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Sample records for fuzzy tandem repeats

  1. Ab initio detection of fuzzy amino acid tandem repeats in protein sequences

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Tandem repetitions within protein amino acid sequences often correspond to regular secondary structures and form multi-repeat 3D assemblies of varied size and function. Developing internal repetitions is one of the evolutionary mechanisms that proteins employ to adapt their structure and function under evolutionary pressure. While there is keen interest in understanding such phenomena, detection of repeating structures based only on sequence analysis is considered an arduous task, since structure and function is often preserved even under considerable sequence divergence (fuzzy tandem repeats). Results In this paper we present PTRStalker, a new algorithm for ab-initio detection of fuzzy tandem repeats in protein amino acid sequences. In the reported results we show that by feeding PTRStalker with amino acid sequences from the UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot database we detect novel tandemly repeated structures not captured by other state-of-the-art tools. Experiments with membrane proteins indicate that PTRStalker can detect global symmetries in the primary structure which are then reflected in the tertiary structure. Conclusions PTRStalker is able to detect fuzzy tandem repeating structures in protein sequences, with performance beyond the current state-of-the art. Such a tool may be a valuable support to investigating protein structural properties when tertiary X-ray data is not available. PMID:22536906

  2. Short Tandem Repeat DNA Internet Database

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    SRD 130 Short Tandem Repeat DNA Internet Database (Web, free access)   Short Tandem Repeat DNA Internet Database is intended to benefit research and application of short tandem repeat DNA markers for human identity testing. Facts and sequence information on each STR system, population data, commonly used multiplex STR systems, PCR primers and conditions, and a review of various technologies for analysis of STR alleles have been included.

  3. TRDB—The Tandem Repeats Database

    PubMed Central

    Gelfand, Yevgeniy; Rodriguez, Alfredo; Benson, Gary

    2007-01-01

    Tandem repeats in DNA have been under intensive study for many years, first, as a consequence of their usefulness as genomic markers and DNA fingerprints and more recently as their role in human disease and regulatory processes has become apparent. The Tandem Repeats Database (TRDB) is a public repository of information on tandem repeats in genomic DNA. It contains a variety of tools for repeat analysis, including the Tandem Repeats Finder program, query and filtering capabilities, repeat clustering, polymorphism prediction, PCR primer selection, data visualization and data download in a variety of formats. In addition, TRDB serves as a centralized research workbench. It provides user storage space and permits collaborators to privately share their data and analysis. TRDB is available at . PMID:17175540

  4. Tandem repeats discovery service (TReaDS) applied to finding novel cis-acting factors in repeat expansion diseases

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Tandem repeats are multiple duplications of substrings in the DNA that occur contiguously, or at a short distance, and may involve some mutations (such as substitutions, insertions, and deletions). Tandem repeats have been extensively studied also for their association with the class of repeat expansion diseases (mostly affecting the nervous system). Comparative studies on the output of different tools for finding tandem repeats highlighted significant differences among the sets of detected tandem repeats, while many authors pointed up how critical it is the right choice of parameters. Results In this paper we present TReaDS - Tandem Repeats Discovery Service, a tandem repeat meta search engine. TReaDS forwards user requests to several state of the art tools for finding tandem repeats and merges their outcome into a single report, providing a global, synthetic, and comparative view of the results. In particular, TReaDS allows the user to (i) simultaneously run different algorithms on the same data set, (ii) choose for each algorithm a different setting of parameters, and (iii) obtain a report that can be downloaded for further, off-line, investigations. We used TReaDS to investigate sequences associated with repeat expansion diseases. Conclusions By using the tool TReaDS we discover that, for 27 repeat expansion diseases out of a currently known set of 29, long fuzzy tandem repeats are covering the expansion loci. Tests with control sets confirm the specificity of this association. This finding suggests that long fuzzy tandem repeats can be a new class of cis-acting elements involved in the mechanisms leading to the expansion instability. We strongly believe that biologists can be interested in a tool that, not only gives them the possibility of using multiple search algorithm at the same time, with the same effort exerted in using just one of the systems, but also simplifies the burden of comparing and merging the results, thus expanding our

  5. RepeatsDB: a database of tandem repeat protein structures

    PubMed Central

    Di Domenico, Tomás; Potenza, Emilio; Walsh, Ian; Gonzalo Parra, R.; Giollo, Manuel; Minervini, Giovanni; Piovesan, Damiano; Ihsan, Awais; Ferrari, Carlo; Kajava, Andrey V.; Tosatto, Silvio C.E.

    2014-01-01

    RepeatsDB (http://repeatsdb.bio.unipd.it/) is a database of annotated tandem repeat protein structures. Tandem repeats pose a difficult problem for the analysis of protein structures, as the underlying sequence can be highly degenerate. Several repeat types haven been studied over the years, but their annotation was done in a case-by-case basis, thus making large-scale analysis difficult. We developed RepeatsDB to fill this gap. Using state-of-the-art repeat detection methods and manual curation, we systematically annotated the Protein Data Bank, predicting 10 745 repeat structures. In all, 2797 structures were classified according to a recently proposed classification schema, which was expanded to accommodate new findings. In addition, detailed annotations were performed in a subset of 321 proteins. These annotations feature information on start and end positions for the repeat regions and units. RepeatsDB is an ongoing effort to systematically classify and annotate structural protein repeats in a consistent way. It provides users with the possibility to access and download high-quality datasets either interactively or programmatically through web services. PMID:24311564

  6. In situ detection of tandem DNA repeat length

    SciTech Connect

    Yaar, R.; Szafranski, P.; Cantor, C.R.; Smith, C.L.

    1996-11-01

    A simple method for scoring short tandem DNA repeats is presented. An oligonucleotide target, containing tandem repeats embedded in a unique sequence, was hybridized to a set of complementary probes, containing tandem repeats of known lengths. Single-stranded loop structures formed on duplexes containing a mismatched (different) number of tandem repeats. No loop structure formed on duplexes containing a matched (identical) number of tandem repeats. The matched and mismatched loop structures were enzymatically distinguished and differentially labeled by treatment with S1 nuclease and the Klenow fragment of DNA polymerase. 7 refs., 4 figs.

  7. Identifying tandem Ankyrin repeats in protein structures.

    PubMed

    Chakrabarty, Broto; Parekh, Nita

    2014-12-30

    Tandem repetition of structural motifs in proteins is frequently observed across all forms of life. Topology of repeating unit and its frequency of occurrence are associated to a wide range of structural and functional roles in diverse proteins, and defects in repeat proteins have been associated with a number of diseases. It is thus desirable to accurately identify specific repeat type and its copy number. Weak evolutionary constraints on repeat units and insertions/deletions between them make their identification difficult at the sequence level and structure based approaches are desired. The proposed graph spectral approach is based on protein structure represented as a graph for detecting one of the most frequently observed structural repeats, Ankyrin repeat. It has been shown in a large number of studies that 3-dimensional topology of a protein structure is well captured by a graph, making it possible to analyze a complex protein structure as a mathematical entity. In this study we show that eigen spectra profile of a protein structure graph exhibits a unique repetitive profile for contiguous repeating units enabling the detection of the repeat region and the repeat type. The proposed approach uses a non-redundant set of 58 Ankyrin proteins to define rules for the detection of Ankyrin repeat motifs. It is evaluated on a set of 370 proteins comprising 125 known Ankyrin proteins and remaining non-solenoid proteins and the prediction compared with UniProt annotation, sequence-based approach, RADAR, and structure-based approach, ConSole. To show the efficacy of the approach, we analyzed the complete PDB structural database and identified 641 previously unrecognized Ankyrin repeat proteins. We observe a unique eigen spectra profile for different repeat types and show that the method can be easily extended to detect other repeat types. It is implemented as a web server, AnkPred. It is freely available at 'bioinf.iiit.ac.in/AnkPred'. AnkPred provides an elegant and

  8. Exhaustive whole-genome tandem repeats search.

    PubMed

    Krishnan, Arun; Tang, Francis

    2004-11-01

    Approximate tandem repeats (ATR) occur frequently in the genomes of organisms, and are a source of polymorphisms observed in individuals, and thus are of interest to those studying genetic disorders. Though extensive work has been done in order to identify ATRs, there are inherent limitations with the current approaches in terms of the number of pattern sizes that can be searched or the size of the input length. This paper describes (1) a new algorithm which exhaustively finds all variable-length ATRs in a genomic sequence and (2) a precise description of, and an algorithm to significantly reduce, redundancy in the output. Our ATR definition is parameterized by a mismatch ratio p which allows for more mismatches in longer tandem repeats (and fewer in shorter). Furthermore, our algorithm is embarrassingly parallel and thus can attain near-linear speed-up on Beowulf clusters. We present results of our algorithm applied to sequences of widely differing lengths (from genes to chromosomes). Source and binaries are available on request.

  9. mreps: efficient and flexible detection of tandem repeats in DNA

    PubMed Central

    Kolpakov, Roman; Bana, Ghizlane; Kucherov, Gregory

    2003-01-01

    The presence of repeated sequences is a fundamental feature of genomes. Tandemly repeated DNA appears in both eukaryotic and prokaryotic genomes, it is associated with various regulatory mechanisms and plays an important role in genomic fingerprinting. In this paper, we describe mreps, a powerful software tool for a fast identification of tandemly repeated structures in DNA sequences. mreps is able to identify all types of tandem repeats within a single run on a whole genomic sequence. It has a resolution parameter that allows the program to identify ‘fuzzy’ repeats. We introduce main algorithmic solutions behind mreps, describe its usage, give some execution time benchmarks and present several case studies to illustrate its capabilities. The mreps web interface is accessible through http://www.loria.fr/mreps/. PMID:12824391

  10. PCR-free digital minisatellite tandem repeat genotyping.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yuchao; Seo, Tae Seok

    2011-06-01

    We demonstrated a proof-of-concept for novel minisatellite tandem repeat typing, called PCR-free digital VNTR (variable number tandem repeat) typing, which is composed of three steps: a ligation reaction instead of PCR thermal cycling, magnetic bead-based solid-phase capture for purification, and an elongated sample stacking microcapillary electrophoresis (μCE) for sensitive digital coding of repeat number. We designed a 16-bp fluorescently labeled ligation probe which is complementary to a repeat unit of a biotinylated synthetic template mimicking the human D1S80 VNTR locus and is randomly hybridized with the minisatellite tandem repeats. A quick isothermal ligation reaction was followed to link the adjacent ligation probes on the DNA templates, and then the ligated products were purified by streptavidin-coated magnetic beads. After a denaturing step, a large amount of ligated products whose size difference was equivalent to the repeat unit were released and recovered. Through the elongated sample stacking μCE separation on a microdevice, the fluorescence signal of the ligated products was generated in the electropherogram and the peak number was directly counted which was exactly matched with the repeat number of VNTR locus. We could successfully identify the minisatellite tandem repeat number with only 5 fmol of DNA template in 30 min.

  11. Mutational dynamics of short tandem repeats in human genome

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borstnik, B.; Pumpernik, D.

    2004-01-01

    The evolutionary dynamics of short tandem repeats of nucleotide sequences of the human genome is studied. It is shown that a model due to which the evolutionary repeat dynamics consists of elongations and shortenings of the repeats, combined with point mutations, is degenerate in the sense that an ambiguity exists regarding the role of point mutations and slippage asymmetry. By introducing a measure of the correlations between the positions of the repeats along the DNA sequences we were able to remove the degeneracy and to show that the slippage events which are the main factor in repeat evolution exhibit more frequent shortenings than elongations.

  12. Tandem repeat distribution of gene transcripts in three plant families

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Tandem repeats (microsatellites or SSRs) are molecular markers with great potential for plant genetic studies. Modern strategies include the transfer of these markers among widely studied and orphan species. In silico analyses allow for studying distribution patterns of microsatellites and predicting which motifs would be more amenable to interspecies transfer. Transcribed sequences (Unigene) from ten species of three plant families were surveyed for the occurrence of micro and minisatellites. Transcripts from different species displayed different rates of tandem repeat occurrence, ranging from 1.47% to 11.28%. Both similar and different patterns were found within and among plant families. The results also indicate a lack of association between genome size and tandem repeat fractions in expressed regions. The conservation of motifs among species and its implication on genome evolution and dynamics are discussed. PMID:21637460

  13. Structural analysis of a multifunctional, tandemly repeated inositol polyphosphatase.

    PubMed

    Gruninger, Robert J; Selinger, L Brent; Mosimann, Steven C

    2009-09-11

    Mitsuokella multacida expresses a unique inositol polyphosphatase (PhyAmm) that is composed of tandem repeats (TRs). Each repeat possesses a protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) active-site signature sequence and fold. Using a combination of structural, mutational, and kinetic studies, we show that the N-terminal (D1) and C-terminal (D2) active sites of the TR have diverged and possess significantly different specificities for inositol polyphosphate. Structural analysis and molecular docking calculations identify steric and electrostatic differences within the substrate binding pocket of each TR that may be involved in the altered substrate specificity. The implications of our results for the biological function of related PTP-like phytases are discussed. Finally, the structures and activities of PhyAmm and tandemly repeated receptor PTPs are compared and discussed. To our knowledge, this is the first example of an inositol phosphatase with tandem PTP domains possessing substrate specificity for different inositol phosphates.

  14. Tandem-repeat protein domains across the tree of life

    PubMed Central

    Jernigan, Kristin K.

    2015-01-01

    Tandem-repeat protein domains, composed of repeated units of conserved stretches of 20–40 amino acids, are required for a wide array of biological functions. Despite their diverse and fundamental functions, there has been no comprehensive assessment of their taxonomic distribution, incidence, and associations with organismal lifestyle and phylogeny. In this study, we assess for the first time the abundance of armadillo (ARM) and tetratricopeptide (TPR) repeat domains across all three domains in the tree of life and compare the results to our previous analysis on ankyrin (ANK) repeat domains in this journal. All eukaryotes and a majority of the bacterial and archaeal genomes analyzed have a minimum of one TPR and ARM repeat. In eukaryotes, the fraction of ARM-containing proteins is approximately double that of TPR and ANK-containing proteins, whereas bacteria and archaea are enriched in TPR-containing proteins relative to ARM- and ANK-containing proteins. We show in bacteria that phylogenetic history, rather than lifestyle or pathogenicity, is a predictor of TPR repeat domain abundance, while neither phylogenetic history nor lifestyle predicts ARM repeat domain abundance. Surprisingly, pathogenic bacteria were not enriched in TPR-containing proteins, which have been associated within virulence factors in certain species. Taken together, this comparative analysis provides a newly appreciated view of the prevalence and diversity of multiple types of tandem-repeat protein domains across the tree of life. A central finding of this analysis is that tandem repeat domain-containing proteins are prevalent not just in eukaryotes, but also in bacterial and archaeal species. PMID:25653910

  15. Fully integrated, fully automated generation of short tandem repeat profiles

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The generation of short tandem repeat profiles, also referred to as ‘DNA typing,’ is not currently performed outside the laboratory because the process requires highly skilled technical operators and a controlled laboratory environment and infrastructure with several specialized instruments. The goal of this work was to develop a fully integrated system for the automated generation of short tandem repeat profiles from buccal swab samples, to improve forensic laboratory process flow as well as to enable short tandem repeat profile generation to be performed in police stations and in field-forward military, intelligence, and homeland security settings. Results An integrated system was developed consisting of an injection-molded microfluidic BioChipSet cassette, a ruggedized instrument, and expert system software. For each of five buccal swabs, the system purifies DNA using guanidinium-based lysis and silica binding, amplifies 15 short tandem repeat loci and the amelogenin locus, electrophoretically separates the resulting amplicons, and generates a profile. No operator processing of the samples is required, and the time from swab insertion to profile generation is 84 minutes. All required reagents are contained within the BioChipSet cassette; these consist of a lyophilized polymerase chain reaction mix and liquids for purification and electrophoretic separation. Profiles obtained from fully automated runs demonstrate that the integrated system generates concordant short tandem repeat profiles. The system exhibits single-base resolution from 100 to greater than 500 bases, with inter-run precision with a standard deviation of ±0.05 - 0.10 bases for most alleles. The reagents are stable for at least 6 months at 22°C, and the instrument has been designed and tested to Military Standard 810F for shock and vibration ruggedization. A nontechnical user can operate the system within or outside the laboratory. Conclusions The integrated system represents the

  16. Tandem repeats of Allium fistulosum associated with major chromosomal landmarks.

    PubMed

    Kirov, Ilya V; Kiseleva, Anna V; Van Laere, Katrijn; Van Roy, Nadine; Khrustaleva, Ludmila I

    2017-04-01

    Tandem repeats are often associated with important chromosomal landmarks, such as centromeres, telomeres, subtelomeric, and other heterochromatic regions, and can be good candidates for molecular cytogenetic markers. Tandem repeats present in many plant species demonstrate dramatic differences in unit length, proportion in the genome, and chromosomal organization. Members of genus Allium with their large genomes represent a challenging task for current genetics. Using the next generation sequencing data, molecular, and cytogenetic methods, we discovered two tandemly organized repeats in the Allium fistulosum genome (2n = 2C = 16), HAT58 and CAT36. Together, these repeats comprise 0.25% of the bunching onion genome with 160,000 copies/1 C of HAT58 and 93,000 copies/1 C of CAT36. Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) and C-banding showed that HAT58 and CAT36 associated with the interstitial and pericentromeric heterochromatin of the A. fistulosum chromosomes 5, 6, 7, and 8. FISH with HAT58 and CAT36 performed on A. cepa (2n = 2C = 16) and A. wakegi (2n = 2C = 16), a natural allodiploid hybrid between A. fistulosum and A. cepa, revealed that these repeats are species specific and produced specific hybridization patterns only on A. fistulosum chromosomes. Thus, the markers can be used in interspecific breeding programs for monitoring of alien genetic material. We applied Non-denaturing FISH that allowed detection of the repeat bearing chromosomes within 3 h. A polymorphism of the HAT58 chromosome location was observed. This finding suggests that the rapid evolution of the HAT58 repeat is still ongoing.

  17. Versatile communication strategies among tandem WW domain repeats.

    PubMed

    Dodson, Emma Joy; Fishbain-Yoskovitz, Vered; Rotem-Bamberger, Shahar; Schueler-Furman, Ora

    2015-03-01

    Interactions mediated by short linear motifs in proteins play major roles in regulation of cellular homeostasis since their transient nature allows for easy modulation. We are still far from a full understanding and appreciation of the complex regulation patterns that can be, and are, achieved by this type of interaction. The fact that many linear-motif-binding domains occur in tandem repeats in proteins indicates that their mutual communication is used extensively to obtain complex integration of information toward regulatory decisions. This review is an attempt to overview, and classify, different ways by which two and more tandem repeats cooperate in binding to their targets, in the well-characterized family of WW domains and their corresponding polyproline ligands.

  18. Versatile communication strategies among tandem WW domain repeats

    PubMed Central

    Dodson, Emma Joy; Fishbain-Yoskovitz, Vered; Rotem-Bamberger, Shahar

    2015-01-01

    Interactions mediated by short linear motifs in proteins play major roles in regulation of cellular homeostasis since their transient nature allows for easy modulation. We are still far from a full understanding and appreciation of the complex regulation patterns that can be, and are, achieved by this type of interaction. The fact that many linear-motif-binding domains occur in tandem repeats in proteins indicates that their mutual communication is used extensively to obtain complex integration of information toward regulatory decisions. This review is an attempt to overview, and classify, different ways by which two and more tandem repeats cooperate in binding to their targets, in the well-characterized family of WW domains and their corresponding polyproline ligands. PMID:25710931

  19. Coding Tandem Repeats Generate Diversity in Aspergillus fumigatus Genes▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Levdansky, Emma; Romano, Jacob; Shadkchan, Yona; Sharon, Haim; Verstrepen, Kevin J.; Fink, Gerald R.; Osherov, Nir

    2007-01-01

    Genes containing multiple coding mini- and microsatellite repeats are highly dynamic components of genomes. Frequent recombination events within these tandem repeats lead to changes in repeat numbers, which in turn alters the amino acid sequence of the corresponding protein. In bacteria and yeasts, the expansion of such coding repeats in cell wall proteins is associated with alterations in immunogenicity, adhesion, and pathogenesis. We hypothesized that identification of repeat-containing putative cell wall proteins in the human pathogen Aspergillus fumigatus may reveal novel pathogenesis-related elements. Here, we report that the genome of A. fumigatus contains as many as 292 genes with internal repeats. Fourteen of 30 selected genes showed size variation of their repeat-containing regions among 11 clinical A. fumigatus isolates. Four of these genes, Afu3g08990, Afu2g05150 (MP-2), Afu4g09600, and Afu6g14090, encode putative cell wall proteins containing a leader sequence and a glycosylphosphatidylinositol anchor motif. All four genes are expressed and produce variable-size mRNA encoding a discrete number of repeat amino acid units. Their expression was altered during development and in response to cell wall-disrupting agents. Deletion of one of these genes, Afu3g08990, resulted in a phenotype characterized by rapid conidial germination and reduced adherence to extracellular matrix suggestive of an alteration in cell wall characteristics. The Afu3g08990 protein was localized to the cell walls of dormant and germinating conidia. Our findings suggest that a subset of the A. fumigatus cell surface proteins may be hypervariable due to recombination events in their internal tandem repeats. This variation may provide the functional diversity in cell surface antigens which allows rapid adaptation to the environment and/or elusion of the host immune system. PMID:17557878

  20. Large tandem repeats make up the chromosome bar code: a hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Podgornaya, Olga; Gavrilova, Ekaterina; Stephanova, Vera; Demin, Sergey; Komissarov, Aleksey

    2013-01-01

    Much of tandem repeats' functional nature in any genome remains enigmatic because there are only few tools available for dissecting and elucidating the functions of repeated DNA. The large tandem repeat arrays (satellite DNA) found in two mouse whole-genome shotgun assemblies were classified into 4 superfamilies, 8 families, and 62 subfamilies. With the simplified variant of chromosome positioning of different tandem repeats, we noticed the nonuniform distribution instead of the positions reported for mouse major and minor satellites. It is visible that each chromosome possesses a kind of unique code made up of different large tandem repeats. The reference genomes allow marking only internal tandem repeats, and even with such a limited data, the colored "bar code" made up of tandem repeats is visible. We suppose that tandem repeats bare the mechanism for chromosomes to recognize the regions to be associated. The associations, initially established via RNA, become fixed by histone modifications (the histone or chromatin code) and specific proteins. In such a way, associations, being at the beginning flexible and regulated, that is, adjustable, appear as irreversible and inheritable in cell generations. Tandem repeat multiformity tunes the developed nuclei 3D pattern by sequential steps of associations. Tandem repeats-based chromosome bar code could be the carrier of the genome structural information; that is, the order of precise tandem repeat association is the DNA morphogenetic program. Tandem repeats are the cores of the distinct 3D structures postulated in "gene gating" hypothesis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Tandem Repeats in Proteins: Prediction Algorithms and Biological Role

    PubMed Central

    Pellegrini, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Tandem repetitions in protein sequence and structure is a fascinating subject of research which has been a focus of study since the late 1990s. In this survey, we give an overview on the multi-faceted aspects of research on protein tandem repeats (PTR for short), including prediction algorithms, databases, early classification efforts, mechanisms of PTR formation and evolution, and synthetic PTR design. We also touch on the rather open issue of the relationship between PTR and flexibility (or disorder) in proteins. Detection of PTR either from protein sequence or structure data is challenging due to inherent high (biological) signal-to-noise ratio that is a key feature of this problem. As early in silico analytic tools have been key enablers for starting this field of study, we expect that current and future algorithmic and statistical breakthroughs will have a high impact on the investigations of the biological role of PTR. PMID:26442257

  2. Microdevice DNA forensics by the simple tandem repeat method.

    PubMed

    Goedecke, Nils; McKenna, Brian; El-Difrawy, Sameh; Gismondi, Elizabeth; Swenson, Abigail; Carey, Loucinda; Matsudaira, Paul; Ehrlich, Daniel J

    2006-04-14

    We review recent experiments on DNA forensics by the simple tandem repeat (STR) method using a 16-lane micromachined device as the active separation element. Separations by linear polyacrylamide matrices show very high data quality metrics when evaluated with statistically significant data sets. Full 16-locus multiplexes are verified on the multilane system. Multi-donor mixed samples are studied in the context of the limits of the laser-induced fluorescence detector and data-reduction software. The microdevice appears to be posed to outperform current capillary arrays in terms of stability and, through specialized sample loading, in the interpretation of complex mixtures.

  3. Analysis of Short Tandem Repeats by Parallel DNA Threading

    PubMed Central

    Zajac, Pawel; Öberg, Christine; Ahmadian, Afshin

    2009-01-01

    The majority of studies employing short tandem repeats (STRs) require investigation of several of these genetic markers. As such, we demonstrate the feasibility of the trinucleotide threading (TnT) approach for scalable analysis of STRs. The TnT method represents a parallel amplification alternative that addresses the obstacles associated with multiplex PCR. In this study, analysis of the STR fragments was performed with capillary gel electrophoresis; however, it should be possible to combine our approach with the massive 454 sequencing platform to considerably increase the number of targeted STRs. PMID:19915680

  4. An efficient clustering algorithm for partitioning Y-short tandem repeats data

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Y-Short Tandem Repeats (Y-STR) data consist of many similar and almost similar objects. This characteristic of Y-STR data causes two problems with partitioning: non-unique centroids and local minima problems. As a result, the existing partitioning algorithms produce poor clustering results. Results Our new algorithm, called k-Approximate Modal Haplotypes (k-AMH), obtains the highest clustering accuracy scores for five out of six datasets, and produces an equal performance for the remaining dataset. Furthermore, clustering accuracy scores of 100% are achieved for two of the datasets. The k-AMH algorithm records the highest mean accuracy score of 0.93 overall, compared to that of other algorithms: k-Population (0.91), k-Modes-RVF (0.81), New Fuzzy k-Modes (0.80), k-Modes (0.76), k-Modes-Hybrid 1 (0.76), k-Modes-Hybrid 2 (0.75), Fuzzy k-Modes (0.74), and k-Modes-UAVM (0.70). Conclusions The partitioning performance of the k-AMH algorithm for Y-STR data is superior to that of other algorithms, owing to its ability to solve the non-unique centroids and local minima problems. Our algorithm is also efficient in terms of time complexity, which is recorded as O(km(n-k)) and considered to be linear. PMID:23039132

  5. Sequences flanking the repeat arrays of human minisatellites: association with tandem and dispersed repeat elements.

    PubMed Central

    Armour, J A; Wong, Z; Wilson, V; Royle, N J; Jeffreys, A J

    1989-01-01

    We present DNA sequences flanking cloned hypervariable human minisatellites. In addition to providing confirmatory evidence that minisatellites cluster with other tandem repeats, these flanking sequences contain a high frequency of interspersed repetitive elements. These elements include a retroviral LTR-like sequence, from which one of the minisatellites appears to have expanded, and a recently described short interspersed repeat. We present our own findings concerning this element, in particular that those examples studied do not show significant evolutionary conservation, despite suggestions that the element may have a cis-acting function. Images PMID:2762114

  6. Tandemly repeated exons encode 81-base repeats in multiple, developmentally regulated Schistosoma mansoni transcripts.

    PubMed Central

    Davis, R E; Davis, A H; Carroll, S M; Rajkovic, A; Rottman, F M

    1988-01-01

    The adult Schistosoma mansoni cDNA clone 10-3 encodes an antigen that is recognized by sera from infected humans. We characterized multiple developmentally regulated transcripts homologous to the 10-3 cDNA and portions of the complex genomic loci encoding those transcripts. Transcripts of approximately 950, 870, and 780 nucleotides were expressed in adults, whereas only the 780-nucleotide transcript was observed in the larval stage. These transcripts were highly similar, containing variable numbers of identical direct tandem repeats of 81 bases. Although the sequence of the repeating elements and sequences 3' to them were identical in all the transcripts, sequences 5' of the repeating elements exhibited variations, including a 27-base insertion, alternative start sites for transcription, and alternate 5' exon usage. These transcripts appeared to be derived in part by the developmentally controlled alternative splicing of small exons and the use of alternative transcription initiation sites from the one or two complex loci of at least 40 kilobase pairs. Each 81-base repeat in the transcripts was encoded by three dispersed 27-base-pair exons. These 27-base-pair exons were contained within highly conserved, reiterated 3-kilobase-pair genomic tandem arrays. Images PMID:3211127

  7. Short-tandem repeat analysis in seven Chinese regional populations

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    In the present study, we investigated the application of 13 short tandem repeat (STR) loci (D13S317, D7S820, TH01, D16S539, CSFIPO, VWA, D8S1179, TPOX, FGA, D3S1358, D21S11, D18S51 and D5S818) routinely used in forensic analysis, for delineating population relationships among seven human populations representing the two major geographic groups, namely the southern and northern Chinese. The resulting single topology revealed pronounced geographic and population partitioning, consistent with the differences in geographic location, languages and eating habits. These findings suggest that forensic STR loci might be particularly powerful tools in providing the necessary fine resolution for reconstructing recent human evolutionary history. PMID:21637565

  8. Comparative analysis of tandem repeats from hundreds of species reveals unique insights into centromere evolution

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Centromeres are essential for chromosome segregation, yet their DNA sequences evolve rapidly. In most animals and plants that have been studied, centromeres contain megabase-scale arrays of tandem repeats. Despite their importance, very little is known about the degree to which centromere tandem repeats share common properties between different species across different phyla. We used bioinformatic methods to identify high-copy tandem repeats from 282 species using publicly available genomic sequence and our own data. Results Our methods are compatible with all current sequencing technologies. Long Pacific Biosciences sequence reads allowed us to find tandem repeat monomers up to 1,419 bp. We assumed that the most abundant tandem repeat is the centromere DNA, which was true for most species whose centromeres have been previously characterized, suggesting this is a general property of genomes. High-copy centromere tandem repeats were found in almost all animal and plant genomes, but repeat monomers were highly variable in sequence composition and length. Furthermore, phylogenetic analysis of sequence homology showed little evidence of sequence conservation beyond approximately 50 million years of divergence. We find that despite an overall lack of sequence conservation, centromere tandem repeats from diverse species showed similar modes of evolution. Conclusions While centromere position in most eukaryotes is epigenetically determined, our results indicate that tandem repeats are highly prevalent at centromeres of both animal and plant genomes. This suggests a functional role for such repeats, perhaps in promoting concerted evolution of centromere DNA across chromosomes. PMID:23363705

  9. The evolution and function of protein tandem repeats in plants.

    PubMed

    Schaper, Elke; Anisimova, Maria

    2015-04-01

    Sequence tandem repeats (TRs) are abundant in proteomes across all domains of life. For plants, little is known about their distribution or contribution to protein function. We exhaustively annotated TRs and studied the evolution of TR unit variations for all Ensembl plants. Using phylogenetic patterns of TR units, we detected conserved TRs with unit number and order preserved during evolution, and those TRs that have diverged via recent TR unit gains/losses. We correlated the mode of evolution of TRs to protein function. TR number was strongly correlated with proteome size, with about one-half of all TRs recognized as common protein domains. The majority of TRs have been highly conserved over long evolutionary distances, some since the separation of red algae and green plants c. 1.6 billion yr ago. Conversely, recurrent recent TR unit mutations were rare. Our results suggest that the first TRs by far predate the first plants, and that TR appearance is an ongoing process with similar rates across the plant kingdom. Interestingly, the few detected highly mutable TRs might provide a source of variation for rapid adaptation. In particular, such TRs are enriched in leucine-rich repeats (LRRs) commonly found in R genes, where TR unit gain/loss may facilitate resistance to emerging pathogens. © 2014 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2014 New Phytologist Trust.

  10. Comparative analysis of tandem repeats from hundreds of species reveals unique insights into centromere evolution

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Centromeres are essential for chromosome segregation, yet their DNA sequences evolve rapidly. In most animals and plants that have been studied, centromeres comprise of megabase-scale arrays of tandem repeats. The true prevalence of centromere tandem repeats, and whether they exhibit conserved seque...

  11. Systematic Profiling of Short Tandem Repeats in the Cattle Genome.

    PubMed

    Xu, Lingyang; Haasl, Ryan J; Sun, Jiajie; Zhou, Yang; Bickhart, Derek M; Li, Junya; Song, Jiuzhou; Sonstegard, Tad S; Van Tassell, Curtis P; Lewin, Harris A; Liu, George E

    2017-01-01

    Short tandem repeats (STRs), or microsatellites, are genetic variants with repetitive 2–6 base pair motifs in many mammalian genomes. Using high-throughput sequencing and experimental validations, we systematically profiled STRs in five Holsteins. We identified a total of 60,106 microsatellites and generated the first high-resolution STR map, representing a substantial pool of polymorphism in dairy cattle. We observed significant STRs overlap with functional genes and quantitative trait loci (QTL). We performed evolutionary and population genetic analyses using over 20,000 common dinucleotide STRs. Besides corroborating the well-established positive correlation between allele size and variance in allele size, these analyses also identified dozens of outlier STRs based on two anomalous relationships that counter expected characteristics of neutral evolution. And one STR locus overlaps with a significant region of a summary statistic designed to detect STR-related selection. Additionally, our results showed that only 57.1% of STRs located within SNP-based linkage disequilibrium (LD) blocks whereas the other 42.9% were out of blocks. Therefore, a substantial number of STRs are not tagged by SNPs in the cattle genome, likely due to STR's distinct mutation mechanism and elevated polymorphism. This study provides the foundation for future STR-based studies of cattle genome evolution and selection.

  12. Mapping of short tandem repeat polymorphisms on human chromosome 3

    SciTech Connect

    Wilkie, P.J.; Weber, J.L. )

    1994-01-01

    Linkage analysis was used to determine map positions for 18 short tandem repeat polymorphisms that continuously span 186 cM of human chromosome 3. Mapping was based on the genotyping of 40 CEPH reference families. Loci order from pter-qter was D3S1252-D3S1235-D3S1234-D3S1233-D3S1254-D3S1251-D3S1215-RHO-ACPP-D3S1238-D3S1206- D3S196-D3S1237-(D3S1253,D3S1439)-D3S1243-D3S1232-SST. Odds against inversion of adjacent markers in all cases were 700:1 or better, except for the marker pair at D3S1253, D3S1439 that was not separated by any recombinants and therefore could not be ordered. Only one gap greater than 25 cM on the sex-equal map was observed. 14 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  13. Systematic Profiling of Short Tandem Repeats in the Cattle Genome

    PubMed Central

    Haasl, Ryan J.; Sun, Jiajie; Zhou, Yang; Bickhart, Derek M.; Li, Junya; Song, Jiuzhou; Sonstegard, Tad S.; Van Tassell, Curtis P.; Lewin, Harris A.

    2017-01-01

    Short tandem repeats (STRs), or microsatellites, are genetic variants with repetitive 2–6 base pair motifs in many mammalian genomes. Using high-throughput sequencing and experimental validations, we systematically profiled STRs in five Holsteins. We identified a total of 60,106 microsatellites and generated the first high-resolution STR map, representing a substantial pool of polymorphism in dairy cattle. We observed significant STRs overlap with functional genes and quantitative trait loci (QTL). We performed evolutionary and population genetic analyses using over 20,000 common dinucleotide STRs. Besides corroborating the well-established positive correlation between allele size and variance in allele size, these analyses also identified dozens of outlier STRs based on two anomalous relationships that counter expected characteristics of neutral evolution. And one STR locus overlaps with a significant region of a summary statistic designed to detect STR-related selection. Additionally, our results showed that only 57.1% of STRs located within SNP-based linkage disequilibrium (LD) blocks whereas the other 42.9% were out of blocks. Therefore, a substantial number of STRs are not tagged by SNPs in the cattle genome, likely due to STR's distinct mutation mechanism and elevated polymorphism. This study provides the foundation for future STR-based studies of cattle genome evolution and selection. PMID:28172841

  14. Analysis of the largest tandemly repeated DNA families in the human genome

    PubMed Central

    Warburton, Peter E; Hasson, Dan; Guillem, Flavia; Lescale, Chloe; Jin, Xiaoping; Abrusan, Gyorgy

    2008-01-01

    Background Tandemly Repeated DNA represents a large portion of the human genome, and accounts for a significant amount of copy number variation. Here we present a genome wide analysis of the largest tandem repeats found in the human genome sequence. Results Using Tandem Repeats Finder (TRF), tandem repeat arrays greater than 10 kb in total size were identified, and classified into simple sequence e.g. GAATG, classical satellites e.g. alpha satellite DNA, and locus specific VNTR arrays. Analysis of these large sequenced regions revealed that several "simple sequence" arrays actually showed complex domain and/or higher order repeat organization. Using additional methods, we further identified a total of 96 additional arrays with tandem repeat units greater than 2 kb (the detection limit of TRF), 53 of which contained genes or repeated exons. The overall size of an array of tandem 12 kb repeats which spanned a gap on chromosome 8 was found to be 600 kb to 1.7 Mbp in size, representing one of the largest non-centromeric arrays characterized. Several novel megasatellite tandem DNA families were observed that are characterized by repeating patterns of interspersed transposable elements that have expanded presumably by unequal crossing over. One of these families is found on 11 different chromosomes in >25 arrays, and represents one of the largest most widespread megasatellite DNA families. Conclusion This study represents the most comprehensive genome wide analysis of large tandem repeats in the human genome, and will serve as an important resource towards understanding the organization and copy number variation of these complex DNA families. PMID:18992157

  15. Deep conservation of human protein tandem repeats within the eukaryotes.

    PubMed

    Schaper, Elke; Gascuel, Olivier; Anisimova, Maria

    2014-05-01

    Tandem repeats (TRs) are a major element of protein sequences in all domains of life. They are particularly abundant in mammals, where by conservative estimates one in three proteins contain a TR. High generation-scale duplication and deletion rates were reported for nucleic TR units. However, it is not known whether protein TR units can also be frequently lost or gained providing a source of variation for rapid adaptation of protein function, or alternatively, tend to have conserved TR unit configurations over long evolutionary times. To obtain a systematic picture, we performed a proteome-wide analysis of the mode of evolution for human protein TRs. For this purpose, we propose a novel method for the detection of orthologous TRs based on circular profile hidden Markov models. For all detected TRs, we reconstructed bispecies TR unit phylogenies across 61 eukaryotes ranging from human to yeast. Moreover, we performed additional analyses to correlate functional and structural annotations of human TRs with their mode of evolution. Surprisingly, we find that the vast majority of human TRs are ancient, with TR unit number and order preserved intact since distant speciation events. For example, ≥ 61% of all human TRs have been strongly conserved at least since the root of all mammals, approximately 300 Ma. Further, we find no human protein TR that shows evidence for strong recent duplications and deletions. The results are in contrast to the high generation-scale mutability of nucleic TRs. Presumably, most protein TRs fold into stable and conserved structures that are indispensable for the function of the TR-containing protein. All of our data and results are available for download from http://www.atgc-montpellier.fr/TRE.

  16. Hybrid de novo tandem repeat detection using short and long reads

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background As one of the most studied genome rearrangements, tandem repeats have a considerable impact on genetic backgrounds of inherited diseases. Many methods designed for tandem repeat detection on reference sequences obtain high quality results. However, in the case of a de novo context, where no reference sequence is available, tandem repeat detection remains a difficult problem. The short reads obtained with the second-generation sequencing methods are not long enough to span regions that contain long repeats. This length limitation was tackled by the long reads obtained with the third-generation sequencing platforms such as Pacific Biosciences technologies. Nevertheless, the gain on the read length came with a significant increase of the error rate. The main objective of nowadays studies on long reads is to handle the high error rate up to 16%. Methods In this paper we present MixTaR, the first de novo method for tandem repeat detection that combines the high-quality of short reads and the large length of long reads. Our hybrid algorithm uses the set of short reads for tandem repeat pattern detection based on a de Bruijn graph. These patterns are then validated using the long reads, and the tandem repeat sequences are constructed using local greedy assemblies. Results MixTaR is tested with both simulated and real reads from complex organisms. For a complete analysis of its robustness to errors, we use short and long reads with different error rates. The results are then analysed in terms of number of tandem repeats detected and the length of their patterns. Conclusions Our method shows high precision and sensitivity. With low false positive rates even for highly erroneous reads, MixTaR is able to detect accurate tandem repeats with pattern lengths varying within a significant interval. PMID:26399998

  17. Comparative analysis of tandem repeats from hundreds of species reveals unique insights into centromere evolution

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Centromeres are essential for chromosome segregation, yet their DNA sequences evolve rapidly. In most animals and plants that have been studied, centromeres contain megabase-scale arrays of tandem repeats. Despite their importance, very little is known about the degree to which centromere tandem r...

  18. Subtelomeric regions of yeast chromosomes contain a 36 base-pair tandemly repeated sequence.

    PubMed Central

    Horowitz, H; Haber, J E

    1984-01-01

    We have determined the nucleotide sequence of a region of DNA derived from the end of one chromosome of the yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Inspection of the sequence reveals the presence of 12 tandem direct repeats, each 36 nucleotides long and having nearly identical sequence. Each 36 base-pair repeat can be further subdivided into three tandem sub-repeats of a similar 12 base-pair sequence. Analysis of total genomic yeast DNA from several strains by Southern hybridization suggests that the number of tandem 36 base-pair repeat units may vary from approximately 8 to 25 among different telomeric regions. Differences in the number of repeats may have arisen by unequal crossing over between them. Furthermore, the finding that the pattern of bases at multiple variable positions within the repeat unit is not random suggests that these regions may undergo gene conversion events that render them homogeneous. Images PMID:6091055

  19. Tandem Repeat Regions within the Burkholderia pseudomallei Genome and their Application for High-Resolution Genotyping

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-03-30

    BioMed CentralBMC Microbiology ssOpen AcceResearch article Tandem repeat regions within the Burkholderia pseudomallei genome and their application...facultative, intracellular bacterium Burkholderia pseudomallei is the causative agent of melioidosis, a serious infectious disease of humans and animals. We...REPORT TYPE N/A 3. DATES COVERED - 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Large tandem repeat regions within the Burkholderia pseudomallei genome and their

  20. Large-scale analysis of tandem repeat variability in the human genome

    PubMed Central

    Duitama, Jorge; Zablotskaya, Alena; Gemayel, Rita; Jansen, An; Belet, Stefanie; Vermeesch, Joris R.; Verstrepen, Kevin J.; Froyen, Guy

    2014-01-01

    Tandem repeats are short DNA sequences that are repeated head-to-tail with a propensity to be variable. They constitute a significant proportion of the human genome, also occurring within coding and regulatory regions. Variation in these repeats can alter the function and/or expression of genes allowing organisms to swiftly adapt to novel environments. Importantly, some repeat expansions have also been linked to certain neurodegenerative diseases. Therefore, accurate sequencing of tandem repeats could contribute to our understanding of common phenotypic variability and might uncover missing genetic factors in idiopathic clinical conditions. However, despite long-standing evidence for the functional role of repeats, they are largely ignored because of technical limitations in sequencing, mapping and typing. Here, we report on a novel capture technique and data filtering protocol that allowed simultaneous sequencing of thousands of tandem repeats in the human genomes of a three generation family using GS-FLX-plus Titanium technology. Our results demonstrated that up to 7.6% of tandem repeats in this family (4% in coding sequences) differ from the reference sequence, and identified a de novo variation in the family tree. The method opens new routes to look at this underappreciated type of genetic variability, including the identification of novel disease-related repeats. PMID:24682812

  1. Rational design of α-helical tandem repeat proteins with closed architectures.

    PubMed

    Doyle, Lindsey; Hallinan, Jazmine; Bolduc, Jill; Parmeggiani, Fabio; Baker, David; Stoddard, Barry L; Bradley, Philip

    2015-12-24

    Tandem repeat proteins, which are formed by repetition of modular units of protein sequence and structure, play important biological roles as macromolecular binding and scaffolding domains, enzymes, and building blocks for the assembly of fibrous materials. The modular nature of repeat proteins enables the rapid construction and diversification of extended binding surfaces by duplication and recombination of simple building blocks. The overall architecture of tandem repeat protein structures--which is dictated by the internal geometry and local packing of the repeat building blocks--is highly diverse, ranging from extended, super-helical folds that bind peptide, DNA, and RNA partners, to closed and compact conformations with internal cavities suitable for small molecule binding and catalysis. Here we report the development and validation of computational methods for de novo design of tandem repeat protein architectures driven purely by geometric criteria defining the inter-repeat geometry, without reference to the sequences and structures of existing repeat protein families. We have applied these methods to design a series of closed α-solenoid repeat structures (α-toroids) in which the inter-repeat packing geometry is constrained so as to juxtapose the amino (N) and carboxy (C) termini; several of these designed structures have been validated by X-ray crystallography. Unlike previous approaches to tandem repeat protein engineering, our design procedure does not rely on template sequence or structural information taken from natural repeat proteins and hence can produce structures unlike those seen in nature. As an example, we have successfully designed and validated closed α-solenoid repeats with a left-handed helical architecture that--to our knowledge--is not yet present in the protein structure database.

  2. Rational design of alpha-helical tandem repeat proteins with closed architectures

    PubMed Central

    Doyle, Lindsey; Hallinan, Jazmine; Bolduc, Jill; Parmeggiani, Fabio; Baker, David; Stoddard, Barry L.; Bradley, Philip

    2015-01-01

    Tandem repeat proteins, which are formed by repetition of modular units of protein sequence and structure, play important biological roles as macromolecular binding and scaffolding domains, enzymes, and building blocks for the assembly of fibrous materials1,2. The modular nature of repeat proteins enables the rapid construction and diversification of extended binding surfaces by duplication and recombination of simple building blocks3,4. The overall architecture of tandem repeat protein structures – which is dictated by the internal geometry and local packing of the repeat building blocks – is highly diverse, ranging from extended, super-helical folds that bind peptide, DNA, and RNA partners5–9, to closed and compact conformations with internal cavities suitable for small molecule binding and catalysis10. Here we report the development and validation of computational methods for de novo design of tandem repeat protein architectures driven purely by geometric criteria defining the inter-repeat geometry, without reference to the sequences and structures of existing repeat protein families. We have applied these methods to design a series of closed alpha-solenoid11 repeat structures (alpha-toroids) in which the inter-repeat packing geometry is constrained so as to juxtapose the N- and C-termini; several of these designed structures have been validated by X-ray crystallography. Unlike previous approaches to tandem repeat protein engineering12–20, our design procedure does not rely on template sequence or structural information taken from natural repeat proteins and hence can produce structures unlike those seen in nature. As an example, we have successfully designed and validated closed alpha-solenoid repeats with a left-handed helical architecture that – to our knowledge – is not yet present in the protein structure database21. PMID:26675735

  3. Multiple-locus variable number tandem repeats analysis for genetic fingerprinting of pathogenic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Lindstedt, Bjørn-Arne

    2005-06-01

    DNA fingerprinting has attracted considerable interest as means for identifying, tracing and preventing the dissemination of infectious agents. Various methods have been developed for typing of pathogenic bacteria, which differ in discriminative power, reproducibility and ease of interpretation. During recent years a typing method, which uses the information provided by whole genome sequencing of bacterial species, has gained increased attention. Short sequence repeat (SSR) motifs are known to undergo frequent variation in the number of repeated units through cellular mechanisms most commonly active during chromosome replication. A class of SSRs, named variable number of tandem repeats (VNTRs), has proven to be a suitable target for assessing genetic polymorphisms within bacterial species. This review attempts to give an overview of bacterial agents where VNTR-based typing, or multiple-locus variant-repeat analysis (MLVA) has been developed for typing purposes, together with addressing advantages and drawbacks associated with the use of tandem repeated DNA motifs as targets for bacterial typing and identification.

  4. Digital Genotyping of Macrosatellites and Multicopy Genes Reveals Novel Biological Functions Associated with Copy Number Variation of Large Tandem Repeats

    PubMed Central

    Quilez, Javier; Hasson, Dan; Borel, Christelle; Warburton, Peter; Sharp, Andrew J.

    2014-01-01

    Tandem repeats are common in eukaryotic genomes, but due to difficulties in assaying them remain poorly studied. Here, we demonstrate the utility of Nanostring technology as a targeted approach to perform accurate measurement of tandem repeats even at extremely high copy number, and apply this technology to genotype 165 HapMap samples from three different populations and five species of non-human primates. We observed extreme variability in copy number of tandemly repeated genes, with many loci showing 5–10 fold variation in copy number among humans. Many of these loci show hallmarks of genome assembly errors, and the true copy number of many large tandem repeats is significantly under-represented even in the high quality ‘finished’ human reference assembly. Importantly, we demonstrate that most large tandem repeat variations are not tagged by nearby SNPs, and are therefore essentially invisible to SNP-based GWAS approaches. Using association analysis we identify many cis correlations of large tandem repeat variants with nearby gene expression and DNA methylation levels, indicating that variations of tandem repeat length are associated with functional effects on the local genomic environment. This includes an example where expansion of a macrosatellite repeat is associated with increased DNA methylation and suppression of nearby gene expression, suggesting a mechanism termed “repeat induced gene silencing”, which has previously been observed only in transgenic organisms. We also observed multiple signatures consistent with altered selective pressures at tandemly repeated loci, suggesting important biological functions. Our studies show that tandemly repeated loci represent a highly variable fraction of the genome that have been systematically ignored by most previous studies, copy number variation of which can exert functionally significant effects. We suggest that future studies of tandem repeat loci will lead to many novel insights into their role in

  5. Genome-wide analysis of tandem repeats in plants and green algae

    Treesearch

    Zhixin Zhao; Cheng Guo; Sreeskandarajan Sutharzan; Pei Li; Craig Echt; Jie Zhang; Chun Liang

    2014-01-01

    Tandem repeats (TRs) extensively exist in the genomes of prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Based on the sequenced genomes and gene annotations of 31 plant and algal species in Phytozome version 8.0 (http://www.phytozome.net/), we examined TRs in a genome-wide scale, characterized their distributions and motif features, and explored their putative biological functions. Among...

  6. Systematic profiling of bovine short tandem repeats using whole genome sequencing data

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Short tandem repeats (STRs), or microsatellites, are genetic variants with repetitive motifs of 2–6 base pairs that are abundant in the genomes of pro- and eukaryotic organisms. Using the program lobSTR and whole genome sequencing data, we systematically profiled STR variation in five Holstein cattl...

  7. Enhanced antibody-dependent cellular phagocytosis by chimeric monoclonal antibodies with tandemly repeated Fc domains.

    PubMed

    Nagashima, Hiroaki; Ootsubo, Michiko; Fukazawa, Mizuki; Motoi, Sotaro; Konakahara, Shu; Masuho, Yasuhiko

    2011-04-01

    We previously reported that chimeric monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) with tandemly repeated Fc domains, which were developed by introducing tandem repeats of Fc domains downstream of 2 Fab domains, augmented binding avidities for all Fcγ receptors, resulting in enhanced antibody (Ab)-dependent cellular cytotoxicity. Here we investigated regarding Ab-dependent cellular phagocytosis (ADCP) mediated by these chimeric mAbs, which is considered one of the most important mechanisms that kills tumor cells, using two-color flow cytometric methods. ADCP mediated by T3-Ab, a chimeric mAb with 3 tandemly repeated Fc domains, was 5 times more potent than that by native anti-CD20 M-Ab (M-Ab hereafter). Furthermore, T3-Ab-mediated ADCP was resistant to competitive inhibition by intravenous Ig (IVIG), although M-Ab-mediated ADCP decreased in the presence of IVIG. An Fcγ receptor-blocking study demonstrated that T3-Ab mediated ADCP via both FcγRIA and FcγRIIA, whereas M-Ab mediated ADCP exclusively via FcγRIA. These results suggest that chimeric mAbs with tandemly repeated Fc domains enhance ADCP as well as ADCC, and that Fc multimerization may significantly enhance the efficacy of therapeutic Abs.

  8. Turkish population data with the CODIS multiplex short tandem repeat loci.

    PubMed

    Akbasak, B S; Budowle, B; Reeder, D J; Redman, J; Kline, M C

    2001-12-01

    Allele frequencies for 13 tetrameric short tandem repeat (STR) loci, CSF1PO, D18S51, D3S1358, D21S11, D5S818, FGA, D7S820, HUMTH01, D8S1179, TPOX, D13S317, VWA, and D16S539 were determined on 198 Turkish blood samples.

  9. Tandem-repeat internal mapping (TRIM) of the involucrin gene: Repeat number and repeat-pattern polymorphism within a coding region in human populations

    SciTech Connect

    Urquhart, A.; Gill, P. )

    1993-07-01

    The authors have analyzed the human involucrin gene in 41 British African-Caribbeans and 37 British white Caucasians by tandem-repeat internal mapping and DNA sequencing. A point mutation (i.e., B[sub c]) in the last B repeat unit was found in 98.6% of British white Caucasians and in 52.4% of British African-Caribbeans. The distribution of repeat patterns was also different between the two populations. Nine previously unreported repeat pattern alleles, 4 with and 5 without the B[sub c] repeat, have been found, increasing the range of variation in humans to 15 reported repeat patterns, 6 with and 9 without the Caucasian mutation. Three further sequence variations, each occurring in a single individual, were found. The evolutionary significance of variation in the human involucrin gene is discussed. 30 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  10. Tandem repeats on an eco-geographical scale: outcomes from the genome of Aegilops speltoides.

    PubMed

    Raskina, Olga; Brodsky, Leonid; Belyayev, Alexander

    2011-07-01

    The chromosomal pattern of tandem repeat fractions of repetitive DNA is one of the most important characteristics of a species. In the present research, we aimed to detect and evaluate the level of intraspecific variability in the chromosomal distribution of species-specific Spelt 1 and Aegilops-Triticum-specific Spelt 52 tandem repeats in Aegilops speltoides and in closely related diploid and polyploid species. There is a distinct eco-geographical gradient in Spelt 1 and Spelt 52 blocks abundance in Ae. speltoides. In marginal populations, the number of Spelt 1 chromosomal blocks could be 12-14 times lower than in the center of the species distribution. Also, in related diploid species, the abundance of Spelt 52 correlates with evolutionary proximity to Ae. speltoides. Finally, the B- and G-genomes of allopolyploid wheats have Spelt 1 chromosomal distribution patterns similar to those of the types of Ae. speltoides with poor and rich contents of Spelt 1, respectively. The observed changes in numbers of blocks of Spelt 1 and Spelt 52 tandem repeats along the eco-geographical gradient may due to their depletion in the marginal populations as a result of increased recombination frequency under stressful conditions. Alternatively, it may be accumulation of tandem repeats in conducive climatic/edaphic environments in the center of the species' geographical distribution. Anyway, we observe a bidirectional shift of repetitive DNA genomic patterns on the population level leading to the formation of population-specific chromosomal patterns of tandem repeats. The appearance of a new chromosomal pattern is considered an important factor in promoting the emergence of interbreeding barriers.

  11. Genome-wide analysis of tandem repeats in Tribolium castaneum genome reveals abundant and highly dynamic tandem repeat families with satellite DNA features in euchromatic chromosomal arms.

    PubMed

    Pavlek, Martina; Gelfand, Yevgeniy; Plohl, Miroslav; Meštrović, Nevenka

    2015-12-01

    Although satellite DNAs are well-explored components of heterochromatin and centromeres, little is known about emergence, dispersal and possible impact of comparably structured tandem repeats (TRs) on the genome-wide scale. Our bioinformatics analysis of assembled Tribolium castaneum genome disclosed significant contribution of TRs in euchromatic chromosomal arms and clear predominance of satellite DNA-typical 170 bp monomers in arrays of ≥5 repeats. By applying different experimental approaches, we revealed that the nine most prominent TR families Cast1-Cast9 extracted from the assembly comprise ∼4.3% of the entire genome and reside almost exclusively in euchromatic regions. Among them, seven families that build ∼3.9% of the genome are based on ∼170 and ∼340 bp long monomers. Results of phylogenetic analyses of 2500 monomers originating from these families show high-sequence dynamics, evident by extensive exchanges between arrays on non-homologous chromosomes. In addition, our analysis shows that concerted evolution acts more efficiently on longer than on shorter arrays. Efficient genome-wide distribution of nine TR families implies the role of transposition only in expansion of the most dispersed family, and involvement of other mechanisms is anticipated. Despite similarities in sequence features, FISH experiments indicate high-level compartmentalization of centromeric and euchromatic tandem repeats.

  12. Changes in Variable Number of Tandem Repeats in 'Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus' through Insect Transmission.

    PubMed

    Katoh, Hiroshi; Inoue, Hiromitsu; Iwanami, Toru

    2015-01-01

    Citrus greening (huanglongbing) is the most destructive citrus disease worldwide. The disease is associated with three species of 'Candidatus Liberibacter' among which 'Ca. Liberibacter asiaticus' has the widest distribution. 'Ca. L. asiaticus' is commonly transmitted by a phloem-feeding insect vector, the Asian citrus psyllid Diaphorina citri. A previous study showed that isolates of 'Ca. L. asiaticus' were clearly differentiated by variable number of tandem repeat (VNTR) profiles at four loci in the genome. In this study, the VNTR analysis was further validated by assessing the stability of these repeats after multiplication of the pathogen upon host-to-host transmission using a 'Ca. L. asiaticus' strain from Japan. The results showed that some tandem repeats showed detectable changes after insect transmission. To our knowledge, this is the first report to demonstrate that the repeat numbers VNTR 002 and 077 of 'Ca. L. asiaticus' change through psyllid transmission. VNTRs in the recipient plant were apparently unrelated to the growing phase of the vector. In contrast, changes in the number of tandem repeats increased with longer acquisition and inoculation access periods, whereas changes were not observed through psyllid transmission after relatively short acquisition and inoculation access periods, up to 20 and 19 days, respectively.

  13. Changes in Variable Number of Tandem Repeats in ‘Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus’ through Insect Transmission

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Citrus greening (huanglongbing) is the most destructive citrus disease worldwide. The disease is associated with three species of ‘Candidatus Liberibacter’ among which ‘Ca. Liberibacter asiaticus’ has the widest distribution. ‘Ca. L. asiaticus’ is commonly transmitted by a phloem-feeding insect vector, the Asian citrus psyllid Diaphorina citri. A previous study showed that isolates of ‘Ca. L. asiaticus’ were clearly differentiated by variable number of tandem repeat (VNTR) profiles at four loci in the genome. In this study, the VNTR analysis was further validated by assessing the stability of these repeats after multiplication of the pathogen upon host-to-host transmission using a ‘Ca. L. asiaticus’ strain from Japan. The results showed that some tandem repeats showed detectable changes after insect transmission. To our knowledge, this is the first report to demonstrate that the repeat numbers VNTR 002 and 077 of ‘Ca. L. asiaticus’ change through psyllid transmission. VNTRs in the recipient plant were apparently unrelated to the growing phase of the vector. In contrast, changes in the number of tandem repeats increased with longer acquisition and inoculation access periods, whereas changes were not observed through psyllid transmission after relatively short acquisition and inoculation access periods, up to 20 and 19 days, respectively. PMID:26402645

  14. Molecular tandem repeat strategy for elucidating mechanical properties of high-strength proteins

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Huihun; Pena-Francesch, Abdon; Saadat, Alham; Sebastian, Aswathy; Kim, Dong Hwan; Hamilton, Reginald F.; Albert, Istvan; Allen, Benjamin D.; Demirel, Melik C.

    2016-01-01

    Many globular and structural proteins have repetitions in their sequences or structures. However, a clear relationship between these repeats and their contribution to the mechanical properties remains elusive. We propose a new approach for the design and production of synthetic polypeptides that comprise one or more tandem copies of a single unit with distinct amorphous and ordered regions. Our designed sequences are based on a structural protein produced in squid suction cups that has a segmented copolymer structure with amorphous and crystalline domains. We produced segmented polypeptides with varying repeat number, while keeping the lengths and compositions of the amorphous and crystalline regions fixed. We showed that mechanical properties of these synthetic proteins could be tuned by modulating their molecular weights. Specifically, the toughness and extensibility of synthetic polypeptides increase as a function of the number of tandem repeats. This result suggests that the repetitions in native squid proteins could have a genetic advantage for increased toughness and flexibility. PMID:27222581

  15. Molecular tandem repeat strategy for elucidating mechanical properties of high-strength proteins.

    PubMed

    Jung, Huihun; Pena-Francesch, Abdon; Saadat, Alham; Sebastian, Aswathy; Kim, Dong Hwan; Hamilton, Reginald F; Albert, Istvan; Allen, Benjamin D; Demirel, Melik C

    2016-06-07

    Many globular and structural proteins have repetitions in their sequences or structures. However, a clear relationship between these repeats and their contribution to the mechanical properties remains elusive. We propose a new approach for the design and production of synthetic polypeptides that comprise one or more tandem copies of a single unit with distinct amorphous and ordered regions. Our designed sequences are based on a structural protein produced in squid suction cups that has a segmented copolymer structure with amorphous and crystalline domains. We produced segmented polypeptides with varying repeat number, while keeping the lengths and compositions of the amorphous and crystalline regions fixed. We showed that mechanical properties of these synthetic proteins could be tuned by modulating their molecular weights. Specifically, the toughness and extensibility of synthetic polypeptides increase as a function of the number of tandem repeats. This result suggests that the repetitions in native squid proteins could have a genetic advantage for increased toughness and flexibility.

  16. Targeting 24 bp within Telomere Repeat Sequences with Tandem Tetramer Pyrrole-Imidazole Polyamide Probes.

    PubMed

    Kawamoto, Yusuke; Sasaki, Asuka; Chandran, Anandhakumar; Hashiya, Kaori; Ide, Satoru; Bando, Toshikazu; Maeshima, Kazuhiro; Sugiyama, Hiroshi

    2016-10-03

    Synthetic molecules that bind sequence-specifically to DNA have been developed for varied biological applications, including anticancer activity, regulation of gene expression, and visualization of specific genomic regions. Increasing the number of base pairs targeted by synthetic molecules strengthens their sequence specificity. Our group has been working on the development of pyrrole-imidazole polyamides that bind to the minor groove of DNA in a sequence-specific manner without causing denaturation. Recently, we reported a simple synthetic method of fluorescent tandem dimer polyamide probes composed of two hairpin moieties with a linking hinge, which bound to 12 bp in human telomeric repeats (5'-(TTAGGG)n-3') and could be used to specifically visualize telomeres in chemically fixed cells under mild conditions. We also performed structural optimization and extension of the target base pairs to allow more specific stain-ing of telomeres. In the present study, we synthesized tandem tetramer polyamides composed of four hairpin moieties, targeting 24 bp in telomeric repeats, the longest reported binding site for synthetic, non-nucleic-acid-based, sequence-specific DNA-binding molecules. The novel tandem tetramers bound with a nanomolar dissociation constant to 24 bp sequences made up of four telomeric repeats. Fluorescently labeled tandem tetramer polyamide probes could visualize human telomeres in chemically fixed cells with lower background signals than polyamide probes reported previously, suggesting that they had higher specificity for telomeres. Furthermore, high-throughput sequencing of human genomic DNA pulled down by the biotin-labeled tandem tetramer polyamide probe confirmed its effective binding to telomeric repeats in the complex chromatinized genome.

  17. SMRT Sequencing of Long Tandem Nucleotide Repeats in SCA10 Reveals Unique Insight of Repeat Expansion Structure

    PubMed Central

    Landrian, Ivette; Godiska, Ronald; Shanker, Savita; Yu, Fahong; Farmerie, William G.; Ashizawa, Tetsuo

    2015-01-01

    A large, non-coding ATTCT repeat expansion causes the neurodegenerative disorder, spinocerebellar ataxia type 10 (SCA10). In a subset of SCA10 patients, interruption motifs are present at the 5’ end of the expansion and strongly correlate with epileptic seizures. Thus, interruption motifs are a predictor of the epileptic phenotype and are hypothesized to act as a phenotypic modifier in SCA10. Yet, the exact internal sequence structure of SCA10 expansions remains unknown due to limitations in current technologies for sequencing across long extended tracts of tandem nucleotide repeats. We used the third generation sequencing technology, Single Molecule Real Time (SMRT) sequencing, to obtain full-length contiguous expansion sequences, ranging from 2.5 to 4.4 kb in length, from three SCA10 patients with different clinical presentations. We obtained sequence spanning the entire length of the expansion and identified the structure of known and novel interruption motifs within the SCA10 expansion. The exact interruption patterns in expanded SCA10 alleles will allow us to further investigate the potential contributions of these interrupting sequences to the pathogenic modification leading to the epilepsy phenotype in SCA10. Our results also demonstrate that SMRT sequencing is useful for deciphering long tandem repeats that pose as “gaps” in the human genome sequence. PMID:26295943

  18. Large Tandem, Higher Order Repeats and Regularly Dispersed Repeat Units Contribute Substantially to Divergence Between Human and Chimpanzee Y Chromosomes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paar, Vladimir; Glunčić, Matko; Basar, Ivan; Rosandić, Marija; Paar, Petar; Cvitković, Mislav

    2011-01-01

    Comparison of human and chimpanzee genomes has received much attention, because of paramount role for understanding evolutionary step distinguishing us from our closest living relative. In order to contribute to insight into Y chromosome evolutionary history, we study and compare tandems, higher order repeats (HORs), and regularly dispersed repeats in human and chimpanzee Y chromosome contigs, using robust Global Repeat Map algorithm. We find a new type of long-range acceleration, human-accelerated HOR regions. In peripheral domains of 35mer human alphoid HORs, we find riddled features with ten additional repeat monomers. In chimpanzee, we identify 30mer alphoid HOR. We construct alphoid HOR schemes showing significant human-chimpanzee difference, revealing rapid evolution after human-chimpanzee separation. We identify and analyze over 20 large repeat units, most of them reported here for the first time as: chimpanzee and human ~1.6 kb 3mer secondary repeat unit (SRU) and ~23.5 kb tertiary repeat unit (~0.55 kb primary repeat unit, PRU); human 10848, 15775, 20309, 60910, and 72140 bp PRUs; human 3mer SRU (~2.4 kb PRU); 715mer and 1123mer SRUs (5mer PRU); chimpanzee 5096, 10762, 10853, 60523 bp PRUs; and chimpanzee 64624 bp SRU (10853 bp PRU). We show that substantial human-chimpanzee differences are concentrated in large repeat structures, at the level of as much as ~70% divergence, sizably exceeding previous numerical estimates for some selected noncoding sequences. Smeared over the whole sequenced assembly (25 Mb) this gives ~14% human--chimpanzee divergence. This is significantly higher estimate of divergence between human and chimpanzee than previous estimates.

  19. Large tandem, higher order repeats and regularly dispersed repeat units contribute substantially to divergence between human and chimpanzee Y chromosomes.

    PubMed

    Paar, Vladimir; Glunčić, Matko; Basar, Ivan; Rosandić, Marija; Paar, Petar; Cvitković, Mislav

    2011-01-01

    Comparison of human and chimpanzee genomes has received much attention, because of paramount role for understanding evolutionary step distinguishing us from our closest living relative. In order to contribute to insight into Y chromosome evolutionary history, we study and compare tandems, higher order repeats (HORs), and regularly dispersed repeats in human and chimpanzee Y chromosome contigs, using robust Global Repeat Map algorithm. We find a new type of long-range acceleration, human-accelerated HOR regions. In peripheral domains of 35mer human alphoid HORs, we find riddled features with ten additional repeat monomers. In chimpanzee, we identify 30mer alphoid HOR. We construct alphoid HOR schemes showing significant human-chimpanzee difference, revealing rapid evolution after human-chimpanzee separation. We identify and analyze over 20 large repeat units, most of them reported here for the first time as: chimpanzee and human ~1.6 kb 3mer secondary repeat unit (SRU) and ~23.5 kb tertiary repeat unit (~0.55 kb primary repeat unit, PRU); human 10848, 15775, 20309, 60910, and 72140 bp PRUs; human 3mer SRU (~2.4 kb PRU); 715mer and 1123mer SRUs (5mer PRU); chimpanzee 5096, 10762, 10853, 60523 bp PRUs; and chimpanzee 64624 bp SRU (10853 bp PRU). We show that substantial human-chimpanzee differences are concentrated in large repeat structures, at the level of as much as ~70% divergence, sizably exceeding previous numerical estimates for some selected noncoding sequences. Smeared over the whole sequenced assembly (25 Mb) this gives ~14% human-chimpanzee divergence. This is significantly higher estimate of divergence between human and chimpanzee than previous estimates.

  20. The roles of the monomer length and nucleotide context of plant tandem repeats in nucleosome positioning.

    PubMed

    Levitsky, Victor G; Babenko, Vladimir N; Vershinin, Alexander V

    2014-01-01

    Similar to regularly spaced nucleosomes in chromatin, long tandem DNA arrays are composed of regularly alternating monomers that have almost identical primary DNA structures. Such a similarity in the structural organization makes these arrays especially interesting for studying the role of intrinsic DNA preferences in nucleosome positioning. We have studied the nucleosome formation potential of DNA tandem repeat families with different monomer lengths (ML). In total, 165 plant tandem repeat families from the PlantSat database (http://w3lamc.umbr.cas.cz/PlantSat/) were divided into two classes based on the number of nucleosome repeats in one DNA monomer. For predicting nucleosome formation potential, we developed the Phase method, which combines the advantages of multiple bioinformatics models. The Phase method was able to distinguish interfamily differences and intrafamily monomer variation and identify the influence of nucleotide context on nucleosome formation potential. Three main types of nucleosome arrangement in DNA tandem repeat arrays--regular, partially regular (partial), and flexible--were distinguished among a great variety of Phase profiles. The regular type, in which all nucleosomes of the monomer array are positioned in a context-dependent manner, is the most representative type of the class 1 families, with ML equal to or a multiple of the nucleosome repeat length (NRL). In the partially regular type, nucleotide context influences the positioning of only a subset of nucleosomes. The influence of the nucleotide context on nucleosome positioning has the least effect in the flexible type, which contains the greatest number of families (65). The majority of these families belong to class 2 and have nonmultiple ML to NRL ratios.

  1. A region of euchromatin coincides with an extensive tandem repeat on the mouse (Mus musculus) inactive X chromosome.

    PubMed

    Darrow, Emily M; Seberg, Andrew P; Das, Sunny; Figueroa, Debbie M; Sun, Zhuo; Moseley, Shawn C; Chadwick, Brian P

    2014-09-01

    Euchromatic features are largely absent from the human inactive X chromosome (Xi), with the exception of several large tandem repeats that can be detected as euchromatin bands at metaphase. Despite residing megabases apart, these tandem repeats make frequent inactive X-specific interactions. The mouse homologue has been reported for at least one of the tandem repeats, but whether the mouse Xi is also characterized by distinct bands of euchromatin remains unknown. We examined the mouse Xi for the presence of euchromatin bands by examining the pattern of histone H3 dimethylated at lysine 4 and detected two major signals. The first band resides in the subtelomeric region of band XF5 and may correspond to the pseudoautosomal region. The second band localizes to XE3 and coincides with an extensive complex repeat composed of a large tandem and inverted repeat segment as well as several large short interspersed nuclear element (SINE)-rich tandem repeats. Fluorescence in situ hybridization reveals that sequences with homology to the repeat region are scattered along the length of the Y chromosome. Immunofluorescence analysis of histone H3 trimethylated at lysine 9 on metaphase chromosomes indicates that the repeat region corresponds to a band of constitutive heterochromatin on the male X and female active X chromosomes, whereas the euchromatin signal appears to be female specific. These data suggest that the band of euchromatin observed at XE3 is unique to the mouse Xi, comparable to the chromatin arrangement of several large tandem repeats located on the human X chromosome.

  2. The penicillin gene cluster is amplified in tandem repeats linked by conserved hexanucleotide sequences.

    PubMed Central

    Fierro, F; Barredo, J L; Díez, B; Gutierrez, S; Fernández, F J; Martín, J F

    1995-01-01

    The penicillin biosynthetic genes (pcbAB, pcbC, penDE) of Penicillium chrysogenum AS-P-78 were located in a 106.5-kb DNA region that is amplified in tandem repeats (five or six copies) linked by conserved TTTACA sequences. The wild-type strains P. chrysogenum NRRL 1951 and Penicillium notatum ATCC 9478 (Fleming's isolate) contain a single copy of the 106.5-kb region. This region was bordered by the same TTTACA hexanucleotide found between tandem repeats in strain AS-P-78. A penicillin overproducer strain, P. chrysogenum E1, contains a large number of copies in tandem of a 57.9-kb DNA fragment, linked by the same hexanucleotide or its reverse complementary TGTAAA sequence. The deletion mutant P. chrysogenum npe10 showed a deletion of 57.9 kb that corresponds exactly to the DNA fragment that is amplified in E1. The conserved hexanucleotide sequence was reconstituted at the deletion site. The amplification has occurred within a single chromosome (chromosome I). The tandem reiteration and deletion appear to arise by mutation-induced site-specific recombination at the conserved hexanucleotide sequences. Images Fig. 3 PMID:7597101

  3. The penicillin gene cluster is amplified in tandem repeats linked by conserved hexanucleotide sequences.

    PubMed

    Fierro, F; Barredo, J L; Díez, B; Gutierrez, S; Fernández, F J; Martín, J F

    1995-06-20

    The penicillin biosynthetic genes (pcbAB, pcbC, penDE) of Penicillium chrysogenum AS-P-78 were located in a 106.5-kb DNA region that is amplified in tandem repeats (five or six copies) linked by conserved TTTACA sequences. The wild-type strains P. chrysogenum NRRL 1951 and Penicillium notatum ATCC 9478 (Fleming's isolate) contain a single copy of the 106.5-kb region. This region was bordered by the same TTTACA hexanucleotide found between tandem repeats in strain AS-P-78. A penicillin overproducer strain, P. chrysogenum E1, contains a large number of copies in tandem of a 57.9-kb DNA fragment, linked by the same hexanucleotide or its reverse complementary TGTAAA sequence. The deletion mutant P. chrysogenum npe10 showed a deletion of 57.9 kb that corresponds exactly to the DNA fragment that is amplified in E1. The conserved hexanucleotide sequence was reconstituted at the deletion site. The amplification has occurred within a single chromosome (chromosome I). The tandem reiteration and deletion appear to arise by mutation-induced site-specific recombination at the conserved hexanucleotide sequences.

  4. Tandem repeating modular proteins avoid aggregation in single molecule force spectroscopy experiments.

    PubMed

    Dougan, Lorna; Fernandez, Julio M

    2007-12-13

    We have used single molecule force spectroscopy to explore the unfolding and refolding behavior of the immunoglobulin-like I27 protein in aqueous 2,2,2-trifluoroethanol (TFE). In bulk solution experiments, a 28% v/v TFE solution has previously been observed to enhance intermolecular attractions and lead to misfolding and aggregation of tandem modular proteins of high sequence identity. In our single molecule experiments, however, we measure successful refolding of the polyprotein I27(8) in all TFE solutions up to 35% v/v. Using a single molecule micromanipulation technique, we have shown that refolding of a polyprotein with identical repeats is not hindered by the presence of this cosolvent. These experimental results provide new insight into the properties of tandem repeating proteins and raise interesting questions as to the evolutionary success of such proteins in avoiding misfolding and aggregation.

  5. Human mitochondrial mTERF wraps around DNA through a left-handed superhelical tandem repeat.

    PubMed

    Jiménez-Menéndez, Nereida; Fernández-Millán, Pablo; Rubio-Cosials, Anna; Arnan, Carme; Montoya, Julio; Jacobs, Howard T; Bernadó, Pau; Coll, Miquel; Usón, Isabel; Solà, Maria

    2010-07-01

    The regulation of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) processes is slowly being characterized at a structural level. We present here crystal structures of human mitochondrial regulator mTERF, a transcription termination factor also implicated in replication pausing, in complex with double-stranded DNA oligonucleotides containing the tRNA(Leu)(UUR) gene sequence. mTERF comprises nine left-handed helical tandem repeats that form a left-handed superhelix, the Zurdo domain.

  6. Cloning and sequence analysis of an extremely homogeneous tandemly repeated DNA in the grasshopper Eyprepocnemis plorans.

    PubMed

    López-León, M D; Vázquez, P; Hewitt, G M; Camacho, J P

    1995-10-01

    Digestion of total nuclear DNA of the grasshopper Eyprepocnemis plorans with seven different restriction endonucleases (REs), and subsequent agarose gel electrophoresis, has shown the presence of highly repetitive DNA yielding the typical ladder-like banding pattern. The most clear pattern was produced by DraI, the monomer being some 180 bp. This repeat unit was subsequently cloned and sequenced. Bidirectional sequencing of five randomly chosen clones showed exactly the same nucleotides in all 180 positions. The possible explanations for such an extreme homogeneity of this tandem repeat are discussed in the light of current hypotheses on repetitive DNA function and molecular drive mechanisms.

  7. Tandem repeat DNA localizing on the proximal DAPI bands of chromosomes in Larix, Pinaceae.

    PubMed

    Hizume, Masahiro; Shibata, Fukashi; Matsumoto, Ayako; Maruyama, Yukie; Hayashi, Eiji; Kondo, Teiji; Kondo, Katsuhiko; Zhang, Shozo; Hong, Deyuan

    2002-08-01

    Repetitive DNA was cloned from HindIII-digested genomic DNA of Larix leptolepis. The repetitive DNA was about 170 bp long, had an AT content of 67%, and was organized tandemly in the genome. Using fluorescence in situ hybridization and subsequent DAPI banding, the repetitive DNA was localized in DAPI bands at the proximal region of one arm of chromosomes in L. leptolepis and Larix chinensis. Southern blot hybridization to genomic DNA of seven species and five varieties probed with cloned repetitive DNA showed that the repetitive DNA family was present in a tandem organization in genomes of all Larix taxa examined. In addition to the 170-bp sequence, a 220-bp sequence belonging to the same DNA family was also present in 10 taxa. The 220-bp repeat unit was a partial duplication of the 170-bp repeat unit. The 220-bp repeat unit was more abundant in L. chinensis and Larix potaninii var. macrocarpa than in other taxa. The repetitive DNA composed 2.0-3.4% of the genome in most taxa and 0.3 and 0.5% of the genome in L. chinensis and L. potaninii var. macrocarpa, respectively. The unique distribution of the 220-bp repeat unit in Larix indicates the close relationship of these two species. In the family Pinaceae, the LPD (Larix proximal DAPI band specific repeat sequence family) family sequence is widely distributed, but their amount is very small except in the genus Larix. The abundant LPD family in Larix will occur after its speciation.

