to cultured primary skin cells. The efficiency and effectiveness of these liposomes were compared to that of our previously characterized liposomes, the 'SECosomes' (SEC) (Geusens et al., 2010) [2]. After selection of a potential superior carrier, based on encapsulation and transfection efficiency data (Desmet et al., 2016) [1], the selected DDC642 liposomes were characterized more in-depth. Herein, a detailed characterization of the DDC642 liposome and RNAi-loaded lipoplexes is given, including the matching protocols. PMID:27408923

  12. Brian Barry: innovative contributions to transdermal and topical drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Williams, A C

    2013-01-01

    Brian Barry published over 300 research articles across topics ranging from colloid science, vasoconstriction and the importance of thermodynamics in dermal drug delivery to exploring the structure and organisation of the stratum corneum barrier lipids and numerous strategies for improving topical and transdermal drug delivery, including penetration enhancers, supersaturation, coacervation, eutectic formation and the use of varied liposomes. As research in the area blossomed in the early 1980s, Brian wrote the book that became essential reading for both new and established dermal delivery scientists, explaining the background mathematics and principles through to formulation design. Brian also worked with numerous scientists, as collaborators and students, who have themselves taken his rigorous approach to scientific investigation into their own research groups. This paper can only describe a small fraction of the many significant contributions that Brian made to the field during his 40-year academic career. PMID:23921110

  13. Conference report: hot topics in antibody-drug conjugate development.

    PubMed

    Thudium, Karen; Bilic, Sanela

    2013-12-01

    American Association of Pharmaceutical Scientists National Biotechnology Conference Sheraton San Diego Hotel and Marina, San Diego, CA, USA, 19-23 May 2013 The National Biotechnology Conference, is a premier meeting for biotechnology professionals covering a broad range of hot topics in the biotechnology industry. Attracting participants from academia, industry and regulatory, this meeting features sessions that aim to address emerging subjects of interest and allows for open exchange between scientists. The 2013 conference featured leading researchers in the fields of antibody-drug conjugates (ADCs) and immunogenicity. Herein, we present a summary of the ADC hot topics, including bioanalytical and PK considerations, quantitative evaluation of the impact of immunogenicity and ADME to understand ADC drug-drug interactions, and clinical considerations for ADC development. This article aims to summarize the recommendations that were made by the speakers during various sessions throughout the conference. PMID:24320125

  14. Allergic contact dermatitis to topical minoxidil solution: etiology and treatment.

    PubMed

    Friedman, Edward S; Friedman, Paul M; Cohen, David E; Washenik, Ken

    2002-02-01

    After more than a decade of use, topical minoxidil solution has proven to be a safe and effective treatment for androgenetic alopecia. However, some patients present with complaints of pruritus and scaling of the scalp. The most common causes of these symptoms include irritant contact dermatitis, allergic contact dermatitis, or an exacerbation of seborrheic dermatitis. Patients suffering from allergic contact dermatitis may benefit from patch testing to determine the causative allergen. Among the patients we patch tested, propylene glycol was found to be the contactant in a majority of cases, not the minoxidil itself. Many of these patients may be candidates for treatment with alternative formulations using other solvents, such as butylene glycol, polysorbate, or glycerol. Although predictive, patch testing results do not ensure that the compounded preparations will be tolerated. Unfortunately, patients found to be allergic to minoxidil are no longer candidates for topical treatment of their alopecia with any preparations of minoxidil. PMID:11807448

  15. Achieving hemostasis in dermatology-Part II: Topical hemostatic agents

    PubMed Central

    Glick, Jaimie B.; Kaur, Ravneet R.; Siegel, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Bleeding is a common occurrence during any dermatologic surgery that disrupts blood vessels. The complications of excess bleeding can include delayed wound healing, hematoma formation, infection, dehiscence, and necrosis. In part one of this review, we discussed the pre-operative, intra-operative, and post-operative management of patients undergoing dermatologic surgery. In Part two, we discuss traditional and new topical hemostatic agents used to achieve hemostasis in dermatological procedures and surgery. We will evaluate the caustic and non-caustic hemostatic agents as well as hemostatic dressings. The mechanisms of action, side effect profile, and advantages and disadvantages of the topical hemostatic agents are provided. Sources for this article were found searching the English literature in PubMed for the time period 1940 to March 2012. A thorough bibliography search was also performed and key references examined. PMID:23984226

  16. Topic Congruence and Topic Interest: How Do They Affect Second Language Reading Comprehension?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Sang-Ki

    2009-01-01

    Because human memory is largely reconstructive, people tend to reorganize and reevaluate an event in a way that is coherent to the truth values held in their belief system. This study investigated the role of topic congruence (defined as whether the reading content corresponds with readers' prior beliefs towards a contentious topic) in second…

  17. Topical Issue on Optical Particle Characterization and Remote Sensing of the Atmosphere: Part I

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Videen, Gorden; Kocifaj, Miroslav; Sun, Wenbo; Kai, Kenji; Kawamoto, Kazuaki; Horvath, Helmuth; Mishchenko, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Increasing our understanding of the Earth-atmosphere system has been a scientific and political priority for the last few decades. This system not only touches on environmental science, but it has applicability to our broader understanding of planetary atmospheres in general. While this issue focuses primarily on electromagnetics, other fundamental fields of science, including fluid and thermodynamics play major roles. In recent years, significant research efforts have led to advances in the fields of radiative transfer and electromagnetic scattering from irregularly shaped particles. Recently, several workshops and small conferences have taken place to promote the fusion of these efforts. Late in 2013, for instance, two such meetings took place. The Optical Characterization of Atmospheric Aerosols (OCAA) meeting took place in Smolenice, Slovakia to promote a better understanding of microphysical properties of aerosol particles, and the characterization of such atmospheric particles using optical techniques. A complementary conference was organized in Nagoya, Japan, the 3rd International Symposium on Atmospheric Light Scattering and Remote Sensing (ISALSaRS), whose goal is to fuse the advances achieved in particle characterization with remote-sensing techniques. While the focus of these meetings is slightly different, they represent the same aspects of this rapidly growing field. This Topical Issue is the first of two parts. Within this issue we analyze different aspects of the problem of atmospheric characterization and present a broad overview of the topical area. Research includes theory and experiment, ranging from fundamental microphysical properties of individual aerosol particles to broad characterizations of atmospheric properties. Since this is an active field, we also have encouraged the submission of ideas for new methodologies that may represent the future of the field.

  18. Past, present, and future concepts in large river ecology: How rivers function and how human activities influence river processes

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, B.L.; Richardson, W.B.; Naimo, T.J.

    1995-03-01

    This article reviews the current concepts on how flowing water, or lotic, systems function and suggest ways to expand these concepts to increase understanding of large river systems. Topics covered include the following: past and present approaches to physical and biological concepts of stream organization; the river-continuum concept; the flood-pulse concept; deficiencies of the current hypotheses (linear versis hierachical, physical verses biological control, equilibrium versus disequilibrium); future directions for large river research. 63 refs., 4 figs.

  19. Foreign Languages: Internationalizing the Future. Dimension: Language '92-'93. Selected Papers from the Joint Meeting of the Southern Conference on Language Teaching and the Foreign Language Association of Georgia (Atlanta, Georgia, 1993).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terry, Robert M., Ed.

    The papers selected for this report of a conference on foreign language teaching with a view to "internationalizing the future" cover a wide range of topics and levels of study, including teaching Latin, using contemporary popular music in the curriculum, negotiating oral tasks, incorporating higher-order thinking skills into the curriculum,…

  20. The future of human spaceflight.

    PubMed

    Reichert, M

    2001-01-01

    After the Apollo Moon program, the international space station represents a further milestone of humankind in space, International follow-on programs like a manned return to the Moon and a first manned Mars Mission can be considered as the next logical step. More and more attention is also paid to the topic of future space tourism in Earth orbit, which is currently under investigation in the USA, Japan and Europe due to its multibillion dollar market potential and high acceptance in society. The wide variety of experience, gained within the space station program, should be used in order to achieve time and cost savings for future manned programs. Different strategies and roadmaps are investigated for space tourism and human missions to the Moon and Mars, based on a comprehensive systems analysis approach. By using DLR's software tool FAST (Fast Assessment of Space Technologies), different scenarios will be defined, optimised and finally evaluated with respect to mission architecture, required technologies, total costs and program duration. This includes trajectory analysis, spacecraft design on subsystem level, operations and life cycle cost analysis. For space tourism, an expected evolutionary roadmap will be described which is initiated by short suborbital tourism and ends with visionary designs like the Space Hotel Berlin and the Space Hotel Europe concept. Furthermore the potential space tourism market, its economic meaning as well as the expected range of the costs of a space ticket (e.g. $50,000 for a suborbital flight) will be analysed and quantified. For human missions to the Moon and Mars, an international 20 year program for the first decades of the next millennium is proposed, which requires about $2.5 Billion per year for a manned return to the Moon program and about $2.6 Billion per year for the first 3 manned Mars missions. This is about the annual budget, which is currently spend by the USA only for the operations of its Space Shuttle fleet which

