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Sample records for ga co-doping effect

  1. Co-doping effects on luminescence and scintillation properties of Ce doped (Lu,Gd)3(Ga,Al)5O12 scintillator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamaguchi, Hiroaki; Kamada, Kei; Kurosawa, Shunsuke; Pejchal, Jan; Shoji, Yasuhiro; Yokota, Yuui; Ohashi, Yuji; Yoshikawa, Akira

    2016-11-01

    Mg co-doping effects on scintillation properties of Ce:Lu1Gd2(Ga,Al)5O12 (LGGAG) were investigated. Mg 200 ppm co-doped Ce:LGGAG single crystals were prepared by micro pulling down method. Absorption and luminescence spectra were measured together with several other scintillation characteristics, namely the scintillation decay and light yield to reveal the effect of Mg co-doping. Ce4+ charge transfer absorption was observed below 300 nm in Mg,Ce:LGGAG which is in good agreement with previous reports. The scintillation decay times were accelerated by Mg co-doping.

  2. Enhanced stability of Eu in GaN nanoparticles: Effects of Si co-doping

    SciTech Connect

    Kaur, Prabhsharan; Sekhon, S. S.; Zavada, J. M.; Kumar, Vijay

    2015-06-14

    Ab initio calculations on Eu doped (GaN){sub n} (n = 12, 13, and 32) nanoparticles show that Eu doping in nanoparticles is favorable compared with bulk GaN as a large fraction of atoms lie on the surface where strain can be released compared with bulk where often Eu doping is associated with a N vacancy. Co-doping of Si further facilitates Eu doping as strain from an oversized Eu atom and an undersized Si atom is compensated. These results along with low symmetry sites in nanoparticles make them attractive for developing strongly luminescent nanomaterials. The atomic and electronic structures are discussed using generalized gradient approximation (GGA) for the exchange-correlation energy as well as GGA + U formalism. In all cases of Eu (Eu + Si) doping, the magnetic moments are localized on the Eu site with a large value of 6μ{sub B} (7μ{sub B}). Our results suggest that co-doping can be a very useful way to achieve rare-earth doping in different hosts for optoelectronic materials.

  3. Effects of doping concentration and co-doping with cerium on the luminescence properties of Gd3Ga5O12:Cr3+ for thermometry applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pareja, Jhon; Litterscheid, Christian; Molina, Alejandro; Albert, Barbara; Kaiser, Bernhard; Dreizler, Andreas

    2015-09-01

    The accuracy of surface temperature measurements using thermographic phosphors relies on an extensive knowledge of the temperature-dependent properties of the phosphor. This paper addresses the effects of doping concentration and co-doping with cerium on the luminescence properties of the Gd3Ga5O12:Cr3+ phosphor. High-crystallinity Gd3Ga5O12:Cr3+,Ce3+ powder samples (GGG:Cr,Ce) with different Cr3+ and Ce3+ concentrations were synthesized, and their luminescence spectra as well as their decay lifetime properties were characterized after UV laser excitation. Results revealed that the concentration quenching decreases the luminescence lifetime at concentrations above 0.5 mol% Cr3+ while the emission spectrum remains independent of the Cr3+ concentration. Co-doping with small amounts of Ce3+ improves the temperature-dependent luminescence characteristics by reducing the afterglow and producing fairly mono-exponential luminescence decays without changing the lifetime.

  4. Study on the effects of Ga-2N high co-doping and preferred orientation on the stability, bandgap and absorption spectrum of ZnO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, Qing-Yu; Li, Wen-Cai; Qu, Ling-Feng; Zhao, Chun-Wang

    2017-06-01

    Currently, the stability and visible light properties of Ga-2N co-doped ZnO systems have been studied extensively by experimental analysis and theoretical calculations. However, previous theoretical calculations arbitrarily assigned Ga- and 2N-doped sites in ZnO. In addition, the most stable and possible doping orientations of doped systems have not been fully and systematically considered. Therefore, in this paper, the electron structure and absorption spectra of the unit cells of doped and pure systems were calculated by first-principles plane-wave ultrasoft pseudopotential with the GGA+U method. Calculations were performed for pure ZnO, Ga-2N supercells heavily co-doped with Zn1-xGaxO1-yNy (x = 0.03125 - 0.0625, y = 0.0625 - 0.125) under different co-doping orientations and conditions, and the Zn16GaN2O14 interstitial model. The results indicated that under different orientations and constant Ga-2N co-doping concentrations, the systems co-doped with Ga-N atoms vertically oriented to the c-axis and with another N atom located in the nearest-neighboring site exhibited higher stability over the others, thus lowering formation energy and facilitating doping. Moreover, Ga-interstitial- and 2N-co-doped ZnO systems easily formed chemical compounds. Increasing co-doping concentration while the co-doping method remained constant decreased doped system volume and lowered formation energies. Meantime, co-doped systems were more stable and doping was facilitated. The bandgap was also narrower and red shifting of the absorption spectrum was more significant. These results agreed with previously reported experimental results. In addition, the absorption spectra of Ga-interstitial- and 2N-co-doped ZnO both blue shifted in the UV region compared with that of the pure ZnO system.

  5. Effect of Mg co-doping on scintillation properties of Ce:Gd3(Ga, Al)5O12 single crystals with various Ga/Al ratios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshino, Masao; Kamada, Kei; Shoji, Yasuhiro; Yamaji, Akihiro; Kurosawa, Shunsuke; Yokota, Yuui; Ohashi, Yuji; Yoshikawa, Akira; Chani, Valery I.

    2017-06-01

    Mg co-doped Ce1%:Gd3GaxAl5-xO12 (Ce:GAGG) crystals (x=2.4, 2.7, 3.0) were successfully grown by the Czochralski (Cz) method. Effect of Mg co-doping on the scintillation properties of Ce:GAGG was examined. This study covers measurements of solidification fraction and scintillation properties such as light yield, energy resolution and non-proportionality for each crystal. Pulse-height spectra of various gamma and X-ray sources with energies ranged from 30 keV to 662 keV were measured. Regardless of the presence/absence of Mg dopant, the non-proportionality curves with lower content of gallium in the crystal structure tend to improve. Mg co-doped Ce:GAGG samples did not show a significant difference as compared with non co-doped Ce:GAGG. Mg co-doped crystals with x=2.4 and 2.7 showed the promising scintillation properties of faster decay time and higher energy resolution than those with x=3.0.

  6. Effect of Mg2+ ions co-doping on timing performance and radiation tolerance of Cerium doped Gd3Al2Ga3O12 crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucchini, M. T.; Babin, V.; Bohacek, P.; Gundacker, S.; Kamada, K.; Nikl, M.; Petrosyan, A.; Yoshikawa, A.; Auffray, E.

    2016-04-01

    Inorganic scintillators with high density and high light yield are of major interest for applications in medical imaging and high energy physics detectors. In this work, the optical and scintillation properties of Mg co-doped Ce:Gd3Al2Ga3O12 crystals, grown using Czochralski technique, have been investigated and compared with Ce:Gd3Al2Ga3O12 ones prepared with identical technology. Improvements in the timing performance of the Mg co-doped samples with respect to Ce:Gd3Al2Ga3O12 ones have been measured, namely a substantial shortening of the rise time and scintillation decay components and lower afterglow were achieved. In particular, a significantly better coincidence time resolution of 233 ps FWHM, being a fundamental parameter for TOF-PET devices, has been observed in Mg co-doped crystals. The samples have also shown a good radiation tolerance under high doses of γ-rays, making them suitable candidates for applications in harsh radiation environments, such as detectors at future collider experiments.

  7. Effect of Mg2+ ions co-doping on luminescence and defects formation processes in Gd3(Ga,Al)5O12:Ce single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babin, V.; Bohacek, P.; Grigorjeva, L.; Kučera, M.; Nikl, M.; Zazubovich, S.; Zolotarjovs, A.

    2017-04-01

    Photo- and radioluminescence and thermally stimulated luminescence characteristics of Ce3+ - doped and Ce3+, Mg2+ co-doped Gd3(Ga,Al)5O12 (GAGG) single crystals of similar composition are investigated in the 9-500 K temperature range. The Ce3+ - related luminescence spectra and the photoluminescence decay kinetics in these crystals are found to be similar. Under photoexcitation in the Ce3+ - and Gd3+ - related absorption bands, no prominent rise of the photoluminescence intensity in time is observed neither in GAGG:Ce,Mg nor in GAGG:Ce crystals. The afterglow is strongly reduced in GAGG:Ce,Mg as compared to GAGG:Ce, and the afterglow decay kinetics is much faster. Co-doping with Mg2+ results in a drastic decrease of the thermally stimulated luminescence (TSL) intensity in the whole investigated temperature range and in the appearance of a new complex Mg2+ - related TSL glow curve peak around 285 K. After irradiation in the Ce3+ - related 3.6 eV absorption band, the TSL intensity in GAGG:Ce,Mg is found to be comparable with that in the GAGG:Ce epitaxial film of similar composition. The Mg2+ - induced changes in the concentration, origin and structure of the crystal lattice defects and their influence on the scintillation characteristics of GAGG:Ce,Mg are discussed.

  8. Sol-gel derived Al-Ga co-doped transparent conducting oxide ZnO thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Serrao, Felcy Jyothi; Sandeep, K. M.; Bhat, Shreesha; Dharmaprakash, S. M.

    2016-05-23

    Transparent conducting ZnO doped with Al, Ga and co-doped Al and Ga (1:1) (AGZO) thin films were grown on glass substrates by cost effective sol-gel spin coating method. The XRD results showed that all the films are polycrystalline in nature and highly textured along the (002) plane. Enhanced grain size was observed in the case of AGZO thin films. The transmittance of all the films was more than 83% in the visible region of light. The electrical properties such as carrier concentration and mobility values are increased in case of AGZO compared to that of Al and Ga doped ZnO thin films. The minimum resistivity of 2.54 × 10{sup −3} Ω cm was observed in AGZO thin film. The co-doped AGZO thin films exhibited minimum resistivity and high optical transmittance, indicate that co-doped ZnO thin films could be used in transparent electronics mainly in display applications.

  9. Co/Cr co-doped MgGa{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanoparticles: Microstructure and optical properties

    SciTech Connect

    Duan, Xiulan Liu, Jian; Yu, Fapeng; Wang, Xinqiang

    2016-01-15

    Graphical abstract: The Ga 2p{sub 3/2} spectra consist of two peaks, corresponding to Ga{sup 3+} ions placed at octahedral and tetrahedral sites, respectively. The fraction of tetrahedral Ga{sup 3+} ions (∼1117 eV) increases with increasing doping concentration. - Highlights: • Structural and properties of Co{sup 2+}/Cr{sup 3+}: MgGa{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanoparticles were characterized. • The distribution of cations was studied using XPS. • The inversion degree increased with increasing content of doping ions. • The doping concentration has also effect on absorption and emission properties. • Optical properties of nanoparticles were discussed based on the structural results. - Abstract: MgGa{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanoparticles co-doped with Co{sup 2+}/Cr{sup 3+} ions were prepared by a citrate sol–gel method. Their microstructure and optical properties were studied using X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), infrared spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy. MgGa{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanoparticles with the size of 10–30 nm were obtained when the precursor was annealed at 800 °C. Results indicated that Ga{sup 3+} and Mg{sup 2+} cations occupied the octahedral sites as well as the tetrahedral sites in samples. The inversion degree of Ga or Mg increased with increasing content of doping ions. Absorption spectra indicated that Co{sup 2+} and Cr{sup 3+} ions entered both the tetrahedral and octahedral sites of spinel structure by substituting Mg{sup 2+} and Ga{sup 3+} ions, respectively. Emission spectra of the co-doped MgGa{sub 2}O{sub 4} showed a broad emission band peaking at 700 and 680 nm, relevant to the emission characteristic of octahedral Cr{sup 3+} and tetrahedral Co{sup 2+} ions.

  10. 2 inch size Czochralski growth and scintillation properties of Li+ co-doped Ce:Gd3Ga3Al2O12

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamada, Kei; Shoji, Yasuhiro; Kochurikhin, Vladimir V.; Yoshino, Masao; Okumura, Satoshi; Yamamoto, Seiichi; Yeom, Jung Yeol; Kurosawa, Shunsuke; Yokota, Yuui; Ohashi, Yuji; Nikl, Martin; Yoshino, Masao; Yoshikawa, Akira

    2017-03-01

    The 2 inch size Li 0.15 and 1.35 mol% co-doped Ce:Gd3Al2Ga3O12 single crystals were prepared by the Czochralski (Cz) method. Absorption and luminescence spectra were measured together with several other scintillation characteristics, namely the scintillation decay and light yield to reveal the effect of Li co-doping. Ce4+ CT absorption below 350 nm is clearly enhanced by Li co-doping as same as divalent ions co-doping. By 1.35 at.% Li co-doping, light yield was decrease to 88% of the Ce: GAGG standard and decay time was accelerated to 34.3ns 21.0%, 84.6ns 68.7%, 480ns 10.3%. The timing resolution measurement for a pair of 3 × 3 × 3mm3 size Li,Ce:GAGG scintillator crystals was performed using Si-PMs and the timing resolution of the 1.35 at.% Li co-doped Ce:GAGG was 218ps.

  11. Control of selforganized magnetic nanocrystals aggregation in (Ga,Fe)N by co-doping with shallow donors and acceptors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonanni, A.; Navarro-Quezada, A.; Li, T.; Kiecana, M.; Sawicki, M.; Dietl, T.

    2008-03-01

    A number of possible room temperature functionalities has recently been proposed for magnetically doped semiconductors, in which spinodal decomposition leads to the self-organized formation of coherent ferromagnetic nanodots or nanocolumns [1]. It has also been suggested that the decomposition can be controlled in a wide range by growth conditions and co-doping [2]. We have extended our previous structural and magnetic studies of (Ga,Fe)N [3] by examining the effects of Si and Mg co-doping. As before, we have found the magnetic response to consist of a paramagnetic signal from substitutional Fe and of a ferromagnetic component due to Fe1-xN nanocrystals. Our results demonstrate that the co-doping reduces the fractional concentration of Fe contributing to the nanocrystals. This shows that tuning of the Fermi energy by changing the charge state of the transition metal ions affects their aggregation, as proposed recently [2].1. H.Katayama-Yosida et al., phys.stat. sol. (a) 204, 15 (2007); T.Dietl, arXiv:0711.0343. 2. S.Kuroda et al., Nature Mat. 6, 440 (2007). 3. A.Bonanni et al., Phys. Rev. B 75, 125210 (2007).

  12. Thermal Stability and Electrical Transport Properties of Single-Crystalline β-Zn4Sb3 Co-doped by Ga/Sn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Shuping; Tang, Yu; Li, Decong; Liu, Hongxia; Chen, Zhong; Shen, Lanxian; Deng, Shukang

    2017-08-01

    In this study, Ga/Sn co-doped single-crystal β-Zn4Sb3 were prepared by a Sn-flux method based on stoichiometric ratios of Zn4-x Sb3Ga x Sn3 (x = 0, 0.25, 0.5, 0.6 and 0.75). The effect of Ga/Sn co-doping on the thermal stability and electrical transport properties of the obtained samples were investigated. All the prepared samples exhibit p-type conduction, and carrier concentration varies from 4.71 × 1019 cm-3 to 10.44 × 1019 cm-3, while carrier mobility changes from 34.2 cm2 V-1 s-1 to 68.9 cm2 V-1 s-1 at room temperature. Structure analysis indicates that all samples are β-Zn4Sb3 with space group R\\bar{3}c . Thermal analysis results show that the Ga/Sn co-doped samples possess an excellent thermal stability. The results of crystal compositions indicate that both Ga and Sn atoms tend to replace Zn atoms, and the electrical transport properties of the samples were optimized by co-doping Ga and Sn. Meanwhile, the calculated values of the carrier effective mass, band gap and relaxation time agree with the result obtained from a band structure calculation. Consequently, the sample with Ga initial content x = 0.5 possesses excellent electrical properties, which obtains a maximal power factor of 1.56 × 10-3 W m-1 K-2 at 450 K.

  13. Isoelectronic co-doping

    DOEpatents

    Mascarenhas, Angelo

    2004-11-09

    Isoelectronic co-doping of semiconductor compounds and alloys with deep acceptors and deep donors is used to decrease bandgap, to increase concentration of the dopant constituents in the resulting alloys, and to increase carrier mobilities lifetimes. Group III-V compounds and alloys, such as GaAs and GaP, are isoelectronically co-doped with, for example, N and Bi, to customize solar cells, thermal voltaic cells, light emitting diodes, photodetectors, and lasers on GaP, InP, GaAs, Ge, and Si substrates. Isoelectronically co-doped Group II-VI compounds and alloys are also included.

  14. Sol-gel derived Al and Ga co-doped ZnO thin films: An optoelectronic study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebrahimifard, Reza; Golobostanfard, Mohammad Reza; Abdizadeh, Hossein

    2014-01-01

    Al and Ga co-doped ZnO (AGZO) thin films with different doping contents of 0.5-4 at.% were synthesized via sol-gel route using dip coating method and the results were compared to the single doped specimens Al:ZnO (AZO) and Ga:ZnO (GZO). All samples were highly transparent in visible region (T > 85%) with band gap values around 3.3 eV. Introduction of Al and Ga to the ZnO crystal structure decreased the crystallinity and reduced the particle size of the films. Electrical resistivity was investigated and engineered in this study as the main parameter. Single doped samples showed reduction of resistivity compared to the un-doped ZnO. In this regard, Ga was more efficient than Al in decreasing the electrical resistivity. Furthermore, samples with 1 at.% Al and 1 at.% Ga showed the minimum amount of electrical resistivity. Co-doping was performed with two different approaches including variable doping content (Al + Ga ≠ cte) and constant doping content (Al + Ga = 0.5, 1, and 2 at.%) for the sake of the comparison with single doped samples. Samples with Al = 1 at.% and Ga = 1 at.% showed the lowest electrical resistivity in AGZO samples of former approach. However, in latter approach the lowest resistivity was obtained in Al + Ga = 2 at.% sample. The results proved the capability of co-doped samples in optoelectronic industry regarding partially substitution of expensive Ga with Al and obtaining co-doped AGZO transparent conductive thin films with lower resistivity compared to conventional AZO thin films and also achieving commercial advantages compared to costly GZO thin films.

  15. High purity green photoluminescence emission from Tb3+, Bi3+ co-doped LaGaO3 nanophosphors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samuel, T.; Satya Kamal, Ch.; Ravipati, Srikanth; Ajayi, Babajide Patrick; Veeraiah, V.; Sudarsan, V.; Ramachandra Rao, K.

    2017-07-01

    A series of Tb3+ and Bi3+ co-doped LaGaO3 nanophosphors were synthesized by using polyol route and also characterised for their uncovering energy transfer mechanism of photoluminescence. An excellent characteristic emission of Bi3+ and Tb3+ ions was observed with an appreciable increase in photoluminescence at certain doping concentration. Energy transfer (ET) mechanism from the host lattice to Bi3+ and Tb3+ ions in the co-doped nanophosphor has been explained. The ET efficiency has been calculated and found to be 69.53%. The CIE chromaticity of the synthesized LaGaO3: Bi3+, Tb3+ nanophosphors indicates that they could be a suitable material for field emission display and LED applications.

  16. Enhancement of 1.5 μm emission under 980 nm resonant excitation in Er and Yb co-doped GaN epilayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Q. W.; Li, J.; Lin, J. Y.; Jiang, H. X.

    2016-10-01

    The Erbium (Er) doped GaN is a promising gain medium for optical amplifiers and solid-state high energy lasers due to its high thermal conductivity, wide bandgap, mechanical hardness, and ability to emit in the highly useful 1.5 μm window. Finding the mechanisms to enhance the optical absorption efficiency at a resonant pump wavelength and emission efficiency at 1.5 μm is highly desirable. We report here the in-situ synthesis of the Er and Yb co-doped GaN epilayers (Er + Yb:GaN) by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). It was observed that the 1.5 μm emission intensity of the Er doped GaN (Er:GaN) under 980 nm resonant pump can be boosted by a factor of 7 by co-doping the sample with Yb. The temperature dependent PL emission at 1.5 μm in the Er + Yb:GaN epilayers under an above bandgap excitation revealed a small thermal quenching of 12% from 10 to 300 K. From these results, it can be inferred that the process of energy transfer from Yb3+ to Er3+ ions is highly efficient, and non-radiative recombination channels are limited in the Er + Yb:GaN epilayers synthesized in-situ by MOCVD. Our results point to an effective way to improve the emission efficiency of the Er doped GaN for optical amplification and lasing applications.

  17. Theoretical studies of low strain n-type GaN co-doped by Si and Sn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mao, Qinan; Ji, Zhenguo; Xi, Junhua; He, Haiyan; Cao, Hong

    2010-01-01

    Electronic properties of Si- and Sn-doped GaN were studied by the first-principles calculations. According to the calculated density of states (DOS and PDOS), it is found that both the substitutional Si and Sn act as shallow donors in GaN. Results from charge density difference contour maps and Milliken population analysis are in good agreement with the results from DOS. Formation energy, ionization energy, and bond length results show that co-doping of Si and Sn in GaN can reduce the strain, and thus increases the carrier mobility due to smaller distortion of the lattice. Finally, the optimum Si/Sn ratio in GaN is proposed.

  18. Tunable positive magnetoresistance effect of Co-doped amorphous carbon films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Y. C.; Wu, Z. P.; Bao, W.; Xu, S. J.; Gao, J.

    2012-04-01

    Co-doped amorphous carbon (a-C:Co) films were deposited on n-type Si substrates by pulsed-laser deposition method. A positive magnetoresistance (PMR) effect has been observed after Co doped into a-C films. Such a PMR is tuned by the bias voltage and reaches a peak at a particular voltage, as observed from the Current-voltage relations of the a-C:Co/Si junctions at various magnetic fields. MR-H characteristics were further studied at the temperatures of 65 K, which showed that under the reverse electric field the a-C:Co/Si junctions had a colossal PMR (over 100%). Raman spectra results demonstrate that Co doping favors the formation of graphitic sp2 sites. The mechanism of the PMR effect is attributed to the interactions between the applied magnetic field and Co ions, which leads to the transition from sp2 sites to sp3 sites and increase the resistance.

  19. CO-doping effects on the transport and magnetic properties of FeTe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Yanglin; Li, Li; Yang, Zhaorong; Zhang, Zhitao; Yuan, Bin; Chen, Jun; Du, Haifeng; Sun, Yuping; Zhang, Yuheng

    2016-01-01

    Here we report a systematic investigation of Co-doping effects on the magnetism and transport properties of Fe1+yTe single crystals. It is found that the anti-ferromagnetism transition temperature decreases upon Co doping, and a spin-glass like behavior emerges at low temperature. With substituting more than x=0.09 Co for Fe, both the metallic behavior and the structural transition disappear, but the density of states at Fermi-level does not change significantly. These results suggest that Co doping does not act as carrier doping but is more likely to bring in random magnetic scatters. In addition, the analysis of RH measurements reveals that the Fermi-level reconstruction is not closely related to the long rang AFM transition, which further supports for the local moment picture with frustrated character in dominating the AFM ground state of Fe1+yTe.

  20. Synergistic effect of Indium and Gallium co-doping on growth behavior and physical properties of hydrothermally grown ZnO nanorods

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Jun Hyung; Lee, Seung Muk; Kim, Hyun-Suk; Kim, Hyun You; Park, Jozeph; Jung, Seung-Boo; Park, Geun Chul; Kim, Jungho; Joo, Jinho

    2017-01-01

    We synthesized ZnO nanorods (NRs) using simple hydrothermal method, with the simultaneous incorporation of gallium (Ga) and indium (In), in addition, investigated the co-doping effect on the morphology, microstructure, electronic structure, and electrical/optical properties. The growth behavior of the doped NRs was affected by the nuclei density and polarity of the (001) plane. The c-axis parameter of the co-doped NRs was similar to that of undoped NRs due to the compensated lattice distortion caused by the presence of dopants that are both larger (In3+) and smaller (Ga3+) than the host Zn2+ cations. Red shifts in the ultraviolet emission peaks were observed in all doped NRs, owing to the combined effects of NR size, band gap renormalization, and the presence of stacking faults created by the dopant-induced lattice distortions. In addition, the NR/p-GaN diodes using co-doped NRs exhibited superior electrical conductivity compared to the other specimens due to the increase in the charge carrier density of NRs and the relatively large effective contact area of (001) planes. The simultaneous doping of In and Ga is therefore anticipated to provide a broader range of optical, physical, and electrical properties of ZnO NRs for a variety of opto-electronic applications. PMID:28155879

  1. Synergistic effect of Indium and Gallium co-doping on growth behavior and physical properties of hydrothermally grown ZnO nanorods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Jun Hyung; Lee, Seung Muk; Kim, Hyun-Suk; Kim, Hyun You; Park, Jozeph; Jung, Seung-Boo; Park, Geun Chul; Kim, Jungho; Joo, Jinho

    2017-02-01

    We synthesized ZnO nanorods (NRs) using simple hydrothermal method, with the simultaneous incorporation of gallium (Ga) and indium (In), in addition, investigated the co-doping effect on the morphology, microstructure, electronic structure, and electrical/optical properties. The growth behavior of the doped NRs was affected by the nuclei density and polarity of the (001) plane. The c-axis parameter of the co-doped NRs was similar to that of undoped NRs due to the compensated lattice distortion caused by the presence of dopants that are both larger (In3+) and smaller (Ga3+) than the host Zn2+ cations. Red shifts in the ultraviolet emission peaks were observed in all doped NRs, owing to the combined effects of NR size, band gap renormalization, and the presence of stacking faults created by the dopant-induced lattice distortions. In addition, the NR/p-GaN diodes using co-doped NRs exhibited superior electrical conductivity compared to the other specimens due to the increase in the charge carrier density of NRs and the relatively large effective contact area of (001) planes. The simultaneous doping of In and Ga is therefore anticipated to provide a broader range of optical, physical, and electrical properties of ZnO NRs for a variety of opto-electronic applications.

  2. Interaction between Nitrogen and Sulfur in Co-Doped Graphene and Synergetic Effect in Supercapacitor

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Tao; Wang, Lu-Xiang; Wu, Dong-Ling; Xia, Wei; Jia, Dian-Zeng

    2015-01-01

    The co-doping of graphene with nitrogen and sulfur was investigated aiming at understanding their interactions with the presence of oxygen in graphene. The co-doped graphene (NS-G) was synthesized via a one-pot hydrothermal route using graphene oxide as starting material and L-cysteine, an amino acid containing both N and S, as the doping agent. The obtained NS-G with a three-dimensional hierarchical structure containing both macropores and mesopores exhibited excellent mechanical stabilities under both wet and dry conditions. As compared to N or S singly doped graphene, the co-doped sample contains significantly higher concentrations of N and S species especially pyrollic N groups. The co-doped sample considerably outperformed the singly doped samples when used as free-standing electrode in supercapacitors due to enhanced pseudocapacitance. The simultaneous incorporation of S and N species with the presence of oxygen significantly modified the surface chemistry of carbon leading to considerably higher doping levels, although directly bonding between N and S is neither likely nor detected. Hence, the synergetic effect between N and S occurred through carbon atoms in neighboring hexagonal rings in a graphene sheet. PMID:25880811

  3. Synergistic effects of F and Fe in co-doped TiO2 nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yufei; Shen, Huiyuan; Liu, Yanhua

    2016-03-01

    TiO2 photocatalysts co-doped with F and Fe were synthesized by a sol-gel method. Synergistic effects of F and Fe in the co-doped TiO2 were verified by NH3 decomposition, X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) absorption spectroscopy, and was analyzed by the simulation based on the density functional theory (DFT). The results from NH3 decomposition confirmed that the cooperation of F and Fe broadened the optical response of TiO2 to visible light region and also enhanced the photocatalytic activity of TiO2 under ultraviolet light. XRD patterns, SEM and HRTEM images showed that the co-doped samples were nanometric anatase with an average particle size of 25 nm. Co-doping with F and Fe inhibited the grain growth of TiO2 from anatase to rutile and resulted in a larger lattice defect. XPS analysis exhibited that the doped F and Fe atoms were into the TiO2 lattice. UV-Vis absorption spectra showed that its optical absorption edge was moved up to approximately 617 nm and its ultraviolet absorption was also enhanced. The DFT results indicated that the cooperation of Fe 3d and O 2p orbits narrowed the band gap of TiO2 and F 2p orbit widened the upper valence bands. The synergistic electron density around F and Fe in co-doped TiO2 was capable to enhance the photo-chemical stability of TiO2.

  4. Enhancement of thermospin effect in ZGNRs via p-n co-doping on edge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Ting-Ting; Wang, Xue-Feng; Zhai, Ming-Xing; Liu, Yu-Shen; Wu, Jian-Chun; Xu, Chen

    2016-10-01

    Electronic and thermoelectric properties are studied for ferromagnetic zigzag graphene nanoribbons (ZGNRs) co-doped by a pair of boron and nitrogen atoms on one edge. In case of the 1st nearest neighbor co-doping, the two dopants are partly neutralized by each other and the corresponding impurity states approach to the Fermi energy symmetrically from high and low energies. As a result, the electronic properties are effectively manipulated and the conductances of different spin show opposite behaviours. Over a large range from zero temperature to higher-than-room temperature, the system shows a strong spin thermopower with a spin Seebeck coefficient much bigger than the charge one. These findings suggest that doped ZGNRs can be promising materials for spintronic and thermospintronic devices.

  5. Vibrationally induced center reconfiguration in co-doped GaN:Eu, Mg epitaxial layers: Local hydrogen migration vs. activation of non-radiative channels

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell, B.; Dierolf, V.; Lee, D.; Lee, D.; Fujiwara, Y.

    2013-12-09

    Europium doped gallium nitride (GaN:Eu) is a promising candidate as a material for red light emitting diodes. When Mg was co-doped into GaN:Eu, additional incorporation environments were discovered that show high excitation efficiency at room temperature and have been attributed to the coupling of Mg-H complexes to the majority Eu site. Electron beam irradiation, indirect and resonant (direct) laser excitation were found to modify these complexes, indicating that vibrational energy alone can trigger the migration of the H while the presence of additional charges and excess energy controls the type of reconfiguration and the activation of non-radiative decay channels.

  6. Vibrationally induced center reconfiguration in co-doped GaN:Eu, Mg epitaxial layers: Local hydrogen migration vs. activation of non-radiative channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitchell, B.; Lee, D.; Lee, D.; Fujiwara, Y.; Dierolf, V.

    2013-12-01

    Europium doped gallium nitride (GaN:Eu) is a promising candidate as a material for red light emitting diodes. When Mg was co-doped into GaN:Eu, additional incorporation environments were discovered that show high excitation efficiency at room temperature and have been attributed to the coupling of Mg-H complexes to the majority Eu site. Electron beam irradiation, indirect and resonant (direct) laser excitation were found to modify these complexes, indicating that vibrational energy alone can trigger the migration of the H while the presence of additional charges and excess energy controls the type of reconfiguration and the activation of non-radiative decay channels.

  7. Enhanced structural and electrical properties due to the effect of co-doping ceria electrolyte

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandhya, K.; Chitra Priya N., S.; Aswathy P., K.; Rajendran, Deepthi N.; Thappily, Praveen

    2017-06-01

    In the present investigation, ceria co-doped with samarium and antimony has been prepared by the citrate reaction method. The FTIR pattern shows the extent of ceria content by Ce-O peaks with the effect of codoping. XRD pattern exhibits single phase structure with lattice parameter of 5.475Å. SEM images show surface morphology improved by the process of codoping at reduced sintering temperature. Electrical measurement of the sample reveals ionic conduction mechanism with higher grain conductivity at 750°C. The results of the analysis show that the codoped samples have better structural and electrical properties for usage as a solid electrolyte for IT-SOFC.

  8. Effects of co-doping on ferromagnetism in (Zn,Cr)Te.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuroda, Shinji

    2007-03-01

    Room-temperature ferromagnetism in semiconductors has emerged as one of the most challenging topics in today's materials science and technology. Indeed, enormous research activities have so far been directed towards developing ferromagnetic semiconductors with high transition temperatures. Despite many reports claiming high-temperature ferromagnetism for a broad class of diluted magnetic semiconductors, their intrinsic nature has sometimes been controversial[1], with a lack of elaborated analysis of structural and electronic properties. Among them, Cr-doped ZnTe has been regarded as one of the promising materials of room-temperature ferromagnetism because its intrinsic nature was confirmed through magnetic circular dichroism (MCD) measurement[2]. In this presentation, we report the effect of co-doping of charge impurities on ferromagnetic properties in this material. It was found that ferromagnetism was suppressed in (Zn,Cr)Te co-doped with nitrogen (N) as an acceptor impurity[3] and was enhanced in a crystal co-doped with iodine (I) as a donor impurity[4]. In particular, the apparent Curie temperature TC of Zn1-xCrxTe with a Cr composition of x = 0.05 increased up to 300K at maximum due to I-doping, compared to TC˜30K in the undoped crystal. In the structural and compositional analysis using TEM/EDS, it was revealed that the origin of this remarkable effect of the co-doping was the variation of Cr distribution in the crystals; the Cr distribution was strongly inhomogeneous in I-doped crystals with higher TC, in contrast to an almost uniform distribution in undoped or N-doped crystals with lower TC or being paramagnetic. In the crystals of inhomogeneous distribution, Cr-rich regions with a typical size of several ten nanometers formed in the Cr-poor matrix act as ferromagnetic nanoclusters, resulting in an apparent ferromagnetic behavior of the whole crystal. These variation of the Cr uniformity can be linked to a change in the Cr charge state due to the co-doping

  9. Effects on the optical properties and conductivity of Ag-N co-doped ZnO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Zhenchao; Hou, Qingyu; Qu, Lingfeng

    2017-01-01

    Nowadays, the studies of the effects on the optical bandgap, absorption spectrum, and electrical properties of Ag-N co-doped ZnO have been extensively investigated. However, Ag and N atoms in doped systems are randomly doped, and the asymmetric structure of ZnO is yet to be explored. In this paper, the geometric structure, stability, density of states, absorption spectra and conductivity of pure and Ag-N co-doped Zn1-xAgxO1-xNx(x=0.03125, 0.0417 and 0.0625) in different orientations are calculated by using plane-wave ultrasoft pseudopotential on the basis of density functional theory with GGA+U method. Results show that the volume, equivalent total energy and formation energy of the doped system increase as the concentration of Ag-N co-doped Zn1-xAgxO1-xNx increases at the same doping mode. The doped systems also become unstable, and difficulty in doping. At the same concentration of Ag-N co-doped Zn1-xAgxO1-xNx, the systems with Ag-N along the c-axis orientation is unstable, and doping is difficult. The optical bandgap of Ag-N co-doped systems is narrower than that of the pure ZnO. At the same doping mode, the optical bandgap of the systems with Ag-N perpendicular to the c-axis orientation becomes narrow as the concentration of Ag-N co-doped Zn1-xAgxO1-xNx increases. The absorption spectra of the doped systems exhibit a red shift, and this red shift becomes increasingly significant as the concentration of Ag-N co-doped Zn1-xAgxO1-xNx increases. Under the same condition, the relative hole concentrations of the doped systems increases, the hole effective mass in valence band maximum decreases, the hole mobility decreases, the ionization energy decreases, Bohr radius increases, the conductance increases and the conductivity become better. Our results may be used as a basis for the designing and preparation of new optical and electrical materials for Ag-N co-doped ZnO applied in low temperature end of temperature difference battery.

  10. The effect of LaBr3:Ce single crystal aliovalent co-doping on its mechanical strength

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benedetto, A.; Valladeau, S.; Richaud, D.; Ouspenski, V.; Gy, R.

    2015-06-01

    Lanthanum bromide cerium doped single crystals are a transparent scintillator material that offers outstanding scintillation properties with high light yield, excellent energy resolution, fast emission and excellent proportionality. Although properly packaged detectors are robust enough to withstand operating conditions during geophysical oil logging operations, the material itself is brittle and exhibits low fracture toughness. We attempted to modify the composition of the crystals through aliovalent co-doping by Ba, Ca, Hf, Sr, Zn and Zr. These elements have been added in concentrations from 100 ppm to 5000 ppm to the growth bath. Ratio of co-doping in the crystalline matrices ranged from no incorporation (for Hf, Zn, and Zr) up to 200 ppm for Sr and 10-20 ppm for Ca. The effect of the aliovalent co-doping on the mechanical properties of the crystals and in particular on their mechanical strength, hardness and toughness has been measured. As the crystals are extremely hygroscopic this demanded designing customized experiments in anhydrous environment in order to obtain reliable and accurate results. The ultimate strength has been measured by four points bending. Hardness has been measured by indentation and by the same technique we attempted to have some information on the fracture toughness. No improvement of the mechanical properties of the co-doped crystals with respect to the reference standard lanthanum bromide cerium doped could be found.

  11. Enhancement of photovoltaic effects and photoconductivity observed in Co-doped amorphous carbon/silicon heterostructures

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang, Y. C.; Gao, J.

    2016-08-22

    Co-doped amorphous carbon (Co-C)/silicon heterostructures were fabricated by growing Co-C films on n-type Si substrates using pulsed laser deposition. A photovoltaic effect (PVE) has been observed at room temperature. Open-circuit voltage V{sub oc} = 320 mV and short-circuit current density J{sub sc }= 5.62 mA/cm{sup 2} were measured under illumination of 532-nm light with the power of 100 mW/cm{sup 2}. In contrast, undoped amorphous carbon/Si heterostructures revealed no significant PVE. Based on the PVE and photoconductivity (PC) investigated at different temperatures, it was found that the energy conversion efficiency increased with increasing the temperature and reached the maximum at room temperature, while the photoconductivity showed a reverse temperature dependence. The observed competition between PVE and PC was correlated with the way to distribute absorbed photons. The possible mechanism, explaining the enhanced PVE and PC in the Co-C/Si heterostructures, might be attributed to light absorption enhanced by localized surface plasmons in Co nanoparticles embedded in the carbon matrix.

  12. Effects of F- on the optical and spectroscopic properties of Yb3+/Al3+-co-doped silica glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Wenbin; Yu, Chunlei; Wang, Shikai; Lou, Fengguang; Feng, Suya; Wang, Meng; Zhou, Qinling; Chen, Danping; Hu, Lili; Guzik, Malgorzata; Boulon, Georges

    2015-04-01

    Yb3+/Al3+-co-doped silica glasses with different F- content were prepared in this work by sol-gel method combined with high temperature sintering. XRF, FTIR and XPS methods were used to confirm the presence of F-. The effects of F- on the optical and spectroscopic properties of these glasses have been investigated. It is worth to notice that the F-/Si4+ mass ratio equal to 9% is a significant value showing a real change in the variation trends of numerous following parameters: refractive index, UV absorption edge, absorption and emission cross sections, scalar crystal-field NJ and fluorescent lifetimes. Furthermore, introduction of F- can adjust the refractive index of Yb3+/Al3+-co-doped silica glass and it is useful for large mode area (LMA) fibers.

  13. Enhanced magnetocaloric effect in a Co-doped Heusler Mn50Ni37Co3In10 unidirectional crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Jian; Feng, Shutong; Fang, Yue; Zhai, Qijie; Luo, Zhiping; Zheng, Hongxing

    2016-11-01

    A high-pressure optical zone-melting technique was employed to grow a Mn-rich Heusler Mn50Ni37Co3In10 unidirectional crystal in the present study. It was found that the Co-doped Mn50Ni37Co3In10 unidirectional crystal showed a low magnetic hysteretic loss and a widened working temperature interval in the vicinity of the martensitic transformation. The inverse magnetic entropy change (∆SM) reached 7.84 Jkg-1K-1 around 237.5 K under a magnetic field change of 30 kOe, and the corresponding effective refrigeration capacity (RCeff) was about 127.2 Jkg-1. The experimental results demonstrated a high potential to develop high-performance Mn-rich Heusler Mn-Ni-In magnetocaloric materials by means of Co doping in combination with the high-pressure optical zone-melting fabrication technique.

  14. A study of Co-doping effect on thermoluminescence properties of potassium calcium sulphate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malik, Chirag; Pandey, A.; Katoch, Akash; Lochab, S. P.; Singh, Birendra

    2017-05-01

    In this study nanocrystalline K2Ca2(SO4)3:Cu, K2Ca2(SO4)3:Mg and K2Ca2(SO4)3:Cu,Mg were prepared by co-precipitation method and were further annealed at 700°C for two hours. The XRD shows the cubic structure with crystallite size around 40-50 nm. The concentrations of the dopants Cu and Mg (Cu alone, Mg alone and Cu, Mg co-doped) were 0.1 mol % in each of the sample (0.1 % mol in Cu alone, 0.1% mol in Mg alone and 0.05% mol of each Cu and Mg in Cu,Mg co-doped). The samples were irradiated by gamma radiation over a dose range of 10 Gy to 2 kGy. TL glow curves of the irradiated samples were recorded and studied on Harshaw TLD Reader 3500. Glow curves of irradiated samples reveal that the sample which is co-doped with Cu,Mg shows more intense peak at 120°C as compared with the other samples. The sample which is doped with Mg alone shows a major peak at 116°C and another peak of low intensity at 163°C. The corresponding peaks' temperatures for sample doped with Cu alone are 116°C (major peak) and 168°C respectively. The overall intensity of the sample doped with Mg is greater than the Cu-doped sample. However, peak intensity of co-doped sample is found to be greater than the other two samples (˜13 times that of Cu and ˜3 times that of Mg doped samples). The co-doped sample seems to be a promising TL material for dosimetry of ionizing radiations, however, a more advanced study is required to ascertain this speculation.

  15. Effects of Li+ co-doping on properties of Eu3+ activated TiO2 anatase nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milićević, Bojana; Đorđević, Vesna; Vuković, Katarina; Dražić, Goran; Dramićanin, Miroslav D.

    2017-10-01

    Sol-gel technique for the synthesis of anatase TiO2 at 420 °C produces nanocrystals of 10-20 nm in size with Ti4+ in crystal volume and Ti3+ at terminal planes of the crystal. The study of Li+ co-doping effects on the structure, morphology, absorption, and luminescence of Eu3+ activated TiO2 anatase nanocrystals is presented. Pure anatase structure is achieved up to 9 at.% Li, with significant improvement in crystallinity of europium doped anatase TiO2. The Li+ co-doping reduces the unit cell volume of the crystal, induces the blue shift of the absorption edge, lengthens the lifetime of Eu3+5D0 excited state, and improves the Eu3+ emission intensity up to 37.5%. Judd-Ofelt analysis of Eu3+ emission showed enhancement of quantum efficiency from 66.4% to 98.7% when TiO2:Eu3+ was co-doped with 9 at.% of Li.

  16. Effect of nickel-niobium co-doping on structural, electromechanical, and dielectric properties of lead titanate ceramics.

    PubMed

    Amarande, Luminita; Miclea, Cornel; Tanasoiu, Teodora; Iuga, Alin; Cioangher, Marius Cristian; Trupina, Lucian; Grecu, Maria-Nicoleta; Pasuk, Iuliana

    2009-09-01

    Lead titanate (PT) ceramics co-doped with 8 to 13 mol% Ni-Nb, by substituting titanium ions, were prepared by conventional ceramic method and the influence of Ni-Nb doping level on their morpho-structural, electromechanical and dielectric properties was investigated. Dense tetragonal PT ceramics were obtained for 8 to 12 mol% Ni-Nb co-doping. Lattice anisotropy decreased from 1.053 to 1.046 with increasing doping level. Large thickness coupling factors of 0.4 were obtained for 8, 11, and 12 mol% Ni-Nb. Large electromechanical anisotropy of 10 was obtained for 8 mol% Ni-Nb. It was found that Ni-Nb co-doping has both softening and hardening effects as a function of donor or acceptor behavior of different amounts of Ni-Nb. For 13 mol% Ni-Nb, segregation of a small amount of a secondary phase occurs, lattice constants and tetragonality significantly decrease and the resulting ceramic becomes very hard.

  17. Effects of acceptor-donor complexes on electronic structure properties in co-doped TiO2: A first-principles study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, L.; Cai, L. L.; Yuan, X. B.; Hu, G. C.; Ren, J. F.

    2016-07-01

    We theoretically investigate the doping effects induced by impurity complexes on the electronic structures of anatase TiO2 based on the density functional theory. Mono-doping and co-doping effects are discussed separately. The results show that the impurity doping can make the band-edges shift. The induced defect levels in the band gaps by impurity doping reduce the band gap predominantly. The compensated acceptor-donor pairs in the co-doped TiO2 will improve the photoelectrochemical activity. From the calculations, it is also found that (S+Zr)-co-doped TiO2 has the ideal band gap and band edge, at the same time, the binding energy is higher than other systems, so (S+Zr)-co-doping in TiO2 is more promise in photoelectrochemical experiments.

  18. Effect of Co co-doping on the optical properties of ZnTe:Mn nanocrystals.

    PubMed

    Silva, Alessandra S; Lourenço, Sidney A; da Silva, Marco A T; da Silva, Sebastião W; Morais, Paulo C; Dantas, Noelio O

    2017-01-04

    We study the effect of Co co-doping on the optical properties of Mn-doped ZnTe nanocrystals (NCs) embedded in a glass matrix. Optical absorption (OA) and crystal field theory strongly indicated the substitutional incorporation of Co(2+) ions into these semiconducting NCs as well as the characteristic transitions of these ions in the visible and near infrared spectral region. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images revealed an invariant NC lattice parameter with the incorporation of Mn(2+) and Co(2+) ions. The same was confirmed by X-ray diffraction (XRD). The photoluminescence (PL) spectra showed that the characteristic emission bands of Co(2+) ions (E1Co(2+) and E2Co(2+)) are intense and evident at low temperatures. Indeed, Raman spectra showed that the dependence of luminescence intensity on temperature is due to the electron-phonon interaction that arises from multiphonon relaxation processes. The redshifts in the PL spectra from green to orange with the incorporation of Mn(2+) ions into ZnTe NCs, and in the near infrared with increasing Co-concentration, result from sp-d exchange interactions associated with the increase in Mn(2+) and Co(2+) ions in tetrahedral sites of ZnTe NCs, which may be very interesting for applications in luminescent devices. These observations provide strong evidence that higher Co-concentrations inhibit the incorporation of Mn(2+) into ZnTe NCs, suggesting that there may be competition between Co(2+) and Mn(2+) ions substituting Zn(2+) ions and, furthermore, that these ions replace zinc vacancies (VZn) in these NCs.

  19. Effects of Co doping on the metamagnetic states of the ferromagnetic fcc Fe-Co alloy.

    PubMed

    Ortiz-Chi, Filiberto; Aguayo, Aarón; de Coss, Romeo

    2013-01-16

    The evolution of the metamagnetic states in the ferromagnetic face centered cubic (fcc) Fe(1-x)Co(x) alloy as a function of Co concentration has been studied by means of first-principles calculations. The ground state properties were obtained using the full-potential linear augmented plane wave method and the generalized gradient approximation for the exchange-correlation functional. The alloying was modeled using the virtual crystal approximation and the magnetic states were obtained from the calculations of the total energy as a function of the spin moment, using the fixed spin moment method. For ferromagnetic fcc Fe, the binding-energy curve shows metamagnetic behavior, with two minima corresponding to a small-volume, low-spin (LS) state and a large-volume, high-spin (HS) state, which are separated by a small energy (E(LS) ≲ E(HS)). The evolution of the magnetic moment, the exchange integral (J), and the binding-energy curve is analyzed in the whole range of Co concentrations (x). The magnetic moment corresponding to the HS state decreases monotonically from 2.6 μ(B)/atom in fcc Fe to 1.7 μ(B)/atom in fcc Co. In contrast, the exchange integral for the HS state shows a maximum at around x = 0.45. The thermal dependence of the lattice parameter is evaluated with a method based on statistical mechanics using the binding-energy curve as an effective potential. It is observed that the behavior of the lattice parameter with temperature is tuned by Co doping, from negative thermal expansion in fcc Fe to positive thermal expansion in fcc Co, through the modification of the energetics of the metamagnetic states.

  20. The synergetic effect of V and Fe-co-doping in TiO2 studied from the DFT + U first-principle calculation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Baoshun; Zhao, Xiujian

    2017-03-01

    Based on the density functional theory (DFT + U), a detailed study on the energetic, electronic, and optical properties of Fe-, V-, and Fe & V-co-doping anatase and rutile TiO2 was performed The synergetic effect of Fe & V bimetal co-doping on the optical absorption was discussed on electronic level. Two kinds of co-dopants were considered, which included edge-shared and corner-shared co-doping. It was shown that Fe and V atoms prefer to replace Ti atom in the O-rich contions than in the Ti-rich conditions. Co-doping in anatase reduces the formation energies in both cases, while the formation energies for rutile cannot be decreased. The Bader charge analysis indicates the +3 of Fe atom and +4 of V atom, and the obvious electron exchange between Fe and V atom in co-doping cases can be identified, which indicates the presence of synergetic effect induced by co-doping. The cooperation of Fe & V co-dopants was also supported by the result of projected density of states and spin charge density differences, as the hybridization of Fe3d with V3d orbitals was seen within the TiO2 forbidden band. Different from single-dopant systems, the V3d-Fe3d co-interaction leads to the formation of some spin mid-gap states, which have an obvious effect on the optical absorptions.

  1. Electrode effects in dielectric spectroscopy measurements on (Nb +In) co-doped TiO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crandles, David; Yee, Susan; Savinov, Maxim; Nuzhnyy, Dimitri; Petzelt, Jan; Kamba, Stanislav; Prokes, Jan

    Recently, several papers reported the discovery of giant permittivity and low dielectric loss in (Nb+In) co-doped TiO2. A series of tests was performed which included the measurement of the frequency dependence of the dielectric permittivity and ac conductivity of co-doped (Nb+In)TiO2 as a function of electrode type, sample thickness and temperature. The data suggest that the measurements are strongly affected by the electrodes. The consistency between four contact van der Pauw dc conductivity measurements and bulk conductivity values extracted from two contact ac conductivity measurements suggest that the values of colossal permittivity are, at least in part, a result of Schottky barrier depletion widths that depend on electrode type and temperature. Nserc, Czech Science Foundation (Project 15-08389S).

  2. Effects of Li intercalation on magnetic properties of Co-doped rutile TiO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Min Sik; Min, B. I.

    2004-12-01

    We have investigated the electronic structures and magnetic properties of Li-intercalated Co-doped rutile TiO2. For non-intercalated Ti0.9375Co0.0625O2, the half-metallic and low-spin ({\\sim }0.94~\\mu_{\\mathrm {B}}/{\\mathrm {Co}} ) ground state is obtained. By Li intercalation, Ti0.9375Co0.0625O2 becomes a paramagnetic insulator at the concentration of Li/Ti = 0.067. At the higher concentration of Li/Ti = 0.133, it becomes a paramagnetic metal. Hence, as in the transition metal doped anatase TiO2 case, we expect that the magnetic and transport properties of Co-doped rutile TiO2 can be controlled by an electric field.

  3. A brief review of co-doping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jingzhao; Tse, Kinfai; Wong, Manhoi; Zhang, Yiou; Zhu, Junyi

    2016-12-01

    Dopants and defects are important in semiconductor and magnetic devices. Strategies for controlling doping and defects have been the focus of semiconductor physics research during the past decades and remain critical even today. Co-doping is a promising strategy that can be used for effectively tuning the dopant populations, electronic properties, and magnetic properties. It can enhance the solubility of dopants and improve the stability of desired defects. During the past 20 years, significant experimental and theoretical efforts have been devoted to studying the characteristics of co-doping. In this article, we first review the historical development of co-doping. Then, we review a variety of research performed on co-doping, based on the compensating nature of co-dopants. Finally, we review the effects of contamination and surfactants that can explain the general mechanisms of co-doping.

  4. Magneto-optical spectrum and the effective excitonic Zeeman splitting energies of Mn and Co-doped CdSe nanowires

    SciTech Connect

    Xiong, Wen; Chen, Wensuo

    2013-12-21

    The electronic structure of Mn and Co-doped CdSe nanowires are calculated based on the six-band k·p effective-mass theory. Through the calculation, it is found that the splitting energies of the degenerate hole states in Mn-doped CdSe nanowires are larger than that in Co-doped CdSe nanowires when the concentration of these two kinds of magnetic ions is the same. In order to analysis the magneto-optical spectrum of Mn and Co-doped CdSe nanowires, the four lowest electron states and the four highest hole states are sorted when the magnetic field is applied, and the 10 lowest optical transitions between the conduction subbands and the valence subbands at the Γ point in Mn and Co-doped CdSe nanowires are shown in the paper, it is found that the order of the optical transitions at the Γ point almost do not change although two different kinds of magnetic ions are doped in CdSe nanowires. Finally, the effective excitonic Zeeman splitting energies at the Γ point are found to increase almost linearly with the increase of the concentration of the magnetic ions and the magnetic field; meanwhile, the giant positive effective excitonic g factors in Mn and Co-doped CdSe nanowires are predicted based on our theoretical calculation.

  5. Effect of Co doping on structural, optical, magnetic and dielectric properties of Bi2Fe4O9

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohapatra, S. R.; Sahu, B.; Kaushik, S. D.; Singh, A. K.

    2015-06-01

    Polycrystalline Bi2Fe4O9 and 2% Co doped Bi2Fe4O9 were prepared by solid state reaction route. X-ray diffraction (XRD) result reveals that there is no change in the crystal structure due to Co doping and the compound has orthorhombic structure. UV-visible spectroscopy confirms the decrease in band gap due Co doping. Zero field cooled magnetization measurement at 100 Oe magnetic field shows substantial decrease in the magnetic transition temperature. Room temperature frequency dependent dielectric permittivity at 1V DC bias shows ˜10% increase in Co doped sample with respect to pure Bi2Fe4O9.

  6. Rare-Earth Doping and Co-Doping of GaN for Magnetic and Luminescent Applications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-08-16

    would not carry a magnetic moment. The neutral charge state held responsible for the magnetism by others was pointed out to be a very high energy of...was evaluated and found to be unrealistic because of the hight energy of formation of Gd on N sites. (a) Papers published in peer-reviewed journals...oriented our work toward studying point defect origins. We critically reviewed the pro- posed Ga-vacancy model and to found it could also not stand muster

  7. Effect of temperature on the structure and magnetic properties of Co doped SiC films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Xianke; Liu, Jiwen; Liu, Kuili; Wang, Shaohui; Zhao, Linlin; Qin, Wei; Wang, Gaoliang; Meng, Ming; Li, Jitao; Dong, Xue

    2017-07-01

    The Co-doped SiC films were developed by radio frequency-magnetron sputtering. After annealing at high temperatures, the amorphous structure of the films transformed into the structure of 3Csbnd SiC lattice and the secondary phase of the compounds CoSi. Some of the Co atoms began to occupy the C site of the SiC lattice in the form of Co2+ ions with the annealing temperature rising above 600 °C, and formed the compounds CoSi entirely at 1200 °C. When the annealing temperature was below 800 °C, the saturation magnetization of the films increased with the increased annealing temperature. However, as the annealing temperature rose above 1000 °C, the saturation magnetization of the films decreased obviously. The formation of the compounds CoSi in the films restrained the magnetism derived from the doped Co atoms and some extended defects.

  8. Effect of Co doping on the structural and dielectric properties of ZnO nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Ram, Mast Bala, Kanchan; Sharma, Hakikat; Negi, N. S.

    2016-05-23

    This paper reports on the synthesis of Co doped Zn{sub 1-x}Co{sub x}O (x= 0.0, 0.01, 0.02, 0.03 and 0.05) nanoparticles by solution combustion method using urea as a fuel. The Structural and dielectric properties of the samples were studied. Crystallite sizes were obtained from X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns whose values decreased with increase in Co concentration. The XRD study reveals that Co{sup 2+} ions substitute the Zn{sup 2+} ion without changing the wurtzite structure of pristine ZnO up to Co concentrations of 5%. The dielectric constants, dielectric loss (tanδ) and ac conductivity (σ{sub ac}) were studied as the function of frequency and composition, which have been explained by Maxwell-Wagner type interfacial polarization and discussed Koops phenomenological theory.

  9. Effects of Na co-doping on optical and scintillation properties of Eu:LiCaAlF6 scintillator single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Chieko; Yokota, Yuui; Kurosawa, Shunsuke; Yamaji, Akihiro; Ohashi, Yuji; Kamada, Kei; Nikl, Martin; Yoshikawa, Akira

    2017-06-01

    Na co-doped Eu: LiCaAlF6 (Eu, Na: LiCAF) single crystals were grown by the micro-pulling-down (μ-PD) method, and their optical and scintillation properties were examined to reveal the effects of the Na co-doping. The crystals were single-phase materials demonstrating structure isomorphic with that of undoped LiCAF. To perform the crystals characterization, the specimens with dimensions of several millimeters were cut from highly transparent and crack free fragments of the crystals and polished. It was observed that Na co-doping resulted modification of the transmittance and the excitation spectra, and increased the light yield detected under neutron irradiation.

  10. Study of electro-caloric effect in Ca and Sn co-doped BaTiO3 ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Upadhyay, Sanjay Kumar; Fatima, Iram; Raghavendra Reddy, V.

    2017-04-01

    The present work deals with the study of structural, ferroelectric, dielectric and electro-caloric effects in lead free ferroelectric polycrystalline Ba1-x Ca x Ti0.95Sn0.05O3 (x  =  2, 5 and 10%) i.e. Ca, Sn co-doped BaTiO3 (BTO). Phase purity of the samples is confirmed from x-ray data by using Rietveld refinement. 119Sn Mössbauer reveals homogenous phase as well as iso-valent substitution of Sn at Ti site. Enhancements in ferroelectric and dielectric properties have been observed. Indirect method which is based on Maxwell equation has been used to determine the electro-caloric (EC) effect in the studied ferroelectric ceramics and maximum EC coefficient is observed for Ba0.95Ca0.05Ti0.95Sn0.05O3.

  11. Effect of Mg co-doping on cathodoluminescence properties of LuGAGG:Ce single crystalline garnet films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schauer, P.; Lalinský, O.; Kučera, M.; Lučeničová, Z.; Hanuš, M.

    2017-10-01

    Mg2+ co-doped (LuGd)3(GaAl)5O12:Ce (LuGAGG:Ce,Mg) multicomponent single crystalline epitaxial garnet films were prepared and their cathodoluminescence (CL) and thermoluminescence (TSL) properties were studied in this paper. The films were prepared using the liquid phase epitaxy from lead-free BaO-B2O3-BaF2 flux and their scintillation properties were characterized using the 10 keV collimated e-beam. More specifically, temperature dependent CL intensity, CL emission spectra, CL decay characteristics as well as TSL emission characteristics of the mentioned films were measured. At the highest content of Mg (700 ppm), the CL decay time was as low as 28 ns and the CL afterglow was as low as 0.01% at 1 μs after the e-beam excitation cut-off, which are important parameters for electron detectors in e-beam devices. The CL temperature quenching of the studied films began above room temperature. An increase of Mg concentration to or above 280 ppm quenched the characteristic CL emission of LuGAGG:Ce,Mg. The TSL measurements show that the trap population in studied garnet samples is considerably suppressed. The LuGAGG:Ce,Mg multicomponent single crystalline epitaxial films were evaluated as the perspective fast scintillators for the electron detectors in the e-beam devices.

  12. Large power factor and anomalous Hall effect and their correlation with observed linear magneto resistance in Co-doped Bi2Se3 3D topological insulator.

    PubMed

    Singh, Rahul; Shukla, K K; Kumar, A; Okram, G S; Singh, D; Ganeshan, V; Lakhani, Archana; Ghosh, A K; Chatterjee, Sandip

    2016-09-21

    Magnetoresistance (MR), thermo power, magnetization and Hall effect measurements have been performed on Co-doped Bi2Se3 topological insulators. The undoped sample shows that the maximum MR as a destructive interference due to a π-Berry phase leads to a decrease of MR. As the Co is doped, the linearity in MR is increased. The observed MR of Bi2Se3 can be explained with the classical model. The low temperature MR behavior of Co doped samples cannot be explained with the same model, but can be explained with the quantum linear MR model. Magnetization behavior indicates the establishment of ferromagnetic ordering with Co doping. Hall effect data also supports the establishment of ferromagnetic ordering in Co-doped Bi2Se3 samples by showing the anomalous Hall effect. Furthermore, when spectral weight suppression is insignificant, Bi2Se3 behaves as a dilute magnetic semiconductor. Moreover, the maximum power factor is observed when time reversal symmetry (TRS) is maintained. As the TRS is broken the power factor value is decreased, which indicates that with the rise of Dirac cone above the Fermi level the anomalous Hall effect and linearity in MR increase and the power factor decreases.

  13. The combined effect of alumina and silica co-doping on the ageing resistance of 3Y-TZP bioceramics.

    PubMed

    Samodurova, Anastasia; Kocjan, Andraž; Swain, Michael V; Kosmač, Tomaž

    2015-01-01

    The combined effect of alumina and silica co-doping on the ageing resistance of 3Y-TZP bioceramics was investigated. In order to differentiate between the distinct contributions of two dopants to the overall resistance to low-temperature degradation (LTD), specimens were prepared by infiltration of silica sol into pre-sintered 3Y-TZP pellets, produced from commercially available powders, which were alumina-free or contained 0.05 and 0.25 wt.%. After sintering, specimens were exposed to accelerated ageing in distilled water at 134°C for 6-48 h. X-ray diffraction was applied to quantify the tetragonal-to-monoclinic (t-m) phase transformation associated with the LTD, while a focused ion beam-scanning electron microscopy technique was employed to study the microstructural features in the transformed layer. The results showed that the minor alumina and/or silica additions did not drastically change the densities, grain sizes or mechanical properties of 3Y-TZP, but they did significantly reduce LTD. The addition of either alumina or silica has the potential to influence both the nucleation and the propagation of moisture-induced transformation, but in different ways and to different extents. The co-doped ceramics exhibited predominantly transgranular fracture, reflecting strong grain boundaries (limiting microcracking of the transformed layer), for alumina doping, and rounded grains with a glassy phase at multiple grain junctions (reducing internal stresses) for silica-doped material. These two additives evidently have different dominant mechanisms associated with the deceleration of LTD of 3Y-TZP, but their combination increases resistance to ageing, importantly, without reducing the fracture toughness of this popular biomaterial.

  14. The effect of the starting powders particle size on the electrical properties of sintered Co doped ZnO varistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamdelou, S.; Guergouri, K.; Arab, L.

    2014-11-01

    Pure and Co doped zinc oxide nanopowders have been synthesized by sol-gel route. The obtained powders, after calcination in air at 550, 650, 750 and 850 °C, were consolidated and sintered using microwaves. The effect of sintering temperature on the density and electrical properties was investigated. The best characteristics are obtained using a sintering temperature equal to 1,075 °C. The powders and sintered samples are characterized by X-ray diffraction, microstructure images, density and electrical measurements. The studied nanopowders have: a density of 5.22 (g/cm3), a breakdown voltage of 446.5 V/mm and a coefficient of non-linearity of 11.48 for ZnO doped with 7 mol% Co, and a density of 5.19 (g/cm3), a breakdown voltage of 292.5 V/mm and a non-linearity coefficient of 11.62 for ZnO doped with 5 mol% Co. The XRD results indicate that pure and Co doped ZnO powders are solid solutions crystallizing in pure würtzite structure, and consisted of a mixture of nanoparticles with an average grain size between 36 and 210 nm. The grain size decreases with increasing Co concentration and reaches its lowest value at 7 mol% Co and increases with increasing temperature. On the other hand the increase of Co concentration leads to a decrease of the porosity and an increase of the density of samples sintered at 1,070 °C and leads also to an increase of the electric field (E) in the non-linear area. The samples of 5 mol% Co sintered at 1,075 °C, show that the non-linear coefficient α decreases by increasing of calcined temperature, therefore increases with decreasing of grain and particle sizes.

  15. Effects of the inhomogenous co doping on the magnetoresistance of Zn1-xCo(x)O epitaxial films.

    PubMed

    Ye, Shuangli; Klar, Limei; Ney, Andreas; Ney, Verena; Kammermeier, Tom; Ollefs, Katharina; Liu, Feng; Wang, Gaofeng

    2012-02-01

    A series of Zn1-xCo(x)O epitaxial films around 100 nm with nominal Co concentration from 5% to 15% was prepared by ultra high vacuum (UHV) magnetron reactive sputtering. The optical, magnetic and magneto-transport properties of this series of Zn1-xCo(x)O epitaxial films were investigated, respectively. Resonant Raman spectra indicate the high structural and crystalline quality of these Zn1-xCo(x)O (5 < or = x < or = 15%) films, and confirm a consistent correlation between the substituting Co ions content with the Co doping concentration as well. Paramagnetism, superparamagnetism and ferromagnetism with altered Curie temperature from low temperatures to above room temperatures have been observed in these films by SQUID magnetometry. The broad blocking temperature range indicates the presence of inhomogenous distribution of the magnetic nano-clusters in the superparamagnetic films. However, the magneto-transport behaviors do not strongly respond to the change of the magnetic properties from paramagnetism to ferromagnetism of these Zn1-xCo(x)O films. The lack of efficient coupling between the inhomogenous magnetic nanoclusters and the carrier system in ferromagnetic Zn1-xCo(x)O films highlights the absence of the intrinsic magnetic origins in high structural quality Zn1-xCo(x)O (5 < or = x < or = 15%) epitaxial films. On the other hand, the competition between the spin alignments and the inhomogenous local disorder effect by magnetic ions is suggested to be responsible for the carrier properties and the oberseved magnetoresistance in these Co doping Zn1-xCo(x)O (5 < or = x < or = 15%) epitaxial films.

  16. Coherent effect of Er 3+-Yb 3+ co-doping on enhanced photoluminescence properties of Al 2O 3 powders by the sol-gel method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, X. J.; Lei, M. K.; Yang, T.; Cao, B. S.

    2004-08-01

    The Er 3+-Yb 3+ co-doped Al 2O 3 powders have been prepared by the sol-gel method, using the aluminium isopropoxide [Al(OC 3H 7) 3]-derived Al 2O 3 sols with the addition of erbium nitrate [Er(NO 3) 3 · 5H 2O] and ytterbium nitrate [Yb(NO 3) 3 · 5H 2O]. The phase structure, including only two crystalline types of Al 2O 3 phases, γ and θ, was obtained for the 0-1 mol% Er 3+ and 0-2 mol% Yb 3+ co-doped Al 2O 3 powders at the different sintering temperature of 800-1000 °C. The evidence for indirect pumping of Er 3+ through transfer of energy from Yb 3+ was found in the Al 2O 3 matrix material. For the 0.5 mol% Er 3+ and 0.5 mol% Yb 3+, the 1.0 mol% Er 3+ and 1.0 mol% Yb 3+ co-doped Al 2O 3 powders, the photoluminescence (PL) peak intensity at 1.533 μm in the spectra increased by a factor of about 2, and the corresponding full widths at half maximum (FWHM) was increased to about 59 nm, compared with that of the 0.5 and 1 mol% Er 3+-doped Al 2O 3 powders, respectively. At the same Er 3+-Yb 3+ co-doping concentration, the PL intensity increased with increasing the sintering temperature from 800 to 1000 °C. Coherent effect of Er 3+-Yb 3+ co-doping on enhanced PL properties of Al 2O 3 powders was observed. A proper molar ratio of 1:1 for Yb 3+ and Er 3+ led to the maximum PL intensity at the same sintering temperature.

  17. Erbium/ytterbium co-doped double clad fiber amplifier, its applications and effects in fiber optic communication systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dua, Puneit

    Increased demand for larger bandwidth and longer inter-amplifiers distances translates to higher power budgets for fiber optic communication systems in order to overcome large splitting losses and achieve acceptable signal-to-noise ratios. Due to their unique design ytterbium sensitized erbium doped, double clad fiber amplifiers; offer significant increase in the output powers that can be obtained. In this thesis we investigate, a one-stage, high power erbium and ytterbium co-doped double clad fiber amplifier (DCFA) with output power of 1.4W, designed and built in our lab. Experimental demonstration and numerical simulation techniques have been used to systematically study the applications of such an amplifier and the effects of incorporating it in various fiber optic communication systems. Amplitude modulated subcarrier multiplexed (AM-SCM) CATV distribution experiment has been performed to verify the feasibility of using this amplifier in an analog/digital communication system. The applications of the amplifier as a Fabry-Perot and ring fiber laser with an all-fiber cavity, a broadband supercontinuum source and for generation of high power, short pulses at 5GHz have been experimentally demonstrated. A variety of observable nonlinear effects occur due to the high intensity of the optical powers confined in micron-sized cores of the fibers, this thesis explores in detail some of these effects caused by using the high power Er/Yb double clad fiber amplifier. A fiber optic based analog/digital CATV system experiences composite second order (CSO) distortion due to the interaction between the gain tilt---the variation of gain with wavelength, of the doped fiber amplifier and the wavelength chirp of the directly modulated semiconductor laser. Gain tilt of the Er/Yb co-doped fiber amplifier has been experimentally measured and its contribution to the CSO of the system calculated. Theoretical analysis of a wavelength division multiplexed system with closely spaced

  18. The effect of K-na co-doping on the formation and particle size of Bi-2212 phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kır, M. Ebru; Özkurt, Berdan; Aytekin, M. Ersin

    2016-06-01

    Superconducting K-Na co-doped Bi2Sr2KxCa1Cu1.75Na0.25Oy (x=0, 0.05, 0.1 and 0.25) ceramics are prepared by a solid-state reaction method. It is clearly determined from XRD data that the characteristic peaks of Bi-2212 phase are observed in all samples. The resistivity measurements show that Tc (onset) values is gradually increasing as K content is increased. It is also found that K-Na co-doping influence the grain sizes for Bi-2212 phase significantly. The critical current densities as a function of magnetic field have been calculated from M-H hysteresis loops of samples according to Bean's critical model, indicating that K-Na co-doping cause higher Jc values than the pure ones.

  19. Effect of Catalyst Loading on Photocatalytic Degradation of Phenol by Using N, S Co-doped TiO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yunus, N. N.; Hamzah, F.; So'aib, M. S.; Krishnan, J.

    2017-06-01

    The study on the effect of catalyst loading of photocatalytic degradation of phenol by using N, S co-doped TiO2 was investigated. The precursor of titania was Titanium (IV) isopropoxide (TTIP), while the sources of Nitrogen and Sulfur were ammonium nitrate and thiourea respectively. The photocatalyst were prepared by using dopant concentration at 1% of both Nitrogen and Sulphur that were prepared via sol-gel method. The photocatalyst were tested by different catalyst loading which were 1 g/L, 2g/L and 3 g/L. The gel obtained from the mixing process was dried and calcined at 600°C. The performance of the photocatalyst were tested by using phenol as a model pollutant. The mixture of photocatalyst and pollutant was left under visible light for five hours for irradiation time. The experiment showed that catalyst loading of 3 g/L able to fully degrade phenol while 1 g/L and 2 g/L of photocatalyst degraded phenol at 69.9% and 96.2% respectively.

  20. Effects of rare-earth co-doping on the local structure of rare-earth phosphate glasses using high and low energy X-ray diffraction.

    PubMed

    Cramer, Alisha J; Cole, Jacqueline M; FitzGerald, Vicky; Honkimaki, Veijo; Roberts, Mark A; Brennan, Tessa; Martin, Richard A; Saunders, George A; Newport, Robert J

    2013-06-14

    Rare-earth co-doping in inorganic materials has a long-held tradition of facilitating highly desirable optoelectronic properties for their application to the laser industry. This study concentrates specifically on rare-earth phosphate glasses, (R2O3)x(R'2O3)y(P2O5)(1-(x+y)), where (R, R') denotes (Ce, Er) or (La, Nd) co-doping and the total rare-earth composition corresponds to a range between metaphosphate, RP3O9, and ultraphosphate, RP5O14. Thereupon, the effects of rare-earth co-doping on the local structure are assessed at the atomic level. Pair-distribution function analysis of high-energy X-ray diffraction data (Q(max) = 28 Å(-1)) is employed to make this assessment. Results reveal a stark structural invariance to rare-earth co-doping which bears testament to the open-framework and rigid nature of these glasses. A range of desirable attributes of these glasses unfold from this finding; in particular, a structural simplicity that will enable facile molecular engineering of rare-earth phosphate glasses with 'dial-up' lasing properties. When considered together with other factors, this finding also demonstrates additional prospects for these co-doped rare-earth phosphate glasses in nuclear waste storage applications. This study also reveals, for the first time, the ability to distinguish between P-O and P[double bond, length as m-dash]O bonding in these rare-earth phosphate glasses from X-ray diffraction data in a fully quantitative manner. Complementary analysis of high-energy X-ray diffraction data on single rare-earth phosphate glasses of similar rare-earth composition to the co-doped materials is also presented in this context. In a technical sense, all high-energy X-ray diffraction data on these glasses are compared with analogous low-energy diffraction data; their salient differences reveal distinct advantages of high-energy X-ray diffraction data for the study of amorphous materials.