  8. Nonneutral evolution of tandem repeats in the mitochondrial DNA control region of lagomorphs.

    PubMed

    Casane, D; Dennebouy, N; de Rochambeau, H; Mounolou, J C; Monnerot, M

    1997-08-01

    The mitochondrial DNA of the European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) contains a tandem array of 153-bp repeats in the vicinity of the replication origin of the H-stand. Variation among molecules in the number of these repeats results in inter- and intraindividual length polymorphism (heteroplasmy). Generally, in an individual, one predominant molecular type is observed, the others representing a low percentage of the mtDNA content. At the tissue level, we observe a particular distribution of this polymorphism in the gonads compared with liver, kidneys, or brain, implying a relationship between the differentiation status of the cells and the types of new mtDNA molecules which appear and accumulate during lifetime. Similar tandem repeats were also found in the mtDNA noncoding region of European hares (Lepus europaeus), a cottontail (Sylvilagus floridanus), and a pika (Ochotona rufescens). The lengths and the sequences of these units evolve rapidly and in a concerted way, but the number of repeats is maintained in a narrow range, and an internal 20-bp segment is highly conserved. Constraints restrict the evolution of the primary sequence of these repeated units, the number of which is probably controlled by a stabilizing selection.

  9. Variable number tandem repeat loci providing discrimination within widespread genotypes of Acinetobacter baumannii.

    PubMed

    Turton, J F; Matos, J; Kaufmann, M E; Pitt, T L

    2009-05-01

    Some genotypes of Acinetobacter baumannii, defined by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), have been found in many hospitals. Our aim was to find variable number tandem repeat (VNTR) loci capable of providing discrimination among isolates with highly similar or identical PFGE profiles, to gain insights into the epidemiology. Thirteen loci identified in A. baumannii ATCC 17978 were tested using a panel of isolates that included multiple representatives of genotypes belonging to the three European clonal lineages. Two loci, with repeat units of 9 and 6 bp respectively were selected. Repeat numbers varied between 3 and 29, and 9 and 26 respectively at the two loci. The repeat numbers of representatives of each genotype often differed between hospitals, providing a means of tracking patient transfers and possible transmissions between patients. The results suggest that this analysis accurately reflects the known epidemiological information, and provides a valuable tool for cross-infection studies.

  10. BWtrs: A tool for searching for tandem repeats in DNA sequences based on the Burrows-Wheeler transform.

    PubMed

    Pokrzywa, Rafal; Polanski, Andrzej

    2010-11-01

    Genomes of organisms contain a variety of repeated structures of various length and type, interspersed or tandem. Tandem repeats play important role in molecular biology as they are related to genetic backgrounds of inherited diseases, and also they can serve as markers for DNA mapping and DNA fingerprinting. Improving the efficiency of algorithms for searching for tandem repeats in DNA sequences can lead to many useful applications in the area of genomics. We introduce a very efficient, web-based tool for large scale searching for exact tandem repeats in genomes, based on the use of the Burrows-Wheeler Transform. The service is a remarkably efficient and powerful application that allows analyzing complete genomes without any restrictions. The Burrows-Wheeler Tandem Repeat Searcher (BWtrs) is an on-line application that searches for the exact occurrences of tandem repetitions in DNA sequences. The BWtrs service is freely available at: http://bioinfo.polsl.pl/BWtrs. We present examples of the use of our web application and we compare results of our computations with the results obtained by using other existing tools for searches for exact tandem repeats. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Microsatellite Tandem Repeats Are Abundant in Human Promoters and Are Associated with Regulatory Elements

    PubMed Central

    Sawaya, Sterling; Bagshaw, Andrew; Buschiazzo, Emmanuel; Kumar, Pankaj; Chowdhury, Shantanu; Black, Michael A.; Gemmell, Neil

    2013-01-01

    Tandem repeats are genomic elements that are prone to changes in repeat number and are thus often polymorphic. These sequences are found at a high density at the start of human genes, in the gene’s promoter. Increasing empirical evidence suggests that length variation in these tandem repeats can affect gene regulation. One class of tandem repeats, known as microsatellites, rapidly alter in repeat number. Some of the genetic variation induced by microsatellites is known to result in phenotypic variation. Recently, our group developed a novel method for measuring the evolutionary conservation of microsatellites, and with it we discovered that human microsatellites near transcription start sites are often highly conserved. In this study, we examined the properties of microsatellites found in promoters. We found a high density of microsatellites at the start of genes. We showed that microsatellites are statistically associated with promoters using a wavelet analysis, which allowed us to test for associations on multiple scales and to control for other promoter related elements. Because promoter microsatellites tend to be G/C rich, we hypothesized that G/C rich regulatory elements may drive the association between microsatellites and promoters. Our results indicate that CpG islands, G-quadruplexes (G4) and untranslated regulatory regions have highly significant associations with microsatellites, but controlling for these elements in the analysis does not remove the association between microsatellites and promoters. Due to their intrinsic lability and their overlap with predicted functional elements, these results suggest that many promoter microsatellites have the potential to affect human phenotypes by generating mutations in regulatory elements, which may ultimately result in disease. We discuss the potential functions of human promoter microsatellites in this context. PMID:23405090

  12. Microsatellite tandem repeats are abundant in human promoters and are associated with regulatory elements.

    PubMed

    Sawaya, Sterling; Bagshaw, Andrew; Buschiazzo, Emmanuel; Kumar, Pankaj; Chowdhury, Shantanu; Black, Michael A; Gemmell, Neil

    2013-01-01

    Tandem repeats are genomic elements that are prone to changes in repeat number and are thus often polymorphic. These sequences are found at a high density at the start of human genes, in the gene's promoter. Increasing empirical evidence suggests that length variation in these tandem repeats can affect gene regulation. One class of tandem repeats, known as microsatellites, rapidly alter in repeat number. Some of the genetic variation induced by microsatellites is known to result in phenotypic variation. Recently, our group developed a novel method for measuring the evolutionary conservation of microsatellites, and with it we discovered that human microsatellites near transcription start sites are often highly conserved. In this study, we examined the properties of microsatellites found in promoters. We found a high density of microsatellites at the start of genes. We showed that microsatellites are statistically associated with promoters using a wavelet analysis, which allowed us to test for associations on multiple scales and to control for other promoter related elements. Because promoter microsatellites tend to be G/C rich, we hypothesized that G/C rich regulatory elements may drive the association between microsatellites and promoters. Our results indicate that CpG islands, G-quadruplexes (G4) and untranslated regulatory regions have highly significant associations with microsatellites, but controlling for these elements in the analysis does not remove the association between microsatellites and promoters. Due to their intrinsic lability and their overlap with predicted functional elements, these results suggest that many promoter microsatellites have the potential to affect human phenotypes by generating mutations in regulatory elements, which may ultimately result in disease. We discuss the potential functions of human promoter microsatellites in this context.

  13. Intronic tandem repeat in the serotonin transporter gene in Old World monkeys: a new transcriptional regulator?

    PubMed

    Paredes, Ursula M; Bubb, Vivien J; Haddley, Kate; Macho, Gabriele A; Quinn, John P

    2012-06-01

    The serotonin transporter gene (SLC6A4) is heavily involved in the regulation of social behaviour of primates. Old World monkeys (e.g. macaques, baboons) have been used to study interactions between variation in the SLC6A4 gene and behaviour. Correlations of variation at one polymorphism located in the promoter region (known as 5HTTLPR) and variation at SLC6A4 expression levels, serotonin turnover and behaviour has been widely studied. In Old World monkeys, the third intron of the SLC6A4 gene also presents a tandem repeat, which sequence varies across species by a few point substitutions. We predict that in these species, this repeated region also acts as transcriptional regulatory domain and that sequence variation at this polymorphic locus might result in differential levels of expression in gene-environment interactions. For testing these hypotheses, the tandem repeat of Mandrillus sphinx and Cercopithecus aethiops from the third intron were cloned into a reporter gene vector and delivered to either primary cultures of rat neonate frontal cortex or the human cell line (JAr) to analyse their transcriptional activities. These repeated sequences supported significantly different levels of gene expression only when delivered into frontal cortex cultures. Furthermore, we tested in silico if such substitutions could have an effect on their binding profile to RNA- and DNA-binding proteins and on splicing. Taken together our results suggest that the tandem repeat in the third intron of the SLC6A4 gene of Old World monkeys could constitute a second transcriptional regulator as suggested for the 5HTTLPR and therefore contribute to diversification of serotonin-related behaviour in these primates.

  14. Evolutionary analysis of the 3.3 kb tandem repeat sequence associated with facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy

    SciTech Connect

    Hewitt, J.E.; Clark, L.N.; Wienberg, J.

    1994-09-01

    Facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD) is an autosomal dominant progressive disorder affecting primarily the facial and shoulder girdle muscles. The FSHD gene has been localized to distal 4q35. Genetic and physical mapping has identified a polymorphic 3.3 kb tandem repeat (D4Z4) which is closely lined to the disease. In the majority of sporadic cases there are de novo DNA rearrangements resulting in loss of an integral number of D4Z4 repeats. Sequencing of D4Z4 showed it to contain two homeoboxes and a previously identified human repeat sequences (L Sau). At present, it is not known how these rearrangements affect the pathogenesis of FSHD; however, D4Z4 clearly has an important function. It is part of a complex, dispersed human tandem repeat family which is evolutionarily conserved with a marked difference in copy number in humans and great apes compared to other species. Given the unique structure and organization of the D4Z4 repeat and its role in the FSHD disease mechanism, we have further investigated the evolutionary conservation of D4Z4. Comparison of Southern blot data from Old and New World monkeys, great apes, and humans shows that this increase in the number of D4Z4-like loci occurred after the divergence of great apes and Old World monkeys. The localization of these loci in great apes has been investigated using fluorescent in situ hybridization. These studies provide evidence that the D4Z4 repeat has evolved very recently in the great ape lineage. An understanding of how this repeat family has arisen and identification of the ancestral locus in Old World monkeys should provide clues as to the role of this sequence in FSHD.

  15. Tandem inverted repeats in mitochondrial DNA of petite mutants of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Locker, J; Rabinowitz, M; Getz, G S

    1974-04-01

    Denatured mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) from a grande (wild-type) yeast strain and a series of derived genetically characterized cytoplasmic petite mutants was examined in the electron microscope as DNA-protein monolayers prepared under conditions that permitted little bimolecular renaturation. In the grande and some petite strains, the mtDNA remained predominantly single-stranded. However, in several petite strains, a large proportion of molecules contained double-stranded segments indicative of unimolecular renaturation due to the presence of inverted repeat sequences. The length of the double-stranded segments of strain E41 was compared to the periodicity seen on denaturation maps. A repeat spacing twice the length of the inverted repeats was observed in the denaturation map. Inverted repeat length was similar to contour length of circular mtDNA molecules in this strain. On the basis of these observations most of the mtDNA from petite strain E41 appeared to consist of polymers of tandem inverted repeats interspersed with a small single-stranded "spacer" sequence between the repeat segments. In contrast, petite strain F13 mtDNA had few or no inverted repeats and showed a regular periodicity of 0.14 mum in the denaturation map, similar in length to the 0.13-mum circles present in the isolated mtDNA.

  16. Microevolution of pandemic Vibrio parahaemolyticus assessed by the number of repeat units in short sequence tandem repeat regions.

    PubMed

    García, Katherine; Gavilán, Ronnie G; Höfle, Manfred G; Martínez-Urtaza, Jaime; Espejo, Romilio T

    2012-01-01

    The emergence of the pandemic strain Vibrio parahaemolyticus O3:K6 in 1996 caused a large increase of diarrhea outbreaks related to seafood consumption in Southeast Asia, and later worldwide. Isolates of this strain constitutes a clonal complex, and their effectual differentiation is possible by comparison of their variable number tandem repeats (VNTRs). The differentiation of the isolates by the differences in VNTRs will allow inferring the population dynamics and microevolution of this strain but this requires knowing the rate and mechanism of VNTRs' variation. Our study of mutants obtained after serial cultivation of clones showed that mutation rates of the six VNTRs examined are on the order of 10(-4) mutant per generation and that difference increases by stepwise addition of single mutations. The single stepwise mutation (SSM) was deduced because mutants with 1, 2, 3, or more repeat unit deletions or insertions follow a geometric distribution. Plausible phylogenetic trees are obtained when, according to SSM, the genetic distance between clusters with different number of repeats is assessed by the absolute differences in repeats. Using this approach, mutants originated from different isolates of pandemic V. parahaemolyticus after serial cultivation are clustered with their parental isolates. Additionally, isolates of pandemic V. parahaemolyticus from Southeast Asia, Tokyo, and northern and southern Chile are clustered according their geographical origin. The deepest split in these four populations is observed between the Tokyo and southern Chile populations. We conclude that proper phylogenetic relations and successful tracing of pandemic V. parahaemolyticus requires measuring the differences between isolates by the absolute number of repeats in the VNTRs considered.

  17. Tandem repeats and length variation in the mitochondrial DNA control region of Epirrita autumnata (Lepidoptera: Geometridae).

    PubMed

    Snäll, N; Huoponen, K; Savontaus, M L; Ruohomäki, K

    2002-10-01

    The organization of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) control region (CR) of the autumnal moth, Epirrita autumnata, is described. The E. autumnata CR presents a distinct type of lepidopteran CR with domains of non-repetitive and repetitive sequences. The CRs show considerable length variation owing to a variable number of short approximately 29-bp sequence blocks that are repeated between 6 and 14 times in tandem. The organization of such a tandem array is unique among the insect CRs examined so far. Furthermore, the E. autumnata CR, which may reach 1075 bp in length, is considerably longer than previously reported lepidopteran CRs, which reach 311-499 bp in length. Like other lepidopteran CRs, the E. autumnata CR contains two long homopolymer runs that may be involved in mtDNA replication and (or) transcription.

  18. Effects of Short-term Exposure to Inhalable Particulate Matter on DNA Methylation of Tandem Repeats

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Liqiong; Byun, Hyang-Min; Zhong, Jia; Motta, Valeria; Barupal, Jitendra; Zheng, Yinan; Dou, Chang; Zhang, Feiruo; McCracken, John P.; Diaz, Anaité; Marco, Sanchez-Guerra; Colicino, Silvia; Schwartz, Joel; Wang, Sheng; Hou, Lifang; Baccarelli, Andrea A.

    2015-01-01

    There is compelling evidence that particulate matter (PM) increases lung cancer risk by triggering systemic inflammation, and leukocyte DNA hypomethylation. However, previous investigations focused on repeated element sequences from LINE-1 and Alu families. Tandem repeats, which display a greater propensity to mutate, and are often hypomethylated in cancer patients, have never been investigated in individuals exposed to PM. We measured methylation of three tandem repeats (SATα, NBL2, D4Z4) by polymerase chain reaction–pyrosequencing on blood samples from truck drivers and office workers (60 per group) in Beijing, China. We used lightweight monitors to measure personal PM2.5 (PM with aerodynamic diameter ≤2.5 µm) and elemental carbon (EC, a tracer of PM from vehicular traffic). Ambient PM10 data were obtained from air quality measuring stations. Overall, an interquartile increase in personal PM2.5 and ambient PM10 levels was associated with a significant covariate-adjusted decrease in SATα methylation (−1.35% 5-methyl cytosine [5mC], P = 0.01; and −1.33%5mC; P = 0.01, respectively). Effects from personal PM2.5 and ambient PM10 on SATα methylation were stronger in truck drivers (−2.34%5mC, P = 0.02; −1.44%5mC, P = 0.06) than office workers (−0.95%5mC, P = 0.26; −1.25%5mC, P = 0.12, respectively). Ambient PM10 was negatively correlated with NBL2 methylation in truck drivers (−1.38%5mC, P = 0.03) but not in office workers (1.04%5mC, P = 0.13). Our result suggests that PM exposure is associated with hypomethylation of selected tandem repeats. Measuring tandem-repeat hypomethylation in easy-to-obtain blood specimens might identify individuals with biological effects and potential cancer risk from PM exposure. PMID:24436168

  19. Mitochondrial inheritance in Schistosoma mansoni: mitochondrial variable number tandem repeat mutation produces noise on top of the signal.

    PubMed

    Bieberich, A A; Minchella, D J

    2001-10-01

    The Schistosoma mansoni mitochondrial genome contains tandemly arrayed copies of a 62-base repeat motif. The tandem array is highly polymorphic with respect to number of repeats and commonly exhibits heteroplasmy. This study shows that a very high rate of mutation rapidly produces new repeat lengths (new haplotypes) for this mitochondrial variable number tandem repeat. A maternal inheritance pattern is also demonstrated for this repeat sequence, while the high mutation rate causes some offspring to exhibit nonmaternal haplotypes. Frequent generation of new haplotypes can be observed within samples of clonal cohorts taken from monomiracidial snail infections. These same clonal cercarial groups, when crossed, produce F1 generations that exhibit the maternal set of haplotypes, across all individuals, with the frequent addition of new mutant haplotypes. In each of 2 crosses, a subset of the recently arisen haplotypes match paternal haplotypes by chance (30.4% and 18.8%), thus giving the false appearance of partial paternal inheritance of mitochondria.

  20. Highly condensed potato pericentromeric heterochromatin contains rDNA-related tandem repeats.

    PubMed Central

    Stupar, Robert M; Song, Junqi; Tek, Ahmet L; Cheng, Zhukuan; Dong, Fenggao; Jiang, Jiming

    2002-01-01

    The heterochromatin in eukaryotic genomes represents gene-poor regions and contains highly repetitive DNA sequences. The origin and evolution of DNA sequences in the heterochromatic regions are poorly understood. Here we report a unique class of pericentromeric heterochromatin consisting of DNA sequences highly homologous to the intergenic spacer (IGS) of the 18S.25S ribosomal RNA genes in potato. A 5.9-kb tandem repeat, named 2D8, was isolated from a diploid potato species Solanum bulbocastanum. Sequence analysis indicates that the 2D8 repeat is related to the IGS of potato rDNA. This repeat is associated with highly condensed pericentromeric heterochromatin at several hemizygous loci. The 2D8 repeat is highly variable in structure and copy number throughout the Solanum genus, suggesting that it is evolutionarily dynamic. Additional IGS-related repetitive DNA elements were also identified in the potato genome. The possible mechanism of the origin and evolution of the IGS-related repeats is discussed. We demonstrate that potato serves as an interesting model for studying repetitive DNA families because it is propagated vegetatively, thus minimizing the meiotic mechanisms that can remove novel DNA repeats. PMID:12454086

  1. Novel Y-chromosome Short Tandem Repeat Variants Detected Through the Use of Massively Parallel Sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Warshauer, David H.; Churchill, Jennifer D.; Novroski, Nicole; King, Jonathan L.; Budowle, Bruce

    2015-01-01

    Massively parallel sequencing (MPS) technology is capable of determining the sizes of short tandem repeat (STR) alleles as well as their individual nucleotide sequences. Thus, single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within the repeat regions of STRs and variations in the pattern of repeat units in a given repeat motif can be used to differentiate alleles of the same length. In this study, MPS was used to sequence 28 forensically-relevant Y-chromosome STRs in a set of 41 DNA samples from the 3 major U.S. population groups (African Americans, Caucasians, and Hispanics). The resulting sequence data, which were analyzed with STRait Razor v2.0, revealed 37 unique allele sequence variants that have not been previously reported. Of these, 19 sequences were variations of documented sequences resulting from the presence of intra-repeat SNPs or alternative repeat unit patterns. Despite a limited sampling, two of the most frequently-observed variants were found only in African American samples. The remaining 18 variants represented allele sequences for which there were no published data with which to compare. These findings illustrate the great potential of MPS with regard to increasing the resolving power of STR typing and emphasize the need for sample population characterization of STR alleles. PMID:26391384

  2. Abundant contribution of short tandem repeats to gene expression variation in humans

    PubMed Central

    Gymrek, Melissa; Willems, Thomas; Guilmatre, Audrey; Zeng, Haoyang; Markus, Barak; Georgiev, Stoyan; Daly, Mark J.; Price, Alkes L.; Pritchard, Jonathan; Sharp, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    The contribution of repetitive elements to quantitative human traits is largely unknown. Here, we report a genome-wide survey of the contribution of Short Tandem Repeats (STRs), one of the most polymorphic and abundant repeat classes, to gene expression in humans. Our survey identified 2,060 significant expression STRs (eSTRs). These eSTRs were replicable in orthogonal populations and expression assays. We used variance partitioning to disentangle the contribution of eSTRs from linked SNPs and indels and found that eSTRs contribute 10%–15% of the cis-heritability mediated by all common variants. Further functional genomic analyses showed that eSTRs are enriched in conserved regions, co-localize with regulatory elements, and can modulate certain histone modifications. By analyzing known GWAS hits and searching for new associations in 1,685 deeply-phenotyped whole-genomes, we found that eSTRs are enriched in various clinically-relevant conditions. These results highlight the contribution of short tandem repeats to the genetic architecture of quantitative human traits. PMID:26642241

  3. A naturally occurring, noncanonical GTP aptamer made of simple tandem repeats

    PubMed Central

    Curtis, Edward A; Liu, David R

    2014-01-01

    Recently, we used in vitro selection to identify a new class of naturally occurring GTP aptamer called the G motif. Here we report the discovery and characterization of a second class of naturally occurring GTP aptamer, the “CA motif.” The primary sequence of this aptamer is unusual in that it consists entirely of tandem repeats of CA-rich motifs as short as three nucleotides. Several active variants of the CA motif aptamer lack the ability to form consecutive Watson-Crick base pairs in any register, while others consist of repeats containing only cytidine and adenosine residues, indicating that noncanonical interactions play important roles in its structure. The circular dichroism spectrum of the CA motif aptamer is distinct from that of A-form RNA and other major classes of nucleic acid structures. Bioinformatic searches indicate that the CA motif is absent from most archaeal and bacterial genomes, but occurs in at least 70 percent of approximately 400 eukaryotic genomes examined. These searches also uncovered several phylogenetically conserved examples of the CA motif in rodent (mouse and rat) genomes. Together, these results reveal the existence of a second class of naturally occurring GTP aptamer whose sequence requirements, like that of the G motif, are not consistent with those of a canonical secondary structure. They also indicate a new and unexpected potential biochemical activity of certain naturally occurring tandem repeats. PMID:24824832

  4. XSTREAM: A practical algorithm for identification and architecture modeling of tandem repeats in protein sequences

    PubMed Central

    Newman, Aaron M; Cooper, James B

    2007-01-01

    Background Biological sequence repeats arranged in tandem patterns are widespread in DNA and proteins. While many software tools have been designed to detect DNA tandem repeats (TRs), useful algorithms for identifying protein TRs with varied levels of degeneracy are still needed. Results To address limitations of current repeat identification methods, and to provide an efficient and flexible algorithm for the detection and analysis of TRs in protein sequences, we designed and implemented a new computational method called XSTREAM. Running time tests confirm the practicality of XSTREAM for analyses of multi-genome datasets. Each of the key capabilities of XSTREAM (e.g., merging, nesting, long-period detection, and TR architecture modeling) are demonstrated using anecdotal examples, and the utility of XSTREAM for identifying TR proteins was validated using data from a recently published paper. Conclusion We show that XSTREAM is a practical and valuable tool for TR detection in protein and nucleotide sequences at the multi-genome scale, and an effective tool for modeling TR domains with diverse architectures and varied levels of degeneracy. Because of these useful features, XSTREAM has significant potential for the discovery of naturally-evolved modular proteins with applications for engineering novel biostructural and biomimetic materials, and identifying new vaccine and diagnostic targets. PMID:17931424

  5. Altered Methylation in Tandem Repeat Element and Elemental Component Levels in Inhalable Air Particles

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Lifang; Zhang, Xiao; Zheng, Yinan; Wang, Sheng; Dou, Chang; Guo, Liqiong; Byun, Hyang-Min; Motta, Valeria; McCracken, John; Díaz, Anaité; Kang, Choong-Min; Koutrakis, Petros; Bertazzi, Pier Alberto; Li, Jingyun; Schwartz, Joel; Baccarelli, Andrea A.

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to particulate matter (PM) has been associated with lung cancer risk in epidemiology investigations. Elemental components of PM have been suggested to have critical roles in PM toxicity, but the molecular mechanisms underlying their association with cancer risks remain poorly understood. DNA methylation has emerged as a promising biomarker for environmental-related diseases, including lung cancer. In this study, we evaluated the effects of PM elemental components on methylation of three tandem repeats in a highly-exposed population in Beijing, China. The Beijing Truck Driver Air Pollution Study was conducted shortly before the 2008 Beijing Olympic Games (June 15-July 27, 2008) and included 60 truck drivers and 60 office workers. On two days separated by 1-2 weeks, we measured blood DNA methylation of SATα, NBL2, D4Z4, and personal exposure to eight elemental components in PM2.5, including aluminum (Al), silicon (Si), sulfur (S), potassium (K), calcium (Ca) titanium (Ti), iron (Fe), and zinc (Zn). We estimated the associations of individual elemental component with each tandem repeat methylation in generalized estimating equations (GEE) models adjusted for PM2.5 mass and other covariates. Out of the eight examined elements, NBL2 methylation was positively associated with concentrations of Si (0.121, 95%CI: 0.030; 0.212, FDR=0.047) and Ca (0.065, 95%CI: 0.014; 0.115, FDR=0.047) in truck drivers. In office workers, SATα methylation was positively associated with concentrations of S (0.115, 95%CI: 0.034; 0.196, FDR=0.042). PM-associated differences in blood tandem-repeat methylation may help detect biological effects of the exposure and identify individuals who may eventually experience higher lung cancer risk. PMID:24273195

  6. Mammalian TBX1 preferentially binds and regulates downstream targets via a tandem T-site repeat.

    PubMed

    Castellanos, Raquel; Xie, Qing; Zheng, Deyou; Cvekl, Ales; Morrow, Bernice E

    2014-01-01

    Haploinsufficiency or mutation of TBX1 is largely responsible for the etiology of physical malformations in individuals with velo-cardio-facial/DiGeorge syndrome (VCFS/DGS/22q11.2 deletion syndrome). TBX1 encodes a transcription factor protein that contains an evolutionarily conserved DNA binding domain termed the T-box that is shared with other family members. All T-box proteins, examined so far, bind to similar but not identical consensus DNA sequences, indicating that they have specific binding preferences. To identify the TBX1 specific consensus sequence, Systematic Evolution of Ligands by Exponential Enrichment (SELEX) was performed. In contrast to other TBX family members recognizing palindrome sequences, we found that TBX1 preferentially binds to a tandem repeat of 5'-AGGTGTGAAGGTGTGA-3'. We also identified a second consensus sequence comprised of a tandem repeat with a degenerated downstream site. We show that three known human disease-causing TBX1 missense mutations (F148Y, H194Q and G310S) do not alter nuclear localization, or disrupt binding to the tandem repeat consensus sequences, but they reduce transcriptional activity in cell culture reporter assays. To identify Tbx1-downstream genes, we performed an in silico genome wide analysis of potential cis-acting elements in DNA and found strong enrichment of genes required for developmental processes and transcriptional regulation. We found that TBX1 binds to 19 different loci in vitro, which may correspond to putative cis-acting binding sites. In situ hybridization coupled with luciferase gene reporter assays on three gene loci, Fgf8, Bmper, Otog-MyoD, show that these motifs are directly regulated by TBX1 in vitro. Collectively, the present studies establish new insights into molecular aspects of TBX1 binding to DNA. This work lays the groundwork for future in vivo studies, including chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by next generation sequencing (ChIP-Seq) to further elucidate the molecular

  7. Cloning of a cuticular antigen that contains multiple tandem repeats from the filarial parasite Dirofilaria immitis.

    PubMed Central

    Poole, C B; Grandea, A G; Maina, C V; Jenkins, R E; Selkirk, M E; McReynolds, L A

    1992-01-01

    An unusual antigen composed of tandemly repeated protein units was cloned from the filarial parasite Dirofilaria immitis. The antigen was initially identified by screening a lambda gt11 cDNA library with serum from dogs immunized with irradiated D. immitis third-stage larvae. DNA sequence analysis of the cDNA clone, Di5, revealed a continuous open reading frame composed of two 399-base-pair repeats arranged in tandem. Southern blot analysis of genomic D. immitis DNA showed that the gene coding for Di5 is composed of a tandem array of 25-50 copies of this same 399-base-pair repeat. Antiserum raised against recombinant Di5 protein detected a protein "ladder," from about 14 to greater than 200 kDa with steps approximately 15 kDa apart, on immunoblots of D. immitis extract. Metabolic labeling of adult parasites with [35S]methionine showed that Di5 is synthesized as a large precursor that is subsequently cleaved to produce the ladder-like array. These results suggest that the characteristic ladder is created by proteolytic cleavage of the precursor at the same site in each monomer. The Di5 antigen was localized to the cuticle and hypodermis of adult D. immitis by immunoelectron microscopy. Both male and female parasites were found to release Di5 when cultured in vitro. DNA hybridization analysis demonstrated that Di5 is a member of a gene family present in many filarial parasites that infect both animal and human populations. Images PMID:1631084

  8. DNA fingerprinting of Mycobacterium leprae strains using variable number tandem repeat (VNTR) - fragment length analysis (FLA).

    PubMed

    Jensen, Ronald W; Rivest, Jason; Li, Wei; Vissa, Varalakshmi

    2011-07-15

    The study of the transmission of leprosy is particularly difficult since the causative agent, Mycobacterium leprae, cannot be cultured in the laboratory. The only sources of the bacteria are leprosy patients, and experimentally infected armadillos and nude mice. Thus, many of the methods used in modern epidemiology are not available for the study of leprosy. Despite an extensive global drug treatment program for leprosy implemented by the WHO, leprosy remains endemic in many countries with approximately 250,000 new cases each year. The entire M. leprae genome has been mapped and many loci have been identified that have repeated segments of 2 or more base pairs (called micro- and minisatellites). Clinical strains of M. leprae may vary in the number of tandem repeated segments (short tandem repeats, STR) at many of these loci. Variable number tandem repeat (VNTR) analysis has been used to distinguish different strains of the leprosy bacilli. Some of the loci appear to be more stable than others, showing less variation in repeat numbers, while others seem to change more rapidly, sometimes in the same patient. While the variability of certain VNTRs has brought up questions regarding their suitability for strain typing, the emerging data suggest that analyzing multiple loci, which are diverse in their stability, can be used as a valuable epidemiological tool. Multiple locus VNTR analysis (MLVA) has been used to study leprosy evolution and transmission in several countries including China, Malawi, the Philippines, and Brazil. MLVA involves multiple steps. First, bacterial DNA is extracted along with host tissue DNA from clinical biopsies or slit skin smears (SSS). The desired loci are then amplified from the extracted DNA via polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Fluorescently-labeled primers for 4-5 different loci are used per reaction, with 18 loci being amplified in a total of four reactions. The PCR products may be subjected to agarose gel electrophoresis to verify the

  9. DNA Fingerprinting of Mycobacterium leprae Strains Using Variable Number Tandem Repeat (VNTR) - Fragment Length Analysis (FLA)

    PubMed Central

    Jensen, Ronald W.; Rivest, Jason; Li, Wei; Vissa, Varalakshmi

    2011-01-01

    The study of the transmission of leprosy is particularly difficult since the causative agent, Mycobacterium leprae, cannot be cultured in the laboratory. The only sources of the bacteria are leprosy patients, and experimentally infected armadillos and nude mice. Thus, many of the methods used in modern epidemiology are not available for the study of leprosy. Despite an extensive global drug treatment program for leprosy implemented by the WHO1, leprosy remains endemic in many countries with approximately 250,000 new cases each year.2 The entire M. leprae genome has been mapped3,4 and many loci have been identified that have repeated segments of 2 or more base pairs (called micro- and minisatellites).5 Clinical strains of M. leprae may vary in the number of tandem repeated segments (short tandem repeats, STR) at many of these loci.5,6,7 Variable number tandem repeat (VNTR)5 analysis has been used to distinguish different strains of the leprosy bacilli. Some of the loci appear to be more stable than others, showing less variation in repeat numbers, while others seem to change more rapidly, sometimes in the same patient. While the variability of certain VNTRs has brought up questions regarding their suitability for strain typing7,8,9, the emerging data suggest that analyzing multiple loci, which are diverse in their stability, can be used as a valuable epidemiological tool. Multiple locus VNTR analysis (MLVA)10 has been used to study leprosy evolution and transmission in several countries including China11,12, Malawi8, the Philippines10,13, and Brazil14. MLVA involves multiple steps. First, bacterial DNA is extracted along with host tissue DNA from clinical biopsies or slit skin smears (SSS).10 The desired loci are then amplified from the extracted DNA via polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Fluorescently-labeled primers for 4-5 different loci are used per reaction, with 18 loci being amplified in a total of four reactions.10 The PCR products may be subjected to agarose

  10. Tandem repeat variation in human and great ape populations and its impact on gene expression divergence

    PubMed Central

    Bilgin Sonay, Tugce; Carvalho, Tiago; Robinson, Mark D.; Greminger, Maja P.; Krützen, Michael; Comas, David; Highnam, Gareth; Mittelman, David; Sharp, Andrew; Marques-Bonet, Tomàs; Wagner, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Tandem repeats (TRs) are stretches of DNA that are highly variable in length and mutate rapidly. They are thus an important source of genetic variation. This variation is highly informative for population and conservation genetics. It has also been associated with several pathological conditions and with gene expression regulation. However, genome-wide surveys of TR variation in humans and closely related species have been scarce due to technical difficulties derived from short-read technology. Here we explored the genome-wide diversity of TRs in a panel of 83 human and nonhuman great ape genomes, in a total of six different species, and studied their impact on gene expression evolution. We found that population diversity patterns can be efficiently captured with short TRs (repeat unit length, 1–5 bp). We examined the potential evolutionary role of TRs in gene expression differences between humans and primates by using 30,275 larger TRs (repeat unit length, 2–50 bp). Genes that contained TRs in the promoters, in their 3′ untranslated region, in introns, and in exons had higher expression divergence than genes without repeats in the regions. Polymorphic small repeats (1–5 bp) had also higher expression divergence compared with genes with fixed or no TRs in the gene promoters. Our findings highlight the potential contribution of TRs to human evolution through gene regulation. PMID:26290536

  11. T-REKS: identification of Tandem REpeats in sequences with a K-meanS based algorithm.

    PubMed

    Jorda, Julien; Kajava, Andrey V

    2009-10-15

    Over the last years a number of evidences have been accumulated about high incidence of tandem repeats in proteins carrying fundamental biological functions and being related to a number of human diseases. At the same time, frequently, protein repeats are strongly degenerated during evolution and, therefore, cannot be easily identified. To solve this problem, several computer programs which were based on different algorithms have been developed. Nevertheless, our tests showed that there is still room for improvement of methods for accurate and rapid detection of tandem repeats in proteins. We developed a new program called T-REKS for ab initio identification of the tandem repeats. It is based on clustering of lengths between identical short strings by using a K-means algorithm. Benchmark of the existing programs and T-REKS on several sequence datasets is presented. Our program being linked to the Protein Repeat DataBase opens the way for large-scale analysis of protein tandem repeats. T-REKS can also be applied to the nucleotide sequences. The algorithm has been implemented in JAVA, the program is available upon request at http://bioinfo.montp.cnrs.fr/?r=t-reks. Protein Repeat DataBase generated by using T-REKS is accessible at http://bioinfo.montp.cnrs.fr/?r=repeatDB.

  12. Population study and mutation analysis for 28 short tandem repeat loci in southwest Chinese Han population.

    PubMed

    Su, Qin; Jin, Bo; Luo, Haibo; Li, Yingbi; Wu, Jin; Yan, Jing; Hou, Yiping; Liang, Weibo; Zhang, Lin

    2016-11-01

    Short tandem repeat (STR) system is the most widely used genetic markers in modem forensic practice. Because of the relatively unstable molecular structure, STRs show a high mutation rate. In the current study, we report 169 mutation events of 13 CODIS and 15 non-CODIS STR loci that were found in 5569 cases of trios and duos paternity test. Our result indicated that locus-specific mutation rate varied among different populations, geometric means of the longest run of perfect repeats (LRPR) and heterozygosity. Along with previous published data, a forensic dataset for allele frequencies and locus-specific mutation rates of 13 CODIS and 15 non-CODIS STR loci from southwest Chinese Han population has been established. The mutation rate data have important implications in interpreting forensic individual identification and paternity testing.

  13. Characterization of Leptospira interrogans Serovars by Polymorphism Variable Number Tandem Repeat Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Rezasoltani, Sama; Dabiri, Hossein; Khaki, Pejvak; Rostami Nejad, Mohammad; Karimnasab, Nasim; Modirrousta, Shiva

    2015-01-01

    Background: Leptospirosis is recognized as a re-emerging infectious disease; therefore, understanding the epidemiology of the disease is vital for designing intervention programs and diminishing its transmission. Recently, Multilocus variable number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA) is used for segregating and identifying Leptospira serovars. The method has potential application in investigating the molecular epidemiology of Leptospira. Objectives: The propose of this study was genomic identification of pathogenic Leptospires in Iran by MLVA. Materials and Methods: Leptospira serovars were obtained from National Reference Laboratory of Leptospira at Razi Vaccine and Serum Research Institute, Karaj, Iran. Serovars were cultured into the liquid EMJH medium and incubated at 28˚C for 7 days. DNA of serovars was extracted using the phenol-chloroform method. PCR was performed with 5 selected variable number tandem repeat analysis (VNTR) loci. The amplified products were analyzed by agarose gel electrophoresis. The size of the amplified products was estimated by 100 bp ladder and sequencing analysis. Results: The saprophytic serovar showed no amplified fragments. PCR products in all pathogenic serovars were observed. The 12 reference serovars used for the development of technique displayed distinct patterns. Conclusions: Results showed that MLVA technique with its range of polymorphism is a good marker for identification of pathogenic serovars. Some VNTR loci are more powerful than the other ones with regard to differentiation. Serovars from the same geographical area have more genetic similarity than same serovars from different places. MLVA is a suitable technique for epidemiological survey. PMID:26568805

  14. Expression, tandem repeat copy number variation and stability of four macrosatellite arrays in the human genome.

    PubMed

    Tremblay, Deanna C; Alexander, Graham; Moseley, Shawn; Chadwick, Brian P

    2010-11-15

    Macrosatellites are some of the largest variable number tandem repeats in the human genome, but what role these unusual sequences perform is unknown. Their importance to human health is clearly demonstrated by the 4q35 macrosatellite D4Z4 that is associated with the onset of the muscle degenerative disease facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy. Nevertheless, many other macrosatellite arrays in the human genome remain poorly characterized. Here we describe the organization, tandem repeat copy number variation, transmission stability and expression of four macrosatellite arrays in the human genome: the TAF11-Like array located on chromosomes 5p15.1, the SST1 arrays on 4q28.3 and 19q13.12, the PRR20 array located on chromosome 13q21.1, and the ZAV array at 9q32. All are polymorphic macrosatellite arrays that at least for TAF11-Like and SST1 show evidence of meiotic instability. With the exception of the SST1 array that is ubiquitously expressed, all are expressed at high levels in the testis and to a lesser extent in the brain. Our results extend the number of characterized macrosatellite arrays in the human genome and provide the foundation for formulation of hypotheses to begin assessing their functional role in the human genome.

  15. Halibut mitochondrial genomes contain extensive heteroplasmic tandem repeat arrays involved in DNA recombination

    PubMed Central

    Mjelle, Kenneth A; Karlsen, Bård O; Jørgensen, Tor E; Moum, Truls; Johansen, Steinar D

    2008-01-01

    Background Halibuts are commercially important flatfish species confined to the North Pacific and North Atlantic Oceans. We have determined the complete mitochondrial genome sequences of four specimens each of Atlantic halibut (Hippoglossus hippoglossus), Pacific halibut (Hippoglossus stenolepis) and Greenland halibut (Reinhardtius hippoglossoides), and assessed the nucleotide variability within and between species. Results About 100 variable positions were identified within the four specimens in each halibut species, with the control regions as the most variable parts of the genomes (10 times that of the mitochondrial ribosomal DNA). Due to tandem repeat arrays, the control regions have unusually large sizes compared to most vertebrate mtDNAs. The arrays are highly heteroplasmic in size and consist mainly of different variants of a 61-bp motif. Halibut mitochondrial genomes lacking arrays were also detected. Conclusion The complexity, distribution, and biological role of the heteroplasmic tandem repeat arrays in halibut mitochondrial control regions are discussed. We conclude that the most plausible explanation for array maintenance includes both the slipped-strand mispairing and DNA recombination mechanisms. PMID:18186947

  16. Insertion sequence- and tandem repeat-based genotyping techniques for Xanthomonas citri pv. mangiferaeindicae.

    PubMed

    Pruvost, O; Vernière, C; Vital, K; Guérin, F; Jouen, E; Chiroleu, F; Ah-You, N; Gagnevin, L

    2011-07-01

    Molecular fingerprinting techniques that have the potential to identify or subtype bacteria at the strain level are needed for improving diagnosis and understanding of the epidemiology of pathogens such as Xanthomonas citri pv. mangiferaeindicae, which causes mango bacterial canker disease. We developed a ligation-mediated polymerase chain reaction targeting the IS1595 insertion sequence as a means to differentiate pv. mangiferaeindicae from the closely related pv. anacardii (responsible for cashew bacterial spot), which has the potential to infect mango but not to cause significant disease. This technique produced weakly polymorphic fingerprints composed of ≈70 amplified fragments per strain for a worldwide collection of X. citri pv. mangiferaeindicae but produced no or very weak amplification for pv. anacardii strains. Together, 12 tandem repeat markers were able to subtype X. citri pv. mangiferaeindicae at the strain level, distinguishing 231 haplotypes from a worldwide collection of 299 strains. Multilocus variable number of tandem repeats analysis (MLVA), IS1595-ligation-mediated polymerase chain reaction, and amplified fragment length polymorphism showed differences in discriminatory power and were congruent in describing the diversity of this strain collection, suggesting low levels of recombination. The potential of the MLVA scheme for molecular epidemiology studies of X. citri pv. mangiferaeindicae is discussed.

  17. Expression, tandem repeat copy number variation and stability of four macrosatellite arrays in the human genome

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Macrosatellites are some of the largest variable number tandem repeats in the human genome, but what role these unusual sequences perform is unknown. Their importance to human health is clearly demonstrated by the 4q35 macrosatellite D4Z4 that is associated with the onset of the muscle degenerative disease facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy. Nevertheless, many other macrosatellite arrays in the human genome remain poorly characterized. Results Here we describe the organization, tandem repeat copy number variation, transmission stability and expression of four macrosatellite arrays in the human genome: the TAF11-Like array located on chromosomes 5p15.1, the SST1 arrays on 4q28.3 and 19q13.12, the PRR20 array located on chromosome 13q21.1, and the ZAV array at 9q32. All are polymorphic macrosatellite arrays that at least for TAF11-Like and SST1 show evidence of meiotic instability. With the exception of the SST1 array that is ubiquitously expressed, all are expressed at high levels in the testis and to a lesser extent in the brain. Conclusions Our results extend the number of characterized macrosatellite arrays in the human genome and provide the foundation for formulation of hypotheses to begin assessing their functional role in the human genome. PMID:21078170

  18. Amyloid formation and disaggregation of {alpha}-synuclein and its tandem repeat ({alpha}-TR)

    SciTech Connect

    Bae, Song Yi; Kim, Seulgi; Hwang, Heejin; Kim, Hyun-Kyung; Yoon, Hyun C.; Kim, Jae Ho; Lee, SangYoon; Kim, T. Doohun

    2010-10-01

    Research highlights: {yields} Formation of the {alpha}-synuclein amyloid fibrils by [BIMbF{sub 3}Im]. {yields} Disaggregation of amyloid fibrils by epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) and baicalein. {yields} Amyloid formation of {alpha}-synuclein tandem repeat ({alpha}-TR). -- Abstract: The aggregation of {alpha}-synuclein is clearly related to the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease. Therefore, detailed understanding of the mechanism of fibril formation is highly valuable for the development of clinical treatment and also of the diagnostic tools. Here, we have investigated the interaction of {alpha}-synuclein with ionic liquids by using several biochemical techniques including Thioflavin T assays and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Our data shows a rapid formation of {alpha}-synuclein amyloid fibrils was stimulated by 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide [BIMbF{sub 3}Im], and these fibrils could be disaggregated by polyphenols such as epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) and baicalein. Furthermore, the effect of [BIMbF{sub 3}Im] on the {alpha}-synuclein tandem repeat ({alpha}-TR) in the aggregation process was studied.

  19. Extreme variation in patterns of tandem repeats in mitochondrial control region of yellow-browed tits (Sylviparus modestus, Paridae)

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiaoyang; Liu, Nian; Zhang, Hongli; Yang, Xiao-Jun; Huang, Yuan; Lei, Fumin

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the evolutionary pattern and origins of tandem repeats in the mitochondrial control region of the yellow-browed tit (Sylviparus modestus), the control region and another four mitochondrial loci from fifteen individuals were analyzed. A 117-bp tandem repeat unit that repeated once, twice or three times in different individuals was found, and a rarely reported arrangement for this tandem repeats region that a 5′ imperfect copy at its downstream and a 3′ imperfect copy at its upstream was observed. The haplotype network, phylogenetic trees, and ancestral state reconstruction of the combined dataset of five loci suggested multiple origins of the same repeat number. The turnover model via slipped-strand mispairing was introduced to interpret the results, because mispairing occurred so frequently that multiple origins of certain repeat number were observed. Insertion via recombination should be a better explanation for the origin of this tandem repeat unit, considering characteristics of the combined sequence of the 3′ and 5′ imperfect copy, including identification of its homolog in other passerines and its predicted secondary structure. PMID:26288099

  20. Extreme variation in patterns of tandem repeats in mitochondrial control region of yellow-browed tits (Sylviparus modestus, Paridae).

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaoyang; Liu, Nian; Zhang, Hongli; Yang, Xiao-Jun; Huang, Yuan; Lei, Fumin

    2015-08-19

    To investigate the evolutionary pattern and origins of tandem repeats in the mitochondrial control region of the yellow-browed tit (Sylviparus modestus), the control region and another four mitochondrial loci from fifteen individuals were analyzed. A 117-bp tandem repeat unit that repeated once, twice or three times in different individuals was found, and a rarely reported arrangement for this tandem repeats region that a 5' imperfect copy at its downstream and a 3' imperfect copy at its upstream was observed. The haplotype network, phylogenetic trees, and ancestral state reconstruction of the combined dataset of five loci suggested multiple origins of the same repeat number. The turnover model via slipped-strand mispairing was introduced to interpret the results, because mispairing occurred so frequently that multiple origins of certain repeat number were observed. Insertion via recombination should be a better explanation for the origin of this tandem repeat unit, considering characteristics of the combined sequence of the 3' and 5' imperfect copy, including identification of its homolog in other passerines and its predicted secondary structure.

  1. [The study of interaction between paralogous tandem repeats stellate and suppressor of stellate in the genome of Drosophila melanogaster].

    PubMed

    Aravin, A A; Naumova, N M; Tulin, A V; Klenov, M S; Gvozdev, V A

    2000-04-01

    Testis-specific expression of tandemly repeated Stellate genes, located in eu- and heterochromatin regions of the X chromosome of Drosophila melanogaster, is suppressed by homologous Suppressor of Stellate repeats located on the Y chromosome. Using transgenic lines, we have demonstrated that three Su(Ste) copies failed to change the expression of the reporter construction carrying the bacterial beta-galactosidase gene under control of the Stellate gene regulatory sequence. Possible mechanisms of the Su(Ste) repeat suppressor activity are discussed.

  2. A protective protein antigen of Rickettsia rickettsii has tandemly repeated, near-identical sequences.

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, B E; McDonald, G A; Jones, D C; Regnery, R L

    1990-01-01

    The nucleotide sequence of a Rickettsia rickettsii gene that encodes a high-molecular-mass surface antigen (190 kilodaltons), which elicits protective immunity, was determined. The 6,747-nucleotide gene coded for a 2,249-amino-acid protein with a calculated molecular weight of 224,321. A 3.8-kilobase PstI fragment proximal to the 5' end of the gene was found to consist of 13 highly related tandem repeats which constituted over 40% of the coding region. The repeated sequences could be divided into either a 225-nucleotide, 75-amino-acid unit (type I) or a 216-nucleotide, 72-amino-acid unit (type II), with extensive homology between the two types of repeating units. The deduced amino acid sequence for these repeat units, overall, was slightly hydrophobic with short hydrophilic domains. The carboxy-terminal (nonrepetitive) portion of the deduced protein sequence was hydrophilic, with potential surface-exposed epitopes. The full-length reading frame was reconstructed in Escherichia coli, and transient expression of the 190-kilodalton antigen was demonstrated; however, the protein appeared to be severely degraded by proteases and was apparently toxic to E. coli. The conservation of this unique repetitive gene structure, coupled with results from previous reports showing the protective properties of the 190-kilodalton antigen, suggests that this protein plays an important role in the pathogenesis of and immunity to Rocky Mountain spotted fever. Images PMID:2117568

  3. Rapid multiplexed genotyping of simple tandem repeats using capture and high-throughput sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Guilmatre, Audrey; Highnam, Gareth; Borel, Christelle; Mittelman, David; Sharp, Andrew J.

    2013-01-01

    Although simple tandem repeats (STRs) comprise ~2% of the human genome and represent an important source of polymorphism, this class of variation remains understudied. We have developed a cost-effective strategy for performing targeted enrichment of STR regions that utilizes capture probes targeting the flanking sequences of STR loci, enabling specific capture of DNA fragments containing STRs for subsequent high-throughput sequencing. Utilizing a capture design targeting 6,243 STR loci <94bp and multiplexing eight individuals in a single Illumina HiSeq2000 sequencing lane we were able to call genotypes in at least one individual for 67.5% of the targeted STRs. We observed a strong relationship between (G+C) content and genotyping rate. STRs with moderate (G+C) content were recovered with >90% success rate, while only 12% of STRs with ≥80% (G+C) were genotyped in our assay. Analysis of a parent-offspring trio, complete hydatidiform mole samples, repeat analyses of the same individual, and Sanger sequencing-based validation indicated genotyping error rates between 7.6–12.4%. The majority of such errors were a single repeat unit at mono- or dinucleotide repeats. Altogether, our STR capture assay represents a cost-effective method that enables multiplexed genotyping of thousands of STR loci suitable for large scale population studies. PMID:23696428

  4. Expansion of tandem repeats in sea anemone Nematostella vectensis proteome: A source for gene novelty?

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background The complete proteome of the starlet sea anemone, Nematostella vectensis, provides insights into gene invention dating back to the Cnidarian-Bilaterian ancestor. With the addition of the complete proteomes of Hydra magnipapillata and Monosiga brevicollis, the investigation of proteins having unique features in early metazoan life has become practical. We focused on the properties and the evolutionary trends of tandem repeat (TR) sequences in Cnidaria proteomes. Results We found that 11-16% of N. vectensis proteins contain tandem repeats. Most TRs cover 150 amino acid segments that are comprised of basic units of 5-20 amino acids. In total, the N. Vectensis proteome has about 3300 unique TR-units, but only a small fraction of them are shared with H. magnipapillata, M. brevicollis, or mammalian proteomes. The overall abundance of these TRs stands out relative to that of 14 proteomes representing the diversity among eukaryotes and within the metazoan world. TR-units are characterized by a unique composition of amino acids, with cysteine and histidine being over-represented. Structurally, most TR-segments are associated with coiled and disordered regions. Interestingly, 80% of the TR-segments can be read in more than one open reading frame. For over 100 of them, translation of the alternative frames would result in long proteins. Most domain families that are characterized as repeats in eukaryotes are found in the TR-proteomes from Nematostella and Hydra. Conclusions While most TR-proteins have originated from prediction tools and are still awaiting experimental validations, supportive evidence exists for hundreds of TR-units in Nematostella. The existence of TR-proteins in early metazoan life may have served as a robust mode for novel genes with previously overlooked structural and functional characteristics. PMID:20003297

  5. Mass disasters: rapid molecular screening of human remains by means of short tandem repeats typing.

    PubMed

    Corach, D; Sala, A; Penacino, G; Sotelo, A

    1995-09-01

    Human remains identification represents a challenging situation and constitutes a difficult task associated with mass disasters. The only highly efficient means for individual and family group reconstruction is that based on DNA typing. On July 18, 1994 an explosion destroyed the A.M.I.A. (Argentine Israeli Association). Over 100 people died; however, the exact number of victims is still being investigated. Our Service received over 70 remains to be characterized by DNA typing in order to determine the number of victims and to try to reconstruct the family groups to which they belonged. DNA was extracted by a cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) based protocol, a rapid molecular screening of all samples was carried out by multiplex STR amplifications including HUMTH01, HUMFABP, HUMHPRTB, HUMRENA4, HUMVWA, HUMFES/FPS and Y27H39LR. Samples with identical genotypes were HaeIII-digested. Southern blotted and probed with YNH-24 (D2S44). PH-30 (D4S139). LH-1 (D5S110) and MS-1 (D1S7) for variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR) evaluation. The minisatellite variant repeat (MVR) approach was used in those cases in which band or profile shift were detected in Southern blot assays. Kinship between victims and putative relatives was initially evaluated by comparison of short tandem repeat (STR) profiles and then confirmed by VNTR with the above probes. The high identification efficiency attained in this case is, in part, supported by a previous experience, the DNA-based molecular characterization of human remains caused by the explosion of the Israeli Embassy in Buenos Aires, March 1992.

  6. Long tandem repeats as a form of genomic copy number variation: structure and length polymorphism of a chromosome 5p repeat in control and schizophrenia populations

    PubMed Central

    Bruce, Heather A.; Sachs, Nancy A.; Rudnicki, Dobrila D.; Lin, Stephanie G.; Willour, Virginia L.; Cowell, John K.; Conroy, Jeffrey; McQuaid, Devin E.; Rossi, Michael; Gaile, Daniel P; Nowak, Norma J.; Holmes, Susan E.; Sklar, Pamela; Ross, Christopher A.; DeLisi, Lynn E.; Margolis, Russell L.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Genomic copy number variations (CNVs) are a major form of variation in the human genome and play an etiologic role in several neuropsychiatric diseases. Tandem repeats, particularly with long (> 50bp) repeat units, are a relatively common yet underexplored type of CNV that may significantly contribute to human genomic variation and disease risk. We therefore performed a pilot experiment to explore the potential role of long tandem repeats as risk factors in psychiatric disorders. Methods A bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC)-based array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) platform was used to examine CNVs in genomic DNA from 34 probands with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder. Results The aCGH screen detected an apparent deletion on 5p15.1 in two probands, caused by the presence in each proband of two low copy number (short) alleles of a tandem repeat that ranges in length from < 10 to > 50 3.4 kb units in the population examined. Short alleles partially segregate with schizophrenia in a small number of families, though linkage was not significant. An association study showed no significant difference in repeat length between 406 schizophrenia cases and 392 controls. Conclusion Though we did not demonstrate a relationship between the 5p15.1 repeat and schizophrenia, our results illustrate that long tandem repeats represent an intriguing type of genetic variation that have not been previously studied in connection with psychiatric illness. aCGH can detect a small subset of these repeats, but systematic investigation will require the development of specific arrays and improved analytic methods. PMID:19672138

  7. Polymerase chain reaction-free variable-number tandem repeat typing using gold nanoparticle-DNA monoconjugates.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jong Young; Kim, Yong Tae; Seo, Tae Seok

    2013-03-26

    In this work, we report a novel polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-free variable-number tandem repeat (VNTR) typing method using a T-shaped gold nanoparticle-DNA monoconjugate, called the "watching-gene assay". The T-shaped DNA probe was synthesized by "click" chemistry and linked with the gold nanoparticle to form the gold nanoparticle-DNA monoconjugate (a VNTR probe). Through a simple annealing and ligation reaction of the VNTR probe on a synthetic DNA template mimicking the human D1S80 VNTR locus, the number of tandem repeat units could be deciphered by counting the self-assembled gold nanoparticles. The number of tandem repeat units could be identified with more than 50% yield if the repeat number was less than four. In the case of the real human genomic DNA, the 18 repeat unit number could be successfully revealed by observing the 18-gold-nanoparticle cluster, which exactly corresponded to the number of tandem repeats of the real sample. Our "watching-gene assay" is rapid, simple, and direct for data interpretation, thereby providing an advanced PCR-free genetic polymorphism analysis platform.

  8. Reduction in the structural instability of cloned eukaryotic tandem-repeat DNA by low-temperature culturing of host bacteria.

    PubMed

    Thapana, Watcharaporn; Sujiwattanarat, Penporn; Srikulnath, Kornsorn; Hirai, Hirohisa; Koga, Akihiko

    2014-10-27

    Summary For accurate analyses of eukaryotic tandem-repeat DNA, it is often required to clone a genomic DNA fragment into a bacterial plasmid. It is, however, a serious problem that tandem-repeat DNA is frequently subjected to structural changes during maintenance or amplification in the host bacteria. Here, we show an example of a clear difference in the instability of tandem-repeat DNA between different culturing temperatures. A fragment of monkey centromeric DNA carried by pUC19 was considerably degraded by culturing bacteria at 37 °C, but the damage was reduced at 25 °C. Thus, culturing temperature is a significant factor for avoiding degradation, in addition to the genotype of the host bacteria.

  9. Evolution of Variable Number Tandem Repeats and Its Relationship with Genomic Diversity in Salmonella Typhimurium

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Songzhe; Octavia, Sophie; Wang, Qinning; Tanaka, Mark M.; Tay, Chin Yen; Sintchenko, Vitali; Lan, Ruiting

    2016-01-01

    Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium is the most common Salmonella serovar causing human infections in Australia and many other countries. A total of 12,112 S. Typhimurium isolates from New South Wales were analyzed by multi-locus variable number of tandem repeat (VNTR) analysis (MLVA) using five VNTRs from 2007 to 2014. We found that mid ranges of repeat units of 8–14 in VNTR locus STTR5, 6–13 in STTR6, and 9–12 in STTR10 were always predominant in the population (>50%). In vitro passaging experiments using MLVA type carrying extreme length alleles found that the majority of long length alleles mutated to short ones and short length alleles mutated to longer ones. Both data suggest directional mutability of VNTRs toward mid-range repeats. Sequencing of 28 isolates from a newly emerged MLVA type and its five single locus variants revealed that single nucleotide variation between isolates with up to two MLVA differences ranged from 0 to 12 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). However, there was no relationship between SNP and VNTR differences. A population genetic model of the joint distribution of VNTRs and SNPs variations was used to estimate the mutation rates of the two markers, yielding a ratio of 1 VNTR change to 6.9 SNP changes. When only one VNTR repeat difference was considered, the majority of pairwise SNP difference between isolates were 4 SNPs or fewer. Based on this observation and our previous findings of SNP differences of outbreak isolates, we suggest that investigation of S. Typhimurium community outbreaks should include cases of 1 repeat difference to increase sensitivity. This study offers new insights into the short-term VNTR evolution of S. Typhimurium and its application for epidemiological typing. PMID:28082952

  10. Evolutionary trend of exceptionally long human core promoter short tandem repeats.

    PubMed

    Ohadi, M; Mohammadparast, S; Darvish, H

    2012-10-01

    Short tandem repeats (STRs) are variable elements that play a significant role in genome evolution by creating and maintaining quantitative genetic variation. Because of their proximity to the +1 transcription start site (TSS) and polymorphic nature, core promoter STRs may be considered a novel source of variation across species. In a genome-scale analysis of the entire human protein-coding genes annotated in the GeneCards database (19,927), we analyze the prevalence and repeat numbers of different classes of core promoter STRs in the interval between -120 and +1 to the TSS. We also analyze the evolutionary trend of exceptionally long core promoter STRs of ≥6-repeats. 133 genes (~2%) had core promoter STRs of ≥6-repeats. In the majority of those genes, the STR motifs were found to be conserved across evolution. Di-nucleotide repeats had the highest representation in the human core promoter long STRs (72 genes). Tri- (52 genes), tetra-, penta-, and hexa-nucleotide STRs (9 genes) were also present in the descending prevalence. The majority of those genes (84 genes) revealed directional expansion of core promoter STRs from mouse to human. However, in a number of genes, the difference in average allele size across species was sufficiently small that there might be a constraint on the evolution of average allele size. Random drift of STRs from mouse to human was also observed in a minority of genes. Future work on the genes listed in the current study may further our knowledge into the potential importance of core promoter STRs in human evolution.

  11. The tandem repeats enabling reversible switching between the two phases of β-lactamase substrate spectrum.

    PubMed

    Yi, Hyojeong; Song, Han; Hwang, Junghyun; Kim, Karan; Nierman, William C; Kim, Heenam Stanley

    2014-09-01

    Expansion or shrinkage of existing tandem repeats (TRs) associated with various biological processes has been actively studied in both prokaryotic and eukaryotic genomes, while their origin and biological implications remain mostly unknown. Here we describe various duplications (de novo TRs) that occurred in the coding region of a β-lactamase gene, where a conserved structure called the omega loop is encoded. These duplications that occurred under selection using ceftazidime conferred substrate spectrum extension to include the antibiotic. Under selective pressure with one of the original substrates (amoxicillin), a high level of reversion occurred in the mutant β-lactamase genes completing a cycle back to the original substrate spectrum. The de novo TRs coupled with reversion makes a genetic toggling mechanism enabling reversible switching between the two phases of the substrate spectrum of β-lactamases. This toggle exemplifies the effective adaptation of de novo TRs for enhanced bacterial survival. We found pairs of direct repeats that mediated the DNA duplication (TR formation). In addition, we found different duos of sequences that mediated the DNA duplication. These novel elements-that we named SCSs (same-strand complementary sequences)-were also found associated with β-lactamase TR mutations from clinical isolates. Both direct repeats and SCSs had a high correlation with TRs in diverse bacterial genomes throughout the major phylogenetic lineages, suggesting that they comprise a fundamental mechanism shaping the bacterial evolution.

  12. Genome-wide identification of human- and primate-specific core promoter short tandem repeats.

    PubMed

    Bushehri, A; Barez, M R Mashhoudi; Mansouri, S K; Biglarian, A; Ohadi, M

    2016-08-01

    Recent reports of a link between human- and primate-specific genetic factors and human/primate-specific characteristics and diseases necessitate genome-wide identification of those factors. We have previously reported core promoter short tandem repeats (STRs) of extreme length (≥6-repeats) that have expanded exceptionally in primates vs. non-primates, and may have a function in adaptive evolution. In the study reported here, we extended our study to the human STRs of ≥3-repeats in the category of penta and hexaucleotide STRs, across the entire human protein coding gene core promoters, and analyzed their status in several superorders and orders of vertebrates, using the Ensembl database. The ConSite software was used to identify the transcription factor (TF) sets binding to those STRs. STR specificity was observed at different levels of human and non-human primate (NHP) evolution. 73% of the pentanucleotide STRs and 68% of the hexanucleotide STRs were found to be specific to human and NHPs. AP-2alpha, Sp1, and MZF were the predominantly selected TFs (90%) binding to the human-specific STRs. Furthermore, the number of TF sets binding to a given STR was found to be a selection factor for that STR. Our findings indicate that selected STRs, the cognate binding TFs, and the number of TF set binding to those STRs function as switch codes at different levels of human and NHP evolution and speciation.

  13. TAPO: A combined method for the identification of tandem repeats in protein structures.

    PubMed

    Do Viet, Phuong; Roche, Daniel B; Kajava, Andrey V

    2015-09-14

    In recent years, there has been an emergence of new 3D structures of proteins containing tandem repeats (TRs), as a result of improved expression and crystallization strategies. Databases focused on structure classifications (PDB, SCOP, CATH) do not provide an easy solution for selection of these structures from PDB. Several approaches have been developed, but no best approach exists to identify the whole range of 3D TRs. Here we describe the TAndem PrOtein detector (TAPO) that uses periodicities of atomic coordinates and other types of structural representation, including strings generated by conformational alphabets, residue contact maps, and arrangements of vectors of secondary structure elements. The benchmarking shows the superior performance of TAPO over the existing programs. In accordance with our analysis of PDB using TAPO, 19% of proteins contain 3D TRs. This analysis allowed us to identify new families of 3D TRs, suggesting that TAPO can be used to regularly update the collection and classification of existing repetitive structures.

  14. The RNA polymerase I transcription factor xUBF contains 5 tandemly repeated HMG homology boxes.

    PubMed Central

    Bachvarov, D; Moss, T

    1991-01-01

    The RNA polymerase I transcription factor UBF has been identified in human, mouse, rat and Xenopus and the primary structure of the human protein has been determined. Human UBF was shown to contain four tandem homologies to the folding domains of the HMG1 and 2 proteins and hence to belong to a previously unrecognised family of 'HMG-box' transcription factors. Here, cDNA clones encoding the Xenopus laevis UBF (xUBF) have been isolated and sequenced. Northern and Southern blots revealed that in tissue culture cells, xUBF is coded on a single major mRNA size species by a small number of genes. The deduced primary structure of xUBF is highly homologous with the human protein except for a central deletion which removes most of one HMG-box. This explains the major size difference between the X. laevis and human proteins and may well explain their different transcriptional specificities. It is shown that xUBF contains 5 tandemly repeated HMG-boxes and that by analogy the human protein contains 6. Images PMID:2041774

  15. Novel variable number of tandem repeats of gibbon MAOA gene and its evolutionary significance.

    PubMed

    Choi, Yuri; Jung, Yi-Deun; Ayarpadikannan, Selvam; Koga, Akihiko; Imai, Hiroo; Hirai, Hirohisa; Roos, Christian; Kim, Heui-Soo

    2014-08-01

    Variable number of tandem repeats (VNTRs) are scattered throughout the primate genome, and genetic variation of these VNTRs have been accumulated during primate radiation. Here, we analyzed VNTRs upstream of the monoamine oxidase A (MAOA) gene in 11 different gibbon species. An abundance of truncated VNTR sequences and copy number differences were observed compared to those of human VNTR sequences. To better understand the biological role of these VNTRs, a luciferase activity assay was conducted and results indicated that selected VNTR sequences of the MAOA gene from human and three different gibbon species (Hylobates klossii, Hylobates lar, and Nomascus concolor) showed silencing ability. Together, these data could be useful for understanding the evolutionary history and functional significance of MAOA VNTR sequences in gibbon species.

  16. Evaluation of 13 short tandem repeated loci for use in personal identification applications

    SciTech Connect

    Hammond, H.A.; Caskey, C.T. ); Jin, L.; Zhong, Y.; Chakraborty, R. )

    1994-07-01

    Personal identification by using DNA typing methodologies has been an issue in the popular and scientific press for several years. The authors present a PCR-based DNA-typing method using 13 unlinked short tandem repeat (STR) loci. Validation of the loci and methodology has been performed to meet standards set by the forensic community and the accrediting organization for parentage testing. Extensive statistical analysis has addressed the issues surrounding the presentation of [open quotes]match[close quotes] statistics. The authors have found STR loci to provide a rapid, sensitive, and reliable method of DNA typing for parentage testing, forensic identification, and medical diagnostics. Valid statistical analysis is generally simpler than similar analysis of RFLP-VNTR results and provides powerful statistical evidence of the low frequency of random multilocus genotype matching. 54 refs., 4 figs., 6 tabs.

  17. The discovery, function and development of the variable number tandem repeats in different Mycobacterium species.

    PubMed

    Sun, Zhaogang; Li, Weimin; Xu, Shaofa; Huang, Hairong

    2016-09-01

    The method of genotyping by variable number tandem repeats (VNTRs) facilitates the epidemiological studies of different Mycobacterium species worldwide. Until now, the VNTR method is not fully understood, for example, its discovery, function and classification. The inconsistent nomenclature and terminology of VNTR is especially confusing. In this review, we first describe in detail the VNTRs in Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis), as this pathogen resulted in more deaths than any other microbial pathogen as well as for which extensive studies of VNTRs were carried out, and then we outline the recent progress of the VNTR-related epidemiological research in several other Mycobacterium species, such as M. abscessus, M. africanum, M. avium, M. bovis, M. canettii, M. caprae, M. intracellulare, M. leprae, M. marinum, M. microti, M. pinnipedii and M. ulcerans from different countries and regions. This article is aimed mainly at the practical notes of VNTR to help the scientists in better understanding and performing this method.

  18. A study on ten short tandem repeat systems: African immigrant and Spanish population data.

    PubMed

    Gamero, J J; Romero, J L; Gonzalez, J L; Arufe, M I; Cuesta, M I; Corte-Real, F; Carvalho, M; Anjos, M J; Vieira, D N; Vide, M C

    2000-06-05

    This work presents the results obtained from a genetic-population study for the D1S1656 system in the population of Southwest Spain (Huelva, Cádiz and Sevilla), Spaniards of Caucasian origin from North Africa (Ceuta), as well as in the black Central West African and Moroccan immigrant populations in Spain. The results of a study of the autochtonous population of the Canary Islands (n=138), and immigrant Central West African populations in Spain (n=132), obtained for nine short tandem repeat (STR) loci (D3S1358, VWA, FGA, D8S1179, D21S11, D18S51, D5S818, D13S317, D7S820), as well as the amelogenin locus, all contained in Profiler Plus (Perkin-Elmer) PCR amplification kits, are also presented. Except for the FGA and VWA data on immigrant Central West African populations in Spain, no deviations from the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium were detected.

  19. Short tandem repeat (STR) locus HUMD8S306 in a large population sample from Germany.

    PubMed

    Benecke, M; Knopf, M; Voll, W; Oesterreich, W; Jacobi, Y; Edelmann, J

    1998-10-01

    Applied DNA typing in medico-legal investigations, in criminalistic practice, and in paternity cases often relies on high inclusion and exclusion probabilities. For that reason, the short autosomal tandem repeat locus D8D306 was validated for forensic use and incorporated into a nonoverlapping multiplex reaction with HUMDHFRP2 and HUMCD4: The allele frequencies of D8S306 in four different regions of Germany (n = 1220 alleles) were determined for use in a population database; the allele distributions did not significantly deviate from each other. The hererozygosity of D8S306 is 83%, expected exclusion chance in stain cases is 96% (paternity cases: 69%), the lowest amount of successfully amplified DNA was 30 pg. The alleles are in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium.

  20. Improved haplotype analysis of human myelin basic protein short tandem repeat loci.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, G; Umetsu, K; Yuasa, I; Suzuki, T

    2000-06-01

    We report an improved haplotype analysis of the human myelin basic protein gene (MBP) short tandem repeat (STR) polymorphism. The polymorphic G-->A transition and 2 conventional STR polymorphisms, MBPA and MBPB, were simultaneously determined by an amplified product length polymorphism technique. After the MBPC fragments containing MBPA and MBPB were amplified, the linkage of these 2 STR loci was determined by a second amplification, using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique, of the isolated MBPC fragments. The present haplotype analysis dispensed with family studies for the haplotyping of MBPA and MBPB. Polymorphisms of the MBP loci studied in German and Japanese populations showed a high genomic variation. Haplotype analysis of the MBP loci showed distinct differences between the German and the Japanese populations. Consequently, haplotype analysis of the MBP loci promises to be useful in forensic identification and paternity testing.

  1. Population genetic data of 15 tetrameric short tandem repeats (STRs) in Berbers from Morocco.

    PubMed

    Coudray, Clotilde; Guitard, Evelyne; Keyser-Tracqui, Christine; Melhaoui, Mohamed; Cherkaoui, Mohamed; Larrouy, Georges; Dugoujon, Jean-Michel

    2007-03-22

    The allele frequency distribution of 15 short tandem repeats (STR) loci contained in the AmpFlSTR Identifiler PCR Amplification Kit (Applied Biosystems), was determined in two Berber populations from Asni and Bouhria, in Central and Eastern Morocco, respectively. A total of 209 individuals were typed. No deviations from the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium were observed for Asni at the 15 STRs loci whereas for the Bouhria samples, two loci (D5S818 and TH01) showed significant departures from Hardy-Weinberg expectations (after Bonferroni's correction). All loci are highly polymorphic and population differentiation tests showed that the Moroccan samples from Asni and Bouhria have significant differences in 4 out of 15 loci (D21S11, D7S820, D16S539 and TPOX). The aim of the study was to obtain accurate allele frequencies relevant for forensic applications. Comparative analyses between our population data and other population samples gathered from the literature are also presented.

  2. Transferability of short tandem repeat markers for two wild Canid species inhabiting the Brazilian Cerrado.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, F M; Telles, M P C; Resende, L V; Soares, T N; Diniz-Filho, J A F; Jácomo, A T A; Silveira, L

    2006-12-13

    The maned wolf (Chrysocyon brachyurus) and the crab-eating fox (Cerdocyon thous) are two wild-canid species found in the Brazilian Cerrado. We tested cross-amplification and transferability of 29 short tandem repeat primers originally developed for cattle and domestic dogs and cats on 38 individuals of each of these two species, collected in the Emas National Park, which is the largest national park in the Cerrado region. Six of these primers were successfully transferred (CSSM-038, PEZ-05, PEZ-12, LOCO-13, LOCO-15, and PEZ-20); five of which were found to be polymorphic. Genetic parameter values (number of alleles per locus, observed and expected heterozygosities, and fixation indices) were within the expected range reported for canid populations worldwide.

  3. High Degree of Plasmodium vivax Diversity in the Peruvian Amazon Demonstrated by Tandem Repeat Polymorphism Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Kosek, Margaret; Yori, Pablo P.; Gilman, Robert H.; Calderon, Maritza; Zimic, Mirko; Chuquiyauri, Raul; Jeri, Cesar; Pinedo-Cancino, Viviana; Matthias, Michael A.; Llanos-Cuentas, Alejandro; Vinetz, Joseph M.

    2012-01-01

    Molecular tools to distinguish strains of Plasmodium vivax are important for studying the epidemiology of malaria transmission. Two sets of markers—tandem repeat (TR) polymorphisms and MSP3α—were used to study Plasmodium vivax in patients in the Peruvian Amazon region of Iquitos. Of 110 patients, 90 distinct haplotypes were distinguished using 9 TR markers. An MSP3α polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) using HhaI and AluI revealed 8 and 9 profiles, respectively, and 36 profiles when analyzed in combination. Combining TR and PCR-RFLP markers, 101 distinct molecular profiles were distinguished among these 110 patients. Nine TR markers arrayed along a 100 kB stretch of a P. vivax chromosome containing the gene for circumsporozoite protein showed non-linear linkage disequilibrium (ISA = 0.03, P = 0.001). These findings demonstrate the potential use of TR markers for molecular epidemiology studies. PMID:22492139

  4. Tandem repeats modify the structure of the canine CD1D gene.

    PubMed

    Looringh van Beeck, F A; Leegwater, P A J; Herrmann, T; Broere, F; Rutten, V P M G; Willemse, T; Van Rhijn, I

    2013-06-01

    Among the CD1 proteins that present lipid antigens to T cells, CD1d is the only one that stimulates a population of T cells with an invariant T-cell receptor known as NKT cells. Sequencing of a 722 nucleotide gap in the dog (Canis lupus familiaris) genome revealed that the canine CD1D gene lacks a sequence homologous to exon 2 of human CD1D, coding for the start codon and signal peptide. Also, the canine CD1D gene contains three different short tandem repeats that disrupt the expected gene structure. Because canine CD1D cDNA lacks sequences homologous to human exon 2 and 3, the functionality of canine CD1d protein may be affected, and this could have consequences for the development and activation of canine NKT cells.

  5. Distinct influences of tandem repeats and retrotransposons on CENH3 nucleosome positioning

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Unique structural characteristics of centromere chromatin enable it to support assembly of the kinetochore and its associated tensions. The histone H3 variant CENH3 (centromeric histone H3) is viewed as the key element of centromere chromatin and its interaction with centromere DNA is epigenetic in that its localization to centromeres is not sequence-dependent. Results In order to investigate what influence the DNA sequence exerts on CENH3 chromatin structure, we examined CENH3 nucleosome footprints on maize centromere DNA. We found a predominant average nucleosome spacing pattern of roughly 190-bp intervals, which was also the dominant arrangement for nucleosomes genome-wide. For CENH3-containing nucleosomes, distinct modes of nucleosome positioning were evident within that general spacing constraint. Over arrays of the major ~156-bp centromeric satellite sequence (tandem repeat) CentC, nucleosomes were not positioned in register with CentC monomers but in conformity with a striking ~10-bp periodicity of AA/TT dimers within the sequence. In contrast, nucleosomes on a class of centromeric retrotransposon (CRM2) lacked a detectable AA/TT periodicity but exhibited tightly phased positioning. Conclusions These data support a model in which general chromatin factors independent of both DNA sequence and CENH3 enforce roughly uniform centromeric nucleosome spacing while allowing flexibility in the mode in which nucleosomes are positioned. In the case of tandem repeat DNA, the natural bending effects related to AA/TT periodicity produce an energetically-favourable arrangement consistent with conformationally rigid nucleosomes and stable chromatin at centromeres. PMID:21352520

  6. Identification of a novel cancer-specific immunodominant glycopeptide epitope in the MUC1 tandem repeat.

    PubMed

    Tarp, Mads A; Sørensen, Anne Louise; Mandel, Ulla; Paulsen, Hans; Burchell, Joy; Taylor-Papadimitriou, Joyce; Clausen, Henrik

    2007-02-01

    The cell membrane mucin MUC1 is over-expressed and aberrantly glycosylated in many cancers, and cancer-associated MUC1 glycoforms represent potential targets for immunodiagnostic and therapeutic measures. We have recently shown that MUC1 with GalNAcalpha1-O-Ser/Thr (Tn) and NeuAcalpha2-6GalNAcalpha1-O-Ser/Thr (STn) O-glycosylation is a cancer-specific glycoform, and that Tn/STn-MUC1 glycopeptide-based vaccines can override tolerance in human MUC1 transgenic mice and induce humoral immunity with high specificity for MUC1 cancer-specific glycoforms (Sorensen AL, Reis CA, Tarp MA, Mandel U, Ramachandran K, Sankaranarayanan V, Schwientek T, Graham R, Taylor-Papadimitriou J, Hollingsworth MA, et al. 2006. Chemoenzymatically synthesized multimeric Tn/STn MUC1 glycopeptides elicit cancer-specific anti-MUC1 antibody responses and override tolerance. Glycobiology. 16:96-107). In order to further characterize the immune response to Tn/STn-MUC1 glycoforms, we generated monoclonal antibodies with specificity similar to the polyclonal antibody response found in transgenic mice. In the present study, we define the immunodominant epitope on Tn/STn-MUC1 glycopeptides to the region including the amino acids GSTA of the MUC1 20-amino acid tandem repeat (HGVTSAPDTRPAPGSTAPPA). Most other MUC1 antibodies are directed to the PDTR region, although patients with antibodies to the GSTA region have been identified. A panel of other MUC1 glycoform-specific monoclonal antibodies was included for comparison. The study demonstrates that the GSTA region of the MUC1 tandem repeat contains a highly immunodominant epitope when presented with immature short O-glycans. The cancer-specific expression of this glycopeptide epitope makes it a prime candidate for immunodiagnostic and therapeutic measures.