  1. The future of human spaceflight.

    PubMed

    Reichert, M

    2001-01-01

    After the Apollo Moon program, the international space station represents a further milestone of humankind in space, International follow-on programs like a manned return to the Moon and a first manned Mars Mission can be considered as the next logical step. More and more attention is also paid to the topic of future space tourism in Earth orbit, which is currently under investigation in the USA, Japan and Europe due to its multibillion dollar market potential and high acceptance in society. The wide variety of experience, gained within the space station program, should be used in order to achieve time and cost savings for future manned programs. Different strategies and roadmaps are investigated for space tourism and human missions to the Moon and Mars, based on a comprehensive systems analysis approach. By using DLR's software tool FAST (Fast Assessment of Space Technologies), different scenarios will be defined, optimised and finally evaluated with respect to mission architecture, required technologies, total costs and program duration. This includes trajectory analysis, spacecraft design on subsystem level, operations and life cycle cost analysis. For space tourism, an expected evolutionary roadmap will be described which is initiated by short suborbital tourism and ends with visionary designs like the Space Hotel Berlin and the Space Hotel Europe concept. Furthermore the potential space tourism market, its economic meaning as well as the expected range of the costs of a space ticket (e.g. $50,000 for a suborbital flight) will be analysed and quantified. For human missions to the Moon and Mars, an international 20 year program for the first decades of the next millennium is proposed, which requires about $2.5 Billion per year for a manned return to the Moon program and about $2.6 Billion per year for the first 3 manned Mars missions. This is about the annual budget, which is currently spend by the USA only for the operations of its Space Shuttle fleet which

  2. The future of human spaceflight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reichert, M.

    2001-08-01

    After the Apollo Moon program, the international space station represents a further milestone of humankind in space. International follow-on programs like a manned return to the Moon and a first manned Mars Mission can be considered as the next logical step. More and more attention is also paid to the topic of future space tourism in Earth orbit, which is currently under investigation in the USA, Japan and Europe due to its multibillion dollar market potential and high acceptance in society. The wide variety of experience, gained within the space station program, should be used in order to achieve time and cost savings for future manned programs. Different strategies and roadmaps are investigated for space tourism and human missions to the Moon and Mars, based on a comprehensive systems analysis approach. By using DLR's software tool FAST ( Fast Assessment of Space Technologies), different scenarios will be defined, optimised and finally evaluated with respect to mission architecture, required technologies, total costs and program duration. This includes trajectory analysis, spacecraft design on subsystem level, operations and life cycle cost analysis. For space tourism, an expected evolutionary roadmap will be described which is initiated by short suborbital tourism and ends with visionary designs like the Space Hotel Berlin and the Space Hotel Europe concept. Furthermore the potential space tourism market, its economic meaning as well as the expected range of the costs of a space ticket (e.g. 50,000 for a suborbital flight) will be analysed and quantified. For human missions to the Moon and Mars, an international 20 year program for the first decades of the next millennium is proposed, which requires about 2.5 Billion per year for a manned return to the Moon program and about $2.6 Billion per year for the first 3 manned Mars missions. This is about the annual budget, which is currently spend by the USA only for the operations of its Space Shuttle fleet which

  3. Topical Antimicrobials for Burn Wound Infections

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Tianhong; Huang, Ying-Ying; Sharma, Sulbha K.; Hashmi, Javad T.; Kurup, Divya B.; Hamblin, Michael R.

    2010-01-01

    Throughout most of history, serious burns occupying a large percentage of body surface area were an almost certain death sentence because of subsequent infection. A number of factors such as disruption of the skin barrier, ready availability of bacterial nutrients in the burn milieu, destruction of the vascular supply to the burned skin, and systemic disturbances lead to immunosuppression combined together to make burns particularly susceptible to infection. In the 20th century the introduction of antibiotic and antifungal drugs, the use of topical antimicrobials that could be applied to burns, and widespread adoption of early excision and grafting all helped to dramatically increase survival. However the relentless increase in microbial resistance to antibiotics and other antimicrobials has led to a renewed search for alternative approaches to prevent and combat burn infections. This review will cover patented strategies that have been issued or filed with regard to new topical agents, preparations, and methods of combating burn infections. Animal models that are used in preclinical studies are discussed. Various silver preparations (nanocrystalline and slow release) are the mainstay of many approaches but antimicrobial peptides, topical photodynamic therapy, chitosan preparations, new iodine delivery formulations, phage therapy and natural products such as honey and essential oils have all been tested. This active area of research will continue to provide new topical antimicrobials for burns that will battle against growing multi-drug resistance. PMID:20429870

  4. Tracking Multiple Topics for Finding Interesting Articles

    SciTech Connect

    Pon, R K; Cardenas, A F; Buttler, D J; Critchlow, T J

    2007-02-15

    We introduce multiple topic tracking (MTT) for iScore to better recommend news articles for users with multiple interests and to address changes in user interests over time. As an extension of the basic Rocchio algorithm, traditional topic detection and tracking, and single-pass clustering, MTT maintains multiple interest profiles to identify interesting articles for a specific user given user-feedback. Focusing on only interesting topics enables iScore to discard useless profiles to address changes in user interests and to achieve a balance between resource consumption and classification accuracy. Also by relating a topic's interestingness to an article's interestingness, iScore is able to achieve higher quality results than traditional methods such as the Rocchio algorithm. We identify several operating parameters that work well for MTT. Using the same parameters, we show that MTT alone yields high quality results for recommending interesting articles from several corpora. The inclusion of MTT improves iScore's performance by 9% to 14% in recommending news articles from the Yahoo! News RSS feeds and the TREC11 adaptive filter article collection. And through a small user study, we show that iScore can still perform well when only provided with little user feedback.

  5. Attitude Similarity, Topic Importance, and Psychotherapeutic Attraction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheney, Thomas

    1975-01-01

    The effect of attitude similarity and topic importance on attraction was studied by exposing 75 prison inmates, incarcerated for public intoxication, to varying attitudes of a psychotherapist. Subjects were more attracted to the therapist after receiving alcohol items regardless of degree of similarity expressed. (Author)

  6. Gender and Pragmatic Transfer in Topic Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Itakura, Hiroko

    2002-01-01

    Examines whether gender influences pragmatic transfer of topic development behavior in informal conversation by focusing on Japanese learners of English. Analysis of paired first language and second language mixed-gender conversations suggests learners are constrained to gender-specific modes of interaction--meaning male self-oriented and female…

  7. Topical chlormethine hydrochloride causing bullous reaction.

    PubMed

    Ngai, Ka Yan; Chan, Ho Yin; Ng, Fu

    2009-09-01

    We describe a woman misusing chlormethine hydrochloride lotion for vitiligo with dermatological complications of local urticarial and bullous reactions. Presentations, complications, and management of topical chlormethine hydrochloride overdose are discussed. Surface decontamination and follow-up for potential complications are major treatments.

  8. Major Topics of School Business Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, James E., Ed.; Hertz, Karl V., Ed.

    Thirteen articles on major topics facing school business officials in the 1980s are presented in this book. The titles and their authors are (1) "The Pursuit of Equity in Financing Public Education," by R. Craig Wood, Helene B. Jones, and William L. Riley; (2) "Facilities: Major Issues Ahead," by C. William Day; (3) "Cooperative Decision Making in…

  9. Faculty Perspectives on International Accounting Topics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, L. Murphy; Salter, Stephen B.

    1996-01-01

    A survey of 63 professors specializing in international accounting identified the following topics as most important to incorporate into the curriculum: (1) foreign currency translation; (2) international accounting standards; (3) comparative standards and harmonizing of accounting standards; (4) reporting and disclosure problems of multinational…

  10. Nonsteroidal Topical Immunomodulators in Allergology and Dermatology

    PubMed Central

    Jovanović, Marina; Golušin, Zoran

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to review currently available literature data concerning pathomechanisms of action, indications, treatment efficacy, as well as side effects of nonsteroidal immunomodulators used in dermatology, primarily for the treatment of allergic dermatoses. MEDLINE search was undertaken using the key words “Topical Immunomodulators, Dermatology and Allergy”. Full articles, and nothing but full articles, were used. PMID:27144167

  11. Topics for Mathematics Clubs. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dalton, LeRoy C., Ed.; Snyder, Henry D., Ed.

    One of the main purposes of a mathematics club is to provide the opportunity for students to study exciting topics in mathematics not ordinarily discussed in the classroom. Each of the 10 chapters in this booklet is a collection of related subtopics. Each idea is presented and discussed; bibliographies then suggest in-depth reading. The chapters…

  12. Seven topics in functional magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Bandettini, Peter A

    2009-09-01

    Functional MRI (fMRI) is a non-invasive brain imaging methodology that started in 1991 and allows human brain activation to be imaged at high resolution within only a few minutes. Because it has extremely high sensitivity, is relatively easy to implement, and can be performed on most standard clinical MRI scanners. It continues to grow at an explosive rate throughout the world. Over the years, at any given time, fMRI has been defined by only a handful of major topics that have been the focus of researchers using and developing the methodology. In this review, I attempt to take a snapshot of the field of fMRI as it is in mid-2009 by discussing the seven topics that I feel are most on the minds of fMRI researchers. The topics are, in no particular order or grouping: (1) Clinical impact, (2) Utilization of individual functional maps, (3) fMRI signal interpretation, (4) Pattern effect mapping and decoding, (5) Endogenous oscillations, (6) MRI technology, and (7) Alternative functional contrast mechanisms. Most of these topics are highly interdependent, each advancing as the others advance. While most fMRI involves applications towards clinical or neuroscience questions, all applications are fundamentally dependent on advances in basic methodology as well as advances in our understanding of the relationship between neuronal activity and fMRI signal changes. This review neglects almost completely an in-depth discussion of applications. Rather the discussions are on the methods and interpretation.

  13. SEVEN TOPICS IN FUNCTIONAL MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING

    PubMed Central

    BANDETTINI, PETER A.