  1. The effects of Co-Ti co-doping on the magnetic, electrical, and magnetodielectric behaviors of M-type barium hexaferrites

    SciTech Connect

    Guan, Yujie; Lin, Yuanbin; Zou, Liangying; Miao, Qing; Zeng, Min; Gao, Xingsen; Liu, Zhongwu; Liu, Junming

    2013-12-15

    Magnetic, electrical and magnetodielectric properties have been studied in Co-Ti co-doped M-type hexaferrite BaCo{sub x}Ti{sub x}Fe{sub 12-2x}O{sub 19} (x = 0 ∼ 4). With the incorporation of Co-Ti, both their ferromagnetic magnetization and coercivity have been greatly changed. The temperature dependent magnetization curve shows a apparent hump at around 420 K, likely in association with more complicated cycloidal spin ordering, which is closely related to ferroelectric polarization. Interestingly, a significantly enhancement in resistivity (∼3 orders in magnitude) can be obtained in co-doped samples (x > 2), which is beneficial for magnetoelectric properties. The magnetoelectric effect were examined by dielectric tunibility under external magnetic field, which shows apparent tunability up to ∼−3% for sample with x = 2 at 1T magnetic field, further supporting it is a room temperature single phase mutliferroic material.

  2. Synthesis of Pyridinic-Rich N, S Co-doped Carbon Quantum Dots as Effective Enzyme Mimics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Teng; Cui, Zhi-wei; Zhou, Jun; Wang, Ying; Zou, Zhi-gang

    2017-05-01

    N and S co-doped carbon quantum dots (N, S-CQDs) with high N- and S-doping level were synthesized by microwave solid-phase pyrolysis within 50 s. Owing to the dominant pyridinic N injection into the conjugated framework, both high enzyme mimics catalytic activity and photoluminescence quantum yield are achieved simultaneously.

  3. Synergistic Effects of Sm and C Co-Doped Mixed Phase Crystalline TiO2 for Visible Light Photocatalytic Activity

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Fuchang; Gao, Honglin; Zhang, Genlin; Zhu, Zhongqi; Zhang, Jin; Liu, Qingju

    2017-01-01

    Mixed phase TiO2 nanoparticles with element doping by Sm and C were prepared via a facile sol-gel procedure. The UV-Vis light-diffuse reflectance spectroscopy analysis showed that the absorption region of co-doped TiO2 was shifted to the visible-light region, which was attributed to incorporation of samarium and carbon into the TiO2 lattice during high-temperature reaction. Samarium effectively decreased the anatase-rutile phase transformation. The grain size can be controlled by Sm doping to achieve a large specific surface area useful for the enhancement of photocatalytic activity. The photocatalytic activities under visible light irradiation were evaluated by photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue (MB). The degradation rate of MB over the Sm-C co-doped TiO2 sample was the best. Additionally, first-order apparent rate constants increased by about 4.3 times compared to that of commercial Degusssa P25 under the same experimental conditions. Using different types of scavengers, the results indicated that the electrons, holes, and •OH radicals are the main active species for the MB degradation. The high visible-light photocatalytic activity was attributed to low recombination of the photo-generated electrons and holes which originated from the synergistic effect of the co-doped ions and the heterostructure. PMID:28772569

  4. Effect of synergy on the visible light activity of B, N and Fe co-doped TiO2 for the degradation of MO.

    PubMed

    Xing, Mingyang; Wu, Yongmei; Zhang, Jinlong; Chen, Feng

    2010-07-01

    Single doped, co-doped and tri-doped TiO(2) with B, N and Fe are successfully synthesized by using the hydrothermal method. The samples are characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The photocatalytic activities of the samples are evaluated for degradation of methyl-orange (MO, 20 mg L(-1)) in aqueous solutions under visible light (lambda > 420 nm). The results of XRD suggest that all the catalysts present anatase crystal. All the doping catalysts show higher photoactivities than pure TiO(2) under visible light irradiation. In the single nonmetal doped TiO(2), the localized dopant levels near the valence band (VB) are responsible for the enhancement of photoactivies. Fe(3+) impurity level formed under the conduction band (CB) induces the high photocatalytic activities of iron doped TiO(2). In the co-doped and tri-doped catalysts, the B 2p and N 2p acceptor states contribute to the band gap narrowing by mixing with O 2p states combined with the overlapping of the conduction band by the iron "d" orbital, resulting in improvement of the photo-performance under visible light irradiation. Iron co-doped with boron catalyst shows low photoactivity under visible light due to the absence of Fe(3+) impurity levels at the bottom of the conduction band. In addition, the XPS results indicate the presence of synergistic effects in co-doped and tri-doped catalysts, which contribute to the enhancement of photocatalytic activities.

  5. Effect of calcination temperature on the structure and visible-light photocatalytic activities of (N, S and C) co-doped TiO2 nano-materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lei, X. F.; Xue, X. X.; Yang, H.; Chen, C.; Li, X.; Niu, M. C.; Gao, X. Y.; Yang, Y. T.

    2015-03-01

    The (N, S and C) co-doped TiO2 samples (NSC-TiO2) were synthesized by the sol-gel method combining with the high energy ball milling method calcined at the different temperature (400-700 °C), employing butyl titanate as the titanium source and thiourea as the doping agent. The structures of NSC-TiO2 samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectra (DRS), X-ray photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), thermogravimetry and differential thermal analysis (TG-DTA), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), transmission electron microscope (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and nitrogen adsorption-desorption isotherms. The photocatalytic activities were checked through the photocatalytic reduction of Cr(VI) as a model compound under visible light irradiation. The results showed that the (N, S and C) co-doping and the calcination temperature played important role on the microstructure and photocatalytic activity of the samples. According to XPS spectra, sulfur was mainly attributed to the Tisbnd Osbnd S bond; nitrogen was ascribed to the Tisbnd Osbnd N and Tisbnd N bonds; carbon was assigned to the Tisbnd Osbnd C bond in the NSC-TiO2 samples. (N, S and C) co-doped TiO2 samples calcinated at 500 °C exhibits higher photocatalytic activity than that of the other samples under visible light irradiation, which can be attributed to the synergic effect of its enhancing crystallization of anatase and (N, S and C) co-doping.

  6. A clear effect of charge compensation through Na+ co-doping on the luminescence spectra and decay kinetics of Nd3+-doped CaAl4O7

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puchalska, M.; Watras, A.

    2016-06-01

    We present a detailed analysis of luminescence behavior of singly Nd3+ doped and Nd3+, Na+ co-doped calcium aluminates powders: Ca1-xNdxAl4O7 and Ca1-2xNdxNaxAl4O7 (x=0.001-0.1). Relatively intense Nd3+ luminescence in IR region corresponding to typical 4F3/2→4IJ (J=9/2-13/2) transitions with maximum located at about 1079 nm was obtained in all samples on direct excitation into f-f levels. The effect of dopant concentration and charge compensation by co-doping with Na+ ions on morphology and optical properties were studied. The results show that both, the Nd3+ concentration and the alkali metal co-doping affected the optical properties but had no influence on the powders morphology. The studies of luminescence spectra (298 and 77 K) in a function of dopant concentration showed an increasing distortion of the local symmetry of Nd3+with raising activator content due to certain defects created in the crystal lattice. On the other hand Na+ addition led to significant narrowing of absorption and luminescence bands and also a reduction of the number of their components, showing smaller disturbance of Nd3+ ions local symmetries. Consequently, charge compensated by Na+ co-doping materials showed significantly enhanced Nd3+ luminescence. The decrease of emission intensity and luminescence lifetimes with increase of activator concentration was attributed mainly to phonon-assisted cross-relaxation processes between Nd3+ ions. Analysis with Inokuti-Hirayama model indicated dipole-dipole mechanism of ion-ion interaction. Na+ addition led to much smaller concentration quenching due to smaller clustering of dopant ions in CaAl4O7 lattice.

  7. Effect of Al3+ co-doping on the dopant local structure, optical properties, and exciton dynamics in Cu+-doped ZnSe nanocrystals.

    PubMed

    Gul, Sheraz; Cooper, Jason Kyle; Glans, Per-Anders; Guo, Jinghua; Yachandra, Vittal K; Yano, Junko; Zhang, Jin Zhong

    2013-10-22

    The dopant local structure and optical properties of Cu-doped ZnSe (ZnSe:Cu) and Cu and Al co-doped ZnSe (ZnSe:Cu,Al) nanocrystals (NCs) were studied with an emphasis on understanding the impact of introducing Al as a co-dopant. Quantum-confined NCs with zinc blende crystal structure and particle size of 6 ± 0.6 Å were synthesized using a wet chemical route. The local structure of the Cu dopant, studied by extended X-ray absorption fine structure, indicated that Cu in ZnSe:Cu NCs occupies a site that is neither substitutional nor interstitial and is adjacent to a Se vacancy. Additionally, we estimated that approximately 25 ± 8% of Cu was located on the surface of the NC. Al(3+) co-doping aids in Cu doping by accounting for the charge imbalance originated by Cu(+) doping and consequently reduces surface Cu doping. The Cu ions remain distorted from the center of the tetrahedron to one of the triangular faces. The lifetime of the dopant-related photoluminescence was found to increase from 550 ± 60 to 700 ± 60 ns after Al co-doping. DFT calculations were used to obtain the density of states of a model system to help explain the optical properties and dynamics processes observed. This study demonstrates that co-doping using different cations with complementary oxidation states is an effective method to enhance optical properties of doped semiconductor NCs of interest for various photonics applications.

  8. Effect of synergy on the visible light activity of B, N and Fe co-doped TiO2 for the degradation of MO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xing, Mingyang; Wu, Yongmei; Zhang, Jinlong; Chen, Feng

    2010-07-01

    Single doped, co-doped and tri-doped TiO2 with B, N and Fe are successfully synthesized by using the hydrothermal method. The samples are characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The photocatalytic activities of the samples are evaluated for degradation of methyl-orange (MO, 20 mg L-1) in aqueous solutions under visible light (λ > 420 nm). The results of XRD suggest that all the catalysts present anatase crystal. All the doping catalysts show higher photoactivities than pure TiO2 under visible light irradiation. In the single nonmetal doped TiO2, the localized dopant levels near the valence band (VB) are responsible for the enhancement of photoactivies. Fe3+ impurity level formed under the conduction band (CB) induces the high photocatalytic activities of iron doped TiO2. In the co-doped and tri-doped catalysts, the B 2p and N 2p acceptor states contribute to the band gap narrowing by mixing with O 2p states combined with the overlapping of the conduction band by the iron ``d'' orbital, resulting in improvement of the photo-performance under visible light irradiation. Iron co-doped with boron catalyst shows low photoactivity under visible light due to the absence of Fe3+ impurity levels at the bottom of the conduction band. In addition, the XPS results indicate the presence of synergistic effects in co-doped and tri-doped catalysts, which contribute to the enhancement of photocatalytic activities.

  9. Evidences of grain boundary capacitance effect on the colossal dielectric permittivity in (Nb + In) co-doped TiO2 ceramics.

    PubMed

    Li, Jinglei; Li, Fei; Li, Chao; Yang, Guang; Xu, Zhuo; Zhang, Shujun

    2015-02-06

    The (Nb + In) co-doped TiO2 ceramics were synthesized by conventional solid-state sintering (CSSS) and spark plasma sintering (SPS) methods. The phases and microstructures were studied by X-ray diffraction, Raman spectra, field-emission scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy, indicating that both samples were in pure rutile phase while showing significant difference in grain size. The dielectric and I-V behaviors of SPS and CSSS samples were investigated. Though both possess colossal permittivity (CP), the SPS samples exhibited much higher dielectric permittivity/loss factor and lower breakdown electric field when compared to their CSSS counterparts. To further explore the origin of CP in co-doped TiO2 ceramics, the I-V behavior was studied on single grain and grain boundary in CSSS sample. The nearly ohmic I-V behavior was observed in single grain, while GBs showed nonlinear behavior and much higher resistance. The higher dielectric permittivity and lower breakdown electric field in SPS samples, thus, were thought to be associated with the feature of SPS, by which reduced space charges and/or impurity segregation can be achieved at grain boundaries. The present results support that the grain boundary capacitance effect plays an important role in the CP and nonlinear I-V behavior of (Nb + In) co-doped TiO2 ceramics.

  10. Evidences of grain boundary capacitance effect on the colossal dielectric permittivity in (Nb + In) co-doped TiO2 ceramics

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jinglei; Li, Fei; Li, Chao; Yang, Guang; Xu, Zhuo; Zhang, Shujun

    2015-01-01

    The (Nb + In) co-doped TiO2 ceramics were synthesized by conventional solid-state sintering (CSSS) and spark plasma sintering (SPS) methods. The phases and microstructures were studied by X-ray diffraction, Raman spectra, field-emission scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy, indicating that both samples were in pure rutile phase while showing significant difference in grain size. The dielectric and I–V behaviors of SPS and CSSS samples were investigated. Though both possess colossal permittivity (CP), the SPS samples exhibited much higher dielectric permittivity/loss factor and lower breakdown electric field when compared to their CSSS counterparts. To further explore the origin of CP in co-doped TiO2 ceramics, the I–V behavior was studied on single grain and grain boundary in CSSS sample. The nearly ohmic I–V behavior was observed in single grain, while GBs showed nonlinear behavior and much higher resistance. The higher dielectric permittivity and lower breakdown electric field in SPS samples, thus, were thought to be associated with the feature of SPS, by which reduced space charges and/or impurity segregation can be achieved at grain boundaries. The present results support that the grain boundary capacitance effect plays an important role in the CP and nonlinear I–V behavior of (Nb + In) co-doped TiO2 ceramics. PMID:25656713

  11. Effect of annealing atmosphere on photoluminescence and gas sensing of solution-combustion-synthesized Al, Pd co-doped ZnO nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yan; Liu, Min; Lv, Tan; Wang, Qiong; Zou, Yun-ling; Lian, Xiao-xue; Liu, Hong-peng

    2015-11-01

    Al, Pd co-doped ZnO nanoparticles (NPs) synthesized using a solution combustion method and subsequent annealing process under various atmospheres, including air, nitrogen, and hydrogen, were characterized using x-ray diffraction, energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy, field-emission scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and photoluminescence spectroscopy. The gas-sensing properties of the sensors based on the NPs were also examined. The results indicated that the Al, Pd co-doped ZnO NPs, with an average crystallite size of 10 nm, exhibited enhanced gas-sensing performance compared with that of pure ZnO and Al-doped ZnO. The response of the Al, Pd co-doped ZnO NPs annealed in N2 to ethanol (49.22) was nearly 5.7 times higher than that to acetone (8.61) and approximately 20 - 27 times higher than that to benzene (2.38), carbon monoxide (2.23), and methane (1.78), which demonstrates their excellent selectivity to ethanol versus other gases. This high ethanol response can be attributed to the combined effects of the small size, Schottky barrier, lattice defects, and catalysis. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  12. The effect of Co-doping on the humidity sensing properties of ordered mesoporous TiO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhong; Haidry, Azhar Ali; Gao, Bin; Wang, Tao; Yao, ZhengJun

    2017-08-01

    Monitoring of humidity is of utmost importance as it is essential part of almost every process in our life. Many commercial humidity sensors based on metal oxide semiconductors are available in the market, but there is still need to synthesize low-cost, fast and highly sensitive humidity sensors with no interference from background environment. The aim of this work was to fabricate the ordered mesoporous un-doped and Co-doped TiO2 (0.1-5 mol% Co) and to analyze its humidity sensing properties at room temperatures. The ordered mesoporous powders with high specific surface area (SSA) were prepared by multicomponent self-assembly procedure and then spray-coated onto the sensor substrates with interdigitated gold electrodes. The sensors exhibited excellent stability and reproducible resistance change under various relative humidity percentages (9-90% RH) with negligible effect of background environment. For instance, the response to 90% RH at room temperature was about five orders of magnitude (∼1.39 × 105) and the response time (Tres) was ∼24 s. The reaction/recovery times of the sensors were compared with commercial humidity sensor to show that the reaction times in this work are not given by the surface reaction of water vapor on the sensor surfaces, rather these are mainly influenced by the experimental setup. The sensor response increased up to 3 mol% Co-contents and then decreased for 5 mol% Co-contents. Based on the experimental results, the surface reaction of humidity is discussed related to specific surface area, average grain size and cobalt contents to understand the humidity sensing mechanism.

  13. Thermal conductivity of bulk GaN—Effects of oxygen, magnesium doping, and strain field compensation

    SciTech Connect

    Simon, Roland B.; Anaya, Julian; Kuball, Martin

    2014-11-17

    The effect of oxygen doping (n-type) and oxygen (O)-magnesium (Mg) co-doping (semi-insulating) on the thermal conductivity of ammonothermal bulk GaN was studied via 3-omega measurements and a modified Callaway model. Oxygen doping was shown to significantly reduce thermal conductivity, whereas O-Mg co-doped GaN exhibited a thermal conductivity close to that of undoped GaN. The latter was attributed to a decreased phonon scattering rate due the compensation of impurity-generated strain fields as a result of dopant-complex formation. The results have great implications for GaN electronic and optoelectronic device applications on bulk GaN substrates.

  14. Electrode effects in dielectric spectroscopy measurements on (Nb+In) co-doped TiO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crandles, D. A.; Yee, S. M. M.; Savinov, M.; Nuzhnyy, D.; Petzelt, J.; Kamba, S.; Prokeš, J.

    2016-04-01

    Recently, several papers reported the discovery of giant permittivity and low dielectric loss in (Nb+In) co-doped TiO2. A series of tests was performed which included the measurement of the frequency dependence of the dielectric permittivity and alternating current (ac) conductivity of co-doped (Nb+In)TiO2 as a function of electrode type, sample thickness, and temperature. The data suggest that the measurements are strongly affected by the electrodes. The consistency between four-contact van der Pauw direct current conductivity measurements and bulk conductivity values extracted from two-contact ac conductivity measurements suggest that the values of colossal permittivity are, at least in part, a result of Schottky barrier depletion widths that depend on electrode type and temperature.

  15. Effect of (Nd, Ni) co-doped on the multiferroic and photocatalytic properties of BiFeO{sub 3}

    SciTech Connect

    Vanga, Pradeep Reddy; Mangalaraja, R.V.; Ashok, M.

    2015-12-15

    Highlights: • Sol–gel synthesis. • Saturation magnetization and ferroelectricity increases in Ni co-doped samples. • Conduction mechanism is different in Nd doped and (Nd, Ni) co-doped samples. • Samples show good photocatalytic activity in the presence of H{sub 2}O{sub 2}. - Abstract: Bi{sub 0.95}Nd{sub 0.05}Fe{sub 1−x}Ni{sub x}O{sub 3} (x = 0, 0.01, 0.03 and 0.05) samples are synthesized by solgel method. The phase and crystal structure of the samples are confirmed by X-ray diffraction studies, Rietveld refinement is performed to calculate the structural parameters. The reflectance spectra show bands in UV and visible region and the optical band gap is calculated using Kulbeka–Munk function. The magnetization and leakage current density are strongly influenced by doping. Different conduction mechanisms are observed in Nd doped and Ni co-doped samples. All the samples exhibit ferroelectric nature at various frequencies. Photocatalytic activities of the samples are determined by the degradation of methylene blue dye in the presence of visible light and H{sub 2}O{sub 2} which shows samples are good photo-Fenton like catalyst.

  16. Effect of Co doping on the transport critical current density of rapidly heat-treated filamentary (Nd,Sm,Gd)-Ba-Cu-O superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ikebe, Y.; Awaji, S.; Ban, E.

    2017-08-01

    We investigated the effect of Co doping on the superconducting properties and microstructure of ternary (Nd0.33Sm0.33Gd0.33)1.18Ba2.12Cu3.09O7-δ (NSG123) filaments. Filamentary NSG123 superconductors chemically doped with a nominal Co concentration between 0 and 0.5 at% were prepared by a solution spinning method. Filamentary samples were partially melted at 1050 °C for 30 min and rapidly cooled to 910 °C at a rate of 60 °C h-1 under an atmosphere of flowing 0.1% O2 + Ar gas. The filamentary NSG123 superconductor with 0.05 at% Co exhibited a high critical current density (Jc) of 2.0 × 104 A cm-2, whereas the pure NSG123 sample exhibited a maximum transport Jc value of 3.0 × 103 A cm-2. Furthermore, the sample doped with 0.05 at% Co maintained a high transport Jc value of 4.5 × 103 A cm-2 under an applied magnetic field up to 17 T at 77 K, whereas the superconductivity of the pure sample disappeared at approximately 11 T. The Co-doped samples also exhibited low electrical resistivity at normal state compared to that of the pure sample. These results confirm that Co doping effectively enhances the Jc and connectivity in the microstructure of filamentary NSG123 samples subjected to a heat treatment with rapid cooling.

  17. Reversible photo-bleaching effect in a bismuth/erbium co-doped optical fiber under 830  nm irradiation.

    PubMed

    Ding, Mingjie; Wei, Shuen; Luo, Yanhua; Peng, Gang-Ding

    2016-10-15

    We observed photo-bleaching in a bismuth/erbium co-doped optical fiber (BEDF) under 830 nm irradiation. As a result of the photo-bleaching, the absorption at 814 nm and the near-infrared luminescence at 1420 nm are decreased, indicating that the silicon-based bismuth active center (BAC-Si) in a BEDF is bleached in the process. We further found that the photo-bleaching is reversible under room temperature. This is the first time that the BAC-Si could be bleached under 830 nm irradiation, and the photo-bleaching is reversible. The underlying mechanism of the reversible photo-bleaching effect is discussed.

  18. Theoretical study on the effect of dopant positions and dopant density on transport properties of a BN co-doped SiC nanotube

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choudhary, Sudhanshu; Qureshi, S.

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the effect of dopant (boron ‘B’-nitrogen ‘N’) position and density on electronic transport properties of a BN co-doped silicon carbide nanotube (SiCNT). The results show an increase in conductance when both BN impurities are far in space from each other. Orbital delocalization and appearance of new electronic states around Fermi level contribute to the current when this spacing is increased. On the other hand, a reduction in SiCNT conductivity was observed when BN dopant density was increased. This is attributed to the electronic states moving away from the Fermi level and orbital localization at higher bias voltages.

  19. Experimental investigation of radiation effect on erbium-ytterbium co-doped fiber amplifier for space optical communication in low-dose radiation environment.

    PubMed

    Ma, Jing; Li, Mi; Tan, Liying; Zhou, Yanping; Yu, Siyuan; Ran, Qiwen

    2009-08-31

    High power erbium-ytterbium co-doped fiber amplifier (EYDFA) has been radiated to the dose of 50 krad at the dose rate of 40 rad/s. Some key parameters have been measured to investigate the radiation effect on the EYDFA for space optical communication. Considering the dose of 50 krad is big enough to the most of low-dose radiation environment, these experimental results will be a good reference for the low-dose inter-satellite optical communication designers.

  20. Effect of co-doping Tm{sup 3+} ions on the emission properties of Dy{sup 3+} ions in tellurite glasses

    SciTech Connect

    Sasikala, T.; Rama Moorthy, L.; Mohan Babu, A.; Srinivasa Rao, T.

    2013-07-15

    The present work reports the absorption, photoluminescence and decay properties of singly doped Dy{sup 3+} and co-doped Dy{sup 3+}/Tm{sup 3+} ions in TeO{sub 2}+ZnO+K{sub 2}O+CaO (TZKC) glasses prepared by the melt quenching technique. The glassy nature of the host glass has been confirmed by X-ray diffraction analysis and the primary vibrational modes were determined from the Raman spectrum. Judd–Ofelt (JO) analysis has been used to calculate the radiative transition rates, branching ratios and radiative lifetime of the emitting {sup 4}F{sub 9/2} state. The effect of co-doping of different concentrations of Tm{sup 3+} ions on the emission properties of Dy{sup 3+} ions has been investigated. The decay profiles of the {sup 4}F{sub 9/2} level were fitted to double exponential as well as Inokuti–Hirayama (IH) model to determine the energy transfer rates between Dy{sup 3+} and Tm{sup 3+} ions. The energy transfer rates found to increase with the increase of Tm{sup 3+} ions concentration. The chromaticity coordinates and color purity of the emitted light for all glasses were determined. - Graphical abstract: The graphical abstract shows the emission spectra of Dy{sup 3+}, Tm{sup 3+} and Dy{sup 3+}/Tm{sup 3+} co-doped TZKC glasses recorded by exciting at 355 nm wavelength. - Highlights: • Zinc tellurite glasses doped with Dy{sup 3+}, Tm{sup 3+} and Dy{sup 3+}/Tm{sup 3+} ions were prepared. • XRD, DTA and Raman spectral measurements were recorded to know the nature of host. • Energy transfer occurs from Dy{sup 3+} ions to Tm{sup 3+} ions. • The color purity of the emitted light was determined.

  1. Effect of Nb and more Fe ions co-doping on the microstructures, magnetic, and piezoelectric properties of Aurivillius Bi5Ti3FeO15 phases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Chao; Song, Kun; Bai, Wei; Yang, Jing; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Xiang, Pinghua; Qin, Muyang; Tang, Xiaodong; Chu, Junhao

    2016-12-01

    Aurivillius Bi5Ti3-2xFe1+xNbxO15 (BTFNO, x = 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, and 0.4) phases were prepared by solid state reaction method. The structures and dielectric responses were studied, and especially the effects of Nb with a higher valence and more Fe co-doping on the magnetic and piezoelectric properties were addressed in detail. The BTFNO samples were well crystallized with no detectable impurities, and plate-like microstructures with various sizes demonstrate the typical characteristics of bismuth-layer Aurivillius materials. It is found that a dielectric loss peak appears in the Nb and Fe co-doped Bi5Ti3FeO15 (BTFO) ceramics, and it has a shift towards a lower frequency with increasing the Nb doping contents. Furthermore, antiferromagnetic long-range magnetic order is improved with the introduction of Nb and more Fe co-doping. And compared with that of the parent BTFO forms, a clear discrepancy, which is indicative of a super-paramagnetic behavior, of the magnetization vs. temperature curves in zero-field cooling and field cooling cases is observed by the introduction of the Nb and more Fe ions. More interestingly, the introduction of Nb and more Fe ions can suppress the preferred c-axis growth while promoting the a-/b-axis growth of the plate-like grains, and thus favors the piezoelectric behaviors of the BTFO Aurivillius phases along the growth orientation.

  2. Study of synergistic effect of Sc and C co-doping on the enhancement of visible light photo-catalytic activity of TiO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nasir, Muhammad; Lei, Juying; Iqbal, Waheed; Zhang, Jinlong

    2016-02-01

    Scandium and carbon co-doped TiO2 catalyst was prepared through a simple sol-gel synthesis method by using scandium nitrate as scandium dopant precursor, glucose as carbon precursor and tetrabutyl orthotitanate as titanium precursor and calcined them at 450 °C for 3 h. The characterizations of the prepared samples were accomplished through X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), UV-visible diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (UV-Vis DRS), photoluminescence spectroscopy (PL), Fourier transformation infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET). The X-ray diffraction results of the samples showed the decrease in the crystal size of the sample with the subsequent increase in the specific surface area as shown by Brunauer-Emmett-Teller. The UV-visible diffuse reflectance spectroscopy displayed the blue shift in the absorption together with the photoluminescence spectroscopy revealed the decrease in the recombination of electrons and holes by the addition of the scandium and then after the certain optimum value, the further increase of the scandium further increased the recombination of electrons and holes. The photo-catalytic activity of the samples was investigated with the help of photo-catalytic degradation of Acid orange 7 under visible light irradiation. The degradation of Acid orange 7 was highly increased for the Sc and C co-doped samples compared to the single C doped sample. And the sample 0.2 Sc/C-TiO2 had the maximum increase. The enhanced photo-catalytic performance was due the decrease of the crystal size, increase of the surface area, increase in the surface hydroxyl groups, and increase of the lifetime of the electrons and holes because of the synergistic effect of the Sc and C co-doping in TiO2.

  3. Magnetic properties of gadolinium and carbon co-doped gallium nitride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Syed Kaleemullah, N.; Ramsubramanian, S.; Mohankumar, R.; Munawar Basha, S.; Rajagopalan, M.; Kumar, J.

    2017-01-01

    Investigations have been carried out to study the ferromagnetic properties of Gadolinium (Gd) Carbon (C) co-doped wurtzite Gallium Nitride (GaN) using full-potential linear augmented plane wave (FP-LAPW) method within the density functional theory. The system shows half-metallic nature when single Gd is substituted in Ga36N36 supercell. The presence of carbon in GaN supercell is found to generate weak magnetic moment (Ms) in the neighbouring atoms. When Carbon is codoped in the Gd-GaN, it increased the total magnetic moment of the system (Mtot). The cause of ferromagnetism in the Gd and C co-doped GaN has been explained by Zener's p-d exchange mechanism. The role of defects in the magnetic property of this system is also investigated. The results indicate the gallium vacancy influences the magnetic moment of the Gd and C codoped GaN more than the nitrogen vacancy. The presence of holes is effective than electrons in achieving the ferromagnetism in the considered system.

  4. γ irradiation induced effects on bismuth active centres and related photoluminescence properties of Bi/Er co-doped optical fibres

    PubMed Central

    Sporea, D.; Mihai, L.; Neguţ, D.; Luo, Yanhua; Yan, Binbin; Ding, Mingjie; Wei, Shuen; Peng, Gang-Ding

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the effects of γ irradiation on bismuth active centres (BACs) and related photoluminescence properties of bismuth/erbium co-doped silica fibre (BEDF), [Si] ~28, [Ge] ~1.60, [Al] ~0.10, [Er] ~ <0.10 and [Bi] ~0.10 atom%, fabricated by in-situ solution doping and Modified Chemical Vapor Deposition (MCVD). The samples were irradiated at 1 kGy, 5 kGy, 15 kGy, 30 kGy and 50 kGy doses, and dose rate of 5.5 kGy/h, at room temperature. The optical properties of BEDF samples are tested before and after γ irradiation. We found that high dose γ irradiation could significantly influence the formation and composition of BACs and their photoluminescence performance, as important changes in absorption and emission properties associated with the 830 nm pump produces the direct evidence of γ irradiation effects on BAC-Si. We notice that the saturable to unsaturable absorption ratio at pump wavelength could be increased with high dose γ irradiation, indicating that emission and pump efficiency could be increased by γ irradiation. Our experimental results also reveal good radiation survivability of the BEDF under low and moderate γ irradiation. Our investigation suggests the existence of irradiation related processing available for tailoring the photoluminescence properties and performance of bismuth doped/co-doped fibres. PMID:27440386

  5. γ irradiation induced effects on bismuth active centres and related photoluminescence properties of Bi/Er co-doped optical fibres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sporea, D.; Mihai, L.; Neguţ, D.; Luo, Yanhua; Yan, Binbin; Ding, Mingjie; Wei, Shuen; Peng, Gang-Ding

    2016-07-01

    We investigate the effects of γ irradiation on bismuth active centres (BACs) and related photoluminescence properties of bismuth/erbium co-doped silica fibre (BEDF), [Si] ~28, [Ge] ~1.60, [Al] ~0.10, [Er] ~ <0.10 and [Bi] ~0.10 atom%, fabricated by in-situ solution doping and Modified Chemical Vapor Deposition (MCVD). The samples were irradiated at 1 kGy, 5 kGy, 15 kGy, 30 kGy and 50 kGy doses, and dose rate of 5.5 kGy/h, at room temperature. The optical properties of BEDF samples are tested before and after γ irradiation. We found that high dose γ irradiation could significantly influence the formation and composition of BACs and their photoluminescence performance, as important changes in absorption and emission properties associated with the 830 nm pump produces the direct evidence of γ irradiation effects on BAC-Si. We notice that the saturable to unsaturable absorption ratio at pump wavelength could be increased with high dose γ irradiation, indicating that emission and pump efficiency could be increased by γ irradiation. Our experimental results also reveal good radiation survivability of the BEDF under low and moderate γ irradiation. Our investigation suggests the existence of irradiation related processing available for tailoring the photoluminescence properties and performance of bismuth doped/co-doped fibres.

  6. Effect of B2O3 on the spectroscopic properties in Er3+/Ce3+ co-doped tellurite-niobium glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Dan-dan; Zheng, Shi-chao; Qi, Ya-wei; Peng, Sheng-xi; Zhou, Ya-xun

    2013-09-01

    The high phonon energy oxide of B2O3 is introduced into the Er3+/Ce3+ co-doped tellurite-niobium glasses with composition of TeO2-Nb2O5-ZnO-Na2O. The absorption spectra, 1.53 μm band fluorescence spectra, fluorescence lifetime and Raman spectra of Er3+ in glass samples are measured together with the calculations of Judd-Ofelt spectroscopic parameter, stimulated emission and absorption cross-sections, which evaluate the effect of B2O3 on the 1.53 μm band spectroscopic properties of Er3+. It is shown that the introduction of an appropriate amount of B2O3 can further improve the 1.53 μm band fluorescence intensity through an enhanced phonon-assisted energy transfer (ET) between Er3+/Ce3+ ions. The results indicate that the prepared Er3+/Ce3+ co-doped tellurite-niobium glass with an appropriate amount of B2O3 is a potential gain medium for the 1.53 μm bandbroad erbium-doped fiber amplifier (EDFA).

  7. Effects of Mg-codoping on luminescence and scintillation properties of Ce doped Lu3(Ga,Al)5O12 single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamaguchi, Hiroaki; Kamada, Kei; Pejchal, Jan; Kurosawa, Shunsuke; Shoji, Yasuhiro; Yokota, Yuui; Ohashi, Yuji; Yoshikawa, Akira

    2017-03-01

    Effects of Mg co-doping on scintillation properties of Ce:Lu3(Ga,Al)5O12 (LGAG) were investigated. Mg 200 ppm co-doped Ce:LGAG single crystals were prepared by micro pulling down method. Absorption and radioluminescence spectra were measured together with several other scintillation characteristics, namely the scintillation decay and light yield to reveal the effect of Mg co-doping. Ce4+ charge transfer absorption was observed below 340 nm in Mg,Ce:LGAG which is in good agreement with previous reports for other garnet-based crystals. The scintillation decay time showed the tendency to be accelerated and the light yield was enhanced by Mg co-doping.

  8. An effective low-temperature solution synthesis of Co-doped [0001]-oriented ZnO nanorods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alnoor, Hatim; Savoyant, Adrien; Liu, Xianjie; Pozina, Galia; Willander, Magnus; Nur, Omer

    2017-06-01

    We demonstrate an efficient possibility to synthesize vertically aligned pure zinc oxide (ZnO) and Co-doped ZnO nanorods (NRs) using the low-temperature aqueous chemical synthesis (90 °C). Two different mixing methods of the synthesis solutions were investigated for the Co-doped samples. The synthesized samples were compared to pure ZnO NRs regarding the Co incorporation and crystal quality. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) measurements confirmed the substitution of Co2+ inside the ZnO NRs, giving a highly anisotropic magnetic Co2+ signal. The substitution of Zn2+ by Co2+ was observed to be combined with a drastic reduction in the core-defect (CD) signal (g ˜ 1.956) which is seen in pure ZnO NRs. As revealed by the cathodoluminescence (CL), the incorporation of Co causes a slight red-shift of the UV peak position combined with an enhancement in the intensity of the defect-related yellow-orange emission compared to pure ZnO NRs. Furthermore, the EPR and the CL measurements allow a possible model of the defect configuration in the samples. It is proposed that the as-synthesized pure ZnO NRs likely contain Zn interstitial (Zni+) as CDs and oxygen vacancy (VO) or oxygen interstitial (Oi) as surface defects. As a result, Co was found to likely occupy the Zni+, leading to the observed CDs reduction and hence enhancing the crystal quality. These results open the possibility of synthesis of highly crystalline quality ZnO NRs-based diluted magnetic semiconductors using the low-temperature aqueous chemical method.

  9. Control of mean ionic radius at Ca site by Sr co-doping for Ce doped LiCaAlF6 single crystals and the effects on optical and scintillation properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yokota, Yuui; Yamaji, Akihiro; Kurosawa, Shunsuke; Kamada, Kei; Yoshikawa, Akira

    2014-10-01

    Sr co-doped Ce:LiCaAlF6 [Ce:Li(Ca,Sr)AlF6] crystals with various Ca/Sr ratios were grown by a micro-pulling-down (μ-PD) method and effects of Sr co-doping on crystal structure, chemical composition, optical and scintillation properties for Ce:LiCaAlF6 crystals were investigated as a neutron scintillator. High transparent Ce2%:Li(Ca,Sr)AlF6 crystals with 2% and 5% Sr contents were obtained while Ce2%:Li(Ca,Sr)AlF6 crystals with 10% and 20% Sr contents included milky parts in the crystals. a- and c-axis lengths of Ce:Li(Ca,Sr)AlF6 phase systematically increased with an increase of Sr content. In addition to the emission at 284 and 308 nm from Ce3+ ion, emission peaks at 367 nm appeared by Sr co-doping.

  10. Effect of lithium halide on glass network structure and upconversion luminescence in Er3+ co-doped oxyfluoride glass ceramics containing NaGdF4 nanocrystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Peng; Yang, Yong; Zhou, Dacheng; Li, Zhencai; Qiu, Jianbei

    2017-10-01

    LiR(R = Br, Cl, F) co-doped oxyfluoride glass ceramics containing NaGdF4 nanocrystals were prepared. The effect on glass network structure by dopants was investigated through the Raman spectra. The crystallization temperature and integrity of the glass network structure was gradually reduced by introducing halogen ions. The types and distribution of nanocrystals were determined by X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscope. The size of nanocrystals were shown in column type distribution map. The mean size of nanocrystals was bigger from SABr to SAF. The upconversion luminescence of Er3+ in SABr, SACl and SAF were study. The intensity ratio of red and green light was reduced in glass ceramics when the content from LiBr turn to LiF.

  11. Effect of Co doping on optical properties of chemically synthesized delafossite structured CuCrO2 thin film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bera, A.; Deb, K.; Sarkar, K.; Saha, B.

    2017-05-01

    In this communication, thin films of delafossite structured oxide material of CuCrO2 with different concentration of cobalt (0%, 1%, 2% and 3%) have been grown on quartz substrate by sol-gel spin coating method. Prepared films were annealed at 800 °C in ambient condition for 5 hours. The microstructure, surface topography and optical properties of as prepared Co doped CuCrO2 thin films were analyzed by using X-ray diffractometer (XRD) with Cu-Kα radiation, Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) and UV-Vis NIR photospectrometer respectively. Maximum transparency was found to be 50% from transmittance spectra. Red shifts of optical energy band gap have been observed due to increase of carrier concentration of cobalt in CuCrO2 thin films. The doping of cobalt in CuCrO2 thin films have a significant influence on the optical properties of CuCrO2 which can be used to shape up smart semiconductor devices.

  12. Trap depth and color variation of Ce3+-Cr3+ co-doped Gd3(Al,Ga)5O12 garnet persistent phosphors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asami, Kazuki; Ueda, Jumpei; Tanabe, Setsuhisa

    2016-12-01

    Persistent luminescent properties in Ce3+-Cr3+ codoped Gd3Al5-xGaxO12 garnet (GAGG:Ce-Cr) solid solution have been investigated. The persistent luminescent color is shifted from orange to yellowish green with increasing Ga content because Ce3+: 5d level splitting becomes much weaker. The depth of electron trap introduced by Cr codoping was estimated from the intense thermoluminescence glow peak by the initial rise method. The trap depth decreases from 0.56 eV to 0.29 eV with increasing Ga content. The shift can be explained by downshift of bottom of conduction band. From the persistent luminescence decay curve measurement after ceasing 450 nm blue illumination, the samples with x = 2.5 exhibited the longest persistent luminescence for 405 min until the luminance becomes 2 mcd/m2 in GAGG:Ce-Cr phosphors.

  13. Effect of co doping to the optical properties of ZnO:Co Thin films deposited on glass substrate by sol-gel spray coating technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marito Siagian, Sinta; Sutanto, Heri; Permatasari, Anes

    2017-01-01

    This study aims are to analyze the effect of cobalt doping concentration to the optical properties ZnO:Co thin films deposited by using sol-gel spray coating technique. Deposition of ZnO and ZnO:Co thin films has been successfully formed on a glass substrate using sol-gel method of spray coating technique with a variation of doping Co as much as 3%, 5%, 7%, 9%, and 11%. Solution of ZnO:Co synthesized by mixing zinc acetate dehydrate (Zn (COOCH3)2.2H2O into a isopropanol ((CH3)2CHOH) then monoethanolamine (MEA) and cobalt nitrate are added as a dopant at room temperature, then ZnO:Co sprayed on a glass substrate that has been heated at a temperature of 450°C. A thin film further characterized using spectrophotometer Uv-Vis to determine the value of absorbance and transmittance. Energy band gap was determined by using tauc plot that uses the absorbance value. The results show that there has been a difference in the value of the Energy band gap of ZnO with and without of Co doping. The addition of Co doping causes the decrease of small energy band gap. The magnitude of the energy band gap of thin films of ZnO is 3.337 eV and ZnO:Co 3% is 3.129 eV. Thin film that has narrower band gap was applied for material photocatalyst

  14. Effect of photocatalytic reduction of carbon dioxide by N-Zr co-doped nano TiO2.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ru; Wang, Li; Kang, Zhuo; Li, Qiang; Pan, Huixian

    2017-01-04

    Modified sol-gel method was adopted to prepare TiO2, Zr-TiO2 and N/Zr-TiO2 composite catalyst. The as-synthesized photocatalysts were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Brunner- Emmet- Teller measurement and UV-Vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. And the photocatalytic performance toward CO2 reduction was evaluated under ultraviolet light. The catalyst particles were demonstrated in the nanometer level size. When N and Zr are co-doped, on the one hand, Ti(4+) can be replaced by Zr4 +, which leads to lattice distortion and inhibits electron-hole recombination. On the other hand, N enters into TiO2 lattice gap to form O-Ti-N bond structure, and partial Ti(4+) are reduced to Ti(3+). Compared with pristine TiO2, the specific surface area and the band gap of N/Zr-TiO2 were improved and reduced, respectively. The N and Zr synergistically contribute to the obviously strengthened absorption intensity in visible region, as well as significantly improved photocatalytic activity. In the gas phase reactor, when the calcination temperature was 550°C, 0.125N/0.25Zr-TiO2 composite performed the highest photocatalytic activity UV irradiation for 8 h, and the corresponding CH4 yield was 11.837 µmol/g, which was 87.8% higher than that of pristine TiO2. For the visible light, the CH4 yield was 9.003 µmol/g after 8 h irradiation, which was 83.9% higher than that of pristine TiO2.

  15. Effect of Er3+ and Yb3+ co-doping on the performance of a ZnO-based DSSC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsege, Ermias Libnedengel; Vu, Hong Ha Thi; Atabaev, Timur Sh.; Kim, Hyung-Kook; Hwang, Yoon-Hwae

    2016-06-01

    Zinc-oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles (NPs) co-doped with different concentrations of rare-earth ions of erbium and ytterbium, (ZnO: Er3+, Yb3+) were synthesized for applications to ZnO-based dye sensitized solar cells (DSSC). The composite NPs used for the photoelectrode (PE) were synthesized using a simple co-precipitation technique. X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy measurements on the prepared samples revealed a single phase wurzite ZnO powder with approximate sizes in the range from 15 to 20 nm. Photoluminescence (PL) measurements confirmed that the synthesized composite NPs had a good up-conversion (UPC) property. The prepared powders were directly used to make PEs for DSSCs. The photovoltaic efficiency of the DSSCs was enhanced compared to that of pure ZnO-based DSSCs. Particularly, the PE made up of ZnO: Er3+, Yb3+ NPs with 4 wt% of Er3+ and Yb3+ generates a short-circuit current density ( J sc ) of 4.794 mA·cm -2 and an open circuit voltage ( V oc ) of 0.602 V with an efficiency ( η) of 1.58%. The result indicates a 48.4% J sc improvement compared to a pure ZnO PE-based DSSC. The photocurrent improvement is due to an increase in the light-harvesting capacity of the PEs attained through the UPC property of ZnO: Er3+, Yb3+ NPs. As confirmed by PL and electrochemical impedance spectra (EIS), the use of ZnO: Er3+,Yb3+ NPs as PEs for DSSCs enhances charge concentration and transport as a result of n-type doping. However, all ZnO: Er3+, Yb3+ NP based PEs exhibited a lower V oc as a result of a down shift in the Fermi energy, which affects the overall efficiency of the cell.

  16. Effect of Co doping on structural, optical, magnetic and dielectric properties of Bi{sub 2}Fe{sub 4}O{sub 9}

    SciTech Connect

    Mohapatra, S. R.; Sahu, B.; Singh, A. K.; Kaushik, S. D.

    2015-06-24

    Polycrystalline Bi{sub 2}Fe{sub 4}O{sub 9} and 2% Co doped Bi{sub 2}Fe{sub 4}O{sub 9} were prepared by solid state reaction route. X-ray diffraction (XRD) result reveals that there is no change in the crystal structure due to Co doping and the compound has orthorhombic structure. UV-visible spectroscopy confirms the decrease in band gap due Co doping. Zero field cooled magnetization measurement at 100 Oe magnetic field shows substantial decrease in the magnetic transition temperature. Room temperature frequency dependent dielectric permittivity at 1V DC bias shows ∼10% increase in Co doped sample with respect to pure Bi{sub 2}Fe{sub 4}O{sub 9}.

  17. Effect of substrate temperature on transparent conducting Al and F co-doped ZnO thin films prepared by rf magnetron sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Fang-Hsing; Chang, Chiao-Lu

    2016-05-01

    ZnO is a wide bandgap semiconductor that has many potential applications such as solar cells, thin film transistors, light emitting diodes, and gas/biological sensors. In this study, a composite ceramic ZnO target containing 1 wt% Al2O3 and 1.5 wt% ZnF2 was prepared and used to deposit transparent conducting Al and F co-doped zinc oxide (AFZO) thin films on glass substrates by radio frequency magnetron sputtering. The effect of substrate temperatures ranging from room temperature (RT) to 200 °C on structural, morphological, electrical, chemical, and optical properties of the deposited thin films were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), Hall effect measurement, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, secondary ion mass spectrometry, and UV-vis spectrophotometer. The XRD results showed that all the AFZO thin films had a (0 0 2) diffraction peak, indicating a typical wurtzite structure with a preferential orientation of the c-axis perpendicular to the substrate. The FE-SEM and AFM analyses indicated that the crystallinity and grain size of the films were enhanced while the surface roughness decreased as the substrate temperature increased. Results of Hall effect measurement showed that Al and F co-doping decreased the resistivity more effectively than single-doping (either Al or F doping) in ZnO thin films. The resistivity of the AFZO thin films decreased from 5.48 × 10-4 to 2.88 × 10-4 Ω-cm as the substrate temperature increased from RT to 200 °C due to the increased carrier concentration and Hall mobility. The optical transmittances of all the AFZO thin films were over 92% in the wavelength range of 400-800 nm regardless of substrate temperature. The blue-shift of absorption edge accompanied the rise of the optical band gap, which conformed to the Burstein-Moss effect. The developed AFZO thin films are suitable as transparent conducting electrodes for various optoelectronic

  18. Thermoelectric Properties of ZnO Ceramics Co-Doped with Al and Transition Metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamaguchi, Hiroyuki; Chonan, Yasunori; Oda, Manabu; Komiyama, Takao; Aoyama, Takashi; Sugiyama, Shigeaki

    2011-05-01

    The effect of co-doping with transition metals (Fe, Ni, and Sm) on the thermoelectric properties of Al-doped ZnO (AZO) ceramics was studied. The electrical conductivity σ of AZO was significantly (12%) increased by Ni co-doping, while an unfavorable deterioration in σ was observed for Fe- or Sm-co-doped AZO. Hall-effect measurements indicated that the electron mobility of AZO decreased due to co-doping in all samples. Only the Ni-co-doped AZO sample showed significant enhancement in electron density, resulting in its black color. The thermal conductivity κ decreased drastically due to Ni or Sm co-doping of AZO, while only a small change was observed for Fe co-doping of AZO. The κ value at 1073 K for Ni-co-doped AZO was 77% of that for AZO. A dimensionless figure of merit ZT = 0.126 was attained at 1073 K for Ni-co-doped AZO, representing an improvement over that of conventional AZO by a factor of 1.50.

  19. Effective visible light-active boron and europium co-doped BiVO4 synthesized by sol-gel method for photodegradion of methyl orange.

    PubMed

    Wang, Min; Che, Yinsheng; Niu, Chao; Dang, Mingyan; Dong, Duo

    2013-11-15

    Eu-B co-doped BiVO4 visible-light-driven photocatalysts have been synthesized using the sol-gel method. The resulting materials were characterized by a series of joint techniques, including XPS, XRD, SEM, BET, and UV-vis DRS analyses. Compared with BiVO4 and B-BiVO4 photocatalysts, the Eu-B-BiVO4 photocatalysts exhibited much higher photocatalytic activity for methyl orange (MO) degradation under visible light irradiation. The optimal Eu doping content is 0.8 mol%. It was revealed that boron and europium were doped into the lattice of BiVO4 and this led to more surface oxygen vacancies, high specific surface areas, small crystallite size, a narrower band gap and intense light absorbance in the visible region. The doped Eu(III) cations can help in the separation of photogenerated electrons. The synergistic effects of boron and europium in doped BiVO4 were the main reason for improving visible light photocatalytic activity. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Boron, bismuth co-doping of gallium arsenide and other compounds for photonic and heterojunction bipolar transistor devices

    DOEpatents

    Mascarenhas, Angelo

    2015-07-07

    Isoelectronic co-doping of semiconductor compounds and alloys with acceptors and deep donors is sued to decrease bandgap, to increase concentration of the dopant constituents in the resulting alloys, and to increase carrier mobilities lifetimes. For example, Group III-V compounds and alloys, such as GaAs and GaP, are isoelectronically co-doped with, for example, B and Bi, to customize solar cells, and other semiconductor devices. Isoelectronically co-doped Group II-VI compounds and alloys are also included.

  1. Boron, bismuth co-doping of gallium arsenide and other compounds for photonic and heterojunction bipolar transistor devices

    DOEpatents

    Mascarenhas, Angelo

    2017-08-01

    Isoelectronic co-doping of semiconductor compounds and alloys with acceptors and deep donors is used to decrease bandgap, to increase concentration of the dopant constituents in the resulting alloys, and to increase carrier mobilities lifetimes. For example, Group III-V compounds and alloys, such as GaAs and GaP, are isoelectronically co-doped with, for example, B and Bi, to customize solar cells, and other semiconductor devices. Isoelectronically co-doped Group II-VI compounds and alloys are also included.

  2. Characterization and photocatalytic activities of C, N and S co-doped TiO(2) with 1D nanostructure prepared by the nano-confinement effect.

    PubMed

    Dong, Fan; Zhao, Weirong; Wu, Zhongbiao

    2008-09-10

    A novel method was developed for preparing high specific surface area (156.2 m(2) g(-1)) one-dimensional TiO(2) nanostructures co-doped with C, N and S by the nano-confinement effect. A nonmetal doping source (thiourea) was first intercalated into the inner space of H-titanate nanotubes prepared by the hydrothermal method, and then calcined at 450 °C for 2 h in air. The as-prepared C, N and S co-doped TiO(2) nanowires exhibited high visible light and enhanced UV-vis activities in photocatalytic degradation of toluene in the gas phase. The samples were characterized by x-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, fast Fourier transform analysis, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectra and photoluminescence. The results indicated that the anatase nanowires grew along the [101] direction. Doping TiO(2) nanowires with C, N and S could not only broaden the light adsorption spectra into the visible region (400-600 nm), but also inhibit the recombination of photo-induced carriers. A mechanism is proposed to elucidate the nano-confinement effect of H-titanate nanotubes in the formation of C, N and S co-doping. Based on this mechanism, the effect of C, N and S co-doping on the band structure of TiO(2) nanowires is also discussed.

  3. Sn/Be Sequentially co-doped Hematite Photoanodes for Enhanced Photoelectrochemical Water Oxidation: Effect of Be2+ as co-dopant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Annamalai, Alagappan; Lee, Hyun Hwi; Choi, Sun Hee; Lee, Su Yong; Gracia-Espino, Eduardo; Subramanian, Arunprabaharan; Park, Jaedeuk; Kong, Ki-Jeong; Jang, Jum Suk

    2016-03-01

    For ex-situ co-doping methods, sintering at high temperatures enables rapid diffusion of Sn4+ and Be2+ dopants into hematite (α-Fe2O3) lattices, without altering the nanorod morphology or damaging their crystallinity. Sn/Be co-doping results in a remarkable enhancement in photocurrent (1.7 mA/cm2) compared to pristine α-Fe2O3 (0.7 mA/cm2), and Sn4+ mono-doped α-Fe2O3 photoanodes (1.0 mA/cm2). From first-principles calculations, we found that Sn4+ doping induced a shallow donor level below the conduction band minimum, which does not contribute to increase electrical conductivity and photocurrent because of its localized nature. Additionally, Sn4+-doping induce local micro-strain and a decreased Fe-O bond ordering. When Be2+ was co-doped with Sn4+-doped α-Fe2O3 photoanodes, the conduction band recovered its original state, without localized impurities peaks, also a reduction in micro-strain and increased Fe-O bond ordering is observed. Also the sequence in which the ex-situ co-doping is carried out is very crucial, as Be/Sn co-doping sequence induces many under-coordinated O atoms resulting in a higher micro-strain and lower charge separation efficiency resulting undesired electron recombination. Here, we perform a detailed systematic characterization using XRD, FESEM, XPS and comprehensive electrochemical and photoelectrochemical studies, along with sophisticated synchrotron diffraction studies and extended X-ray absorption fine structure.

  4. Sn/Be Sequentially co-doped Hematite Photoanodes for Enhanced Photoelectrochemical Water Oxidation: Effect of Be2+ as co-dopant

    PubMed Central

    Annamalai, Alagappan; Lee, Hyun Hwi; Choi, Sun Hee; Lee, Su Yong; Gracia-Espino, Eduardo; Subramanian, Arunprabaharan; Park, Jaedeuk; Kong, Ki-jeong; Jang, Jum Suk

    2016-01-01

    For ex-situ co-doping methods, sintering at high temperatures enables rapid diffusion of Sn4+ and Be2+ dopants into hematite (α–Fe2O3) lattices, without altering the nanorod morphology or damaging their crystallinity. Sn/Be co-doping results in a remarkable enhancement in photocurrent (1.7 mA/cm2) compared to pristine α–Fe2O3 (0.7 mA/cm2), and Sn4+ mono-doped α-Fe2O3 photoanodes (1.0 mA/cm2). From first-principles calculations, we found that Sn4+ doping induced a shallow donor level below the conduction band minimum, which does not contribute to increase electrical conductivity and photocurrent because of its localized nature. Additionally, Sn4+-doping induce local micro-strain and a decreased Fe-O bond ordering. When Be2+ was co-doped with Sn4+-doped α–Fe2O3 photoanodes, the conduction band recovered its original state, without localized impurities peaks, also a reduction in micro-strain and increased Fe-O bond ordering is observed. Also the sequence in which the ex-situ co-doping is carried out is very crucial, as Be/Sn co-doping sequence induces many under-coordinated O atoms resulting in a higher micro-strain and lower charge separation efficiency resulting undesired electron recombination. Here, we perform a detailed systematic characterization using XRD, FESEM, XPS and comprehensive electrochemical and photoelectrochemical studies, along with sophisticated synchrotron diffraction studies and extended X-ray absorption fine structure. PMID:27005757

  5. Sn/Be Sequentially co-doped Hematite Photoanodes for Enhanced Photoelectrochemical Water Oxidation: Effect of Be(2+) as co-dopant.

    PubMed

    Annamalai, Alagappan; Lee, Hyun Hwi; Choi, Sun Hee; Lee, Su Yong; Gracia-Espino, Eduardo; Subramanian, Arunprabaharan; Park, Jaedeuk; Kong, Ki-Jeong; Jang, Jum Suk

    2016-03-23

    For ex-situ co-doping methods, sintering at high temperatures enables rapid diffusion of Sn(4+) and Be(2+) dopants into hematite (α-Fe2O3) lattices, without altering the nanorod morphology or damaging their crystallinity. Sn/Be co-doping results in a remarkable enhancement in photocurrent (1.7 mA/cm(2)) compared to pristine α-Fe2O3 (0.7 mA/cm(2)), and Sn(4+) mono-doped α-Fe2O3 photoanodes (1.0 mA/cm(2)). From first-principles calculations, we found that Sn(4+) doping induced a shallow donor level below the conduction band minimum, which does not contribute to increase electrical conductivity and photocurrent because of its localized nature. Additionally, Sn(4+)-doping induce local micro-strain and a decreased Fe-O bond ordering. When Be(2+) was co-doped with Sn(4+)-doped α-Fe2O3 photoanodes, the conduction band recovered its original state, without localized impurities peaks, also a reduction in micro-strain and increased Fe-O bond ordering is observed. Also the sequence in which the ex-situ co-doping is carried out is very crucial, as Be/Sn co-doping sequence induces many under-coordinated O atoms resulting in a higher micro-strain and lower charge separation efficiency resulting undesired electron recombination. Here, we perform a detailed systematic characterization using XRD, FESEM, XPS and comprehensive electrochemical and photoelectrochemical studies, along with sophisticated synchrotron diffraction studies and extended X-ray absorption fine structure.

  6. Samarium and Nitrogen Co-Doped Bi2 WO6 Photocatalysts: Synergistic Effect of Sm(3+) /Sm(2+) Redox Centers and N-Doped Level for Enhancing Visible-Light Photocatalytic Activity.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fangzhi; Li, Wenjun; Gu, Shaonan; Li, Hongda; Wu, Xue; Liu, Xintong

    2016-08-26

    Samarium and nitrogen co-doped Bi2 WO6 nanosheets were successfully synthesized by using a hydrothermal method. The crystal structures, morphology, elemental compositions, and optical properties of the prepared samples were investigated. The incorporation of samarium and nitrogen ions into Bi2 WO6 was proved by X-ray diffraction, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. UV/Vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy indicated that the samarium and nitrogen co-doped Bi2 WO6 possessed strong visible-light absorption. Remarkably, the samarium and nitrogen co-doped Bi2 WO6 exhibited higher photocatalytic activity than single-doped and pure Bi2 WO6 under visible-light irradiation. Radical trapping experiments indicated that holes (h(+) ) and superoxide radicals ((.) O2 (-) ) were the main active species. The results of photoluminescence spectroscopy and photocurrent measurements demonstrated that the recombination rate of the photogenerated electrons and holes pairs was greatly depressed. The enhanced activity was attributed to the synergistic effect of the in-built Sm(3+) /Sm(2+) redox pair centers and the N-doped level. The mechanism of the excellent photocatalytic activity of Sm-N-Bi2 WO6 is also discussed. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Effect of bismuth oxide on the thermal stability and Judd-Ofelt parameters of Er3+/Yb3+ co-doped aluminophosphate glasses.

    PubMed

    Fang, Yongzheng; Hu, Lili; Liao, Meisong; Wen, Lei

    2007-11-01

    The Er3+/Yb3+ co-doped glasses with compositions of xBi2O3-(65-x)P2O5-4Yb2O3-11Al2O3-5BaO-15Na2O (where x=0, 2.5, 5, 7.5 and 10 mol%) were prepared using the normal melt quench technique. The optical absorption spectra of the glasses were recorded in the wavelength range 300-1700 nm. The effect of Bi2O3 content on the thermal stability and absorption spectra of glasses was investigated. In addition, the Judd-Ofelt parameters and oscillator strengths were calculated by employing Judd-Ofelt theory. It was observed that the positions of the fundamental absorption edge and cut-off wavelength shifted towards red as the content of Bi2O3 increased. However, there were no red shifts found both in the peak wavelength and in the center of mass wavelength of all absorption bands with Bi2O3 content increasing. The results of Judd-Ofelt theory analysis showed that Judd-Ofelt parameters Omega t (t=2, 4, 6) changed sharply when Bi2O3 concentration exceeded 5 mol%. The variation trends of experimental oscillator strength were similar with those of Judd-Ofelt parameters as function of Bi2O3 concentrations. Moreover, differential scanning calorimetry experiments showed that the increases of Bi2O3 content weakened the network structure and then lowered the thermal stability of the glasses. The spontaneous emission probability A rad, branching ratio beta and the radiative lifetime tau rad were also calculated and analyzed. The stimulated emission cross-section of Er3+ was calculated according to the McCumber theory. It was found that the stimulated emission cross-section of Er3+ was monotonically increases with Bi2O3 content increasing.

  8. The Effects of Gd/Nd Co-Doping on the Microstructure and Dielectric Properties of BaTiO3 Ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang; Bin; Zhang; ShuRen; Zhou; XiaoHua

    2009-11-01

    In order to obtain X7R (-55 to 125 °C, ΔC/C = ±15% or less) ceramics sintered at a middle temperature, the effects of Gd2O3 and Nd2O3 additives on the microstructure and dielectric properties of BaTiO3 (BT)-Nb2O5-ZnO-borosilicate system were investigated. When the amount of Gd2O3 was stable, the dielectric constant at room temperature (ɛ25 °C) monotonously decreased as the Nd2O3 content increased from 0.1 to 0.7 wt %. Minimal influence was observed on the high temperature coefficient of capacitance (TCC125 °C). In contrast, when the Nd2O3 content remained unchanged and Gd2O3 was increased, the dielectric constant ɛ25 °C at room temperature first declined and then increased and the TCC125 °C value decreased. Additionally, the TCC125 °C value of BT ceramics was positively correlated to the micro-stress. For Gd/Nd co-doped ceramics, TCC125 °C value was determined only by the Gd2O3 content. BT ceramics sintered at 1140 °C in air have the following properties: ɛ25 °C> 3000, tan δ≤1.0%, ρ≥1011 Ω·cm and ΔC/C (-55 to +125 °C) ≤ ±7.5%.

  9. Analysis of thermal and structural properties of germanate glasses co-doped with Yb3+/Tb3+ ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zmojda, J.; Kochanowicz, M.; Miluski, P.; Dorosz, D.; Jelen, P.; Sitarz, M.

    2014-10-01

    In the work the new glass compositions in the GeO2-GaO-BaO system have been prepared and thermal, structural properties of in germanate glasses co-doped with Yb3+/Tb3+ions were studied. Glasses were obtained by conventional high-temperature melt-quenching technique. The study of the crystallization kinetics processes of glasses co-doped with 0.7Yb2O3:0.7Tb2O3 was performed with DSC measurements. The activation energies have been calculated using Freedman analysis and verified with the Flynn-Wall-Ozawa method. In this order, the DSC curves have been registered with different heating rates, between 5 and 15 degrees/min. The structure of fabricated glasses has been studied by infrared and Raman spectroscopes. The effect of heat treatment on the structural properties was determined. In all glass samples the dominated infrared absorbance band at 800 cm-1 corresponds to asymmetric stretching motions of GeO4 tetrahedra containing bridging (Ge-O(Ge)) and non-bridging (Ge-O-) oxygens. Additionally, the influence of heat treatment on the luminescent properties was evaluated. Strong luminescence at 489, 543, 586 and 621 nm corresponding to 5D4 → 7FJ (J = 6, 5, 4, 3) transitions was measured. The highest upconversion emission intensity was obtained in the germanate glass co-doped with 0.7Yb2O3/0.7Tb2O3.

  10. Analysis of thermal and structural properties of germanate glasses co-doped with Yb(3+)/Tb(3+) ions.

    PubMed

    Zmojda, J; Kochanowicz, M; Miluski, P; Dorosz, D; Jelen, P; Sitarz, M

    2014-10-15

    In the work the new glass compositions in the GeO2-GaO-BaO system have been prepared and thermal, structural properties of in germanate glasses co-doped with Yb(3+)/Tb(3+)ions were studied. Glasses were obtained by conventional high-temperature melt-quenching technique. The study of the crystallization kinetics processes of glasses co-doped with 0.7Yb2O3:0.7Tb2O3 was performed with DSC measurements. The activation energies have been calculated using Freedman analysis and verified with the Flynn-Wall-Ozawa method. In this order, the DSC curves have been registered with different heating rates, between 5 and 15 degrees/min. The structure of fabricated glasses has been studied by infrared and Raman spectroscopes. The effect of heat treatment on the structural properties was determined. In all glass samples the dominated infrared absorbance band at 800cm(-1) corresponds to asymmetric stretching motions of GeO4 tetrahedra containing bridging (Ge-O(Ge)) and non-bridging (Ge-O(-)) oxygens. Additionally, the influence of heat treatment on the luminescent properties was evaluated. Strong luminescence at 489, 543, 586 and 621nm corresponding to (5)D4→(7)FJ (J=6, 5, 4, 3) transitions was measured. The highest upconversion emission intensity was obtained in the germanate glass co-doped with 0.7Yb2O3/0.7Tb2O3.

  11. Co doped ZnO nanowires as visible light photocatalysts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Šutka, Andris; Käämbre, Tanel; Pärna, Rainer; Juhnevica, Inna; Maiorov, Mihael; Joost, Urmas; Kisand, Vambola

    2016-06-01

    High aspect ratio cobalt doped ZnO nanowires showing strong photocatalytic activity and moderate ferromagnetic behaviour were successfully synthesized using a solvothermal method and characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS), vibrating sample magnetometry (VSM) and UV-visible absorption spectroscopy. The photocatalytic activities evaluated for visible light driven degradation of an aqueous methylene orange (MO) solution were higher than for Co doped ZnO nanoparticles at the same doping level and synthesized by the same synthesis route. The rate constant for MO visible light photocatalytic degradation was 1.9·10-3 min-1 in case of nanoparticles and 4.2·10-3 min-1 in case of nanowires. We observe strongly enhanced visible light photocatalytic activity for moderate Co doping levels, with an optimum at a composition of Zn0.95Co0.05O. The enhanced photocatalytic activities of Co doped ZnO nanowires were attributed to the combined effects of enhanced visible light absorption at the Co sites in ZnO nanowires, and improved separation efficiency of photogenerated charge carriers at optimal Co doping.

  12. Effect of co-doped SnO{sub 2} nanoparticles on photoluminescence of cu-doped potassium lithium borate glass

    SciTech Connect

    Namma, Haydar Aboud; Wagiran, H.; Hussin, R.; Ariwahjoedi, B.

    2012-09-26

    The SnO{sub 2} co-doped lithium potassium borate glasses doped with 0.05, 0.10, 0.25 and 0.50 mol% of Cu were synthesized by the melt quenching technique. The SnO{sub 2} co-dope was added to the compounds in the amounts of 0.05, 0.10, and 0.20 mol%. The photoluminescent spectrum for different concentrations of copper was studied. It was observed that the intensity of blue emission (450, 490 nm) varies with concentration mol%. In addition, with different concentration of SnO{sub 2} to 0.10 mol% Cu, the influence of the luminescence has been observed to enhance intensity and shifted to blue and red (490, 535 nm) emissions.

  13. The effect of sulfur and zirconium co-doping on the oxidation of NiCrAl

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smialek, James L.

    1988-01-01

    The adhesion behavior of Al2O3 scales formed on NiCrAl+Zr alloys was examined as a function of both sulfur and zirconium doping levels. In general, very high levels of zirconium were required to counteract the detrimental effects of sulfur. A sulfur-zirconium adherence map was constructed, as determined from the oxidation and spalling behavior in 1100 C cyclic tests. For low sulfur alloys (less than 500 ppma), the amount of zirconium required for adherence at any given sulfur level can be described by Zr greater than 600 S(0.2) (in ppma). These results underscore the importance of sulfur to adhesion mechanisms and suggest that sulfur gettering is a first order effect of reactive element additions to MCrAl alloys.

  14. The effect of sulfur and zirconium co-doping on the oxidation of NiCrAl

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smialek, James L.

    1988-01-01

    The adhesion behavior of Al2O3 scales formed on NiCrAl+Zr alloys was examined as a function of both sulfur and zirconium doping levels. In general, very high levels of zirconium were required to counteract the detrimental effects of sulfur. A sulfur-zirconium adherence map was constructed, as determined from the oxidation and spalling behavior in 1100 C cyclic tests. For low sulfur alloys (less than 500 ppma), the amount of zirconium required for adherence at any given sulfur level can be described by Zr greater than 600 S(0.2) (in ppma). These results underscore the importance of sulfur to adhesion mechanisms and suggest that sulfur gettering is a first order effect of reactive element additions to MCrAl alloys.

  15. The effect of sulfur and zirconium Co-doping on the oxidation of NiCrAl

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smialek, James L.

    1987-01-01

    The adhesion behavior of Al2O3 scales formed on NiCrAl+Zr alloys was examined as a function of both sulfur and zirconium doping levels. In general, very high levels of zirconium were required to counteract the detrimental effects of sulfur. A sulfur-zirconium adherence map was constructed, as determined from the oxidation and spalling behavior in 1100 C cyclic tests. For low sulfur alloys, the amount of zirconium required for adherence at any given sulfur level can be described by Zr greater than 600 S sup 0.2 (in ppma). These results underscore the importance of sulfur to adhesion mechanisms and suggests that sulfur gettering is a first order effect of reactive element additions to MCrAl alloys.

  16. Effect of Li+ ions co-doping on luminescence, scintillation properties and defects characteristics of LuAG:Ce ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Shuping; Feng, Xiqi; Mares, Jiri A.; Babin, Vladimir; Hu, Chen; Kou, Huamin; D'Ambrosio, Carmelo; Li, Jiang; Pan, Yubai; Nikl, Martin

    2017-02-01

    Monovalent Li+ codoped Lu3Al5O12:Ce (LuAG:Ce) optical ceramics were fabricated by solid state reaction method and further optimized by an air-annealing process. Optical absorption, radioluminescence spectra and scintillation properties such as light yield, scintillation decay times and afterglow were measured and compared with those of the Li+ free LuAG:Ce ceramic and the commercial LuAG:Ce single crystal samples. Positive effect of Li+ codopant consists mainly in the significant increase of scintillation light yield, acceleration of scintillation decay as well as the decrease of afterglow intensity. With 0.3% Li codoping, the obtained LuAG:Ce,Li ceramic displays a light yield of ∼29200 ph/MeV at 10 μs shaping time, higher than that of the LuAG:Ce single crystal and optical ceramic scintillators ever reported. The partial conversion of the stable Ce3+ to Ce4+ centers and the shallow and deep traps effect suppression by the Li+ codoping are discussed.

  17. The effects of group-I elements co-doping with Mn in ZnO dilute magnetic semiconductor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Liqiang; Zhang, Yinzhu; Ye, Zhizhen; Lu, Jianguo; Lu, Bin; He, Bo

    2012-06-01

    Mn-Li codoped ZnO (Zn(Mn,Li)O), Mn-Na codoped ZnO (Zn(Mn,Na)O), and Mn-K codoped ZnO (Zn(Mn,K)O) thin films were deposited on quartz substrates by pulsed laser deposition. The doping effects of group-I elements (e.g., Li, Na, and K) on the structural, magnetic, and optical properties of the Mn doped ZnO (ZnMnO) films were discussed. X-ray diffraction and K-edge x-ray absorption near-edge structure measurements revealed that all the films showed a hexagonal wurtzite ZnO structure, and no other clusters, precipitates, or second phases were detected. Zn(Mn,Na)O and Zn(Mn,Li)O films showed a weak p-type conductivity, while the Zn(Mn,K)O film appeared a highly resistivity. The saturation magnetization of Zn(Mn,Na)O and Zn(Mn,Li)O films was 1.2 and 0.18 μB/Mn, respectively. The hole-related defects, induced by doping with a low content of Li or Na, contributed to the room temperature ferromagnetism in the ZnMnO system.

  18. Al-Mg co-doping effect on optical and magnetic properties of ZnO nanopowders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Si, Xiaodong; Liu, Yongsheng; Wu, Xinfang; Lei, Wei; Lin, Jia; Gao, Tian; Zheng, Li

    2015-07-01

    Zn0.97 - xMgxAl0.03O (x = 0 , 0.01 , 0.03 and 0.05) nanoparticles were prepared by hydrothermal growth, and their optical and magnetic properties were systematically studied by the X-ray diffraction (XRD), the UV-visible spectrophotometer, the infrared spectrometer and the physical properties measurement system (PPMS). These results showed that all the nanopowders had hexagonal wurtzite structures. With increasing the content of Mg, the strength of the (110) intensity peak increased. When Mg atoms were not incorporated into the Zn0.97Al0.03O lattice, the infrared light transmittance was higher than that of other groups of samples. In the UV range, the absorption decreased with the increase of the concentration of Mg. Mg doping weakened the magnetic property of the nanoparticles at room temperature. The zero-field-cooled (ZFC) and field-cooled (FC) magnetization curves were separated with the decrease of temperature due to the pinning effect between the ferromagnetic domain and antiferromagnetic domain.

  19. Co-doping of Ag into Mn:ZnSe Quantum Dots: Giving Optical Filtering effect with Improved Monochromaticity.

    PubMed

    Hu, Zhiyang; Xu, Shuhong; Xu, Xiaojing; Wang, Zhaochong; Wang, Zhuyuan; Wang, Chunlei; Cui, Yiping

    2015-10-08

    In optics, when polychromatic light is filtered by an optical filter, the monochromaticity of the light can be improved. In this work, we reported that Ag dopant atoms could be used as an optical filter for nanosized Mn:ZnSe quantum dots (QDs). If no Ag doping, aqueous Mn:ZnSe QDs have low monochromaticity due to coexisting of strong ZnSe band gap emission, ZnSe trap emission, and Mn dopant emission. After doping of Ag into QDs, ZnSe band gap and ZnSe trap emissions can be filtered, leaving only Mn dopant emission with improved monochromaticity. The mechanism for the optical filtering effect of Ag was investigated. The results indicate that the doping of Ag will introduce a new faster deactivation process from ZnSe conduction band to Ag energy level, leading to less electrons deactived via ZnSe band gap emission and ZnSe trap emission. As a result, only Mn dopant emission is left.

