Sample records for ga-doped zno thin

  1. Sol-gel derived Al-Ga co-doped transparent conducting oxide ZnO thin films

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Serrao, Felcy Jyothi, E-mail: jyothiserrao@gmail.com; Department of Physics, Karnataka Government Research centre SCEM, Mangalore, 575007; Sandeep, K. M.

    2016-05-23

    Transparent conducting ZnO doped with Al, Ga and co-doped Al and Ga (1:1) (AGZO) thin films were grown on glass substrates by cost effective sol-gel spin coating method. The XRD results showed that all the films are polycrystalline in nature and highly textured along the (002) plane. Enhanced grain size was observed in the case of AGZO thin films. The transmittance of all the films was more than 83% in the visible region of light. The electrical properties such as carrier concentration and mobility values are increased in case of AGZO compared to that of Al and Ga doped ZnOmore » thin films. The minimum resistivity of 2.54 × 10{sup −3} Ω cm was observed in AGZO thin film. The co-doped AGZO thin films exhibited minimum resistivity and high optical transmittance, indicate that co-doped ZnO thin films could be used in transparent electronics mainly in display applications.« less

  2. Fabrication and characterization of Ga-doped ZnO / Si heterojunction nanodiodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akgul, Guvenc; Akgul, Funda Aksoy

    2017-02-01

    In this study, temperature-dependent electrical properties of n-type Ga-doped ZnO thin film / p-type Si nanowire heterojunction diodes were reported. Metal-assisted chemical etching (MACE) process was performed to fabricate Si nanowires. Ga-doped ZnO films were then deposited onto nanowires through chemical bath deposition (CBD) technique to build three-dimensional nanowire-based heterojunction diodes. Fabricated devices revealed significant diode characteristics in the temperature range of 220 - 360 K. Electrical measurements shown that diodes had a well-defined rectifying behavior with a good rectification ratio of 103 ±3 V at room temperature. Ideality factor (n) were changed from 2.2 to 1.2 with increasing temperature.

  3. Synergistic effect of indium and gallium co-doping on the properties of RF sputtered ZnO thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaheera, M.; Girija, K. G.; Kaur, Manmeet; Geetha, V.; Debnath, A. K.; Karri, Malvika; Thota, Manoj Kumar; Vatsa, R. K.; Muthe, K. P.; Gadkari, S. C.

    2018-04-01

    ZnO thin films were synthesized using RF magnetron sputtering, with simultaneous incorporation of Indium (In) and Gallium (Ga). The structural, optical, chemical composition and surface morphology of the pure and co-doped (IGZO) thin films were characterized by X-Ray diffraction (XRD), UV-visible spectroscopy, Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM), and Raman spectroscopy. XRD revealed that these films were oriented along c-axis with hexagonal wurtzite structure. The (002) diffraction peak in the co-doped sample was observed at 33.76° with a slight shift towards lower 2θ values as compared to pure ZnO. The surface morphology of the two thin films was observed to differ. For pure ZnO films, round grains were observed and for IGZO thin films round as well as rod type grains were observed. All thin films synthesized show excellent optical properties with more than 90% transmission in the visible region and band gap of the films is observed to decrease with co-doping. The co doping of In and Ga is therefore expected to provide a broad range optical and physical properties of ZnO thin films for a variety of optoelectronic applications.

  4. The electrical properties of low pressure chemical vapor deposition Ga doped ZnO thin films depending on chemical bonding configuration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Hanearl; Kim, Doyoung; Kim, Hyungjun

    2014-04-01

    The electrical and chemical properties of low pressure chemical vapor deposition (LP-CVD) Ga doped ZnO (ZnO:Ga) films were systematically investigated using Hall measurement and X-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS). Diethylzinc (DEZ) and O2 gas were used as precursor and reactant gas, respectively, and trimethyl gallium (TMGa) was used as a Ga doping source. Initially, the electrical properties of undoped LP-CVD ZnO films depending on the partial pressure of DEZ and O2 ratio were investigated using X-ray diffraction (XRD) by changing partial pressure of DEZ from 40 to 140 mTorr and that of O2 from 40 to 80 mTorr. The resistivity was reduced by Ga doping from 7.24 × 10-3 Ω cm for undoped ZnO to 2.05 × 10-3 Ω cm for Ga doped ZnO at the TMG pressure of 8 mTorr. The change of electric properties of Ga doped ZnO with varying the amount of Ga dopants was systematically discussed based on the structural crystallinity and chemical bonding configuration, analyzed by XRD and XPS, respectively.

  5. Enhanced ultraviolet photo-response in Dy doped ZnO thin film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Pawan; Singh, Ranveer; Pandey, Praveen C.

    2018-02-01

    In the present work, a Dy doped ZnO thin film deposited by the spin coating method has been studied for its potential application in a ZnO based UV detector. The investigations on the structural property and surface morphology of the thin film ensure that the prepared samples are crystalline and exhibit a hexagonal crystal structure of ZnO. A small change in crystallite size has been observed due to Dy doping in ZnO. AFM analysis ascertains the grain growth and smooth surface of the thin films. The Dy doped ZnO thin film exhibits a significant enhancement in UV region absorption as compared to the pure ZnO thin film, which suggests that Dy doped ZnO can be used as a UV detector. Under UV irradiation of wavelength 325 nm, the photocurrent value of Dy doped ZnO is 105.54 μA at 4.5 V, which is 31 times greater than that of the un-doped ZnO thin film (3.39 μA). The calculated value of responsivity is found to increase significantly due to the incorporation of Dy in the ZnO lattice. The observed higher value of photocurrent and responsivity could be attributed to the substitution of Dy in the ZnO lattice, which enhances the conductivity, electron mobility, and defects in ZnO and benefits the UV sensing property.

  6. Fabrication of GaN doped ZnO nanocrystallines by laser ablation.

    PubMed

    Gopalakrishnan, N; Shin, B C; Bhuvana, K P; Elanchezhiyan, J; Balasubramanian, T

    2008-08-01

    Here, we present the fabrication of pure and GaN doped ZnO nanocrystallines on Si(111) substrates by KrF excimer laser. The targets for the ablation have been prepared by conventional ceramic method. The fabricated nanocrystallines have been investigated by X-ray diffraction, photoluminescence and atomic force microscopy. The X-ray diffraction analysis shows that the crystalline size of pure ZnO is 36 nm and it is 41 nm while doped with 0.8 mol% of GaN due to best stoichiometry between Zn and O. Photoluminescence studies reveal that intense deep level emissions have been observed for pure ZnO and it has been suppressed for the GaN doped ZnO structures. The images of atomic force microscope show that the rms surface roughness is 27 nm for pure ZnO and the morphology is improved with decrease in rms roughness, 18 nm with fine crystallines while doped with 1 mol% GaN. The improved structural, optical and morphological properties of ZnO nanocrystalline due to GaN dopant have been discussed in detail.

  7. Effect of Ga doping and point defect on magnetism of ZnO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, Qingyu; Zhao, Chunwang; Jia, Xiaofang; Qu, Lingfeng

    2017-02-01

    The combined influence mechanism of Ga doping and Zn vacancy or O vacancy on magnetism of ZnO is studied using the first-principle calculation. The coexistence of Ga doping and Zn vacancy can achieve a Curie temperature higher than room temperature and the Ga doped ZnO system is a p-type diluted degenerate semiconductor with metalized ferromagnetism. The magnetism of the doping system of Ga doping and Zn vacancy is mainly contributed by double-exchange interaction through the holes of Zn vacancy taking carrier as medium. However, the system of Ga doping and O vacancy is non-magnetic. In the coexistence of Ga doping and Zn vacancy or O vacancy, a close relative distance between doping and vacancy will reduce the formation energy of the doping system but increase the easiness of doping and vacancy, as well as enhance the stability of the doping system.

  8. Melioration of Optical and Electrical Performance of Ga-N Codoped ZnO Thin Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narayanan, Nripasree; Deepak, N. K.

    2018-06-01

    Transparent and conducting p-type zinc oxide (ZnO) thin films doped with gallium (Ga) and nitrogen (N) simultaneously were deposited on glass substrates by spray pyrolysis technique. Phase composition analysis by X-ray diffraction confirmed the polycrystallinity of the films with pure ZnO phase. Energy dispersive X-ray analysis showed excellent incorporation of N in the ZnO matrix by means of codoping. The optical transmittance of N monodoped film was poor but got improved with Ga-N codoping and also resulted in the enhancement of optical energy gap. Hole concentration increased with codoping and consequently, lower resistivity and high stability were obtained.

  9. Doping induced c-axis oriented growth of transparent ZnO thin film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mistry, Bhaumik V.; Joshi, U. S.

    2018-04-01

    c-Axis oriented In doped ZnO (IZO) transparent conducting thin films were optimized on glass substrate using sol gel spin coating method. The Indium content in ZnO was varied systematically and the structural parameters were studied. Along with the crystallographic properties, the optoelectronic and electrical properties of IZO thin films were investigated in detail. The IZO thin films revealed hexagonal wurtzite structure. It was found that In doping in ZnO promotes the c-axis oriented growth of the thin films deposited on amorphous substrate. The particle size of the IZO films were increase as doping content increases from 2% to 5%. The 2% In doped ZnO film show electrical resistivity of 0.11 Ω cm, which is far better than the reported value for ZnO thin film. Better than 75% average optical transmission was estimated in the wavelength range from 400-800 nm. Systematic variartions in the electron concentration and band gap was observed with increasing In doping. Note worthy finding is that, with suitable amount of In doping improves not only transparency and conductivity but also improves the preferred orientation of the oxide thin film.

  10. Impurity distribution and microstructure of Ga-doped ZnO films grown by molecular beam epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kvit, A. V.; Yankovich, A. B.; Avrutin, V.; Liu, H.; Izyumskaya, N.; Özgür, Ü.; Morkoç, H.; Voyles, P. M.

    2012-12-01

    We report microstructural characterization of heavily Ga-doped ZnO (GZO) thin films on GaN and sapphire by aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy. Growth under oxygen-rich and metal-rich growth conditions leads to changes in the GZO polarity and different extended defects. For GZO layers on sapphire, the primary extended defects are voids, inversion domain boundaries, and low-angle grain boundaries. Ga doping of ZnO grown under metal-rich conditions causes a switch from pure oxygen polarity to mixed oxygen and zinc polarity in small domains. Electron energy loss spectroscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy spectrum imaging show that Ga is homogeneous, but other residual impurities tend to accumulate at the GZO surface and at extended defects. GZO grown on GaN on c-plane sapphire has Zn polarity and no voids. There are misfit dislocations at the interfaces between GZO and an undoped ZnO buffer layer and at the buffer/GaN interface. Low-angle grain boundaries are the only threading microstructural defects. The potential effects of different extended defects and impurity distributions on free carrier scattering are discussed.

  11. Effect of K-doping on structural and optical properties of ZnO thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Linhua; Li, Xiangyin; Yuan, Jun

    2008-09-01

    In this work, K-doped ZnO thin films were prepared by a sol-gel method on Si(111) and glass substrates. The effect of different K-doping concentrations on structural and optical properties of the ZnO thin films was studied. The results showed that the 1 at.% K-doped ZnO thin film had the best crystallization quality and the strongest ultraviolet emission ability. When the concentration of K was above 1 at.%, the crystallization quality and ultraviolet emission ability dropped. For the K-doped ZnO thin films, there was not only ultraviolet emission, but also a blue emission signal in their photoluminescent spectra. The blue emission might be connected with K impurity or/and the intrinsic defects (Zn interstitial and Zn vacancy) of the ZnO thin films.

  12. Electrical properties of lightly Ga-doped ZnO nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alagha, S.; Heedt, S.; Vakulov, D.; Mohammadbeigi, F.; Senthil Kumar, E.; Schäpers, Th; Isheim, D.; Watkins, S. P.; Kavanagh, K. L.

    2017-12-01

    We investigated the growth, crystal structure, elemental composition and electrical transport characteristics of ZnO nanowires, a promising candidate for optoelectronic applications in the UV-range. Nominally-undoped and Ga-doped ZnO nanowires were grown by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition. Photoluminescence measurements confirmed the incorporation of Ga via donor-bound exciton emission. With atom-probe tomography we estimated an upper limit of the Ga impurity concentration ({10}18 {{cm}}-3). We studied the electrical transport characteristics of these nanowires with a W-nanoprobe technique inside a scanning electron microscope and with lithographically-defined contacts allowing back-gated measurements. An increase in apparent resistivity by two orders of magnitude with decreasing radius was measured with both techniques with a much larger distribution width for the nanoprobe method. A drop in the effective carrier concentration and mobility was found with decreasing radius which can be attributed to carrier depletion and enhanced scattering due to surface states. Little evidence of a change in resistivity was observed with Ga doping, which indicates that the concentration of native or background dopants is higher than the Ga doping concentration.

  13. Preparation of Ga-doped ZnO films by pulsed dc magnetron sputtering with cylindrical rotating target for thin film solar cell applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Beom-Ki; Lee, Tae-Il; Park, Ji-Hyeon; Park, Kang-Il; Ahn, Kyung-Jun; Park, Sung-Kee; Lee, Woong; Myoung, Jae-Min

    2011-11-01

    Applicability of Ga-doped ZnO (GZO) films for thin film solar cells (TFSCs) was investigated by preparing GZO films via pulsed dc magnetron sputtering (PDMS) with rotating target. The GZO films showed improved crystallinity and increasing degree of Ga doping with increasing thickness to a limit of 1000 nm. The films also fulfilled requirements for the transparent electrodes of TFSCs in terms of electrical and optical properties. Moreover, the films exhibited good texturing potential based on etching studies with diluted HCl, which yielded an improved light trapping capability without significant degradation in electrical propreties. It is therefore suggested that the surface-textured GZO films prepared via PDMS and etching are promising candidates for indium-free transparent electrodes for TFSCs.

  14. Effect of Doping Materials on the Low-Level NO Gas Sensing Properties of ZnO Thin Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Çorlu, Tugba; Karaduman, Irmak; Yildirim, Memet Ali; Ateş, Aytunç; Acar, Selim

    2017-07-01

    In this study, undoped, Cu-doped, and Ni-doped ZnO thin films have been successfully prepared by successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction method. The structural, compositional, and morphological properties of the thin films are characterized by x-ray diffractometer, energy dispersive x-ray analysis (EDX), and scanning electron microscopy, respectively. Doping effects on the NO gas sensing properties of these thin films were investigated depending on gas concentration and operating temperature. Cu-doped ZnO thin film exhibited a higher gas response than undoped and Ni-doped ZnO thin film at the operating temperature range. The sensor with Cu-doped ZnO thin film gave faster responses and recovery speeds than other sensors, so that is significant for the convenient application of gas sensor. The response and recovery speeds could be associated with the effective electron transfer between the Cu-doped ZnO and the NO molecules.

  15. Intrinsic and extrinsic doping of ZnO and ZnO alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellmer, Klaus; Bikowski, André

    2016-10-01

    In this article the doping of the oxidic compound semiconductor ZnO is reviewed with special emphasis on n-type doping. ZnO naturally exhibits n-type conductivity, which is used in the application of highly doped n-type ZnO as a transparent electrode, for instance in thin film solar cells. For prospective application of ZnO in other electronic devices (LEDs, UV photodetectors or power devices) p-type doping is required, which has been reported only minimally. Highly n-type doped ZnO can be prepared by doping with the group IIIB elements B, Al, Ga, and In, which act as shallow donors according to the simple hydrogen-like substitutional donor model of Bethe (1942 Theory of the Boundary Layer of Crystal Rectifiers (Boston, MA: MIT Rad Lab.)). Group IIIA elements (Sc, Y, La etc) are also known to act as shallow donors in ZnO, similarly explainable by the shallow donor model of Bethe. Some reports showed that even group IVA (Ti, Zr, Hf) and IVB (Si, Ge) elements can be used to prepare highly doped ZnO films—which, however, can no longer be explained by the simple hydrogen-like substitutional donor model. More probably, these elements form defect complexes that act as shallow donors in ZnO. On the other hand, group V elements on oxygen lattice sites (N, P, As, and Sb), which were viewed for a long time as typical shallow acceptors, behave instead as deep acceptors, preventing high hole concentrations in ZnO at room temperature. Also, ‘self’-compensation, i.e. the formation of a large number of intrinsic donors at high acceptor concentrations seems to counteract the p-type doping of ZnO. At donor concentrations above about 1020 cm-3, the electrical activation of the dopant elements is often less than 100%, especially in polycrystalline thin films. Reasons for the electrical deactivation of the dopant atoms are (i) the formation of dopant-defect complexes, (ii) the compensation of the electrons by acceptors (Oi, VZn) or (iii) the formation of secondary phases, for

  16. Al-/Ga-Doped ZnO Window Layers for Highly Efficient Cu₂ZnSn(S,Se)₄ Thin Film Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Seo, Se Won; Seo, Jung Woo; Kim, Donghwan; Cheon, Ki-Beom; Lee, Doh-Kwon; Kim, Jin Young

    2018-09-01

    The successful use of Al-/Ga-doped ZnO (AGZO) thin films as a transparent conducting oxide (TCO) layer of a Cu2ZnSn(S,Se)4 (CZTSSe) thin film solar cell is demonstrated. The AGZO thin films were prepared by radio frequency (RF) sputtering. The structural, crystallographic, electrical, and optical properties of the AGZO thin films were systematically investigated. The photovoltaic properties of CZTSSe thin film solar cells incorporating the AGZO-based TCO layer were also reported. It has been found that the RF power and substrate temperature of the AGZO thin film are important factors determining the electrical, optical, and structural properties. The optimization process involving the RF power and the substrate temperature leads to good electrical and optical transmittance of the AGZO thin films. Finally, the CZTSSe solar cell with the AGZO TCO layer demonstrated a high conversion efficiency of 9.68%, which is higher than that of the conventional AZO counterpart by 12%.

  17. Photoelectrochemical properties of highly mobilized Li-doped ZnO thin films.

    PubMed

    Shinde, S S; Bhosale, C H; Rajpure, K Y

    2013-03-05

    Li-doped ZnO thin films with preferred (002) orientation have been prepared by spray pyrolysis technique in aqueous medium on to the corning glass substrates. The effect of Li-doping on to the photoelectrochemical, structural, morphological, optical, luminescence, electrical and thermal properties has been investigated. XRD and Raman study indicates that the films have hexagonal crystal structure. The transmittance, reflectance, refractive index, extinction coefficient and bandgap have been analyzed by optical study. PL spectra consist of a near band edge and visible emission due to the electronic defects, which are related to deep level emissions, such as oxide antisite (OZn), interstitial zinc (Zni), interstitial oxygen (Oi) and zinc vacancy (VZn). The Li-doped ZnO films prepared for 1at% doping possesses the highest electron mobility of 102cm(2)/Vs and carrier concentration of 3.62×10(19)cm(-3). Finally, degradation of 2,4,6-Trinitrotoluene using Li-doped ZnO thin films has been reported. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Solution epitaxy of gallium-doped ZnO on p-GaN for heterojunction light-emitting diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le, H. Q.; Lim, S. K.; Goh, G. K. L.; Chua, S. J.; Ang, N. S. S.; Liu, W.

    2010-09-01

    We report white light emission from a Ga-doped ZnO/p-GaN heterojunction light-emitting diode which was fabricated by growing gallium-doped ZnO film on the p-GaN in water at 90°C. As determined from Ga-doped ZnO films grown on (111) oriented MgAl2O4 spinel single crystal substrates, thermal treatment at 600°C in nitrogen ambient leads to a carrier concentration of 3.1×1020 cm-3 (and carrier mobility of 28 cm2/Vs) which is two orders of magnitude higher than that of the undoped films. Electroluminescence emissions at wavelengths of 393 nm (3.155 eV) and 529.5 nm (2.4 eV) were observed under forward bias in the heterojunction diode and white light could be visibly observed. The high concentration of electrons supplied from the Ga-doped ZnO films helped to enhance the carrier recombination and increase the light-emitting efficiency of the heterojunction diode.

  19. Structure and Properties of Al and Ga- Doped ZnO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Temizer, Namik Kemal

    Recently there is tremendous interest in Transparent conducting oxide (TCO) research due to the unlimited and exciting application areas. Current research is mostly focused on finding alternative low cost and sustainable materials in order to replace indium tin oxide (ITO), which caused serious concern due to the increasing cost of indium and chemical stability issues of ITO. The primary aim of this research is to develop alternative TCO materials with superior properties in order to increase the efficiency in optoelectronic applications, as well as to study the properties of these materials to fully characterize them. We have grown Al and Ga-doped ZnO films with an optimized composition under different deposition conditions in order to understand the effect of processing parameters on the film properties. We report a detailed investigation on the structure-property correlations in Ga and Al codoped ZnO films on c-sapphire substrates where the thin film microstructure varies from nanocrystalline to single crystal. We have achieved highly epitaxial films with very high optical transmittance (close to 90%) and low resistivity (˜110muO-cm) values. The films grown in an ambient oxygen partial pressure (PO2 ) of 50 mTorr and at growth temperatures from room temperature to 600°C showed semiconducting behavior, whereas samples grown at a Po2 of 1 mTorr showed metallic nature. The most striking feature is the occurrence of resistivity minima at relatively high temperatures around 110 K in films deposited at high temperatures. The structure-property correlations reveal that point defects play an important role in modifying the structural, optical, electrical and magnetic properties and such changes in physical properties are controlled predominantly by the defect content. To gain a better understanding of the conduction processes in doped ZnO thin films, we have studied the temperature variation of resistivity of some selected samples that showed some interesting behavior

  20. Synthesis and Characterization of Molybdenum Doped ZnO Thin Films by SILAR Deposition Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radha, R.; Sakthivelu, A.; Pradhabhan, D.

    2016-08-01

    Molybdenum (Mo) doped zinc oxide (ZnO) thin films were deposited on the glass substrate by Successive Ionic Layer Adsorption and Reaction (SILAR) deposition method. The effect of Mo dopant concentration of 5, 6.6 and 10 mol% on the structural, morphological, optical and electrical properties of n-type Mo doped ZnO films was studied. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) results confirmed that the Mo doped ZnO thin films were polycrystalline with wurtzite structure. The field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) studies shows that the surface morphology of the films changes with Mo doping. A blue shift of the optical band gap was observed in the optical studies. Effect of Mo dopant concentration on electrical conductivity was studied and it shows comparatively high electrical conductivity at 10 mol% of Mo doping concentration.