    2010-01-01

    Functional MRI (fMRI) is a non-invasive brain imaging methodology that started in 1991 and allows human brain activation to be imaged at high resolution within only a few minutes. Because it has extremely high sensitivity, is relatively easy to implement, and can be performed on most standard clinical MRI scanners. It continues to grow at an explosive rate throughout the world. Over the years, at any given time, fMRI has been defined by only a handful of major topics that have been the focus of researchers using and developing the methodology. In this review, I attempt to take a snapshot of the field of fMRI as it is in mid-2009 by discussing the seven topics that I feel are most on the minds of fMRI researchers. The topics are, in no particular order or grouping: (1) Clinical impact, (2) Utilization of individual functional maps, (3) fMRI signal interpretation, (4) Pattern effect mapping and decoding, (5) Endogenous oscillations, (6) MRI technology, and (7) Alternative functional contrast mechanisms. Most of these topics are highly interdependent, each advancing as the others advance. While most fMRI involves applications towards clinical or neuroscience questions, all applications are fundamentally dependent on advances in basic methodology as well as advances in our understanding of the relationship between neuronal activity and fMRI signal changes. This review neglects almost completely an in-depth discussion of applications. Rather the discussions are on the methods and interpretation. PMID:19938211

  14. Anaphylaxis to topically applied sodium fusidate.

    PubMed

    Park, Mi-Ran; Kim, Do-Soo; Kim, Jihyun; Ahn, Kangmo

    2013-03-01

    Fusidic acid is a bacteriostatic antibiotic that is effective primarily on gram-positive bacteria, such as Staphylococcus and Corynebacterium species. It is often topically applied to the skin, but is also given systemically as a tablet or injection. Allergic contact dermatitis, or urticaria, has been reported as a side effect of fusidic acid treatment, whereas anaphylaxis to topically administered fusidic acid has not been reported previously. A 16-year-old boy visited an outpatient clinic for further evaluation of anaphylaxis. He suffered abrasions on his arms during exercise, which were treated with a topical ointment containing sodium fusidate. Within 30 minutes, he developed urticaria and eyelid swelling, followed by a cough and respiratory difficulty. His symptoms were relieved by emergency treatment in a nearby hospital. To investigate the etiology, oral provocation with fusidate was performed. After 125 mg (1/2 tablet) of sodium fusidate was administered, he developed a cough and itching of the throat within 30 minutes, which was followed by chest discomfort and urticaria. Forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) dropped from 4.09 L at baseline to 3.50 L after challenge, although wheezing was not heard in his chest. After management with an inhaled bronchodilator using a nebulizer, chest discomfort was relieved and FEV1 rose to 3.86 L. The patient was directed not to use fusidate, especially on abrasions. Here we report the first case of anaphylaxis resulting from topical fusidic acid application to abrasions. PMID:23450038

  15. Common Core: Teaching Optimum Topic Exploration (TOTE)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karge, Belinda Dunnick; Moore, Roxane Kushner

    2015-01-01

    The Common Core has become a household term and yet many educators do not understand what it means. This article explains the historical perspectives of the Common Core and gives guidance to teachers in application of Teaching Optimum Topic Exploration (TOTE) necessary for full implementation of the Common Core State Standards. An effective…

  16. Teaching Mathematical Trade Topics for Conceptual Understanding.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larkin, Alan; Phillips, Keith

    This book is intended to assist trade and industrial education teachers in teaching mathematical trade topics in a way that will increase students' conceptual understanding of them. The first chapter provides an overview of the book's contents and suggests ways of using it. The next five chapters address the following aspects of using principles…

  17. Space Perception: A Topic of Interdisciplinary Interest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kramm, Kenneth R.; Kramm, Deborah A.

    1977-01-01

    Presents space perception as an important interdisciplinary topic. A unit on space perception in a senior-level animal behavior course is described. The unit is introduced with a survey of how the students describe areas around them. The survey is followed by a discussion on personal space. (HM)

  18. Hot topics in flavor physics at CDF

    SciTech Connect

    Jun, Soon Yung; /Carnegie Mellon U.

    2005-01-01

    Hot topics in flavor physics at CDF are reviewed. Selected results of top, beauty, charm physics and exotic states in about 200 pb{sup -1} data collected by the CDF II detector in p{bar p} collisions at {radical}s = 1.96 TeV at the Fermilab Tevatron are presented.

  19. It's Elementary: Special Topics in Elementary Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crawford, Patricia A., Ed.; Burriss, Kathleen Glascott, Ed.

    As elementary teachers work to educate and meet the needs of the students in their care, their job has become increasingly challenging and demanding. This volume addresses a variety of issues and topics related to elementary education around eight sectional themes relevant to the work of elementary teachers: celebrating diversity, classroom…

  20. Topics in physico-chemical hydrodynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Sivashinsky, G.

    1989-01-01

    This paper discusses the following topics: theory of turbulent flame speed; flame extinction by periodic flow-field; influence of swirl on the structure and extinction of premixed flames; propagation and extinction of nonsteady spherical flame fronts; geometrically invariant formulation of intrinsic dynamics of premixed flames; nonlinear dynamics of oscillatory regime of premixed combustion; and pattern formation in premixed flames. (LSP)

  1. Image Search Reranking With Hierarchical Topic Awareness.

    PubMed

    Tian, Xinmei; Yang, Linjun; Lu, Yijuan; Tian, Qi; Tao, Dacheng

    2015-10-01

    With much attention from both academia and industrial communities, visual search reranking has recently been proposed to refine image search results obtained from text-based image search engines. Most of the traditional reranking methods cannot capture both relevance and diversity of the search results at the same time. Or they ignore the hierarchical topic structure of search result. Each topic is treated equally and independently. However, in real applications, images returned for certain queries are naturally in hierarchical organization, rather than simple parallel relation. In this paper, a new reranking method "topic-aware reranking (TARerank)" is proposed. TARerank describes the hierarchical topic structure of search results in one model, and seamlessly captures both relevance and diversity of the image search results simultaneously. Through a structured learning framework, relevance and diversity are modeled in TARerank by a set of carefully designed features, and then the model is learned from human-labeled training samples. The learned model is expected to predict reranking results with high relevance and diversity for testing queries. To verify the effectiveness of the proposed method, we collect an image search dataset and conduct comparison experiments on it. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed TARerank outperforms the existing relevance-based and diversified reranking methods.

  2. Selected Topics in International Special Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Nancy

    2002-01-01

    This article provides information on special education topics on the international front. Information is presented on projects that evaluated early intervention programs, a life-centered career education program in the Philippines, a Peruvian vocational program for individuals with severe disabilities, and special classes for children with…

  3. Expose Mechanical Engineering Students to Biomechanics Topics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shen, Hui

    2011-01-01

    To adapt the focus of engineering education to emerging new industries and technologies nationwide and in the local area, a biomechanics module has been developed and incorporated into a mechanical engineering technical elective course to expose mechanical engineering students at ONU (Ohio Northern University) to the biomedical engineering topics.…

  4. The future of community psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Carl I; Feiner, Joel S; Huffine, Charles; Moffic, H Steven; Thompson, Kenneth S

    2003-10-01

    Leaders of national groups that have focused on issues of community and social psychiatry present their ideas about the future of psychiatry. They identify five areas: theory development; the relevance of community psychiatry in the 21st century; education and training; the relationship between community psychiatry and health maintenance organizations; and role of community psychiatry in bridging medical science with humanism. The unifying theme for these topics is that community psychiatry can be a vehicle for modifying general psychiatry's propensity towards individualism and reductionism by offering a more holistic and integrative approach to illness and well-being.

  5. Topics in linear optical quantum computation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glancy, Scott Charles

    This thesis covers several topics in optical quantum computation. A quantum computer is a computational device which is able to manipulate information by performing unitary operations on some physical system whose state can be described as a vector (or mixture of vectors) in a Hilbert space. The basic unit of information, called the qubit, is considered to be a system with two orthogonal states, which are assigned logical values of 0 and 1. Photons make excellent candidates to serve as qubits. They have little interactions with the environment. Many operations can be performed using very simple linear optical devices such as beam splitters and phase shifters. Photons can easily be processed through circuit-like networks. Operations can be performed in very short times. Photons are ideally suited for the long-distance communication of quantum information. The great difficulty in constructing an optical quantum computer is that photons naturally interact weakly with one another. This thesis first gives a brief review of two early approaches to optical quantum computation. It will describe how any discrete unitary operation can be performed using a single photon and a network of beam splitters, and how the Kerr effect can be used to construct a two photon logic gate. Second, this work provides a thorough introduction to the linear optical quantum computer developed by Knill, Laflamme, and Milburn. It then presents this author's results on the reliability of this scheme when implemented using imperfect photon detectors. This author finds that quantum computers of this sort cannot be built using current technology. Third, this dissertation describes a method for constructing a linear optical quantum computer using nearly orthogonal coherent states of light as the qubits. It shows how a universal set of logic operations can be performed, including calculations of the fidelity with which these operations may be accomplished. It discusses methods for reducing and

  6. Climate Change Impacts on Forest Succession and Future Productivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohan, J. E.; Melillo, J. M.; Clark, J. S.; Schlesinger, W. H.