  20. Co-doping of Ag into Mn:ZnSe Quantum Dots: Giving Optical Filtering effect with Improved Monochromaticity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Zhiyang; Xu, Shuhong; Xu, Xiaojing; Wang, Zhaochong; Wang, Zhuyuan; Wang, Chunlei; Cui, Yiping

    2015-10-01

    In optics, when polychromatic light is filtered by an optical filter, the monochromaticity of the light can be improved. In this work, we reported that Ag dopant atoms could be used as an optical filter for nanosized Mn:ZnSe quantum dots (QDs). If no Ag doping, aqueous Mn:ZnSe QDs have low monochromaticity due to coexisting of strong ZnSe band gap emission, ZnSe trap emission, and Mn dopant emission. After doping of Ag into QDs, ZnSe band gap and ZnSe trap emissions can be filtered, leaving only Mn dopant emission with improved monochromaticity. The mechanism for the optical filtering effect of Ag was investigated. The results indicate that the doping of Ag will introduce a new faster deactivation process from ZnSe conduction band to Ag energy level, leading to less electrons deactived via ZnSe band gap emission and ZnSe trap emission. As a result, only Mn dopant emission is left.

  1. Co-doping of Ag into Mn:ZnSe Quantum Dots: Giving Optical Filtering effect with Improved Monochromaticity

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Zhiyang; Xu, Shuhong; Xu, Xiaojing; Wang, Zhaochong; Wang, Zhuyuan; Wang, Chunlei; Cui, Yiping

    2015-01-01

    In optics, when polychromatic light is filtered by an optical filter, the monochromaticity of the light can be improved. In this work, we reported that Ag dopant atoms could be used as an optical filter for nanosized Mn:ZnSe quantum dots (QDs). If no Ag doping, aqueous Mn:ZnSe QDs have low monochromaticity due to coexisting of strong ZnSe band gap emission, ZnSe trap emission, and Mn dopant emission. After doping of Ag into QDs, ZnSe band gap and ZnSe trap emissions can be filtered, leaving only Mn dopant emission with improved monochromaticity. The mechanism for the optical filtering effect of Ag was investigated. The results indicate that the doping of Ag will introduce a new faster deactivation process from ZnSe conduction band to Ag energy level, leading to less electrons deactived via ZnSe band gap emission and ZnSe trap emission. As a result, only Mn dopant emission is left. PMID:26446850

  2. Investigating the effect of Cd-Mn co-doped nano-sized BiFeO3 on its physical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishaq, B.; Murtaza, G.; Sharif, S.; Azhar Khan, M.; Akhtar, Naeem; Will, I. G.; Saleem, Murtaza; Ramay, Shahid M.

    This work deals with the investigation of different effects on the structural, magnetic, electronic and dielectric properties of Cd and Mn doped Bi0.75Cd0.25Fe1-xMnxO3 multiferroic samples by taking fixed ratios of Cd and varying the Mn ratio with values of x = 0.0, 0.5, 0.10 and 0.15. Cd-Mn doped samples were synthesized chemically using a microemulsion method. All the samples were finally sintered at 700 °C for 2 h to obtain the single phase perovskites structure of BiFeO3 materials. The synthesized samples were characterized by different techniques, such as X-ray diffractometry (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), LCR meter and magnetic properties using VSM. XRD results confirm BFO is a perovskite structure having crystallite size in the range of 24-54 nm. XRD results also reveal observed structural distortion due to doping of Cd at the A-site and Mn at the B-site of BFO. SEM results depict that, as the substitution of Cd-Mn increases in BFO, grain size decreases up to 30 nm. FTIR spectra showed prominent absorption bands at 555 cm-1 and 445 cm-1 corresponding to the stretching vibrations of the metal ions complexes at site A and site B, respectively. Variation of dielectric constant (ɛ‧) and loss tangent (tan δ) at room temperature in the range of 1 MHz to 3 GHz have been investigated. Results reveal that with Cd-Mn co doping a slight decrease in dielectric constant have been observed. Magnetic properties of Cd-Mn doped pure BFO samples have been studied at 300 K. Results reveal that undoped BiFeO3 exhibits weak ferromagnetic ordering due to the canting of its spin. Increase in magnetization and decrease in coercivity is a clear indication that a material can be used in high density recording media and memory devices.

  3. A clear effect of charge compensation through Na{sup +} co-doping on the luminescence spectra and decay kinetics of Nd{sup 3+}-doped CaAl{sub 4}O{sub 7}

    SciTech Connect

    Puchalska, M.; Watras, A.

    2016-06-15

    We present a detailed analysis of luminescence behavior of singly Nd{sup 3+} doped and Nd{sup 3+}, Na{sup +} co-doped calcium aluminates powders: Ca{sub 1−x}Nd{sub x}Al{sub 4}O{sub 7} and Ca{sub 1−2x}Nd{sub x}Na{sub x}Al{sub 4}O{sub 7} (x=0.001–0.1). Relatively intense Nd{sup 3+} luminescence in IR region corresponding to typical {sup 4}F{sub 3/2}→{sup 4}I{sub J} (J=9/2–13/2) transitions with maximum located at about 1079 nm was obtained in all samples on direct excitation into f–f levels. The effect of dopant concentration and charge compensation by co-doping with Na{sup +} ions on morphology and optical properties were studied. The results show that both, the Nd{sup 3+} concentration and the alkali metal co-doping affected the optical properties but had no influence on the powders morphology. The studies of luminescence spectra (298 and 77 K) in a function of dopant concentration showed an increasing distortion of the local symmetry of Nd{sup 3+}with raising activator content due to certain defects created in the crystal lattice. On the other hand Na{sup +} addition led to significant narrowing of absorption and luminescence bands and also a reduction of the number of their components, showing smaller disturbance of Nd{sup 3+} ions local symmetries. Consequently, charge compensated by Na{sup +} co-doping materials showed significantly enhanced Nd{sup 3+} luminescence. The decrease of emission intensity and luminescence lifetimes with increase of activator concentration was attributed mainly to phonon-assisted cross-relaxation processes between Nd{sup 3+} ions. Analysis with Inokuti–Hirayama model indicated dipole–dipole mechanism of ion-ion interaction. Na{sup +} addition led to much smaller concentration quenching due to smaller clustering of dopant ions in CaAl{sub 4}O{sub 7} lattice.

  4. Effective Construction of High-quality Iron Oxy-hydroxides and Co-doped Iron Oxy-hydroxides Nanostructures: Towards the Promising Oxygen Evolution Reaction Application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xinyu; An, Li; Yin, Jie; Xi, Pinxian; Zheng, Zhiping; Du, Yaping

    2017-03-01

    Rational design of high efficient and low cost electrocatalysts for oxygen evolution reaction (OER) plays an important role in water splitting. Herein, a general gelatin-assisted wet chemistry method is employed to fabricate well-defined iron oxy-hydroxides and transitional metal doped iron oxy-hydroxides nanomaterials, which show good catalytic performances for OER. Specifically, the Co-doped iron oxy-hydroxides (Co0.54Fe0.46OOH) show the excellent electrocatalytic performance for OER with an onset potential of 1.52 V, tafel slope of 47 mV/dec and outstanding stability. The ultrahigh oxygen evolution activity and strong durability, with superior performance in comparison to the pure iron oxy-hydroxide (FeOOH) catalysts, originate from the branch structure of Co0.54Fe0.46OOH on its surface so as to provide many active edge sites, enhanced mass/charge transport capability, easy release oxygen gas bubbles, and strong structural stability, which are advantageous for OER. Meanwhile, Co-doping in FeOOH nanostructures constitutes a desirable four-electron pathway for reversible oxygen evolution and reduction, which is potentially useful for rechargeable metal-air batteries, regenerative fuel cells, and other important clean energy devices. This work may provide a new insight into constructing the promising water oxidation catalysts for practical clean energy application.

  5. Effective Construction of High-quality Iron Oxy-hydroxides and Co-doped Iron Oxy-hydroxides Nanostructures: Towards the Promising Oxygen Evolution Reaction Application

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xinyu; An, Li; Yin, Jie; Xi, Pinxian; Zheng, Zhiping; Du, Yaping

    2017-01-01

    Rational design of high efficient and low cost electrocatalysts for oxygen evolution reaction (OER) plays an important role in water splitting. Herein, a general gelatin-assisted wet chemistry method is employed to fabricate well-defined iron oxy-hydroxides and transitional metal doped iron oxy-hydroxides nanomaterials, which show good catalytic performances for OER. Specifically, the Co-doped iron oxy-hydroxides (Co0.54Fe0.46OOH) show the excellent electrocatalytic performance for OER with an onset potential of 1.52 V, tafel slope of 47 mV/dec and outstanding stability. The ultrahigh oxygen evolution activity and strong durability, with superior performance in comparison to the pure iron oxy-hydroxide (FeOOH) catalysts, originate from the branch structure of Co0.54Fe0.46OOH on its surface so as to provide many active edge sites, enhanced mass/charge transport capability, easy release oxygen gas bubbles, and strong structural stability, which are advantageous for OER. Meanwhile, Co-doping in FeOOH nanostructures constitutes a desirable four-electron pathway for reversible oxygen evolution and reduction, which is potentially useful for rechargeable metal−air batteries, regenerative fuel cells, and other important clean energy devices. This work may provide a new insight into constructing the promising water oxidation catalysts for practical clean energy application. PMID:28272443

  6. Effective Construction of High-quality Iron Oxy-hydroxides and Co-doped Iron Oxy-hydroxides Nanostructures: Towards the Promising Oxygen Evolution Reaction Application.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xinyu; An, Li; Yin, Jie; Xi, Pinxian; Zheng, Zhiping; Du, Yaping

    2017-03-08

    Rational design of high efficient and low cost electrocatalysts for oxygen evolution reaction (OER) plays an important role in water splitting. Herein, a general gelatin-assisted wet chemistry method is employed to fabricate well-defined iron oxy-hydroxides and transitional metal doped iron oxy-hydroxides nanomaterials, which show good catalytic performances for OER. Specifically, the Co-doped iron oxy-hydroxides (Co0.54Fe0.46OOH) show the excellent electrocatalytic performance for OER with an onset potential of 1.52 V, tafel slope of 47 mV/dec and outstanding stability. The ultrahigh oxygen evolution activity and strong durability, with superior performance in comparison to the pure iron oxy-hydroxide (FeOOH) catalysts, originate from the branch structure of Co0.54Fe0.46OOH on its surface so as to provide many active edge sites, enhanced mass/charge transport capability, easy release oxygen gas bubbles, and strong structural stability, which are advantageous for OER. Meanwhile, Co-doping in FeOOH nanostructures constitutes a desirable four-electron pathway for reversible oxygen evolution and reduction, which is potentially useful for rechargeable metal-air batteries, regenerative fuel cells, and other important clean energy devices. This work may provide a new insight into constructing the promising water oxidation catalysts for practical clean energy application.

  7. Effect of substrate surface treatment on electrochemically assisted photocatalytic activity of N-S co-doped TiO2 films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parada-Gamboa, N. J.; Pedraza-Avella, J. A.; Meléndez, A. M.

    2017-01-01

    To investigate whether different metal surface treatments, performed on meshes of stainless steel 304 and titanium, affect the photocatalytic activity (PCA) of supported modified anodic TiO2 films, metallic substrates were coated with titanium isopropoxide sol-gel precursor modified with thiourea. Substrates were pretreated by some of the following techniques: a) sandblasting, b) pickling, c) hydroxylation and d) passivation. The as-prepared electrode materials were characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), and voltammetry in the dark and under light UVA irradiation. PCA of modified N-S-TiO2 electrodes was evaluated by electrochemically assisted photocatalytic degradation of methyl orange. The results of XPS revealed that N and S were incorporated into the lattice of TiO2. FESEM showed that surface roughness and thickness of films varies depending on surface treatment. Voltammetric and XPS characterization of N-S co-doped TiO2 films supported on stainless steel revealed that their surface contains alpha-Fe2O3/FeOOH. Accordingly, iron contamination of the films coming from stainless steel was detrimental to the degradation of methyl orange. Prior to sol-gel coating process, sandblasting followed by nitric acid passivation for stainless steel or hydrofluoric acid pickling process in the case of titanium improved the PCA of N-S co-doped TiO2 films.

  8. Effects of post-annealing and cobalt co-doping on superconducting properties of (Ca,Pr)Fe2As2 single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okada, T.; Ogino, H.; Yakita, H.; Yamamoto, A.; Kishio, K.; Shimoyama, J.

    2014-10-01

    In order to clarify the origin of anomalous superconductivity in (Ca,RE)Fe2As2 system, Pr doped and Pr,Co co-doped CaFe2As2 single crystals were grown by the FeAs flux method. These samples showed two-step superconducting transition with Tc1 = 25-42 K, and Tc2 < 16 K, suggesting that (Ca,RE)Fe2As2 system has two superconducting components. Post-annealing performed for these crystals in evacuated quartz ampoules at various temperatures revealed that post-annealing at ∼400 °C increased the c-axis length for all samples. This indicates that as-grown crystals have a certain level of strain, which is released by post-annealing at ∼400 °C. Superconducting properties also changed dramatically by post-annealing. After annealing at 400 °C, some of the co-doped samples showed large superconducting volume fraction corresponding to the perfect diamagnetism below Tc2 and high Jc values of 104-105 A cm-2 at 2 K in low field, indicating the bulk superconductivity of (Ca,RE)Fe2As2 phase occurred below Tc2. On the contrary, the superconducting volume fraction above Tc2 was always very small, suggesting that 40 K-class superconductivity observed in this system is originating in the local superconductivity in the crystal.

  9. Donor-deactivating defects above the equilibrium doping limit in GaAs:Te,Ge and GaAs:Te studied by annealing and Hall effect under pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slupinski, T.; Wasik, D.; Przybytek, J.

    2017-06-01

    High temperature annealing experiments of n-type double-doped (co-doped) GaAs:Te,Ge single crystal samples close to or above the equilibrium doping limit are presented and compared to annealing results of very highly doped GaAs:Te known for a long time, but still not clarified satisfactorily. An addition of Ge impurity to GaAs:Te shifted the equilibrium doping limit to a lower free electron concentration - a result which is difficult to describe within models of doping limit assuming an electrical compensation mainly by native acceptors. Hall effect under hydrostatic pressure up to 1.5 GPa allowed to directly measure the change of concentration of GeGa donors caused by annealing, in addition to free electron concentration changes in GaAs:Te,Ge. GeGa donors were detected by the capture of free electrons by Ge DX states at high pressure, following the method described by Baj et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett.71, 3529 (1993)]. In highly doped GaAs:Te,Ge, the measured ratio of changes of free electrons and GeGa donors concentrations caused by high temperature annealing at 1100 °C, Δn / Δ [ GeGa ] =4.2+/- 0.6, supports the model of chemically bonded impurity-impurity molecules, probably of type Ge-Tem (where m =3÷4 atoms), which may be consistent with recently proposed models of paired impurities: DDX or double-DX centers.

  10. Effect of co-doping and tri-doping with transition metals and a nonmetal on photocatalytic activity in visible light of TiO2 thin film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phung, Hang Nguyen Thai; Tran, Van Nguyen Khanh; Duong, Phuong Ai; Le, Hung Vu Tuan; Truong, Nguyen Duc

    2017-06-01

    Mono, co- and tri-doped TiO2 thin films with the transition metals (vanadium and/or chrominium) and a nonmetal (nitrogen) have been fabricated by sol-gel method. X-ray diffraction results clearly reveal anatase crystal structure for all obtained samples and doping with any dopants doesn't change the anatase phase of TiO2. Compared to TiO2, three types of doped TiO2 thin films exhibit a red-shift in the absorption edge and have much better photocatalytic properties for methylene blue degradation in visible light region. The maximum visible-photocatalytic performance was achieved for tri-doped TiO2 sample. The mechanism for enhancing visible-photocatalytic activity of co-doped and tri-doped TiO2 thin films was also examined.

  11. [Effect of bivalent alkaline earth fluorides introduction on thermal stability and spectroscopic properties of Er3+/Tm3+ /Yb3+ co-doped oxyfluorogermanate glasses].

    PubMed

    Hu, Yue-bo; Zhang, Xin-na; Zhou, Da-li; Jiao, Qing; Wang, Rong-fei; Huang, Jin-feng; Long, Xiao-bo; Qiu, Jian-bei

    2012-01-01

    Transparent Er3+/Tm3+ /Yb3+ co-doped oxyfluorogermanate glasses alone containing MgF2, CaF2, SrF2 or BaF2 and nano-glass-ceramics only containing BaF2 were prepared. The thermal stabilities and the up-conversion emission properties of the samples were investigated. Analyses of absorbance spectra reveal that the UV cutoff band moves slightly to shortwave band with the doping bivalent cation mass increasing. The results show that the emission color can be adjusted by changing the alkaline earth cation species in the glass matrixes, especially as Mg2+ is concerned, and the emission intensity can increase notably by heating the glass containing alkaline-earth fluoride into glass ceramic containing alkaline-earth fluoride nanocrystals or increasing the content of bivalent alkaline earth fluorides.

  12. Mg co-doping effects on Ce doped Y3(Ga,Al)5O12 scintillator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamada, Kei; Yamaji, Akihiro; Kurosawa, Shunsuke; Yokota, Yuui; Ohashi, Yuji; Yoshikawa, Akira

    2017-02-01

    Nonstoichiometric Lu3Al5+xO12 (x= 0.05, 0.15, 0.35, 0, -0.05, -0.15, -0.35) crystals were grown by the μ-PD method. Luminescence and scintillation properties such as absorption, excitation and emission spectra, light yield and decay time were evaluated. Expected anti-site defect related host emission have been observed in 250-420nm. Emission intensity was increased by increasing the nonstochiometry. The x=-0.35 sample showed the highest light yield of around 12000 photons/MeV and slowest scintillation decay time of 1.96μs.

  13. The phosphorus and boron co-doping behaviors at nanoscale in Si nanocrystals/SiO2 multilayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Dongke; Jiang, Yicheng; Zhang, Pei; Shan, Dan; Xu, Jun; Li, Wei; Chen, Kunji

    2017-06-01

    Phosphorus (P) and Boron (B) co-doping effects at the nanoscale in Si nanocrystals/SiO2 multilayers have been studied in the present work. Several interesting experimental results are achieved which are in contrast to the case in bulk-Si and the previous observations on the doped Si nanocrystals. It is found that all the co-doping samples are n-type regardless of B doping ratios. The P doping efficiency in Si NCs is higher than B dopants, and it can be improved via B co-doping with suitable levels. Raman and ESR spectra indicate that the different occupation preferences of P and B in Si NCs are responsible for the interesting co-doping behaviors. It looks like that the electronic structures and the physical properties of Si NCs can be modulated via the impurities co-doping approach.

  14. Characterization of afterglow-related spectroscopic effects in vacuum sintered Tb3+, Sr2+ co-doped Lu2O3 ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Shi; Yang, Yan; Zhou, Guohong; Wu, Yiquan; Liu, Peng; Zhang, Fang; Wang, Shiwei; Trojan-Piegza, Joanna; Zych, Eugeniusz

    2012-12-01

    Persistent luminescence phosphors, Tb3+, Sr2+ co-doped Lu2O3 ceramics were fabricated under vacuum at 1870 °C. A strong green color afterglow could be observed after excitation with 254 nm UV radiation. The afterglow was found to be roughly doubled in intensity upon stimulation with violet or blue-green photons (˜400-600 nm) as well as upon IR radiation (˜800-980 nm). Hence, the enhancement of the green afterglow could also be attained by means of natural sunlight. Short wavelength UV radiation was found to induce an extrinsic absorption band below about 600 nm and extending into the deep UV. This was mirrored by a simultaneous decrease of the absorption by Tb3+ around 230-320 nm. The extrinsic absorption seemed to contain at least two overlapping components which supposedly resulted from a band related to Tb4+/Tb3+-h and a feature resulting from F/F+ centers created upon irradiation with short UV. This absorption was shown to be reversible, as it disappeared after a short heat treatment at about 300 °C as well as with continuous irradiation of ˜400 nm radiation.

  15. Effect of mixed gas environment on structure and optical properties of Co-doped ZnO RF- sputtered thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malapati, V.; Singh, R.

    2017-05-01

    Thin films of Co doped ZnO thin films have been deposited on fused quartz substrates by radio-frequency magnetron sputtering in mixed gas environment of Ar+ N2 with increase in nitrogen gas content in sputtering chamber up to 100%. The as deposited show the hexagonal wurtzite structure of ZnO with (002) peak along c-axis, without any indication of secondary phase of Co or N2 in ZnO matrix. The surface morphology of the films show dense microstructure. With increase in nitrogen gas composition the films show decrease in average grain size for as deposited films. The room temperature transmittance spectra of as deposited films varies about ˜92-87% show decrease with increase in nitrogen in the films. The estimated direct band gap of the films varies in the range between 4.91 -3.75 eV. The band gap show decrease with increase in nitrogen component in the films is attributed that nitrogen acts as dopant in ZnO matrix along with Co in host ZnO matrix.

  16. Effect of different surfactants on structural and optical properties of Ce3+ and Tb3+ co-doped BiPO4 nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lakshminarayana, G.; Dao, T. D.; Chen, K.; Sharma, Manoj; Takeda, T.; Brik, M. G.; Kityk, I. V.; Singh, Sarabjot; Nagao, T.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we report on the Ce3+ and Tb3+ ions co-doped bismuth phosphate (BiPO4) nanostructures that were synthesized by a simple precipitation method using different surfactants such as glycerol/H2O, glycerol/ethylene glycol, oleic acid, and ethylene glycol. The structural (X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, tunneling electron microscopy), functional groups analysis (Fourier transform infrared and Raman spectroscopy), thermal (thermogravimetry and differential thermal analysis), and optical (photoluminescence, photoluminescence-excitation) properties were investigated. The structural and morphological analysis confirms the pure hexagonal crystal structure of the synthesized nanostructures. From the measured Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and Raman spectra various functional groups such as υ3 stretching vibration of the PO4 group, and δ(O-P-O) and υ4 (PO4) vibrations including the υ2 and υ1 bending modes of the PO4 units are identified. Based on the thermal analysis, for all the studied samples an exothermic peak between 680 °C and 700 °C was observed due to phase transition from hexagonal to high temperature monoclinic. The Ce3+and Tb3+ codoped samples show spectrally broad 5d → 4f luminescence in the blue (centered at 459 nm) wavelength region under the direct optical excitation of Ce3+ at 417 nm. Similarly, Tb3+ has revealed four main emission bands (5D4 → 7F6, 5, 4 and 3) at 490 nm, 545 nm, 585 nm and 621 nm with 378 nm (7F6 → 5G6) as the excitation wavelength, including three more weak emission bands at 647 nm, 669 nm, and 681 nm which could be assigned to 5D4 → 7F2, 1, 0 emission transitions. Among them, 545 nm (5D4 → 7F5) has shown bright green emission. The Ce3+ and Tb3+ codoped sample synthesized with pure oleic acid have shown relatively high green emission intensity for Tb3+, and relatively weak blue emission intensity for Ce3+ under their respective optical excitation wavelengths.

  17. Characterization of co-doped (In, N): ZnO by indigenous thermopower measurement system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kedia, Sanjay Kumar; Singh, Anil; Chaudhary, Sujeet

    2016-05-01

    The thermopower measurement of (In, N) co-doped ZnO thin films have been carried out using indigenous high and low temperature thermopower measurement system. The compact thermopower measurement system has been designed, developed, tested in house. The sensitivity and accuracy of indigenous thermopower system have been investigated by measuring thermopower of standard samples like Cu, Ni, Sb etc. It has been also investigated by the comparison of carrier concentration using Hall Effect and Thermopower measurement of these (In, N) co-doped ZnO thin films. The constant temperature gradient between hot and cold junction has been maintained by using the temperature controller. The room temperature and low temperature Seebeck coefficient measurements were performed on these co-doped ZnO samples. A series of experiments have been performed to detect the p-type conductivity in co-doped ZnO thin films, particularly at low temperature. The negative Seebeck coefficient observed down to 40 K established the n-type behavior in these co-doped samples.

  18. Suppression of boron-oxygen defects in Czochralski silicon by carbon co-doping

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Yichao; Yu, Xuegong He, Hang; Chen, Peng; Yang, Deren

    2015-03-09

    We have investigated the influence of carbon co-doping on the formation of boron-oxygen defects in Czochralski silicon. It is found that carbon can effectively suppress the formation of boron-oxygen defects. Based on our experiments and first-principle theoretical calculations, it is believed that this effect is attributed to the formation of more energetically favorable carbon-oxygen complexes. Moreover, the diffusion of oxygen dimers in carbon co-doped silicon also becomes more difficult. All these phenomena should be associated with the tensile stress field induced by carbon doping in silicon.

  19. Nitrogen and Phosphorous Co-Doped Graphene Monolith for Supercapacitors.

    PubMed

    Wen, Yangyang; Rufford, Thomas E; Hulicova-Jurcakova, Denisa; Wang, Lianzhou

    2016-03-08

    The co-doping of heteroatoms has been regarded as a promising approach to improve the energy-storage performance of graphene-based materials because of the synergetic effect of the heteroatom dopants. In this work, a single precursor melamine phosphate was used for the first time to synthesise nitrogen/phosphorus co-doped graphene (N/P-G) monoliths by a facile hydrothermal method. The nitrogen contents of 4.27-6.58 at% and phosphorus levels of 1.03-3.00 at% could be controlled by tuning the mass ratio of melamine phosphate to graphene oxide in the precursors. The N/P-G monoliths exhibited excellent electrochemical performances as electrodes for supercapacitors with a high specific capacitance of 183 F g(-1) at a current density of 0.05 A g(-1), good rate performance and excellent cycling performance. Additionally, the N/P-G electrode was stable at 1.6 V in 1 m H2 SO4 aqueous electrolyte and delivered a high energy density of 11.33 Wh kg(-1) at 1.6 V. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Nitrogen-fluorine co-doped titania inverse opals for enhanced solar light driven photocatalysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahul, T. K.; Sandhyarani, N.

    2015-10-01

    Three dimensionally ordered nitrogen-fluorine (N-F) co-doped TiO2 inverse opals (IOs) were fabricated by templating with polystyrene (PS) colloidal photonic crystals (CPCs) by infiltration. During preparation, the TiO2 precursor was treated with a mixture of nitric acid and trifluoroacetic acid to facilitate N-F co-doping into the TiO2 lattice. Enhanced solar light absorption was observed in the samples as a consequence of the red shift in the electronic band gap of TiO2 due to N-F co-doping. The photonic band gap (PBG) of these TiO2 IO films was tuned by varying the sphere size of the PS CPC templates. The as-prepared N-F co-doped TiO2 IO films were used as photocatalysts for the degradation of Rhodamine B (RhB) dye under solar light irradiation. A significant enhancement in the photocatalytic activity was observed in N-F co-doped TiO2 IO films prepared using PS spheres of 215 nm as a template, with the red edge of the PBG closer to the electronic band gap (EBG) of TiO2. 100% of the dye molecules were degraded within 2 minutes under direct solar irradiation, which is one of the fastest reaction times ever reported for RhB degradation in the presence of TiO2 photocatalysts. The N-F co-doped TiO2 IO film prepared using PS of 460 nm with its PBG centered at 695 nm also showed good photocatalytic activity. It was found that the IO films displayed improved photocatalytic activity in comparison to ordinary nanocrystalline (nc)-TiO2 films. The enhancement could be attributed to the bandgap scattering effect and the slow photon effect, leading to a significant improvement in solar light harvesting.

  1. Nitrogen-fluorine co-doped titania inverse opals for enhanced solar light driven photocatalysis.

    PubMed

    Rahul, T K; Sandhyarani, N

    2015-11-21

    Three dimensionally ordered nitrogen-fluorine (N-F) co-doped TiO2 inverse opals (IOs) were fabricated by templating with polystyrene (PS) colloidal photonic crystals (CPCs) by infiltration. During preparation, the TiO2 precursor was treated with a mixture of nitric acid and trifluoroacetic acid to facilitate N-F co-doping into the TiO2 lattice. Enhanced solar light absorption was observed in the samples as a consequence of the red shift in the electronic band gap of TiO2 due to N-F co-doping. The photonic band gap (PBG) of these TiO2 IO films was tuned by varying the sphere size of the PS CPC templates. The as-prepared N-F co-doped TiO2 IO films were used as photocatalysts for the degradation of Rhodamine B (RhB) dye under solar light irradiation. A significant enhancement in the photocatalytic activity was observed in N-F co-doped TiO2 IO films prepared using PS spheres of 215 nm as a template, with the red edge of the PBG closer to the electronic band gap (EBG) of TiO2. 100% of the dye molecules were degraded within 2 minutes under direct solar irradiation, which is one of the fastest reaction times ever reported for RhB degradation in the presence of TiO2 photocatalysts. The N-F co-doped TiO2 IO film prepared using PS of 460 nm with its PBG centered at 695 nm also showed good photocatalytic activity. It was found that the IO films displayed improved photocatalytic activity in comparison to ordinary nanocrystalline (nc)-TiO2 films. The enhancement could be attributed to the bandgap scattering effect and the slow photon effect, leading to a significant improvement in solar light harvesting.

  2. Enhanced multiferroic properties of (Nd, Cr) co-doped BiFeO3 nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shu, Huazhong; Wang, Zhongcao; Mao, Weiwei; Ma, Yuhui; Chu, Liang; Wang, Xingfu; Chen, Wei; Zhang, Jian; Yang, Jianping; Song, Rongfang; Li, Xing'ao

    2017-05-01

    Pure BiFeO3 (BFO) and doped Bi1- x Nd x Fe0.975Cr0.025O3 ( x = 0.025, 0.05, and 0.075) nanoparticles were prepared by a sol-gel method. The doping effects were systematically investigated on the structural, morphological, magnetic, and ferroelectric properties. The dopant results in forming nanoparticles, and the (Nd, Cr) co-doped BFO nanoparticles show excellent ferromagnetic and ferroelectric properties. The proposed mechanism for the co-doped BFO provides an alternative strategy to form nanoparticles with enhanced multiferroic properties.

  3. Study on the emission property of YBO3 with co-doping of Ce and Gd ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jang, Soyeong; Lim, Junhwi; Lee, Y. S.

    2017-08-01

    We investigated the co-doping effect of Ce3+ and Gd3+ ions on the visible emission in vaterite-type orthoborate YBO3. By using photoluminescence and photoluminescence excitation spectroscopy, we found that the co-doping of the Gd3+ ions increased the violet-blue emission of the Ce ions significantly. In basis of the optical spectroscopic data, we discussed our results in terms of the energy transfer between Ce3+ and Gd3+ ions.

  4. Enhanced photocatalytic activity of Co doped ZnO nanodisks and nanorods prepared by a facile wet chemical method.

    PubMed

    Kuriakose, Sini; Satpati, Biswarup; Mohapatra, Satyabrata

    2014-07-07

    Cobalt doped ZnO nanodisks and nanorods were synthesized by a facile wet chemical method and well characterized by X-ray diffraction, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, photoluminescence spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy and UV-visible absorption spectroscopy. The photocatalytic activities were evaluated for sunlight driven degradation of an aqueous methylene blue (MB) solution. The results showed that Co doped ZnO nanodisks and nanorods exhibit highly enhanced photocatalytic activity, as compared to pure ZnO nanodisks and nanorods. The enhanced photocatalytic activities of Co doped ZnO nanostructures were attributed to the combined effects of enhanced surface area of ZnO nanodisks and improved charge separation efficiency due to optimal Co doping which inhibit recombination of photogenerated charge carriers. The possible mechanism for the enhanced photocatalytic activity of Co doped ZnO nanostructures is tentatively proposed.

  5. Study of new states in visible light active W, N co-doped TiO{sub 2} photo catalyst

    SciTech Connect

    Sajjad, Ahmed Khan Leghari; Shamaila, Sajjad; Zhang, Jinlong

    2012-11-15

    Highlights: ► Visible light efficient W, N co-doped TiO{sub 2} photo catalysts are prepared by sol–gel. ► Oxygen vacancies are detected in the form of new linkages as N-Ti-O, N-W-O, Ti-O-N and W-O-N. ► W, N co-doped titania has new energy states which narrows the band gap effectively. ► Oxygen vacancies are proved to be the cause for high photo catalytic activity. ► W and N co-doping plays the major role to make the composite thermally stable. -- Abstract: The visible light efficient W, N co-doped TiO{sub 2} photo catalysts are prepared by sol–gel method. New linkages of N, W and O are formed as N-Ti-O, N-W-O, Ti-O-N and W-O-N. Electron paramagnetic resonance illustrates the presence of oxygen vacancies in W, N co-doped TiO{sub 2} acting as trapping agencies for electrons to produce active species. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy confirms the presence of new energy states. New linkages and oxygen vacancies are proved to be the main cause for the improved photo catalytic performances. W, N co-doped TiO{sub 2} has new energy states which narrow the band gap effectively. W, N co-doped TiO{sub 2} is thermally stable and retains its anatase phase up to 900 °C. 4.5% W, N co-doped TiO{sub 2} showed superior activity for the degradation of Rhodamine B and 2,4-dichlorophenol as compared to pure titania, Degussa P-25, traditional N-doped TiO{sub 2} and pure WO{sub 3}.

  6. Effect of Ge-GeO2 co-doping on non-ohmic behaviour of TiO2-V2O5-Y2O3 varistor ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kunyong, Kang; Guoyou, Gan; Jikang, Yan; Jianhong, Yi; Jiamin, Zhang; Jinghong, Du; Wenchao, Zhao; Xuequan, Rong

    2015-07-01

    An investigation was made into the effect of doping with the elemental crystal Ge or/and GeO2 on the TiO2-V2O5-Y2O3 varistor ceramics. The result shows that as the doping contents of V2O5 and Y2O3 are 0.5 mol%, respectively, co-doping with 0.3 mol% Ge and 0.9 mol% GeO2 makes the highest α value (α = 12.8), the lowest breakdown voltage V1mA (V1mA = 15.8 V/mm) and the highest grain boundary barrier ΦB (ΦB = 1.48 eV), which is remarkably superior to the TiO2-V2O5-Y2O3 varistor ceramics undoped with Ge and GeO2 and mono-doped with Ge or GeO2. The TiO2-V2O5-Y2O3-Ge-GeO2 ceramic has the prospect of becoming a novel varistor ceramic with excellent electrical properties. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 51262017, 51362017).

  7. The effects of doping and shell thickness on the optical and magnetic properties of Mn/Cu/Fe-doped and Co-doped ZnS nanowires/ZnO quantum dots/SiO2 heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Jian; Yang, Jinghai; Yang, Lili; Wei, Maobin; Feng, Bo; Han, Donglai; Fan, Lin; Wang, Bingji; Fu, Hao

    2012-07-01

    In this paper, we demonstrated the encapsulation of Mn/Cu/Fe-doped and co-doped ZnS nanowires (NWs) and ZnO quantum dots (QDs) with a layer of mesoporous SiO2 shell for the purpose of integrating dual emission and ferromagnetism property into one common nanostructure at room temperature. Within the ZnS:Mn2+Cu2+Fe2+/ZnO@SiO2 nanocomposites, ZnS:Mn2+Cu2+Fe2+ NWs and ZnO QDs provided color-tunable visible emission and UV emission, respectively. The color-tunable visible emission in the ZnS:Mn2+Cu2+Fe2+ NWs can be obtained by adjusting the concentrations of Mn2+, Cu2+, and Fe2+ ions. The ferromagnetism of the ZnS:Mn2+Cu2+Fe2+ NWs was observed around room temperature, the mechanism of which was explained by the super-exchange mechanism. The results of the effect of the ZnO QDs shell thickness on the optical properties of the ZnS:Mn2+/ZnO@SiO2 nanocomposites showed that the luminescence intensity of the yellow-orange emission and UV emission reached the highest value when the ratio of ZnS:Mn2+/ZnO equaled 1:5.

  8. Role of Gd{sup 3+} ion on downshifting and upconversion emission properties of Pr{sup 3+}, Yb{sup 3+} co-doped YNbO{sub 4} phosphor and sensitization effect of Bi{sup 3+} ion

    SciTech Connect

    Dwivedi, A.; Rai, S. B.; Mishra, Kavita

    2016-07-28

    Dual-mode luminescence (downshifting-DS and upconversion-UC) properties of Pr{sup 3+}/Yb{sup 3+} co-doped Y{sub 1−x}Gd{sub x}NbO{sub 4} (x = 0.0, 0.5, and 1.0) phosphors synthesized by solid state reaction technique have been explored with and without Gd{sup 3+} ion. The structural characterizations (XRD, SEM, and FTIR) confirm the pure phase of YNbO{sub 4} phosphor. Further, with the Gd{sup 3+} ion co-doping, the YNbO{sub 4} phosphors having a random shape and the large particle size are found to be transformed into nearly spherical shape particles with the reduced particle size. The optical band gaps (E{sub g}) of Y{sub 1−x}Gd{sub x}NbO{sub 4} (x = 0.00, 0.25, 0.50, and 1.00) calculated from UV-Vis-NIR measurements are ∼3.69, 4.00, 4.38, and 4.44 eV, respectively. Moreover, YNbO{sub 4} phosphor is a promising blue emitting material, whereas Y{sub 1−x−y−z}Pr{sub y}Yb{sub z}Gd{sub x}NbO{sub 4} phosphor gives intense green, blue, and red emissions via dual-mode optical processes. The broad blue emission arises due to (NbO{sub 4}){sup 3−} group of the host with λ{sub ex} = 264 nm, whereas Pr{sup 3+} doped YNbO{sub 4} phosphor gives dominant red and blue emissions along with comparatively weak green emission on excitation with λ{sub ex} = 300 nm and 491 nm. The concentration dependent variation in emission intensity at 491 nm ({sup 3}P{sub 0}→{sup 3}H{sub 4} transition) and 612 nm ({sup 1}D{sub 2}→{sup 3}H{sub 4} transition); at 612 nm ({sup 1}D{sub 2}→{sup 3}H{sub 4} transition) and 658 nm ({sup 3}P{sub 0}→{sup 3}F{sub 2} transition) of Pr{sup 3+} ion in YNbO{sub 4} phosphor with λ{sub ex} = 300 nm and 491 nm excitations, respectively, has been thoroughly explored and explained by the cross-relaxation process through different channels. The sensitization effect of Bi{sup 3+} ion co-doping on DS properties of the phosphor has also been studied. The observed DS results have been optimized by varying the

  9. Role of Gd3+ ion on downshifting and upconversion emission properties of Pr3+, Yb3+ co-doped YNbO4 phosphor and sensitization effect of Bi3+ ion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dwivedi, A.; Mishra, Kavita; Rai, S. B.

    2016-07-01

    Dual-mode luminescence (downshifting-DS and upconversion-UC) properties of Pr3+/Yb3+ co-doped Y1-xGdxNbO4 (x = 0.0, 0.5, and 1.0) phosphors synthesized by solid state reaction technique have been explored with and without Gd3+ ion. The structural characterizations (XRD, SEM, and FTIR) confirm the pure phase of YNbO4 phosphor. Further, with the Gd3+ ion co-doping, the YNbO4 phosphors having a random shape and the large particle size are found to be transformed into nearly spherical shape particles with the reduced particle size. The optical band gaps (Eg) of Y1-xGdxNbO4 (x = 0.00, 0.25, 0.50, and 1.00) calculated from UV-Vis-NIR measurements are ˜3.69, 4.00, 4.38, and 4.44 eV, respectively. Moreover, YNbO4 phosphor is a promising blue emitting material, whereas Y1-x-y-zPryYbzGdxNbO4 phosphor gives intense green, blue, and red emissions via dual-mode optical processes. The broad blue emission arises due to (NbO4)3- group of the host with λex = 264 nm, whereas Pr3+ doped YNbO4 phosphor gives dominant red and blue emissions along with comparatively weak green emission on excitation with λex = 300 nm and 491 nm. The concentration dependent variation in emission intensity at 491 nm (3P0→3H4 transition) and 612 nm (1D2→3H4 transition); at 612 nm (1D2→3H4 transition) and 658 nm (3P0→3F2 transition) of Pr3+ ion in YNbO4 phosphor with λex = 300 nm and 491 nm excitations, respectively, has been thoroughly explored and explained by the cross-relaxation process through different channels. The sensitization effect of Bi3+ ion co-doping on DS properties of the phosphor has also been studied. The observed DS results have been optimized by varying the concentration of Pr3+ and Bi3+ ions, and the results are explained by the well-known simple band structure model. The study of Gd3+ co-doping reveals noticeable differences in DS characteristics of Y1-xPrxNbO4 phosphors: the overall decrement and increment (except for 612 nm emission) in intensity of DS emission on

  10. Co-doped mesoporous titania photocatalysts prepared from a peroxo-titanium complex solution

    SciTech Connect

    El Saliby, Ibrahim; Erdei, Laszlo; McDonagh, Andrew; Kim, Jong-Beom; Kim, Jong-Ho; Shon, Ho Kyong

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Peroxotitanium complex for the synthesis of doped photocatalysts. • Fabrication of N doped and N/Ag co-doped photocatalysts. • Characterization of photocatalysts by SEM, XRD, BET, DRS and XPS. • Bench scale photocatalysis under simulated solar light using crystal violet pollutant. - Abstract: In this study, nitrogen doped and nitrogen/silver co-doped TiO{sub 2} photocatalsysts were fabricated using a sol–gel method at room temperature. The obtained gels were neutralized, washed with pure water, and calcined at 400 °C for 4 h. The photocatalysts were characterized by scanning and transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and BET specific surface area. The results showed that spherical particles with anatase structure were produced after annealing at 400 °C. N 1s (400 eV) and Ag 3d (367.3 eV) states indicated that nitrogen doping and silver co-doping were in the form of NO bonds and AgO, respectively. The photocatalytic activity of photocatalysts was investigated using a batch reactor system exposed to artificial solar irradiation. Both nitrogen and silver/nitrogen co-doped materials were effective in the photocatalytic degradation of hexamethyl pararosaniline chloride.

  11. Influence of Co doping on combined photocatalytic and antibacterial activity of ZnO nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anandan, M.; Dinesh, S.; Krishnakumar, N.; Balamurugan, K.

    2016-11-01

    The present work aims to investigate the structural, optical, photocatalyst and antibacterial properties of bare and cobalt doped ZnO nanoparticles (NPs) with different concentrations Zn1-x Co x O (x = 0, 0.03, 0.06 and 0.09) synthesized by co-precipitation method. The XRD patterns confirmed that all samples of cobalt doped ZnO nanostructures revealed the formation of single phase having hexagonal wurtzite structure with crystallite size in the range of 31-41 nm. Further, the decreasing trend in lattice parameters and grain sizes were also seen with increasing doping concentrations which confirms the incorporation of Co ions into the ZnO lattice. This result was further supported by the FT-IR data. HR-TEM images demonstrated the distinct hexagonal like morphology with small agglomeration. The UV-visible absorption spectra exhibits red shift with increase in Co doping concentration in ZnO while corresponding bandgap energy of cobalt doped ZnO NPs decreased with increased Co doping concentration. PL spectra showed a weak UV and visible emission band which may be ascribed to the reduction in oxygen vacancy and defects by cobalt doping. XPS and EDX spectral results confirm the composition and the purity of Co doped ZnO NPs. Furthermore, the Co doped ZnO NPs were found to exhibit lesser photocatalytic activity for the degradation of methyl green dye under UV light illumination in comparison with the bare ZnO NPs. Moreover, anti-bacterial studies reveals that the Co doped ZnO NPs possess more antibacterial effect against gram positive Basillus subtills and gram negative Klebsiella pneumoniae bacterial strains than the bare ZnO NPs.

  12. A comparative investigation on structure and multiferroic properties of bismuth ferrite thin films by multielement co-doping

    SciTech Connect

    Dong, Guohua; Tan, Guoqiang Luo, Yangyang; Liu, Wenlong; Xia, Ao; Ren, Huijun

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: • Multielement (Tb, Cr and Mn) co-doped BiFeO{sub 3} films were fabricated by CSD method. • Multielement co-doping induces a structural transition. • It is found effective to stabilize the valence of Fe ions at +3 by the strategy. • The co-doping at A/B-sites gives rise to the superior multiferroic properties. - Abstract: (Tb, Cr and Mn) multielement co-doped BiFeO{sub 3} (BTFCMO) thin films were prepared by the chemical solution deposition method on fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO) substrates. X-ray diffraction, Rietveld refinement and Raman analyses revealed that a phase transition from rhombohedral to triclinic structure occurs in the multielement co-doped BiFeO{sub 3} films. It is found that the doping is conducive to stabilizing the valence of Fe ions and reducing leakage current. In addition, the highly enhanced ferroelectric properties with a huge remanent polarization (2P{sub r}) of 239.6 μC/cm{sup 2} and a low coercive field (2E{sub c}) of 615.6 kV/cm are ascribed to the well film texture, the structure transition and the reduced leakage current by the co-doping. Moreover, the structure transition is the dominant factor resulting in the significant enhancement observed in magnetization (M{sub s} ∼ 10.5 emu/cm{sup 3}), owing to the collapse of the space-modulated spin structure. In this contribution, these results demonstrate that the multielement co-doping is in favor of the enhanced multiferroic properties of the BFO films for possible multifunctional applications.

  13. Proton and Gamma Radiation Effects in Undoped, Single-doped and co-doped YLiF4 and LuLiF4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Hyung; Bai, Yingxin; Yu, Kirong; Singh, U.

    2009-01-01

    Proton and gamma radiation effects in various YLiF4 and LuLiF4 crystals have been investigated. The radiation induced color centers compared with six different kinds of crystal samples in ranges up to 200 krads and 200 MeV. The radiation induced absorption coefficients are strongly dependent on polarization and concentration of rare-earth ions.

  14. Proton and Gamma Radiation Effects in Undoped, Single-doped and co-doped YLiF4 and LuLiF4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Hyung; Bai, Yingxin; Yu, Kirong; Singh, U.

    2009-01-01

    Proton and gamma radiation effects in various YLiF4 and LuLiF4 crystals have been investigated. The radiation induced color centers compared with six different kinds of crystal samples in ranges up to 200 krads and 200 MeV. The radiation induced absorption coefficients are strongly dependent on polarization and concentration of rare-earth ions.

  15. Tuning the near-gap electronic structure of Cu2O by anion-cation co-doping for enhanced solar energy conversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Si, Yuan; Yang, Hao-Ming; Wu, Hong-Yu; Huang, Wei-Qing; Yang, Ke; Peng, Ping; Huang, Gui-Fang

    2017-01-01

    Doping is an effective strategy to tune the electronic properties of semiconductors, but some side effects caused by mono-doping degrade the specific performance of matrixes. As a model system to minimize photoproduced electron-hole pairs recombination by anion-cation co-doping, we investigate the electronic structures and optical properties of (Fe+N) co-doped Cu2O using the first-principles calculations. Compared to the case of mono-doping, the FeCuNO (a Fe (N) atom substituting a Cu (O) atom) co-doping reduces the energy cost of doping as a consequence of the charge compensation between the iron and nitrogen impurities, which eliminates the isolated levels (induced by mono-dopant) in the band gap. Interestingly, it is found that the contributions of different host atoms (Cu and O) away from anion (N) and cation (Fe) dopants to the variation of near band gap electronic structure of the co-doped Cu2O are different. Moreover, co-doping reduces the band gap and increases the visible-light absorption of Cu2O. Both band gap reduction and low recombination rate are critical elements for efficient light-to-current conversion in co-doped semiconductor photocatalysts. These findings raise the prospect of using co-doped Cu2O with specifically engineered electronic properties in a variety of solar applications.

  16. Effect of co-doping of sodium on the thermoluminescence dosimetry properties of copper-doped zinc lithium borate glass system.

    PubMed

    Saidu, A; Wagiran, H; Saeed, M A; Alajerami, Y S M; Kadir, A B A

    2016-12-01

    The effect of sodium as a co-dopant on the thermoluminescence (TL) properties of copper-doped zinc lithium borate (ZLB: Cu) subjected to Co-60 gamma radiation is reported in this study. TL intensity is enhanced with the introduction of sodium in ZLB: Cu. The obtained glow curve is simple with a single peak. The annealing procedure and the best heating rate for the proposed thermoluminescent dosimeter (TLD) are established, and the phosphor is reusable. The TL response within the dose range of 0.5-1000Gy is investigated. The results show that the thermal fading behaviour is improved significantly.

  17. Intense upconversion luminescence and effect of local environment for Tm3+/Yb3+ co-doped novel TeO2-BiCl3 glass system.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guonian; Dai, Shixun; Zhang, Junjie; Wen, Lei; Yang, Jianhu; Jiang, Zhonghong

    2006-05-15

    We present the results of a study that uses theoretical and experimental methods to investigate the characteristics of the upconversion luminescence of Tm3+/Yb3+ codoped TeO2-BiCl3 glass system as a function of the BiCl3 fraction. These glasses are potentially important in the design of upconversion fiber lasers. Effect of local environment around Tm3+ on upconversion fluorescence intensity was analyzed by theoretical calculations. The structure and spectroscopic properties were investigated in the experiments by measuring the Raman spectra, IR transmission spectra, and absorption and fluorescence intensities at room temperature. The results indicate that blue luminescence quantum efficiency increases with increasing BiCl3 content from 10 to 60 mol%, which were interpreted by the increase of asymmetry of glass structure, decrease of phonon energy and removing of OH- groups.

  18. Co-doping as a tool for tuning the optical properties of singlewalled carbon nanotubes: A first principles study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Deepa; Jaggi, Neena

    2017-07-01

    This paper presents a first principles study on the effect of co-doping on various optical spectra of a zigzag single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT). Optical spectra of a pristine SWCNT, SWCNT co-doped with Aluminum (Al) & Phosphorus (P) and another one co-doped with Al, P and Nitrogen (N) have been calculated using density functional theory (DFT).The theory has been implemented using the Cambridge sequential total energy package (CASTEP) code available as a userfriendly module with the software 'Material Studio'. Polarized and unpolarized light as well as light through polycrystalline media have been considered. The dependence of various spectra on the status of incident light presents a clear evidence of anisotropicity in the optical properties. Analysis of the simulated spectra involves calculation and comparison of different optical properties like dielectric function, reflectivity, refractive index, conductivity and loss function for the pristine and co-doped SWCNTs. Noticeable variations are observed in the optical properties on simultaneously doping the SWCNT with Al and P and then further introducing N atom into the structure so that it can be concluded that co-doping (simultaneous doping with different combinations of dopants) can be evolved as a novel and effective tool for tailoring the optical properties of SWCNTs as per the requirements while designing an optical device. It will prove to be highly significant for effective designing of SWCNT based sensitive optical devices for a variety of technological applications.

  19. Origin of enhanced visible-light photocatalytic activity of transition-metal (Fe, Cr and Co)-doped CeO2: effect of 3 d orbital splitting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Ke; Li, Dong-Feng; Huang, Wei-Qing; Xu, Liang; Huang, Gui-Fang; Wen, Shuangchun

    2017-01-01

    Enhanced visible-light photocatalytic activity of transition-metal-doped ceria (CeO2) nanomaterials has experimentally been demonstrated, whereas there are very few reports mentioning the mechanism of this behavior. Here, we use first-principles calculations to explore the origin of enhanced photocatalytic performance of CeO2 doped with transition metal impurities (Fe, Cr and Co). When a transition metal atom substitutes a Ce atom into CeO2, t 2g and e g levels of 3 d orbits appear in the middle of band gap owing to the effect of cubic ligand field, and the former is higher than latter. Interestingly, t 2g subset of FeCe (CoCe and CrCe)-Vo-CeO2 splits into two parts: one merges into the conduction band, the other as well as e g will remain in the gap, because O vacancy defect adjacent to transition metal atom will break the symmetry of cubic ligand field. These e g and t 2g levels in the band gap are beneficial for absorbing visible-light and enhancing quantum efficiency because of forbidden transition, which is one key factor for enhanced visible-light photocatalytic activity. The band gap narrowing also leads to a redshift of optical absorbance and high photoactivity. These findings can rationalize the available experimental results and provide some new insights for designing CeO2-based photocatalysts with high photocatalytic performance.

  20. Influence of praseodymium and nitrogen co-doping on the photocatalytic activity of TiO{sub 2}

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Jing; Liu, Qingju; Gao, Pan; Zhu, Zhongqi

    2011-11-15

    Highlights: {yields} The praseodymium and nitrogen co-doped TiO{sub 2} (Pr-N-TiO{sub 2}) powders were prepared and characterized. {yields} The effects on the photocatalytic activity were studied. {yields} The results exhibit that the spectrum absorption region of the co-doped sample is red-shifted to visible light and the recombination of the photo-generated pairs is inhibited. {yields} The photocatalytic activity is greatly improved. -- Abstract: TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles co-doped with different doping concentration of Pr and N were prepared by sol-gel method combined with microwave chemical method. The samples were characterized by XRD, FT-IR, UV-vis, TEM, XPS, PL, and the photocatalytic activity were investigated by photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue (MB). The results indicate that Pr and N ions incorporate into the lattice of TiO{sub 2}, co-doping restrains the increase of grain size, broadens the absorption region to visible light, and inhibits the recombination of the photo-generated electrons and holes. Moreover, the photocatalytic activity of Pr-N-TiO{sub 2} is remarkable improved due to the synergistic effect of the co-doped ions. The degradation rate of MB in 6 h is 92.81%, which is much higher than that of Degussa P25 (45.01%).

  1. Cumulative effect of transition metals on nitrogen and fluorine co-doped graphite nanofibers: an efficient and highly durable non-precious metal catalyst for the oxygen reduction reaction.

    PubMed

    Peera, S Gouse; Arunchander, A; Sahu, A K

    2016-08-14

    Nitrogen and fluorine co-doped graphite nanofibers (N/F-GNF) and their cumulative effect with Fe and Co have been developed as an alternative non-precious metal catalyst for efficient oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) in acidic media. The synergistic effect between the doped hetero atoms and the co-ordinated Fe and Co towards ORR activity and durability of the catalyst is deeply investigated. A high ORR onset potential comparable with commercial Pt/C catalyst is observed with the Fe-Co/NF-GNF catalyst, which indicates that this catalyst is a potential alternative to Pt/C. A fivefold increase in mass activity is achieved by the Fe-Co/NF-GNF catalyst compared to the simple N/F-GNF catalyst, which endorses the significant role of transition metal atoms in enhancing ORR activity. The advanced Fe-Co/NF-GNF catalyst also exhibits complete tolerance to CH3OH and CO. The Fe-Co/NF-GNF catalyst also exhibits excellent durability towards the ORR with only a 10 mV negative shift in its half wave potential after a 10 000 repeated potential cycling test, whereas in the case of a commercial Pt/C catalyst there was an ∼110 mV negative shift under similar environmental conditions. More stringent corrosive test cycles were also performed by maintaining the cell as high as 1.4 V with a later decrease to 0.6 V vs. RHE for 300 cycles, which showed the excellent durability of the Fe-Co/NF-GNF catalyst in comparison with the Pt/C catalyst. XPS analysis of the Fe-Co/NF-GNF catalyst presents the ORR active chemical states of N (pyridinic-N and graphitic-N) and F (semi-ionic-F) and the co-ordinated sites of Fe and Co species with the dopants. The excellent performance and durability of the Fe-Co/NF-GNF catalyst is due to the synergistic effect between the hetero atoms dopants (N and F) and strong co-ordinating bonds of M-N-C, which protect the graphene layers around the metallic species and greatly mitigates the leaching of Co and Fe during the long term cycling test. The high activity

  2. Degradation of nitrobenzene using titania photocatalyst co-doped with nitrogen and cerium under visible light illumination.

    PubMed

    Shen, Xiang-Zhong; Liu, Zhi-Cheng; Xie, Shan-Mei; Guo, Jun

    2009-03-15

    A type of nitrogen and cerium co-doped titania photocatalyst, which could degrade nitrobenzene under visible light irradiation, was prepared by the sol-gel route. Titanium isopropoxide, ammonium nitrate, and cerium nitrate were used as the sources of titanium, nitrogen, and cerium, respectively. X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), UV-vis diffusive reflectance spectroscopy (DRS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and N(2) adsorption-desorption isotherm were employed to characterize the as-prepared photocatalyst. The degradation of nitrobenzene under visible light illumination was taken as probe reaction to evaluate the photoactivity of the co-doped photocatalyst. The commercial TiO(2) photocatalyst (Degussa P25), which was thought as a high active photocatalyst, was chosen as standard photocatalyst to contrast the photoactivity of the nitrogen and cerium co-doped titania photocatalyst. The results showed that the photocatalytic performance of the nitrogen and cerium co-doped titania was related with the calcination temperature and the component. The nitrogen atoms were incorporated into the crystal of titania and could narrow the band gap energy. The doping cerium atoms existed in the forms of Ce(2)O(3) and dispersed on the surface of TiO(2). The improvement of the photocatalytic activity was ascribed to the synergistic effects of the nitrogen and cerium co-doping.

  3. Enhanced dopant solubility and visible-light absorption in Cr-N co-doped TiO2 nanoclusters

    SciTech Connect

    Chiodi, Dr Mirco; Cheney, Christine; Vilmercati, Paolo; Cavaliere, Emanuele; Mannella, Norman; Gavioli, Luca; Weitering, Harm H

    2012-01-01

    A major obstacle toward employing TiO2 as an efficient photoactive material is related to its large optical band gap, strongly limiting visible light absorption. Substitutional doping with both donors and acceptors (co-doping) potentially leads to a significant band gap reduction, but the effectiveness of the co-doping approach remains limited by the low solubility of dopants inside TiO2. Here we show that nanostructured Cr and N co-doped TiO2 thin films can be obtained by Supersonic Cluster Beam Deposition (SCBD) with a high concentration of dopants and a strongly reduced band gap. Complementary spectroscopic investigations show that doping effectively occurs into substitutional lattice sites, inducing dopant levels in the gap that are remarkably delocalized. The high surface-to-volume ratio, typical of SCBD nanostructured films, likely facilitates the dopant incorporation. The present results indicate that SCBD films are highly promising photoactive nanophase materials.

  4. Fabrication and photoelectric properties of Er3+ and Yb3+ co-doped ZnO films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Wei; Wang, Xiangfu; Meng, Lan; Yan, Xiaohong

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, the Er3+ and Yb3+ co-doped ZnO films deposited by a novel thermal decomposition method under different annealing temperature process have been reported. The effects of annealing temperature on the morphology and properties of the films are systematically studied. The resulting spectra demonstrate that the Er3+ and Yb3+ co-doped ZnO films possessed the property of up-conversion, converting IR light into visible light that can be absorbed by amorphous silicon solar cell. After all, inner photoelectric effect of the Er3+ and Yb3+ co-doped ZnO films in the amorphous as a light scattering layer are also found with an infrared 980 nm laser as excitation source.

  5. W/Mo co-doped BiVO4 for photocatalytic treatment of polymer-containing wastewater in oilfield

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Ying; Li, Wei; Wan, Wenchao; Zhang, Ruiyang; Lin, Yuanhua

    2015-06-01

    Polymer flooding is an effective way to enhance oil recovery (EOR). However, the treatment of the oily wastewater becomes an urgent issue. Photocatalysis is a promising approach for this purpose. In this report, W/Mo co-doped BiVO4 particles are synthesized by hydrothermal method. W/Mo co-doping could promote an effective separation of photogenerated carriers reflecting from the 6 times higher photocurrent density compared to pure BiVO4. The photodegradation of partially hydrolyzed polyacrylamide (HPAM) over 0.5 at.% W and 1.5 at.% Mo co-doped BiVO4 is 43% under UV-vis light irradiation for 3 h, which is much higher than that of pure BiVO4 (18%).

  6. Cumulative effect of transition metals on nitrogen and fluorine co-doped graphite nanofibers: an efficient and highly durable non-precious metal catalyst for the oxygen reduction reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peera, S. Gouse; Arunchander, A.; Sahu, A. K.

    2016-07-01

    Nitrogen and fluorine co-doped graphite nanofibers (N/F-GNF) and their cumulative effect with Fe and Co have been developed as an alternative non-precious metal catalyst for efficient oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) in acidic media. The synergistic effect between the doped hetero atoms and the co-ordinated Fe and Co towards ORR activity and durability of the catalyst is deeply investigated. A high ORR onset potential comparable with commercial Pt/C catalyst is observed with the Fe-Co/NF-GNF catalyst, which indicates that this catalyst is a potential alternative to Pt/C. A fivefold increase in mass activity is achieved by the Fe-Co/NF-GNF catalyst compared to the simple N/F-GNF catalyst, which endorses the significant role of transition metal atoms in enhancing ORR activity. The advanced Fe-Co/NF-GNF catalyst also exhibits complete tolerance to CH3OH and CO. The Fe-Co/NF-GNF catalyst also exhibits excellent durability towards the ORR with only a 10 mV negative shift in its half wave potential after a 10 000 repeated potential cycling test, whereas in the case of a commercial Pt/C catalyst there was an ~110 mV negative shift under similar environmental conditions. More stringent corrosive test cycles were also performed by maintaining the cell as high as 1.4 V with a later decrease to 0.6 V vs. RHE for 300 cycles, which showed the excellent durability of the Fe-Co/NF-GNF catalyst in comparison with the Pt/C catalyst. XPS analysis of the Fe-Co/NF-GNF catalyst presents the ORR active chemical states of N (pyridinic-N and graphitic-N) and F (semi-ionic-F) and the co-ordinated sites of Fe and Co species with the dopants. The excellent performance and durability of the Fe-Co/NF-GNF catalyst is due to the synergistic effect between the hetero atoms dopants (N and F) and strong co-ordinating bonds of M-N-C, which protect the graphene layers around the metallic species and greatly mitigates the leaching of Co and Fe during the long term cycling test. The high activity and

  7. Structural and electronic properties of Mg and Mg-Nb co-doped TiO2 (101) anatase surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sasani, Alireza; Baktash, Ardeshir; Mirabbaszadeh, Kavoos; Khoshnevisan, Bahram

    2016-10-01

    In this paper, by using density functional theory, Mg and Nb-Mg co-doping of TiO2 anatase (101) surfaces are studied. By studying the formation energy of the defects and the bond length distribution of the surface, it is shown that Mg defects tend to stay as far as possible to induce least possible lattice distortion while Nb and Mg defects stay close to each other to cause less stress to the surface. By investigating band structure of the surface and changes stemmed from the defects, potential effects of Mg and Mg-Nb co-doping of TiO2 surface on dye-sensitized solar cells are investigated. In this study, it is shown that the Nb-Mg co-doping could increase JSC of the surface while slightly decreasing VOC compared to Mg doped surface, which might result in an increase in efficiency of the DSSCs compared to Nb or Mg doped surfaces.

  8. Enhanced photocatalytic properties of quantum-sized ZnO induced by La3+-Nd3+ co-doping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, S. X.; Zhu, T.; Xu, W. G.

    2009-09-01

    Nanoparticles of ZnO doped with La3+, Nd3+, co-doped with La3+ and Nd3+ were prepared using the sol-gel method. The samples were characterized by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD), UV-Vis spectroscopy (UV). The photocatalytic reactivities were evaluated by photodegradation of unsymmetrical dimethylhydrazine solution. Nanocrystalline ZnO co-doped with La3+ and Nd3+ at optimal concentration (2 at.% La3+ and 1.5 at.% Nd3+) shows a better synergistic effect, which significantly increases the photodegradation activity of nano-ZnO. The factors influencing photoreactivity of co-doped nanocrystalline ZnO have been discussed.

  9. Local structure investigation of (Co, Cu) co-doped ZnO nanocrystals and its correlation with magnetic properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiwari, N.; Doke, S.; Lohar, A.; Mahamuni, Shailaja; Kamal, C.; Chakrabarti, Aparna; Choudhary, R. J.; Mondal, P.; Jha, S. N.; Bhattacharyya, D.

    2016-03-01

    Pure, Co doped and (Co, Cu) co-doped ZnO nanocrystals have been prepared by wet chemical route at room temperature to investigate the effect of Cu doping in Co doped ZnO nanocrystals . The nanocrystals have initially been characterized by X-ray diffraction, FTIR, Raman, optical absorption and EPR spectroscopy and the results were corroborated with DFT based electronic structure calculations. Magnetic properties of the samples have been investigated by studying their magnetic hysteresis behavior and temperature dependence of susceptibilities. Finally the local structure at the host and dopant sites of the nanocrystals have been investigated by Zn, Co and Cu K edges EXAFS measurements with synchrotron radiation to explain their experimentally observed magnetic properties.

  10. Rapid synthesis of Co, Ni co-doped ZnO nanoparticles: Optical and electrochemical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romeiro, Fernanda C.; Marinho, Juliane Z.; Lemos, Samantha C. S.; de Moura, Ana P.; Freire, Poliana G.; da Silva, Luis F.; Longo, Elson; Munoz, Rodrigo A. A.; Lima, Renata C.

    2015-10-01

    We report for the first time a rapid preparation of Zn1-2xCoxNixO nanoparticles via a versatile and environmentally friendly route, microwave-assisted hydrothermal (MAH) method. The Co, Ni co-doped ZnO nanoparticles present an effect on photoluminescence and electrochemical properties, exhibiting excellent electrocatalytic performance compared to undoped ZnO sample. Photoluminescence spectroscopy measurements indicated the reduction of the green-orange-red visible emission region after adding Co and Ni ions, revealing the formation of alternative pathways for the generated recombination. The presence of these metallic ions into ZnO creates different defects, contributing to a local structural disorder, as revealed by Raman spectra. Electrochemical experiments revealed that the electrocatalytic oxidation of dopamine on ZnO attached to multi-walled carbon nanotubes improved significantly in the Co, Ni co-doped ZnO samples when compared to pure ZnO.

  11. Phosphorus and Halogen Co-Doped Graphene Materials and their Electrochemistry.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lu; Sofer, Zdenek; Zboril, Radek; Cepe, Klara; Pumera, Martin

    2016-10-17

    Doping of graphene materials with heteroatoms is important as it can change their electronic and electrochemical properties. Here, graphene is co-doped with n-type dopants such as phosphorus and halogen (Cl, Br, I). Phosphorus and halogen are introduced through the treatment of graphene oxide with PX3 gas (PCl3 , PBr3 , and PI3 ). Graphene oxides are prepared through chlorate and permanganate routes. Detailed chemical and structural characterization demonstrates that the graphene sheets are covered homogeneously by phosphorus and halogen atoms. It is found that the amount of phosphorus and halogen introduced depends on the graphene oxide preparation method. The electrocatalytic effect of the resulting co-doped materials is demonstrated for industrially relevant electrochemical reactions such as the hydrogen evolution and oxygen reduction reactions.

  12. Absence of dipolar ordering in Co doped CuO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaudhary, N. Vijay Prakash; Murthy, J. Krishna; Venimadhav, A.

    2016-12-01

    Polycrystalline CuO samples with Co doping were prepared by solid state method with flowing oxygen condition and examined their structural and multiferroic properties. Structural studies have confirmed single phase monoclinic crystal structure of all samples, however, in Co doped samples a decrease in volume with an increase in monoclinic distortion is found. For pristine sample, temperature dependent magnetization has confirmed two antiferromagnetic (AFM) transitions at 213 K and 230 K and frequency independent dielectric peaks at these AFM transitions suggesting the ferroelectric nature. Magnetization of the Co doped samples has showed a marginal increase in ordering temperature of the high-temperature AFM transition and decrease in low temperature AFM ordering temperature. Further, doped samples have shown giant dielectric constant with no signature of ferroelectricity. The X-ray photoelectric spectroscopy study has revealed multiple valance states for both Co and Cu in the doped samples that simultaneously explain the giant dielectric constant and suppression of ferroelectric order.

  13. Polymer-assisted deposition of co-doped zinc oxide thin films for the detection of aromatic organic compounds.

    PubMed

    Li, Wei; Kim, Dojin

    2011-12-01

    Co-doped Zinc oxide thin films are deposited onto SiO2/Si substrate by polymer-assisted deposition method. The surface morphology, structures and chemical states of the thin films are examined by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The gas-sensing properties of the thin films upon exposure to aromatic organic compound vapors are also investigated. Co-doping is shown to be very effective in enhancing the response of ZnO thin film to aromatic organic compound.

  14. Synthesis of N, F and S co-doped graphene quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kundu, Sumana; Yadav, Ram Manohar; Narayanan, T. N.; Shelke, Manjusha V.; Vajtai, Robert; Ajayan, P. M.; Pillai, Vijayamohanan K.

    2015-07-01

    Graphene quantum dots (GQDs) are a promising category of materials with remarkable size dependent properties like tunable bandgap and photoluminescence along with the possibility of effective chemical functionalization. Doping of GQDs with heteroatoms is an interesting way of regulating their properties. Herein, we report a facile and scalable one-step synthesis of luminescent GQDs, substitutionally co-doped with N, F and S, of ~2 nm average size by a microwave treatment of multi-walled carbon nanotubes in a customized ionic liquid medium. The use of an ionic liquid coupled with the use of a microwave technique enables not only an ultrafast process for the synthesis of co-doped GQDs, but also provides excellent photoluminescence quantum yield (70%), perhaps due to the interaction of defect clusters and dopants.Graphene quantum dots (GQDs) are a promising category of materials with remarkable size dependent properties like tunable bandgap and photoluminescence along with the possibility of effective chemical functionalization. Doping of GQDs with heteroatoms is an interesting way of regulating their properties. Herein, we report a facile and scalable one-step synthesis of luminescent GQDs, substitutionally co-doped with N, F and S, of ~2 nm average size by a microwave treatment of multi-walled carbon nanotubes in a customized ionic liquid medium. The use of an ionic liquid coupled with the use of a microwave technique enables not only an ultrafast process for the synthesis of co-doped GQDs, but also provides excellent photoluminescence quantum yield (70%), perhaps due to the interaction of defect clusters and dopants. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: PLQY calculation, MWCNT synthetic details, TGA analysis and tabular format of GQD synthesis processes. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr02427g

  15. Growth study and photocatalytic properties of Co-doped tungsten oxide mesocrystals

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Shibin; Chang, Xueting; Li, Zhenjiang

    2012-11-15

    Cobalt-doped tungsten oxide mesocrystals with different morphologies have been successfully generated using a solvothermal method with tungsten hexachloride and cobalt chloride salts as precursors. The resulting mesocrystals were characterized by X-ray diffraction, field emission scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, Brunauer-Emmet-Teller analysis of nitrogen sorptometer, and UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. The photocatalytic properties of the cobalt-doped tungsten oxide mesocrystals were evaluated on the basis of their ability to degrade methyl orange in an aqueous solution under simulated sunlight irradiation. Results showed that the cobalt doping had obvious effect on the morphologies of the final products, and lenticular and blocky cobalt-doped tungsten oxide mesocrystals could be obtained with 1.0 wt.% and 2.0 wt.% cobalt doping, respectively. The cobalt-doped tungsten oxides exhibited superior photocatalytic activities to that of the undoped tungsten oxide. - Graphical abstract: Schematic illustrations of the growth of the bundled nanowires, lenticular mesocrystals, and blocky mesocrystals. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Co-doped W{sub 18}O{sub 49} mesocrystals were synthesized using a solvothermal method. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The Co doping has obvious effect on the morphology of the final mesocrystals. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The Co-doped W{sub 18}O{sub 49} exhibited superior photocatalytic activity to the undoped W{sub 18}O{sub 49}.

  16. Color tunable ZnO nanorods by Eu and Tb co-doping for optoelectronic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pal, Partha P.; Manam, J.

    2014-07-01

    Eu/Tb co-doped ZnO nanorods were prepared by co-precipitation method and the effect of Eu-Tb co-doping was studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high resolution transmission electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), UV-Vis-NIR diffuse reflectance (DR) and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy. The XRD pattern shows typical peak pattern for pure hexagonal wurtzite structure to match with the JCPDS data. The samples are found to be consisting of nanorods of diameter 20-30 nm as revealed by the TEM image. The FTIR pattern confirms the formation of the compounds. The DR study was carried to show the variation of absorption edge and the variation in band gap values, which showed the crystal size effect in the co-doped sample of different rare-earth ratios. The room temperature PL study shows bright emission spectra for the samples with different rare-earth ratios. It shows a very good energy transfer from Tb to Eu ions. The energy transfer mechanism and color tunability were discussed thoroughly.

  17. Effect of Co doping on sinterability and protonic conductivity of BaZr0.1Ce0.7Y0.1Yb0.1O3-δ for protonic ceramic fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wan, Yanhong; He, Beibei; Wang, Ranran; Ling, Yihan; Zhao, Ling

    2017-04-01

    During the application of protonic ceramic fuel cells (PCFCs), Co species derived from Co-containing cathodes readily diffuse into electrolyte layer. In this study, the influence of cobalt doping on the sintering and protonic conducting properties of BaZr0.1Ce0.7Y0.1Yb0.1O3-δ (BZCYYb) electrolytes is evaluated. The Co-doped BZCYYb oxides prepared by a sol-gel way exhibit the orthorhombic perovskite structure. A trade-off relation between the sinterability and protonic conductivity of Co doped BZCYYb oxides is identified. Furthermore, BaZr0.1Ce0.68Y0.1Yb0.1Co0.02O3-δ (BZCYYbC2) with a compromise between sinterability and protonic conductivity is further applied as electrolyte of a single cell. The single cell with BZCYYbC2 electrolyte demonstrates a competitive power density of 0.67 W cm-2 at 700 °C.