  7. Exceptionally long 5' UTR short tandem repeats specifically linked to primates.

    PubMed

    Namdar-Aligoodarzi, P; Mohammadparast, S; Zaker-Kandjani, B; Talebi Kakroodi, S; Jafari Vesiehsari, M; Ohadi, M

    2015-09-10

    We have previously reported genome-scale short tandem repeats (STRs) in the core promoter interval (i.e. -120 to +1 to the transcription start site) of protein-coding genes that have evolved identically in primates vs. non-primates. Those STRs may function as evolutionary switch codes for primate speciation. In the current study, we used the Ensembl database to analyze the 5' untranslated region (5' UTR) between +1 and +60 of the transcription start site of the entire human protein-coding genes annotated in the GeneCards database, in order to identify "exceptionally long" STRs (≥5-repeats), which may be of selective/adaptive advantage. The importance of this critical interval is its function as core promoter, and its effect on transcription and translation. In order to minimize ascertainment bias, we analyzed the evolutionary status of the human 5' UTR STRs of ≥5-repeats in several species encompassing six major orders and superorders across mammals, including primates, rodents, Scandentia, Laurasiatheria, Afrotheria, and Xenarthra. We introduce primate-specific STRs, and STRs which have expanded from mouse to primates. Identical co-occurrence of the identified STRs of rare average frequency between 0.006 and 0.0001 in primates supports a role for those motifs in processes that diverged primates from other mammals, such as neuronal differentiation (e.g. APOD and FGF4), and craniofacial development (e.g. FILIP1L). A number of the identified STRs of ≥5-repeats may be human-specific (e.g. ZMYM3 and DAZAP1). Future work is warranted to examine the importance of the listed genes in primate/human evolution, development, and disease.

  8. Sequence arrangement of a highly methylated satellite DNA of a plant, Scilla: A tandemly repeated inverted repeat

    PubMed Central

    Deumling, Barbara

    1981-01-01

    G+C-rich satellite DNA, representing about 19% of total nuclear DNA, was isolated from various tissues of the monocotyledonous plant, Scilla siberica, by using Ag+-Cs2SO4 gradient techniques. This satellite DNA had an unusually high melting point and a high methylcytosine (m5C) content (≈25% of total bases; m5C/cytosine ratio ≈1.5) and was localized, by in situ hybridization, in the heterochromatin regions of the chromosomes. Digestion with restriction endonuclease Hae III yielded a series of fragments ranging from 35 to several hundred nucleotide pairs. The major fragments, I-IV (35, 50, 59, and 69, nucleotide pairs, respectively), were isolated, and their nucleotide sequences were determined. The dominant fragment I was a highly symmetrical molecule, with a basically palindromic arrangement. This sequence represented the basic unit of Scilla satellite DNA and was tandemly repeated many times, with some base substitutions and multiple successive insertions of the tetranucleotide G-T-C-C. The dinucleotide CpG was the commonest nearest-neighbor sequence. Thin layer chromatography, DNA sequence analysis, and gas chromatography combined with mass spectrometry showed the high m5C content (m5C/Cyt = 2.2 and 2.8, respectively, for fragments II and III). Identical cleavage fragments were found in satellite DNAs from two other species of this genus (S. amoena and S. ingridae), which suggests that this constitutively methylated sequence is evolutionarily stable. The sequence arrangement of this plant satellite DNA is compared with those reported for several animal satellite DNAs. Images PMID:16592953

  9. Typing Method for the QUB11a Locus of Mycobacterium tuberculosis: IS6110 Insertions and Tandem Repeat Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Maeda-Mitani, Eriko; Oishi, Akira; Etoh, Yoshiki; Sera, Nobuyuki; Fujimoto, Shuji

    2016-01-01

    QUB11a is used as a locus for variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR) analysis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Beijing lineage. However, amplification of QUB11a occasionally produces large fragments (>1,400 bp) that are not easily measured by capillary electrophoresis because of a lack of the typical stutter peak patterns that are used for counting repeat numbers. IS6110 insertion may complicate VNTR analysis of large QUB11a fragments in M. tuberculosis. We established a method for determining both tandem repeat numbers and IS6110 insertion in the QUB11a locus of M. tuberculosis using capillary electrophoresis analysis and BsmBI digestion. All 29 large QUB11a fragments (>1,200 bp) investigated contained IS6110 insertions and varied in the number of repeats (18 patterns) and location of IS6110 insertions. This method allows VNTR analysis with high discrimination. PMID:27812529

  10. Next generation sequencing (NGS) database for tandem repeats with multiple pattern 2°-shaft multicore string matching

    PubMed Central

    Someswara Rao, Chinta; Raju, S. Viswanadha

    2016-01-01

    Next generation sequencing (NGS) technologies have been rapidly applied in biomedical and biological research in recent years. To provide the comprehensive NGS resource for the research, in this paper , we have considered 10 loci/codi/repeats TAGA, TCAT, GAAT, AGAT, AGAA, GATA, TATC, CTTT, TCTG and TCTA. Then we developed the NGS Tandem Repeat Database (TandemRepeatDB) for all the chromosomes of Homo sapiens, Callithrix jacchus, Chlorocebus sabaeus, Gorilla gorilla, Macaca fascicularis, Macaca mulatta, Nomascus leucogenys, Pan troglodytes, Papio anubis and Pongo abelii genome data sets for all those locis. We find the successive occurence frequency for all the above 10 SSR (simple sequence repeats) in the above genome data sets on a chromosome-by-chromosome basis with multiple pattern 2° shaft multicore string matching. PMID:26981434

  11. Upregulated Expression of B-Cell Antigen Family Tandem Repeat Proteins by Leishmania Amastigotes ▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Goto, Yasuyuki; Carter, Darrick; Guderian, Jeffrey; Inoue, Noboru; Kawazu, Shin-Ichiro; Reed, Steven G.

    2010-01-01

    Proteins with tandem repeat (TR) domains have been found in various protozoan parasites, and they are often targets of B-cell responses. Through systematic analyses of whole proteomes, we recently demonstrated that two trypanosomatid parasites, Leishmania infantum and Trypanosoma cruzi, are rich in antigenic proteins with large TR domains. However, the reason that these proteins are antigenic was unclear. Here, by performing molecular, immunological, and bioinformatic characterizations of Leishmania TR proteins, we found two possible factors affecting the antigenicity of these proteins; one factor is their fundamental composition as TR proteins, and the other is regulation of their expression by parasites. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) using recombinant proteins revealed that the copy number of the repeat affects the affinity of binding between antigens and antibodies, as expected based on thermodynamic binding kinetics. Other than containing TR domains, the TR proteins do not share characteristics, such as sequence similarity or biased cellular location predicted by the presence of a signal sequence(s) and/or a transmembrane domain(s). However, the TR proteome contained a higher percentage of proteins upregulated in amastigotes than the whole proteome, and upregulated expression of a TR protein seemed to affect its antigenicity. These results indicate that Leishmania parasites actively utilize the TR protein family for parasitism in mammalian hosts. PMID:20160013

  12. Analysis of simple tandem repeat (STR) marker allele distributions in a Balinese population

    SciTech Connect

    Morell, R.; Ashler, J.H.; Friedman, T.B.

    1994-09-01

    Genotypes for 53 simple tandem repeat (STR) markers distributed at greater than 39 cM intervals throughout the genome were determined for 46 individuals from the village of Bengkala, Bali. This village dates to at least the thirteenth century, has approximately 2,200 individuals and has an oral and written tradition suggesting genetic bottlenecks. The allele frequency distributions in Bengkala were compared with distributions obtained by typing individuals in the CEPH data base using a Kolmogorov-Smirnov two sample test. Twenty-eight of the 53 markers showed differences (p<0.05) in distribution between the two populations. Allele frequencies of tetranucleotide STRs were much more similar between the two populations than were those of dinucleotide STRs (p < 0.0043). This may be due to the higher mutation rate of tetranucleotide STRs, combining with selection on repeat lengths, to produce a {open_quotes}stable{close_quotes} allele distribution. Population heterogeneity in Bengkala was indicated by an excess of observed homozygosity, deviations from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium at seven loci, and significant genotypic disequilibrium between physically unlinked loci. These analyses serve as a resource to map a gene causing non-syndromal autosomal recessive deafness in Bengkala, and to corroborate the anthropological study of the history and social structure of the village.

  13. Identification and characterisation of coding tandem repeat variants in incA gene of Chlamydophila pecorum.

    PubMed

    Yousef Mohamad, Khalil; Rekiki, Abdessalem; Myers, Garry; Bavoil, Patrik M; Rodolakis, Annie

    2008-01-01

    Bacteria of the family Chlamydiaceae are obligate intracellular pathogens of human and animals. Chlamydophila pecorum is associated with different pathological conditions in ruminants, swine and koala. To characterize a coding tandem repeat (CTR) identified at the 3' end of incA gene of C. pecorum, 51 strains of different chlamydial species were examined. The CTR were observed in 18 of 18 tested C. pecorum isolates including symptomatic and asymptomatic animals from diverse geographical origins. The CTR were also found in two strains of C. abortus respectively isolated from faeces from a healthy ewe and from a goat belonging to asymptomatic herds, but were absent in C. abortus strains isolated from clinical disease specimens, and in tested strains of C. psittaci, C. caviae, C. felis and C. trachomatis. The number of CTR repeats is variable and encode several motifs that are rich in alanine and proline. The CTR-derived variable structure of incA, which encode the Chlamydiaceae-specific type III secreted inclusion membrane protein, IncA, may be involved in the adaptation of C. pecorum to its environment by allowing it to persist in the host cell.

  14. New tandem-repeating peptide structures in polysialoglycoproteins from the unfertilized eggs of kokanee salmon.

    PubMed

    Song, Y; Kitajima, K; Inoue, Y

    1990-11-15

    New polysialoglycoproteins, designated PSGP(On), were isolated from the fertilized and unfertilized eggs of the kokanee salmon, Oncorhynchus nerka adonis. The polysialylglycan chains consisting of alpha-2,8-linked O-acetylated poly(N-glycolylneuraminyl) chains have recently been characterized. We have now determined the complete amino acid sequence of the tandem-repeating units of PSGP(On) from the unfertilized eggs of kokanee salmon and found that the following two distinct forms are present in PSGP(On) in almost identical amounts: [formula: see text] and [formula: see text] where * denotes the O-glycosylation site and mean value of m, n = about 20. Upon fertilization these high-molecular-weight forms of PSGP(On) were proteolytically cleaved to the corresponding repeating units, low-molecular-weight PSGP(On), by the action of a specific protease (PSGPase) at the position two residues set C-terminally to the Pro residue and N-terminally to the Asp residue, i.e. -Pro-Ser-Xaa-Asp-: [formula: see text] and [formula: see text].

  15. Double-strand break repair in tandem repeats during bacteriophage T4 infection.

    PubMed Central

    Tomso, D J; Kreuzer, K N

    2000-01-01

    Recombinational repair of double-strand breaks in tandemly repeated sequences often results in the loss of one or more copies of the repeat. The single-strand annealing (SSA) model for repair has been proposed to account for this nonconservative recombination. In this study we present a plasmid-based physical assay that measures SSA during bacteriophage T4 infection and apply this assay to the genetic analysis of break repair. SSA occurs readily in broken plasmid DNA and is independent of the strand exchange protein UvsX and its accessory factor UvsY. We use the unique features of T4 DNA metabolism to examine the link between SSA repair and DNA replication and demonstrate directly that the DNA polymerase and the major replicative helicase of the phage are not required for SSA repair. We also show that the Escherichia coli RecBCD enzyme can mediate the degradation of broken DNA during early, but not late, times of infection. Finally, we consider the status of broken ends during the course of the infection and propose a model for SSA during T4 infections. PMID:10924452

  16. DNA Fingerprint Analysis of Three Short Tandem Repeat (STR) Loci for Biochemistry and Forensic Science Laboratory Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNamara-Schroeder, Kathleen; Olonan, Cheryl; Chu, Simon; Montoya, Maria C.; Alviri, Mahta; Ginty, Shannon; Love, John J.

    2006-01-01

    We have devised and implemented a DNA fingerprinting module for an upper division undergraduate laboratory based on the amplification and analysis of three of the 13 short tandem repeat loci that are required by the Federal Bureau of Investigation Combined DNA Index System (FBI CODIS) data base. Students first collect human epithelial (cheek)…

  17. DNA Fingerprint Analysis of Three Short Tandem Repeat (STR) Loci for Biochemistry and Forensic Science Laboratory Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNamara-Schroeder, Kathleen; Olonan, Cheryl; Chu, Simon; Montoya, Maria C.; Alviri, Mahta; Ginty, Shannon; Love, John J.

    2006-01-01

    We have devised and implemented a DNA fingerprinting module for an upper division undergraduate laboratory based on the amplification and analysis of three of the 13 short tandem repeat loci that are required by the Federal Bureau of Investigation Combined DNA Index System (FBI CODIS) data base. Students first collect human epithelial (cheek)…

  18. Structure and variable numbers of tandem repeats (VNTRs) of the mitochondrial control region in mitten crab Eriocheir (Crustacean: Brachyura).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Daizhen; Ding, Ge; Wang, Guangyue; Tang, Boping; Sun, Hongying

    2011-11-01

    Mitochondrial control region was called "A + T-rich" region in invertebrate. In the study, the general organization of control region in mitten crab was divided into two major domains: high variable segment and conserved segment. Four conserved blocks (CSB1, CSB2, CSB3 and CSB4) and two tandem repeat sequences (RT1 and RT2) were defined in control region. There were 116 polymorphic sites and 84 parsimony information sites in 571 aligned sites of the high variable segment adjacent "tRNA-Gln", in which 58 stable variable sites were defined between E. j. sinensis and E. j. hepuensis. Conserved domain contained more than two similar repeat units, and length polymorphism of control region was due to the number difference between the two repeat units (RT1 and RT2). And length polymorphism was a common phenomenon for tandem repeat in control region in the study. Furthermore, a novel result showed the core nucleotide of RT2 in control region tandem repeat was C in E. j. hepuensis, but G in E. j. sinensis. It might be a rapid and cost-effective measure of seedlings differentiation in aquaculture.

  19. The tandemly repeated domains of a β-propeller phytase act synergistically to increase catalytic efficiency.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhongyuan; Huang, Huoqing; Yang, Peilong; Yuan, Tiezheng; Shi, Pengjun; Zhao, Junqi; Meng, Kun; Yao, Bin

    2011-09-01

    β-Propeller phytases (BPPs) with tandemly repeated domains are abundant in nature. Previous studies have shown that the intact domain is responsible for phytate hydrolysis, but the function of the other domain is relatively unknown. In this study, a new dual-domain BPP (PhyH) from Bacillus sp. HJB17 was identified to contain an incomplete N-terminal BPP domain (PhyH-DI, residues 41-318) and a typical BPP domain (PhyH-DII, residues 319-644) at the C-terminus. Purified recombinant PhyH and PhyH-DII required Ca(2+) for phytase activity, showed activity at low temperatures (0-35 °C) and pH 6.0-8.0, and remained active (at 37 °C) after incubation at 60 °C and pH 6.0-12.0. Compared with PhyH-DII, PhyH is catalytically more active against phytate (catalytic constant 27.72 versus 4.17 s(-1)), which indicates the importance of PhyH-DI in phytate degradation. PhyH-DI was found to hydrolyze phytate intermediate D-Ins(1,4,5,6) P(4), and to act synergistically (a 1.2-2.5-fold increase in phosphate release) with PhyH-DII, other BPPs (PhyP and 168PhyA) and a histidine acid phosphatase. Furthermore, fusion of PhyH-DI with PhyP or 168PhyA significantly enhanced their catalytic efficiencies. This is the first report to elucidate the substrate specificity of the incomplete domain and the functional relationship of tandemly repeated domains in BPPs. We conjecture that dual-domain BPPs have succeeded evolutionarily because they can increase the amount of available phosphate by interacting together. Additionally, fusing PhyH-DI to a single-domain phytase appears to be an efficient way to improve the activity of the latter.

  20. STRSeq: A catalog of sequence diversity at human identification Short Tandem Repeat loci.

    PubMed

    Gettings, Katherine Butler; Borsuk, Lisa A; Ballard, David; Bodner, Martin; Budowle, Bruce; Devesse, Laurence; King, Jonathan; Parson, Walther; Phillips, Christopher; Vallone, Peter M

    2017-09-01

    The STR Sequencing Project (STRSeq) was initiated to facilitate the description of sequence-based alleles at the Short Tandem Repeat (STR) loci targeted in human identification assays. This international collaborative effort, which has been endorsed by the ISFG DNA Commission, provides a framework for communication among laboratories. The initial data used to populate the project are the aggregate alleles observed in targeted sequencing studies across four laboratories: National Institute of Standards and Technology (N=1786), Kings College London (N=1043), University of North Texas Health Sciences Center (N=839), and University of Santiago de Compostela (N=944), for a total of 4612 individuals. STRSeq data are maintained as GenBank records at the U.S. National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), which participates in a daily data exchange with the DNA DataBank of Japan (DDBJ) and the European Nucleotide Archive (ENA). Each GenBank record contains the observed sequence of a STR region, annotation ("bracketing") of the repeat region and flanking region polymorphisms, information regarding the sequencing assay and data quality, and backward compatible length-based allele designation. STRSeq GenBank records are organized within a BioProject at NCBI (https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/bioproject/380127), which is sub-divided into: commonly used autosomal STRs, alternate autosomal STRs, Y-chromosomal STRs, and X-chromosomal STRs. Each of these categories is further divided into locus-specific BioProjects. The BioProject hierarchy facilitates access to the GenBank records by browsing, BLAST searching, or ftp download. Future plans include user interface tools at strseq.nist.gov, a pathway for submission of additional allele records by laboratories performing population sample sequencing and interaction with the STRidER web portal for quality control (http://strider.online). Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. RUNX2 tandem repeats and the evolution of facial length in placental mammals

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background When simple sequence repeats are integrated into functional genes, they can potentially act as evolutionary ‘tuning knobs’, supplying abundant genetic variation with minimal risk of pleiotropic deleterious effects. The genetic basis of variation in facial shape and length represents a possible example of this phenomenon. Runt-related transcription factor 2 (RUNX2), which is involved in osteoblast differentiation, contains a functionally-important tandem repeat of glutamine and alanine amino acids. The ratio of glutamines to alanines (the QA ratio) in this protein seemingly influences the regulation of bone development. Notably, in domestic breeds of dog, and in carnivorans in general, the ratio of glutamines to alanines is strongly correlated with facial length. Results In this study we examine whether this correlation holds true across placental mammals, particularly those mammals for which facial length is highly variable and related to adaptive behavior and lifestyle (e.g., primates, afrotherians, xenarthrans). We obtained relative facial length measurements and RUNX2 sequences for 41 mammalian species representing 12 orders. Using both a phylogenetic generalized least squares model and a recently-developed Bayesian comparative method, we tested for a correlation between genetic and morphometric data while controlling for phylogeny, evolutionary rates, and divergence times. Non-carnivoran taxa generally had substantially lower glutamine-alanine ratios than carnivorans (primates and xenarthrans with means of 1.34 and 1.25, respectively, compared to a mean of 3.1 for carnivorans), and we found no correlation between RUNX2 sequence and face length across placental mammals. Conclusions Results of our diverse comparative phylogenetic analyses indicate that QA ratio does not consistently correlate with face length across the 41 mammalian taxa considered. Thus, although RUNX2 might function as a ‘tuning knob’ modifying face length in carnivorans

  2. Core promoter short tandem repeats as evolutionary switch codes for primate speciation.

    PubMed

    Ohadi, Mina; Valipour, Elaheh; Ghadimi-Haddadan, Saeed; Namdar-Aligoodarzi, Pegah; Bagheri, Abouzar; Kowsari, Ali; Rezazadeh, Maryam; Darvish, Hossein; Kazeminasab, Somayeh

    2015-01-01

    Alteration in gene expression levels underlies many of the phenotypic differences across species. Because of their highly mutable nature, proximity to the +1 transcription start site (TSS), and the emerging evidence of functional impact on gene expression, core promoter short tandem repeats (STRs) may be considered an ideal source of variation across species. In a genome-scale analysis of the entire Homo sapiens protein-coding genes, we have previously identified core promoters with at least one STR of ≥ 6-repeats, with possible selective advantage in this species. In the current study, we performed reverse analysis of the entire Homo sapiens orthologous genes in mouse in the Ensembl database, in order to identify conserved STRs that have shrunk as an evolutionary advantage to humans. Two protocols were used to minimize ascertainment bias. Firstly, two species sharing a more recent ancestor with Homo sapiens (i.e. Pan troglodytes and Gorilla gorilla gorilla) were also included in the study. Secondly, four non-primate species encompassing the major orders across Mammals, including Scandentia, Laurasiatheria, Afrotheria, and Xenarthra were analyzed as out-groups. We introduce STR evolutionary events specifically identical in primates (i.e. Homo sapiens, Pan troglodytes, and Gorilla gorilla gorilla) vs. non-primate out-groups. The average frequency of the identically shared STR motifs across those primates ranged between 0.00005 and 0.06. The identified genes are involved in important evolutionary and developmental processes, such as normal craniofacial development (TFAP2B), regulation of cell shape (PALMD), learning and long-term memory (RGS14), nervous system development (GFRA2), embryonic limb morphogenesis (PBX2), and forebrain development (APAF1). We provide evidence of core promoter STRs as evolutionary switch codes for primate speciation, and the first instance of identity-by-descent for those motifs at the interspecies level. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Analysis of Y-chromosomal short tandem repeat (STR) polymorphism in an Iranian Sadat population.

    PubMed

    Rafiee, M R; Sokhansanj, A; Naghizadeh, M A; Farazmand, A

    2009-08-01

    The molecular genotyping of individuals and reconstruction of kinship through short and highly polymorphic DNA markers, so called short tandem repeats (STR), has become one of the important and efficient methods in anthropology studies and forensic science. Although many populations have been analyzed, no study has yet been carried out on Sadat populations who are putative descendents of Prophet Mohammad (peace be upon him). Polymorphisms of 6 Y-STR loci (DYS19, DYS385a/b, DYS389II, DYS390, DYS392, and DYS393) have been studied in an unrelated population of Sadat males. The aim of this study was to find possible similarities within Sadat males, resided in Iran. Among Sadat, DYS385b was proved to be the most polymorphic (GD = 0.8588), and DYS392 showed the lowest polymorphism (GD = 0.3527). In 50 samples, 45 different haplotypes were found, of which 39 haplotypes were unique. In the study, three samples had multi-allelic patterns. Haplotype diversity, in regard to these 7 markers was 0.9942.

  4. Developmental Validation of Short Tandem Repeat Reagent Kit for Forensic DNA Profiling of Canine Biological Materials

    PubMed Central

    Dayton, Melody; Koskinen, Mikko T; Tom, Bradley K; Mattila, Anna-Maria; Johnston, Eric; Halverson, Joy; Fantin, Dennis; DeNise, Sue; Budowle, Bruce; Smith, David Glenn; Kanthaswamy, Sree

    2009-01-01

    Aim To develop a reagent kit that enables multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of 18 short tandem repeats (STR) and the canine sex-determining Zinc Finger marker. Methods Validation studies to determine the robustness and reliability in forensic DNA typing of this multiplex assay included sensitivity testing, reproducibility studies, intra- and inter-locus color balance studies, annealing temperature and cycle number studies, peak height ratio determination, characterization of artifacts such as stutter percentages and dye blobs, mixture analyses, species-specificity, case type samples analyses and population studies. Results The kit robustly amplified domesticated dog samples and consistently generated full 19-locus profiles from as little as 125 pg of dog DNA. In addition, wolf DNA samples could be analyzed with the kit. Conclusion The kit, which produces robust, reliable, and reproducible results, will be made available for the forensic research community after modifications based on this study’s evaluation to comply with the quality standards expected for forensic casework. PMID:19480022

  5. Multiplex short tandem repeat amplification of low template DNA samples with the addition of proofreading enzymes.

    PubMed

    Davis, Carey P; Chelland, Lynzee A; Pavlova, Victoria R; Illescas, María J; Brown, Kelly L; Cruz, Tracey Dawson

    2011-05-01

    With <100 pg of template DNA, routine short tandem repeat (STR) analysis often fails, resulting in no or partial profiles and increased stochastic effects. To overcome this, some have investigated preamplification methods that include the addition of proofreading enzymes to the PCR cocktail. This project sought to determine whether adding proofreading polymerases directly in the STR amplification mixture would improve the reaction when little template DNA is available. Platinum Taq High Fidelity and GeneAmp High Fidelity were tested in Profiler Plus™ STR reactions alone and in combination with AmpliTaq(®) Gold. All reactions included the additional step of a post-PCR purification step. With both pristine low template DNA and casework samples, the addition of these polymerases resulted in comparable or no improvement in the STR amplification signal. Further, stochastic effects and artifacts were observed equally across all enzyme conditions. Based on these studies, the addition of these proofreading enzymes to a multiplex STR amplification is not recommended for low template DNA work. © 2011 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  6. A modular microfluidic system for deoxyribonucleic acid identification by short tandem repeat analysis.

    PubMed

    Reedy, Carmen R; Hagan, Kristin A; Marchiarullo, Daniel J; Dewald, Alison H; Barron, Annalise; Bienvenue, Joan M; Landers, James P

    2011-02-21

    Microfluidic technology has been utilized in the development of a modular system for DNA identification through STR (short tandem repeat) analysis, reducing the total analysis time from the ∼6 h required with conventional approaches to less than 3h. Results demonstrate the utilization of microfluidic devices for the purification, amplification, separation and detection of 9 loci associated with a commercially-available miniSTR amplification kit commonly used in the forensic community. First, DNA from buccal swabs purified in a microdevice was proven amplifiable for the 9 miniSTR loci via infrared (IR)-mediated PCR (polymerase chain reaction) on a microdevice. Microchip electrophoresis (ME) was then demonstrated as an effective method for the separation and detection of the chip-purified and chip-amplified DNA with results equivalent to those obtained using conventional separation methods on an ABI 310 Genetic Analyzer. The 3-chip system presented here demonstrates development of a modular, microfluidic system for STR analysis, allowing for user-discretion as to how to proceed after each process during the analysis of forensic casework samples. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Global genetic variation at nine short tandem repeat loci and implications on forensic genetics.

    PubMed

    Sun, Guangyun; McGarvey, Stephen T; Bayoumi, Riad; Mulligan, Connie J; Barrantes, Ramiro; Raskin, Salmo; Zhong, Yixi; Akey, Joshua; Chakraborty, Ranajit; Deka, Ranjan

    2003-01-01

    We have studied genetic variation at nine autosomal short tandem repeat loci in 20 globally distributed human populations defined by geographic and ethnic origins, viz., African, Caucasian, Asian, Native American and Oceanic. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the utility and applicability of these nine loci in forensic analysis in worldwide populations. The levels of genetic variation measured by number of alleles, allele size variance and heterozygosity are high in all populations irrespective of their effective sizes. Single- as well as multi-locus genotype frequencies are in conformity with the assumptions of Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. Further, alleles across the entire set of nine loci are mutually independent in all populations. Gene diversity analysis shows that pooling of population data by major geographic groupings does not introduce substructure effects beyond the levels recommended by the National Research Council, validating the establishment of population databases based on major geographic and ethnic groupings. A network tree based on genetic distances further supports this assertion, in which populations of common ancestry cluster together. With respect to the power of discrimination and exclusion probabilities, even the relatively reduced levels of genetic variation at these nine STR loci in smaller and isolated populations provide an exclusionary power over 99%. However, in paternity testing with unknown genotype of the mother, the power of exclusion could fall below 80% in some isolated populations, and in such cases use of additional loci supplementing the battery of the nine loci is recommended.

  8. Highly Discriminatory Variable-Number Tandem-Repeat Markers for Genotyping of Trichophyton interdigitale Strains

    PubMed Central

    Drira, Ines; Hadrich, Ines; Neji, Sourour; Mahfouth, Nedia; Trabelsi, Houaida; Sellami, Hayet; Makni, Fattouma

    2014-01-01

    Trichophyton interdigitale is the second most frequent cause of superficial fungal infections of various parts of the human body. Studying the population structure and genotype differentiation of T. interdigitale strains may lead to significant improvements in clinical practice. The present study aimed to develop and select suitable variable-number tandem-repeat (VNTR) markers for 92 clinical strains of T. interdigitale. On the basis of an analysis of four VNTR markers, four to eight distinct alleles were detected for each marker. The marker with the highest discriminatory power had eight alleles and a D value of 0.802. The combination of all four markers yielded a D value of 0.969 with 29 distinct multilocus genotypes. VNTR typing revealed the genetic diversity of the strains, identifying three populations according to their colonization sites. A correlation between phenotypic characteristics and multilocus genotypes was observed. Seven patients harbored T. interdigitale strains with different genotypes. Typing of clinical T. interdigitale samples by VNTR markers displayed excellent discriminatory power and 100% reproducibility. PMID:24989614

  9. Online reference database of European Y-chromosomal short tandem repeat (STR) haplotypes.

    PubMed

    Roewer, L; Krawczak, M; Willuweit, S; Nagy, M; Alves, C; Amorim, A; Anslinger, K; Augustin, C; Betz, A; Bosch, E; Cagliá, A; Carracedo, A; Corach, D; Dekairelle, A F; Dobosz, T; Dupuy, B M; Füredi, S; Gehrig, C; Gusmaõ, L; Henke, J; Henke, L; Hidding, M; Hohoff, C; Hoste, B; Jobling, M A; Kärgel, H J; de Knijff, P; Lessig, R; Liebeherr, E; Lorente, M; Martínez-Jarreta, B; Nievas, P; Nowak, M; Parson, W; Pascali, V L; Penacino, G; Ploski, R; Rolf, B; Sala, A; Schmidt, U; Schmitt, C; Schneider, P M; Szibor, R; Teifel-Greding, J; Kayser, M

    2001-05-15

    The reference database of highly informative Y-chromosomal short tandem repeat (STR) haplotypes (YHRD), available online at http://ystr.charite.de, represents the largest collection of male-specific genetic profiles currently available for European populations. By September 2000, YHRD contained 4688 9-locus (so-called "minimal") haplotypes, 40% of which have been extended further to include two additional loci. Establishment of YHRD has been facilitated by the joint efforts of 31 forensic and anthropological institutions. All contributing laboratories have agreed to standardize their Y-STR haplotyping protocols and to participate in a quality assurance exercise prior to the inclusion of any data. In view of its collaborative character, and in order to put YHRD to its intended use, viz. the support of forensic caseworkers in their routine decision-making process, the database has been made publicly available via the Internet in February 2000. Online searches for complete or partial Y-STR haplotypes from evidentiary or non-probative material can be performed on a non-commercial basis, and yield observed haplotype counts as well as extrapolated population frequency estimates. In addition, the YHRD website provides information about the quality control test, genotyping protocols, haplotype formats and informativity, population genetic analysis, literature references, and a list of contact addresses of the contributing laboratories.

  10. Short tandem repeat (STR) variation in eight village populations of the island of Korcula (Croatia).

    PubMed

    Klarić, I M; Barać, L; Buković, D; Furać, I; Geber, G; Janićijević, B; Kubat, M; Pericić, M; Pupić, B V; Rudan, P

    2001-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse short tandem repeat (STR) variation using the data on nine loci (D3S1358, vWA, FGA, THO1, TPOX, CSF1PO, D5S818, D13S317, D7S820) in the populations from eight villages on the island of Korcula, Croatia, in order to analyse its genetic and population structure. The analysis of STR data in this study indicated an appreciable degree of genetic homogeneity among the studied village populations on the island, even though a so-called 'east-west dichotomy' and differentiation between the inhabitants of the most recent settlement and the remaining ones was indicated with respect to the loci CSF1PO and TPOX, respectively. The validity of STR markers in assessing genetic structure of small populations and especially in determining the relationships among geographically closely related but reproductively isolated groups remains to be further evaluated, especially in terms of a larger number of studied loci in order to possibly find specific markers useful for resolving genetic patterns of variability at regional levels.

  11. Allele Frequencies for 15 Short Tandem Repeat Loci in Representative Sample of Croatian Population

    PubMed Central

    Projić, Petar; Škaro, Vedrana; Šamija, Ivana; Pojskić, Naris; Durmić-Pašić, Adaleta; Kovačević, Lejla; Bakal, Narcisa; Primorac, Dragan; Marjanović, Damir

    2007-01-01

    Aim To study the distribution of allele frequencies of 15 short tandem repeat (STR) loci in a representative sample of the Croatian population. Methods A total of 195 unrelated Caucasian individuals born in Croatia, from 14 counties and the City of Zagreb, were sampled for the analysis. All the tested individuals were voluntary donors. Buccal swab was used as the DNA source. AmpFlSTR® Identifiler® was applied to simultaneously amplify 15 STR loci. Total reaction volume was 12.5 μL. The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification was carried out in PE Gene Amp PCR System Thermal Cycler. Electrophoresis of the amplification products was preformed on an ABI PRISM 3130 Genetic Analyzer. After PCR amplification and separation by electrophoresis, raw data were compiled, analyzed, and numerical allele designations of the profiles were obtained. Deviation from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, observed and expected heterozygosity, power of discrimination, and power of exclusion were calculated. Bonferroni’s correction was used before each comparative analysis. Results We compared Croatian data with those obtained from geographically neighboring European populations. The significant difference (at P<0.01) in allele frequencies was recorded only between the Croatian and Slovenian populations for vWA locus. There was no significant deviation from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium for all the observed loci. Conclusion Obtained population data concurred with the expected “STR data frame” for this part of Europe. PMID:17696301

  12. Germline mutation rates at tandem repeat loci in DNA-repair deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Barber, Ruth C; Miccoli, Laurent; van Buul, Paul P W; Burr, Karen L-A; van Duyn-Goedhart, Annemarie; Angulo, Jaime F; Dubrova, Yuri E

    2004-10-04

    Mutation rates at two expanded simple tandem repeat (ESTR) loci were studied in the germline of non-exposed and irradiated severe combined immunodeficient (scid) and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP-1-/-) deficient male mice. Non-exposed scid and PARP-/- male mice showed considerably elevated ESTR mutation rates, far higher than those in wild-type isogenic mice and other inbred strains. The irradiated scid and PARP-1-/- male mice did not show any detectable increases in their mutation rate, whereas significant ESTR mutation induction was observed in the irradiated wild-type isogenic males. ESTR mutation spectra in the scid and PARP-1-/- strains did not differ from those in the isogenic wild-type strains. Considering these data and the results of previous studies, we propose that a delay in repair of DNA damage in scid and PARP-1-/- mice could result in replication fork pausing which, in turn, may affect ESTR mutation rate in the non-irradiated males. The lack of mutation induction in irradiated scid and PARP-1-/- can be explained by the high cell killing effects of irradiation on the germline of deficient mice.

  13. Validation of a Short Tandem Repeat Multiplex Typing System for Genetic Individualization of Domestic Cat Samples

    PubMed Central

    Coomber, Nikia; David, Victor A.; O’Brien, Stephen J.; Menotti-Raymond, Marilyn

    2007-01-01

    Aim To conduct developmental validation studies on a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) based short tandem repeat (STR) multiplex typing system, developed for the purpose of genetic individualization and parentage testing in domestic cat samples. Methods To evaluate reproducibility of the typing system, the multiplex was amplified using DNA extracted from hair, blood, and buccal samples obtained from the same individual (n = 13). Additional studies were performed to evaluate the system’s species’ specificity, using 26 North American mammalian species and two prokaryotes Sacchromyces and Escherichia coli, sensitivity, and ability to identify DNA mixtures. Patterns of Mendelian inheritance and mutation rates for the 11 loci were directly examined in a large multi-generation domestic cat pedigree (n = 263). Results Our studies confirm that the multiplex system was species-specific for feline DNA and amplified robustly with as little as 125 picograms of genomic template DNA, demonstrating good product balance. The multiplex generated all components of a two DNA mixture when the minor component was one tenth of the major component at a threshold of 50 relative fluorescence units. The multiplex was reproducible in multiple tissue types of the same individual. Mutation rates for the 11 STR were within the range of sex averaged rates observed for Combined DNA Index System (CODIS) loci. Conclusion The cat STR multiplex typing system is a robust and reliable tool for the use of forensic DNA analysis of domestic cat samples. PMID:17696310

  14. Digital fragment analysis of short tandem repeats by high-throughput amplicon sequencing.

    PubMed

    Darby, Brian J; Erickson, Shay F; Hervey, Samuel D; Ellis-Felege, Susan N

    2016-07-01

    High-throughput sequencing has been proposed as a method to genotype microsatellites and overcome the four main technical drawbacks of capillary electrophoresis: amplification artifacts, imprecise sizing, length homoplasy, and limited multiplex capability. The objective of this project was to test a high-throughput amplicon sequencing approach to fragment analysis of short tandem repeats and characterize its advantages and disadvantages against traditional capillary electrophoresis. We amplified and sequenced 12 muskrat microsatellite loci from 180 muskrat specimens and analyzed the sequencing data for precision of allele calling, propensity for amplification or sequencing artifacts, and for evidence of length homoplasy. Of the 294 total alleles, we detected by sequencing, only 164 alleles would have been detected by capillary electrophoresis as the remaining 130 alleles (44%) would have been hidden by length homoplasy. The ability to detect a greater number of unique alleles resulted in the ability to resolve greater population genetic structure. The primary advantages of fragment analysis by sequencing are the ability to precisely size fragments, resolve length homoplasy, multiplex many individuals and many loci into a single high-throughput run, and compare data across projects and across laboratories (present and future) with minimal technical calibration. A significant disadvantage of fragment analysis by sequencing is that the method is only practical and cost-effective when performed on batches of several hundred samples with multiple loci. Future work is needed to optimize throughput while minimizing costs and to update existing microsatellite allele calling and analysis programs to accommodate sequence-aware microsatellite data.

  15. Bioinformatic identification of tandem repeat antigens of the Leishmania donovani complex.

    PubMed

    Goto, Yasuyuki; Coler, Rhea N; Reed, Steven G

    2007-02-01

    With large amounts of parasite gene sequence available, additional bioinformatic tools to screen these sequences for identifying genes encoding antigens are needed. Proteins containing tandem repeat (TR) domains are often B-cell antigens, and antibody responses toward TR domains of the proteins are dominant in human infected with certain parasites. We hypothesized that antigens of serological significance could be identified with a search for TR domains. Here we show the result of bioinformatic screening of the gene sequence database of the parasitic protozoan Leishmania infantum. Of 8,191 genes scanned, 64 genes contained TR domains. Of the 64 genes, 22 encoded previously characterized antigens; the remaining 42 genes were previously uncharacterized. By using sera from Sudanese visceral leishmaniasis patients, we confirmed that the TR domains of LinJ11.0070, LinJ25.1100, LinJ27.0400, and LinJ29.0110, which were from the 42 uncharacterized proteins, are also antigenic. The results suggest the validity of this approach for identifying leishmanial antigens of serological significance.

  16. Multicolor-based discrimination of 21 short tandem repeats and amelogenin using four fluorescent universal primers.

    PubMed

    Asari, Masaru; Okuda, Katsuhiro; Hoshina, Chisato; Omura, Tomohiro; Tasaki, Yoshikazu; Shiono, Hiroshi; Matsubara, Kazuo; Shimizu, Keiko

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a cost-effective genotyping method using high-quality DNA for human identification. A total of 21 short tandem repeats (STRs) and amelogenin were selected, and fluorescent fragments at 22 loci were simultaneously amplified in a single-tube reaction using locus-specific primers with 24-base universal tails and four fluorescent universal primers. Several nucleotide substitutions in universal tails and fluorescent universal primers enabled the detection of specific fluorescent fragments from the 22 loci. Multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) produced intense FAM-, VIC-, NED-, and PET-labeled fragments ranging from 90 to 400 bp, and these fragments were discriminated using standard capillary electrophoretic analysis. The selected 22 loci were also analyzed using two commercial kits (the AmpFLSTR Identifiler Kit and the PowerPlex ESX 17 System), and results for two loci (D19S433 and D16S539) were discordant between these kits due to mutations at the primer binding sites. All genotypes from the 100 samples were determined using 2.5 ng of DNA by our method, and the expected alleles were completely recovered. Multiplex 22-locus genotyping using four fluorescent universal primers effectively reduces the costs to less than 20% of genotyping using commercial kits, and our method would be useful to detect silent alleles from commercial kit analysis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Genetic individualization of Cannabis sativa by a short tandem repeat multiplex system.

    PubMed

    Mendoza, Maria A; Mills, DeEtta K; Lata, Hemant; Chandra, Suman; ElSohly, Mahmoud A; Almirall, Jose R

    2009-01-01

    Cannabis sativa is the most frequently used of all illicit drugs in the USA. Cannabis has been used throughout history for its stems in the production of hemp fiber, seed for oil and food, and buds and leaves as a psychoactive drug. Short tandem repeats (STRs) were chosen as molecular markers owing to their distinct advantages over other genetic methods. STRs are codominant, can be standardized such that reproducibility between laboratories can be easily achieved, have a high discrimination power, and can be multiplexed. In this study, six STR markers previously described for C. sativa were multiplexed into one reaction. The multiplex reaction was able to individualize 98 cannabis samples (14 hemp and 84 marijuana, authenticated as originating from 33 of the 50 states of the USA) and detect 29 alleles averaging 4.8 alleles per loci. The data did not relate the samples from the same state to each other. This is the first study to report a single-reaction sixplex and apply it to the analysis of almost 100 cannabis samples of known geographic origin.

  18. Accurate size comparison of short tandem repeat alleles amplified by PCR.

    PubMed

    Smith, R N

    1995-01-01

    A strategy is presented for classifying complex short tandem repeat (STR) alleles by size. Such alleles can differ in length by only 1 bp. The HUMACTBP2 locus was used as a model. Dye-labeled, PCR-amplified alleles were analyzed on an automated DNA sequencer with laser-induced fluorescence detection and fragment-sizing software. Between-gel allele sizes calculated against an in-lane allelic ladder or viral DNA size standard were too imprecise to distinguish a 1-bp difference. However, the size difference between a sample allele and its matching ladder allele provided a reliable criterion for size classification. The mean size difference +/- 3 SDs was 0.5 bp, and so an individual result within this interval signified a match. Statistically, 99.7% of the results should lie within +/- 3 SDs with virtually no chance of encountering the 9-SD difference from the mean necessary to misclassify an allele by 1 bp. The method was valid for sample alleles sized against the allelic ladder and for both sample and ladder alleles sized against the viral DNA standard. A correction for the effect of different dye labels on mobility was included in the calculations.

  19. Variable number of tandem repeats of 9 Plasmodium vivax genes among Southeast Asian isolates.

    PubMed

    Wang, Bo; Nyunt, Myat Htut; Yun, Seung-Gyu; Lu, Feng; Cheng, Yang; Han, Jin-Hee; Ha, Kwon-Soo; Park, Won Sun; Hong, Seok-Ho; Lim, Chae-Seung; Cao, Jun; Sattabongkot, Jetsumon; Kyaw, Myat Phone; Cui, Liwang; Han, Eun-Taek

    2017-01-22

    The variable number of tandem repeats (VNTRs) provides valuable information about both the functional and evolutionary aspects of genetic diversity. Comparative analysis of 3 Plasmodium falciparum genomes has shown that more than 9% of its open reading frames (ORFs) harbor VNTRs. Although microsatellites and VNTR genes of P. vivax were reported, the VNTR polymorphism of genes has not been examined widely. In this study, 230 P. vivax genes were analyzed for VNTRs by SERV, and 33 kinds of TR deletions or insertions from 29 P. vivax genes (12.6%) were found. Of these, 9 VNTR fragments from 8 P. vivax genes were used for PCR amplification and sequence analysis to examine the genetic diversity among 134 isolates from four Southeast Asian countries (China, Republic of Korea, Thailand, and Myanmar) with different malaria endemicity. We confirmed the existence of extensive polymorphism of VNTR fragments in field isolates. This detection provides several suitable markers for analysis of the molecular epidemiology of P. vivax field isolates.

  20. Seventeen Y-chromosomal short tandem repeat haplotypes in seven groups of population living in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Hwa, Hsiao-Lin; Tseng, Li-Hui; Ko, Tsang-Ming; Chang, Yih-Yuan; Yin, Hsiang-Yi; Su, Yi-Ning; Lee, James Chun-I

    2010-07-01

    The analysis of Y-chromosome short tandem repeat (Y-STR) loci is a powerful tool in forensic casework. The aim of this study was to present the 17 Y-STR loci haplotype distributions of groups of population living in Taiwan and to demonstrate genetic distances between the groups as well as multidimensional scaling plot based on Y-STR genotype data. Five hundred and fifteen DNA samples from unrelated males of seven groups of population, including Taiwanese Han, two groups of indigenous Taiwanese of Taiwan Island, Tao, mainland Chinese, Filipinos, and a group of people with European, Near Eastern, or South Asian ancestry, were analyzed using a commercial kit that co-amplifies 17 Y-STRs. A total of 471 different haplotypes with 440 unique haplotypes were identified. The overall haplotype diversity was 0.9995 +/- 0.0002. High haplotype diversity was observed in six groups of population, except the Tao. These Y-STRs revealed a low discrimination capacity in the Tao population (36.84%), which should be considered in forensic practice. The multidimensional scaling plot of these seven groups of population constructed based on the genetic distances according to 17 Y-STR loci presented a clear patrilineal genetic substructure in the area. Partial Y-STRs profiling reduced the discrimination capacity in most groups of population and distorted the multidimensional scaling plot.

  1. Tandem repeats 3{prime} of the IGHA genes in the human immunoglobulin heavy chain gene cluster

    SciTech Connect

    Kang, H.K.; Cox, D.W. |

    1996-07-01

    The human IGH constant region spans 350 kb and includes nine genes and two pseudogenes. All of the constant region gene cluster has been cloned except for sequences between the IGHD and IGHG3 genes, between the IGHA1 and IGHA2 gene. The regions 3{prime} of the IGHA genes, which are not cloned, are of interest since transcriptional control elements were found downstream of the IGHA genes in the rat and the mouse IGH loci. In addition, by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis mapping, CpG islands were identified approximately 30 kb downstream of each IGHA gene, within the uncloned portion of the human IGH. These findings indicate that the regions 3{prime} of the IGHA genes to be unclonable by standard cloning methods. Therefore, we applied the Inverse-PCR technique to amplify the sequences flanking the IGHA1 gene. The new sequence included tandem repeats of 20 bp, which we propose is the cause of the unclonability of this region. 39 refs., 6 figs.

  2. Evaluation of advanced multiplex short tandem repeat systems in pairwise kinship analysis.

    PubMed

    Tamura, Tomonori; Osawa, Motoki; Ochiai, Eriko; Suzuki, Takanori; Nakamura, Takashi

    2015-09-01

    The AmpFLSTR Identifiler Kit, comprising 15 autosomal short tandem repeat (STR) loci, is commonly employed in forensic practice for calculating match probabilities and parentage testing. The conventional system exhibits insufficient estimation for kinship analysis such as sibship testing because of shortness of examined loci. This study evaluated the power of the PowerPlex Fusion System, GlobalFiler Kit, and PowerPlex 21 System, which comprise more than 20 autosomal STR loci, to estimate pairwise blood relatedness (i.e., parent-child, full siblings, second-degree relatives, and first cousins). The genotypes of all 24 STR loci in 10,000 putative pedigrees were constructed by simulation. The likelihood ratio for each locus was calculated from joint probabilities for relatives and non-relatives. The combined likelihood ratio was calculated according to the product rule. The addition of STR loci improved separation between relatives and non-relatives. However, these systems were less effectively extended to the inference for first cousins. In conclusion, these advanced systems will be useful in forensic personal identification, especially in the evaluation of full siblings and second-degree relatives. Moreover, the additional loci may give rise to two major issues of more frequent mutational events and several pairs of linked loci on the same chromosome.

  3. Mutation and mutation rates at Y chromosome specific Short Tandem Repeat Polymorphisms (STRs): a reappraisal.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Nádia; Gusmão, Leonor; Amorim, António

    2014-03-01

    Mutation is a topic of intense research and raises important problems in forensics. Since the markers of choice in current forensic genetics analyses are microsatellites or Short Tandem Repeat Polymorphisms (STRs), mutation is sufficiently common to cause difficulties in evaluating DNA evidence in a significant proportion of cases but at the same time rare enough to turn the estimation of the corresponding probability of occurrence into a hard task. We address these issues using the simplest model of transmission: the Y chromosome specific STRs. Within this model, and under an explicit set of definitions and involved assumptions, we developed the theoretical framework required for the study of allelic transitions in gametogenesis, identifying the required parameters and associated probabilities and finally we discuss the estimation of these parameters and their application in forensics. We conclude that (i) for forensic casework the relevant parameter for incorporation in a likelihood ratio is biallelic specific (i.e. the mutation rate estimate corresponds to the probability of the specific allelic transition observed) and (ii) for these estimates as well as in order to provide data for testing mutation models the absolute frequency of mutated and non-mutated transmissions per allele, along with the description of the observed mutations should be reported.

  4. A simplified method for screening siblings for HLA identity using short tandem repeat (STR) polymorphisms.

    PubMed

    Schiller, Jennifer J; Hopp, Kathleen A; Pietz, Bradley C; Bick, David P; Lau, Eduardo C; Ellis, Thomas M

    2013-05-01

    Identifying an HLA-matched sibling donor for hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is time-consuming and expensive, and often limited by reimbursement caps imposed by insurance providers. To improve the effectiveness and efficiency of screening for HLA-matched siblings, we developed an assay for determining HLA identity using a panel of nine informative short tandem repeat (STR) loci located throughout the HLA complex. The STR panel was assessed for accuracy in identifying HLA-matched siblings in 88 family workups comprising a total of 132 related donor and recipient typing comparisons. All sibling pairs with identical STR alleles were also HLA identical. Of the 48 pairs mismatched at one or more STR alleles, all were genotypically HLA non-identical at one or more loci. The sensitivity and specificity of STR analysis for identifying HLA-matched siblings were 91% and 100%, respectively. Three false negatives occurred due to an STR mutation or possible HLA-DPB1/DQB1 recombination. Additionally, STR genotyping provided additional information allowing determination of the extent of HLA identity in families where HLA haplotype inheritance was ambiguous, due to extensive homozygosity or shared parental haplotypes. The HLA STR assay is a reliable and rapid test that can be used to inexpensively screen potential sibling donors for HLA identity.

  5. Cancer cell line identification by short tandem repeat profiling: power and limitations.

    PubMed

    Parson, Walther; Kirchebner, Romana; Mühlmann, Roswitha; Renner, Kathrin; Kofler, Anita; Schmidt, Stefan; Kofler, Reinhard

    2005-03-01

    Cancer cell lines are used worldwide in biological research, and data interpretation depends on unambiguous attribution of the respective cell line to its original source. Short-tandem-repeat (STR) profiling (DNA fingerprinting) is the method of choice for this purpose; however, the genetic stability of cell lines under various experimental conditions is not well defined. We tested the effect of long-term culture, subcloning, and generation of drug-resistant subclones on fingerprinting profiles in four widely used leukemia cell lines. The DNA fingerprinting profile remained unaltered in two of them (U937 and K562) throughout 12 months in culture, and the vast majority of subclones derived therefrom by limiting dilution after long-term culture revealed the same profile, indicating a high degree of stability and clonotypic homogeneity. In contrast, two other cell lines (CCRF-CEM and Jurkat) showed marked alterations in DNA fingerprinting profiles during long-term culture. Limiting dilution subcloning revealed extensive clonotypic heterogeneity with subclones differing in up to eight STR loci from the parental culture. Similar heterogeneity was observed in subclones generated by selection culture for drug resistance where DNA fingerprinting proved useful in identifying possible resistance mechanisms. Thus, common tissue culture procedures may dramatically affect the fingerprinting profile of certain cell lines and thus render definition of their origin difficult.

  6. A fully integrated microchip system for automated forensic short tandem repeat analysis.

    PubMed

    Han, Junping; Gan, Wupeng; Zhuang, Bin; Sun, Jing; Zhao, Lei; Ye, Jian; Liu, Yao; Li, Cai-Xia; Liu, Peng

    2017-05-30

    We have successfully developed an integrated microsystem that combines two plastic microchips for DNA extraction and PCR amplification with a glass capillary array electrophoresis chip together in a compact control and detection instrument for automated forensic short tandem repeat (STR) analysis. DNA extraction followed by an "in situ PCR" was conducted in a single reaction chamber of the microchip based on a filter paper-based extraction methodology. PCR products were then mixed with sizing standards by an injection electrode and injected into the electrophoresis chip for four-color confocal fluorescence detection. The entire STR analysis can be completed in about two hours without any human intervention. Since the 15-plex STR system has a more stringent requirement for PCR efficiency, we optimized the structure of the plastic DNA extraction and amplification chip, in which the reaction chamber was formed by sandwiching a hollow structure layer with two blank cover layers, to reduce the adsorption of PCR reagents to the surfaces. In addition, PCR additives, bovine serum albumin, poly(ethylene glycol), and more magnesium chloride were included into the on-chip multiplex STR system. The limit-of-detection study demonstrated that our microsystem was able to produce full 15-plex STR profiles from 3.75 ng standard K562 DNA. Buccal swab and whole blood samples were also successfully typed by our system, validating the feasibility of performing rapid DNA typing in a "sample-in-answer-out" manner for on-site forensic human identification.

  7. Optimization of DNA concentration to amplify short tandem repeats of human genomic DNA

    PubMed Central

    Gavazaj, Fahri Q.; Mikerezi, Ilia I.; Morina, Valon H.; Cakaj, Fatmir A.; Maloku, Ekrem B.; Gavazaj, Bahrije B.; Kastrati, Dhurata S.; Duriqi-Maloku, Besa A.

    2012-01-01

    Analysis of the length polymorphisms of short tandem repeats (STR) loci in the human genome has become a standard approach for comparative genotyping in many areas including disease research and diagnostics, parentage assessment, investigations of human diversity, and forensic science. The purpose of this study is to optimize the DNA concentration in ng/10μL for amplification of DNA markers. AmpFlSTR Identifiler Kit is used to amplify STR markers and capillary electrophoresis is used to analyze DNA profile of human the genome. Two sets of samples with following DNA concentration: 100 pg – 6 ng/25 μL were used for this study. There was no DNA profile detected in samples with concentrations 100 pg - 300 pg/25 μL (pictogram), while in some cases partial DNA profile was yielded. On the other hand samples with 0.4 ng – 4 ng/25 μL, yielded a full DNA profile. We were not able to obtain any profile using concentrations over 4 ng/25 μL. Improvements in detection limits/sensitivity at upper and lower DNA concentrations are of potential benefits to amplify STR of Human Genomic in order to obtain a full DNA profile. The optimal DNA concentrations which produced reliable and balanced peaks, no off scale peaks and full DNA profile for all loci were at range 0.4 ng – 3 ng/25 μL. PMID:23198938

  8. Graph-based modeling of tandem repeats improves global multiple sequence alignment

    PubMed Central

    Szalkowski, Adam M.; Anisimova, Maria

    2013-01-01

    Tandem repeats (TRs) are often present in proteins with crucial functions, responsible for resistance, pathogenicity and associated with infectious or neurodegenerative diseases. This motivates numerous studies of TRs and their evolution, requiring accurate multiple sequence alignment. TRs may be lost or inserted at any position of a TR region by replication slippage or recombination, but current methods assume fixed unit boundaries, and yet are of high complexity. We present a new global graph-based alignment method that does not restrict TR unit indels by unit boundaries. TR indels are modeled separately and penalized using the phylogeny-aware alignment algorithm. This ensures enhanced accuracy of reconstructed alignments, disentangling TRs and measuring indel events and rates in a biologically meaningful way. Our method detects not only duplication events but also all changes in TR regions owing to recombination, strand slippage and other events inserting or deleting TR units. We evaluate our method by simulation incorporating TR evolution, by either sampling TRs from a profile hidden Markov model or by mimicking strand slippage with duplications. The new method is illustrated on a family of type III effectors, a pathogenicity determinant in agriculturally important bacteria Ralstonia solanacearum. We show that TR indel rate variation contributes to the diversification of this protein family. PMID:23877246

  9. Single-cell forensic short tandem repeat typing within microfluidic droplets.

    PubMed

    Geng, Tao; Novak, Richard; Mathies, Richard A

    2014-01-07

    A short tandem repeat (STR) typing method is developed for forensic identification of individual cells. In our strategy, monodisperse 1.5 nL agarose-in-oil droplets are produced with a high frequency using a microfluidic droplet generator. Statistically dilute single cells, along with primer-functionalized microbeads, are randomly compartmentalized in the droplets. Massively parallel single-cell droplet polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is performed to transfer replicas of desired STR targets from the single-cell genomic DNA onto the coencapsulated microbeads. These DNA-conjugated beads are subsequently harvested and reamplified under statistically dilute conditions for conventional capillary electrophoresis (CE) STR fragment size analysis. The 9-plex STR profiles of single cells from both pure and mixed populations of GM09947 and GM09948 human lymphoid cells show that all alleles are correctly called and allelic drop-in/drop-out is not observed. The cell mixture study exhibits a good linear relationship between the observed and input cell ratios in the range of 1:1 to 10:1. Additionally, the STR profile of GM09947 cells could be deduced even in the presence of a high concentration of cell-free contaminating 9948 genomic DNA. Our method will be valuable for the STR analysis of samples containing mixtures of cells/DNA from multiple contributors and for low-concentration samples.

  10. [Analysis of linkage disequilibrium and linkage for 12 short tandem repeat loci on chromosome X].

    PubMed

    Ye, Qiansu; Tang, Jianpin; Chen, Zucong; Li, Fagui; Yu, Xin; Wang, Ping; Lin, Hanguang; Shi, Meisen

    2014-12-01

    To analyze linkage disequilibrium of 12 short tandem repeat loci on chromosome X (X-STR) among an ethnic Han population from Guilin, Guangxi, and to study the genetic linkage and haplotype distributions of such loci in 2 linkage groups. 12 X-STR loci including DXS8378, DXS10159, DXS10162, DXS10164, DXS981, DXS6789, DXS7424, DXS101, DXS7133, GATA165B12, GATA31E08 and DXS7423 were genotyped using an AGCU X12 STR PCR Amplification kit. A total of 119 pedigrees were analyzed for linkage and linkage disequilibrium. Two mutations were found at DXS7424, and 1 mutation was found at DXS10164. A total of 93 haplotypes of DXS10159-DXS10162-DXS10164 were constructed for 261 unrelated males and females, in addition with 167 haplotypes of DXS6789-DXS7424-DXS101-DXS7133. The values of recombination fraction between DXS10159 and DXS10162, DXS10162 and DXS10164, DXS6789 and DXS7424, and DXS7424 and DXS101 were 0.0269, 0.0236, 0.0505 and 0.0438, respectively. Linkage disequilibrium of X-STR does not only depend on physical and genetic distances. There was incomplete linkage relationship between loci on DXS10159-DXS1016-DXS10164 and DXS6789-DXS7424-DXS101 linkage groups.

  11. Diversity of Variable Number Tandem Repeat Loci in Shigella Species Isolated from Pediatric Patients.

    PubMed

    Ranjbar, Reza; Memariani, Mojtaba; Memariani, Hamed

    2015-01-01

    Multilocus variable number tandem repeat (VNTR) analysis (MLVA) is a new typing method with several advantages compared to other methods. Dissemination of Shigella is highly significant in developing countries. Whilst Shigella is becoming increasingly important as an etiologic agent of pediatric shigellosis in Iran, little is known about the genetic diversity of the local strains. Therefore, the aim of this study was to describe the genetic diversity of Shigella species isolated from pediatric patients in Tehran, Iran. A total of 53 Shigella isolates were obtained from 1070 patients with diarrhea (less than 12 years of age). All isolates were identified by routine biochemical and serological tests. The confirmed Shigella isolates were further serogrouped (by the slide agglutination) using slide agglutination method. MLVA assay with the seven loci resolved 53 Shigella isolates into 36 different genotypes. Almost all the isolates were classified into five clonal complexes. Furthermore, our MLVA assay could effectively distinguish the four Shigella species. This study has provided valuable insights into the genetic heterogeneity of Shigella species in Tehran, Iran. Our findings can be helpful for further epidemiological surveillance of Shigella species in this country in the future.

  12. Identification and characterization of a tandem repeat in exon III of the dopamine receptor D4 (DRD4) gene in cetaceans.

    PubMed

    Mogensen, Line; Kinze, Carl Christian; Werge, Thomas; Rasmussen, Henrik Berg

    2006-01-01

    A large number of mammalian species harbor a tandem repeat in exon III of the gene encoding dopamine receptor D4 (DRD4), a receptor associated with cognitive functions. In this study, a DRD4 gene exon III tandem repeat from the order Cetacea was identified and characterized. Included in our study were samples from 10 white-beaked dolphins (Lagenorhynchus albirostris), 10 harbor porpoises (Phocoena phocoena), eight sperm whales (Physeter macrocephalus), and five minke whales (Balaenoptera acutorostrata). Using enzymatic amplification followed by sequencing of amplified fragments, a tandem repeat composed of 18-bp basic units was detected in all of these species. The tandem repeats in white-beaked dolphin and harbor porpoise were both monomorphic and consisted of 11 and 12 basic units, respectively. In contrast, the sperm whale harbored a polymorphic tandem repeat with size variants composed of three, four, and five basic units. Also the tandem repeat in minke whale was polymorphic; size variants composed of 6 or 11 basic units were found in this species. The consensus sequences of the basic units were identical in the closely related white-beaked dolphin and harbor porpoise, and these sequences differed by a maximum of two changes when compared to the remaining species. There was a high degree of similarity between the cetacean basic unit consensus sequences and those from members of the horse family and domestic cow, which also harbor a tandem repeat composed of 18-bp basic units in exon III of their DRD4 gene. Consequently, the 18-bp tandem repeat appears to have originated prior to the differentiation of hoofed mammals into odd-toed and even-toed ungulates. The composition of the tandem repeat in cetaceans differed markedly from that in primates, which is composed of 48-bp repeat basic units.

  13. Chronotype and a PERIOD3 variable number tandem repeat polymorphism in Han Chinese pilots

    PubMed Central

    An, Huaijie; Zhu, Zhiming; Zhou, Changxi; Geng, Peiliang; Xu, Hongtao; Wang, Haiwei; Chen, Ruxue; Qu, Xiuhua; Qian, Hairong; Gao, Yuan; Zhao, Xiaohang; Qian, Yangming

    2014-01-01

    An association has been determined between variable number tandem-repeat (VNTR) polymorphisms in the PERIOD3 gene (PER3, rs57875989) and chronotype. An association has been found in which the longer PER3(5) allele is correlated with diurnal preference and shorter PER3(4) allele is linked with preference for evening, respectively. In this study, we explored the genotype frequency and relationship to the chronotype of a PER3 VNTR polymorphism in Han Chinese pilots compared to other populations to further develop aviation safety research. DNA samples were genotyped with respect to the 4-repeat and 5-repeat alleles of the PER3 VNTR polymorphism. We compared and analyzed PER3 VNTR genotype frequencies of a general Han Chinese population and Han Chinese pilots. The chronotypes of our subjects were evaluated by the morningness-eveningness questionnaire (MEQ). The distribution of PER3 VNTR genotype frequencies from 240 Han Chinese was determined (PER3(4/4), 78.3%; PER3(4/5), 20.0%; PER3(5/5), 1.7%) and compared to the genotype frequencies of 126 Han Chinese pilots (PER3(4/4), 71.4%; PER3(4/5), 26.1%; PER3(5/5), 2.4%). Statistical analysis revealed no significant difference between the general Han Chinese population and Han Chinese pilots regarding the PER3 VNTR genotype and allele frequencies (x2 = 2.170, p > 0.05). Furthermore, MEQ results showed no association between the PER3 VTNR polymorphism and chronotype. However, PER3 VNTR genotype frequencies differed significantly between Han Chinese and other ethnic groups previously reported, such as Caucasians, African Americans and Italians. These data indicate that the proposed role of the PER3 VNTR needs further clarification and the role of PER3(5) allele in sleep regulation needs to be investigated in more detail. In particular, a study of PER3 polymorphisms with a larger sample size of Han Chinese individuals and Han Chinese pilots may be required. PMID:25419431

  14. DNA tandem repeat instability in the Escherichia coli chromosome is stimulated by mismatch repair at an adjacent CAG·CTG trinucleotide repeat

    PubMed Central

    Blackwood, John K.; Okely, Ewa A.; Zahra, Rabaab; Eykelenboom, John K.; Leach, David R. F.

    2010-01-01

    Approximately half the human genome is composed of repetitive DNA sequences classified into microsatellites, minisatellites, tandem repeats, and dispersed repeats. These repetitive sequences have coevolved within the genome but little is known about their potential interactions. Trinucleotide repeats (TNRs) are a subclass of microsatellites that are implicated in human disease. Expansion of CAG·CTG TNRs is responsible for Huntington disease, myotonic dystrophy, and a number of spinocerebellar ataxias. In yeast DNA double-strand break (DSB) formation has been proposed to be associated with instability and chromosome fragility at these sites and replication fork reversal (RFR) to be involved either in promoting or in preventing instability. However, the molecular basis for chromosome fragility of repetitive DNA remains poorly understood. Here we show that a CAG·CTG TNR array stimulates instability at a 275-bp tandem repeat located 6.3 kb away on the Escherichia coli chromosome. Remarkably, this stimulation is independent of both DNA double-strand break repair (DSBR) and RFR but is dependent on a functional mismatch repair (MMR) system. Our results provide a demonstration, in a simple model system, that MMR at one type of repetitive DNA has the potential to influence the stability of another. Furthermore, the mechanism of this stimulation places a limit on the universality of DSBR or RFR models of instability and chromosome fragility at CAG·CTG TNR sequences. Instead, our data suggest that explanations of chromosome fragility should encompass the possibility of chromosome gaps formed during MMR. PMID:21149728

  15. Predominance of three copies of tandem repeats in rpoT gene of Mycobacterium leprae from Northern India.

    PubMed

    Lavania, Mallika; Katoch, Kiran; Singh, Haribhan; Das, Ram; Gupta, Anuj Kumar; Sharma, Rahul; Chauhan, Devendra Singh; Sharma, Vishnu Dutt; Sachan, Pawan; Sachan, Shailendra; Katoch, Vishwa Mohan

    2007-09-01

    This study has been carried out to get understanding of the origin among the strains of Mycobacterium leprae in patients from Northern India by using number of tandem repeats in rpoT gene as marker. Biopsies were collected from hundred leprosy cases (paucibacillary (PB) as well as multibacillary (MB)) across the spectrum from patients attending clinic at JALMA or diagnosed in Field Unit at Ghatampur (Kanpur). These biopsies were homogenized and DNA was extracted by a physiochemical procedure. rpoT region was amplified by using the primers and conditions earlier published. Among 100 strains from Northern Indian patients, 89% exhibited the presence of three copies of the 6bp tandem repeat in the rpoT gene, while 11% contained four copies. These profiles along with other genotyping data may help in studying the historical spread of leprosy by strains of M. leprae disseminated by various human races that migrated to Northern India from other places of Asian continent.

  16. Protein and hypervariable tandem repeat diversity in eight African-derived South American populations: inferred relationships do not coincide.

    PubMed

    Bortolini, M C; da Silva-Júnior, W A; Weimer, T de A; Zago, M A; de Guerra, D C; Schneider, M P; Layrisse, Z; Castellano, H M; Salzano, F M

    1998-06-01

    We compared data from individuals living in 4 African Venezuelan and 4 African Brazilian communities for 11 protein loci (551 subjects) and 8 hypervariable tandem repeat polymorphisms (252 subjects). There is heterogeneity in diversity within and between the two sets of loci. On the other hand, African-derived Brazilians and Venezuelans do not present marked variability differences between themselves. Although the hypervariable loci show gene diversities that are about four times higher than those obtained from the protein data, they are not more discriminative at the interpopulation level (averages 6% and 4%, respectively). Interpopulation differences do not strictly parallel the geographic distances between the groups, and population relationships obtained from the protein data are not the same as those indicated by hypervariable tandem repeat polymorphisms. Caution is needed in establishing relationships considering just one level of the biological hierarchy.

  17. How many single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are needed to replace short tandem repeats (STRs) in forensic applications?

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyo-Jung; Lee, Jae Won; Jeong, Su Jin; Park, Mira

    2017-02-27

    Short tandem repeats (STRs) are the most commonly used forms of genetic information in forensic identification. In recent times, advances in the information on single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have raised the possibility that these markers could replace the forensically established STRs. In this work, we conducted comparative simulation studies that allowed us to estimate the number of SNPs needed if these markers were used instead of STRs in criminal cases and paternity investigations.

  18. Multiple-Locus Variable-Number Tandem-Repeat Analysis in Genotyping Yersinia enterocolitica Strains from Human and Porcine Origins

    PubMed Central

    Laukkanen-Ninios, R.; Ortiz Martínez, P.; Siitonen, A.; Fredriksson-Ahomaa, M.; Korkeala, H.

    2013-01-01

    Sporadic and epidemiologically linked Yersinia enterocolitica strains (n = 379) isolated from fecal samples from human patients, tonsil or fecal samples from pigs collected at slaughterhouses, and pork samples collected at meat stores were genotyped using multiple-locus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis (MLVA) with six loci, i.e., V2A, V4, V5, V6, V7, and V9. In total, 312 different MLVA types were found. Similar types were detected (i) in fecal samples collected from human patients over 2 to 3 consecutive years, (ii) in samples from humans and pigs, and (iii) in samples from pigs that originated from the same farms. Among porcine strains, we found farm-specific MLVA profiles. Variations in the numbers of tandem repeats from one to four for variable-number tandem-repeat (VNTR) loci V2A, V5, V6, and V7 were observed within a farm. MLVA was applicable for serotypes O:3, O:5,27, and O:9 and appeared to be a highly discriminating tool for distinguishing sporadic and outbreak-related strains. With long-term use, interpretation of the results became more challenging due to variations in more-discriminating loci, as was observed for strains originating from pig farms. Additionally, we encountered unexpectedly short V2A VNTR fragments and sequenced them. According to the sequencing results, updated guidelines for interpreting V2A VNTR results were prepared. PMID:23637293

  19. Multiple-locus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis in genotyping Yersinia enterocolitica strains from human and porcine origins.

    PubMed

    Virtanen, S; Laukkanen-Ninios, R; Ortiz Martínez, P; Siitonen, A; Fredriksson-Ahomaa, M; Korkeala, H

    2013-07-01

    Sporadic and epidemiologically linked Yersinia enterocolitica strains (n = 379) isolated from fecal samples from human patients, tonsil or fecal samples from pigs collected at slaughterhouses, and pork samples collected at meat stores were genotyped using multiple-locus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis (MLVA) with six loci, i.e., V2A, V4, V5, V6, V7, and V9. In total, 312 different MLVA types were found. Similar types were detected (i) in fecal samples collected from human patients over 2 to 3 consecutive years, (ii) in samples from humans and pigs, and (iii) in samples from pigs that originated from the same farms. Among porcine strains, we found farm-specific MLVA profiles. Variations in the numbers of tandem repeats from one to four for variable-number tandem-repeat (VNTR) loci V2A, V5, V6, and V7 were observed within a farm. MLVA was applicable for serotypes O:3, O:5,27, and O:9 and appeared to be a highly discriminating tool for distinguishing sporadic and outbreak-related strains. With long-term use, interpretation of the results became more challenging due to variations in more-discriminating loci, as was observed for strains originating from pig farms. Additionally, we encountered unexpectedly short V2A VNTR fragments and sequenced them. According to the sequencing results, updated guidelines for interpreting V2A VNTR results were prepared.

  20. Food-Grade Expression of d-Psicose 3-Epimerase with Tandem Repeat Genes in Bacillus subtilis.

    PubMed

    He, Weiwei; Mu, Wanmeng; Jiang, Bo; Yan, Xin; Zhang, Tao

    2016-07-20

    An integrative food-grade expression system with tandem repeat target genes was constructed for the expression of d-psicose 3-epimerase (DPEase; EC 5.1.3.30). The DPEase gene fused with the P43 promoter constituted an independent monomeric expression cassette. Multimers of the expression cassette were constructed in vitro using the isocaudamer strategy. The recombinant integration plasmids pDG-nDPE (n = 1, 2, 3), which contained one, two, or three consecutive P43-DPEase tandem repeats, were integrated into the genome of B. subtilis. Then, the antibiotic resistance gene was deleted by the Cre/lox system, and the food-grade recombinant B. subtilis 1A751-nDPE (n = 1, 2, 3) with integrated tandem repeats of the P43-DPEase expression cassette were generated. The specific activity of the B. subtilis 1A751-3DPE was the highest among the recombinant strains and was ∼2.2-fold that of the 1A751-1DPE strain. Under the optimal conditions, 8 g/L of freeze-dried enzyme powder could convert 20% d-fructose (300 g/L) into d-allulose after 1 h.

  1. Geographic variation within a tandemly repeated mitochondrial DNA D-loop region of a North American freshwater fish, Pylodictis olivaris.

    PubMed

    Padhi, Abinash

    2014-03-15

    The present study reports the distribution of a 35-bp mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) D-loop tandemly repeated sequence in the populations of a North American freshwater catfish, Pylodictis olivaris, and the important role of a past geological event in the phylogeographic pattern of this species. A total of 330 individuals of flathead catfish, representing 34 drainages throughout the species' native range in the United States, were collected. While more than 70% of individuals sampled from the Southeastern Gulf Coast drainages were characterized by the presence of a 35-bp mtDNA D-loop tandem repeat proximal to the 5' end, more than 95% of samples from the Mississippi River and its tributaries, as well as from the drainages of the Southwest Gulf Coast region, lack this tandem repeat. Concomitantly, phylogenetic analyses revealed the existence of two distinct matrilineal lineages (lineage I and II) of P. olivaris, which were estimated to have diverged from a common ancestor sometime between 0.70 and 2.05myr ago. While one lineage is comprised of samples from the Mississippi River and its tributaries and rivers draining to the Southwest Gulf Coast, the other lineage is comprised of samples from the Southeastern Gulf Coast drainages. Each lineage also has two sub-lineages, which also showed geographic specificity.

  2. DNA fingerprint analysis of three short tandem repeat (STR) loci for biochemistry and forensic science laboratory courses.

    PubMed

    McNamara-Schroeder, Kathleen; Olonan, Cheryl; Chu, Simon; Montoya, Maria C; Alviri, Mahta; Ginty, Shannon; Love, John J

    2006-09-01

    We have devised and implemented a DNA fingerprinting module for an upper division undergraduate laboratory based on the amplification and analysis of three of the 13 short tandem repeat loci that are required by the Federal Bureau of Investigation Combined DNA Index System (FBI CODIS) data base. Students first collect human epithelial (cheek) cells using sterile buccal swabs and then utilize commercially available kits and materials to extract genomic DNA. This is followed by the PCR amplification of three specific short tandem repeat loci (i.e. CSF1PO, TPOX, THO1). Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis is used to resolve the allelic bands associated with the three short tandem repeat loci, and the results are statistically analyzed in the context of human population genetics. In addition, DNA was collected from a family, and the children's allele sets were compared with those of the parents to help illustrate paternal and maternal relatedness. This module enables students to use the materials and methods employed by actual law enforcement agencies and therefore can be used for laboratory exercises in traditional biochemistry curricula as well as for the growing field of forensic science and education.

  3. Comparison between agarose gel electrophoresis and capillary electrophoresis for variable numbers of tandem repeat typing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Yokoyama, Eiji; Kishida, Kazunori; Uchimura, Masako; Ichinohe, Sadato

    2006-06-01

    Variable numbers of tandem repeat (VNTR) typing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis was performed on 54 strains including 23 strains derived from 9 outbreaks. PCR amplicon sizes of 12 mycobacterial interspersed repetitive unit tandem repeat loci were measured using both agarose gel electrophoresis and capillary electrophoresis. Similarities using agarose gel electrophoresis of Euclidian distances among the 23 strains derived from the 9 outbreaks were significantly lower than that using capillary electrophoresis (Wilcoxon signed ranks test, P < 0.01). By clustering analysis using unweighted pair group method using arithmetic averages, all of the 23 strains derived from the 9 outbreaks were each clustered with more than 90% similarities based on the distance using capillary electrophoresis. In contrast, differential clusters with more than 90% similarity were observed with only 7 strains derived from 3 outbreaks when analyzed by agarose gel electrophoresis. These results indicated that measurement of PCR amplicon size of tandem repeat loci should be carried out using capillary electrophoresis and that agarose gel electrophoresis is not suitable for clustering analysis of M. tuberculosis VNTR typing.