  1. A hetero-homogeneous investigation of chemical bath deposited Ga-doped ZnO nanorods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rakhsha, Amir Hosein; Abdizadeh, Hossein; Pourshaban, Erfan; Golobostanfard, Mohammad Reza

    2018-01-01

    One-dimensional nanostructures of zinc oxide (ZnO) have been in the center of attention, mostly for electronic applications due to their distinctive properties such as high electron mobility (100 cm2V-1s-1) and crystallinity. Thanks to its high density of vacancies and interstitial sites, wurtzite lattice of ZnO is a suitable host for gallium (Ga) as a dopant element. Herein, ZnO nanorod arrays (NRAs) are synthesized by a low-temperature chemical bath deposition (CBD) method with various concentrations of gallium nitrate hydrate as a dopant precursor. Structural and morphological analyses confirm that optimum properties of gallium-doped ZnO (GZO) are obtained at 1% (Ga to Zn molar ratio). Owing to the replacement of smaller Ga3+ ions with Zn2+ ions in the GZO structure, a slight shift of (002) peak to higher angles could be observed in XRD pattern of GZO NRAs. The scanning electron microscope images demonstrate a proliferation in the ZnO NRAs length from 650 nm for undoped ZnO (UZO) to 1200 nm for GZO-1%. However, increasing the dopant concentration above 2.5% results in formation of homogeneous zinc gallium oxide in the bulk solution, which is a sign of inefficient process of doping in GZO NRAs. Furthermore, photoluminescence spectroscopy is used to characterize the band-gap variation of the samples, which demonstrates a small red-shift in the UV emission peak and a decrease in visible emission peak intensity with introducing Ga in ZnO lattice. Lower resistivity for GZO-1% (1.1 MΩ) sample compared to UZO (1.4 MΩ) is recorded, which is compelling evidence for the presence of Ga3+ in ZnO lattice. The results suggest that incorporating Ga into ZnO lattice using CBD method is an easy and effective technique to improve the electrical properties of ZnO NRAs that is an essential factor for a broad range of devices.

  2. Effect of aluminium doping on structural and optical properties of ZnO thin films by sol-gel method

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Vijayaprasath, G.; Murugan, R.; Ravi, G., E-mail: raviganesa@rediffmail.com, E-mail: gravicrc@gmail.com

    2015-06-24

    We systematically investigated the structural, morphological and optical properties of 0.05 mol % Al doped ZnO (Al:ZnO) thin films deposited on glass substrates by sol-gel spin coating method. The influences of Al doping in ZnO thin films are characterized by Powder X-ray diffraction study. ZnO and Al:ZnO thin films have showed hexagonal wurtzite structure without any secondary phase in c-axis (002) orientation. The SEM images also proved the hexagonal rod like morphologies for both films. All the films exhibited transmittance of 70-80% in the visible range up to 800 nm and cut-off wavelength observed at ∼390 nm corresponding to the fundamental absorption ofmore » ZnO. The band gap of the ZnO thin films slightly widened with the Al doping. The photoluminescence properties have been studied for Al: ZnO thin films and the results are presented in detail.« less

  3. Synthesis, Optical and Photoluminescence Properties of Cu-Doped Zno Nano-Fibers Thin Films: Nonlinear Optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganesh, V.; Salem, G. F.; Yahia, I. S.; Yakuphanoglu, F.

    2018-03-01

    Different concentrations of copper-doped zinc oxide thin films were coated on a glass substrate by sol-gel/spin-coating technique. The structural properties of pure and Cu-doped ZnO films were characterized by different techniques, i.e., atomic force microscopy (AFM), photoluminescence and UV-Vis-NIR spectroscopy. The AFM study revealed that pure and doped ZnO films are formed as nano-fibers with a granular structure. The photoluminescence spectra of these films showed a strong ultraviolet emission peak centered at 392 nm and a strong blue emission peak cantered at 450 nm. The optical band gap of the pure and copper-doped ZnO thin films calculated from optical transmission spectra (3.29-3.23 eV) were found to be increasing with increasing copper doping concentration. The refractive index dispersion curve of pure and Cu-doped ZnO film obeyed the single-oscillator model. The optical dispersion parameters such as E o , E d , and n_{∞}2 were calculated. Further, the nonlinear refractive index and nonlinear optical susceptibility were also calculated and interpreted.

  4. Low resistivity and low compensation ratio Ga-doped ZnO films grown by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Cheng-Yu; Hsiao, Li-Han; Chyi, Jen-Inn

    2015-09-01

    In this study, Ga-doped ZnO (GZO) thin films were deposited on GaN templates by using plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy. To obtain low resistivity GZO films, in-situ post-annealing under Zn overpressure was carried out to avoid the generation of acceptor-liked Zn vacancies. The resultant films showed optical transparency over 95% in the visible spectral range. By reducing the acceptor-like defects, GZO films with compensation ratio near 0.4 and resistivity simultaneously lower than 1×10-4 Ω cm have been successfully demonstrated.

  5. Oxygen vacancy-induced ferromagnetism in un-doped ZnO thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhan, Peng; Wang, Weipeng; Liu, Can; Hu, Yang; Li, Zhengcao; Zhang, Zhengjun; Zhang, Peng; Wang, Baoyi; Cao, Xingzhong

    2012-02-01

    ZnO films became ferromagnetic when defects were introduced by thermal-annealing in flowing argon. This ferromagnetism, as shown by the photoluminescence measurement and positron annihilation analysis, was induced by the singly occupied oxygen vacancy with a saturated magnetization dependent positively on the amount of this vacancy. This study clarified the origin of the ferromagnetism of un-doped ZnO thin films and provides possibly an alternative way to prepare ferromagnetic ZnO films.

  6. Characteristics of GaN-based LEDs using Ga-doped or In-doped ZnO transparent conductive layers grown by atomic layer deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yen, Kuo-Yi; Chiu, Chien-Hua; Hsiao, Chi-Ying; Li, Chun-Wei; Chou, Chien-Hua; Lo, Ko-Ying; Chen, Tzu-Pei; Lin, Chu-Hsien; Lin, Tai-Yuan; Gong, Jyh-Rong

    2014-02-01

    Ga-doped ZnO (GZO) and In-doped ZnO (IZO) films were prepared by atomic layer deposition (ALD), and the ALD-grown GZO (or IZO) films with (or without) N2 annealing were employed to serve as transparent conducting layers (TCLs) in InGaN/GaN (multiple quantum well) MQW LEDs. Based on θ-to-2θ X-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses, the N2-annealed GZO was found to show almost the same lattice constant c as ZnO does, while the lattice constant c of a N2-annealed IZO was detected to be larger than that of the ZnO. It appears that the implementation of N2-annealed ALD-grown GZO (or IZO) in an InGaN/GaN MQW LED allows to enable light extraction and forward voltage reduction of the LED under certain conditions. At 20 mA operating condition, the 400 °C N2-annealed n-GZO-coated and the 600 °C N2-annealed n-IZO-coated InGaN/GaN MQW LEDs were found to exhibit optimized forward voltages of 3.1 and 3.2 V, respectively, with the specific contact resistances of the n-GZO/p-GaN and n-IZO/p-GaN contacts being 4.1×10-3 and 8.8×10-3 Ω-cm2. By comparing with an InGaN/GaN MQW LED structure having a commercial-grade indium tin oxide (ITO) TCL, the 400 °C N2-annealed n-GZO-coated InGaN/GaN MQW LED shows an increment of light output power of 15% at 20 mA. It is believed that the enhanced light extraction of the n-GZO-coated InGaN/GaN MQW LED is due to a higher refractive index of n-GZO than that of ITO along with a comparable optical transmittance of n-GZO to that of ITO.

  7. Study on the effects of Ga-2N high co-doping and preferred orientation on the stability, bandgap and absorption spectrum of ZnO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, Qing-Yu; Li, Wen-Cai; Qu, Ling-Feng; Zhao, Chun-Wang

    2017-06-01

    Currently, the stability and visible light properties of Ga-2N co-doped ZnO systems have been studied extensively by experimental analysis and theoretical calculations. However, previous theoretical calculations arbitrarily assigned Ga- and 2N-doped sites in ZnO. In addition, the most stable and possible doping orientations of doped systems have not been fully and systematically considered. Therefore, in this paper, the electron structure and absorption spectra of the unit cells of doped and pure systems were calculated by first-principles plane-wave ultrasoft pseudopotential with the GGA+U method. Calculations were performed for pure ZnO, Ga-2N supercells heavily co-doped with Zn1-xGaxO1-yNy (x = 0.03125 - 0.0625, y = 0.0625 - 0.125) under different co-doping orientations and conditions, and the Zn16GaN2O14 interstitial model. The results indicated that under different orientations and constant Ga-2N co-doping concentrations, the systems co-doped with Ga-N atoms vertically oriented to the c-axis and with another N atom located in the nearest-neighboring site exhibited higher stability over the others, thus lowering formation energy and facilitating doping. Moreover, Ga-interstitial- and 2N-co-doped ZnO systems easily formed chemical compounds. Increasing co-doping concentration while the co-doping method remained constant decreased doped system volume and lowered formation energies. Meantime, co-doped systems were more stable and doping was facilitated. The bandgap was also narrower and red shifting of the absorption spectrum was more significant. These results agreed with previously reported experimental results. In addition, the absorption spectra of Ga-interstitial- and 2N-co-doped ZnO both blue shifted in the UV region compared with that of the pure ZnO system.

  8. Two-step deposition of Al-doped ZnO on p-GaN to form ohmic contacts.

    PubMed

    Su, Xi; Zhang, Guozhen; Wang, Xiao; Chen, Chao; Wu, Hao; Liu, Chang

    2017-12-01

    Al-doped ZnO (AZO) thin films were deposited directly on p-GaN substrates by using a two-step deposition consisting of polymer assisted deposition (PAD) and atomic layer deposition (ALD) methods. Ohmic contacts of the AZO on p-GaN have been formed. The lowest sheet resistance of the two-step prepared AZO films reached to 145 Ω/sq, and the specific contact resistance reduced to 1.47 × 10 -2 Ω·cm 2 . Transmittance of the AZO films remained above 80% in the visible region. The combination of PAD and ALD technique can be used to prepare p-type ohmic contacts for optoelectronics.

  9. Two-step deposition of Al-doped ZnO on p-GaN to form ohmic contacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Xi; Zhang, Guozhen; Wang, Xiao; Chen, Chao; Wu, Hao; Liu, Chang

    2017-07-01

    Al-doped ZnO (AZO) thin films were deposited directly on p-GaN substrates by using a two-step deposition consisting of polymer assisted deposition (PAD) and atomic layer deposition (ALD) methods. Ohmic contacts of the AZO on p-GaN have been formed. The lowest sheet resistance of the two-step prepared AZO films reached to 145 Ω/sq, and the specific contact resistance reduced to 1.47 × 10-2 Ω·cm2. Transmittance of the AZO films remained above 80% in the visible region. The combination of PAD and ALD technique can be used to prepare p-type ohmic contacts for optoelectronics.

  10. Role of Ni doping on transport properties of ZnO thin films

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Dar, Tanveer Ahmad, E-mail: tanveerphysics@gmail.com; Agrawal, Arpana; Sen, Pratima

    2015-06-24

    Nickel doped (Ni=0.05) and undoped Zinc Oxide (ZnO) thin films have been prepared by Pulsed laser deposition (PLD) technique. The structural analysis of the films was done by X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies which reveal absence of any secondary phase in the prepared samples. UV transmission spectra show that Ni doping reduces the transparency of the films. X-ray Photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) also shows the presence of metallic Ni along with +2 oxidation state in the sample. Low temperature magneto transport properties of the ZnO and NiZnO films are also discussed in view of Khosla fisher model. Ni doping in ZnO resultsmore » in decrease in magnitude of negative MR.« less

  11. Contrastive Study on the Structure and the Ultraviolet Absorption Property of Multiple-Doped and Element-Doped ZnO Thin Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Yunyun; Zhang, Tao; Lin, Zhenrong; Tian, Yanfeng; Zhou, Shandan

    Sb2O3- and CeO2-doped ZnO thin films were prepared by RF magnetron sputtering technique. The influence of Sb2O3 and CeO2 on the structure and ultraviolet (UV) absorption properties was studied by X-ray diffraction and UV-Vis spectrophotometry. Results show that multiple doping of films had a prominent effect on the development of crystal grains and the UV absorption property. Ce and Sb exist in many forms in the ZnO film. The multiple-doped films also show enhanced UVA absorption, and the UV absorption peak widens and the absorption intensity increases. Sb plays a dominant role on the structure and UV absorption of ZnO thin films, which are enhanced by Ce.

  12. Role of vacancy defects in Al doped ZnO thin films for optoelectronic devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rotella, H.; Mazel, Y.; Brochen, S.; Valla, A.; Pautrat, A.; Licitra, C.; Rochat, N.; Sabbione, C.; Rodriguez, G.; Nolot, E.

    2017-12-01

    We report on the electrical, optical and photoluminescence properties of industry-ready Al doped ZnO thin films grown by physical vapor deposition, and their evolution after annealing under vacuum. Doping ZnO with Al atoms increases the carrier density but also favors the formation of Zn vacancies, thereby inducing a saturation of the conductivity mechanism at high aluminum content. The electrical and optical properties of these thin layered materials are both improved by annealing process which creates oxygen vacancies that releases charge carriers thus improving the conductivity. This study underlines the effect of the formation of extrinsic and intrinsic defects in Al doped ZnO compound during the fabrication process. The quality and the optoelectronic response of the produced films are increased (up to 1.52 mΩ \\cdotcm and 3.73 eV) and consistent with the industrial device requirements.

  13. Effect of Er3+ doping on structural, morphological and photocatalytical properties of ZnO thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouhouche, S.; Bensouici, F.; Toubane, M.; Azizi, A.; Otmani, A.; Chebout, K.; Kezzoula, F.; Tala-Ighil, R.; Bououdina, M.

    2018-05-01

    In this research work, structure, microstructure, optical and photocatalytic properties of undoped and Erbium doped nanostructured ZnO thin films prepared by sol-gel dip-coating are investigated. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis indicates that the deposited films crystallize within the hexagonal wurtzite-type structure with a preferential growth orientation along (002) plane. Morphological observations using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) reveal important influence of Er concentration; displaying homogeneous and dense aspect for undoped to 0.3% then grid-like morphology for 0.4 and 0.5%. UV/vis/NIR transmittance spectroscopy spectra display a transmittance over 70%, and small variation in the energy gap energy 3.263–3.278 eV. Wettability test of ZnO thin films surface ranges from hydrophilic aspect for pure ZnO to hydrophobic one for Er doped ZnO, and the contact angle is found to increase from 58.7° for pure ZnO up to 98.4° for 0.4% Er doped ZnO. The photocatalytic activity measurements evaluated using the degradation of methylene blue (MB) under UV light irradiation demonstrate that undoped ZnO film shows higher photocatalytic activity compared to Er doped ZnO films, which may be attributed to the deterioration of films’crystallinity resulting in lower transmittance.

  14. Formation of p-type ZnO thin film through co-implantation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chuang, Yao-Teng; Liou, Jhe-Wei; Woon, Wei-Yen

    2017-01-01

    We present a study on the formation of p-type ZnO thin film through ion implantation. Group V dopants (N, P) with different ionic radii are implanted into chemical vapor deposition grown ZnO thin film on GaN/sapphire substrates prior to thermal activation. It is found that mono-doped ZnO by N+ implantation results in n-type conductivity under thermal activation. Dual-doped ZnO film with a N:P ion implantation dose ratio of 4:1 is found to be p-type under certain thermal activation conditions. Higher p-type activation levels (1019 cm-3) under a wider thermal activation range are found for the N/P dual-doped ZnO film co-implanted by additional oxygen ions. From high resolution x-ray diffraction and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy it is concluded that the observed p-type conductivities are a result of the promoted formation of PZn-4NO complex defects via the concurrent substitution of nitrogen at oxygen sites and phosphorus at zinc sites. The enhanced solubility and stability of acceptor defects in oxygen co-implanted dual-doped ZnO film are related to the reduction of oxygen vacancy defects at the surface. Our study demonstrates the prospect of the formation of stable p-type ZnO film through co-implantation.

  15. Effect of Mg doping in ZnO buffer layer on ZnO thin film devices for electronic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giri, Pushpa; Chakrabarti, P.

    2016-05-01

    Zinc Oxide (ZnO) thin films have been grown on p-silicon (Si) substrate using magnesium doped ZnO (Mg: ZnO) buffer layer by radio-frequency (RF) sputtering method. In this paper, we have optimized the concentration of Mg (0-5 atomic percent (at. %)) ZnO buffer layer to examine its effect on ZnO thin film based devices for electronic and optoelectronic applications. The crystalline nature, morphology and topography of the surface of the thin film have been characterized. The optical as well as electrical properties of the active ZnO film can be tailored by varying the concentration of Mg in the buffer layer. The crystallite size in the active ZnO thin film was found to increase with the Mg concentration in the buffer layer in the range of 0-3 at. % and subsequently decrease with increasing Mg atom concentration in the ZnO. The same was verified by the surface morphology and topography studies carried out with scanning electron microscope (SEM) and atomic electron microscopy (AFM) respectively. The reflectance in the visible region was measured to be less than 80% and found to decrease with increase in Mg concentration from 0 to 3 at. % in the buffer region. The optical bandgap was initially found to increase from 3.02 eV to 3.74 eV by increasing the Mg content from 0 to 3 at. % but subsequently decreases and drops down to 3.43 eV for a concentration of 5 at. %. The study of an Au:Pd/ZnO Schottky diode reveals that for optimum doping of the buffer layer the device exhibits superior rectifying behavior. The barrier height, ideality factor, rectification ratio, reverse saturation current and series resistance of the Schottky diode were extracted from the measured current voltage (I-V) characteristics.

  16. Effect of Ag doping on the properties of ZnO thin films for UV stimulated emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Razeen, Ahmed S.; Gadallah, A.-S.; El-Nahass, M. M.

    2018-06-01

    Ag doped ZnO thin films have been prepared using sol-gel spin coating method, with different doping concentrations. Structural and morphological properties of the films have been investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) techniques. Thin films have been optically pumped and stimulated emission has been observed with strong peaks in the UV region. The UV stimulated emission is found to be due to exciton-exciton scattering, and Ag doping promoted this process by increasing the excitons concentrations in the ZnO lattice. Output-input intensity relation and peak emission, FWHM, and quantum efficiency relations with pump intensity have been reported. The threshold for which stimulated emission started has been evaluated to be about 18 MW/cm2 with quantum efficiency of about 58.7%. Mechanisms explaining the role of Ag in enhancement of stimulated emission from ZnO thin films have been proposed.

  17. Realizing luminescent downshifting in ZnO thin films by Ce doping with enhancement of photocatalytic activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narayanan, Nripasree; Deepak, N. K.

    2018-04-01

    ZnO thin films doped with Ce at different concentration were deposited on glass substrates by spray pyrolysis technique. XRD analysis revealed the phase purity and polycrystalline nature of the films with hexagonal wurtzite geometry and the composition analysis confirmed the incorporation of Ce in the ZnO lattice in the case of doped films. Crystalline quality and optical transmittance diminished while electrical conductivity enhanced with Ce doping. Ce doping resulted in a red-shift of optical energy gap due to the downshift of the conduction band minimum after merging with Ce related impurity bands formed below the conduction band in the forbidden gap. In the room temperature photoluminescence spectra, UV emission intensity of the doped films decreased while the intensity of the visible emission band increased drastically implying the degradation in crystallinity as well as the incorporation of defect levels capable of luminescence downshifting. Ce doping showed improvement in photocatalytic efficiency by effectively trapping the free carriers and then transferring for dye degradation. Thus Ce doped ZnO thin films are capable of acting as luminescent downshifters as well as efficient photocatalysts.

  18. Effect of Al doping on performance of ZnO thin film transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Junchen; Han, Dedong; Li, Huijin; Yu, Wen; Zhang, Shendong; Zhang, Xing; Wang, Yi

    2018-03-01

    In this work, we investigate the Aluminum-doped Zinc Oxide (AZO) thin films and their feasibility as the active layer for thin film transistors (TFTs). A comparison on performance is made between the AZO TFTs and ZnO TFTs. The electrical properties such as saturation mobility, subthreshold swing, and on-to-off current ratio are improved when AZO is utilized as the active layer. Oxygen component of the thin film materials indicates that Al is the suppressor for oxygen defect in active layer, which improves the subthreshold swing. Moreover, based on band structure analyzation, we observe that the carrier concentration of AZO is higher than ZnO, leading to the enhancement of saturation mobility. The microstructure of the thin films convey that the AZO films exhibit much smaller grain boundaries than ZnO films, which results in the lower off-state current and higher on-to-off current ratio of AZO TFTs. The AZO thin films show huge potential to be the active layer of TFTs.

  19. Cu-Doped ZnO Thin Films Grown by Co-deposition Using Pulsed Laser Deposition for ZnO and Radio Frequency Sputtering for Cu

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Hyun Wook; Son, Jong Yeog

    2018-05-01

    Cu-doped ZnO (CZO) thin films were fabricated on single-crystalline (0001) Al2O3 substrates by co-deposition using pulsed laser deposition for ZnO and radio frequency sputtering for Cu. CZO thin films with 0-20% molar concentrations are obtained by adjusting the deposition rates of ZnO and Cu. The CZO thin films exhibit room temperature ferromagnetism, and CZO with 5% Cu molar concentration has maximum remanent magnetization, which is consistent with theoretical results.

  20. Exploration of Al-Doped ZnO in Photovoltaic Thin Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciccarino, Christopher; Sahiner, M. Alper

    The electrical properties of Al doped ZnO-based thin films represent a potential advancement in the push for increasing solar cell efficiency. Doping with Aluminum will theoretically decrease resistivity of the film and therefore achieve this potential as a viable option in the P-N junction phase of photovoltaic cells. The n-type semi-conductive characteristics of the ZnO layer will theoretically be optimized with the addition of Aluminum carriers. In this study, Aluminum doping concentrations ranging from 1-3% by mass were produced, analyzed, and compared. Films were developed onto ITO coated glass using the Pulsed Laser Deposition technique. Target thickness was 250 nm and ellipsometry measurements showed uniformity and accuracy in this regard. Active dopant concentrations were determined using Hall Effect measurements. Efficiency measurements showed possible applications of this doped compound, with upwards of 7% efficiency measured, using a Keithley 2602 SourceMeter set-up. XRD scans showed highly crystalline structures, with effective Al intertwining of the hexagonal wurtzile ZnO molecular structure. This alone indicates a promising future of collaboration between these two materials.