  18. Effect of the concentration of the dopants (Er3 +, Yb3 + and Zn2 +) and temperature on the upconversion emission behavior of Er3 +/Yb3 + co-doped SrAl2O4 phosphor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choudhary, Ajay Kumar; Dwivedi, A.; Bahadur, A.; Rai, S. B.

    2017-10-01

    Er3 +/Yb3 + co-doped SrAl2O4 (SRA: Er3 +, Yb3 +) phosphor has been synthesized by high temperature solid state reaction technique. The pure phase formation has been confirmed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements. The surface morphology is studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) technique. The FTIR measurements give the information of vibrational bands arising due to sample. The intense UC emission from SRA: Er3 +, Yb3 + phosphor has been monitored on excitation with 980 nm diode laser. The SRA: Er3 +, Yb3 + samples prepared at 1473 K show a dominant green emission. On the other hand it shows dominant red emission when the sample is heated to 1623 K. Variation of concentration of Er3 + and Yb3 + ions in SRA: Er3 +, Yb3 + phosphor suggests two possible mechanisms involved in UC emission process viz. cross relaxation (CR) process and energy back transfer (EBT) process, respectively. The cross relaxation mechanism seems to play a major role. The UC emission efficiency is enhanced several times on co-doping of Zn2 + ion replacing Al3 + or Sr2 + in SRA: Er3 +, Yb3 + phosphor sample. The color of the UC emission can be tuned from green to red region by varying the concentration of zinc.

  19. Rapid synthesis of Co, Ni co-doped ZnO nanoparticles: Optical and electrochemical properties

    SciTech Connect

    Romeiro, Fernanda C.; Marinho, Juliane Z.; Lemos, Samantha C.S.; Moura, Ana P. de; Freire, Poliana G.; Silva, Luis F. da; Longo, Elson; Munoz, Rodrigo A.A.; Lima, Renata C.

    2015-10-15

    We report for the first time a rapid preparation of Zn{sub 1−2x}Co{sub x}Ni{sub x}O nanoparticles via a versatile and environmentally friendly route, microwave-assisted hydrothermal (MAH) method. The Co, Ni co-doped ZnO nanoparticles present an effect on photoluminescence and electrochemical properties, exhibiting excellent electrocatalytic performance compared to undoped ZnO sample. Photoluminescence spectroscopy measurements indicated the reduction of the green–orange–red visible emission region after adding Co and Ni ions, revealing the formation of alternative pathways for the generated recombination. The presence of these metallic ions into ZnO creates different defects, contributing to a local structural disorder, as revealed by Raman spectra. Electrochemical experiments revealed that the electrocatalytic oxidation of dopamine on ZnO attached to multi-walled carbon nanotubes improved significantly in the Co, Ni co-doped ZnO samples when compared to pure ZnO. - Graphical abstract: Rapid synthesis of Co, Ni co-doped ZnO nanoparticles: optical and electrochemical properties. Co, Ni co-doped ZnO hexagonal nanoparticles with optical and electrocatalytic properties were successfully prepared for the first time using a microwave hydrothermal method at mild conditions. - Highlights: • Co{sup 2+} and Ni{sup 2+} into ZnO lattice obtained a mild and environmentally friendly process. • The heating method strongly influences in the growth and shape of the particles. • Short-range defects generated by the ions insertion affects the photoluminescence. • Doped ZnO nanoparticles improve the electrocatalytic properties of pure oxide.

  20. Preparation and photocatalytic activity of nonmetal Co-doped titanium dioxide photocatalyst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Xiaogang; Xing, Jun; Qiu, Jingping

    2016-06-01

    A series of boron and sulfur co-doped titanium dioxide (TiO2) photocatalysts were prepared by a sol-gel method using boric acid, thiourea and tetrabutyl titanate [Ti(OC4H9)4] as precursors. The photoabsorbance of as-prepared photocatalysts was measured by UV-Vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS), and its microstructure was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and N2 adsorption-desorption measurements. The prepared photocatalysts consisted of the anatase phase mainly in the form of spherical particles. The photocatalytic performance was studied by photodegradation of methyl blue (MB) in water under UV and visible light irradiation. The calcination temperature and the codoping content influenced the photoactivity. The synergistic effect of boron and sulfur co-doping played an important role in improving the photocatalytic activity. In addition, the possibility of cyclic usage of codoped TiO2 was also confirmed, the photocatalytic activity of TiO2 remained above 91% of that of the fresh sample after being used four times. It was shown that the co-doped TiO2 could be activated by visible light and could thus be potentially applied for the treatment of water contaminated by organic pollutants.

  1. Synthesis of Ga-doped Ge-based apatites: Effect of dopant and cell symmetry on oxide ion conductivity

    SciTech Connect

    Kendrick, E.; Slater, P.R.

    2008-12-01

    Apatite-type rare earth silicates/germanates are attracting significant interest as a new class of oxide ion conductors. For the germanates, La{sub 9.33+x}(GeO{sub 4}){sub 6}O{sub 2+3x/2}, it has been shown that, depending on composition, the cell can be either hexagonal or triclinic, with evidence for reduced low temperature conductivities for the latter, attributed to increased defect trapping in this lower symmetry cell. In this paper the effect of Ga doping on the cell symmetry and conductivity is reported, with the observation of triclinic cells across the series La{sub 10}(GeO{sub 4}){sub 6-x}(GaO{sub 4}){sub x}O{sub 3-x/2}. Through co-doping with Y on the La site, i.e. La{sub 8}Y{sub 2}(GeO{sub 4}){sub 6-x}(GaO{sub 4}){sub x}O{sub 3-x/2}, it is shown that hexagonal cells are obtained, and the dependence of the conductivity on oxygen content/Ga content is discussed. In particular it is shown that the stabilisation of the hexagonal cell through Y doping enhances the low temperature conductivity.

  2. Charge defects and highly enhanced multiferroic properties in Mn and Cu co-doped BiFeO3 thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Guohua; Tan, Guoqiang; Luo, Yangyang; Liu, Wenlong; Xia, Ao; Ren, Huijun

    2014-06-01

    Pure BiFeO3 (BFO) and Mn, Cu co-doped BiFeO3 (BFMCO) thin films were deposited on fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO) substrates by a chemical solution deposition method. Detailed investigations were made on the effects of Mn and Cu co-doping on the crystal structure, the defect chemistry, multiferroic properties of the BFO thin films. With the co-doping of Mn and Cu, a structural transition from the rhombohedral (R3c:H) to the biphasic structure (R3c:H + P1) is confirmed by XRD, Rietveld refinement and Raman analysis. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis shows that the coexistence of Fe2+/Fe3+ and Mn2+/Mn3+ ions in the co-doping films are demonstrated. Meanwhile, the way of the co-doping at B-sits is conducive to suppress Fe valence state of volatility and to decrease oxygen vacancies and leakage current. It's worth noting that the co-doping can induce the superior ferroelectric properties (a huge remanent polarization, 2Pr ∼ 220 μC/cm2 and a relatively low coercive field, 2Ec ∼ 614 kV/cm). The introduction of Mn2+ and Cu2+ ions optimizes the magnetic properties of BFO thin films by the biphasic structure and the destruction of spin cycloid.

  3. Er{sup 3+}/Yb{sup 3+}co-doped bismuth molybdate nanosheets upconversion photocatalyst with enhanced photocatalytic activity

    SciTech Connect

    Adhikari, Rajesh; Gyawali, Gobinda; Cho, Sung Hun; Narro-García, R.; Sekino, Tohru; Lee, Soo Wohn

    2014-01-15

    In this paper, we report the microwave hydrothermal synthesis of Er{sup 3+}/Yb{sup 3+} co-doped Bi{sub 2}MoO{sub 6} upconversion photocatalyst. Crystal structure, morphology, elemental composition, optical properties and BET surface area were analyzed in detail. Infrared to visible upconversion luminescence at 532 nm and 546 nm of the co-doped samples was investigated under excitation at 980 nm. The results revealed that the co-doping of Er{sup 3+}/Yb{sup 3+} into Bi{sub 2}MoO{sub 6} exhibited enhanced photocatalytic activity for the decomposition of rhodamine B under simulated solar light irradiation. Enhanced photocatalytic activity can be attributed to the energy transfer between Er{sup 3+}/Yb{sup 3+} and Bi{sub 2}MoO{sub 6} via infrared to visible upconversion from Er{sup 3+}/Yb{sup 3+} ion and higher surface area of the Bi{sub 2}MoO{sub 6} nanosheets. Therefore, this synthetic approach may exhibit a better alternative to fabricate upconversion photocatalyst for integral solar light absorption. - Graphical abstract: Schematic illustration of the upconversion photocatalysis. Display Omitted - Highlights: • Er{sup 3+}/Yb{sup 3+} co-doped Bi{sub 2}MoO{sub 6} upconversion photocatalyst is successfully synthesized. • We obtained the nanosheets having high surface area. • Upconversion of IR to visible light was confirmed. • Upconversion phenomena can be utilized for effective photocatalysis.

  4. Effects of In and Ga interdiffusion on the optical gain of InGaN/GaN quantum well

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Chii-Chang; Hsueh, Tao-Hung; Ting, Yi-Sheng; Chi, Gou-Chung; Chang, Chin-An

    2001-11-01

    In this study, we analyze the effects of thermal annealing by calculating the optical gain in the InGaN/GaN quantum well. The interdiffusion of Ga and In atoms across the interface of the well and the barrier resulting from thermal treatments is described by Fick's law. The strong piezoelectric effect due to lattice mismatch in the InGaN/GaN quantum well is also considered in the calculation. The results confirm that the thermal annealing can induce an increase of the optical gain. However, an excessive annealing might result in decreasing the optical gain in the InGaN/GaN quantum well. The maximum optical gain can be obtained at a diffusion length of 4Å of In and Ga atoms. There is a good agreement between the experimental data in literature and the optimized diffusion length studied in this work.

  5. Effects of Li+ ions on the enhancement of up-conversion emission in Ho3+-Yb3+ co-doped transparent glass-ceramics containing Ba2LaF7 nanocrystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhencai; Zhou, Dacheng; Yang, Yong; Gao, Yuan; Ren, Peng; Qiu, Jianbei

    2016-10-01

    The up-conversion (UC) emission of Ho3+-Yb3+ and Li+ co-doped transparent glass ceramics 45SiO2-15Al2O3-12Na2CO3-21BaF2-7LaF3-0.2HoF3-1YbF3-xLi2CO3 (x = 0, 0.5, 1, 2, 4 and 6 mol%) containing Ba2LaF7 nanocrystals were investigated. These glass ceramics samples were prepared using the conventional quenching techniques. The Ba2LaF7 nanocrystals precipitated from the glass matrix was confirmed by X-ray diffraction (XRD). Compared with the glass ceramics sample without Li+, the UC emission intensity of glass ceramics samples with Li+ were enhanced. It can be proved that the Li+ can affect the enhancement up-conversion (UC) emission. Particularly, the green UC emission intensity band centered at 546 nm was strongly increased twice with the concentration of Li+ increasing up to 4 mol%. Through the comparison and analysis of the energy graph, it was shown that the 5F4/5S2→5I8 transition of Ho3+ ion obtained the green (546 nm) light. There are two weak fluorescences in the red (657 nm) region and near infrared (753 nm) region of spectrum, which is the 5F4/5S2→5I7 and 5F5→5I8 transition of Ho3+. Therefore, the emission results showed that the incorporation of Li+ ions into the Ba2LaF7:Eu3+ lattice could induce a remarkable change of the emission intensity in red region (R = IED/IMD) with 393 nm excitation wavelength. It was indicated that the symmetry of the lattice was destroyed by Li+ in glass ceramics. The possible mechanism responsible for the enhancement of UC emission in Ho-Yb co-doped was discussed.

  6. Spectroscopic properties and energy transfer in Er-Tm co-doped bismuth silicate glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xin; Li, Zhilan; Li, Kefeng; Zhang, Lei; Cheng, Jimeng; Hu, Lili

    2013-10-01

    In this paper, we investigate the spectroscopic properties of and energy transfer processes in Er-Tm co-doped bismuth silicate glass. The Judd-Ofelt parameters of Er3+ and Tm3+ are calculated, and the similar values indicate that the local environments of these two kinds of rare earth ions are almost the same. When the samples are pumped at 980 nm, the emission intensity ratio of Tm:3F4 → 3H6 to Er:4I13/2 → 4I15/2 increases with increased Er3+ and Tm3+ contents, indicating energy transfer from Er:4I13/2 to Tm:3F4. When the samples are pumped at 800 nm, the emission intensity ratio of Er:4I13/2 → 4I15/2 to Tm:3H4 → 3F4 increases with increased Tm2O3 concentration, indicating energy transfer from Tm:3H4 to Er:4I13/2. The rate equations are given to explain the variations. The microscopic and macroscopic energy transfer parameters are calculated, and the values of energy transfer from Er:4I13/2 to Tm:3F4 are found to be higher than those of the other processes. For the Tm singly-doped glass pumped at 800 nm and Er-Tm co-doped glass pumped at 980 nm, the pumping rate needed to realize population reversion is calculated. The result shows that when the Er2O3 doping level is high, pumping the co-doped glass by a 980 nm laser is an effective way of obtaining a low-threshold ˜2 μm gain.

  7. Co-doping of CVD diamond with boron and sulfur

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eaton, Sally Catherine

    Boron is well-established as a p-type dopant in diamond, but attempts to find a viable n-type dopant remain unsuccessful. In 1999, sulfur was reported to give n-type conductivity. However, later measurements indicated that the samples contained boron and were p-type. Recently, we showed that diamond co-doped with sulfur and small quantities of boron shows n-type conductivity, which was established by Mott-Schottky analyses, thermoelectric effect, Hall measurements, scanning tunneling spectroscopy (STS), and UV open-circuit photo-potential. At higher boron concentrations, a transition to p-type behavior is observed due to overcompensation. Experiments performed without boron in the feed gas or without residual boron in the reactor chamber showed no sulfur incorporation and no change in conductivity. There is evidence that the excess sulfur concentration in the near-surface region is not stable. At room temperature and below, the activation energies range from 0.06 to 0.12 eV. Above 400K there is an irreversible loss in conductivity and the activation energy increases to approximately 1.3 eV. Additionally, we observed by SIMS that there exists a concentration gradient in sulfur with film depth. This sulfur concentration gradient is also observed in our electrical measurements. STS shows a decrease in conductivity with film depth and Hall effect measurements show both p-type and n-type coefficients for samples which are n-type in the near-surface region. The flat-band potential obtained from the Mott-Schottky experiments is only 1 to 1.5 V more negative on the electrochemical scale than that for boron-doped diamond. This implies that the Fermi level is only 1 to 1.5 eV higher than the Fermi level in boron-doped diamond. This observation implies that the n-type conductivity is not by excitation of electrons to the conduction band, but by an alternate mechanism that occurs in the middle of the band gap. One such possibility is an acceptor impurity band. Electrons from

  8. Photocatalytic performance of nitrogen, osmium co-doped TiO2 for removal of eosin yellow in water under simulated solar radiation.

    PubMed

    Kuvarega, Alex T; Krause, Rui W M; Mamba, Bhekie B

    2013-07-01

    Nitrogen, osmium co-doped TiO2 photocatalysts were prepared by a modified sol-gel method using ammonia as the nitrogen source and osmium tetroxide as the source of osmium. The role of rutile phase OsO2 in enhancing the photocatalytic activity of rutile TiO2 towards the degradation of Eosin Yellow was investigated. The materials were characterised by various techniques that include FTIR, Raman, XRD, SEM, EDS, TEM, TGA and DRUV-Vis. The amorphous, oven dried sample was transformed to the anatase and then the rutile phase with increasing calcination temperature. DRUV-Vis analysis revealed a red shift in absorption with increasing calcination temperature, confirmed by a decrease in the band gap of the material. The photocatalytic activity of N, Os co-doped TiO2 was evaluated using eosin yellow degradation and activity increased with increase in calcination temperature under simulated solar irradiation. The rutile phase of the co-doped TiO2 was found to be more effective in degrading the dye (k(a) = 1.84 x 10(-2) min(-1)) compared to the anatase co-doped phase (k(a) = 9.90 x 10(-3) min(-1)). The enhanced photocatalytic activity was ascribed to the synergistic effects of rutile TiO2 and rutile OsO2 in the N, Os co-doped TiO2.

  9. Efficient visible upconversion luminescence in Er3+ and Er3+/Yb3+ co-doped Y2O3 phosphors obtained by solution combustion reaction.

    PubMed

    Singh, Vijay; Haritha, P; Venkatramu, V; Kim, S H

    2014-05-21

    Combustion derived Er(3+) -doped Y2O3 and Er(3+)/Yb(3+)co-doped Y2O3 powders have been characterized by X-ray diffraction, energy dispersive X-ray analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and laser excited spectroscopy. Formation of Y2O3 phosphor was confirmed by X-ray diffraction and energy dispersive X-ray analysis. The vibrational properties of Y2O3 powder was studied by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The luminescence spectra of Er(3+) -doped and Er(3+)/Yb(3+) co-doped Y2O3 powders were studied under 379nm excitation. The strong up-conversion luminescence for Er(3+) -doped and Er(3+)/Yb(3+) co-doped Y2O3 powders have been observed under 978nm laser excitation. The effect of Yb(3+) addition on optical and luminescence properties of Er(3+):Y2O3 powders were studied. The ratio of red to green intensity has been enhanced when Er(3+) -doped Y2O3 is co-doped with Yb(3+) ions. The effect of co-doping of Yb(3+) ions on the visible luminescence intensity of Er(3+) has been studied and the mechanism responsible for the variation in the green and red intensity is discussed.

  10. Highly piezoelectric co-doped AlN thin films for wideband FBAR applications.

    PubMed

    Yokoyama, Tsuyoshi; Iwazaki, Yoshiki; Onda, Yosuke; Nishihara, Tokihiro; Sasajima, Yuichi; Ueda, Masanori

    2015-06-01

    We report piezoelectric materials composed of charge-compensated co-doped (Mg, β)(x)Al(1-x)N (β = Zr or Hf) thin films. The effect of the dopant element into AlN on the crystal structure, and piezoelectric properties of co-doped AlN was determined on the basis of a first-principles calculation, and the theoretical piezoelectric properties were confirmed by experimentally depositing thin films of magnesium (Mg) and zirconium (Zr) co-doped AlN (Mg-Zr-doped AlN). The Mg-Zrdoped AlN thin films were prepared on Si (100) substrates by using a triple-radio-frequency magnetron reactive co-sputtering system. The crystal structures and piezoelectric coefficients (d33) were investigated as a function of the concentrations, which were measured by X-ray diffraction and a piezometer. The results show that the d33 of Mg-Zr-doped AlN at total Mg and Zr concentrations (both expressed as β) of 0.35 was 280% larger than that of pure AlN. The experimentally measured parameter of the crystal structure and d33 of Mg-Zr-doped AlN (plotted as functions of total Mg and Zr concentrations) were in very close agreement with the corresponding values obtained by the first-principle calculations. Thin film bulk acoustic wave resonators (FBAR) employing (Mg,Zr)0.13Al0.87N and (Mg, Hf)0.13 Al0.87N as a piezoelectric thin film were fabricated, and their resonant characteristics were evaluated. The measured electromechanical coupling coefficient increased from 7.1% for pure AlN to 8.5% for Mg-Zr-doped AlN and 10.0% for Mg- Hf-doped AlN. These results indicate that co-doped (Mg, β)(x)Al(1-x)N (β = Zr or Hf) films have potential as piezoelectric thin films for wideband RF applications.

  11. Effect of Ga on the Wettability of CuGa10 on 304L Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silze, Frank; Wiehl, Gunther; Kaban, Ivan; Kühn, Uta; Eckert, Jürgen; Pauly, Simon

    2015-08-01

    In the present work, the effect of Ga on the wetting behavior of the Cu-rich braze filler CuGa10 (wt pct, Cu90.8Ga9.2 at. pct) on the steel 304L was investigated. For this, the macroscopic and microscopic effects governing the wetting of pure Ga, pure Cu, and CuGa10 alloy (wt pct) on the austenitic steel were analyzed and compared. Contact angle and surface tension measurements were carried out by means of the sessile drop technique, and, in addition, the phase formation at the interface was determined. Pure liquid Ga spreads on 304L, which supposedly is related to the formation of intermetallic Fe-Ga phases growing into the liquid Ga. Depending on the annealing time, FeGa3 and Fe14.5Ga12 were identified. In contrast, CuGa10 as well as pure Cu shows secondary wetting on the steel surface. Especially, liquid Cu prefers spreading laterally and vertically along the grain boundaries of the steel substrate. In spite of rather similar mechanisms, CuGa10 wets 304L steel at lower rate than pure Cu above the liquidus temperature.

  12. Characterization of the new co-doped CsI microcolumnar films for high-speed radiographic imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thacker, Samta C.; Gaysinskiy, Valeriy; Ovechkina, Lena E.; Miller, Stuart R.; Nagarkar, Vivek V.; Brecher, Charles; Lempicki, Alexander; Bartram, Ralph H.

    2008-03-01

    Despite its obvious advantages, well known CsI:Tl scintillator has two characteristic properties that undermine its use in clinical and high speed imaging: the presence of an afterglow component in its scintillation decay, and a hysteresis effect that causes drift in the scintillation yield after exposure to high radiation doses. We have previously reported that the addition of a second dopant, Sm 2+, to the CsI:Tl crystals, significantly suppresses both afterglow and hysteresis. Here we report on the fabrication and characterization of the Sm co-doped CsI:Tl microcolumnar films to examine if these properties are preserved in films as well. Our preliminary data suggests that the Sm co-doped CsI:Tl films significantly improve temporal response relative to their CsI:Tl counterpart, and that the newly developed films demonstrate excellent spatial resolution. Various aspects of these effects and their consequences for imaging performance are discussed in this paper.

  13. Light-induced degradation in p-type gallium co-doped solar grade multicrystalline silicon wafers and solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Xianpei; Cai, Lihan; Fan, Baodian; Cheng, Haoran; Zheng, Songsheng; Chen, Chao

    2013-12-01

    This letter focuses on the evolution under illumination of the minority carrier lifetime and conversion efficiency of p-type gallium (Ga) co-doped solar grade multicrystalline silicon wafers and solar cells. We present experimental data regarding the concentration of boron-oxygen (B-O) defects in this silicon when subjected to illumination, and the concentration was found to depend on [B]-[P] rather than [B] or the net doping p0([B] + [Ga] - [P]). This result implies that the compensated B is unable to form the B-O defect. Minority carrier lifetime and EQE measurements at different degradation states indicate that the B-O defect and Fe-acceptor pairs are the two key centers contributed to LID in this material.

  14. Toward an ultra-broadband emission source based on the bismuth and erbium co-doped optical fiber and a single 830nm laser diode pump.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jianzhong; Sathi, Zinat M; Luo, Yanhua; Canning, John; Peng, Gang-Ding

    2013-03-25

    We demonstrate a broadband optical emission from Bi/Er co-doped fiber and a single 830nm laser diode pump. The ultra-broadband mechanism is studied and discussed in details based on a combination of experimental measurements, including luminescence, differential luminescence and ESA, on fiber samples of different Bi and Er concentrations. The Er co-doping in Bi doped fiber is found to be effective for broadband emission, by enhancing not only luminescence at C and L bands but also that at O and shorter wavelength bands. The luminescence intensity between 1100 and 1570nm is over -45dBm/5nm in single mode fiber using a few meters of Bi/Er co-doped fiber and offers a modest ~40dB dynamic range and a broad bandwidth of ~470nm for an OSA based spectral measurement.

  15. Effect of silicon doping in InGaN/GaN heterostructure grown by MOCVD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Surender, S.; Pradeep, S.; Prabakaran, K.; Singh, Shubra; Baskar, K.

    2017-05-01

    In this work the effect of Si doped InGaN/GaN heterostructure is systematically studied. The n-InGaN /GaN heterostructure are grown on c-plane sapphire substrate by horizontal flow Metal Organic Chemical Vapor Deposition (MOCVD). The heterostructure samples are investigated by structural, optical, morphological and electrical studies using High Resolution X-ray diffraction (HRXRD), room temperature Photoluminescence (PL), Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) and Hall measurement respectively. The composition of indium in n-InGaN/GaN heterostructure was calculated as 15.9% using epitaxy smooth fit software. The energy band gap (Eg) of the InGaN epilayer has been calculated as 2.78 eV using vigard's law. PL emission obtained at 446 nm for n-InGaN epilayer. AFM results indicate that the Si doped InGaN/GaN heterostructure has the root mean square (rms) roughness of about 0.59 nm for a scan area of 5×5 µm2 which has island like growth. Moreover, Hall measurements results shows that Si doped InGaN/GaN heterostructure possess carrier concentration of 4.2 × 1018cm-3 and mobility of 257 cm2/V s at room temperature.

  16. Thermoelectric performance of co-doped SnTe with resonant levels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Min; Gibbs, Zachary M.; Wang, Heng; Han, Yemao; Li, Laifeng; Snyder, G. Jeffrey

    2016-07-01

    Some group III elements such as Indium are known to produce the resonant impurity states in IV-VI compounds. The discovery of these impurity states has opened up new ways for engineering the thermoelectric properties of IV-VI compounds. In this work, resonant states in SnTe were studied by co-doping with both resonant (In) and extrinsic (Ag, I) dopants. A characteristic nonlinear relationship was observed between the Hall carrier concentration (nH) and extrinsic dopant concentration (NI, NAg) in the stabilization region, where a linear increase of dopant concentration does not lead to linear response in the measured nH. Upon substituting extrinsic dopants beyond a certain amount, the nH changed proportionally with additional dopants (Ag, I) (the doping region). The Seebeck coefficients are enhanced as the resonant impurity is introduced, whereas the use of extrinsic doping only induces minor changes. Modest zT enhancements are observed at lower temperatures, which lead to an increase in the average zT values over a broad range of temperatures (300-773 K). The improved average zT obtained through co-doping indicates the promise of fine carrier density control in maximizing the favorable effect of resonant levels for thermoelectric materials.

  17. Thermoelectric performance of co-doped SnTe with resonant levels

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Min; Han, Yemao; Li, Laifeng E-mail: wangheng83@gmail.com; Gibbs, Zachary M.; Wang, Heng E-mail: wangheng83@gmail.com; Snyder, G. Jeffrey

    2016-07-25

    Some group III elements such as Indium are known to produce the resonant impurity states in IV-VI compounds. The discovery of these impurity states has opened up new ways for engineering the thermoelectric properties of IV-VI compounds. In this work, resonant states in SnTe were studied by co-doping with both resonant (In) and extrinsic (Ag, I) dopants. A characteristic nonlinear relationship was observed between the Hall carrier concentration (n{sub H}) and extrinsic dopant concentration (N{sub I}, N{sub Ag}) in the stabilization region, where a linear increase of dopant concentration does not lead to linear response in the measured n{sub H}. Upon substituting extrinsic dopants beyond a certain amount, the n{sub H} changed proportionally with additional dopants (Ag, I) (the doping region). The Seebeck coefficients are enhanced as the resonant impurity is introduced, whereas the use of extrinsic doping only induces minor changes. Modest zT enhancements are observed at lower temperatures, which lead to an increase in the average zT values over a broad range of temperatures (300–773 K). The improved average zT obtained through co-doping indicates the promise of fine carrier density control in maximizing the favorable effect of resonant levels for thermoelectric materials.

  18. Preparation of nitrogen and sulfur co-doped ordered mesoporous carbon for enhanced microwave absorption performance.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Xiaoyan; Xue, Xingkun; Ma, Hailong; Guo, Shouwu; Cheng, Laifei

    2017-09-15

    Ordered mesoporous carbon nanomaterials (OMCs) co-doped with homogeneous nitrogen and sulfur heteroatoms were prepared by nanocasting with the pyrrole oligomer catalyzed by sulfuric acid as a precursor and ordered mesoporous silica SBA-15 as a hard-template. By multi-technique approach utilization, it was demonstrated that the N and S co-doped OMCs possessed high ordered mesoporous structures, large surface areas and homogeneous distribution of heteroatoms. As a microwave absorber, the as-prepared materials exhibited a minimum reflection loss (RL) of -32.5 dB at the thickness of 2.5 mm and an absorption bandwidth of 3.2 GHz (RL < -10 dB) in X-band (8.2-12.4 GHz). The good microwave absorption performance was mainly originated from the high electrical conductivity induced by the high surface activity and special structures. And microwave energy can be effectively attenuated through multiple reflections and absorptions in complex conductive network. The design strategy in this work would contribute to the production of a lightweight absorber, presenting a strong absorbency and a wide bandwidth in microwave frequency.

  19. Optimizing thermochromic VO2 by co-doping with W and Sr for smart window applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dietrich, Marc K.; Kuhl, Florian; Polity, Angelika; Klar, Peter J.

    2017-04-01

    Smart windows possess the potential to contribute significantly to reducing the world-wide energy consumption in the future. The properties of the thermochromic metal oxide VO2 are closest to the material requirements set by economic considerations for the use as an active layer in thermochromic glazings. We show that the required parameters can be achieved by modifying VO2 on the atomic level, i.e., by simultaneous co-doping with Sr and W on the cation site. In particular, the transition temperature ϑ c can be adjusted in the range between 15 and 68 °C by varying W contents, whereas the incorporation of Sr mainly increases the band gap yielding a greyish color of the films. Interestingly, the simultaneous presence of W and Sr enhances both effects. The co-doping leads to values of the luminous transmittance T lum and the solar transmittance T sol fulfilling the requirements set by application. The variation of the solar transmittance Δ T sol of the plain thin films on a glass substrate already is larger than 5% for all samples promising that the required value of Δ T sol = 10 % is achievable by using such thin films as part of an optically engineered multilayer system.

  20. Photocatalytic decomposition of perfluorooctanoic acid by iron and niobium co-doped titanium dioxide.

    PubMed

    Estrellan, Carl Renan; Salim, Chris; Hinode, Hirofumi

    2010-07-15

    The photocatalytic decomposition of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) in aqueous solution using Fe and Nb co-doped TiO(2) (Fe:Nb-TiO(2)) prepared by sol-gel method was investigated. The photocatalytic activity of Fe:Nb-TiO(2) towards PFOA degradation was compared to that of pure TiO(2) synthesized using the same method, and that of the commercially available TiO(2) photocatalyst, Aeroxide TiO(2) P25 (AO-TiO(2) P25). The photocatalysts were characterized by XRD, DRS, BET-N(2) adsorption isotherm, and SEM-EDX techniques and the data were correlated to the photocatalytic activity. Fe:Nb-TiO(2) showed the highest activity compared to the undoped TiO(2) and the commercially available TiO(2). Such activity was attributable to the effects of co-doping both on the physico-chemical properties and surface interfacial charge transfer mechanisms. Perfluorocarboxylic acids (PFCAs) with shorter carbon chain length and fluoride ions were identified as photocatalytic reaction intermediates and products.

  1. Preparation of nitrogen and sulfur co-doped ordered mesoporous carbon for enhanced microwave absorption performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Xiaoyan; Xue, Xingkun; Ma, Hailong; Guo, Shouwu; Cheng, Laifei

    2017-09-01

    Ordered mesoporous carbon nanomaterials (OMCs) co-doped with homogeneous nitrogen and sulfur heteroatoms were prepared by nanocasting with the pyrrole oligomer catalyzed by sulfuric acid as a precursor and ordered mesoporous silica SBA-15 as a hard-template. By multi-technique approach utilization, it was demonstrated that the N and S co-doped OMCs possessed high ordered mesoporous structures, large surface areas and homogeneous distribution of heteroatoms. As a microwave absorber, the as-prepared materials exhibited a minimum reflection loss (RL) of -32.5 dB at the thickness of 2.5 mm and an absorption bandwidth of 3.2 GHz (RL < -10 dB) in X-band (8.2-12.4 GHz). The good microwave absorption performance was mainly originated from the high electrical conductivity induced by the high surface activity and special structures. And microwave energy can be effectively attenuated through multiple reflections and absorptions in complex conductive network. The design strategy in this work would contribute to the production of a lightweight absorber, presenting a strong absorbency and a wide bandwidth in microwave frequency.

  2. Direct view at colossal permittivity in donor-acceptor (Nb, In) co-doped rutile TiO{sub 2}

    SciTech Connect

    Mandal, Suman Pal, Somnath; Hazarika, Abhijit; Kundu, Asish K.; Menon, Krishnakumar S. R.; Rioult, Maxime; Belkhou, Rachid

    2016-08-29

    Topical observations of colossal permittivity (CP) with low dielectric loss in donor-acceptor cations co-doped rutile TiO{sub 2} have opened up several possibilities in microelectronics and energy-storage devices. Yet, the precise origin of the CP behavior, knowledge of which is essential to empower the device integration suitably, is highly disputed in the literature. From spectromicroscopic approach besides dielectric measurements, we explore that microscopic electronic inhomogeneities along with the nano-scale phase boundaries and the low temperature polaronic relaxation are mostly responsible for such a dielectric behavior, rather than electron-pinned defect-dipoles/grain-boundary effects as usually proposed. Donor-acceptor co-doping results in a controlled carrier-hopping inevitably influencing the dielectric loss while invariably upholding the CP value.

  3. Optical properties of Ce(3+)-Nd(3+) co-doped YAG nanoparticles for visual and near-infrared biological imaging.

    PubMed

    Wang, Q; Qiu, J B; Song, Z G; Yang, Z W; Yin, Z Y; Zhou, D C

    2015-01-01

    Ce(3+)-Nd(3+) co-doped Y3Al5O12 (YAG) nanoparticles, an average size of 20-30 nm clusters aggregated by 8-10 nm YAG nanoparticles, were synthesized by a solvothermal method. When excited by blue irradiation source, strong and broad yellow luminescence (centered at 526 nm) from Ce(3+) as well as near-infrared (NIR) luminescence (890, 1066 and 1335 nm) of Nd(3+) was observed simultaneously. It occurred by the effective dipole-dipole energy transfer from Ce(3+) to Nd(3+). Energy transfer efficiency from Ce(3+) to Nd(3+) was also calculated to be 50%. The optical property suggests that Ce(3+)-Nd(3+) co-doped YAG nanoparticles can be used as an efficient fluorescence imaging agent for not only visual but also near-infrared imaging. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Optical Properties of Mg, Fe, Co-Doped Near-Stoichiometric LiTaO3 Single Crystals

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Wei Tse; Chen, Zhi Bin; Wu, Chien Cheng; Choubey, Ravi Kant; Lan, Chung Wen

    2012-01-01

    Mg, Fe co-doped near-stoichiometric lithium tantalite (SLT) single crystals were grown by employing the zone-leveling Czochralski (ZLCz) technique. The optical properties, holographic parameters, as well as the composition of the grown crystals were measured. It was found that the Li/Ta ratio decreased with the doping of Mg and Fe ions. A red shift was observed in absorption spectrum for the Mg, Fe co-doped crystals compared to the undoped and Mg-doped ones. The effect of the iron ions (Fe2+ and Fe3+) was further discussed based on the specified absorption bands. Moreover, the occupation mechanism for the defects was discussed by using the IR absorption spectrum, which was attributed to the FeTa3− defects in the highly Fe-doped crystal. In addition, the holographic parameters were also found to be improved with a higher Fe/Ta ratio in the crystals. PMID:28817041

  5. Cobalt and sulfur co-doped nano-size TiO2 for photodegradation of various dyes and phenol.

    PubMed

    Siddiqa, Asima; Masih, Dilshad; Anjum, Dalaver; Siddiq, Muhammad

    2015-11-01

    Various compositions of cobalt and sulfur co-doped titania nano-photocatalyst are synthesized via sol-gel method. A number of techniques including X-ray diffraction (XRD), ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis), Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS), thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), Raman, N2 sorption, electron microscopy are used to examine composition, crystalline phase, morphology, distribution of dopants, surface area and optical properties of synthesized materials. The synthesized materials consisted of quasispherical nanoparticles of anatase phase exhibiting a high surface area and homogeneous distribution of dopants. Cobalt and sulfur co-doped titania demonstrated remarkable structural and optical properties leading to an efficient photocatalytic activity for degradation of dyes and phenol under visible light irradiations. Moreover, the effect of dye concentration, catalyst dose and pH on photodegradation behavior of environmental pollutants and recyclability of the catalyst is also examined to optimize the activity of nano-photocatalyst and gain a better understanding of the process.

  6. Local structure analysis of diluted magnetic semiconductor Co and Al co-doped ZnO nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Hyodo, K.; Morimoto, S.; Yamazaki, T.; Ishikawa, T.; Ichiyanagi, Y.; Utsumi, J.

    2016-02-01

    In this study, Co and Al ions co-doped ZnO nanoparticles (Zn(Al, Co)O NPs) were prepared by our original chemical preparation method. The obtained samples prepared by this method, were encapsulated in amorphous SiO{sub 2}. X-ray diffraction (XRD) results showed Zn(Al, Co)O NPs had a single-phase nature with hexagonal wurtzite structure. These particle sizes could be controlled to be approximately 30 nm. We investigate the effect that the increase in the carrier has on the magnetization by doping Al to Co-doped ZnO NPs. The local structures were qualitatively analyzed using X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) measurements.

  7. Direct view at colossal permittivity in donor-acceptor (Nb, In) co-doped rutile TiO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandal, Suman; Pal, Somnath; Kundu, Asish K.; Menon, Krishnakumar S. R.; Hazarika, Abhijit; Rioult, Maxime; Belkhou, Rachid

    2016-08-01

    Topical observations of colossal permittivity (CP) with low dielectric loss in donor-acceptor cations co-doped rutile TiO2 have opened up several possibilities in microelectronics and energy-storage devices. Yet, the precise origin of the CP behavior, knowledge of which is essential to empower the device integration suitably, is highly disputed in the literature. From spectromicroscopic approach besides dielectric measurements, we explore that microscopic electronic inhomogeneities along with the nano-scale phase boundaries and the low temperature polaronic relaxation are mostly responsible for such a dielectric behavior, rather than electron-pinned defect-dipoles/grain-boundary effects as usually proposed. Donor-acceptor co-doping results in a controlled carrier-hopping inevitably influencing the dielectric loss while invariably upholding the CP value.

  8. Bioinspired synthesis of nitrogen/sulfur co-doped graphene as an efficient electrocatalyst for oxygen reduction reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Huanhuan; Liu, Xiangqian; He, Guangli; Zhang, Xiaoxing; Bao, Shujuan; Hu, Weihua

    2015-04-01

    Efficient electrocatalyst of oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) is crucial for a variety of renewable energy applications and heteroatom-doped carbon materials have demonstrated promising catalytic performance towards ORR. In this paper we report a bioinspired method to synthesize nitrogen/sulfur (N/S) co-doped graphene as an efficient ORR electrocatalyst via self-polymerization of polydopamine (PDA) thin layer on graphene oxide sheets, followed by reacting with cysteine and finally thermal annealing in Argon (Ar) atmosphere. As-prepared N/S co-doped graphene exhibits significantly enhanced ORR catalytic activity in alkaline solution compared with pristine graphene or N-doped graphene. It also displays long-term operation stability and strong tolerance to methanol poison effect, indicating it a promising ORR electrocatalyst.

  9. Electric double layer capacitors employing nitrogen and sulfur co-doped, hierarchically porous graphene electrodes with synergistically enhanced performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kannan, Aravindaraj G.; Samuthirapandian, Amaresh; Kim, Dong-Won

    2017-01-01

    Hierarchically porous graphene nanosheets co-doped with nitrogen and sulfur are synthesized via a simple hydrothermal method, followed by a pore activation step. Pore architectures are controlled by varying the ratio of chemical activation agents to graphene, and its influence on the capacitive performance is evaluated. The electric double layer capacitor (EDLC) assembled with optimized dual-doped graphene delivers a high specific capacitance of 146.6 F g-1 at a current density of 0.8 A g-1, which is higher than that of cells with un-doped and single-heteroatom doped graphene. The EDLC with dual-doped graphene electrodes exhibits stable cycling performance with a capacitance retention of 94.5% after 25,000 cycles at a current density of 3.2 A g-1. Such a good performance can be attributed to synergistic effects due to co-doping of the graphene nanosheets and the presence of hierarchical porous structures.

  10. Co-Doped Zn1-xCdxS nanocrystals from metal-organic framework precursors: porous microstructure and efficient photocatalytic hydrogen evolution.

    PubMed

    Tang, Xiu; Zhao, Jia-Hui; Li, Yu-Han; Zhou, Zi-Ji; Li, Kui; Liu, Fu-Tian; Lan, Ya-Qian

    2017-08-15

    Nanoporous Co-doped Zn1-xCdxS were facilely fabricated via adopting ZIFs as templates, and Cd(NO3)2 and thiourea as precursors. The highly porous microstructure and uniform Co-doping of the photocatalyst afford a high H2-production rate (45.2 and 422.2 times larger than those of Zn0.5Cd0.5S and CdS), providing an effective way for the development of high performance nanoporous photocatalysts.

  11. Preparation and characterization of zinc and copper co-doped WO3 nanoparticles: Application in photocatalysis and photobiology.

    PubMed

    Mohammadi, Sanaz; Sohrabi, Maryam; Golikand, Ahmad Nozad; Fakhri, Ali

    2016-08-01

    In this study, pure, Zn, Cu, Zn,Cu co-doped WO3 nanoparticles samples were prepared by precipitation and co-precipitation methods. These nanoparticles were characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDX), Dynamic light scattering (DLS), UV-visible and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy. The synthesized pure, Zn, Cu, Zn,Cu co-doped WO3 nanoparticles have smart optical properties and average sizes with 3.2, 3.12, 3.08 and 2.97eV of band-gap, 18.1, 23.2, 25.7 and 30.2nm, respectively. Photocatalytic activity of four nanoparticles was studying towards degradation of gentamicin antibiotic under ultraviolet and visible light irradiation. The result showed that Zn,Cu co-doped WO3 possessed high photocatalytic activity. The photocatalytic activity of WO3 nanoparticles could be remarkably increased by doping the Zn and Cu impurity. This can be attributed to the fact that the red shift of absorption edge and the trapping effect of the mono and co-doped WO3 nanoparticles. The research result presents a general and effective way to prepare different photocatalysts with enhanced visible and UV light-driven photocatalytic performance. Antibacterial activity of four different WO3 nanoparticles against Escherichia coli bacterium has been assessed by the agar disc method under light irradiation and dark medium. It is concluded from the present findings that WO3 nanoparticles can be used as an efficient antibacterial agent.

  12. Co-precipitation synthesis and characterization of Co doped SnO2 NPs, HSA interaction via various spectroscopic techniques and their antimicrobial and photocatalytic activities.

    PubMed

    Nasir, Zeba; Shakir, Mohammad; Wahab, Rizwan; Shoeb, Mohd; Alam, Parvez; Khan, Rizwan Hasan; Mobin, Mohammad; Lutfullah

    2017-01-01

    Sn1-xCoxO2 (x=0.00, 0.01, 0.03, 0.05) nanoparticles (NPs) of average size ∼30-40nm were synthesized by co-precipitation method. The interaction of Co doped SnO2 NPs with human serum albumin (HSA) and their photocatalytic and antimicrobial properties were studied. The structural analysis and morphology of Co doped SnO2 NPs were analysed via X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). Besides the structural and morphological analysis, the interaction of Co doped SnO2 NPs with HSA were studied by UV-vis, Circular dichroism (CD) and fluorescence spectroscopy. Fluorescence quenching results suggest that Co doped SnO2 NPs interact with an HSA molecule through static mechanism. CD indicates that α-helicity of HSA increases due to the interaction of Co doped SnO2 NPs. The photocatalytic activities of the NPs with increased doping concentration were evaluated through a degradation process in the presence of methylene-blue (MB) dye under UV light irradiation, which exhibited that the surface area of NPs with increased doping concentration plays a major role in improving the photocatalytic activity. The antimicrobial effect of undoped and Co-doped SnO2 NPs was determined using agar-well diffusion method and analyzed against gram-positive bacteria (Bacillus Cereus MC 2434). In our results, we have found that as the doping concentration increases into NPs, zone of inhibition increases, which could be ascribed to the production of ROS and large surface area of the NPs.

  13. Intense up-conversion luminescence in Er3+/Yb3+ co-doped CeO2 powders.

    PubMed

    Singh, Vijay; Rathaiah, M; Venkatramu, V; Haase, Markus; Kim, S H

    2014-03-25

    The Er(3+) and Er(3+)/Yb(3+) co-doped CeO2 powders have been prepared by a urea combustion route. The structural, morphological, compositional and vibrational analysis of the Er(3+):CeO2 and Er(3+)/Yb(3+):CeO2 powders have been studied by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The optical and luminescence properties of Er(3+):CeO2 and Er(3+)/Yb(3+):CeO2 powders have been studied by using laser excited spectroscopy. The effects of Yb(3+) doping on up-conversion luminescence of Er(3+) co-doped CeO2 powders were studied. The ratio of red to green intensity is decreased in Er(3+):CeO2 whereas the ratio is increased in Er(3+)/Yb(3+):CeO2 powders with increase of power. The effect of co-doping with the Yb(3+) ions on the visible luminescence of Er(3+) and the energy transfer mechanism responsible for the variation in the green and red intensity are discussed. The results indicate that these materials may be suitable for display and light emitting devices.

  14. Nitrogen and cobalt co-doped zinc oxide nanowires - Viable photoanodes for hydrogen generation via photoelectrochemical water splitting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patel, Prasad Prakash; Hanumantha, Prashanth Jampani; Velikokhatnyi, Oleg I.; Datta, Moni Kanchan; Hong, Daeho; Gattu, Bharat; Poston, James A.; Manivannan, Ayyakkannu; Kumta, Prashant N.

    2015-12-01

    Photoelectrochemical (PEC) water splitting has been considered as a promising and environmentally benign approach for efficient and economic hydrogen generation by utilization of solar energy. Development of semiconductor materials with low band gap, high photoelectrochemical activity and stability has been of particular interest for a viable PEC water splitting system. In this study, Co doped ZnO, .i.e., (Zn0.95Co0.05)O nanowires (NWs) was selected as the composition for further co-doping with nitrogen by comparing solar to hydrogen efficiency (SHE) of ZnO NWs with that of various compositions of (Zn1-xCox)O NWs (x = 0, 0.05, 0.1). Furthermore, nanostructured vertically aligned Co and N-doped ZnO, .i.e., (Zn1-xCox)O:N NWs (x = 0.05) have been studied as photoanodes for PEC water splitting. An optimal SHE of 1.39% the highest reported so far to the best of our knowledge for ZnO based photoanodes was obtained for the co-doped NWs, (Zn0.95Co0.05)O:N - 600 NWs generated at 600 °C in ammonia atmosphere. Further, (Zn0.95Co0.05)O:N-600 NWs exhibited excellent photoelectrochemical stability under illumination compared to pure ZnO NWs. These promising results suggest the potential of (Zn0.95Co0.05)O:N-600 NWs as a viable photoanode in PEC water splitting cell. Additionally, theoretical first principles study conducted explains the beneficial effects of Co and N co-doping on both, the electronic structure and the band gap of ZnO.

  15. Controlled fabrication of oriented co-doped ZnO clustered nanoassemblies.

    PubMed

    Barick, K C; Aslam, M; Dravid, Vinayak P; Bahadur, D

    2010-09-01

    Clustered nanoassemblies of Mn doped ZnO and co-doped ZnO (Mn, Sn co-doped ZnO; Mn, Sb co-doped ZnO; and Mn, Bi co-doped ZnO) were prepared by refluxing their respective precursors in diethylene glycol medium. The co-doping elements, Sn, Sb and Bi exist in multi oxidation states by forming Zn-O-M (M=Sb, Bi and Sn) bonds in hexagonal wurtzite nanostructure. The analyses of detailed structural characterization performed by XRD, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), show that co-doping ions are successfully incorporated into the ZnO nanostructure and do not appear as precipitates or secondary phases. HRTEM analysis also confirmed the oriented attachment of nanocrystals as well as their defect structures. The formation/activation of higher amount of intrinsic host defects, for instance, oxygen vacancies in co-doped ZnO as compared to Mn doped ZnO sample is evident from Raman spectra. The doped and co-doped samples exhibit ferromagnetic like behavior at room temperature presumably due to the presence of defects. Specifically, it has been observed that the incorporation of dopant and co-dopants into ZnO structure can modulate the local electronic structure due to the formation/activation of defects and hence, cause significant changes in their structural, vibrational, optical and magnetic properties.

  16. Structural and magnetic properties of Co-doped ZnO thin films grown by ultrasonic spray pyrolysis method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baghdad, R.; Lemée, N.; Lamura, G.; Zeinert, A.; Hadj-Zoubir, N.; Bousmaha, M.; Bezzerrouk, M. A.; Bouyanfif, H.; Allouche, B.; Zellama, K.

    2017-04-01

    Cobalt-doped ZnO thin films with several different percentage of Co from 0 up to 15 at% were synthesized via a cheap, simple and versatile method i.e. ultrasonic spray pyrolysis at atmospheric pressure and a substrate temperature of 350 °C. The structure of the as-prepared samples was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy and FTIR. The Co-doping effect is revealed by the presence of three additional peaks around 235, 470 and 538 cm-1 respect to the Raman spectra of the unsubstituted film. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) put in evidence the decrease of the bond force constant f with increasing Co-doping. By ultra-violet visible near infrared (UV-Vis-NIR) spectroscopy on Co-doped samples it was possible to show the presence of additional absorption bands at approximately 570, 620 and 660 nm suggesting that Co2+ ions do not change their oxidation when substituted to zinc and the ZnO lattice does not change its wurtzite structure as well. Finally, all our samples exhibit a paramagnetic behavior without any trace of intrinsic room temperature ferromagnetism.

  17. Structural, Optical, and Magnetic Properties of Solution-Processed Co-Doped ZnS Thin Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goktas, A.; Mutlu, İ. H.

    2016-11-01

    Co-doped ZnS thin films have been grown on glass substrates using solution-processing and dip-coating techniques, and the impact of the Co doping level (0% to 5%) and film thickness on certain characteristics examined. X-ray diffraction study revealed that all the films possessed hexagonal crystal structure. Energy-dispersive x-ray analysis confirmed presence of Zn, Co, and S in the samples. Scanning electron microscopy showed that the film surface was homogeneous and dense with some cracks and spots. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy confirmed introduction and integration of Co2+ ions into the ZnS thin films. Compared with undoped ZnS, optical studies indicated a reduction in optical bandgap energy ( E g) while the refractive index ( n), extinction coefficient ( k), and dielectric constants ( ɛ 1, ɛ 2) increased with film thickness ( t) and Co doping level (except for 5%). Photoluminescence spectra showed enhanced luminescence intensity as the Co concentration was increased, while the dependence on t showed an initial increase followed by a decrease. The origin of the observed low-temperature (5 K and 100 K) ferromagnetic order may be related to point defects such as zinc vacancies, zinc interstitials, and sulfide vacancies or to the grain-boundary effect.

  18. Structural transitions and enhanced ferroelectricity in Ca and Mn co-doped BiFeO3 thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Ji-Zhou; Shen, Yang; Li, Ming; Nan, Ce-Wen

    2011-11-01

    Ca and Mn co-doped BiFeO3 (BFO) thin films were fabricated on (111) Pt/Ti/SiO2/Si substrates via a simple solution approach. Enhanced ferroelectric properties were obtained in these Ca and Mn co-doped BFO films, e.g., large remnant polarization value (Pr ˜ 89 μC/cm2) and large remnant polarization to saturated polarization ratio (Pr/Ps ˜ 0.84) for Bi0.90Ca0.10Fe0.90Mn0.10O3 film. X-ray diffraction and Raman spectra of these films showed that B-site Mn doping causes substantial structural transition toward orthorhombic phase and A-site Ca doping facilitates an evolution to tetragonal phase with higher crystal symmetry. The structural transitions are in favor of enhanced ferroelectric properties in the BFO films. The approach of A and B site co-doping is proved to be effective in enhancing ferroelectric performance in multiferroic BFO films.

  19. RETRACTED: Investigation of structural, optical and electronic properties in Al-Sn co-doped ZnO thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Zhanchang; Tian, Xinlong; Wu, Shoukun; Yu, Xia; Li, Zhuliang; Deng, Jianfeng; Xiao, Chumin; Hu, Guanghui; Wei, Zhigang

    2013-01-01

    This article has been retracted: please see Elsevier Policy on Article Withdrawal (http://www.elsevier.com/locate/withdrawalpolicy). This article has been retracted at the request of the Editor-in-Chief. Figures 3 and 4 of this paper have also been presented as belonging to other materials in other publications. This observation is evidence of fraud and therefore it is not certain that the described research and conclusions of this paper belong to the presented images. Figures 3 and 4 of this paper can also be found in: Effect of annealing on the structures and properties of Al and F co-doped ZnO nanostructures, Materials Science in Semiconductor Processing, 2014, 17, 162-167, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mssp.2013.09.023 Highly transparent and conductive Sn/F and Al co-doped ZnO thin films prepared by sol-gel method, Journal of Alloys and Compounds, 2014,583, 32-38, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jallcom.2013.06.192 Properties of fluorine and tin co-doped ZnO thin films deposited by sol-gel method, Journal of Alloys and Compounds, 2013,576, 31-37, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jallcom.2013.04.132

  20. AlGaN/GaN field effect transistors for power electronics—Effect of finite GaN layer thickness on thermal characteristics

    SciTech Connect

    Hodges, C. Anaya Calvo, J.; Kuball, M.; Stoffels, S.; Marcon, D.

    2013-11-11

    AlGaN/GaN heterostructure field effect transistors with a 150 nm thick GaN channel within stacked Al{sub x}Ga{sub 1−x}N layers were investigated using Raman thermography. By fitting a thermal simulation to the measured temperatures, the thermal conductivity of the GaN channel was determined to be 60 W m{sup −1} K{sup −1}, over 50% less than typical GaN epilayers, causing an increased peak channel temperature. This agrees with a nanoscale model. A low thermal conductivity AlGaN buffer means the GaN spreads heat; its properties are important for device thermal characteristics. When designing power devices with thin GaN layers, as well as electrical considerations, the reduced channel thermal conductivity must be considered.

  1. Ferromagnetic semiconductor nanoclusters: Co-doped Cu2O

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antony, Jiji; Qiang, You; Faheem, Muhammad; Meyer, Daniel; McCready, David E.; Engelhard, Mark H.

    2007-01-01

    5% Co-doped cuprous oxide dilute magnetic semiconducting cluster film composed of two different sizes of crystalline nanoclusters, prepared using sputtering-aggregation technique is found to be ferromagnetic at 400K. With the increase in average crystallite size from 4.2to8nm, the coercivity increased. Magnetic field up to 2T is applied and saturation magnetization is achieved at 3kOe field in both cases. Cu2O phase is observed from cluster film deposited on Si wafer when analyzed using x-ray diffraction. Co in Cu2O host reveals a +2 oxidation state via x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Positive magnetoresistance from samples exhibits a temperature dependent decrease.

  2. Effects of surface barrier layer in AlGaAs/GaAs solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urabe, Hiroyuki; Kuramoto, Makoto; Nakano, Tomohiro; Kawaharazuka, Atsushi; Makimoto, Toshiki; Horikoshi, Yoshiji

    2015-09-01

    In this paper, we report the effects of surface barrier layers on the characteristics of AlGaAs/GaAs solar cells. The external quantum efficiency (EQE) spectra for AlGaAs barrier samples with different barrier layer AlAs fractions and thickness of the surface barrier layer were measured to increase the solar cell efficiency. The results show that the surface barrier layer is effective to block diffusing photoexcited electrons to the surface while the thicker barrier layer absorbs higher energy photons to generate carriers which recombine at the surface. The optimal surface barrier structure is a 50 nm thick Al0.7Ga0.3As.

  3. Monte Carlo simulation of the kinetic effects on GaAs/GaAs(001) MBE growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ageev, Oleg A.; Solodovnik, Maxim S.; Balakirev, Sergey V.; Mikhaylin, Ilya A.; Eremenko, Mikhail M.

    2017-01-01

    The molecular beam epitaxial growth of GaAs on the GaAs(001)-(2×4) surface is investigated using a kinetic Monte Carlo-based method. The developed algorithm permits to focus on the kinetic effects in a wide range of growth conditions and enables considerable computational speedup. The simulation results show that the growth rate has a dramatic influence upon both the island morphology and Ga surface diffusion length. The average island size reduces with increasing growth rate while the island density increases with increasing growth rate as well as As4/Ga beam equivalent pressure ratio. As the growth rate increases, the island density becomes weaker dependent upon the As4/Ga pressure ratio and approaches to a saturation value. We also discuss three characteristics of Ga surface diffusion, namely a diffusion length of a Ga adatom deposited first, an average diffusion length, and an island spacing as an average distance between islands. The calculations show that the As4/Ga pressure ratio dependences of these characteristics obey the same law, but with different coefficients. An increase of the As4/Ga pressure ratio leads to a decrease in both the diffusion length and island spacing. However, its influence becomes stronger with increasing growth rate for the first Ga adatom diffusion length and weaker for the average diffusion length and for the island spacing.

  4. Enhanced photocatalytic degradation of humic acids using Al and Fe co-doped TiO2 nanotubes under UV/ozonation for drinking water purification.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Rongfang; Zhou, Beihai; Hua, Duo; Shi, Chunhong

    2013-11-15

    O3/UV/TiO2 was used to effectively decompose humic acids (HAs) in drinking water. To obtain a large specific surface area and low band gap energy, Al and Fe co-doped TiO2 nanotubes were successfully synthesized using the hydrothermal method. The effect of the optimal co-doped TiO2 nanotubes catalyst on the HAs removal efficiency through O3/UV/co-doped TiO2 process was investigated. The highest HAs removal efficiency (79.4%) that exhibited a pseudo-first-order rate constant of 0.172 min(-1) was achieved, in the presence of 550 °C calcined 1.0% co-doped TiO2 nanotubes with an Al:Fe ratio of 0.25:0.75. The effects of calcination temperature and doping concentration on anatase phase weight fractions, average crystallite sizes, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller surface area, catalyst band gap energy, and catalyst photocatalytic activity were also discussed. The inorganic anions also affected the catalyst photocatalytic ability. In a neutral solution, SO4(2-) slightly promoted HAs removal. However, HCO3(-) was found to significantly inhibit the catalyst activity, whereas Cl(-) had negligible effect on photocatalytic ability.

  5. Nitrogen/phosphorus co-doped nonporous carbon nanofibers for high-performance supercapacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Xiaodong; Liu, Yuan; Fan, Xiaorong; Jia, Xiaolong; Yu, Yunhua; Yang, Xiaoping

    2014-02-01

    This study demonstrates a facile and effective approach to prepare nitrogen/phosphorus co-doped nonporous carbon nanofibers (N/P-NPCNFs) through the electrospinning of the polyacrylonitrile and phosphoric acid precursor solutions and subsequent thermal treatment. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analyses show that the contents of phosphorus and pyrrol-like nitrogen in N/P-NPCNFs can be tuned by controlling the amount of phosphoric acid. The maximum specific capacitance of 224.9 F g-1 is achieved at 0.5 A g-1 in 1 M H2SO4. Furthermore, the specific capacitance could still remain 155.5 F g-1 at 30 A g-1 with a high capacitance retention ratio of 70%. It is worth noting that no capacitance loss is observed over 8000 charge/discharge cycles, clearly demonstrating a robust long-term stability. The excellent electrochemical performance can be attributed to the synergetic effect of nitrogen and phosphorus functionalities.

  6. Synthesis and characterization of aluminum–boron co-doped ZnO nanostructures

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, Vinod; Singh, R.G.; Singh, Neetu; Kapoor, Avinashi; Mehra, R.M.; Purohit, L.P.

    2013-02-15

    Graphical abstract: In this paper, we have reported the development of aluminum boron co-doped ZnO (AZB) nanostructures deposited by sol–gel method using spin coating technique. The structure of AZB nanostructure films has been found to exhibit the hexagonal wurtzite structure. The shape of nanostructures has been changed from seed structure to tetra-pods, tetra-pods to nanorods and finally nanorods to nanofiber with variation in Al concentration. The structural, electrical and optical properties of AZB nanostructures are tuned with shape and size of the nanostructures. The effect of Al concentration on the resistivity (ρ), carrier concentration (n) and mobility (μ) of nanostructure films is shown in graph below. A minimum resistivity of 6.8 × 10{sup −4} Ω cm is obtained in AZB films at doping concentration of B 0.6 at.% and Al 0.4 at.% with a sheet resistance of 24 Ω/□ and transmittance of ∼88% for nanorods structure. These nanostructures could be applicable for a various nano-regime devices such as photovolatics, gas sensing and field emission device. Display Omitted Highlights: ► Synthesis of Al and B co-doped ZnO (AZB) nanostructures. ► Minimum resistivity (ρ) of 6.8 × 10{sup −4} Ω cm in AZB films. ► Minimum sheet resistance (R{sub s}) 24 Ω/□ in nanorods (NRs). ► Maximum transmittance ∼88% in NRs. ► Application in nano-electronic devices. -- Abstract: In this paper, we have reported the development of aluminum boron co-doped ZnO (AZB) nanostructures deposited by sol–gel method using spin coating technique. The structure of AZB nanostructure films has been found to exhibit the hexagonal wurtzite structure. The shape of AZB nanostructures has changed from seed structure to tetra-pods, tetra-pods to nanorods and finally to nanofibers with increase in aluminum concentration. The structural, electrical and optical properties of AZB films are tuned with shape and size of the nanostructures. These AZB nanostructures could be

  7. Photogalvanic effects for interband absorption in AlGaN /GaN superlattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, K. S.; Chen, Y. F.; Tang, Y. Q.; Shen, B.

    2007-01-01

    The linear and circular photogalvanic effects (CPGEs), induced by ultraviolet (325nm) radiation, have been observed in the (0001)-oriented Al0.15Ga0.85N/GaN superlattices. The CPGE current changes sign upon reversing the radiation helicity, and it is up to two orders of magnitude larger than that obtained by far-infrared radiation. This result suggests the existence of a sizeable Rashba spin splitting in AlGaN /GaN superlattices. It also provides a possibility for the generation of spin orientation-induced current at room temperature.

  8. Ga content and thickness inhomogeneity effects on Cu(In, Ga)Se2 solar modules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Xiaobo; Cheng, Tzu-Huan; Liu, Chee Wee

    2016-07-01

    The fluctuation of Ga content and absorption layer thickness of Cu(In, Ga)Se2 (CIGS) solar modules is investigated by 3-dimensional numerical simulation. The band gap of CIGS is increased by the increasing Ga content, and the residual compressive strain. Strain effect worsens the degradation of the power conversion efficiency of CIGS module in addition to Ga fluctuation. The intracell Ga fluctuation degrades the open circuit voltage due to the minimum open circuit voltage in the parallel configuration, and also affects the short circuit current due to the Ga-dependent light absorption. The intercell Ga fluctuation leads to a more significant degradation for CIGS solar module efficiency than the intracell Ga fluctuation due to the additional degradation of the fill factor. The thickness fluctuation has a small effect on open circuit voltage, but causes strong degradation of short circuit current and fill factor, which leads to a more significant degradation on power conversion efficiency than Ga fluctuation to the same fluctuation percentage. In reality, the thickness can be tightly controlled within the fluctuation of 5% or less. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  9. Hydrothermal synthesis and characterization of fluorine & manganese co-doped PZT based cuboidal shaped powder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nawaz, H.; Shuaib, M.; Saleem, M.; Rauf, A.; Aleem, A.

    2016-08-01

    Cuboidal shaped PZT powder particles based composition Pb0.89(Ba, Sr)0.11(Zr0.52Ti0.48)O3 co- doped with 1 mol% manganese and 2 mol% fluorine was prepared through hydrothermal route. 200-250nm size cuboidal particles were observed under FE-SEM. XRD technique revealed that the perovskite type ceramic structure has a dominant rhombohedral phase. The resultant powder particles were then spray dried, uniaxially pressed and sintered at different temperatures to achieve maximum theoretical density. 98% density was obtained in the pellets at a sintering temperature of 1190°C with an average grain size of 1-3um. The electrical properties of sintered samples were also measured before and after poling to evaluate the effect of dopants on piezoelectric properties.

  10. Deposition of Co-doped TiO2 Thin Films by sol-gel method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boutlala, A.; Bourfaa, F.; Mahtili, M.; Bouaballou, A.

    2016-03-01

    Cobalt doped TiO2 thin films have been prepared by sol-gel method onto glass substrate at room temperature. in this present work, we are interesting to study the effect of Cobalt doped TiO2 thin films.the concentration of Co was varied from 0 to 6%at .The obtained films have been annealed at 500°C for 2 hours. X-ray diffraction patterns showed that Co: TiO2 films are polycrystalline with a tetragonal anatase and orthorhombic brookite types structures. The surface morphologies of the TiO2 doped with cobalt thin films were evaluated by Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM). The optical properties were studied by mean of UV-visible and near infrared spectroscopy.The calculated optical band gap decreases from 3.30 to 2.96 eV with increasing Co doping.

  11. Aqueous synthesis and characterization of Ni, Zn co-doped CdSe QDs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thirugnanam, N.; Govindarajan, D.

    2016-01-01

    Ni, Zn co-doped CdSe quantum dots (QDs) were synthesized by chemical precipitation method through aqueous route. The prepared QDs were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) technique, UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy, photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy and high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). XRD technique results indicate that the prepared samples have a zinc blende cubic phase. From UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy technique, the prepared samples were blue shifted with respect to their bulk counter part due to quantum confinement effect. Among different doping ratios examined, a maximum PL emission intensity was observed for CdSe:Ni(1 %):Zn(1 %) QDs. HRTEM pictures show that the prepared QDs were in spherical shape.

  12. Enhanced photocatalytic degradation of dye under visible light on mesoporous microspheres by defects in manganese- and nitrogen-co-doped TiO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Lu; Jiang, Heng; Zou, Mingming; Xiong, Fengqiang; Ganeshraja, Ayyakannu Sundaram; Pervaiz, Erum; Liu, Yinan; Zou, Shunying; Yang, Minghui

    2016-09-01

    Manganese- and nitrogen-co-doped mesoporous TiO2 microsphere photocatalysts are prepared by a simple sol-gel method with controllable sizes in the range of 400-500 nm and high surface area of 112 m2 g-1. Manganous acetate is the Mn source, and ammonia gas is the nitrogen source used. The dopants are found to be uniformly distributed in the TiO2 matrix. Interestingly, in (Mn,N)-co-doped TiO2, we observe an effective indirect band gap of 2.58 eV. (Mn,N)-co-doped mesoporous TiO2 microspheres show higher photocatalytic activity than Mn-TiO2 microspheres under visible light irradiation. Among the samples reported in this work, 0.2 at.% Mn doping and 500 °C 2-h nitriding condition give the highest photocatalytic activity. The observed photocatalytic activity in the (Mn,N)-co-doped TiO2 is attributed to the contribution from improved absorption due to trap levels of Mn, oxygen vacancies and N doping.

  13. Hydrothermal fabrication of multi-functional Eu3+ and Tb3+ co-doped BiPO4: Photocatalytic activity and tunable luminescence properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yao; Huang, Hongwei; Quan, Chaoming; Tian, Na; Zhang, Yihe

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrated for first time the tunable photoluminescence (PL) properties and photocatalytic activity of the Tb3+ and Eu3+ co-doped BiPO4 assemblies. They are fabricated via a facile hydrothermal approach. Through co-doping of Eu3+ and Tb3+ ions and changing the doping ratio, the emission color of the co-doped BiPO4 phosphors can be tuned precisely from green to yellow and red. Meanwhile, a very efficient energy transfer from Tb3+ to Eu3+ can be observed. Fascinatingly, a warmwhite color has been realized in the co-doped sample by tuning the ratio of Tb3+/Eu3+ to a certain value as displayed in the CIE chromaticity diagram. The doped BiPO4 samples also exhibit significantly enhanced photocatalytic activity compared to the pristine BiPO4 pertaining to Rhodamine (RhB) degradation under UV light. This enhancement should be attributed to the trapping electron effect induced by ion doping that endows BiPO4 with high separation of photoinduced electron-hole pairs, thereby greatly promoting the photocatalytic reactivity. It was corroborated by the electrochemical impedance spectra (EIS). Moreover, the crystal structure, microstructure and optical properties of as-prepared samples were investigated in details.

  14. Dynamics of iron-acceptor-pair formation in co-doped silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartel, T.; Gibaja, F.; Graf, O.; Gross, D.; Kaes, M.; Heuer, M.; Kirscht, F.; Möller, C.; Lauer, K.

    2013-11-01

    The pairing dynamics of interstitial iron and dopants in silicon co-doped with phosphorous and several acceptor types are presented. The classical picture of iron-acceptor pairing dynamics is expanded to include the thermalization of iron between different dopants. The thermalization is quantitatively described using Boltzmann statistics and different iron-acceptor binding energies. The proper understanding of the pairing dynamics of iron in co-doped silicon will provide additional information on the electronic properties of iron-acceptor pairs and may become an analytical method to quantify and differentiate acceptors in co-doped silicon.

  15. Dynamics of iron-acceptor-pair formation in co-doped silicon

    SciTech Connect

    Bartel, T.; Gibaja, F.; Graf, O.; Gross, D.; Kaes, M.; Heuer, M.; Kirscht, F.; Möller, C.; Lauer, K.

    2013-11-11

    The pairing dynamics of interstitial iron and dopants in silicon co-doped with phosphorous and several acceptor types are presented. The classical picture of iron-acceptor pairing dynamics is expanded to include the thermalization of iron between different dopants. The thermalization is quantitatively described using Boltzmann statistics and different iron-acceptor binding energies. The proper understanding of the pairing dynamics of iron in co-doped silicon will provide additional information on the electronic properties of iron-acceptor pairs and may become an analytical method to quantify and differentiate acceptors in co-doped silicon.

  16. Effect of Temperature on GaGdO/GaN Metal Oxide Semiconductor Field Effect Transistors

    SciTech Connect

    Abernathy, C.R.; Baca, A.; Chu, S.N.G.; Hong, M.; Lothian, J.R.; Marcus, M.A.; Pearton, S.J.; Ren, F.; Schurman, M.J.

    1998-10-14

    GaGdO was deposited on GaN for use as a gate dielectric in order to fabricate a depletion metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistor (MOSFET). This is the fmt demonstration of such a device in the III-Nitride system. Analysis of the effect of temperature on the device shows that gate leakage is significantly reduced at elevated temperature relative to a conventional metal semiconductor field effeet transistor (MESFET) fabricated on the same GaN layer. MOSFET device operation in fact improved upon heating to 400 C. Modeling of the effeet of temperature on contact resistance suggests that the improvement is due to a reduction in the parasitic resistances present in the device.

  17. Observation of bias-dependent low field positive magneto-resistance in Co-doped amorphous carbon films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, H. S.; Chung, P. Y.; Zhang, J. H.; Sun, S. J.; Chou, H.; Su, H. C.; Lee, C. H.; Chen, J.; Huang, J. C. A.

    2010-07-01

    We report a considerable intrinsic positive magnetoresistance (PMR) effect in Co-doped amorphous carbon films by radio frequency magnetron sputtering. The kind of PMR effect is bias dependence and its ratio reaches a peak at a particular voltage. At room temperature, the maximum PMR ratio is about 10% among these samples. The x-ray absorption spectroscopy and Raman spectra results support the appearance of the bias-dependent PMR effect strongly depends on the sp2 states and Co dopants. A phenomenological model related to orbital Zeeman splitting has been proposed to describe the resistance, which is controlled by voltage and magnetic field.

  18. Enhancement of luminescence emission from GdVO{sub 4}:Er{sup 3+}/Yb{sup 3+} phosphor by Li{sup +} co-doping

    SciTech Connect

    Gavrilović, Tamara V.; Jovanović, Dragana J. Lojpur, Vesna M.; Đorđević, Vesna; Dramićanin, Miroslav D.

    2014-09-15

    This paper demonstrates the effects of Li{sup +} co-doping on the structure, morphology, and luminescence properties of GdVO{sub 4}:Er{sup 3+}/Yb{sup 3+} phosphor prepared using a high-temperature solid-state chemistry method. The GdVO{sub 4}:Er{sup 3+}/Yb{sup 3+} powders synthesized with the Li{sup +} co-dopant (in concentrations of 0, 5, 10, and 15 mol%) are characterized by X-ray powder diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and photoluminescence spectroscopy. Structural analysis showed that powders co-doped with Li{sup +} have larger crystallite sizes and slightly smaller crystal lattice parameters than powders prepared without Li{sup +} ions. Photoluminescence down-conversion (345-nm excitation) and up-conversion (980-nm excitation) spectra show characteristic Er{sup 3+} emissions, with the most intense bands peaking at 525 nm ({sup 2}H{sub 11/2}→{sup 4}I{sub 15/2} transition) and 552 nm ({sup 4}S{sub 3/2}→{sup 4}I{sub 15/2}). The intensity of up-conversion emission from GdVO{sub 4}:Er{sup 3+}/Yb{sup 3+} is enhanced (by a factor of four) by co-doping with 5 mol% of Li{sup +} ions. The mechanisms responsible for this emission enhancement are discussed. - Graphical abstract: UC emission spectra for GdVO{sub 4}:1.5-mol% Er{sup 3+}/20-mol% Yb{sup 3+} powders co-doped with different concentrations of Li{sup +} ions, recorded under 980-nm excitation. - Highlights: • 5-mol% Li{sup +} co-doped powders have 400% enhanced up-conversion emission intensity. • 15-mol% Li{sup +} co-doping produces 40% higher emission in down-conversion. • Li{sup +} co-doped powders have larger crystallite size and smaller lattice parameters.