  4. Recommendation of short tandem repeat profiling for authenticating human cell lines, stem cells, and tissues

    PubMed Central

    Barallon, Rita; Bauer, Steven R.; Butler, John; Capes-Davis, Amanda; Dirks, Wilhelm G.; Furtado, Manohar; Kline, Margaret C.; Kohara, Arihiro; Los, Georgyi V.; MacLeod, Roderick A. F.; Masters, John R. W.; Nardone, Mark; Nardone, Roland M.; Nims, Raymond W.; Price, Paul J.; Reid, Yvonne A.; Shewale, Jaiprakash; Sykes, Gregory; Steuer, Anton F.; Storts, Douglas R.; Thomson, Jim; Taraporewala, Zenobia; Alston-Roberts, Christine; Kerrigan, Liz

    2010-01-01

    Cell misidentification and cross-contamination have plagued biomedical research for as long as cells have been employed as research tools. Examples of misidentified cell lines continue to surface to this day. Efforts to eradicate the problem by raising awareness of the issue and by asking scientists voluntarily to take appropriate actions have not been successful. Unambiguous cell authentication is an essential step in the scientific process and should be an inherent consideration during peer review of papers submitted for publication or during review of grants submitted for funding. In order to facilitate proper identity testing, accurate, reliable, inexpensive, and standardized methods for authentication of cells and cell lines must be made available. To this end, an international team of scientists is, at this time, preparing a consensus standard on the authentication of human cells using short tandem repeat (STR) profiling. This standard, which will be submitted for review and approval as an American National Standard by the American National Standards Institute, will provide investigators guidance on the use of STR profiling for authenticating human cell lines. Such guidance will include methodological detail on the preparation of the DNA sample, the appropriate numbers and types of loci to be evaluated, and the interpretation and quality control of the results. Associated with the standard itself will be the establishment and maintenance of a public STR profile database under the auspices of the National Center for Biotechnology Information. The consensus standard is anticipated to be adopted by granting agencies and scientific journals as appropriate methodology for authenticating human cell lines, stem cells, and tissues. PMID:20614197

  5. The conserved PFT1 tandem repeat is crucial for proper flowering in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Rival, Pauline; Press, Maximilian O; Bale, Jacob; Grancharova, Tanya; Undurraga, Soledad F; Queitsch, Christine

    2014-10-01

    It is widely appreciated that short tandem repeat (STR) variation underlies substantial phenotypic variation in organisms. Some propose that the high mutation rates of STRs in functional genomic regions facilitate evolutionary adaptation. Despite their high mutation rate, some STRs show little to no variation in populations. One such STR occurs in the Arabidopsis thaliana gene PFT1 (MED25), where it encodes an interrupted polyglutamine tract. Although the PFT1 STR is large (∼270 bp), and thus expected to be extremely variable, it shows only minuscule variation across A. thaliana strains. We hypothesized that the PFT1 STR is under selective constraint, due to previously undescribed roles in PFT1 function. We investigated this hypothesis using plants expressing transgenic PFT1 constructs with either an endogenous STR or synthetic STRs of varying length. Transgenic plants carrying the endogenous PFT1 STR generally performed best in complementing a pft1 null mutant across adult PFT1-dependent traits. In stark contrast, transgenic plants carrying a PFT1 transgene lacking the STR phenocopied a pft1 loss-of-function mutant for flowering time phenotypes and were generally hypomorphic for other traits, establishing the functional importance of this domain. Transgenic plants carrying various synthetic constructs occupied the phenotypic space between wild-type and pft1 loss-of-function mutants. By varying PFT1 STR length, we discovered that PFT1 can act as either an activator or repressor of flowering in a photoperiod-dependent manner. We conclude that the PFT1 STR is constrained to its approximate wild-type length by its various functional requirements. Our study implies that there is strong selection on STRs not only to generate allelic diversity, but also to maintain certain lengths pursuant to optimal molecular function.

  6. Population genetic study of 10 short tandem repeat loci from 600 domestic dogs in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Moon, Seo Hyun; Jang, Yoon-Jeong

    2016-01-01

    Dogs have long shared close relationships with many humans. Due to the large number of dogs in human populations, they are often involved in crimes. Occasionally, canine biological evidence such as saliva, bloodstains and hairs can be found at crime scenes. Accordingly, canine DNA can be used as forensic evidence. The use of short tandem repeat (STR) loci from biological evidence is valuable for forensic investigations. In Korea, canine STR profiling-related crimes are being successfully analyzed, leading to diverse crimes such as animal cruelty, dog-attacks, murder, robbery, and missing and abandoned dogs being solved. However, the probability of random DNA profile matches cannot be analyzed because of a lack of canine STR data. Therefore, in this study, 10 STR loci were analyzed in 600 dogs in Korea (344 dogs belonging to 30 different purebreds and 256 crossbred dogs) to estimate canine forensic genetic parameters. Among purebred dogs, a separate statistical analysis was conducted for five major subgroups, 97 Maltese, 47 Poodles, 31 Shih Tzus, 32 Yorkshire Terriers, and 25 Pomeranians. Allele frequencies, expected (Hexp) and observed heterozygosity (Hobs), fixation index (F), probability of identity (P(ID)), probability of sibling identity (P(ID)sib) and probability of exclusion (PE) were then calculated. The Hexp values ranged from 0.901 (PEZ12) to 0.634 (FHC2079), while the P(ID)sib values were between 0.481 (FHC2079) and 0.304 (PEZ12) and the P(ID)sib was about 3.35 × 10−5 for the combination of all 10 loci. The results presented herein will strengthen the value of canine DNA to solving dog-related crimes. PMID:26645337

  7. Expanded simple tandem repeat (ESTR) mutation induction in the male germline: lessons learned from lab mice.

    PubMed

    Somers, Christopher M

    2006-06-25

    Expanded simple tandem repeat (ESTR) DNA loci that are unstable in the germline have provided the most sensitive tool ever developed for investigating low-dose heritable mutation induction in laboratory mice. Ionizing radiation exposures have shown that ESTR mutations occur mainly in pre-meiotic spermatogonia and stem cells. The average spermatogonial doubling dose is 0.62-0.69 Gy for low LET, and 0.18-0.34 Gy for high LET radiation. Chemical alkylating agents also cause significant ESTR mutation induction in pre-meiotic spermatogonia and stem cells, but are much less effective per unit dose than radiation. ESTR mutation induction efficiency is maximal at low doses of radiation or chemical mutagens, and may decrease at higher dose ranges. DNA repair deficient mice (SCID and PARP-1) with elevated levels of single and double-strand DNA breaks have spontaneously elevated ESTR mutation frequencies, and surprisingly do not show additional ESTR mutation induction following irradiation. In contrast, ESTR mutation induction in p53 knock-outs is indistinguishable from that of wild-type mice. Studies of sentinel mice exposed in situ to ambient air pollution showed elevated ESTR mutation frequencies in males exposed to high levels of particulate matter. These studies highlight the application of the ESTR assay for assessing environmental hazards under real-world conditions. All ESTR studies to date have shown untargeted mutations that occur at much higher frequencies than predicted. The mechanism of this untargeted mutation induction is unknown, and must be elucidated before we can fully understand the biological significance of ESTR mutations, or use these markers for formal risk assessment. Future studies should focus on the mechanism of ESTR mutation induction, refining dose responses, and developing ESTR markers for other animal species.

  8. Development of a polymorphic short tandem repeat locus multiplex system for efficient human identification.

    PubMed

    Rodovalho, R G; Rodrigues, E L; Santos, G S; Cavalcanti, L M; Lima, P R; Rodovalho, A G; Vital, R G; Gigonzac, M A D; da Cruz, A D

    2017-04-05

    This study aimed to develop a short tandem repeat (STR) multiplex system, made up of 22 highly informative STR loci, for application in forensic genetics. The system comprised 21 polymorphic autosomal loci (D3S1358, TH01, D21S11, D18S51, Penta E, D5S818, D13S317, D7S820, D16S539, CSF1PO, Penta D, vWA, D8S1179, TPOX, FGA, D2S441, D17S1301, D19S433, D18S853, D20S482, and D14S1434) and the amelogenin gene locus. Strategies were developed to overcome the challenges involved in creating a multiplex system. Based on the literature and available databases, the STR loci were selected with the aim to obtain discriminatory markers, and followed specific criteria for this purpose. Primers were projected using the Primer3 software, and AutoDimer was used to evaluate possible interactions between them. The 22 selected STR loci were validated individually and jointly, both to assess their sensitivity and to test the efficiency of the multiplex system. Statistical analyses were based on the genetic data of 450 unrelated individuals living in the State of Goiás, thus allowing the establishment of the parameters necessary to use this system. A total of 239 alleles were detected for the 22 loci in the set, allowing for a probability of identity of 4.23 x 10(-25) to be obtained. The combined power of discrimination was 0.999999999999999999999999 and the combined power of exclusion was 0.99999. Upon complete validation of the entire system, this multiplex assay was considered to be a powerful tool for application in human identification by DNA analysis.

  9. Short tandem repeat profiling: part of an overall strategy for reducing the frequency of cell misidentification

    PubMed Central

    Nims, Raymond W.; Sykes, Greg; Cottrill, Karin; Ikonomi, Pranvera

    2010-01-01

    The role of cell authentication in biomedical science has received considerable attention, especially within the past decade. This quality control attribute is now beginning to be given the emphasis it deserves by granting agencies and by scientific journals. Short tandem repeat (STR) profiling, one of a few DNA profiling technologies now available, is being proposed for routine identification (authentication) of human cell lines, stem cells, and tissues. The advantage of this technique over methods such as isoenzyme analysis, karyotyping, human leukocyte antigen typing, etc., is that STR profiling can establish identity to the individual level, provided that the appropriate number and types of loci are evaluated. To best employ this technology, a standardized protocol and a data-driven, quality-controlled, and publically searchable database will be necessary. This public STR database (currently under development) will enable investigators to rapidly authenticate human-based cultures to the individual from whom the cells were sourced. Use of similar approaches for non-human animal cells will require developing other suitable loci sets. While implementing STR analysis on a more routine basis should significantly reduce the frequency of cell misidentification, additional technologies may be needed as part of an overall authentication paradigm. For instance, isoenzyme analysis, PCR-based DNA amplification, and sequence-based barcoding methods enable rapid confirmation of a cell line’s species of origin while screening against cross-contaminations, especially when the cells present are not recognized by the species-specific STR method. Karyotyping may also be needed as a supporting tool during establishment of an STR database. Finally, good cell culture practices must always remain a major component of any effort to reduce the frequency of cell misidentification. PMID:20927602

  10. Reverse Transcription Errors and RNA–DNA Differences at Short Tandem Repeats

    PubMed Central

    Fungtammasan, Arkarachai; Tomaszkiewicz, Marta; Campos-Sánchez, Rebeca; Eckert, Kristin A.; DeGiorgio, Michael; Makova, Kateryna D.

    2016-01-01

    Transcript variation has important implications for organismal function in health and disease. Most transcriptome studies focus on assessing variation in gene expression levels and isoform representation. Variation at the level of transcript sequence is caused by RNA editing and transcription errors, and leads to nongenetically encoded transcript variants, or RNA–DNA differences (RDDs). Such variation has been understudied, in part because its detection is obscured by reverse transcription (RT) and sequencing errors. It has only been evaluated for intertranscript base substitution differences. Here, we investigated transcript sequence variation for short tandem repeats (STRs). We developed the first maximum-likelihood estimator (MLE) to infer RT error and RDD rates, taking next generation sequencing error rates into account. Using the MLE, we empirically evaluated RT error and RDD rates for STRs in a large-scale DNA and RNA replicated sequencing experiment conducted in a primate species. The RT error rates increased exponentially with STR length and were biased toward expansions. The RDD rates were approximately 1 order of magnitude lower than the RT error rates. The RT error rates estimated with the MLE from a primate data set were concordant with those estimated with an independent method, barcoded RNA sequencing, from a Caenorhabditis elegans data set. Our results have important implications for medical genomics, as STR allelic variation is associated with >40 diseases. STR nonallelic transcript variation can also contribute to disease phenotype. The MLE and empirical rates presented here can be used to evaluate the probability of disease-associated transcripts arising due to RDD. PMID:27413049

  11. lobSTR: A short tandem repeat profiler for personal genomes

    PubMed Central

    Gymrek, Melissa; Golan, David; Rosset, Saharon; Erlich, Yaniv

    2012-01-01

    Short tandem repeats (STRs) have a wide range of applications, including medical genetics, forensics, and genetic genealogy. High-throughput sequencing (HTS) has the potential to profile hundreds of thousands of STR loci. However, mainstream bioinformatics pipelines are inadequate for the task. These pipelines treat STR mapping as gapped alignment, which results in cumbersome processing times and a biased sampling of STR alleles. Here, we present lobSTR, a novel method for profiling STRs in personal genomes. lobSTR harnesses concepts from signal processing and statistical learning to avoid gapped alignment and to address the specific noise patterns in STR calling. The speed and reliability of lobSTR exceed the performance of current mainstream algorithms for STR profiling. We validated lobSTR's accuracy by measuring its consistency in calling STRs from whole-genome sequencing of two biological replicates from the same individual, by tracing Mendelian inheritance patterns in STR alleles in whole-genome sequencing of a HapMap trio, and by comparing lobSTR results to traditional molecular techniques. Encouraged by the speed and accuracy of lobSTR, we used the algorithm to conduct a comprehensive survey of STR variations in a deeply sequenced personal genome. We traced the mutation dynamics of close to 100,000 STR loci and observed more than 50,000 STR variations in a single genome. lobSTR's implementation is an end-to-end solution. The package accepts raw sequencing reads and provides the user with the genotyping results. It is written in C/C++, includes multi-threading capabilities, and is compatible with the BAM format. PMID:22522390

  12. Use of short tandem repeat analysis in unusual presentations of trophoblastic tumors and their mimics.

    PubMed

    Aranake-Chrisinger, John; Huettner, Phyllis C; Hagemann, Andrea R; Pfeifer, John D

    2016-06-01

    Gestational trophoblastic tumors can be difficult to distinguish from nongestational neoplasms. Somatic and germ cell tumors can mimic gestational choriocarcinoma, and epithelioid trophoblastic tumor (ETT) is known for its histologic, and sometimes clinical, resemblance to squamous cell carcinoma. Short tandem repeat (STR) analysis can separate gestational from nongestational neoplasms and can provide useful information about the type of causative conceptus. We present a series of cases which demonstrate the utility of STR analysis in the evaluation of gestational choriocarcinoma, epithelioid trophoblastic tumor, and their mimics. Samples from normal tissue and tumor were microdissected. DNA was extracted, and STR analysis was performed. Five cases were identified in which there was clinical and/or histologic concern for a gestational trophoblastic neoplasm. Case 1 is a choriocarcinoma presenting concurrently with a 16-week gestation. STR testing on the tumor, mother, and fetus showed that the tumor arose from a previous occult complete hydatidiform mole. Case 2 is an ETT presenting as multiple masses in bilateral kidneys, initially diagnosed as urothelial carcinoma. However, because of an elevated human chorionic gonadotropin, additional workup was performed which showed that the tumor was most likely an ETT. STR analysis showed that the tumor arose from a nonmolar pregnancy. Cases 3-5 illustrate somatic carcinomas mimicking gestational neoplasia. In those cases, STR confirmed a somatic origin. STR can be useful in distinguishing gestational from nongestational neoplasms, particularly in unusual settings. Also, STR analysis can add clinically useful information that is not available from clinical or histologic evaluation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Tandem repeat recombinant proteins as potential antigens for the sero-diagnosis of Schistosoma mansoni infection.

    PubMed

    Kalenda, Yombo Dan Justin; Kato, Kentaro; Goto, Yasuyuki; Fujii, Yoshito; Hamano, Shinjiro

    2015-12-01

    The diagnosis of schistosome infection, followed by effective treatment and/or mass drug administration, is crucial to reduce the disease burden. Suitable diagnostic tests and field-applicable tools are required to sustain schistosomiasis control programs. We therefore assessed the potential of tandem repeat (TR) proteins for sero-diagnosis of Schistosoma mansoni infection using an experimental mouse model. TR genes in the genome of S. mansoni were searched in silico and 7 candidates, named SmTR1, 3, 8, 9, 10, 11 and 15, were selected. Total RNA was extracted from S. mansoni adult worms and eggs. Target TR genes were amplified, cloned, and the proteins were expressed in Escherichia coli competent cells. Female BALB/c mice were infected with 100 S. mansoni cercariae and sera were collected each week post-infection for 18 weeks. The levels of IgG antibodies to SmTR antigens were compared to those to soluble egg antigen (SEA) and to soluble worm antigen preparation (SWAP). Sera of infected mice reacted to all the antigens whereas those of naïve mice did not. IgG responses to SmTR1, 3, 9 and 10 were detected at the early stage of infection. Interestingly, antibodies reacting to SmTR3, 9, 10 and 15 dramatically decreased 4 weeks after treatment with praziquantel, while those against SEA and SWAP remained elevated. Our study suggests that TR proteins, especially SmTR10, may be suitable antigens for sero-diagnosis of infection by S. mansoni and are potential markers for monitoring and surveillance of schistosomiasis, including re-infection after treatment with praziquantel.

  14. Cloning, characterization, and serodiagnostic evaluation of Leishmania infantum tandem repeat proteins.

    PubMed

    Goto, Yasuyuki; Coler, Rhea N; Guderian, Jeffrey; Mohamath, Raodoh; Reed, Steven G

    2006-07-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a form of leishmaniasis, which is caused by infection with the protozoan parasite Leishmania, and is often fatal unless it is treated. Rapid and accurate diagnosis of VL is important for effective treatment. Here we report the cloning of previously undescribed tandem repeat (TR) proteins of Leishmania infantum and an evaluation of VL patient antibody responses to the corresponding proteins. By screening an L. infantum expression library with sera from human VL patients or infected hamsters, we identified 43 genes encoding B-cell antigens. Surprisingly, 19 of the 43 genes (44%) were TR proteins, and that percentage was significantly higher than that for genes picked randomly from the database. We then expressed the TR regions of LinJ16.1750, LinJ22.1590, and LinJ33.2870 and the entire LinJ28.2310 protein. These recombinant proteins were all recognized by Sudanese VL patient sera in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Recombinant LinJ16.1750 (rLinJ16.1750) showed the best performance among these antigens in terms of both sensitivity and specificity. Serological evaluation revealed that 97% (34 of 35) of Sudanese VL patients had significantly elevated antibody levels to rLinJ16.1750. Furthermore, when eight of the patient sera which had low reactivities to rK39 were tested with the novel recombinant antigens, some of the sera showed stronger antibody responses to these antigens than to rK39. Our results suggest that TR regions from the novel L. infantum proteins identified in this study are immunodominant B-cell epitopes and may represent good candidates for serodiagnosis of VL.

  15. Toward Male Individualization with Rapidly Mutating Y-Chromosomal Short Tandem Repeats

    PubMed Central

    Ballantyne, Kaye N; Ralf, Arwin; Aboukhalid, Rachid; Achakzai, Niaz M; Anjos, Maria J; Ayub, Qasim; Balažic, Jože; Ballantyne, Jack; Ballard, David J; Berger, Burkhard; Bobillo, Cecilia; Bouabdellah, Mehdi; Burri, Helen; Capal, Tomas; Caratti, Stefano; Cárdenas, Jorge; Cartault, François; Carvalho, Elizeu F; Carvalho, Monica; Cheng, Baowen; Coble, Michael D; Comas, David; Corach, Daniel; D'Amato, Maria E; Davison, Sean; de Knijff, Peter; De Ungria, Maria Corazon A; Decorte, Ronny; Dobosz, Tadeusz; Dupuy, Berit M; Elmrghni, Samir; Gliwiński, Mateusz; Gomes, Sara C; Grol, Laurens; Haas, Cordula; Hanson, Erin; Henke, Jürgen; Henke, Lotte; Herrera-Rodríguez, Fabiola; Hill, Carolyn R; Holmlund, Gunilla; Honda, Katsuya; Immel, Uta-Dorothee; Inokuchi, Shota; Jobling, Mark A; Kaddura, Mahmoud; Kim, Jong S; Kim, Soon H; Kim, Wook; King, Turi E; Klausriegler, Eva; Kling, Daniel; Kovačević, Lejla; Kovatsi, Leda; Krajewski, Paweł; Kravchenko, Sergey; Larmuseau, Maarten H D; Lee, Eun Young; Lessig, Ruediger; Livshits, Ludmila A; Marjanović, Damir; Minarik, Marek; Mizuno, Natsuko; Moreira, Helena; Morling, Niels; Mukherjee, Meeta; Munier, Patrick; Nagaraju, Javaregowda; Neuhuber, Franz; Nie, Shengjie; Nilasitsataporn, Premlaphat; Nishi, Takeki; Oh, Hye H; Olofsson, Jill; Onofri, Valerio; Palo, Jukka U; Pamjav, Horolma; Parson, Walther; Petlach, Michal; Phillips, Christopher; Ploski, Rafal; Prasad, Samayamantri P R; Primorac, Dragan; Purnomo, Gludhug A; Purps, Josephine; Rangel-Villalobos, Hector; Rębała, Krzysztof; Rerkamnuaychoke, Budsaba; Gonzalez, Danel Rey; Robino, Carlo; Roewer, Lutz; Rosa, Alexandra; Sajantila, Antti; Sala, Andrea; Salvador, Jazelyn M; Sanz, Paula; Schmitt, Cornelia; Sharma, Anil K; Silva, Dayse A; Shin, Kyoung-Jin; Sijen, Titia; Sirker, Miriam; Siváková, Daniela; Škaro, Vedrana; Solano-Matamoros, Carlos; Souto, Luis; Stenzl, Vlastimil; Sudoyo, Herawati; Syndercombe-Court, Denise; Tagliabracci, Adriano; Taylor, Duncan; Tillmar, Andreas; Tsybovsky, Iosif S; Tyler-Smith, Chris; van der Gaag, Kristiaan J; Vanek, Daniel; Völgyi, Antónia; Ward, Denise; Willemse, Patricia; Yap, Eric PH; Yong, Rita YY; Pajnič, Irena Zupanič; Kayser, Manfred

    2014-01-01

    Relevant for various areas of human genetics, Y-chromosomal short tandem repeats (Y-STRs) are commonly used for testing close paternal relationships among individuals and populations, and for male lineage identification. However, even the widely used 17-loci Yfiler set cannot resolve individuals and populations completely. Here, 52 centers generated quality-controlled data of 13 rapidly mutating (RM) Y-STRs in 14,644 related and unrelated males from 111 worldwide populations. Strikingly, >99% of the 12,272 unrelated males were completely individualized. Haplotype diversity was extremely high (global: 0.9999985, regional: 0.99836–0.9999988). Haplotype sharing between populations was almost absent except for six (0.05%) of the 12,156 haplotypes. Haplotype sharing within populations was generally rare (0.8% nonunique haplotypes), significantly lower in urban (0.9%) than rural (2.1%) and highest in endogamous groups (14.3%). Analysis of molecular variance revealed 99.98% of variation within populations, 0.018% among populations within groups, and 0.002% among groups. Of the 2,372 newly and 156 previously typed male relative pairs, 29% were differentiated including 27% of the 2,378 father–son pairs. Relative to Yfiler, haplotype diversity was increased in 86% of the populations tested and overall male relative differentiation was raised by 23.5%. Our study demonstrates the value of RM Y-STRs in identifying and separating unrelated and related males and provides a reference database. PMID:24917567

  16. [Discriminatory power of variable number on tandem repeats loci for genotyping Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains in China].

    PubMed

    Chen, H X; Cai, C; Liu, J Y; Zhang, Z G; Yuan, M; Jia, J N; Sun, Z G; Huang, H R; Gao, J M; Li, W M

    2017-06-10

    Objective: Using the standard genotype method, variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR), we constructed a VNTR database to cover all provinces and proposed a set of optimized VNTR loci combinations for each province, in order to improve the preventive and control programs on tuberculosis, in China. Methods: A total of 15 loci VNTR was used to analyze 4 116 Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains, isolated from national survey of Drug Resistant Tuberculosis, in 2007. Hunter-Gaston Index (HGI) was also used to analyze the discriminatory power of each VNTR site. A set combination of 12-VNTR, 10-VNTR, 8-VNTR and 5-VNTR was respectively constructed for each province, based on 1) epidemic characteristics of M. tuberculosis lineages in China, with high discriminatory power and genetic stability. Results: Through the completed 15 loci VNTR patterns of 3 966 strains under 96.36% (3 966/4 116) coverage, we found seven high HGI loci (including QUB11b and MIRU26) as well as low stable loci (including QUB26, MIRU16, Mtub21 and QUB11b) in several areas. In all the 31 provinces, we found an optimization VNTR combination as 10-VNTR loci in Inner Mongolia, Chongqing and Heilongjiang, but with 8-VNTR combination shared in other provinces. Conclusions: It is necessary to not only use the VNTR database for tracing the source of infection and cluster of M. tuberculosis in the nation but also using the set of optimized VNTR combinations in monitoring those local epidemics and M. tuberculosis (genetics in local) population.

  17. Population genetic study of 10 short tandem repeat loci from 600 domestic dogs in Korea.

    PubMed

    Moon, Seo Hyun; Jang, Yoon-Jeong; Han, Myun Soo; Cho, Myung-Haing

    2016-09-30

    Dogs have long shared close relationships with many humans. Due to the large number of dogs in human populations, they are often involved in crimes. Occasionally, canine biological evidence such as saliva, bloodstains and hairs can be found at crime scenes. Accordingly, canine DNA can be used as forensic evidence. The use of short tandem repeat (STR) loci from biological evidence is valuable for forensic investigations. In Korea, canine STR profiling-related crimes are being successfully analyzed, leading to diverse crimes such as animal cruelty, dog-attacks, murder, robbery, and missing and abandoned dogs being solved. However, the probability of random DNA profile matches cannot be analyzed because of a lack of canine STR data. Therefore, in this study, 10 STR loci were analyzed in 600 dogs in Korea (344 dogs belonging to 30 different purebreds and 256 crossbred dogs) to estimate canine forensic genetic parameters. Among purebred dogs, a separate statistical analysis was conducted for five major subgroups, 97 Maltese, 47 Poodles, 31 Shih Tzus, 32 Yorkshire Terriers, and 25 Pomeranians. Allele frequencies, expected (Hexp) and observed heterozygosity (Hobs), fixation index (F), probability of identity (P(ID)), probability of sibling identity (P(ID)sib) and probability of exclusion (PE) were then calculated. The Hexp values ranged from 0.901 (PEZ12) to 0.634 (FHC2079), while the P(ID)sib values were between 0.481 (FHC2079) and 0.304 (PEZ12) and the P(ID)sib was about 3.35 × 10(-)⁵ for the combination of all 10 loci. The results presented herein will strengthen the value of canine DNA to solving dog-related crimes.

  18. Fetal sex identification in maternal plasma by means of short tandem repeats on chromosome x.

    PubMed

    Vecchione, Gennaro; Tomaiuolo, Michela; Sarno, Michelina; Colaizzo, Donatella; Petraroli, Rosella; Matteo, Maria; Greco, Pantaleo; Grandone, Elvira; Margaglione, Maurizio

    2008-08-01

    Analysis of fetal DNA in maternal plasma has recently been introduced as a new method for noninvasive prenatal diagnosis. In the majority of cases, the Y chromosome-specific sequences are commonly used as a fetus-specific marker with a high risk of false-negative cases. We attempted to develop a sensitive and reliable X chromosome short tandem repeat (STR) multiplex PCR amplification system that is suitable for the amplification of short-sized templates of free fetal DNA. Because of specific characteristics of fetal DNA in maternal plasma, cell-free fetal DNA is smaller than corresponding maternal DNA, and so we selected 10 X-STR loci in which the allele size was 250 bp. In addition, fetal sex was also investigated using the amelogenin gene in the same multiplex assay. Twenty-six women were enrolled in the study. Eight of 26 total fetuses analyzed were male and 18 were female. In the whole sample, X-STRs were informative with a mean of 4.84 +/- 1.43. A mean of 2.67 +/- 1.28 X-STR markers per sample (range 1-5) of paternally inherited fetal alleles were detected in pregnant women carrying a female fetus. In all cases, blind determination of fetal sex by means of the identification of amelogenin and X-STR markers was confirmed by fetal karyotyping. This study showed that this noninvasive technique is a reliable and accurate tool to investigate free fetal DNA in pregnancies within the first trimester and could be widely used in clinical research and diagnosis.

  19. Development of a Hierarchical Variable-Number Tandem Repeat Typing Scheme for Mycobacterium tuberculosis in China

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Tao; Yang, Chongguang; Pang, Yu; Zhao, Yanlin; Mei, Jian; Gao, Qian

    2014-01-01

    Molecular typing based on variable-number tandem repeats (VNTR) analysis is a promising tool for identifying transmission of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. However, the currently proposed 15- and 24-locus VNTR sets (VNTR-15/24) only have limited resolution and contain too many loci for large-scale typing in high burden countries. To develop an optimal typing scheme in China, we evaluated the resolution and robustness of 25 VNTR loci, using population-based collections of 1362 clinical isolates from six provinces across the country. The resolution of most loci showed considerable variations among regions. By calculating the average resolution of all possible combinations of 20 robust loci, we identified an optimal locus set with a minimum of 9 loci (VNTR-9) that could achieve comparable resolution of the standard VNTR-15. The VNTR-9 had consistently high resolutions in all six regions, and it was highly concordant with VNTR-15 for defining both clustered and unique genotypes. Furthermore, VNTR-9 was phylogenetically informative for classifying lineages/sublineages of M. tuberculosis. Three hypervariable loci (HV-3), VNTR 3232, VNTR 3820 and VNTR 4120, were proved important for further differentiating unrelated clustered strains based on VNTR-9. We propose the optimized VNTR-9 as first-line method and the HV-3 as second-line method for molecular typing of M. tuberculosis in China and surrounding countries. The development of hierarchical VNTR typing methods that can achieve high resolution with a small number of loci could be suitable for molecular epidemiology study in other high burden countries. PMID:24586989

  20. Reverse Transcription Errors and RNA-DNA Differences at Short Tandem Repeats.

    PubMed

    Fungtammasan, Arkarachai; Tomaszkiewicz, Marta; Campos-Sánchez, Rebeca; Eckert, Kristin A; DeGiorgio, Michael; Makova, Kateryna D

    2016-10-01

    Transcript variation has important implications for organismal function in health and disease. Most transcriptome studies focus on assessing variation in gene expression levels and isoform representation. Variation at the level of transcript sequence is caused by RNA editing and transcription errors, and leads to nongenetically encoded transcript variants, or RNA-DNA differences (RDDs). Such variation has been understudied, in part because its detection is obscured by reverse transcription (RT) and sequencing errors. It has only been evaluated for intertranscript base substitution differences. Here, we investigated transcript sequence variation for short tandem repeats (STRs). We developed the first maximum-likelihood estimator (MLE) to infer RT error and RDD rates, taking next generation sequencing error rates into account. Using the MLE, we empirically evaluated RT error and RDD rates for STRs in a large-scale DNA and RNA replicated sequencing experiment conducted in a primate species. The RT error rates increased exponentially with STR length and were biased toward expansions. The RDD rates were approximately 1 order of magnitude lower than the RT error rates. The RT error rates estimated with the MLE from a primate data set were concordant with those estimated with an independent method, barcoded RNA sequencing, from a Caenorhabditis elegans data set. Our results have important implications for medical genomics, as STR allelic variation is associated with >40 diseases. STR nonallelic transcript variation can also contribute to disease phenotype. The MLE and empirical rates presented here can be used to evaluate the probability of disease-associated transcripts arising due to RDD. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  1. Genetic structure of the Azores Islands: a study using 15 autosomal short tandem repeat loci.

    PubMed

    Santos, Cristina; Alvarez, Luis; Aluja, Maria Pilar; Bruges-Armas, Jacome; Lima, Manuela

    2009-12-01

    The Azores archipelago (Portugal), located in the Atlantic Ocean, 1,500 km from the European mainland, is formed by nine islands of volcanic origin. The relative position of these islands allows the definition of three geographical groups: Eastern, Central and Western. Previous studies of the Azores using Short Tandem Repeats (STRs) have highlighted differences in the frequencies of several loci, when compared to Mainland Portugal or Madleira Island. Furthermore, linkage disequilibrium (LD), described for Azorean samples has been tentatively explained as reflecting the presence of genetic sub-structuring in the archipelago. To provide information concerning the genetic profile of the Azores Islands and to evaluate the presence of substructuring we have determined the allelic frequencies of 15 autosomal STR loci, using the AmpFlSTR Identifiler Kit, in representative samples from the Azorean Islands. Either considering the Azores as a whole, or analysing by island all the loci were in conformity with Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. Average gene diversity ranged from 0.7669 in Corvo to 0.7972 in Terceira Island. Allelic independence between loci, tested for the global sample, detected significant LD (after correction for multiple tests) for pairs D21S11/D7S820 and D3S1358/D5S818. The exact test of population differentiation, combining the information of the 15 markers analysed, revealed significant differences between the three groups of islands, and between islands. Inter-island analysis reinforces the previous data that suggested the existence of sub-structuring in the Azores archipelago. Moreover, the data generated by this study can be used in a future forensic genetic database of the Azores after the appropriate enlacement of sample size by island, preventing, in that way, misinterpretations caused by population substructuring and small sample sizes.

  2. Genome-wide analysis of tandem repeats in plants and green algae.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Zhixin; Guo, Cheng; Sutharzan, Sreeskandarajan; Li, Pei; Echt, Craig S; Zhang, Jie; Liang, Chun

    2014-01-10

    Tandem repeats (TRs) extensively exist in the genomes of prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Based on the sequenced genomes and gene annotations of 31 plant and algal species in Phytozome version 8.0 (http://www.phytozome.net/), we examined TRs in a genome-wide scale, characterized their distributions and motif features, and explored their putative biological functions. Among the 31 species, no significant correlation was detected between the TR density and genome size. Interestingly, green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii (42,059 bp/Mbp) and castor bean Ricinus communis (55,454 bp/Mbp) showed much higher TR densities than all other species (13,209 bp/Mbp on average). In the 29 land plants, including 22 dicots, 5 monocots, and 2 bryophytes, 5'-UTR and upstream intergenic 200-nt (UI200) regions had the first and second highest TR densities, whereas in the two green algae (C. reinhardtii and Volvox carteri) the first and second highest densities were found in intron and coding sequence (CDS) regions, respectively. In CDS regions, trinucleotide and hexanucleotide motifs were those most frequently represented in all species. In intron regions, especially in the two green algae, significantly more TRs were detected near the intron-exon junctions. Within intergenic regions in dicots and monocots, more TRs were found near both the 5' and 3' ends of genes. GO annotation in two green algae revealed that the genes with TRs in introns are significantly involved in transcriptional and translational processing. As the first systematic examination of TRs in plant and green algal genomes, our study showed that TRs displayed nonrandom distribution for both intragenic and intergenic regions, suggesting that they have potential roles in transcriptional or translational regulation in plants and green algae.

  3. Fourteen non-CODIS autosomal short tandem repeat loci multiplex data from Taiwanese.

    PubMed

    Hwa, Hsiao-Lin; Chang, Yih-Yuan; Lee, James Chun-I; Yin, Hsiang-Yi; Tseng, Li-Hui; Su, Yi-Ning; Ko, Tsang-Ming

    2011-03-01

    Interest in the development of polymorphic short tandem repeat (STR) markers unlinked to the CODIS loci is growing among forensic practitioners. We developed a multiplex system in which14 autosomal STR (D3S1744, D4S2366, D8S1110, D12S1090, D13S765, D14S608, Penta E, D17S1294, D18S536, D18S1270, D20S470, D21S1437, Penta D, and D22S683) could be amplified in one single polymerase chain reaction. DNA samples from 572 unrelated Taiwanese Han subjects were analyzed using this 14 STR multiplex system. Thirty parent-child pairs of parentage testing cases with a combined paternity index (CPI) below 1,000 and 32 parent-child pairs with single-step mutations found in AmpFℓSTR Identifiler loci were also recruited for validation of the newly developed system. DNA sequencing was performed for novel STRs and novel alleles found in these subjects. The distributions of allelic frequencies for these autosomal STRs and sequence data, allele nomenclature for the STRs, and forensic parameters are presented. The discrimination power in our multiplex loci ranged from 0.6858 (D18S536) to 0.9168 (Penta E), with a combined discrimination power of 0.999999999. It provides additional power to distinguish the possible single-step mutations in parent-child pairs and improves the ability to prove parentage by increasing the CPI. The combined power of exclusion of these 14 loci in Taiwanese Han in this study was 0.9999995913. In conclusion, this 14-autosomal STRs multiplex system provides highly informative STR data and appears useful in forensic casework and parentage testing.

  4. Evolution of the cystatin B gene: implications for the origin of its variable dodecamer tandem repeat in humans.

    PubMed

    Osawa, Motoki; Kaneko, Mika; Horiuchi, Hidekazu; Kitano, Takashi; Kawamoto, Yoshi; Saitou, Naruya; Umetsu, Kazuo

    2003-01-01

    The human cystatin B gene contains a variable number of 12-bp tandem repeats in its promoter region, of which the common alleles contain two or three copies and unusual expansion causes progressive myoclonus epilepsy of the Unverricht-Lundborg type. We undertook a comprehensive analysis of the genomic sequence to address the evolutionary events of this variable repeat. By examination of a contiguous genome sequence spanning 5.0 kb and linkage analysis of detected polymorphic changes, we identified six major intragenic haplotypes in unrelated Japanese subjects. The number of normal repeats was closely correlated with these alleles, indicating that changes in the array should be comparatively rare events during human evolution. To examine the origin of the repeat array further, we also analyzed five primate genomes. Repetitive polymorphism was unlikely in hominoids, and the array originated with the dodecamer itself in the course of primate evolution. The variability conceivably developed after the separation to humans.

  5. Pathogenic C9ORF72 Antisense Repeat RNA Forms a Double Helix with Tandem C:C Mismatches.

    PubMed

    Dodd, David W; Tomchick, Diana R; Corey, David R; Gagnon, Keith T

    2016-03-08

    Expansion of a GGGGCC/CCCCGG repeat sequence in the first intron of the C9ORF72 gene is a leading cause of frontotemporal dementia (FTD) and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). In this combined disorder, called c9FTD/ALS, the expansion is bidirectionally transcribed into sense and antisense repeat RNA associated with disease. To better understand the role of C9ORF72 repeat RNA in molecular disease pathology, we determined crystal structures of a [(CCCCGG)3(CCCC)] model antisense repeat RNA to 1.47 Å resolution. The RNA structure was an A-form-like double helix composed of repeating and regularly spaced tandem C:C mismatch pairs that perturbed helical geometry and surface charge. Solution studies revealed a preference for A-form-like helical conformations as the repeat number increased. Results provide a structural starting point for rationalizing the contribution of repeat RNA to c9FTD/ALS molecular disease mechanisms and for developing molecules to target C9ORF72 repeat RNA as potential therapeutics.

  6. GENETIC VARIATION IN RED RASPBERRIES (RUBUS IDAEUS L.; ROSACEAE) FROM SITES DIFFERING IN ORGANIC POLLUTANTS COMPARED WITH SYNTHETIC TANDEM REPEAT DNA PROBES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Two synthetic tandem repetitive DNA probes were used to compare genetic variation at variable-number-tandem-repeat (VNTR) loci among Rubus idaeus L. var. strigosus (Michx.) Maxim. (Rosaceae) individuals sampled at eight sites contaminated by pollutants (N = 39) and eight adjacent...

  7. GENETIC VARIATION IN RED RASPBERRIES (RUBUS IDAEUS L.; ROSACEAE) FROM SITES DIFFERING IN ORGANIC POLLUTANTS COMPARED WITH SYNTHETIC TANDEM REPEAT DNA PROBES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Two synthetic tandem repetitive DNA probes were used to compare genetic variation at variable-number-tandem-repeat (VNTR) loci among Rubus idaeus L. var. strigosus (Michx.) Maxim. (Rosaceae) individuals sampled at eight sites contaminated by pollutants (N = 39) and eight adjacent...

  8. Isolation of human minisatellite loci detected by synthetic tandem repeat probes: direct comparison with cloned DNA fingerprinting probes.

    PubMed

    Armour, J A; Vergnaud, G; Crosier, M; Jeffreys, A J

    1992-08-01

    As a direct comparison with cloned 'DNA fingerprinting' probes, we present the results of screening an ordered array Charomid library for hypervariable human loci using synthetic tandem repeat (STR) probes. By recording the coordinates of positive hybridization signals, the subset of clones within the library detected by each STR probe can be defined, and directly compared with the set of clones detected by naturally occurring (cloned) DNA fingerprinting probes. The STR probes vary in the efficiency of detection of polymorphic minisatellite loci; among the more efficient probes, there is a strong overlap with the sets of clones detected by the DNA fingerprinting probes. Four new polymorphic loci were detected by one or more of the STR probes but not by any of the naturally occurring repeats. Sequence comparisons with the probe(s) used to detect the locus suggest that a relatively poor match, for example 10 out of 14 bases in a limited region of each repeat, is sufficient for the positive detection of tandem repeats in a clone in this type of library screening by hybridization. These results not only provide a detailed evaluation of the usefulness of STR probes in the isolation of highly variable loci, but also suggest strategies for the use of these multi-locus probes in screening libraries for clones from hypervariable loci.

  9. Variable numbers of tandem repeat loci in genetically homogeneous Haemophilus influenzae strains alter during persistent colonisation of cystic fibrosis patients.

    PubMed

    Renders, N; Licciardello, L; IJsseldijk, C; Sijmons, M; van Alphen, L; Verbrugh, H; van Belkum, A

    1999-04-01

    Serial sputum isolates of Haemophilus influenzae (n = 69) were obtained from eight patients suffering from cystic fibrosis. For two of these patients all strains were analysed for polymorphism in the major outer membrane protein profile. For all patients the strains were genetically characterised by random amplification of polymorphic DNA analysis. All strains were included in a survey for polymorphism in regions containing moieties of repetitive DNA as well. A single locus containing trinucleotide repeat units, three loci harbouring tetranucleotides, one region comprising pentanucleotide units and two hexanucleotide repeat unit-containing loci were analysed for repeat number variability. Most of the regions were previously shown to be directly adjacent to or even within virulence genes. All regions behaved as genuine variable number of tandem repeat loci in the sense that genetic polymorphism based on the presence of varying numbers of repeat units could be demonstrated among different strains. Interestingly, several of the repeats showed variation in the absence of the variability as assessed by major outer membrane protein or random amplification of polymorphic DNA analysis. These observations indicate that the repeat loci may vary independently from major chromosomal polymorphism. Consequently, H. influenzae appears to modify its virulence gene regions of the chromosome during persistent colonisation of the lung in cystic fibrosis patients.

  10. Development of a tandem repeat-based multilocus typing system distinguishing Babesia bovis geographic isolates.

    PubMed

    Perez-Llaneza, Agustina; Caballero, Marina; Baravalle, Eugenia; Mesplet, Maria; Mosqueda, Juan; Suarez, Carlos E; Echaide, Ignacio; Katzer, Frank; Pacheco, Gabriela M; Florin-Christensen, Monica; Schnittger, Leonhard

    2010-02-10

    Mini- and microsatellite sequences have proven to be excellent tools for the differentiation of strains and populations in several protozoan parasites due to their high variability. In the present work we have searched the genome of the tick-transmitted bovine hemoprotozoon Babesia bovis for tandem repeats (TRs) that could be useful for a multilocus typing system. Hundred and nineteen sequences were shortlisted and tested in five common B. bovis reference isolates originating from distinct geographic locations of North and South America: Texas, USA (T2Bo), Mexico (RAD and Mo7), and Santa Fe and Salta, Argentina (R1A and S2P, respectively). Satellite sequences were PCR-amplified using specific primers, separated by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, visualized by silver staining and sized. Fourteen TR sequences could be reliably amplified in all isolates and displayed length polymorphism. All primers used were specific for B. bovis and did not amplify genomic DNA from the bovine host or from Babesia bigemina, the principal co-infecting bovine parasite in the Americas, allowing their future use in field surveys. The 14 satellite markers identified are distributed throughout the four chromosomes of B. bovis as follows: chromosome 1 (n=3), chromosome 2 (n=2), chromosome 3 (n=5), and chromosome 4 (n=4). Within the five B. bovis isolates we identified nine satellite marker loci with two alleles, three with three alleles, one with four and another with five alleles. In comparison to Theileria parva, a bovine hemoprotozoan that pertains to the same piroplasmida order and own a genome of similar size, the number of polymorphic TRs and the average number of alleles per TR locus seem to be significantly reduced in the B. bovis genome. Furthermore, the ratio of micro- to minisatellites in both B. bovis and T. parva is considerably lower than in other eukaryotes, as confirmed by bioinformatic analysis. The multilocus genotype of the five B. bovis isolates was assessed and the

  11. Chronotype and PERIOD3 variable number tandem repeat polymorphism in individual sports athletes.

    PubMed

    Kunorozva, Lovemore; Stephenson, Kim J; Rae, Dale E; Roden, Laura C

    2012-10-01

    A link between diurnal preference and a variable number tandem-repeat (VNTR) polymorphism in the PERIOD3 gene (PER3) has been demonstrated: the longer PER3(5) and shorter PER3(4) alleles with preferences for mornings and evenings, respectively. As many competitive events in South Africa for individual athletes are scheduled for the early mornings, we hypothesized that this might favor those athletes with a preference for morning activities. Self-selected white, male cyclists (CYC, n = 125), runners (RUN, n = 120) and Ironman triathletes (IM, n = 287) of European descent were compared with a control population of active, non-competitive individuals (CON, n = 96). The chronotypes of all CYC, RUN and CON participants and a sub-sample of the IM group (n =  49) were assessed using the Horne-Östberg Morningness-Eveningness Questionnaire, and the PER3 VNTR genotype for each participant was determined. The athlete groups contained more morning-type individuals than the CON group (CYC: 72%, n = 90; RUN: 67%, n = 80; IM: 59%, n = 29; CON: 41%, n = 39; p <  .001). The prevalence of the PER3(5) allele was greater in the athlete groups (CYC: 61%, n =  152; RUN: 58%, n = 132; IM: 56%, n = 324; CON: 38%, n = 76; p <  .001), and more athletes were genotyped as PER3(5/5) than CON individuals (CYC: 41%, n = 51; RUN: 23%, n = 26; IM: 28%, n = 81, CON: 9%, n = 8; p <  .001). A strong relationship between chronotype and PER3 VNTR genotype was observed (p <  .001). Finally, the time of day at which the athletes preferred to train was related to their chronotype (p <  .001). This is the first study of its kind in a South African sporting population, and the results have not yet been replicated. These data suggest that white males of European descent participating in individual endurance sports in South Africa are more likely to be morning types. Furthermore, the PER3 VNTR may be one of the factors contributing to this observation.

  12. Least-square deconvolution: a framework for interpreting short tandem repeat mixtures.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tsewei; Xue, Ning; Birdwell, J Douglas

    2006-11-01

    Interpreting mixture short tandem repeat DNA data is often a laborious process, involving trying different genotype combinations mixed at assumed DNA mass proportions, and assessing whether the resultant is supported well by the relative peak-height information of the mixture sample. If a clear pattern of major-minor alleles is apparent, it is feasible to identify the major alleles of each locus and form a composite genotype profile for the major contributor. When alleles are shared between the two contributors, and/or heterozygous peak imbalance is present, it becomes complex and difficult to deduce the profile of the minor contributor. The manual trial and error procedures performed by an analyst in the attempt to resolve mixture samples have been formalized in the least-square deconvolution (LSD) framework reported here for two-person mixtures, with the allele peak height (or area) information as its only input. LSD operates on the peak-data information of each locus separately, independent of all other loci, and finds the best-fit DNA mass proportions and calculates error residual for each possible genotype combination. The LSD mathematical result for all loci is then to be reviewed by a DNA analyst, who will apply a set of heuristic interpretation guidelines in an attempt to form a composite DNA profile for each of the two contributors. Both simulated and forensic peak-height data were used to support this approach. A set of heuristic guidelines is to be used in forming a composite profile for each of the mixture contributors in analyzing the mathematical results of LSD. The heuristic rules involve the checking of consistency of the best-fit mass proportion ratios for the top-ranked genotype combination case among all four- and three-allele loci, and involve assessing the degree of fit of the top-ranked case relative to the fit of the second-ranked case. A different set of guidelines is used in reviewing and analyzing the LSD mathematical results for two

  13. An Ultra-High Discrimination Y Chromosome Short Tandem Repeat Multiplex DNA Typing System

    PubMed Central

    Hanson, Erin K.; Ballantyne, Jack

    2007-01-01

    In forensic casework, Y chromosome short tandem repeat markers (Y-STRs) are often used to identify a male donor DNA profile in the presence of excess quantities of female DNA, such as is found in many sexual assault investigations. Commercially available Y-STR multiplexes incorporating 12–17 loci are currently used in forensic casework (Promega's PowerPlex® Y and Applied Biosystems' AmpFlSTR® Yfiler®). Despite the robustness of these commercial multiplex Y-STR systems and the ability to discriminate two male individuals in most cases, the coincidence match probabilities between unrelated males are modest compared with the standard set of autosomal STR markers. Hence there is still a need to develop new multiplex systems to supplement these for those cases where additional discriminatory power is desired or where there is a coincidental Y-STR match between potential male participants. Over 400 Y-STR loci have been identified on the Y chromosome. While these have the potential to increase the discrimination potential afforded by the commercially available kits, many have not been well characterized. In the present work, 91 loci were tested for their relative ability to increase the discrimination potential of the commonly used ‘core’ Y-STR loci. The result of this extensive evaluation was the development of an ultra high discrimination (UHD) multiplex DNA typing system that allows for the robust co-amplification of 14 non-core Y-STR loci. Population studies with a mixed African American and American Caucasian sample set (n = 572) indicated that the overall discriminatory potential of the UHD multiplex was superior to all commercial kits tested. The combined use of the UHD multiplex and the Applied Biosystems' AmpFlSTR® Yfiler® kit resulted in 100% discrimination of all individuals within the sample set, which presages its potential to maximally augment currently available forensic casework markers. It could also find applications in human evolutionary

  14. Tandemly repeated 147 bp elements cause structural and functional variation in divergent MAL promoters of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Bell, P J; Higgins, V J; Dawes, I W; Bissinger, P H

    1997-09-30

    We have studied four novel MAL promoters isolated from a single strain of bakers' yeast. Within these promoters we have identified up to five tandem 147 bp repeats located between the MAL UAS region and the MALT TATA box. These repeats strongly reduce MALT (maltose permease) gene expression but only weakly reduce MALS (maltase) gene expression. Insertion of the 147 bp elements into the heterologous CYC1 promoter reduced expression when located between the CYC1 UAS and the TATA box, but not when located upstream of the UAS. We propose that these naturally occurring repeats have evolved as a mechanism to lower the level of MALT expression relative of MALS expression, thus avoiding possible toxic effects associated with over-expression from multiple copies of the permease gene.

  15. Ehrlichia chaffeensis Tandem Repeat Proteins and Ank200 are Type 1 Secretion System Substrates Related to the Repeats-in-Toxin Exoprotein Family

    PubMed Central

    Wakeel, Abdul; den Dulk-Ras, Amke; Hooykaas, Paul J. J.; McBride, Jere W.

    2011-01-01

    Ehrlichia chaffeensis has type 1 and 4 secretion systems (T1SS and T4SS), but the substrates have not been identified. Potential substrates include secreted tandem repeat protein (TRP) 47, TRP120, and TRP32, and the ankyrin repeat protein, Ank200, that are involved in molecular host–pathogen interactions including DNA binding and a network of protein–protein interactions with host targets associated with signaling, transcriptional regulation, vesicle trafficking, and apoptosis. In this study we report that E. chaffeensis TRP47, TRP32, TRP120, and Ank200 were not secreted in the Agrobacterium tumefaciens Cre recombinase reporter assay routinely used to identify T4SS substrates. In contrast, all TRPs and the Ank200 proteins were secreted by the Escherichia coli complemented with the hemolysin secretion system (T1SS), and secretion was reduced in a T1SS mutant (ΔTolC), demonstrating that these proteins are T1SS substrates. Moreover, T1SS secretion signals were identified in the C-terminal domains of the TRPs and Ank200, and a detailed bioinformatic analysis of E. chaffeensis TRPs and Ank200 revealed features consistent with those described in the repeats-in-toxins (RTX) family of exoproteins, including glycine- and aspartate-rich tandem repeats, homology with ATP-transporters, a non-cleavable C-terminal T1SS signal, acidic pIs, and functions consistent with other T1SS substrates. Using a heterologous E. coli T1SS, this investigation has identified the first Ehrlichia T1SS substrates supporting the conclusion that the T1SS and corresponding substrates are involved in molecular host–pathogen interactions that contribute to Ehrlichia pathobiology. Further investigation of the relationship between Ehrlichia TRPs, Ank200, and the RTX exoprotein family may lead to a greater understanding of the importance of T1SS substrates and specific functions of T1SS in the pathobiology of obligately intracellular bacteria. PMID:22919588

  16. Tyrosine-phosphorylated Ehrlichia chaffeensis and Ehrlichia canis tandem repeat orthologs contain a major continuous cross-reactive antibody epitope in lysine-rich repeats.

    PubMed

    McBride, Jere W; Zhang, Xiaofeng; Wakeel, Abdul; Kuriakose, Jeeba A

    2011-08-01

    A small subset of major immunoreactive proteins have been identified in Ehrlichia chaffeensis and Ehrlichia canis, including three molecularly and immunologically characterized pairs of immunoreactive tandem repeat protein (TRP) orthologs with major continuous species-specific epitopes within acidic tandem repeats (TR) that stimulate strong antibody responses during infection. In this study, we identified a fourth major immunoreactive TR-containing ortholog pair and defined a major cross-reactive epitope in homologous nonidentical 24-amino-acid lysine-rich TRs. Antibodies from patients and dogs with ehrlichiosis reacted strongly with recombinant TR regions, and epitopes were mapped to the N-terminal TR region (18 amino acids) in E. chaffeensis and the complete TR (24 amino acids) in E. canis. Two less-dominant epitopes were mapped to adjacent glutamate/aspartate-rich and aspartate/tyrosine-rich regions in the acidic C terminus of E. canis TRP95 but not in E. chaffeensis TRP75. Major immunoreactive proteins in E. chaffeensis (75-kDa) and E. canis (95-kD) whole-cell lysates and supernatants were identified with TR-specific antibodies. Consistent with other ehrlichial TRPs, the TRPs identified in ehrlichial whole-cell lysates and the recombinant proteins migrated abnormally slow electrophoretically a characteristic that was demonstrated with the positively charged TR and negatively charged C-terminal domains. E. chaffeensis TRP75 and E. canis TRP95 were immunoprecipitated with anti-pTyr antibody, demonstrating that they are tyrosine phosphorylated during infection of the host cell.

  17. Multilocus variable-number of tandem repeat analysis (MLVA) for Clostridium tyrobutyricum strains isolated from cheese production environment.

    PubMed

    Nishihara, Masaharu; Takahashi, Hajime; Sudo, Tomoko; Kyoi, Daisuke; Kawahara, Toshio; Ikeuchi, Yoshihiro; Fujita, Takashi; Kuda, Takashi; Kimura, Bon; Yanahira, Shuichi

    2014-11-03

    Clostridium tyrobutyricum is a gram-positive spore-forming anaerobe that is considered as the main causative agent for late blowing in cheese due to butyric acid fermentation. In this study, multilocus variable-number of tandem repeat (VNTR) analysis (MLVA) for C. tyrobutyricum was developed to identify the source of contamination by C. tyrobutyricum spores in the cheese production environment. For each contig constructed from the results of a whole genome draft sequence of C. tyrobutyricum JCM11008(T) based on next-generation sequencing, VNTR loci that were effective for typing were searched using the Tandem Repeat Finder program. Five VNTR loci were amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to determine their number of repeats by sequencing, and MLVA was conducted. 25 strains of C. tyrobutyricum isolated from the environment, raw milk, and silage were classified into 18 MLVA types (DI=0.963). Of the C. tyrobutyricum strains isolated from raw milk, natural cheese, and blown processed cheese, strains with identical MLVA type were detected, which suggested that these strains might have shifted from natural cheese to blown processed cheese. MLVA could be an effective tool for monitoring contamination of natural cheese with C. tyrobutyricum in the processed cheese production environment because of its high discriminability, thereby allowing the analyst to trace the source of contamination.

  18. A New Aspergillus fumigatus Typing Method Based on Hypervariable Tandem Repeats Located within Exons of Surface Protein Coding Genes (TRESP).

    PubMed

    Garcia-Rubio, Rocio; Gil, Horacio; Monteiro, Maria Candida; Pelaez, Teresa; Mellado, Emilia

    2016-01-01

    Aspergillus fumigatus is a saprotrophic mold fungus ubiquitously found in the environment and is the most common species causing invasive aspergillosis in immunocompromised individuals. For A. fumigatus genotyping, the short tandem repeat method (STRAf) is widely accepted as the first choice. However, difficulties associated with PCR product size and required technology have encouraged the development of novel typing techniques. In this study, a new genotyping method based on hypervariable tandem repeats within exons of surface protein coding genes (TRESP) was designed. A. fumigatus isolates were characterized by PCR amplification and sequencing with a panel of three TRESP encoding genes: cell surface protein A; MP-2 antigenic galactomannan protein; and hypothetical protein with a CFEM domain. The allele sequence repeats of each of the three targets were combined to assign a specific genotype. For the evaluation of this method, 126 unrelated A. fumigatus strains were analyzed and 96 different genotypes were identified, showing a high level of discrimination [Simpson's index of diversity (D) 0.994]. In addition, 49 azole resistant strains were analyzed identifying 26 genotypes and showing a lower D value (0.890) among them. This value could indicate that these resistant strains are closely related and share a common origin, although more studies are needed to confirm this hypothesis. In summary, a novel genotyping method for A. fumigatus has been developed which is reproducible, easy to perform, highly discriminatory and could be especially useful for studying outbreaks.

  19. Isolation and identification of a novel tandemly repeated DNA sequence in the centromeric region of human chromosome 8.

    PubMed

    Lin, C C; Sasi, R; Lee, C; Fan, Y S; Court, D

    1993-05-01

    EcoRI subclones, designated as 50E1 and 50E4, were independently obtained from a cosmid clone previously mapped to the centromeric region of human chromosome 8. Southern blot hybridization analyses suggested that both subclones contain repetitive DNA sequences different from the chromosome 8 specific alphoid DNA. DNA sequence analysis of the 704 bp insert of 50E1 and the 1,962 bp insert of 50E4 revealed that both inserts contained tandemly repeated units of approximately 220 bp. Fluorescence in situ hybridization studies confirmed these two subclones to be specifically located on the centromeric region of chromosome 8. A 220 bp consensus sequence, derived from nine monomeric repeats, showed no significant homology to alphoid consensus sequences or to other currently known human centromeric DNA sequence. Furthermore, no significant homology was found with any other DNA sequence deposited in the EMBL or GenBank databases, indicating that this chromosome 8 specific repetitive DNA sequence is novel. From slot blot experiments it was estimated that 0.013% of the human genome comprises 1,750 of these monomeric repeats, residing on the centromeric region of chromosome 8 in tandem array(s).

  20. A New Aspergillus fumigatus Typing Method Based on Hypervariable Tandem Repeats Located within Exons of Surface Protein Coding Genes (TRESP)

    PubMed Central

    Garcia-Rubio, Rocio; Gil, Horacio; Monteiro, Maria Candida; Pelaez, Teresa; Mellado, Emilia

    2016-01-01

    Aspergillus fumigatus is a saprotrophic mold fungus ubiquitously found in the environment and is the most common species causing invasive aspergillosis in immunocompromised individuals. For A. fumigatus genotyping, the short tandem repeat method (STRAf) is widely accepted as the first choice. However, difficulties associated with PCR product size and required technology have encouraged the development of novel typing techniques. In this study, a new genotyping method based on hypervariable tandem repeats within exons of surface protein coding genes (TRESP) was designed. A. fumigatus isolates were characterized by PCR amplification and sequencing with a panel of three TRESP encoding genes: cell surface protein A; MP-2 antigenic galactomannan protein; and hypothetical protein with a CFEM domain. The allele sequence repeats of each of the three targets were combined to assign a specific genotype. For the evaluation of this method, 126 unrelated A. fumigatus strains were analyzed and 96 different genotypes were identified, showing a high level of discrimination [Simpson’s index of diversity (D) 0.994]. In addition, 49 azole resistant strains were analyzed identifying 26 genotypes and showing a lower D value (0.890) among them. This value could indicate that these resistant strains are closely related and share a common origin, although more studies are needed to confirm this hypothesis. In summary, a novel genotyping method for A. fumigatus has been developed which is reproducible, easy to perform, highly discriminatory and could be especially useful for studying outbreaks. PMID:27701437

  1. ClassTR: Classifying Within-Host Heterogeneity Based on Tandem Repeats with Application to Mycobacterium tuberculosis Infections

    PubMed Central

    Chindelevitch, Leonid; Colijn, Caroline; Moodley, Prashini; Wilson, Douglas; Cohen, Ted

    2016-01-01

    Genomic tools have revealed genetically diverse pathogens within some hosts. Within-host pathogen diversity, which we refer to as “complex infection”, is increasingly recognized as a determinant of treatment outcome for infections like tuberculosis. Complex infection arises through two mechanisms: within-host mutation (which results in clonal heterogeneity) and reinfection (which results in mixed infections). Estimates of the frequency of within-host mutation and reinfection in populations are critical for understanding the natural history of disease. These estimates influence projections of disease trends and effects of interventions. The genotyping technique MLVA (multiple loci variable-number tandem repeats analysis) can identify complex infections, but the current method to distinguish clonal heterogeneity from mixed infections is based on a rather simple rule. Here we describe ClassTR, a method which leverages MLVA information from isolates collected in a population to distinguish mixed infections from clonal heterogeneity. We formulate the resolution of complex infections into their constituent strains as an optimization problem, and show its NP-completeness. We solve it efficiently by using mixed integer linear programming and graph decomposition. Once the complex infections are resolved into their constituent strains, ClassTR probabilistically classifies isolates as clonally heterogeneous or mixed by using a model of tandem repeat evolution. We first compare ClassTR with the standard rule-based classification on 100 simulated datasets. ClassTR outperforms the standard method, improving classification accuracy from 48% to 80%. We then apply ClassTR to a sample of 436 strains collected from tuberculosis patients in a South African community, of which 92 had complex infections. We find that ClassTR assigns an alternate classification to 18 of the 92 complex infections, suggesting important differences in practice. By explicitly modeling tandem repeat

  2. Increased Length of Long Terminal Repeats Inhibits Ty1 Transposition and Leads to the Formation of Tandem Multimers

    PubMed Central

    Lauermann, V.; Hermankova, M.; Boeke, J. D.

    1997-01-01

    The Ty1 retrotransposon of Saccharomyces cerevisiae is bounded by long-terminal repeats (LTRs). We have constructed a variety of Ty1 elements in which the LTR length has been increased from the normal length of 334 bp to >2 kb. Although small insertions in the LTR have minimal effects on transposition frequency, larger insertions dramatically reduce it. Nevertheless, elements with long LTRs are incorporated into the genome at a low frequency. Most of these rare insertion events represent Ty1 tandem (head to tail) multimers. PMID:9093846

  3. Short tandem repeat polymorphism linkage studies in a new family with X-linked mental retardation (MRX20)

    SciTech Connect

    Lazzarini, A.; Stenroos, E.S.; McKoy, V.

    1995-07-17

    A family with X-linked recessive mental retardation (XLMR) without other obvious manifestations (MRX20) was studied with 14 short tandem repeat polymorphism (STRP) markers. Two-point lod scores above 3 were obtained with DXS1003, DXYS1, DXS3, and DXS458. A multipoint lod score of 4.25 was obtained with peak at DXS1003. Recombination events identify a 55.6 cM interval between DXS1068 and DXS454, while a one unit support interval identifies 40 cM between MAOA and DXS458. 42 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  4. Development of a tandem repeat-based multilocus typing system distinguishing Babesia bovis geographic isolates

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Mini and microsatellite sequences have proven to be excellent tools for the differentiation of strains and populations in several protozoan parasites due to their high variability. In the present work we have searched the genome of the tick-transmitted bovine hemoprotozoon Babesia bovis for tandem r...

  5. [A case of environmental infection with pulmonary Mycobacterium avium complex disease from a residential bathroom of a patient suggested by variable-number tandem-repeat typing of Mycobacterium avium tandem repeat loci].

    PubMed

    Taga, Shu; Niimi, Masaki; Kurokawa, Kazuhiro; Nakagawa, Taku; Ogawa, Kenji

    2012-05-01

    A 63-year-old woman was referred to our hospital because of bilateral infiltrations and nodular opacities in her chest radiograph taken in the mass radiography screening in September 2010. The chest computed tomography showed patchy infiltrations with bronchiectasis in the lower lung fields on both sides. She was diagnosed with pulmonary Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) disease based on the bacteria recovered from the sputum and the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. To elucidate an environmental MAC source, we investigated her home, and isolated M. avium and M. gordonae from the bathtub and shower tap, respectively, in her residential bathroom. Analysis of the hsp65-PRA variants digested with BamHI and some insertion sequences showed that the clinical strains recovered from sputum and strains from the bathtub were M. avium subsp. hominissuis. A dendrogram of the Mycobacterium avium tandem repeat loci variable-number tandem-repeat (MATR-VNTR) analysis of the MAC strains showed that the bathtub strains formed a polyclonal colonization, and that 1 of the 5 MATR-VNTR patterns was identical to the corresponding pattern of the sputum strain from the patient. In conclusion, we believe that the residential bathroom of the patient was the environmental source of her pulmonary MAC disease, as has been previously reported.

  6. An examination of the origin and evolution of additional tandem repeats in the mitochondrial DNA control region of Japanese sika deer (Cervus Nippon).

    PubMed

    Ba, Hengxing; Wu, Lang; Liu, Zongyue; Li, Chunyi

    2016-01-01

    Tandem repeat units are only detected in the left domain of the mitochondrial DNA control region in sika deer. Previous studies showed that Japanese sika deer have more tandem repeat units than its cousins from the Asian continent and Taiwan, which often have only three repeat units. To determine the origin and evolution of these additional repeat units in Japanese sika deer, we obtained the sequence of repeat units from an expanded dataset of the control region from all sika deer lineages. The functional constraint is inferred to act on the first repeat unit because this repeat has the least sequence divergence in comparison to the other units. Based on slipped-strand mispairing mechanisms, the illegitimate elongation model could account for the addition or deletion of these additional repeat units in the Japanese sika deer population. We also report that these additional repeat units could be occurring in the internal positions of tandem repeat regions, possibly via coupling with a homogenization mechanism within and among these lineages. Moreover, the increased number of repeat units in the Japanese sika deer population could reflect a balance between mutation and selection, as well as genetic drift.

  7. The mechanism of transactivation regulation due to polymorphic short tandem repeats (STRs) using IGF1 promoter as a model

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Holly Y.; Ma, Suk Ling; Huang, Wei; Ji, Lindan; Leung, Vincent H. K.; Jiang, Honglin; Yao, Xiaoqiang; Tang, Nelson L. S.

    2016-01-01

    Functional short tandem repeats (STR) are polymorphic in the population, and the number of repeats regulates the expression of nearby genes (known as expression STR, eSTR). STR in IGF1 promoter has been extensively studied for its association with IGF1 concentration in blood and various clinical traits and represents an important eSTR. We previously used an in-vitro luciferase reporter model to examine the interaction between STRs and SNPs in IGF1 promoter. Here, we further explored the mechanism how the number of repeats of the STR regulates gene transcription. An inverse correlation between the number of repeats and the extent of transactivation was found in a haplotype consisting of three promoter SNPs (C-STR-T-T). We showed that these adjacent SNPs located outside the STR were required for the STR to function as eSTR. The C allele of rs35767 provides a binding site for CCAAT/enhancer-binding-protein δ (C/EBPD), which is essential for the gradational transactivation property of eSTR and FOXA3 may also be involved. Therefore, we propose a mechanism in which the gradational transactivation by the eSTR is caused by the interaction of one or more transcriptional complexes located outside the STR, rather than by direct binding to a repeat motif of the STR. PMID:27910883

  8. Properties of Mitotic and Meiotic Recombination in the Tandemly-Repeated CUP1 Gene Cluster in the Yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Ying; Dominska, Margaret; Petrova, Aleksandra; Bagshaw, Halle; Kokoska, Robert J; Petes, Thomas D

    2017-06-01

    In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the genes encoding the metallothionein protein Cup1 are located in a tandem array on chromosome VIII. Using a diploid strain that is heterozygous for an insertion of a selectable marker (URA3) within this tandem array, and heterozygous for markers flanking the array, we measured interhomolog recombination and intra/sister chromatid exchange in the CUP1 locus. The rate of intra/sister chromatid recombination exceeded the rate of interhomolog recombination by >10-fold. Loss of the Rad51 and Rad52 proteins, required for most interhomolog recombination, led to a relatively small reduction of recombination in the CUP1 array. Although interhomolog mitotic recombination in the CUP1 locus is elevated relative to the average genomic region, we found that interhomolog meiotic recombination in the array is reduced compared to most regions. Lastly, we showed that high levels of copper (previously shown to elevate CUP1 transcription) lead to a substantial elevation in rate of both interhomolog and intra/sister chromatid recombination in the CUP1 array; recombination events that delete the URA3 insertion from the CUP1 array occur at a rate of >10(-3)/division in unselected cells. This rate is almost three orders of magnitude higher than observed for mitotic recombination events involving single-copy genes. In summary, our study shows that some of the basic properties of recombination differ considerably between single-copy and tandemly-repeated genes. Copyright © 2017 by the Genetics Society of America.

  9. Survey of the fragile X syndrome CGG repeat and the short-tandem-repeat and single-nucleotide-polymorphism haplotypes in an African American population.

    PubMed

    Crawford, D C; Schwartz, C E; Meadows, K L; Newman, J L; Taft, L F; Gunter, C; Brown, W T; Carpenter, N J; Howard-Peebles, P N; Monaghan, K G; Nolin, S L; Reiss, A L; Feldman, G L; Rohlfs, E M; Warren, S T; Sherman, S L

    2000-02-01

    Previous studies have shown that specific short-tandem-repeat (STR) and single-nucleotide-polymorphism (SNP)-based haplotypes within and among unaffected and fragile X white populations are found to be associated with specific CGG-repeat patterns. It has been hypothesized that these associations result from different mutational mechanisms, possibly influenced by the CGG structure and/or cis-acting factors. Alternatively, haplotype associations may result from the long mutational history of increasing instability. To understand the basis of the mutational process, we examined the CGG-repeat size, three flanking STR markers (DXS548-FRAXAC1-FRAXAC2), and one SNP (ATL1) spanning 150 kb around the CGG repeat in unaffected (n=637) and fragile X (n=63) African American populations and compared them with unaffected (n=721) and fragile X (n=102) white populations. Several important differences were found between the two ethnic groups. First, in contrast to that seen in the white population, no associations were observed among the African American intermediate or "predisposed" alleles (41-60 repeats). Second, two previously undescribed haplotypes accounted for the majority of the African American fragile X population. Third, a putative "protective" haplotype was not found among African Americans, whereas it was found among whites. Fourth, in contrast to that seen in whites, the SNP ATL1 was in linkage equilibrium among African Americans, and it did not add new information to the STR haplotypes. These data indicate that the STR- and SNP-based haplotype associations identified in whites probably reflect the mutational history of the expansion, rather than a mutational mechanism or pathway.

  10. Genotyping of Klebsiella Pneumonia Strains Isolated from Eldly Inpatients by Multiple-locus Variable-number Tandem-repeat Analysis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yuan-Yuan; Xu, Ya-Ping; DU, Peng-Cheng; Qiang, Yu-Jun; Zhang, Wen; Chen, Chen; Yu, Ji-Hong; Guo, Jun

    2016-08-01

    Objective To investigate the genotype of klebsiella pneumonia strains isolated from eldly inpatients by multiple-locus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis. Methods Totally 184 klebsiella pneumonia strains,isolated from eldly inpatients,were collected,and their genome DNA were extracted. The polymorphism of 7 variable-number tandem-repeat locus in the DNA samples was analyzed by multiple primers polymerase chain reaction and capillary electrophoresis. The clustering analysis of genotyping was carried out with the BioNumerics 5.1 software. Results A total of 139 genotypes were identified in 184 klebsiella pneumonia clinical strains,showing obvious genetic polymorphisms. With clustering analysis of genotypes,all the strains were categorized into three gene clusters (genogroups 1,2,and 3). The genogroup 1 was the biggest cluster,containing 93.06% of the isolated strains. Conclusion There was a predominant cluster in the klebsiella pneumonia strains isolated from eldly inpatients in our center,and the major source of klebsiella pneumonia infection remained the nosocomial infection.

  11. Effective application of multiple locus variable number of tandem repeats analysis to tracing Staphylococcus aureus in food-processing environment.

    PubMed

    Rešková, Z; Koreňová, J; Kuchta, T

    2014-04-01

    A total of 256 isolates of Staphylococcus aureus were isolated from 98 samples (34 swabs and 64 food samples) obtained from small or medium meat- and cheese-processing plants in Slovakia. The strains were genotypically characterized by multiple locus variable number of tandem repeats analysis (MLVA), involving multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with subsequent separation of the amplified DNA fragments by an automated flow-through gel electrophoresis. With the panel of isolates, MLVA produced 31 profile types, which was a sufficient discrimination to facilitate the description of spatial and temporal aspects of contamination. Further data on MLVA discrimination were obtained by typing a subpanel of strains by multiple locus sequence typing (MLST). MLVA coupled to automated electrophoresis proved to be an effective, comparatively fast and inexpensive method for tracing S. aureus contamination of food-processing factories. Subspecies genotyping of microbial contaminants in food-processing factories may facilitate identification of spatial and temporal aspects of the contamination. This may help to properly manage the process hygiene. With S. aureus, multiple locus variable number of tandem repeats analysis (MLVA) proved to be an effective method for the purpose, being sufficiently discriminative, yet comparatively fast and inexpensive. The application of automated flow-through gel electrophoresis to separation of DNA fragments produced by multiplex PCR helped to improve the accuracy and speed of the method. © 2013 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  12. Unbiased identification of signal-activated transcription factors by barcoded synthetic tandem repeat promoter screening (BC-STAR-PROM)

    PubMed Central

    Gosselin, Pauline; Rando, Gianpaolo; Fleury-Olela, Fabienne; Schibler, Ueli

    2016-01-01

    The discovery of transcription factors (TFs) controlling pathways in health and disease is of paramount interest. We designed a widely applicable method, dubbed barcorded synthetic tandem repeat promoter screening (BC-STAR-PROM), to identify signal-activated TFs without any a priori knowledge about their properties. The BC-STAR-PROM library consists of ∼3000 luciferase expression vectors, each harboring a promoter (composed of six tandem repeats of synthetic random DNA) and an associated barcode of 20 base pairs (bp) within the 3′ untranslated mRNA region. Together, the promoter sequences encompass >400,000 bp of random DNA, a sequence complexity sufficient to capture most TFs. Cells transfected with the library are exposed to a signal, and the mRNAs that it encodes are counted by next-generation sequencing of the barcodes. This allows the simultaneous activity tracking of each of the ∼3000 synthetic promoters in a single experiment. Here we establish proof of concept for BC-STAR-PROM by applying it to the identification of TFs induced by drugs affecting actin and tubulin cytoskeleton dynamics. BC-STAR-PROM revealed that serum response factor (SRF) is the only immediate early TF induced by both actin polymerization and microtubule depolymerization. Such changes in cytoskeleton dynamics are known to occur during the cell division cycle, and real-time bioluminescence microscopy indeed revealed cell-autonomous SRF–myocardin-related TF (MRTF) activity bouts in proliferating cells. PMID:27601530

  13. The Asian Rice Gall Midge (Orseolia oryzae) Mitogenome Has Evolved Novel Gene Boundaries and Tandem Repeats That Distinguish Its Biotypes

    PubMed Central

    Atray, Isha; Bentur, Jagadish Sanmallappa; Nair, Suresh

    2015-01-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome of the Asian rice gall midge, Orseolia oryzae (Diptera; Cecidomyiidae) was sequenced, annotated and analysed in the present study. The circular genome is 15,286 bp with 13 protein-coding genes, 22 tRNAs and 2 ribosomal RNA genes, and a 578 bp non-coding control region. All protein coding genes used conventional start codons and terminated with a complete stop codon. The genome presented many unusual features: (1) rearrangement in the order of tRNAs as well as protein coding genes; (2) truncation and unusual secondary structures of tRNAs; (3) presence of two different repeat elements in separate non-coding regions; (4) presence of one pseudo-tRNA gene; (5) inversion of the rRNA genes; (6) higher percentage of non-coding regions when compared with other insect mitogenomes. Rearrangements of the tRNAs and protein coding genes are explained on the basis of tandem duplication and random loss model and why intramitochondrial recombination is a better model for explaining rearrangements in the O. oryzae mitochondrial genome is discussed. Furthermore, we evaluated the number of iterations of the tandem repeat elements found in the mitogenome. This led to the identification of genetic markers capable of differentiating rice gall midge biotypes and the two Orseolia species investigated. PMID:26226163

  14. Tandem repeat-tRNA (TRtRNA) PCR method for the molecular typing of non-Saccharomyces subspecies.

    PubMed

    Barquet, Marianne; Martín, Valentina; Medina, Karina; Pérez, Gabriel; Carrau, Francisco; Gaggero, Carina

    2012-01-01

    There is a worldwide trend to understand the impact of non-Saccharomyces yeast species on the process of winemaking. Although the predominant species at the end of the fermentation is Saccharomyces cerevisiae, several non-Saccharomyces species present during the first days of the process can produce and/or release aromas that improve the bouquet and complexity of the final wine. Since no genomic sequences are available for the predominant non-Saccharomyces species selected from grapes or musts (Hanseniaspora uvarum, Hanseniaspora vineae, Hanseniaspora opuntiae, Metschnikowia pulcherrima, Candida zemplinina), a reproducible PCR method was devised to discriminate strains at the subspecies level. The method combines different oligonucleotides based on tandem repeats with a second oligonucleotide based on a conserved tRNA region, specific for ascomycetes. Tandem repeats are randomly dispersed in all eukaryotic genomes and tRNA genes are conserved and present in several copies in different chromosomes. As an example, the method was applied to discriminate native M. pulcherrima strains but it could be extended to differentiate strains from other non-Saccharomyces species. The biodiversity of species and strains found in the grape ecosystem is a potential source of new enzymes, fungicides and/or novel sustainable methods for biological control of phytopathogens.

  15. Tandem repeat sequences evolutionarily related to SVA-type retrotransposons are expanded in the centromere region of the western hoolock gibbon, a small ape.

    PubMed

    Hara, Toru; Hirai, Yuriko; Jahan, Israt; Hirai, Hirohisa; Koga, Akihiko

    2012-12-01

    Hoolock hoolock (the western hoolock gibbon) is a species of the family Hylobatidae (small apes), which constitutes the superfamily Hominoidea (hominoids) together with Hominidae (great apes and human). Here, we report that centromeres or their vicinities in this gibbon species contain tandem repeat sequences that consist of 35-50-bp repeat units, and exhibit a sequence similarity with the variable number of tandem repeat (VNTR) region of the SVA, LAVA and PVA transposons. SVA is a composite retrotransposon thought to have been formed by fusion of three solo elements in the common ancestor of hominoids. LAVA and PVA are recently identified retrotransposons that have the same basic structure as SVA. Thus, the large-scale tandem repeats in the centromere region may have been derived from one or more of SVA-type transposons, including the three mentioned above and other yet unknown elements, or the repeat sequences could have served as a source for such elements. Amplification of VNTR-related sequences in another gibbon species, Hoolock leuconedys (eastern hoolock gibbon), has recently been reported, but it is yet to be examined whether the large-scale tandem repeats observed in the two species originated from a single event that occurred in their common ancestor. The repeat sequences in the western hoolock gibbon are mostly 40 kb or more in length, are present in 28 of the 38 chromosomes of the somatic cells, and are homozygous for chromosomal presence/absence.