  1. Effect of copper doping on the photocatalytic activity of ZnO thin films prepared by sol-gel method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saidani, T.; Zaabat, M.; Aida, M. S.; Boudine, B.

    2015-12-01

    In the present work, we prepared undoped and copper doped ZnO thin films by the sol-gel dip coating method on glass substrates from zinc acetate dissolved in a solution of ethanol. The objective of our work is to study the effect of Cu doping with different concentrations on structural, morphological, optical properties and photocatalytic activity of ZnO thin films. For this purpose, we have used XRD to study the structural properties, and AFM to determine the morphology of the surface of the ZnO thin films. The optical properties and the photocatalytic degradation of the films were examined by UV-visibles spectrophotometer. The Tauc method was used to estimate the optical band gap. The XRD spectra indicated that the films have an hexagonal wurtzite structure, which gradually deteriorated with increasing Cu concentration. The results showed that the incorporation of Cu decreases the crystallite size. The AFM study showed that an increase of the concentration of Cu causes the decrease of the surface roughness, which passes from 20.2 for Un-doped ZnO to 12.16 nm for doped ZnO 5 wt% Cu. Optical measurements have shown that all the deposited films show good optical transmittance (77%-92%) in the visible region and increases the optical gap with increasing Cu concentration. The presence of copper from 1% to 5 wt% in the ZnO thin films is found to decelerate the photocatalytic process.

  2. Deposition of undoped and Al doped ZnO thin films using RF magnetron sputtering and study of their structural, optical and electrical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parvathy Venu, M.; Shrisha B., V.; Balakrishna, K. M.; Naik, K. Gopalakrishna

    2017-05-01

    Undoped ZnO and Al doped ZnO thin films were deposited on glass and p-Si(100) substrates by RF magnetron sputtering technique at room temperature using homemade targets. ZnO target containing 5 at% of Al2O3 as doping source was used for the growth of Al doped ZnO thin films. XRD revealed that the films have hexagonal wurtzite structure with high crystallinity. Morphology and chemical composition of the films have been indicated by FESEM and EDAX studies. A blue shift of the band gap energy and higher optical transmittance has been observed in the case of Al doped ZnO (ZnO:Al) thin films with respect to the ZnO thin films. The as deposited films on p-Si were used to fabricate n-ZnO/p-Si(100) and n-ZnO:Al/p-Si(100) heterojunction diodes and their room temperature current-voltage characteristics were studied.

  3. Alternate deposition and hydrogen doping technique for ZnO thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myong, Seung Yeop; Lim, Koeng Su

    2006-08-01

    We propose an alternate deposition and hydrogen doping (ADHD) technique for polycrystalline hydrogen-doped ZnO thin films, which is a sublayer-by-sublayer deposition based on metalorganic chemical vapor deposition and mercury-sensitized photodecomposition of hydrogen doping gas. Compared to conventional post-deposition hydrogen doping, the ADHD process provides superior electrical conductivity, stability, and surface roughness. Photoluminescence spectra measured at 10 K reveal that the ADHD technique improves ultraviolet and violet emissions by suppressing the green and yellow emissions. Therefore, the ADHD technique is shown to be very promising aid to the manufacture of improved transparent conducting electrodes and light emitting materials.

  4. Bipolar charge storage characteristics in copper and cobalt co-doped zinc oxide (ZnO) thin film.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Amit; Herng, Tun Seng; Zeng, Kaiyang; Ding, Jun

    2012-10-24

    The bipolar charge phenomenon in Cu and Co co-doped zinc oxide (ZnO) film samples has been studied using scanning probe microscopy (SPM) techniques. Those ZnO samples are made using a pulsed laser deposition (PLD) technique. It is found that the addition of Cu and Co dopants suppresses the electron density in ZnO and causes a significant change in the work function (Fermi level) value of the ZnO film; this results in the ohmic nature of the contact between the electrode (probe tip) and codoped sample, whereas this contact exhibits a Schottky nature in the undoped and single-element-doped samples. These results are verified by Kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM) and ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy (UPS) measurements. It is also found that the co-doping (Cu and Co) can stabilize the bipolar charge, whereas Cu doping only stabilizes the positive charge in ZnO thin films.

  5. Characterization of Pb-Doped GaN Thin Films Grown by Thermionic Vacuum Arc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Özen, Soner; Pat, Suat; Korkmaz, Şadan

    2018-03-01

    Undoped and lead (Pb)-doped gallium nitride (GaN) thin films have been deposited by a thermionic vacuum arc (TVA) method. Glass and polyethylene terephthalate were selected as optically transparent substrates. The structural, optical, morphological, and electrical properties of the deposited thin films were investigated. These physical properties were interpreted by comparison with related analysis methods. The crystalline structure of the deposited GaN thin films was hexagonal wurtzite. The optical bandgap energy of the GaN and Pb-doped GaN thin films was found to be 3.45 eV and 3.47 eV, respectively. The surface properties of the deposited thin films were imaged using atomic force microscopy and field-emission scanning electron microscopy, revealing a nanostructured, homogeneous, and granular surface structure. These results confirm that the TVA method is an alternative layer deposition system for Pb-doped GaN thin films.

  6. Enhanced non-enzymatic glucose biosensor of Ga-doped ZnO nanorods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Wan-Chan; Wang, Zi-Hao; Yang, Chih-Chiang; Huang, Chien-Sheng; Su, Yan-Kuin; Ruan, Jian-Long

    2017-04-01

    In this work gallium (Ga)-Doped ZnO nanorods (GZO NRs) successfully applied for the development of enzyme free glucose. GZO NRs synthesized by using the hydrothermal on ZnO seed layer was subsequently deposited onto the glass substrate. The GZO NRs electrode has peak currents increasing from 620 to 941μA with glucose concentration (6, 8 and 10 mM) in cyclic voltammograms. GZO NRs electrode sensitivity of the sensor to glucose oxidation was 33.4 (μA/mM-cm2). The GZO NRs modified electrode showed a greatly enhanced electrocatalytic property toward glucose oxidation, as well as an excellent anti-interference and a good stability.

  7. Effects of Annealing Temperature on Properties of Ti-Ga-Doped ZnO Films Deposited on Flexible Substrates.

    PubMed

    Chen, Tao-Hsing; Chen, Ting-You

    2015-11-03

    An investigation is performed into the optical, electrical, and microstructural properties of Ti-Ga-doped ZnO films deposited on polyimide (PI) flexible substrates and then annealed at temperatures of 300 °C, 400 °C, and 450 °C, respectively. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis results show that all of the films have a strong (002) Ga doped ZnO (GZO) preferential orientation. As the annealing temperature is increased to 400 °C, the optical transmittance increases and the electrical resistivity decreases. However, as the temperature is further increased to 450 °C, the transmittance reduces and the resistivity increases due to a carbonization of the PI substrate. Finally, the crystallinity of the ZnO film improves with an increasing annealing temperature only up to 400 °C and is accompanied by a smaller crystallite size and a lower surface roughness.

  8. Growth and characterization of highly conducting Al-doped ZnO (AZO) thin films for optoelectronic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sardana, Sanjay K.; Singh, Anil; Srivastava, Sanjay K.; Pandya, Dinesh K.

    2018-05-01

    A comparative study of undoped ZnO and Al-doped ZnO (AZO) thin films deposited on glass substrate by spray pyrolysis has been carried out at various aqueous molar concentration of zinc acetate. The thin films deposited on glass shows the wurtzite phase of ZnO, confirmed by X-ray diffraction. The optical study shows the high transmittance over 80% in the visible regime. The band gap of AZO thin films shows a blue shift as compared to undoped ZnO, which has been attributed to Burstein-Moss shift. Heat treatment of these samples in vacuum showed the improved conductivity in compared to as-deposited thin films. The electric study shows the minimum resistivity of 8 x 10-3 Ω-cm and carrier concentration of 6.5 × 1019 /cm3 correspond to AZO thin films.

  9. Thermoelectric Properties of Al-Doped ZnO Thin Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saini, S.; Mele, P.; Honda, H.; Matsumoto, K.; Miyazaki, K.; Ichinose, A.

    2014-06-01

    We have prepared 2 % Al-doped ZnO (AZO) thin films on SrTiO3 substrates by a pulsed laser deposition technique at various deposition temperatures ( T dep = 300-600 °C). The thermoelectric properties of AZO thin films were studied in a low temperature range (300-600 K). Thin film deposited at 300 °C is fully c-axis-oriented and presents electrical conductivity 310 S/cm with Seebeck coefficient -65 μV/K and power factor 0.13 × 10-3 Wm-1 K-2 at 300 K. The performance of thin films increases with temperature. For instance, the power factor is enhanced up to 0.55 × 10-3 Wm-1 K-2 at 600 K, surpassing the best AZO film previously reported in the literature.

  10. Hydrogen induced electric conduction in undoped ZnO and Ga-doped ZnO thin films: Creating native donors via reduction, hydrogen donors, and reactivating extrinsic donors

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Akazawa, Housei, E-mail: akazawa.housei@lab.ntt.co.jp

    2014-09-01

    The manner in which hydrogen atoms contribute to the electric conduction of undoped ZnO and Ga-doped ZnO (GZO) films was investigated. Hydrogen atoms were permeated into these films through annealing in an atmospheric H{sub 2} ambient. Because the creation of hydrogen donors competes with the thermal annihilation of native donors at elevated temperatures, improvements to electric conduction from the initial state can be observed when insulating ZnO films are used as samples. While the resistivity of conductive ZnO films increases when annealing them in a vacuum, the degree of increase is mitigated when they are annealed in H{sub 2}. Hydrogenationmore » of ZnO crystals was evidenced by the appearance of OH absorption signals around a wavelength of 2700 nm in the optical transmittance spectra. The lowest resistivity that was achieved by H{sub 2} annealing was limited to 1–2 × 10{sup −2} Ω cm, which is one order of magnitude higher than that by native donors (2–3 × 10{sup −3} Ω cm). Hence, all native donors are converted to hydrogen donors. In contrast, GZO films that have resistivities yet to be improved become more conductive after annealing in H{sub 2} ambient, which is in the opposite direction of GZO films that become more resistive after vacuum annealing. Hydrogen atoms incorporated into GZO crystals should assist in reactivating Ga{sup 3+} donors.« less

  11. Effect of Co doping concentration on structural properties and optical parameters of Co-doped ZnO thin films by sol-gel dip-coating method.

    PubMed

    Nam, Giwoong; Yoon, Hyunsik; Kim, Byunggu; Lee, Dong-Yul; Kim, Jong Su; Leem, Jae-Young

    2014-11-01

    The structural and optical properties of Co-doped ZnO thin films prepared by a sol-gel dip-coating method were investigated. X-ray diffraction analysis showed that the thin films were grown with a c-axis preferred orientation. The position of the (002) peak was almost the same in all samples, irrespective of the Co concentration. It is thus clear that Co doping had little effect on the position of the (002) peak. To confirm that Co2+ was substituted for Zn2+ in the wurtzite structure, optical measurements were conducted at room temperature by a UV-visible spectrometer. Three absorption peaks are apparent in the Co-doped ZnO thin films that do not appear for the undoped ZnO thin film. As the Co concentration was increased, absorption related to characteristic Co2+ transitions increased because three absorption band intensities and the area underneath the absorption wells between 500 and 700 nm increased with increasing Co concentration. The optical band gap and static dielectric constant decreased and the Urbach energy and extinction coefficient increased with increasing Co concentration.

  12. Poole-Frenkel effect on electrical characterization of Al-doped ZnO films deposited on p-type GaN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Bohr-Ran; Liao, Chung-Chi; Ke, Wen-Cheng; Chang, Yuan-Ching; Huang, Hao-Ping; Chen, Nai-Chuan

    2014-03-01

    This paper presents the electrical properties of Al-doped ZnO (AZO) films directly grown on two types of p-type GaN thin films. The low-pressure p-GaN thin films (LP-p-GaN) exhibited structural properties of high-density edge-type threading dislocations (TDs) and compensated defects (i.e., nitrogen vacancy). Compared with high-pressure p-GaN thin films (HP-p-GaN), X-ray photoemission spectroscopy of Ga 3d core levels indicated that the surface Fermi-level shifted toward the higher binding-energy side by approximately 0.7 eV. The high-density edge-type TDs and compensated defects enabled surface Fermi-level shifting above the intrinsic Fermi-level, causing the surface of LP-p-GaN thin films to invert to n-type semiconductor. A highly nonlinear increase in leakage current regarding reverse-bias voltage was observed for AZO/LP-p-GaN. The theoretical fits for the reverse-bias voltage region indicated that the field-assisted thermal ionization of carriers from defect associated traps, which is known as the Poole-Frenkel effect, dominated the I-V behavior of AZO/LP-p-GaN. The fitting result estimated the trap energy level at 0.62 eV below the conduction band edge. In addition, the optical band gap increased from 3.50 eV for as-deposited AZO films to 3.62 eV for 300 °C annealed AZO films because of the increased carrier concentration. The increasing Fermi-level of the 300 °C annealed AZO films enabled the carrier transport to move across the interface into the LP-p-GaN thin films without any thermal activated energy. Thus, the Ohmic behavior of AZO contact can be achieved directly on the low-pressure p-GaN films at room temperature.

  13. Estimation of electron–phonon coupling and Urbach energy in group-I elements doped ZnO nanoparticles and thin films by sol–gel method

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Vettumperumal, R.; Kalyanaraman, S., E-mail: mayura_priya2003@yahoo.co.in; Santoshkumar, B.

    Highlights: • Comparison of group-I elements doped ZnO nanoparticles and thin films. • Calculation of electron–phonon coupling and phonon lifetime from Raman spectroscopy. • Estimation of interband states from Urbach energy. - Abstract: Group-I (Li, Na, K & Cs) elements doped ZnO nanoparticles (NPs) and thin films were prepared using sol–gel method. XRD data and TEM images confirm the absence of any other secondary phase different from wurtzite type ZnO. Spherical shapes of grains are observed from the surfaces of doped ZnO films by atomic force microscope images (AFM) and presences of dopants are confirmed from energy dispersive X-ray spectra.more » The Raman active E{sub 2} (high), E{sub 2} (low), E{sub 1} and A{sub 1} (LO) modes are observed from both ZnO NPs and thin films. First-order longitudinal optical (LO) phonon is found to have contributions from direct band transition and localized excitons. Electron–phonon coupling, phonon lifetime and deformation energy of ZnO are calculated based on the effect of dopants with respect to the multiple Raman LO phonon scattering. Presence of localized interbands states in doped ZnO NPs and thin films are found from the Urbach energy calculations.« less

  14. Cd-doped ZnO nano crystalline thin films prepared at 723K by spray pyrolysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joishy, Sumanth; Rajendra B., V.

    2018-04-01

    Ternary Zn1-xCdxO(x=0.10, 0.40, 0.70 at.%) thin films of 0.025M precursor concentration have been successfully deposited on preheated (723K) glass substrates using spray pyrolysis route. The structure, morphology and optical properties of deposited films have been characterized by X-ray diffraction, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and UV-Visible spectrophotometry. X-ray diffraction study shows that the prepared films are polycrystalline in nature. 10% Cd doped ZnO film belongs to the hexagonal wurtzite system and 70% Cd doped ZnO film belongs to the cubic system, although mixed phases were formed for 40% Cd doped ZnO film. The optical transmittance spectra has shown red shift with increasing cadmium content. Optical energy band gap has been reduced with cadmium dopant.

  15. Ultraviolet electroluminescence from hetero p-n junction between a single ZnO microsphere and p-GaN thin film.

    PubMed

    Tetsuyama, Norihiro; Fusazaki, Koshi; Mizokami, Yasuaki; Shimogaki, Tetsuya; Higashihata, Mitsuhiro; Nakamura, Daisuke; Okada, Tatsuo

    2014-04-21

    We report ultraviolet electroluminescence from a hetero p-n junction between a single ZnO microsphere and p-GaN thin film. ZnO microspheres, which have high crystalline quality, have been synthesized by ablating a ZnO sintered target. It was found that synthesized ZnO microspheres had a high-optical property and exhibit the laser action in the whispering gallery mode under pulsed optical pumping. A hetero p-n junction was formed between the single ZnO microsphere/ p-GaN thin film, and a good rectifying property with a turn-on voltage of approximately 6 V was observed in I-V characteristic across the junction. Ultraviolet and visible electroluminescence were observed under forward bias.

  16. Dopant-driven enhancements in the optoelectronic properties of laser ablated ZnO: Ga thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassan, Ali; Jin, Yuhua; Chao, Feng; Irfan, Muhammad; Jiang, Yijian

    2018-04-01

    Theoretically and experimentally evaluated optoelectronic properties of GZO (Ga-doped zinc oxide) were correlated in the present article. Density functional theory and Hubbard U (DFT + Ud + Up) first-principle calculations were used for the theoretical study. The pulsed laser deposition technique was used to fabricate GZO thin films on p-GaN, Al2O3, and p-Si substrates. X-ray diffraction graphs show single crystal growth of GZO thin films with (002) preferred crystallographic orientation. The chemical composition was studied via energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and no other unwanted impurity-related peaks were found, which indicated the impurity-free thin film growth of GZO. Field emission scanning electron microscopic micrographs revealed noodle-, seed-, and granular-like structures of GZO/GaN, GZO/Al2O3, and GZO/Si, respectively. Uniform growth of GZO/GaN was found due to fewer mismatches between ZnO and GaN (0.09%). Hall effect measurements in the van der Pauw configuration were used to check electrical properties. The highest mobility (53 cm2/Vs) with a high carrier concentration was found with low laser shots (1800). A 5-fold photoluminescence enhancement in the noodle-like structure of GZO/GaN compared with GZO/Al2O3 and GZO/Si was detected. This points toward shape-driven optical properties because the noodle-like structure is more favorable for optical enhancements in GZO thin films. Theoretical (3.539 eV) and experimental (3.54 eV) values of the band-gap were also found to be comparable. Moreover, the lowest resistivity (3.5 × 10-4 Ωcm) with 80% transmittance is evidence that GZO is a successful alternate of ITO.

  17. Cation vacancies and electrical compensation in Sb-doped thin-film SnO2 and ZnO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korhonen, E.; Prozheeva, V.; Tuomisto, F.; Bierwagen, O.; Speck, J. S.; White, M. E.; Galazka, Z.; Liu, H.; Izyumskaya, N.; Avrutin, V.; Özgür, Ü.; Morkoç, H.

    2015-02-01

    We present positron annihilation results on Sb-doped SnO2 and ZnO thin films. The vacancy types and the effect of vacancies on the electrical properties of these intrinsically n-type transparent semiconducting oxides are studied. We find that in both materials low and moderate Sb-doping leads to formation of vacancy clusters of variable sizes. However, at high doping levels cation vacancy defects dominate the positron annihilation signal. These defects, when at sufficient concentrations, can efficiently compensate the n-type doping produced by Sb. This is the case in ZnO, but in SnO2 the concentrations appear too low to cause significant compensation.

  18. Hydrothermally Grown In-doped ZnO Nanorods on p-GaN Films for Color-tunable Heterojunction Light-emitting-diodes

    PubMed Central

    Park, Geun Chul; Hwang, Soo Min; Lee, Seung Muk; Choi, Jun Hyuk; Song, Keun Man; Kim, Hyun You; Kim, Hyun-Suk; Eum, Sung-Jin; Jung, Seung-Boo; Lim, Jun Hyung; Joo, Jinho

    2015-01-01

    The incorporation of doping elements in ZnO nanostructures plays an important role in adjusting the optical and electrical properties in optoelectronic devices. In the present study, we fabricated 1-D ZnO nanorods (NRs) doped with different In contents (0% ~ 5%) on p-GaN films using a facile hydrothermal method, and investigated the effect of the In doping on the morphology and electronic structure of the NRs and the electrical and optical performances of the n-ZnO NRs/p-GaN heterojunction light emitting diodes (LEDs). As the In content increased, the size (diameter and length) of the NRs increased, and the electrical performance of the LEDs improved. From the electroluminescence (EL) spectra, it was found that the broad green-yellow-orange emission band significantly increased with increasing In content due to the increased defect states (oxygen vacancies) in the ZnO NRs, and consequently, the superposition of the emission bands centered at 415 nm and 570 nm led to the generation of white-light. These results suggest that In doping is an effective way to tailor the morphology and the optical, electronic, and electrical properties of ZnO NRs, as well as the EL emission property of heterojunction LEDs. PMID:25988846

  19. Hydrothermally Grown In-doped ZnO Nanorods on p-GaN Films for Color-tunable Heterojunction Light-emitting-diodes.

    PubMed

    Park, Geun Chul; Hwang, Soo Min; Lee, Seung Muk; Choi, Jun Hyuk; Song, Keun Man; Kim, Hyun You; Kim, Hyun-Suk; Eum, Sung-Jin; Jung, Seung-Boo; Lim, Jun Hyung; Joo, Jinho

    2015-05-19

    The incorporation of doping elements in ZnO nanostructures plays an important role in adjusting the optical and electrical properties in optoelectronic devices. In the present study, we fabricated 1-D ZnO nanorods (NRs) doped with different In contents (0% ~ 5%) on p-GaN films using a facile hydrothermal method, and investigated the effect of the In doping on the morphology and electronic structure of the NRs and the electrical and optical performances of the n-ZnO NRs/p-GaN heterojunction light emitting diodes (LEDs). As the In content increased, the size (diameter and length) of the NRs increased, and the electrical performance of the LEDs improved. From the electroluminescence (EL) spectra, it was found that the broad green-yellow-orange emission band significantly increased with increasing In content due to the increased defect states (oxygen vacancies) in the ZnO NRs, and consequently, the superposition of the emission bands centered at 415 nm and 570 nm led to the generation of white-light. These results suggest that In doping is an effective way to tailor the morphology and the optical, electronic, and electrical properties of ZnO NRs, as well as the EL emission property of heterojunction LEDs.