    2012-12-01

    Change in ecosystem carbon (C) dynamics with forest succession is a long-studied topic in ecology, and secondary forests currently comprise a significant proportion of the global land base. Although mature forests are generally more important for conserving species and habitats, early successional trees and stands typically have higher rates of productivity, including net ecosystem productivity (NEP), which represents carbon available for sequestration. Secondary forests undergoing successional development are thus major players in the current global carbon cycle, yet how forests will function in the future under warmer conditions with higher atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations is unknown. Future forest C dynamics will depend, in part, on future species composition. Data from "Forests of the Future" research in a number of global change experiments provide insights into how forests may look in terms of dominant species composition, and thus function, in a future world. Studies at Free-Air Carbon Dioxide (FACE) experiments at Duke Forest and other facilities, plus climate warming experiments such as those at the Harvard Forest, suggest a common underlying principle of vegetation responses to environmental manipulation: Namely, that shade-tolerant woody species associating with arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi show greater growth stimulation than ectomycorrhizal-associating (ECM) trees which are more common in temperate and boreal forests (Fig. 1 of relative growth rates standardized by pre-treatment rates). This may be due in part to the role of AM fungi in obtaining soil phosphorus and inorganic forms of nitrogen for plant associates. In combination, these results suggest a shift in future forest composition towards less-productive tree species that generally acquire atmospheric CO2 at lower annual rates, as well as a competitive advantage extended to woody vines such as poison ivy. Due to higher atmospheric CO2 and warmer temperatures, forests of the

  7. The use of topical fluoride to prevent or reverse dental caries.

    PubMed

    Jacobsen, Peter; Young, Douglas

    2003-01-01

    Topical fluoride has been the main stay of caries prevention for many decades. There are several mechanisms which make it beneficial including inhibiting demineralization, enhancing remineralization, and inhibiting bacterial growth. Topical fluoride is available in many different forms. The concentrations of various fluoride preparations range from 225 parts per million (ppm) fluoride in over-the-counter oral rinses to 22,600 ppm in the fluoride varnishes. The clinician must decide which type of topical preparation is best suited for their patient. Patients with high caries risk may benefit from prescription strength fluorides (along with the other chemical and dietary therapies described in this issue of Special Care in Dentistry). The application of fluoride varnish is an excellent topical form for those patients who have access to dental care and for whom it is difficult to comply with the use of other topical forms.

  8. Advanced control technology and its potential for future transport aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    The topics covered include fly by wire, digital control, control configured vehicles, applications to advanced flight vehicles, advanced propulsion control systems, and active control technology for transport aircraft.

  9. Assessing adherence factors in patients under topical treatment: development of the Topical Therapy Adherence Questionnaire (TTAQ).

    PubMed

    Zschocke, Ina; Mrowietz, Ulrich; Lotzin, Annett; Karakasili, Eleni; Reich, Kristian

    2014-04-01

    Medication adherence rates strongly depend on favorable disease outcomes. It is known that medication adherence rates are lower for topical treatment than for systemic treatment. However, to date no validated instrument for the assessment of adherence factors in topical treatment is available. The aim of this study was to develop a new questionnaire to assess adherence risk factors in topical treatment. The development of the Topical Therapy Adherence Questionnaire (TTAQ) and Patient Preference Questionnaire (PPQ) was based on a systematic literature review, and qualitative patient focus interviews and expert focus groups' input. The psychometric properties and comprehensibility of the TTAQ and PPQ were assessed in a feasibility study with 59 psoriasis patients. Our first preliminary results indicate that the TTAQ and PPQ are psychometrically sound and reliable measures for the assessment of factors influencing topical treatment adherence. The questionnaires are currently being further developed and various parameters (e.g., time point of assessment) are currently being tested in an exploratory pilot study with ca. 2,000 psoriasis patients receiving topical treatment in a European clinical trial. The use of the final versions of TTAQ and PPQ in clinical practice may facilitate the early identification of specific non-adherence factors in patients under topical treatment, which could enable designing and applying adherence-enhancing interventions according to the patient's individual needs.

  10. Topic segmentation via community detection in complex networks.

    PubMed

    de Arruda, Henrique F; Costa, Luciano da F; Amancio, Diego R

    2016-06-01

    Many real systems have been modeled in terms of network concepts, and written texts are a particular example of information networks. In recent years, the use of network methods to analyze language has allowed the discovery of several interesting effects, including the proposition of novel models to explain the emergence of fundamental universal patterns. While syntactical networks, one of the most prevalent networked models of written texts, display both scale-free and small-world properties, such a representation fails in capturing other textual features, such as the organization in topics or subjects. We propose a novel network representation whose main purpose is to capture the semantical relationships of words in a simple way. To do so, we link all words co-occurring in the same semantic context, which is defined in a threefold way. We show that the proposed representations favor the emergence of communities of semantically related words, and this feature may be used to identify relevant topics. The proposed methodology to detect topics was applied to segment selected Wikipedia articles. We found that, in general, our methods outperform traditional bag-of-words representations, which suggests that a high-level textual representation may be useful to study the semantical features of texts. PMID:27368785

  11. Methodologies for medication adherence evaluation: Focus on psoriasis topical treatment.

    PubMed

    Teixeira, Ana; Teixeira, Maribel; Almeida, Vera; Torres, Tiago; Sousa Lobo, José Manuel; Almeida, Isabel Filipa

    2016-05-01

    Adherence to topical treatment has been less studied in comparison with systemic therapeutic regimens and is poorly understood. High-quality research on this area is essential to outline a strategy to increase medication adherence and clinical outcomes. For a more comprehensive understanding of this issue, a systematic review of the methodologies for topical treatment adherence evaluation in psoriasis was undertaken. Twenty one studies were selected from the literature which used six different adherence methodologies. Merely three studies used multiple adherence measurement methods. The most used method was questionnaire (44%) which was also associated with higher variability of the adherence results. One possible explanation is the lack of a validated questionnaire designed specifically for the evaluation of adherence to topical treatment. Only one method (medication weight) takes into consideration the applied dose. However, the estimation of the expected weight is complex, which renders this method, as used presently, less effective. The use of a dosing device could improve its accuracy and be helpful to clearly instruct the patients about the correct dose. As there is no single method that allows an accurate and complete assessment of adherence it is recommended to use a combination of methods, including self-report and medicines' weight measurements.

  12. Compatibility of a protein topical gel with wound dressings.

    PubMed

    Ji, Junyan A; Borisov, Oleg; Ingham, Erika; Ling, Victor; Wang, Y John

    2009-02-01

    The compatibility between several dressing materials and a recombinant human vascular endothelial growth factor (rhVEGF) topical methylcellulose gel formulation was investigated. The dressings being studied were Adaptic, Non-stick Dressing, Conformant 2, Opsite and Tegapore. The criteria to select a compatible dressing include protein stability, absence of leachables from the dressing, and ability to retain gel on wound. An LC-MS method with sample treatment using cellulase was developed to determine protein oxidation in gel formulations. Results showed that rhVEGF was significantly oxidized by Adaptic dressing in 24 h. Protein oxidation was likely due to the peroxides, as determined by FOX assay, released into the protein solution from the dressing. Furthermore, Adaptic dressing caused protein adsorption loss, formation of high MW protein adducts, and released leachables as determined by RP-HPLC, LC-MS, and SEC. No protein oxidation or loss was observed after exposure to the other four alternative dressings. However, unknown leachables were detected in the presence of Opsite and Non-stick Dressing. The pore sizes of the Conformant 2 and Non-stick dressings were too large to hold the topical gel within the wound area, making them unsuitable for patient use. No rhVEGF bioactivity loss was observed in the presence of Tegapore. In conclusion, Tegapore was considered suitable for the rhVEGF topical gel.

  13. Topic segmentation via community detection in complex networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Arruda, Henrique F.; Costa, Luciano da F.; Amancio, Diego R.

    2016-06-01

    Many real systems have been modeled in terms of network concepts, and written texts are a particular example of information networks. In recent years, the use of network methods to analyze language has allowed the discovery of several interesting effects, including the proposition of novel models to explain the emergence of fundamental universal patterns. While syntactical networks, one of the most prevalent networked models of written texts, display both scale-free and small-world properties, such a representation fails in capturing other textual features, such as the organization in topics or subjects. We propose a novel network representation whose main purpose is to capture the semantical relationships of words in a simple way. To do so, we link all words co-occurring in the same semantic context, which is defined in a threefold way. We show that the proposed representations favor the emergence of communities of semantically related words, and this feature may be used to identify relevant topics. The proposed methodology to detect topics was applied to segment selected Wikipedia articles. We found that, in general, our methods outperform traditional bag-of-words representations, which suggests that a high-level textual representation may be useful to study the semantical features of texts.

  14. Topical Treatment of Nonhealing Venous Leg Ulcer with Propolis Ointment

    PubMed Central

    Kucharzewski, M.; Kózka, M.; Urbanek, T.

    2013-01-01

    An investigation of effectiveness of topical treatment of nonhealing chronic venous leg ulcers with propolis ointment was conducted. 56 patients were included in the study and randomized into two groups. In group 1, there were 28 patients (ulceration area: 6.9–9.78 cm2) treated by means of topical propolis ointment application and short stretch bandage compression. In group 2, there were 29 patients (ulceration area: 7.2–9.4 cm2) treated by means of Unna boot leg compression without topical propolis treatment. In the study, the efficacy of both treatment methods in patients with resistive venous leg ulcers was compared. The ulceration of patients from group 1 healed completely after 6 weeks of therapy in all cases. In all patients from group 2, the process of healing was longer but successfully completed after 16 weeks of the therapy. We found that an adjunctive propolis ointment treatment increases the efficacy of the short stretch bandage compression stocking, and this combined treatment is more effective than Unna's boot compression alone. PMID:23662121

  15. Distributed search engine architecture based on topic specific searches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abudaqqa, Yousra; Patel, Ahmed

    2015-05-01

    Indisputably, search engines (SEs) abound. The monumental growth of users performing online searches on the Web is a contending issue in the contemporary world nowadays. For example, there are tens of billions of searches performed everyday, which typically offer the users many irrelevant results which are time consuming and costly to the user. Based on the afore-going problem it has become a herculean task for existing Web SEs to provide complete, relevant and up-to-date information response to users' search queries. To overcome this problem, we developed the Distributed Search Engine Architecture (DSEA), which is a new means of smart information query and retrieval of the World Wide Web (WWW). In DSEAs, multiple autonomous search engines, owned by different organizations or individuals, cooperate and act as a single search engine. This paper includes the work reported in this research focusing on development of DSEA, based on topic-specific specialised search engines. In DSEA, the results to specific queries could be provided by any of the participating search engines, for which the user is unaware of. The important design goal of using topic-specific search engines in the research is to build systems that can effectively be used by larger number of users simultaneously. Efficient and effective usage with good response is important, because it involves leveraging the vast amount of searched data from the World Wide Web, by categorising it into condensed focused topic -specific results that meet the user's queries. This design model and the development of the DSEA adopt a Service Directory (SD) to route queries towards topic-specific document hosting SEs. It displays the most acceptable performance which is consistent with the requirements of the users. The evaluation results of the model return a very high priority score which is associated with each frequency of a keyword.