  16. Epidemiologic Study of Vibrio vulnificus Infections by Using Variable Number Tandem Repeats

    PubMed Central

    Broza, Yoav Y.; Danin-Poleg, Yael; Lerner, Larisa; Valinsky, Lea; Broza, Meir

    2009-01-01

    A 3-year environmental and clinical Vibrio vulnificus survey using simple-sequence repeats typing shows that V. vulnificus biotype 3 constitutes ≈21% of the bacterium population in tested aquaculture ponds as opposed to ≈86% of clinical cases. Simple-sequence repeats proved to be a useful epidemiologic tool, providing information on the environmental source of the pathogen. PMID:19751592

  17. Next-generation sequencing reveals differentially amplified tandem repeats as a major genome component of Northern Europe's oldest Camellia japonica.

    PubMed

    Heitkam, Tony; Petrasch, Stefan; Zakrzewski, Falk; Kögler, Anja; Wenke, Torsten; Wanke, Stefan; Schmidt, Thomas

    2015-12-01

    Northern Europe's oldest and largest Camellia japonica growing at the Pillnitz Castle (Germany) for over 200 years is of botanical and cultural importance and is a reference for C. japonica molecular scale analysis. In order to provide a fundament for genome analysis of the genus Camellia, we characterize the C. japonica tandem repeat fraction, constituting 12.5 % of the Pillnitz camellia's genome. A genomic library of the Pillnitz C. japonica was produced and Illumina sequenced to generate 36 Gb of paired-end reads. We performed graph-based read clustering implemented in the RepeatExplorer pipeline to estimate the C. japonica repeat fraction of 73 %. This enabled us to identify and characterize the most prominent satellite DNAs, Camellia japonica satellite 1-4 (CajaSat1-CajaSat4), and the 5S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) by bioinformatics, fluorescent in situ and Southern hybridization. Within the Camellia genus, satellite spreading, array expansion and formation of higher-order structures highlight different modes of repeat evolution. The CajaSat satellites localize at prominent chromosomal sites, including (peri)centromeres and subtelomeres of all chromosomes, thus serving as chromosomal landmarks for their identification. This work provides an insight into the C. japonica chromosome organization and significantly expands the Camellia genomic knowledge, also with respect to the tea plant Camellia sinensis.

  18. Sequence-based definition of eight short tandem repeat loci located within the HLA-region in an Austrian population.

    PubMed

    Dauber, Eva-Maria; Wenda, Sabine; Schwartz-Jungl, Elisabeth Maria; Glock, Barbara; Mayr, Wolfgang R

    2015-01-01

    Sequenced allelic ladders are a prerequisite for reliable genotyping of short tandem repeat (STR) polymorphisms and consistent results across instrument platforms. For eight STR-loci located on the short arm of chromosome 6 (6p21.3), a sequenced based nomenclature was established according to international recommendations. Publicly available reference DNA samples were sequenced enabling interested laboratories to construct their own allelic ladders. Three tetrameric (D6S2691, D6S2678, DQIV), one trimeric (D6S2906) and four dimeric repeat loci (D6S2972, D6S2792, D6S2789, D6S273) were investigated. Apart from the very complex sequence structure at the DQIV locus, three loci showed a compound and four loci a simple repeat pattern. In the flanking regions of some loci additional single nucleotide and insertion/deletion polymorphisms occurred as well as sequence polymorphisms within the repeat region of alleles with the same length. In an Austrian Caucasoid population sample (n=293) between eight and 22 alleles were found. No significant deviation from Hardy-Weinberg expectations was observed, the power of discrimination ranged from 0.826 to 0.978. The loci cover the HLA-coding region from HLA-A to HLA-DQB1 and can be used for a better definition of HLA haplotypes for population and disease association studies, recombination point mapping, haematopoietic stem cell transplantation as well as for identity and relationship testing.

  19. Independent movement, dimerization and stability of tandem repeats of chicken brain alpha-spectrin

    SciTech Connect

    Kusunoki, H.; Minasov, G.; Macdonald, R.I.; Mondragon, A.

    2010-03-08

    Previous X-ray crystal structures have shown that linkers of five amino acid residues connecting pairs of chicken brain {alpha}-spectrin and human erythroid {beta}-spectrin repeats can undergo bending without losing their {alpha}-helical structure. To test whether bending at one linker can influence bending at an adjacent linker, the structures of two and three repeat fragments of chicken brain {alpha}-spectrin have been determined by X-ray crystallography. The structure of the three-repeat fragment clearly shows that bending at one linker can occur independently of bending at an adjacent linker. This observation increases the possible trajectories of modeled chains of spectrin repeats. Furthermore, the three-repeat molecule crystallized as an antiparallel dimer with a significantly smaller buried interfacial area than that of {alpha}-actinin, a spectrin-related molecule, but large enough and of a type indicating biological specificity. Comparison of the structures of the spectrin and {alpha}-actinin dimers supports weak association of the former, which could not be detected by analytical ultracentrifugation, versus strong association of the latter, which has been observed by others. To correlate features of the structure with solution properties and to test a previous model of stable spectrin and dystrophin repeats, the number of inter-helical interactions in each repeat of several spectrin structures were counted and compared to their thermal stabilities. Inter-helical interactions, but not all interactions, increased in parallel with measured thermal stabilities of each repeat and in agreement with the thermal stabilities of two and three repeats and also partial repeats of spectrin.

  20. Repeatability and reproducibility in proteomic identifications by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Tabb, David L; Vega-Montoto, Lorenzo; Rudnick, Paul A; Variyath, Asokan Mulayath; Ham, Amy-Joan L; Bunk, David M; Kilpatrick, Lisa E; Billheimer, Dean D; Blackman, Ronald K; Cardasis, Helene L; Carr, Steven A; Clauser, Karl R; Jaffe, Jacob D; Kowalski, Kevin A; Neubert, Thomas A; Regnier, Fred E; Schilling, Birgit; Tegeler, Tony J; Wang, Mu; Wang, Pei; Whiteaker, Jeffrey R; Zimmerman, Lisa J; Fisher, Susan J; Gibson, Bradford W; Kinsinger, Christopher R; Mesri, Mehdi; Rodriguez, Henry; Stein, Stephen E; Tempst, Paul; Paulovich, Amanda G; Liebler, Daniel C; Spiegelman, Cliff

    2010-02-05

    The complexity of proteomic instrumentation for LC-MS/MS introduces many possible sources of variability. Data-dependent sampling of peptides constitutes a stochastic element at the heart of discovery proteomics. Although this variation impacts the identification of peptides, proteomic identifications are far from completely random. In this study, we analyzed interlaboratory data sets from the NCI Clinical Proteomic Technology Assessment for Cancer to examine repeatability and reproducibility in peptide and protein identifications. Included data spanned 144 LC-MS/MS experiments on four Thermo LTQ and four Orbitrap instruments. Samples included yeast lysate, the NCI-20 defined dynamic range protein mix, and the Sigma UPS 1 defined equimolar protein mix. Some of our findings reinforced conventional wisdom, such as repeatability and reproducibility being higher for proteins than for peptides. Most lessons from the data, however, were more subtle. Orbitraps proved capable of higher repeatability and reproducibility, but aberrant performance occasionally erased these gains. Even the simplest protein digestions yielded more peptide ions than LC-MS/MS could identify during a single experiment. We observed that peptide lists from pairs of technical replicates overlapped by 35-60%, giving a range for peptide-level repeatability in these experiments. Sample complexity did not appear to affect peptide identification repeatability, even as numbers of identified spectra changed by an order of magnitude. Statistical analysis of protein spectral counts revealed greater stability across technical replicates for Orbitraps, making them superior to LTQ instruments for biomarker candidate discovery. The most repeatable peptides were those corresponding to conventional tryptic cleavage sites, those that produced intense MS signals, and those that resulted from proteins generating many distinct peptides. Reproducibility among different instruments of the same type lagged behind

  1. Allele-specific transcriptional activity of the variable number of tandem repeats in 5' region of the DRD4 gene is stimulus specific in human neuronal cells.

    PubMed

    Paredes, U M; Quinn, J P; D'Souza, U M

    2013-03-01

    The dopamine receptor D4 (DRD4) gene includes several variable number of tandem repeat loci that have been suggested to modulate DRD4 gene expression patterns. Previous studies showed differential basal activity of the two most common variants of a tandem repeat (120 bp per repeat unit) located in the 5' region adjacent to the DRD4 promoter in human cell lines. In this communication, we further characterized the ability of this polymorphic repeat to elicit tissue-, allele- and stimuli-specific transcriptional activity in vitro. The short and long variants of the DRD4 5' tandem repeat were cloned into a luciferase reporter gene construct containing the SV40 promoter. The luciferase constructs were cotransfected with expression vectors of two ubiquitously expressed human transcription factors (TFs), CCCTC-binding factor (CTCF) and upstream stimulatory factor 2 (USF2), into human cell lines and primary cultures of neonate rat cortex and luciferase activity measured. Overexpression with these TFs resulted in differential cell- and allele-specific transcriptional activities of the luciferase constructs. The results of our experiments show that variants of this tandem repeat in the 5' promoter of the DRD4 gene will direct differential reporter gene transcriptional activity in a cell-type-specific manner dependent on the signal pathways activated.

  2. Tandem amino acid repeats in the green anole (Anolis carolinensis) and other squamates may have a role in increasing genetic variability.

    PubMed

    Wu, Riga; Liu, Qingfeng; Zhang, Peng; Liang, Dan

    2016-02-12

    Tandem amino acid repeats are characterised by the consecutive recurrence of a single amino acid. They exhibit high rates of length mutations in addition to point mutations and have been proposed to be involved in genetic plasticity. Squamate reptiles (lizards and snakes) diversify in both morphology and physiology. The underlying mechanism is yet to be understood. In a previous phylogenomic analysis of reptiles, the density of tandem repeats in an anole lizard diverged heavily from that of the other reptiles. To gain further insight into the tandem amino acid repeats in squamates, we analysed the repeat content in the green anole (Anolis carolinensis) proteome and compared the amino acid repeats in a large orthologous protein data set from six vertebrates (the Western clawed frog, the green anole, the Chinese softshell turtle, the zebra finch, mouse and human). Our results revealed that the number of amino acid repeats in the green anole exceeded those found in the other five species studied. Species-only repeats were found in high proportion in the green anole but not in the other five species, suggesting that the green anole had gained many amino acid repeats in either the Anolis or the squamate lineage. Since the amino acid repeat containing genes in the green anole were highly enriched in genes related to transcription and development, an important family of developmental genes, i.e., the Hox family, was further studied in a wide collection of squamates. Abundant amino acid repeats were also observed, implying the general high tolerance of amino acid repeats in squamates. A particular enrichment of amino acid repeats was observed in the central class Hox genes that are known to be responsible for defining cervical to lumbar regions. Our study suggests that the abundant amino acid repeats in the green anole, and possibly in other squamates, may play a role in increasing the genetic variability, and contribute to the evolutionary diversity of this clade.

  3. The genome of the heartwater agent Ehrlichia ruminantium contains multiple tandem repeats of actively variable copy number.

    PubMed

    Collins, Nicola E; Liebenberg, Junita; de Villiers, Etienne P; Brayton, Kelly A; Louw, Elmarié; Pretorius, Alri; Faber, F Erika; van Heerden, Henriette; Josemans, Antoinette; van Kleef, Mirinda; Steyn, Helena C; van Strijp, M Fransie; Zweygarth, Erich; Jongejan, Frans; Maillard, Jean Charles; Berthier, David; Botha, Marli; Joubert, Fourie; Corton, Craig H; Thomson, Nicholas R; Allsopp, Maria T; Allsopp, Basil A

    2005-01-18

    Heartwater, a tick-borne disease of domestic and wild ruminants, is caused by the intracellular rickettsia Ehrlichia ruminantium (previously known as Cowdria ruminantium). It is a major constraint to livestock production throughout subSaharan Africa, and it threatens to invade the Americas, yet there is no immediate prospect of an effective vaccine. A shotgun genome sequencing project was undertaken in the expectation that access to the complete protein coding repertoire of the organism will facilitate the search for vaccine candidate genes. We report here the complete 1,516,355-bp sequence of the type strain, the stock derived from the South African Welgevonden isolate. Only 62% of the genome is predicted to be coding sequence, encoding 888 proteins and 41 stable RNA species. The most striking feature is the large number of tandemly repeated and duplicated sequences, some of continuously variable copy number, which contributes to the low proportion of coding sequence. These repeats have mediated numerous translocation and inversion events that have resulted in the duplication and truncation of some genes and have also given rise to new genes. There are 32 predicted pseudogenes, most of which are truncated fragments of genes associated with repeats. Rather then being the result of the reductive evolution seen in other intracellular bacteria, these pseudogenes appear to be the product of ongoing sequence duplication events.

  4. ST proteins, a new family of plant tandem repeat proteins with a DUF2775 domain mainly found in Fabaceae and Asteraceae

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Many proteins with tandem repeats in their sequence have been described and classified according to the length of the repeats: I) Repeats of short oligopeptides (from 2 to 20 amino acids), including structural cell wall proteins and arabinogalactan proteins. II) Repeats that range in length from 20 to 40 residues, including proteins with a well-established three-dimensional structure often involved in mediating protein-protein interactions. (III) Longer repeats in the order of 100 amino acids that constitute structurally and functionally independent units. Here we analyse ShooT specific (ST) proteins, a family of proteins with tandem repeats of unknown function that were first found in Leguminosae, and their possible similarities to other proteins with tandem repeats. Results ST protein sequences were only found in dicotyledonous plants, limited to several plant families, mainly the Fabaceae and the Asteraceae. ST mRNAs accumulate mainly in the roots and under biotic interactions. Most ST proteins have one or several Domain(s) of Unknown Function 2775 (DUF2775). All deduced ST proteins have a signal peptide, indicating that these proteins enter the secretory pathway, and the mature proteins have tandem repeat oligopeptides that share a hexapeptide (E/D)FEPRP followed by 4 partially conserved amino acids, which could determine a putative N-glycosylation signal, and a fully conserved tyrosine. In a phylogenetic tree, the sequences clade according to taxonomic group. A possible involvement in symbiosis and abiotic stress as well as in plant cell elongation is suggested, although different STs could play different roles in plant development. Conclusions We describe a new family of proteins called ST whose presence is limited to the plant kingdom, specifically to a few families of dicotyledonous plants. They present 20 to 40 amino acid tandem repeat sequences with different characteristics (signal peptide, DUF2775 domain, conservative repeat regions) from the

  5. ST proteins, a new family of plant tandem repeat proteins with a DUF2775 domain mainly found in Fabaceae and Asteraceae.

    PubMed

    Albornos, Lucía; Martín, Ignacio; Iglesias, Rebeca; Jiménez, Teresa; Labrador, Emilia; Dopico, Berta

    2012-11-07

    Many proteins with tandem repeats in their sequence have been described and classified according to the length of the repeats: I) Repeats of short oligopeptides (from 2 to 20 amino acids), including structural cell wall proteins and arabinogalactan proteins. II) Repeats that range in length from 20 to 40 residues, including proteins with a well-established three-dimensional structure often involved in mediating protein-protein interactions. (III) Longer repeats in the order of 100 amino acids that constitute structurally and functionally independent units. Here we analyse ShooT specific (ST) proteins, a family of proteins with tandem repeats of unknown function that were first found in Leguminosae, and their possible similarities to other proteins with tandem repeats. ST protein sequences were only found in dicotyledonous plants, limited to several plant families, mainly the Fabaceae and the Asteraceae. ST mRNAs accumulate mainly in the roots and under biotic interactions. Most ST proteins have one or several Domain(s) of Unknown Function 2775 (DUF2775). All deduced ST proteins have a signal peptide, indicating that these proteins enter the secretory pathway, and the mature proteins have tandem repeat oligopeptides that share a hexapeptide (E/D)FEPRP followed by 4 partially conserved amino acids, which could determine a putative N-glycosylation signal, and a fully conserved tyrosine. In a phylogenetic tree, the sequences clade according to taxonomic group. A possible involvement in symbiosis and abiotic stress as well as in plant cell elongation is suggested, although different STs could play different roles in plant development. We describe a new family of proteins called ST whose presence is limited to the plant kingdom, specifically to a few families of dicotyledonous plants. They present 20 to 40 amino acid tandem repeat sequences with different characteristics (signal peptide, DUF2775 domain, conservative repeat regions) from the described group of 20 to 40

  6. Peroxisome-targeted and tandem repeat multimer expressions of human antimicrobial peptide LL37 in Pichia pastoris.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Siwei; Gao, Yanyun; Wang, Xiaolong; Shen, Wei; Wang, Jinjia; Zhou, Xiangshan; Cai, Menghao; Zhang, Yuanxing

    2017-03-16

    Although the human antimicrobial peptide LL37 has a broad spectrum of antimicrobial activities, it easily damages host cells following heterologous expressions. This study attempted two strategies to alleviate its damage to host cells when expressed in Pichia pastoris using the AOX1 promoter. Tandem repeat multimers of LL37 were first designed, and secretion expression strains GS115-9K-(DPLL37DP)n (n = 2, 4, 6 and 8) containing different copies of the LL37 gene were constructed. However, LL37 tandems still killed the cells after 96 hr of induction. Subsequently, peroxisome-targeted expression was performed by adding a peroxisomal targeting signal 1 (SKL) at the C-terminus of LL37. The LL37 expression strain GS115-3.5K-LL37-SKL showed no significant inhibition in the cells after induction. Antibacterial activity assays showed that the recombinant LL37 expressed in peroxisomes had good antimicrobial activities. Then, a strain GS115-3.5K-LL37-GFP-SKL producing LL37, green fluorescent protein, and SKL fusion proteins was constructed, and the fusion protein was confirmed to be targeting the peroxisomes. However, protein extraction analysis indicated that most of the fusion proteins were still located in the cell debris after cell disruption, and further studies are required to extract more proteins from the peroxisome membrane.

  7. The Effective Mutation Rate at Y Chromosome Short Tandem Repeats, with Application to Human Population-Divergence Time

    PubMed Central

    Zhivotovsky, Lev A.; Underhill, Peter A.; Cinnioğlu, Cengiz; Kayser, Manfred; Morar, Bharti; Kivisild, Toomas; Scozzari, Rosaria; Cruciani, Fulvio; Destro-Bisol, Giovanni; Spedini, Gabriella; Chambers, Geoffrey K.; Herrera, Rene J.; Yong, Kiau Kiun; Gresham, David; Tournev, Ivailo; Feldman, Marcus W.; Kalaydjieva, Luba

    2004-01-01

    We estimate an effective mutation rate at an average Y chromosome short-tandem repeat locus as 6.9×10-4 per 25 years, with a standard deviation across loci of 5.7×10-4, using data on microsatellite variation within Y chromosome haplogroups defined by unique-event polymorphisms in populations with documented short-term histories, as well as comparative data on worldwide populations at both the Y chromosome and various autosomal loci. This value is used to estimate the times of the African Bantu expansion, the divergence of Polynesian populations (the Maoris, Cook Islanders, and Samoans), and the origin of Gypsy populations from Bulgaria. PMID:14691732

  8. [Reticulate evolution of parthenogenetic species of the Lacertidae rock lizards: inheritance of CLsat tandem repeats and anonymous RAPD markers].

    PubMed

    Chobanu, D; Rudykh, I A; Riabinina, N L; Grechko, V V; Kramerov, D A; Darevskiĭ, I S

    2002-01-01

    The genetic relatedness of several bisexual and of four unisexual "Lacerta saxicola complex" lizards was studied, using monomer sequences of the complex-specific CLsat tandem repeats and anonymous RAPD markers. Genomes of parthenospecies were shown to include different satellite monomers. The structure of each such monomer is specific for a certain pair of bisexual species. This fact might be interpreted in favor of co-dominant inheritance of these markers in bisexual species hybridogenesis. This idea is supported by the results obtained with RAPD markers; i.e., unisexual species genomes include only the loci characteristic of certain bisexual species. At the same time, in neither case parthenospecies possess specific, autoapomorphic loci that were not present in this or that bisexual species.

  9. The population structure of Salmonella enterica Enteritidis in Iran analyzed by multiple-locus variable-number tandem repeat analysis.

    PubMed

    Ghaderi, Rainak; Tadayon, Keyvan; Avagyan, Sargis; Khaki, Pejvak; Bidhendi, Soheila Moradi; Forbes, Ken James; Mosavari, Nader; Toroghi, Mohammad Reza; Moosakhani, Farhad; Banihashemi, Reza; Sekhavati, Mohamad; Karimnasab, Nasim

    2013-04-01

    Salmonella enterica Enteritidis is the most frequent etiological agent of salmonellosis in humans and poultry. To understand the genetic diversity of S. Enteritidis in Iran, we examined 69 chicken isolates from 18 broiler farms and six non-epidemic human isolates from six geographically distant provinces by multi-locus variable-number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA). Among SE2, SE3, SE5, SE7, SE8, SENTR4, and SENTR7, only SE5 with four and SENTR7 with two alleles, respectively, proved variable giving estimates of locus genetic diversity of 0.58 and 0. In all, six closely related MLVA profiles were identified among which three were commonly represented by human and chicken isolates. This population homogeneity contrasts with the high diversity at these loci reported elsewhere and is likely a consequence of a single clone of S. Enteritidis distributed across Iran.

  10. A simple Duplex-PCR to evaluate the DNA quality of anthropological and forensic samples prior short tandem repeat typing.

    PubMed

    von Wurmb-Schwark, Nicole; Schwark, Thorsten; Harbeck, Michaela; Oehmichen, Manfred

    2004-04-01

    Typing of DNA from ancient or otherwise highly degraded material, e.g. formalin fixed tissues, can be difficult, time consuming and costly. Very often, genetic typing is not possible at all. We present an inexpensive and easy to use Duplex-PCR that amplifies a 164 bp fragment specific for nuclear DNA together with a 260 bp mitochondrial DNA fragment and that can be employed as a pretest prior to short tandem repeat (STR) typing. All together, we analyzed DNA from 20 ancient bones, 20 formalin fixed tissues and 20 other forensic samples in different concentrations. Each sample that failed in the presented Duplex-amplification was also negative for STR typing, while samples that showed strong and clear signals in the Duplex-PCR led to reproducible genetic profiles using the multiplex kits AmpFLSTR Identifiler and Powerplex ES. The Duplex-PCR worked as a reliable indicator of DNA quality in the sample.

  11. Minimal genetic change in Vibrio cholerae in Mozambique over time: Multilocus variable number tandem repeat analysis and whole genome sequencing.

    PubMed

    Garrine, Marcelino; Mandomando, Inácio; Vubil, Delfino; Nhampossa, Tacilta; Acacio, Sozinho; Li, Shan; Paulson, Joseph N; Almeida, Mathieu; Domman, Daryl; Thomson, Nicholas R; Alonso, Pedro; Stine, Oscar Colin

    2017-06-01

    Although cholera is a major public health concern in Mozambique, its transmission patterns remain unknown. We surveyed the genetic relatedness of 75 Vibrio cholerae isolates from patients at Manhiça District Hospital between 2002-2012 and 3 isolates from river using multilocus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis (MLVA) and whole genome sequencing (WGS). MLVA revealed 22 genotypes in two clonal complexes and four unrelated genotypes. WGS revealed i) the presence of recombination, ii) 67 isolates descended monophyletically from a single source connected to Wave 3 of the Seventh Pandemic, and iii) four clinical isolates lacking the cholera toxin gene. This Wave 3 strain persisted for at least eight years in either an environmental reservoir or circulating within the human population. Our data raises important questions related to where these isolates persist and how identical isolates can be collected years apart despite our understanding of high change rate of MLVA loci and the V. cholerae molecular clock.

  12. Multiplex agarose gel electrophoresis system for variable number of tandem repeats genotyping: analysis example using Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Wada, Takayuki; Maeda, Shinji

    2013-04-01

    As one genotyping method for Mycobacterium tuberculosis, variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR) is a promising tool to trace the undefined transmission of tuberculosis, but it often requires large equipment such as a genetic analyzer for DNA fragment analysis or CE system to conduct systematic analyses. For convenient genotyping at low cost in laboratories, we designed a multiplex PCR system that is applicable to agarose gel electrophoresis using fluorescent PCR primers. For tuberculosis genotyping by VNTR, the copy quantities of minisatellite DNA must be determined in more than 12 loci. The system can halve laborious electrophoresis processes by presenting an image of two VNTR amplicons on a single lane. No expensive equipment is necessary for this method. Therefore, it is useful even in developing countries.

  13. Guangdong and Florida populations of 'Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus' distinguished by a genomic locus with short tandem repeats.

    PubMed

    Chen, J; Deng, X; Sun, X; Jones, D; Irey, M; Civerolo, E

    2010-06-01

    Huanglongbing (HLB) (yellow shoot disease) is a highly destructive disease that threatens citrus production worldwide. The disease was first observed in Guangdong, P.R. China, over 100 years ago, and was found in Florida, United States, in 2005. 'Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus' has been associated with HLB in many citrus-growing regions around the world, including Guangdong and Florida. The global epidemiology of HLB, as well as management of the disease, relies on knowledge of 'Ca. L. asiaticus' populations in different geographical regions around the world. In this study, we identified a genetic marker containing small tandem repeats in the genome of 'Ca. L. asiaticus' and comparatively analyzed the tandem repeat numbers (TRNs) in 'Ca. L. asiaticus' populations from Guangdong and Florida. Analyses of TRNs showed that the bacterial population in Guangdong was different from that in Florida. The Guangdong population consisted predominately of strains with a TRN of 7 (TRN(7)) at a frequency of 47.6%. The Florida population consisted predominately of strains with a TRN of 5 (TRN(5)) at a frequency of 84.4%. TRNs ranged from 3 to 16. The apparent absence of TRNs of 9, 10, 11, and 12 separated the bacterial strains into two groups: TRNs < 10 (TRN(<10)) and TRNs > 10 (TRN(>10)). In Florida, TRN(<10) strains (103/109, or 94.5%) were widely distributed in all HLB-affected counties. TRN(>10) strains (6/109, or 5.5%) were found in central Florida. This is the first report documenting the differentiation of 'Ca. L. asiaticus' populations between Asia and North America and the possible presence of two differentially distributed genotypes of 'Ca. L. asiaticus' in Florida.

  14. Molecular cytogenetics and tandem repeat sequence evolution in the allopolyploid Nicotiana rustica compared with diploid progenitors N. paniculata and N. undulata.

    PubMed

    Lim, K Y; Matyasek, R; Kovarik, A; Fulnecek, J; Leitch, A R

    2005-01-01

    Nicotiana rustica (2n = 4x = 48) is a natural allotetraploid composed of P and U genomes which are closely related to genomes of diploid species N. paniculata and N. undulata. Genomic in situ hybridization (GISH) also confirms that the diploid parents, or close relatives, are the ancestors of N. rustica. In order to study genetic interactions between ancestral genomes in the allotetraploid, we isolated three families of repetitive sequences, two from N. paniculata (NPAMBE and NPAMBO) and one from N. undulata (NUNSSP). Southern blot hybridization revealed that the sequences are digested with a range of restriction enzymes into regular ladder patterns indicating a tandem arrangement of high copy repeats possessing monomeric units of about 180 bp. The three-tandem sequences belong to a larger Nicotiana tandem repeat family called here the HRS-60 family. Members of this family are found in all Nicotiana species studied. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis localized the satellite repeats to subtelomeric regions of most chromosomes of N. paniculata and N. undulata. The pattern of sequence distribution on the P- and U-genomes of N. rustica was similar to the putative parents N. paniculata and N. undulata respectively. However, NPAMBO repeats appear to be reduced and rearranged in N. rustica that may suggest evolution within the P genome. GISH and FISH with the tandem repeat probes failed to reveal intergenomic translocations as might be predicted from the nucleocytoplasmic interaction hypothesis.

  15. Tri-allelic pattern of short tandem repeats identifies the murderer among identical twins and suggests an embryonic mutational origin.

    PubMed

    Wang, Li-Feng; Yang, Ying; Zhang, Xiao-Nan; Quan, Xiao-Liang; Wu, Yuan-Ming

    2015-05-01

    Monozygotic twins can be co-identified by genotyping of short tandem repeats (STRs); however, for distinguishing them, STR genotyping is ineffective, especially in the case of murder. Here, a rarely occurring tri-allelic pattern in the vWA locus (16, 18, 19) was identified only in the DNA of one identical twin, which could help to exonerate the innocent twin in a murder charge. This mutation was defined as primary through genotyping of the family and could be detected in blood, buccal and semen samples from the individual; however, two alternative allele-balanced di-allelic patterns (16, 18 or 16, 19) were detected in hair root sheath cells. Such a kind of segregation indicates a one-step mutation occurs in cell mitosis, which is after embryonic zygote formation and during the early development of the individual after the division of the blastocyte. Sequencing revealed the insertion between the allele 18 and 19 is a repeat unit of TAGA/TCTA (plus/minus strand), which belongs to "AGAT/ATCT"-based core repeats identified from all tri-allelic pattern reports recorded in the STR base and a detailed model was proposed for STR repeat length variation caused by false priming during DNA synthesis. Our model illustrates the possible origination of allele-balanced and unbalanced tri-allelic pattern, clarifies that the genotypes of parent-child mismatches, aberrant di-allelic patterns, and type 1 or 2 tri-allelic patterns should be considered as independent, but interconnected forms of STR mutation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. First isolation of tandemly repeated DNA sequences in New World vultures and phylogenetic implications.

    PubMed

    Keyser, C; Montagnon, D; Schlee, M; Ludes, B; Pfitzinger, H; Mangin, P

    1996-02-01

    A highly repeated DNA sequence composed of closely related subunits that ranged from 171 to 176 base pairs has been cloned and characterized in the king vulture (Sarcoramphus papa). Related sequences were also isolated in the black vulture (Coragyps atratus). This new family of avian repetitive DNA elements is here termed the "HaeIII family." Genomic DNAs from a number of avian species were probed with one of the king vulture restriction fragments. In the cathartids, the hybridization patterns showed no individual or sexual variations. A strong HaeIII ladder was present in the two aforementioned species as well as in the Andean condor (Vultur gryphus), but in the black vulture the bands of the ladder alternated in intensity. Weaker hybridization signals were obtained in two ciconids, the jabiru stork (Jabiru mycteria) and the white stork (Ciconia ciconia). The HaeIII repeat was not detected in accipitrid birds of prey, a Polyborinae falconid, pelecanids, and psittacids.

  17. Structural Insights into the Cooperative Binding of SeqA to a Tandem GATC Repeat

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, Y.; Brendler, T; Austin, S; Guarne, A

    2009-01-01

    SeqA is a negative regulator of DNA replication in Escherichia coli and related bacteria that functions by sequestering the origin of replication and facilitating its resetting after every initiation event. Inactivation of the seqA gene leads to unsynchronized rounds of replication, abnormal localization of nucleoids and increased negative superhelicity. Excess SeqA also disrupts replication synchrony and affects cell division. SeqA exerts its functions by binding clusters of transiently hemimethylated GATC sequences generated during replication. However, the molecular mechanisms that trigger formation and disassembly of such complex are unclear. We present here the crystal structure of a dimeric mutant of SeqA [SeqA{Delta}(41-59)-A25R] bound to tandem hemimethylated GATC sites. The structure delineates how SeqA forms a high-affinity complex with DNA and it suggests why SeqA only recognizes GATC sites at certain spacings. The SeqA-DNA complex also unveils additional protein-protein interaction surfaces that mediate the formation of higher ordered complexes upon binding to newly replicated DNA. Based on this data, we propose a model describing how SeqA interacts with newly replicated DNA within the origin of replication and at the replication forks.

  18. Construction of a library of cloned short tandem repeat (STR) alleles as universal templates for allelic ladder preparation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Le; Zhao, Xing-Chun; Ye, Jian; Liu, Jin-Jie; Chen, Ting; Bai, Xue; Zhang, Jian; Ou, Yuan; Hu, Lan; Jiang, Bo-Wei; Wang, Feng

    2014-09-01

    Short tandem repeat (STR) genotyping methods are widely used for human identity testing applications, including forensic DNA analysis. Samples of DNA containing the length-variant STR alleles are typically separated and genotyped by comparison to an allelic ladder. Here, we describe a newly devised library of cloned STR alleles. The library covers alleles X and Y for the sex-determining locus Amelogenin and 259 other alleles for 22 autosomal STR loci (TPOX, D3S1358, FGA, D5S818, CSF1PO, D7S820, D8S1179, TH01, vWA, D13S317, D16S539, D18S51, D21S11, D2S1338, D6S1043, D12S391, Penta E, D19S433, D11S4463, D17S974, D3S4529 and D12ATA63). New primers were designed for all these loci to construct recombinant plasmids so that the library retains core repeat elements of STR as well as 5'- and 3'-flanking sequences of ∼500 base pairs. Since amplicons of commercial STR genotyping kits and systems developed in laboratories are usually distributed from 50 to <500 base pairs, this library could provide universal templates for allelic ladder preparation. We prepared three different sets of allelic ladders for this locus TH01 and an updated version of an allelic ladder for the DNATyper(®)19 multiplex system using these plasmids to confirm the suitability of the library as a good source for allelic ladder preparation. Importantly, the authenticity of each construct was confirmed by bidirectional nucleotide sequencing and we report the repeat structures of the 259 STR alleles. The sequencing results showed all repeat structures we obtained for TPOX, CSF1PO, D7S820, TH01, D16S539, D18S51 and Penta E were the same as reported. However, we identified 102 unreported repeat structures from the other 15 STR loci, supplementing our current knowledge of repeat structures and leading to further understanding of these widely used loci. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Multi-laboratory validation study of multilocus variable-number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA) for Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis, 2015.

    PubMed

    Peters, Tansy; Bertrand, Sophie; Björkman, Jonas T; Brandal, Lin T; Brown, Derek J; Erdõsi, Tímea; Heck, Max; Ibrahem, Salha; Johansson, Karin; Kornschober, Christian; Kotila, Saara M; Le Hello, Simon; Lienemann, Taru; Mattheus, Wesley; Nielsen, Eva Møller; Ragimbeau, Catherine; Rumore, Jillian; Sabol, Ashley; Torpdahl, Mia; Trees, Eija; Tuohy, Alma; de Pinna, Elizabeth

    2017-03-02

    Multilocus variable-number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA) is a rapid and reproducible typing method that is an important tool for investigation, as well as detection, of national and multinational outbreaks of a range of food-borne pathogens. Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis is the most common Salmonella serovar associated with human salmonellosis in the European Union/European Economic Area and North America. Fourteen laboratories from 13 countries in Europe and North America participated in a validation study for MLVA of S. Enteritidis targeting five loci. Following normalisation of fragment sizes using a set of reference strains, a blinded set of 24 strains with known allele sizes was analysed by each participant. The S. Enteritidis 5-loci MLVA protocol was shown to produce internationally comparable results as more than 90% of the participants reported less than 5% discrepant MLVA profiles. All 14 participating laboratories performed well, even those where experience with this typing method was limited. The raw fragment length data were consistent throughout, and the inter-laboratory validation helped to standardise the conversion of raw data to repeat numbers with at least two countries updating their internal procedures. However, differences in assigned MLVA profiles remain between well-established protocols and should be taken into account when exchanging data. This article is copyright of The Authors, 2017.

  20. Multi-laboratory validation study of multilocus variable-number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA) for Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis, 2015

    PubMed Central

    Peters, Tansy; Bertrand, Sophie; Björkman, Jonas T; Brandal, Lin T; Brown, Derek J; Erdõsi, Tímea; Heck, Max; Ibrahem, Salha; Johansson, Karin; Kornschober, Christian; Kotila, Saara M; Le Hello, Simon; Lienemann, Taru; Mattheus, Wesley; Nielsen, Eva Møller; Ragimbeau, Catherine; Rumore, Jillian; Sabol, Ashley; Torpdahl, Mia; Trees, Eija; Tuohy, Alma; de Pinna, Elizabeth

    2017-01-01

    Multilocus variable-number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA) is a rapid and reproducible typing method that is an important tool for investigation, as well as detection, of national and multinational outbreaks of a range of food-borne pathogens. Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis is the most common Salmonella serovar associated with human salmonellosis in the European Union/European Economic Area and North America. Fourteen laboratories from 13 countries in Europe and North America participated in a validation study for MLVA of S. Enteritidis targeting five loci. Following normalisation of fragment sizes using a set of reference strains, a blinded set of 24 strains with known allele sizes was analysed by each participant. The S. Enteritidis 5-loci MLVA protocol was shown to produce internationally comparable results as more than 90% of the participants reported less than 5% discrepant MLVA profiles. All 14 participating laboratories performed well, even those where experience with this typing method was limited. The raw fragment length data were consistent throughout, and the inter-laboratory validation helped to standardise the conversion of raw data to repeat numbers with at least two countries updating their internal procedures. However, differences in assigned MLVA profiles remain between well-established protocols and should be taken into account when exchanging data. PMID:28277220

  1. Tandem repeat modification during double-strand break repair induced by an engineered TAL effector nuclease in zebrafish genome.

    PubMed

    Huang, Wanxu; Zheng, Jianbo; He, Ying; Luo, Chen

    2013-01-01

    Tandem repeats (TRs) are abundant and widely distributed in eukaryotic genomes. TRs are thought to have various functions in gene transcription, DNA methylation, nucleosome position and chromatin organization. Variation of repeat units in the genome is observed in association with a number of diseases, such as Fragile X Syndrome, Huntington's disease and Friedreich's ataxia. However, the underlying mechanisms involved are poorly understood, largely owing to the technical limitations in modification of TRs at definite sites in the genome in vivo. Transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs) are widely used in recent years in gene targeting for their specific binding to target sequences when engineered in vitro. Here, we show that the repair of a double-strand break (DSB) induced by TALENs adjacent to a TR can produce serial types of mutations in the TR region. Sequencing analysis revealed that there are three types of mutations induced by the DSB repair, including indels only within the TR region or within the flanking TALEN target region or simutaneously within both regions. Therefore, desired TR mutant types can be conveniently obtained by using engineered TALENs. These results demonstrate that TALENs can serve as a convenient tool for modifying TRs in the genome in studying the functions of TRs.

  2. Tandem repeat of a seven-bladed beta-propeller domain in oligoxyloglucan reducing-end-specific cellobiohydrolase.

    PubMed

    Yaoi, Katsuro; Kondo, Hidemasa; Noro, Natsuko; Suzuki, Mamoru; Tsuda, Sakae; Mitsuishi, Yasushi

    2004-07-01

    Oligoxyloglucan reducing-end-specific cellobiohydrolase (OXG-RCBH; EC 3.2.1.150) is an exoglucanase that recognizes the reducing end of oligoxyloglucan and releases two glucosyl residue segments from the main chain. The X-ray crystal structure of OXG-RCBH determined at 2.2 A resolution reveals a unique feature of this enzyme; OXG-RCBH consists of a tandem repeat of two similar domains, which are both folded into seven-bladed beta-propeller structures. The sequence alignment of the propeller blades, based on the structure, indicates that a weak repeat of the amino acid sequence occurred seven times to construct each domain. There is a cleft that can accommodate the substrate oligosaccharide between the two domains, which is a putative substrate binding subsite. Mutation of either Asp35 or Asp465, located in the putative catalytic center, to Asn resulted in a protein with no detectable catalytic activity, indicating the critical role of these amino acids in catalysis.

  3. Tandemly repeated DNA is a target for the partial replacement of thymine by beta-D-glucosyl-hydroxymethyluracil in Trypanosoma brucei.

    PubMed

    van Leeuwen, F; Kieft, R; Cross, M; Borst, P

    2000-07-01

    In the DNA of African trypanosomes a small fraction of thymine is replaced by the modified base beta-D-glucosyl-hydroxymethyluracil (J). The function of this large base is unknown. The presence of J in the silent variant surface glycoprotein gene expression sites and the lack of J in the transcribed expression site indicates that DNA modification might play a role in control of gene repression. However, the abundance of J in the long telomeric repeat tracts and in subtelomeric arrays of simple repeats suggests that J may also have specific functions in repetitive DNA. We have now analyzed chromosome-internal repetitive sequences in the genome of Trypanosoma brucei and found J in the minichromosomal 177-bp repeats, in the long arrays of 5S RNA gene repeats, and in the spliced-leader RNA gene repeats. No J was found in the rDNA locus or in dispersed repetitive transposon-like elements. Remarkably, the rDNA of T. brucei is not organized in long arrays of tandem repeats, as in many other eukaryotes. T. brucei contains only approximately 15-20 rDNA repeat units that are divided over six to seven chromosomes. Our results show that J is present in many tandemly repeated sequences, either at a telomere or chromosome internal. The presence of J might help to stabilize the long arrays of repeats in the genome.

  4. Whole genome evaluation of tandem repeat polymorphisms between two pathogenically similar strains of Xylella fastidiosa isolated from almond and grape in California

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Whole genome tandem repeat polymorphisms were evaluated between two closely related Xylella fastidiosa strains, M23 and Temecula1, both cause almond leaf scorch disease (ALSD) and grape Pierce’s disease (PD) in California. Strain M23 was isolated from almond and the genome was sequenced in this stu...

  5. Clustering of tuberculosis cases based on variable-number tandem-repeat typing in relation to the population structure of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in the Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Sloot, Rosa; Borgdorff, Martien W; de Beer, Jessica L; van Ingen, Jakko; Supply, Philip; van Soolingen, Dick

    2013-07-01

    The population structure of 3,776 Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates was determined using variable-number tandem-repeat (VNTR) typing. The degree of clonality was so high that a more relaxed definition of clustering cannot be applied. Among recent immigrants with non-Euro-American isolates, transmission is overestimated if based on identical VNTR patterns.

  6. Multiple-Locus Variable-Number Tandem-Repeat Analysis Is a Suitable Tool for Differentiation of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae Strains without Cultivation▿

    PubMed Central

    Vranckx, K.; Maes, D.; Calus, D.; Villarreal, I.; Pasmans, F.; Haesebrouck, F.

    2011-01-01

    An assay based on multiple-locus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis allowed differentiating and studying diversity and persistence of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae strains in pig herds without prior cultivation. The test had a discriminatory index of >0.99 and was applied reliably to porcine bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and tracheal swabs. PMID:21389157

  7. Rapid Functional and Sequence Differentiation of a Tandemly Repeated Species-Specific Multigene Family in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Clifton, Bryan D; Librado, Pablo; Yeh, Shu-Dan; Solares, Edwin S; Real, Daphne A; Jayasekera, Suvini U; Zhang, Wanting; Shi, Mijuan; Park, Ronni V; Magie, Robert D; Ma, Hsiu-Ching; Xia, Xiao-Qin; Marco, Antonio; Rozas, Julio; Ranz, José M

    2017-01-01

    Gene clusters of recently duplicated genes are hotbeds for evolutionary change. However, our understanding of how mutational mechanisms and evolutionary forces shape the structural and functional evolution of these clusters is hindered by the high sequence identity among the copies, which typically results in their inaccurate representation in genome assemblies. The presumed testis-specific, chimeric gene Sdic originated, and tandemly expanded in Drosophila melanogaster, contributing to increased male-male competition. Using various types of massively parallel sequencing data, we studied the organization, sequence evolution, and functional attributes of the different Sdic copies. By leveraging long-read sequencing data, we uncovered both copy number and order differences from the currently accepted annotation for the Sdic region. Despite evidence for pervasive gene conversion affecting the Sdic copies, we also detected signatures of two episodes of diversifying selection, which have contributed to the evolution of a variety of C-termini and miRNA binding site compositions. Expression analyses involving RNA-seq datasets from 59 different biological conditions revealed distinctive expression breadths among the copies, with three copies being transcribed in females, opening the possibility to a sexually antagonistic effect. Phenotypic assays using Sdic knock-out strains indicated that should this antagonistic effect exist, it does not compromise female fertility. Our results strongly suggest that the genome consolidation of the Sdic gene cluster is more the result of a quick exploration of different paths of molecular tinkering by different copies than a mere dosage increase, which could be a recurrent evolutionary outcome in the presence of persistent sexual selection.

  8. Interleukin-1 Receptor Antagonist and Interleukin-4 Genes Variable Number Tandem Repeats Are Associated with Adiposity in Malaysian Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Kok, Yung-Yean; Ong, Hing-Huat

    2017-01-01

    Interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL1RA) intron 2 86 bp repeat and interleukin-4 (IL4) intron 3 70 bp repeat are variable number tandem repeats (VNTRs) that have been associated with various diseases, but their role in obesity is elusive. The objective of this study was to investigate the association of IL1RA and IL4 VNTRs with obesity and adiposity in 315 Malaysian subjects (128 M/187 F; 23 Malays/251 ethnic Chinese/41 ethnic Indians). The allelic distributions of IL1RA and IL4 were significantly different among ethnicities, and the alleles were associated with total body fat (TBF) classes. Individuals with IL1RA I/II genotype or allele II had greater risk of having higher overall adiposity, relative to those having the I/I genotype or I allele, respectively, even after controlling for ethnicity [Odds Ratio (OR) of I/II genotype = 12.21 (CI = 2.54, 58.79; p = 0.002); II allele = 5.78 (CI = 1.73, 19.29; p = 0.004)]. However, IL4 VNTR B2 allele was only significantly associated with overall adiposity status before adjusting for ethnicity [OR = 1.53 (CI = 1.04, 2.23; p = 0.03)]. Individuals with IL1RA II allele had significantly higher TBF than those with I allele (31.79 ± 2.52 versus 23.51 ± 0.40; p = 0.005). Taken together, IL1RA intron 2 VNTR seems to be a genetic marker for overall adiposity status in Malaysian subjects. PMID:28293435

  9. Genome Wide Characterization of Short Tandem Repeat Markers in Sweet Orange (Citrus sinensis)

    PubMed Central

    Biswas, Manosh Kumar; Xu, Qiang; Mayer, Christoph; Deng, Xiuxin

    2014-01-01

    Sweet orange (Citrus sinensis) is one of the major cultivated and most-consumed citrus species. With the goal of enhancing the genomic resources in citrus, we surveyed, developed and characterized microsatellite markers in the ≈347 Mb sequence assembly of the sweet orange genome. A total of 50,846 SSRs were identified with a frequency of 146.4 SSRs/Mbp. Dinucleotide repeats are the most frequent repeat class and the highest density of SSRs was found in chromosome 4. SSRs are non-randomly distributed in the genome and most of the SSRs (62.02%) are located in the intergenic regions. We found that AT-rich SSRs are more frequent than GC-rich SSRs. A total number of 21,248 SSR primers were successfully developed, which represents 89 SSR markers per Mb of the genome. A subset of 950 developed SSR primer pairs were synthesized and tested by wet lab experiments on a set of 16 citrus accessions. In total we identified 534 (56.21%) polymorphic SSR markers that will be useful in citrus improvement. The number of amplified alleles ranges from 2 to 12 with an average of 4 alleles per marker and an average PIC value of 0.75. The newly developed sweet orange primer sequences, their in silico PCR products, exact position in the genome assembly and putative function are made publicly available. We present the largest number of SSR markers ever developed for a citrus species. Almost two thirds of the markers are transferable to 16 citrus relatives and may be used for constructing a high density linkage map. In addition, they are valuable for marker-assisted selection studies, population structure analyses and comparative genomic studies of C. sinensis with other citrus related species. Altogether, these markers provide a significant contribution to the citrus research community. PMID:25148383

  10. Genome wide characterization of short tandem repeat markers in sweet orange (Citrus sinensis).

    PubMed

    Biswas, Manosh Kumar; Xu, Qiang; Mayer, Christoph; Deng, Xiuxin

    2014-01-01

    Sweet orange (Citrus sinensis) is one of the major cultivated and most-consumed citrus species. With the goal of enhancing the genomic resources in citrus, we surveyed, developed and characterized microsatellite markers in the ≈347 Mb sequence assembly of the sweet orange genome. A total of 50,846 SSRs were identified with a frequency of 146.4 SSRs/Mbp. Dinucleotide repeats are the most frequent repeat class and the highest density of SSRs was found in chromosome 4. SSRs are non-randomly distributed in the genome and most of the SSRs (62.02%) are located in the intergenic regions. We found that AT-rich SSRs are more frequent than GC-rich SSRs. A total number of 21,248 SSR primers were successfully developed, which represents 89 SSR markers per Mb of the genome. A subset of 950 developed SSR primer pairs were synthesized and tested by wet lab experiments on a set of 16 citrus accessions. In total we identified 534 (56.21%) polymorphic SSR markers that will be useful in citrus improvement. The number of amplified alleles ranges from 2 to 12 with an average of 4 alleles per marker and an average PIC value of 0.75. The newly developed sweet orange primer sequences, their in silico PCR products, exact position in the genome assembly and putative function are made publicly available. We present the largest number of SSR markers ever developed for a citrus species. Almost two thirds of the markers are transferable to 16 citrus relatives and may be used for constructing a high density linkage map. In addition, they are valuable for marker-assisted selection studies, population structure analyses and comparative genomic studies of C. sinensis with other citrus related species. Altogether, these markers provide a significant contribution to the citrus research community.

  11. Molecular Typing of Mycobacterium intracellulare Using Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis, Variable-Number Tandem-Repeat Analysis, Mycobacteria Interspersed Repetitive-Unit-Variable-Number Tandem Repeat Typing, and Multilocus Sequence Typing: Molecular Characterization and Comparison of Each Typing Methods

    PubMed Central

    Jeon, Semi; Lim, Nara; Kwon, Seungjik; Shim, Taesun; Park, Misun; Kim, Bum-Joon; Kim, Seonghan

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Mycobacterium intracellulare is the major causative agent of nontuberculous mycobacteria-related pulmonary infections. The strain typing of M. intracellulare is important for the treatment and control of its infections. We compared the discrimination capacity and effective value of four different molecular typing methods. Methods Antibiotic susceptibility testing, hsp65 and rpoB sequencing, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), multilocus sequence typing (MLST), mycobacteria interspersed repetitive-unit-variable-number tandem-repeat analysis (MIRU-VNTR), and VNTR assay targeting 44 M. intracellulare isolates obtained from patients with pulmonary infections were performed. Results All the antibiotic susceptibility patterns had no association with the molecular and sequence types tested in this study; however, the molecular and sequence types were related with each other. PFGE gave best results for discriminatory capacity, followed by VNTR, MLST, and MIRU-VNTR. Conclusion The high discriminatory power of PFGE, VNTR, and MLST is enough for differentiating between reinfection and relapse, as well as for other molecular epidemiological usages. The MLST could be regarded as a representative classification method, because it showed the clearest relation with the sequence types. PMID:25180144

  12. Determination of Sources of Escherichia coli on Beef by Multiple-Locus Variable-Number Tandem Repeat Analysis.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xianqin; Tran, Frances; Youssef, Mohamed K; Gill, Colin O

    2015-07-01

    The possible origin of Escherichia coli found on cuts and trimmings in the breaking facility of a beef packing plant was examined using multiple-locus variable-number tandem repeat analysis. Coliforms and E. coli were enumerated in samples obtained from 160 carcasses that would enter the breaking facility when work commenced and after each of the three production breaks throughout the day, from the conveyor belt before work and after each break, and from cuts and trimmings when work commenced and after each break. Most samples yielded no E. coli, irrespective of the surface types. E. coli was recovered from 7 (<5%) carcasses, at numbers mostly ≤1.0 log CFU/160,000 cm(2). The log total numbers of E. coli recovered from the conveyor belt, cuts, and trimmings were mostly between 1 and 2 log CFU/80,000 cm(2). A total of 554 E. coli isolates were recovered. Multiple-locus variable-number tandem repeat analysis of 327 selected isolates identified 80 distinct genotypes, with 37 (46%) each containing one isolate. However, 28% of the isolates were of genotypes that were recovered from more than one sampling day. Of the 80 genotypes, 65 and 2% were found in one or all four sampling periods throughout the day. However, they represented 23 and 14% of the isolates, respectively. Of the genotypes identified for each surface type, at least one contained ≥9 isolates. No unique genotypes were associated with carcasses, but 10, 17, and 19 were uniquely associated with cuts, trimmings, and the belt, respectively. Of the isolates recovered from cuts, 49, 3, and 19% were of genotypes that were found among isolates recovered from the belt, carcasses, or both the belt and carcasses, respectively. A similar composition was found for isolates recovered from trimmings. These findings show that the E. coli found on cuts and trimmings at this beef packing plant mainly originated from the conveyor belt and that small number of E. coli strains survived the daily cleaning and sanitation

  13. Genetic variability in maned wolf based on heterologous short-tandem repeat markers from domestic dog.

    PubMed

    Salim, D C; Akimoto, A A; Carvalho, C B; Oliveira, S F; Grisolia, C K; Moreira, J R; Klautau-Guimarães, M N

    2007-06-20

    The maned wolf (Chrysocyon brachyurus) is the largest South American canid. Habitat loss and fragmentation, due to agricultural expansion and predatory hunting, are the main threats to this species. It is included in the official list of threatened wildlife species in Brazil, and is also protected by IUCN and CITES. Highly variable genetic markers such as microsatellites have the potential to resolve genetic relationships at all levels of the population structure (among individuals, demes or metapopulations) and also to identify the evolutionary unit for strategies for the conservation of the species. Tests were carried out to verify whether a class of highly polymorphic tetranucleotide repeats described for the domestic dog effectively amplifies DNA in the maned wolf. All five loci studied were amplified; however, one of these, was shown to be monomorphic in 69 maned wolf samples. The average allele number and estimated heterozygosity per polymorphic locus were 4.3 and 67%, respectively. The genetic variability found for this species, which is considered threatened with extinction, showed similar results when compared to studies of other canids.

  14. OC125, M11 and OV197 epitopes are not uniformly distributed in the tandem-repeat region of CA125 and require the entire SEA domain.

    PubMed

    Bressan, Alessandro; Bozzo, Francesca; Maggi, Carlo Alberto; Binaschi, Monica

    2013-01-01

    The human cancer antigen 125 (CA125) is over-expressed in epithelial ovarian cancer cells and it plays a role in the pathogenesis of ovarian cancer. This protein presents a repeat region containing up to sixty tandem repeat units. The anti-CA125 monoclonal antibodies have been previously classified into three groups: two major families, the OC125-like antibodies and M11-like antibodies, and a third group, the OV197-like antibodies. A model in which a single repeat unit contains all the epitopes for these antibodies has been also proposed, even if their exact position is still undetermined. In the present work, the affinities of the monoclonal antibodies, representative of the three families, have been investigated for different CA125-recombinant repeats through Western blot analysis. Different patterns of antibody recognition for the recombinant repeats show that CA125 epitopes are not uniformly distributed in the tandem repeat region of the protein. The minimal region for the recognition of these antibodies has been also individuated in the SEA domain through the subcloning of deleted sequences of the highly recognized repeat-25 (R-25), their expression as recombinant fragments in E. coli and Western blot analysis. Obtained data have been further confirmed by ELISA using the entire R-25 as coating antigen.

  15. Characterization of the uup Locus and Its Role in Transposon Excisions and Tandem Repeat Deletions in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Reddy, Manjula; Gowrishankar, J.

    2000-01-01

    Null mutations in the Escherichia coli uup locus (at 21.8 min) serve to increase the frequency of RecA-independent precise excision of transposable elements such as Tn10 and to reduce the plaque size of bacteriophage Mu (Uup− phenotype). By the combined approaches of physical mapping of the mutations, complementation analyses, and protein overexpression from cloned gene fragments, we have demonstrated in this study that the Uup− phenotype is the consequence of the absence of expression of the downstream gene (uup) of a two-gene operon, caused either directly by insertions in uup or indirectly by the polar effect of insertions in the upstream gene (ycbY). The promoter for uup was mapped upstream of ycbY by primer extension analysis on cellular RNA, and assays of reporter gene expression indicated that it is a moderately active, constitutive promoter. The uup mutations were also shown to increase, in a RecA-independent manner, the frequencies of nearly precise excision of Tn10 derivatives and of the deletion of one copy of a chromosomal tandem repeat, suggesting the existence of a shared step or intermediate in the pathways of these latter events and that of precise excision. Finally, we found that mutations that increase the frequency of precise excision of Tn10 are divisible into two categories, depending upon whether they did (uup, ssb, polA, and topA) or did not (mutHLS, dam, and uvrD) also increase precise excision frequency of the mini-Tn10 derivatives. It is suggested that the differential response of mini-Tn10 and Tn10 to the second category of mutations is related to the presence, respectively, of perfect and of imperfect terminal inverted repeats in them. PMID:10715006

  16. A Systematic Evaluation of Short Tandem Repeats in Lipid Candidate Genes: Riding on the SNP-Wave

    PubMed Central

    Lamina, Claudia; Haun, Margot; Coassin, Stefan; Kloss-Brandstätter, Anita; Gieger, Christian; Peters, Annette; Grallert, Harald; Strauch, Konstantin; Meitinger, Thomas; Kedenko, Lyudmyla; Paulweber, Bernhard; Kronenberg, Florian

    2014-01-01

    Structural genetic variants as short tandem repeats (STRs) are not targeted in SNP-based association studies and thus, their possible association signals are missed. We systematically searched for STRs in gene regions known to contribute to total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, LDL cholesterol and triglyceride levels in two independent studies (KORA F4, n = 2553 and SAPHIR, n = 1648), resulting in 16 STRs that were finally evaluated. In a combined dataset of both studies, the sum of STR alleles was regressed on each phenotype, adjusted for age and sex. The association analyses were repeated for SNPs in a 200 kb region surrounding the respective STRs in the KORA F4 Study. Three STRs were significantly associated with total cholesterol (within LDLR, the APOA1/C3/A4/A5/BUD13 gene region and ABCG5/8), five with HDL cholesterol (3 within CETP, one in LPL and one inAPOA1/C3/A4/A5/BUD13), three with LDL cholesterol (LDLR, ABCG5/8 and CETP) and two with triglycerides (APOA1/C3/A4/A5/BUD13 and LPL). None of the investigated STRs, however, showed a significant association after adjusting for the lead or adjacent SNPs within that gene region. The evaluated STRs were found to be well tagged by the lead SNP within the respective gene regions. Therefore, the STRs reflect the association signals based on surrounding SNPs. In conclusion, none of the STRs contributed additionally to the SNP-based association signals identified in GWAS on lipid traits. PMID:25050552

  17. Screening of repetitive motifs inside the genome of the flat oyster (Ostrea edulis): Transposable elements and short tandem repeats.

    PubMed

    Vera, Manuel; Bello, Xabier; Álvarez-Dios, Jose-Antonio; Pardo, Belen G; Sánchez, Laura; Carlsson, Jens; Carlsson, Jeanette E L; Bartolomé, Carolina; Maside, Xulio; Martinez, Paulino

    2015-12-01

    The flat oyster (Ostrea edulis) is one of the most appreciated molluscs in Europe, but its production has been greatly reduced by the parasite Bonamia ostreae. Here, new generation genomic resources were used to analyse the repetitive fraction of the oyster genome, with the aim of developing molecular markers to face this main oyster production challenge. The resulting oyster database, consists of two sets of 10,318 and 7159 unique contigs (4.8 Mbp and 6.8 Mbp in total length) representing the oyster's genome (WG) and haemocyte transcriptome (HT), respectively. A total of 1083 sequences were identified as TE-derived, which corresponded to 4.0% of WG and 1.1% of HT. They were clustered into 142 homology groups, most of which were assigned to the Penelope order of retrotransposons, and to the Helitron and TIR DNA-transposons. Simple repeats and rRNA pseudogenes, also made a significant contribution to the oyster's genome (0.5% and 0.3% of WG and HT, respectively).The most frequent short tandem repeats identified in WG were tetranucleotide motifs while trinucleotide motifs were in HT. Forty identified microsatellite loci, 20 from each database, were selected for technical validation. Success was much lower among WG than HT microsatellites (15% vs 55%), which could reflect higher variation in anonymous regions interfering with primer annealing. All microsatellites developed adjusted to Hardy-Weinberg proportions and represent a useful tool to support future breeding programmes and to manage genetic resources of natural flat oyster beds. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Genetic analysis of the short tandem repeat system D12S391 in the German and three Asian populations.

    PubMed

    Waiyawuth, W; Zhang, L; Rittner, C; Schneider, P M

    1998-06-08

    Genomic DNA samples from 222 individuals from Southern China, 154 individuals from Thailand, 100 individuals from Japan as well as from 124 German individuals were analysed for the short tandem repeat (STR) locus D12S391. Typing was carried out by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification and subsequent polyacryramide gel electrophoresis and silver staining. In total, 12 alleles could be distinguished in two of the populations. Among Chinese, allele 19 is the most common with a frequency of 0.225, and among Germans, allele 18 with a frequency of 0.186. In the Thai population only 11 alleles could be distinguished and allele 19 is the most common with a frequency of 0.198. In Japanese, two previously unknown alleles 27 and 28 were detected, 14 alleles could be distinguished, and allele 18 is the most common with a frequency of 0.295. The expected exclusion chance for Chinese, Thai, Japanese and Germans in paternity cases is 0.67, 0.71, 0.67 and 0.75, respectively, and the discrimination power in identification cases is 0.95, 0.96, 0.95 and 0.97, respectively. Testing of the observed genotype distributions for Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium did not reveal any significant deviations. Segregation studies of 124 meioses among German families did not reveal any mutations at the D12S391 locus. In casework studies two variant alleles were detected with a trimeric repeat each (17.3 and 18.3), which have been confirmed by sequencing.

  19. High-Throughput Mycobacterial Interspersed Repetitive-Unit–Variable-Number Tandem-Repeat Genotyping for Mycobacterium tuberculosis Epidemiological Studies

    PubMed Central

    Bidault, Floriane; Mosnier, Amandine; Bablishvili, Nino; Tukvadze, Nestani; Somphavong, Silaphet; Paboriboune, Phimpha; Ocheretina, Oksana; Pape, Jean William; Paranhos-Baccala, Glaucia; Berland, Jean-Luc

    2014-01-01

    The emergence of drug-resistant forms of tuberculosis (TB) represents a major public health concern. Understanding the transmission routes of the disease is a key factor for its control and for the implementation of efficient interventions. Mycobacterial interspersed repetitive-unit–variable-number tandem-repeat (MIRU-VNTR) marker typing is a well-described method for lineage identification and transmission tracking. However, the conventional manual genotyping technique is cumbersome and time-consuming and entails many risks for errors, thus hindering its implementation and dissemination. We describe here a new approach using the QIAxcel system, an automated high-throughput capillary electrophoresis system that also carries out allele calling. This automated method was assessed on 1,824 amplicons from 82 TB isolates and tested with sets of markers of 15 or 24 loci. Overall allele-calling concordance between the methods from 140 to 1,317 bp was 98.9%. DNA concentrations and repeatability and reproducibility performances showed no biases in allele calling. Furthermore, turnaround time using this automated system was reduced by 81% compared to the conventional manual agarose gel method. In sum, this new automated method facilitates MIRU-VNTR genotyping and provides reliable results. Therefore, it is well suited for field genotyping. The implementation of this method will help to achieve accurate and cost-effective epidemiological studies, especially in countries with a high prevalence of TB, where the high number of strains complicates the surveillance of circulating lineages and requires efficient interventions to be carried out in an urgent manner. PMID:25428144

  20. A graphical simulation model of the entire DNA process associated with the analysis of short tandem repeat loci.

    PubMed

    Gill, Peter; Curran, James; Elliot, Keith

    2005-01-01

    The use of expert systems to interpret short tandem repeat DNA profiles in forensic, medical and ancient DNA applications is becoming increasingly prevalent as high-throughput analytical systems generate large amounts of data that are time-consuming to process. With special reference to low copy number (LCN) applications, we use a graphical model to simulate stochastic variation associated with the entire DNA process starting with extraction of sample, followed by the processing associated with the preparation of a PCR reaction mixture and PCR itself. Each part of the process is modelled with input efficiency parameters. Then, the key output parameters that define the characteristics of a DNA profile are derived, namely heterozygote balance (Hb) and the probability of allelic drop-out p(D). The model can be used to estimate the unknown efficiency parameters, such as pi(extraction). 'What-if' scenarios can be used to improve and optimize the entire process, e.g. by increasing the aliquot forwarded to PCR, the improvement expected to a given DNA profile can be reliably predicted. We demonstrate that Hb and drop-out are mainly a function of stochastic effect of pre-PCR molecular selection. Whole genome amplification is unlikely to give any benefit over conventional PCR for LCN.

  1. High Throughput Multiple Locus Variable Number of Tandem Repeat Analysis (MLVA) of Staphylococcus aureus from Human, Animal and Food Sources

    PubMed Central

    Sobral, Daniel; Schwarz, Stefan; Bergonier, Dominique; Brisabois, Anne; Feßler, Andrea T.; Gilbert, Florence B.; Kadlec, Kristina; Lebeau, Benoit; Loisy-Hamon, Fabienne; Treilles, Michaël; Pourcel, Christine; Vergnaud, Gilles

    2012-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a major human pathogen, a relevant pathogen in veterinary medicine, and a major cause of food poisoning. Epidemiological investigation tools are needed to establish surveillance of S. aureus strains in humans, animals and food. In this study, we investigated 145 S. aureus isolates recovered from various animal species, disease conditions, food products and food poisoning events. Multiple Locus Variable Number of Tandem Repeat (VNTR) analysis (MLVA), known to be highly efficient for the genotyping of human S. aureus isolates, was used and shown to be equally well suited for the typing of animal S. aureus isolates. MLVA was improved by using sixteen VNTR loci amplified in two multiplex PCRs and analyzed by capillary electrophoresis ensuring a high throughput and high discriminatory power. The isolates were assigned to twelve known clonal complexes (CCs) and –a few singletons. Half of the test collection belonged to four CCs (CC9, CC97, CC133, CC398) previously described as mostly associated with animals. The remaining eight CCs (CC1, CC5, CC8, CC15, CC25, CC30, CC45, CC51), representing 46% of the animal isolates, are common in humans. Interestingly, isolates responsible for food poisoning show a CC distribution signature typical of human isolates and strikingly different from animal isolates, suggesting a predominantly human origin. PMID:22567085

  2. Evolutionary Conservation of a Coding Function for D4Z4, the Tandem DNA Repeat Mutated in Facioscapulohumeral Muscular Dystrophy

    PubMed Central

    Clapp, Jannine ; Mitchell, Laura M. ; Bolland, Daniel J. ; Fantes, Judy ; Corcoran, Anne E. ; Scotting, Paul J. ; Armour, John A. L. ; Hewitt, Jane E. 

    2007-01-01

    Facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD) is caused by deletions within the polymorphic DNA tandem array D4Z4. Each D4Z4 repeat unit has an open reading frame (ORF), termed “DUX4,” containing two homeobox sequences. Because there has been no evidence of a transcript from the array, these deletions are thought to cause FSHD by a position effect on other genes. Here, we identify D4Z4 homologues in the genomes of rodents, Afrotheria (superorder of elephants and related species), and other species and show that the DUX4 ORF is conserved. Phylogenetic analysis suggests that primate and Afrotherian D4Z4 arrays are orthologous and originated from a retrotransposed copy of an intron-containing DUX gene, DUXC. Reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction and RNA fluorescence and tissue in situ hybridization data indicate transcription of the mouse array. Together with the conservation of the DUX4 ORF for >100 million years, this strongly supports a coding function for D4Z4 and necessitates re-examination of current models of the FSHD disease mechanism. PMID:17668377

  3. Molecular typing of Argentinian Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis isolates by multiple-locus variable number-tandem repeat analysis.

    PubMed

    Gioffré, Andrea; Correa Muñoz, Magnolia; Alvarado Pinedo, María F; Vaca, Roberto; Morsella, Claudia; Fiorentino, María Andrea; Paolicchi, Fernando; Ruybal, Paula; Zumárraga, Martín; Travería, Gabriel E; Romano, María Isabel

    2015-06-01

    Multiple-locus variable number-tandem repeat analysis (MLVA) of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) isolates may contribute to the knowledge of strain diversity in Argentina. Although the diversity of MAP has been previously investigated in Argentina using IS900-RFLP, a small number of isolates were employed, and a low discriminative power was reached. The aim of the present study was to test the genetic diversity among MAP isolates using an MLVA approach based on 8 repetitive loci. We studied 97 isolates from cattle, goat and sheep and could describe 7 different patterns: INMV1, INMV2, INMV11, INMV13, INMV16, INMV33 and one incomplete pattern. INMV1 and INMV2 were the most frequent patterns, grouping 76.3% of the isolates. We were also able to demonstrate the coexistence of genotypes in herds and co-infection at the organism level. This study shows that all the patterns described are common to those described in Europe, suggesting an epidemiological link between the continents.

  4. Crystal structures of ryanodine receptor SPRY1 and tandem-repeat domains reveal a critical FKBP12 binding determinant

    PubMed Central

    Yuchi, Zhiguang; Yuen, Siobhan M. Wong King; Lau, Kelvin; Underhill, Ainsley Q.; Cornea, Razvan L.; Fessenden, James D.; Van Petegem, Filip

    2015-01-01

    Ryanodine receptors (RyRs) form calcium release channels located in the membranes of the sarcoplasmic and endoplasmic reticulum. RyRs play a major role in excitation-contraction coupling and other Ca2+-dependent signalling events, and consist of several globular domains that together form a large assembly. Here we describe the crystal structures of the SPRY1 and tandem-repeat domains at 1.2–1.5 Å resolution, which reveal several structural elements not detected in recent cryo-EM reconstructions of RyRs. The cryo-EM studies disagree on the position of SPRY domains, which had been proposed based on homology modelling. Computational docking of the crystal structures, combined with FRET studies, show that the SPRY1 domain is located next to FK506-binding protein (FKBP). Molecular dynamics flexible fitting and mutagenesis experiments suggest a hydrophobic cluster within SPRY1 that is crucial for FKBP binding. A RyR1 disease mutation, N760D, appears to directly impact FKBP binding through interfering with SPRY1 folding. PMID:26245150

  5. Evolutionary History of the PER3 Variable Number of Tandem Repeats (VNTR): Idiosyncratic Aspect of Primate Molecular Circadian Clock

    PubMed Central

    Sabino, Flávia Cal; Ribeiro, Amanda Oliveira; Tufik, Sérgio; Torres, Laila Brito; Oliveira, José Américo; Mello, Luiz Eugênio Araújo Moraes; Cavalcante, Jeferson Souza; Pedrazzoli, Mario

    2014-01-01

    The PER3 gene is one of the clock genes, which function in the core mammalian molecular circadian system. A variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR) locus in the 18th exon of this gene has been strongly associated to circadian rhythm phenotypes and sleep organization in humans, but it has not been identified in other mammals except primates. To better understand the evolution and the placement of the PER3 VNTR in a phylogenetical context, the present study enlarges the investigation about the presence and the structure of this variable region in a large sample of primate species and other mammals. The analysis of the results has revealed that the PER3 VNTR occurs exclusively in simiiforme primates and that the number of copies of the primitive unit ranges from 2 to 11 across different primate species. Two transposable elements surrounding the 18th exon of PER3 were found in primates with published genome sequences, including the tarsiiforme Tarsius syrichta, which lacks the VNTR. These results suggest that this VNTR may have evolved in a common ancestor of the simiiforme branch and that the evolutionary copy number differentiation of this VNTR may be associated with primate simiiformes sleep and circadian phenotype patterns. PMID:25222750

  6. Fifteen non-CODIS autosomal short tandem repeat loci multiplex data from nine population groups living in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Hwa, Hsiao-Lin; Chang, Yih-Yuan; Lee, James Chun-I; Lin, Chun-Yen; Yin, Hsiang-Yi; Tseng, Li-Hui; Su, Yi-Ning; Ko, Tsang-Ming

    2012-07-01

    The analysis of autosomal short tandem repeat (STR) loci is a powerful tool in forensic genetics. We developed a multiplex system in which 15 non-Combined DNA Index System autosomal STRs (D3S1744, D4S2366, D8S1110, D10S2325, D12S1090, D13S765, D14S608, Penta E, D17S1294, D18S536, D18S1270, D20S470, D21S1437, Penta D, and D22S683) could be amplified in one single polymerase chain reaction. DNA samples from 1,098 unrelated subjects of nine population groups living in Taiwan, including Taiwanese Han, indigenous Taiwanese of Taiwan Island, Tao, mainland Chinese, Filipinos, Thais, Vietnamese, Indonesians, and Caucasians, were collected and analyzed using this system. The distributions of the allelic frequencies and the forensic parameters of each population group were presented. The combined discrimination power and the combined power of exclusion were high in all population groups tested in this study. A multidimensional scaling plot of these nine population groups based on the Reynolds' genetic distances calculated from 15 autosomal STRs was constructed, and the genetic substructure in this area was presented. In conclusion, this 15 autosomal STR multiplex system provides highly informative STR data and appears useful in forensic casework and parentage testing in different populations.

  7. The development and application of a multiplex short tandem repeat (STR) system for identifying subspecies, individuals and sex in tigers.

    PubMed

    Zou, Zheng-Ting; Uphyrkina, Olga V; Fomenko, Pavel; Luo, Shu-Jin

    2015-07-01

    Poaching and trans-boundary trafficking of tigers and body parts are threatening the world's last remaining wild tigers. Development of an efficient molecular genetic assay for tracing the origins of confiscated specimens will assist in law enforcement and wildlife forensics for this iconic flagship species. We developed a multiplex genotyping system "tigrisPlex" to simultaneously assess 22 short tandem repeat (STR, or microsatellite) loci and a gender-identifying SRY gene, all amplified in 4 reactions using as little as 1 ng of template DNA. With DNA samples used for between-run calibration, the system generates STR genotypes that are directly compatible with voucher tiger subspecies genetic profiles, hence making it possible to identify subspecies via bi-parentally inherited markers. We applied "tigrisPlex" to 12 confiscated specimens from Russia and identified 6 individuals (3 females and 3 males), each represented by duplicated samples and all designated as Amur tigers (Panthera tigris altaica) with high confidence. This STR multiplex system can serve as an effective and versatile approach for genetic profiling of both wild and captive tigers as well as confiscated tiger products, fulfilling various conservation needs for identifying the origins of tiger samples. © 2015 International Society of Zoological Sciences, Institute of Zoology/Chinese Academy of Sciences and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  8. Crystal structures of ryanodine receptor SPRY1 and tandem-repeat domains reveal a critical FKBP12 binding determinant.

    PubMed

    Yuchi, Zhiguang; Yuen, Siobhan M Wong King; Lau, Kelvin; Underhill, Ainsley Q; Cornea, Razvan L; Fessenden, James D; Van Petegem, Filip

    2015-08-06

    Ryanodine receptors (RyRs) form calcium release channels located in the membranes of the sarcoplasmic and endoplasmic reticulum. RyRs play a major role in excitation-contraction coupling and other Ca(2+)-dependent signalling events, and consist of several globular domains that together form a large assembly. Here we describe the crystal structures of the SPRY1 and tandem-repeat domains at 1.2-1.5 Å resolution, which reveal several structural elements not detected in recent cryo-EM reconstructions of RyRs. The cryo-EM studies disagree on the position of SPRY domains, which had been proposed based on homology modelling. Computational docking of the crystal structures, combined with FRET studies, show that the SPRY1 domain is located next to FK506-binding protein (FKBP). Molecular dynamics flexible fitting and mutagenesis experiments suggest a hydrophobic cluster within SPRY1 that is crucial for FKBP binding. A RyR1 disease mutation, N760D, appears to directly impact FKBP binding through interfering with SPRY1 folding.

  9. Highly Effective DNA Extraction Method for Nuclear Short Tandem Repeat Testing of Skeletal Remains from Mass Graves

    PubMed Central

    Davoren, Jon; Vanek, Daniel; Konjhodzić, Rijad; Crews, John; Huffine, Edwin; Parsons, Thomas J.

    2007-01-01

    Aim To quantitatively compare a silica extraction method with a commonly used phenol/chloroform extraction method for DNA analysis of specimens exhumed from mass graves. Methods DNA was extracted from twenty randomly chosen femur samples, using the International Commission on Missing Persons (ICMP) silica method, based on Qiagen Blood Maxi Kit, and compared with the DNA extracted by the standard phenol/chloroform-based method. The efficacy of extraction methods was compared by real time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to measure DNA quantity and the presence of inhibitors and by amplification with the PowerPlex 16 (PP16) multiplex nuclear short tandem repeat (STR) kit. Results DNA quantification results showed that the silica-based method extracted on average 1.94 ng of DNA per gram of bone (range 0.25-9.58 ng/g), compared with only 0.68 ng/g by the organic method extracted (range 0.0016-4.4880 ng/g). Inhibition tests showed that there were on average significantly lower levels of PCR inhibitors in DNA isolated by the organic method. When amplified with PP16, all samples extracted by silica-based method produced 16 full loci profiles, while only 75% of the DNA extracts obtained by organic technique amplified 16 loci profiles. Conclusions The silica-based extraction method showed better results in nuclear STR typing from degraded bone samples than a commonly used phenol/chloroform method. PMID:17696302

  10. Molecular typing of Argentinian Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis isolates by multiple-locus variable number-tandem repeat analysis

    PubMed Central

    Gioffré, Andrea; Correa Muñoz, Magnolia; Alvarado Pinedo, María F.; Vaca, Roberto; Morsella, Claudia; Fiorentino, María Andrea; Paolicchi, Fernando; Ruybal, Paula; Zumárraga, Martín; Travería, Gabriel E.; Romano, María Isabel

    2015-01-01

    Multiple-locus variable number-tandem repeat analysis (MLVA) of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) isolates may contribute to the knowledge of strain diversity in Argentina. Although the diversity of MAP has been previously investigated in Argentina using IS900-RFLP, a small number of isolates were employed, and a low discriminative power was reached. The aim of the present study was to test the genetic diversity among MAP isolates using an MLVA approach based on 8 repetitive loci. We studied 97 isolates from cattle, goat and sheep and could describe 7 different patterns: INMV1, INMV2, INMV11, INMV13, INMV16, INMV33 and one incomplete pattern. INMV1 and INMV2 were the most frequent patterns, grouping 76.3% of the isolates. We were also able to demonstrate the coexistence of genotypes in herds and co-infection at the organism level. This study shows that all the patterns described are common to those described in Europe, suggesting an epidemiological link between the continents. PMID:26273274

  11. First worldwide proficiency study on variable-number tandem-repeat typing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex strains.