  20. Significant mobility enhancement in extremely thin highly doped ZnO films

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Look, David C., E-mail: david.look@wright.edu; Wyle Laboratories, Inc., 2601 Mission Point Blvd., Dayton, Ohio 45431; Air Force Research Laboratory Sensors Directorate, 2241 Avionics Circle, Wright-Patterson AFB, Ohio 45433

    2015-04-13

    Highly Ga-doped ZnO (GZO) films of thicknesses d = 5, 25, 50, and 300 nm, grown on 160-nm ZnO buffer layers by molecular beam epitaxy, had 294-K Hall-effect mobilities μ{sub H} of 64.1, 43.4, 37.0, and 34.2 cm{sup 2}/V-s, respectively. This extremely unusual ordering of μ{sub H} vs d is explained by the existence of a very high-mobility Debye tail in the ZnO, arising from the large Fermi-level mismatch between the GZO and the ZnO. Scattering theory in conjunction with Poisson analysis predicts a Debye-tail mobility of 206 cm{sup 2}/V-s at the interface (z = d), falling to 58 cm{sup 2}/V-s at z = d + 2 nm. Excellent fits to μ{sub H}more » vs d and sheet concentration n{sub s} vs d are obtained with no adjustable parameters.« less

  1. Rietveld-refinement and optical study of the Fe doped ZnO thin film by RF magnetron sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Arun; Dhiman, Pooja; Singh, M.

    2017-05-01

    Fe Doped ZnO Dilute Magnetic Semiconductor thin film prepared by RF magnetron sputtering on glass substrate and Influence of 3% Fe-doping on structural and Optical properties has been studied. The Rietveld-refinement analysis shows that Fe doping has a significant effect on crystalline structure, grain size and strain in the thin film. Two dimensional and three-dimensional atom probe tomography of the thin film shows that Fe ions are randomly distributed which is supported by Xray Diffraction (XRD). Fe-doping is found to effectively modify the band gap energy up to 3.5 eV.

  2. The structural and optical properties of Y (Y  =  Al, B, Si and Ti)-doped ZnO nano thin films from the first principles calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Wenshu; Hu, Huijun; Zhang, Caili; Li, Jianguo; Li, Yuping; Ling, Lixia; Han, Peide

    2017-12-01

    Based on the density functional theory, the structural stability and optical properties of undoped and Y (Y  =  Al, B, Si and Ti)-doped ZnO nano thin films are investigated. The good stability of the films based on the ZnO (0 0 0 1) can be obtained when the layer is larger than 12. Moreover, the dielectric function, refractive index, absorption, and reflectivity of doped ZnO nano thin films have been analyzed in detail. In the visible light range, the values of ZnO films from 12 to 24 layers are all smaller than those of the bulk. And with the augment of the layers, the values keep increasing. All the results signify that the nano film of 12 layers possesses the lowest reflectivity and weakest absorption. In addition, there is an evident impact of some doped element on the properties of nano films. The absorption and reflectivity of Ti, Si-doped ZnO nano thin films are higher than those of the clean films, while Al, B-doped are lower, especially B-doped. Moreover, the conductivity of the doped structure is better than that of the bulk. Thus, the B-doped ZnO nano thin films could be potential candidate materials of transparent conductive films.

  3. The investigation of the Cr doped ZnO thin films deposited by thermionic vacuum arc technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohammadigharehbagh, Reza; Pat, Suat; Musaoglu, Caner; Korkmaz, Şadan; Özen, Soner

    2018-02-01

    Cr doped ZnO thin films were prepared onto glass and polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrates using thermionic vacuum arc. XRD patterns show the polycrystalline nature of the films. Cr, Zn, ZnO and Cr2O3 were detected in the layers. The mean crystallite sizes of the films were calculated about 20 nm for the films onto glass and PET substrates. The maximum dislocation density and internal strain values of the films are calculated. According to the optical analysis, the average transmittance and reflectance of the films were found to be approximately 53% and 16% for glass and PET substrates, respectively. The mean refractive index of the layer decreased to 2.15 from 2.38 for the PET substrate. The band gap values of the Cr-doped ZnO thin films were determined as 3.10 and 3.13 eV for glass and PET substrates.

  4. Structural, Electrical and Optical Properties of Cd Doped ZnO Thin Films by Reactive dc Magnetron Sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, A. Guru Sampath; Obulapathi, L.; Sarmash, T. Sofi; Rani, D. Jhansi; Maddaiah, M.; Rao, T. Subba; Asokan, K.

    2015-04-01

    Thin films of cadmium (Cd) (0 wt.%, 2 wt.%, 4 wt.% and 10 wt.%) doped zinc oxide (ZnO) have been deposited on a glass substrate by reactive DC magnetron sputtering. The synthesized films are characterized by glancing angle x-ray diffraction (GAXRD), UV-Vis-NIR spectroscopy, four probe resistivity measurement, Hall measurement system, field emission-scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive analysis by x-rays. A systematic study has been made on the structure, electrical and optical properties of Cd doped ZnO thin films as a function of Cd concentration (0 wt.%, 2 wt.%, 4 wt.% and 10 wt.%). All these films have a hexagonal wurtzite ZnO structure with (0 0 2) orientation without any Cd related phase from the GAXRD patterns. The grain size was increased and maximum appears at 4 wt.% Cd concentration. The electrical resistivity of the films decreased with the Cd doping and minimum resistivity was observed at 4 wt.% Cd concentration. UV-Vis-NIR studies showed that the optical band gap of ZnO (3.37 eV) was reduced to 3.10 eV which is at 4 wt.% Cd concentration.

  5. Studies on visible light photocatalytic and antibacterial activities of nanostructured cobalt doped ZnO thin films prepared by sol-gel spin coating method.

    PubMed

    Poongodi, G; Anandan, P; Kumar, R Mohan; Jayavel, R

    2015-09-05

    Nanostructured cobalt doped ZnO thin films were deposited on glass substrate by sol-gel spin coating technique and characterized by X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, field-emission scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and UV-Vis spectroscopy. The XRD results showed that the thin films were well crystalline with hexagonal wurtzite structure. The results of EDAX and XPS revealed that Co was doped into ZnO structure. FESEM images revealed that the films possess granular morphology without any crack and confirm that Co doping decreases the grain size. UV-Vis transmission spectra show that the substitution of Co in ZnO leads to band gap narrowing. The Co doped ZnO films were found to exhibit improved photocatalytic activity for the degradation of methylene blue dye under visible light in comparison with the undoped ZnO film. The decrease in grain size and extending light absorption towards the visible region by Co doping in ZnO film contribute equally to the improved photocatalytic activity. The bactericidal efficiency of Co doped ZnO films were investigated against a Gram negative (Escherichia coli) and a Gram positive (Staphylococcus aureus) bacteria. The optical density (OD) measurement showed better bactericidal activity at higher level of Co doping in ZnO. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Synthesis of highly conductive thin-walled Al-doped ZnO single-crystal microtubes by a solid state method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Shuopeng; Wang, Yue; Wang, Qiang; Xing, Cheng; Yan, Yinzhou; Jiang, Yijian

    2018-06-01

    ZnO has attracted considerable attention in fundamental studies and practical applications for the past decade due to its outstanding performance in gas sensing, photocatalytic degradation, light harvesting, UV-light emitting/lasing, etc. The large-sized thin-walled ZnO (TW-ZnO) microtube with stable and rich VZn-related acceptors grown by optical vapor supersaturated precipitation (OVSP) is a novel multifunctional optoelectronic material. Unfortunately, the OVSP cannot achieve doping due to the vapor growth process. To obtain doped TW-ZnO microtubes, a solid state method is introduced in this work to achieve thin-walled Al-doping ZnO (TW-ZnO:Al) microtubes with high electrical conductivity. The morphology and microstructures of ZnO:Al microtubes are similar to undoped ones. The Al3+ ions are confirmed to substitute Zn2+ sites and Zn(0/-1) vacancies in the lattice of ZnO by EDS, XRD, Raman and temperature-dependent photoluminescence analyses. The Al dopant acting as a donor level offers massive free electrons to increase the carrier concentrations. The resistivity of the ZnO:Al microtube is reduced down to ∼10-3 Ω·cm, which is one order of magnitude lower than that of the undoped microtube. The present work provides a simple way to achieve doped ZnO tubular components for potential device applications in optoelectronics.

  7. A simplified approach to the band gap correction of defect formation energies: Al, Ga, and In-doped ZnO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saniz, R.; Xu, Y.; Matsubara, M.; Amini, M. N.; Dixit, H.; Lamoen, D.; Partoens, B.

    2013-01-01

    The calculation of defect levels in semiconductors within a density functional theory approach suffers greatly from the band gap problem. We propose a band gap correction scheme that is based on the separation of energy differences in electron addition and relaxation energies. We show that it can predict defect levels with a reasonable accuracy, particularly in the case of defects with conduction band character, and yet is simple and computationally economical. We apply this method to ZnO doped with group III elements (Al, Ga, In). As expected from experiment, the results indicate that Zn substitutional doping is preferred over interstitial doping in Al, Ga, and In-doped ZnO, under both zinc-rich and oxygen-rich conditions. Further, all three dopants act as shallow donors, with the +1 charge state having the most advantageous formation energy. Also, doping effects on the electronic structure of ZnO are sufficiently mild so as to affect little the fundamental band gap and lowest conduction bands dispersion, which secures their n-type transparent conducting behavior. A comparison with the extrapolation method based on LDA+U calculations and with the Heyd-Scuseria-Ernzerhof hybrid functional (HSE) shows the reliability of the proposed scheme in predicting the thermodynamic transition levels in shallow donor systems.

  8. Influence of oxygen partial pressure on the microstructural and magnetic properties of Er-doped ZnO thin films

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Chen, Wei-Bin; Li, Fei; Chen, Hong-Ming

    2015-06-15

    Er-doped ZnO thin films have been prepared by using inductively coupled plasma enhanced physical vapor deposition at different O{sub 2}:Ar gas flow ratio (R = 0:30, 1:30, 1:15, 1:10 and 1:6). The influence of oxygen partial pressure on the structural, optical and magnetic properties was studied. It is found that an appropriate oxygen partial pressure (R=1:10) can produce the best crystalline quality with a maximum grain size. The internal strain, estimated by fitting the X-ray diffraction peaks, varied with oxygen partial pressure during growth. PL measurements show that plenty of defects, especially zinc vacancy, exist in Er-doped ZnO films. Allmore » the samples show room-temperature ferromagnetism. Importantly, the saturation magnetization exhibits similar dependency on oxygen partial pressure with the internal strain, which indicates that internal strain has an important effect on the magnetic properties of Er-doped ZnO thin films.« less

  9. Highly conductive and transparent thin ZnO films prepared in situ in a low pressure system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ataev, B. M.; Bagamadova, A. M.; Mamedov, V. V.; Omaev, A. K.; Rabadanov, M. R.

    1999-03-01

    Sucessful preparation of ZnO : M epitaxial thin films (ETF) in situ doped with donor impurity M=Ga, Sn by chemical vapor despsition in a low-pressure system is reported. Highly conductive (up to 10 -4 Ω cm) and transparent ( T>85%) ZnO : M ETF have been successfully produced on single crystal (1012) sapphire substrates. Electrical properties of the films as well as their excition luminescence were studied.

  10. SEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES: A Ga-doped ZnO transparent conduct layer for GaN-based LEDs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhen, Liu; Xiaofeng, Wang; Hua, Yang; Yao, Duan; Yiping, Zeng

    2010-09-01

    An 8 μm thick Ga-doped ZnO (GZO) film grown by metal-source vapor phase epitaxy was deposited on a GaN-based light-emitting diode (LED) to substitute for the conventional ITO as a transparent conduct layer (TCL). Electroluminescence spectra exhibited that the intensity value of LED emission with a GZO TCL is markedly improved by 23.6% as compared to an LED with an ITO TCL at 20 mA. In addition, the forward voltage of the LED with a GZO TCL at 20 mA is higher than that of the conventional LED. To investigate the reason for the increase of the forward voltage, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy was performed to analyze the interface properties of the GZO/p-GaN heterojunction. The large valence band offset (2:24 ± 0:21 eV) resulting from the formation of Ga2O3 in the GZO/p-GaN interface was attributed to the increase of the forward voltage.

  11. Poole-Frenkel effect on electrical characterization of Al-doped ZnO films deposited on p-type GaN

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Huang, Bohr-Ran; Liao, Chung-Chi; Ke, Wen-Cheng, E-mail: wcke@saturn.yzu.edu.tw

    2014-03-21

    This paper presents the electrical properties of Al-doped ZnO (AZO) films directly grown on two types of p-type GaN thin films. The low-pressure p-GaN thin films (LP-p-GaN) exhibited structural properties of high-density edge-type threading dislocations (TDs) and compensated defects (i.e., nitrogen vacancy). Compared with high-pressure p-GaN thin films (HP-p-GaN), X-ray photoemission spectroscopy of Ga 3d core levels indicated that the surface Fermi-level shifted toward the higher binding-energy side by approximately 0.7 eV. The high-density edge-type TDs and compensated defects enabled surface Fermi-level shifting above the intrinsic Fermi-level, causing the surface of LP-p-GaN thin films to invert to n-type semiconductor. A highlymore » nonlinear increase in leakage current regarding reverse-bias voltage was observed for AZO/LP-p-GaN. The theoretical fits for the reverse-bias voltage region indicated that the field-assisted thermal ionization of carriers from defect associated traps, which is known as the Poole-Frenkel effect, dominated the I-V behavior of AZO/LP-p-GaN. The fitting result estimated the trap energy level at 0.62 eV below the conduction band edge. In addition, the optical band gap increased from 3.50 eV for as-deposited AZO films to 3.62 eV for 300 °C annealed AZO films because of the increased carrier concentration. The increasing Fermi-level of the 300 °C annealed AZO films enabled the carrier transport to move across the interface into the LP-p-GaN thin films without any thermal activated energy. Thus, the Ohmic behavior of AZO contact can be achieved directly on the low-pressure p-GaN films at room temperature.« less

  12. Friction and wear behavior of nitrogen-doped ZnO thin films deposited via MOCVD under dry contact

    DOE PAGES

    Mbamara, U. S.; Olofinjana, B.; Ajayi, O. O.; ...

    2016-02-01

    Most researches on doped ZnO thin films are tilted toward their applications in optoelectronics and semiconductor devices. Research on their tribological properties is still unfolding. In this work, nitrogen-doped ZnO thin films were deposited on 304 L stainless steel substrate from a combination of zinc acetate and ammonium acetate precursor by MOCVD technique. Compositional and structural studies of the films were done using Rutherford Backscattering Spectroscopy (RBS) and X-ray Diffraction (XRD). The frictional behavior of the thin film coatings was evaluated using a ball-on-flat configuration in reciprocating sliding under dry contact condition. After friction test, the flat and ball counter-facemore » surfaces were examined to assess the wear dimension and failure mechanism. In conclusion, both friction behavior and wear (in the ball counter-face) were observed to be dependent on the crystallinity and thickness of the thin film coatings.« less

  13. Effect of copper doping sol-gel ZnO thin films: physical properties and sensitivity to ethanol vapor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boukaous, Chahra; Benhaoua, Boubaker; Telia, Azzedine; Ghanem, Salah

    2017-10-01

    In the present paper, the effect of copper doping ZnO thin films, deposited using a sol-gel dip-coating technique, on the structural, optical and ethanol vapor-sensing properties, was investigated. The range of the doping content is 0 wt. %-5 wt. % Cu/Zn and the films’ properties were studied using x-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and a UV-vis spectrophotometer. The obtained results indicated that undoped and copper-doped zinc oxide thin films have polycrystalline wurtzite structure with (1 0 1) preferred orientation. All samples have a smooth and dense structure free of pinholes. A decrease in the band gap with Cu concentration in the ZnO network was observed. The influence of the dopant on ethanol vapor-sensing properties shows an increase in the film sensitivity to the ethanol vapor within the Cu concentration.

  14. Effect of Li doping on the electric and pyroelectric properties of ZnO thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trinca, L. M.; Galca, A. C.; Boni, A. G.; Botea, M.; Pintilie, L.

    2018-01-01

    Un-doped ZnO (UDZO) and Li-doped ZnO (LZO) polycrystalline thin films were grown on platinized silicon by pulsed laser deposition (PLD). The electrical properties were investigated on as-grown and annealed UDZO and LZO films with capacitor configuration, using top and bottom platinum electrodes. In the case of the as-grown films it was found that the introduction of Li increases the resistivity of ZnO and induces butterfly shape in the C-V characteristic, suggesting ferroelectric-like behavior in LZO films. The properties of LZO samples does not significantly changes after thermal annealing while the properties of UDZO samples show significant changes upon annealing, manifested in a butterfly shape of the C-V characteristic and resistive-like switching. However, the butterfly shape disappears if long delay time is used in the C-V measurement, the characteristic remaining non-linear. Pyroelectric signal could be measured only on annealed films. Comparing the UDZO results with those obtained in the case of Li:ZnO, it was found that the pyroelectric properties are considerably enhanced by Li doping, leading to pyroelectric signal with about one order of magnitude larger at low modulation frequencies than for un-doped samples. Although the results of this study hint towards a ferroelectric-like behavior of Li doped ZnO, the presence of real ferroelectricity in this material remains controversial.

  15. Optical characterization of Mg-doped ZnO thin films deposited by RF magnetron sputtering technique

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Singh, Satyendra Kumar; Tripathi, Shweta; Hazra, Purnima

    2016-05-06

    This paper reports the in-depth analysis on optical characteristics of magnesium (Mg) doped zinc oxide (ZnO) thin films grown on p-silicon (Si) substrates by RF magnetron sputtering technique. The variable angle ellipsometer is used for the optical characterization of as-deposited thin films. The optical reflectance, transmission spectra and thickness of as-deposited thin films are measured in the spectral range of 300-800 nm with the help of the spectroscopic ellipsometer. The effect of Mg-doping on optical parameters such as optical bandgap, absorption coefficient, absorbance, extinction coefficient, refractive Index and dielectric constant for as-deposited thin films are extracted to show its application inmore » optoelectronic and photonic devices.« less

  16. The electrical, elemental, optical, and surface properties of Si-doped ZnO thin films prepared by thermionic vacuum arc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohammadigharehbagh, Reza; Özen, Soner; Yudar, Hafizittin Hakan; Pat, Suat; Korkmaz, Şadan

    2017-09-01

    The purpose of this work is to study the properties of Si-doped ZnO (SZO) thin films, which were prepared using the non-reactive thermionic vacuum arc technique. The analysis of the elemental, optical, and surface properties of ZnO:Si thin films was carried out using energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy, UV-VIS spectrophotometry, atomic force microscopy, and scanning electron microscopy, respectively. The current-voltage measurement was employed in order to study the electrical properties of the films. The effect of Si doping on the physical properties of ZnO films was investigated. The film thicknesses were measured as 55 and 35 nm for glass and PET substrates, respectively. It was clearly observed from the x-ray diffraction results that the Si and ZnO peaks were present in the coated SZO films for all samples. The morphological studies showed that the deposited surfaces are homogenous, dense, and have a uniform surface, with the existence of some cracks only on the glass substrate. The elemental composition has confirmed the existence of Zn, Si, and O elements within the prepared films. Using a UV-VIS spectrophotometer, the optical parameters such as transmittance, absorbance, refractive index, and reflectance were calculated. It should be noted that the transparency and refractive indices obtained from the measurements decrease with increasing Si concentration. The obtained optical bandgap values using transmittance spectra were determined to be 3.74 and 3.84 eV for the glass and PET substrates, respectively. An increase in the bandgap results demonstrates that the Si doping concentration is comparable to the pure ZnO thin films. The current versus voltage curves revealed the ohmic nature of the films. Subsequently, the development and fabrication of excellent transparent conducting electrodes enabled the appropriate use of Si-doped ZnO thin films.

  17. An investigation on the In doping of ZnO thin films by spray pyrolysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahesh, Devika; Kumar, M. C. Santhosh

    2018-04-01

    Indium doped zinc oxide (IGZO)thin films are gaining much interest owing to its commercial application as transparent conductive oxide thin films. In the current study thin films indium doped ZnO thin films have been deposited on glass substrates by chemical spray pyrolysis technique with an indium concentration of 1, 2.5 and 4% in Zinc source. The films show a peak shift in the X-Ray Diffraction patterns with varying indium doping concentration. The (101) peak was enhanced for the 2.5 % indium doped films and variation in grain size with the different doping levels was studied. The as-deposited films are uniform and shown high transparency (>90%) in the visible region. Average thicknesses of films are found to be 800nm, calculated using the envelope method. The film with 2.5 % of indium content was found to be highly conducting than the rest, since for the lower and higher concentrations the conductivity was possibly halted by the limit in carrier concentration and indium segregation in the grain boundaries respectively. The enhancement of mobility and carrier concentration was clearly seen in the optimum films.

  18. The magnetic ordering in high magnetoresistance Mn-doped ZnO thin films

    DOE PAGES

    Venkatesh, S.; Baras, A.; Lee, J. -S.; ...

    2016-03-24

    Here, we studied the nature of magnetic ordering in Mn-doped ZnO thin films that exhibited ferromagnetism at 300 K and superparamagnetism at 5 K. We directly inter-related the magnetisation and magnetoresistance by invoking the polaronpercolation theory and variable range of hopping conduction below the metal-to-insulator transition. By obtaining a qualitative agreement between these two models, we attribute the ferromagnetism to the s-d exchange-induced spin splitting that was indicated by large positive magnetoresistance (~40 %). Low temperature superparamagnetism was attributed to the localization of carriers and non-interacting polaron clusters. This analysis can assist in understanding the presence or absence of ferromagnetismmore » in doped/un-doped ZnO.« less

  19. Efficiency of Nb-Doped ZnO Nanoparticles Electrode for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells Application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anuntahirunrat, Jirapat; Sung, Youl-Moon; Pooyodying, Pattarapon

    2017-09-01

    The technological of Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) had been improved for several years. Due to its simplicity and low cost materials with belonging to the part of thin films solar cells. DSSCs have numerous advantages and benefits among the other types of solar cells. Many of the DSSC devices had use organic chemical that produce by specific method to use as thin film electrodes. The organic chemical that widely use to establish thin film electrodes are Zinc Oxide (ZnO), Titanium Dioxide (TiO2) and many other chemical substances. Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles had been used in DSSCs applications as thin film electrodes. Nanoparticles are a part of nanomaterials that are defined as a single particles 1-100 nm in diameter. From a few year ZnO widely used in DSSC applications because of its optical, electrical and many others properties. In particular, the unique properties and utility of ZnO structure. However the efficiency of ZnO nanoparticles based solar cells can be improved by doped various foreign impurity to change the structures and properties. Niobium (Nb) had been use as a dopant of metal oxide thin films. Using specification method to doped the ZnO nanoparticles thin film can improved the efficiencies of DSSCs. The efficiencies of Nb-doped ZnO can be compared by doping 0 at wt% to 5 at wt% in ZnO nanoparticles thin films that prepared by the spin coating method. The thin film electrodes doped with 3 at wt% represent a maximum efficiencies with the lowest resistivity of 8.95×10-4 Ω·cm.