  19. Low temperature magnetic and anomalous high temperature dielectric response of Dy-Ni co-doped hexagonal YMnO3 ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Virendra; Gaur, Anurag; Kumar Gaur, Umesh

    2015-06-01

    YMnO3 pristine and Dy-Ni co-doped Y1-xDyxMn1-xNixO3 compositions with x=0.01, 0.03 and 0.05 were synthesised by high temperature solid state route. In all synthesized samples with doping a minor phase of DyMnO3 is formed but no indication of phase transition from hexagonal to orthorhombic is observed. For 3 and 5% Dy-Ni co-doped YMnO3, a thin coercivity is observed at 10 K due to insertion of weak ferromagnetism in these compositions. For undoped YMnO3, crimps are observed in both FC and ZFC curves at exactly 75 K (Neel temperature), however crimps are shifted towards significantly lesser temperature after adding the dopants. For pristine and 1% Dy-Ni co-doped samples explicit bifurcation in FC-ZFC curves is observed, which is not pronounced for 3 and 5% Dy-Ni co-doped samples. Moreover, in these compositions cusps are observed only in ZFC curves at 25 and 19 K, respectively which can be considered as hallmark of weak spin glass behaviour in these compositions. Anomalous dielectric peaks are observed at 450 and 550 K for undoped YMnO3 while a distinct peak is observed at 450 K for 1% Dy-Ni co-doped sample along with the suppression of other peaks. It is proposed that relaxor behaviour of these peaks can be explained on the basis of the Maxwell-Wagner effect.

  20. Tuning the metal-insulator transition via epitaxial strain and Co doping in NdNiO{sub 3} thin films grown by polymer-assisted deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Yao, Dan; Shi, Lei Zhou, Shiming; Liu, Haifeng; Zhao, Jiyin; Li, Yang; Wang, Yang

    2016-01-21

    The epitaxial NdNi{sub 1-x}Co{sub x}O{sub 3} (0 ≤ x ≤ 0.10) thin films on (001) LaAlO{sub 3} and (001) SrTiO{sub 3} substrates were grown by a simple polymer-assisted deposition technique. The co-function of the epitaxial strain and Co doping on the metal-insulator transition in perovskite nickelate NdNiO{sub 3} thin films is investigated. X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy reveal that the as-prepared thin films exhibit good crystallinity and heteroepitaxy. The temperature dependent resistivities of the thin films indicate that both the epitaxial strain and Co doping lower the metal-insulator (MI) transition temperature, which can be treated as a way to tune the MI transition. Furthermore, under the investigated Co-doping levels, the MI transition temperature (T{sub MI}) shifts to low temperatures with Co content increasing under both compressive and tensile strain, and the more distinction is in the former situation. When x is increased up to 0.10, the insulating phase is completely suppressed under the compressive strain. With the strain increases from compression to tension, the resistivities are enhanced both in the metal and insulating regions. However, the Co-doping effect on the resistivity shows a more complex situation. As Co content x increases from zero to 0.10, the resistivities are reduced both in the metal and insulating regions under the tensile strain, whereas they are enhanced in the high-temperature metal region under the compressive strain. Based on the temperature dependent resistivity in the metal regions, it is suggested that the electron-phonon coupling in the films becomes weaker with the increase of both the strain and Co-doping.

  1. Structural, magnetic and electronic structure properties of Co doped ZnO nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, Shalendra; Song, T.K.; Gautam, Sanjeev; Chae, K.H.; Kim, S.S.; Jang, K.W.

    2015-06-15

    Highlights: • XRD and HR-TEM results show the single phase nature of Co doped ZnO nanoparticles. • XMCD and dc magnetization results indicate the RT-FM in Co doped ZnO nanoparticles. • Co L{sub 3,2} NEXAFS spectra infer that Co ions are in 2+ valence state. • O K edge NEXAFS spectra show that O vacancy increases with Co doping in ZnO. - Abstract: We reported structural, magnetic and electronic structure studies of Co doped ZnO nanoparticles. Doping of Co ions in ZnO host matrix has been studied and confirmed using various methods; such as X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), energy dispersed X-ray (EDX), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), near edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) spectroscopy, magnetic hysteresis loop measurements and X-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD). From the XRD and HR-TEM results, it is observed that Co doped ZnO nanoparticles have single phase nature with wurtzite structure and exclude the possibility of secondary phase formation. FE-SEM and TEM micrographs show that pure and Co doped nanoparticles are nearly spherical in shape. O K edge NEXAFS spectra indicate that O vacancies increase with Co doping. The Co L{sub 3,2} edge NEXAFS spectra revealed that Co ions are in 2+ valence state. DC magnetization hysteresis loops and XMCD results clearly showed the intrinsic origin of temperature ferromagnetism in Co doped ZnO nanoparticles.

  2. Effect of Fe and Co doping on electrical and thermal properties of La{sub 0.5}Ce{sub 0.5}Mn{sub 1−x}(Fe, Co){sub x}O{sub 3} manganites

    SciTech Connect

    Varshney, Dinesh; Mansuri, Irfan; Shaikh, M.W.; Kuo, Y.K.

    2013-11-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Low temperature resistivity minimum contributes to Coulomb and Kondo scattering. • Metallic resistivity shows electron, magnon and phonon scattering are significant. • At high temperatures small polaron conduction mechanism is viable. • Susceptibility measurements show ferromagnetic–paramagnetic transition. - Abstract: The effect of Fe and Co doping on structural, electrical and thermal properties of half doped La{sub 0.5}Ce{sub 0.5}Mn{sub 1−x}(Fe, Co){sub x}O{sub 3} is investigated. The structure of these crystallizes in to orthorhombically distorted perovskite structure. The electrical resistivity of La{sub 0.5}Ce{sub 0.5}MnO{sub 3} exhibits metal-semiconductor transition (T{sub MS} at ∼225 K). However, La{sub 0.5}Ce{sub 0.5}Mn{sub 1−x}TM{sub x}O{sub 3} (TM = Fe, Co; 0.0 ≤ x ≤ 0.1) manganites show semiconducting behavior. The thermopower measurements infer hole as charge carriers and electron–magnon as well spin wave fluctuation mechanism are effective at low temperature domain and SPC model fits the observed data at high temperature. The magnetic susceptibility measurement confirms a transition from paramagnetic to ferromagnetic phase. The observed peaks in the specific heat measurements, shifts to lower temperatures and becomes progressively broader with doping of transition metals on Mn-site. The thermal conductivity is measured in the temperature range of 10–350 K with a magnitude in between 10 and 80 mW/cm K.

  3. Effect of intentional p-GaN surface roughening on the performance of InGaN/GaN solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farrell, R. M.; Al-Heji, A. A.; Neufeld, C. J.; Chen, X.; Iza, M.; Cruz, S. C.; Keller, S.; Nakamura, S.; DenBaars, S. P.; Mishra, U. K.; Speck, J. S.

    2013-12-01

    The effect of intentional p-GaN surface roughening on the performance of c-plane InGaN/GaN solar cells was investigated. Surface roughness was introduced by growing the p-GaN at a relatively high rate and low temperature which resulted in a faceted surface with a high density of V-defects. Increasing the surface roughness led to a 69.4% increase in short circuit current density. Similar surface roughening techniques should also be applicable for increasing the extraction efficiency of InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes.

  4. The effect of seeds on GA metabolism in pea pericarp

    SciTech Connect

    Ozga, J.A.; Brenner, M.L. )

    1990-05-01

    To determine the effect of seeds on GA metabolism in pea (Pisum sativum) pericarp tissue, a method was developed that allowed access to the seeds while maintaining pericarp growth. Pericarp tissue of ovaries (3 DAA) was split down the across from the seeds, and seeds were removed. After 24 h. ({sup 14}C)-GA{sub 12} was applied to the inside surface of the pericarp of opened ovaries with or without seeds and to intact ovaries (control). Pericarp tissue was harvested 24 h after ({sup 14}C)-GA{sub 12} application, extracted and chromatographed on C18 HPLC. Wounding (opening ovaries) reduced accumulation of ({sup 14}C)-GA{sub 20}. Notably, removal of seeds significantly decreased ({sup 14}C)-GA{sub 20} accumulation when compared to the wounded controls. ({sup 14}C)-GA{sub 53} was present int he highest amount in the control ovaries attached to the plant, 1.5 {plus minus} 1.0% was found in opened ovaries with seeds and none was detected in ovaries without seeds. Metabolism of ({sup 14}C)-GA{sub 12} was similar in ovaries attached or removed from the plant. Application of GA{sub 3} (2.5 {mu}g/ml) to the ovaries in each treatment did not affect ({sup 14}C)-GA{sub 12} metabolism. These results suggest that the presence of seeds may stimulate GA metabolism in the pericarp.

  5. Performance improvement of junctionless field effect transistors using p-GaAs/AlGaAs heterostructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bajelan, F.; Goharrizi, A. Yazdanpanah; Faez, R.; Darvish, G.

    2017-10-01

    The performance analysis of junctionless (JL) gate-all-around (GAA) metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistors (MOSFETs) is investigated using the Non-Equilibrium Green's Function (NEGF) formalism. The main problem of JL transistors is found to be the OFF-state current. In the present work, the OFF-state current of such devices is decreased by choosing channel materials with a large band gap and heavy effective mass. Our simulation results show that the OFF-state current of JL transistors with p-type GaAs is less than that of n-type GaAs. Plus, the heterostructure (HES) channel is proposed in this study for improving the device characteristics of JL-FETs as compared to homostructure (HOS). Therefore, p-type GaAs and GaAs/AlGaAs are used as the channel material for HOS and HES devices, respectively. The simulation is performed for different thicknesses of GaAs and AlGaAs with a fixed diameter of 5 nm for the nanowire. It is shown that the optimum electronic characteristics of HES devices is achieved when the thicknesses of GaAs and AlGaAs layers are chosen to be 0.5 nm and 4 nm, respectively. OFF-state current (IOFF) of 5.32 × 10-16 A, ON-state current (ION) of 6.44 × 10-6 A, ON/OFF current ratio (ION/IOFF) of 1.21 × 1010, subthreshold slope (SS) of 60.8 mV/dec, drain induced barrier lowering (DIBL) of 4.6 mV/V, and threshold voltage (VTH) of 330 mV are obtained for the proposed HES JL-GAA-FET.

  6. Rutile-type Co doped SnO2 diluted magnetic semiconductor nanoparticles: Structural, dielectric and ferromagnetic behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehraj, Sumaira; Shahnawaze Ansari, M.; Alimuddin

    2013-12-01

    Nanoparticles of basic composition Sn1-xCoxO2 (x=0.00, 0.01, 0.03, 0.05 and 0.1) were synthesized through the citrate-gel method and were characterized for structural properties using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). XRD analysis of the powder samples sintered at 500 °C for 12 h showed single phase rutile type tetragonal structure and the crystallite size decreased as the cobalt content was increased. FT-IR spectrum displayed various bands that came due to fundamental overtones and combination of O-H, Sn-O and Sn-O-Sn entities. The effect of Co doping on the electrical and magnetic properties was studied using dielectric spectroscopy and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) at room temperature. The dielectric parameters (ε, tan δ and σac) show their maximum value for 10% Co doping. The dielectric loss shows anomalous behavior with frequency where it exhibits the Debye relaxation. The variation of dielectric properties and ac conductivity with frequency reveals that the dispersion is due to the Maxwell-Wagner type of interfacial polarization in general and hopping of charge between Sn2+ and Sn4+ as well as between Co2+ and Co3+ ions. The complex impedance analysis was used to separate the grain and grain boundary contributions in the system which shows that the conduction process in grown nanoparticles takes place predominantly through grain boundary volume. Hysteresis loops were observed clearly in M-H curves from 0.01 to 0.1% Co doped SnO2 samples. The saturation magnetization of the doped samples increased slightly with increase of Co concentration. However pure SnO2 displayed paramagnetism which vanished at higher values of magnetic field.

  7. On the AlGaInP-bulk and AlGaInP/GaAs-superlattice confinement effects for heterostructure-emitter bipolar transistors

    SciTech Connect

    Tsai, Jung-Hui

    2015-02-09

    The confinement effect and electrical characteristics of heterostructure-emitter bipolar transistors with an AlGaInP bulk-confinement layer and an AlGaInP/GaAs superlattice-confinement layer are first demonstrated and compared by experimentally results. In the two devices, the relatively large valence band discontinuity at AlGaInP/GaAs heterojunction provides excellent confinement effect for holes to enhance current gain. As to the AlGaInP/GaAs superlattice-confinement device, part of thermionic-emission electrons will be trapped in the GaAs quantum wells of the superlattice. This will result in lower collector current and current gain as compared with the bulk-confinement device. Nevertheless, the superlattice-confinement device exhibits a larger current-gain cutoff frequency, which can be attributed that the tunneling behavior is included in the carrier transportation and transporting time across the emitter region could be substantially reduced.

  8. InGaAs/GaAs Quantum Dots: Effects of Ensemble Interactions, Interdiffusion, Segregation and Proton Irradiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leon, R.

    2000-01-01

    A sumary or recent experimental findings on the effects of interdiffusion, segregation, strained ensemble interactions and proton irradiation on the optical properties of InGaAs/GaAs quantum dots (QDs) are presented.

  9. Effect of growth temperature on InGaN/GaN heterostructures grown by MOCVD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Surender, S.; Prabakaran, K.; Loganathan, R.; Pradeep, S.; Singh, Shubra; Baskar, K.

    2017-06-01

    InGaN/GaN heterostructured samples were grown at different temperatures varying from 680 °C to 760 °C on c-plane sapphire substrates using a horizontal flow Metal Organic Chemical Vapor Deposition (MOCVD) reactor. Systematic investigation of structural, optical, morphological and electrical properties has been carried out using High Resolution X-Ray Diffraction (HRXRD), Photoluminescence (PL), Atomic Force Microscope (AFM) and Hall Measurement respectively. From the HRXRD results, the respective Indium (In) composition in the InGaN/GaN heterostructures can be calculated using InGaN (0002) peaks. In incorporation is very much sensitive to the temperature and incorporation of In in InGaN epilayer was found to decrease with increase in growth temperature. PL spectra reveal a shift towards higher energy side because of In incorporation with increasing reactor temperature. AFM images of the sample grown at 680 °C shows the In rich clusters due to compositional inhomogeneity. With further increase in the growth temperature, decomposition of InN starts and hence decreases the surface roughness. Hall Effect studies confirm that with increasing growth temperature bulk electron concentration of the InGaN thin films decrease and mobility increases. Maximum bulk electron concentration of 4.5×1019 cm-3 and a mobility of 295 cm2/V-s was obtained for 19% of In. Efforts are being made to optimize the incorporation of In content in InGaN/GaN heterostructures for photovoltaic application.

  10. HgNO3 sensitivity of AlGaN/GaN field effect transistors functionalized with phytochelating peptides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rohrbaugh, Nathaniel; Hernandez-Balderrama, Luis; Kaess, Felix; Kirste, Ronny; Collazo, Ramon; Ivanisevic, Albena

    2016-06-01

    This study examined the conductance sensitivity of AlGaN/GaN field effect transistors in response to varying Hg/HNO3 solutions. FET surfaces were covalently functionalized with phytochelatin-5 peptides in order to detect Hg in solution. Results showed a resilience of peptide-AlGaN/GaN bonds in the presence of strong HNO3 aliquots, with significant degradation in FET ID signal. However, devices showed strong and varied response to Hg concentrations of 1, 10, 100, and 1000 ppm. The gathered statistically significant results indicate that peptide terminated AlGaN/GaN devices are capable of differentiating between Hg solutions and demonstrate device sensitivity.

  11. Inverse spin Hall effect in Pt/(Ga,Mn)As

    SciTech Connect

    Nakayama, H.; Chen, L.; Chang, H. W.; Ohno, H.; Matsukura, F.

    2015-06-01

    We investigate dc voltages under ferromagnetic resonance in a Pt/(Ga,Mn)As bilayer structure. A part of the observed dc voltage is shown to originate from the inverse spin Hall effect. The sign of the inverse spin Hall voltage is the same as that in Py/Pt bilayer structure, even though the stacking order of ferromagnetic and nonmagnetic layers is opposite to each other. The spin mixing conductance at the Pt/(Ga,Mn)As interface is determined to be of the order of 10{sup 19 }m{sup −2}, which is about ten times greater than that of (Ga,Mn)As/p-GaAs.

  12. Effects of InGaN layer thickness of AlGaN/InGaN superlattice electron blocking layer on the overall efficiency and efficiency droops of GaN-based light emitting diodes.

    PubMed

    Yu, Chun-Ta; Lai, Wei-Chih; Yen, Cheng-Hsiung; Chang, Shoou-Jinn

    2014-05-05

    The operating voltage, light output power, and efficiency droops of GaN-based light emitting diodes (LEDs) were improved by introducing Mg-doped AlGaN/InGaN superlattice (SL) electron blocking layer (EBL). The thicker InGaN layers of AlGaN/InGaN SL EBL could have a larger effective electron potential height and lower effective hole potential height than that of AlGaN EBL. This thicker InGaN layer could prevent electron leakage into the p-region of LEDs and improve hole injection efficiency to achieve a higher light output power and less efficiency droops with the injection current. The low lateral resistivity of Mg-doped AlGaN/InGaN SL would have superior current spreading at high current injection.

  13. Fabrication and characterization of a diluted magnetic semiconducting TM co-doped Al:ZnO (TM=Co, Ni) thin films by sol-gel spin coating method.

    PubMed

    Siddheswaran, R; Mangalaraja, R V; Tijerina, Eduardo P; Menchaca, J-Luis; Meléndrez, M F; Avila, Ricardo E; Jeyanthi, C Esther; Gomez, M E

    2013-04-01

    Effect of transition metal oxides (TM=Co and Ni) co-doping on the crystallinity, surface morphology, grain growth and magnetic properties of nanostructure Al:ZnO thin films has been studied for diluted magnetic semiconductor applications. Al:ZnO thin films were fabricated by sol-gel spin coating on p-type Si (100) substrates. Fabrication of hexagonal wurtzite TM co-doped Al:ZnO thin films having thickness 2μm was successfully achieved. The Raman spectra of the TM co-doped Al:ZnO thin films showed a broad vibrational mode in the range 520-540cm(-1) due to crystal defects created co-doping elements in the ZnO host lattice. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed that the films are composed of uniform size, polycrystalline dense ZnO particles with defect free, smooth surfaces. The surface roughness was further verified with atomic force microscopy (AFM). The energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopic analysis (EDX) confirmed the stoichiometric compositions of the TM co-doped Al:ZnO films. The magnetic measurements exhibited that the Co, Al:ZnO and Ni, Al:ZnO thin films were ferromagnetic at room temperature.

  14. Pumping-route-dependent concentration quenching and temperature effect of green up- and down-conversion luminescence in Er{sup 3+}/Yb{sup 3+} co-doped Gd{sub 2}(WO{sub 4}){sub 3} phosphors

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Jingjing; Sun, Jiashi; Liu, Jutao; Li, Xiangping; Zhang, Jinsu; Tian, Yue; Fu, Shaobo; Cheng, Lihong; Zhong, Haiyang; Xia, Haiping; Chen, Baojiu

    2013-06-01

    Graphical abstract: A comparative study on the concentration quenching behaviors of green down- and up-conversion emissions was carried out for the first time, and the different concentration quenching mechanisms were analyzed. Secondly, the thermal effect induced by 980 nm LD irradiation was investigated, it was observed that the equilibrium temperature of Gd{sub 2}(WO{sub 4}){sub 3}:Er{sup 3+}/Yb{sup 3+} sample was decided by both the excitation power and Er{sup 3+} doping concentration. Highlights: ► Gd{sub 2}(WO{sub 4}){sub 3}:Er/Yb phosphors were prepared via a co-precipitation reaction. ► Morphology and structure of the phosphors were characterized by XRD and SEM. ► Concentration quenching mechanisms for down and up emissions were studied. ► Thermal effect induced by laser irradiation was studied via temperature sensing tech. - Abstract: Gd{sub 2}(WO{sub 4}){sub 3} phosphors with various Er{sup 3+} concentrations and fixed Yb{sup 3+} concentration were synthesized via a co-precipitation method, and their crystal structure and morphology were characterized by using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The concentration quenching behaviors of green up- and down-conversion emissions of Er{sup 3+} were analyzed, and it was confirmed that the difference between quenching concentration for up- and down-conversion emissions resulted from the different population routes. The temperature sensing properties of the Gd{sub 2}(WO{sub 4}){sub 3}:Er{sup 3+}/Yb{sup 3+} phosphors were studied, and it was found that the Er{sup 3+} doping concentration slightly affected the sensitivity, and Gd{sub 2}(WO{sub 4}){sub 3}:Er{sup 3+}/Yb{sup 3+} phosphors could be used in a broad temperature region for detecting temperature. Finally, the thermal effect induced by 980 nm LD irradiation was investigated, it was observed that the equilibrium temperature of Gd{sub 2}(WO{sub 4}){sub 3}:Er{sup 3+}/Yb{sup 3+} sample was decided by both the excitation power

  15. Resistive switching: An investigation of the bipolar–unipolar transition in Co-doped ZnO thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Santos, Daniel A.A.; Zeng, Hao; Macêdo, Marcelo A.

    2015-06-15

    Highlights: • A purely bipolar behavior on a Co-doped ZnO thin film has been demonstrated. • We have shown what can happen if a unipolar test is performed in a purely bipolar device. • An explanation for how a sample can show a purely bipolar switching behavior was suggested. • An important open issue about resistive switching effect was put in debate. - Abstract: In order to investigate the resistive switching effect we built devices in a planar structure in which two Al contacts were deposited on the top of the film and separated by a small gap using a shadow mask. Therefore, two samples of 10% Co-doped ZnO thin films were sputtered on glass substrate. High resolution X-ray diffraction (HRXRD) revealed a highly c-axis oriented crystalline structure, without secondary phase. The high resolution scanning electron microscopy (HRSEM) showed a flat surface with good coverage and thickness about 300 nm. A Keithley 2425 semiconductor characterization system was used to perform the resistive switching tests in the bipolar and unipolar modes. Considering only the effect of compliance current (CC), the devices showed a purely bipolar behavior since an increase in CC did not induce a transition to unipolar behavior.

  16. Combined effects of Li content and sintering temperature on polymorphic phase boundary and electrical properties of Li/Ta co-doped (Na, K)NbO3 lead-free piezoceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Zong-Yang; Wang, Ke; Li, Jing-Feng

    2009-12-01

    Crystallographic structure, phase transition and electrical properties of lead-free (Na0.535K0.485)1- x Li x (Nb0.942Ta0.058)O3 ( x=0.042-0.098) (NKL x NT) piezoelectric ceramics were investigated. The experimental results show that both Li content and sintering temperature strongly affect the orthorhombic-tetragonal polymorphic phase boundary (PPB), which results in remarkable differences of the piezoelectric property and its temperature stability in the NKL x NT ceramics. Chemical analysis indicates that sodium volatilizes more seriously than potassium and lithium with increasing sintering temperature. Due to the comprehensively optimized effects of Li content and sintering temperature, an enhanced piezoelectric constant d 33 (276 pC/N) was obtained at room temperature in the ceramics with x=0.074 sintered at 1000°C. In the same composition, a further high d 33 up to 354 pC/N was obtained at 43°C, which is close to its T o-t temperature. Furthermore, better temperature stability can be obtained when x=0.082 sintered at 1000°C, whose piezoelectric constant d 33 (236 pC/N) keeps almost constant from room temperature to 100°C. Such a temperature-independent piezoelectric property is available in the NKL x NT ceramics with high Li content because its T o-t was moved below room temperature.

  17. EELS study of Fe- or Co-doped titania nanosheets.

    PubMed

    Ohwada, Megumi; Kimoto, Koji; Ebina, Yasuo; Sasaki, Takayoshi

    2015-04-01

    Ti0.6Fe0.4O2 and Ti0.8Co0.2O2 nanosheets are Fe- and Co-doped titanium oxides, respectively, and they are synthesized by the exfoliation of lepidocrocite-type layered titanates. We have investigated these nanosheets by electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS) using a monochromated transmission electron microscope. The energy-loss near-edge structures (ELNESs) of Fe-L and Co-L indicate that Fe(3+) and Co(2+) ions are substituted in the octahedral sites in each nanosheet. The Ti-L edges of Ti0.6Fe0.4O2 and Ti0.8Co0.2O2 nanosheets correspond to the octahedral coordination of Ti(4+) and oxygen atoms as well as an undoped titania nanosheet (Ti0.87O2). On the other hand, the electron transitions from 2p3/2 to 3d eg in Ti-L3 regions are different in each nanosheet. We have also investigated the electron-beam-induced damage of Ti0.6Fe0.4O2 and Ti0.8Co0.2O2 nanosheets. The results indicated that Fe(3+) ions in the Ti0.6Fe0.4O2 nanosheets were selectively reduced to Fe(2+) ions in the reduction process by electron irradiation. In contrast, the chemical shift of the Ti-L edge of the Ti0.8Co0.2O2 nanosheets indicated that Ti(4+) ions were reduced. These results suggest that the substitution of 3d metals in titania nanosheets affects their crystal and electronic structures and material properties such as their long-range atomic configuration and reduction mechanism. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Japanese Society of Microscopy. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Effect of doping (C or N) and co-doping (C+N) on the photoactive properties of magnetron sputtered titania coatings for the application of solar water-splitting.

    PubMed

    Rahman, M; Dang, B H Q; McDonnell, K; MacElroy, J M D; Dowling, D P

    2012-06-01

    The photocatalytic splitting of water into hydrogen and oxygen using a photoelectrochemical (PEC) cell containing titanium dioxide (TiO2) photoanode is a potentially renewable source of chemical fuels. However, the size of the band gap (-3.2 eV) of the TiO2 photocatalyst leads to its relatively low photoactivity toward visible light in a PEC cell. The development of materials with smaller band gaps of approximately 2.4 eV is therefore necessary to operate PEC cells efficiently. This study investigates the effect of dopant (C or N) and co-dopant (C+N) on the physical, structural and photoactivity of TiO2 nano thick coating. TiO2 nano-thick coatings were deposited using a closed field DC reactive magnetron sputtering technique, from titanium target in argon plasma with trace addition of oxygen. In order to study the influence of doping such as C, N and C+N inclusions in the TiO2 coatings, trace levels of CO2 or N2 or CO2+N2 gas were introduced into the deposition chamber respectively. The properties of the deposited nano-coatings were determined using Spectroscopic Ellipsometry, SEM, AFM, Optical profilometry, XPS, Raman, X-ray diffraction UV-Vis spectroscopy and tri-electrode potentiostat measurements. Coating growth rate, structure, surface morphology and roughness were found to be significantly influenced by the types and amount of doping. Substitutional type of doping in all doped sample were confirmed by XPS. UV-vis measurement confirmed that doping (especially for C doped sample) facilitate photoactivity of sputtered deposited titania coating toward visible light by reducing bandgap. The photocurrent density (indirect indication of water splitting performance) of the C-doped photoanode was approximately 26% higher in comparison with un-doped photoanode. However, coating doped with nitrogen (N or N+C) does not exhibit good performance in the photoelectrochemical cell due to their higher charge recombination properties.

  19. Effect of strain on band alignment of GaAsSb/GaAs quantum wells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Christina M.; Kioupakis, Emmanouil

    2017-07-01

    GaAsSb/GaAs quantum wells are of great interest for optical communications; however, their band alignment properties are not fully understood, particularly at 35% Sb alloy concentration used for emission at 1.3 μm. We use device simulation methods based on the 8 × 8 k.p theory to explore the effects of GaAsSb/GaAs quantum well composition, width, and strain on the band alignment. Strain-relaxed wells demonstrate type-I alignment and pseudomorphic wells demonstrate type-II alignment, regardless of quantum-well composition or thickness for wells wider than 3 nm. For partially strain-relaxed wells, we determine the band alignment as a function of the interplay of composition, width, and strain. Our calculated results at various strain conditions agree well with published experimental data. This work provides insight on band alignment of GaAsSb/GaAs quantum wells, as well as of embedded quantum dots with strong confinement along the out-of-plane direction.

  20. Self-interaction effects in (Ga,Mn)As and (Ga,Mn)N

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filippetti, Alessio; Spaldin, Nicola A.; Sanvito, Stefano

    2005-02-01

    The electronic structures of Mn-doped zincblende GaAs and wurtzite GaN are calculated using both standard local-spin density functional theory (LSDA), and a novel pseudopotential self-interaction-corrected approach (pseudo-SIC), able to account for the effects of strong correlation. We find that, as expected, the self-interaction is not strong in (Ga,Mn)As, because the Fermi energy is crossed by weakly correlated As p-Mn d hybridized bands and the Mn 3d character is distributed through the whole valence band manifold. This result validates the extensive literature of LSDA studies on (Ga,Mn)As, including the conclusion that the ferromagnetism is hole-mediated. In contrast, the LSDA gives a qualitatively incorrect band structure for (Ga,Mn)N, which is characterized by localized Mn 3d bands with very strong self-interaction. Our pseudo-SIC calculations show a highly confined hole just above the Fermi energy in the majority band manifold. Such a band arrangement is consistent with (although by no means conclusive evidence for) a recent suggestion [Phys. Rev. B 033203 (2002)] that formation of Zhang-Rice magnetic polarons is responsible for hole-mediated ferromagnetism in (Ga,Mn)N.

  1. Effect of ammonification temperature on the formation of coaxial GaN/Ga2O3 nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Mukesh; Sarau, George; Heilmann, Martin; Christiansen, Silke; Kumar, Vikram; Singh, R.

    2017-01-01

    The effect of ammonification temperature on the formation of coaxial GaN/Ga2O3 nanowires from β-Ga2O3 nanowires is reported in this work. High quality wurtzite GaN material showing a single c-plane phase is achieved from β-Ga2O3 nanowires having monoclinic crystal structure at a high ammonification temperature of 1050 °C. Lower ammonification temperatures such as 900 °C are also adequate for achieving coaxial GaN/Ga2O3 nanowire heterostructures, and the degree of GaN phase can be adjusted by varying the ammonification temperature. The crystalline quality of GaN/Ga2O3 nanowires improves with increasing the ammonification temperature. Resonant Raman spectra of GaN/Ga2O3 nanowires show Raman progression through multiple longitudinal-optical-phonon modes with overtones of up to second order. The development and improvement of the emission peak toward the near band edge of GaN at different ammonification temperatures were investigated using cathodoluminescence and photoluminescence characterization.

  2. Photoluminescence, ellipsometric, optical and morphological studies of sprayed Co-doped ZnO films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gençyılmaz, O.; Atay, F.; Akyüz, I.

    2016-06-01

    In this study, undoped and cobalt (Co)-doped zinc oxide (ZnO) films were successfully produced by ultrasonic spray pyrolysis (USP) technique at low temperature (350°C). The optical and surface properties were investigated as a function of Co content. The optical parameters (thickness, refractive index and extinction coefficient) were determined using spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE) and it was seen that the refractive index and extinction coefficient values of Co-doped ZnO films decreased slightly depending on the increasing of Co doping. For investigation, the transmittance and photoluminescence (PL) spectra of the films, UV-Vis spectrophotometer and PL spectroscopy were used at room temperature. The transmittance spectra show that transmittance values decreased and Co+2 ions substitute Zn+2 ions of ZnO lattice. The optical band gap values decreased from 3.26 eV to 2.85 eV with the changing of Co content. The results of PL spectra exhibit the position of the different emission peaks unchanged but the intensity of peaks increased with increasing Co doping. Also, the surface properties of the films were obtained by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and these results indicated that the surface morphology and roughness values were prominently changed with Co doping.

  3. Structural, optical, magnetic and photocatalytic properties of Co doped CuS diluted magnetic semiconductor nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sreelekha, N.; Subramanyam, K.; Amaranatha Reddy, D.; Murali, G.; Ramu, S.; Rahul Varma, K.; Vijayalakshmi, R. P.

    2016-08-01

    Pristine and Co doped covellite CuS nanoparticles were synthesized in aqueous solution by facile chemical co-precipitation method with Ethylene Diamine Tetra Acetic Acid (EDTA) as a stabilizing agent. EDAX measurements confirmed the presence of Co in the CuS host lattice. Hexagonal crystal structure of pure and Co doped CuS nanoparticles were authenticated by XRD patterns. TEM images indicated that sphere-shape of nanoparticles through a size ranging from 5 to 8 nm. The optical absorption edge moved to higher energies with increase in Co concentration as indicated by UV-vis spectroscopy. Magnetic measurements revealed that bare CuS sample show sign of diamagnetic character where as in Co doped nanoparticles augmentation of room temperature ferromagnetism was observed with increasing doping precursor concentrations. Photocatalytic performance of the pure and Co doped CuS nanoparticles were assessed by evaluating the degradation rate of rhodamine B solution under sun light irradiation. The 5% Co doped CuS nanoparticles provide evidence for high-quality photocatalytic activity.

  4. Auger effect in yellow light emitters based on InGaN-AlGaN-GaN quantum wells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huong Ngo, Thi; Gil, Bernard; Valvin, Pierre; Damilano, Benjamin; Lekhal, Kaddour; De Mierry, Philippe

    2016-05-01

    The Auger effect and its impact on the internal quantum efficiency (IQE) of yellow light emitters based on silicon-doped InGaN-AlGaN-GaN quantum wells are investigated by power dependence measurement and using an ABC model. Photoluminescence intensity recorded as a function of excitation power density follows a linear dependence up to a threshold P T that depends on the design of the sample. Above this threshold, the variation of the intensity becomes sublinear, which is characteristic of the onset of Auger recombination processes. After extracting the evolution of IQE with pump power from the experimental data, we use a modified ABC modeling that includes the residual n-type doping to estimate the contribution of different recombination channels. We find that the Auger effect dominates in the high-excitation regime. In addition, we find that intercalating an AlGaN-strain-compensating layer reduces not only the coefficient of nonradiative recombination rates but also reduces the onset of Auger recombination.

  5. Wiedemann effect of Fe—Ga based magnetostrictive wires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ji-Heng; Gao, Xue-Xu; Zhu, Jie; Bao, Xiao-Qian; Cheng, Liang; Xie, Jian-Xin

    2012-08-01

    (Fe83Ga17)98Cr2 wires each with a diameter of 0.7 mm are prepared by hot swaging and warm drawing from the casting rods directly, because the ductility of Fe83Ga17 alloy is improved by adding Cr element. The Wiedemann twists and dependences on magnetostrictions of Fe83Ga17 and (Fe83Ga17)98Cr2 wires are investigated. The largest observed Wiedemann twists of 245 s·cm-1 and 182 s·cm-1 are detected in the annealed Fe83Ga17 and (Fe83Ga17)98Cr2 wires, respectively. The magnetostrictions of the annealed Fe83Ga17 and (Fe83Ga17)98Cr2 wires are 160 ppm and 107 ppm, respectively. The maximum of the Wiedemann twist increases with magnetostriction increasing. However the magnetostriction is just one important factor that affects the Wiedemann effect of alloy wire, and the relationship between magnetostriction and Wiedemann effect is a complex function rather than a simple function.

  6. Effect of structural properties on optical characteristics of InGaN/GaN nanocolumns fabricated by selective-area growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oto, Takao; Mizuno, Yutaro; Yanagihara, Ai; Ema, Kazuhiro; Kishino, Katsumi

    2017-04-01

    The effect of the structural properties on the optical characteristics was investigated for In0.3Ga0.7N nanocolumns (NCs) grown on GaN NCs as a function of GaN column diameter, D GaN. With increasing D GaN, the photoluminescence spectra changed from single-peak to double-peak emissions at the diameter D 0 where InGaN axial NCs change to InGaN-InGaN core-shell NCs. For the core-shell NCs, the volume recombination probabilities of the InGaN cores did not change with D GaN. Whereas the surface recombination probability of the InGaN cores exponentially decreased because of the spontaneous formation of InGaN shells for D GaN > D 0, it drastically increased for D GaN ≤ D 0.

  7. Tailoring the refractive index of aluminum doped zinc oxide thin films by co-doping with titanium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Tiefeng; Lan, Pinjun; Yang, Ye; Zhang, Xianpeng; Tan, Ruiqin; Li, Yong; Song, Weijie

    2012-12-01

    The refractive index of transparent conductive oxides has a direct effect on the transmission of lights into thin film solar cells. Here we report the study of improving the refractive index of aluminum doped zinc oxide through titanium co-doping. The Al-Ti co-doped zinc oxide (ATZO) thin films with different Ti doping concentration were deposited on glass substrates by radio frequency magnetron sputtering with ATZO targets in an argon atmosphere. The structural, optical and electrical properties of the thin films were investigated using X-ray diffraction, ultraviolet-visible-near-infrared spectroscopy and hall measurements, respectively. The results showed that the as-deposited thin films were all textured along c-axis and perpendicular to the surface of substrate. The average transmittance in the visible region were more than 80% for all the ATZO thin films. The minimum resistivity of the obtained ATZO (1 wt% TiO2 doping) thin films were 2.6 × 10-3 Ω cm and 1.4 × 10-3 Ω cm before and after annealing in vacuum, respectively. The refractive index of the thin films (at λ0 = 550 nm) increased from 1.91 to 2.05 as the TiO2 content increased from 0 wt% to 3 wt%.

  8. Annealing in tellurium-nitrogen co-doped ZnO films: The roles of intrinsic zinc defects

    SciTech Connect

    Tang, Kun Gu, Ran; Gu, Shulin Ye, Jiandong; Zhu, Shunming; Yao, Zhengrong; Xu, Zhonghua; Zheng, Youdou

    2015-04-07

    In this article, the authors have conducted an extensive investigation on the roles of intrinsic zinc defects by annealing of a batch of Te-N co-doped ZnO films. The formation and annihilation of Zn interstitial (Zn{sub i}) clusters have been found in samples with different annealing temperatures. Electrical and Raman measurements have shown that the Zn{sub i} clusters are a significant compensation source to holes, and the Te co-doping has a notable effect on suppressing the Zn{sub i} clusters. Meanwhile, shallow acceptors have been identified in photoluminescence spectra. The N{sub O}-Zn-Te complex, zinc vacancy (V{sub Zn})-N{sub O} complex, and V{sub Zn} clusters are thought to be the candidates as the shallow acceptors. The evolution of shallow acceptors upon annealing temperature have been also studied. The clustering of V{sub Zn} at high annealing temperature is proposed to be a possible candidate as a stable acceptor in ZnO.

  9. Enhanced rate performance of LiFePO4/C by co-doping titanium and vanadium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Long, Yun-Fei; Su, Jing; Cui, Xiao-Ru; Lv, Xiao-Yan; Wen, Yan-Xuan

    2015-10-01

    V and Ti co-doped LiFePO4/C composites were synthesized by a wet milling assisted carbothermal reduction technology. The structure, morphology and electrochemical performance of the samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), magnetic susceptibility, positron annihilation lifetime spectra (PAS), scanning electron microscope (SEM), charge/discharge tests, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and cyclic voltammograms (CV). The results showed that the V and Ti co-doped samples kept the olivine structure of LiFePO4, but the synergistic effects between V3+ and Ti4+ in the lattice can increase the disorder degree of the lattice and create Li+ vacancies in LiFePO4/C, thus improve electronic conductivity and Li+ diffusion coefficient. LiV0.069Ti0.025Fe0.905PO4/C delivers an initial discharge capacity of 144.1 mAh g-1 with a capacity retention ratio of 99.4%, 96.3% and 93.6% after 100, 200 and 300 cycles at 10C, respectively. Remarkably, it still gives a high discharge capacity of 124.8 mAh g-1 even at a high rate of 20C.

  10. Nitrogen and carbon co-doped Ni-TiO2 spindles for high performance electrochemical capacitor electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yu; Cai, Xiaoyu; Jiang, Jinhui; Yan, Ming; Shi, Weidong

    2017-02-01

    Nitrogen and carbon co-doped Ni-TiO2 (nickel-titanium dioxide) spindles with hollow inner and good structural stability were facilely prepared by a direct precipitation method followed by annealing treatment. The unique composite shows a remarkably high capacitivity (223.7 F g-1 at 2 mV/s) and good rate capability (132.2 F g-1 at 100 mV s-1) when used as supercapacitor electrodes. In addition, the nitrogen and carbon co-doped Ni-TiO2 spindles also demonstrate good cycling stability (91.5% retention of the initial capacitance after 4000 cycles). The unique structure and seamlessly integration between different components generate synergistic effect to boost high performance and high electrical conductivity. The hollow inner also allows efficient diffusion of electrolyte and provides a more favorable path for charge penetration and transportation, which makes the good rate capability. The attractive performances make them potentially promising alternatives for the electrode materials of future energy storage devices.

  11. Investigation of structural and optical properties of ZnO films co-doped with fluorine and indium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keskenler, E. F.; Turgut, G.; Doğan, S.

    2012-07-01

    Undoped ZnO film and ZnO films, which are co-doped with F and In (FIZO) at different concentrations, were synthesized by sol-gel technique and the effects of co-doping of F and In on structural and optical properties of ZnO thin films were investigated. The concentration ratio of [F]/[Zn] was altered from 0.25 to 1.75 with 0.50 step at.% mole and [In]/[Zn] was altered from 0.25 to 1.00 with 0.25 step at.% mole. X-ray diffraction analysis indicates that the films have polycrystalline nature and the (0 0 2) preferred orientation is the stronger peak. No extra phases involving zinc, fluorine and indium compounds were observed even at high F and In content. The grain size of undoped ZnO and FIZO thin films varied between 15 and 20 nm with a small fluctuation. From the SEM images, although the undoped ZnO had a smooth and particle-shaped surface, FIZO films had nanofiber-networks shapes over the surface with average size of 500 nm. The surface morphologies and crystallite sizes for the F and In doped films were slightly different from than those of undoped film. From the optical study, a slight shrinkage of band gap was backwardly observed from 3.36 to 3.25 eV with the increasing of F and In content.

  12. White light emission from Tm 3+/Dy 3+ co-doped oxyfluoride germanate glasses under UV light excitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lakshminarayana, G.; Yang, Hucheng; Qiu, Jianrong

    2009-04-01

    In this paper, we report on the absorption and photoluminescence properties of Tm 3+/Dy 3+ ions co-doped oxyfluoride germanate glasses for white light emission. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) and differential thermal analysis (DTA) profiles of the host glass have been carried out to confirm its structure and thermal stability. From the measured absorption spectra, Judd-Ofelt (J-O) intensity parameters ( Ω2, Ω4 and Ω6) have been evaluated for Tm 3+ and Dy 3+ ions. A combination of blue, yellow and red emissions has emerged in these glasses, which allows the observation of bright white light when the glasses are excited by the ultraviolet light. The white light luminescence colour could be changed by varying the excitation wavelength. Also, various colours of luminescence, including white light, can be easily tuned by adjusting the concentrations of Tm 3+ or Dy 3+ ions in the co-doped glasses. Concentration quenching effect was also investigated and possible energy transfer mechanism from Dy 3+→Tm 3+ ions was explained which is also confirmed by the decay lifetime measurements.

  13. Enhanced electrical properties in multiferroic BiFeO3 ceramics co-doped by La3+ and V5+

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Benfang; Li, Meiya; Wang, Jing; Pei, Ling; Guo, Dongyun; Zhao, Xingzhong

    2008-09-01

    La3+ and V5+ co-doped Bi0.85La0.15Fe1-xVxO3 (BLFVx, x = 0-0.1) ceramics were prepared by a rapid liquid sintering technique. The effects of the V5+-doping content on the structure and electrical properties of BLFVx ceramics were investigated. In the range of the V5+ content x from 0 to 0.03, BLFVx ceramics had a polycrystalline perovskite structure with tiny residual Bi2O3, while an impurity phase appeared for x > 0.03. As the x increased from 0 to 0.1, both the leakage current density and the dielectric loss (tan δ) for BLFVx ceramics decreased gradually, while the dielectric constant (ɛr) first increased and then decreased gradually in this process, reaching a maximum value of 273 for x = 0.03. Among the BLFVx ceramics, the BLFVx=0.01 ceramic showed a well-saturated hysteresis loop with large remanent polarization (Pr) of 39.4 µC cm-2 and a low coercive electric field (Ec) of ±43.1 kV cm-1 under an applied electric field of ±75 kV cm-1. In addition, these ceramics exhibited good anti-fatigue characteristics after 2 × 1010 read/write polarization cycles. These suggested that La3+ and V5+ co-doping was beneficial for enhancing the dielectric, ferroelectric and anti-fatigue properties of the BLFVx ceramics.

  14. Study of energy transfer and spectral downshifting in Ce, RE (RE = Nd and Yb) co-doped lanthanum phosphate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sawala, N. S.; Omanwar, S. K.

    2017-03-01

    The phosphors LaPO4 (Lanthanum phosphate) doped with Ce(III)/Ce3+ and co-doped with Ce3+-Nd3+ and Ce3+-Yb3+ were effectively synthesized by conventional solid state reaction method. The prepared samples were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) and surface morphology was studied by scanning electronic microscope (SEM). The photoluminescence (PL) properties were studied by spectrophotometers in near infrared (NIR) and ultraviolet visible (UV-VIS) region. Additionally the luminescence time decay curves of samples were investigated to confirm energy transfer (ET) process. The Ce3+-Nd3+ ion co-doped LaPO4 phosphors can convert a photon of UV region (278 nm) into photons of NIR region (1058 nm). While Ce3+-Yb3+ ion doped LaPO4 phosphors convert photons of UV region (278 nm) into photons of NIR region (979 nm). The Ce3+ ion acts like sensitizer and Nd3+/Yb3+ ions act as activators. Both kinds of emissions are suitable for improving spectral response of solar cells.

  15. [Spectroscopic analysis of Er3+ in Er3+ /Yb3+ co-doped LiNbO3 crystal].

    PubMed

    Wang, Dun-Chun; Zhang, De-Long; Cui, Yu-Ming; Chen, Cai-He

    2005-12-01

    At room temperature, alpha-polarized absorption spectra of as-grown and annealed Er3+/Yb3+ co-doped, Z-cut LiNbO3 single crystals, grown by using Czochralski method, were measured in the wavelength range of 300-1 650 nm. The spectroscopic properties of Er3+ were analysed by using Judd-Ofelt theory. The experimental values of the electron transition strengths of several major transitions from the ground state to excited-state manifolds were evaluated from the measured integrated absorption coefficients of Er3+. The Judd-Ofelt parameters were determined by using least square method. According to the fitted Judd-Ofelt parameters, the spontaneous emission rates, the fluorescence branch ratios from the excited-state manifolds J to the lower-lying manifolds J', as well as the radiative lifetimes of the excited states were numerically calculated. In addition, Yb3+ co-doping and thermal anneal effects on the spectroscopic properties of Er3+ were also considered in this work.

  16. Synergistic enhancement of nitrogen and sulfur co-doped graphene with carbon nanospheres insertion for electrocatalytic oxygen reduction reaction

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Min; Xin, Huolin L.; Wang, Jie; Wu, Zexing; Wang, Deli

    2015-03-13

    A nitrogen and sulfur co-doped graphene/carbon black (NSGCB) nanocomposite for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) was synthesized through a one-pot annealing of a precursor mixture containing graphene oxide, thiourea, and acidized carbon black (CB). The NSGCB showed excellent performance for the ORR with the onset and half-way potentials at 0.96 V and 0.81 V (vs. RHE), respectively. It is significantly improved over that of the catalysts derived from only graphene (0.90 V and 0.76 V) or carbon nanosphere (0.82 V and 0.74 V). The enhanced catalytic activity on the NSGCB electrode could be attributed to the synergistic effect of N/S co-doping and the enlarged interlayer space resulted from the insertion of carbon nanosphere into the graphene sheets. The four-electron selectivity and the limiting current density of the NSGCB nanocomposite are comparable to that of the commercially Pt/C catalyst. Furthermore, the NSGCB nanocomposite was superior to Pt/C in terms of long-term durability and tolerance to methanol poisoning.

  17. Investigation of thermal stability and spectroscopic properties in Er3+/Yb3+ co-doped niobic tungsten tellurite glasses.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xuming

    2008-06-01

    A series of novel Er3+/Yb3+ co-doped 75TeO2-(25-x)Nb2O5-xWO3 (TNW: x=0, 3, 6, 9, 12, and 15 mol%) glasses have been prepared. Effect of WO3 on the thermal stability and spectroscopic properties of Er3+/Yb3+ co-doped niobic tellurite glasses have been investigated. With WO3 content increasing from 0 to 15 mol%, the fluorescence full width at half maximum (FWHM), the peak of stimulated emission cross-section (sigmaepeak), the measured lifetime (taum), and quantum efficiency (eta) change from 71 nm, 8.47x10(-21) cm2, 2.86 ms, 84.1% to 76 nm, 7.22x10(-21) cm2, 3.14 ms, 88.9%, respectively. The FWHM and sigmaepeak of Er3+ ions in different glass hosts were compared; the obtained data reveals that this new TNW4 glass may be a potentially useful candidate material host for broadband amplifiers.

  18. Structural and optical properties of highly crystalline Ce, Eu and co-doped ZnO nanorods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murugadoss, G.; Jayavel, R.; Rajesh Kumar, M.

    2015-06-01

    Different concentrations of europium (Eu), cerium (Ce) doped and co-doped ZnO:Eu (1%), Ce (1%) nanorods were successfully synthesized by chemical method using Polyvinylpyrrolidone as a surfactant. Crystalline phase, morphology, functional groups, optical absorption, emission and thermal properties of prepared samples were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectrometer (XPS), Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), High-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM), Fourier transform infra-red (FT-IR), UV-visible, Photoluminescence (PL) spectrophotometer and thermogravimetry (TG) and differential thermal analysis (DTA) analysis. The XRD study showed high crystalline nature of the products with nanoscale regime. Optical study showed shifting the absorption and emission spectra toward higher wavelength side when increasing the doping concentrations. Mainly, this is first time observed a red emission peak at 660 nm for Ce (3%) doped ZnO. Additionally, co-doped ZnO:Eu (1%), Ce (1%) nanorods were synthesized and studied their optical properties. This work demonstrates that simply modified their optical absorption and emission of ZnO by introducing rare earth ions can be used as an effective electrode material in solar cell applications, optoelectronic devices and photocatalysis analysis.

  19. A sensitive and label-free photoelectrochemical aptasensor using Co-doped ZnO diluted magnetic semiconductor nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Li, Hongbo; Qiao, Yunfei; Li, Jing; Fang, Hailin; Fan, Dahe; Wang, Wei

    2016-03-15

    Co-doped ZnO diluted magnetic semiconductor as a novel photoelectric beacon was first constructed for photoelectrochemical (PEC) aptasensor of acetamiprid. The fabricated PEC sensing is based on the specific binding of acetamiprid and its aptamer, which induces the decreasement of enhanced photocurrent produced by the electron donor of quercetin. Co(2+) doping has a beneficial effect in extending the band width of light absorption of ZnO into the visible region and to promote the separation of the photoinduced carriers due to the sp-d exchange interactions existing between the band electrons and the localized d electrons of Co(2+). The fabricated aptasensor was linear with the concentration of acetamiprid in the range of 0.5-800 nmolL(-1) with the detection limit of 0.18 nmolL(-1). The presence of same concentration of other conventional pesticides did not interfere in the detection of acetamiprid and the recovery is between 96.2% and 103.7%. This novel PEC aptasensor has good performances with high sensitivity, good selectivity, low cost and portable features. The strategy of Co-doped ZnO diluted magnetic semiconductor paves a new way to improve the performances of PEC aptasensor. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Synergistic enhancement of nitrogen and sulfur co-doped graphene with carbon nanospheres insertion for electrocatalytic oxygen reduction reaction

    DOE PAGES

    Wu, Min; Xin, Huolin L.; Wang, Jie; ...

    2015-03-13

    A nitrogen and sulfur co-doped graphene/carbon black (NSGCB) nanocomposite for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) was synthesized through a one-pot annealing of a precursor mixture containing graphene oxide, thiourea, and acidized carbon black (CB). The NSGCB showed excellent performance for the ORR with the onset and half-way potentials at 0.96 V and 0.81 V (vs. RHE), respectively. It is significantly improved over that of the catalysts derived from only graphene (0.90 V and 0.76 V) or carbon nanosphere (0.82 V and 0.74 V). The enhanced catalytic activity on the NSGCB electrode could be attributed to the synergistic effect of N/Smore » co-doping and the enlarged interlayer space resulted from the insertion of carbon nanosphere into the graphene sheets. The four-electron selectivity and the limiting current density of the NSGCB nanocomposite are comparable to that of the commercially Pt/C catalyst. Furthermore, the NSGCB nanocomposite was superior to Pt/C in terms of long-term durability and tolerance to methanol poisoning.« less

  1. Mid-infrared photo-luminescence and energy transfer around 2.8 μm from Dy3+/Tm3+ co-doped tellurite glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Caizhi; Tian, Ying; Li, Huanhuan; Liu, Qunhuo; Huang, Feifei; Li, Bingpeng; Zhang, Junjie; Xu, Shiqing

    2017-09-01

    Tellurite glasses co-doped with Dy3+ and Dy3+/Tm3+ have been synthesized. Emission around 2.8 μm is successfully obtained in present glass upon excitation of a conventional 808 nm laser diode. Judd-Ofelt intensity parameters and radiative properties of Dy3+ ions are calculated using the Judd-Ofelt theory. The luminescence characteristics and energy transfer mechanism are investigated and discussed. According to the absorption, fluorescence spectra and lifetime measurements, Tm3+ ions can effectively absorb excitation and transfer their energy to Dy3+ ions with high efficiency (up to 86.80%). Hence, the results demonstrate that Dy3+/Tm3+ co-doped tellurite glasses possessing excellent spectroscopic properties is a potential medium for mid-infrared laser.

  2. Structural and photoluminescence properties of Cd and Cu co-doped zinc oxide nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samuel, T.; Sujatha, K.; Rao, K. Ramachandra; Rao, M. C.

    2016-05-01

    Cd and Cu co-doped ZnO nanoparticles were synthesized by Polyol method and subsequently have been characterized by their structure, optical and photoluminescence studies. XRD and PSA results revealed the formation of Cd and Cu co-doped ZnO nanoparticles with an average crystallite size of 50 nm and average particle size of 246 nm. From Zeta Potential measurements the Zeta Potential was found to be - 29.2 eV indicating the stability of prepared nanoparticles. From Uv-Vis studies, it is found that the absorption of undoped ZnO is less compared with Cd and Cu co-doped ZnO and the absorbance increases with increase in dopant concentration. Photoluminescence studies revealed that the samples are with high structural and optical quality.

  3. Shuttle inhibition by chemical adsorption of lithium polysulfides in B and N co-doped graphene for Li-S batteries.

    PubMed

    Li, Fen; Su, Yan; Zhao, Jijun

    2016-09-14

    The advance of lithium sulfur batteries is now greatly restricted by the fast capacity fading induced by shuttle effect. Using first-principles calculations, various vacancies, N doping, and B,N co-doping in graphene sheets have been systematically explored for lithium polysufides entrapped in Li-S batteries. The LiS, LiC, LiN and SB bonds and Hirshfeld charges in the Li2S6 adsorbed defective graphene systems have been analyzed to understand the intrinsic mechanism of retaining lithium polysulfides in these systems. Total and local densities of states analyses elucidate the strongest adsorption sites among the N and B-N co-doped graphene systems. The overall electrochemical performance of Li-S batteries varies with the types of defects in graphene. Among the defective graphene systems, only the reconstructed pyrrole-like vacancy is effective for retaining lithium polysulfides. N doping induces a strong LiN interaction in the defective graphene systems, in which the pyrrolic N rather than the pyridinic N plays a dominant role in trapping of lithium polysulfides. The shuttle effect can be further depressed via pyrrolic B,N co-doped defective graphene materials, especially the G-B-N-hex system with extremely strong adsorption of lithium polysulfides (4-5 eV), and simultaneous contribution from the strong LiN and SB interactions.

  4. Quantum well intermixing and radiation effects in InGaN/GaN multi quantum wells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorenz, K.; Redondo-Cubero, A.; Lourenço, M. B.; Sequeira, M. C.; Peres, M.; Freitas, A.; Alves, L. C.; Alves, E.; Leitão, M. P.; Rodrigues, J.; Ben Sedrine, N.; Correia, M. R.; Monteiro, T.

    2016-02-01

    Compositional grading of InGaN/GaN multi quantum wells (QWs) was proposed to mitigate polarization effects and Auger losses in InGaN-based light emitting diodes [K. P. O'Donnell et al., Phys. Status Solidi RRL 6 (2012) 49]. In this paper we are reviewing our recent attempts on achieving such gradient via quantum well intermixing. Annealing up to 1250 °C resulted in negligible interdiffusion of QWs and barriers revealing a surprising thermal stability well above the typical MOCVD growth temperatures. For annealing at 1400 °C results suggest a decomposition of the QWs in regions with high and low InN content. The defect formation upon nitrogen implantation was studied in detail. Despite strong dynamic annealing effects, which keep structural damage low, the created defects strongly quench the QW luminescence even for low implantation fluences. This degradation could not be reversed during thermal annealing and is hampering the use of implantation induced quantum well intermixing in InGaN/GaN structures.

  5. Effects of Ga ion-beam irradiation on monolayer graphene

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Quan; Mao, Wei; Zhang, Yanmin; Shao, Ying; Ren, Naifei; Ge, Daohan

    2013-08-12

    The effects of Ga ion on the single layer graphene (SLG) have been studied by Raman spectroscopy (RS), SEM, and field-effect characterization. Under vacuum conditions, Ga ion-irradiation can induce disorders and cause red shift of 2D band of RS, rather than lattice damage in high quality SLG. The compressive strain induced by Ga ion decreases the crystalline size in SLG, which is responsible for the variation of Raman scattering and electrical properties. Nonlinear out-put characteristic and resistance increased are also found in the I-V measurement. The results have important implications during CVD graphene characterization and related device fabrication.

  6. Microstructure and mechanical properties of Ti/Al co-doped DLC films: Dependence on sputtering current, source gas, and substrate bias

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Ting; Kong, Cuicui; Li, Xiaowei; Guo, Peng; Wang, Zhenyu; Wang, Aiying

    2017-07-01

    Co-doping two metal elements into diamond-like carbon (DLC) films can reach the desirable combined properties, but the preparation and commercialized application of metal co-doped DLC films with well-defined structural properties are currently hindered by the non-comprehensive understanding of structural evolutions under different process parameters. Here, we fabricated the Ti/Al-DLC films using a unique hybrid ion beam system which enabled the independent control of metal content and carbon structure. The evolutions of microstructure, residual compressive stress and mechanical properties induced by the different process parameters including sputtering currents, C2H2 or CH4 source gases and bias voltages were investigated systematically in order to perform in-depth analysis on the relation between the structure and properties in Ti/Al-DLC films. Results revealed that the variations of process parameters seriously affected the concentration and chemical bond state of co-doped Ti/Al atoms in amorphous carbon matrix or incident energies of C ions, which brought the complicated effect on amorphous carbon structures, accounting for the change of residual compressive stress, hardness and toughness. The present results provide the guidance for suitable, effective parameters selection to tailor the Ti/Al-DLC films with high performance for further applications.

  7. Phosphorus/sulfur Co-doped porous carbon with enhanced specific capacitance for supercapacitor and improved catalytic activity for oxygen reduction reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Yao; Ma, Ruguang; Candelaria, Stephanie L.; Wang, Jiacheng; Liu, Qian; Uchaker, Evan; Li, Pengxi; Chen, Yongfang; Cao, Guozhong

    2016-05-01

    Phosphorus (P)/sulfur (S) co-doped porous carbon derived from resorcinol and furaldehyde are synthesized through one-step sol-gel processing with the addition of phosphorus pentasulfide as P and S source followed with freeze-drying and pyrolysis in nitrogen. The P/S co-doping strategy facilitates the pore size widening both in micropore and mesopore regions, together with the positive effect on the degree of graphitization of porous carbon through elimination of amorphous carbon through the formation and evaporation of carbon disulfide. As an electrode for supercapacitor application, P/S co-doped porous carbon demonstrates 43.5% improvement on specific capacitance of the single electrode compared to pristine porous carbon in organic electrolyte at a current of 0.5 mA due to the P-induced pseudocapacitive reactions. As for electrocatalytic use, promoted electrocatalytic activity and high resistance to crossover effects of oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) in alkaline media are observed after the introduction of P and S into porous carbon. After air activation, the specific capacitance of the single electrode of sample PS-pC reaches up to 103.5 F g-1 and an improved oxygen reduction current density.

  8. Local structure investigation of Co doped ZnO thin films prepared by RF sputtering technique

    SciTech Connect

    Yadav, A. K. Jha, S. N.; Bhattacharyya, D.; Haque, S. Maidul; Shukla, D.; Phase, D. M.

    2016-05-23

    Co doped ZnO thin films have been prepared using rf magnetron sputtering technique with varying Co doping concentration. GIXRD has been used to probe long range order and Zn, Co and Oxygen K-edge XAFS measurements have been used for investigating local structure around Zn and Co atoms. GIXRD results show wurzite structure of the samples while XANES and EXAFS results at Zn and Co K edge show that Co is going at Zn site in ZnO matrix and no other phase is present. These results are further confirmed by O K edge and Co L{sub 2,3} edge XANES measurements.

  9. Structural study of Co doped MnV2O4 from first principles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krishna, Jyoti; Maitra, Tulika

    2017-05-01

    Inspired by the recent experiments, we have theoretically investigated the compound Mn1-xCoxV2O4 using first-principles density functional theory for x = 0.0, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75. On increasing Co doping on Mn site, chemical pressure on V-V bonds increases which make the system more itinerant as indicated by decrease in the calculated RV-V values with increasing x. The calculated band gap is also seen to decrease with increasing x. This Co-doping induced itinerancy facilitates superexchange interaction among Co and V ions leading to an increase in the magnetic transition temperature.

  10. Reversible ferromagnetic spin ordering governed by hydrogen in Co-doped ZnO semiconductor

    SciTech Connect

    Cho, Yong Chan; Kim, Sung-Jin; Lee, Seunghun; Kim, Su Jae; Cho, Chae Ryong; Nahm, Ho-Hyun; Park, Chul Hong; Jeong, Il Kyoung; Park, Sungkyun; Hong, Tae Eun; Kuroda, Shinji; Jeong, Se-Young

    2009-10-26

    We report a reversible manipulation of short-range spin ordering in Co-doped ZnO through hydrogenation and dehydrogenation processes. In both magnetic-circular dichroism and superconducting quantum interference device measurements, the ferromagnetism was clearly induced and removed by the injection and ejection of hydrogen, respectively. The x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy results and the first-principles electronic structure calculations consistently support the dependence of the ferromagnetism on the hydrogen position and the contribution of transition metal ions. The results suggest the ferromagnetic interaction between Co ions can be reversibly controlled by the hydrogen-mediated intrinsic spin ordering in Co doped ZnO.

  11. Ni, Fe Co-doped ZnO nanoparticles synthesized by solution combustion method

    SciTech Connect

    Dhiman, Pooja Chand, Jagdish Verma, S. Sarveena, Singh, M.

    2014-04-24

    This paper outlines the synthesis and characterization of Ni-Fe co-doped ZnO nanoparticles by facile solution combustion method. The structural characterization by XRD confirmed the phase purity of the samples. Surface morphology studied by scanning electron microscope revealed cubic type shape of grains. EDS analysis conformed the elemental composition. Higher value of DC electrical conductivity and less band gap for co-doped ZnO from UV-Vis studies confirmed the change in defect chemistry of ZnO Matrix.

  12. Ni, Fe Co-doped ZnO nanoparticles synthesized by solution combustion method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhiman, Pooja; Chand, Jagdish; Verma, S.; Sarveena, Singh, M.

    2014-04-01

    This paper outlines the synthesis and characterization of Ni-Fe co-doped ZnO nanoparticles by facile solution combustion method. The structural characterization by XRD confirmed the phase purity of the samples. Surface morphology studied by scanning electron microscope revealed cubic type shape of grains. EDS analysis conformed the elemental composition. Higher value of DC electrical conductivity and less band gap for co-doped ZnO from UV-Vis studies confirmed the change in defect chemistry of ZnO Matrix.

  13. Room temperature ferromagnetism in Co-doped amorphous carbon composites from the spin polarized semiconductor band

    SciTech Connect

    Hsu, H. S. Chien, P. C.; Chang, Y. Y.; Sun, S. J.; Lee, C. H.

    2014-08-04

    This study provides conclusive evidence of room temperature ferromagnetism in Co-doped amorphous carbon (a-C) composites from the spin polarized semiconductor band. These composites are constructed from discontinuous [Co(3 nm)/a-C(d{sub c} nm)]{sub 5} multilayers with d{sub c} = 3 nm and d{sub c} = 6 nm. Only remnant circular dichroism (CD) was observed from the d{sub c} = 3 nm sample but not when d{sub c} = 6 nm. In addition, the remnant CD peaks at 5.5 eV, which is comparable with the absorption peak associated with the C σ-σ* gap transition. We suggest that the possible mechanism for this coupling can be considered as a magnetic proximity effect in which a ferromagnetic moment in the C medium is induced by Co/C interfaces.

  14. Ag-Si Co-doped TiO2 photocatalyst synthesized via a nonaqueous method.

    PubMed

    Chen, Qifeng; Shi, Weimei; Xu, Yao; Wu, Dong; Sun, Yuhan

    2010-11-01

    Ag-Si/TiO2 photocatalysts were synthesized in a nonaqueous system at 140 degrees C, and then annealed at different temperatures. The obtained photocatalysts were characterized by XRD, TEM, BET, TG-DTA, XPS, as well as UV-vis DRS. The results showed that All Ag-Si/TiO2 held an anatase phase and high thermal stability and the phase transformation from anatase to rutile was retarded to about 900 degrees C. The Ag-Si/TiO2 particles were highly mono-dispersed and the particles size became smaller compared to TiO2. Additionally, UV-vis light absorption shifted to visible region after Ag doping. Si weaved into the matrix of TiO2, while Ag dispersed on the surface of TiO2 particles. The visible light photocatalytic activity was evaluated by Rhodamine B (RhB) degradation in an aqueous solution under visible light irradiation. It was found that the photccatalytic activities of the obtained Ag-Si/TiO2 samples were all higher than those of pure TiO2 and Ag/TiO2, reaching the maximum at the Ag and Si content of 0.5 mol% and 20.0 mol%, respectively. The enhanced visible photocatalytic activity may be attributed to the simultaneous effects of silver and silicon co-doping.

  15. A first-principles study of co-doping in lanthanum bromide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aberg, Daniel; Sadigh, Babak; Schleife, Andre; Erhart, Paul

    2015-03-01

    It was recently shown that the energy resolution of Ce-doped LaBr3 scintillator radiation detectors can be crucially improved by co-doping with Sr, Ca, or Ba. Here we outline a mechanism for this enhancement on the basis of electronic structure calculations. We show that Sr dopants create and bind to Br vacancies, resulting in stable neutral complexes. The association with Sr causes the deep vacancy level to move toward the conduction band edge. This is essential for reducing the effective carrier density available for Auger quenching during thermalization of hot carriers. Subsequent de-trapping of electrons from the complexes can activate Ce dopants that have previously captured a hole leading to luminescence. This mechanism implies an overall reduction of Auger quenching of free carriers, which is expected to improve the linearity of the photon light yield with respect to the energy of incident electron or photon. Optical properties of the Ce-Sr-vacancy triple complex are discussed and compared to experiment. Prepared by LLNL under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344. Support from the National Nuclear Security Administration Office of Nonproliferation Research and Development (NA-22) is acknowledged.

  16. Spectroscopic properties in Er3+/Yb3+ Co-doped fluorophosphate glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Tao; Qin, Jie-Ming; Jiang, Da-Yong; Lü, Jing-Wen; Xiao, Sheng-Chun

    2012-04-01

    Using the technique of high-temperature melting, a new Er3+/Yb3+ co-doped fluorophosphate glass was prepared. The absorption and fluorescence spectra were investigated in depth. The effect of Er3+ and Yb3+ concentration on the spectroscopic properties of the glass sample was also discussed. According to the Judd—Ofelt theory, the oscillator strength was computed. The lifetime of 4I13/2 level (τm) of Er3+ ions was 8.23 ms, and the full width at half maximum of the dominating emission peak was 68 nm at 1.53 μm. The large stimulated emission cross section of the Er3+ was calculated by the McCumber theory. The spectroscopic properties of Er3+ ion were compared with those in different glasses. The full width at half maximum and σe are larger than those of other glass hosts, indicating this studied glass may be a potentially useful candidate for high-gain erbium-doped fiber amplifier.

  17. Carbon and nitrogen co-doping self-assembled MoS2 multilayer films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiaoqin; Xu, Jiao; Chai, Liqiang; He, Tengfei; Yu, Fucheng; Wang, Peng

    2017-06-01

    Mo-S-C-N composite films were prepared using reactive magnetron sputtering of graphite and MoS2 targets in argon and nitrogen atmospheres. The effects of carbon/nitrogen co-doping and carbon concentration on the composition, microstructure, mechanical and tribological properties of deposited films have been investigated by various characterization techniques. The results show that the deposited films comprise MoS2 nanocrystalline and amorphous carbon, and the incorporating nitrogen forms Mo-N and C-N chemical bonds. Increasing carbon concentration leads to the increase of sp2 carbon fraction in the films. Furthermore, the high-resolution transmission electron microscopy reveals that a self-assembled multilayer structure with periodicity in the nanometer scale is formed in the Mo-S-C-N film. Benefiting from the composite and self-assembled multilayer structures, the hardness of Mo-S-C-N film deposited at optimized parameter reaches up to 9.76 GPa, and corresponding friction experiment indicates that this composite films display low friction coefficient and high wear resistance both in vacuum and ambient air conditions.

  18. Novel erbia-yttria co-doped zirconia fluorescent thermal history sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Copin, E. B.; Massol, X.; Amiel, S.; Sentenac, T.; Le Maoult, Y.; Lours, P.

    2017-01-01

    Thermochromic pigments are commonly used for off-line temperature mapping on components from systems operating at a temperature higher than 1073 K. However, their temperature resolution is often limited by the discrete number of color transitions they offer. This paper investigates the potential of erbia-yttria co-doped zirconia as a florescent thermal history sensor alternative to thermochromic pigments. Samples of yttria-stabilized zirconia powder (YSZ, 8.3 mol% YO1.5) doped with 1.5 mol% ErO1.5 and synthesized by a sol-gel route are calcined for 15 minutes under isothermal conditions between 1173 and 1423 K. The effects of temperature on their crystal structure and room temperature fluorescence properties are then studied. Results show a steady increase of the crystallinity of the powders with temperature, causing a significant and permanent increase of the emission intensity and fluorescence lifetime which could be used to determine temperature with a calculated theoretical resolution lower than 1 K for intensity. The intensity ratio obtained using a temperature insensitive YSZ:Eu3+ reference phosphor is proposed as a more robust parameter regarding experimental conditions for determining thermal history. Finally, the possibilities for integrating this fluorescent marker into sol-gel deposited coatings for future practical thermal history sensing applications is also discussed.

  19. Intrinsic and spatially nonuniform ferromagnetism in Co-doped ZnO films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tseng, L. T.; Suter, A.; Wang, Y. R.; Xiang, F. X.; Bian, P.; Ding, X.; Tseng, A.; Hu, H. L.; Fan, H. M.; Zheng, R. K.; Wang, X. L.; Salman, Z.; Prokscha, T.; Suzuki, K.; Liu, R.; Li, S.; Morenzoni, E.; Yi, J. B.

    2017-09-01

    Co doped ZnO films have been deposited by a laser-molecular beam epitaxy system. X-ray diffraction and UV spectra analysis show that Co effectively substitutes the Zn site. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and secondary ion mass spectroscopy analysis indicate that there are no clusters. Co dopants are uniformly distributed in ZnO film. Ferromagnetic ordering is observed in all samples deposited under an oxygen partial pressure, PO2=10-3 , 10-5, and 10-7 torr, respectively. However, the magnetization of PO2=10-3 and 10-5 is very small at room temperature. At low temperature, the ferromagnetic ordering is enhanced. Muon spin relaxation (μ SR ) measurements confirm the ferromagnetism in all samples, and the results are consistent with magnetization measurements. From μ SR and TEM analysis, the film deposited under PO2=10-7 torr shows intrinsic ferromagnetism. However, the volume fraction of the ferromagnetism phase is approximately 70%, suggesting that the ferromagnetism is not carrier mediated. Resistivity versus temperature measurements indicate Efros variable range hopping dominates the conductivity. From the above results, we can confirm that a bound magnetic polaron is the origin of the ferromagnetism.

  20. Luminescence features of dysprosium and phosphorus oxide co-doped lithium magnesium borate glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashim, S.; Mhareb, M. H. A.; Ghoshal, S. K.; Alajerami, Y. S. M.; Saripan, M. I.; Bradley, D. A.