  16. Acetylcholine: future research and perspectives.

    PubMed

    Van der Zee, E A; Platt, B; Riedel, G

    2011-08-10

    Ever since the initial description of chemical transmission in the early part of the 20th century and the identification of acetylcholine (ACh) as the first such transmitter, interests grew to define the multiple facets of its functions. This multitude is only partially covered here, but even in the areas preselected for this special issue, research on the cholinergic system is still thriving. Notwithstanding an impressive amount of knowledge that has been accumulated, partly triggered by the cholinergic hypothesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD [1]), the different reviews in this issue not only summarise our current state of the art, they also highlight that this field has still large potential for future development. Taken from these reviews, we here pinpoint several topics fit for future attention.

  17. RHIC progress and future

    SciTech Connect

    Montag,C.

    2009-05-04

    The talk reviews RHIC performance, including unprecedented manipulations of polarized beams and recent low energy operations. Achievements and limiting factors of RHIC operation are discussed, such as intrabeam scattering, electron cloud, beam-beam effects, magnet vibrations, and the efficiency of novel countermeasures such as bunched beam stochastic cooling, beam scrubbing and chamber coatings. Future upgrade plans and the pertinent R&D program will also be presented.

  18. 21 CFR 868.5170 - Laryngotracheal topical anesthesia applicator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Laryngotracheal topical anesthesia applicator. 868... topical anesthesia applicator. (a) Identification. A laryngotracheal topical anesthesia applicator is a device used to apply topical anesthetics to a patient's laryngotracheal area. (b) Classification....

  19. 21 CFR 868.5170 - Laryngotracheal topical anesthesia applicator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Laryngotracheal topical anesthesia applicator. 868... topical anesthesia applicator. (a) Identification. A laryngotracheal topical anesthesia applicator is a device used to apply topical anesthetics to a patient's laryngotracheal area. (b) Classification....

  20. Discrepancies among Teachers' Priorities for and Knowledge of Freshwater Topics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fortner, Rosanne W.; Meyer, Richard L.

    2000-01-01

    Teachers were asked to examine a list of water topics, assign a level of priority for their students to know about each topic, then report on their own knowledge level and the amount of teaching they do on the topics. Indicates that topics such as basic water properties and wetlands that had high priorities among teachers were not accompanied by…

  1. Selecting Topics for Journals: Some Advice for Beginners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maddux, Cleborne D.

    2004-01-01

    This article provides suggestions for prospective authors searching for topics for manuscripts. The article first provides examples of topics for non-data-based articles, then for research topics. Authors are invited to submit manuscripts on these, and on any other topics to this journal.

  2. Business Education Research: Identification and Prioritization of Topics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rader, Martha H.; Wilhelm, William J.

    2002-01-01

    Using an affinity diagram, business educators generated 110 research topics. In a two-round modified Delphi, 15 business educators aggregated, categorized, and rank ordered the topics. Topics related to workplace soft skills, business communication, technology, and distance learning ranked highest. Topics related to traditional business education…

  3. Space Resources for Teachers: Biology, Including Suggestions for Classroom Activities and Laboratory Experiments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Tom E.; And Others

    This compilation of resource units concerns the latest developments in space biology. Some of the topics included are oxygen consumption, temperature, radiation, rhythms, weightlessness, acceleration and vibration stress, toxicity, and sensory and perceptual problems. Many of the topics are interdisciplinary and relate biology, physiology,…

  4. Phototriggerable Liposomes: Current Research and Future Perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Puri, Anu

    2013-01-01

    The field of cancer nanomedicine is considered a promising area for improved delivery of bioactive molecules including drugs, pharmaceutical agents and nucleic acids. Among these, drug delivery technology has made discernible progress in recent years and the areas that warrant further focus and consideration towards technological developments have also been recognized. Development of viable methods for on-demand spatial and temporal release of entrapped drugs from the nanocarriers is an arena that is likely to enhance the clinical suitability of drug-loaded nanocarriers. One such approach, which utilizes light as the external stimulus to disrupt and/or destabilize drug-loaded nanoparticles, will be the discussion platform of this article. Although several phototriggerable nanocarriers are currently under development, I will limit this review to the phototriggerable liposomes that have demonstrated promise in the cell culture systems at least (but not the last). The topics covered in this review include (i) a brief summary of various phototriggerable nanocarriers; (ii) an overview of the application of liposomes to deliver payload of photosensitizers and associated technologies; (iii) the design considerations of photoactivable lipid molecules and the chemical considerations and mechanisms of phototriggering of liposomal lipids; (iv) limitations and future directions for in vivo, clinically viable triggered drug delivery approaches and potential novel photoactivation strategies will be discussed. PMID:24662363

  5. Frey's syndrome: treatment with topical glycopyrrolate.

    PubMed

    May, J S; McGuirt, W F

    1989-01-01

    Gustatory sweating and flushing of the facial skin, or Frey's syndrome, is fairly common after parotidectomy. The most likely mechanism is aberrant reinnervation of the sweat glands of the face by the severed parotid parasympathetic nerve fibers. A survey of 61 patients having undergone parotidectomy yielded 29 (47.5%) with gustatory sweating. Twenty-three percent (14 patients) considered the symptoms severe. In a double-blind study, five of those 14 patients were alternately treated with topically applied placebo and with glycopyrrolate (an anticholinergic agent) as 0.5% lotion, 2% lotion, and 2% cream. All five patients showed some improvement with the test preparations, but had longer lasting and more effective lessening of symptoms with the 2% glycopyrrolate preparations. There were no adverse side effects. We therefore believe that the topical application of a 2% glycopyrrolate preparation is a safe and effective treatment for severe gustatory sweating following parotidectomy.

  6. Safety Evaluation of Topical Valproate Application

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Sun Young; Seop, Song Yi; Hyun, Moo Yeol; Yoo, Kwang Ho; Kim, Beom Joon; Kim, Myeung Nam; Cho, Jae-We

    2013-01-01

    The potential role of topical valproate (VPA) in hair regrowth has been recently suggested. However, safety reports of VPA as a topical formulation are lacking. Therefore, in the present study, we investigated whether VPA causes skin irritation in humans. We first performed a cell viability test and showed that VPA did not exhibit toxicity toward HaCaT keratinocytes, fibroblasts, and RBL-3H mast cells. We then performed clinical patch test and skin irritation test through transdermal drug delivery with the help of microneedle rollers. No significant findings were obtained in the clinical patch test. In the skin irritation test, only 1 patient showed erythema at 1 hr, but the irritation reaction faded away within a few hours. Erythema and edema were not observed at 24 hr. We concluded that VPA has minimal potential to elicit skin irritation. Therefore, we consider that VPA can safely be applied to human skin. PMID:24278633

  7. Nanoparticles and nanofibers for topical drug delivery

    PubMed Central

    Goyal, Ritu; Macri, Lauren K.; Kaplan, Hilton M.; Kohn, Joachim

    2016-01-01

    This review provides the first comprehensive overview of the use of both nanoparticles and nanofibers for topical drug delivery. Researchers have explored the use of nanotechnology, specifically nanoparticles and nanofibers, as drug delivery systems for topical and transdermal applications. This approach employs increased drug concentration in the carrier, in order to increase drug flux into and through the skin. Both nanoparticles and nanofibers can be used to deliver hydrophobic and hydrophilic drugs and are capable of controlled release for a prolonged period of time. The examples presented provide significant evidence that this area of research has—and will continue to have — a profound impact on both clinical outcomes and the development of new products. PMID:26518723

  8. Topics and sources of memorable breast cancer messages and their impact on prevention and detection behaviors.

    PubMed

    Smith, Sandi W; Nazione, Samantha; Laplante, Carolyn; Kotowski, Michael R; Atkin, Charles; Skubisz, Christine M; Stohl, Cynthia

    2009-01-01

    Often, people are able to recall a message on a particular topic for a long period of time. These memorable messages have the ability to influence behavior when they are recalled from memory long after initial exposure. Knowing the topics and sources of the messages that are remembered about breast cancer can improve the efficacy of future breast cancer outreach. To this end, 359 women completed an online survey about memorable breast cancer messages. Most women (60%) recalled a memorable message, described it, identified its source, and noted whether it had resulted in prevention or detection behaviors. Four categories of message topics emerged: early detection (37.3%), awareness (30.9%), treatment (25.8%), and prevention (6%). Furthermore, five categories of sources of these memorable messages were found: media (35.5%), friends (22.2%), family (21.6%), medical professionals (15.2%), and others (5.5%). The media were a major source of all four topics of messages, although family members, friends, and the medical community were major sources for particular message topics as well. Memorable messages originating from medical professionals were substantially more likely to motivate detection behaviors than prevention behaviors. This research demonstrates that message topic and source both play roles in determining message recall as well as in determining how memorable messages impacted behavior.