  20. Enhancement of the Ultraviolet Photoresponsivity of Al-doped ZnO Thin Films Prepared by using the Sol-gel Spin-coating Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Wookbin; Leem, Jae-Young

    2018-03-01

    We report the structural, morphological, optical, and ultraviolet (UV) photoresponse properties of Al-doped ZnO (AZO) thin films prepared on silicon substrates with different Al doping concentrations by using the sol-gel spin-coating method. An analysis of the X-ray diffraction patterns of the AZO thin films revealed that the average grain size decreased and the c-axis lattice constant increased with Al content. The field-emission scanning electron microscopy images showed that with Al doping, the grain size decreased, but the film density increased with increasing Al doping concentration from 0% to 3%. These results indicate that the surface area of the film increased with increasing Al doping. The absorbance spectra revealed that the UV absorbance of the AZO thin films increased with increasing Al doping concentration and that the absorption onset shifted towards lower energies. The photoluminescence spectra revealed that with increasing Al doping, the intensity of the visible emission greatly decreased and the visible emission peak shifted forward lower energy (a red shift). The UV sensor based on the AZO thin films exhibited a higher responsivity than that based on the undoped ZnO thin film. Therefore, this study provides a facile method for improving the photoresponsivity of UV sensors.

  1. Structural and optical properties of Na-doped ZnO films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akcan, D.; Gungor, A.; Arda, L.

    2018-06-01

    Zn1-xNaxO (x = 0.0-0.05) solutions have been synthesized by the sol-gel technique using Zinc acetate dihydrate and Sodium acetate which were dissolved into solvent and chelating agent. Na-doped ZnO nanoparticles were obtained from solutions to find phase and crystal structure. Na-doped ZnO films have been deposited onto glass substrate by using sol-gel dip coating system. The effects of dopant concentration on the structure, morphology, and optical properties of Na-doped ZnO thin films deposited on glass substrate are investigated. Characterization of Zn1-xNaxO nanoparticles and thin films are examined using differential thermal analysis (DTA)/thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), Scanning electron microscope (SEM) and X-Ray diffractometer (XRD). Optical properties of Zn1-xNaxO thin films were obtained by using PG Instruments UV-Vis-NIR spectrophotometer in 190-1100 nm range. The structure, morphology, and optical properties of thin films are presented.

  2. Electrical properties of Mg doped ZnO nanostructure annealed at different temperature

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Mohamed, R., E-mail: ruziana12@gmail.com; Mamat, M. H., E-mail: hafiz-030@yahoo.com; Rusop, M., E-mail: nanouitm@gmail.com

    In this work, ZincOxide (ZnO) nanostructures doped with Mg were successfully grown on the glass substrate. Magnesium (Mg) metal element was added in the ZnO host which acts as a doping agent. Different temperature in range of 250°C to 500°C was used in order to investigate the effect of annealing temperature of ZnO thin films. Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM) was used to investigate the physical characteristic of ZnO thin films. FESEM results have revealed that ZnO nanorods were grown vertically aligned. The structural properties were determined by using X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) analysis. XRD results showed Mg doped ZnOmore » thin have highest crystalinnity at 500°C annealing temperature. The electrical properties were investigating by using Current-Voltage (I-V) measurement. I-V measurement showed the electrical properties were varied at different annealing temperature. The annealing temperature at 500°C has the highest electrical conductance properties.« less

  3. Ionic displacement induced ferroelectricity in multiferroic Cr doped ZnO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiwari, Jeetendra Kumar; Ali, Nasir; Ghosh, Subhasis

    2018-05-01

    Cr doped ZnO thin film was grown on quartz substrate using RF magnetron sputtering. Room temperature magnetic and ferroelectric properties of Cr doped ZnO were investigated. It is shown that ZnO becomes ferromagnetic upon Cr doping. It is considered that breaking of centrosymmetry due strain developed by doping of Cr should be responsible for the ferroelectricity. These films were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), which shows that the films possess crystalline structure with preferred orientation along the (002) crystal plane and there is no extra peak due to Cr i.e. single phase.

  4. Efficient acetone sensor based on Ni-doped ZnO nanostructures prepared by spray pyrolysis technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darunkar, Swapnil S.; Acharya, Smita A.

    2018-05-01

    Ni-doped ZnO thin film was prepared by home-built spray pyrolysis unit for the detection of acetone at 300°C. Scanning electron microscopic (SEM) images of as-developed thin film of undoped ZnO exhibits large quantity of spherical, non-agglomerated particles with uniform size while in Ni-doped ZnO, particles are quite non-uniform in nature. The particle size estimated by using image J are obtained to be around 20-200 nm. Ni-doping effect on band gaps are determined by UV-vis optical spectroscopy and band gap of Ni-doped ZnO is found to be 3.046 eV. Nickel doping exceptionally enhances the sensing response of ZnO as compared to undoped ZnO system. The major role of the Ni-doping is to create more active sites for chemisorbed oxygen on the surface of sensor and correspondingly, to improve the sensing response. The 6 at.% of Ni-doped ZnO exhibits the highest response (92%) for 100 ppm acetone at 300 °C.

  5. Influence of Fe doping on the structural, optical and acetone sensing properties of sprayed ZnO thin films

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Prajapati, C.S.; Kushwaha, Ajay; Sahay, P.P., E-mail: dr_ppsahay@rediffmail.com

    2013-07-15

    Graphical abstract: All the films are found to be polycrystalline ZnO possessing hexagonal wurtzite structure. The intensities of all the peaks are diminished strongly in the Fe-doped films, indicating their lower crystallinity as compared to the undoped ZnO film. The average crystallite size decreases from 35.21 nm (undoped sample) to 15.43 nm (1 at% Fe-doped sample). - Highlights: • Fe-doped ZnO films show smaller crystallinity with crystallite size: 15–26 nm. • Optical band gap in ZnO films decreases on Fe doping. • Fe-doped films exhibit the normal dispersion for the wavelength range 450–600 nm. • PL spectra of the Fe-dopedmore » films show quenching of the broad green-orange emission. • Acetone response of the Fe-doped films increases considerably at 300 °C. - Abstract: The ZnO thin films (undoped and Fe-doped) deposited by chemical spray pyrolysis technique have been analyzed by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Results show that all the films possess hexagonal wurtzite structure of zinc oxide having crystallite sizes in the range 15–36 nm. On 1 at% Fe doping, the surface roughness of the film increases which favors the adsorption of atmospheric oxygen on the film surface and thereby increase in the gas response. Optical studies reveal that the band gap decreases due to creation of some defect energy states below the conduction band edge, arising out of the lattice disorder in the doped films. The refractive index of the films decreases on Fe doping and follows the Cauchy relation of normal dispersion. Among all the films examined, the 1 at% Fe-doped film exhibits the maximum response (∼72%) at 300 °C for 100 ppm concentration of acetone in air.« less

  6. Effect of Mg doping in the gas-sensing performance of RF-sputtered ZnO thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vinoth, E.; Gowrishankar, S.; Gopalakrishnan, N.

    2018-06-01

    Thin films of Mg-free and Mg-doped (3, 10 and 20 mol%) ZnO thin films have been deposited on Si (100) substrates by RF magnetron sputtering for gas-sensing application. Preferential orientation along (002) plane with hexagonal wurtzite structure has been observed in X-ray diffraction analysis. The conductivity, resistivity, and mobility of the deposited films have been measured by Hall effect measurement. The bandgap of the films has been calculated from the UV-Vis-NIR spectroscopy. It has been found that the bandgap was increased from 3.35 to 3.91 eV with Mg content in ZnO due to the radiative recombination of excitons. The change in morphology of the grown films has been investigated by scanning electron microscope. Gas-sensing measurements have been conducted for fabricated films. The sensor response, selectivity, and stability measurement were done for the fabricated films. Though better response was found towards ethanol, methanol, and ammonia for MZ2 (Mg at 10 mol%) film and maximum gas response was observed towards ammonia. The selectivity measurement reveals maximum sensitivity about 42% for ammonia. The low response time of 123 s and recovery time of 152 s towards ammonia were observed for MZ2 (Mg at 10 mol%). Stability of the Mg-doped ZnO thin film confirmed by the continuous sensing measurements for 4 months.

  7. Cu-Doped ZnO Thin Films Deposited by a Sol-Gel Process Using Two Copper Precursors: Gas-Sensing Performance in a Propane Atmosphere

    PubMed Central

    Gómez-Pozos, Heberto; Arredondo, Emma Julia Luna; Maldonado Álvarez, Arturo; Biswal, Rajesh; Kudriavtsev, Yuriy; Pérez, Jaime Vega; Casallas-Moreno, Yenny Lucero; Olvera Amador, María de la Luz

    2016-01-01

    A study on the propane gas-sensing properties of Cu-doped ZnO thin films is presented in this work. The films were deposited on glass substrates by sol-gel and dip coating methods, using zinc acetate as a zinc precursor, copper acetate and copper chloride as precursors for doping. For higher sensitivity values, two film thickness values are controlled by the six and eight dippings, whereas for doping, three dippings were used, irrespective of the Cu precursor. The film structure was analyzed by X-ray diffractometry, and the analysis of the surface morphology and film composition was made through scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS), respectively. The sensing properties of Cu-doped ZnO thin films were then characterized in a propane atmosphere, C3H8, at different concentration levels and different operation temperatures of 100, 200 and 300 °C. Cu-doped ZnO films doped with copper chloride presented the highest sensitivity of approximately 6 × 104, confirming a strong dependence on the dopant precursor type. The results obtained in this work show that the use of Cu as a dopant in ZnO films processed by sol-gel produces excellent catalysts for sensing C3H8 gas. PMID:28787885

  8. Cu-Doped ZnO Thin Films Deposited by a Sol-Gel Process Using Two Copper Precursors: Gas-Sensing Performance in a Propane Atmosphere.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Pozos, Heberto; Arredondo, Emma Julia Luna; Maldonado Álvarez, Arturo; Biswal, Rajesh; Kudriavtsev, Yuriy; Pérez, Jaime Vega; Casallas-Moreno, Yenny Lucero; Olvera Amador, María de la Luz

    2016-01-29

    A study on the propane gas-sensing properties of Cu-doped ZnO thin films is presented in this work. The films were deposited on glass substrates by sol-gel and dip coating methods, using zinc acetate as a zinc precursor, copper acetate and copper chloride as precursors for doping. For higher sensitivity values, two film thickness values are controlled by the six and eight dippings, whereas for doping, three dippings were used, irrespective of the Cu precursor. The film structure was analyzed by X-ray diffractometry, and the analysis of the surface morphology and film composition was made through scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS), respectively. The sensing properties of Cu-doped ZnO thin films were then characterized in a propane atmosphere, C₃H₈, at different concentration levels and different operation temperatures of 100, 200 and 300 °C. Cu-doped ZnO films doped with copper chloride presented the highest sensitivity of approximately 6 × 10⁴, confirming a strong dependence on the dopant precursor type. The results obtained in this work show that the use of Cu as a dopant in ZnO films processed by sol-gel produces excellent catalysts for sensing C₃H₈ gas.

  9. Defect characterization and magnetic properties in un-doped ZnO thin film annealed in a strong magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ning, Shuai; Zhan, Peng; Wang, Wei-Peng; Li, Zheng-Cao; Zhang, Zheng-Jun

    2014-12-01

    Highly c-axis oriented un-doped zinc oxide (ZnO) thin films, each with a thickness of ~ 100 nm, are deposited on Si (001) substrates by pulsed electron beam deposition at a temperature of ~ 320 °C, followed by annealing at 650 °C in argon in a strong magnetic field. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), positron annihilation analysis (PAS), and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) characterizations suggest that the major defects generated in these ZnO films are oxygen vacancies. Photoluminescence (PL) and magnetic property measurements indicate that the room-temperature ferromagnetism in the un-doped ZnO film originates from the singly ionized oxygen vacancies whose number depends on the strength of the magnetic field applied in the thermal annealing process. The effects of the magnetic field on the defect generation in the ZnO films are also discussed.

  10. Ga flux dependence of Er-doped GaN luminescent thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, D. S.; Steckl, A. J.

    2002-02-01

    Er-doped GaN thin films have been grown on (111) Si substrates with various Ga fluxes in a radio frequency plasma molecular beam epitaxy system. Visible photoluminescence (PL) and electroluminescence (EL) emission at 537/558 nm and infrared (IR) PL emission at 1.5 μm from GaN:Er films exhibited strong dependence on the Ga flux. Both visible and IR PL and visible EL increase with the Ga flux up to the stoichiometric growth condition, as determined by growth rate saturation. Beyond this condition, all luminescence levels abruptly dropped to the detection limit with increasing Ga flux. The Er concentration, measured by secondary ion mass spectroscopy and Rutherford backscattering, decreases with increasing Ga flux under N-rich growth conditions and remains constant above the stoichiometric growth condition. X-ray diffraction indicated that the crystalline quality of the GaN:Er film was improved with increasing Ga flux up to stoichiometric growth condition and then saturated. Er ions in the films grown under N-rich conditions appear much more optically active than those in the films grown under Ga-rich conditions.

  11. Characterization of a new transparent-conducting material of ZnO doped ITO thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, H. M.

    2005-11-01

    Thin films of indium tin oxide (ITO) doped with zinc oxide have the remarkable properties of being conductive yet still highly transparent in the visible and near-IR spectral ranges. The Electron beam deposi- tion technique is one of the simplest and least expensive ways of preparing. High-quality ITO thin films have been deposited on glass substrates by Electron beam evaporation technique. The effect of doping and substrate deposition temperature was found to have a significant effect on the structure, electrical and optical properties of ZnO doped ITO films. The average optical transmittance has been increased with in- creasing the substrate temperature. The maximum value of transmittance is greater than 84% in the visible region and 85% in the NIR region obtained for film with Zn/ITO = 0.13 at substrate temperature 200 °C. The dielectric constant, average excitation energy for electronic transitions (E o), the dispersion energy (E d), the long wavelength refractive index (n ), average oscillator wave length ( o) and oscillator strength S o for the thin films were determined and presented in this work.

  12. Stabilization and enhanced energy gap by Mg doping in ɛ-phase Ga2O3 thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bi, Xiaoyu; Wu, Zhenping; Huang, Yuanqi; Tang, Weihua

    2018-02-01

    Mg-doped Ga2O3 thin films with different doping concentrations were deposited on sapphire substrates using laser molecular beam epitaxy (L-MBE) technique. X-ray diffraction (XRD), x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) absorption spectrum were used to characterize the crystal structure and optical properties of the as-grown films. Compared to pure Ga2O3 thin film, the Mg-doped thin films have transformed from the most stable β-phase into ɛ-phase. The absorption edge shifted to about 205 nm and the optical bandgap increased to ˜ 6 eV. These properties reveal that Mg-doped Ga2O3 films may have potential applications in the field of deep ultraviolet optoelectronic devices, such as deep ultraviolet photodetectors, short wavelength light emitting devices and so on.

  13. A Rapid Method for Deposition of Sn-Doped GaN Thin Films on Glass and Polyethylene Terephthalate Substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pat, Suat; Özen, Soner; Korkmaz, Şadan

    2018-01-01

    We report the influence of Sn doping on microstructure, surface, and optical properties of GaN thin films deposited on glass and polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrate. Sn-doped GaN thin films have been deposited by thermionic vacuum arc (TVA) at low temperature. TVA is a rapid deposition technology for thin film growth. Surface and optical properties of the thin films were presented. Grain size, height distribution, roughness values were determined. Grain sizes were calculated as 20 nm and 13 nm for glass and PET substrates, respectively. Nano crystalline forms were shown by field emission scanning electron microscopy. Optical band gap values were determined by optical methods and photoluminescence measurement. The optical band gap values of Sn doped GaN on glass and PET were determined to be approximately ˜3.40 eV and ˜3.47 eV, respectively. As a result, TVA is a rapid and low temperature deposition technology for the Sn doped GaN deposited on glass and PET substrate.

  14. Facile one-step synthesis of magnesium-doped ZnO nanoparticles: optical properties and their device applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, Ji-Young; Lim, Sang-Chul; Ahn, Seong Deok; Lee, Sang Seok; Cho, Kyoung-Ik; Bon Koo, Jae; Choi, Rino; Hasan, Musarrat

    2013-07-01

    In this study, magnesium-doped (Mg-doped) zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles were successfully synthesized by a sonochemical process under mild conditions. The x-ray diffraction pattern indicated that the Mg-doped ZnO nanoparticles maintain a wurtzite structure without impurities. We observed a blue-shift of the bandgap of the Mg-doped ZnO nanoparticles as the Mg-doping ratio increased. We also fabricated thin-film transistor (TFT) devices with the doped-ZnO nanoparticles. Devices using Mg-doped ZnO nanoparticles as a channel layer showed insensibility to white-light irradiation compared with undoped ZnO TFTs.

  15. Effects of Na Doping on Structural, Optical, and Electronic Properties of ZnO Thin Films Fabricated by Sol-Gel Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Heliang; Yao, Zhen; Xu, Cheng; Wang, Xinqiang; Yu, Zhichao

    2018-04-01

    Undoped and Na-doped ZnO thin films were fabricated by sol-gel technique on quartz glass substrates and annealed at 500°C for 1 h. The structural properties of the films were characterized using x-ray diffraction analysis, which revealed hexagonal wurtzite structure with no peaks corresponding to Na2O or other Na phases being found. Surface morphology observations by scanning electron microscopy revealed that the crystallite size and topographical properties of the ZnO films were influenced by the Na doping concentration. X-ray photoelectron spectra revealed presence of Na+ in ZnO regime. The transmittance spectra indicated that the average transmittance of Na-doped ZnO film was above 80% in the visible range, superior to that of the undoped film. There was a blue-shift in the ultraviolet absorption edge with increase of the Na content. Photoluminescence spectra illustrated two peaks, corresponding to ultraviolet near-band-edge and visible emission.

  16. Structural, optical, and LED characteristics of ZnO and Al doped ZnO thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandeep, K. M.; Bhat, Shreesha; Dharmaprakash, S. M.

    2017-05-01

    ZnO (pristine) and Al doped ZnO (AZO) films were prepared using sol-gel spin coating method. The XRD analysis showed the enhanced compressive stress in AZO film. The presence of extended states below the conduction band edge in AZO accounts for the redshift in optical bandgap. The PL spectra of AZO showed significant blue emission due to the carrier recombination from defect states. The TRPL curves showed the dominant DAP recombination in ZnO film, whereas defect related recombination in Al doped ZnO film. Color parameters viz: the dominant wavelength, color coordinates (x,y), color purity, luminous efficiency and correlated color temperature (CCT) of ZnO and AZO films are calculated using 1931 (CIE) diagram. Further, a strong blue emission with color purity more than 96% is observed in both the films. The enhanced blue emission in AZO significantly increased the luminous efficiency (22.8%) compared to ZnO film (10.8%). The prepared films may be used as blue phosphors in white light generation.

  17. Electrical and optical properties of p-type codoped ZnO thin films prepared by spin coating technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pathak, Trilok Kumar; Kumar, Vinod; Swart, H. C.; Purohit, L. P.

    2016-03-01

    Undoped, doped and codoped ZnO thin films were synthesized on glass substrates using a spin coating technique. Zinc acetate dihydrate, ammonium acetate and aluminum nitrate were used as precursor for zinc, nitrogen and aluminum, respectively. X-ray diffraction shows that the thin films have a hexagonal wurtzite structure for the undoped, doped and co-doped ZnO. The transmittance of the films was above 80% and the band gap of the film varied from 3.20 eV to 3.24 eV for undoped and doped ZnO. An energy band diagram to describe the photoluminescence from the thin films was also constructed. This diagram includes the various defect levels and possible quasi-Fermi levels. A minimum resistivity of 0.0834 Ω-cm was obtained for the N and Al codoped ZnO thin films with p-type carrier conductivity. These ZnO films can be used as a window layer in solar cells and in UV lasers.

  18. Multi-mechanism efficiency enhancement in growing Ga-doped ZnO as the transparent conductor on a light-emitting diode.

    PubMed

    Yao, Yu-Feng; Lin, Chun-Han; Hsieh, Chieh; Su, Chia-Ying; Zhu, Erwin; Yang, Shaobo; Weng, Chi-Ming; Su, Ming-Yen; Tsai, Meng-Che; Wu, Shang-Syuan; Chen, Sheng-Hung; Tu, Charng-Gan; Chen, Hao-Tsung; Kiang, Yean-Woei; Yang, C C

    2015-12-14

    The combined effects of a few mechanisms for emission efficiency enhancement produced in the overgrowth of the transparent conductor layer of Ga-doped ZnO (GaZnO) on a surface Ag-nanoparticle (NP) coated light-emitting diode (LED), including surface plasmon (SP) coupling, current spreading, light extraction, and contact resistivity reduction, are demonstrated. With a relatively higher GaZnO growth temperature (350 °C), melted Ag NPs can be used as catalyst for forming GaZnO nanoneedles (NNs) through the vapor-liquid-solid growth mode such that light extraction efficiency can be increased. Meanwhile, residual Ag NPs are buried in a simultaneously grown GaZnO layer for inducing SP coupling. With a relatively lower GaZnO growth temperature (250 °C), all the Ag NPs are preserved for generating a stronger SP coupling effect. By using a thin annealed GaZnO interlayer on p-GaN before Ag NP fabrication, the contact resistivity at the GaZnO/p-GaN interface and hence the overall device resistance can be reduced. Although the use of this interlayer blue-shifts the localized surface plasmon resonance peak of the fabricated Ag NPs from the quantum well emission wavelength of the current study (535 nm) such that the SP coupling effect becomes weaker, it is useful for enhancing the SP coupling effect in an LED with a shorter emission wavelength.