    2017-08-01

    Lithium magnesium borate (LMB) glass system co-doped with the oxides of dysprosium (Dy2O3) and phosphorus (P2O5) were synthesized using melt-quenching method. Prepared samples were characterized using various techniques to determine the effects of co-dopants concentration variation on their thermoluminescence (TL) and photoluminescence (PL) properties. TL glow curves of LMB:0.5Dy sample revealed a single prominent peak at Tm=190 °C, where TL intensity was enhanced by a factor of 2.5 with the increase of P2O5 concentration up to 1 mol%. This enhancement was accompanied by a shift in Tm towards higher temperature. Good linearity in the range of 1-100 Gy with linear correlation coefficient of 0.998 was achieved. PL spectra displayed two significant peaks centred at 481 nm and 573 nm. These attractive luminescence features of the proposed glass system may be useful for the development of radiation dosimetry.

  1. Visible-Light-Induced Bactericidal Activity of Titanium Dioxide Co-doped with Nitrogen and Silver

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Pinggui; Xie, Rongcai; Imlay, Kari; Shang, Jian-Ku

    2011-01-01

    Titanium dioxide nanoparticles co-doped with nitrogen and silver (Ag2O/TiON) were synthesized by the sol-gel process and found to be an effective visible light driven photocatalyst. The catalyst showed strong bactericidal activity against Escherichia coli (E. coli) under visible light irradiation (λ> 400 nm). In x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and x-ray diffraction characterization of the samples, the as-added Ag species mainly exist as Ag2O. Spin trapping EPR study showed Ag addition greatly enhanced the production of hydroxyl radicals (•OH) under visible light irradiation. The results indicate that the Ag2O species trapped eCB− in the process of Ag2O/TiON photocatalytic reaction, thus inhibiting the recombination of eCB− and hVB+ in agreement with the stronger photocatalytic bactericidal activity of Ag2O/TiON. The killing mechanism of Ag2O/TiON under visible light irradiation is shown to be related to oxidative damages in the forms of cell wall thinning and cell disconfiguration. PMID:20726520

  2. Coalescence-driven magnetic order of the uncompensated antiferromagnetic Co doped ZnO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ney, V.; Henne, B.; Lumetzberger, J.; Wilhelm, F.; Ollefs, K.; Rogalev, A.; Kovacs, A.; Kieschnick, M.; Ney, A.

    2016-12-01

    The evolution of the structural and magnetic properties of Co doped ZnO has been investigated over an unprecedented concentration range above the coalescence limit. ZnO films with Co concentrations from 20% to 60% of the cationic lattice have been grown by reactive magnetron sputtering. The wurtzite crystal structure was maintained even for these high dopant concentrations. By measuring the x-ray absorption at the near edge and the linear and circular dichroism of the films at the Zn and Co K edge, it could be shown that Co substitutes predominantly for Zn in the lattice. No indications of metallic Co have been found in the samples. At low Co concentrations, the films are paramagnetic, but with increasing Co content, the films become antiferromagnetically ordered with increasing order temperature. Uncompensated spins, coupled to the antiferromagnetic dopant configurations, lead to a vertical exchange-bias-like effect, which increases with increasing Co concentration. In parallel, the single-ion anisotropy is gradually lost.

  3. Sr and Mn co-doped sol-gel derived BiFeO3 ceramics with enhanced magnetism and reduced leakage current

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Nandni; Kumar, Sanjeev; Mall, Ashish Kumar; Gupta, Rajeev; Garg, Ashish

    2017-01-01

    In this manuscript, we report the effect of Sr and Mn doping on the electrical and magnetic characteristics of BiFeO3 nanoparticles, synthesized by sol-gel technique. While powder diffraction analysis of the samples suggested absence of any structural distortion in both Sr-doped and Sr and Mn co-doped BiFeO3 nanoparticles, Rietveld refinement of the data suggested that the unit cell volume decreases with doping. Room temperature Raman studies of the samples confirmed the incorporation of Sr and Mn in BiFeO3. It was seen that Sr doping of BiFeO3 showed substantial reduction in the leakage current whilst co-doping with Sr and Mn led to lower reduction in the leakage current through offering better performance over undoped BiFeO3, due to changes brought in the defect chemistry upon doping. Additionally, Sr and Mn co-doped BiFeO3 samples exhibit enhanced magnetization in comparison to undoped and Sr doped BiFeO3, possibly due to interruptions in the spin cycloid of BiFeO3.

  4. Structural, electrical, and multiferroic properties of (Nd, Zn) co-doped BiFeO3 thin films prepared by a chemical solution deposition method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raghavan, Chinnambedu Murugesan; Kim, Jin Won; Kim, Sang Su; Song, Tae Kwon

    2015-05-01

    The effects of Nd and Zn co-doping on the structural, electrical, and multiferroic properties of the BiFeO3 thin film were investigated. Pure BiFeO3 (BFO) and (Nd, Zn) co-doped Bi0.9Nd0.1Fe0.975Zn0.025O3-δ (BNFZO) thin films were prepared on Pt(111)/Ti/SiO2/Si(100) substrates by using a chemical solution deposition method. X-ray diffraction and Raman scattering analyses revealed the formation of polycrystalline distorted rhombohedral perovskite structures for both of the thin films. As compared to the pure BFO, a low leakage current density of 6.68 × 10-5 A/cm2 (at 100 kV/cm), large remnant polarization (2 P r ) of 60 μC/cm2, and low coercive field (2 E c ) of 773 kV/cm (at 1,000 kV/cm) were observed for the co-doped BNFZO thin film. Furthermore, the BNFZO thin film showed enhanced magnetization when compared to the BFO thin film. These results indicate that the randomly oriented BNFZO thin film would be a useful nontoxic alternative for lead-containing multiferroic applications.

  5. Interplay of dopant, defects and electronic structure in driving ferromagnetism in Co-doped oxides: TiO2, CeO2 and ZnO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, Bakhtyar; Shah, Lubna R.; Ni, C.; Xiao, J. Q.; Shah, S. Ismat

    2009-11-01

    A comprehensive study of the defects and impurity (Co)-driven ferromagnetism is undertaken in the oxide semiconductors: TiO2, ZnO and CeO2. The effect of magnetic (Co2+) and non-magnetic (Cu2+) impurities in conjunction with defects, such as oxygen vacancies (Vo), have been thoroughly investigated. Analyses of the x-ray diffraction (XRD) and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) data reveal the incorporation of cobalt in the lattice, with no signature of cobalt segregation. It is shown that oxygen vacancies are necessary for the ferromagnetic coupling in the Co-doped oxides mentioned above. The possible exchange mechanisms responsible for the ferromagnetism are discussed in light of the energy levels of dopants in the host oxides. In addition, Co and Cu co-doped TiO2 samples are studied in order to understand the role of point defects in establishing room temperature ferromagnetism. The parameters calculated from the bound magnetic polaron (BMP) and Jorgensen's optical electronegativity models offer a satisfactory explanation of the defect-driven ferromagnetism in the doped/co-doped samples.

  6. Fabrication of the C-N co-doped rod-like TiO{sub 2} photocatalyst with visible-light responsive photocatalytic activity

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Liang-Hai; Lu, Juan; Wang, Zuo-Shan; Yang, Lu; Zhou, Xiu-Feng; Han, Lu

    2012-06-15

    Highlights: ► Novel synthesis of C-N co-doped TiO{sub 2}. ► Self-assembly of C-N co-doped TiO{sub 2} nanorods by nanoparticles. ► Excellent photocatalytic efficiency. -- Abstract: The C-N co-doped TiO{sub 2} nanorods were synthesized by the vapor transport method of water molecules, and urea was used as the carbon and nitrogen source. The samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction and photoelectron spectroscopy analysis. The scanning electron microscope images showed that as-prepared TiO{sub 2} powders were nanorods, which were formed by the stacking of nanoparticles with a uniform size around 40 nm. The degradation of methylene blue with the prepared nanorods demonstrated the photocatalytic activities of TiO{sub 2} under visible light are improved by doping with C and N elements. The main reasons were discussed: doping with C and N elements could enhance the corresponding visible-light absorption of TiO{sub 2}. On the other hand, doping C and N could create more oxygen vacancies in the TiO{sub 2} crystals, which could capture the photogenerated electrons more effectively. Thus, more photogenerated holes could be left to improve the photocatalytic activity of TiO{sub 2}.

  7. Low-temperature CO oxidation over Cu/Pt co-doped ZrO2 nanoparticles synthesized by solution combustion.

    PubMed

    Singhania, Amit; Gupta, Shipra Mital

    2017-01-01

    Zirconia (ZrO2) nanoparticles co-doped with Cu and Pt were applied as catalysts for carbon monoxide (CO) oxidation. These materials were prepared through solution combustion in order to obtain highly active and stable catalytic nanomaterials. This method allows Pt(2+) and Cu(2+) ions to dissolve into the ZrO2 lattice and thus creates oxygen vacancies due to lattice distortion and charge imbalance. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) results showed Cu/Pt co-doped ZrO2 nanoparticles with a size of ca. 10 nm. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Raman spectra confirmed cubic structure and larger oxygen vacancies. The nanoparticles showed excellent activity for CO oxidation. The temperature T50 (the temperature at which 50% of CO are converted) was lowered by 175 °C in comparison to bare ZrO2. Further, they exhibited very high stability for CO reaction (time-on-stream ≈ 70 h). This is due to combined effect of smaller particle size, large oxygen vacancies, high specific surface area and better thermal stability of the Cu/Pt co-doped ZrO2 nanoparticles. The apparent activation energy for CO oxidation is found to be 45.6 kJ·mol(-1). The CO conversion decreases with increase in gas hourly space velocity (GHSV) and initial CO concentration.

  8. Interface trap of p-type gate integrated AlGaN/GaN heterostructure field effect transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Kyu Sang

    2017-09-01

    In this work, the impact of trap states at the p-(Al)GaN/AlGaN interface has been investigated for the normally-off mode p-(Al)GaN/AlGaN/GaN heterostructure field-effect transistors (HFETs) by means of frequency dependent conductance. From the current-voltage (I-V) measurement, it was found that the p-AlGaN gate integrated device has higher drain current and lower gate leakage current compared to the p-GaN gate integrated device. We obtained the interface trap density and the characteristic time constant for the p-type gate integrated HFETs under the forward gate voltage of up to 6 V. As a result, the interface trap density (characteristic time constant) of the p-GaN gate device was lower (longer) than that of the p-AlGaN. Furthermore, it was analyzed that the trap state energy level of the p-GaN gate device was located at the shallow level relative to the p-AlGaN gate device, which accounts for different gate leakage current of each devices.

  9. Li(Zn,Co,Mn)As: A bulk form diluted magnetic semiconductor with Co and Mn co-doping at Zn sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Bijuan; Deng, Zheng; Li, Wenmin; Gao, Moran; Zhao, Jianfa; Zhao, Guoqiang; Yu, Shuang; Wang, Xiancheng; Liu, Qingqing; Jin, Changqing

    2016-11-01

    We report the synthesis and characterization of a series of bulk forms of diluted magnetic semiconductors Li(Zn1-x-yCoxMny)As with a crystal structure close to that of III-V diluted magnetic semiconductor (Ga,Mn)As. No ferromagnetic order occurs with single (Zn,Co) or (Zn, Mn) substitution in the parent compound LiZnAs. Only with co-doped Co and Mn ferromagnetic ordering can occur at the Curie temperature ˜40 K. The maximum saturation moment of the this system reached to 2.17 μB /Mn , which is comparable to that of Li (Zn,Mn)As. It is the first time that a diluted magnetic semiconductor with co-doping Co and Mn into Zn sites is achieved in "111" LiZnAs system, which could be utilized to investigate the basic science of ferromagnetism in diluted magnetic semiconductors. In addition, ferromagnetic Li(Zn,Co,Mn)As, antiferromagnetic LiMnAs, and superconducting LiFeAs share square lattice at As layers, which may enable the development of novel heterojunction devices in the future.

  10. Improving NaI:TI with non-luminescent cation co-doping (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Kan; Menge, Peter R.

    2016-09-01

    Thallium activated sodium iodide (NaI:Tl) is one of the most widely used gamma-ray scintillators. Commercially available NaI:Tl scintillators are typically characterized by a gamma-ray energy resolution of 6.5% at 662 keV and a scintillation decay time constant of 230 ns. Energy resolution, non-proportionality and scintillation decay time are improved when the crystal is co-doped with alkaline earth metals. The energy resolution of NaI:Tl+ is improved to 5.3% and the decay time is simultaneously reduced to 170 ns with Sr or Ca co-doping. The improvement in energy resolution, non-proportionality and decay time is likely due to the suppression of slow scintillation processes in NaI:Tl. We also demonstrated that Li+ can be substantially incorporated into the matrix of NaI under an optimized crystal growth process. The incorporation of Li+ introduces efficient neutron detection capability into an already successful gamma scintillator. Single crystals of Li co-doped NaI show similar gamma performance as standard NaI:Tl. Exceptional gamma-neutron pulse shape discrimination (PSD) has been demonstrated in all Li co-doped NaI crystals with up to 8% Li concentration. PSD Figure-of-Merits are up to 4.4 depending on Li content.

  11. (Al, Er) co-doped ZnO nanoparticles for photodegradation of rhodamine blue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghomri, R.; Shaikh, M. Nasiruzzaman; Ahmed, M. I.; Bououdina, M.; Ghers, M.

    2016-10-01

    Pure and co-doped (Al, Er) ZnO nanoparticles (NPs) have been synthesized by hydrothermal method using (Zn, Er and Al) nitrates. X-ray diffraction patterns reveal the formation of single phase of ZnO würtzite-type structure. The crystallite size for pure ZnO is in the order of 26.5 nm which decreases up to the range 14.2-22.0 nm after (Al, Er) co-doping. SEM micrographs show that the specimen is composed of regular spherical particles in the nanoscale regime with homogeneous size distribution and high tendency to agglomeration. FTIR spectra exhibit absorption lines located at wavenumbers corresponding to vibration modes between the constituent atoms. Raman spectra recorded under excitation ( λ exc = 632.8 nm) reveal peaks related to modes of transverse and longitudinal optical phonons of the würtzite ZnO structure. The energy band gap E g of ZnO:(Al, Er) NPs ranges in 3.264-3.251 eV. The photocatalytic activity of pure and co-doped (Al, Er) ZnO NPs was evaluated by the photodegradation of rhodamine blue under an irradiation of wavelength 554 nm. It is found that a photodegradation rate above 90 % could be achieved for a period of time of 40 min for pure ZnO and 120 min for (Al, Er) co-doped ZnO. A photodegradation mechanism is proposed.

  12. Influence of defects on electrical properties of electrodeposited co-doped ZnO nanocoatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simimol, A.; Anappara, Aji A.; Barshilia, Harish C.

    2017-01-01

    We present a systematic investigation of the electrical properties of undoped and Co-doped ZnO nanostructures at room temperature as an extensive study of the role of defects in ZnO. The ZnO nanostructures were fabricated by the electrodeposition method at low bath temperature (80 °C) and the Co concentration was varied from 0.01 to 0.2 mM. Electrical properties of the undoped and Co-doped ZnO nanostructures were studied in detail. The carrier concentration increases while the mobility reduces with increase in Co-concentration. The resistivity increases with an increase in Co-concentration and the reason is correlated with the defects in ZnO. In order to understand more details of the role of defects in the present I-V characteristic behavior of the Co-doped ZnO, high temperature vacuum annealing of ZnO sample was carried out. Electrical, optical and magnetic properties of the high temperature vacuum annealed ZnO were studied in detail. Photoluminescence spectroscopy (PL) results revealed more information of the defect levels which act as scattering centers for the carriers. Co-doping as well as annealing at high temperature in vacuum environment tunes the defects in ZnO and which influence the optical, magnetic and electrical behavior of the ZnO nanostructures.

  13. Polarization compensation at low p-GaN doping density in InGaN/GaN p-i-n solar cells: Effect of InGaN interlayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saini, Basant; Adhikari, Sonachand; Pal, Suchandan; Kapoor, Avinsahi

    2017-07-01

    The effectiveness of polarization matching layer (PML) between i-InGaN/p-GaN is studied numerically for Ga-face InGaN/GaN p-i-n solar cell at low p-GaN doping (∼5e17 cm-3). The simulations are performed for four InxGa1-xN/GaN heterostructures (x = 10%, 15%, 20% and 25%), thus investigating the impact of PML for low as well as high indium containing absorber regions. Use of PML presents a suitable alternative to counter the effects of polarization-induced electric fields arising at low p-GaN doping density especially for absorber regions with high indium (>10%). It is seen that it not only mitigates the negative effects of polarization-induced electric fields but also reduces the high potential barriers existing at i-InGaN/p-GaN heterojunction. The improvement in photovoltaic properties of the heterostructures even at low p-GaN doping validates this claim.

  14. Effect of Al substitution for Ga on the mechanical properties of directional solidified Fe-Ga alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yangyang; Li, Jiheng; Gao, Xuexu

    2017-02-01

    Alloys of Fe82Ga18-xAlx (x=0, 4.5, 6, 9, 12, 13.5) were prepared by directional solidification technique and exhibited a <001> preferred orientation along the axis of alloy rods. The saturation magnetostriction value of the Fe82Ga13.5Al4.5 alloy was 247 ppm under no pre-stress. The tensile properties of alloys of Fe82Ga18-xAlx at room temperature were investigated. The results showed that tensile ductility of binary Fe-Ga alloy was significantly improved with Al addition. The fracture elongation of the Fe82Ga18 alloy was only 1.3%, while that of the Fe82Ga9Al9 alloy increased up to 16.5%. Addition of Al increased the strength of grain boundary and cleavage, resulting in the enhancement of tensile ductility of the Fe-Ga-Al alloys. Analysis of deformation microstructure showed that a great number of deformation twins formed in the Fe-Ga-Al alloys, which were thought to be the source of serrated yielding in the stress-strain curves. The effect of Al content in the Fe-Ga-Al alloys on tensile ductility was also studied by the analysis of deformation twins. It indicated that the joint effect of slip and twinning was beneficial to obtain the best ductility in the Fe82Ga9Al9 alloy.

  15. Effect of a Short-Period InGaN/GaN Superlattice on the Efficiency of Blue LEDs at High Level of Optical Pumping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prudaev, I. A.; Romanov, I. S.; Kopyev, V. V.; Brudnyi, V. N.; Marmalyuk, A. A.; Kureshov, V. A.; Sabitov, D. R.; Mazalov, A. V.

    2016-11-01

    We present the results of experimental studies of internal quantum efficiency of photoluminescence of blue LED heterostructures based on multiple InxGa1-xN/GaN quantum wells with short-period InyGa1-yN/GaN superlattices containing small amounts of In at high levels of optical pumping. Introduction of an InyGa1-yN/GaN superlattice from the side of the n-region of a LED InxGa1-xN/GaN heterostructure allows to increase the value of its internal quantum efficiency presumably by reducing the quantum-confined Stark effect and Auger recombination rate.

  16. Study of the effects of GaN buffer layer quality on the dc characteristics of AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors

    DOE PAGES

    Ahn, Shihyun; Zhu, Weidi; Dong, Chen; ...

    2015-04-21

    Here we studied the effect of buffer layer quality on dc characteristics of AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility (HEMTs). AlGaN/GaN HEMT structures with 2 and 5 μm GaN buffer layers on sapphire substrates from two different vendors with the same Al concentration of AlGaN were used. The defect densities of HEMT structures with 2 and 5 μm GaN buffer layer were 7 × 109 and 5 × 108 cm₋2, respectively, as measured by transmission electron microscopy. There was little difference in drain saturation current or in transfer characteristics in HEMTs on these two types of buffer. However, there was no dispersionmore » observed on the nonpassivated HEMTs with 5 μm GaN buffer layer for gate-lag pulsed measurement at 100 kHz, which was in sharp contrast to the 71% drain current reduction for the HEMT with 2 μm GaN buffer layer.« less

  17. Study of the effects of GaN buffer layer quality on the dc characteristics of AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors

    SciTech Connect

    Ahn, Shihyun; Zhu, Weidi; Dong, Chen; Le, Lingcong; Hwang, Ya-Hsi; Kim, Byung-Jae; Ren, Fan; Pearton, Stephen J.; Lind, Aaron G.; Jones, Kevin S.; Kravchenko, I. I.; Zhang, Ming-Lan

    2015-04-21

    Here we studied the effect of buffer layer quality on dc characteristics of AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility (HEMTs). AlGaN/GaN HEMT structures with 2 and 5 μm GaN buffer layers on sapphire substrates from two different vendors with the same Al concentration of AlGaN were used. The defect densities of HEMT structures with 2 and 5 μm GaN buffer layer were 7 × 109 and 5 × 108 cm₋2, respectively, as measured by transmission electron microscopy. There was little difference in drain saturation current or in transfer characteristics in HEMTs on these two types of buffer. However, there was no dispersion observed on the nonpassivated HEMTs with 5 μm GaN buffer layer for gate-lag pulsed measurement at 100 kHz, which was in sharp contrast to the 71% drain current reduction for the HEMT with 2 μm GaN buffer layer.

  18. Improved visible light photocatalytic activity of fluorine and nitrogen co-doped TiO2 with tunable nanoparticle size

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Junyang; Chen, Jin; Lin, Wei; Liu, Yandong; Kong, Yan

    2015-03-01

    Fluorine and nitrogen co-doped TiO2 (F-N-TiO2) photocatalysts with enhanced photocatalytic activities were facilely synthesized by a simple one-step hydrothermal method using Ti(SO4)2 as an economical precursor, and hydrofluoric acid and ammonia as F and N source, respectively. The structure, morphology, and optical properties of produced nanoparticles were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), N2 adsorption, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and Fourier transform infrared spectra (FT-IR) methods. The synergistic effects of F and N doping were systematically examined by changing the molar ratio of F/N. Compared with the un-doped F or N mono-doped TiO2, the co-doped samples exhibited significantly improved photocatalytic performance due to their synergistic effects under visible light. It was shown that F dopant promoted the crystal growth and crystallinity of samples, while N dopant hindered it to some extent, which resulted in the tunable particle size of obtained F-N-TiO2 materials. The effects of F and N dopants on the enhanced photocatalytic activity of modified TiO2 materials were also discussed. The degradation rate of methylene blue (MB) was achieved at 97.31% after 5 h reaction under visible light over the optimized sample of FN3.5T. The materials also showed excellent stability according to the recycling tests of the photodegradation of MB.

  19. High field effects of GaN HEMTs.

    SciTech Connect

    Barker, Joy; Shul, Randy John

    2004-09-01

    This report represents the completion of a Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) program to develop and fabricate geometric test structures for the measurement of transport properties in bulk GaN and AlGaN/GaN heterostructures. A large part of this study was spent examining fabrication issues related to the test structures used in these measurements, due to the fact that GaN processing is still in its infancy. One such issue had to do with surface passivation. Test samples without a surface passivation, often failed at electric fields below 50 kV/cm, due to surface breakdown. A silicon nitride passivation layer of approximately 200 nm was used to reduce the effects of surface states and premature surface breakdown. Another issue was finding quality contacts for the material, especially in the case of the AlGaN/GaN heterostructure samples. Poor contact performance in the heterostructures plagued the test structures with lower than expected velocities due to carrier injection from the contacts themselves. Using a titanium-rich ohmic contact reduced the contact resistance and stopped the carrier injection. The final test structures had an etch constriction with varying lengths and widths (8x2, 10x3, 12x3, 12x4, 15x5, and 16x4 {micro}m) and massive contacts. A pulsed voltage input and a four-point measurement in a 50 {Omega} environment was used to determine the current through and the voltage dropped across the constriction. From these measurements, the drift velocity as a function of the applied electric field was calculated and thus, the velocity-field characteristics in n-type bulk GaN and AlGaN/GaN test structures were determined. These measurements show an apparent saturation velocity near to 2.5x10{sup 7} cm/s at 180 kV/cm and 3.1x10{sup 7} cm/s, at a field of 140 kV/cm, for the bulk GaN and AlGaN heterostructure samples, respectively. These experimental drift velocities mark the highest velocities measured in these materials to date and confirm

  20. Sustained phase separation and spin glass in Co-doped KxFe2-ySe2 single crystals

    DOE PAGES

    Ryu, Hyejin; Wang, Kefeng; Opacic, M.; ...

    2015-11-19

    We describe Co substitution effects in KxFe2-y-zCozSe2 (0.06 ≤ z ≤ 1.73) single crystal alloys. By 3.5% of Co doping superconductivity is suppressed whereas phase separation of semiconducting K2Fe4Se5 and superconducting/metallic KxFe2Se2 is still present. We show that the arrangement and distribution of superconducting phase (stripe phase) is connected with the arrangement of K, Fe and Co atoms. Semiconducting spin glass is found in proximity to superconducting state, persisting for large Co concentrations. At high Co concentrations ferromagnetic metallic state emerges above the spin glass. This is coincident with changes of the unit cell, arrangement and connectivity of stripemore » conducting phase.« less

  1. Phosphate modified N/Si co-doped rutile TiO2 nanorods for photoelectrochemical water oxidation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiaofan; Zhang, Bingyan; Luo, Yanping; Lv, Xiaowei; Shen, Yan

    2017-01-01

    Surface modification of TiO2 film provides possibilities to improve photoelectrochemical (PEC) activity. In this study, we report on phosphate modified N/Si co-doped TiO2 nanorods films (Pi-N/Si-TiO2 NRs) for PEC water oxidation. Compared to the pristine TiO2 NRs, the Pi-N/Si-TiO2 NRs photoanode shows a 4.65-fold enhanced photocurrent density (1.44 mA cm-2) under light illumination. This significant improvement can be attributed to the synergistic effect of phosphate modification and the N and Si co-dopants. In addition to the improvement of ultraviolet and visible light response by N and Si co-dopants, phosphate modification is mainly responsible for charge transfer at the interface of the photoanode/electrolyte.

  2. Luminescence and cathodoluminescent properties of monoclinic Y2WO6 co-doped with Dy-Bi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Peiju; Zhang, Wei; Hu, Zhengfa; Feng, Zuyong; Ma, Lun; Zhang, Xiuping; Sheng, Xia; Luo, Li; Wang, Yinhai

    2017-08-01

    Dy-Bi co-doped yttrium tungstate crystal materials were synthesized by high temperature solid-state method. To reveal the photoluminescence features and properties of the samples, some measurements have been taken. It turned out that different Bi3+ concentrations play obvious influence in emission performance, and show visible light emission under ultraviolet light excitation. Besides, the effect of temperature on phase structure of samples has also been studied here. Superhigh X-ray luminescence of the phosphors exhibited the promising application in the field of high energy detection. The X-ray irradiation crystal resistance stability of the phosphors has also been investigated through the subsequent testing of XRD and spectra.

  3. Identification of Cr valence states in Cr and Nd co-doped Lu3Al5O12 laser ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Pande; Jiang, Benxue; Fan, Jintai; Mao, Xiaojian; Zhang, Long

    2017-09-01

    Cr and Nd co-doped laser ceramics, as the potential gain materials in inertial confinement fusion (ICF), have been widely investigated. And the study on valence states of chromium ions is important. The effects of sintering additives and annealing atmosphere on the valence state of chromium were studied in detail, and the results shown that the Cr valence states were demonstrated to be Cr2+ and Cr3+ ions in HIP-sintered Cr(0.2 at.%), Nd(0.8 at.%): LuAG laser ceramics. And the intensity of the near-infrared absorption band caused by Cr2+ ions was attenuated with the decreasing SiO2 concentration and increasing MgO amount. The near-infrared absorption could be eliminated by annealing in air. And the transformation of valence states of Cr ions in the Cr,Nd:LuAG ceramics were also confirmed by electron paramagnetic resonance and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy.

  4. Quantitative analysis of the trapping effect on terahertz AlGaN/GaN resonant tunneling diode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Lin'an; He, Hanbing; Mao, Wei; Hao, Yue

    2011-10-01

    We report on a simulation for terahertz aluminum gallium nitride (AlGaN)/gallium nitride (GaN) resonant tunneling diode (RTD) at room temperature by introducing deep-level defects into the polarized AlGaN/GaN/AlGaN quantum well. Results show that an evident degradation in negative-differential-resistance characteristic of RTD occurs when the defect density is higher than ˜106 cm-2, which is consistent with the measurements of the state-of-the-art GaN RTDs. At around 300 GHz, the simulation for a RTD oscillator also demonstrates evident decreases of rf power and efficiency because of the electron trapping effect.

  5. Surface passivation of tellurium-doped GaAs nanowires by GaP: Effect on electrical conduction

    SciTech Connect

    Darbandi, A.; Salehzadeh, O.; Watkins, S. P.; Kuyanov, P.; LaPierre, R. R.

    2014-06-21

    We report on the surface passivation of Au-assisted Te-doped GaAs nanowires (NWs) grown by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy. The electrical properties of individual free standing NWs were assessed using a tungsten nano-probe inside a scanning electron microscope. The diameter independent apparent resistivity of both strained and relaxed passivated NWs suggests the unpinning of the Fermi level and reduction of sidewalls surface states density. Similar current-voltage properties were observed for partially axially relaxed GaAs/GaP NWs. This indicates a negligible contribution of misfit dislocations in the charge transport properties of the NWs. Low temperature micro-photoluminescence (μ-PL) measurements were also carried out for both uncapped and passivated GaAs NWs. The improvement of the integrated (μ-PL) intensity for GaAs/GaP NWs further confirms the effect of passivation.

  6. Binding effect of fluorescence labeled glycyrrhetinic acid with GA receptors in hepatocellular carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yu-Qi; Dai, Chun-Mei; Zheng, Yan; Shi, Shu-Dan; Hu, Hai-Yang; Chen, Da-Wei

    2017-11-01

    Glycyrrhetinic acid (GA) is a natural active component from licorice, which is broadly used in traditional Chinese medicine. Lots of glycyrrhetinic acid receptors (GA-R) are proved to locate on the surface of liver cells. Many reports about the hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) treatment were dependent on GA modified carriers. However, the reality of GA-R in HCC cells was not clear. In this paper, 18β-glycyrrhetinic acid (18β-GA) was labeled with fluorescence (FITC) by chemical synthesis. Together with the binding effect of fluorescence labeled glycyrrhetinic acid (FITC-GA), the competitive action of 18β-GA with GA-R was investigated in HCC cells. The results showed that in HepG2 cells, 18β-GA and FITC-GA presented similar cytotoxicity. The specific binding saturation of GA showed the dissociation constant (Kd) was 7.457±2.122pmol/L and the maximum binding counts (Bmax) was 2.385±0.175pmol/2.5×10(6) cells, respectively. FITC-GA bound to cytomembrane specifically and 18β-GA competed to bind the sites significantly in HepG2 cells. Therefore, there is binding effect between fluorescence labeled GA and GA-R. The GA-R on HCC cells is confirmed as expected, which provides a useful reference of active target modified by GA and a novel approach for receptors and ligands study. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Overshoot effects of electron on efficiency droop in InGaN/GaN MQW light-emitting diodes

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Yang; Liu, Zhiqiang E-mail: spring@semi.ac.cn; Yi, Xiaoyan E-mail: spring@semi.ac.cn; Guo, Yao; Wu, Shaoteng; Yuan, Guodong; Wang, JunXi; Wang, Guohong; Li, Jinmin

    2016-04-15

    To evaluate electron leakage in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well (MQW) light emitting diodes (LEDs), analytic models of ballistic and quasi-ballistic transport are developed. With this model, the impact of critical variables effecting electron leakage, including the electron blocking layer (EBL), structure of multiple quantum wells (MQWs), polarization field, and temperature are explored. The simulated results based on this model shed light on previously reported experimental observations and provide basic criteria for suppressing electron leakage, advancing the design of InGaN/GaN LEDs.

  8. Output power enhancement in AlGaN/GaN heterostructure field-effect transistors with multilevel metallization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, Seung Kyu; Jang, Taehoon; Pouladi, Sara; Jo, Young Je; Ko, Hwa-Young; Ryou, Jae-Hyun; Kwak, Joon Seop

    2017-01-01

    To improve wafer utilization efficiency and heat dissipation performance, this paper proposes multilevel metallization-structured, lateral-type AlGaN/GaN heterostructure field-effect transistors (HFETs) on a 150 mm Si substrate using photosensitive polyimide (PSPI) as the intermetal dielectric layer. The maximum drain current of the HFETs is 46.3 A, which is 240% higher than that of conventional AlGaN/GaN HFETs with the same die size. Furthermore, the drain current drop of the HFETs under high-bias operation is reduced from 14.07 to 8.09%, as compared to that of conventional HFETs.

  9. First-principles study of p-type ZnO by S-Na co-doping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Xingyi; Li, Qiang; Zhu, Yongdan

    2017-08-01

    Using the first-principles method based on the density functional theory, the formation energy, electronic structures of S-Na co-doping in ZnO were calculated. The calculated results show that NaZn-SO have smaller formation energy than Nain-SO in energy ranges from -3.10 to 0 eV of {μ }{{O}}, indicating that it opens up a new opportunity for growth the p-type ZnO. The band structure shows that the NaZn system is a p-type direct-band-gap semiconductor material and the calculated band gap (0.84 eV) is larger than pure ZnO (0.74 eV). The NaZn-SO system is also a p-type semiconductor material with a direct band gap (0.80 eV). The influence of S-Na co-doping in ZnO on p-type conductivity is also discussed. The effective masses of NaZn-SO are larger than effective masses of NaZn and the NaZn-SO have more hole carriers than NaZn, meaning the hole in the NaZn-SO system may have a better carrier transfer character. So we inferred that NaZn-SO should be a candidate of p-type conduction. Project supported by the Natural Science Foundation of Hubei Province, China (Nos. 2014CFB342, 2014CFB619) and the Doctoral Foundation for Scientific Research of Hubei University for Nationalities (No. MY2013B020).

  10. Lanthanum and zirconium co-doped ZnO nanocomposites: synthesis, characterization and study of photocatalytic activity.

    PubMed

    Moafi, Hadi Fallah; Zanjanchi, Mohammad Ali; Shojaie, Abdollah Fallah

    2014-09-01

    Nanocomposits of zinc oxide co-doped with lanthanum and zirconium were prepared using the modified sol-gel method. The samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS), and BET surface area measurement. For comparison, the La and Zr mono doped ZnO have also been prepared under the same conditions. The XRD results revealed that all the materials showed a hexagonal wurtzite crystal structure. It was found that the particle size of La-Zr-doped ZnO is much smaller as compared to that of pure ZnO. The effect of operational parameters such as, doping concentration, catalyst loading, pH and initial concentration of methylene blue on the extent of degradation was investigated. The photocatalytic activity of the undoped ZnO, mono-doped and La-Zr-ZnO photocatalysts was evaluated by the photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue in aqueous solution. The presence of lanthanium and/or zirconium causes a red shift in the absorption band of ZnO. The results show that the photocatalytic activity of the La-Zr-ZnO photocatalyst is much higher than that of undoped and mono-doped ZnO, resulting from the La and Zr synergistic effect. The co-operation of the lanthanum and zirconium ion leads to the narrowing of the band gap and greatly improves the photocatalytic activity. The photocatalyst co-doped with lanthanum and zirconium 4 mol% shows the best photoactivity and photodecomposition efficiencies were improved by 92% under UV-Vis irradiation at the end of 30 min, compared with the pure and mono doped samples.

  11. Structure and properties of Co-doped ZnO films prepared by thermal oxidization under a high magnetic field.

    PubMed

    Li, Guojian; Wang, Huimin; Wang, Qiang; Zhao, Yue; Wang, Zhen; Du, Jiaojiao; Ma, Yonghui

    2015-01-01

    The effect of a high magnetic field applied during oxidation on the structure, optical transmittance, resistivity, and magnetism of cobalt (Co)-doped zinc oxide (ZnO) thin films prepared by oxidizing evaporated Zn/Co bilayer thin films in open air was studied. The relationship between the structure and properties of films oxidized with and without an applied magnetic field was analyzed. The results show that the high magnetic field obviously changed the structure and properties of the Co-doped ZnO films. The Lorentz force of the high magnetic field suppressed the oxidation growth on nanowhiskers. As a result, ZnO nanowires were formed without a magnetic field, whereas polyhedral particles formed under a 6 T magnetic field. This morphology variation from dendrite to polyhedron caused the transmittance below 1,200 nm of the film oxidized under a magnetic field of 6 T to be much lower than that of the film oxidized without a magnetic field. X-ray photoemission spectroscopy indicated that the high magnetic field suppressed Co substitution in the ZnO lattice, increased the concentration of oxygen vacancies, and changed the chemical state of Co. The increased concentration of oxygen vacancies affected the temperature dependence of the resistivity of the film oxidized under a magnetic field of 6 T compared with that of the film oxidized without a magnetic field. The changes of oxygen vacancy concentration and Co state caused by the application of the high magnetic field also increase the ferromagnetism of the film at room temperature. All of these results indicate that a high magnetic field is an effective tool to modify the structure and properties of ZnO thin films.

  12. Structural and superconducting properties of co-doped YBa2-xLaxCu3-xMxOz and La-free YBa2Cu3-xMxOz (M = Al, Zn) high-TC superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hao, S. J.; Jin, W. T.; Guo, C. Q.; Zhang, H.

    2012-05-01

    Two co-doped high-Tc superconducting systems, YBa2-xLaxCu3-xAlxOz and YBa2-xLaxCu3-xZnxOz (0 ⩽ x ⩽ 0.3), both of which have not been reported up to the present, were synthesized. The structural and superconducting properties have been investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and DC magnetization measurement. Comparing the properties of these co-doped systems with single-doped systems YBa2Cu3-xAlxOz and YBa2Cu3-xZnxOz, it shows that in the Al-single-doped YBCO system, the depression of the critical temperature (Tc) with doping is stronger than that in (La, Al)-co-doped system, however, in the Zn-single-doped system, the Tc descends slower than that in (La, Zn)-co-doped system. This is possibly due to the opposite change of the distance between the Ba site and the CuO2 plane induced by the La doping. Besides, the La doping has another effect of improving the solid solubility compared with the Al- or Zn-single-doped system.

  13. High temperature ferromagnetism and optical properties of Co doped ZnO nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pal, Bappaditya; Giri, P. K.

    2010-10-01

    We report on the occurrence of high temperature ferromagnetism (FM) in ZnO nanoparticles (NPs) doped with Co-atoms. ZnO NPs of two different initial sizes are doped with 3% and 5% Co using ball milling and FM is studied at room temperature and above. X-ray diffraction and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy analysis confirm the absence of metallic Co clusters or any other phase different from würtzite-type ZnO. UV-visible absorption studies show change in band structure and photoluminescence studies show green emission band at 520 nm indicating incorporation of Co-atoms and presence of oxygen vacancy defects, respectively in ZnO lattice. Micro-Raman studies of doped samples shows defect related additional bands at 547 and 574 cm-1. XRD and Raman spectra provide clear evidence for strain in the doped ZnO NPs. The field dependence of magnetization (M-H curve) measured at room temperature exhibits the clear FM with saturation magnetization (Ms) and coercive field (Hc) of the order of 3-7 emu/g and 260 Oe, respectively. Temperature dependence of magnetization (M-T) measurement shows sharp ferromagnetic to paramagnetic transition with a high Curie temperature (Tc) of ˜800 K for 3% Co doped ZnO NPs. It is found that doping at 5% and higher concentration does not exhibit a proper magnetic transition. We attempt to fit the observed FM data with the bound magnetic polaron (BMP) model involving localized carriers and magnetic cations. However, calculated concentration of the BMPs is well below the typical percolation threshold in ZnO. We believe that observed high temperature FM is primarily mediated by defects in the strained NPs. ZnO NPs of lower initial size show enhanced FM that may be attributed to size dependent doping effect.

  14. Oxygen in GaAs - Direct and indirect effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gatos, H. C.; Skowronski, M.; Pawlowicz, L.; Lagowski, J.

    1984-01-01

    Oxygen has profound effects on the key electronic properties and point defects of GaAs crystals. Thus, when added in the growth system, it decreases the free electron concentration and enhances the concentration of deep donors in the resulting crystals. Both of these effects are highly beneficial for achieving semi-insulating material and have been utilized for that purpose. They have been attributed to the tendency of oxygen to getter silicon impurities during crystal growth. Only recently, it has been found that oxygen in GaAs introduces also a midgap level, ELO, with essentially the same activation energy as EL2 but with four times greater electron capture cross section. The present report reassesses the electrical and optical properties of the midgap levels in GaAs crystals grown by the horizontal Bridgman (HB) and the Czochralski-LEC techniques. Emphasis is placed on the identification of the specific effects of ELO.

  15. Effects of recess process and surface treatment on the threshold voltage of GaN MOSFETs fabricated on a AlGaN/GaN heterostructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Qingpeng; Jiang, Ying; Zhang, Jiaqi; Kawaharada, Kazuya; Li, Liuan; Wang, Dejun; Ao, Jin-Ping

    2015-06-01

    GaN MOSFETs on a AlGaN/GaN heterostructure with a recess gate were fabricated. The charges near the SiO2/GaN interface of the GaN MOSFETs with different etching conditions were evaluated. It was found that stronger bombardment damage in the dry process will bring more charges near the interface and finally make the threshold voltage of the device negative. Nitrogen plasma treatment and ammonia water (NH4OH) treatment were investigated to recover or remove the damaged layer in order to achieve an enhancement-mode (E-mode) device with positive threshold voltage on the dry-recessed semi-insulating (SI) GaN surface. The influence of these treatments on the interface state density was also characterized using the Terman method by using the GaN MOS capacitor. An E-mode GaN MOSFET with a maximum field-effect mobility of 148.1 cm2 V-1 s-1 and a MOS capacitor with an interface state density of 3 × 1011 cm-2 eV-1 were realized by the NH4OH treatment.

  16. The Effect of the number of InGaN/GaN pairs on the photoelectrochemical properties of InGaN/GaN multi quantum wells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bae, Hyojung; Park, Jun-Beom; Fujii, Katsushi; Lee, Hyo-Jong; Lee, Sang-Hyun; Ryu, Sang-Wan; Lee, June Key; Ha, Jun-Seok

    2017-04-01

    In this study, the effects of the number of quantum well (QW) pairs on the photoelectrochemical (PEC) properties of InGaN/GaN multi-QW structures (MQWs) were investigated. MQW samples were grown using metal-organic chemical vapor deposition, and their structural characteristics were confirmed by X-ray diffraction measurements. The photoluminescence measurements revealed that the optical properties of MQWs may be related to the PEC properties. The cyclic voltammetry data revealed that the saturated photocurrent density increased with increasing number of QW pairs; the photocurrent density of MQW5 was twice that of an nGaN reference. However, in the chronoamperometry measurement of the photoanode stability, MQWs with 3 QWs displayed the highest photocurrent stability, although the saturated photocurrent density was highest for MQW5. This was also confirmed by field-emission scanning electron microscopy of the surface morphology after PEC measurements. The stability and photocurrent density may be attributed to the quality of crystallinity of the MQWs.

  17. Effect of buffer structures on AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistor reliability

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, L.; Xi, Y. Y.; Ren, F.; Pearton, S. J.; Laboutin, O.; Cao, Yu; Johnson, Wayne J.; Kravchenko, Ivan I

    2012-01-01

    AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs) with three different types of buffer layers, including a GaN/AlGaN composite layer, or 1 or 2 lm GaN thick layers, were fabricated and their reliability compared. The HEMTs with the thick GaN buffer layer showed the lowest critical voltage (Vcri) during off-state drain step-stress, but this was increased by around 50% and 100% for devices with the composite AlGaN/GaN buffer layers or thinner GaN buffers, respectively. The Voff - state for HEMTs with thin GaN and composite buffers were 100 V, however, this degraded to 50 60V for devices with thick GaN buffers due to the difference in peak electric field near the gate edge. A similar trend was observed in the isolation breakdown voltage measurements, with the highest Viso achieved based on thin GaN or composite buffer designs (600 700 V), while a much smaller Viso of 200V was measured on HEMTs with the thick GaN buffer layers. These results demonstrate the strong influence of buffer structure and defect density on AlGaN/GaN HEMT performance and reliability.

  18. Tunable high-performance microwave absorption for manganese dioxides by one-step Co doping modification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lv, Guocheng; Xing, Xuebing; Wu, Limei; Jiang, Wei-Teh; Li, Zhaohui; Liao, Libing

    2016-11-01

    The frequencies of microwave absorption can be affected by the permanent electric dipole moment which could be adjusted by modifying the crystal symmetry of the microwave absorbing materials. Herein, we corroborate this strategy experimentally and computationally to the microwave absorption of manganese dioxides. Nanosized Co-doped cryptomelane (Co-Cryp) was successfully synthesized by a one-step reaction. The introduction of Co(III) induced a change of crystal symmetry from tetragonal to monlclinic, which could lead to an increase of its permanent electric dipole moment. As a result, the frequencies of maximum microwave absorption were regulated in the range of 7.4 to 13.9 GHz with a broadened bandwidths. The results suggested that microwave absorption of manganese dioxides can be tailored with Co doping to expand their potential uses for abatement of various microwave pollutions.

  19. Enhancement of carrier mobility in thin Ge layer by Sn co-doping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prucnal, S.; Liu, F.; Berencén, Y.; Vines, L.; Bischoff, L.; Grenzer, J.; Andric, S.; Tiagulskyi, S.; Pyszniak, K.; Turek, M.; Drozdziel, A.; Helm, M.; Zhou, S.; Skorupa, W.

    2016-10-01

    We present the development, optimization and fabrication of high carrier mobility materials based on GeOI wafers co-doped with Sn and P. The Ge thin films were fabricated using plasma-enhanced chemical vapour deposition followed by ion implantation and explosive solid phase epitaxy, which is induced by millisecond flash lamp annealing. The influence of the recrystallization mechanism and co-doping of Sn on the carrier distribution and carrier mobility both in n-type and p-type GeOI wafers is discussed in detail. This finding significantly contributes to the state-of-the-art of high carrier mobility-GeOI wafers since the results are comparable with GeOI commercial wafers fabricated by epitaxial layer transfer or SmartCut technology.

  20. Fe/Co doped molybdenum diselenide: a promising two-dimensional intermediate-band photovoltaic material.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jiajia; He, Haiyan; Pan, Bicai

    2015-05-15

    An intermediate-band (IB) photovoltaic material is an important candidate in developing the new-generation solar cell. In this paper, we propose that the Fe-doped or the Co-doped MoSe2 just meets the required features in IB photovoltaic materials. Our calculations demonstrate that when the concentration of the doped element reaches 11.11%, the doped MoSe2 shows a high absorptivity for both infrared and visible light, where the photovoltaic efficiency of the doped MoSe2 is as high as 56%, approaching the upper limit of photovoltaic efficiency of IB materials. So, the Fe- or Co-doped MoSe2 is a promising two-dimensional photovoltaic material.

  1. Low-temperature ferromagnetic properties in Co-doped Ag{sub 2}Se nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Fengxia E-mail: xia9020@hust.edu.cn; Yu, Gen; Han, Chong; Liu, Tingting; Zhang, Duanming; Xia, Zhengcai E-mail: xia9020@hust.edu.cn

    2014-01-06

    β-Ag{sub 2}Se is a topologically nontrivial insulator. The magnetic properties of Co-doped Ag{sub 2}Se nanoparticles with Co concentrations up to 40% were investigated. The cusp of zero-field-cooling magnetization curves and the low-temperature hysteresis loops were observed. With increasing concentration of Co{sup 2+} ions mainly substituting Ag{sub I} sites in the Ag{sub 2}Se structure, the resistivity, Curie temperature T{sub c}, and magnetization increased. At 10 T, a sharp drop of resistance near T{sub c} was detected due to Co dopants. The ferromagnetic behavior in Co-doped Ag{sub 2}Se might result from the intra-layer ferromagnetic coupling and surface spin. This magnetic semiconductor is a promising candidate in electronics and spintronics.

  2. First-principles study of magnetic properties in Co-doped BiFeO3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rong, Qing-Yan; Wang, Ling-Ling; Xiao, Wen-Zhi; Xu, Liang

    2015-01-01

    The electronic, structural, and magnetic properties of the perovskite Co-doped BiFeO3 have been investigated using density functional theory within the generalized gradient approximation plus Hubbard U correction (GGA+U). We discuss the changes that occur in the structural parameters, electronic structure, and magnetic properties of the Co-doped BiFeO3 under the consideration of the impact of the 3d electrons. The results show that a substitutional Co for Fe in BiFeO3 produces a magnetic moment of -1.0 μB and a half-metallic property emerges. The ferromagnetic (FM) coupling is more stable and still presents a half-metallic property when two Co atoms substitute for Fe atoms in BiFeO3.

  3. Structural, compositional and Raman studies of ZnS: Ce, Cu co-doped nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harish, G. S.; Reddy, P. Sreedhara

    2013-06-01

    In this present work, Ce, Cu co-doped ZnS nanoparticles were prepared at room temperature using chemical precipitation method. The prepared nanoparticles were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), Energy dispersive analysis of X-rays (EDAX) and High Resolution Raman spectroscopic techniques. X-ray diffraction studies show that the diameter of the particles is 2-4 nm. Broadened XRD peaks confirmed the formation of nanoparticles with face centered cubic (FCC) structure. SEM attached with EDS gave the size, morphology and compositional analysis of as-prepared material. The Raman spectra of unplanted and Cu, Ce ions implanted samples of nano structured ZnS showed LO mode and TO mode. Compared with the Raman modes (276 and 351 cm-1) of undoped ZnS nanoparticles, the Raman modes of Ce, Cu co-doped ZnS nanoparticles are slightly shifted towards lower frequency side.

  4. Enhanced electrical activation in In-implanted Ge by C co-doping

    SciTech Connect

    Feng, R.; Kremer, F.; Sprouster, D.; Mirzaei, S.; Decoster, S.; Glover, C.; Medling, S.; Pereira, C.; Russo, S.; Ridgway, M.

    2015-11-22

    At high dopant concentrations in Ge, electrically activating all implanted dopants is a major obstacle in the fulfillment of high-performance Ge-channel complementary metal oxide semiconductor devices. In this letter, we demonstrate a significant increase in the electrically-active dopant fraction in In-implanted Ge by co-doping with the isovalent element C. Electrical measurements have been correlated with x-ray absorption spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy results in addition to density functional theory simulations. With C þ In co-doping, the electrically active fraction was doubled and tripled at In concentrations of 0.2 and 0.7 at. %, respectively. This marked improvement was the result of C-In pair formation such that In-induced strain in the Ge lattice was reduced while the precipitation of In and the formation of In-V clusters were both suppressed.

  5. Enhanced electrical activation in In-implanted Ge by C co-doping

    DOE PAGES

    Feng, R.; Kremer, F.; Sprouster, D.; ...

    2015-11-22

    At high dopant concentrations in Ge, electrically activating all implanted dopants is a major obstacle in the fulfillment of high-performance Ge-channel complementary metal oxide semiconductor devices. In this letter, we demonstrate a significant increase in the electrically-active dopant fraction in In-implanted Ge by co-doping with the isovalent element C. Electrical measurements have been correlated with x-ray absorption spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy results in addition to density functional theory simulations. With C þ In co-doping, the electrically active fraction was doubled and tripled at In concentrations of 0.2 and 0.7 at. %, respectively. This marked improvement was the result ofmore » C-In pair formation such that In-induced strain in the Ge lattice was reduced while the precipitation of In and the formation of In-V clusters were both suppressed.« less

  6. Tunable high-performance microwave absorption for manganese dioxides by one-step Co doping modification

    PubMed Central

    Lv, Guocheng; Xing, Xuebing; Wu, Limei; Jiang, Wei-Teh; Li, Zhaohui; Liao, Libing

    2016-01-01

    The frequencies of microwave absorption can be affected by the permanent electric dipole moment which could be adjusted by modifying the crystal symmetry of the microwave absorbing materials. Herein, we corroborate this strategy experimentally and computationally to the microwave absorption of manganese dioxides. Nanosized Co-doped cryptomelane (Co-Cryp) was successfully synthesized by a one-step reaction. The introduction of Co(III) induced a change of crystal symmetry from tetragonal to monlclinic, which could lead to an increase of its permanent electric dipole moment. As a result, the frequencies of maximum microwave absorption were regulated in the range of 7.4 to 13.9 GHz with a broadened bandwidths. The results suggested that microwave absorption of manganese dioxides can be tailored with Co doping to expand their potential uses for abatement of various microwave pollutions. PMID:27853275

  7. Enhanced electrical activation in In-implanted Ge by C co-doping

    SciTech Connect

    Feng, R. Kremer, F.; Mirzaei, S.; Medling, S. A.; Ridgway, M. C.; Sprouster, D. J.; Decoster, S.; Pereira, L. M. C.; Glover, C. J.; Russo, S. P.

    2015-11-23

    At high dopant concentrations in Ge, electrically activating all implanted dopants is a major obstacle in the fulfillment of high-performance Ge-channel complementary metal oxide semiconductor devices. In this letter, we demonstrate a significant increase in the electrically-active dopant fraction in In-implanted Ge by co-doping with the isovalent element C. Electrical measurements have been correlated with x-ray absorption spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy results in addition to density functional theory simulations. With C + In co-doping, the electrically active fraction was doubled and tripled at In concentrations of 0.2 and 0.7 at. %, respectively. This marked improvement was the result of C-In pair formation such that In-induced strain in the Ge lattice was reduced while the precipitation of In and the formation of In-V clusters were both suppressed.

  8. Tunable high-performance microwave absorption for manganese dioxides by one-step Co doping modification.

    PubMed

    Lv, Guocheng; Xing, Xuebing; Wu, Limei; Jiang, Wei-Teh; Li, Zhaohui; Liao, Libing

    2016-11-17

    The frequencies of microwave absorption can be affected by the permanent electric dipole moment which could be adjusted by modifying the crystal symmetry of the microwave absorbing materials. Herein, we corroborate this strategy experimentally and computationally to the microwave absorption of manganese dioxides. Nanosized Co-doped cryptomelane (Co-Cryp) was successfully synthesized by a one-step reaction. The introduction of Co(III) induced a change of crystal symmetry from tetragonal to monlclinic, which could lead to an increase of its permanent electric dipole moment. As a result, the frequencies of maximum microwave absorption were regulated in the range of 7.4 to 13.9 GHz with a broadened bandwidths. The results suggested that microwave absorption of manganese dioxides can be tailored with Co doping to expand their potential uses for abatement of various microwave pollutions.

  9. C, N co-doped TiO2/TiC0.7N0.3 composite coatings prepared from TiC0.7N0.3 powder using ball milling followed by oxidation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hao, Liang; Wang, Zhenwei; Zheng, Yaoqing; Li, Qianqian; Guan, Sujun; Zhao, Qian; Cheng, Lijun; Lu, Yun; Liu, Jizi

    2017-01-01

    Ball milling followed by heat oxidation was used to prepared C, N co-doped TiO2 coatings on the surfaces of Al2O3 balls from TiC0.7N0.3 powder. The as-prepared coatings were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometer (UV-vis). The results show that continuous TiC0.7N0.3 coatings were formed after ball milling. C, N co-doped TiO2/TiC0.7N0.3 composite coatings were prepared after the direct oxidization of TiC0.7N0.3 coatings in the atmosphere. However, TiO2 was hardly formed in the surface layer of TiC0.7N0.3 coatings within a depth less than 10 nm during the heat oxidation of TiC0.7N0.3 coatings in carbon powder. Meanwhile, the photocatalytic activity evaluation of these coatings was conducted under the irradiation of UV and visible light. All the coatings showed photocatalytic activity in the degradation of MB no matter under the irradiation of UV or visible light. The C, N co-doped TiO2/TiC0.7N0.3 composite coatings showed the most excellent performance. The enhancement under visible light irradiation should attribute to the co-doping of carbon and nitrogen, which enhances the absorption of visible light. The improvement of photocatalytic activity under UV irradiation should attribute to the synergistic effect of C, N co-doping, the formation of rutile-anatase mixed phases and the TiO2/TiC0.7N0.3 composite microstructure.

  10. AC conductivity and dielectric properties of Co-doped TiO 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okutan, Mustafa; Basaran, Engin; Bakan, Halil I.; Yakuphanoglu, Fahrettin

    2005-07-01

    The alternating current (AC) conductivity and dielectric properties of the Co-doped TiO 2 were investigated. The temperature dependence of AC conductivity and the parameter s, is reasonably well interpreted by the correlated barrier hopping (CBH) model. The activation energy ( E), and the density of states at Fermi level, N( EF) were determined. The dielectric constant decreases with frequency at low frequencies and increases at high frequencies.

  11. Sulfur and Nitrogen Co-Doped Graphene Electrodes for High-Performance Ionic Artificial Muscles.

    PubMed

    Kotal, Moumita; Kim, Jaehwan; Kim, Kwang J; Oh, Il-Kwon

    2016-02-24

    Sulfur and nitrogen co-doped graphene electrodes for bioinspired ionic artificial muscles, which exhibit outstanding actuation performances (bending strain of 0.36%, 4.5 times higher than PSS electrodes, and 96% of initial strain after demonstration over 18 000 cycles), provide remarkable electro-chemo-mech anical properties: specific capacitance, electrical conductivity, and large surface area with mesoporosity. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Effect of high density H 2 plasmas on InGaP/GaAs and AlGaAs/GaAs HEMTs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, F.; Kopf, R. F.; Kuo, J. M.; Lothian, J. R.; Lee, J. W.; Pearton, S. J.; Shul, R. J.; Constantine, C.; Johnson, D.

    1998-05-01

    InGaP/GaAs and AlGaAs/GaAs high electron mobility transistors have been exposed to inductively coupled plasma or electron cyclotron resonance H 2 plasmas as a function of pressure, source power and rf chuck power. The transconductance, gate ideality factor and saturated drain-source current are all degraded by the plasma treatment. Two mechanisms are identified: passivation of Si dopants in the InGaP or AlGaAs donor layers by H 0 and lattice disorder created by H + and H 2+ ion bombardment. HEMTs are found to be more susceptible to plasma-induced degradation than heterojunction bipolar transistors.

  13. Synthesis and characterization of Co-doped zinc oxide nanorods prepared by ultrasonic spray pyrolysis and hydrothermal methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Febrianti, Y.; Putri, N. A.; Sugihartono, I.; Fauzia, V.; Handoko, D.

    2017-07-01

    ZnO nanorods was synthesized by using ultrasonic spray pyrolysis deposition process and grown by hydrothermal method on a glass substrate. The influences of varying Co doping in structural, morphological and optical properties were investigated by X-Ray Diffractometer (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), and UV-Visible (UV-Vis) spectrometry, respectively. All the nanorods exhibit polycrystalline wurtzite structure with smaller crystalline size on the Co-doped nanorods. The nanorods also show no orientation alignment and random particle size. Interestingly, the nanorods with 3 wt.% Co doped shows high absorbance at UV and visible region indicating that optical properties of the ZnO nanorods have been modified by Co doping.

  14. Structural, optical and dielectric property of Co doped Bi{sub 2}Fe{sub 4}O{sub 9}

    SciTech Connect

    Swain, Smita Mohapatra, S. R. Sahoo, B. Singh, A. K.

    2014-04-24

    Multiferroic Bi{sub 2}Fe{sub 4}O{sub 9} and Co doped Bi{sub 2}Fe{sub 4}O{sub 9} are prepared by solid state route reaction method using bismuth oxide(Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3}), iron oxide(Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}) and cobalt oxide (Co{sub 3}O{sub 4}). Their structural optical and dielectric properties are studied and compared. X-ray diffraction (XRD) results confirm that there is no change in crystal structure due to Co doping. From dielectric constant measurement we conclude that dielectric constant increases due to Co doping. UV-Visible plot shows due to Co doping bang gap energy increases.

  15. Enhanced ionic conductivity of co-doped ceria-carbonate nano composite electrolyte material for LT-SOFCs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venkataramana, Kasarapu; Madhuri, Chittimadula; Reddy, C. Vishnuvardhan

    2017-05-01

    Co-doped ceria Ce0.8Sm0.1Y0.12-δ and co-doped ceria-carbonate nano composite Ce0.8Sm0.1Y0.1O2-δ - (Na-K)2CO3 used as electrolytes in low temperature solid oxide fuel cells (LT-SOFCs) were synthesized. Structural and morphological studies were characterized by XRD and SEM. Electrical conductivity measurements were carried out by using Impedance Spectroscopy in the temperature range of 100 to 500°C. It was observed that the co-doped ceria-carbonate Nano composite material exhibited high ionic conductivity than that of co-doped ceria making it useful as promising electrolyte material for LT-SOFCs.

  16. Observation of low field microwave absorption in co-doped ZnO system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahule, Tebogo S.; Srinivasu, Vijaya V.; Das, Jayashree

    2016-10-01

    Room temperature low field microwave absorption (LFMA) in magnetic materials find application in microwave absorbers and low field sensors. However not all the magnetic materials show LFMA and the phenomenon is not fully understood. We report on the observation of low field microwave absorption (LFMA) or the non-resonant microwave absorption (NRMA) in the transition metal (TM) co-doped ZnO samples of the composition Zn1-x(TM:TM)xO synthesized by solid state reaction technique. LFMA peaks and hysteresis matches very well with that of the magnetization hysteresis loop and the anisotropy fields at room temperature similar to the reports in the literature for other magnetic systems. However we show through our careful experiments that such a correlation between LFMA and the magnetization does not survive at low temperatures and particularly at 10 K the LFMA hysteresis collapses in our TM co-doped ZnO system; whereas the magnetization hysteresis loop becomes very big and anisotropy field becomes bigger in the range of kOe. We interpret the LFMA as field dependent surface impedance or eddy current losses, in terms of a possible role of anomalous hall resistivity that follows magnetization and the ordinary hall resistivity that only follows the applied field. We then argue that LFMA accordingly follows magnetization or applied field when AHE or OHE dominates respectively. Also we confirm the absence of LFMA signals in the rare earth co-doped ZnO system.

  17. Physical mechanism of resistance switching in the co-doped RRAM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Jin; Dai, Yuehua; Lu, Shibin; Jiang, Xianwei; Wang, Feifei; Chen, Junning

    2017-01-01

    The physical mechanism of the resistance switching for RRAM with co-doped defects (Ag and oxygen vacancy) is studied based on the first principle calculations and the simulation tool VASP. The interaction energy, formation energy and density of states of Ag and oxygen vacancy defect (VO) are calculated. The calculated results reveal that the co-doped system is more stable than the system only doped either Ag or VO defect and the impurity energy levels in the band gap are contributed by Ag and VO defects. The obtained partial charge density confirmed further that the clusters are obvious in the direction of Ag to Hf ions, which means that it is Ag but VO plays a role of conductive paths. For the formation mechanism, the modified electron affinity and the partial charge density difference are calculated. The results show that the ability of electron donors of Ag is stronger than VO In conclusion, the conductivity of the physical mechanism of resistance switching in the co-doped system mainly depends on the doped Ag. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 61376106), the Research Foundation of Education Bureau of Anhui Province, China (Nos. KJ2015A276, KJ2016A574, KJ2014A208), and the Special Foundation for Young Scientists of Hefei Normal University (No. 2015rcjj02).

  18. HPHT synthesis of N-H co-doped diamond single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Chao; Jia, Xiaopeng; Chen, Ning; Li, Yadong; Guo, Longsuo; Chen, Liangchao; Ma, Hong-an; Liu, Xiaobing

    2016-02-01

    In this paper, a series of nitrogen and hydrogen elements (N-H) co-doped diamond single crystals were synthesized in the NiMnCo-C system with melamine (C3N6H6) additive by temperature gradient growth (TGG) method under high-pressure and high-temperature (HPHT). High nitrogen and hydrogen growth environment obviously reduces the growth rate of the diamond. The synthetic diamond crystals are octahedral shape with a green or dark green color. This results indicate that the morphology of the synthetic N-H co-doped gem-diamond can be well-controlled by TGG method. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) indicate that high-quality diamond single crystals with nitrogen concentrations up to 2100 ppm have been successfully synthesized and the hydrogen related peaks at 2850 cm-1 (sp3-CH3) and 2920 cm-1 (sp3-CH2-) are found in these synthetic diamond. Meanwhile, with the increasing of C-centers the nitrogen atoms aggregate and form into A-centers in these synthetic diamonds. This is the highest quality of N-H co-doped gem-diamond single crystal synthesized in high nitrogen and high hydrogen growth environment reported so far.

  19. Visible upconversion in Er3+/Yb3+ co-doped LaAlO3 phosphors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Vijay; Rai, V. K.; Singh, N.; Pathak, M. S.; Rathaiah, M.; Venkatramu, V.; Patel, Rahul V.; Singh, Pramod K.; Dhoble, S. J.

    2017-01-01

    The Er3+ doped and Er3+/Yb3+ co-doped LaAlO3 phosphors have been synthesized by the combustion method and characterized their structural, morphological, elemental, vibrational and optical properties. The optical absorption and upconversion properties of the synthesized phosphors have been studied. Upon co-doping Yb3+ ions into Er3+:LaAlO3, the blue, green and red upconversion emissions of Er3+ ions have been enhanced about 20, 54 and 22 times, under 978 nm laser excitation. The observed upconversion emissions could be due to excited state absorption in Er3+:LaAlO3, whereas energy transfer is dominant mechanism in Er3+/Yb3+:LaAlO3 phosphors. The tuning in the color emitted from the synthesized phosphors towards the green region has been found due to incorporation of the Yb3+ ions. With increase in the pump power, the color emitted from the co-doped phosphor is not tuned significantly, showing its applicability in making the green display devices.

  20. Microstructural analysis and thermoelectric properties of Sn-Al co-doped ZnO ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Hoemke, Joshua Tochigi, Eita; Shibata, Naoya; Ikuhara, Yuichi; Khan, Atta Ullah; Mori, Takao; Yoshida, Hidehiro; Sakka, Yoshio

    2016-08-26

    Sn-Al co-doped polycrystalline ZnO ceramics were prepared by sintering in air. Phase and microstructure analysis was performed by X-ray diffraction and SEM-EDS and thermoelectric properties were measured. XRD analysis showed a ZnO primary phase as well as secondary phase peaks due to the formation of a Zn{sub 2}SnO{sub 4} spinel phase or SnO{sub 2}(ZnO:Sn-Al){sub m} intergrowth phase. SEM analysis revealed a dense microstructure with a small number of nanometric pores, consistent with the measured density of 5.48 g/cm{sup 3}. An activated electrical conductivity characteristic of a semiconducting material was observed as well as a negative Seebeck coefficient with both values increasing in absolute value from RT to 730 °C. The power factor had a maximum value of 3.73×10{sup −4} W m{sup −1} K{sup −2} at 730 °C. Thermal conductivity measurements showed a significant reduction over the measured temperature range compared to undoped ZnO. This could be attributed to grain size reduction, the formation of a nanoscale secondary phase or a reduction in crystallinity caused by Sn-Al co-doping. A maximum ZT of 0.06 was obtained at 750 °C for the Sn-Al co-doped ZnO ceramics.

  1. Catalytic wet air oxidation of phenol over Co-doped Fe3O4 nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Xu Chun; Zheng, Yi Fan; Yin, Hao Yong

    2013-08-01

    The Fe3O4 nanoparticles doped with cobalt ions have been successfully synthesized by the co-precipitation process. The X-ray diffraction, inductively coupled plasma, scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy were used to characterize the as-prepared nanoparticles. The results show that the phase structure of the nanoparticles is spinel structure of pure Fe3O4 with the particle size ranging from 40 to 50 nm. The Co-doping concentration can be controlled by changing the atomic ratio of the stock materials. The catalytic activity of the Co-doped Fe3O4 was further investigated by decomposing the phenol in liquid phase. The results show that cobalt ions doping can improve the catalytic efficiency of Fe3O4 nanoparticles in phenol degradation with catalytic reaction fitting the first-order kinetics. According to the estimated reaction rate of Co-doped Fe3O4 nanoparticles at different temperatures, the activation energy was calculated to be 45.63 kJ/mol.

  2. Luminescence Properties of Sm3+/Eu3+ Co-Doped ZnO Quantum Dots.

    PubMed

    Liu, Fengyi; Li, Hong; Hu, Yajing; Na, Jin; Mou, Yun; Yang, Kun; Ye, Zuhu; Li, Mingyue; Xie, Ya-Hong

    2016-04-01

    In order to improve luminescence properties of semiconductor ZnO quantum dots (QDs), Sm3+/Eu3+ co-doped ZnO QDs have been controllably synthesized by sol-gel method in this paper. ZnO QDs have a spherical shape with mean diameter at about 5-6 nm, which was characterized by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). ZnO QDs have hexagonal wurtzite structure with parts of Sm3+ and Eu3+ incorporated into the lattice, which was demonstrated by X-ray Diffraction (XRD). Luminescence properties at room temperature (RT) of different amount of Sm3+ and 2 mol% Eu3+ doped ZnO QDs were examined in-depth by optical spectra. In contrast to the Pr3+/Eu3+ co-doped fluorescent performance researched in our previous study, the photoluminescence (PL) spectra indicates the unique luminescence properties of Sm3+/Eu3+ co-doped ZnO QDs. In addition, fluorescence lifetimes were obtained to illustrate the luminous mechanism.

  3. Synthesis and characterization of Ce, Cu co-doped ZnS nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harish, G. S.; Sreedhara Reddy, P.

    2015-09-01

    Ce, Cu co-doped ZnS nanoparticles were prepared at room temperature using a chemical co-precipitation method. The prepared nanoparticles were characterized by X- ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy dispersive analysis of X-rays (EDAX), diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS), photoluminescence (PL) and high resolution Raman spectroscopic techniques. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray diffraction studies showed that the diameter of the particles was around 2-3 nm. Broadened XRD peaks revealed the formation of nanoparticles with a face centered cubic (fcc) structure. DRS studies confirmed that the band gap increased with an increase in the dopant concentration. The Raman spectra of undoped and Ce, Cu ions co-doped ZnS nanoparticles showed longitudinal optical mode and transverse optical mode. Compared with the Raman modes (276 and 351 cm-1) of undoped ZnS nanoparticles, the Raman modes of Ce, Cu co- doped ZnS nanoparticles were slightly shifted towards lower frequency. PL spectra of the samples showed remarkable enhancement in the intensity upon doping.

  4. Effect of Ga doping concentration on the luminescence efficiency of GaN light-emitting diodes with Ga-doped ZnO contacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Chang Oh; Kim, Sung; Shin, Dong Hee; Shin, Dong Yeol; Choi, Suk-Ho; Hwang, Sung Won; Cha, Nam-Goo; Kang, Sammook

    2012-11-01

    P-n junction GaN light-emitting diodes (LEDs) were fabricated using Ga-doped ZnO (GZO) films as electrical contacts and characterized by electroluminescence (EL) and current-voltage (I-V) measurements. GaN p-n epilayers with a total thickness of ~6 μm were grown on c-plane (0001) sapphire substrates by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition. Half region of the p-GaN layer was etched until the n-GaN layer was exposed, and 100-nm-thick GZO contacts were deposited on the p- and n-GaN layers by RF sputtering with varying Ga concentration ( n G ) from 1 to 5 mol%. Based on the results of Hall effect, photoluminescence (PL), and X-ray diffraction (XRD), the GZO films were expected to act as best electrical contacts for the LEDs at n G = 2 mol%. Under forward-bias conditions, the I-V curves showed diode characteristics except n G = 5 mol%, and the leakage current was minimized at n G = 2 mol%. Two dominant EL peaks of ultraviolet and yellow emissions were observed at ~376 and ~560 nm, and attributed to near-band-edge- and defect-related radiative transitions, respectively. At n G = 2 mol%, the UV EL showed markedly large intensities for all injection currents, consistent with the results of Hall effect, PL, I-V, and XRD.

  5. The effects of concentrated system on the electrical parameters of GaInP/GaAs solar cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kınacı, Barış

    2017-02-01

    III-V concentrator solar cells are suitable materials in order to reduce the cost of photovoltaic electricity. By using Fresnel lens in concentrating photovoltaic technology is an effective way to entirely use the sunlight. In the present study, the research on the efficiency analysis of the GaInP/GaAs concentrated solar cell structure with AlGaAs tunnel junction was performed. The electrical output parameters of this structure were determined by concentrated system with Fresnel lens. The current-voltage measurements of concentrated solar cell were carried out at room temperature under both dark and air mass 1.5 global radiations. The parameters of GaInP/GaAs concentrated solar cell at 1 Sun and at 32 Suns are compared. It is obtained that the integration of the concentrated system on the solar cell structure improves the device performance by ≈7.5%.

  6. Temperature dependent GaAs MMIC radiation effects

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, W.T.; Roussos, J.A. ); Gerdes, J. )

    1993-12-01

    The temperature dependence of pulsed neutron and flash x-ray radiation effects was studied in GaAs MMICs. Above room temperature the long term current transients are dominated by electron trapping in previously existing defects. At low temperature in the range 126 to 259 K neutron induced lattice damage appears to play an increasingly important role in producing long term current transients.

  7. Enhanced visible-light activity of F-N co-doped TiO2 nanocrystals via nonmetal impurity, Ti3+ ions and oxygen vacancies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Guidong; Wang, Ting; Yang, Bolun; Yan, Zifeng; Ding, Shujiang; Xiao, Tiancun

    2013-12-01

    A visible light active F-N co-doped TiO2 photocatalysts with varying molar ratio of TiO2/NH4F were successfully prepared using an effective yet simple ethanol-water solvothermal method. The photocatalytic activities of the prepared catalysts were tested for the degradation of methylene blue (MB) under visible light irradiation. Superior photocatalytic activity relative to that of undoped TiO2 was observed on the F-N co-doped catalyst with TiO2:NH4F molar ratio of 1.0. Based on the characterization results including FT-IR, XRD, Raman analysis, UV-vis DRS, XPS and ESR, the F and N dopants were effectively incorporated into the anatase TiO2 lattice, and resulted in a decrease in the energy gap, especially for the TONF-2 sample, which shows two optical absorption edge at 2.32 eV and 2.99 eV, respectively. The ESR data showed that the presence of fluorine and nitrogen in the lattice induces the formation of reduced Ti3+ centers and oxygen vacancies. In addition, the surface O2rad - radicals were also detected by ESR analysis, which together with rad OH radicals are responsible for the MB solution decoloration under visible light. According to the experimental results, it is believed that the enhanced visible light activity arises from the synergistic effect of F-N co-doping, the presence of Ti3+ centers and oxygen vacancies, and thus possible mechanism for both visible light absorption and charge separation were proposed.