  9. Topics and sources of memorable breast cancer messages and their impact on prevention and detection behaviors.

    PubMed

    Smith, Sandi W; Nazione, Samantha; Laplante, Carolyn; Kotowski, Michael R; Atkin, Charles; Skubisz, Christine M; Stohl, Cynthia

    2009-01-01

    Often, people are able to recall a message on a particular topic for a long period of time. These memorable messages have the ability to influence behavior when they are recalled from memory long after initial exposure. Knowing the topics and sources of the messages that are remembered about breast cancer can improve the efficacy of future breast cancer outreach. To this end, 359 women completed an online survey about memorable breast cancer messages. Most women (60%) recalled a memorable message, described it, identified its source, and noted whether it had resulted in prevention or detection behaviors. Four categories of message topics emerged: early detection (37.3%), awareness (30.9%), treatment (25.8%), and prevention (6%). Furthermore, five categories of sources of these memorable messages were found: media (35.5%), friends (22.2%), family (21.6%), medical professionals (15.2%), and others (5.5%). The media were a major source of all four topics of messages, although family members, friends, and the medical community were major sources for particular message topics as well. Memorable messages originating from medical professionals were substantially more likely to motivate detection behaviors than prevention behaviors. This research demonstrates that message topic and source both play roles in determining message recall as well as in determining how memorable messages impacted behavior. PMID:19440911

  10. Future Aspects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pilato, Louis

    There are some disturbing signs that appear on the horizon as phenolic resins enter their second century of existence. The large area of wood adhesives application (~60% of the total volume of phenolic resins in North America) is under intense pressure due to many factors that are contributing to continuing reduction in the sales volume of wood adhesives. These factors include the known slow cure speed of phenolic resins compared to Urea Formaldehyde (UF), Melamine Formaldehyde (MF), or Methylene Diphenyl Isocyanate (MDI); installation of new machinery/ equipment with fast continuous lines; continued decrease in plywood consumption at the expense of Oriented Strand Board (OSB) where phenolic resin is the preferred adhesive for plywood; further reduction in formaldehyde emissions through California Air Resources Board (CARB) Phase I and Phase II; uncertainty of whether formaldehyde will be identified as a human carcinogen pending the anticipated 2009 study; and the environmental movement to reduce or eliminate formaldehyde-containing resins in wood and thermal insulation consumer products (U.S. Green Building Council and other Environmental groups like the Sierra Club). Consumers are being urged by environmental organizations to purchase composite wood products with lower formaldehyde emission levels or none at all. This is illustrated by examining the news media reports after the Hurricane Katrina in 2005. The home trailers provided by the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) that were used for Louisiana and Mississippi residents after Katrina hurricane as temporary housing further accelerated concerns over formaldehyde emissions since higher than typical indoor exposure levels of formaldehyde in travel trailers and mobile homes were determined for the FEMA trailers.

  11. Topical minoxidil for extended areate alopecia.

    PubMed

    Frentz, G

    1985-01-01

    A double-blind cross over study on the effect of 3 months' treatment with 1% topical minoxidil on 23 individuals with alopecia areata was performed. Thirteen of the patients showed some increase in terminal hair growth, the difference between the number of responders to placebo and minoxidil lotion being significant (p less than 0.005). However, in one case only, the result was cosmetically satisfying. In two male patients the blood pressure increased coinciding with the withdrawal of the minoxidil lotion.

  12. Devices and topical agents for rosacea management.

    PubMed

    Mansouri, Yasaman; Goldenberg, Gary

    2014-07-01

    Rosacea is a chronic inflammatory disease that predominantly affects facial skin in light-skinned individuals and can be divided into 4 subtypes. Patients can display signs of more than 1 subtype. Diffuse facial erythema is a common finding in rosacea patients and can lead to persistent erythema. Although there is no cure for rosacea, reduction of signs and symptoms can be achieved via various treatment modalities. This article reviews devices and topical agents currently available for the management of rosacea. PMID:25101340

  13. Recent Topics in Instrumentation and Measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanabe, Kazuo; Fukuchi, Tetsuo; Arakawa, Satoru; Sayama, Shuji

    Instrumentation and measurement play a vital role in research and development in the science and engineering fields. Recently, the goals of instrumentation and measurement have expanded to meet not only the industrial and science requirements but also the needs in all fields of social life, such as medicine and welfare, the environment, and disaster and security. In this article, recent technical topics in the instrumentation and measurement field are reported.

  14. Corneal Infection Therapy with Topical Bacteriophage Administration

    PubMed Central

    Fadlallah, Ali; Chelala, Elias; Legeais, Jean-Marc

    2015-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a major pathogen in bacterial keratitis, a vision-threatening disease. Although the incidence of S. aureus keratitis varies worldwide, the increasing trend of resistance to certain antibiotics makes this condition an important, global, healthcare concern. We report the case of a 65-year-old woman with nosocomial left-eye corneal abscess and interstitial keratitis.The patient then undergo topical Phage therapy with successful results. PMID:26862360

  15. Design of acid-responsive polymeric nanoparticles for 7,3',4'-trihydroxyisoflavone topical administration.

    PubMed

    Huang, Pao-Hsien; Hu, Stephen Chu-Sung; Lee, Chiang-Wen; Yeh, An-Chi; Tseng, Chih-Hua; Yen, Feng-Lin

    2016-01-01

    7,3',4'-Trihydroxyisoflavone (734THIF) is a secondary metabolite of daidzein and has been recently found to possess antioxidant, melanin inhibition, and skin cancer chemopreventive activities. However, the poor water solubility of 734THIF impedes its absorption and skin penetration and, therefore, limits its pharmacological effects when applied topically to the skin. We seek to use the nanoprecipitation method to prepare optimal eudragit E100 (EE)-polyvinyl alcohol (PVA)-loaded 734THIF nanoparticles (734N) to improve its physicochemical properties and thereby increase its water solubility, skin penetration, and biological activities. EE-PVA-loaded 734THIF nanoparticles (734N) were prepared, and their morphology and particle size were evaluated using a particle size analyzer and by electron microscopy. The drug loading and encapsulation efficiencies and in vitro solubility were determined using high-performance liquid chromatography. Hydrogen-bond formation was evaluated by (1)H-nuclear magnetic resonance and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and crystalline-to-amorphous transformation was determined by differential scanning calorimetry and X-ray diffractometry. In vitro skin penetration was analyzed using fresh pig skin mounted on Franz diffusion cells, and cytotoxicity against human keratinocyte HaCaT cells was evaluated using the MTT assay. Antioxidant activity was determined by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl-free radical scavenging ability. EE-PVA-loaded 734THIF nanoparticles showed good drug loading and encapsulation efficiencies and were characterized by improved physicochemical properties, including reduction in particle size, amorphous transformation, and intermolecular hydrogen-bond formation. This is associated with increased water solubility and enhanced in vitro skin penetration, with no cytotoxicity toward HaCaT cells. In addition, 734THIF nanoparticles retained their antioxidant activity. In conclusion, 734THIF nanoparticles are characterized by

  16. Tracking Multiple Topics for Finding Interesting Articles

    SciTech Connect

    Pon, R K; Cardenas, A F; Buttler, D J; Critchlow, T J

    2008-01-03

    We introduce multiple topic tracking (MTT) for iScore to better recommend news articles for users with multiple interests and to address changes in user interests over time. As an extension of the basic Rocchio algorithm, traditional topic detection and tracking, and single-pass clustering, MTT maintains multiple interest profiles to identify interesting articles for a specific user given user-feedback. Focusing on only interesting topics enables iScore to discard useless profiles to address changes in user interests and to achieve a balance between resource consumption and classification accuracy. iScore is able to achieve higher quality results than traditional methods such as the Rocchio algorithm. We identify several operating parameters that work well for MTT. Using the same parameters, we show that MTT alone yields high quality results for recommending interesting articles from several corpora. The inclusion of MTT improves iScore's performance by 25% in recommending news articles from the Yahoo! News RSS feeds and the TREC11 adaptive filter article collection. And through a small user study, we show that iScore can still perform well when only provided with little user feedback.

  17. Topical rebamipide improves lid wiper epitheliopathy

    PubMed Central

    Itakura, Hirotaka; Kashima, Tomoyuki; Itakura, Mariko; Akiyama, Hideo; Kishi, Shoji

    2013-01-01

    Administration of topical rebamipide increases the mucin level of tear film and improves the ocular surface in short break-up time type of dry eye. Lid wiper epitheliopathy (LWE) is a disorder of the marginal conjunctiva of the upper eyelid with dry eye symptoms. LWE may be related to mechanical forces during blinking resulting in inflammation of the ocular surface. Rebamipide also has various anti-inflammatory effects. In this report, we tried treatment with topical rebamipide for two cases of LWE. One case had been treated with sodium hyaluronate ophthalmic solution and diquafosol sodium eye drops by other doctors for several weeks. The other case was not previously treated. In both cases, fluorescein staining of the cornea and lid margin was remarkably improved, ocular symptoms decreased, and tear film break-up times increased with rebamipide eye drops four times daily for 2–3 weeks. Topical rebamipide was effective for corneal and conjunctival disorders in LWE. This drug may provide a novel approach to the treatment of LWE. PMID:24204116

  18. Topical antimicrobial toolkit for wound infection.

    PubMed

    Woo, Kevin Y; Alam, Tarik; Marin, Joseph

    2014-11-01

    Increased bacterial burden and formation of biofilm has been recognized as one of the key factors contributing to delayed wound healing. There is a toolbox of topical antimicrobial wound dressings that incorporate silver, iodine, polyhexamethylene biguanide, methylene blue/gentian violet, and honey. This article reviews a diverse range of evidence to discuss the advantages and disadvantage of topical antimicrobial dressings. Discussion will provide guidance on when and how to use topical antimicrobial dressings to achieve optimal outcomes and cost-effective wound care. Chronic wounds do not follow a predictable and expected healing trajectory, and they may persist for months or years due to underlying disease processes, recurrent injury, and comorbidities.1 With an aging population and increased prevalence of chronic diseases, the majority of wounds are refractory to healing, placing a significant burden on the health system and individual patients. Bacterial burden and biofilm have been recognized as key factors contributing to persistent inflammation, tissue destruction, delayed wound healing, and other serious complications (especially in individuals who are frail and immune-compromised).2 It has been demonstrated that when bacterial growth reaches a critical threshold of 105 bacteria per gram of tissue, bacterial toxins can cause tissue damage in the superficial wound compartment, delaying healing.2 In the literature, this phenomenon is referred to as critical colonization, increased bacterial burden, superficial infection, or localized infection. According to a recent review, over 50% of chronic wounds exhibit signs and symptoms that are consistent with localized infection.3.