  19. EXAFS and XANES investigation of (Li, Ni) codoped ZnO thin films grown by pulsed laser deposition.

    PubMed

    Mino, Lorenzo; Gianolio, Diego; Bardelli, Fabrizio; Prestipino, Carmelo; Senthil Kumar, E; Bellarmine, F; Ramanjaneyulu, M; Lamberti, Carlo; Ramachandra Rao, M S

    2013-09-25

    Ni doped, Li doped and (Li, Ni) codoped ZnO thin films were successfully grown using a pulsed laser deposition technique. Undoped and doped ZnO thin films were investigated using extended x-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) and x-ray absorption near edge spectroscopy (XANES). Preliminary investigations on the Zn K-edge of the undoped and doped ZnO thin films revealed that doping has not influenced the average Zn-Zn bond length and Debye-Waller factor. This shows that both Ni and Li doping do not appreciably affect the average local environment of Zn. All the doped ZnO thin films exhibited more than 50% of substitutional Ni, with a maximum of 77% for 2% Ni and 2% Li doped ZnO thin film. The contribution of Ni metal to the EXAFS signal clearly reveals the presence of Ni clusters. The Ni-Ni distance in the Ni(0) nanoclusters, which are formed in the film, is shorter with respect to the reference Ni metal foil and the Debye-Waller factor is higher. Both facts perfectly reflect what is expected for metal nanoparticles. At the highest doping concentration (5%), the presence of Li favors the growth of a secondary NiO phase. Indeed, 2% Ni and 5% Li doped ZnO thin film shows %Nisub = 75 ± 11, %Nimet = 10 ± 8, %NiO = 15 ± 8. XANES studies further confirm that the substitutional Ni is more than 50% in all the samples. These results explain the observed magnetic properties.

  20. Influence Al doped ZnO nanostructure on structural and optical properties

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Ramelan, Ari Handono, E-mail: aramelan@mipa.uns.ac.id; Wahyuningsih, Sayekti; Chasanah, Uswatul

    2016-04-19

    The preparation of Al-doped ZnO (AZO) thin films prepared by the spin-coating method was reported. Preparation of AZO was conducted by annealing treatment at a temperature of 700°C. While the spin-coating process of AZO thin films were done at 2000 and 3000 rpm respectively. The structural properties of ZnO were determined by X- ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. ZnOnanostructure was formed after annealed at atemperature of 400°C.The morphology of ZnO was determined by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) showed the irregular morphology about 30-50µm in size. Al doped on ZnO influenced the optical properties of those material. Increasing Al contain on ZnO causemore » of shifting to the lower wavelength. The optical properties of the ZnO as well as AZO films showed that higher reflectance on the ultraviolet region so those materials were used as anti-reflecting agent.Al addition significantly enhance the optical transparency and induce the blue-shift in optical bandgap of ZnO films.« less

  1. ZnO quantum dot-doped graphene/h-BN/GaN-heterostructure ultraviolet photodetector with extremely high responsivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Yanghua; Wu, Zhiqian; Xu, Wenli; Lin, Shisheng

    2016-12-01

    A ZnO quantum dot photo-doped graphene/h-BN/GaN-heterostructure ultraviolet photodetector with extremely high responsivity of more than 1915 A W-1 and detectivity of more than 1.02 × 1013 Jones (Jones = cm Hz1/2 W-1) has been demonstrated. The interfaced h-BN layer increases the barrier height at the graphene/GaN heterojunction, which decreases the dark current and improves the on/off current ratio of the device. The photo-doping effect increases the barrier height and carrier concentration at the graphene/h-BN/GaN heterojunction, thus the responsivity is improved from 1473 A W-1 to 1915 A W-1 and the detectivity is improved from 5.8 × 1012 to 1.0 × 1013 Jones. Moreover, all of the responsivity and detectivity values are the highest values among all the graphene-based ultraviolet photodetectors.

  2. High performance of Ga-doped ZnO transparent conductive layers using MOCVD for GaN LED applications.

    PubMed

    Horng, Ray-Hua; Shen, Kun-Ching; Yin, Chen-Yang; Huang, Chiung-Yi; Wuu, Dong-Sing

    2013-06-17

    High performance of Ga-doped ZnO (GZO) prepared using metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) was employed in GaN blue light-emitting diodes (LEDs) as transparent conductive layers (TCL). By the post-annealing process, the annealed 800°C GZO films exhibited a high transparency above 97% at wavelength of 450 nm. The contact resistance of GZO decreased with the annealing temperature increasing. It was attributed to the improvement of the GZO crystal quality, leading to an increase in electron concentration. It was also found that some Zn atom caused from the decomposition process diffused into the p-GaN surface of LED, which generated a stronger tunneling effect at the GZO/p-GaN interface and promoted the formation of ohmic contact. Moreover, contrast to the ITO-LED, a high light extraction efficiency of 77% was achieved in the GZO-LED at injection current of 20 mA. At 350 mA injection current, the output power of 256.51 mW of GZO-LEDs, corresponding to a 21.5% enhancement as compared to ITO-LEDs was obtained; results are promising for the development of GZO using the MOCVD technique for GaN LED applications.

  3. Ti-doped ZnO Thin Films Prepared at Different Ambient Conditions: Electronic Structures and Magnetic Properties

    PubMed Central

    Yong, Zhihua; Liu, Tao; Uruga, Tomoya; Tanida, Hajime; Qi, Dongchen; Rusydi, Andrivo; Wee, Andrew T. S.

    2010-01-01

    We present a comprehensive study on Ti-doped ZnO thin films using X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (XAFS) spectroscopy. Ti K edge XAFS spectra were measured to study the electronic and chemical properties of Ti ions in the thin films grown under different ambient atmospheres. A strong dependence of Ti speciation, composition, and local structures upon the ambient conditions was observed. The XAFS results suggest a major tetrahedral coordination and a 4+ valence state. The sample grown in a mixture of 80% Ar and 20% O2 shows a portion of precipitates with higher coordination. A large distortion was observed by the Ti substitution in the ZnO lattice. Interestingly, the film prepared in 80% Ar, 20% O2 shows the largest saturation magnetic moment of 0.827 ± 0.013 µB/Ti.

  4. Influence of Ga doping ratio on the saturable absorption mechanism in Ga doped ZnO thin solid films processed by sol-gel spin coating technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandeep, K. M.; Bhat, Shreesha; Dharmaprakash, S. M.; Byrappa, K.

    2017-03-01

    In the present study, the nonlinear optical properties of sol-gel spin coated gallium doped zinc oxide (GZO) thin solid films are explored with nanosecond laser pulses using the z-scan technique. The higher doping ratios of Ga result in a large redshift of the energy gap (0.38 eV) due to the existence of enhanced grain boundary defects in GZO films. A positive nonlinear absorption coefficient is observed in undoped 1 at.wt.% GZO and 2 at.wt.% GZO films, and a negative nonlinear absorption coefficient in 3 at.wt.% GZO film. Fewer defects in undoped 1% GZO and 2% GZO films resulted in reverse saturable absorption (RSA), whereas a saturable absorption (SA) mechanism is observed in 3% GZO films and is attributed to the enhanced defect concentration in the band structure of GZO. However, all the films showed a self-defocusing mechanism, derived by a closed aperture z-scan technique. The present work sheds light on the defect mechanism involved in the observed nonlinear properties of GZO films.

  5. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy investigations of band offsets in Ga0.02Zn0.98O/ZnO heterojunction for UV photodetectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Karmvir; Rawal, Ishpal; Punia, Rajesh; Dhar, Rakesh

    2017-10-01

    Here, we report the valence and conduction band offset measurements in pure ZnO and the Ga0.02Zn0.98O/ZnO heterojunction by X-Ray photoelectron spectroscopy studies for UV photodetector applications. For detailed investigations on the band offsets and UV photodetection behavior of Ga0.02Zn0.98O/ZnO heterostructures, thin films of pristine ZnO, Ga-doped ZnO (Ga0.02Zn0.98O), and heterostructures of Ga-doped ZnO with ZnO (Ga0.02Zn0.98O/ZnO) were deposited using a pulsed laser deposition technique. The deposited thin films were characterized by X-ray diffraction, atomic force microscopy, and UV-Vis spectroscopy. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy studies were carried out on all the thin films for the investigation of valence and conduction band offsets. The valence band was found to be shifted by 0.28 eV, while the conduction band has a shifting of -0.272 eV in the Ga0.02Zn0.98O/ZnO heterojunction as compared to pristine ZnO thin films. All the three samples were analyzed for photoconduction behavior under UVA light of the intensity of 3.3 mW/cm2, and it was observed that the photoresponse of pristine ZnO (19.75%) was found to increase with 2 wt. % doping of Ga (22.62%) and heterostructured thin films (29.10%). The mechanism of UV photodetection in the deposited samples has been discussed in detail, and the interaction of chemisorbed oxygen on the ZnO surface with holes generated by UV light exposure has been the observed mechanism for the change in electrical conductivity responsible for UV photoresponse on the present deposited ZnO films.

  6. ZnO quantum dot-doped graphene/h-BN/GaN-heterostructure ultraviolet photodetector with extremely high responsivity.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yanghua; Wu, Zhiqian; Xu, Wenli; Lin, Shisheng

    2016-12-02

    A ZnO quantum dot  photo-doped graphene/h-BN/GaN-heterostructure ultraviolet photodetector with extremely high responsivity of more than 1915 A W -1 and detectivity of more than 1.02 × 10 13 Jones (Jones = cm Hz 1/2 W -1 ) has been demonstrated. The interfaced h-BN layer increases the barrier height at the graphene/GaN heterojunction, which decreases the dark current and improves the on/off current ratio of the device. The photo-doping effect increases the barrier height and carrier concentration at the graphene/h-BN/GaN heterojunction, thus the responsivity is improved from 1473 A W -1 to 1915 A W -1 and the detectivity is improved from 5.8 × 10 12 to 1.0 × 10 13 Jones. Moreover, all of the responsivity and detectivity values are the highest values among all the graphene-based ultraviolet photodetectors.

  7. Influence of electron beam irradiation on nonlinear optical properties of Al doped ZnO thin films for optoelectronic device applications in the cw laser regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antony, Albin; Pramodini, S.; Poornesh, P.; Kityk, I. V.; Fedorchuk, A. O.; Sanjeev, Ganesh

    2016-12-01

    We present the studies on third-order nonlinear optical properties of Al doped ZnO thin films irradiated with electron beam at different dose rate. Al doped ZnO thin films were deposited on a glass substrate by spray pyrolysis deposition technique. The thin films were irradiated using the 8 MeV electron beam from microtron ranging from 1 kG y to 5 kG y. Nonlinear optical studies were carried out by employing the single beam Z-scan technique to determine the sign and magnitude of absorptive and refractive nonlinearities of the irradiated thin films. Continuous wave He-Ne laser operating at 633 nm was used as source of excitation. The open aperture Z-scan measurements indicated the sample displays reverse saturable absorption (RSA) process. The negative sign of the nonlinear refractive index n2 was noted from the closed aperture Z-scan measurements indicates, the films exhibit self-defocusing property due to thermal nonlinearity. The third-order nonlinear optical susceptibility χ(3) varies from 8.17 × 10-5 esu to 1.39 × 10-3 esu with increase in electron beam irradiation. The present study reveals that the irradiation of electron beam leads to significant changes in the third-order optical nonlinearity. Al doped ZnO displays good optical power handling capability with optical clamping of about ∼5 mW. The irradiation study endorses that the Al doped ZnO under investigation is a promising candidate photonic device applications such as all-optical power limiting.

  8. Preparation of p-type GaN-doped SnO2 thin films by e-beam evaporation and their applications in p-n junction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lv, Shuliang; Zhou, Yawei; Xu, Wenwu; Mao, Wenfeng; Wang, Lingtao; Liu, Yong; He, Chunqing

    2018-01-01

    Various transparent GaN-doped SnO2 thin films were deposited on glass substrates by e-beam evaporation using GaN:SnO2 targets of different GaN weight ratios. It is interesting to find that carrier polarity of the thin films was converted from n-type to p-type with increasing GaN ratio higher than 15 wt.%. The n-p transition in GaN-doped SnO2 thin films was explained for the formation of GaSn and NO with increasing GaN doping level in the films, which was identified by Hall measurement and XPS analysis. A transparent thin film p-n junction was successfully fabricated by depositing p-type GaN:SnO2 thin film on SnO2 thin film, and a low leakage current (6.2 × 10-5 A at -4 V) and a low turn-on voltage of 1.69 V were obtained for the p-n junction.

  9. Low-Concentration Indium Doping in Solution-Processed Zinc Oxide Films for Thin-Film Transistors.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xue; Lee, Hyeonju; Kwon, Jung-Hyok; Kim, Eui-Jik; Park, Jaehoon

    2017-07-31

    We investigated the influence of low-concentration indium (In) doping on the chemical and structural properties of solution-processed zinc oxide (ZnO) films and the electrical characteristics of bottom-gate/top-contact In-doped ZnO thin-film transistors (TFTs). The thermogravimetry and differential scanning calorimetry analysis results showed that thermal annealing at 400 °C for 40 min produces In-doped ZnO films. As the In content of ZnO films was increased from 1% to 9%, the metal-oxygen bonding increased from 5.56% to 71.33%, while the metal-hydroxyl bonding decreased from 72.03% to 9.63%. The X-ray diffraction peaks and field-emission scanning microscope images of the ZnO films with different In concentrations revealed a better crystalline quality and reduced grain size of the solution-processed ZnO thin films. The thickness of the In-doped ZnO films also increased when the In content was increased up to 5%; however, the thickness decreased on further increasing the In content. The field-effect mobility and on/off current ratio of In-doped ZnO TFTs were notably affected by any change in the In concentration. Considering the overall TFT performance, the optimal In doping concentration in the solution-processed ZnO semiconductor was determined to be 5% in this study. These results suggest that low-concentration In incorporation is crucial for modulating the morphological characteristics of solution-processed ZnO thin films and the TFT performance.

  10. Shallow doping effect of ZnO treatment using atomic layer deposition process on p-type In0.53Ga0.47As

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Changmin; An, Youngseo; Choi, Sungho; Kim, Hyoungsub

    2018-06-01

    The number of atomic layer deposition (ALD) cycles for ZnO treatment was changed to study its merits and demerits as a passivation layer prior to the deposition of a HfO2 film on a p-type In0.53Ga0.47As substrate. Even a few cycles of ZnO ALD treatment was effective in improving the capacitance–voltage (C–V) characteristics by suppressing strong Fermi-level pinning, which occurred because of a high interface state density near the lower half of the In0.53Ga0.47As band gap. Increases in the number of ZnO ALD cycles induced an increase in the minimum capacitance and response of minority carriers at higher frequencies in the inversion region of the C–V characteristics. According to various temperature- and frequency-dependent C–V analyses, these changes were explained by the shallow p-type doping effect of Zn atoms in the In0.53Ga0.47As substrate. As a disadvantage, ZnO ALD treatment caused a slight increase in the dielectric leakage current.

  11. Linear facing target sputtering of the epitaxial Ga-doped ZnO transparent contact layer on GaN-based light-emitting diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Hyun-Su; Lee, Ju-Hyun; Kwak, Joon-Seop; Lee, Hyun Hwi; Kim, Han-Ki

    2013-10-01

    In this study, we reported on the plasma damage-free sputtering of epitaxial Ga-doped ZnO (GZO) films on the p-GaN layer for use as a transparent contact layer (TCL) for GaN-based light-emitting diodes (LEDs) using linear facing target sputtering (LFTS). Effective confinement of high-density plasma between faced GZO targets and the substrate position located outside of the plasma region led to the deposition of the epitaxial GZO TCL with a low sheet resistance of 25.7 Ω/s and a high transmittance of 84.6% on a p-GaN layer without severe plasma damage, which was found using the conventional dc sputtering process. The low turn-on voltage of the GaN-based LEDs with an LFTS-grown GZO TCL layer that was grown at a longer target-to-substrate distance (TSD) indicates that the plasma damage of the GaN-LED could be effectively reduced by adjusting the TSD during the LFTS process.

  12. Study on silver doped and undoped ZnO thin films working as capacitive sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiran, S.; Kumar, N. Santhosh; Kumar, S. K. Naveen

    2013-06-01

    Nanomaterials have been found to exhibit interesting properties like good conductivity, piezoelectricity, high band gap etc. among those metal oxide family, Zinc Oxide has become a material of interest among scientific community. In this paper, we present a method of fabricating capacitive sensors, in which Silver doped ZnO and pure ZnO nanoparticles act as active layer. For the synthesis of the nanoparticle, we followed biosynthesis method and wet chemical method for Ag and Ag doped ZnO nanoparticles respectively. Characterization has been done for both the particles. The XRD pattern taken for the Ag Doped ZnO nanoparticles confirmed the average size of the particles to be 15nm. AFM image of the sample is taken by doping on Silicon wafer. Also we have presented the results of CV characteristics and IV characteristics of the capacitive sensor.

  13. Hydrogen-surfactant-assisted coherent growth of GaN on ZnO substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jingzhao; Zhang, Yiou; Tse, Kinfai; Zhu, Junyi

    2018-01-01

    Heterostructures of wurtzite based devices have attracted great research interest because of the tremendous success of GaN in light emitting diodes (LED) industry. High-quality GaN thin films on inexpensive and lattice matched ZnO substrates are both commercially and technologically desirable. Intrinsic wetting conditions, however, forbid such heterostructures as the energy of ZnO polar surfaces is much lower than that of GaN polar surfaces, resulting in 3D growth mode and poor crystal quality. Based on first-principles calculations, we propose the use of surfactant hydrogen to dramatically alter the growth mode of the heterostructures. Stable H-involved surface configurations and interfaces are investigated with the help of our newly developed modelling techniques. The temperature and chemical potential dependence of our proposed strategy, which is critical in experiments, is predicted by applying the experimental Gibbs free energy of H2. Our thermodynamic wetting condition analysis is a crucial step for the growth of GaN on ZnO, and we find that introducing H will not degrade the stability of ZnO substrate. This approach will allow the growth of high-quality GaN thin films on ZnO substrates. We believe that our new strategy may reduce the manufactory cost, improve the crystal quality, and improve the efficiency of GaN-based devices.

  14. Fabrication and properties of ZnO/GaN heterostructure nanocolumnar thin film on Si (111) substrate

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Zinc oxide thin films have been obtained on bare and GaN buffer layer decorated Si (111) substrates by pulsed laser deposition (PLD), respectively. GaN buffer layer was achieved by a two-step method. The structure, surface morphology, composition, and optical properties of these thin films were investigated by X-ray diffraction, field emission scanning electron microscopy, infrared absorption spectra, and photoluminiscence (PL) spectra, respectively. Scanning electron microscopy images indicate that the flower-like grains were presented on the surface of ZnO thin films grown on GaN/Si (111) substrate, while the ZnO thin films grown on Si (111) substrate show the morphology of inclination column. PL spectrum reveals that the ultraviolet emission efficiency of ZnO thin film on GaN buffer layer is high, and the defect emission of ZnO thin film derived from Zni and Vo is low. The results demonstrate that the existence of GaN buffer layer can greatly improve the ZnO thin film on the Si (111) substrate by PLD techniques. PMID:23448090

  15. Fabrication and properties of ZnO/GaN heterostructure nanocolumnar thin film on Si (111) substrate.

    PubMed

    Wei, Xianqi; Zhao, Ranran; Shao, Minghui; Xu, Xijin; Huang, Jinzhao

    2013-02-28

    Zinc oxide thin films have been obtained on bare and GaN buffer layer decorated Si (111) substrates by pulsed laser deposition (PLD), respectively. GaN buffer layer was achieved by a two-step method. The structure, surface morphology, composition, and optical properties of these thin films were investigated by X-ray diffraction, field emission scanning electron microscopy, infrared absorption spectra, and photoluminiscence (PL) spectra, respectively. Scanning electron microscopy images indicate that the flower-like grains were presented on the surface of ZnO thin films grown on GaN/Si (111) substrate, while the ZnO thin films grown on Si (111) substrate show the morphology of inclination column. PL spectrum reveals that the ultraviolet emission efficiency of ZnO thin film on GaN buffer layer is high, and the defect emission of ZnO thin film derived from Zni and Vo is low. The results demonstrate that the existence of GaN buffer layer can greatly improve the ZnO thin film on the Si (111) substrate by PLD techniques.

  16. Effect of ZnO seed layer on the morphology and optical properties of ZnO nanorods grown on GaN buffer layers

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Nandi, R., E-mail: rajunandi@iitb.ac.in; Mohan, S., E-mail: rajunandi@iitb.ac.in; Major, S. S.