  8. Piezoelectric Effects on the Optical Properties of GaN/Al(x)Ga(1-x)N Multiple Quantum Wells

    SciTech Connect

    Botchkarev, A.; Chow, W.W.; Jiang, H.X.; Kim, H.S.; Lin, J.Y.; Morkoc, H.

    1998-11-10

    Piezoelectric effects on the optical properties of GaN/AlGaN multiple quantum wells (MQWS) have been investigated by picosecond time-resolved photoluminescence (PL) measurements. For MQWS with well thickness 30 and 40 the excitonic transition peak positions at 10 K in continuous wave (CW) spectra are red-shifted with respect to the GaN epilayer by 17 meV and 57 meV, respectively. The time-resolved PL spectra of the 30 and 40 well MQWS reveal that the excitonic transition is in fact blue-shifted at early delay times due to quantum confinement of carriers. The spectral peak position shifts toward lower energies as the delay time increases and becomes red-shifted at longer delay times. We have demonstrated that the results described above is due to the presence of the piezoelectric field in the GaN wells of GaN/AlGaN MQWS subject to elastic strain together with screening of the photoexcited carriers. By comparing experimental and calculation results, we conclude that the piezoelectric field strength in GaN/Al.15G~.85N MQWS has a lower limit value of about 560 kV/cm: The electron and hole wave function distributions have also been obtained. The implication of our findings on the practical applications of GaN based optoelectronic devices is also discussed.

  9. Anomalous effects of temperature and UV illumination on the operation of AlGaN/GaN MODFET

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valizadeh, Pouya; Alekseev, Egor; Pavlidis, Dimitris; Yun, Feng; Morkoç, Hadis

    2006-02-01

    The impact of high temperature rapid thermal annealing (RTA) on the mode of operation of AlGaN/GaN modulation doped field effect transistors (MODFETs) is reported. It is observed that annealing at high temperatures is capable of turning the normally depletion-mode (D-mode) characteristics of an AlGaN/GaN MODFET, towards that of an enhancement-mode (E-mode). This change is shown to be partly reversible through UV illumination. These results support the arguments on the extensive role of deep surface states on the operation of AlGaN/GaN MODFETs. According to this variation of characteristics, fabrication and characterization of close to E-mode AlGaN/GaN MODFETs are reported, using MBE grown material on sapphire. The devices demonstrate maximum extrinsic gate transconductance of 180 mS/mm. Unity current gain cutoff frequency ( fT) of 5 GHz and maximum oscillation frequency ( fmax) of 14 GHz were measured.

  10. Effects of impurity-free intermixing on InGaAs/GaAs/AlGaAs broad-area diode-laser characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Yan-Rui; Xin, Y. C.; Wang, Ronghua; Vilela, Mauro F.; Smolyakov, Gennady A.; Osinski, Marek

    2001-10-01

    Broad-area InGaAs/GaAs/AlGaAs double-quantum-well graded- index separate-confinement heterostructure diode lasers with non-intermixed and intermixed active regions were fabricated and characterized. Their light-current characteristics were used to extract information about the effects of impurity- free vacancy diffusion intermixing process on threshold current density, internal optical loss, internal quantum efficiency, material gain, etc. Comparison between these parameters indicates comparable device performance, even though lasers with intermixed active region underwent annealing at 1000 degrees C for 30 s and showed 42 nm wavelength blue shift.

  11. Doping of GaN with Fe and Mg for spintronics applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonanni, Alberta; Simbrunner, Clemens; Wegscheider, Matthias; Przybylinska, Hanka; Wolos, Agnieszka; Sitter, Helmut; Jantsch, Wolfgang

    Metal-organic chemical vapour deposition of GaN:Fe and (Ga, Fe)N:Mg has been carried out in order to optimize the growth process and to investigate the effectiveness of Fe ions and Mg acceptors incorporation. All samples have been investigated via high-resolution X-ray diffraction, secondary-ion mass spectroscopy, electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) and magnetization measurements. Co-doping of Fe and ?-Mg has been found to promote the acceptors incorporation and EPR data, supported by superconducting quantum interference device magnetometry experiments, reveal the presence of Fe ions in two charge states, namely the Fe3+ responsible for Curie paramagnetism and the Fe2+ tentatively correlated to van Vleck paramagnetism.

  12. Co-doping induced coexistence of superconductivity and ferromagnetism in Bi3.9Co0.1O4S3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Chuan; Feng, Zhenjie; Yin, Xunqing; Li, Qing; Kang, Baojuan; Lu, Bo; Jing, Chao; Cao, Shixun; Zhang, Jincang

    2016-09-01

    The effects of Co doping on the physical properties of the Bi4O4S3 system was studied. We discovered that stable Bi3.9Co0.1O4S3 compound exhibits both long-range ferromagnetism and enhanced superconductivity with thermodynamic evidences for Tc ∼ 5.5 K. We found that there is an anomalous feature which represents superconducting transition in the hysteretic M-vs.-H loops for Bi3.9Co0.1O4S3 at T = 3 K.

  13. A "Solid Dual-Ions-Transformation" Route to S,N Co-Doped Carbon Nanotubes as Highly Efficient "Metal-Free" Catalysts for Organic Reactions.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fan; Song, Shuyan; Li, Kai; Li, Junqi; Pan, Jing; Yao, Shuang; Ge, Xin; Feng, Jing; Wang, Xiao; Zhang, Hongjie

    2016-12-01

    A green and cost-effective method, named the "solid dual-ions-transformation reaction", is reported to achieve the goal of successfully doping S and N into hollow carbon nanotubes. No harmful raw material is needed during the whole synthesis. Importantly, in the catalytic test of chemical reduction of p-nitrophenol by NaBH4 , the as-obtained S,N co-doped hollow carbon nanotubes exhibit ultrahigh catalytic performances. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. The effects of the porous buffer layer and doping with dysprosium on internal stresses in the GaInP:Dy/por-GaAs/GaAs(100) heterostructures

    SciTech Connect

    Seredin, P. V.; Gordienko, N. N.; Glotov, A. V.; Zhurbina, I. A.; Domashevskaya, E. P.; Arsent'ev, I. N. Shishkov, M. V.

    2009-08-15

    In structures with a porous buffer layer, residual internal stresses caused by a mismatch between the crystal-lattice parameters of the epitaxial GaInP alloy and the GaAs substrate are redistributed to the porous layer that acts as a buffer and is conducive to disappearance of internal stresses. Doping of the epitaxial layer with dysprosium exerts a similar effect on the internal stresses in the film-substrate structure.

  15. Anomalous-circular photogalvanic effect in a GaAs/AlGaAs two-dimensional electron gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, C. G.; Chen, Y. H.; Liu, Y.; Wang, Z. G.

    2009-09-01

    We have studied the circular photogalvanic effect (CPGE) in a GaAs/AlGaAs two-dimensional electron gas excited by near infrared light at room temperature. The anomalous CPGE observed under normal incidence indicates a swirling current which is realized by a radial spin current via the reciprocal spin-Hall effect. The anomalous CPGE exhibits a cubic cosine dependence on the incidence angle, which is discussed in line with the above interpretation.

  16. Anomalous-circular photogalvanic effect in a GaAs/AlGaAs two-dimensional electron gas.

    PubMed

    Tang, C G; Chen, Y H; Liu, Y; Wang, Z G

    2009-09-16

    We have studied the circular photogalvanic effect (CPGE) in a GaAs/AlGaAs two-dimensional electron gas excited by near infrared light at room temperature. The anomalous CPGE observed under normal incidence indicates a swirling current which is realized by a radial spin current via the reciprocal spin-Hall effect. The anomalous CPGE exhibits a cubic cosine dependence on the incidence angle, which is discussed in line with the above interpretation.

  17. Ultrasonic-assisted sol-gel synthesis of samarium, cerium co-doped TiO2 nanoparticles with enhanced sonocatalytic efficiency.

    PubMed

    Eskandarloo, Hamed; Badiei, Alireza; Behnajady, Mohammad A; Ziarani, Ghodsi Mohammadi

    2015-09-01

    In this work, pure TiO2 and samarium, cerium mono-doped and co-doped TiO2 catalysts were synthesized by an ultrasonic-assisted sol-gel method and their sonocatalytic efficiency studied toward removal of Methyl Orange as a model organic pollutant from the textile industry. The relationship of structure and sonocatalytic performance of catalysts was established by using various techniques, such as XRD, TEM, SEM, EDX, DRS, and PL. A comparison on the removal efficiency of sonolysis alone and sonocatalytic processes was performed. The results showed that the samarium, cerium co-doped TiO2 catalyst with narrower band gap energy and smaller particle size leads to a rapid removal of pollutant. It was believed that Sm(3+) and Ce(4+) ions can serve as superficial trapping for electrons at conduction band of TiO2 and prolonged the lifetime of electron-hole pairs. Finally, the effect of synthesis and operational variables on the sonocatalytic activity of co-doped TiO2 catalyst was studied and optimized using response surface methodology as a statistical technique. The results showed that the maximum removal efficiency (96.33%) was achieved at the optimum conditions: samarium content of 0.6 wt%, cerium content of 0.82 wt%, initial pollutant concentration of 4.31 mg L(-1), catalyst dosage of 0.84 mg L(-1), ultrasonic irradiation power of 700 W, and irradiation time of 50 min. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Theoretical investigation of GaAsBi/GaAsN tunneling field-effect transistors with type-II staggered tunneling junction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yibo; Liu, Yan; Han, Genquan; Wang, Hongjuan; Zhang, Chunfu; Zhang, Jincheng; Hao, Yue

    2017-06-01

    We investigate GaAsBi/GaAsN system for the design of type-II staggered hetero tunneling field-effect transistor (hetero-TFET). Strain-symmetrized GaAsBi/GaAsN with effective lattice match to GaAs exhibits a type-II band lineup, and the effective bandgap EG,eff at interface is significantly reduced with the incorporation of Bi and N elements. The band-to-band tunneling (BTBT) rate and drive current of GaAsBi/GaAsN hetero-TFETs are boosted due to the utilizing of the type-II staggered tunneling junction with the reduced EG,eff. Numerical simulation shows that the drive current and subthreshold swing (SS) characteristics of GaAsBi/GaAsN hetero-TFETs are remarkably improved by increasing Bi and N compositions. The dilute content GaAs0.85Bi0.15/GaAs0.92N0.08 staggered hetero-nTFET achieves 7.8 and 550 times higher ION compared to InAs and In0.53Ga0.47As homo-TFETs, respectively, at the supply voltage of 0.3 V. GaAsBi/GaAsN heterostructure is a potential candidate for high performance TFET.

  19. Piezotronic Effect tuned AlGaN/GaN High Electron Mobility Transistor.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Chunyan; Liu, Ting; Du, Chunhua; Huang, Xin; Liu, Mengmeng; Zhao, Zhenfu; Li, Linxuan; Pu, Xiong; Zhai, Junyi; Hu, Weiguo; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2017-09-05

    The piezotronic effect is about utilizing strain-induced piezoelectric polarization charges to tune the carrier transportation across the interface/junction. We fabricated a high performance AlGaN/GaN High Electron Mobility Transistor (HEMT), and the transport property was proven to be enhanced by applying an external stress for the first time. The enhanced source-drain current was also observed at any gate voltage and the maximum enhancement of the saturation current was up to 21 % with 15 N applied stress (0.18 GPa at center) at -1 V gate voltage. The physical mechanism of HEMT with/without external compressive stress conditions was carefully illustrated and further confirmed by a self-consistent solution of the Schrödinger-Poisson equations. This study proves the cause-and-effect relationship between the piezoelectric polarization effect and two-dimensional electron gas formation, which provides a tunable solution to enhance the device performance. The strain tuned HEMT has potential applications in human-machine interface and the security control of the power system. © 2017 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  20. Waveguide effect of GaAsSb quantum wells in a laser structure based on GaAs

    SciTech Connect

    Aleshkin, V. Ya.; Afonenko, A. A.; Dikareva, N. V.; Dubinov, A. A. Kudryavtsev, K. E.; Morozov, S. V.; Nekorkin, S. M.

    2013-11-15

    The waveguide effect of GaAsSb quantum wells in a semiconductor-laser structure based on GaAs is studied theoretically and experimentally. It is shown that quantum wells themselves can be used as waveguide layers in the laser structure. As the excitation-power density attains a value of 2 kW/cm{sup 2} at liquid-nitrogen temperature, superluminescence at the wavelength corresponding to the optical transition in bulk GaAs (at 835 nm) is observed.

  1. Effect of InGaAs interlayer on the properties of GaAs grown on Si (111) substrate by molecular beam epitaxy

    SciTech Connect

    Wen, Lei; Gao, Fangliang; Li, Jingling; Guan, Yunfang; Wang, Wenliang; Zhou, Shizhong; Lin, Zhiting; Zhang, Xiaona; Zhang, Shuguang E-mail: mssgzhang@scut.edu.cn; Li, Guoqiang E-mail: mssgzhang@scut.edu.cn

    2014-11-21

    High-quality GaAs films have been epitaxially grown on Si (111) substrates by inserting an In{sub x}Ga{sub 1−x}As interlayer with proper In composition by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). The effect of In{sub x}Ga{sub 1−x}As (0 < x < 0.2) interlayers on the properties of GaAs films grown on Si (111) substrates by MBE has been studied in detailed. Due to the high compressive strain between InGaAs and Si, InGaAs undergoes partial strain relaxation. Unstrained InGaAs has a larger lattice constant than GaAs. Therefore, a thin InGaAs layer with proper In composition may adopt a close lattice constant with that of GaAs, which is beneficial to the growth of high-quality GaAs epilayer on top. It is found that the proper In composition in In{sub x}Ga{sub 1−x}As interlayer of 10% is beneficial to obtaining high-quality GaAs films, which, on the one hand, greatly compensates the misfit stress between GaAs film and Si substrate, and on the other hand, suppresses the formation of multiple twin during the heteroepitaxial growth of GaAs film. However, when the In composition does not reach the proper value (∼10%), the In{sub x}Ga{sub 1−x}As adopts a lower strain relaxation and undergoes a lattice constant smaller than unstrained GaAs, and therefore introduces compressive stress to GaAs grown on top. When In composition exceeds the proper value, the In{sub x}Ga{sub 1−x}As will adopt a higher strain relaxation and undergoes a lattice constant larger than unstrained GaAs, and therefore introduces tensile stress to GaAs grown on top. As a result, In{sub x}Ga{sub 1−x}As interlayers with improper In composition introduces enlarged misfit stress to GaAs epilayers grown on top, and deteriorates the quality of GaAs epilayers. This work demonstrates a simple but effective method to grow high-quality GaAs epilayers and brings up a broad prospect for the application of GaAs-based optoelectronic devices on Si substrates.

  2. Mg doping and its effect on the semipolar GaN(1122) growth kinetics

    SciTech Connect

    Lahourcade, L.; Wirthmueller, A.; Monroy, E.; Chauvat, M. P.; Ruterana, P.; Laufer, A.; Eickhoff, M.

    2009-10-26

    We report the effect of Mg doping on the growth kinetics of semipolar GaN(1122) synthesized by plasma-assisted molecular-beam epitaxy. Mg tends to segregate on the surface, inhibiting the formation of the self-regulated Ga film which is used as a surfactant for the growth of undoped and Si-doped GaN(1122). We observe an enhancement of Mg incorporation in GaN(1122) compared to GaN(0001). Typical structural defects or polarity inversion domains found in Mg-doped GaN(0001) were not observed for the semipolar films investigated in the present study.

  3. Synthesis and properties of ZnTe and Eu3+ ion co-doped glass nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahaman Molla, Atiar; Tarafder, Anal; Dey, Chirantan; Karmakar, Basudeb

    2014-10-01

    In this study, ZnTe (II-VI) semiconductor and Eu+3-ion co-doped borosilicate glass has been prepared in the SiO2-K2O-CaO-BaO-B2O3 glass system followed by controlled heat-treatment to produce glass nanocomposites. Glass transition temperature and crystallization peak temperature have been evaluated using DSC analysis. Dilatometric studies were carried out to evaluate thermal expansion co-efficient, glass transition temperature, and dilatometric softening temperature and found to be 10.7 × 10-6/K, 580° C and 628° C, respectively. TEM micrographs demonstrate formation of nano sized crystallites of less than 50 nm. The ZnTe crystal formation also established through selected area electron diffraction (SAED) analysis and high resolution images obtained through TEM studies. With increasing heat treatment time, optical transmission cut-off wavelength (λcut-off) shifted towards higher wavelength. Excitation spectra were recorded by monitoring emission at 613 nm corresponding to the 5D0 → 7F2 transition. An intense 394 nm excitation band corresponding to the 7F0 → 5L6 transition was observed. Emission spectra were then recorded by exciting the glass samples at 394 nm. When the glass is heat-treated for 30 min at 610° C, a 6-fold increase in the intensity of the red emission at 612 nm has been observed, which is attributed to the segregation of Eu3+ ions into the low phonon energy ZnTe crystallites and as the size of the nanocrystals is smaller than the size of the exciton, quantum confinement effect is visible. Further increase in heat-treatment duration led to decrease in luminescence intensity due to the growth of larger size crystals. 5D1 → 7F0 transition is visible only in the samples heat-treated for 30 min and 1 h, which is a characteristic of presence of Eu3+ ions in the low phonon energy ZnTe crystal sites. The micro hardness of the precursor glass and glass nanocomposites was evaluated; base glass shows hardness of 6.7 GPa and hardness of heat

  4. Understanding the infrared to visible upconversion luminescence properties of Er{sup 3+}/Yb{sup 3+} co-doped BaMoO{sub 4} nanocrystals

    SciTech Connect

    Adhikari, Rajesh; Choi, Jinhyuk; Narro-García, R.; De la Rosa, E.; Sekino, Tohru; Lee, Soo Wohn

    2014-08-15

    In this paper we report the infrared to visible upconversion luminescence properties of Er{sup 3+}/Yb{sup 3+} co-doped BaMoO{sub 4} nanocrystals synthesized via microwave assisted sol–gel processing route. Structural, morphological and upconversion luminescence properties were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), UV–vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (UV–vis DRS) and Upconversion Photoluminescence spectra analysis. Results revealed that the oval shaped BaMoO{sub 4} nanocrystals ranging in size from 40 to 60 nm having tetragonal scheelite crystal structure were obtained by sol–gel route. The infrared to visible upconversion luminescence has been investigated in Er{sup 3+}/Yb{sup 3+} co-doped in BaMoO{sub 4}with different Yb{sup 3+} concentrations. Intense green upconversion emissions around 528, 550 nm, and red emission at 657 nm corresponding to the {sup 2}H{sub 11/2}, {sup 4}S{sub 3/2}, and {sup 4}F{sub 9/2} transitions, respectively to the {sup 4}I{sub 15/2} ground state were observed when excited by CW laser radiation at 980 nm. The green emissions were greatly enhanced after the addition of sensitizer (Yb{sup 3+} ions). The effect of Yb{sup 3+} on the upconversion luminescence intensity was analyzed and explained in terms of the energy transfer process based. The reported work establishes the understanding of molybdates as an alternative host material for upconversion luminescence. - Graphical abstract: Infrared to visible upconversion luminescence of Er{sup 3+}/Yb{sup 3+} co-doped BaMoO{sub 4} nanocrystals. - Highlights: • Nanocrystals were synthesized by microwave assisted sol–gel processing route. • Strong green emissions were observed in Er{sup 3+}/Yb{sup 3+} co-doped BaMoO{sub 4} nanocrystals. • Provides an insight on Upconversion luminescence properties of oxides host materials.

  5. Mn(4+),Li(+) co-doped SrMgAl10O17 phosphor-in-glass: application in high-power warm w-LEDs.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Jiasong; Xu, Wei; Chen, Qingli; Yuan, Shuo; Ji, Zhengguo; Chen, Daqin

    2017-08-14

    Currently, the shortage of red components and easy aging of organic silicone still remain challenges for high-power phosphor-converted warm white light-emitting diodes (w-LEDs). Aiming to alleviate these issues, phosphor-in-glass (PiG), fabricated by co-sintering red- and yellow-emitting phosphors and low-melting glass, has been regarded as a promising color converter for w-LEDs. In this study, a Li(+),Mn(4+) co-doped SrMgAl10O17 red phosphor was synthesized via a conventional solid-state reaction. The as-prepared phosphor exhibits a deep red emission, ascribed to Mn(4+):(2)Eg→(4)A2g spin-forbidden transition in the range of 600-700 nm with a narrow-band full width at half maximum of 55 nm, and provides an ideal broadband excitation extending from 250 to 530 nm. Impressively, the Li(+) additive used as charge compensation was beneficial to enhance the Mn(4+) luminescence by allowing more Mn(4+) to replace Al(3+). Furthermore, the developed SrMgAl10O17:Mn(4+),Li(+) red phosphor and commercial YAG:Ce(3+) yellow phosphor co-doped inorganic PiG were successfully fabricated as color converters to substitute organic silicone. The w-LED was fabricated by combining an InGaN blue LED chip with a PiG plate. Importantly, the constructed w-LEDs exhibited superior optical performance and tuned chromaticity feature with the correlated color temperature evolved from bluish cool white (6903 K) to yellowish warm white (3717 K), and the color rendering index increased from 69.4 to 85.5, meeting the requirements for indoor lighting.

  6. Effect of dislocation density on thermal boundary conductance across GaSb/GaAs interfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Hopkins, Patrick E.; Duda, John C.; Clark, Stephen P.; Hains, Christopher P.; Rotter, Thomas J.; Balakrishnan, Ganesh; Phinney, Leslie M.

    2011-04-18

    We report on the thermal boundary conductance across structurally-variant GaSb/GaAs interfaces characterized by different dislocations densities, as well as variably-rough Al/GaSb interfaces. The GaSb/GaAs structures are epitaxially grown using both interfacial misfit (IMF) and non-IMF techniques. We measure the thermal boundary conductance from 100 to 450 K with time-domain thermoreflectance. The thermal boundary conductance across the GaSb/GaAs interfaces decreases with increasing strain dislocation density. We develop a model for interfacial transport at structurally-variant interfaces in which phonon propagation and scattering parallels photon attenuation. We find that this model describes the measured thermal boundary conductances well.

  7. Effect of a Coulomb well in (In, Ga)As/GaAs quantum wells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seisyan, R. P.; Kavokin, A. V.; Moumanis, Kh.; Sasin, M. E.

    2017-06-01

    Magnetooptical investigation of exciton transitions in high-quality quantum wells of an (In, Ga)As/GaAs heterosystem has been carried out. Investigation of transmission of free-hanging samples detached from the substrate in the magnetic fields of up to 12 T revealed a rich fine structure associated with various heavy-hole and light-hole exciton transitions. In particular, transitions from the excited states of light holes localized in a Coulomb potential produced by an electron along the heterojunction axis (a Coulomb well) have been detected. Taking into account consistently stresses, formation of Landau levels, the binding energies of excitons (diamagnetic excitons), and the effect of a Coulomb well, we have succeeded to describe the experimental results with the use of a self-consistent variational procedure. As a result, new features in the structure of optical transitions have been explained and the effective masses of electrons and holes of excitons formed by both heavy and light holes have been determined with a high accuracy.

  8. Effect of Light Absorption in InGaN/GaN Vertical Light-Emitting Diodes.

    PubMed

    Sung, Junho; Jeon, Ki-Seong; Lee, Min Woo; Lee, Eun Ah; Kim, Seon Ock; Song, Hooyoung; Choi, Hwanjoon; Kang, Mingu; Choi, Yoon-Ho; Ryu, Han-Youl; O, Beom-Hoan; Lee, Jeong Soo

    2015-07-01

    For evaluating the effect of light absorption in vertically structured thin film light-emitting diodes (VLEDs), we investigate the dependence of the efficiencies on the several specific parameters including thickness and doping concentration (N(D)) of the n-GaN layer, a design of hetero-structures of the n-GaN layer, and a number of pairs of multi-quantum wells (MQWs). Generally, there is a complementary relation between internal quantum efficiency (IQE) and light extraction efficiency (LEE). However, we confirmed that LEE determined by light absorption is more dominant than IQE in VLED structures with a textured surface, from numerical simulation and experimental results. Effect of light absorption is more prominent in the vertical chip with a textured surface than in that with a flat surface, because a travel length of light extracted from the textured surface is longer. Minimizing light absorption in VLEDs is a key technology for improving light output, and light absorption speaks for the index of enhancement by the general technologies for improving LEE.

  9. Effect of the Yb3+ Concentration in Up-Conversion and Electrical Properties of Ho3+/Yb3+ Co-doped (0.94Na0.5Bi0.5TiO3-0.06BaTiO3) Ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Qian; Li, Yanxia; Li, Jun; Chai, Xiaona; Zhao, Haifeng; Wang, Xusheng; Yao, Xi

    2016-07-01

    Ho3+/Yb3+ co-doped 0.94Na0.5Bi0.5TiO3-0.06BaTiO3 (NBT-BT:Ho3+/Yb3+) ceramics were synthesized by solid-state reaction and characterized by x-ray diffraction (XRD), luminescent, dielectric, ferroelectric and piezoelectric measurements. The XRD diffraction data showed that all the ceramics were single phase with a perovskite structure. Bright green up-conversion (UC) emission bands (545 nm) and weak red UC emission bands (660 nm) corresponded to the transitions from (5F4, 5S2) → 5I8 and 4I5 → 5I8, respectively. Furthermore, optimized UC emission intensity was observed in the NBT-BT:0.005Ho3+/0.03Yb3+ samples. The thermal behavior of UC emission in the ceramics was also investigated and the maximum sensitivity based on fluorescence intensity ratio (FIR) technology was approximately 0.0042 K-1 at 100 K. Moreover, relatively good dielectric properties ( ɛ = 4475) and ferroelectric properties ( P r = 32 μ/cm2 and E c = 37 kV) were obtained in NBT-BT:0.005Ho3+/0.005Yb3+. As a multi-functional material, NBT-BT:Ho3+/Yb3+ ceramics may be useful in electro-optical devices.

  10. On the effect of N-GaN/P-GaN/N-GaN/P-GaN/N-GaN built-in junctions in the n-GaN layer for InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes.

    PubMed

    Kyaw, Zabu; Zhang, Zi-Hui; Liu, Wei; Tan, Swee Tiam; Ju, Zhen Gang; Zhang, Xue Liang; Ji, Yun; Hasanov, Namig; Zhu, Binbin; Lu, Shunpeng; Zhang, Yiping; Sun, Xiao Wei; Demir, Hilmi Volkan

    2014-01-13

    N-GaN/P-GaN/N-GaN/P-GaN/N-GaN (NPNPN-GaN) junctions embedded between the n-GaN region and multiple quantum wells (MQWs) are systematically studied both experimentally and theoretically to increase the performance of InGaN/GaN light emitting diodes (LEDs) in this work. In the proposed architecture, each thin P-GaN layer sandwiched in the NPNPN-GaN structure is completely depleted due to the built-in electric field in the NPNPN-GaN junctions, and the ionized acceptors in these P-GaN layers serve as the energy barriers for electrons from the n-GaN region, resulting in a reduced electron over flow and enhanced the current spreading horizontally in the n- GaN region. These lead to increased optical output power and external quantum efficiency (EQE) from the proposed device.

  11. Exciton properties in zincblende InGaN-GaN quantum wells under the effects of intense laser fields

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    In this work, we study the exciton states in a zincblende InGaN/GaN quantum well using a variational technique. The system is considered under the action of intense laser fields with the incorporation of a direct current electric field as an additional external probe. The effects of these external influences as well as of the changes in the geometry of the heterostructure on the exciton binding energy are discussed in detail. PMID:22937963

  12. Composition Dependence of Thermal Annealing Effect on 1.3 μm GaInNAs/GaAs Quantum Well Lasers Grown by Chemical Beam Epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makino, Shigeki; Miyamoto, Tomoyuki; Kageyama, Takeo; Ikenaga, Yoshihiko; Arai, Masakazu; Koyama, Fumio; Iga, Kenichi

    2001-11-01

    The thermal annealing process is effective to improve the optical quality of GaInNAs/GaAs quantum wells (QWs). However, a blue shift of the emission peak wavelength occurs during the annealing and it is strongly related to the annealing condition and the composition of GaInNAs/GaAs QWs. In this study, we investigated the dependences of both the annealing condition and the composition on the lasing characteristics of 1.3 μm GaInNAs/GaAs QW lasers.

  13. Effects of 30 Mev Electron Irradiation on InGaAsP LEDs (Light Emitting Diodes) and InGaAs Photodiodes.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-06-01

    Radiation Ref. Aukerman , 1966 LED GaAs 2 Meu Electrons 12 Millea, McColl Stanley 1970 LED GaAsGaP 2.0 - 2.5 Mey 13 GaAsP Electrons Mitchell 1977...Effects of Nuclear Weapons, United States Department of Defense, 1977. 12. Aukerman , L.W., Millea, M.F., McColl, M., Effects of Radiation Damage On

  14. Effect of GaN template layer strain on the growth of InxGa1-xN/GaN MQW light emitting diodes

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, M.C.; Bourret-Courchesne, E.D.; Wu, J.; Liliental-Weber, Z.; Zakharov, D.N.; Jorgenson, R.J.; Ng, T.B.; McCready, D.E.; Williams, J.R.

    2004-01-15

    GaN template layer strain effects were investigated on the growth of InGaN/GaN LED devices. Seven period InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well structures were deposited on 5{micro}m and 15{micro}m GaN template layers. It was found that the electroluminescence emission of the 15{micro}m device was red-shifted by approximately 132meV. Triple-axis X-Ray Diffraction and Cross-Sectional Transmission Electron Microscopy show that the 15{micro}m templay layer device was virtually unstrained while the 5{micro}m layer experienced tensile strain. Dynamic Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry depth profiles show that the 15{micro}m template layer device had an average indium concentration of 11% higher than that of the 5{micro}m template layer device even though the structures were deposited during the same growth run. It was also found that the 15{micro}m layer device had a higher growth rate than the 5{micro}m template layer device. This difference in indium concentration and growth rate was due to changes in thermodynamic limitations caused by strain differences in the template layers.

  15. Preparation and properties of sliver and nitrogen co-doped TiO{sub 2} photocatalyst

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Ying; Zhang, Jin; Zhu, Zhongqi; Yan, Ningning; Liu, Qingju

    2013-11-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • The silver and nitrogen co-doped TiO{sub 2} photocatalysts were prepared and characterized. • The light absorption threshold wavelength of Ag–N–TiO{sub 2} is red-shifted to visible light. • The recombination of the photo-generated electrons and holes of Ag–N–TiO{sub 2} is inhibited. • The photocatalytic activity of Ag–N–TiO{sub 2} is remarkable improved. - Abstract: TiO{sub 2} photocatalysts co-doped with different content of Ag and N were prepared by sol–gel method combined with microwave chemical method. The samples were analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), transmission electron microscope (TEM), ultraviolet–visible diffuse reflectance spectrum (UV–vis) and photo-luminescence emission spectrum (PL). The photocatalytic activity was investigated by photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue (MB) under irradiation of fluorescent lamp. The results indicate that Ag and N co-doping can restrain the increase of grain size, broaden the absorption spectrum to visible light region, and inhibit the recombination of the photo-generated electron–hole pairs. Moreover, the photocatalytic activity of Ag–N–TiO{sub 2} in MB degradation is remarkable improved. The degradation rate of the sample with Ag:TiO{sub 2} = 0.05 at%, N:TiO{sub 2} = 18.50 wt% in 5 h is 93.44%, which is much higher than that of Degussa P25 (39.40%)

  16. Europium and potassium co-doped strontium metaborate single crystals grown by the Czochralski method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Głowacki, Michał; Solarz, Piotr; Ryba-Romanowski, Witold; Martín, Inocencio R.; Diduszko, Ryszard; Berkowski, Marek

    2017-01-01

    Strontium metaborate (SrB2O4) is a suitable material for use as a matrix for luminescent dopant ions. Similarity of ionic radii of strontium and divalent europium makes it an excellent host for Eu dopant. This paper reports on the Czochralski growth and spectroscopic study of SrB2O4 single crystals doped with europium and co-doped with europium and potassium. Based on recorded luminescence spectra it was found that both Eu3+ and Eu2+ ions occur in this host. Trivalent europium ions give rise to a narrow-band long-lived red luminescence that is not affected by incorporation of potassium ions. Divalent europium ions emit a UV-blue luminescence, consisting of a large spectral band centered at ca 430 nm. In the absence of potassium ions the decay of this luminescence deviates slightly from a single exponential time dependence with a mean lifetime value of 2.0 ns. In potassium-co-doped sample a strong deviation from a single exponential decay was observed for longer stages of decay, beginning at ca 2.5 ns. This phenomenon was attributed to dissimilarity of relaxation rates of a fraction of europium ions distributed in different lattice sites that are distorted by the presence of big potassium ions. By co-doping the host with alkali ions one can influence the oxidation state of europium ions thereby enhancing the emission of trivalent europium ions. It was concluded that the material under study is a promising phosphor for visible light emission applications.

  17. Enhancement of Thermoelectric Properties in SnTe with (Ag, In) Co-Doping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, J. Q.; Yang, N.; Li, S. M.; Li, Y.; Liu, F. S.; Ao, W. Q.

    2017-09-01

    A lead-free SnTe compound shows good electrical property but high thermal conductivity, resulting in a low figure-of-merit ZT. We present a significant enhancement of the thermoelectric properties of p-type SnTe with (Ag, In) co-doping. The Ag and In co-doped Sn1-2x Ag x In x Te (x = 0.00, 0.01, 0.02, 0.03, 0.04 and 0.05) are prepared by melting, quenching and spark plasma sintering. A homogeneous NaCl-type SnTe-based solid solution forms in the alloys at low Ag and In content (x ≤ 0.02), while a AgInTe2 minor secondary phase precipitates for higher x. Similar to In doping, the introduction of Ag and In at Sn sites in SnTe considerably increases the Seebeck coefficient and power factor by creating resonant levels near the Fermi energy. In addition, the Ag and In solute atoms in the SnTe-based solid solution and the minor secondary phase AgInTe2 enhance phonon scattering and thus significantly reduce the carrier and lattice thermal conductivity. Ag and In co-doping shows a collective advantage on the overall thermoelectric performance of SnTe or In-doped SnTe. A maximum ZT of 1.23 at 873 K and average ZT of 0.58 can be obtained in the alloy Sn1-2x Ag x In x Te with x = 0.03.

  18. Quantum ratchet effects induced by terahertz radiation in GaN-based two-dimensional structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weber, W.; Golub, L. E.; Danilov, S. N.; Karch, J.; Reitmaier, C.; Wittmann, B.; Bel'Kov, V. V.; Ivchenko, E. L.; Kvon, Z. D.; Vinh, N. Q.; van der Meer, A. F. G.; Murdin, B.; Ganichev, S. D.

    2008-06-01

    Photogalvanic effects are observed and investigated in wurtzite (0001)-oriented GaN/AlGaN low-dimensional structures excited by terahertz radiation. The structures are shown to represent linear quantum ratchets. Experimental and theoretical analysis exhibits that the observed photocurrents are related to the lack of an inversion center in the GaN-based heterojunctions.

  19. Thermal annealing effects on AlGaAsSb/GaSb laser structure: Bandgap energy blueshift and thermal conductivity enhancement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ilahi, S.; Yacoubi, N.; Genty, F.

    2017-07-01

    In this paper, we have investigated the effects of thermal annealing on optical properties and thermal conductivity of AlGaAsSb/GaSb laser structure using photo-thermal deflection spectroscopy PDS. In fact, optical absorption spectrum and thermal conductivity have been determined by comparison between experimental and theoretical phase of PDS signal. We have found that band gap energy is blue shifted of 70 meV for the as grown to the sample annealed for 1 h. Indeed, the highest thermal conductivity is found around of 11 W/m.K for AlGaAsSb/GaSb annealed for 1 h, which presents a promising result for vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs).

  20. Ferromagnetism in Co-doped (La,Sr)TiO3

    SciTech Connect

    Fix, T.; Liberati, M.; Aubriet, H.; Sahonta, S.-L.; Bali, R.; Becker, C.; Ruch, D.; MacManus-Driscoll, J.L.; Arenholz, E.; Blamire, M.G.

    2009-04-21

    The origin of ferromagnetism in Co-doped (La,Sr)TiO{sub 3} epitaxial thin films is discussed. While the as-grown samples are not ferromagnetic at room temperature or at 10 K, ferromagnetism at room temperature appears after annealing the films in reducing conditions and disappears after annealing in oxidizing conditions. Magnetic measurements, x-ray absorption spectroscopy, x-ray photoemission spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy experiments indicate that within the resolution of the instruments the activation of the ferromagnetism is not due to the presence of pure Co.

  1. Absolute quantum cutting efficiency of Tb3+-Yb3+ co-doped glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duan, Qianqian; Qin, Feng; Zhao, Hua; Zhang, Zhiguo; Cao, Wenwu

    2013-12-01

    The absolute quantum cutting efficiency of Tb3+-Yb3+ co-doped glass was quantitatively measured by an integrating sphere detection system, which is independent of the excitation power. As the Yb3+ concentration increases, the near infrared quantum efficiency exhibited an exponential growth with an upper limit of 13.5%, but the visible light efficiency was reduced rapidly. As a result, the total quantum efficiency monotonically decreases rather than increases as theory predicted. In fact, the absolute quantum efficiency was far less than the theoretical value due to the low radiative efficiency of Tb3+ (<61%) and significant cross-relaxation nonradiative loss between Yb3+ ions.

  2. Co-doping Strategy for Developing Perovskite Oxides as Highly Efficient Electrocatalysts for Oxygen Evolution Reaction.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiaomin; Su, Chao; Zhou, Wei; Zhu, Yinlong; Chen, Yubo; Shao, Zongping

    2016-02-01

    A synergistic co-doping strategy is proposed to identify a series of BaCo0.9-x Fe x Sn0.1O3-δ perovskites with tunable electrocatalytic activity for the oxygen evolution reaction (OER). Simply through tailoring the relative concentrations of less OER-active tin and iron dopants, a cubic perovskite structure (BaCo0.7Fe0.2Sn0.1O3-δ) is stabilized, showing intrinsic OER activity >1 order of magnitude larger than IrO2 and a Tafel slope of 69 mV dec(-1).

  3. Understanding ferromagnetism in Co-doped Ti O2 anatase from first principles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janisch, Rebecca; Spaldin, Nicola A.

    2006-01-01

    We present a first-principles computational study of the nature and origin of ferromagnetism in Co-doped TiO2 . We calculate the magnetic ordering and electronic properties as a function of the concentration and distribution of Co dopants and oxygen vacancies. We find that Co atoms prefer to substitute on neighboring sites of the Ti lattice, and show, using the well-established Goodenough-Kanamori-Anderson rules, that this leads to a ferromagnetic superexchange. We propose other semiconductor hosts in which the superexchange mechanism should lead to ferromagnetic coupling between the magnetic moments of neighboring transition metal dopants.

  4. Superconductivity in fluorine and yttrium co-doped SmFeAsO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, K. T.; Kwong, F. L.; Ng, Dickon H. L.

    2012-05-01

    Polycrystalline fluorine and yttrium co-doped SmFeAsO samples are synthesized by solid state sintering and their physical properties are studied. The lattice parameters of the Sm1-yYyFeAsO0.8F0.2 samples decrease with the increasing y due to the smaller Y ions and the stiffness of the Y-O bond. The maximum critical temperature Tc of the samples is at y = 0.05. This may be due to the fact that the strong interaction between Sm and Fe of the Fe-As bond is being re-disturbed by the doped Y ions.

  5. Carbon dioxide detection using a co-doped Tm-Ho optical fiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morse, Theodore F.; Oh, Kyunghwan; Reinhart, Lawrence J.

    1995-09-01

    A Tm-Ho co-doped optical fiber laser exhibits significant fluorescence between 1.6 and 2.1 micrometers . Such a fiber can from the basis of a gas detection system, since many gases of interest have overtone absorption bands in this wavelength region: in particular, carbon dioxide, methane, arsine, replacement gases for refrigerants, and nitrous oxide. Using this fiber we have demonstrated a simple shceme for the detection of overtone absorption bands of carbon dioxide in the 2 micrometers region. The detection sensitivity for carbon dioxide with this present method is of the order of 1%.

  6. Proton damage effects on GaAs/GaAlAs vertical cavity surface emitting lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Metayer, P.; Gilard, O.; Germanicus, R.; Campillo, D.; Ledu, F.; Cazes, J.; Falo, W.; Chatry, C.

    2003-12-01

    A series of proton irradiations of GaAs/GaAlAs vertical cavity surface emitting lasers (VCSELs) has been carried out for the purpose of assessing the suitability of these devices for space applications. The irradiations were performed on biased and unbiased devices at energies of 30, 40, 50, and 60 MeV. Both current versus voltage (I-V) and optical power versus current (P-I) characteristics were measured before and after each irradiation phase. A simple circuit equivalent model for the VCSEL has been developed to analyze proton damage effects through the extraction of electrical parameters. The current threshold of VCSEL is shown to be the only important parameter modified by a high fluence (up to 1012 protons/cm2) irradiation. Changes in the threshold current show radiation generated recombination centers to be the main cause of degradation. Due to carrier injection annealing related effects, we observed that unbiased devices show the greatest relative threshold increase (between 15% and 20% at 1013 protons/cm2). The threshold current damage factor was also calculated. The analysis of the I-V characteristics shows that in the range of low fluences (1010-1012 protons/cm2) radiation induced ordering effects may compete with the usual radiation degradation that we observed at higher fluences. Consequently, the nonionizing energy loss approach, which is extensively used to predict the degradation of electronic devices under a full spectrum of energetic particles, is deemed to be not yet applicable for prediction of end-of-life performances of VCSELs.

  7. Nickel cobaltite nanosheets strongly anchored on boron and nitrogen co-doped graphene for high-performance asymmetric supercapacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiao, Xinyan; Xia, Xifeng; Liu, Peng; Lei, Wu; Ouyang, Yu; Hao, Qingli

    2017-08-01

    Strongly coupled boron and nitrogen co-doped graphene (BN-G) hybrids with nickel cobaltite (NiCo2O4) nanosheets (NCO/BN-G) were fabricated by a facile soft-chemical method for asymmetric supercapacitors with high-performance. The strong interaction between BN-G and NiCo2O4 nanosheets are explored by various techniques. The effect of heteroatom doping on electrochemical properties of the hybrids is systematically investigated. The strong synergistic effect between NiCo2O4 and BN-G leads to a specific capacitance of 106.5 mA h g-1 at the current density of 0.5 A g-1 and capacitance retention of 96.8% after 10 000 cycles at 5 A g-1, much better than those of the pure NiCo2O4 and its hybrid with N-doped graphene. Moreover, an asymmetric supercapacitor device, assembled with NCO/BN-G and activated carbon (NCO/BN-G//AC), exhibits a maximum energy density of 45.6 Wh kg-1 and an excellent cycling stability. The improved electrochemical performance of the NCO/BN-G hybrid is attributed to the good conductivity of BN-G and the synergistic effect between NiCo2O4 nanosheets and BN-G combined together through a plane-to-plane contact mode.

  8. Substrate co-doping modulates electronic metal-support interactions and significantly enhances single-atom catalysis.

    PubMed

    Shi, J L; Wu, J H; Zhao, X J; Xue, X L; Gao, Y F; Guo, Z X; Li, S F

    2016-11-24

    Transitional metal nanoparticles or atoms deposited on appropriate substrates can lead to highly economical, efficient, and selective catalysis. One of the greatest challenges is to control the electronic metal-support interactions (EMSI) between the supported metal atoms and the substrate so as to optimize their catalytic performance. Here, from first-principles calculations, we show that an otherwise inactive Pd single adatom on TiO2(110) can be tuned into a highly effective catalyst, e.g. for O2 adsorption and CO oxidation, by purposefully selected metal-nonmetal co-dopant pairs in the substrate. Such an effect is proved here to result unambiguously from a significantly enhanced EMSI. A nearly linear correlation is noted between the strength of the EMSI and the activation of the adsorbed O2 molecule, as well as the energy barrier for CO oxidation. Particularly, the enhanced EMSI shifts the frontier orbital of the deposited Pd atom upward and largely enhances the hybridization and charge transfer between the O2 molecule and the Pd atom. Upon co-doping, the activation barrier for CO oxidation on the Pd monomer is also reduced to a level comparable to that on the Pd dimer which was experimentally reported to be highly efficient for CO oxidation. The present findings provide new insights into the understanding of the EMSI in heterogeneous catalysis and can open new avenues to design and fabricate cost-effective single-atom-sized and/or nanometer-sized catalysts.

  9. Spin-dimensionality change induced by Co-doping in the chiral magnet Fe1-xCoxSi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Lei; Menzel, Dirk; Han, Hui; Jin, Chiming; Du, Haifeng; Fan, Jiyu; Ge, Min; Ling, Langsheng; Zhang, Changjin; Pi, Li; Zhang, Yuheng

    2016-09-01

    Dimensionality is one of the most important parameters in the determination of the physical properties. Therefore, tuning of effective dimensionality is of significant importance for modulating the functionality of materials. In this work, we find that the spin-dimensionality can be changed by Co-doping in the Fe1-x Co x Si system. Investigation of the critical behavior shows that the effective critical exponents for x = 0.3 agree with the three-dimensional (3D) Heisenberg model with \\{d:n=3:3\\} (d is the spatial-dimensionality, and n is the spin-dimensionality). With the increase of Co-content, the effective critical exponents for x = 0.5 fulfill the 3D-XY model with \\{d:n=3:2\\} , while those for x = 0.6 approach the 3D-Ising model with \\{d:n=3:1\\} . These results indicate the lowering of the spin-dimensionality with the increase of Co-content in Fe1-x Co x Si. We suggest that the modulation of the spin-dimensionality in Fe1-x Co x Si should result from the enhancement of the anisotropic magnetic interaction induced by the doping of Co.

  10. Leakage effects in n-GaAs MESFET with n-GaAs buffer layer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Y. C.; Bahrami, M.

    1983-01-01

    Whereas improvement of the interface between the active layer and the buffer layer has been demonstrated, the leakage effects can be important if the buffer layer resistivity is not sufficiently high and/or the buffer layer thickness is not sufficiently small. It was found that two buffer leakage currents exist from the channel under the gate to the source and from drain to the channel in addition to the buffer leakage resistance between drain and source. It is shown that for a 1 micron gate-length n-GaAs MESFET, if the buffer layer resistivity is 12 OHM-CM and the buffer layer thickness h is 2 microns, the performance of the device degrades drastically. It is suggested that h should be below 2 microns.

  11. Leakage effects in n-GaAs MESFET with n-GaAs buffer layer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Y. C.; Bahrami, M.

    1983-01-01

    Whereas improvement of the interface between the active layer and the buffer layer has been demonstrated, the leakage effects can be important if the buffer layer resistivity is not sufficiently high and/or the buffer layer thickness is not sufficiently small. It was found that two buffer leakage currents exist from the channel under the gate to the source and from drain to the channel in addition to the buffer leakage resistance between drain and source. It is shown that for a 1 micron gate-length n-GaAs MESFET, if the buffer layer resistivity is 12 OHM-CM and the buffer layer thickness h is 2 microns, the performance of the device degrades drastically. It is suggested that h should be below 2 microns.

  12. 3D coral-like nitrogen-sulfur co-doped carbon-sulfur composite for high performance lithium-sulfur batteries

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Feng; Li, Jian; Tian, Yafen; Su, Yuefeng; Wang, Jing; Yang, Wen; Li, Ning; Chen, Shi; Bao, Liying

    2015-01-01

    3D coral-like, nitrogen and sulfur co-doped mesoporous carbon has been synthesized by a facile hydrothermal-nanocasting method to house sulfur for Li–S batteries. The primary doped species (pyridinic-N, pyrrolic-N, thiophenic-S and sulfonic-S) enable this carbon matrix to suppress the diffusion of polysulfides, while the interconnected mesoporous carbon network is favourable for rapid transport of both electrons and lithium ions. Based on the synergistic effect of N, S co-doping and the mesoporous conductive pathway, the as-fabricated C/S cathodes yield excellent cycling stability at a current rate of 4 C (1 C = 1675 mA g−1) with only 0.085% capacity decay per cycle for over 250 cycles and ultra-high rate capability (693 mAh g−1 at 10 C rate). These capabilities have rarely been reported before for Li-S batteries. PMID:26288961

  13. A simple preparation method and characterization of B and N co-doped TiO2 nanotube arrays with enhanced photoelectrochemical performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Georgieva, J.; Valova, E.; Armyanov, S.; Tatchev, D.; Sotiropoulos, S.; Avramova, I.; Dimitrova, N.; Hubin, A.; Steenhaut, O.

    2017-08-01

    Highly ordered TiO2 nanotube arrays (TNTA) have attracted much attention due to the excellent photocatalytic, optical and electrical properties. However, their absorption range is limited to ultraviolet (UV) spectrum only due to the wide band gap (3.2 eV). One of the strategies to overcome this problem is doping with boron and nitrogen. They are produced via titanium sheet anodization and subsequent electrochemical treatment of titania in an electrolyte containing boric acid. The as-prepared B-TNTA are annealed in N2 atmosphere at 500 °C for 2 h to obtain B,N-TNTA. The samples are characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The B,N-TNTA consist of uniform and well aligned nanotubes with an average inner diameter of 80-100 nm and a length not exceeding 1 μm. The photocurrent response measurements of undoped TNTA, N-doped and B,N-co-doped samples are performed under UV and visible light (Vis) illumination and a comparison is made. The obtained results show that the B,N-doping leads to remarkable photocurrent enhancement and better photocatalytic activity for methyl orange (MO) degradation due to the synergistic effects of B,N-co-doping and lower electron-hole recombination rates.

  14. Synthesis and down-conversion luminescence properties of Er3+/Yb3+ co-doped AlF3-PbF2-CaF2 powders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Fangchao; Han, Qun; Liu, Tiegen; Chen, Yaofei; Du, Yang; Yao, Yunzhi

    2015-08-01

    Er3+/Yb3+ co-doped oxy-fluoride powders with varying Er/Yb concentration were prepared by a melt quenching method at various sintering temperature. The effect of the Er/Yb doped concentration and sintering temperature were analyzed by using optical absorption and emission techniques. The Judd-Ofelt theory has been used to evaluate the three intensity parameters (Ωλ, where λ = 2, 4 and 6) and calculate the oscillator strengths (fc). Ultraviolet-to-visible emissions were observed under the excitation of a 325 nm CW laser. It was found that the down-conversion fluorescence intensity changes with the sintering temperature and Er/Yb content ratio, the results were explained with the level transitions in Er3+/Yb3+ co-doped systems. The intensity ratios (intensity of 437 nm as reference) of the luminescence spectra that the samples sintered at various temperature are relevant to Ω6 parameter which indicates the vibration amplitude of the Er-O distance. The sintering temperature also has an influence on the intensity ratios via affecting the thermalization of the excited 4I15/2 level.

  15. Hierarchical Cobalt Hydroxide and B/N Co-Doped Graphene Nanohybrids Derived from Metal-Organic Frameworks for High Energy Density Asymmetric Supercapacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tabassum, Hassina; Mahmood, Asif; Wang, Qingfei; Xia, Wei; Liang, Zibin; Qiu, Bin; Zhao, Ruo; Zou, Ruqiang

    2017-02-01

    To cater for the demands of electrochemical energy storage system, the development of cost effective, durable and highly efficient electrode materials is desired. Here, a novel electrode material based on redox active β-Co(OH)2 and B, N co-doped graphene nanohybrid is presented for electrochemical supercapacitor by employing a facile metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) route through pyrolysis and hydrothermal treatment. The Co(OH)2 could be firmly stabilized by dual protection of N-doped carbon polyhedron (CP) and B/N co-doped graphene (BCN) nanosheets. Interestingly, the porous carbon and BCN nanosheets greatly improve the charge storage, wettability, and redox activity of electrodes. Thus the hybrid delivers specific capacitance of 1263 F g-1 at a current density of 1A g-1 with 90% capacitance retention over 5000 cycles. Furthermore, the new aqueous asymmetric supercapacitor (ASC) was also designed by using Co(OH)2@CP@BCN nanohybrid and BCN nanosheets as positive and negative electrodes respectively, which leads to high energy density of 20.25 Whkg-1. This device also exhibits excellent rate capability with energy density of 15.55 Whkg-1 at power density of 9331 Wkg-1 coupled long termed stability up to 6000 cycles.

  16. Role of glass structure in defining the chemical dissolution behavior, bioactivity and antioxidant properties of zinc and strontium co-doped alkali-free phosphosilicate glasses.

    PubMed

    Kapoor, Saurabh; Goel, Ashutosh; Tilocca, Antonio; Dhuna, Vikram; Bhatia, Gaurav; Dhuna, Kshitija; Ferreira, José M F

    2014-07-01

    We investigated the structure-property relationships in a series of alkali-free phosphosilicate glass compositions co-doped with Zn(2+) and Sr(2+). The emphasis was laid on understanding the structural role of Sr(2+) and Zn(2+) co-doping on the chemical dissolution behavior of glasses and its impact on their in vitro bioactivity. The structure of glasses was studied using molecular dynamics simulations in combination with solid state nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The relevant structural properties are then linked to the observed degradation behavior, in vitro bioactivity, osteoblast proliferation and oxidative stress levels. The apatite-forming ability of glasses has been investigated by X-ray diffraction, infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy-energy-dispersive spectroscopy after immersion of glass powders/bulk in simulated body fluid (SBF) for time durations varying between 1h and 14 days, while their chemical degradation has been studied in Tris-HCl in accordance with ISO 10993-14. All the glasses exhibit hydroxyapatite formation on their surface within 1-3h of their immersion in SBF. The cellular responses were observed in vitro on bulk glass samples using human osteosarcoma MG63 cell line. The dose-dependent cytoprotective effect of glasses with respect to the concentration of zinc and strontium released from the glasses is also discussed. Copyright © 2014 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Copper and cerium co-doped titanium dioxide on catalytic photo reduction of carbon dioxide with water: Experimental and theoretical studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Dongmei; Bi, Ye; Kan, Wei; Zhang, Ning; Hong, Sanguo

    2011-05-01

    The catalytic activities of copper and cerium co-doped titanium dioxide were studied experimentally and theoretically in the synthesis of methanol by the photo reduction of carbon dioxide with water firstly. Photo catalysts copper and cerium co-doped titanium dioxide were prepared via the equivalent-volume incipient wetness impregnation method. The catalysts were characterized by XRD, Raman, BET, and electrochemistry analyses. The catalytic properties were determined in the synthesis of methanol from CO 2 in the aqueous solution. The experimental results suggested that Cu/Ce-TiO 2 catalysts obviously enhanced the efficiency of the photocatalytic reduction of CO 2. The methanol yield could reach up to 180.3 μmol/g-cat rapidly. The different effects of copper and cerium on the surface of titanium dioxide have been calculated at the Becke's three-parameter hybrid exchange functional together with the Lee-Yang-Parr correlation functional (B3LYP) level. Our results revealed that Ce atoms affect the reaction more profoundly than Cu atoms do. Ce atoms activated H 2O and CO 2 molecules, while Cu atoms act as the channel of photoelectrons in real time and prevent the recombination of electrons and holes.

  18. Hierarchical Cobalt Hydroxide and B/N Co-Doped Graphene Nanohybrids Derived from Metal-Organic Frameworks for High Energy Density Asymmetric Supercapacitors

    PubMed Central

    Tabassum, Hassina; Mahmood, Asif; Wang, Qingfei; Xia, Wei; Liang, Zibin; Qiu, Bin; zhao, Ruo; Zou, Ruqiang

    2017-01-01

    To cater for the demands of electrochemical energy storage system, the development of cost effective, durable and highly efficient electrode materials is desired. Here, a novel electrode material based on redox active β-Co(OH)2 and B, N co-doped graphene nanohybrid is presented for electrochemical supercapacitor by employing a facile metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) route through pyrolysis and hydrothermal treatment. The Co(OH)2 could be firmly stabilized by dual protection of N-doped carbon polyhedron (CP) and B/N co-doped graphene (BCN) nanosheets. Interestingly, the porous carbon and BCN nanosheets greatly improve the charge storage, wettability, and redox activity of electrodes. Thus the hybrid delivers specific capacitance of 1263 F g−1 at a current density of 1A g−1 with 90% capacitance retention over 5000 cycles. Furthermore, the new aqueous asymmetric supercapacitor (ASC) was also designed by using Co(OH)2@CP@BCN nanohybrid and BCN nanosheets as positive and negative electrodes respectively, which leads to high energy density of 20.25 Whkg−1. This device also exhibits excellent rate capability with energy density of 15.55 Whkg−1 at power density of 9331 Wkg−1 coupled long termed stability up to 6000 cycles. PMID:28240224

  19. Enhanced near-infrared response of CdS/CdTe solar cell using Tm3+ and Yb3+ co-doped upconverting glass phosphors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Z.; Whyte, D.; Morgan, S. H.; Li, J.; Alaswad, A.; Beach, J. D.; Ohno, T. R.; Wolden, C. A.

    2014-10-01

    Tm3+ and Yb3+ co-doped upconverting (UC) glass phosphors were used to converting near-infrared to visible light and input to a CdS/CdTe solar cell, therefore to enhance solar cell's response in the near-infrared of the sub-bandgap region. Current-voltage measurements were performed on the solar cell with a UC glass phosphor. A short-circuit photocurrent enhancement of 31 μA was obtained using a Tm3+and Yb3+ co-doped glass UC phosphor, illuminated by a 980 nm diode laser at 100 mW. This photocurrent response corresponds to external quantum efficiency (EQE) of 0.04 % at 980 nm. For full collection of the UC light in 4π solid angle, the EQE value is expected to reach 1.6 %. The photo-current observed was proportional to the effective UC light intensity from glass UC phosphor. A non-linear relation between the output photo-current and the incident power of the infrared light was observed, similar to the relation between UC intensity and the incident power. UC efficiency of the glass phosphor was calculated using EQE values at both UC wavelengths and at 980 nm.

  20. Effects of high-temperature AIN buffer on the microstructure of AlGaN/GaN HEMTs

    SciTech Connect

    Coerekci, S.; Oeztuerk, M. K.; Yu, Hongbo; Cakmak, M.; Oezcelik, S.; Oezbay, E.

    2013-06-15

    Effects on AlGaN/GaN high-electron-mobility transistor structure of a high-temperature AlN buffer on sapphire substrate have been studied by high-resolution x-ray diffraction and atomic force microscopy techniques. The buffer improves the microstructural quality of GaN epilayer and reduces approximately one order of magnitude the edge-type threading dislocation density. As expected, the buffer also leads an atomically flat surface with a low root-mean-square of 0.25 nm and a step termination density in the range of 10{sup 8} cm{sup -2}. Due to the high-temperature buffer layer, no change on the strain character of the GaN and AlGaN epitaxial layers has been observed. Both epilayers exhibit compressive strain in parallel to the growth direction and tensile strain in perpendicular to the growth direction. However, an high-temperature AlN buffer layer on sapphire substrate in the HEMT structure reduces the tensile stress in the AlGaN layer.

  1. Substantial enhancement in intrinsic coercivity on M-type strontium hexaferrite through the increase in magneto-crystalline anisotropy by co-doping of group-V and alkali elements

    SciTech Connect

    Ahn, Kyunghan Ryu, Byungki; Korolev, Dmitry; Jae Kang, Young

    2013-12-09

    The effect of d{sup 1} impurity doping in Sr-hexaferrite (SrM) on the magnetic anisotropy is investigated. First-principles calculations revealed that group-V elements (V, Nb) are stabilized with co-doping of alkali elements. Na{sup 1+}/K{sup 1+} doping at Sr{sup 2+}-site is found to be critical to form the d{sup 1} impurities at Fe-site. Experimentally, Na–V doped SrM shows the intrinsic coercivity of ∼5.4 kOe, which is ∼300% enhancement compared to undoped SrM and comparable value to La–Co co-doped SrM. Finally, the spin-orbit coupling from non-vanishing angular momentum of d{sup 1} impurity in SrM should be a main factor for such a substantial improvement of intrinsic coercivity.

  2. Crossover between weak anti-localization and weak localization by Co doping and annealing in gapless PbPdO{sub 2} and spin gapless Co-doped PbPdO{sub 2}

    SciTech Connect

    Choo, S. M.; Lee, K. J.; Park, S. M.; Park, G. S.; Jung, M. H.; Yoon, J. B.; You, C.-Y.

    2015-04-27

    The magnetotransport properties of Pb(Pd,Co)O{sub 2} and PbPdO{sub 2} thin films were investigated. In magnetoconductance curves, we observed a crossover between weak anti-localization (WAL) and weak localization (WL) depending on the annealing and Co doping in PbPdO{sub 2} thin films. For the Pb(Pd,Co)O{sub 2} case showing WAL signals, the ex-situ annealing weakens the Pd-O hybridization by stabilizing Co{sup 3+} states and generating Pd{sup 1+} states, instead of Pd{sup 2+}, so that the spin-orbit coupling (SOC) strength is significantly reduced. It causes the dominant magnetotransport mechanism change from WAL to WL. This annealing effect is compared with the PbPdO{sub 2} case, which possesses WL signals. The annealing process stabilizes the oxygen states and enhances the Pd-O hybridization, and consequently the SOC strength is enhanced. Our experimental results are well explained by the Hikami-Larkin-Nagaoka theory in terms of two important physical parameters; SOC strength-related α and inelastic scattering length l{sub ϕ}.

  3. Enhanced photo-catalytic activity of Sr and Ag co-doped TiO2 nanoparticles for the degradation of Direct Green-6 and Reactive Blue-160 under UV & visible light.

    PubMed

    Naraginti, Saraschandra; Thejaswini, T V L; Prabhakaran, D; Sivakumar, A; Satyanarayana, V S V; Arun Prasad, A S

    2015-10-05

    This work is focused on sol-gel synthesis of silver and strontium co-doped TiO2 nanoparticles and their utilization as photo-catalysts in degradation of two textile dyes. Effect of pH, intensity of light, amount of photo-catalyst, concentration of dye, sensitizers, etc., were studied to optimize conditions for obtaining enhanced photo-catalytic activity of synthesized nanoparticles. XRD, BET, HR-TEM, EDAX and UV-Vis (diffused reflectance mode) techniques were used to characterize the nanoparticles. Interestingly, band gap of Sr and Ag co-doped TiO2 nanoparticles showed considerable narrowing (2.6 eV) when compared to Ag doped TiO2 (2.7 eV) and undoped TiO2 (3.17 eV) nanoparticles. Incorporation of Ag and Sr in the lattice of TiO2 could bring isolated energy levels near conduction and valence bands thus narrowing band gap. The XRD analysis shows that both Ag and Sr nanoparticles are finely dispersed on the surface of titania framework, without disturbing its crystalline structure. TEM images indicate that representative grain sizes of Ag-doped TiO2 & Sr and Ag co-doped TiO2 nanoparticles are in the range of 8-20 nm and 11-25 nm, respectively. Effective degradation of Direct Green-6 (DG-6) and Reactive Blue-160 (RB-160) under UV and visible light has been achieved using the photo-catalysts. Sr and Ag co-doped TiO2 photo-catalysts showed higher catalytic activity during degradation process in visible region when compared to Ag-doped and undoped TiO2 nanoparticles which could be attributed to the interactive effect caused by band gap narrowing and enhancement in charge separation. For confirming degradation of the dyes, total organic carbon (TOC) content was monitored periodically.

  4. Electron transport in Al-Cu co-doped ZnO thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serin, T.; Atilgan, A.; Kara, I.; Yildiz, A.

    2017-03-01

    To investigate the influence of varying Al content on structural, optical, and electrical properties of ZnO thin films, Al-Cu co-doped ZnO thin films with fixed Cu content at 1 wt. % and different Al contents (1, 3, and 5 wt. %) were successfully synthesized on glass substrates using a sol-gel process. The results indicated that the varying Al content affects not only the grain size and band gap but also the electrical conductivity of the films, and a linear relationship was found between the band gap and strain values of the films. The temperature-dependent electrical conductivity data of the films demonstrated that electron transport was mainly controlled by the grain boundaries at intermediate and high temperatures, whereas it was governed by Mott-variable range hopping at low temperatures. Additionally, 3 wt. % Al content improved the electrical conductivity of Al-Cu co-doped ZnO by lowering the trap density and enhancing the hopping probability.

  5. Preparation and characterization of Mn and (Mn, Cu) co-doped ZnO nanostructures.

    PubMed

    Wang, H B; Wang, H; Zhang, C; Yang, F J; Duan, J X; Yang, C P; Gu, H S; Zhou, M J; Li, Q; Jiang, Y

    2009-05-01

    We report on the ferromagnetic characteristics of Zn(1-x)Mn(x)O nanorods synthesized by a seed-mediated solution method. The as-doped ZnO nanorods had a length about 200 nm and a diameter ranging from 20 to 30 nm. Magnetic property measurements revealed that the Zn(1-x)Mn(x)O nanorods exhibited weak ferromagnetism at 305 K. Similar solution method were also employed to fabricate the (Mn, Cu) co-doped nanostructures. The presence of Cu2+ was found to change the nanorod morphology (in the case of pure ZnO) to nanoparticle. On the other hand, not only the hysteresis curve saturated at lower magnetic field, but also the saturation magnetization was increased with the Cu doping. Transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Photoluminescence analysis suggested that the room temperature (RT) ferromagnetism could be originated from the Mn2+ doped into the ZnO lattice, and additional carriers due to the Cu co-doping may enhance the room temperature ferromagnetism in the Mn:ZnO system.

  6. Synthesis of boron, nitrogen co-doped porous carbon from asphaltene for high-performance supercapacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Ying; Wang, Dao-Long; Wang, Chun-Lei; Jin, Xin-Xin; Qiu, Jie-Shan

    2014-08-01

    Oxidized asphaltene (OA), a thermosetting material with plenty of functional groups, is synthesized from asphaltene (A) using HNO3/H2SO4 as the oxidizing agent. Boron, nitrogen co-doped porous carbon (BNC—OA) is prepared by carbonization of the mixture of boric acid and OA at 1173 K in an argon atmosphere. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) characterization reveals that the BNC—OA has a nitrogen content of 3.26 at.% and a boron content of 1.31 at.%, while its oxidation-free counterpart (BNC—SA) has a nitrogen content of 1.61 at.% and a boron content of 3.02 at.%. The specific surface area and total pore volume of BNC—OA are 1103 m2·g-1 and 0.921 cm3·g-1, respectively. At a current density of 0.1 A·g-1, the specific capacitance of BNC-OA is 335 F·g-1 and the capacitance retention can still reach 83% at 1 A·g-1. The analysis shows that the superior electrochemical performance of the BNC—OA is attributed to the pseudocapacitance behavior of surface heteroatom functional groups and an abundant pore-structure. Boron, nitrogen co-doped porous carbon is a promising electrode material for supercapacitors.

  7. Electronic and optical properties study on Fesbnd B co-doped anatase TiO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xuechao; Shi, Jianhao; Chen, Hao; Wan, Rundong; Leng, Chongyan; Lei, Ying

    2016-09-01

    We investigate the density of states and optical properties for Fe, 2B and (Fe, 2B) doped TiO2 with DFT calculations. The calculated results reveal mono-doping introduces midgap states which are half-occupied and easy to become the recombination centers of charge carriers, thus inhibiting the enhancement of photocatalystic activity. The coupling of 2p-3d states in the (Fe, 2B) compensated co-doped TiO2 makes gap states couple with the valence bands edge, thus greatly causing the band gap narrowing and higher visible light absorption. Moreover, the gap states cannot become recombination centers of the photoexcited carriers, thus promoting the separation of electron-hole pairs, prolonging the lifetime of carriers. The analysis of electron density indicates more electrons from Fe transfer to adjacent B, realizing the charge compensation and forming a stronger Fesbnd B bond. Therefore, the (Fe, 2B) compensated co-doped TiO2 exhibits the higher visible-light photocatalystic activity than those of pure and solely doped TiO2.

  8. Luminescent properties of Tm3+/ Ho3+ co-doped LiYF4 crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Shan-shan; Xia, Hai-ping; Dong, Yan-ming; Fu, Li; Gu, Xue-mei; Zhang, Jian-li; Wang, Dong-jie; Jiang, Hao-chuan; Chen, Bao-jiu

    2014-11-01

    Ho3+ with various concentrations and Tm3+ with molar concentration of 1.28% are co-doped in LiYF4 (YLF) single crystals. The luminescent properties of the crystals are investigated through emission spectra, emission cross section and decay curves under the excitation of 808 nm. The energy transfer from Tm3+ to Ho3+ and the optimum fluorescence emission of Ho3+ around 2.05 μm are investigated. The emission intensity at 2.05 μm keeps increasing with the molar concentration of Ho3+ improved from 0.50% to 1.51% when the molar concentration of Tm3+ is kept at 1.28%. Moreover, for the co-doped crystals in which the molar concentrations of Tm3+ and Ho3+ are 1.28% and 1.51%, respectively, the maximum emission cross section reaches 0.760×10-20 cm2 and the maximum fluorescence lifetime is 21.98 ms. All the parameters suggest that these materials have more advantages in the future 2.0 μm laser applications.

  9. Enhanced photoluminescence in CaMoO4:Eu3+ by Gd3+ co-doping.

    PubMed

    Singh, B P; Parchur, A K; Ningthoujam, R S; Ansari, A A; Singh, P; Rai, S B

    2014-03-28

    We have studied the luminescence property of CaMoO4:Eu(3+). The emission peaks at 590 ((5)D0→(7)F1) and 613 nm ((5)D0→(7)F2) for Eu(3+) are observed after excitation at 266 nm (i.e. Mo-O charge transfer band). The peak intensity of the latter dominates over the former indicating an asymmetric environment of Eu(3+) in EuO8 polyhedron or parity mixing. Luminescence intensity increases significantly with co-doping of Gd(3+). This is ascribed to energy transfer from Mo-O/Gd(3+) to Eu(3+). Luminescence intensity increases with annealing up to 900 °C due to the extent of decrease of non-radiative rates. Very high asymmetric values (A21) of 12-16 are found indicating a red emitter. As-prepared samples are dispersible in polar solvents like water, ethanol, methanol, dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and ethylene glycol (EG); and among them, optimum luminescence is found in methanol. Polymer film shows red emission. The quantum yields of as-prepared 2 and 10 at% Gd(3+) co-doped CaMoO4:Eu(3+) under 277 nm (UV excitation) are 21 and 80%, respectively.

  10. Structural characterization and magnetic properties of Co co-doped Ni/ZnO nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vijayaprasath, G.; Murugan, R.; Asaithambi, S.; Babu, G. Anandha; Sakthivel, P.; Mahalingam, T.; Hayakawa, Y.; Ravi, G.

    2016-02-01

    In this paper, we present the structural, morphological, optical and magnetic properties of Zn1- x A x O ( A = Ni, Co and x = 0.20 mol%) and Zn0.80Ni0.10Co0.10O nanoparticles synthesized by a chemical co-precipitation method. Powder X-ray diffraction data confirm the formation of a single-phase wurtzite-type ZnO structure for all the samples. FTIR and EDS measurements ensure that the divalent Ni and Co ions are incorporated in the wurtzite host matrix without any impurity phase. Photoluminescence and Raman spectra indicate the presence of donor defects and oxygen vacancies in the prepared samples. In VSM analysis, undoped ZnO nanoparticles exhibit diamagnetic behavior at room temperature. A systematic increase in ferromagnetic moment (~0.70 emu/g) is observed for Ni-, Co-doped and Co co-doped Ni/ZnO at 300 K. The exchange interaction between delocalized carriers and the localized `d' spins of Ni and Co ions is predicted as the cause of the room temperature ferromagnetism.

  11. Magnetic and magnetocaloric properties of Ba and Ti co-doped SrRuO{sub 3}

    SciTech Connect

    Sarkar, Babusona; Dalal, Biswajit; Dev Ashok, Vishal; De, S. K.

    2014-12-28

    Temperature evolution of magnetic properties in Ba and Ti doped SrRuO{sub 3} has been investigated to observe the effects of larger ionic radius Ba at Sr site and isovalent nonmagnetic impurity Ti at Ru site. Ionic radius mismatch and different electronic configuration in comparison with Ru modify Sr(Ba)-O and Ru(Ti)-O bond lengths and Ru-O-Ru bond angle. The apical and basal Ru-O-Ru bond angles vary significantly with Ti doping. Ferromagnetic Curie temperature decreases from 161 K to 149 K monotonically with Ba (10%) and Ti (10%) substitutions at Sr and Ru sites. The zero field cooled (ZFC) magnetization reveals a prominent peak which shifts towards lower temperature with application of magnetic field. The substitution of tetravalent Ti with localized 3d{sup 0} orbitals for Ru with more delocalized 4d{sup 4} orbitals leads to a broad peak in ZFC magnetization. A spontaneous ZFC magnetization becomes negative below 160 K for all the compositions. The occurrence of both normal and inverse magnetocaloric effects in Ba and Ti co-doped SrRuO{sub 3} makes the system more interesting.