    PubMed

    de Beer, Jessica L; Kremer, Kristin; Ködmön, Csaba; Supply, Philip; van Soolingen, Dick

    2012-03-01

    Although variable-number tandem-repeat (VNTR) typing has gained recognition as the new standard for the DNA fingerprinting of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) isolates, external quality control programs have not yet been developed. Therefore, we organized the first multicenter proficiency study on 24-locus VNTR typing. Sets of 30 DNAs of MTBC strains, including 10 duplicate DNA samples, were distributed among 37 participating laboratories in 30 different countries worldwide. Twenty-four laboratories used an in-house-adapted method with fragment sizing by gel electrophoresis or an automated DNA analyzer, nine laboratories used a commercially available kit, and four laboratories used other methods. The intra- and interlaboratory reproducibilities of VNTR typing varied from 0% to 100%, with averages of 72% and 60%, respectively. Twenty of the 37 laboratories failed to amplify particular VNTR loci; if these missing results were ignored, the number of laboratories with 100% interlaboratory reproducibility increased from 1 to 5. The average interlaboratory reproducibility of VNTR typing using a commercial kit was better (88%) than that of in-house-adapted methods using a DNA analyzer (70%) or gel electrophoresis (50%). Eleven laboratories using in-house-adapted manual typing or automated typing scored inter- and intralaboratory reproducibilities of 80% or higher, which suggests that these approaches can be used in a reliable way. In conclusion, this first multicenter study has documented the worldwide quality of VNTR typing of MTBC strains and highlights the importance of international quality control to improve genotyping in the future.

  12. Mimosoid legume plastome evolution: IR expansion, tandem repeat expansions, and accelerated rate of evolution in clpP

    PubMed Central

    Dugas, Diana V.; Hernandez, David; Koenen, Erik J.M.; Schwarz, Erika; Straub, Shannon; Hughes, Colin E.; Jansen, Robert K.; Nageswara-Rao, Madhugiri; Staats, Martijn; Trujillo, Joshua T.; Hajrah, Nahid H.; Alharbi, Njud S.; Al-Malki, Abdulrahman L.; Sabir, Jamal S. M.; Bailey, C. Donovan

    2015-01-01

    The Leguminosae has emerged as a model for studying angiosperm plastome evolution because of its striking diversity of structural rearrangements and sequence variation. However, most of what is known about legume plastomes comes from few genera representing a subset of lineages in subfamily Papilionoideae. We investigate plastome evolution in subfamily Mimosoideae based on two newly sequenced plastomes (Inga and Leucaena) and two recently published plastomes (Acacia and Prosopis), and discuss the results in the context of other legume and rosid plastid genomes. Mimosoid plastomes have a typical angiosperm gene content and general organization as well as a generally slow rate of protein coding gene evolution, but they are the largest known among legumes. The increased length results from tandem repeat expansions and an unusual 13 kb IR-SSC boundary shift in Acacia and Inga. Mimosoid plastomes harbor additional interesting features, including loss of clpP intron1 in Inga, accelerated rates of evolution in clpP for Acacia and Inga, and dN/dS ratios consistent with neutral and positive selection for several genes. These new plastomes and results provide important resources for legume comparative genomics, plant breeding, and plastid genetic engineering, while shedding further light on the complexity of plastome evolution in legumes and angiosperms. PMID:26592928

  13. A graphical simulation model of the entire DNA process associated with the analysis of short tandem repeat loci

    PubMed Central

    Gill, Peter; Curran, James; Elliot, Keith

    2005-01-01

    The use of expert systems to interpret short tandem repeat DNA profiles in forensic, medical and ancient DNA applications is becoming increasingly prevalent as high-throughput analytical systems generate large amounts of data that are time-consuming to process. With special reference to low copy number (LCN) applications, we use a graphical model to simulate stochastic variation associated with the entire DNA process starting with extraction of sample, followed by the processing associated with the preparation of a PCR reaction mixture and PCR itself. Each part of the process is modelled with input efficiency parameters. Then, the key output parameters that define the characteristics of a DNA profile are derived, namely heterozygote balance (Hb) and the probability of allelic drop-out p(D). The model can be used to estimate the unknown efficiency parameters, such as πextraction. ‘What-if’ scenarios can be used to improve and optimize the entire process, e.g. by increasing the aliquot forwarded to PCR, the improvement expected to a given DNA profile can be reliably predicted. We demonstrate that Hb and drop-out are mainly a function of stochastic effect of pre-PCR molecular selection. Whole genome amplification is unlikely to give any benefit over conventional PCR for LCN. PMID:15681615

  14. Detection of aneuploidies in spontaneous abortions by quantitative fluorescent PCR with short tandem repeat markers: a retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Coelho, F F; Marques, F K; Gonçalves, M S; Almeida, V C O; Mateo, E C C; Ferreira, A C S

    2016-09-23

    Approximately 10-15% of all pregnancies end in spontaneous abortions. Many factors can lead to embryonic loss; however, it has been well established that over 50% of all miscarriages result from chromosomal abnormalities, primarily aneuploidies (>96%). Identifying the cause of miscarriage can significantly reduce the psychological stress in women, and enable better genetic counseling for a future pregnancy. Quantitative fluorescent polymerase chain reaction (QF-PCR) has been previously used in the study of chromosomal abnormalities. In this retrospective study, the frequency of aneuploidy in samples of 130 miscarriages undergone by patients (age average: 34.1 ± 4.6 years) at our institution was determined by QF-PCR using short tandem repeat markers. The gender of the miscarriage cases was determined by amplifying the amelogenin locus (70 males and 60 females). Seventy-one of these cases (54.6%) presented aneuploidies such as trisomy, monosomy, triploidy, and double trisomy. Trisomy 22 was the most common aneuploidy (present in 14 cases), followed by trisomy 15, trisomy 16, and monosomy X. We also observed monosomy at chromosomes X and 21 and a case with multiple aneuploidies at chromosomes 16 and 22. The most common aneuploidies associated with miscarriages were detected by QF-PCR; therefore, we concluded that QF-PCR is a rapid and reliable method for the detection of aneuploidy, and can be used as an accessory to the widely used karyotype analysis.

  15. Genotyping of dairy Bacillus licheniformis isolates by high resolution melt analysis of multiple variable number tandem repeat loci.

    PubMed

    Dhakal, Rajat; Chauhan, Kanika; Seale, R Brent; Deeth, Hilton C; Pillidge, Christopher J; Powell, Ian B; Craven, Heather; Turner, Mark S

    2013-06-01

    In dairy foods, the sporeformer Bacillus licheniformis can be the cause of spoilage or specification compliance issues. Currently used methods for genotyping B. licheniformis have limited discrimination with only 2 or 3 different subgroups being identified. Here, we have developed a multi-locus variable number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA) method and combined it with high resolution melt analysis (MLV-HRMA) for genotyping B. licheniformis. Five repetitive loci were identified and used as markers for genotyping 52 isolates from two milk powder processing plants and retail samples. Nineteen genotypes could be identified using both MLVA and MLV-HRMA leading to Hunter-Gaston discrimination indices (D-value) of 0.93 each. It was found that all 5 MLVA loci were stable following 10 days of sub-culturing of 8 representative isolates. All isolates were also genotyped using previously used methods including randomly amplified polymorphic DNA-PCR (RAPD) and partial rpoB sequencing. Five different RAPD profiles and 5 different partial rpoB sequence types were identified resulting in corresponding D-values of 0.6 and 0.46, respectively. Analysis of the genotypes from dairy samples revealed that dairy B. licheniformis isolates are more heterogeneous than previously thought and that this new method can potentially allow for more discriminatory tracking and monitoring of specific genotypes.

  16. Genetic mapping of 15 human X chromosomal forensic short tandem repeat (STR) loci by means of multi-core parallelization.

    PubMed

    Diegoli, Toni Marie; Rohde, Heinrich; Borowski, Stefan; Krawczak, Michael; Coble, Michael D; Nothnagel, Michael

    2016-11-01

    Typing of X chromosomal short tandem repeat (X STR) markers has become a standard element of human forensic genetic analysis. Joint consideration of many X STR markers at a time increases their discriminatory power but, owing to physical linkage, requires inter-marker recombination rates to be accurately known. We estimated the recombination rates between 15 well established X STR markers using genotype data from 158 families (1041 individuals) and following a previously proposed likelihood-based approach that allows for single-step mutations. To meet the computational requirements of this family-based type of analysis, we modified a previous implementation so as to allow multi-core parallelization on a high-performance computing system. While we obtained recombination rate estimates larger than zero for all but one pair of adjacent markers within the four previously proposed linkage groups, none of the three X STR pairs defining the junctions of these groups yielded a recombination rate estimate of 0.50. Corroborating previous studies, our results therefore argue against a simple model of independent X chromosomal linkage groups. Moreover, the refined recombination fraction estimates obtained in our study will facilitate the appropriate joint consideration of all 15 investigated markers in forensic analysis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Application of Short Tandem Repeat markers in diagnosis of chromosomal aneuploidies and forensic DNA investigation in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Chishti, Hafsah Muhammad; Ansar, Muhammad; Ajmal, Muhammad; Hameed, Abdul

    2014-09-15

    Short Tandem Repeat (STR) genetic markers hold great potential in forensic investigations, molecular diagnostics and molecular genetics research. AmpFlSTR® Identifiler™ PCR amplification kit is a multiplex system for co-amplification of 15 STR markers used worldwide in forensic investigations. This study attempts to assess forensic validity of these STRs in Pakistani population and to investigate its applicability in quick and simultaneous diagnosis and tracing parental source of common chromosomal aneuploidies. Samples from 554 healthy Pakistani individuals from 5 different ethnicities were analyzed for forensic parameters using Identifiler STRs and 74 patients' samples with different aneuploidies were evaluated for diagnostic strengths of these markers. All STRs hold sufficient forensic applicability in Pakistani population with paternity index between 1.5 and 3.5, polymorphic information content from 0.63 to 0.87 and discrimination power ≥0.9 (except TPOX locus). Variation from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium was observed at some loci reflecting selective breeding and intermarriages trend in Pakistan. Among aneuploidic samples, all trisomies were precisely detectable while aneuploidies involving sex chromosomes or missing chromosomes were not clearly detectable using Identifiler STRs. Parental origin of aneuploidy was traceable in 92.54% patients. The studied STR markers are valuable tools for forensic application in Pakistan and utilizable for quick and simultaneous identification of some common trisomic conditions. Adding more sex chromosome specific STR markers can immensely increase the diagnostic and forensic potential of this system. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. [Genetic polymorphisms of 9 non-combined of DNA index system short tandem repeat loci in Guangdong Han population].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jin-xiang; Xue, Tian-yu; Li, Hai-xia; Sun, Hong-yu; Cheng, Jian-ding

    2009-10-01

    To investigate the genetic polymorphisms and their forensic application of 9 non-combined of DNA index system (CODIS) short tandem repeat(STR) loci in Guangdong Han population. DNA samples from 500 unrelated individuals were extracted and amplified with fluorescence labeled multiplex PCR system. PCR products were separated and genotyped with capillary electrophoresis. One hundred and fifteen alleles and 160 genotypes were observed in the 9 STR loci, respectively. The heterozygosity was 0.824-0.884, the discrimination power (DP) was 0.925-0.969 and the polymorphism information content (PIC) was 0.77-0.86, respectively. The distribution met the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (P > 0.05). The total discrimination power was 1.00 x 10(-13), the combined probability of exclusion for trio-paternity testing was 0.999989488. The combined probability of exclusion for duo-paternity testing was 0.873436. The 9 STR loci are powerful and reliable for personal identification and paternity testing. They can be used as supplementary loci in fatherless (motherless) testing or cases with mutation events.

  19. Polymorphic tandem repeats within gene promoters act as modifiers of gene expression and DNA methylation in humans.

    PubMed

    Quilez, Javier; Guilmatre, Audrey; Garg, Paras; Highnam, Gareth; Gymrek, Melissa; Erlich, Yaniv; Joshi, Ricky S; Mittelman, David; Sharp, Andrew J

    2016-05-05

    Despite representing an important source of genetic variation, tandem repeats (TRs) remain poorly studied due to technical difficulties. We hypothesized that TRs can operate as expression (eQTLs) and methylation (mQTLs) quantitative trait loci. To test this we analyzed the effect of variation at 4849 promoter-associated TRs, genotyped in 120 individuals, on neighboring gene expression and DNA methylation. Polymorphic promoter TRs were associated with increased variance in local gene expression and DNA methylation, suggesting functional consequences related to TR variation. We identified >100 TRs associated with expression/methylation levels of adjacent genes. These potential eQTL/mQTL TRs were enriched for overlaps with transcription factor binding and DNaseI hypersensitivity sites, providing a rationale for their effects. Moreover, we showed that most TR variants are poorly tagged by nearby single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) markers, indicating that many functional TR variants are not effectively assayed by SNP-based approaches. Our study assigns biological significance to TR variations in the human genome, and suggests that a significant fraction of TR variations exert functional effects via alterations of local gene expression or epigenetics. We conclude that targeted studies that focus on genotyping TR variants are required to fully ascertain functional variation in the genome. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  20. Short tandem repeat polymorphism in the flanking region of the human phosphoglycerate kinase gene in a Japanese population.

    PubMed

    Tie, Jian; Serizawa, Yuka; Oshida, Shigemi; Usami, Ron; Yoshida, Yasuhiko

    2006-04-01

    The human phosphoglycerate kinase (PGK1) gene is located within Xqll-Xql3 and is closely linked to the androgen receptor gene within a region implicated in a number of X-chromosome-linked urologic disorders. A polymorphism of a TATC short tandem repeat (STR) is present downstream from the PGK1 3' nuclease-sensitive site. We present the PGK1 flanking STR sequence and population genetic data for 190 Japanese males and 83 Japanese females. Ten STR alleles and 29 genotypes were identified in the population. Five alleles--*10, *11, *12, *13, and *14--were common in the Japanese with frequencies greater than 10%. No significant deviations from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium were established. The power of discrimination was 0.993 for females and 0.819 for males; heterozygosity was 0.759 for females; and the polymorphic information content was 0.936. These data indicate that this STR locus shows a high degree of polymorphism in this Japanese population and may prove to be a useful genetic marker in forensic medicine, in determining the clonality of neoplasms, and potentially in studying predisposition to prostate cancer and other urologic diseases.

  1. Molecular Typing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Based on Variable Number of Tandem DNA Repeats Used Alone and in Association with Spoligotyping

    PubMed Central

    Filliol, Ingrid; Ferdinand, Severine; Negroni, Laetitia; Sola, Christophe; Rastogi, Nalin

    2000-01-01

    Fingerprinting based on variable numbers of tandem DNA repeats (VNTR), a recently described methodology, was evaluated for molecular typing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in an insular setting. In this study, VNTR fingerprinting was used alone or as a second-line test in association with spoligotyping, double-repetitive-element PCR (DRE-PCR), and IS6110 restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis, and the discriminatory power for each method or the combination of methods was compared by calculating the Hunter-Gaston discriminative index (HGI). The results obtained showed that in 6 out of 12 (50%) cases, VNTR-defined clusters were further subdivided by spoligotyping, compared to 7 out of 18 (39%) cases where spoligotyping-defined clusters were further subdivided by VNTR. When used alone, VNTR was the least discriminatory method (HGI = 0.863). Although VNTR was significantly more discriminatory when used in association with spoligotyping (HGI = 0.982), the combination of spoligotyping and DRE-PCR (HGI = 0.992) was still the most efficient among rapid, PCR-based methodologies, giving results comparable to IS6110 RFLP analysis. Nonetheless, VNTR typing may provide additional phylogenetical information that may be helpful to trace the molecular evolution of tubercle bacilli. PMID:10878036

  2. First Worldwide Proficiency Study on Variable-Number Tandem-Repeat Typing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Complex Strains

    PubMed Central

    de Beer, Jessica L.; Kremer, Kristin; Ködmön, Csaba; Supply, Philip

    2012-01-01

    Although variable-number tandem-repeat (VNTR) typing has gained recognition as the new standard for the DNA fingerprinting of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) isolates, external quality control programs have not yet been developed. Therefore, we organized the first multicenter proficiency study on 24-locus VNTR typing. Sets of 30 DNAs of MTBC strains, including 10 duplicate DNA samples, were distributed among 37 participating laboratories in 30 different countries worldwide. Twenty-four laboratories used an in-house-adapted method with fragment sizing by gel electrophoresis or an automated DNA analyzer, nine laboratories used a commercially available kit, and four laboratories used other methods. The intra- and interlaboratory reproducibilities of VNTR typing varied from 0% to 100%, with averages of 72% and 60%, respectively. Twenty of the 37 laboratories failed to amplify particular VNTR loci; if these missing results were ignored, the number of laboratories with 100% interlaboratory reproducibility increased from 1 to 5. The average interlaboratory reproducibility of VNTR typing using a commercial kit was better (88%) than that of in-house-adapted methods using a DNA analyzer (70%) or gel electrophoresis (50%). Eleven laboratories using in-house-adapted manual typing or automated typing scored inter- and intralaboratory reproducibilities of 80% or higher, which suggests that these approaches can be used in a reliable way. In conclusion, this first multicenter study has documented the worldwide quality of VNTR typing of MTBC strains and highlights the importance of international quality control to improve genotyping in the future. PMID:22170917

  3. Cross Protection against Influenza A Virus by Yeast-Expressed Heterologous Tandem Repeat M2 Extracellular Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Yu-Na; Kim, Min-Chul; Lee, Young-Tae; Hwang, Hye Suk; Lee, Jongsang; Kim, Cheol; Kang, Sang-Moo

    2015-01-01

    The influenza M2 ectodomain (M2e) is well conserved across human influenza A subtypes, but there are few residue changes among avian and swine origin influenza A viruses. We expressed a tandem repeat construct of heterologous M2e sequences (M2e5x) derived from human, swine, and avian origin influenza A viruses using the yeast expression system. Intramuscular immunization of mice with AS04-adjuvanted M2e5x protein vaccines was effective in inducing M2e-specific antibodies reactive to M2e peptide and native M2 proteins on the infected cells with human, swine, or avian influenza virus, mucosal and systemic memory cellular immune responses, and cross-protection against H3N2 virus. Importantly, M2e5x immune sera were found to confer protection against different subtypes of H1N1 and H5N1 influenza A viruses in naïve mice. Also, M2e5x-immune complexes of virus-infected cells stimulated macrophages to secrete cytokines via Fc receptors, indicating a possible mechanism of protection. The present study provides evidence that M2e5x proteins produced in yeast cells could be developed as a potential universal influenza vaccine. PMID:26366729

  4. Multi-locus variable number tandem repeat analysis of Vibrio cholerae isolates from 2012 to 2013 cholera outbreaks in Iran.

    PubMed

    Ranjbar, R; Sadeghy, J; Shokri Moghadam, M; Bakhshi, B

    2016-08-01

    Cholera remains to be an international threat, with high rates of illness and death. In 2012 and 2013, two cholera outbreak happened in Iran, affecting lots of people. Vibrio cholerae O1 was confirmed as the etiological agent. Source identification and controlling the spread of the cholera disease are two critical approaches in cholera outbreaks. In this study, thirty V. cholerae O1 isolates were selected and has been evaluated for antimicrobial resistant as well as molecular typing by multilocus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis (MLVA) method. Twenty-nine (97%) isolates were sero-grouped as El Tor (one isolate was classical) and 100% were related to Inaba serotype. All of the isolates were susceptible to ciprofloxacin, chloramphenicol, ampicillin and gentamicin. On the other hand, 60% of the isolates were MDR (resistant to 3 or more classes). There were three resistance patterns. The most prevalent pattern was resistance to streptomycin, erythromycin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, and tetracycline (ST-SXT-E-T) which was seen in 50% of isolates. Using MLVA method 14 MLVA types were identified. MLVA type 2 (5-7-7-16-15) accounted for 43% of isolates. Isolates with the same genotype often did not have the same antibiogram. Overall, the data indicate that the Iranian V. cholerae were MDR and clonaly related. Furthermore, the results of this study shows that MLVA can be used as useful method for V. cholerae genotyping in epidemiological investigations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. VivaxGEN: An open access platform for comparative analysis of short tandem repeat genotyping data in Plasmodium vivax populations

    PubMed Central

    Trimarsanto, Hidayat; Benavente, Ernest D.; Noviyanti, Rintis; Utami, Retno Ayu Setya; Trianty, Leily; Pava, Zuleima; Getachew, Sisay; Kim, Jung-Yeon; Goo, Youn-Kyoung; Wangchuck, Sonam; Liu, Yaobao; Gao, Qi; Dowd, Simone; Cheng, Qin; Clark, Taane G.; Price, Ric N.

    2017-01-01

    Background The control and elimination of Plasmodium vivax will require a better understanding of its transmission dynamics, through the application of genotyping and population genetics analyses. This paper describes VivaxGEN (http://vivaxgen.menzies.edu.au), a web-based platform that has been developed to support P. vivax short tandem repeat data sharing and comparative analyses. Results The VivaxGEN platform provides a repository for raw data generated by capillary electrophoresis (FSA files), with fragment analysis and standardized allele calling tools. The query system of the platform enables users to filter, select and differentiate samples and alleles based on their specified criteria. Key population genetic analyses are supported including measures of population differentiation (FST), expected heterozygosity (HE), linkage disequilibrium (IAS), neighbor-joining analysis and Principal Coordinate Analysis. Datasets can also be formatted and exported for application in commonly used population genetic software including GENEPOP, Arlequin and STRUCTURE. To date, data from 10 countries, including 5 publicly available data sets have been shared with VivaxGEN. Conclusions VivaxGEN is well placed to facilitate regional overviews of P. vivax transmission dynamics in different endemic settings and capable to be adapted for similar genetic studies of P. falciparum and other organisms. PMID:28362818

  6. Intra- and inter-population diversity at short tandem repeat loci in diverse populations of the world.

    PubMed

    Deka, R; Shriver, M D; Yu, L M; Ferrell, R E; Chakraborty, R

    1995-09-01

    To study the level of intra- and inter-population variation at hypervariable DNA loci, we have characterized 15 human populations of diverse ethnic and geographic origins at six short tandem repeat loci by using the polymerase chain reaction. Even though the spectrum of allelic variation is quite broad and there are substantial differences in allele frequency distributions among populations, in general, population within a major racial group show a greater degree of similarity. This observation is reflected in the analysis of gene diversity. When the total diversity is apportioned, the maximum variation becomes attributable to inter-individual differences within a population; of the variation that is attributed to differences between populations within a racial group and differences between racial groups, namely, African, Caucasian, and Mongoloid, than the American Indians and the Pacific Islanders. As expected, a reciprocal relationship between gene diversity and FST levels is observed. Higher values of FST in the American Indian and the Pacific Islanders may reflect smaller population size and a higher level of isolation. An analysis of genetic distance encompassing the populations belonging to the three major racial groups recognizes three distinct clusters - all the populations of African affiliation cluster together, as do the Caucasian affiliated and the Mongoloid groups, in two distinct clusters. Interestingly, three broadly classified cosmopolitan US populations, namely, US White, US Black and US Asian, cluster with their ancestrally related populations. This study dispels some of the concerns regarding the applicability of DNA typing data for forensic use.

  7. A valveless microfluidic device for integrated solid phase extraction and polymerase chain reaction for short tandem repeat (STR) analysis.

    PubMed

    Hagan, Kristin A; Reedy, Carmen R; Bienvenue, Joan M; Dewald, Alison H; Landers, James P

    2011-05-07

    A valveless microdevice has been developed for the integration of solid phase extraction (SPE) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) on a single chip for the short tandem repeat (STR) analysis of DNA from a biological sample. The device consists of two domains--a SPE domain filled with silica beads as a solid phase and a PCR domain with an ~500 nL reaction chamber. DNA from buccal swabs was purified and amplified using the integrated device and a full STR profile (16 loci) resulted. The 16 loci Identifiler® multiplex amplification was performed using a non-contact infrared (IR)-mediated PCR system built in-house, after syringe-driven SPE, providing an ~80-fold and 2.2-fold reduction in sample and reagent volumes consumed, respectively, as well as an ~5-fold reduction in the overall analysis time in comparison to conventional analysis. Results indicate that the SPE-PCR system can be used for many applications requiring genetic analysis, and the future addition of microchip electrophoresis (ME) to the system would allow for the complete processing of biological samples for forensic STR analysis on a single microdevice.

  8. Multiple-locus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis in Salmonella isolates as an effective molecular subtyping method.

    PubMed

    Hashemi, Atieh; Baghbani-Arani, Fahimeh; Ahmadiyan, Sepideh; Ghavami-Nejad, Sarvenaz

    2017-10-05

    Due to the limitations of serotyping, to differentiate closely related microbial isolates and to investigate disease outbreaks, molecular genotyping methods including multiple loci variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR) analysis (MLVA) has been developed. The usefulness of MLVA was recently demonstrated for Salmonella Infantis and Salmonella Enteritidis isolated from human sources in Iran. In the present study. The discriminatory ability of this method was investigated in 78 Iranian Salmonella enterica isolates. Salmonella strains isolated from human urine, stool, bone marrow, blood, ascites and synovial fluid sources in Iran during the years 2012 and 2015 were analyzed. Among these 78 Salmonella isolates, 70 isolates belonging to eight serotypes/serogroups, while eight were nontypeable. Six VNTR loci were amplified from all isolates. The isolates were distributed into 67 genotypes. Two out of the 6 markers (Sal20 and Sal16) were highly discriminatory for all strains (DI > 0.80) while composition of all VNTR loci produced 67 different types with 0.995 D value. The high discrimination power of MLVA in Salmonella molecular typing via combination of VNTR loci studied here, suggesting that this method is highly valuable for molecular epidemiology of Salmonella strains. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Genotyping Brucella canis isolates using a highly discriminatory multilocus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis (MLVA) assay.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yi; Wang, Yin; Poulsen, Elizabeth; Ransburgh, Russell; Liu, Xuming; An, Baoyan; Lu, Nanyan; Anderson, Gary; Wang, Chengming; Bai, Jianfa

    2017-04-21

    Differentiation of Brucella canis from other Brucella species are mainly performed through PCR-based methods and multilocus variable-number tandem-repeat (VNTR) analysis (MLVA) procedures. Both PCR-based and MLVA methods are limited in discriminating B. canis strains. A new MLVA-13Bc method for B. canis genotyping was established by combining eight newly-developed VNTRs with five published ones. During 2010 and 2016, 377 B. canis PCR-positives were identified from 6,844 canine blood samples from 22 U.S. states, resulting in 229 B. canis isolates. The MLVA-13Bc method was able to differentiate each of these 229 isolates. The Hunter-Gaston Discriminatory Index of the individual VNTR loci ranged from 0.516 to 0.934 and the combined discriminatory index reached 1.000. Three major clusters (A, B and C) and 10 genotype groups were identified from the 229 B. canis isolates. Cluster A mainly contains genotype groups 1 and 2, and a few group 3 isolates; nearly all Cluster B isolates were from group 6; other genotype groups were classified into Cluster C. Our newly developed MLVA-13Bc assay is a highly discriminatory assay for B. canis genotyping, and can serve as a useful molecular epidemiological tool, especially for tracing the source of contamination in an event of a B. canis outbreak.

  10. Towards Development of Clustering Applications for Large-Scale Comparative Genotyping and Kinship Analysis Using Y-Short Tandem Repeats

    PubMed Central

    Sapawi, Azizian Mohd; Salleh, Mohd Zaki

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Y-chromosome short tandem repeats (Y-STRs) are genetic markers with practical applications in human identification. However, where mass identification is required (e.g., in the aftermath of disasters with significant fatalities), the efficiency of the process could be improved with new statistical approaches. Clustering applications are relatively new tools for large-scale comparative genotyping, and the k-Approximate Modal Haplotype (k-AMH), an efficient algorithm for clustering large-scale Y-STR data, represents a promising method for developing these tools. In this study we improved the k-AMH and produced three new algorithms: the Nk-AMH I (including a new initial cluster center selection), the Nk-AMH II (including a new dominant weighting value), and the Nk-AMH III (combining I and II). The Nk-AMH III was the superior algorithm, with mean clustering accuracy that increased in four out of six datasets and remained at 100% in the other two. Additionally, the Nk-AMH III achieved a 2% higher overall mean clustering accuracy score than the k-AMH, as well as optimal accuracy for all datasets (0.84–1.00). With inclusion of the two new methods, the Nk-AMH III produced an optimal solution for clustering Y-STR data; thus, the algorithm has potential for further development towards fully automatic clustering of any large-scale genotypic data. PMID:25945508

  11. Mimosoid legume plastome evolution: IR expansion, tandem repeat expansions, and accelerated rate of evolution in clpP.

    PubMed

    Dugas, Diana V; Hernandez, David; Koenen, Erik J M; Schwarz, Erika; Straub, Shannon; Hughes, Colin E; Jansen, Robert K; Nageswara-Rao, Madhugiri; Staats, Martijn; Trujillo, Joshua T; Hajrah, Nahid H; Alharbi, Njud S; Al-Malki, Abdulrahman L; Sabir, Jamal S M; Bailey, C Donovan

    2015-11-23

    The Leguminosae has emerged as a model for studying angiosperm plastome evolution because of its striking diversity of structural rearrangements and sequence variation. However, most of what is known about legume plastomes comes from few genera representing a subset of lineages in subfamily Papilionoideae. We investigate plastome evolution in subfamily Mimosoideae based on two newly sequenced plastomes (Inga and Leucaena) and two recently published plastomes (Acacia and Prosopis), and discuss the results in the context of other legume and rosid plastid genomes. Mimosoid plastomes have a typical angiosperm gene content and general organization as well as a generally slow rate of protein coding gene evolution, but they are the largest known among legumes. The increased length results from tandem repeat expansions and an unusual 13 kb IR-SSC boundary shift in Acacia and Inga. Mimosoid plastomes harbor additional interesting features, including loss of clpP intron1 in Inga, accelerated rates of evolution in clpP for Acacia and Inga, and dN/dS ratios consistent with neutral and positive selection for several genes. These new plastomes and results provide important resources for legume comparative genomics, plant breeding, and plastid genetic engineering, while shedding further light on the complexity of plastome evolution in legumes and angiosperms.

  12. VivaxGEN: An open access platform for comparative analysis of short tandem repeat genotyping data in Plasmodium vivax populations.

    PubMed

    Trimarsanto, Hidayat; Benavente, Ernest D; Noviyanti, Rintis; Utami, Retno Ayu Setya; Trianty, Leily; Pava, Zuleima; Getachew, Sisay; Kim, Jung-Yeon; Goo, Youn-Kyoung; Wangchuck, Sonam; Liu, Yaobao; Gao, Qi; Dowd, Simone; Cheng, Qin; Clark, Taane G; Price, Ric N; Auburn, Sarah

    2017-03-01

    The control and elimination of Plasmodium vivax will require a better understanding of its transmission dynamics, through the application of genotyping and population genetics analyses. This paper describes VivaxGEN (http://vivaxgen.menzies.edu.au), a web-based platform that has been developed to support P. vivax short tandem repeat data sharing and comparative analyses. The VivaxGEN platform provides a repository for raw data generated by capillary electrophoresis (FSA files), with fragment analysis and standardized allele calling tools. The query system of the platform enables users to filter, select and differentiate samples and alleles based on their specified criteria. Key population genetic analyses are supported including measures of population differentiation (FST), expected heterozygosity (HE), linkage disequilibrium (IAS), neighbor-joining analysis and Principal Coordinate Analysis. Datasets can also be formatted and exported for application in commonly used population genetic software including GENEPOP, Arlequin and STRUCTURE. To date, data from 10 countries, including 5 publicly available data sets have been shared with VivaxGEN. VivaxGEN is well placed to facilitate regional overviews of P. vivax transmission dynamics in different endemic settings and capable to be adapted for similar genetic studies of P. falciparum and other organisms.

  13. Development of a variable number of tandem repeats typing scheme for the bacterial rice pathogen Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzicola.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Shuai; Poulin, Lucie; Rodriguez-R, Luis M; Serna, Natalia Forero; Liu, Shu-Yan; Wonni, Issa; Szurek, Boris; Verdier, Valérie; Leach, Jan E; He, Yong-Qiang; Feng, Jia-Xun; Koebnik, Ralf

    2012-10-01

    Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzicola is an important bacterial pathogen responsible for outbreaks of bacterial leaf streak (BLS) on rice, mostly occurring in Asia and parts of Africa. To better monitor epidemics and assess population structures, efficient tools that allow the precise identification and diagnosis of pathogenic populations are needed. In this study, we explored variable numbers of tandem repeats (VNTR) as a fast, reliable, and cost-effective molecular typing tool. Screening of three X. oryzae pv. oryzicola genome sequences (Philippine strain BLS256, Chinese strain GX01, and Malian strain MAI10) predicted 28 candidate VNTR loci. Primer pairs for polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of all 28 loci were designed and applied to a panel of 20 X. oryzae pv. oryzicola strains originating from Asia and Africa. Sequencing of PCR amplicons revealed 25 robust and polymorphic VNTR loci that are shared among Asian and African X. oryzae pv. oryzicola strains. A dendrogram constructed from 25 VNTR loci indicated that most Asian strains are clearly discriminated from African strains. However, in agreement with previous reports, one strain from Mali is related to Asian strains, pointing to a possible introduction of Asian strains to the African continent. The new VNTR-based tool described here is useful for studies of population structures and epidemiological monitoring of X. oryzae pv. oryzicola.

  14. Characterization of Brachyspira hyodysenteriae isolates from Italy by multilocus sequence typing and multiple locus variable number tandem repeat analysis.

    PubMed

    Gasparrini, S; Alborali, G L; Pitozzi, A; Guarneri, F; Giacomini, E; Baldo, V; Scali, F; Lazzaro, M; Boniotti, M B

    2017-08-01

    To evaluate and compare the capabilities of multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and multiple locus variable number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA) techniques to characterize Brachyspira hyodysenteriae isolates and to investigate the relationship between pleuromutilin resistance and genetic variability. MLST genotyping was performed on 180 B. hyodysenteriae isolates, and the results were evaluated considering profiles from 108 other strains previously reported in the database. In total, 37 sequence types were obtained. The MLVA approach completely characterized 172 strains and grouped the isolates into 22 different profiles. The combination of MLST and MLVA showed a slight increase in the discriminatory power, identifying 33 joint profiles. An antibiotic resistance analysis showed a reduction in the susceptibility to pleuromutilins over time, and a weak association between susceptibility to valnemulin and inclusion in clonal complex 4. MLST and MLVA are reliable methods for characterizing B. hyodysenteriae strains and they have comparable discriminatory power. The genotyping of B. hyodysenteriae isolates and a database of all the genetic profiles collected during the diagnostic activities could support traditional epidemiological investigations in identifying infection sources and routes of transmission among herds, and in developing more effective control measures. © 2017 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  15. Use of an Automated Multiple-Locus, Variable-Number Tandem Repeat-Based Method for Rapid and High-Throughput Genotyping of Staphylococcus aureus Isolates

    PubMed Central

    Francois, Patrice; Huyghe, Antoine; Charbonnier, Yvan; Bento, Manuela; Herzig, Sébastien; Topolski, Ivan; Fleury, Bénédicte; Lew, Daniel; Vaudaux, Pierre; Harbarth, Stephan; van Leeuwen, Willem; van Belkum, Alex; Blanc, Dominique S.; Pittet, Didier; Schrenzel, Jacques

    2005-01-01

    Fast and reliable genotyping methods that allow real-time epidemiological surveillance would be instrumental to monitoring of the spread of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. We describe an automated variable-number tandem repeat-based method for the rapid genotyping of Staphylococcus aureus. Multiplex PCR amplifications with eight primer pairs that target gene regions with variable numbers of tandem repeats were resolved by microcapillary electrophoresis and automatically assessed by cluster analysis. This genotyping technique was evaluated for its discriminatory power and reproducibility with clinical isolates of various origins, including a panel of control strains previously characterized by several typing methods and collections from either long-term carriers or defined nosocomial outbreaks. All steps of this new procedure were developed to ensure a rapid turnaround time and moderate cost. The results obtained suggest that this rapid approach is a valuable tool for the genotyping of S. aureus isolates in real time. PMID:16000459

  16. Multi-Locus Variable-Number Tandem Repeat Profiling of Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhi Isolates from Blood Cultures and Gallbladder Specimens from Makassar, South-Sulawesi, Indonesia

    PubMed Central

    Hatta, Mochammad; Pastoor, Rob; Scheelbeek, Pauline F. D.; Sultan, Andi R.; Dwiyanti, Ressy; Labeda, Ibrahim; Smits, Henk L.

    2011-01-01

    Multi-locus variable-number tandem repeat analysis differentiated 297 Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi blood culture isolates from Makassar in 76 genotypes and a single unique S. Typhi genotype was isolated from the cholecystectomy specimens of four patients with cholelithiasis. The high diversity in S. Typhi genotypes circulating in Makassar indicates that the number of carriers could be very large, which may complicate disease prevention and control. PMID:21949819

  17. Development of Multiple-Locus Variable-Number Tandem-Repeat Analysis for Molecular Subtyping of Campylobacter jejuni by Using Capillary Electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Techaruvichit, Punnida; Takahashi, Hajime; Vesaratchavest, Mongkol; Keeratipibul, Suwimon; Kuda, Takashi; Kimura, Bon

    2015-08-15

    Campylobacter jejuni is a common cause of the frequently reported food-borne diseases in developed and developing nations. This study describes the development of multiple-locus variable-number tandem-repeat (VNTR) analysis (MLVA) using capillary electrophoresis as a novel typing method for microbial source tracking and epidemiological investigation of C. jejuni. Among 36 tandem repeat loci detected by the Tandem Repeat Finder program, 7 VNTR loci were selected and used for characterizing 60 isolates recovered from chicken meat samples from retail shops, samples from chicken meat processing factory, and stool samples. The discrimination ability of MLVA was compared with that of multilocus sequence typing (MLST). MLVA (diversity index of 0.97 with 31 MLVA types) provided slightly higher discrimination than MLST (diversity index of 0.95 with 25 MLST types). The overall concordance between MLVA and MLST was estimated at 63% by adjusted Rand coefficient. MLVA predicted MLST type better than MLST predicted MLVA type, as reflected by Wallace coefficient (Wallace coefficient for MLVA to MLST versus MLST to MLVA, 86% versus 51%). MLVA is a useful tool and can be used for effective monitoring of C. jejuni and investigation of epidemics caused by C. jejuni. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  18. Insulin-like growth factor 1 gene (CA)n repeats and a variable number of tandem repeats of the insulin gene in Brazilian children born small for gestational age

    PubMed Central

    Coletta, Rocio R D; Jorge, Alexander A L; D' Alva, Catarina Brasil; Pinto, Emília M; Billerbeck, Ana Elisa C; Pachi, Paulo R; Longui, Carlos A; Garcia, Ricardo M; Boguszewski, Margaret; Arnhold, Ivo J P; Mendonca, Berenice B; Costa, Elaine M F

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the influence of (CA)n repeats in the insulin-like growth factor 1 gene and a variable number of tandem repeats of the insulin gene on birth size in children who are small or adequate-sized for gestational age and to correlate these polymorphisms with serum insulin-like growth factor 1 levels and insulin sensitivity in children who are small for gestational age, with and without catch-up growth. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We evaluated 439 infants: 297 that were adequate-sized for gestational age and 142 that were small for gestational age (66 with and 76 without catch-up). The number of (CA)n repeat in the insulin-like growth factor 1 gene and a variable number of tandem repeats in the insulin gene were analyzed using GENESCAN software and polymerase chain reaction followed by enzymatic digestion, respectively. Clinical and laboratory data were obtained from all patients. RESULTS: The height, body mass index, paternal height, target height and insulin-like growth factor 1 serum levels were higher in children who were small for gestational age with catch-up. There was no difference in the allelic and genotypic distributions of both polymorphisms between the adequate-sized and small infants or among small infants with and without catch-up. Similarly, the polymorphisms were not associated with clinical or laboratory variables. CONCLUSION: Polymorphisms of the (CA)n repeats of the insulin-like growth factor 1 gene and a variable number of tandem repeats of the insulin gene, separately or in combination, did not influence pre- or postnatal growth, insulin-like growth factor 1 serum levels or insulin resistance. PMID:23778474

  19. Genotypic Variation and Stability of Four Variable-Number Tandem Repeats and Their Suitability for Discriminating Strains of Mycobacterium leprae

    PubMed Central

    Truman, Richard; Fontes, Amanda B.; de Miranda, Antonio B.; Suffys, Philip; Gillis, Thomas

    2004-01-01

    It has not been possible to distinguish different strains of Mycobacterium leprae according to their genetic sequence. However, the genome contains several variable-number tandem repeats (VNTR), which have been used effectively in strain typing of other bacteria. To determine their suitability for differentiating M. leprae, we developed PCR systems to amplify 5 different VNTR loci and examined a battery of 12 M. leprae strains derived from patients in different regions of the United States, Brazil, Mexico, and the Philippines, as well as from wild armadillos and a sooty mangabey monkey. We found diversity at four VNTR (D = 0.74), but one system (C16G8) failed to yield reproducible results. Alleles for the GAA VNTR varied in length from 10 to 16 copies, those for AT17 varied in length from 10 to 15 copies, those for GTA varied in length from 9 to 12 copies, and those for TA18 varied in length from 13 to 20 copies. Relatively little variation was seen with interspecies transfer of bacilli or during short-term passage of strains in nude mice or armadillos. The TA18 locus was more polymorphic than other VNTR, and genotypic variation was more common after long-term expansion in armadillos. Most strain genotypes remained fairly stable in passage, but strain Thai-53 showed remarkable variability. Statistical cluster analysis segregated strains and passage samples appropriately but did not reveal any particular genotype associable with different regions or hosts of origin. VNTR polymorphisms can be used effectively to discriminate M. leprae strains. Inclusion of additional loci and other elements will likely lead to a robust typing system that can be used in community-based epidemiological studies and select clinical applications. PMID:15184434

  20. The effect of an enzymatic bone processing method on short tandem repeat profiling of challenged bone specimens.

    PubMed

    Li, Richard; Klempner, Stacey

    2013-07-01

    Forensic analysis of DNA from bone can be important in investigating a variety of cases involving violent crimes and mass fatality cases. To remove the potential presence of co-mingled remains and to eliminate contaminants that interfere with forensic DNA analysis, the outer surface of the bone fragment must be cleaned. This study evaluated two methods for processing bone specimens prior to DNA isolation. Mechanical sanding and enzymatic trypsin methods were compared in this study. The effects of these methods on the yield of DNA isolated and the quality of DNA analysis were studied. It was revealed that comparable values of DNA yields between the two methods were observed. Additionally, to evaluate the capabilities of the cleaning effect of the bone processing methods, the presence of polymerase chain reaction inhibitors in the DNA extracts was monitored using the internal positive control. Similar Ct values of the internal positive control were observed as the DNA extracts of the trypsin method compared with that of the sanding method. The characterization of the effects of the trypsin treatment on the quality of DNA profiling was also carried out. To evaluate the integrity of the nuclear DNA isolated, the percentage of allele calls and the peak-height values of alleles of the short tandem repeat profiles were compared between the two methods. A paired-sample t-test revealed no significant difference between the two methods. Our data suggested that the trypsin method can be used as an alternative cleaning method to mechanical cleaning methods. This method can be used to process multiple samples simultaneously. This can be very important for achieving high-throughput DNA isolation through potential automation, which can be extremely valuable for situations such as the forensic DNA analysis of skeletal remains from mass fatality incidents. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Multiple-locus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis of Brucella isolates from patients in Xinjiang China

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Fengbo; Li, Zhiwei; La, Xiaolin; Ma, Xiumin; Zhang, Yaoxin; Ji, Ping; Jiang, Min; Hu, Jinwei; Zhang, Zhaoxia; Lu, Xiaobo; Ding, Jianbing

    2015-01-01

    Objective: This study is to characterize and identify the human Brucella strains in Xinjiang, China with multiple-locus variable-number tandem-repeat (VNTR) analysis (MLVA) scheme. Methods: Brucella strains were isolated and cultured from 62 brucellosis patients. The bacteria strains were subjected to the oxidase, catalase, rapid urease, and nitrate reduction tests, and the species identification was performed using the VITEK-2 Compact system. These Brucella strains were further identified and characterized using the 16 VNTR loci in a MLVA-16 methodology. Results: Twelve Brucella strains had been identified out of 62 patients, which were all recognized as Brucella melitensis (B. melitensis) according to the results from the VITEK-2 Compact system. Based on panel 1 (MLVA-8), these 12 Brucella isolates were clustered into three known genotypes and two new genotypes, in which 7 strains were clustered into genotype 45 (1-5-3-12-2-2-3-2), 1 strain was classified as genotype 42 (1-5-3-13-2-2-3-2), 1 stain was with genotype 62 (1-3-3-13-2-2-3-2), and the other 3 trains revealed two new genotypes, i.e., (1-5-3-12-2-3-3-2) and (1-5-3-11-2-3-3-2). Using panel 2A+2B (MLVA-16), we found that no genotypes of these strains were identical to the known genotypes, generally with differences in 2-4 loci. However, three strains shared the same genotype. Conclusion: Brucella strains in 62 brucellosis patients from Xinjiang are all identified as B. melitensis. Based on MLVA-8, two new genotypes have been discovered. These findings might contribute to the understanding of the pathogenesis and epidemiology of brucellosis in Xinjiang, China. PMID:26629067

  2. Multiple-locus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis (MLVA) genotyping of human Brucella isolates in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Tay, Bee Yong; Ahmad, Norazah; Hashim, Rohaidah; Mohamed Zahidi, Jama'ayah; Thong, Kwai Lin; Koh, Xiu Pei; Mohd Noor, Azura

    2015-06-02

    Brucellosis is one of the most common zoonotic diseases worldwide. It can cause acute febrile illness in human and is a major health problem. Studies in human brucellosis in Malaysia is limited and so far no genotyping studies has been done on Brucella isolates. The aim of the study was to determine the genetic diversity among Brucella species isolated from human brucellosis, obtained over a 6-year period (2009-2014). In this study, the genotypic characteristics of 43 human Brucella melitensis isolates were analysed using multiple-locus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis (MLVA) which consisted of eight minisatellite loci (panel 1) and eight microsatellite loci; panels 2A (3 microsatellite loci) and panel 2B (5 microsatellite loci). Two human Brucella suis isolates were also investigated using the MLVA assay. Using panel 1 (MLVA8), two genotypes namely genotype 43 and 44 were obtained from the 43 B. melitensis isolates. Using the combination of panels 1 and 2A loci (MLVA11), two genotypes were obtained while using the complete panels 1, 2A and 2B, nine genotypes were obtained. The polymorphisms in using the complete panels (MLVA16) were observed in three loci from panel 2B, which showed a diversity index higher than 0.17. All B. melitensis isolates were closely related to the East Mediterranean group. For B. suis isolates, only genotype 6 and genotype 33 were obtained using panel 1 and MLVA11 respectively. In conclusion, the results of the present study showed a low genetic diversity among B. melitensis and B. suis isolates from human patients. Based on the MLVA16 assay, B. melitensis belonging to the East Mediterranean group is responsible for the vast majority of Brucella infections in our Malaysian patients. To our knowledge, this is the first genotyping study of human Brucella isolates in Malaysia.

  3. Utilization of ELISA Using Thioredoxin Peroxidase-1 and Tandem Repeat Proteins for Diagnosis of Schistosoma japonicum Infection among Water Buffaloes

    PubMed Central

    Angeles, Jose Ma. M.; Goto, Yasuyuki; Kirinoki, Masashi; Asada, Masahito; Leonardo, Lydia R.; Rivera, Pilarita T.; Villacorte, Elena A.; Inoue, Noboru; Chigusa, Yuichi; Kawazu, Shin-ichiro

    2012-01-01

    Background The presence of animal reservoirs in Schistosoma japonicum infection has been a major obstacle in the control of schistosomiasis. Previous studies have proven that the inclusion of control measures on animal reservoir hosts for schistosomiasis contributed to the decrease of human cases. Animal surveillance should therefore be included to strengthen and improve the capabilities of current serological tests. Methodology/Principal Findings Thioredoxin peroxidase-1 (SjTPx-1) and four tandem repeat proteins (Sj1TR, Sj2TR, Sj4TR, Sj7TR) were initially evaluated against human sera. The previous test showed high sensitivity and specificity for antibody detection against SjTPx-1 and Sj7TR. In this study, the immunodiagnostic potential of these recombinant proteins was evaluated using enzyme-linked immunoassay on 50 water buffalo serum samples collected in Cagayan, the Philippines as compared with the soluble egg antigen (SEA). For specificity, 3 goat serum samples positive with Fasciola hepatica were used and among the antigens used, only SEA showed cross-reaction. Stool PCR targeting the S. japonicum 82 bp mitochondrial NAD 1 gene was done to confirm the true positives and served as the standard test. Twenty three samples were positive for stool PCR. SjTPx-1 and Sj1TR gave the highest sensitivity among the recombinant proteins tested for water buffalo samples with 82.61% and 78.26% respectively which were higher than that of SEA (69.57%). Conclusions/Significance These results prove that SjTPx-1 works both for humans and water buffaloes making it a good candidate antigen for zoonotic diagnosis. Sj1TR showed good results for water buffaloes and therefore can also be used as a possible candidate for detecting animal schistosome infection. PMID:22953018

  4. Y-short tandem repeat haplotype and paternal lineage of the Ezhava population of Kerala, south India

    PubMed Central

    Nair, Parvathy Seema; Geetha, Aswathy; Jagannath, Chippy

    2011-01-01

    Aim To analyze the haplotype of the Ezhava population of Kerala, south India, using 8 short tandem repeat (STR) loci on the Y chromosome and trace the paternal genetic lineage of the population. Methods Whole blood samples (n = 104) were collected from unrelated healthy men of the Ezhava population over a period of one year from October 2009. Genomic DNA was extracted by salting out method. All samples were genotyped for the 8 Y-STR loci by the AmpFiSTR Y-filer PCR Amplification Kit. The haplotype and allele frequencies were determined by direct counting and analyzed using Arlequin 3.1 software, and molecular variance was calculated with the Y-chromosome haplotype reference database online analysis tool, www.yhrd.org. Results Among the 104 examined haplotypes, we found 98 unique ones. The average gene diversity was 0.669, with the highest diversity of 0.9462 observed for the biallelic Y-STR marker DYS 385. The allele frequency among DYS loci varied between 0.0096 and 0.75. Out of the 104 haplotypes, 10 were identical to the Jat Sikh population of Punjab, which is the greatest number among the Indian populations, and 4 to the Turkish population, which is the greatest number among the European populations. According to the allele frequency of Y-STR, the Ezhavas were genetically more similar to the Europeans (60%) than to the East Asians (40%). Conclusion The vast majority of haplotypes were observed only once, reflecting the enormous genetic heterogeneity of the Ezhavas. Based on the genotype, the Ezhavas showed more resemblance to Jat Sikh population of Punjab and the Turkish populations than to the East Asians, hence indicating a paternal lineage of European origin. PMID:21674830

  5. Tissue identity testing of cancer by short tandem repeat polymorphism: pitfalls of interpretation in the presence of microsatellite instability.

    PubMed

    Much, Melissa; Buza, Natalia; Hui, Pei

    2014-03-01

    Tissue identity testing by short tandem repeat (STR) polymorphism offers discriminating power in resolving tissue mix-up or contamination. However, one caveat is the presence of microsatellite unstable tumors, in which genetic alterations may drastically change the STR wild-type polymorphism leading to unexpected allelic discordance. We examined how tissue identity testing results can be altered by the presence of microsatellite instability (MSI). Eleven cases of MSI-unstable (9 intestinal and 2 endometrial adenocarcinomas) and 10 cases of MSI-stable tumors (all colorectal adenocarcinomas) were included. All had been previously tested by polymerase chain reaction testing at 5 National Cancer Institute (NCI) recommended MSI loci and/or immunohistochemistry for DNA mismatch repair proteins (MLH1, MSH2, MSH6, and PMS2). Tissue identity testing targeting 15 STR loci was performed using AmpF/STR Identifiler Amplification. Ten of 11 MSI-unstable tumors demonstrated novel alleles at 5 to 12 STR loci per case and frequently with 3 or more allelic peaks. However, all affected loci showed identifiable germline allele(s) in MSI-high tumors. A wild-type allelic profile was seen in 7 of 10 MSI-stable tumors. In the remaining 3 cases, isolated novel alleles were present at a unique single locus in addition to germline alleles. Loss of heterozygosity was observed frequently in both MSI-stable (6/11 cases) and MSI-unstable tumors (8/10 cases). In conclusion, MSI may significantly alter the wild-type allelic polymorphism, leading to potential interpretation errors of STR genotyping. Careful examination of the STR allelic pattern, high index of suspicion, and follow-up MSI testing are crucial to avoid erroneous conclusions and subsequent clinical and legal consequences.

  6. Ruminant rhombencephalitis-associated Listeria monocytogenes alleles linked to a multilocus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis complex.

    PubMed

    Balandyté, Lina; Brodard, Isabelle; Frey, Joachim; Oevermann, Anna; Abril, Carlos

    2011-12-01

    Listeria monocytogenes is among the most important food-borne pathogens and is well adapted to persist in the environment. To gain insight into the genetic relatedness and potential virulence of L. monocytogenes strains causing central nervous system (CNS) infections, we used multilocus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis (MLVA) to subtype 183 L. monocytogenes isolates, most from ruminant rhombencephalitis and some from human patients, food, and the environment. Allelic-profile-based comparisons grouped L. monocytogenes strains mainly into three clonal complexes and linked single-locus variants (SLVs). Clonal complex A essentially consisted of isolates from human and ruminant brain samples. All but one rhombencephalitis isolate from cattle were located in clonal complex A. In contrast, food and environmental isolates mainly clustered into clonal complex C, and none was classified as clonal complex A. Isolates of the two main clonal complexes (A and C) obtained by MLVA were analyzed by PCR for the presence of 11 virulence-associated genes (prfA, actA, inlA, inlB, inlC, inlD, inlE, inlF, inlG, inlJ, and inlC2H). Virulence gene analysis revealed significant differences in the actA, inlF, inlG, and inlJ allelic profiles between clinical isolates (complex A) and nonclinical isolates (complex C). The association of particular alleles of actA, inlF, and newly described alleles of inlJ with isolates from CNS infections (particularly rhombencephalitis) suggests that these virulence genes participate in neurovirulence of L. monocytogenes. The overall absence of inlG in clinical complex A and its presence in complex C isolates suggests that the InlG protein is more relevant for the survival of L. monocytogenes in the environment.

  7. Clostridium botulinum Group I Strain Genotyping by 15-Locus Multilocus Variable-Number Tandem-Repeat Analysis ▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Fillo, Silvia; Giordani, Francesco; Anniballi, Fabrizio; Gorgé, Olivier; Ramisse, Vincent; Vergnaud, Gilles; Riehm, Julia M.; Scholz, Holger C.; Splettstoesser, Wolf D.; Kieboom, Jasper; Olsen, Jaran-Strand; Fenicia, Lucia; Lista, Florigio

    2011-01-01

    Clostridium botulinum is a taxonomic designation that encompasses a broad variety of spore-forming, Gram-positive bacteria producing the botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT). C. botulinum is the etiologic agent of botulism, a rare but severe neuroparalytic disease. Fine-resolution genetic characterization of C. botulinum isolates of any BoNT type is relevant for both epidemiological studies and forensic microbiology. A 10-locus multiple-locus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis (MLVA) was previously applied to isolates of C. botulinum type A. The present study includes five additional loci designed to better address proteolytic B and F serotypes. We investigated 79 C. botulinum group I strains isolated from human and food samples in several European countries, including types A (28), B (36), AB (4), and F (11) strains, and 5 nontoxic Clostridium sporogenes. Additional data were deduced from in silico analysis of 10 available fully sequenced genomes. This 15-locus MLVA (MLVA-15) scheme identified 86 distinct genotypes that clustered consistently with the results of amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) and MLVA genotyping in previous reports. An MLVA-7 scheme, a subset of the MLVA-15, performed on a lab-on-a-chip device using a nonfluorescent subset of primers, is also proposed as a first-line assay. The phylogenetic grouping obtained with the MLVA-7 does not differ significantly from that generated by the MLVA-15. To our knowledge, this report is the first to analyze genetic variability among all of the C. botulinum group I serotypes by MLVA. Our data provide new insights into the genetic variability of group I C. botulinum isolates worldwide and demonstrate that this group is genetically highly diverse. PMID:22012011

  8. Characterisation of Brucella suis isolates from Southeast Europe by multi-locus variable-number tandem repeat analysis.

    PubMed

    Duvnjak, Sanja; Račić, Ivana; Špičić, Silvio; Zdelar-Tuk, Maja; Reil, Irena; Cvetnić, Željko

    2015-10-22

    Porcine brucellosis is a common bacterial zoonosis which can cause significant financial losses. Its diverse and often complicated factors have hampered efforts to control disease spread. The aim of the study was to assess the epidemiological situation of porcine brucellosis primarily in Croatia and its relationship to genotypes present in other, mostly European countries. One hundred and seven Brucella suis strains isolated from swine, hares, cattle, humans, wild hares, a wild boar and a mare originating mainly from Croatia (112), but also a few from Slovenia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Serbia and Macedonia (15) were tested using classical microbiological testing, Bruce-ladder, RFLP, Multiplex-suis and genotyped using multi-locus variable-number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA). We determined 43 Brucella suis genotypes. Strains were grouped according to phylogenetic and geographic relationships, revealing both regional specificity and uniqueness and suggesting possible sources and modes of spread among animals. Our study also confirmed problems with Bruce19 locus that may hinder comparisons of new types with those in the international database. Forty-one novel genotypes were identified and deposited into the international database. Our study supports the idea of wild animals as a source of disease in domestic animals and also gives evidence to hypothesis of cross-border animal trafficking between former Yugoslavian countries. It also highlights the need to expand such research across more of southeast Europe, especially to countries with poorer social and economical situation in order to prevent a realistic outbreak and for better understanding of the biology of this pathogen.

  9. Mycobacterium tuberculosis Beijing genotype in Russia: in search of informative variable-number tandem-repeat loci.

    PubMed

    Mokrousov, Igor; Narvskaya, Olga; Vyazovaya, Anna; Millet, Julie; Otten, Tatiana; Vishnevsky, Boris; Rastogi, Nalin

    2008-11-01

    The Beijing genotype is a globally spread lineage of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. In Russia, these strains constitute half of the local population of M. tuberculosis; they are associated with multidrug resistance and show increased transmissibility. Here, we analyzed traditional and new markers for the rapid and simple genotyping of the Beijing strains. A representative sample of 120 Beijing genotype strains was selected from a local IS6110-restriction fragment length (RFLP) database at the St. Petersburg Pasteur Institute. These strains were subjected to variable-number tandem-repeat (VNTR) typing using 24 loci of a newly proposed format and three hypervariable (HV) loci (QUB-3232, VNTR-3820, and VNTR-4120). Ten of the 27 VNTR loci were monomorphic, while five loci, MIRU26, QUB-26, QUB-3232, VNTR-3820, and VNTR-4120, were the most polymorphic (Hunter Gaston index, >0.5). VNTR typing allowed us to differentiate between two large IS6110-RFLP clusters known to be prevalent across the entire country (clusters B0/W148 and A0) and identified in 27 and 23% of strains, respectively, in the Beijing genotype database. The B0/W148 strains were grouped closely in the VNTR dendrogram and could be distinguished by a characteristic signature of the loci MIRU26 and QUB-26. Consequently, this clinically important IS6110-RFLP variant, B0/W148, likely presents a successful clonal group within the M. tuberculosis Beijing lineage that is widespread in Russia. To conclude, the IS6110-RFLP method and VNTR typing using a reduced set of the most polymorphic loci complement each other for the high-resolution epidemiological typing of the M. tuberculosis Beijing genotype strains circulating in or imported from Russia.

  10. An Ehrlichia chaffeensis tandem repeat protein interacts with multiple host targets involved in cell signaling, transcriptional regulation, and vesicle trafficking.

    PubMed

    Wakeel, Abdul; Kuriakose, Jeeba A; McBride, Jere W

    2009-05-01

    Ehrlichia chaffeensis is an obligately intracellular bacterium that exhibits tropism for mononuclear phagocytes forming cytoplasmic membrane-bound microcolonies called morulae. To survive and replicate within phagocytes, E. chaffeensis exploits the host cell by modulating a number of host cell processes, but the ehrlichial effector proteins involved are unknown. In this study, we determined that p47, a secreted, differentially expressed, tandem repeat (TR) protein, interacts with multiple host proteins associated with cell signaling, transcriptional regulation, and vesicle trafficking. Yeast two-hybrid analysis revealed that p47 interacts with polycomb group ring finger 5 (PCGF5) protein, Src protein tyrosine kinase FYN (FYN), protein tyrosine phosphatase non-receptor type 2 (PTPN2), and adenylate cyclase-associated protein 1 (CAP1). p47 interaction with these proteins was further confirmed by coimmunoprecipitation assays and colocalization in HeLa cells transfected with p47-green fluorescent fusion protein (AcGFP1-p47). Moreover, confocal microscopy demonstrated p47-expressing dense-cored (DC) ehrlichiae colocalized with PCGF5, FYN, PTPN2, and CAP1. An amino-terminally truncated form of p47 containing TRs interacted only with PCGF5 and not with FYN, PTPN2, and CAP1, indicating differences in p47 domains that are involved in these interactions. These results demonstrate that p47 is involved in a complex network of interactions involving numerous host cell proteins. Furthermore, this study provides a new insight into the molecular and functional distinction of DC ehrlichiae, as well as the effector proteins involved in facilitating ehrlichial survival in mononuclear phagocytes.

  11. Clostridium botulinum group I strain genotyping by 15-locus multilocus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis.

    PubMed

    Fillo, Silvia; Giordani, Francesco; Anniballi, Fabrizio; Gorgé, Olivier; Ramisse, Vincent; Vergnaud, Gilles; Riehm, Julia M; Scholz, Holger C; Splettstoesser, Wolf D; Kieboom, Jasper; Olsen, Jaran-Strand; Fenicia, Lucia; Lista, Florigio

    2011-12-01

    Clostridium botulinum is a taxonomic designation that encompasses a broad variety of spore-forming, Gram-positive bacteria producing the botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT). C. botulinum is the etiologic agent of botulism, a rare but severe neuroparalytic disease. Fine-resolution genetic characterization of C. botulinum isolates of any BoNT type is relevant for both epidemiological studies and forensic microbiology. A 10-locus multiple-locus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis (MLVA) was previously applied to isolates of C. botulinum type A. The present study includes five additional loci designed to better address proteolytic B and F serotypes. We investigated 79 C. botulinum group I strains isolated from human and food samples in several European countries, including types A (28), B (36), AB (4), and F (11) strains, and 5 nontoxic Clostridium sporogenes. Additional data were deduced from in silico analysis of 10 available fully sequenced genomes. This 15-locus MLVA (MLVA-15) scheme identified 86 distinct genotypes that clustered consistently with the results of amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) and MLVA genotyping in previous reports. An MLVA-7 scheme, a subset of the MLVA-15, performed on a lab-on-a-chip device using a nonfluorescent subset of primers, is also proposed as a first-line assay. The phylogenetic grouping obtained with the MLVA-7 does not differ significantly from that generated by the MLVA-15. To our knowledge, this report is the first to analyze genetic variability among all of the C. botulinum group I serotypes by MLVA. Our data provide new insights into the genetic variability of group I C. botulinum isolates worldwide and demonstrate that this group is genetically highly diverse.

  12. Novel association approach for variable number tandem repeats (VNTRs) identifies DOCK5 as a susceptibility gene for severe obesity

    PubMed Central

    El-Sayed Moustafa, Julia S.; Eleftherohorinou, Hariklia; de Smith, Adam J.; Andersson-Assarsson, Johanna C.; Couto Alves, Alexessander; Hadjigeorgiou, Eleni; Walters, Robin G.; Asher, Julian E.; Bottolo, Leonardo; Buxton, Jessica L.; Sladek, Rob; Meyre, David; Dina, Christian; Visvikis-Siest, Sophie; Jacobson, Peter; Sjöström, Lars; Carlsson, Lena M.S.; Walley, Andrew; Falchi, Mario; Froguel, Philippe; Blakemore, Alexandra I.F.; Coin, Lachlan J.M.

    2012-01-01

    Variable number tandem repeats (VNTRs) constitute a relatively under-examined class of genomic variants in the context of complex disease because of their sequence complexity and the challenges in assaying them. Recent large-scale genome-wide copy number variant mapping and association efforts have highlighted the need for improved methodology for association studies using these complex polymorphisms. Here we describe the in-depth investigation of a complex region on chromosome 8p21.2 encompassing the dedicator of cytokinesis 5 (DOCK5) gene. The region includes two VNTRs of complex sequence composition which flank a common 3975 bp deletion, all three of which were genotyped by polymerase chain reaction and fragment analysis in a total of 2744 subjects. We have developed a novel VNTR association method named VNTRtest, suitable for association analysis of multi-allelic loci with binary and quantitative outcomes, and have used this approach to show significant association of the DOCK5 VNTRs with childhood and adult severe obesity (Pempirical= 8.9 × 10−8 and P= 3.1 × 10−3, respectively) which we estimate explains ∼0.8% of the phenotypic variance. We also identified an independent association between the 3975 base pair (bp) deletion and obesity, explaining a further 0.46% of the variance (Pcombined= 1.6 × 10−3). Evidence for association between DOCK5 transcript levels and the 3975 bp deletion (P= 0.027) and both VNTRs (Pempirical= 0.015) was also identified in adipose tissue from a Swedish family sample, providing support for a functional effect of the DOCK5 deletion and VNTRs. These findings highlight the potential role of DOCK5 in human obesity and illustrate a novel approach for analysis of the contribution of VNTRs to disease susceptibility through association studies. PMID:22595969

  13. Multiple-locus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis of the swine dysentery pathogen, Brachyspira hyodysenteriae.

    PubMed

    Hidalgo, Alvaro; Carvajal, Ana; La, Tom; Naharro, Germán; Rubio, Pedro; Phillips, Nyree D; Hampson, David J

    2010-08-01

    The spirochete Brachyspira hyodysenteriae is the causative agent of swine dysentery, a severe colonic infection of pigs that has a considerable economic impact in many swine-producing countries. In spite of its importance, knowledge about the global epidemiology and population structure of B. hyodysenteriae is limited. Progress in this area has been hampered by the lack of a low-cost, portable, and discriminatory method for strain typing. The aim of the current study was to develop and test a multiple-locus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis (MLVA) method that could be used in basic veterinary diagnostic microbiology laboratories equipped with PCR technology or in more advanced laboratories with access to capillary electrophoresis. Based on eight loci, and when performed on isolates from different farms in different countries, as well as type and reference strains, the MLVA technique developed was highly discriminatory (Hunter and Gaston discriminatory index, 0.938 [95% confidence interval, 0.9175 to 0.9584]) while retaining a high phylogenetic value. Using the technique, the species was shown to be diverse (44 MLVA types from 172 isolates and strains), although isolates were stable in herds over time. The population structure appeared to be clonal. The finding of B. hyodysenteriae MLVA type 3 in piggeries in three European countries, as well as other, related, strains in different countries, suggests that spreading of the pathogen via carrier pigs is likely. MLVA overcame drawbacks associated with previous typing techniques for B. hyodysenteriae and was a powerful method for epidemiologic and population structure studies on this important pathogenic spirochete.

  14. Evaluation of factor VIII polymorphic short tandem repeat markers in linkage analysis for carrier diagnosis of hemophilia A

    PubMed Central

    Shrestha, Sabina; Dong, Sufang; Li, Zuhua; Huang, Zhuliang; Zheng, Fang

    2016-01-01

    Hemophilia A (HA) is the most common inherited X-linked recessive bleeding disorder caused by heterogeneous mutations in the factor VIII gene (FVIII). Diagnosis of the carrier is critical for preventing the birth of children affected by this coagulation disorder, which ultimately facilitates its management. Due to the heterogeneous nature of mutations, the large inversions and the complexity of the FVIII gene, direct recognition of the disease-associated mutation in HA is complex. Indirect linkage analysis using highly informative heterozygous polymorphic markers is an alternative method for determining the co-segregation of the mutant gene within a family for carrier detection of HA. The aim of the present study was to perform carrier diagnosis in a family with HA. Rapid multifluorescent polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was performed with six extragenic short tandem repeats (STRs), DXS1073, DXS15, DXS8091, DXS1227, DXS991, DXS993 and one intragenic marker, STR22 for linkage analysis in the HA family. All the STR markers employed in the present study were informative for linkages of pathogenic and healthy haplotypes among family members, particularly STR22, DXS1073 and DXS15. The STR marker, STR22, is within the FVIII gene while the DXS1073 and DXS15 markers are very close to the FVIII gene, where the chances of recombination are comparatively low, and provided the most accurate interpretation analysis, indicating that the proband's sister may have been the HA carrier. Rapid multifluorescent PCR using STR markers and linkage analysis was identified to be a simple method for performing HA carrier diagnosis. PMID:27446547

  15. Multi-locus variable-number tandem repeat analysis of Chinese Brucella strains isolated from 1953 to 2013.

    PubMed

    Tian, Guo-Zhong; Cui, Bu-Yun; Piao, Dong-Ri; Zhao, Hong-Yan; Li, Lan-Yu; Liu, Xi; Xiao, Pei; Zhao, Zhong-Zhi; Xu, Li-Qing; Jiang, Hai; Li, Zhen-Jun

    2017-05-02

    Brucellosis was a common human and livestock disease caused by Brucella strains, the category B priority pathogens by the US Center for Disease Control (CDC). Identified as a priority disease in human and livestock populations, the increasing incidence in recent years in China needs urgent control measures for this disease but the molecular background important for monitoring the epidemiology of Brucella strains at the national level is still lacking. A total of 600 Brucella isolates collected during 60 years (from 1953 to 2013) in China were genotyped by multiple locus variable-number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA) and the variation degree of MLVA11 loci was calculated by the Hunter Gaston Diversity Index (HGDI) values. The charts and map were processed by Excel 2013, and cluster analysis and epidemiological distribution was performed using BioNumerics (version 5.1). The 600 representative Brucella isolates fell into 104 genotypes with 58 singleton genotypes by the MLVA11 assay, including B. melitensis biovars 2 and 3 (five main genotypes), B. abortus biovars 1 and 3 (two main genotypes), B. suis biovars 1 and 3 (three main genotypes), and B. canis (two main genotypes) respectively. While most B. suis biovar 1 and biovar 3 were respectively found in northern provinces and southern provinces, B. melitensis and B. abortus strains were dominant in China. Canine Brucellosis was only found in animals without any human cases reported. Eight Brucellosis epidemic peaks emerged during the 60 years between 1953 and 2013: 1955 - 1959, 1962 - 1969, 1971 - 1975, 1977 - 1983, 1985 - 1989, 1992 - 1997, 2000 - 2008 and 2010 - 2013 in China. Brucellosis has its unique molecular epidemiological patterns with specific spatial and temporal distribution according to MLVA. IDOP-D-16-00101.

  16. A tandem-repeat galectin-9 involved in immune response of yellow catfish, Pelteobagrus fulvidraco, against Aeromonas hydrophila.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yun; Ke, Fei; Ma, Jingjing; Zhou, Shuaibang

    2016-04-01

    Galectins exclusively recognize and bind β-galactoside on cell surface by carbohydrate recognition domain (CRD). In spite of extensive study of mammalian galectin importance in immune system, little is known about that of fish. To study the immune response of yellow catfish to pathogens, a tandem-repeat galectin-9 from yellow catfish was identified and named PfGAL9. Its full-length cDNA was 1314 bp, including a 117 bp of 5' untranslated region (UTR), a 951 bp of open reading frame (ORF), and a 246 bp of 3' UTR. The ORF encoded 316 amino acids (35.12 KDa), shared the highest 78% identity with the predicted galectin-9 of Ictalurus punctatus. This protein possessed two distinct CRDs with two highly conserved sugar binding motifs. Quantitative PCR showed that PfGAL9 was lowly expressed in skin, gill, fin, muscle, heart, and intestine, highly expressed in tested immune tissues (head kidney, trunk kidney, liver, spleen, and blood) in normal body. After inactivated Aeromonas hydrophila challenge, PfGAL9 was remarkably increased in head kidney and liver in a time-dependent manner. The recombinant protein was expressed in Escherichia coli, which not only agglutinated but also bond all examined bacteria. The binding activities are consistent with the size of aggregates formed by agglutinated bacteria. The agglutination must depend on its direct interaction with bacteria. These results suggested that PfGAL9 was involved in the innate immune response against bacterial infection and clearance of pathogens in yellow catfish.

  17. Identification and characterization of two tandem repeat sequences (TrsB and TrsC) and a retrotransposon (RIRE1) as genome-general sequences in rice.

    PubMed

    Nakajima, R; Noma, K; Ohtsubo, H; Ohtsubo, E

    1996-12-01

    Three kinds of DNA sequences (here called TrsB, TrsC and RIRE1) have been previously reported to be those repeated in tandem specifically in the wild rice species with FF, CC or EE genome, respectively. To characterize these genome type-specific sequences, we carried out PCR using a pair of primers, which hybridize to a restricted region in the repeating unit sequence and prime DNA synthesis in both directions. Gel electrophoresis and DNA sequencing revealed that PCR using primers for TrsB (or TrsC) amplified the fragments with an integral series of a unit length not only from total DNA of the rice strain with FF (or CC) genome, but also from those of the rice strains with non-FF (or non-CC) genome. TrsB or TrsC was, however, found to be repeated in an extraordinary number of copies in the species with FF or CC genome, respectively, in which the TrsB (or TrsC) sequence has been originally identified. PCR using primers for RIRE1 produced various sizes of fragments from total DNA of the rice strains with EE genome. The fragments, however, showed no progression at interval of the unit length characteristic for tandem repeats. Nucleotide sequencing of the amplified fragments revealed that they were not the sequences repeated in tandem, but were those interspersed as an element having partial homology with the LTR sequences of retrotransposons, Wis-2-1A in wheat and BARE-1 in barley. RIRE1 was present in the rice species with any types of genomes, but in the species with EE genome in an extraordinary number of copies.

  18. Tandem repeat sequence variation as causative cis-eQTLs for protein-coding gene expression variation: the case of CSTB.

    PubMed

    Borel, Christelle; Migliavacca, Eugenia; Letourneau, Audrey; Gagnebin, Maryline; Béna, Frédérique; Sailani, M Reza; Dermitzakis, Emmanouil T; Sharp, Andrew J; Antonarakis, Stylianos E

    2012-08-01

    Association studies have revealed expression quantitative trait loci (eQTLs) for a large number of genes. However, the causative variants that regulate gene expression levels are generally unknown. We hypothesized that copy-number variation of sequence repeats contribute to the expression variation of some genes. Our laboratory has previously identified that the rare expansion of a repeat c.-174CGGGGCGGGGCG in the promoter region of the CSTB gene causes a silencing of the gene, resulting in progressive myoclonus epilepsy. Here, we genotyped the repeat length and quantified CSTB expression by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction in 173 lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs) and fibroblast samples from the GenCord collection. The majority of alleles contain either two or three copies of this repeat. Independent analysis revealed that the c.-174CGGGGCGGGGCG repeat length is strongly associated with CSTB expression (P = 3.14 × 10(-11)) in LCLs only. Examination of both genotyped and imputed single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within 2 Mb of CSTB revealed that the dodecamer repeat represents the strongest cis-eQTL for CSTB in LCLs. We conclude that the common two or three copy variation is likely the causative cis-eQTL for CSTB expression variation. More broadly, we propose that polymorphic tandem repeats may represent the causative variation of a fraction of cis-eQTLs in the genome.

  19. Action of repeat-induced point mutation on both strands of a duplex and on tandem duplications of various sizes in Neurospora.

    PubMed Central

    Watters, M K; Randall, T A; Margolin, B S; Selker, E U; Stadler, D R

    1999-01-01

    In Neurospora crassa, DNA sequence duplications are detected and altered efficiently during the sexual cycle by a process known as RIP (repeat-induced point mutation). Affected sequences are subjected to multiple GC-to-AT mutations. To explore the pattern in which base changes are laid down by RIP we examined two sets of strains. First, we examined the products of a presumptive spontaneous RIP event at the mtr locus. Results of sequencing suggested that a single RIP event produces two distinct patterns of change, descended from the two strands of an affected DNA duplex. Equivalent results were obtained using an exceptional tetrad from a cross with a known duplication flanking the zeta-eta (zeta-eta) locus. The mtr sequence data were also used to further examine the basis for the differential severity of C-to-T mutations on the coding and noncoding strands in genes. The known bias of RIP toward CpA/TpG sites in conjunction with the sequence bias of Neurospora accounts for the differential effect. Finally, we used a collection of tandem repeats (from 16 to 935 bp in length) within the mtr gene to examine the length requirement for RIP. No evidence of RIP was found with duplications shorter than 400 bp while all longer tandem duplications were frequently affected. A comparison of these results with vegetative reversion data for the same duplications is consistent with the idea that reversion of long tandem duplications and RIP share a common step. PMID:10511550

  20. Analysis and interpretation of short tandem repeat microvariants and three-banded allele patterns using multiple allele detection systems.