    2014-04-24

    ZnO nanorods were grown by chemical bath deposition on sputtered, polycrystalline GaN buffer layers with and without ZnO seed layer. Scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction show that the ZnO nanorods on GaN buffer layers are not vertically well aligned. Photoluminescence spectrum of ZnO nanorods grown on GaN buffer layer, however exhibits a much stronger near-band-edge emission and negligible defect emission, compared to the nanorods grown on ZnO buffer layer. These features are attributed to gallium incorporation at the ZnO-GaN interface. The introduction of a thin (25 nm) ZnO seed layer on GaN buffer layer significantly improves the morphology andmore » vertical alignment of ZnO-NRs without sacrificing the high optical quality of ZnO nanorods on GaN buffer layer. The presence of a thick (200 nm) ZnO seed layer completely masks the effect of the underlying GaN buffer layer on the morphology and optical properties of nanorods.« less

  17. Bi-layer channel structure-based oxide thin-film transistors consisting of ZnO and Al-doped ZnO with different Al compositions and stacking sequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Sung Woon; Yun, Myeong Gu; Ahn, Cheol Hyoun; Kim, So Hee; Cho, Hyung Koun

    2015-03-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO)-based bi-layers, consisting of ZnO and Al-doped ZnO (AZO) layers grown by atomic layer deposition, were utilized as the channels of oxide thin-film transistors (TFTs). Thin AZO layers (5 nm) with different Al compositions (5 and 14 at. %) were deposited on top of and beneath the ZnO layers in a bi-layer channel structure. All of the bi-layer channel TFTs that included the AZO layers showed enhanced stability (Δ V Th ≤ 3.2 V) under a positive bias stress compared to the ZnO single-layer channel TFT (Δ V Th = 4.0 V). However, the AZO/ZnO bi-layer channel TFTs with an AZO interlayer between the gate dielectric and the ZnO showed a degraded field effect mobility (0.3 cm2/V·s for 5 at. % and 1.8 cm2/V·s for 14 at. %) compared to the ZnO single-layer channel TFT (5.5 cm2/V·s) due to increased scattering caused by Al-related impurities near the gate dielectric/channel interface. In contrast, the ZnO/AZO bi-layer channel TFTs with an AZO layer on top of the ZnO layer exhibited an improved field effect mobility (7.8 cm2/V·s for 14 at. %) and better stability. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  18. Low-Concentration Indium Doping in Solution-Processed Zinc Oxide Films for Thin-Film Transistors

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xue; Lee, Hyeonju; Kim, Eui-Jik; Park, Jaehoon

    2017-01-01

    We investigated the influence of low-concentration indium (In) doping on the chemical and structural properties of solution-processed zinc oxide (ZnO) films and the electrical characteristics of bottom-gate/top-contact In-doped ZnO thin-film transistors (TFTs). The thermogravimetry and differential scanning calorimetry analysis results showed that thermal annealing at 400 °C for 40 min produces In-doped ZnO films. As the In content of ZnO films was increased from 1% to 9%, the metal-oxygen bonding increased from 5.56% to 71.33%, while the metal-hydroxyl bonding decreased from 72.03% to 9.63%. The X-ray diffraction peaks and field-emission scanning microscope images of the ZnO films with different In concentrations revealed a better crystalline quality and reduced grain size of the solution-processed ZnO thin films. The thickness of the In-doped ZnO films also increased when the In content was increased up to 5%; however, the thickness decreased on further increasing the In content. The field-effect mobility and on/off current ratio of In-doped ZnO TFTs were notably affected by any change in the In concentration. Considering the overall TFT performance, the optimal In doping concentration in the solution-processed ZnO semiconductor was determined to be 5% in this study. These results suggest that low-concentration In incorporation is crucial for modulating the morphological characteristics of solution-processed ZnO thin films and the TFT performance. PMID:28773242

  19. LPCVD homoepitaxy of Si doped β-Ga2O3 thin films on (010) and (001) substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rafique, Subrina; Karim, Md Rezaul; Johnson, Jared M.; Hwang, Jinwoo; Zhao, Hongping

    2018-01-01

    This paper presents the homoepitaxy of Si-doped β-Ga2O3 thin films on semi-insulating (010) and (001) Ga2O3 substrates via low pressure chemical vapor deposition with a growth rate of ≥1 μm/h. Both high resolution scanning transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction measurements demonstrated high crystalline quality homoepitaxial growth of these thin films. Atomic resolution STEM images of the as-grown β-Ga2O3 thin films on (010) and (001) substrates show high quality material without extended defects or dislocations. The charge carrier transport properties of the as-grown Si-doped β-Ga2O3 thin films were characterized by the temperature dependent Hall measurement using van der Pauw patterns. The room temperature carrier concentrations achieved for the (010) and (001) homoepitaxial thin films were ˜1.2 × 1018 cm-3 and ˜9.5 × 1017 cm-3 with mobilities of ˜72 cm2/V s and ˜42 cm2/V s, respectively.

  20. Low-temperature processed Ga-doped ZnO coatings from colloidal inks.

    PubMed

    Della Gaspera, Enrico; Bersani, Marco; Cittadini, Michela; Guglielmi, Massimo; Pagani, Diego; Noriega, Rodrigo; Mehra, Saahil; Salleo, Alberto; Martucci, Alessandro

    2013-03-06

    We present a new colloidal synthesis of gallium-doped zinc oxide nanocrystals that are transparent in the visible and absorb in the near-infrared. Thermal decomposition of zinc stearate and gallium nitrate after hot injection of the precursors in a mixture of organic amines leads to nanocrystals with tunable properties according to gallium amount. Substitutional Ga(3+) ions trigger a plasmonic resonance in the infrared region resulting from an increase in the free electrons concentration. These nanocrystals can be deposited by spin coating, drop casting, and spray coating resulting in homogeneous and high-quality thin films. The optical transmission of the Ga-ZnO nanoparticle assemblies in the visible is greater than 90%, and at the same time, the near-infrared absorption of the nanocrystals is maintained in the films as well. Several strategies to improve the films electrical and optical properties have been presented, such as UV treatments to remove the organic compounds responsible for the observed interparticle resistance and reducing atmosphere treatments on both colloidal solutions and thin films to increase the free carriers concentration, enhancing electrical conductivity and infrared absorption. The electrical resistance of the nanoparticle assemblies is about 30 kΩ/sq for the as-deposited, UV-exposed films, and it drops down to 300 Ω/sq after annealing in forming gas at 450 °C, comparable with state of the art tin-doped indium oxide coatings deposited from nanocrystal inks.

  1. Resistive switching: An investigation of the bipolar–unipolar transition in Co-doped ZnO thin films

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Santos, Daniel A.A., E-mail: danielandrade.ufs@gmail.com; Department of Physics, University at Buffalo, The State University of New York, Buffalo, NY 14260; Zeng, Hao

    2015-06-15

    Highlights: • A purely bipolar behavior on a Co-doped ZnO thin film has been demonstrated. • We have shown what can happen if a unipolar test is performed in a purely bipolar device. • An explanation for how a sample can show a purely bipolar switching behavior was suggested. • An important open issue about resistive switching effect was put in debate. - Abstract: In order to investigate the resistive switching effect we built devices in a planar structure in which two Al contacts were deposited on the top of the film and separated by a small gap using amore » shadow mask. Therefore, two samples of 10% Co-doped ZnO thin films were sputtered on glass substrate. High resolution X-ray diffraction (HRXRD) revealed a highly c-axis oriented crystalline structure, without secondary phase. The high resolution scanning electron microscopy (HRSEM) showed a flat surface with good coverage and thickness about 300 nm. A Keithley 2425 semiconductor characterization system was used to perform the resistive switching tests in the bipolar and unipolar modes. Considering only the effect of compliance current (CC), the devices showed a purely bipolar behavior since an increase in CC did not induce a transition to unipolar behavior.« less

  2. Effect of Pre-Annealing on Thermal and Optical Properties of ZnO and Al-ZnO Thin Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saravanan, P.; Gnanavelbabu, A.; Pandiaraj, P.

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles were synthesized by a simple solution route method using zinc acetate as the precursor and ethanol as the solvent. At a temperature of 60∘C, a clear homogenous solution is heated to 100∘C for ethanol evaporation. Then the obtained precursor powder is annealed at 600∘C for the formation of ZnO nanocrystalline structure. Doped ZnO particle is also prepared by using aluminum nitrate nonahydrate to produce aluminum (Al)-doped nanoparticles using the same solution route method followed by annealing. Thin film fabrication is done by air evaporation method using the polymer polyvinyl alcohol (PVA). To analyze the optical and thermal properties for undoped and doped ZnO nanocrystalline thin film by precursor annealing, characterizations such as UV, FTIR, AFM, TGA/DTA, XRD, EDAX and Photoluminescence (PL) were also taken. It was evident that precursor annealing had great influence on thermal and optical properties of thin films while ZnO and AZO film showed low crystallinity and intensity than in the powder form. TGA/DTA suggests pre-annealing effect improves the thermal stability, which ensures that Al ZnO nanoparticle can withstand at high temperature too which is the crucial advantage in the semiconductor devices. UV spectroscopy confirmed the presence of ZnO nanoparticles in the thin film by an absorbance peak observed at 359nm with an energy bandgap of 3.4eV. A peak obtained at 301nm with an energy bandgap of 4.12eV shows a blue shift due to the presence of Al-doped ZnO nanoparticles. Both ZnO and AZO bandgap increased due to precursor annealing. In this research, PL spectrum is also studied in order to determine the optical property of the nanoparticle embedded thin film. From PL spectrum, it is observed that the intensity of the doped ZnO is much more enhanced as the dopant concentration is increased to 1wt.% and 2wt.% of Al in ZnO.

  3. Combinatorial sputtering of Ga-doped (Zn,Mg)O for contact applications in solar cells

    DOE PAGES

    Rajbhandari, Pravakar P.; Bikowski, Andre; Perkins, John D.; ...

    2016-09-20

    In this study, the development of tunable contact materials based on environmentally friendly chemical elements using scalable deposition approaches is necessary for existing and emerging solar energy conversion technologies. In this paper, the properties of ZnO alloyed with magnesium (Mg), and doped with gallium (Ga) are studied using combinatorial thin film experiments. As a result of these studies, the optical band gap of the sputtered Zn 1-xMg xO thin films was determined to vary from 3.3 to 3.6 eV for a compositional spread of Mg content in the 0.04 < x < 0.17 range. Depending on whether or not Gamore » dopants were added, the electron concentrations were on the order of 10 17 cm -3 or 10 20 cm -3, respectively. Based on these results and on the Kelvin Probe work function measurements, a band diagram was derived using basic semiconductor physics equations. The quantitative determination of how the energy levels of Ga-doped (Zn, Mg)O thin films change as a function of Mg composition presented here, will facilitate their use as optimized contact layers for both Cu 2ZnSnS 4 (CZTS), Cu(In, Ga)Se 2 (CIGS) and other solar cell absorbers.« less

  4. Improved ohmic contact of Ga-Doped ZnO to p-GaN by using copper sulfide intermediate layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Wen; Xu, Tao; Zhang, Jianhua

    2013-11-01

    Copper sulfide (CuS) was used as the intermediate layer to build ohmic contact of Ga-Doped ZnO (GZO) transparent conduction layer (TCL) to p-GaN. The CuS and GZO layers were prepared by thermal evaporation and RF magnetron sputtering, respectively. Although the GZO-only contacts to p-GaN exhibit nonlinear behavior, ohmic contact with a specific contact resistance of 1.6 × 10-2 Ω cm2 has been realized by inserting 3 nm CuS layer between GZO and p-GaN. The optical transmittance of CuS/GZO film was measured to be higher than 80% in the range of 450-600 nm wavelength. The possible mechanism for the ohmic contact behavior can be attributed to the increased hole concentration of p-GaN surface induced by CuS films after annealing. The forward voltage of LEDs with CuS/GZO TCL has been reduced by 1.7 V at 20 mA and the output power has been increased by 29.6% at 100 mA compared with LEDs without CuS interlayer. These results indicated that using CuS intermediate layer could be a potential ohmic contact method to realize high-efficiency LEDs.

  5. Influence of Sn doping on structural, optical and electrical properties of ZnO thin films prepared by cost effective sol-gel process.

    PubMed

    Vishwas, M; Narasimha Rao, K; Arjuna Gowda, K V; Chakradhar, R P S

    2012-09-01

    Tin (Sn) doped zinc oxide (ZnO) thin films were synthesized by sol-gel spin coating method using zinc acetate di-hydrate and tin chloride di-hydrate as the precursor materials. The films were deposited on glass and silicon substrates and annealed at different temperatures in air ambient. The agglomeration of grains was observed by the addition of Sn in ZnO film with an average grain size of 60 nm. The optical properties of the films were studied using UV-VIS-NIR spectrophotometer. The optical band gap energies were estimated at different concentrations of Sn. The MOS capacitors were fabricated using Sn doped ZnO films. The capacitance-voltage (C-V), dissipation vs. voltage (D-V) and current-voltage (I-V) characteristics were studied and the electrical resistivity and dielectric constant were estimated. The porosity and surface area of the films were increased with the doping of Sn which makes these films suitable for opto-electronic applications. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. The Improvement of Electrical Characteristics of Pt/Ti Ohmic Contacts to Ga-Doped ZnO by Homogenized KrF Pulsed Excimer Laser Treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, Min-Suk

    2018-04-01

    We investigated the effect of KrF excimer laser surface treatment on Pt/Ti ohmic contacts to Ga-doped n-ZnO ( N d = 4.3 × 1017 cm-3). The treatment of the n-ZnO surfaces by laser irradiation greatly improved the electrical characteristics of the metal contacts. The Pt/Ti ohmic layer on the laser-irradiated n-ZnO showed specific contact resistances of 2.5 × 10-4 ˜ 4.8 × 10-4 Ω cm2 depending on the laser energy density and gas ambient, which were about two orders of magnitude lower than that of the as-grown sample, 8.4 × 10-2 Ω cm2. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and photoluminescence measurements showed that the KrF excimer laser treatments increased the electron concentration near the surface region of the Ga-doped n-ZnO due to the preferential evaporation of oxygen atoms from the ZnO surface by the laser-induced dissociation of Zn-O bonds.

  7. Origins of conductivity improvement in fluoride-enhanced silicon doping of ZnO films.

    PubMed

    Rashidi, Nazanin; Vai, Alex T; Kuznetsov, Vladimir L; Dilworth, Jonathan R; Edwards, Peter P

    2015-06-07

    Fluoride in spray pyrolysis precursor solutions for silicon-doped zinc oxide (SiZO) transparent conductor thin films significantly improves their electrical conductivity by enhancing silicon doping efficiency and not, as previously assumed, by fluoride doping. Containing only earth-abundant elements, SiZO thus prepared rivals the best solution-processed indium-doped ZnO in performance.

  8. Doping Nitrogen in InGaZnO Thin Film Transistor with Double Layer Channel Structure.

    PubMed

    Chang, Sheng-Po; Shan, Deng

    2018-04-01

    This paper presents the electrical characteristics of doping nitrogen in an amorphous InGaZnO thin film transistor. The IGZO:N film, which acted as a channel layer, was deposited using RF sputtering with a nitrogen and argon gas mixture at room temperature. The optimized parameters of the IGZO:N/IGZO TFT are as follows: threshold voltage is 0.5 V, field effect mobility is 14.34 cm2V-1S-1. The on/off current ratio is 106 and subthreshold swing is 1.48 V/decade. The positive gate bias stress stability of InGaZnO doping with nitrogen shows improvement compared to doping with oxygen.

  9. ZnO/Cu(InGa)Se.sub.2 solar cells prepared by vapor phase Zn doping

    DOEpatents

    Ramanathan, Kannan; Hasoon, Falah S.; Asher, Sarah E.; Dolan, James; Keane, James C.

    2007-02-20

    A process for making a thin film ZnO/Cu(InGa)Se.sub.2 solar cell without depositing a buffer layer and by Zn doping from a vapor phase, comprising: depositing Cu(InGa)Se.sub.2 layer on a metal back contact deposited on a glass substrate; heating the Cu(InGa)Se.sub.2 layer on the metal back contact on the glass substrate to a temperature range between about 100.degree. C. to about 250.degree. C.; subjecting the heated layer of Cu(InGa)Se.sub.2 to an evaporant species from a Zn compound; and sputter depositing ZnO on the Zn compound evaporant species treated layer of Cu(InGa)Se.sub.2.

  10. SHI irradiation effect on pure and Mn doped ZnO thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khawal, H. A.; Raskar, N. D.; Dole, B. N.

    2017-05-01

    Investigated the structural, surface, electrical and modifications induced by Swift Heavy Ions (SHI) irradiation on pure and Mn substituted ZnO thin films were observed. Thin films of Zn1-xMnxO (x = 0.00, 0.04) were synthesized using the dip coating technique. All thin films irradiated by Li3+ swift heavy ions with fluence 5 × 1013 ions/cm2. The XRD peak reveals that all the samples exhibit wurtzite structures. Surface morphology of samples was investigated by SEM, it was observed that pristine samples of ZnO thin film shows spherical shape but for 4 % Mn substituted ZnO thin film with 5 × 1013 ions/cm2 fluence, it reveals that big grain spherical morphology like structure respectively. I-V characteristics were recorded in the voltage range -5 to 5 V. All curves were passed through origin and nearly linear exhibit ohmic in nature for the films.

  11. Fabrication and characterization of novel transparent conducting oxide N-CNT doped ZnO for photovoltaic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benyounes, Anas; Abbas, Naseem; Hammi, Maryama; Ziat, Younes; Slassi, Amine; Zahra, Nida

    2018-02-01

    The present research reports on the electrical and optical properties of N-CNT doped with ZnO, which is considered as wurtzite transparent and conducting oxide semiconductor structure. The thin films of N-doped carbon nanotubes/ZnO were prepared using sol-gel method, then we carried out investigations in optical and electrical point of view to extract their usefulness in photovoltaic applications. For this purpose, ZnO films were doped by several ratios of carbon nanotubes and N-doped carbon nanotubes. The electrical studies were performed over these two kinds of doped ZnO films, the electrical conductivity has found to be more important for ZnO films filled with N-CNTs. This finding is pretty explained by the electronic conduction hold by nitrogen as charge carriers within carbon nanotubes.

  12. Modulation-Doped In2 O3 /ZnO Heterojunction Transistors Processed from Solution.

    PubMed

    Khim, Dongyoon; Lin, Yen-Hung; Nam, Sungho; Faber, Hendrik; Tetzner, Kornelius; Li, Ruipeng; Zhang, Qiang; Li, Jun; Zhang, Xixiang; Anthopoulos, Thomas D

    2017-05-01

    This paper reports the controlled growth of atomically sharp In 2 O 3 /ZnO and In 2 O 3 /Li-doped ZnO (In 2 O 3 /Li-ZnO) heterojunctions via spin-coating at 200 °C and assesses their application in n-channel thin-film transistors (TFTs). It is shown that addition of Li in ZnO leads to n-type doping and allows for the accurate tuning of its Fermi energy. In the case of In 2 O 3 /ZnO heterojunctions, presence of the n-doped ZnO layer results in an increased amount of electrons being transferred from its conduction band minimum to that of In 2 O 3 over the interface, in a process similar to modulation doping. Electrical characterization reveals the profound impact of the presence of the n-doped ZnO layer on the charge transport properties of the isotype In 2 O 3 /Li-ZnO heterojunctions as well as on the operating characteristics of the resulting TFTs. By judicious optimization of the In 2 O 3 /Li-ZnO interface microstructure, and Li concentration, significant enhancement in both the electron mobility and TFT bias stability is demonstrated. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Structural, optical, morphological and electrical properties of undoped and Al-doped ZnO thin films prepared using sol—gel dip coating process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boukhenoufa, N.; Mahamdi, R.; Rechem, D.

    2016-11-01

    In this work, sol—gel dip-coating technique was used to elaborate ZnO pure and ZnO/Al films. The impact of Al-doped concentration on the structural, optical, surface morphological and electrical properties of the elaborated samples was investigated. It was found that better electrical and optical performances have been obtained for an Al concentration equal to 5%, where the ZnO thin films exhibit a resistivity value equal to 1.64104 Ω·cm. Moreover, highest transparency has been recorded for the same Al concentration value. The obtained results from this investigation make the developed thin film structure a potential candidate for high optoelectronic performance applications.

  14. Photo-induced self-cleaning and sterilizing activity of Sm3+ doped ZnO nanomaterials.

    PubMed

    Saif, M; Hafez, H; Nabeel, A I

    2013-01-01

    Highly active samarium doped zinc oxide self-cleaning and biocidal surfaces (x mol% Sm(3+)/ZnO where x=0, 1, 2 and 4 mol%) with crystalline porous structures were synthesized by hydrothermal method. Sm(3+)/ZnO thin films were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscope (TEM), scanning electron microscope (SEM), energy dispersive spectroscopic (EDS), UV-visible diffuse reflectance and fluorescence (FL) spectroscopy. The combination between doping and hydrothermal treatments significantly altered the morphology of ZnO into rod and plate-like nanoshapes structure and enhanced its absorption and emission of ultraviolet radiation. The photo-activity in term of quantitative determination of the active oxidative species (()OH) produced on the thin film surfaces was evaluated using fluorescent probe method. The results showed that, the hydrothermally treated 2.0 mol% Sm(3+)/ZnO film (S2) is the highly active one. The optical, structural, morphology and photo-activity properties of the highly active thin film (S2) make it promising surface for self-cleaning and sterilizing applications. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. High quality nitrogen-doped zinc oxide thin films grown on ITO by sol-gel method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pathak, Trilok Kumar; Kumar, Vinod; Purohit, L. P.

    2015-11-01

    Highly transparent N-doped ZnO thin films were deposited on ITO coated corning glass substrate by sol-gel method. Ammonium nitrate was used as a dopant source of N with varying the doping concentration 0, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0 and 3.0 at%. The DSC analysis of prepared NZO sols is observed a phase transition at 150 °C. X-ray diffraction pattern showed the preferred (002) peak of ZnO, which was deteriorated with increased N concentrations. The transmittance of NZO thin films was observed to be ~88%. The bandgap of NZO thin films increased from 3.28 to 3.70 eV with increased N concentration from 0 to 3 at%. The maximum carrier concentration 8.36×1017 cm-3 and minimum resistivity 1.64 Ω cm was observed for 3 at% N doped ZnO thin films deposited on glass substrate. These highly transparent ZnO thin films can be used as a window layer in solar cells and optoelectronic devices.

  16. Impedance spectroscopy of undoped and Cr-doped ZnO gas sensors under different oxygen concentrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Hardan, N.; Abdullah, M. J.; Aziz, A. Abdul

    2011-08-01

    Thin films of undoped and chromium (Cr)-doped zinc oxide (ZnO) were synthesized by RF reactive co-sputtering for oxygen gas sensing applications. The prepared films showed a highly c-axis oriented phase with a dominant (0 0 2) peak appeared at a Bragg angle of around 34.13 °, which was lower than that of the standard reference of ZnO powder (34.42 °). The peak shifted to a slightly higher angle with Cr doping. The operating temperature of the ZnO gas sensor was around 350 °C, which shifted to around 250 °C with Cr-doping. The response of the sensor to oxygen gas was enhanced by doping ZnO with 1 at.% Cr. Impedance spectroscopy analysis showed that the resistance due to grain boundaries significantly contributed to the characteristics of the gas sensor.

  17. Effect of co-doping process on topography, optical and electrical properties of ZnO nanostructured

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohamed, R.; Mamat, M. H.; Malek, M. F.; Ismail, A. S.; Yusoff, M. M.; Syamsir, S. A.; Khusaimi, Z.; Rusop, M.

    2018-05-01

    We investigated of Undoped ZnO and Magnesium (Mg)-Aluminium (Al) co-doped Zinc Oxide (MAZO) nanostructured films were prepared by sol gel spin coating technique. The surface topography was analyzed using Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM). Based on the AFM results, Root Mean Square (RMS) of MAZO films have rougher surface compared to pure ZnO films. The optical and electrical properties of thin film samples were characterized using Uv-Vis spectroscopy and two point probes, current-voltage (I-V) measurements. The transmittance spectra for both thin samples was above 80% in the visible wavelength. The MAZO film shows the highest conductivity compared to pure ZnO films. This result indicates that the improvement of carrier mobility throughout doping process and possibly contribute by extra ion charge.