  12. Role of donor defects in stabilizing room temperature ferromagnetism in (Mn, Co) co-doped ZnO nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Naeem, M; Hasanain, S K

    2012-06-20

    We report the effects of co-doping ZnO with Co and Mn in an n-type environment on ferromagnetism (FM). Two sets of samples, Zn(0.95-x)Co(0.04)Mn(x)O (0.000 ≤ x ≤ 0.02) and Zn(0.95-y)Co(y)Mn(0.04)O (0.000 ≤ y ≤ 0.02), were synthesized by the chemical route with oxygen vacancies introduced via annealing in a forming gas (reducing the atmosphere). In addition to the magnetization, the particles were characterized by x-ray diffraction, diffuse reflectance spectroscopy and x-ray absorption near-edge emission spectroscopy. The Co and Mn ions were determined to be in the + 2 state in a tetrahedral symmetry, with no evidence of metallic Co or Mn. We find that while a purely Mn-doped sample exhibits weak FM at room temperature, the general effect of Mn as a co-dopant with Co, in an n-type environment, is to decrease the moment strongly. All of our results can be systematically explained within the context of defect mediated FM in these wide bandgap semiconductors, where the coincidence of the spin-split-impurity (defect) band states and the 3d states leads to the development of a net moment alongside the formation of spin polarons.

  13. Enrichment of Pyrrolic Nitrogen by Hole Defects in Nitrogen and Sulfur Co-Doped Graphene Hydrogel for Flexible Supercapacitors.

    PubMed

    Tran, Ngoc Quang; Kang, Bong Kyun; Woo, Moo Hyun; Yoon, Dae Ho

    2016-08-23

    The effect of the doping configuration and concentration of nitrogen (N) and sulfur (S) on the electrochemical performance of 3 D N and S co-doped hole defect graphene hydrogel (NS-HGH) electrodes is investigated. Surprisingly, by introducing a hole defect on the graphene surface, the difference in the doping concentrations of N and S can be used to effectively modulate the electrochemical behavior of the NS-HGH. The hole defects provide a rapid ion diffusion path. Finally, we showed that the intriguing specific capacitance (536 F g(-1) ) of the NS-HGH could enhance the overall performance of the pseudocapacitance and electric double layer capacitance. The rational design of the NS-HGH-based flexible solid state supercapacitor results in not only outstanding electrochemical performance with a maximum energy density of 14.8 Wh kg(-1) and power density of 5.2 KW kg(-1) but also in extraordinary mechanical flexibility and excellent cycle stability. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Nitrogen and sulfur co-doped carbon dots for highly selective and sensitive detection of Hg (II) ions.

    PubMed

    Li, Libo; Yu, Bin; You, Tianyan

    2015-12-15

    Nitrogen and sulfur co-doped carbon dots (N,S/C-dots) with high fluorescence quantum yields (FLQY, 25%) was successfully synthesized by a one-step microwave-assisted method. In comparison with nitrogen doped C-dots (N/C-dots) prepared using the same method, the resulting N,S/C-dots featured small particle size, uniform surface state, insensitive FL properties to excitation wavelengths and environmental conditions, negligible cytotoxicity and excellent biocompatibility. Simultaneous doping of N and S effectively promoted electron-transfer and coordination interaction between N,S/C-dots and Hg(2+). Thus, when used as fluorescence probe for Hg(2+) label-free detection, the resulting N,S/C-dots showed good detection sensitivity and ion selectivity. The limit of detection was 2 μM; among 15 metal ions investigated, only Fe(3+) showed interference to the Hg(2+) detection. Fortunately, this interference could be effectively shielded using a chelating agent sodium hexametaphoshpate. The applicability of N,S/C-dots as fluorescence probe for Hg(2+) detection in lake water and tap water was demonstrated. Finally, based on its favorable features of negligible cytotoxicity and excellent biocompatibility, the N,S/C-dots were successfully applied to probe Hg(2+) in living cells, which broaden its application in biological system. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Hydrothermal growth and conductivity enhancement of (Al, Cu) co-doped ZnO nanorods thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakraborty, Mohua; Mahapatra, Preetilata; Thangavel, R.

    2016-05-01

    The incorporation of Al, Cu co-doping in ZnO host lattice plays an important role in modification of structural, optical and electrical properties in optoelectronic devices. In the present work, we were grown one dimensional ZnO nanorods (NRs) doped with different concentration of Al (0%~5%) and Cu was kept 20 M% on ITO glass substrates using a facile hydrothermal method, and investigated the effect of the codoping on the surface morphology and the electrical and optical performances of the doped ZnO NRs as photo anodes for solar water splitting applications. The crystallite size of NRs shows tuning in the band gap between 3.194 (Zn0.79Al0.01Cu0.2O) to 3.212 eV (Zn0.75Al0.05Cu0.2O) with Aluminium doping concentration and a remarkable improvement in current density (J) from 0.05 mA/cm2 to 4.98 mA/cm2 was achieved by incorporating Al and Cu has a critical effect of ZnO nanorods.

  16. Extrinsic origin of room-temperature ferromagnetism in Co-doped ZnO annealed in Zn vapor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Guoqing; Xuan, Haicheng

    2011-08-01

    Co-doped ZnO and CoO were prepared at 950 °C by the solid-state reaction method, then were annealed in N2 flow at 950 °C, and finally annealed in Zn vapor at 600 °C or 800 °C. The samples before annealing in Zn vapor have no ferromagnetism, but after annealing in Zn vapor, Co-doped ZnO and CoO both exhibit room-temperature ferromagnetism. Through x-ray diffraction and element composition measurements, it was found that the ferromagnetism of Co-doped ZnO annealed in Zn vapor is extrinsic and comes from cubic Co5Zn21 and/or cubic CoZn.

  17. Thermochromic properties of Sn, W co-doped VO2 nanostructured thin film deposited by pulsed laser deposition.

    PubMed

    Hur, M G; Masaki, T; Yoon, D H

    2014-12-01

    Tin (Sn) and tungsten (W) co-doped vanadium dioxide (VO2) nanostructured thin films with 50-nm thickness were deposited by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) to reduce the transition temperature and improve the IR transmittance. The crystal structure of the nanostructured thin films and the presence of elements were evaluated by XRD and XPS analysis. The transition temperature (T(c)) of 1 at% Sn-1 at% W co-doped VO2 nanostructured thin film was decreased to about 22 degrees C (from 70.3 to 48.5 degrees C) compared with the undoped VO2 nanostructured thin film. The transmittance width in the IR range of the co-doped nanostructured thin film decreased from 37.5% to 27% compared with the undoped VO2 nanostructured thin film. Also, the width of hysteresis was narrowed by Sn doping.

  18. Structural, morphological, optical, and magnetic properties of Gd-doped and (Gd, Mn) co-doped ZnO nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poornaprakash, B.; Chalapathi, U.; Babu, S.; Park, Si-Hyun

    2017-09-01

    Undoped, Gd doped, and (Gd, Mn) co-doped ZnO nanoparticles were fabricated via a hydrothermal method and their structural, morphological, optical, and magnetic properties were examined. X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy studies confirmed that the Gd and Mn ions successfully entered the ZnO hexagonal lattice as substitute ions without changing the internal structure of the lattice. Morphology studies revealed that the synthesized nanoparticles were monodisperse and closely hexagonal shaped. The reflectance spectra showed a red shift of the absorption edge in both doped and co-doped samples. The diamagnetic ZnO sample was altered into a ferromagnetic material when doped with Gd ions, but this behavior was suppressed when Mn ions were co-doped into the matrix.

  19. Enhanced Electrical Activation in In-Implanted Si0.35Ge0.65 by C Co-Doping

    DOE PAGES

    Feng, Ruixing; Kremer, Felipe; Sprouster, David J.; ...

    2016-04-21

    In this report, we have achieved a significant increase in the electrically active dopant fraction in Indium (In)-implanted Si0.35Ge0.65, by co-doping with the isovalent element Carbon (C). Electrical measurements have been correlated with X-ray absorption spectroscopy to determine the electrical properties and the In atom lattice location. With C+In co-doping, the solid solubility of In in Si0.35Ge0.65 was at least tripled from between 0.02 and 0.06 at% to between 0.2 and 0.6 at% as a result of C–In pair formation, which suppressed In metal precipitation. A dramatic improvement of electrical properties was thus attained in the co-doped samples.

  20. Epitaxially-Grown GaN Junction Field Effect Transistors

    SciTech Connect

    Baca, A.G.; Chang, P.C.; Denbaars, S.P.; Lester, L.F.; Mishra, U.K.; Shul, R.J.; Willison, C.G.; Zhang, L.; Zolper, J.C.

    1999-05-19

    Junction field effect transistors (JFET) are fabricated on a GaN epitaxial structure grown by metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). The DC and microwave characteristics of the device are presented. A junction breakdown voltage of 56 V is obtained corresponding to the theoretical limit of the breakdown field in GaN for the doping levels used. A maximum extrinsic transconductance (gm) of 48 mS/mm and a maximum source-drain current of 270 mA/mm are achieved on a 0.8 µ m gate JFET device at VGS= 1 V and VDS=15 V. The intrinsic transconductance, calculated from the measured gm and the source series resistance, is 81 mS/mm. The fT and fmax for these devices are 6 GHz and 12 GHz, respectively. These JFETs exhibit a significant current reduction after a high drain bias is applied, which is attributed to a partially depleted channel caused by trapped hot-electrons in the semi-insulating GaN buffer layer. A theoretical model describing the current collapse is described, and an estimate for the length of the trapped electron region is given.

  1. Radial Stark Effect in (In,Ga)N Nanowires.

    PubMed

    Lähnemann, Jonas; Corfdir, Pierre; Feix, Felix; Kamimura, Jumpei; Flissikowski, Timur; Grahn, Holger T; Geelhaar, Lutz; Brandt, Oliver

    2016-02-10

    We study the luminescence of unintentionally doped and Si-doped InxGa1-xN nanowires with a low In content (x < 0.2) grown by molecular beam epitaxy on Si substrates. The emission band observed at 300 K from the unintentionally doped samples is centered at much lower energies (800 meV) than expected from the In content measured by X-ray diffractometry and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. This discrepancy arises from the pinning of the Fermi level at the sidewalls of the nanowires, which gives rise to strong radial built-in electric fields. The combination of the built-in electric fields with the compositional fluctuations inherent to (In,Ga)N alloys induces a competition between spatially direct and indirect recombination channels. At elevated temperatures, electrons at the core of the nanowire recombine with holes close to the surface, and the emission from unintentionally doped nanowires exhibits a Stark shift of several hundreds of meV. The competition between spatially direct and indirect transitions is analyzed as a function of temperature for samples with various Si concentrations. We propose that the radial Stark effect is responsible for the broadband absorption of (In,Ga)N nanowires across the entire visible range, which makes these nanostructures a promising platform for solar energy applications.

  2. Quantum effects in electron beam pumped GaAs

    SciTech Connect

    Yahia, M. E.; Azzouz, I. M.; Moslem, W. M.

    2013-08-19

    Propagation of waves in nano-sized GaAs semiconductor induced by electron beam are investigated. A dispersion relation is derived by using quantum hydrodynamics equations including the electrons and holes quantum recoil effects, exchange-correlation potentials, and degenerate pressures. It is found that the propagating modes are instable and strongly depend on the electron beam parameters, as well as the quantum recoil effects and degenerate pressures. The instability region shrinks with the increase of the semiconductor number density. The instability arises because of the energetic electron beam produces electron-hole pairs, which do not keep in phase with the electrostatic potential arising from the pair plasma.

  3. Er/Yb co-doped oxy-fluoride glass-ceramics core/polymer cladding optical fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czerska, E.; Świderska, M.

    2014-11-01

    Erbium/ytterbium co-doped glasses can be applied as NIR laser sources (1.55 μm) or optical amplifiers in this range. About hundred meters of Er/Yb co-doped oxy-fluoride glass-ceramics fibers have been drawn from a glass preform followed by controlled annealing. Processing temperatures (drawing and annealing) were selected upon thermal analysis results (DTA/DSC plots). Glass-ceramic structure was confirmed by the XRD measurements. Obtained fibers show good optical properties. As a cladding material polymer material (acrylic resin) is considered due to its low deposition temperature and suitable value of refractive index.

  4. Semi-metallic to semiconducting transition in graphene nanosheet with site specific co-doping of boron and nitrogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nath, Palash; Sanyal, Dirtha; Jana, Debnarayan

    2014-02-01

    Present work reports the modifications of band structure and density of states of graphene nanosheet by substitutional co-doping of boron (B) and nitrogen (N) in the pristine graphene system. Using ab-initio density functional theory (DFT) we show that the doping position plays an important key role to determine the band-gap in the graphene system. Co-doping of B and N at different sub-lattice positions in the planar graphene structure results different modifications in the band structure and density of states (DOS). Particular choice of sub-lattice doping position of B and N yields a finite value of band gap.

  5. Preparation and Scintillating Properties of Sol-Gel Eu3+, Tb3+ Co-Doped Lu2O3 Nanopowders

    PubMed Central

    de Jesús Morales Ramírez, Ángel; Murillo, Antonieta García; de Jesús Carrillo Romo, Felipe; Hernández, Margarita García; Palmerin, Joel Moreno; Guerrero, Rosario Ruiz

    2011-01-01

    Nanocrystalline Eu3+, Tb3+ co-doped Lu2O3 powders with a maximum size of 25.5 nm were prepared by the sol-gel process, using lutetium, europium and terbium nitrates as precursors, and ethanol as a solvent. Differential thermal analysis (DTA) and infrared spectroscopy (IR) were used to study the chemical changes during the xerogel annealing. After the sol evaporation at 100 °C, the formed gel was annealed from 300 to 900 °C for 30 min under a rich O2 atmosphere, and the yielded product was analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) to characterize the microstructural behavior and confirm the crystalline structure. The results showed that Lu2O3 nanopowders start to crystallize at 400 °C and that the crystallite size increases along with the annealing temperature. A transmission electron microscopy (TEM) study of samples annealed at 700 and 900 °C was carried out in order to analyze the microstructure, as well as the size, of crystallites. Finally, in regard to scintillating properties, Eu3+ dopant (5 mol%), Tb3+ codoped Lu2O3 exhibited a typical red emission at 611 nm (D°→7F2), furthermore, the effect of Tb3+ molar content (0.01, 0.015 and 0.02% mol) on the Eu3+ radioluminiscence was analyzed and it was found that the higher emission intensity corresponds to the lower Tb3+ content. PMID:22016655

  6. Competition Between Antiferromagnetism and Ferromagnetism in Sr2RuO4 Probed by Mn and Co Doping

    PubMed Central

    Ortmann, J. E.; Liu, J. Y.; Hu, J.; Zhu, M.; Peng, J.; Matsuda, M.; Ke, X.; Mao, Z. Q.

    2013-01-01

    Spin-triplet superconductivity in Sr2RuO4 has attracted enormous interest. Like other unconventional superconductors, superconductivity in Sr2RuO4 is in close proximity to magnetic instability. Undoped Sr2RuO4 exhibits incommensurate antiferromagnetic (AFM) fluctuations, which can evolve into static, short-range AFM order via Ti doping. Moreover, weak ferromagnetic (FM) coupling in Sr2RuO4 has also been suggested by NMR/neutron scattering experiments and studies on Ca2−xSrxRuO4 and Sr2−yLayRuO4, implying orbital dependent magnetism. We report bulk static, short-range FM order in Sr2RuO4 triggered by <2% Co doping, showing superconductivity in Sr2RuO4 is much closer to FM instability than previously reported in Ca2−xSrxRuO4. We also find Mn doping can effectively establish incommensurate AFM order, with TN ~ 50 K for 3% Mn doping. These new results place Sr2RuO4 in a unique situation where superconductivity lies directly on the borderline of two distinct magnetic states, highlighting the important role of competing magnetic fluctuations in determining superconducting properties of Sr2RuO4. PMID:24126684

  7. CuO nanoparticles supported on nitrogen and sulfur co-doped graphene nanocomposites for non-enzymatic glucose sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Meixia; Guo, Qingbin; Xie, Juan; Li, Yongde; Feng, Yapeng

    2017-01-01

    Developing highly active catalysts to promote the electrocatalytic glucose oxidation (EGO) is a crucial demand for non-enzymatic glucose sensing. Herein, we reported the use of nitrogen and sulfur co-doped graphene (NSG) as a novel support material for anchoring CuO nanoparticles and obtained CuO/NSG was employed as an efficient EGO catalyst for non-enzymatic glucose sensing. The results showed that the NSG endowed the CuO/NSG with large surface area, increased structural defects, improved conductivity, and strong covalent coupling between NSG and CuO. Owing to the significant contribution of NSG and the synergistic effect of NSG and CuO, the CuO/NSG exhibited a remarkably higher EGO activity than CuO and CuO/reduced graphene oxide. The CuO/NSG-based sensor displayed excellent glucose sensing performances with a considerably low detection limit of 0.07 μM. These findings elucidate that the NSG is a promising support material for non-enzymatic glucose detection.

  8. Synthesis and characterization of ZrO2-CuO co-doped ceria nanoparticles via chemical precipitation method.

    PubMed

    Viruthagiri, G; Gopinathan, E; Shanmugam, N; Gobi, R

    2014-10-15

    In the present study, the fluorite cubic phase of bare and ZrO2-CuO co-doped ceria (CeO2) nanoparticles have been synthesized through a simple chemical precipitation method. X-ray diffraction results revealed that average grain sizes of the samples are within 5-6nm range. The functional groups present in the samples were identified by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) study. Surface area measurement was carried out for the ceria nanoparticles to characterize the surface properties of the synthesized samples. The direct optical cutoff wavelength from DRS analysis was blue-shifted evidently with respect to the bulk material and indicated quantum-size confinement effect in the nanocrystallites. PL spectra revealed the strong and sharp UV emission at 401nm. The surface morphology and the element constitution of the pure and doped nanoparticles were studied by scanning electron microscope fitted with energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer arrangement. The thermal decomposition course was followed using thermo gravimetric and differential thermal analyses (TG-DTA).

  9. Hydrothermal synthesis of Yb3+, Tm3+ co-doped Gd6MoO12 and its upconversion properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di, Qiu-Mei; Sun, Yu-Mei; Xu, Qi-Guang; Han, Liu; Xue, Bing; Sun, Jia-Yue

    2015-06-01

    Yb3+, Tm3+ co-doped Gd6MoO12 phosphors with different morphologies are prepared by the hydrothermal method. The dendrites present different morphologies (including hexagonal prisms, spindles, and spheres) after changing the pH value and edetate disodium (EDTA) usage. It is found that each of the two factors plays a crucial role in forming different morphologies. The up-conversion (UC) luminescence is studied. Under 980-nm semiconductor laser excitation, relatively strong blue emission and weak red emission are observed. Finally, the effect of pumping power on the UC luminescence properties and the level diagram mechanism of Gd6MoO12:Yb3+/Tm3+ phosphor are also discussed. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 20976002), the Beijing Natural Science Foundation, China (Grant No. 2122012), the Key Projects for Science and Technology of Beijing Education Commission, China (Grant No. KZ201310011013), and the Education and Research Fund of Guangdong Province, China (Grant No. 2011B090400100).

  10. Synthesis, characterization and photocatalytic study of graphene oxide and cerium co-doped in TiO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jia; Zhang, Quan; Zeng, Liping; He, Deliang

    2016-02-01

    The nanocomposite of titanium dioxide (TiO2) combined with graphene oxide (GO) and cerium (Ce) was successfully synthesized via sol-gel method followed by calcining at 300 °C for 2 h. The composite was characterized by X-ray diffraction, ultraviolet-visible diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller. The photocatalytic activity was evaluated by photodegradation of methylene blue (MB) under the irradiation of xenon lamp. This study demonstrated that GO and Ce co-doped in TiO2 could broaden absorption edge to the visible light and increase surface area of samples. SEM observation showed that addition of Ce could solve the problem of the agglomeration of GO under the same experimental conditions. Moreover, the MB photocatalytic degradation rate of the composite with GO doped for 0.2 % and Ce doped for 0.6 % (mass ratio) was up to 97.7 %, which was largely attributed to the synergistic effects in the GO, Ce and TiO2 system.

  11. TiO2 nanopowder co-doped with iodine and boron to enhance visible-light photocatalytic activity.

    PubMed

    Ding, Jianqiang; Yuan, Yali; Xu, Jinsheng; Deng, Jian; Guo, Jianbo

    2009-10-01

    An iodine and boron co-doped TiO2 photocatalyst was prepared by the hydrolyzation-precipitation method. X-ray diffraction (XRD), ultraviolet-visible diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (UV-Vis DRS), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) were applied to characterize the crystalline structure, light absorbing ability, and the chemical state of iodine and boron in the photocatalysts. The results of photocatalytic degradation of methyl orange demonstrated that the I-B-TiO2 catalyst prepared at 400 degrees C for 3 h exhibited the highest photocatalytic activity with a methyl orange degradation ratio of 61% under visible-light (lambda > or = 420 nm) irradiation for 120 min. The characterization results revealed that I-B-TiO2 is in conformity with the anatase TiO2 and that the doping of iodine and boron ions could efficiently inhibit the grain growth. Doped iodine was present in the multivalent forms of 17+, I- and I5+. Doped boron was present as B3+ in an as-prepared sample, forming a possible chemical environment such as B-O-Ti. Overall, the doping of I and B enhanced the ability of TiO2 to absorb visible-light, and it was observed that the photocatalytic activity of I-B-TiO2 was enhanced by the synergistic effect of I and B.

  12. Sulfur impregnated N, P co-doped hierarchical porous carbon as cathode for high performance Li-S batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Junjie; Wu, Chun; Zhu, Ying; Zhang, Kaili; Shen, Pei Kang

    2017-02-01

    A nitrogen and phosphorus co-doped hierarchical porous carbon (N, P-HPC) were fabricated by simply pyrolysis of polyaniline aerogels in the presence of phytic acid and subsequently activation treatment by KOH. The as-prepared N, P-HPC with a highly interconnected network structure and possesses a large surface area and pore volume is very favor in the impregnation of sulfur. Moreover, simultaneously introduced nitrogen and phosphorous into the carbon could create more active sites than the mono-doped carbons, the synergistic effects of dual activation of carbon atoms induced stronger chemical adsorption ability. Benefiting from the advantages of suitable hierarchical porosity, high conductivity, fast ion transportation, physical and chemical adsorption of the N, P-HPC, the Sulfur/N, P-HPC composite exhibits high initial discharge capacity of 1116 mAh g-1 at 0.1 C (1 C = 1675 mA g-1, based on sulfur content) and high rate capability of 550 mAh g-1 at 2C, as well as excellent long term cycling stability at a current rate of 1 C with only 0.058% capacity decay per cycle for over 500 cycles. Such a high capacity and stability suggests that the novel cathode have alluring prospect for Li-S batteries.

  13. Preparation and scintillating properties of Sol-Gel Eu(3+), TB(3+) co-doped Lu(2)O(3) nanopowders.

    PubMed

    de Jesús Morales Ramírez, Angel; Murillo, Antonieta García; de Jesús Carrillo Romo, Felipe; Hernández, Margarita García; Palmerin, Joel Moreno; Guerrero, Rosario Ruiz

    2011-01-01

    Nanocrystalline Eu(3+), Tb(3+) co-doped Lu(2)O(3) powders with a maximum size of 25.5 nm were prepared by the sol-gel process, using lutetium, europium and terbium nitrates as precursors, and ethanol as a solvent. Differential thermal analysis (DTA) and infrared spectroscopy (IR) were used to study the chemical changes during the xerogel annealing. After the sol evaporation at 100 °C, the formed gel was annealed from 300 to 900 °C for 30 min under a rich O(2) atmosphere, and the yielded product was analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) to characterize the microstructural behavior and confirm the crystalline structure. The results showed that Lu(2)O(3) nanopowders start to crystallize at 400 °C and that the crystallite size increases along with the annealing temperature. A transmission electron microscopy (TEM) study of samples annealed at 700 and 900 °C was carried out in order to analyze the microstructure, as well as the size, of crystallites. Finally, in regard to scintillating properties, Eu(3+) dopant (5 mol%), Tb(3+) codoped Lu(2)O(3) exhibited a typical red emission at 611 nm (D(°)→(7)F(2)), furthermore, the effect of Tb(3+) molar content (0.01, 0.015 and 0.02% mol) on the Eu(3+) radioluminiscence was analyzed and it was found that the higher emission intensity corresponds to the lower Tb(3+) content.

  14. Hydrothermal Synthesis and Up-Conversion Luminescence of Yb3+/Ho3+ Co-doped Y6WO12 Nanocrystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, Weifeng; Zhu, Qiansheng; Ren, Qiang; Wu, Chenchen; Miao, Juhong

    2017-08-01

    Yb3+/Ho3+ co-doped Y6WO12 nanocrystals with different concentrations of Ho3+ ions have been synthesized through a facile hydrothermal method followed by a subsequent heat treatment. The nanostructures, morphologies, and up-conversion luminescent properties of the as-prepared Y6WO12:Yb3+/Ho3+ nanocrystals were investigated by powder x-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and photoluminescence spectra. XRD results indicate that all the diffraction peaks of the samples match well with the cubic phase of Y6WO12. SEM images demonstrate that the samples consist of spherical-like nanoparticles ranging in size from about 30 nm to 50 nm, which increases slightly with the increase of sintering temperature. Under the excitation of a 980 nm diode laser, the as-prepared nanocrystals show bight red and green luminescence, which is attributed to the transition of 5F5 → 5I8 and 5F4, 5S2 → 5I8 of Ho3+, respectively. With the elevation of the heat treatment temperature from 700°C to 900°C, the up-conversion emission intensity goes up significantly. Additionally, the decay lifetimes data follow a bi-exponential nature. Both the emission intensity (red and green) and their corresponding decay lifetimes increase with increasing Ho3+ concentration, maximizing at 1.0 mol.%, and then decrease, which is mainly attributed to the concentration quenching effect.

  15. Enhanced room temperature ferromagnetism and photoluminescence behavior of Cu-doped ZnO co-doped with Mn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashokkumar, M.; Muthukumaran, S.

    2015-05-01

    Cu, Mn co-doped ZnO nanoparticles were successfully synthesized by the sol-gel technique. XRD pattern described that Mn-doping did not affect the hexagonal wurtzite structure of the samples and no secondary phases were found. The reduced crystallite size at Mn=2% is due to the suppression of grain surface growth by foreign impurity. The enhancement of crystal size after Mn=2% is due to the expansion of lattice volume produced by the distortion around the dopant ion. The better dielectric constant and conductivity noticed at Mn=2% are explained by charge carrier density and crystallite size. The suppression of broad UV band by Mn-doping is discussed based on the generation of non-radiative recombination centers. Hysteresis loop showed the clear room temperature ferromagnetism in all the samples and the magnetization increased with Mn-doping. Better electrical and magnetic behavior of Zn0.94Cu0.04Mn0.02O sample is suggested for effective opto-magnetic devices.

  16. NIR luminescence studies on Er3+:Yb3+ co-doped sodium telluroborate glasses for lasers and optical amplifer applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Annapoorani, K.; Murthy, N. Suriya; Marimuthu, K.

    2016-05-01

    Er3+:Yb3+ co-doped Sodium telluroborate glasses were prepared with the chemical composition (49.5-x)B2O3+25TeO2+5Li2CO3+10ZnO+10NaF+0.5Er2O3+xYb2O3 (where x= 0.1, 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 in mol %) following the melt quenching technique. With the addition of Yb3+ ions into Er3+ ions in the prepared glasses, the absorption cross-section values were found to increase due to the effective energy transfer from 2F5/2 level of Yb3+ ions to the 4I11/2 level of Er3+ ions. The fluorescence around 1550 nm correspond to the 4I13/2→4I15/2 transition was observed under 980 nm pumping. Among the present glasses, integrated intensity was found to be higher for 1.0 mol% Yb3+ ion glass. The parameters such as stimulated emission cross- section, Gain bandwidth and quantum efficiency of the 4I13/2→4I15/2 transition was found to be higher for the NTBE1.0Y glass and the same is suggested for potential NIR lasers and optical amplifier applications.

  17. Competition between antiferromagnetism and ferromagnetism in Sr2RuO4 probed by Mn and Co doping.

    PubMed

    Ortmann, J E; Liu, J Y; Hu, J; Zhu, M; Peng, J; Matsuda, M; Ke, X; Mao, Z Q

    2013-10-15

    Spin-triplet superconductivity in Sr2RuO4 has attracted enormous interest. Like other unconventional superconductors, superconductivity in Sr2RuO4 is in close proximity to magnetic instability. Undoped Sr2RuO4 exhibits incommensurate antiferromagnetic (AFM) fluctuations, which can evolve into static, short-range AFM order via Ti doping. Moreover, weak ferromagnetic (FM) coupling in Sr2RuO4 has also been suggested by NMR/neutron scattering experiments and studies on Ca2-xSrxRuO4 and Sr2-yLayRuO4, implying orbital dependent magnetism. We report bulk static, short-range FM order in Sr2RuO4 triggered by <2% Co doping, showing superconductivity in Sr2RuO4 is much closer to FM instability than previously reported in Ca2-xSrxRuO4. We also find Mn doping can effectively establish incommensurate AFM order, with TN ~ 50 K for 3% Mn doping. These new results place Sr2RuO4 in a unique situation where superconductivity lies directly on the borderline of two distinct magnetic states, highlighting the important role of competing magnetic fluctuations in determining superconducting properties of Sr2RuO4.

  18. Effect of Nitridation on the Regrowth Interface of AlGaN/GaN Structures Grown by Molecular Beam Epitaxy on GaN Templates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, Yuen-Yee; Huang, Wei-Ching; Trinh, Hai-Dang; Yang, Tsung-Hsi; Chang, Jet-Rung; Chen, Micheal; Chang, Edward Yi

    2012-08-01

    AlGaN/GaN structures were regrown on GaN templates using plasma- assisted molecular beam epitaxy (PA-MBE). Prior to the regrowth, nitridation was performed using nitrogen plasma in the MBE chamber for different durations (0 min to 30 min). Direct-current measurements on high-electron-mobility transistor devices showed that good pinch-off characteristics and good interdevice isolation were achieved for samples prepared with a 30-min nitridation process. Current-voltage measurements on Schottky barrier diodes also revealed that, for samples prepared without nitridation, the reverse-bias gate leakage current was approximately two orders of magnitudes larger than that of samples prepared with a 30-min nitridation process. The improvement in the electrical properties is a result of contaminant removal at the regrowth interface which may be induced by the etching effect of nitridation.

  19. Effect of thermal oxidation treatment on pH sensitivity of AlGaN/GaN heterostructure ion-sensitive field-effect transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Lei; Bu, Yuyu; Li, Liuan; Ao, Jin-Ping

    2017-07-01

    In this article, AlGaN/GaN heterostructure ion-sensitive field-effect transistors (ISFETs) were prepared and evaluated by thermal oxidation treatment on the AlGaN surface. The ISFETs were fabricated on the AlGaN/GaN heterostructure and then thermally oxidized with dry oxygen in 600, 700, and 800 °C, respectively. It indicates that the performance of the AlGaN/GaN heterostructure ISFETs, such as noise and sensitivity, has been improved owing to the thermal oxidation treatment process at different temperatures. The X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) results indicate that after thermal oxidation treatment at different temperatures, hydroxide who possesses high surface state density will transfer to oxide owing to the higher chemical stability of the latter. Moreover, a crystalline α-Al2O3 phase generated at 700 °C can not only provide a relatively smooth surface, but also improve the sensitivity to 57.7 mV/pH for the AlGaN/GaN heterostructure ISFETs, which is very close to the Nernstian limit.

  20. AlGaN/GaN based field effect transistors for terahertz detection and imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakowicz, M.; Lifshits, M. B.; Klimenko, O. A.; Coquillat, D.; Dyakonova, N.; Teppe, F.; Gaquière, C.; Poisson, M. A.; Delage, S.; Knap, W.

    2012-03-01

    AlGaN/GaN based FETs have great potential as sensitive and fast operating detectors because of their material advantages such as high breakdown voltage, high electron mobility, and high saturation velocity. These advantages could be exploited for resonant and non-resonant terahertz detection. We have designed, fabricated, and characterized AlGaN/GaN based FETs as single pixel terahertz detectors. This work focuses on non-resonant detection and imaging using GaN field plate FETs. To evaluate their performances as terahertz detectors, we have measured the responsivity as a function of gate voltage, the azimuthal angle between the terahertz electric field, the source-to-drain direction, and the temperature. A simple analytical model of the response is developed. It is based on plasma density perturbation in the transistor channel by the incoming terahertz radiation. The model shows how the non-resonant detection signal is related to static (dc) transistor characteristics and it fully describes the experimental results on the non-resonant sub-terahertz detection by the AlGaN/GaN based FETs. The imaging performances are evaluated by scanning objects in transmission mode and an example of application of terahertz imaging as new non-destructive technique for the quality control of materials is given. Results indicate that these FETs can be considered as promising devices for terahertz detection and imaging applications.

  1. Enhanced luminescence and white light emission from Eu(3+) -co-doped K3 Ca2 (SO4 )3 Cl:Dy(3+) phosphor with near visible ultraviolet excitation for white LEDs.

    PubMed

    Baig, N; Dhoble, N S; Park, K; Kokode, N S; Dhoble, S J

    2015-06-01

    The luminescent properties of europium (Eu)- and dysprosium (Dy)-co-doped K3 Ca2 (SO4 )3 Cl halosulfate phosphors were analyzed. This paper reports the photoluminescence (PL) properties of K3 Ca2 (SO4 )3 Cl microphosphor doped with Eu and Dy and synthesized using a cost-effective wet chemical method. The phosphors were characterized by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. The CIE coordinates were calculated to display the color of the phosphor. PL emission of the prepared samples show peaks at 484 nm (blue), 575 nm (yellow), 594 nm (orange) and 617 nm (red). The emission color of the Eu,Dy-co-doped K3 Ca2 (SO4 )3 Cl halophosphor depends on the doping concentration and excitation wavelength. The addition of Eu in K3 Ca2 (SO4 )3 Cl:Dy greatly enhances the intensity of the blue and yellow peaks, which corresponds to the (4)  F9/2  → (6) H15/2 and (4)  F9/2  → (6) H13/2 transitions of Dy(3+) ions (under 351 nm excitation). The Eu(3+) /Dy(3+) co-doping also produces white light emission for 1 mol% of Eu(3+) , 1 mol% of Dy(3+) in the K3 Ca2 (SO4 )3 Cl lattice under 396 nm excitation, for which the calculated chromaticity coordinates are (0.35, 0.31). Thus, K3 Ca2 (SO4 )3 Cl co-doped with Eu/Dy is a suitable candidate for NUV based white light-emitting phosphors technology. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Circular photogalvanic effect induced by monopolar spin orientation in p-GaAs/AlGaAs multiple-quantum wells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganichev, S. D.; Ketterl, H.; Prettl, W.; Ivchenko, E. L.; Vorobjev, L. E.

    2000-11-01

    The circular photogalvanic effect (CPGE) has been observed in (100)-oriented p-GaAs/AlGaAs quantum wells at normal incidence of far-infrared radiation. It is shown that monopolar optical spin orientation of free carriers causes an electric current which reverses its direction upon changing from left to right circularly polarized radiation. CPGE at normal incidence and the occurrence of the linear photogalvanic effect indicate a reduced point symmetry of studied multilayered heterostructures. As proposed, CPGE can be utilized to investigate separately spin polarization of electrons and holes and the symmetry of quantum wells.

  3. Optical investigation of the one-dimensional confinement effects in narrow GaAs/GaAlAs quantum wires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birotheau, L.; Izrael, A.; Marzin, J. Y.; Azoulay, R.; Thierry-Mieg, V.; Ladan, F. R.

    1992-12-01

    We show optical data obtained at 8 K on narrow GaAs/GaAlAs quantum wires, with width down to 15 nm, fabricated by reactive ion etching and metal organic chemical vapor deposition overgrowth. Lateral confinement energies (up to 23 meV) and polarization effects are evidenced in the photoluminescence excitation spectra. These experimental results are in good agreement with calculated absorption spectra, which include the effects of wire width fluctuations, yielding, for our fabrication technique, a value of ±5 nm for these size fluctuations.

  4. A theoretical investigation of effective surface recombination velocity in AlGaAs/GaAs heteroface solar cells

    SciTech Connect

    Gee, J.M.; Drummond, T.J.

    1990-01-01

    An AlGaAs window layer is used in high-efficiency GaAs solar cells to reduce carrier recombination at the front surface. Free surfaces of III-V semiconductors have a high density of surface states that serve as recombination sites and create a depletion region at the front surface. We have performed a theoretical investigation of front-surface recombination that includes the effect of a surface space-charge layer. It was found that the surface space-charge layer can have a profound effect on front-surface recombination for thin or lightly doped window layers. 15 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  5. Degradation and annealing effects caused by oxygen in AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang, R. Chen, J.; Duan, G. X.; Zhang, E. X.; Schrimpf, R. D.; Shen, X.; Fleetwood, D. M.; Kaun, S. W.; Kyle, E. C. H.; Speck, J. S.; Pantelides, S. T.

    2016-07-11

    Hot-carrier degradation and room-temperature annealing effects are investigated in unpassivated ammonia-rich AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors. Devices exhibit a fast recovery when annealed after hot carrier stress with all pins grounded. The recovered peak transconductance can exceed the original value, an effect that is not observed in control passivated samples. Density functional theory calculations suggest that dehydrogenation of pre-existing O{sub N}-H defects in AlGaN plays a significant role in the observed hot carrier degradation, and the resulting bare O{sub N} can naturally account for the “super-recovery” in the peak transconductance.

  6. Catalytic activity of enzymes immobilized on AlGaN /GaN solution gate field-effect transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baur, B.; Howgate, J.; von Ribbeck, H.-G.; Gawlina, Y.; Bandalo, V.; Steinhoff, G.; Stutzmann, M.; Eickhoff, M.

    2006-10-01

    Enzyme-modified field-effect transistors (EnFETs) were prepared by immobilization of penicillinase on AlGaN /GaN solution gate field-effect transistors. The influence of the immobilization process on enzyme functionality was analyzed by comparing covalent immobilization and physisorption. Covalent immobilization by Schiff base formation on GaN surfaces modified with an aminopropyltriethoxysilane monolayer exhibits high reproducibility with respect to the enzyme/substrate affinity. Reductive amination of the Schiff base bonds to secondary amines significantly increases the stability of the enzyme layer. Electronic characterization of the EnFET response to penicillin G indicates that covalent immobilization leads to the formation of an enzyme (sub)monolayer.

  7. Sulfur and iron co-doped titanoniobate nanosheets: a novel efficient solid acid catalyst for alcoholysis of styrene epoxide at room temperature.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lihong; Hu, Chenhui; Zhang, Junfeng; Cheng, Liyuan; Zhai, Zheng; Chen, Jing; Ding, Weiping; Hou, Wenhua

    2013-09-04

    Sulfur and iron co-doped titanoniobate nanosheets were prepared and evaluated in alcoholysis of styrene epoxide. The resultant co-doped catalyst exhibited excellent catalytic performance (yield of 99% with methanol as the nucleophile in only 1 h at room temperature) and may act as a promising candidate in many acid-catalyzed reactions.

  8. An Improved Metal-Packaged Strain Sensor Based on A Regenerated Fiber Bragg Grating in Hydrogen-Loaded Boron–Germanium Co-Doped Photosensitive Fiber for High-Temperature Applications

    PubMed Central

    Tu, Yun; Ye, Lin; Zhou, Shao-Ping; Tu, Shan-Tung

    2017-01-01

    Local strain measurements are considered as an effective method for structural health monitoring of high-temperature components, which require accurate, reliable and durable sensors. To develop strain sensors that can be used in higher temperature environments, an improved metal-packaged strain sensor based on a regenerated fiber Bragg grating (RFBG) fabricated in hydrogen (H2)-loaded boron–germanium (B–Ge) co-doped photosensitive fiber is developed using the process of combining magnetron sputtering and electroplating, addressing the limitation of mechanical strength degradation of silica optical fibers after annealing at a high temperature for regeneration. The regeneration characteristics of the RFBGs and the strain characteristics of the sensor are evaluated. Numerical simulation of the sensor is conducted using a three-dimensional finite element model. Anomalous decay behavior of two regeneration regimes is observed for the FBGs written in H2-loaded B–Ge co-doped fiber. The strain sensor exhibits good linearity, stability and repeatability when exposed to constant high temperatures of up to 540 °C. A satisfactory agreement is obtained between the experimental and numerical results in strain sensitivity. The results demonstrate that the improved metal-packaged strain sensors based on RFBGs in H2-loaded B–Ge co-doped fiber provide great potential for high-temperature applications by addressing the issues of mechanical integrity and packaging. PMID:28241465

  9. An Improved Metal-Packaged Strain Sensor Based on A Regenerated Fiber Bragg Grating in Hydrogen-Loaded Boron-Germanium Co-Doped Photosensitive Fiber for High-Temperature Applications.

    PubMed

    Tu, Yun; Ye, Lin; Zhou, Shao-Ping; Tu, Shan-Tung

    2017-02-23

    Local strain measurements are considered as an effective method for structural health monitoring of high-temperature components, which require accurate, reliable and durable sensors. To develop strain sensors that can be used in higher temperature environments, an improved metal-packaged strain sensor based on a regenerated fiber Bragg grating (RFBG) fabricated in hydrogen (H₂)-loaded boron-germanium (B-Ge) co-doped photosensitive fiber is developed using the process of combining magnetron sputtering and electroplating, addressing the limitation of mechanical strength degradation of silica optical fibers after annealing at a high temperature for regeneration. The regeneration characteristics of the RFBGs and the strain characteristics of the sensor are evaluated. Numerical simulation of the sensor is conducted using a three-dimensional finite element model. Anomalous decay behavior of two regeneration regimes is observed for the FBGs written in H₂-loaded B-Ge co-doped fiber. The strain sensor exhibits good linearity, stability and repeatability when exposed to constant high temperatures of up to 540 °C. A satisfactory agreement is obtained between the experimental and numerical results in strain sensitivity. The results demonstrate that the improved metal-packaged strain sensors based on RFBGs in H₂-loaded B-Ge co-doped fiber provide great potential for high-temperature applications by addressing the issues of mechanical integrity and packaging.

  10. Effects of tensile stress induced by silicon nitride passivation on electrical characteristics of AlGaN /GaN heterostructure field-effect transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeon, Chang Min; Lee, Jong-Lam

    2005-04-01

    The effects of tensile stress induced by silicon nitride (Si3N4) passivation on electrical characteristics of AlGaN /GaN heterostructure field-effect transistors (HFETs) were investigated. The biaxial tensile stress applied to the AlGaN layer was increased with the thickness of the Si3N4 passivation layer, leading to the increase of sheet charge density confined at the heterointerface. The stress-induced charge density was 1.75×1011e/cm2 for 80-nm-thick Si3N4 and 6.74×1011e/cm2 for 500-nm-thick Si3N4. The maximum drain current and transconductance of AlGaN /GaN HFET increased from 769 to 858mA/mm and from 146 to 155mS/mm after passivation, respectively.

  11. Analysis of Photoluminescence Thermal Quenching: Guidance for the Design of Highly Effective p-type Doping of Nitrides

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zhiqiang; Huang, Yang; Yi, Xiaoyan; Fu, Binglei; Yuan, Guodong; Wang, Junxi; Li, Jinmin; Zhang, Yong

    2016-01-01

    A contact-free diagnostic technique for examining position of the impurity energy level of p-type dopants in nitride semiconductors was proposed based on photoluminescence thermal quenching. The Mg ionization energy was extracted by the phenomenological rate-equation model we developed. The diagnostic technique and analysis model reported here are priorities for the design of highly effective p-doping of nitrides and could also be used to explain the abnormal and seldom analyzed low characteristic temperature T0 (about 100 K) of thermal quenching in p-type nitrides systems. An In-Mg co-doped GaN system is given as an example to prove the validity of our methods. Furthermore, a hole concentration as high as 1.94 × 1018 cm−3 was achieved through In-Mg co-doping, which is nearly one order of magnitude higher than typically obtained in our lab. PMID:27550805

  12. Effects of Ga Addition on Interfacial Reactions Between Sn-Based Solders and Ni

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chao-Hong; Li, Kuan-Ting

    2016-12-01

    The use of Ga as a micro-alloying element in Sn-based solders can change the microstructure of solder joints to improve the mechanical properties, and even suppress the interfacial intermetallic compound (IMC) growth. This research investigated the effects of Ga addition (0.2-1 wt.%Ga) on the IMC formation and morphological evolution in the Sn-based solder joints with Ni substrate. In the soldering reaction at 250°C and with less than 0.2 wt.%Ga addition, the formed phase was Ni3Sn4. When the Ga addition increased to 0.5 wt.%, it changed to a thin Ni2Ga3 layer of ˜1 μm thick, which stably existed at the interface in the initial 1-h reaction. Subsequently, the whole Ni2Ga3 layer detached from the Ni substrate and drifted into the molten solder. The Ni3Sn4 phase became dominant in the later stage. Notably, the Ga addition significantly reduced the grain size of Ni3Sn4, resulting in the massive spalling of Ni3Sn4 grains. With 1 wt.%Ga addition, the Ni2Ga3 layer remained very thin with no significant growth, and it stably existed at the interface for more than 10 h. In addition, the solid-state reactions were examined at temperatures of 160°C to 200°C. With addition of 0.5 wt.%Ga, the Ni3Sn4 phase dominated the whole reaction. By contrast, with increasing to 1 wt.%Ga, only a thin Ni2Ga3 layer was found even after aging at 160°C for more than 1200 h. The 1 wt.%Ga addition in solder can effectively inhibit the Ni3Sn4 formation in soldering and the long-term aging process.

  13. Proximity Effects of Beryllium-Doped GaN Buffer Layers on the Electronic Properties of Epitaxial AlGaN/GaN Heterostructures

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-05-17

    rf - plasma assisted MBE - grown homoepitaxial GaN has shown that oxygen, a shallow donor in GaN , is present at...properties of Al- GaN / GaN HEMTs grown by rf - MBE on native GaN substrates . 2. Experimental Seven AlGaN/ GaN heterostructures were grown by rf - plasma assisted... GaN /Be:GaN heterostructures have been grown by rf - plasma molecular beam epitaxy on free- standing semi-insulating

  14. Inversion-mode GaAs wave-shaped field-effect transistor on GaAs (100) substrate

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Jingyun; Si, Mengwei; Wu, Heng; Ye, Peide D.; Lou, Xiabing; Gordon, Roy G.; Shao, Jiayi; Manfra, Michael J.

    2015-02-16

    Inversion-mode GaAs wave-shaped metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors (WaveFETs) are demonstrated using atomic-layer epitaxy of La{sub 2}O{sub 3} as gate dielectric on (111)A nano-facets formed on a GaAs (100) substrate. The wave-shaped nano-facets, which are desirable for the device on-state and off-state performance, are realized by lithographic patterning and anisotropic wet etching with optimized geometry. A well-behaved 1 μm gate length GaAs WaveFET shows a maximum drain current of 64 mA/mm, a subthreshold swing of 135 mV/dec, and an I{sub ON}/I{sub OFF} ratio of greater than 10{sup 7}.

  15. Effect of piezoelectric fields of ultrasonic vibrations on raman scattering in GaAs/AlGaAs heterostructures

    SciTech Connect

    Kurylyuk, V. V. Korotchenkov, O. A.

    2009-04-15

    The resonance electroacoustic vibrations in the GaAs/AlGaAs-LiNbO{sub 3} hybrid structure with the slippery interface and the effect of redistribution of the two-dimensional electron gas density in the heterostructure by the induced piezoelectric fields are analyzed theoretically. The calculations are performed by the finite element method. The experimentally recorded time-resolved Raman spectra exhibit some specific features of the behavior of the LO-phonon-plasmon mode. The features are consistent with the theoretically calculated redistribution of the density of the electron gas.

  16. Quantum cutting mechanism in Tb3+-Yb3+ co-doped oxyfluoride glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duan, Qianqian; Qin, Feng; Wang, Dan; Xu, Wei; Cheng, Jianmin; Zhang, Zhiguo; Cao, Wenwu

    2011-12-01

    Rate equations were created to describe cooperative quantum cutting phenomena, which incorporated the interactions between donor Tb3+ and acceptor Yb3+ ions. Two judgment criteria were developed for the excitation power dependence and time-resolved luminescence spectra of donor and acceptor ions, which can be used to verify the proposed mechanism. Under the excitation of a 473 nm continuous wave laser, the emission intensities of Tb3+ and Yb3+ increased linearly with the excitation power. The decay curve of Yb3+ indicated two distinct contributions: the fast decay time of its own lifetime, and the slow decay time representing the lifetime of the 5D4 energy level of Tb3+. The experimental results meet the two judgment criteria, which confirmed the proposed cooperative quantum cutting mechanism in Tb3+-Yb3+ co-doped oxyfluoride glass.

  17. EPR investigation of pure and Co-doped ZnO oriented nanocrystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savoyant, A.; Alnoor, H.; Bertaina, S.; Nur, O.; Willander, M.

    2017-01-01

    Pure and cobalt-doped zinc oxide aligned nanorods have been grown by the low-temperature (90 °C) aqueous chemical method on amorphous ZnO seed layer, deposited on a sapphire substrate. High crystallinity of these objects is demonstrated by the electron paramagnetic resonance investigation at liquid helium temperature. The successful incorporation of Co2+ ions in substitution of Zn2+ ones in the ZnO matrix has also been confirmed. A drastic reduction of intrinsic ZnO nanorods core defects is observed in the Co-doped samples, which enhances the structural quality of the NRs. The quantification of substitutional Co2+ ions in the ZnO matrix is achieved by comparison with a reference sample. The findings in this study indicate the potential of using the low-temperature aqueous chemical approach for synthesizing material for spintronics applications.

  18. Co-doped sodium chloride crystals exposed to different irradiation temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortiz-Morales, A.; Cruz-Zaragoza, E.; Furetta, C.; Kitis, G.; Flores J., C.; Hernández A., J.; Murrieta S., H.

    2013-07-01

    Monocrystals of NaCl:XCl2:MnCl2(X = Ca,Cd) at four different concentrations have been analyzed. The crystals were exposed to different irradiation temperature, such as at room temperature (RT), solid water (SW), dry ice (DI) and liquid nitrogen (LN). The samples were irradiated with photon from 60Co irradiators. The co-doped sodium chloride crystals show a complex structure of glow curves that can be related to different distribution of traps. The linearity response was analyzed with the F(D) index. The F(D) value was less than unity indicating a sub-linear response was obtained from the TL response on the function of the dose. The glow curves were deconvoluted by using the CGCD program based on the first, second and general order kinetics.

  19. Electronic and magnetic properties of Co doped MoS2 monolayer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yiren; Li, Sean; Yi, Jiabao

    2016-04-01

    First principle calculations are employed to calculate the electronic and magnetic properties of Co doped MoS2 by considering a variety of defects including all the possible defect complexes. The results indicate that pristine MoS2 is nonmagnetic. The materials with the existence of S vacancy or Mo vacancy alone are non-magnetic either. Further calculation demonstrates that Co substitution at Mo site leads to spin polarized state. Two substitutional CoMo defects tend to cluster and result in the non-magnetic behaviour. However, the existence of Mo vacancies leads to uniform distribution of Co dopants and it is energy favourable with ferromagnetic coupling, resulting in an intrinsic diluted magnetic semiconductor.

  20. Mode-Locked Thulium Ytterbium Co-Doped Fiber Laser with Graphene Oxide Paper Saturable Absorber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    M. Azooz, S.; W. Harun, S.; H., Ahmad; Halder, A.; C. Paul, M.; Pal, M.; K. Bhadra, S.

    2015-01-01

    A mode-locked thulium ytterbium co-doped fiber laser (TYDFL) is proposed and demonstrated by using a commercial graphene oxide (GO) paper as saturable absorber (SA). The GO paper is sandwiched between two fiber ferrules and incorporates a ring laser cavity to generate soliton pulse train operating at 1942.0nm at a threshold multimode pump power as low as 1.8 W. The mode-locked TYDFL has a repetition rate of 22.32 MHz and the calculated pulse width of 1.1 ns. Even though the SA has a low damage threshold, the easy fabrication of GO paper should promote its potential application in ultrafast photonics.

  1. Highly piezoelectric MgZr co-doped aluminum nitride-based vibrational energy harvesters.

    PubMed

    Minh, Le Van; Hara, Motoaki; Yokoyama, Tsuyoshi; Nishihara, Tokihiro; Ueda, Masanori; Kuwano, Hiroki

    2015-11-01

    The first MgZr co-doped AlN-based vibrational energy harvester (VEH) is presented. (MgZr)AlN, which is a new class of doped AlN, provides high piezoelectricity and cost advantage. Using 13%-(MgZr)-doped AlN for micromachined VEHs, maximum output power of 1.3 μW was achieved with a Q-factor of 400 when resonant frequency, vibration acceleration, load resistance were 792 Hz, 8 m/s(2), and 1.1 MΩ, respectively. Normalized power density was 8.1 kW·g(-2)·m(-3). This was one of the highest values among the currently available piezoelectric VEHs.

  2. Study of upconversion fluorescence property of novel Er3+/Yb3+ co-doped tellurite glasses.

    PubMed

    Xu, Tie-Feng; Li, Guang-Po; Nie, Qiu-Hua; Shen, Xiang

    2006-06-01

    Er3+/Yb3+ co-doped TeO2-B2O3-Nb2O5-ZnO (TBN) glasses were prepared. The absorption spectra and upconversion luminescence spectra of TBN glasses were measured and analyzed. The upconversion emission bands centered at 530, 546 and 658 nm were observed under the excitation at 975 nm, corresponding to the transitions of 2H11/2-->4I15/2, 4S3/2-->4I15/2 and 4F9/2-->4I15/2 respectively. The ratio of red emission to green emission increases with an increasing of Yb3+ ions concentration. According to the quadratic dependence on excitation power, the possible upconversion mechanisms and processes were discussed.

  3. Impacts of Co doping on ZnO transparent switching memory device characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simanjuntak, Firman Mangasa; Prasad, Om Kumar; Panda, Debashis; Lin, Chun-An; Tsai, Tsung-Ling; Wei, Kung-Hwa; Tseng, Tseung-Yuen

    2016-05-01

    The resistive switching characteristics of indium tin oxide (ITO)/Zn1-xCoxO/ITO transparent resistive memory devices were investigated. An appropriate amount of cobalt dopant in ZnO resistive layer demonstrated sufficient memory window and switching stability. In contrast, pure ZnO devices demonstrated a poor memory window, and using an excessive dopant concentration led to switching instability. To achieve suitable memory performance, relying only on controlling defect concentrations is insufficient; the grain growth orientation of the resistive layer must also be considered. Stable endurance with an ON/OFF ratio of more than one order of magnitude during 5000 cycles confirmed that the Co-doped ZnO device is a suitable candidate for resistive random access memory application. Additionally, fully transparent devices with a high transmittance of up to 90% at wavelength of 550 nm have been fabricated.

  4. Co-doped sodium chloride crystals exposed to different irradiation temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Ortiz-Morales, A.; Cruz-Zaragoza, E.; Furetta, C.; Kitis, G.; Flores J, C.; Hernandez A, J.; Murrieta S, H.

    2013-07-03

    Monocrystals of NaCl:XCl{sub 2}:MnCl{sub 2}(X = Ca,Cd) at four different concentrations have been analyzed. The crystals were exposed to different irradiation temperature, such as at room temperature (RT), solid water (SW), dry ice (DI) and liquid nitrogen (LN). The samples were irradiated with photon from {sup 60}Co irradiators. The co-doped sodium chloride crystals show a complex structure of glow curves that can be related to different distribution of traps. The linearity response was analyzed with the F(D) index. The F(D) value was less than unity indicating a sub-linear response was obtained from the TL response on the function of the dose. The glow curves were deconvoluted by using the CGCD program based on the first, second and general order kinetics.

  5. Ultrahigh volumetric capacitance and cyclic stability of fluorine and nitrogen co-doped carbon microspheres

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Junshuang; Lian, Jie; Hou, Li; Zhang, Junchuan; Gou, Huiyang; Xia, Meirong; Zhao, Yufeng; Strobel, Timothy A.; Tao, Lu; Gao, Faming

    2015-01-01

    Highly porous nanostructures with large surface areas are typically employed for electrical double-layer capacitors to improve gravimetric energy storage capacity; however, high surface area carbon-based electrodes result in poor volumetric capacitance because of the low packing density of porous materials. Here, we demonstrate ultrahigh volumetric capacitance of 521 F cm−3 in aqueous electrolytes for non-porous carbon microsphere electrodes co-doped with fluorine and nitrogen synthesized by low-temperature solvothermal route, rivaling expensive RuO2 or MnO2 pseudo-capacitors. The new electrodes also exhibit excellent cyclic stability without capacitance loss after 10,000 cycles in both acidic and basic electrolytes at a high charge current of 5 A g−1. This work provides a new approach for designing high-performance electrodes with exceptional volumetric capacitance with high mass loadings and charge rates for long-lived electrochemical energy storage systems. PMID:26415838

  6. Impacts of Co doping on ZnO transparent switching memory device characteristics

    SciTech Connect

    Simanjuntak, Firman Mangasa; Wei, Kung-Hwa; Prasad, Om Kumar; Panda, Debashis; Lin, Chun-An; Tsai, Tsung-Ling; Tseng, Tseung-Yuen

    2016-05-02

    The resistive switching characteristics of indium tin oxide (ITO)/Zn{sub 1−x}Co{sub x}O/ITO transparent resistive memory devices were investigated. An appropriate amount of cobalt dopant in ZnO resistive layer demonstrated sufficient memory window and switching stability. In contrast, pure ZnO devices demonstrated a poor memory window, and using an excessive dopant concentration led to switching instability. To achieve suitable memory performance, relying only on controlling defect concentrations is insufficient; the grain growth orientation of the resistive layer must also be considered. Stable endurance with an ON/OFF ratio of more than one order of magnitude during 5000 cycles confirmed that the Co-doped ZnO device is a suitable candidate for resistive random access memory application. Additionally, fully transparent devices with a high transmittance of up to 90% at wavelength of 550 nm have been fabricated.

  7. Local fields in Co and Mn Co-doped ZnO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, W.; Kano, Y.; Suzuki, T.; Nakagawa, M.; Kobayashi, Y.

    2016-12-01

    The magnetic properties of ZnO co-doped with 5 at. % Co and 5 at. % Mn(Zn0.90Co0.05Mn0.05O) synthesized by a solid-state reaction were investigated by means of 57Co emission Mössbauer spectroscopy. The majority of the probe ions (80 %) residing in defect-free substitutional Zn sites take the oxidation state of 57Fe 2+, and the others presumably form local defects taking the state of 57Fe 3+ at room temperature. Both components show doublets, and RT ferromagnetism was thus absent in the sample. For the measurement at 10 K, spectral broadening was observed, implying a possible presence of a weak magnetic component.

  8. Electronic and magnetic properties of Co doped MoS2 monolayer

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yiren; Li, Sean; Yi, Jiabao

    2016-01-01

    First principle calculations are employed to calculate the electronic and magnetic properties of Co doped MoS2 by considering a variety of defects including all the possible defect complexes. The results indicate that pristine MoS2 is nonmagnetic. The materials with the existence of S vacancy or Mo vacancy alone are non-magnetic either. Further calculation demonstrates that Co substitution at Mo site leads to spin polarized state. Two substitutional CoMo defects tend to cluster and result in the non-magnetic behaviour. However, the existence of Mo vacancies leads to uniform distribution of Co dopants and it is energy favourable with ferromagnetic coupling, resulting in an intrinsic diluted magnetic semiconductor. PMID:27052641

  9. The role of unintentional hydrogen on magnetic properties of Co doped ZnO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Assadi, M. H. N.; Zhang, Y. B.; Li, S.

    2011-12-01

    The correlation between the positioning of hydrogen and magnetic properties of Co doped ZnO are investigated using ab initio methodology. It is found that hydrogen can both sit in interstitial Zn-O mid bonds and substitute oxygen forming multicentre bonds with zinc. However the substitutional hydrogen is slightly more stable by 0.37 eV than the interstitial hydrogen. It is also found that mobile hydrogen ions in ZnO are trapped by Co ions or Co complexes to form variety of highly stable Co-H complexes in ZnO host lattice. Charge transfer from hydrogen to neighboring Co's 3d orbitals leads to both the stabilization of ferromagnetic ordering among Co ions and the reduction of Co ion magnetic moment.

  10. Self-consistent GW calculation of the electronic structure of co-doped ZnO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Maengsuk; Park, Chul Hong

    2012-01-01

    The electronic structure of Co-doped ZnO is presented using a first-principles self-consistent GW calculation based on the screened hybrid HSE06 functional and is compared to the structure calculated using the generalized gradient density approximation plus U (GGA+U) method. The obtained energy splittings between unoccupied Co t 2 and the occupied Co e states are about 3.0 eV and 5.1 eV for the GGA+U and the HSE06 calculations, respectively. Through a correction of the self-consistent GW calculations on the top of HSE06, the electronic energy levels of the occupied Co e band states are moved downward slightly while those at the unoccupied Co t 2 bands are shifted upward, and the occupied Co e and the empty Co t 2 levels of the minority spin are located, respectively, far below and far above the conduction band minimum.

  11. Structural and dielectric properties of Nd/Ca co-doped bi-ferrite multiferroics

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, Ashwini E-mail: ashu.dhanda@gmail.com; Sharma, Poorva E-mail: ashu.dhanda@gmail.com; Varshney, Dinesh E-mail: ashu.dhanda@gmail.com

    2014-04-24

    Single-phase polycrystalline samples of Bi{sub 0.8}Nd{sub 0.2−x}Ca{sub x}FeO{sub 3} (x = 0.0, 0.1) were synthesized by chemical coprecipitation method. X-ray diffraction patterns accompanied by Rietveld-refined crystal structure parameters reveal the phase transition of Bi{sub 0.8}Nd{sub 0.1}Ca{sub 0.1}FeO{sub 3} with rhombohedral R3c symmetry to triclinic structure of Bi{sub 0.8}Nd{sub 0.2}FeO{sub 3} sample. Frequency dependence of dielectric constant (ε') and dielectric loss (tanδ), infers enhancement of both ε' (tanδ) in narrow band gap of Nd/Ca co-doped BFO as compare to wide band pristine BFO.

  12. Characterization of CdZnTe co-doped with indium and lead

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaman, Yasir; Jie, Wanqi; Wang, Tao; He, Yihui; Xu, Lingyan; Guo, Rongrong; Xu, Yadong; Zha, Gangqiang

    2015-01-01

    Indium and lead co-doped Cd0.9Zn0.1Te (CZT:(In,Pb)) were characterized by using I-V measurement, thermally stimulated current (TSC) spectroscopy and time-of-flight (TOF). The concentration of doping level of In and Pb was 10 ppm and 2 ppm, respectively. I-V curves showed that CZT:(In,Pb) possessed the resistivity as high as 1.8×1010 Ω cm, and the mobility (μ) of about 868 cm2/V s, which is considered acceptable for detector's fabrication. However, the carrier life time (τ) was only 9.44×10-7 s. Therefore, the μτ (mobility life time product) value was low. TSC results showed thirteen different trap levels, which were much more than that in Indium doped CZT crystal. Several special traps associated with lead were found, which might be the reason for the low carrier life time.

  13. Polarization and dipole moments of Co-doped potassium sodium strontium barium niobate crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Xia, H.R.; Wang, C.J.; Yu, H.; Chen, H.C.; Wang, M.

    1997-11-01

    Single crystals of potassium sodium strontium barium niobate (KNSBN) and cobalt-modified KNSBN were prepared using the Czochralski technique. The ferroelectric hysteresis loops and the infrared reflectivity spectra were collected. Compared with the undoped KNSBN crystals, the cobalt-modified crystals have stable hysteresis loops, whose spontaneous polarization is about 0.17C/m{sup 2} and coercive field strength is about 670 V/mm, but those of the undoped KNSBN crystals are about 0.04C/m{sup 2} and 530 V/mm, respectively. The measured infrared reflectivities vary with the orientations of the dipole moments owing to the Co doping. The c axis becomes the most stable orientation of the dipole moments, and the polarization can be locked and does not recede when the cobalt-modified crystals are polarized into a single domain. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  14. Encapsulation of Fe3O4 Nanoparticles into N, S co-Doped Graphene Sheets with Greatly Enhanced Electrochemical Performance

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Zunxian; Qian, Kun; Lv, Jun; Yan, Wenhuan; Liu, Jiahui; Ai, Jingwei; Zhang, Yuxiang; Guo, Tailiang; Zhou, Xiongtu; Xu, Sheng; Guo, Zaiping

    2016-01-01

    Particular N, S co-doped graphene/Fe3O4 hybrids have been successfully synthesized by the combination of a simple hydrothermal process and a subsequent carbonization heat treatment. The nanostructures exhibit a unique composite architecture, with uniformly dispersed Fe3O4 nanoparticles and N, S co-doped graphene encapsulant. The particular porous characteristics with many meso/micro holes/pores, the highly conductive N, S co-doped graphene, as well as the encapsulating N, S co-doped graphene with the high-level nitrogen and sulfur doping, lead to excellent electrochemical performance of the electrode. The N-S-G/Fe3O4 composite electrode exhibits a high initial reversible capacity of 1362.2 mAhg−1, a high reversible specific capacity of 1055.20 mAhg−1 after 100 cycles, and excellent cycling stability and rate capability, with specific capacity of 556.69 mAhg−1 when cycled at the current density of 1000 mAg−1, indicating that the N-S-G/Fe3O4 composite is a promising anode candidate for Li-ion batteries. PMID:27296103

  15. Encapsulation of Fe3O4 Nanoparticles into N, S co-Doped Graphene Sheets with Greatly Enhanced Electrochemical Performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Zunxian; Qian, Kun; Lv, Jun; Yan, Wenhuan; Liu, Jiahui; Ai, Jingwei; Zhang, Yuxiang; Guo, Tailiang; Zhou, Xiongtu; Xu, Sheng; Guo, Zaiping

    2016-06-01

    Particular N, S co-doped graphene/Fe3O4 hybrids have been successfully synthesized by the combination of a simple hydrothermal process and a subsequent carbonization heat treatment. The nanostructures exhibit a unique composite architecture, with uniformly dispersed Fe3O4 nanoparticles and N, S co-doped graphene encapsulant. The particular porous characteristics with many meso/micro holes/pores, the highly conductive N, S co-doped graphene, as well as the encapsulating N, S co-doped graphene with the high-level nitrogen and sulfur doping, lead to excellent electrochemical performance of the electrode. The N-S-G/Fe3O4 composite electrode exhibits a high initial reversible capacity of 1362.2 mAhg‑1, a high reversible specific capacity of 1055.20 mAhg‑1 after 100 cycles, and excellent cycling stability and rate capability, with specific capacity of 556.69 mAhg‑1 when cycled at the current density of 1000 mAg‑1, indicating that the N-S-G/Fe3O4 composite is a promising anode candidate for Li-ion batteries.

  16. Encapsulation of Fe3O4 Nanoparticles into N, S co-Doped Graphene Sheets with Greatly Enhanced Electrochemical Performance.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zunxian; Qian, Kun; Lv, Jun; Yan, Wenhuan; Liu, Jiahui; Ai, Jingwei; Zhang, Yuxiang; Guo, Tailiang; Zhou, Xiongtu; Xu, Sheng; Guo, Zaiping

    2016-06-14

    Particular N, S co-doped graphene/Fe3O4 hybrids have been successfully synthesized by the combination of a simple hydrothermal process and a subsequent carbonization heat treatment. The nanostructures exhibit a unique composite architecture, with uniformly dispersed Fe3O4 nanoparticles and N, S co-doped graphene encapsulant. The particular porous characteristics with many meso/micro holes/pores, the highly conductive N, S co-doped graphene, as well as the encapsulating N, S co-doped graphene with the high-level nitrogen and sulfur doping, lead to excellent electrochemical performance of the electrode. The N-S-G/Fe3O4 composite electrode exhibits a high initial reversible capacity of 1362.2 mAhg(-1), a high reversible specific capacity of 1055.20 mAhg(-1) after 100 cycles, and excellent cycling stability and rate capability, with specific capacity of 556.69 mAhg(-1) when cycled at the current density of 1000 mAg(-1), indicating that the N-S-G/Fe3O4 composite is a promising anode candidate for Li-ion batteries.

  17. Influence of Dopant Loading on the Photo- and Electrochemical Properties of (N, O)-Co-doped Graphene.

    PubMed

    Baldoví, Hermenegildo G; Albarracín, Ferran; Álvaro, Mercedes; Ferrer, Belén; García, Hermenegildo

    2015-07-20

    A series of (N, O)-co-doped graphenes with different N and O loadings are prepared by the pyrolysis of natural chitosan. When the percentage of dopant increases, the conduction-band potential and charge-separation quantum yield increase, whereas the charge-separation lifetime decreases.

  18. Structure Evolution of BaTiO3 on Co Doping: X-ray diffraction and Raman study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mansuri, Amantulla; Mishra, Ashutosh

    2016-10-01

    In the present study, we have synthesize polycrystalline samples of BaTi1-xCoxO3 (x = 0, 0.05 and 0.1) with standard solid state reaction technique. The obtained samples are characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Raman spectroscopy. The detail structural analysis has been performed by Rietveld refinement using Fullprof program. The structural analysis reveal the samples are chemical pure and crystallize in tetragonal phase with space group Pm3m. We observe an increase in lattice parameters which results due to substitution of Co2+ with large ionic radii (0.9) for smaller ionic radii (0.6) Ti4+. Moreover peak at 45.5° shift to 45° on Co doping, which is due to structure phase transition from tetragonal to cubic. Raman study infers that the intensity of characteristic peaks decreases and linewidth increases with Co doping. The bands linked with the tetragonal structure (307 cm1) decreased due to the tetragonal-towards-cubic phase transition with Co doping. Our structural study reveals the expansion of BTO unit cell and tetragonal-to-cubic phase transformation takes place, results from different characterization techniques are conclusive and show structural evolution with Co doping.

  19. Microwave-assisted boron and nitrogen co-doped reduced graphene oxide as a transparent conductive electrode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Umrao, Sima; Mishra, Himanshu; Srivastava, Anchal; Lee, Sungjoo

    2017-07-01

    A crystalline Boron (B)- and Nitrogen (N)-co-doped microwave-assisted reduced graphene oxide (BNMRGO) film was investigated as a potential transparent conducting electrode (TCE) material. X-ray diffraction results revealed the good crystallinity of the BNMRGO film, and the presence of a (0004) reflection plane indicated the formation of a few small domains of hexagonal boron nitride in the microwave assisted reduced graphene oxide (MRGO) sheets under the co-doping process. Raman and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic results indicated a reduction of sp3 carbon centers upon co-doping. The ID/IG ratio decreased after co-doping from 0.89 to 0.24, indicating a low average defect density of ˜1.01 × 1010 cm-2. Optoelectronic characterization of the BNMRGO film on a glass substrate revealed a high optical transparency of 82% at 550 nm and a low sheet resistance (Rsh) of 355 Ω/sq, which was lower than that observed from the MRGO sheets (Rsh = 719 Ω/sq). BNMRGO provided a ratio between the direct conductivity (σdc) to the optical conductivity (σoc), that is, the figure of merit of a TCE material, of 5.96. Overall, this work paves the way toward developing a manufacturable TCE.

  20. Investigations on luminescence behavior of Er3+/Yb3+ co-doped boro-tellurite glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maheshvaran, K.; Arunkumar, S.; Venkata Krishnaiah, K.; Marimuthu, K.

    2015-01-01

    Er3+/Yb3+ co-doped boro-tellurite glasses with the chemical composition 30TeO2+(24 - x)B2O3 + 15SrO + 10BaO + 10Li2O + 10LiF + 1Er2O3 + xYb2O3 (where x = 0, 0.1, 0.5, 1 and 2 in wt%) have been prepared and their luminescence behavior were studied and reported. Absorption spectral measurements have been used to derive the Judd-Ofelt (JO) intensity parameters from the experimental and calculated oscillator strength values following the JO theory. The various lasing parameters such as stimulated emission cross-section (σEp), experimental and calculated branching ratios (βR) and radiative lifetime (τcal) for the 2H9/2 → 4I15/2, 4S3/2 → 4I15/2 and 4I13/2 → 4I15/2 emission transitions were determined using the JO intensity parameters. The absorption and emission cross-section values for the 4I13/2 → 4I15/2 emission band have been calculated using McCumbar theory and the Gain cross-section for the 4I13/2 → 4I15/2 emission transition also obtained. The upconversion emission mechanism have been studied through various energy transfer processes and the intensity of the upconversion emission transitions are found to increase with the increase in Yb3+ ion concentration. The luminescence decay curves corresponding to the 4I13/2 → 4I15/2 transition of the Er3+/Yb3+ co-doped boro-tellurite glasses under 980 nm excitation wavelength have also been studied and reported in the present work.