    PubMed

    Crouse, C A; Rogers, S; Amiott, E; Gibson, S; Masibay, A

    1999-01-01

    The Palm Beach County Sheriffs Office (PBSO) Crime Laboratory and the Alabama Department of Forensic Sciences (ADFS) have validated and implemented analysis of short tandem repeat (STR) sequences on casework using silver staining kit and SYBR Green I detection systems and are presently validating fluorescently tagged STR alleles using the Hitachi FMBIO 100 instrument. Concurrently, the Broward County Sheriff's Office (BSO) Crime Laboratory is validating the ABI Prism310 Genetic Analyzer capillary electrophoresis STR detection system (ABI CE310) from Perkin Elmer Applied BioSystems. During the course of analyzing over 10,000 individuals for the STR loci CSF1PO, TPOX and THO1 (CTT) using silver staining for allele detection, 42 samples demonstrated alleles that were "off ladder," contained three-banded patterns at a single locus, or exhibited an apparent THO1 "9.3,10" allele pattern. PBSO, ADFS and BSO Crime Laboratories have collaborated on the verification of the allele patterns observed in these 42 samples using the following allele detection systems: (1) manual silver staining, (2) SYBR Green I staining, and/or (3) fluorescently tagged amplified products separated by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis or capillary electrophoresis followed by laser detection. Regardless of the CTT allele detection system utilized, concordant results were obtained for 41 of the 42 samples. The only exception was a sample in which a wide band within the THO1 locus was identified as a THO1 "9.3, 10" genotype by silver staining kit and SYBR Green I staining but was verified to be a THO1 "9.3" homozygote by all other allele detection systems. Manual allele detection could readily identify microvariants, as a visual assessment of stained gels clearly shows that alleles do not migrate coincident with well-characterized allele size standards. As would be predicted, however, the manual detection systems did not provide adequate resolution to approximate the basepair size for off

  1. Diagnostic value of the recombinant tandem repeat antigen TeGM6-4r for surra in water buffaloes.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Thu-Thuy; Zhou, Mo; Ruttayaporn, Ngasaman; Nguyen, Quoc Doanh; Nguyen, Viet Khong; Goto, Yasuyuki; Suzuki, Yasuhiko; Kawazu, Shin-ichiro; Inoue, Noboru

    2014-03-17

    Trypanosoma evansi infection, or surra, is currently affecting various species of animals, especially water buffaloes. Since diagnosis is an important aspect of surra control, development of novel diagnostic antigens is of interest to implement and improve the currently utilized methods. Our study evaluated the tandem repeat antigen TeGM6-4r in T. evansi antibody detection in water buffaloes. TeGM6-4r-based ELISA was performed with 20 positive and 8 negative controls and 484 field samples from water buffaloes in Northern Vietnam. To examine cross-reactivity, sera from Japanese cattle that had been experimentally infected with Theileria orientalis (n=10), Babesia bovis (n=3), Babesia bigemina (n=7) and Trypanosoma theileri (n=59) were included in the study. The sensitivity of the test was 80%. TeGM6-4r did not react with Theileria or Babesia infected sera, however it showed cross reactivity with 11/59 T. theileri infected samples. The reference test, CATT/T. evansi also reacted with 3/59 T. theileri infected sera. The lysate antigen-based ELISA reacted with 4/59 T. theileri, 9/10 Theileria and 3/10 Babesia infected sera. In contrast, TeGM6-4r-based ELISA was 86.3% sensitive and 58.3% specific in the screening of field samples. The average seroprevalence of T. evansi infection among water buffaloes in Northern Vietnam was 27.1% by CATT/T. evansi and 53.7% by TeGM6-4r. Seroprevalence in the five surveyed provinces ranged from 17.4% to 39.8% in the reference test, and 47.3% to 67.3% in the recombinant antigen based test. The finding indicated that the disease is still widely endemic in the area and that surveillance programs need to be carried out regularly to better control surra. We proposed TeGM6-4r as a useful serodiagnostic antigen for the detection and epidemiological surveillance of T. evansi infection among water buffaloes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Case-control study of allele frequencies of 15 short tandem repeat loci in males with impulsive violent behavior.

    PubMed

    Yang, Chun; Ba, Huajie; Gao, Zhiqin; Zhao, Hanqing; Yu, Haiying; Guo, Wei

    2013-12-01

    Analysis of genetic polymorphisms in short tandem repeats (STRs) is an accepted method for detecting associations between genotype and phenotype but it has not previously been used in the study of the genetics of impulsive violent behavior. Compare the prevalence of different polymorphisms in 15 STR loci (D8S1179, D21S11, D7S820, CSF1PO, D3S1358, TH01, D13S317, D16S539, D2S1338, D19S433, vWA, TPOX, D18S51, D5S818 and FGA) between men with a history of impulsive violence and male control subjects without a history of impulsive violence. The distributions of the alleles of the 15 STR loci were compared between 407 cases with impulsive violent behavior and 415 controls using AmpFlSTR(®) Identifiler™ kits. COMPARED TO CONTROLS, THE AVERAGE FREQUENCIES OF THE FOLLOWING ALLELES WERE SIGNIFICANTLY LOWER IN INDIVIDUALS WITH A HISTORY OF VIOLENT BEHAVIOR: allele 10 of TH01 (OR=0.29, 95%CI=0.16-0.52, p<0.0001,), allele 8 of TPOX (OR=0.71, 95%CI=0.58-0.86, p=0.0005), allele 9 of TPOX (OR=0.65, 95%CI=0.47-0.89, p=0.0072) and allele 14 of CSF1PO (OR=0.27, 95%CI=0.11-0.68, p=0.0035). One allele was significantly higher in cases than controls: allele 11 of TPOX (OR=1.79, 95%CI=1.45-2.22, p<0.0001). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first behavioral genetic study that clearly demonstrates a close relationship between specific genetic markers and impulsive aggression in non-psychiatric offenders. Further prospective work will be needed to determine whether or not the alleles identified can be considered risk factors for impulsive aggression and, if so, the underlying mechanisms that result in this relationship.

  3. Authentication of newly established human esophageal squamous cell carcinoma cell line (YM-1) using short tandem repeat (STR) profiling method.

    PubMed

    Ayyoob, Khosravi; Masoud, Khoshnia; Vahideh, Kazeminejad; Jahanbakhsh, Asadi

    2016-03-01

    Cross-contamination during or early after establishment of a new cell line could result in the worldwide spread of a misidentified cell line. Therefore, newly established cell lines need to be authenticated by a reference standard method. This study was conducted to investigate the authenticity of a newly established epithelial cell line of human esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) called YM-1 using short tandem repeat (STR) DNA profiling method. Primary human ESCC epithelial cells were cultured from the fresh tumor tissue of an adult female patient. Growth characteristics and epithelial originality of YM-1 cells were studied. Genomic DNA was isolated from YM-1 cells harvested at passage 22 and ESCC donor tumor sample on two different days to prevent probable DNA contamination. STR profiling was performed using AmpFℓSTR® Identifiler® Plus PCR Amplification Kit. To address whether YM-1 cells undergo genetic alteration as the passage number increases, STR profiling was performed again on harvested cells at passage 51. YM-1 cells grew as a monolayer with a population doubling time of 40.66 h. Epithelial originality of YM-1 cells was confirmed using ICC/IF staining of cytokeratins AE1/AE3. The STR profile of the ESCC donor tumor sample was the same with YM-1 cells at passage 22. However, STR profile of the donor tumor sample showed an off-ladder (OL) allele in their D7S820 locus. Also, re-profiling of YM-1 cells at passage 51 showed a loss of heterozygosity (LOH) at D18S51 locus. This suggests that long-term culture of cell lines may alter their DNA profile. Comparison of the DNA fingerprinting results in DSMZ, and ATCC STR profiling databases confirmed unique identity of YM-1 cell line. This study provides an easy, fast, and reliable procedure for authentication of newly established cell lines, which helps in preventing the spread of misidentified cells and improving the reproducibility and validity of experiments, consequently.

  4. Application of Variable-Number Tandem-Repeat Typing To Discriminate Ralstonia solanacearum Strains Associated with English Watercourses and Disease Outbreaks

    PubMed Central

    Bryant, Ruth; Bew, Janice; Conyers, Christine; Stones, Robert; Alcock, Michael; Elphinstone, John

    2013-01-01

    Variable-number tandem-repeat (VNTR) analysis was used for high-resolution discrimination among Ralstonia solanacearum phylotype IIB sequevar 1 (PIIB-1) isolates and further evaluated for use in source tracing. Five tandem-repeat-containing loci (comprising six tandem repeats) discriminated 17 different VNTR profiles among 75 isolates from potato, geranium, bittersweet (Solanum dulcamara), tomato, and the environment. R. solanacearum isolates from crops at three unrelated outbreak sites where river water had been used for irrigation had distinct VNTR profiles that were shared with PIIB-1 isolates from infected bittersweet growing upriver of each site. The VNTR profiling results supported the implication that the source of R. solanacearum at each outbreak was contaminated river water. Analysis of 51 isolates from bittersweet growing in river water at different locations provided a means to evaluate the technique for studying the epidemiology of the pathogen in the environment. Ten different VNTR profiles were identified among bittersweet PIIB-1 isolates from the River Thames. Repeated findings of contiguous river stretches that produced isolates that shared single VNTR profiles supported the hypothesis that the pathogen had disseminated from infected bittersweet plants located upriver. VNTR profiles shared between bittersweet isolates from two widely separated Thames tributaries (River Ray and River Colne) suggested they were independently contaminated with the same clonal type. Some bittersweet isolates had VNTR profiles that were shared with potato isolates collected outside the United Kingdom. It was concluded that VNTR profiling could contribute to further understanding of R. solanacearum epidemiology and assist in control of future disease outbreaks. PMID:23892739

  5. Application of variable-number tandem-repeat typing to discriminate Ralstonia solanacearum strains associated with English watercourses and disease outbreaks.

    PubMed

    Parkinson, Neil; Bryant, Ruth; Bew, Janice; Conyers, Christine; Stones, Robert; Alcock, Michael; Elphinstone, John

    2013-10-01

    Variable-number tandem-repeat (VNTR) analysis was used for high-resolution discrimination among Ralstonia solanacearum phylotype IIB sequevar 1 (PIIB-1) isolates and further evaluated for use in source tracing. Five tandem-repeat-containing loci (comprising six tandem repeats) discriminated 17 different VNTR profiles among 75 isolates from potato, geranium, bittersweet (Solanum dulcamara), tomato, and the environment. R. solanacearum isolates from crops at three unrelated outbreak sites where river water had been used for irrigation had distinct VNTR profiles that were shared with PIIB-1 isolates from infected bittersweet growing upriver of each site. The VNTR profiling results supported the implication that the source of R. solanacearum at each outbreak was contaminated river water. Analysis of 51 isolates from bittersweet growing in river water at different locations provided a means to evaluate the technique for studying the epidemiology of the pathogen in the environment. Ten different VNTR profiles were identified among bittersweet PIIB-1 isolates from the River Thames. Repeated findings of contiguous river stretches that produced isolates that shared single VNTR profiles supported the hypothesis that the pathogen had disseminated from infected bittersweet plants located upriver. VNTR profiles shared between bittersweet isolates from two widely separated Thames tributaries (River Ray and River Colne) suggested they were independently contaminated with the same clonal type. Some bittersweet isolates had VNTR profiles that were shared with potato isolates collected outside the United Kingdom. It was concluded that VNTR profiling could contribute to further understanding of R. solanacearum epidemiology and assist in control of future disease outbreaks.

  6. A variable number of tandem repeats locus within the human complement C2 gene is associated with a retroposon derived from a human endogenous retrovirus

    PubMed Central

    1992-01-01

    We have previously described multiallelic restriction fragment length polymorphisms of the C2 gene, suggesting the presence of a variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR) locus. We report here the cloning and sequencing of the polymorphic fragments from the two most common alleles of the gene, a and b. The results confirm the presence of a VNTR locus consisting of a nucleotide sequence, 41 bp in average length, repeated tandemly 23 and 17 times in alleles a and b, respectively. The difference in the number of repeats between the two alleles is due to the deletion/insertion of two noncontiguous segments, 143 and 118 bp long, of allele a, and of a 40-bp segment of allele b. The VNTR region is associated with a SINE (short interspersed sequence)- type retroposon, SINE-R.C2, located within the third intron of the C2 gene. SINE-R.C2 is a member of a previously described large retroposon family of the human genome, apparently derived from the human endogenous retrovirus, (HERV) K10, which is homologous to the mouse mammary tumor virus. PMID:1350302

  7. Complete sequencing and comparative analyses of the pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) plastome revealed high frequency of tandem repeats and large insertion/deletions on pepper plastome.

    PubMed

    Jo, Yeong Deuk; Park, Jongsun; Kim, Jungeun; Song, Wonho; Hur, Cheol-Goo; Lee, Yong-Hwan; Kang, Byoung-Cheorl

    2011-02-01

    Plants in the family Solanaceae are used as model systems in comparative and evolutionary genomics. The complete chloroplast genomes of seven solanaceous species have been sequenced, including tobacco, potato and tomato, but not peppers. We analyzed the complete chloroplast genome sequence of the hot pepper, Capsicum annuum. The pepper chloroplast genome was 156,781 bp in length, including a pair of inverted repeats (IR) of 25,783 bp. The content and the order of 133 genes in the pepper chloroplast genome were identical to those of other solanaceous plastomes. To characterize pepper plastome sequence, we performed comparative analysis using complete plastome sequences of pepper and seven solanaceous plastomes. Frequency and contents of large indels and tandem repeat sequences and distribution pattern of genome-wide sequence variations were investigated. In addition, a phylogenetic analysis using concatenated alignments of coding sequences was performed to determine evolutionary position of pepper in Solanaceae. Our results revealed two distinct features of pepper plastome compared to other solanaceous plastomes. Firstly, large indels, including insertions on accD and rpl20 gene sequences, were predominantly detected in the pepper plastome compared to other solanaceous plastomes. Secondly, tandem repeat sequences were particularly frequent in the pepper plastome. Taken together, our study represents unique features of evolution of pepper plastome among solanaceous plastomes.

  8. High tandem repeat content in the genome of the short-lived annual fish Nothobranchius furzeri: a new vertebrate model for aging research

    PubMed Central

    Reichwald, Kathrin; Lauber, Chris; Nanda, Indrajit; Kirschner, Jeanette; Hartmann, Nils; Schories, Susanne; Gausmann, Ulrike; Taudien, Stefan; Schilhabel, Markus B; Szafranski, Karol; Glöckner, Gernot; Schmid, Michael; Cellerino, Alessandro; Schartl, Manfred; Englert, Christoph; Platzer, Matthias

    2009-01-01

    Background The annual fish Nothobranchius furzeri is the vertebrate with the shortest known life span in captivity. Fish of the GRZ strain live only three to four months under optimal laboratory conditions, show explosive growth, early sexual maturation and age-dependent physiological and behavioral decline, and express aging related biomarkers. Treatment with resveratrol and low temperature significantly extends the maximum life span. These features make N. furzeri a promising new vertebrate model for age research. Results To contribute to establishing N. furzeri as a new model organism, we provide a first insight into its genome and a comparison to medaka, stickleback, tetraodon and zebrafish. The N. furzeri genome contains 19 chromosomes (2n = 38). Its genome of between 1.6 and 1.9 Gb is the largest among the analyzed fish species and has, at 45%, the highest repeat content. Remarkably, tandem repeats comprise 21%, which is 4-12 times more than in the other four fish species. In addition, G+C-rich tandem repeats preferentially localize to centromeric regions. Phylogenetic analysis based on coding sequences identifies medaka as the closest relative. Genotyping of an initial set of 27 markers and multi-locus fingerprinting of one microsatellite provides the first molecular evidence that the GRZ strain is highly inbred. Conclusions Our work presents a first basis for systematic genomic and genetic analyses aimed at understanding the mechanisms of life span determination in N. furzeri. PMID:19210790

  9. High tandem repeat content in the genome of the short-lived annual fish Nothobranchius furzeri: a new vertebrate model for aging research.

    PubMed

    Reichwald, Kathrin; Lauber, Chris; Nanda, Indrajit; Kirschner, Jeanette; Hartmann, Nils; Schories, Susanne; Gausmann, Ulrike; Taudien, Stefan; Schilhabel, Markus B; Szafranski, Karol; Glöckner, Gernot; Schmid, Michael; Cellerino, Alessandro; Schartl, Manfred; Englert, Christoph; Platzer, Matthias

    2009-02-11

    The annual fish Nothobranchius furzeri is the vertebrate with the shortest known life span in captivity. Fish of the GRZ strain live only three to four months under optimal laboratory conditions, show explosive growth, early sexual maturation and age-dependent physiological and behavioral decline, and express aging related biomarkers. Treatment with resveratrol and low temperature significantly extends the maximum life span. These features make N. furzeri a promising new vertebrate model for age research. To contribute to establishing N. furzeri as a new model organism, we provide a first insight into its genome and a comparison to medaka, stickleback, tetraodon and zebrafish. The N. furzeri genome contains 19 chromosomes (2n = 38). Its genome of between 1.6 and 1.9 Gb is the largest among the analyzed fish species and has, at 45%, the highest repeat content. Remarkably, tandem repeats comprise 21%, which is 4-12 times more than in the other four fish species. In addition, G+C-rich tandem repeats preferentially localize to centromeric regions. Phylogenetic analysis based on coding sequences identifies medaka as the closest relative. Genotyping of an initial set of 27 markers and multi-locus fingerprinting of one microsatellite provides the first molecular evidence that the GRZ strain is highly inbred. Our work presents a first basis for systematic genomic and genetic analyses aimed at understanding the mechanisms of life span determination in N. furzeri.

  10. Probing the mechanism of amyloidogenesis through a tandem repeat of the PI3-SH3 domain suggests a generic model for protein aggregation and fibril formation.

    PubMed

    Bader, Reto; Bamford, Richard; Zurdo, Jesús; Luisi, Ben F; Dobson, Christopher M

    2006-02-10

    Aggregation of the SH3 domain of the PI3 kinase, both as a single domain and as a tandem repeat in which the C terminus of one domain is linked to the N terminus of another by a flexible linker of ten glycine/serine residues, has been studied under a range of conditions in order to investigate the mechanism of protein aggregation and amyloid formation. The tandem repeat was found to form amyloid fibrils much more readily than the single domain under the acidic conditions used here, and the fibrils themselves have higher morphological homogeneity. The folding-unfolding transition of the PI3-SH3 domain shows two-state behaviour and is pH dependent; at pH 3.6, which is near the pH mid-point for folding and only slightly below the isoelectric point of the protein, both the single domain and the tandem repeat spontaneously form broad distributions of soluble oligomers without requirement for nucleation. Under prolonged incubation under these conditions, the oligomers convert into thin, curly fibrils that interact with thioflavin-T, suggesting that they contain an organised beta-sheet structure. Under more acidic conditions (pH 2.0) where the proteins are fully denatured and carry a positive net charge, long, straight fibrils are formed in a process having a pronounced lag phase. The latter was found to be reduced dramatically by the addition of oligomers exceeding a critical size of approximately 20 molecules. The results suggest that the process of aggregation of these SH3 domains can take place by a variety of mechanisms, ranging from downhill formation of relatively amorphous species to nucleated formation of highly organised structures, the relative importance of which varies greatly with solution conditions. Comparison with the behaviour of other amyloidogenic systems suggests that the general mechanistic features outlined here are likely to be common to at least a wide variety of peptides and proteins.

  11. Molecular cloning and chromosomal localization of a novel human tracheo-bronchial mucin cDNA containing tandemly repeated sequences of 48 base pairs.

    PubMed

    Porchet, N; Nguyen, V C; Dufosse, J; Audie, J P; Guyonnet-Duperat, V; Gross, M S; Denis, C; Degand, P; Bernheim, A; Aubert, J P

    1991-03-15

    A lambda gt11 cDNA library constructed from human tracheo-bronchial mucosa was screened with a polyclonal antiserum raised to chemically deglycosylated pronase glycopeptides from human bronchial mucins. Out of 20 positives clones, one partial cDNA clone was isolated and allowed to map a novel human tracheo-bronchial mucin gene. It contains 48 nucleotide tandem repeats quite perfectly identical which encodes a protein containing about 50% of hydroxy amino-acids. This clone hybridized to polydisperse messages produced by human tracheo-bronchial and human colonic mucosae. The gene (proposed name MUC 4) from which cDNA is derived maps to chromosome 3.

  12. Identification of a novel tandemly repeated sequence present in an intron of the glucose phosphate isomerase (GPI) gene in mouse and man

    SciTech Connect

    Faik, P.; Walker, J.I.H.; Morgan, M.J. )

    1994-05-01

    Glucose phosphate isomerase (GPI, glucose 6-phosphate ketol-isomerase, EC 5.3.1.9) is a housekeeping gene expressed in all tissues and organisms that utilize glycolysis and gluconeogenesis. Deficiency in humans leads to a rare form of nonspherocytic hemolytic anemia. The authors have isolated a 3.2-kb mouse cDNA containing glucose phosphate isomerase coding sequence and a 2.1-kb intronic sequence and a large proportion of the human gene (approaching 55 kb) in four phage [lambda] recombinants. A 4-kb intronic fragment from the human gene showing homology to the mouse intronic sequence has been isolated and sequenced. The fragment contains approximately 1.5 kb of sequence that is composited of 30 repeat units of a novel 50-kb tandemly repeated unit. The mouse intronic sequence contains 18 similar units. The human consensus sequence differs from the mouse consensus sequence at only 7 positions out of 50 (positions 16, 26, 27, 42, 43, 47, and 48). A probe containing the repeat element detects polymorphisms, specific to glucose phosphate isomerase, in human DNA. The repeat element does not appear to be present at any other loci in human DNA. The conservation of this intronic repeat element extends to pig and Chinese hamster. 26 refs., 4 figs.

  13. A variable number of tandem repeats in the 3'-untranslated region of the dopamine transporter modulates striatal function during working memory updating across the adult age span.

    PubMed

    Sambataro, Fabio; Podell, Jamie E; Murty, Vishnu P; Das, Saumitra; Kolachana, Bhaskar; Goldberg, Terry E; Weinberger, Daniel R; Mattay, Venkata S

    2015-08-01

    Dopamine modulation of striatal function is critical for executive functions such as working memory (WM) updating. The dopamine transporter (DAT) regulates striatal dopamine signaling via synaptic reuptake. A variable number of tandem repeats in the 3'-untranslated region of SLC6A3 (DAT1-3'-UTR-VNTR) is associated with DAT expression, such that 9-repeat allele carriers tend to express lower levels (associated with higher extracellular dopamine concentrations) than 10-repeat homozygotes. Aging is also associated with decline of the dopamine system. The goal of the present study was to investigate the effects of aging and DAT1-3'-UTR-VNTR on the neural activity and functional connectivity of the striatum during WM updating. Our results showed both an age-related decrease in striatal activity and an effect of DAT1-3'-UTR-VNTR. Ten-repeat homozygotes showed reduced striatal activity and increased striatal-hippocampal connectivity during WM updating relative to the 9-repeat carriers. There was no age by DAT1-3'-UTR-VNTR interaction. These results suggest that, whereas striatal function during WM updating is modulated by both age and genetically determined DAT levels, the rate of the age-related decline in striatal function is similar across both DAT1-3'-UTR-VNTR genotype groups. They further suggest that, because of the baseline difference in striatal function based on DAT1-3'-UTR-VNTR polymorphism, 10-repeat homozygotes, who have lower levels of striatal function throughout the adult life span, may reach a threshold of decreased striatal function and manifest impairments in cognitive processes mediated by the striatum earlier in life than the 9-repeat carriers. Our data suggest that age and DAT1-3'-UTR-VNTR polymorphism independently modulate striatal function.

  14. Diversity and Plasticity of the Intracellular Plant Pathogen and Insect Symbiont “Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus” as Revealed by Hypervariable Prophage Genes with Intragenic Tandem Repeats ▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Lijuan; Powell, Charles A.; Hoffman, Michele T.; Li, Wenbin; Fan, Guocheng; Liu, Bo; Lin, Hong; Duan, Yongping

    2011-01-01

    “Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus” is a psyllid-transmitted, phloem-limited alphaproteobacterium and the most prevalent species of “Ca. Liberibacter” associated with a devastating worldwide citrus disease known as huanglongbing (HLB). Two related and hypervariable genes (hyvI and hyvII) were identified in the prophage regions of the Psy62 “Ca. Liberibacter asiaticus” genome. Sequence analyses of the hyvI and hyvII genes in 35 “Ca. Liberibacter asiaticus” DNA isolates collected globally revealed that the hyvI gene contains up to 12 nearly identical tandem repeats (NITRs, 132 bp) and 4 partial repeats, while hyvII contains up to 2 NITRs and 4 partial repeats and shares homology with hyvI. Frequent deletions or insertions of these repeats within the hyvI and hyvII genes were observed, none of which disrupted the open reading frames. Sequence conservation within the individual repeats but an extensive variation in repeat numbers, rearrangement, and the sequences flanking the repeat region indicate the diversity and plasticity of “Ca. Liberibacter asiaticus” bacterial populations in the world. These differences were found not only in samples of distinct geographical origins but also in samples from a single origin and even from a single “Ca. Liberibacter asiaticus”-infected sample. This is the first evidence of different “Ca. Liberibacter asiaticus” populations coexisting in a single HLB-affected sample. The Florida “Ca. Liberibacter asiaticus” isolates contain both hyvI and hyvII, while all other global “Ca. Liberibacter asiaticus” isolates contain either one or the other. Interclade assignments of the putative HyvI and HyvII proteins from Florida isolates with other global isolates in phylogenetic trees imply multiple “Ca. Liberibacter asiaticus” populations in the world and a multisource introduction of the “Ca. Liberibacter asiaticus” bacterium into Florida. PMID:21784907

  15. Degenerate 87-base-pair tandem repeats create hydrophilic/hydrophobic alternating domains in human mucin peptides mapped to 11p15.

    PubMed

    Dufosse, J; Porchet, N; Audie, J P; Guyonnet Duperat, V; Laine, A; Van-Seuningen, I; Marrakchi, S; Degand, P; Aubert, J P

    1993-07-15

    A human tracheobronchial lambda gt 11 cDNA library was screened using antiserum prepared against the deglycosylated protein backbone of human tracheobronchial mucins. Two cDNAs, designated JER 28 and 57, obtained from this immunoscreening, were used to isolate two other cDNA clones, JUL 7 and JUL 10, from a human tracheobronchial lambda gt 10 cDNA library. These four clones (561, 1830, 1631 and 991 bp), which mapped to chromosome 11p15, were all found to contain degenerate 87-base-pair tandem repeats which encode non-repetitive peptides. Numerous deletions or insertions in an otherwise virtually perfect 87-base-pair tandem repeat create many shifts in reading frame which completely destroy the repetitive peptide structure. The peptide is composed of alternate hydrophobic and hydrophilic domains which probably differ in the extent to which they are glycosylated. The mRNAs are expressed both in the respiratory and in the digestive tracts. These human mucin probes may be important in assessing the abnormal mucins associated with inflammatory diseases or carcinoma from human mucosae.

  16. Degenerate 87-base-pair tandem repeats create hydrophilic/hydrophobic alternating domains in human mucin peptides mapped to 11p15.

    PubMed Central

    Dufosse, J; Porchet, N; Audie, J P; Guyonnet Duperat, V; Laine, A; Van-Seuningen, I; Marrakchi, S; Degand, P; Aubert, J P

    1993-01-01

    A human tracheobronchial lambda gt 11 cDNA library was screened using antiserum prepared against the deglycosylated protein backbone of human tracheobronchial mucins. Two cDNAs, designated JER 28 and 57, obtained from this immunoscreening, were used to isolate two other cDNA clones, JUL 7 and JUL 10, from a human tracheobronchial lambda gt 10 cDNA library. These four clones (561, 1830, 1631 and 991 bp), which mapped to chromosome 11p15, were all found to contain degenerate 87-base-pair tandem repeats which encode non-repetitive peptides. Numerous deletions or insertions in an otherwise virtually perfect 87-base-pair tandem repeat create many shifts in reading frame which completely destroy the repetitive peptide structure. The peptide is composed of alternate hydrophobic and hydrophilic domains which probably differ in the extent to which they are glycosylated. The mRNAs are expressed both in the respiratory and in the digestive tracts. These human mucin probes may be important in assessing the abnormal mucins associated with inflammatory diseases or carcinoma from human mucosae. Images Figure 1 (cont.) Figure 1 Figure 4 Figure 6 PMID:7916618

  17. Multiple-locus variable-number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA) of Leptospira interrogans serovar Pomona from Argentina reveals four new genotypes.

    PubMed

    Pavan, María Elisa; Cairó, Fabián; Brihuega, Bibiana; Samartino, Luis

    2008-01-01

    Outbreaks of leptospirosis occur regularly in Argentina, but little is known about their epidemiological relationships. We have analyzed the genetic diversity of a collection of 16 strains of Leptospira interrogans serovar Pomona isolated from animals and humans in Argentina during the past 45 years. Genotyping was performed by multiple-locus variable-number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA) using the loci VNTR4, VNTR7, VNTR9, VNTR10, VNTR19, VNTR23 and VNTR31, as described by Majed et al. [Identification of variable-number tandem-repeat loci in Leptospira interrogans sensu stricto. J Clin Microbiol 2005;43:539-45]. Clustering analysis revealed four new distinct MLVA genotypes, with a dominant one. Strains with this genotype were consistently isolated since 1960 to the present, mainly from cows and pigs, but also from humans, representing 75% of the total strains studied. These strains coexisted temporally and geographically with isolates presenting the other new genotypes. VNTR4 locus, with four different alleles, presented the highest diversity between the VNTR loci analyzed. MLVA patterns obtained will be useful for future diagnostic and epidemiological tracing analysis.

  18. Association between allelic variation due to short tandem repeats in tRNA gene of Entamoeba histolytica and clinical phenotypes of amoebiasis.

    PubMed

    Jaiswal, Virendra; Ghoshal, Ujjala; Mittal, Balraj; Dhole, Tapan N; Ghoshal, Uday C

    2014-05-01

    Genotypes of Entamoeba histolytica (E. histolytica) may contribute clinical phenotypes of amoebiasis such as amoebic liver abscess (ALA), dysentery and asymptomatic cyst passers state. Hence, we evaluated allelic variation due to short tandem repeats (STRs) in tRNA gene of E. histolytica and clinical phenotypes of amoebiasis. Asymptomatic cyst passers (n=24), patients with dysentery (n=56) and ALA (n=107) were included. Extracted DNA from stool (dysentery, asymptomatic cyst passers) and liver aspirate was amplified using 6 E. histolytica specific tRNA-linked STRs (D-A, A-L, N-K2, R-R, S-Q, and S(TGA)-D) primers. PCR products were subjected to sequencing. Association between allelic variation and clinical phenotypes was analyzed. A total of 9 allelic variations were found in D-A, 8 in A-L, 4 in N-K2, 5 in R-R, 10 in S(TAG)-D and 7 in S-Q loci. A significant association was found between allelic variants and clinical phenotypes of amoebiasis. This study reveals that allelic variation due to short tandem repeats (STRs) in tRNA gene of E. histolytica is associated different clinical outcome of amoebiasis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Relatedness of Vibrio cholerae O1/O139 Isolates from Patients and Their Household Contacts, Determined by Multilocus Variable-Number Tandem-Repeat Analysis▿ ‡

    PubMed Central

    Kendall, Emily A.; Chowdhury, Fahima; Begum, Yasmin; Khan, Ashraful I.; Li, Shan; Thierer, James H.; Bailey, Jason; Kreisel, Kristen; Tacket, Carol O.; LaRocque, Regina C.; Harris, Jason B.; Ryan, Edward T.; Qadri, Firdausi; Calderwood, Stephen B.; Stine, O. Colin

    2010-01-01

    The genetic relatedness of Vibrio cholerae O1/O139 isolates obtained from 100 patients and 146 of their household contacts in Dhaka, Bangladesh, between 2002 and 2005 was assessed by multilocus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis. Isolate genotypes were analyzed at five loci containing tandem repeats. Across the population, as well as within households, isolates with identical genotypes were clustered in time. Isolates from individuals within the same household were more likely to have similar or identical genotypes than were isolates from different households, but even within a household, isolates from different individuals often had different genotypes. When household contacts were sampled regularly for 3 weeks after the illness of the household index patient, isolates with genotypes related to the index patient appeared in contacts, on average, ∼3 days after the index patient, while isolates with unrelated genotypes appeared in contacts ∼6 days after. Limited data revealed that multiple isolates from the same individual collected within days of each other or even from a single stool sample may have identical, similar, or unrelated genotypes as well. Our results demonstrate that genetically related V. cholerae strains cluster in local outbreaks but also suggest that multiple distinct strains of V. cholerae O1 may circulate simultaneously within a household. PMID:20585059

  20. Diversity of Mycoplasma hominis clinical isolates from Bordeaux, France, as assessed by multiple-locus variable-number tandem repeat analysis.

    PubMed

    Férandon, Cyril; Peuchant, Olivia; Renaudin, Hélène; Bébéar, Cécile

    2013-05-28

    Mycoplasma hominis is an opportunistic human mycoplasma species that can cause various urogenital infections and, less frequently, extragenital infections. The objective of this work was to study the genetic diversity of this species using a molecular typing method based on multiple-locus variable-number tandem repeat (VNTR) analysis (MLVA). The genome content of M. hominis PG21 was analysed for tandem repeats (TRs), and five of the 130 TRs identified were selected for use in an MLVA assay. The method was based on GeneScan analysis of VNTR loci using multiplex PCR with fluorescent dyes and resolution by capillary electrophoresis. This approach was used on a collection of 210 urogenital and extragenital French clinical isolates collected between 1987 and 2009. Forty MLVA types were found. The discriminatory index of our MLVA scheme was 0.924. Using this new typing tool, persistent infection was suggested for six patients and new infection for one patient. Furthermore, mother-to-child transmission was confirmed in the two cases studied. Application of MLVA to a wide range of M. hominis isolates revealed high genotypic diversity and no obvious link between the MLVA type and the isolate year of collection, the patient's age or sex, the anatomical origin of the isolates or resistance to antibiotics was found. Our MLVA scheme highlights the high genetic heterogeneity of the M. hominis species. It seems too discriminatory to be used for large epidemiological studies but has proven its usefulness for molecular studies at the individual level.

  1. A B-cell-specific nuclear protein that binds to DNA sites 5' to immunoglobulin S alpha tandem repeats is regulated during differentiation.

    PubMed Central

    Waters, S H; Saikh, K U; Stavnezer, J

    1989-01-01

    Immunoglobulin heavy-chain switching is effected by recombination events between sites associated with tandemly repeated switch sequences located 5' to immunoglobulin heavy-chain genes. Using the band mobility shift assay, we have identified two distinct sites 5' to the alpha heavy-chain switch sequence with affinity for a single B-cell-specific DNA-binding protein, S alpha-BP. S alpha-BP was present in nuclear extracts from pre-B and B cells but was not detected in extracts from plasmacytomas, B-cell hybridomas, T-cell lymphomas, or a macrophage cell line. It was also not detectable in other nonlymphoid cells tested. Evidence suggests there are S alpha-BP-binding sites near other immunoglobulin switch sequences. As with the S alpha sites, these sites appear to be distinct from the consensus tandem repeats characteristic of immunoglobulin switch sequences. The possible functions of S alpha-BP on contacting its binding sites are discussed in the context of immunoglobulin heavy-chain switch recombination. Images PMID:2511438

  2. Identification of Variable-Number Tandem-Repeat (VNTR) Sequences in Acinetobacter baumannii and Interlaboratory Validation of an Optimized Multiple-Locus VNTR Analysis Typing Scheme▿†

    PubMed Central

    Pourcel, Christine; Minandri, Fabrizia; Hauck, Yolande; D'Arezzo, Silvia; Imperi, Francesco; Vergnaud, Gilles; Visca, Paolo

    2011-01-01

    Acinetobacter baumannii is an important opportunistic pathogen responsible for nosocomial outbreaks, mostly occurring in intensive care units. Due to the multiplicity of infection sources, reliable molecular fingerprinting techniques are needed to establish epidemiological correlations among A. baumannii isolates. Multiple-locus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis (MLVA) has proven to be a fast, reliable, and cost-effective typing method for several bacterial species. In this study, an MLVA assay compatible with simple PCR- and agarose gel-based electrophoresis steps as well as with high-throughput automated methods was developed for A. baumannii typing. Preliminarily, 10 potential polymorphic variable-number tandem repeats (VNTRs) were identified upon bioinformatic screening of six annotated genome sequences of A. baumannii. A collection of 7 reference strains plus 18 well-characterized isolates, including unique types and representatives of the three international A. baumannii lineages, was then evaluated in a two-center study aimed at validating the MLVA assay and comparing it with other genotyping assays, namely, macrorestriction analysis with pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and PCR-based sequence group (SG) profiling. The results showed that MLVA can discriminate between isolates with identical PFGE types and SG profiles. A panel of eight VNTR markers was selected, all showing the ability to be amplified and good amounts of polymorphism in the majority of strains. Independently generated MLVA profiles, composed of an ordered string of allele numbers corresponding to the number of repeats at each VNTR locus, were concordant between centers. Typeability, reproducibility, stability, discriminatory power, and epidemiological concordance were excellent. A database containing information and MLVA profiles for several A. baumannii strains is available from http://mlva.u-psud.fr/. PMID:21147956

  3. A human sleep homeostasis phenotype in mice expressing a primate-specific PER3 variable-number tandem-repeat coding-region polymorphism

    PubMed Central

    Hasan, Sibah; van der Veen, Daan R.; Winsky-Sommerer, Raphaelle; Hogben, Alexandra; Laing, Emma E.; Koentgen, Frank; Dijk, Derk-Jan; Archer, Simon N.

    2014-01-01

    In humans, a primate-specific variable-number tandem-repeat (VNTR) polymorphism (4 or 5 repeats 54 nt in length) in the circadian gene PER3 is associated with differences in sleep timing and homeostatic responses to sleep loss. We investigated the effects of this polymorphism on circadian rhythmicity and sleep homeostasis by introducing the polymorphism into mice and assessing circadian and sleep parameters at baseline and during and after 12 h of sleep deprivation (SD). Microarray analysis was used to measure hypothalamic and cortical gene expression. Circadian behavior and sleep were normal at baseline. The response to SD of 2 electrophysiological markers of sleep homeostasis, electroencephalography (EEG) θ power during wakefulness and δ power during sleep, were greater in the Per35/5 mice. During recovery, the Per35/5 mice fully compensated for the SD-induced deficit in δ power, but the Per34/4 and wild-type mice did not. Sleep homeostasis-related transcripts (e.g., Homer1, Ptgs2, and Kcna2) were differentially expressed between the humanized mice, but circadian clock genes were not. These data are in accordance with the hypothesis derived from human data that the PER3 VNTR polymorphism modifies the sleep homeostatic response without significantly influencing circadian parameters.—Hasan, S., van der Veen, D. R., Winsky-Sommerer, R., Hogben, A., Laing, E. E., Koentgen, F., Dijk, D.-J., Archer, S. N. A human sleep homeostasis phenotype in mice expressing a primate-specific PER3 variable-number tandem-repeat coding-region polymorphism. PMID:24577121

  4. Length of Variable Numbers of Tandem Repeats in the Carboxyl Ester Lipase (CEL) Gene May Confer Susceptibility to Alcoholic Liver Cirrhosis but Not Alcoholic Chronic Pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Zimmer, Constantin; Mössner, Joachim; Ruffert, Claudia; Krehan, Mario; Zapf, Christian; Njølstad, Pål Rasmus; Johansson, Stefan; Bugert, Peter; Miyajima, Fabio; Liloglou, Triantafillos; Brown, Laura J.; Winn, Simon A.; Davies, Kelly; Latawiec, Diane; Gunson, Bridget K.; Criddle, David N.; Pirmohamed, Munir; Grützmann, Robert; Michl, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Background Carboxyl-ester lipase (CEL) contributes to fatty acid ethyl ester metabolism, which is implicated in alcoholic pancreatitis. The CEL gene harbours a variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR) region in exon 11. Variation in this VNTR has been linked to monogenic pancreatic disease, while conflicting results were reported for chronic pancreatitis (CP). Here, we aimed to investigate a potential association of CEL VNTR lengths with alcoholic CP. Methods Overall, 395 alcoholic CP patients, 218 patients with alcoholic liver cirrhosis (ALC) serving as controls with a comparable amount of alcohol consumed, and 327 healthy controls from Germany and the United Kingdom (UK) were analysed by determination of fragment lengths by capillary electrophoresis. Allele frequencies and genotypes of different VNTR categories were compared between the groups. Results Twelve repeats were overrepresented in UK ACP patients (P = 0.04) compared to controls, whereas twelve repeats were enriched in German ALC compared to alcoholic CP patients (P = 0.03). Frequencies of CEL VNTR lengths of 14 and 15 repeats differed between German ALC patients and healthy controls (P = 0.03 and 0.008, respectively). However, in the genotype and pooled analysis of VNTR lengths no statistical significant association was depicted. Additionally, the 16–16 genotype as well as 16 repeats were more frequent in UK ALC than in alcoholic CP patients (P = 0.034 and 0.02, respectively). In all other calculations, including pooled German and UK data, allele frequencies and genotype distributions did not differ significantly between patients and controls or between alcoholic CP and ALC. Conclusions We did not obtain evidence that CEL VNTR lengths are associated with alcoholic CP. However, our results suggest that CEL VNTR lengths might associate with ALC, a finding that needs to be clarified in larger cohorts. PMID:27802312

  5. Association between the dopamine D4 receptor gene exon III variable number of tandem repeats and political attitudes in female Han Chinese

    PubMed Central

    Ebstein, Richard P.; Monakhov, Mikhail V.; Lu, Yunfeng; Jiang, Yushi; Lai, Poh San; Chew, Soo Hong

    2015-01-01

    Twin and family studies suggest that political attitudes are partially determined by an individual's genotype. The dopamine D4 receptor gene (DRD4) exon III repeat region that has been extensively studied in connection with human behaviour, is a plausible candidate to contribute to individual differences in political attitudes. A first United States study provisionally identified this gene with political attitude along a liberal–conservative axis albeit contingent upon number of friends. In a large sample of 1771 Han Chinese university students in Singapore, we observed a significant main effect of association between the DRD4 exon III variable number of tandem repeats and political attitude. Subjects with two copies of the 4-repeat allele (4R/4R) were significantly more conservative. Our results provided evidence for a role of the DRD4 gene variants in contributing to individual differences in political attitude particularly in females and more generally suggested that associations between individual genes, and neurochemical pathways, contributing to traits relevant to the social sciences can be provisionally identified. PMID:26246555

  6. The mitogenome of Gammarus duebeni (Crustacea Amphipoda): A new gene order and non-neutral sequence evolution of tandem repeats in the control region.

    PubMed

    Krebes, Lukas; Bastrop, Ralf

    2012-06-01

    We determined the complete mitogenome sequence of Gammarus duebeni (Peracarida, Amphipoda). The mitogenome is circular and has a length of 15,651bp. The content corresponds to typical mitogenomes of metazoans. The gene order and transcriptional polarity of the protein-coding genes is identical to the pancrustacean ground pattern. Six tRNA genes are rearranged, making the gene order unique. Thus it will bring forward the understanding of mitogenome evolution within the Peracarida, for which much more derived gene orders are known. We postulate that the gene string trnA-trnS1 (AGN)-trnN-trnE-trnR constitutes an apomorphic character for the Amphipoda. In contrast to the relatively large genome size, we found two extremely truncated rRNA genes. The rrnL gene is the shortest (986bp) reported up until now for crustaceans. A six-time imperfect tandem repeat was observed within the control region. The inferred deterministic pattern of variation between the repeat units makes it likely, that functional constraints play an important role in the evolutionary dynamics and extant appearance of the repeat array. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Improved real-time PCR detection of 'Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus' from citrus and psyllid hosts by targeting the intragenic tandem-repeats of its prophage genes.

    PubMed

    Morgan, J Kent; Zhou, Lijuan; Li, Wenbin; Shatters, Robert G; Keremane, Manjunath; Duan, Yong-Ping

    2012-04-01

    'Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus' (CLas) is a Gram-negative α-proteobacterium, and the prominent species of Liberibacter associated with a devastating worldwide citrus disease known as huanglongbing (HLB). This fastidious bacterium resides in phloem sieve cells of host plants and is vectored by the Asian citrus psyllid (Diaphorina citri). Due to its uneven distribution in planta and highly variable bacterial titers, detection of HLB bacteria can be challenging. Here we demonstrated a new utility of nearly identical tandem-repeats of two CLas prophage genes for real-time PCR by SYBR Green 1 (LJ900fr) and TaqMan(®) (LJ900fpr). When compared with conventional 16S rDNA-based real-time PCR, targeting the repeat sequence reduced the relative detectable threshold by approximately 9 and 3 real-time PCR cycles for LJ900fr and LJ900fpr, respectively. Additionally, both LJ900 methods detected CLas from otherwise non-detectable samples by other methods. CLas was also detected from globally derived samples including psyllids, various citrus varieties, periwinkle, dodder, and orange jasmine, suggesting the new detection method can be applicable worldwide. Additionally, we demonstrated the presence of the hyv(I)/hyv(II) repeat sequence within the 'Ca. Liberibacter americanus' strain. The method thereby provides sensitive HLB detection with broad application for scientific, regulatory, and citrus grower communities. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Use of a novel panel of nine short tandem repeats for exact and high-resolution fingerprinting of Aspergillus fumigatus isolates.

    PubMed

    de Valk, Hanneke A; Meis, Jacques F G M; Curfs, Ilse M; Muehlethaler, Konrad; Mouton, Johan W; Klaassen, Corné H W

    2005-08-01

    Here we describe a new panel of short tandem repeats (STRs) for a novel exact typing assay that can be used to discriminate between Aspergillus fumigatus isolates. A total of nine STR markers were selected from available genomic A. fumigatus sequences and were divided into three multicolor multiplex PCRs. Each multiplex reaction amplified three di-, tri-, or tetranucleotide repeats, respectively. All nine STR markers were used to analyze 100 presumably unrelated A. fumigatus isolates. For each marker, between 11 and 37 alleles were found in this population. One isolate proved to be a mixture of at least two different isolates. With the remaining 99 isolates, 96 different fingerprinting profiles were obtained. The Simpson's diversity index for the individual markers ranged from 0.77 to 0.97. The diversity index for the multiplex combination of di-, tri-, and tetranucleotide repeats ranged from 0.9784 to 0.9968. The combination of all nine markers yielded a Simpson's diversity index of 0.9994, indicative of the high discriminatory power of these new loci. In theory, this panel of markers is able to discriminate between no less than 27 x 10(9) different genotypes. The multicolor multiplex approach allows large numbers of markers to be tested in a short period of time. The exact nature of the assay combines high reproducibility with the easy exchange of results and makes it a very suitable tool for large-scale epidemiological studies.

  9. Association between the dopamine D4 receptor gene exon III variable number of tandem repeats and political attitudes in female Han Chinese.

    PubMed

    Ebstein, Richard P; Monakhov, Mikhail V; Lu, Yunfeng; Jiang, Yushi; Lai, Poh San; Chew, Soo Hong

    2015-08-22

    Twin and family studies suggest that political attitudes are partially determined by an individual's genotype. The dopamine D4 receptor gene (DRD4) exon III repeat region that has been extensively studied in connection with human behaviour, is a plausible candidate to contribute to individual differences in political attitudes. A first United States study provisionally identified this gene with political attitude along a liberal-conservative axis albeit contingent upon number of friends. In a large sample of 1771 Han Chinese university students in Singapore, we observed a significant main effect of association between the DRD4 exon III variable number of tandem repeats and political attitude. Subjects with two copies of the 4-repeat allele (4R/4R) were significantly more conservative. Our results provided evidence for a role of the DRD4 gene variants in contributing to individual differences in political attitude particularly in females and more generally suggested that associations between individual genes, and neurochemical pathways, contributing to traits relevant to the social sciences can be provisionally identified.

  10. Clinical utility of chimerism status assessed by lineage-specific short tandem repeat analysis: experience from four cases of allogeneic stem cell transplantation.

    PubMed

    Goh, Ri-Young; Cho, Sung-Suk; Song, Yoo-Jeong; Heo, Kyeong; Oh, Sung-Yong; Kim, Sung-Hyun; Kwon, Hyeok-Chan; Kim, Hyo-Jin; Han, Jin-Yeong

    2009-08-01

    Chimerism testing permits early prediction and documentation of successful engraftment, and also facilitates detection of impending graft rejection. In this study, we serially monitored chimerism status by short tandem repeat-based PCR in nucleated cells (NC), T cells and natural killer (NK) cells after myeloablative allogeneic stem cell transplantation (SCT). Four patients with myeloid malignancies showed discrepant chimerism results among those three fractions. Three patients had mixed chimerism (MC) of donor/host T cells at a time point around the onset of chronic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). In two patients with disease relapse, MC of NK cells preceded a morphological relapse or NK cells showed a higher percentage of patient cells compared to NC. Therefore, our study shows that chimerism analysis in lineage-specific cells might be useful in predicting clinical outcome after allogeneic SCT in certain patients.

  11. Role of a short tandem leucine/arginine repeat in strong mutator phenotype acquisition in a clinical isolate of Salmonella Typhimurium.

    PubMed

    Le Bars, Hervé; Bousarghin, Latifa; Bonnaure-Mallet, Martine; Jolivet-Gougeon, Anne

    2013-01-01

    In this prospective study, a strong mutator strain of Salmonella Typhimurium was isolated from a collection of 130 human clinical strains of Salmonella. Sequence analysis of the mutS, mutL, and mutH genes, which encode three proteins that are essential for initiation of methyl-directed DNA mismatch repair, revealed insertion of a short tandem repeat (STR) of leucine/alanine in the histidine kinase-like ATPase domain of MutL. The role of this STR in the acquisition of the strong mutator phenotype was confirmed by the construction of an isogenic mutant (6bpinsmutL) from a normomutator strain of Salmonella Heidelberg. This result adds to the sparse body of knowledge about strong mutators and highlights the role of this STR as a hotspot for the acquisition of a strong mutator phenotype in Salmonella.

  12. DNA extraction for short tandem repeat typing from mixed samples using anti-human leukocyte CD45 and ABO blood group antibodies.

    PubMed

    Yano, Shizue; Honda, Katsuya; Kaminiwa, Junko; Nishi, Takeki; Iwabuchi, Yayoi; Sugano, Yukiko; Kurosu, Akira; Suzuki, Yasuhito

    2014-05-01

    DNA testing from mixed cell samples can be difficult to use successfully in criminal investigations. Here, we present a method for the extraction of DNA from mixed bloodstains involving plural contributors, after antibody-microbead captured cell separation. This method, together with the multiplex short tandem repeat typing presented, has proven highly successful in the recovery of DNA profiles corresponding to the ABO blood type. Methodological steps include magnetic separation using leukocyte specific CD45 antibody-coated microbeads and centrifugal separation of leukocyte agglutination by ABO antibody. The detection results of variable mixed ratio showed that the target DNA was detected accurately as low as 1:512 mixed ratio, regardless of the large amount of the background DNA present. The method presented here is applicable to PCR-based identification for various kinds of mixed samples.

  13. Molecular epidemiological study of Bacillus anthracis isolated in Mongolia by multiple-locus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis for 8 loci (MLVA-8).

    PubMed

    Okutani, Akiko; Tungalag, Hurelsukh; Boldbaatar, Bazartseren; Yamada, Akio; Tserennorov, Damdindorj; Otgonchimeg, Ishtsog; Erdenebat, Adiya; Otgonbaatar, Dashdavaa; Inoue, Satoshi

    2011-01-01

    The incidence of anthrax, which is caused by Bacillus anthracis, in the human and animal population of Mongolia has increased recently, and control of this infection is a nationwide concern. In this study, 29 isolates obtained from animals and various regions in Mongolia from 2001 to 2007 were analyzed by performing multiple-locus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis for 8 loci (MLVA-8) to understand the genetic relationship between the Mongolian B. anthracis isolates. We found that all the Mongolian isolates can be classified into A3 cluster along with the Japanese and the Chinese B. anthracis isolates. Our data revealed that MLVA-8 is useful for studying the molecular epidemiology of the Mongolian B. anthracis isolates and would help characterize B. anthracis infections in Mongolia.

  14. Phylogenetic typing of Bacillus anthracis isolated in Japan by multiple locus variable-number tandem repeats and the comprehensive single nucleotide polymorphism.

    PubMed

    Okutani, Akiko; Sekizuka, Tsuyoshi; Boldbaatar, Bazartseren; Yamada, Akio; Kuroda, Makoto; Inoue, Satoshi

    2010-01-01

    Twelve strains of Bacillus anthracis isolated in Japan were subjected to multiple locus variable-number tandem repeats analysis using 25 marker loci (MLVA25). The results showed that Japanese strains could be divided into two distinct genetic clusters, A3a and A3b. By using newly devised comprehensive single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) analysis, Japanese strains were also divided into two groups. The results obtained by the MLVA25 and plasmids SNP analysis well coincided, indicating that both methods were highly sensitive to discriminate B. anthracis strains. These results suggested that MLVA25 had sufficient discrimination power to identify B. anthracis at the strain level, and that MLVA25 as well as comprehensive SNPs analysis could facilitate further studies of B. anthracis strains including Japanese and other Asian strains.

  15. Multiple-locus variable number tandem repeat analysis is superior to spa typing and sufficient to characterize MRSA for surveillance purposes.

    PubMed

    Bosch, Thijs; Pluister, Gerlinde N; van Luit, Martijn; Landman, Fabian; van Santen-Verheuvel, Marga; Schot, Corrie; Witteveen, Sandra; van der Zwaluw, Kim; Heck, Max E O C; Schouls, Leo M

    2015-01-01

    Assess the best approach to type methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), Staphylococcal protein A (spa) typing, multiple-locus variable number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA) or both. Discriminatory power of spa typing and MLVA was determined using 20,771 MRSA isolates. There were twice as many MLVA types (MTs) as spa types present in the collection. Among the top 70% of the isolates, 37 spa types and 139 MTs were found. MLVA diversity among the top-10 spa types was high (diversity index 0.96), while spa diversity among the top-10 MTs was much lower (diversity index 0.83). The probability that two MRSA isolates with the same spa type also had the same MT was low (Wallace's coefficient 0.27). By contrast, most MRSA isolates yielding the same MT also had the same spa type (Wallace's coefficient 0.90). MLVA is superior to spa typing and will suffice to characterize MRSA isolates for surveillance.

  16. A multiple-locus variable-number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA) of Listeria monocytogenes isolated from Norwegian salmon-processing factories and from listeriosis patients.

    PubMed

    Lunestad, B T; Truong, T T T; Lindstedt, B-A

    2013-10-01

    The objective of this study was to characterize Listeria monocytogenes isolated from farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) and the processing environment in three different Norwegian factories, and compare these to clinical isolates by multiple-locus variable-number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA). The 65 L. monocytogenes isolates obtained gave 15 distinct MLVA profiles. There was great heterogeneity in the distribution of MLVA profiles in factories and within each factory. Nine of the 15 MLVA profiles found in the fish-associated isolates were found to match human profiles. The MLVA profile 07-07-09-10-06 was the most common strain in Norwegian listeriosis patients. L. monocytogenes with this profile has previously been associated with at least two known listeriosis outbreaks in Norway, neither determined to be due to fish consumption. However, since this profile was also found in fish and in the processing environment, fish should be considered as a possible food vehicle during sporadic cases and outbreaks of listeriosis.

  17. The structure of an endogenous Drosophila centromere reveals the prevalence of tandemly repeated sequences able to form i-motifs

    PubMed Central

    Garavís, Miguel; Méndez-Lago, María; Gabelica, Valérie; Whitehead, Siobhan L.; González, Carlos; Villasante, Alfredo

    2015-01-01

    Centromeres are the chromosomal loci at which spindle microtubules attach to mediate chromosome segregation during mitosis and meiosis. In most eukaryotes, centromeres are made up of highly repetitive DNA sequences (satellite DNA) interspersed with middle repetitive DNA sequences (transposable elements). Despite the efforts to establish complete genomic sequences of eukaryotic organisms, the so-called ‘finished’ genomes are not actually complete because the centromeres have not been assembled due to the intrinsic difficulties in constructing both physical maps and complete sequence assemblies of long stretches of tandemly repetitive DNA. Here we show the first molecular structure of an endogenous Drosophila centromere and the ability of the C-rich dodeca satellite strand to form dimeric i-motifs. The finding of i-motif structures in simple and complex centromeric satellite DNAs leads us to suggest that these centromeric sequences may have been selected not by their primary sequence but by their ability to form noncanonical secondary structures. PMID:26289671

  18. The structure of an endogenous Drosophila centromere reveals the prevalence of tandemly repeated sequences able to form i-motifs.

    PubMed

    Garavís, Miguel; Méndez-Lago, María; Gabelica, Valérie; Whitehead, Siobhan L; González, Carlos; Villasante, Alfredo

    2015-08-20

    Centromeres are the chromosomal loci at which spindle microtubules attach to mediate chromosome segregation during mitosis and meiosis. In most eukaryotes, centromeres are made up of highly repetitive DNA sequences (satellite DNA) interspersed with middle repetitive DNA sequences (transposable elements). Despite the efforts to establish complete genomic sequences of eukaryotic organisms, the so-called 'finished' genomes are not actually complete because the centromeres have not been assembled due to the intrinsic difficulties in constructing both physical maps and complete sequence assemblies of long stretches of tandemly repetitive DNA. Here we show the first molecular structure of an endogenous Drosophila centromere and the ability of the C-rich dodeca satellite strand to form dimeric i-motifs. The finding of i-motif structures in simple and complex centromeric satellite DNAs leads us to suggest that these centromeric sequences may have been selected not by their primary sequence but by their ability to form noncanonical secondary structures.

  19. A novel multilocus variable number tandem repeat analysis typing scheme for African phylotype III strains of the Ralstonia solanacearum species complex

    PubMed Central

    Ravelomanantsoa, Santatra; Robène, Isabelle; Chiroleu, Frédéric; Guérin, Fabien; Poussier, Stéphane; Pruvost, Olivier

    2016-01-01

    Background. Reliable genotyping that provides an accurate description of diversity in the context of pathogen emergence is required for the establishment of strategies to improve disease management. MultiLocus variable number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA) is a valuable genotyping method. It can be performed at small evolutionary scales where high discriminatory power is needed. Strains of the Ralstonia solanacearum species complex (RSSC) are highly genetically diverse. These destructive pathogens are the causative agent of bacterial wilt on an unusually broad range of host plants worldwide. In this study, we developed an MLVA scheme for genotyping the African RSSC phylotype III. Methods. We selected different publicly available tandem repeat (TR) loci and additional TR loci from the genome of strain CMR15 as markers. Based on these loci, a new phylotype III-MLVA scheme is presented. MLVA and multiLocus sequence typing (MLST) were compared at the global, regional, and local scales. Different populations of epidemiologically related and unrelated RSSC phylotype III strains were used. Results and Discussion. Sixteen polymorphic TR loci, which included seven microsatellites and nine minisatellites, were selected. These TR loci were distributed throughout the genome (chromosome and megaplasmid) and located in both coding and intergenic regions. The newly developed RS3-MLVA16 scheme was more discriminative than MLST. RS3-MLVA16 showed good ability in differentiating strains at global, regional, and local scales, and it especially highlighted epidemiological links between closely related strains at the local scale. RS3-MLVA16 also underlines genetic variability within the same MLST-type and clonal complex, and gives a first overview of population structure. Overall, RS3-MLVA16 is a promising genotyping method for outbreak investigation at a fine scale, and it could be used for outbreak investigation as a first-line, low-cost assay for the routine screening of RSSC

  20. The prognostic significance of genetic polymorphisms (Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase C677T, Methionine Synthase A2756G, Thymidilate Synthase tandem repeat polymorphism) in multimodally treated oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Sarbia, M; Stahl, M; von Weyhern, C; Weirich, G; Pühringer-Oppermann, F

    2006-01-30

    The present study retrospectively examined the correlation between the outcome of patients with locally advanced oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma (cT3-4 cN0-1 cM0) after multimodal treatment (radiochemotherapy+/-surgical resection), and the presence of genetic polymorphisms in genes involved in folate metabolism. In total, 68 patients who took part in a prospective multicentric trial received 5-fluorouracil (FU)-based radiochemotherapy, optionally followed by surgery. DNA was extracted from pretherapeutic tumour biopsies and was subsequently genotyped for common genetic polymorphisms of three genes (MTHFR C677T, MTR A2756G, TS tandem repeat polymorphism) involved in folate metabolism and potentially in sensitivity to 5-FU-based chemotherapy. The genotypes were correlated with tumour response to polychemotherapy, radiochemotherapy and with overall survival. Tumours with the MTR wild-type genotype (2756AA) showed a median survival time of 16 months, whereas tumours with an MTR variant genotype (2756AG/2756GG) showed a median survival time of 42 months (P=0.0463). No prognostic impact could be verified for the genotypes of the MTHFR genes and the TS gene. Among tumours treated with radiochemotherapy and subsequent resection, MTR variant genotype showed higher histopathological response rate than tumours with MTR wild-type genotype (P=0.0442). In contrast, no significant relationship between clinically determined tumour regression after polychemotherapy and polymorphisms of the three genes under analysis was observed. In conclusion, pretherapeutic determination of the MTR A2756G polymorphism may predict survival of multimodally treated oesophageal squamous cell carcinomas. Determination of MTHFR C677T and TS tandem repeat polymorphism has no predictive value.

  1. Diversity of Mycoplasma hominis clinical isolates from Bordeaux, France, as assessed by multiple-locus variable-number tandem repeat analysis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Mycoplasma hominis is an opportunistic human mycoplasma species that can cause various urogenital infections and, less frequently, extragenital infections. The objective of this work was to study the genetic diversity of this species using a molecular typing method based on multiple-locus variable-number tandem repeat (VNTR) analysis (MLVA). Results The genome content of M. hominis PG21 was analysed for tandem repeats (TRs), and five of the 130 TRs identified were selected for use in an MLVA assay. The method was based on GeneScan analysis of VNTR loci using multiplex PCR with fluorescent dyes and resolution by capillary electrophoresis. This approach was used on a collection of 210 urogenital and extragenital French clinical isolates collected between 1987 and 2009. Forty MLVA types were found. The discriminatory index of our MLVA scheme was 0.924. Using this new typing tool, persistent infection was suggested for six patients and new infection for one patient. Furthermore, mother-to-child transmission was confirmed in the two cases studied. Application of MLVA to a wide range of M. hominis isolates revealed high genotypic diversity and no obvious link between the MLVA type and the isolate year of collection, the patient’s age or sex, the anatomical origin of the isolates or resistance to antibiotics was found. Conclusions Our MLVA scheme highlights the high genetic heterogeneity of the M. hominis species. It seems too discriminatory to be used for large epidemiological studies but has proven its usefulness for molecular studies at the individual level. PMID:23710536

  2. Subtyping of a Large Collection of Historical Listeria monocytogenes Strains from Ontario, Canada, by an Improved Multilocus Variable-Number Tandem-Repeat Analysis (MLVA)

    PubMed Central

    Saleh-Lakha, S.; Allen, V. G.; Li, J.; Pagotto, F.; Odumeru, J.; Taboada, E.; Lombos, M.; Tabing, K. C.; Blais, B.; Ogunremi, D.; Downing, G.; Lee, S.; Gao, A.; Nadon, C.

    2013-01-01

    Listeria monocytogenes is responsible for severe and often fatal food-borne infections in humans. A collection of 2,421 L. monocytogenes isolates originating from Ontario's food chain between 1993 and 2010, along with Ontario clinical isolates collected from 2004 to 2010, was characterized using an improved multilocus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis (MLVA). The MLVA method was established based on eight primer pairs targeting seven variable-number tandem-repeat (VNTR) loci in two 4-plex fluorescent PCRs. Diversity indices and amplification rates of the individual VNTR loci ranged from 0.38 to 0.92 and from 0.64 to 0.99, respectively. MLVA types and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) patterns were compared using Comparative Partitions analysis involving 336 clinical and 99 food and environmental isolates. The analysis yielded Simpson's diversity index values of 0.998 and 0.992 for MLVA and PFGE, respectively, and adjusted Wallace coefficients of 0.318 when MLVA was used as a primary subtyping method and 0.088 when PFGE was a primary typing method. Statistical data analysis using BioNumerics allowed for identification of at least 8 predominant and persistent L. monocytogenes MLVA types in Ontario's food chain. The MLVA method correctly clustered epidemiologically related outbreak strains and separated unrelated strains in a subset analysis. An MLVA database was established for the 2,421 L. monocytogenes isolates, which allows for comparison of data among historical and new isolates of different sources. The subtyping method coupled with the MLVA database will help in effective monitoring/prevention approaches to identify environmental contamination by pathogenic strains of L. monocytogenes and investigation of outbreaks. PMID:23956391

  3. Diversity of Y-short tandem repeats in the representative sample of the population of Canton Sarajevo residents, Bosnia and Herzegovina.

    PubMed

    Cenanović, Merisa; Pojskić, Naris; Kovacević, Lejla; Dzehverović, Mirela; Cakar, Jasmina; Musemić, Dzenisa; Marjanović, Damir

    2010-06-01

    In our previous population study, we have used twelve Y-chromosomal short tandem repeats loci incorporated in the PowerPlex Y System to determine Y-STR diversity in B&H human population. With intent to obtain additional verification of the previously obtained results as well as to establish specific reference for a local B&H population, we have decided to test DNA samples collected from 100 unrelated healthy male Canton Sarajevo residents (from Sarajevo region) for the same twelve Y-linked short tandem repeats loci. Qiagen DNeasy Tissue Kit (Qiagen, GmbH, Hilden, Germany) was used for DNA extraction from buccal swabs and PowerPlex Y System (Promega Corp., Madison, WI) has been used to simultaneously amplify Y-STR loci by PCR. PowerPlex Y System includes 12 STR loci: DYS19, DYS385a, DYS385b, DYS389I, DYS389II, DYS390, DYS391, DYS392, DYS393, DYS437, DYS438 and DYS439. The total PCR reaction volume was 5 microL. PCR amplifications were carried out in PE GeneAmp PCR System Thermal Cycler (ABI). Electrophoresis of the amplification products was preformed on an ABI PRISM 310 genetic analyzer (ABI, Foster City, CA) according to the manufacturer's recommendations. The raw data were compiled and analyzed using the accessory software: ABI PRISM Data Collection Software and Genemapper version 3.2. In addition, we have compared the obtained "Sarajevo" dataset with the data previously generated for the entire Bosnian and Herzegovinian population, as well as with the available data on geographically close (neighboring) European populations. The results of this study will be used as guidelines in additional improving of research into genetic relationship among recent local B&H populations, both isolated and open, which is a long-term project in our country.

  4. Molecular Typing of Mycobacterium bovis Strains Isolated in Italy from 2000 to 2006 and Evaluation of Variable-Number Tandem Repeats for Geographically Optimized Genotyping▿

    PubMed Central

    Boniotti, M. Beatrice; Goria, Maria; Loda, Daniela; Garrone, Annalisa; Benedetto, Alessandro; Mondo, Alessandra; Tisato, Ernesto; Zanoni, Mariagrazia; Zoppi, Simona; Dondo, Alessandro; Tagliabue, Silvia; Bonora, Stefano; Zanardi, Giorgio; Pacciarini, M. Lodovica

    2009-01-01

    Spoligotyping and exact tandem repeat (ETR) analysis of Mycobacterium bovis and M. caprae isolated strains has been routinely carried out in Italy since 2000 to obtain a database of genetic profiles and support traditional epidemiological investigations. In this study, we characterized 1,503 M. bovis and 57 M. caprae isolates obtained from 2000 to 2006 in 747 cattle herds mainly located in northern Italy. We identified 81 spoligotypes and 113 ETR profiles, while the combination of spoligotyping/ETR analysis differentiated 228 genotypes, with genotypic diversity indices of 0.70 (spoligotyping), 0.94 (ETR-A to -E typing), and 0.97 (spoligotyping/ETR-A to -E typing), respectively. Despite the high degree of resolution obtained, the spoligotyping/ETR methods were not discriminative enough in the case of genotypes characterized by the combination of SB0120, the predominant spoligotype in Italy, with the most common ETR profiles. To obtain a more informative subset of typing loci, 24 mycobacterial interspersed repetitive unit-variable-number tandem repeat (MIRU-VNTR) markers were evaluated by analyzing a panel of 100 epidemiologically unrelated SB0120 isolates. The panel was differentiated into 89 profiles with an overall genotypic diversity of 0.987 that could be also achieved by using a minimal group of 13 loci: ETR-A, -B, and -E; MIRU 26 and 40; and VNTR 2163a, 2163b, 3155, 1612, 4052, 1895, 3232, and 3336. The allelic diversity index and the stability of single loci was evaluated to provide the most discriminative genotyping method for locally prevalent strains. PMID:19144792

  5. Molecular typing of Mycobacterium bovis strains isolated in Italy from 2000 to 2006 and evaluation of variable-number tandem repeats for geographically optimized genotyping.

    PubMed

    Boniotti, M Beatrice; Goria, Maria; Loda, Daniela; Garrone, Annalisa; Benedetto, Alessandro; Mondo, Alessandra; Tisato, Ernesto; Zanoni, Mariagrazia; Zoppi, Simona; Dondo, Alessandro; Tagliabue, Silvia; Bonora, Stefano; Zanardi, Giorgio; Pacciarini, M Lodovica

    2009-03-01

    Spoligotyping and exact tandem repeat (ETR) analysis of Mycobacterium bovis and M. caprae isolated strains has been routinely carried out in Italy since 2000 to obtain a database of genetic profiles and support traditional epidemiological investigations. In this study, we characterized 1,503 M. bovis and 57 M. caprae isolates obtained from 2000 to 2006 in 747 cattle herds mainly located in northern Italy. We identified 81 spoligotypes and 113 ETR profiles, while the combination of spoligotyping/ETR analysis differentiated 228 genotypes, with genotypic diversity indices of 0.70 (spoligotyping), 0.94 (ETR-A to -E typing), and 0.97 (spoligotyping/ETR-A to -E typing), respectively. Despite the high degree of resolution obtained, the spoligotyping/ETR methods were not discriminative enough in the case of genotypes characterized by the combination of SB0120, the predominant spoligotype in Italy, with the most common ETR profiles. To obtain a more informative subset of typing loci, 24 mycobacterial interspersed repetitive unit-variable-number tandem repeat (MIRU-VNTR) markers were evaluated by analyzing a panel of 100 epidemiologically unrelated SB0120 isolates. The panel was differentiated into 89 profiles with an overall genotypic diversity of 0.987 that could be also achieved by using a minimal group of 13 loci: ETR-A, -B, and -E; MIRU 26 and 40; and VNTR 2163a, 2163b, 3155, 1612, 4052, 1895, 3232, and 3336. The allelic diversity index and the stability of single loci was evaluated to provide the most discriminative genotyping method for locally prevalent strains.

  6. Microfluidic-chip-based multiple-locus variable-number tandem-repeat fingerprinting with new primer sets for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Sabat, Artur J; Chlebowicz, Monika A; Grundmann, Hajo; Arends, Jan P; Kampinga, Greetje; Meessen, Nico E L; Friedrich, Alexander W; van Dijl, Jan Maarten

    2012-07-01

    The detection of outbreaks of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections and a rapid and accurate identification of sources and routes of transmission should be conducted in hospital settings as early and swiftly as possible. In this study, we investigated the application potential of a new approach based on multiple-locus variable-number tandem-repeat fingerprinting (MLVF) and microfluidics technology for a rapid discrimination of MRSA lineages in outbreak settings. A total of 206 nonrepetitive MRSA isolates recovered from infected patients at the University Medical Center Groningen between 2000 and 2010 were tested. The results obtained by MLVF using microcapillary electrophoresis with newly designed primers were compared to those obtained by spa typing and multiple-locus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis (MLVA). The discriminatory power was 0.980 (107 patterns), 0.969 (85 allelic profiles), and 0.959 (66 types) for MLVF, MLVA, and spa typing, respectively. All methods tested showed a good concordance of results calculated by the adjusted Rand's coefficient method. Comparisons of data obtained by the three approaches allowed us to propose an 88% cutoff value for the similarity between any two MLVF patterns, which can be used in S. aureus epidemiological studies, including analyses of outbreaks and strain transmission events. Of the three tested methods, MLVF is the cheapest, fastest, and easiest to perform. MLVF applied to microfluidic polymer chips is a rapid, cheap, reproducible, and highly discriminating tool to determine the clonality of MRSA isolates and to trace the spread of MRSA strains over periods of many years. Although spa typing should be used due to its portability of data, MLVF has a high added value because it is more discriminatory.

  7. The prognostic significance of genetic polymorphisms (Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase C677T, Methionine Synthase A2756G, Thymidilate Synthase tandem repeat polymorphism) in multimodally treated oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Sarbia, M; Stahl, M; von Weyhern, C; Weirich, G; Pühringer-Oppermann, F

    2006-01-01

    The present study retrospectively examined the correlation between the outcome of patients with locally advanced oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma (cT3-4 cN0-1 cM0) after multimodal treatment (radiochemotherapy±surgical resection), and the presence of genetic polymorphisms in genes involved in folate metabolism. In total, 68 patients who took part in a prospective multicentric trial received 5-fluorouracil (FU)-based radiochemotherapy, optionally followed by surgery. DNA was extracted from pretherapeutic tumour biopsies and was subsequently genotyped for common genetic polymorphisms of three genes (MTHFR C677T, MTR A2756G, TS tandem repeat polymorphism) involved in folate metabolism and potentially in sensitivity to 5-FU-based chemotherapy. The genotypes were correlated with tumour response to polychemotherapy, radiochemotherapy and with overall survival. Tumours with the MTR wild-type genotype (2756AA) showed a median survival time of 16 months, whereas tumours with an MTR variant genotype (2756AG/2756GG) showed a median survival time of 42 months (P=0.0463). No prognostic impact could be verified for the genotypes of the MTHFR genes and the TS gene. Among tumours treated with radiochemotherapy and subsequent resection, MTR variant genotype showed higher histopathological response rate than tumours with MTR wild-type genotype (P=0.0442). In contrast, no significant relationship between clinically determined tumour regression after polychemotherapy and polymorphisms of the three genes under analysis was observed. In conclusion, pretherapeutic determination of the MTR A2756G polymorphism may predict survival of multimodally treated oesophageal squamous cell carcinomas. Determination of MTHFR C677T and TS tandem repeat polymorphism has no predictive value. PMID:16333305

  8. Evaluation of multiple-locus variable number of tandem repeats analysis for typing livestock-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Brandt, Karin M; Mellmann, Alexander; Ballhausen, Britta; Jenke, Christian; van der Wolf, Peter J; Broens, Els M; Becker, Karsten; Köck, Robin

    2013-01-01

    The increasing occurrence of livestock-associated (LA) methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) associated with the clonal complex (CC) 398 within the past years shows the importance of standardized and comparable typing methods for the purposes of molecular surveillance and outbreak detection. Multiple-locus variable number of tandem repeats analysis (MLVA) has recently been described as an alternative and highly discriminative tool for S. aureus. However, until now the applicability of MLVA for the typing of LA-MRSA isolates from different geographic origin has not been investigated in detail. We therefore compared MLVA and S. aureus protein A (spa) typing for characterizing porcine MRSA from distinct Dutch and German farms. Overall, 134 MRSA isolates originating from 21 different pig-farms in the Netherlands and 36 farms in Germany comprising 21 different spa types were subjected to MLVA-typing. Amplification and subsequent automated fragment sizing of the tandem repeat loci on a capillary sequencer differentiated these 134 isolates into 20 distinct MLVA types. Whereas overall MLVA and spa typing showed the same discriminatory power to type LA-MRSA (p = 0.102), MLVA was more discriminatory than spa typing for isolates associated with the prevalent spa types t011 and t034 (Simpson's Index of Diversity 0.564 vs. 0.429, respectively; p<0.001). Although the applied MLVA scheme was not more discriminatory than spa typing in general, it added valuable information to spa typing results for specific spa types (t011, t034) which are highly prevalent in the study area, i.e. Dutch-German border area. Thus, both methods may complement each other to increase the discriminatory power to resolute highly conserved clones such as CC398 (spa types t011, t034) for the detection of outbreaks and molecular surveillance of zoonotic MRSA.

  9. A novel multilocus variable number tandem repeat analysis typing scheme for African phylotype III strains of the Ralstonia solanacearum species complex.

    PubMed

    Ravelomanantsoa, Santatra; Robène, Isabelle; Chiroleu, Frédéric; Guérin, Fabien; Poussier, Stéphane; Pruvost, Olivier; Prior, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    Background. Reliable genotyping that provides an accurate description of diversity in the context of pathogen emergence is required for the establishment of strategies to improve disease management. MultiLocus variable number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA) is a valuable genotyping method. It can be performed at small evolutionary scales where high discriminatory power is needed. Strains of the Ralstonia solanacearum species complex (RSSC) are highly genetically diverse. These destructive pathogens are the causative agent of bacterial wilt on an unusually broad range of host plants worldwide. In this study, we developed an MLVA scheme for genotyping the African RSSC phylotype III. Methods. We selected different publicly available tandem repeat (TR) loci and additional TR loci from the genome of strain CMR15 as markers. Based on these loci, a new phylotype III-MLVA scheme is presented. MLVA and multiLocus sequence typing (MLST) were compared at the global, regional, and local scales. Different populations of epidemiologically related and unrelated RSSC phylotype III strains were used. Results and Discussion. Sixteen polymorphic TR loci, which included seven microsatellites and nine minisatellites, were selected. These TR loci were distributed throughout the genome (chromosome and megaplasmid) and located in both coding and intergenic regions. The newly developed RS3-MLVA16 scheme was more discriminative than MLST. RS3-MLVA16 showed good ability in differentiating strains at global, regional, and local scales, and it especially highlighted epidemiological links between closely related strains at the local scale. RS3-MLVA16 also underlines genetic variability within the same MLST-type and clonal complex, and gives a first overview of population structure. Overall, RS3-MLVA16 is a promising genotyping method for outbreak investigation at a fine scale, and it could be used for outbreak investigation as a first-line, low-cost assay for the routine screening of RSSC

  10. A new variant of endemic pemphigus foliaceus in El-Bagre, Colombia: the Hardy-Weinberg-Castle law and linked short tandem repeats

    PubMed Central

    Abreu-Velez, Ana María; Robles, Edinson Villa; Howard, Michael S.