  19. Essays on the Future of Continuing Education Worldwide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ziegler, Warren L., Ed.

    Topics chosen for these eight seminar papers divide basically into three categories: discussions on processes and methods for planning for the future of adult education; attempts to project into the future such worldwide problems as urbanism, conflict, the population explosion, and specific adult education trends; and discussion of the current…

  20. Commentary: The Past and Present of the Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedman, William J.

    2011-01-01

    Recent research on children's thinking about the future has taken multiple directions, many of which are illustrated in the contributions to this special issue. In this commentary the topic is discussed in the context of research on children's understanding of time, and some of the adaptive challenges of thinking about the future are considered.…

  1. Future integrated design process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyer, D. D.

    1980-01-01

    The design process is one of the sources used to produce requirements for a computer system to integrate and manage product design data, program management information, and technical computation and engineering data management activities of the aerospace design process. Design activities were grouped chronologically and explored for activity type, activity interface, data quantity, and data flow. The work was based on analysis of the design process of several typical aerospace products, including both conventional and supersonic airplanes and a hydrofoil design. Activities examined included research, preliminary design, detail design, manufacturing interface, product verification, and product support. The design process was then described in an IPAD environment--the future.

  2. Tribological Limitations in Gas Turbine Engines: A Workshop to Identify the Challenges and Set Future Directions. Revised

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DellaCorte, Chris; Pinkus, Oscar

    2002-01-01

    The following report represents a compendium of selected speaker presentation materials and observations made by Prof. O. Pinkus at the NASA/ASME/Industry sponsored workshop entitled "Tribological Limitations in Gas Turbine Engines" held on September 15-17, 1999 in Albany, New York. The impetus for the workshop came from the ASME's Research Committee on tribology whose goal is to explore new tribological research topics which may become future research opportunities. Since this subject is of current interest to other industrial and government entities the conference received cosponsorship as noted above. The conference was well attended by government, industrial, and academic participants. Topics discussed included current tribological issues in gas turbines as well as the potential impact (drawbacks and advantages) of future tribological technologies especially foil air bearings and magnetic bearings. It is hoped that this workshop report may serve as a starting point for continued discussions and activities in oil-free turbomachinery systems.

  3. Intelligent topical sentiment analysis for the classification of e-learners and their topics of interest.

    PubMed

    Ravichandran, M; Kulanthaivel, G; Chellatamilan, T

    2015-01-01

    Every day, huge numbers of instant tweets (messages) are published on Twitter as it is one of the massive social media for e-learners interactions. The options regarding various interesting topics to be studied are discussed among the learners and teachers through the capture of ideal sources in Twitter. The common sentiment behavior towards these topics is received through the massive number of instant messages about them. In this paper, rather than using the opinion polarity of each message relevant to the topic, authors focus on sentence level opinion classification upon using the unsupervised algorithm named bigram item response theory (BIRT). It differs from the traditional classification and document level classification algorithm. The investigation illustrated in this paper is of threefold which are listed as follows: (1) lexicon based sentiment polarity of tweet messages; (2) the bigram cooccurrence relationship using naïve Bayesian; (3) the bigram item response theory (BIRT) on various topics. It has been proposed that a model using item response theory is constructed for topical classification inference. The performance has been improved remarkably using this bigram item response theory when compared with other supervised algorithms. The experiment has been conducted on a real life dataset containing different set of tweets and topics.

  4. Intelligent Topical Sentiment Analysis for the Classification of E-Learners and Their Topics of Interest

    PubMed Central

    Ravichandran, M.; Kulanthaivel, G.; Chellatamilan, T.

    2015-01-01

    Every day, huge numbers of instant tweets (messages) are published on Twitter as it is one of the massive social media for e-learners interactions. The options regarding various interesting topics to be studied are discussed among the learners and teachers through the capture of ideal sources in Twitter. The common sentiment behavior towards these topics is received through the massive number of instant messages about them. In this paper, rather than using the opinion polarity of each message relevant to the topic, authors focus on sentence level opinion classification upon using the unsupervised algorithm named bigram item response theory (BIRT). It differs from the traditional classification and document level classification algorithm. The investigation illustrated in this paper is of threefold which are listed as follows: (1) lexicon based sentiment polarity of tweet messages; (2) the bigram cooccurrence relationship using naïve Bayesian; (3) the bigram item response theory (BIRT) on various topics. It has been proposed that a model using item response theory is constructed for topical classification inference. The performance has been improved remarkably using this bigram item response theory when compared with other supervised algorithms. The experiment has been conducted on a real life dataset containing different set of tweets and topics. PMID:25866841

  5. Application of topical analgesia in triage: a potential for harm.

    PubMed

    Shachor-Meyouhas, Yael; Galbraith, Roger; Shavit, Itai

    2008-07-01

    To reduce the overall time spent in the ED, triage nurses are encouraged to treat patients with a topical anesthetic cream, eutectic mixture of local anesthetics (EMLA). We present a case in which a 28-day-old neonate who was treated with EMLA cream in triage developed severe methemoglobinemia 18 hours post admission to the pediatric ward. This case demonstrates that there may be some risks associated with this approach, and that protocols for the use of EMLA at triage should include not only the indications for its use, but also need to ensure that there is a process to have the EMLA removed before patient discharge or transfer. PMID:18281179

  6. EMLA-induced methemoglobinemia and systemic topical anesthetic toxicity.

    PubMed

    Hahn, In-Hei; Hoffman, Robert S; Nelson, Lewis S

    2004-01-01

    This case report illustrates an adult presenting with the simultaneous occurrence of both methemoglobinemia (MetHb) and systemic toxicity from the topical application of local anesthetics while undergoing laser epilation therapy of the legs. The concurrent development of both is considered uncommon in this setting and may have been related to several factors, including her recent previous treatment, increased absorption secondary to abraded skin with the addition of occlusive dressing, and possible alteration of protein binding and drug metabolism due to the use of medications. The clinical manifestations and mechanisms of MetHb and systemic local anesthetic toxicity are discussed.

  7. TOPICAL REVIEW: Photoacoustic tomography and sensing in biomedicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Changhui; Wang, Lihong V.

    2009-10-01

    Photoacoustics has been broadly studied in biomedicine, for both human and small animal tissues. Photoacoustics uniquely combines the absorption contrast of light or radio frequency waves with ultrasound resolution. Moreover, it is non-ionizing and non-invasive, and is the fastest growing new biomedical method, with clinical applications on the way. This review provides a brief recap of recent developments in photoacoustics in biomedicine, from basic principles to applications. The emphasized areas include the new imaging modalities, hybrid detection methods, photoacoustic contrast agents and the photoacoustic Doppler effect, as well as translational research topics.

  8. In Vivo Methods for the Assessment of Topical Drug Bioavailability

    PubMed Central

    Herkenne, Christophe; Alberti, Ingo; Naik, Aarti; Kalia, Yogeshvar N.; Mathy, François-Xavier; Préat, Véronique

    2007-01-01

    This paper reviews some current methods for the in vivo assessment of local cutaneous bioavailability in humans after topical drug application. After an introduction discussing the importance of local drug bioavailability assessment and the limitations of model-based predictions, the focus turns to the relevance of experimental studies. The available techniques are then reviewed in detail, with particular emphasis on the tape stripping and microdialysis methodologies. Other less developed techniques, including the skin biopsy, suction blister, follicle removal and confocal Raman spectroscopy techniques are also described. PMID:17985216

  9. Selected Topics on Hadronic B Decays From BaBar

    SciTech Connect

    Suzuki, K.; /SLAC

    2011-11-23

    Recent measurements of branching fractions and decay-rate asymmetries in charmless hadronic B decays at the BaBar experiment are presented. The selected topics include Dalitz plot analyses of B {yields} K{sup +} {pi}{sup -}{pi} and signal searches in B {yields} PP and PV, where isoscalar mesons are involved, and in B {yields} b{sub 1}P, P and V denote a pseudoscalar and vector meson, respectively. Several measurements in charmless hadronic B decays have indicated possible deviations from the theoretical predictions within the Standard Model. The measurements presented would contribute to searching for and resolving such puzzles.

  10. Side-effects of topical steroids: A long overdue revisit

    PubMed Central

    Coondoo, Arijit; Phiske, Meghana; Verma, Shyam; Lahiri, Koushik

    2014-01-01

    The introduction of topical steroids (TS) of varying potency have rendered the therapy of inflammatory cutaneous disorders more effective and less time-consuming. However the usefulness of these has become a double edged sword with constantly rising instances of abuse and misuse leading to serious local, systemic and psychological side effects. These side effects occur more with TS of higher potency and on particular areas of the body like face and genitalia. The article reviews the side effects of TS with special mention about peadiatric age group, also includes the measures for preventing the side effects. PMID:25396122

  11. Pain behavior observation: current status and future directions.

    PubMed

    Keefe, F J

    2000-01-01

    Individuals who have pain engage in certain pain-related behaviors that tend to communicate their pain to others. There is growing recognition that the careful observation of such pain behaviors is an important component of a comprehensive pain assessment. This article provides an overview of the current status of behavioral observation methods used to assess pain behavior. The first half of this article describes and evaluates the most commonly used pain behavior observation methods. These include self-observation methods such as activity diaries, and direct observation methods such as the use of standard behavior sampling methods and naturalistic observation methods. The second half of the article discusses several important future clinical and research applications of pain behavior observation methods. The need to develop practical, clinical methods for incorporating pain behavior observation methods into practice settings is emphasized. Important future research topics include studying the social context of pain behavior (eg, by examining how spouses respond to displays of pain behavior), examining the predictive validity of pain behavior (ie, how observed pain behaviors predict future disability and impairment), and identifying pain behavior subgroups within heterogeneous chronic pain populations. Further development and refinement of pain behavior observation methods is likely to increase our understanding of the varied ways that patients adapt to persistent pain.