    2009-01-01

    Background: We reported a new variant of endemic pemphigus foliaceus in El Bagre, Colombia. Aims: Our study performed Complex Segregation Analysis (CSA) and short tandem repeats to discriminate between environmental and/or genetic factors in this disorder. Materials and Methods: The CSA analysis was carried out according to the unified model, implemented using the transmission probabilities implemented in the computer program POINTER, and evaluated by using a software package for population genetic data analysis (GDA), Arlequin. We performed pedigree analyses by using Cyrillic 2.1 software, with a total of 30 families with 50 probands (47 males and 3 females) tested. In parallel to the CSA, we tested for the presence of short tandem repeats from HLA class II, DQ alpha 1, involving the gene locus D6S291 by using the Hardy-Weinberg- Castle law. Results Our results indicate that the best model of inheritance in this disease is a mixed model, with multifactorial effects within a recessive genotype. Two types of possible segregation patterns were found; one with strong recessive penetrance in families whose phenotype is more Amerindian-like, and another of possible somatic mutations. Conclusion: The penetrance of 10% or less in female patients 60 years of age or older indicates that hormones could protect younger females. The greatest risk factor for men being affected by the disorder was the NN genotype. These findings are only possible due to somatic mutations, and/or strong environmental effects. We also found a protective role for two genetic loci (D6S1019 AND D6S439) in the control group. PMID:22666691

  11. A novel approach to propagate flavivirus infectious cDNA clones in bacteria by introducing tandem repeat sequences upstream of virus genome.

    PubMed

    Pu, Szu-Yuan; Wu, Ren-Huang; Tsai, Ming-Han; Yang, Chi-Chen; Chang, Chung-Ming; Yueh, Andrew

    2014-07-01

    Despite tremendous efforts to improve the methodology for constructing flavivirus infectious cDNAs, the manipulation of flavivirus cDNAs remains a difficult task in bacteria. Here, we successfully propagated DNA-launched type 2 dengue virus (DENV2) and Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) infectious cDNAs by introducing seven repeats of the tetracycline-response element (7×TRE) and a minimal cytomegalovirus (CMVmin) promoter upstream of the viral genome. Insertion of the 7×TRE-CMVmin sequence upstream of the DENV2 or JEV genome decreased the cryptic E. coli promoter (ECP) activity of the viral genome in bacteria, as measured using fusion constructs containing DENV2 or JEV segments and the reporter gene Renilla luciferase in an empty vector. The growth kinetics of recombinant viruses derived from DNA-launched DENV2 and JEV infectious cDNAs were similar to those of parental viruses. Similarly, RNA-launched DENV2 infectious cDNAs were generated by inserting 7×TRE-CMVmin, five repeats of the GAL4 upstream activating sequence, or five repeats of BamHI linkers upstream of the DENV2 genome. All three tandem repeat sequences decreased the ECP activity of the DENV2 genome in bacteria. Notably, 7×TRE-CMVmin stabilized RNA-launched JEV infectious cDNAs and reduced the ECP activity of the JEV genome in bacteria. The growth kinetics of recombinant viruses derived from RNA-launched DENV2 and JEV infectious cDNAs displayed patterns similar to those of the parental viruses. These results support a novel methodology for constructing flavivirus infectious cDNAs, which will facilitate research in virology, viral pathogenesis and vaccine development of flaviviruses and other RNA viruses. © 2014 The Authors.

  12. Association of STin2 Variable Number of Tandem Repeat (VNTR) Polymorphism of Serotonin Transporter Gene with Lifelong Premature Ejaculation: A Case-Control Study in Han Chinese Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Xiansheng; Gao, Jingjing; Tang, Dongdong; Gao, Pan; Peng, Dangwei; Liang, Chaozhao

    2016-01-01

    Background The STin2 VNTR polymorphism has a variable number of tandem repeats in intron 2 of the serotonin transporter gene. We aimed to explore the relationship between STin2 VNTR polymorphism and lifelong premature ejaculation (LPE). Material/Methods We recruited a total of 115 outpatients who complained of ejaculating prematurely and who were diagnosed as LPE, and 101 controls without PE complaint. Allelic variations of STin2 VNTR were genotyped using PCR-based technology. We evaluated the associations between STin2 VNTR allelic and genotypic frequencies and LPE, as well as the intravaginal ejaculation latency time (IELT) of different STin2 VNTR genotypes among LPE patients. Results The patients and controls did not differ significantly in terms of any characteristic except age. A significantly higher frequency of STin2.12/12 genotype was found among LPE patients versus controls (P=0.026). Frequency of patients carrying at least 1 copy of the 10-repeat allele was significantly lower compared to the control group (28.3% vs. 41.8%, OR=0.55; 95%CI=0.31–0.97, P=0.040). In the LPE group, the mean IELT showed significant difference in STin2.12/12 genotype when compared to those with STin2.12/10 and STin2.10/10 genotypes. The mean IELT in10-repeat allele carriers was 50% longer compared to homozygous carriers of the STin2.12 allele. Conclusions Our results indicate the presence of STin2.10 allele is a protective factor for LPE. Men carrying the higher expression genotype STin2. 12/12 have shorter IELT than 10-repeat allele carriers. PMID:27713390

  13. High frequencies of short frameshifts in poly-CA/TG tandem repeats borne by bacteriophage M13 in Escherichia coli K-12.

    PubMed Central

    Levinson, G; Gutman, G A

    1987-01-01

    Slipped-strand mispairing (SSM) may play an major role in repetitive DNA sequence evolution by generating large numbers of short frameshift mutations within simple tandem repeats. Here we examine the frequency and size spectrum of frameshifts generated within poly-CA/TG sequences inserted into bacteriophage M13 in Escherichia coli hosts. The frequency of detectable frameshifts within a 40 bp tract of poly-CA/TG is greater than one percent and increases more than linearly with length, being lower by a factor of four in a 22 bp target sequence. The frequency increases more than 13-fold in mutL and mutS host cells, suggesting that a high proportion of frameshift events are normally repaired by methyl-directed mismatch repair. Of the 87 sequenced frameshifts in this study, 96% result from deletion or insertion of only or two 2 bp repeat units. The most frequent events are 2 bp deletions, 2 bp insertions, and 4 bp deletions, the relative frequencies of these events being about 18:6:1. PMID:3299269

  14. Complete nucleotide sequences of the domestic cat (Felis catus) mitochondrial genome and a transposed mtDNA tandem repeat (Numt) in the nuclear genome

    SciTech Connect

    Lopez, J.V.; Cevario, S.; O`Brien, S.J.

    1996-04-15

    The complete 17,009-bp mitochondrial genome of the domestic cat, Felis catus, has been sequenced and conforms largely to the typical organization of previously characterized mammalian mtDNAs. Codon usage and base composition also followed canonical vertebrate patterns, except for an unusual ATC (non-AUG) codon initiating the NADH dehydrogenase subunit 2 (ND2) gene. Two distinct repetitive motifs at opposite ends of the control region contribute to the relatively large size (1559 bp) of this carnivore mtDNA. Alignment of the feline mtDNA genome to a homologous 7946-bp nuclear mtDNA tandem repeat DNA sequence in the cat, Numt, indicates simple repeat motifs associated with insertion/deletion mutations. Overall DNA sequence divergence between Numt and cytoplasmic mtDNA sequence was only 5.1%. Substitutions predominate at the third codon position of homologous feline protein genes. Phylogenetic analysis of mitochondrial gene sequences confirms the recent transfer of the cytoplasmic mtDNA sequences to the domestic cat nucleus and recapitulates evolutionary relationships between mammal species. 86 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  15. The interaction between the dopamine receptor D4 (DRD4) variable number tandem repeat polymorphism and perceived peer drinking norms in adolescent alcohol use and misuse.

    PubMed

    Park, Aesoon; Kim, Jueun; Zaso, Michelle J; Glatt, Stephen J; Sher, Kenneth J; Scott-Sheldon, Lori A J; Eckert, Tanya L; Vanable, Peter A; Carey, Kate B; Ewart, Craig K; Carey, Michael P

    2017-02-01

    Peer drinking norms are arguably one of the strongest correlates of adolescent drinking. Prospective studies indicate that adolescents tend to select peers based on drinking (peer selection) and their peers' drinking is associated with changes in adolescent drinking over time (peer socialization). The present study investigated whether the peer selection and socialization processes in adolescent drinking differed as a function of the dopamine receptor D4 (DRD4) variable number tandem repeat genotype in two independent prospective data sets. The first sample was 174 high school students drawn from a two-wave 6-month prospective study. The second sample was 237 college students drawn from a three-wave annual prospective study. Multigroup cross-lagged panel analyses of the high school student sample indicated stronger socialization via peer drinking norms among carriers, whereas analyses of the college student sample indicated stronger drinking-based peer selection in the junior year among carriers, compared to noncarriers. Although replication and meta-analytic synthesis are needed, these findings suggest that in part genetically determined peer selection (carriers of the DRD4 seven-repeat allele tend to associate with peers who have more favorable attitudes toward drinking and greater alcohol use) and peer socialization (carriers' subsequent drinking behaviors are more strongly associated with their peer drinking norms) may differ across adolescent developmental stages.

  16. Mycobacterial Interspersed Repetitive-Unit–Variable-Number Tandem-Repeat (MIRU-VNTR) Genotyping of Mycobacterium intracellulare for Strain Comparison with Establishment of a PCR-Based Database

    PubMed Central

    Iakhiaeva, Elena; McNulty, Steven; Brown Elliott, Barbara A.; Falkinham, Joseph O.; Williams, Myra D.; Vasireddy, Ravikiran; Wilson, Rebecca W.; Turenne, Christine

    2013-01-01

    Strain comparison is important to population genetics and to evaluate relapses in patients with Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) lung disease, but the “gold standard” of pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) is time-consuming and complex. We used variable-number tandem repeats (VNTR) for fingerprinting of respiratory isolates of M. intracellulare from patients with underlying bronchiectasis, to establish a nonsequence-based database for population analysis. Different genotypes identified by PFGE underwent species identification using a 16S rRNA gene multiplex PCR. Genotypes of M. intracellulare were confirmed by internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) sequencing and characterized using seven VNTR primers. The pattern of VNTR amplicon sizes and repeat number defined each specific VNTR type. Forty-two VNTR types were identified among 84 genotypes. PFGE revealed most isolates with the same VNTR type to be clonal or exhibit similar grouping of bands. Repetitive sequence-based PCR (rep-PCR) showed minimal pattern diversity between VNTR types compared to PFGE. Fingerprinting of relapse isolates from 31 treated patients using VNTR combined with 16S multiplex PCR unambiguously and reliably distinguished different genotypes from the same patient, with results comparable to those of PFGE. VNTR for strain comparison is easier and faster than PFGE, is as accurate as PFGE, and does not require sequencing. Starting with a collection of 167 M. intracellulare isolates, VNTR distinguished M. intracellulare into 42 clonal groups. Comparison of isolates from different geographic areas, habitats, and clinical settings is now possible. PMID:23175249

  17. Prevalence and molecular characterization of Escherichia coli O157:H7 by multiple locus variable number tandem repeat analysis and pulsed field gel electrophoresis in three sheep farming operations in California.

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A yearlong study was conducted to determine the fecal prevalence of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in three sheep ranches. Strain diversity and persistence was compared using multiple locus variable number tandem repeat analysis and pulsed field gel electrophoresis. Ranch C, a feedlot, consisted of young ...

  18. Longitudinal prevalence and molecular typing of Escherichia coli O157:H7 using multiple-locus variable-number tandem-repeats analysis and pulsed field gel electrophoresis in a range cattle herd in California

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Objectives –(1) Identify the seasonal pattern and risk factors for Escherichia coli O157:H7 in feces in range cattle in California, (2) Determine strain diversity and transition over time using Multi-Locus Variable-Number Tandem Repeat Analysis (MLVA) and Pulsed Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE) Samp...

  19. Engineering recombinant reoviruses with tandem repeats and a tetravirus 2A-like element for exogenous polypeptide expression

    PubMed Central

    Demidenko, Aleksander A.; Blattman, Joseph N.; Greenberg, Philip D.; Nibert, Max L.

    2013-01-01

    We tested a strategy for engineering recombinant mammalian reoviruses (rMRVs) to express exogenous polypeptides. One important feature is that these rMRVs are designed to propagate autonomously and can therefore be tested in animals as potential vaccine vectors. The strategy has been applied so far to three of the 10 MRV genome segments: S3, M1, and L1. To engineer the modified segments, a 5′ or 3′ region of the essential, long ORF in each was duplicated, and then exogenous sequences were inserted between the repeats. The inner repeat and exogenous insert were positioned in frame with the native protein-encoding sequences but were separated from them by an in-frame “2A-like” sequence element that specifies a cotranslational “stop/continue” event releasing the exogenous polypeptide from the essential MRV protein. This design preserves a terminal region of the MRV genome segment with essential activities in RNA packaging, assortment, replication, transcription, and/or translation and alters the encoded MRV protein to a limited degree. Recovery of rMRVs with longer inserts was made more efficient by wobble-mutagenizing both the inner repeat and the exogenous insert, which possibly helped via respective reductions in homologous recombination and RNA structure. Immunogenicity of a 300-aa portion of the simian immunodeficiency virus Gag protein expressed in mice by an L1-modified rMRV was confirmed by detection of Gag-specific T-cell responses. The engineering strategy was further used for mapping the minimal 5′-terminal region essential to MRV genome segment S3. PMID:23630248

  20. The tandem repeated organization of NB-LRR genes in the clubroot-resistant CRb locus in Brassica rapa L.

    PubMed

    Hatakeyama, Katsunori; Niwa, Tomohisa; Kato, Takeyuki; Ohara, Takayoshi; Kakizaki, Tomohiro; Matsumoto, Satoru

    2017-04-01

    To facilitate prevention of clubroot disease, a major threat to the successful cultivation of Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa L.), we bred clubroot-resistant (CR) cultivars by introducing resistance genes from CR turnips via conventional breeding. Among 11 CR loci found in B. rapa, we identified CRb in Chinese cabbage cultivar 'CR Shinki' as a single dominant gene for resistance against Plasmodiophora brassicae pathotype group 3, against which the stacking of Crr1 and Crr2 loci was not effective. However, the precise location and pathotype specificity of CRb have been controversial, because CRa and Rcr1 also map near this locus. Previously, our fine-mapping study revealed that CRb is located in a 140-kb genomic region on chromosome A03. Here, we determined the nucleotide sequence of an approximately 64-kb candidate region in the resistant line; this region contains six open reading frames (ORFs) similar to NB-LRR encoding genes that are predicted to occur in tandem with the same orientation. Among the six ORFs present, only four on the genome of the resistant line showed a strong DNA sequence identity with each other, and only one of those four could confer resistance to P. brassicae isolate No. 14 of the pathotype group 3. These results suggest that these genes evolved through recent gene duplication and uneven crossover events that could lead to the acquisition of clubroot resistance. The DNA sequence of the functional ORF was identical to that of the previously cloned CRa gene; thus, we showed that the independently identified CRb and CRa are one and the same clubroot-resistance gene.

  1. The DUB/USP17 deubiquitinating enzymes: A gene family within a tandemly repeated sequence, is also embedded within the copy number variable Beta-defensin cluster

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The DUB/USP17 subfamily of deubiquitinating enzymes were originally identified as immediate early genes induced in response to cytokine stimulation in mice (DUB-1, DUB-1A, DUB-2, DUB-2A). Subsequently we have identified a number of human family members and shown that one of these (DUB-3) is also cytokine inducible. We originally showed that constitutive expression of DUB-3 can block cell proliferation and more recently we have demonstrated that this is due to its regulation of the ubiquitination and activity of the 'CAAX' box protease RCE1. Results Here we demonstrate that the human DUB/USP17 family members are found on both chromosome 4p16.1, within a block of tandem repeats, and on chromosome 8p23.1, embedded within the copy number variable beta-defensin cluster. In addition, we show that the multiple genes observed in humans and other distantly related mammals have arisen due to the independent expansion of an ancestral sequence within each species. However, it is also apparent when sequences from humans and the more closely related chimpanzee are compared, that duplication events have taken place prior to these species separating. Conclusions The observation that the DUB/USP17 genes, which can influence cell growth and survival, have evolved from an unstable ancestral sequence which has undergone multiple and varied duplications in the species examined marks this as a unique family. In addition, their presence within the beta-defensin repeat raises the question whether they may contribute to the influence of this repeat on immune related conditions. PMID:20403174

  2. Comparison of southern Chinese Han and Brazilian Caucasian mutation rates at autosomal short tandem repeat loci used in human forensic genetics.

    PubMed

    Sun, Hongyu; Liu, Sujuan; Zhang, Yinming; Whittle, Martin R

    2014-01-01

    The short tandem repeat (STR) loci used in human genetic studies are characterized by having relatively high mutation rates. In particular, to ensure an appropriate evaluation of genetic evidence in parentage and forensic analyses, it is essential to have accurate estimates of the mutation rates associated with the commonly used autosomal and sex chromosome STR loci. Differences in STR mutation rates between different ethnic groups should also be determined. Mutation data from two laboratories working with different ethnic groups were extracted from many meiotic transmissions ascertained for 15 autosomal STR loci currently used in forensic routine. Forty-five thousand and eighty-five trios were checked for the biological consistency of maternity and paternity through the analysis of a minimum of 15 loci. Mutations were scored as paternal, maternal, or ambiguous according to the most parsimonious explanation for the inconsistency, using always the least requiring hypothesis in terms of number of repeat differences. The main findings are: (a) the overall mutation rate across the 15 loci was 9.78 × 10(-4) per gamete per generation (95% CI = 9.30 × 10(-4)-1.03 × 10(-3)), and with just 48 (out of 1,587) exceptions, all of the mutations were single-step; (b) repeat gains were more frequent than losses; (c) longer alleles were found to be more mutable; and (d) the mutation rates differ at some loci between the two ethnic groups. Large worldwide meiotic transmission datasets are still needed to measure allele-specific mutation rates at the STR loci consensually used in forensic genetics.

  3. Development of new multilocus variable number of tandem repeat analysis (MLVA) for Listeria innocua and its application in a food processing plant.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Hajime; Ohshima, Chihiro; Nakagawa, Miku; Thanatsang, Krittaporn; Phraephaisarn, Chirapiphat; Chaturongkasumrit, Yuphakhun; Keeratipibul, Suwimon; Kuda, Takashi; Kimura, Bon

    2014-01-01

    Listeria innocua is an important hygiene indicator bacterium in food industries because it behaves similar to Listeria monocytogenes, which is pathogenic to humans. PFGE is often used to characterize bacterial strains and to track contamination source. However, because PFGE is an expensive, complicated, time-consuming protocol, and poses difficulty in data sharing, development of a new typing method is necessary. MLVA is a technique that identifies bacterial strains on the basis of the number of tandem repeats present in the genome varies depending on the strains. MLVA has gained attention due to its high reproducibility and ease of data sharing. In this study, we developed a MLVA protocol to assess L. innocua and evaluated it by tracking the contamination source of L. innocua in an actual food manufacturing factory by typing the bacterial strains isolated from the factory. Three VNTR regions of the L. innocua genome were chosen for use in the MLVA. The number of repeat units in each VNTR region was calculated based on the results of PCR product analysis using capillary electrophoresis (CE). The calculated number of repetitions was compared with the results of the gene sequence analysis to demonstrate the accuracy of the CE repeat number analysis. The developed technique was evaluated using 60 L. innocua strains isolated from a food factory. These 60 strains were classified into 11 patterns using MLVA. Many of the strains were classified into ST-6, revealing that this MLVA strain type can contaminate each manufacturing process in the factory. The MLVA protocol developed in this study for L. innocua allowed rapid and easy analysis through the use of CE. This technique was found to be very useful in hygiene control in factories because it allowed us to track contamination sources and provided information regarding whether the bacteria were present in the factories.

  4. Ten tandem repeats of {beta}-hCG 109-118 enhance immunogenicity and anti-tumor effects of {beta}-hCG C-terminal peptide carried by mycobacterial heat-shock protein HSP65

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Yankai; Yan Rong; He Yi; Liu Wentao; Cao Rongyue; Yan Ming; Li Taiming; Liu Jingjing; Wu Jie . E-mail: wu_jie97@yahoo.com.cn

    2006-07-14

    The {beta}-subunit of human chorionic gonadotropin ({beta}-hCG) is secreted by many kinds of tumors and it has been used as an ideal target antigen to develop vaccines against tumors. In view of the low immunogenicity of this self-peptide,we designed a method based on isocaudamer technique to repeat tandemly the 10-residue sequence X of {beta}-hCG (109-118), then 10 tandemly repeated copies of the 10-residue sequence combined with {beta}-hCG C-terminal 37 peptides were fused to mycobacterial heat-shock protein 65 to construct a fusion protein HSP65-X10-{beta}hCGCTP37 as an immunogen. In this study, we examined the effect of the tandem repeats of this 10-residue sequence in eliciting an immune by comparing the immunogenicity and anti-tumor effects of the two immunogens, HSP65-X10-{beta}hCGCTP37 and HSP65-{beta}hCGCTP37 (without the 10 tandem repeats). Immunization of mice with the fusion protein HSP65-X10-{beta}hCGCTP37 elicited much higher levels of specific anti-{beta}-hCG antibodies and more effectively inhibited the growth of Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC) in vivo than with HSP65-{beta}hCGCTP37, which should suggest that HSP65-X10-{beta}hCGCTP37 may be an effective protein vaccine for the treatment of {beta}-hCG-dependent tumors and multiple tandem repeats of a certain epitope are an efficient method to overcome the low immunogenicity of self-peptide antigens.

  5. Tandem Repeats, High Copy Number and Remarkable Diel Expression Rhythm of Form II RuBisCO in Prorocentrum donghaiense (Dinophyceae)

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Xinguo; Zhang, Huan; Lin, Senjie

    2013-01-01

    Gene structure and expression regulation of form II RuBisCO (rbcII) in dinoflagellates are still poorly understood. Here we isolated this gene (Pdrbc) and investigated its diel expression pattern in a harmful algal bloom forming dinoflagellate Prorocentrum donghaiense. We obtained cDNA sequences with triple tandem repeats of the coding unit (CU); the 5′ region has the sequence of a typical dinoflagellate plastid gene, encoding an N-terminus with two transmembrane regions separated by a plastid transit peptide. The CUs (1,455 bp except 1464 bp in last CU) are connected through a 63 bp spacer. Phylogenetic analysis showed that rbcII CUs within species formed monophyletic clusters, indicative of intraspecific gene duplication or purifying evolution. Using quantitative PCR (qPCR) we estimated 117±40 CUs of Pdrbc in the P. donghaiense genome. Although it is commonly believed that most dinoflagellate genes lack transcriptional regulation, our RT-qPCR analysis on synchronized cultures revealed remarkable diel rhythm of Pdrbc expression, showing significant correlations of transcript abundance with the timing of the dark-to-light transition and cell cycle G2M-phase. When the cultures were shifted to continuous light, Pdrbc expression remained significantly correlated with the G2M-phase. Under continuous darkness the cell cycle was arrested at the G1 phase, and the rhythm of Pdrbc transcription disappeared. Our results suggest that dinoflagellate rbcII 1) undergoes duplication or sequence purification within species, 2) is organized in tandem arrays in most species probably to facilitate efficient translation and import of the encoded enzyme, and 3) is regulated transcriptionally in a cell cycle-dependent fashion at least in some dinoflagellates. PMID:23976999

  6. New Multilocus Variable-Number Tandem-Repeat Analysis (MLVA) Scheme for Fine-Scale Monitoring and Microevolution-Related Study of Ralstonia pseudosolanacearum Phylotype I Populations

    PubMed Central

    Guinard, Jérémy; Latreille, Anne; Guérin, Fabien; Poussier, Stéphane

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Bacterial wilt caused by the Ralstonia solanacearum species complex (RSSC) is considered one of the most harmful plant diseases in the world. Special attention should be paid to R. pseudosolanacearum phylotype I due to its large host range, its worldwide distribution, and its high evolutionary potential. So far, the molecular epidemiology and population genetics of this bacterium are poorly understood. Until now, the genetic structure of the RSSC has been analyzed on the worldwide and regional scales. Emerging questions regarding evolutionary forces in RSSC adaptation to hosts now require genetic markers that are able to monitor RSSC field populations. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the multilocus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis (MLVA) approach for its ability to discriminate genetically close phylotype I strains and for population genetics studies. We developed a new MLVA scheme (MLVA-7) allowing us to genotype 580 R. pseudosolanacearum phylotype I strains extracted from susceptible and resistant hosts and from different habitats (stem, soil, and rhizosphere). Based on specificity, polymorphism, and the amplification success rate, we selected seven fast-evolving variable-number tandem-repeat (VNTR) markers. The newly developed MLVA-7 scheme showed higher discriminatory power than the previously published MLVA-13 scheme when applied to collections sampled from the same location on different dates and to collections from different locations on very small scales. Our study provides a valuable tool for fine-scale monitoring and microevolution-related study of R. pseudosolanacearum phylotype I populations. IMPORTANCE Understanding the evolutionary dynamics of adaptation of plant pathogens to new hosts or ecological niches has become a key point for the development of innovative disease management strategies, including durable resistance. Whereas the molecular mechanisms underlying virulence or pathogenicity changes have been studied thoroughly, the

  7. Comparison of Multilocus Variable-Number Tandem-Repeat Analysis and Whole-Genome Sequencing for Investigation of Clostridium difficile Transmission

    PubMed Central

    Fawley, W. N.; Best, E. L.; Griffiths, D.; Stoesser, N. E.; Crook, D. W.; Peto, T. E. A.; Walker, A. S.; Wilcox, M. H.

    2013-01-01

    No study to date has compared multilocus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis (MLVA) and whole-genome sequencing (WGS) in an investigation of the transmission of Clostridium difficile infection. Isolates from 61 adults with ongoing and/or recurrent C. difficile infections and 17 asymptomatic carriage episodes in children (201 samples), as well as from 61 suspected outbreaks affecting 2 to 41 patients in 31 hospitals in the United Kingdom (300 samples), underwent 7-locus MLVA and WGS in parallel. When the first and last samples from the same individual taken for a median (interquartile range [IQR]) of 63 days (43 to 105 days) apart were compared, the estimated rates of the evolution of single nucleotide variants (SNVs), summed tandem-repeat differences (STRDs), and locus variants (LVs) were 0.79 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.00 to 1.75), 1.63 (95% CI, 0.00 to 3.59), and 1.21 (95% CI, 0.00 to 2.67)/called genome/year, respectively. Differences of >2 SNVs and >10 STRDs have been used to exclude direct case-to-case transmission. With the first serial sample per individual being used to assess discriminatory power, across all pairs of samples sharing a PCR ribotype, 192/283 (68%) differed by >10 STRDs and 217/283 (77%) by >2 SNVs. Among all pairs of cases from the same suspected outbreak, 1,190/1,488 (80%) pairs had concordant results using >2 SNVs and >10 STRDs to exclude transmission. For the discordant pairs, 229 (15%) had ≥2 SNVs but ≤10 STRDs, and 69 (5%) had ≤2 SNVs but ≥10 STRDs. Discordant pairs had higher numbers of LVs than concordant pairs, supporting the more diverse measure in each type of discordant pair. Conclusions on whether the potential outbreaks were confirmed were concordant in 58/61 (95%) investigations. Overall findings using MLVA and WGS were very similar despite the fact that they analyzed different parts of the bacterial genome. With improvements in WGS technology, it is likely that MLVA locus data will be available from WGS in the

  8. Repeatability of gradient ultrahigh pressure liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry methods in instrument-controlled thermal environments.

    PubMed

    Grinias, James P; Wong, Jenny-Marie T; Kennedy, Robert T

    2016-08-26

    The impact of viscous friction on eluent temperature and column efficiency in liquid chromatography is of renewed interest as the need for pressures exceeding 1000bar to use with columns packed with sub-2μm particles has grown. One way the development of axial and radial temperature gradients that arise due to viscous friction can be affected is by the thermal environment the column is placed in. In this study, a new column oven integrated into an ultrahigh pressure liquid chromatograph that enables both still-air and forced-air operating modes is investigated to find the magnitude of the effect of the axial thermal gradient that forms in 2.1×100mm columns packed with sub-2μm particles in these modes. Temperature increases of nearly 30K were observed when the generated power of the column exceeded 25W/m. The impact of the heating due to viscous friction on the repeatability of peak capacity, elution time, and peak area ratio to an internal standard for a gradient UHPLC-MS/MS method to analyze neurotransmitters was found to be limited. This result indicates that high speed UHPLC-MS/MS gradient methods under conditions of high viscous friction may be possible without the negative effects typically observed with isocratic separations under similar conditions.

  9. A CXCL2 tandem repeat promoter polymorphism is associated with susceptibility to severe sepsis in the Spanish population.

    PubMed

    Flores, C; Maca-Meyer, N; Pérez-Méndez, L; Sangüesa, R; Espinosa, E; Muriel, A; Blanco, J; Villar, J

    2006-03-01

    Sepsis describes a complex clinical syndrome resulting from a systemic inflammatory response to bacteria. Functional studies in animal models of sepsis have catalogued CXCL2 as a candidate gene for the development of the disease. We hypothesized that CXCL2 polymorphisms may confer susceptibility to sepsis and performed an association study using 178 severe sepsis patients and 357 population-based controls. We selected two polymorphisms from the promoter of the gene (-437A/G and -665(AC)n), and analyzed whether haplotypes or single loci were associated with disease susceptibility. An overall test of differentiation showed that haplotype distribution was not different between cases and controls (P=0.407). Likewise, -437A/G was not associated with disease susceptibility (heterozygote odds ratio (OR) 0.68 (0.47-1.03), and homozygote OR 0.86 (0.56-1.32); P=0.706). However, for the -665(AC)n, we found that the 24+/-1 repeat alleles were associated with susceptibility (heterozygote OR 2.82 (1.10-7.24), and homozygote OR 3.65 (1.41-9.43); P=0.0006). This association remained significant when using a multiple logistic regression analysis (OR 2.23; 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) 1.22-4.03; P=0.008) and after a genomic control adjustment (P=0.017). Although replicate studies and functional assays are needed, these results suggest that CXCL2 gene variants may contribute to the development of severe sepsis.

  10. Haplotype variation in a mitochondrial tandem repeat of Norway spruce (Picea abies) populations suggests a serious founder effect during postglacial re-colonization of the western Alps.

    PubMed

    Gugerli, F; Sperisen, C; Büchler, U; Magni, F; Geburek, T; Jeandroz, S; Senn, J

    2001-05-01

    Populations from 13 elevational transects of Norway spruce [Picea abies (L.) Karst] across the Alpine range were sampled to elucidate the geographical pattern of genetic variation in relation to postglacial re-colonization and to study elevational effects on haplotypic diversity. We assessed fragment length variation in a tandem repeat region of the mitochondrial (mt) nad1 intron 2. This maternally inherited genetic marker is suited to infer migration as it is dispersed by seed only. A total of 10 haplotypes was found, most of which were due to repeat copy number variation. An analysis of molecular variance (amova) showed that overall population differentiation was high (F(ST)=0.41), and it revealed a significant differentiation between monomorphic western and moderately to highly variable eastern Alpine populations. This phylogeographic pattern may be explained by a founder effect during postglacial re-colonization. An early arriving haplotype, assumed to originate from a western Carpathian refugium, could expand into suitable habitats, reducing the chances for establishment of subsequently arriving haplotypes. On the other hand, the high variation in populations within an Italian transect of the south-eastern Alps may be the consequence of merging migration pathways from and close distance to putative glacial refugia, most likely those assumed in the Carpathian mountains and on the Balkan peninsula or possibly in the central plains of Italy. An effect of elevation on haplotypic diversity was not evident, though a low, but significant, partition of total genetic variation was attributed to among-population variation in one Italian transect. Various factors, such as vertical seed dispersal and forest management, may account for blurring an otherwise established pattern of genetic variation on a small geographical scale.

  11. High throughput visualization and analysis of human short tandem repeat polymorphisms (STRP`s) using an infrared based automated DNA sequencer

    SciTech Connect

    Jang, G.Y.; Gartside, B.O.; Brumbaugh, J.A.

    1994-09-01

    Short tandem repeat polymorphisms (STRPs) including di-, tri-, and tetranucleotide repeats are very useful markers for gene mapping, genetic diagnosis, and forensics because they are highly polymorphic, abundant throughout the mammalian genome, and amplifiable by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). In order to meet the demand for large scale gene mapping and genetic diagnosis, the overall speed of genotyping STRPs should be increased. Automated detection systems using laser irradiation along with infrared fluorescently labeled PCR primers or dATP`s have been used for improved detection of PCR amplified STRPs when compared to conventional radioactive detection methods. Here, we report protocols that provide high throughput visualization and analysis of PCR amplified STRPs using the LI-COR Model 4000S DNA Sequencer. Short (15 cm separation distance) gels were used which produced rapid migration of the DNA fragments to the scanning detector (less than 1 hour from sample loading to detection of up to 350 base long DNA fragments). Seven percent denaturing acrylamide gels with a constant 2000V were employed for fast and adequate resolution. A 64 well format was used for loading (60 samples with 4 lanes for standard markers). Multiple loading of samples (using the same gel up to 3 times) has been achieved. In addition, we have multiplexed more than one locus per lane. By applying these conditions (60 samples x 3 loci x loads/gel x 2 gels/day) it is possible to generate images for over 1000 person loci in less than a day. Images were analyzed using Scanalytics RFLPscan software. The output data gave each allele size in number of base pairs.

  12. Variable number of tandem repeat polymorphisms of DRD4: re-evaluation of selection hypothesis and analysis of association with schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Hattori, Eiji; Nakajima, Mizuho; Yamada, Kazuo; Iwayama, Yoshimi; Toyota, Tomoko; Saitou, Naruya; Yoshikawa, Takeo

    2009-01-01

    Associations have been reported between the variable number of tandem repeat (VNTR) polymorphisms in the exon 3 of dopamine D4 receptor gene gene and multiple psychiatric illnesses/traits. We examined the distribution of VNTR alleles of different length in a Japanese cohort and found that, as reported earlier, the size of allele ‘7R' was much rarer (0.5%) in Japanese than in Caucasian populations (∼20%). This presents a challenge to an earlier proposed hypothesis that positive selection favoring the allele 7R has contributed to its high frequency. To further address the issue of selection, we carried out sequencing of the VNTR region not only from human but also from chimpanzee samples, and made inference on the ancestral repeat motif and haplotype by use of a phylogenetic analysis program. The most common 4R variant was considered to be the ancestral haplotype as earlier proposed. However, in a gene tree of VNTR constructed on the basis of this inferred ancestral haplotype, the allele 7R had five descendent haplotypes in relatively long lineage, where genetic drift can have major influence. We also tested this length polymorphism for association with schizophrenia, studying two Japanese sample sets (one with 570 cases and 570 controls, and the other with 124 pedigrees). No evidence of association between the allele 7R and schizophrenia was found in any of the two data sets. Collectively, this study suggests that the VNTR variation does not have an effect large enough to cause either selection or a detectable association with schizophrenia in a study of samples of moderate size. PMID:19092778

  13. CASE-REPORT Association between an ACAN gene variable number tandem repeat polymorphism and lumbar disc herniation: a case control study.

    PubMed

    Casa, N L L; Casa Junior, A J; Melo, A V; Teodoro, L S; Nascimento, G R; Sousa, A F; Flausino, T C; Brito, D; Bergamini, R; Minasi, L B; da Cruz, A D; Vieira, T C; Curado, M P

    2016-12-19

    We investigated the association between an aggrecan gene (ACAN) polymorphism and lumbar disc herniation (LDH). This was a case-control study with quinquennial age and gender groups. The study comprised 119 men and women aged between 20 and 60 from Goiânia (Brazil). Of these, 39 were allocated to the case group (Ca) and 80 to the control group (Ct). We gathered sociodemographic and clinical data, and peripheral blood samples. DNA was isolated for genotyping the ACAN variable number tandem repeat (VNTR) via conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Data were statistically analyzed using the chi-square test, multiple comparison analysis, the Student t-test, and odds ratios, with a level of significance set at 5% (P ≤ 0.05). The groups were homogenous in terms of sociodemographic, anthropometric, and life style variables. The allele score for the ACAN VNTR was significantly lower in volunteers with LDH; the A22 allele was significantly more prevalent in this same group; the Ca group presented greater frequency of short alleles A13-A25, whereas the Ct group presented a higher frequency of long alleles. However, this difference was not statistically significant. In both groups, the most common alleles were A28, A27, and A29, and the A26/A26 genotype was significantly more common in the Ca group. The results showed an association between short alleles and LDH among the investigated adults (Ca), corroborating the hypothesis that aggrecan with shorter repeat lengths can lead to a reduction in the physiological proteoglycan function of intervertebral disc hydration and, consequently, increased individual susceptibility to LDH.

  14. Evaluating the Use of Multilocus Variable Number Tandem Repeat Analysis of Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli O157 as a Routine Public Health Tool in England

    PubMed Central

    Byrne, Lisa; Elson, Richard; Dallman, Timothy J.; Perry, Neil; Ashton, Philip; Wain, John; Adak, Goutam K.; Grant, Kathie A.; Jenkins, Claire

    2014-01-01

    Multilocus variable number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA) provides microbiological support for investigations of clusters of cases of infection with Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC) O157. All confirmed STEC O157 isolated in England and submitted to the Gastrointestinal Bacteria Reference Unit (GBRU) during a six month period were typed using MLVA, with the aim of assessing the impact of this approach on epidemiological investigations. Of 539 cases investigated, 341 (76%) had unique (>2 single locus variants) MLVA profiles, 12% of profiles occurred more than once due to known household transmission and 12% of profiles occurred as part of 41 clusters, 21 of which were previously identified through routine public health investigation of cases. The remaining 20 clusters were not previously detected and STEC enhanced surveillance data for associated cases were retrospectively reviewed for epidemiological links including shared exposures, geography and/or time. Additional evidence of a link between cases was found in twelve clusters. Compared to phage typing, the number of sporadic cases was reduced from 69% to 41% and the diversity index for MLVA was 0.996 versus 0.782 for phage typing. Using MLVA generates more data on the spatial and temporal dispersion of cases, better defining the epidemiology of STEC infection than phage typing. The increased detection of clusters through MLVA typing highlights the challenges to health protection practices, providing a forerunner to the advent of whole genome sequencing as a diagnostic tool. PMID:24465775

  15. Staphylococcus aureus from 152 cases of bovine, ovine and caprine mastitis investigated by Multiple-locus variable number of tandem repeat analysis (MLVA).

    PubMed

    Bergonier, Dominique; Sobral, Daniel; Feßler, Andrea T; Jacquet, Eric; Gilbert, Florence B; Schwarz, Stefan; Treilles, Michaël; Bouloc, Philippe; Pourcel, Christine; Vergnaud, Gilles

    2014-10-02

    Staphylococcus aureus is one of the main etiological agents of mastitis in ruminants. In the present retrospective study, we evaluated the potential interest of a previously described automated multiple loci Variable Number of Tandem Repeats (VNTR) Assay (MLVA) comprising 16 loci as a first line tool to investigate the population structure of S. aureus from mastitis. We determined the genetic diversity of S. aureus strains from cases of clinical and subclinical mastitis in dairy cattle (n = 118, of which 16 were methicillin-resistant), sheep (n = 18) and goats (n = 16). The 152 strains could be subdivided into 115 MLVA genotypes (including 14 genotypes for the ovine strains and 15 genotypes for the caprine strains). This corresponds to a discriminatory index (D) value of 0.9936. Comparison with published MLVA data obtained using the same protocol applied to strains from diverse human and animal origins revealed a low number (8.5%) of human-related MLVA genotypes among the present collection. Eighteen percent of the S. aureus mastitis collection belonged to clonal complexes apparently not associated with other pathological conditions. Some of them displayed a relatively low level of diversity in agreement with a restricted ecological niche. These findings provide arguments suggesting that specific S. aureus lineages particularly adapted to ruminant mammary glands have emerged and that MLVA is a convenient tool to provide a broad overview of the population, owing to the availability via internet of databases compiling published MLVA genotypes.

  16. Comparison of inferred relatedness based on multilocus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis and whole genome sequencing of Vibrio cholerae O1.

    PubMed

    Rashid, Mahamud-Ur; Almeida, Mathieu; Azman, Andrew S; Lindsay, Brianna R; Sack, David A; Colwell, Rita R; Huq, Anwar; Morris, J Glenn; Alam, Munirul; Stine, O Colin

    2016-06-01

    Vibrio cholerae causes cholera, a severe diarrheal disease. Understanding the local genetic diversity and transmission of V. cholerae will improve our ability to control cholera. Vibrio cholerae isolates clustered in genetically related groups (clonal complexes, CC) by multilocus variable tandem-repeat analysis (MLVA) were compared by whole genome sequencing (WGS). Isolates in CC1 had been isolated from two geographical locations. Isolates in a second genetically distinct group, CC2, were isolated only at one location. Using WGS, CC1 isolates from both locations revealed, on average, 43.8 nucleotide differences, while those strains comprising CC2 averaged 19.7 differences. Strains from both MLVA-CCs had an average difference of 106.6. Thus, isolates comprising CC1 were more closely related (P < 10(-6)) to each other than to isolates in CC2. Within a MLVA-CC, after removing all paralogs, alternative alleles were found in all possible combinations on separate chromosomes indicative of recombination within the core genome. Including recombination did not affect the distinctiveness of the MLVA-CCs when measured by WGS. We found that WGS generally reflected the same genetic relatedness of isolates as MLVA, indicating that isolates from the same MLVA-CC shared a more recent common ancestor than isolates from the same location that clustered in a distinct MLVA-CC. © FEMS 2016.

  17. Recommendations of the DNA Commission of the International Society for Forensic Genetics (ISFG) on quality control of autosomal Short Tandem Repeat allele frequency databasing (STRidER).

    PubMed

    Bodner, Martin; Bastisch, Ingo; Butler, John M; Fimmers, Rolf; Gill, Peter; Gusmão, Leonor; Morling, Niels; Phillips, Christopher; Prinz, Mechthild; Schneider, Peter M; Parson, Walther

    2016-09-01

    The statistical evaluation of autosomal Short Tandem Repeat (STR) genotypes is based on allele frequencies. These are empirically determined from sets of randomly selected human samples, compiled into STR databases that have been established in the course of population genetic studies. There is currently no agreed procedure of performing quality control of STR allele frequency databases, and the reliability and accuracy of the data are largely based on the responsibility of the individual contributing research groups. It has been demonstrated with databases of haploid markers (EMPOP for mitochondrial mtDNA, and YHRD for Y-chromosomal loci) that centralized quality control and data curation is essential to minimize error. The concepts employed for quality control involve software-aided likelihood-of-genotype, phylogenetic, and population genetic checks that allow the researchers to compare novel data to established datasets and, thus, maintain the high quality required in forensic genetics. Here, we present STRidER (http://strider.online), a publicly available, centrally curated online allele frequency database and quality control platform for autosomal STRs. STRidER expands on the previously established ENFSI DNA WG STRbASE and applies standard concepts established for haploid and autosomal markers as well as novel tools to reduce error and increase the quality of autosomal STR data. The platform constitutes a significant improvement and innovation for the scientific community, offering autosomal STR data quality control and reliable STR genotype estimates.

  18. PopAffiliator: online calculator for individual affiliation to a major population group based on 17 autosomal short tandem repeat genotype profile.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Luísa; Alshamali, Farida; Andreassen, Rune; Ballard, Ruth; Chantratita, Wasun; Cho, Nam Soo; Coudray, Clotilde; Dugoujon, Jean-Michel; Espinoza, Marta; González-Andrade, Fabricio; Hadi, Sibte; Immel, Uta-Dorothee; Marian, Catalin; Gonzalez-Martin, Antonio; Mertens, Gerhard; Parson, Walther; Perone, Carlos; Prieto, Lourdes; Takeshita, Haruo; Rangel Villalobos, Héctor; Zeng, Zhaoshu; Zhivotovsky, Lev; Camacho, Rui; Fonseca, Nuno A

    2011-09-01

    Because of their sensitivity and high level of discrimination, short tandem repeat (STR) maker systems are currently the method of choice in routine forensic casework and data banking, usually in multiplexes up to 15-17 loci. Constraints related to sample amount and quality, frequently encountered in forensic casework, will not allow to change this picture in the near future, notwithstanding the technological developments. In this study, we present a free online calculator named PopAffiliator ( http://cracs.fc.up.pt/popaffiliator ) for individual population affiliation in the three main population groups, Eurasian, East Asian and sub-Saharan African, based on genotype profiles for the common set of STRs used in forensics. This calculator performs affiliation based on a model constructed using machine learning techniques. The model was constructed using a data set of approximately fifteen thousand individuals collected for this work. The accuracy of individual population affiliation is approximately 86%, showing that the common set of STRs routinely used in forensics provide a considerable amount of information for population assignment, in addition to being excellent for individual identification.

  19. Variable number of tandem repeats and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis cluster analysis of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli serovar O157 strains.

    PubMed

    Yokoyama, Eiji; Uchimura, Masako

    2007-11-01

    Ninety-five enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli serovar O157 strains, including 30 strains isolated from 13 intrafamily outbreaks and 14 strains isolated from 3 mass outbreaks, were studied by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR) typing, and the resulting data were subjected to cluster analysis. Cluster analysis of the VNTR typing data revealed that 57 (60.0%) of 95 strains, including all epidemiologically linked strains, formed clusters with at least 95% similarity. Cluster analysis of the PFGE patterns revealed that 67 (70.5%) of 95 strains, including all but 1 of the epidemiologically linked strains, formed clusters with 90% similarity. The number of epidemiologically unlinked strains forming clusters was significantly less by VNTR cluster analysis than by PFGE cluster analysis. The congruence value between PFGE and VNTR cluster analysis was low and did not show an obvious correlation. With two-step cluster analysis, the number of clustered epidemiologically unlinked strains by PFGE cluster analysis that were divided by subsequent VNTR cluster analysis was significantly higher than the number by VNTR cluster analysis that were divided by subsequent PFGE cluster analysis. These results indicate that VNTR cluster analysis is more efficient than PFGE cluster analysis as an epidemiological tool to trace the transmission of enterohemorrhagic E. coli O157.

  20. Genetic analysis of haplotype data for 23 Y-chromosome short tandem repeat loci in the Turkish population recently settled in Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina.

    PubMed

    Dogan, Serkan; Primorac, Dragan; Marjanović, Damir

    2014-10-01

    To explore the distribution and polymorphisms of 23 short tandem repeat (STR) loci on the Y chromosome in the Turkish population recently settled in Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina and to investigate its genetic relationships with the homeland Turkish population and neighboring populations. This study included 100 healthy unrelated male individuals from the Turkish population living in Sarajevo. Buccal swab samples were collected as a DNA source. Genomic DNA was extracted using the salting out method and amplification was performed using PowerPlex Y 23 amplification kit. The studied population was compared to other populations using pairwise genetic distances, which were represented with a multi-dimensional scaling plot. Haplotype and allele frequencies of the sample population were calculated and the results showed that all 100 samples had unique haplotypes. The most polymorphic locus was DYS458, and the least polymorphic DYS391. The observed haplotype diversity was 1.0000 ± 0.0014, with a discrimination capacity of 1.00 and the match probability of 0.01. Rst values showed that our sample population was closely related in both dimensions to the Lebanese and Iraqi populations, while it was more distant from Bosnian, Croatian, and Macedonian populations. Turkish population residing in Sarajevo could be observed as a representative Turkish population, since our results were consistent with those previously published for the homeland Turkish population. Also, this study once again proved that geographically close populations were genetically more related to each other.

  1. Rapid identification of international multidrug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa clones by multiple-locus variable number of tandem repeats analysis and investigation of their susceptibility to lytic bacteriophages.

    PubMed

    Larché, Jérôme; Pouillot, Flavie; Essoh, Christiane; Libisch, Balázs; Straut, Monica; Lee, Je Chul; Soler, Charles; Lamarca, Richard; Gleize, Elodie; Gabard, Jérôme; Vergnaud, Gilles; Pourcel, Christine

    2012-12-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the genetic diversity of multidrug-resistant (MDR) Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains isolated over a period of 12 months in two French hospitals and to test their susceptibility to bacteriophages. A total of 47 MDR isolates recovered from hospitalized patients were genotyped using multiple-locus variable number of tandem repeats analysis. The genotypes were distributed into five clones (including 19, 5, 5, 3, and 3 isolates, respectively) and 12 singletons. Comparison to 77 MDR strains from three other countries, and MLST analysis of selected isolates showed the predominance of international MDR clones. The larger clone, CC235, contained 59 isolates displaying different antibiotic resistance mechanisms, including the presence of the GES1, VIM-2, VIM-4, and IMP-1 β-lactamases. Three newly isolated P. aeruginosa bacteriophages were found to lyse 42 of the 44 analyzed strains, distributed into the different clonal complexes. This pilot study suggests that systematic genotyping of P. aeruginosa MDR strains could improve our epidemiological understanding of transmission at both the local (hospital) and the national level and that phage therapy could be an alternative or a complementary treatment to antibiotics for treating MDR-infected patients.

  2. Genetic analysis of haplotype data for 23 Y-chromosome short tandem repeat loci in the Turkish population recently settled in Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina

    PubMed Central

    Dogan, Serkan; Primorac, Dragan; Marjanović, Damir

    2014-01-01

    Aim To explore the distribution and polymorphisms of 23 short tandem repeat (STR) loci on the Y chromosome in the Turkish population recently settled in Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina and to investigate its genetic relationships with the homeland Turkish population and neighboring populations. Methods This study included 100 healthy unrelated male individuals from the Turkish population living in Sarajevo. Buccal swab samples were collected as a DNA source. Genomic DNA was extracted using the salting out method and amplification was performed using PowerPlex Y 23 amplification kit. The studied population was compared to other populations using pairwise genetic distances, which were represented with a multi-dimensional scaling plot. Results Haplotype and allele frequencies of the sample population were calculated and the results showed that all 100 samples had unique haplotypes. The most polymorphic locus was DYS458, and the least polymorphic DYS391. The observed haplotype diversity was 1.0000 ± 0.0014, with a discrimination capacity of 1.00 and the match probability of 0.01. Rst values showed that our sample population was closely related in both dimensions to the Lebanese and Iraqi populations, while it was more distant from Bosnian, Croatian, and Macedonian populations. Conclusion Turkish population residing in Sarajevo could be observed as a representative Turkish population, since our results were consistent with those previously published for the homeland Turkish population. Also, this study once again proved that geographically close populations were genetically more related to each other. PMID:25358886

  3. Multiple-locus variable-nucleotide tandem repeat subtype analysis implicates European starlings as biological vectors for Escherichia coli O157:H7 in Ohio, USA.

    PubMed

    Williams, M L; Pearl, D L; Lejeune, J T

    2011-10-01

    To provide molecular epidemiological evidence of avian transmission of Escherichia coli O157:H7 between dairy farms in Ohio, this study was designed to identify genetic relatedness between isolates originating from bovine faecal samples and intestinal contents of European starlings captured on these farms. During a three-year period (2007-2009), cattle (n = 9000) and starlings (n = 430) on 150 different dairy farms in northern Ohio were sampled for the presence of E. coli O157:H7. Isolates were subjected to multiple-locus variable-nucleotide tandem repeat analysis (MLVA). Distinct allelic groups were identified on most farms; however, isolates clustering into three MLVA groups originated from both cattle and birds on different farms. Sharing of indistinguishable epidemiologically linked E. coli O157 MLVA subtypes between starlings and cattle on different farms supports the hypothesis that these birds contribute to the transmission of E. coli O157:H7 between dairy farms. A continued need exists to identify and to improve preharvest measures for controlling E. coli O157:H7. Controlling wildlife intrusion, particularly European starlings, on livestock operations, may be an important strategy for reducing dissemination of E. coli O157:H7 between farms and thereby potentially decreasing the on-farm prevalence of E. coli O157:H7 and enhancing the safety of the food supply. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Applied Microbiology © 2011 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  4. Investigation of the population structure of Mycobacterium abscessus complex strains using 17-locus variable number tandem repeat typing and the further distinction of Mycobacterium massiliense hsp65 genotypes.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Shiomi; Arikawa, Kentaro; Tsuyuguchi, Kazunari; Kurashima, Atsuyuki; Harada, Toshiyuki; Nagai, Hideaki; Suzuki, Katsuhiro; Iwamoto, Tomotada; Hayashi, Seiji

    2015-03-01

    Mycobacterium abscessus complex is a significant pathogen in patients with non-cystic fibrosis (non-CF). Nevertheless, there is little description of the genetic diversity of this species. The aims of this study were to investigate the distribution of M. abscessus complex isolated from respiratory specimens by variable number tandem repeat (VNTR) typing. The results of 104 clinical isolates from 104 non-CF patients were compared using PFGE, hsp65 genotypes and clarithromycin susceptibility. The allelic diversity (Hunter-Gaston Discriminatory Index) of the 17 loci examined by VNTR typing was high (0.977). We determined that C28 sequevar erm(41) genotypes and clarithromycin-acquired resistance isolates were scattered in the minimum spanning tree. Intriguingly, VNTR typing and PFGE were highly congruent and revealed that there were clear examples of grouping of isolates from different individuals amongst both M. abscessus and M. massiliense, and showed five clusters of distinct identical isolates. Within these clusters, M. massiliense hsp65 type I formed three different clusters. Although the distribution of M. massiliense hsp65 type II-1 was low (9.3 %), M. massiliense hsp65 type II-1 isolates separated from clusters contained hsp65 type I isolates. Thus, M. massiliense hsp65 genotypes could be discriminated by analysing VNTRs with sufficient genetic distance for intra-species-level discrimination.

  5. A three-loci variable number of tandem repeats analysis for molecular subtyping of Vibrio cholerae O1 and O139.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Haijian; Cui, Zhigang; Diao, Baowei; Zhang, Cuicai; Pang, Bo; Zhang, Lijuan; Kan, Biao

    2013-08-01

    Rapid and easy-to-use molecular subtyping methods are being explored and used for the surveillance of bacterial diseases, including multiple-loci variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR) analysis (MLVA). In this study, we assessed different VNTR combinations for the subtyping of Vibrio cholerae serogroups O1 and O139 with strain panels selected from a long-term nationwide cholera survey. By only using three highly variable loci (VC0147, VCA0171, and VCA0283), we acquired a high discriminatory power, which equals that found after using a combination of all nine loci and that of a pulsed-field gel electrophoresis analysis. Evaluation using the outbreak strains showed a good clustering of the three-loci MLVA (VC0147, VCA0171, and VCA0283). In addition, a six-loci MLVA (VC0147, VC0437, VC1457, VC1650, VCA0171, and VCA0283) protocol allowed for the clustering of O1/O139 V. cholerae strains, which have different serogroups/biotypes and toxigenic/nontoxigenic characteristics. Here, we propose that the three-loci MLVA can be utilized as a molecular subtyping protocol in cholera epidemiological investigations, and the six-loci MLVA can be used in phylogenetic and population structure analyses of V. cholerae O1/O139.

  6. Development of variable number of tandem repeats typing schemes for Ralstonia solanacearum, the agent of bacterial wilt, banana Moko disease and potato brown rot.

    PubMed

    N'guessan, Carine Aya; Brisse, Sylvain; Le Roux-Nio, Anne-Claire; Poussier, Stéphane; Koné, Daouda; Wicker, Emmanuel

    2013-03-01

    Ralstonia solanacearum is an important soil borne bacterial plant pathogen causing bacterial wilt on many important crops. To better monitor epidemics, efficient tools that can identify and discriminate populations are needed. In this study, we assessed variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR) genotyping as a new tool for epidemiological surveillance of R. solanacearum phylotypes, and more specifically for the monitoring of the monomorphic ecotypes "Moko" (banana-pathogenic) and "brown rot" (potato-pathogenic under cool conditions). Screening of six R. solanacearum genome sequences lead to select 36 VNTR loci that were preliminarily amplified on 24 strains. From this step, 26 single-locus primer pairs were multiplexed, and applied to a worldwide collection of 337 strains encompassing the whole phylogenetic diversity, with revelation on a capillary-electrophoresis genotype. Four loci were monomorphic within all phylotypes and were not retained; the other loci were highly polymorphic but displayed a clear phylotype-specificity. Phylotype-specific MLVA schemes were thus defined, based on 13 loci for phylotype I, 12 loci for phylotype II, 11 loci for phylotype III and 6 for phylotype IV. MLVA typing was significantly more discriminative than egl-based sequevar typing, particularly on monomorphic "brown rot" ecotype (phylotype IIB/sequevar 1) and "Moko disease" clade 4 (Phylotype IIB/sequevar 4). Our results raise promising prospects for studies of population genetic structures and epidemiological monitoring.

  7. Determination of mini-short tandem repeat (miniSTR) loci by using the combination of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and microchip electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Lin, Xuexia; Wu, Jing; Li, Haifang; Wang, Zhihua; Lin, Jin-Ming

    2013-09-30

    In this work, a simple and convenient method for the detection of mini-short tandem repeat (miniSTR) loci has been developed by the combination of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and microchip electrophoresis (MCE). Degraded or inhibitor DNA greatly limited STR loci analysis. Therefore, The proper primers was designed as close as possible to the STRs region to produce smaller size STRs, and made the assay suitable for the destroyed samples. Two annealing temperatures were applied in one PCR procedure and the corresponding cycle numbers were studied to improve the sensitivity of PCR reaction. Under optimal conditions, 0.001 ng DNA templates were enough to generate miniSTRs. The relative standard deviations (n=3) of the size fifteen miniSTRs from DNA9947A ranged from 0.49% to 4.41%. The RSDs of concentrations were between 0.94% and 4.95%. Fifteen miniSTRs were also well produced from human hair, indicating that the method has great potential application in criminal identification and paternity testing. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Supplemented vaccination with tandem repeat M2e virus-like particles enhances protection against homologous and heterologous HPAI H5 viruses in chickens.

    PubMed

    Song, Byung-Min; Kang, Hyun-Mi; Lee, Eun-Kyoung; Jung, Suk Chan; Kim, Min-Chul; Lee, Yu-Na; Kang, Sang-Moo; Lee, Youn-Jeong

    2016-01-27

    Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5 viruses derived from A/Goose/Guangdong/1/96 have been continuously circulating globally, severely affecting the public health and poultry industries. The matrix 2 protein ectodomain (M2e) is considered a promising candidate for a universal cross-protective influenza vaccine that provides more effective control over HPAI H5 viruses harboring variant hemagglutinin (HA)-antigens. Here, we evaluated the protective efficacy of a tandem repeat construct of heterologous M2e presented on virus-like particles (M2e5x VLPs) either alone or as a supplement against HPAI H5 viruses in a chicken model. Chickens immunized with M2e5x VLPs alone induced M2e-specific antibodies but were not protected against HPAI H5. The homo- and cross-protective efficacy of M2e5x VLP-supplemented vaccination of chickens was also examined. Importantly, supplementation with M2e5x VLPs induced significantly higher levels of antibodies specific for M2e and different viruses as well as provided improved protection against homologous and heterologous HPAI H5 viruses. Considering the limited efficacy of inactivated vaccines, supplement vaccination with M2e5x VLPs may be an effective measure for preventing outbreaks of HPAI viruses that have the ability to constantly change their antigenic properties in poultry. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Phylogenetic and Variable-Number Tandem-Repeat Analyses Identify Nonpathogenic Xanthomonas arboricola Lineages Lacking the Canonical Type III Secretion System

    PubMed Central

    Essakhi, Salwa; Cesbron, Sophie; Fischer-Le Saux, Marion; Bonneau, Sophie; Jacques, Marie-Agnès

    2015-01-01

    Xanthomonas arboricola is conventionally known as a taxon of plant-pathogenic bacteria that includes seven pathovars. This study showed that X. arboricola also encompasses nonpathogenic bacteria that cause no apparent disease symptoms on their hosts. The aim of this study was to assess the X. arboricola population structure associated with walnut, including nonpathogenic strains, in order to gain a better understanding of the role of nonpathogenic xanthomonads in walnut microbiota. A multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA) was performed on a collection of 100 X. arboricola strains, including 27 nonpathogenic strains isolated from walnut. Nonpathogenic strains grouped outside clusters defined by pathovars and formed separate genetic lineages. A multilocus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis (MLVA) conducted on a collection of X. arboricola strains isolated from walnut showed that nonpathogenic strains clustered separately from clonal complexes containing Xanthomonas arboricola pv. juglandis strains. Some nonpathogenic strains of X. arboricola did not contain the canonical type III secretion system (T3SS) and harbored only one to three type III effector (T3E) genes. In the nonpathogenic strains CFBP 7640 and CFBP 7653, neither T3SS genes nor any of the analyzed T3E genes were detected. This finding raises a question about the origin of nonpathogenic strains and the evolution of plant pathogenicity in X. arboricola. T3E genes that were not detected in any nonpathogenic isolates studied represent excellent candidates to be those responsible for pathogenicity in X. arboricola. PMID:26048944

  10. Application of Single-nucleotide Polymorphism and Mycobacterial Interspersed Repetitive Units-Variable Number of Tandem Repeats Analyses to Clinical Mycobacterium tuberculosis Isolates from Korea

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Go Eun; Jang, Mi Hee; Cho, Hyun-Jung; Lee, Sun Min; Yi, Jongyoun; Lee, Eun Yup; Chang, Chulhun L.; Kim, Yeong Dae

    2011-01-01

    Background Single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) analysis is a powerful strategy for large-scale molecular population studies examining phylogenetic relationships among bacterial strains. Mycobacterial interspersed repetitive units-variable number of tandem repeats (MIRU-VNTR) can be easily digitized to share data among laboratories. This study applied SNP and MIRU-VNTR analyses for molecular strain typing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates collected throughout Korea. Methods We studied 102 clinical M. tuberculosis isolates, including 6 paired strains, collected from 11 university hospitals in Korea in 2008 and 2009. SNPs were detected using hairpin primer assays, and then, MIRU-VNTR analysis was performed. Results Thirty-five SNPs contained polymorphisms that helped differentiate the 96 tested isolates. The isolates were classified into 15 clusters. The Beijing family strains were distributed within closely related clusters in the SNP dendrogram. For MIRU-VNTR analysis, the 96 isolates were divided into 12 groups. The discriminatory index in 8 of these groups (MIRU-10, -23, -26, and -31; ETR-A, -B, -C, and -F) was high (Hunter-Gaston diversity index > 0.6). Unlike the SNP method, MIRU-VNTR analysis did not identify any notable localizations of Beijing or non-Beijing family isolates in specific clusters. Conclusions SNP and MIRU-VNTR analyses are surrogate molecular strain-typing methods for M. tuberculosis in Korea where Beijing family isolates are predominant. PMID:21239869

  11. Co-immunization with tandem repeat heterologous M2 extracellular proteins overcomes strain-specific protection of split vaccine against influenza A virus

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Yu-Na; Kim, Min-Chul; Lee, Young-Tae; Kim, Yu-Jin; Lee, Jongsang; Kim, Cheol; Ha, Suk-Hoon; Kang, Sang-Moo

    2015-01-01

    Current influenza vaccines are less efficacious against antigenically different influenza A viruses. This study presents an approach to overcome strain-specific protection, using a strategy of co-immunization with seasonal H3N2 split vaccine and yeast-expressed soluble proteins of a tandem repeat containing heterologous influenza M2 ectodomains (M2e5x). Co-immunization with both vaccines in mice was superior to either vaccine alone in inducing cross protection against heterologous H3N2 virus by raising M2e-specific humoral and cellular immune responses toward a T-helper type 1 profile inducing IgG2a isotype antibodies as well as interferon-γ-producing cells in systemic and mucosal sites. In addition, co-immunization sera were found to confer cross-protection against different subtypes of H1N1 and H5N1 influenza A viruses in naïve mice. A mechanistic study provides evidence that activation of dendritic cells by co-stimulation with M2e5x and split vaccine was associated with the proliferation of CD4+ T cells. Our results suggest that a strategy of co-immunization with seasonal split and M2e5x protein vaccines could be a promising approach for overcoming the limitation of strain-specific protection by current influenza vaccination. PMID:26248203

  12. [Constructing standard allelic ladders for four short tandem repeat loci and employing them in a population study on Han Nationality of Chengdu in China].

    PubMed

    Deng, Jian-qiang; Ying, Bing-wu; Shi, Mei-sen; Yan, Jing; Jia, Zheng-jun; Li, Ying-bi; Wu, Jin; Zhang, Ji; Hou, Yi-ping

    2005-02-01

    To solve the problems in the accuracy and standardization of short tandem repeats-polymerase chain reaction (STR-PCR) typing, the authors adopted the molecular clone technology in producing the standard allelic ladders of D1S1676, D2S2735, D11S1977 and D22S444 loci and applied them in a population study on the Hans in Chengdu, China. PCR was used to produce several different allelic fragments of these loci. PCR products were eluted from the gel and re-amplified by PCR. The purified allelic fragments were then blunt-end subcloned individually into the pGEMR-T plasmid vectors and the recombinant were transfected into competent E.coli DH5alpha TM cells. The results of sequencing confirmed that the size and the construction of the inserts were correct. The recombinant plasmids DNA with the inserts were then used as template for re-amplification to generate the four loci standard ladders. The authors succeeded in producing large quantity of standard allelic ladder of these four loci, with which the genetic polymorphisms of these loci in Chengdu Han population of China were studied. This method is of high value for forensic DNA typing to construct standard ladders. D1S1676, D2S2735 loci are robust for forensic analysis in Chinese Han population, whereas the value of D11S1977 and D22S444 loci is limited.

  13. Hospital Drains as Reservoirs of Pseudomonas aeruginosa: Multiple-Locus Variable-Number of Tandem Repeats Analysis Genotypes Recovered from Faucets, Sink Surfaces and Patients

    PubMed Central

    Lalancette, Cindy; Charron, Dominique; Laferrière, Céline; Dolcé, Patrick; Déziel, Eric; Prévost, Michèle; Bédard, Emilie

    2017-01-01

    Identifying environmental sources of Pseudomonas aeruginosa (Pa) related to hospital-acquired infections represents a key challenge for public health. Biofilms in water systems offer protection and favorable growth conditions, and are prime reservoirs of microorganisms. A comparative genotyping survey assessing the relationship between Pa strains recovered in hospital sink biofilm and isolated in clinical specimens was conducted. Environmental strains from drain, faucet and sink-surface biofilm were recovered by a culture method after an incubation time ranging from 48 to 240 h. The genotyping of 38 environmental and 32 clinical isolates was performed using a multiple-locus variable-number of tandem repeats analysis (MLVA). More than one-third of Pa isolates were only cultivable following ≥48 h of incubation, and were predominantly from faucet and sink-surface biofilms. In total, 41/70 strains were grouped within eight genotypes (A to H). Genotype B grouped a clinical and an environmental strain isolated in the same ward, 5 months apart, suggesting this genotype could thrive in both contexts. Genotype E grouped environmental isolates that were highly prevalent throughout the hospital and that required a longer incubation time. The results from the multi-hospital follow-up study support the drain as an important reservoir of Pa dissemination to faucets, sink surfaces and patients. Optimizing the recovery of environmental strains will strengthen epidemiological investigations, facilitate pathway identification, and assist in identifying and controlling the reservoirs potentially associated to hospital-acquired infections. PMID:28792484

  14. Characterization of Genetic Diversity of Bacillus anthracis in France by Using High-Resolution Melting Assays and Multilocus Variable-Number Tandem-Repeat Analysis ▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Derzelle, S.; Laroche, S.; Le Flèche, P.; Hauck, Y.; Thierry, S.; Vergnaud, G.; Madani, N.

    2011-01-01

    Using high-resolution melting (HRM) analysis, we developed a cost-effective method to genotype a set of 13 phylogenetically informative single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within the genome of Bacillus anthracis. SNP discrimination assays were performed in monoplex or duplex and applied to 100 B. anthracis isolates collected in France from 1953 to 2009 and a few reference strains. HRM provided a reliable and cheap alternative to subtype B. anthracis into one of the 12 major sublineages or subgroups. All strains could be correctly positioned on the canonical SNP (canSNP) phylogenetic tree, except the divergent Pasteur vaccine strain ATCC 4229. We detected the cooccurrence of three canSNP subgroups in France. The dominant B.Br.CNEVA sublineage was found to be prevalent in the Alps, the Pyrenees, the Auvergne region, and the Saône-et-Loire department. Strains affiliated with the A.Br.008/009 subgroup were observed throughout most of the country. The minor A.Br.001/002 subgroup was restricted to northeastern France. Multiple-locus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis using 24 markers further resolved French strains into 60 unique profiles and identified some regional patterns. Diversity found within the A.Br.008/009 and B.Br.CNEVA subgroups suggests that these represent old, ecologically established clades in France. Phylogenetic relationships with strains from other parts of the world are discussed. PMID:21998431

  15. Multi-Locus Variable Number of Tandem Repeat Analysis for Rapid and Accurate Typing of Virulent Multidrug Resistant Escherichia coli Clones

    PubMed Central

    Naseer, Umaer; Olsson-Liljequist, Barbro E.; Woodford, Neil; Dhanji, Hiran; Cantón, Rafael; Sundsfjord, Arnfinn; Lindstedt, Bjørn-Arne

    2012-01-01

    One hundred E. coli isolates from Norway (n = 37), Sweden (n = 24), UK (n = 20) and Spain (n = 19), producing CTX-M-type - (n = 84), or SHV-12 (n = 4) extended spectrum β-lactamases, or the plasmid mediated AmpC, CMY-2 (n = 12), were typed using multi-locus sequence typing (MLST) and multi-locus variable number of tandem repeat analysis (MLVA). Isolates clustered into 33 Sequence Types (STs) and 14 Sequence Type Complexes (STCs), and 58 MLVA-Types (MTs) and 25 different MLVA-Type Complexes (MTCs). A strong agreement between the MLST profile and MLVA typing results was observed, in which all ST131-isolates (n = 39) and most of the STC-648 (n = 10), STC-38 (n = 9), STC-10 (n = 9), STC-405 (n = 8) and STC-23 (n = 6) isolates were clustered distinctly into MTC-29, -36, -20, -14, -10 and -39, respectively. MLVA is a rapid and accurate tool for genotyping isolates of globally disseminated virulent multidrug resistant E. coli lineages, including ST131. PMID:22859970

  16. Supplemented vaccination with tandem repeat M2e virus-like particles enhances protection against homologous and heterologous HPAI H5 viruses in chickens

    PubMed Central

    Song, Byung-Min; Kang, Hyun-Mi; Lee, Eun-Kyoung; Jung, Suk Chan; Kim, Min-Chul; Lee, Yu-Na; Kang, Sang-Moo; Lee, Youn-Jeong

    2016-01-01

    Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5 viruses derived from A/Goose/Guangdong/1/96 have been continuously circulating globally, severely affecting the public health and poultry industries. The matrix 2 protein ectodomain (M2e) is considered a promising candidate for a universal cross-protective influenza vaccine that provides more effective control over HPAI H5 viruses harboring variant hemagglutinin (HA)-antigens. Here, we evaluated the protective efficacy of a tandem repeat construct of heterologous M2e presented on virus-like particles (M2e5x VLPs) either alone or as a supplement against HPAI H5 viruses in a chicken model. Chickens immunized with M2e5x VLPs alone induced M2e-specific antibodies but were not protected against HPAI H5. The homo- and cross-protective efficacy of M2e5x VLP-supplemented vaccination of chickens was also examined. Importantly, supplementation with M2e5x VLPs induced significantly higher levels of antibodies specific for M2e and different viruses as well as provided improved protection against homologous and heterologous HPAI H5 viruses. Considering the limited efficacy of inactivated vaccines, supplement vaccination with M2e5x VLPs may be an effective measure for preventing outbreaks of HPAI viruses that have the ability to constantly change their antigenic properties in poultry. PMID:26691568

  17. Evaluation of 14 Y-chromosomal Short Tandem Repeat Haplotype with Focus on DYS449, DYS456, and DYS458: Czech Population Sample

    PubMed Central

    Ehler, Edvard; Marvan, Richard; Vanek, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    Aim To evaluate the novel triplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay for the analysis of polymorphic Y-chromosomal short tandem repeat loci (Y-STR). Methods A total of 14 Y-STR loci was analyzed. Allele frequencies for 3 tetrameric Y-STR loci (DYS449, DYS456, and DYS458) and extended haplotype loci typed by Y-PLEXTM 12 system were investigated in a sample of 50 unrelated healthy Czech male donors. We computed the relevant intra-population statistic parameters for our data (gene diversity, average gene diversity over loci, and mean number of pairwise differences) and compared our sample set with other Central European populations using RST pairwise genetic distance. Results We focused on the comparison of genetic diversity between the Y-STR extended haplotype loci and that of the 3 additional loci, and on the benefit of using DYS449, DYS456, and DYS458 in forensic and population genetics applications. Total gene diversity in our sample set was 0.998367 when using all 14 loci. Our data analysis revealed very high genetic diversity at DYS449 locus (0.876735), which surpasses even the diversity at DYS385a/b (0.819592). Population comparison showed no difference between Czech, Bavarian, Austrian, and Saxon sample set. A minor difference was found between Czech and Polish sample set. Conclusion Typing of 3 Y-chromosomal microsatellite polymorphisms may provide a useful complement to already established sets of Y-STRs. PMID:20162746

  18. Multi-locus variable number tandem repeat analysis for Clostridium botulinum type B isolates in Japan: comparison with other isolates and genotyping methods.

    PubMed

    Umeda, Kaoru; Wada, Takayuki; Kohda, Tomoko; Kozaki, Shunji

    2013-06-01

    Clostridium botulinum produces botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) and causes botulism in humans and animals. Recently, 15-loci multi-locus variable number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA) for C. botulinum was developed for high-resolution and inter-lab comparative genotyping. This study examines the relation between MLVA and other genotyping methods such as pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), multi-locus sequence typing (MLST), BoNT/B subtyping and bont/b gene location to evaluate MLVA as a method applicable to the genetic markers for C. botulinum type B. Japanese isolates were genotyped using MLVA and were compared with strains from other sources reported previously. Results show that the discriminatory power of MLVA was comparable to that of PFGE and higher than that of MLST. The topology of the minimum spanning tree (MST) constructed using MLVA data was very consistent with the phylogenetic classifications of PFGE and MLST. The MST topology also represented genetic diversity between the strains possessing bont/b gene on chromosomes and plasmids. Some Japanese isolates including those associated with infant botulism were inferred to be related to isolates of Europe origin from MLVA genotyping results. The MLVA scheme used for this study is apparently useful not only for high-resolution molecular typing, but also for phylogenetic characterization of C. botulinum type B.

  19. Splitting of a Prevalent Mycobacterium bovis Spoligotype by Variable-Number Tandem-Repeat Typing Reveals High Heterogeneity in an Evolving Clonal Group

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez-Campos, Sabrina; Navarro, Yurena; Romero, Beatriz; de Juan, Lucía; Bezos, Javier; Mateos, Ana; Golby, Paul; Smith, Noel H.; Hewinson, Glyn R.; Domínguez, Lucas; García-de-Viedma, Darío

    2013-01-01

    Mycobacterium bovis populations in countries with persistent bovine tuberculosis usually show a prevalent spoligotype with a wide geographical distribution. This study applied mycobacterial interspersed repetitive-unit–variable-number tandem-repeat (MIRU-VNTR) typing to a random panel of 115 M. bovis isolates that are representative of the most frequent spoligotype in the Iberian Peninsula, SB0121. VNTR typing targeted nine loci: ETR-A (alias VNTR2165), ETR-B (VNTR2461), ETR-D (MIRU4, VNTR580), ETR-E (MIRU31, VNTR3192), MIRU26 (VNTR2996), QUB11a (VNTR2163a), QUB11b (VNTR2163b), QUB26 (VNTR4052), and QUB3232 (VNTR3232). We found a high degree of diversity among the studied isolates (discriminatory index [D] = 0.9856), which were split into 65 different MIRU-VNTR types. An alternative short-format MIRU-VNTR typing targeting only the four loci with the highest variability values was found to offer an equivalent discriminatory index. Minimum spanning trees using the MIRU-VNTR data showed the hypothetical evolution of an apparent clonal group. MIRU-VNTR analysis was also applied to the isolates of 176 animals from 15 farms infected by M. bovis SB0121; in 10 farms, the analysis revealed the coexistence of two to five different MIRU types differing in one to six loci, which highlights the frequency of undetected heterogeneity. PMID:23985914

  20. Genetic polymorphisms of short tandem repeat loci D13S305, D13S631 and D13S634 in the Han population of Tianjin, China

    PubMed Central

    SHI, YUNFANG; LI, XIAOZHOU; JU, DUAN; LI, YAN; ZHANG, XIULING; ZHANG, YING

    2015-01-01

    Short tandem repeat (STR) markers, also known as microsatellites, are extensively used in mapping studies, forensics and disease diagnosis due to their small dimension and low mutation and high polymorphism rates. In recent years quantitative fluorescence polymerase chain reaction (QF-PCR) has been successfully used to amplify STR markers in the prenatal diagnosis of common chromosomal abnormalities. This method provides a diagnosis of common aneuploidies 24–48 h after sampling with low error rates and cost; however, the size of different alleles, frequency, heterozygosity and distribution of STR markers vary among different populations. In the present study three STR markers, D13S305, D13S631 and D13S634, on chromosome 13 were analyzed in 350 unrelated individuals (200 males and 150 females) from the Han population of Tianjin, China using QF-PCR. Eleven, seven and 11 alleles of each marker were observed, respectively. The frequencies of the genotypes were in good agreement with Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (P>0.05). The results showed that these three STR markers were highly polymorphic in the Han population of Tianjin, China. The study has provided basic data for use in the prenatal diagnosis of Patau syndrome. PMID:26622392

  1. Genetic polymorphisms of short tandem repeat loci D13S305, D13S631 and D13S634 in the Han population of Tianjin, China.

    PubMed

    Shi, Yunfang; Li, Xiaozhou; Ju, Duan; Li, Yan; Zhang, Xiuling; Zhang, Ying

    2015-08-01

    Short tandem repeat (STR) markers, also known as microsatellites, are extensively used in mapping studies, forensics and disease diagnosis due to their small dimension and low mutation and high polymorphism rates. In recent years quantitative fluorescence polymerase chain reaction (QF-PCR) has been successfully used to amplify STR markers in the prenatal diagnosis of common chromosomal abnormalities. This method provides a diagnosis of common aneuploidies 24-48 h after sampling with low error rates and cost; however, the size of different alleles, frequency, heterozygosity and distribution of STR markers vary among different populations. In the present study three STR markers, D13S305, D13S631 and D13S634, on chromosome 13 were analyzed in 350 unrelated individuals (200 males and 150 females) from the Han population of Tianjin, China using QF-PCR. Eleven, seven and 11 alleles of each marker were observed, respectively. The frequencies of the genotypes were in good agreement with Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (P>0.05). The results showed that these three STR markers were highly polymorphic in the Han population of Tianjin, China. The study has provided basic data for use in the prenatal diagnosis of Patau syndrome.