  12. Future Climate Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    C. G. Cambell

    2004-09-03

    approaches could include simulation of climate over the 10,000-year period; however, this modeling extrapolation is well beyond the bounds of current scientific practice and would not provide results with better confidence. A corroborative alternative approach may be found in ''Future Climate Analysis-10,000 Years to 1,000,000 Years After Present'' (Sharpe 2003 [DIRS 161591]). The current revision of this report is prepared in accordance with ''Technical Work Plan for: Unsaturated Zone Flow Analysis and Model Report Integration'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169654]).

  13. Topical Melatonin for Treatment of Androgenetic Alopecia

    PubMed Central

    Fischer, Tobias W; Trüeb, Ralph M; Hänggi, Gabriella; Innocenti, Marcello; Elsner, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Background: In the search for alternative agents to oral finasteride and topical minoxidil for the treatment of androgenetic alopecia (AGA), melatonin, a potent antioxidant and growth modulator, was identified as a promising candidate based on in vitro and in vivo studies. Materials and Methods: One pharmacodynamic study on topical application of melatonin and four clinical pre-post studies were performed in patients with androgenetic alopecia or general hair loss and evaluated by standardised questionnaires, TrichoScan, 60-second hair count test and hair pull test. Results: Five clinical studies showed positive effects of a topical melatonin solution in the treatment of AGA in men and women while showing good tolerability: (1) Pharmacodynamics under once-daily topical application in the evening showed no significant influence on endogenous serum melatonin levels. (2) An observational study involving 30 men and women showed a significant reduction in the degree of severity of alopecia after 30 and 90 days (P < 0.001) based on questionnaires completed by investigators and patients. (3) Using a digital software-supported epiluminescence technique (TrichoScan) in 35 men with AGA, after 3 and 6 months in 54.8% to 58.1% of the patients a significant increase of hair density of 29% and 41%, respectively was measured (M0: 123/cm2; M3: 159/cm2; M6: 173/cm2;) (P < 0,001). (4) In 60 men and women with hair loss, a significant reduction in hair loss was observed in women, while hair loss in men remained constant (P < 0.001). (5) In a large, 3-month, multi-center study with more than 1800 volunteers at 200 centers, the percentage of patients with a 2- to 3-fold positive hair-pull test decreased from 61.6% to 7.8%, while the percentage of patients with a negative hair-pull test increased from 12.2.% to 61.5% (P < 0.001). In addition, a decrease in seborrhea and seborrheic dermatitis of the scalp was observed. Conclusions: Since safety and tolerability in all of the studies was

  14. Future Flight Decks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arbuckle, P. Douglas; Abbott, Kathy H.; Abbott, Terence S.; Schutte, Paul C.

    1998-01-01

    The evolution of commercial transport flight deck configurations over the past 20-30 years and expected future developments are described. Key factors in the aviation environment are identified that the authors expect will significantly affect flight deck designers. One of these is the requirement for commercial aviation accident rate reduction, which is probably required if global commercial aviation is to grow as projected. Other factors include the growing incrementalism in flight deck implementation, definition of future airspace operations, and expectations of a future pilot corps that will have grown up with computers. Future flight deck developments are extrapolated from observable factors in the aviation environment, recent research results in the area of pilot-centered flight deck systems, and by considering expected advances in technology that are being driven by other than aviation requirements. The authors hypothesize that revolutionary flight deck configuration changes will be possible with development of human-centered flight deck design methodologies that take full advantage of commercial and/or entertainment-driven technologies.

  15. Adolescents' reply intent for sexual disclosure in cyberspace: gender differences and effects of anonymity and topic intimacy.

    PubMed

    Chiou, Wen-Bin

    2007-10-01

    This study examined the effects of anonymity and topic intimacy on adolescents' reply intent for cyber partners' sexual disclosure on the Internet. Two hundred thirty-seven Taiwanese adolescents with sexual self-disclosure experiences on the Internet participated in an experimental study. Regardless of anonymity and topic intimacy, male adolescents were more willing than females to respond to cyber friends' sexual disclosure. The higher the anonymity was, the higher the reply intent for sexual self-disclosure. Participants exhibited higher reply intent when cyber friends self-disclosed sexual topics with higher intimacy. However, the effect of topic intimacy was moderated by anonymity. Topic intimacy displayed prominent influence on adolescents' reply intent in responding to cyber friends' sexual disclosure only when their disclosing condition was under moderate and high anonymity. Implications and future directions are discussed. PMID:17927545

  16. Including Conflict in Creative Writing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Litvin, Martin

    Conflict is the basis of all stories and thus should appear in some form in the first sentence. There are three kinds of conflict: people vs. people; people vs. nature; and people vs. themselves. Conflict must be repeated in all the various elements of the story's structure, including the plot, which is the plan of action telling what happens to…

  17. Family Living, Including Sex Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forlano, George

    This volume describes and evaluates 21 selected New York City Board of Education Umbrella Programs for the 1974-1975 school year. The programs include: (1) the parent resource center, (2) the teacher self-help program, (3) the East Harlem pre-kindergarten center, (4) the Brooklyn College volunteer tutoring program, (5) the parent education for…

  18. Laser-assisted delivery of topical methotrexate - in vitro investigations.

    PubMed

    Taudorf, Elisabeth Hjardem

    2016-06-01

    maximum accumulation in deeper skin layers. Biodistribution of MTX occurred throughout the skin without being compromised by coagulation zones of varying thickness. The ratio of skin deposition versus transdermal permeation was constant, regardless of MAZ depth. Impact of transport kinetics on AFXL-assisted topical MTX delivery: MTX accumulated rapidly in AFXL-processed skin. MTX was detectable in mid-dermis after 15 min. and saturated the skin after 7 h at a ten-fold increased MTX-concentration compared to intact skin. Transdermal permeation stayed below 1.5% of applied MTX before skin saturation, and increased afterwards up to 8.0% at 24h. MTX distributed radially into the coagulation zone within 15 min of application and could be detected in surrounding skin at 1.5 h. Upon skin saturation, MTX had distributed in an entire mid-dermal skin section. In conclusion, adjusting laser parameters and application time may enable targeted treatments of dermatological disorders and potentially pose a future alternative to systemic MTX in selected dermatological disorders.

  19. Laser-assisted delivery of topical methotrexate - in vitro investigations.

    PubMed

    Taudorf, Elisabeth Hjardem

    2016-06-01

    maximum accumulation in deeper skin layers. Biodistribution of MTX occurred throughout the skin without being compromised by coagulation zones of varying thickness. The ratio of skin deposition versus transdermal permeation was constant, regardless of MAZ depth. Impact of transport kinetics on AFXL-assisted topical MTX delivery: MTX accumulated rapidly in AFXL-processed skin. MTX was detectable in mid-dermis after 15 min. and saturated the skin after 7 h at a ten-fold increased MTX-concentration compared to intact skin. Transdermal permeation stayed below 1.5% of applied MTX before skin saturation, and increased afterwards up to 8.0% at 24h. MTX distributed radially into the coagulation zone within 15 min of application and could be detected in surrounding skin at 1.5 h. Upon skin saturation, MTX had distributed in an entire mid-dermal skin section. In conclusion, adjusting laser parameters and application time may enable targeted treatments of dermatological disorders and potentially pose a future alternative to systemic MTX in selected dermatological disorders. PMID:27264947

  20. SORBENT DEVELOPMENT FOR MERCURY CONTROL. Final topical report including semiannual for January 1, 1998 through June 30, 1998.

    SciTech Connect

    David J. Hassett; Edwin S. Olson; Grant E. Dunham; Ramesh K. Sharma; Ronald C. Timpe; Stanley J. Miller

    1998-10-01

    The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) draft Mercury Study Report to Congress (1) estimated anthropogenic mercury emissions to be 253 tons/yr in the US, with the majority (216 tons/yr) from combustion sources. The three main combustion sources listed were coal (72 tons/yr), medical waste incinerators (65 tons/yr), and municipal waste combustors (64 tons/yr). The emissions from both medical waste incinerators and municipal waste combustors were recently regulated, which, together with the reduction of mercury in consumer products such as batteries and fluorescent lights, has already reduced the emissions from these sources, as stated in the final EPA Mercury Report to Congress (2). EPA now estimates total point-source mercury emissions to be 158 tons/yr, with coal remaining at 72 tons/yr, while medical waste incinerators are down to 16 tons/yr and municipal waste combustors are at 30 tons/yr. Coal is now the primary source of anthropogenic mercury emissions in the US, accounting for 46%. In addition, the use of coal in the US has been increasing every year and passed the 1-billion-ton-per-year mark for the first time in 1997 (3). At the current rate of increase, coal consumption would reach 1.4 billion tons annually by the year 2020. On a worldwide basis, the projected increase in coal usage over the next two decades in China, India, and Indonesia will dwarf the current US coal consumption level. Therefore, in the US coal will be the dominant source of mercury emissions and worldwide coal may be the cause of significantly increased mercury emissions unless an effective control strategy is implemented. However, much uncertainty remains over the most technically sound and cost-effective approach for reducing mercury emissions from coal-fired boilers, and a number of critical research needs will have to be met to develop better control (2).