  18. Micro-patterned ZnO semiconductors for high performance thin film transistors via chemical imprinting with a PDMS stamp.

    PubMed

    Seong, Kieun; Kim, Kyongjun; Park, Si Yun; Kim, Youn Sang

    2013-04-07

    Chemical imprinting was conducted on ZnO semiconductor films via a chemical reaction at the contact regions between a micro-patterned PDMS stamp and ZnO films. In addition, we applied the chemical imprinting on Li doped ZnO thin films for high performance TFTs fabrication. The representative micro-patterned Li doped ZnO TFTs showed a field effect mobility of 4.2 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1) after sintering at 300 °C.

  19. ZnO thin films and nanostructures for emerging optoelectronic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogers, D. J.; Teherani, F. H.; Sandana, V. E.; Razeghi, M.

    2010-02-01

    ZnO-based thin films and nanostructures grown by PLD for various emerging optoelectronic applications. AZO thin films are currently displacing ITO for many TCO applications due to recent improvements in attainable AZO conductivity combined with processing, cost and toxicity advantages. Advances in the channel mobilities and Id on/off ratios in ZnO-based TTFTs have opened up the potential for use as a replacement for a-Si in AM-OLED and AM-LCD screens. Angular-dependent specular reflection measurements of self-forming, moth-eye-like, nanostructure arrays grown by PLD were seen to have <0.5% reflectivity over the whole visible spectrum for angles of incidence between 10 and 60 degrees. Such nanostructures may be useful for applications such as AR coatings on solar cells. Compliant ZnO layers on mismatched/amorphous substrates were shown to have potential for MOVPE regrowth of GaN. This approach could be used as a means to facilitate lift-off of GaN-based LEDs from insulating sapphire substrates and could allow the growth of InGaN-based solar cells on cheap substrates. The green gap in InGaN-based LEDs was combated by substituting low Ts PLD n-ZnO for MOCVD n-GaN in inverted hybrid heterojunctions. This approach maintained the integrity of the InGaN MQWs and gave LEDs with green emission at just over 510 nm. Hybrid n-ZnO/p-GaN heterojunctions were also seen to have the potential for UV (375 nm) EL, characteristic of ZnO NBE emission. This suggests that there was significant hole injection into the ZnO and that such LEDs could profit from the relatively high exciton binding energy of ZnO.

  20. Low operation voltage of GaN-based LEDs with Al-doped ZnO upper contact directly on p-type GaN without insert layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, P. H.; Chen, Yu An; Chang, L. C.; Lai, W. C.; Kuo, Cheng Huang

    2015-07-01

    Al-doped ZnO (AZO) film was evaporated on double-side polished sapphire, p-GaN layers, n+-InGaN-GaN short-period superlattice (SPS) structures, and GaN-based light-emitting diodes (LEDs) by e-beam. The AZO film on the p-GaN layer after thermal annealing exhibited an extremely high transparency (98% at 450 nm) and a small specific contact resistance of 2.19 × 10-2 Ω cm2, which was almost the same as that of as-deposited AZO on n+-SPS structure. With 20 mA injection current, the forward voltages were 3.30 and 3.27 V, whereas the output powers were 4.32 and 4.07 mW for the LED with AZO on insert n+-SPS upper contact and the LED with AZO on p-GaN upper contact (without insert layer), respectively. The small specific contact resistance and low operation voltage of LED with AZO on p-GaN upper contact was achieved by rapid thermal annealing (RTA) process.

  1. Aging effects of the precursor solutions on the properties of spin coated Ga-doped ZnO thin films

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Serrao, Felcy Jyothi, E-mail: jyothiserrao@gmail.com; Dharmaprakash, S. M.

    2015-06-24

    In this study, gallium doped zinc oxide thin films (GZO) were grown on a glass substrate by a simple sol-gel process and spin coating technique using zinc acetate and gallium nitrate (3at%) as precursors for Zn and Ga ions respectively. The effects of aging time of the precursor solution on the structural and optical properties of the GZO films were investigated. The surface morphology, grain size, film thickness and optical properties of the GZO films were found to depend directly on the sol aging time. XRD studies reveal that the films are polycrystalline with a hexagonal wurtzite structure and showmore » the c-axis grain orientation. Optical transmittance spectra of all the films exhibited transmittance higher than about 82% within the visible wavelength region. A sharp fundamental absorption edge with a slight blue shifting was observed with an increase in sol aging time which can be explained by Burstein-Moss effect. The result indicates that an appropriate aging time of the sol is important for the improvement of the structural and optical properties of GZO thin films derived from sol-gel method.« less

  2. Fabrication of cerium-doped β-Ga2O3 epitaxial thin films and deep ultraviolet photodetectors.

    PubMed

    Li, Wenhao; Zhao, Xiaolong; Zhi, Yusong; Zhang, Xuhui; Chen, Zhengwei; Chu, Xulong; Yang, Hujiang; Wu, Zhenping; Tang, Weihua

    2018-01-20

    High-quality cerium-doped β-Ga 2 O 3 (Ga 2 O 3 :Ce) thin films could be achieved on (0001)α-Al 2 O 3 substrates using a pulsed-laser deposition method. The impact of dopant contents concentration on crystal structure, optical absorption, photoluminescence, and photoelectric properties has been intensively studied. X-ray diffraction analysis results have shown that Ga 2 O 3 :Ce films are highly (2¯01) oriented, and the lattice spacing of the (4¯02) planes is sensitive to the Ce doping level. The prepared Ga 2 O 3 :Ce films show a sharp absorption edge at about 250 nm, meaning a high transparency to deep ultraviolet (DUV) light. The photoluminescence results revealed that the emissions were in the violet-blue-green region, which are associated with the donor-acceptor transitions with the Ce 3+ and oxygen vacancies related defects. A simple DUV photodetector device with a metal-semiconductor-metal structure has also been fabricated based on Ga 2 O 3 :Ce thin film. A distinct DUV photoresponse was obtained, suggesting a potential application in DUV photodetector devices.

  3. Effect of copper and nickel doping on the optical and structural properties of ZnO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muǧlu, G. Merhan; Sarıtaş, S.; ćakıcı, T.; Şakar, B.; Yıldırım, M.

    2017-02-01

    The present study is focused on the Cu doped ZnO and Ni doped ZnO dilute magnetic semiconductor thin films. ZnO:Cu and ZnO:Ni thin films were grown by Chemically Spray Pyrolysis (CSP) method on glass substrates. Optical analysis of the films was done spectral absorption and transmittance measurements by UV-Vis double beam spectrophotometer technique. The structure, morphology, topology and elemental analysis of ZnO:Cu and ZnO:Ni dilute magnetic thin films were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman Analysis, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), atomic force microscopy (AFM) techniques, respectively. Also The magnetic properties of the ZnO:Ni thin film was investigated by vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) method. VSM measurements of ZnO:Ni thin film showed that the ferromagnetic behavior.

  4. Electrical compensation by Ga vacancies in Ga2O3 thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korhonen, E.; Tuomisto, F.; Gogova, D.; Wagner, G.; Baldini, M.; Galazka, Z.; Schewski, R.; Albrecht, M.

    2015-06-01

    The authors have applied positron annihilation spectroscopy to study the vacancy defects in undoped and Si-doped Ga2O3 thin films. The results show that Ga vacancies are formed efficiently during metal-organic vapor phase epitaxy growth of Ga2O3 thin films. Their concentrations are high enough to fully account for the electrical compensation of Si doping. This is in clear contrast to another n-type transparent semiconducting oxide In2O3, where recent results show that n-type conductivity is not limited by cation vacancies but by other intrinsic defects such as Oi.

  5. Decrease of oxygen vacancy by Zn-doped for improving solar-blind photoelectric performance in β-Ga2O3 thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Daoyou; Qin, Xinyuan; Lv, Ming; Shi, Haoze; Su, Yuanli; Yao, Guosheng; Wang, Shunli; Li, Chaorong; Li, Peigang; Tang, Weihua

    2017-11-01

    Highly (201) oriented Zn-doped β-Ga2O3 thin films with different dopant concentrations were grown on (0001) sapphire substrates by radio frequency magnetron sputtering. With the increase of Zn dopant concentration, the crystal lattice expands, the energy band gap shrinks, and the oxygen vacancy concentration decreases. Both the metal semiconductor metal (MSM) structure photodetectors based on the pure and Zn-doped β-Ga2O3 thin films exhibit solar blind UV photoelectric property. Compared to the pure β-Ga2O3 photodetector, the Zn-doped one exhibits a lower dark current, a higher photo/dark current ratio, a faster photoresponse speed, which can be attributed to the decreases of oxygen vacancy concentration.[Figure not available: see fulltext.

  6. Enhanced photoelectrochemical and optical performance of ZnO films tuned by Cr doping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salem, M.; Akir, S.; Massoudi, I.; Litaiem, Y.; Gaidi, M.; Khirouni, K.

    2017-04-01

    In this paper, pure and Cr-doped nanostructured Zinc oxide thin films were synthesized by simple and low cost co-precipitation and spin-coating method with Cr concentration varying between 0.5 and 5 at.%. Crystalline structure of the prepared films was investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Raman spectroscopy techniques. XRD analysis indicated that the films were indexed as the hexagonal phase of wurtzite-type structure and demonstrated a decrease in the crystallite size with increasing Cr doping content. Cr doping revealed a significant effect on the optical measurements such as transmission and photoluminescence properties. The optical measurements indicated that Cr doping decreases the optical band gap and it has been shifted from 3.41 eV for pure ZnO film to 3.31 eV for 5 at.% Cr-doped one. The photoelectrochemical (PEC) sensing characteristics of Cr-doped ZnO layers were investigated. Amongst all photo-anodes with different Cr dopant concentration, the 2 at.% Cr incorporated ZnO films exhibited fast response and higher photoconduction sensitivity.

  7. Doping effect on SILAR synthesized crystalline nanostructured Cu-doped ZnO thin films grown on indium tin oxide (ITO) coated glass substrates and its characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhaygude, H. D.; Shinde, S. K.; Velhal, Ninad B.; Takale, M. V.; Fulari, V. J.

    2016-08-01

    In the present study, a novel chemical route is used to synthesize the undoped and Cu-doped ZnO thin films in aqueous solution by successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) method. The synthesized thin films are characterized by x-ray diffractometer (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), energy dispersive x-ray analysis (EDAX), contact angle goniometer and UV-Vis spectroscopic techniques. XRD study shows that the prepared films are polycrystalline in nature with hexagonal crystal structure. The change in morphology for different doping is observed in the studies of FE-SEM. EDAX spectrum shows that the thin films consist of zinc, copper and oxygen elements. Contact angle goniometer is used to measure the contact angle between a liquid and a solid interface and after detection, the nature of the films is initiated from hydrophobic to hydrophilic. The optical band gap energy for direct allowed transition ranging between 1.60-2.91 eV is observed.

  8. Visible electroluminescence from a ZnO nanowires/p-GaN heterojunction light emitting diode.

    PubMed

    Baratto, C; Kumar, R; Comini, E; Faglia, G; Sberveglieri, G

    2015-07-27

    In the current paper we apply catalyst assisted vapour phase growth technique to grow ZnO nanowires (ZnO nws) on p-GaN thin film obtaining EL emission in reverse bias regime. ZnO based LED represents a promising alternative to III-nitride LEDs, as in free devices: the potential is in near-UV emission and visible emission. For ZnO, the use of nanowires ensures good crystallinity of the ZnO, and improved light extraction from the interface when the nanowires are vertically aligned. We prepared ZnO nanowires in a tubular furnace on GaN templates and characterized the p-n ZnO nws/GaN heterojunction for LED applications. SEM microscopy was used to study the growth of nanowires and device preparation. Photoluminescence (PL) and Electroluminescence (EL) spectroscopies were used to characterize the heterojunction, showing that good quality of PL emission is observed from nanowires and visible emission from the junction can be obtained from the region near ZnO contact, starting from onset bias of 6V.

  9. InGaN/GaN blue light emitting diodes using Al-doped ZnO grown by atomic layer deposition as a current spreading layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, Bo Hyun; Cho, Hyung Koun; Kim, Mi Yang; Choi, Rak Jun; Kim, Bae Kyun

    2011-07-01

    For the fabrication of InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well-based blue light emitting diodes (LEDs) showing large area emission, transparent Al-doped ZnO (AZO) films grown by atomic layer deposition at relatively low temperatures were introduced as current spreading layers. These AZO films with an Al content of 3 at% showed a low electrical resistivity of <10 -3-10 -4 Ω cm, a high carrier concentration of >10 20 cm -3, and an excellent optical transmittance of ˜85%, in spite of the low growth temperature. The deposition of the AZO film induced an intense blue emission from the whole surface of the p-GaN and weak ultraviolet emission from the n-AZO and p-GaN junction. At an injection current of 50 mA, the output powers of the blue LEDs were 1760 and 1440 mcd for the samples with AZO thicknesses of 100 and 300 nm, respectively.

  10. Fabrication of Vertical Organic Light-Emitting Transistor Using ZnO Thin Film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamauchi, Hiroshi; Iizuka, Masaaki; Kudo, Kazuhiro

    2007-04-01

    Organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) combined with thin film transistor (TFT) are well suitable elements for low-cost, large-area active matrix displays. On the other hand, zinc oxide (ZnO) is a transparent material and its electrical conductivity is controlled from conductive to insulating by growth conditions. The drain current of ZnO FET is 180 μA. The OLED uses ZnO thin film (Al-doped) for the electron injection layer and is controlled by radio frequency (rf) and direct current (dc) sputtering conditions, such as Al concentration and gas pressure. Al concentration in the ZnO film and deposition rate have strong effects on electron injection. Furthermore, the OLED driven by ZnO FET shows a luminance of 13 cd/m2, a luminance efficiency of 0.7 cd/A, and an on-off ratio of 650.

  11. Tuning the emission of ZnO nanorods based light emitting diodes using Ag doping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Echresh, Ahmad; Chey, Chan Oeurn; Shoushtari, Morteza Zargar; Nur, Omer; Willander, Magnus

    2014-11-01

    We have fabricated, characterized, and compared ZnO nanorods/p-GaN and n-Zn0.94Ag0.06O nanorods/p-GaN light emitting diodes (LEDs). Current-voltage measurement showed an obvious rectifying behaviour of both LEDs. A reduction of the optical band gap of the Zn0.94Ag0.06O nanorods compared to pure ZnO nanorods was observed. This reduction leads to decrease the valence band offset at n-Zn0.94Ag0.06O nanorods/p-GaN interface compared to n-ZnO nanorods/p-GaN heterojunction. Consequently, this reduction leads to increase the hole injection from the GaN to the ZnO. From electroluminescence measurement, white light was observed for the n-Zn0.94Ag0.06O nanorods/p-GaN heterojunction LEDs under forward bias, while for the reverse bias, blue light was observed. While for the n-ZnO nanorods/p-GaN blue light dominated the emission in both forward and reverse biases. Further, the LEDs exhibited a high sensitivity in responding to UV illumination. The results presented here indicate that doping ZnO nanorods might pave the way to tune the light emission from n-ZnO/p-GaN LEDs.

  12. Effect of Fe incorporation on the optical behavior of ZnO thin films prepared by sol-gel derived spin coating techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rakkesh, R. Ajay; Malathi, R.; Balakumar, S.

    2013-02-01

    In this work, Fe doped Zinc Oxide (ZnO) thin films were fabricated on the glass substrate by sol-gel derived spin coating technique. X-ray Diffraction studies revealed that the obtained pure and Fe doped ZnO thin films were in the wurtzite and spinel phase respectively. The three well defined Raman lines at 432, 543 and 1091 cm-1 also confirmed the lattice structure of the ZnO thin film has wurtzite symmetry. While doping Fe atoms in the ZnO, there was a significant change in the phase from wurtzite to spinel structure; owing to Fe (III) ions being incorporated into the lattice through substitution of Zn (II) ions. Room temperature PL spectra showed that the role of defect mediated red emissions at 612 nm was due to radial recombination of a photogenerated hole with an electron that belongs to the Fe atoms, which were discussed in detail.

  13. Enhanced Performance of GaN-Based Green Light-Emitting Diodes with Gallium-Doped ZnO Transparent Conducting Oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, Min-Suk; Seo, Inseok

    2014-04-01

    Ga-doped ZnO (GZO) transparent conducting oxide was grown by oxygen plasma-enhanced pulsed laser deposition. GZO grown in the presence of oxygen radicals had resistivity of 1 × 10-3 Ω cm and average visible (500-700 nm) transmittance of 92.5%. A low specific contact resistance of 6.5 × 10-4 Ω cm2 of GZO on p-GaN was achieved by excimer laser annealing (ELA) treatment of p-GaN before GZO electrode deposition. The ELA-treated light emitting diode (LED) fabricated with the GZO electrode as a current-spreading layer resulted in light-output power enhanced by 56.2% at 100 mA compared with that fabricated with a conventional Ni/Au metal electrode. The high-light output and low degradation of light-output power were attributed to the decrease in contact resistance between the p-GaN layer and the GZO electrode and uniform current spreading over the p-GaN layer. In addition, low contact resistance results in a decrease of self-heat generation during current drive.

  14. Growth and Characterization of Sn Doped β-Ga2O3 Thin Films and Enhanced Performance in a Solar-Blind Photodetector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Xiaolong; Cui, Wei; Wu, Zhenping; Guo, Daoyou; Li, Peigang; An, Yuehua; Li, Linghong; Tang, Weihua

    2017-04-01

    Ga2- x Sn x O3 thin films were deposited on c-plane Al2O3 (0001) substrates with different Sn content by laser molecular beam epitaxy technology (L-MBE). The Sn content x was varied from 0 to 1.0. (bar{2}01) oriented β-phase Ga2- x Sn x O3 thin films were obtained at the substrate temperature of 850°C in the vacuum pressure of 5 × 10-5 Pa. The crystal lattice expanded and the energy band-gap decreased with the increase of Sn content for Sn4+ ions incorporated into the Ga site. The n-type conductivity was generated effectively through doping Sn4+ ions in the Ga2O3 lattice in the oxygen-poor conditions. The solar-blind (SB) photodetectors (PDs) based on Ga2- x Sn x O3 ( x = 0, 0.2) thin films were fabricated. The current intensity and responsivity almost increased by one order of magnitude and the relaxation time constants became shorter for x = 0.2. Our work suggests that the performance of PD can be improved by doping Sn4+ ions in Ga2O3 thin films.

  15. Influence of annealing temperature on optical properties of Al doped ZnO nanoparticles via sol-gel methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rashid, Affa Rozana Abd; Hazwani, Tuan Nur; Mukhtar, Wan Maisarah; Taib, Nur Athirah Mohd

    2018-06-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) thin films have become technologically important materials due to their wide range of electrical and optical properties. The characteristics can be further adjusted by adequate doping processes. The effect of dopant concentration of Al, heating treatment and annealing in reducing atmosphere on the optical properties of the thin films is discussed. Undoped and aluminum-doped zinc oxide (AZO) thin films are prepared by the sol-gel method. Zinc acetate dihydrate, 2-methoxyethanol and monoethanolamine are used as precursor, solvent and stabilizer. In the case of AZO, aluminum nitrate nanohydrate is added to the precursor solution with an atomic percentage equal to 0 %, 1 %, 2 % and 3 % of Al. The multi thin layers are transformed into ZnO upon annealing at 450 °C and 500 °C. The optical properties such as transmittance, absorbance, band gap and refractive index of the thin films have been investigated by using UV-Visible Spectroscopy (UV-Vis). The results show that the effect of aluminium dopant concentration on the optical properties is depend on the post-heat treatment of the films. By doping with Al, the transmittance spectra in visible range increased and widen the band gap of ZnO which might due to Burstein-moss effects.

  16. Evolution of dielectric function of Al-doped ZnO thin films with thermal annealing: effect of band gap expansion and free-electron absorption.

    PubMed

    Li, X D; Chen, T P; Liu, Y; Leong, K C

    2014-09-22

    Evolution of dielectric function of Al-doped ZnO (AZO) thin films with annealing temperature is observed. It is shown that the evolution is due to the changes in both the band gap and the free-electron absorption as a result of the change of free-electron concentration of the AZO thin films. The change of the electron concentration could be attributed to the activation of Al dopant and the creation/annihilation of the donor-like defects like oxygen vacancy in the thin films caused by annealing.

  17. Study of Doped ZnO Films Synthesized by Combining Vapor Gases and Pulsed Laser Deposition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhu, Shen; Su, Ching-Hua; Lehoczky, Sandor L.; George, M. A.

    2000-01-01

    The properties and structure of the ZnO material are similar to those of the GaN. Since an excitonic binding energy of ZnO is about 60 meV, it has strong potential for excitonic lasing at the room temperature. This makes synthesizing ZnO films for applications attractive. However, there are several hurdles in fabricating electro-optical devices from ZnO. One of those is in growing doped p-type ZnO films. Although techniques have been developed for the doping of both p-type and n-type ZnO, this remains an area that can be improved. In this presentation, we will report the experimental results of using both thermal vapor and pulsed laser deposition to grow doped ZnO films. The films are deposited on (0001) sapphire, (001) Si and quartz substrates by ablating a ZnO target. The group III and V elements are introduced into the growth chamber using inner gases. Films are characterized by x-ray diffraction, scanning probe microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy, Auger electron spectroscopy, and electrical measurements. The full width at half maximum of theta rocking curves for epitaxial films is less than 0.5 deg. In textured films, it rises to several degrees. Film surface morphology reveals an island growth pattern, but the size and density of these islands vary with the composition of the reactive gases. The electrical resistivity also changes with the doped elements. The relationship between the doping elements, gas composition, and film properties will be discussed.

  18. Effect of substrate on thermoelectric properties of Al-doped ZnO thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mele, P.; Saini, S.; Honda, H.; Matsumoto, K.; Miyazaki, K.; Hagino, H.; Ichinose, A.

    2013-06-01

    We have prepared 2% Al doped ZnO (AZO) thin films on SrTiO3 (STO) and Al2O3 substrates by Pulsed Laser Deposition technique at various deposition temperatures (Tdep = 300 °C-600 °C). Transport and thermoelectric properties of AZO thin films were studied in low temperature range (300 K-600 K). AZO/STO films present superior performance respect to AZO/Al2O3 films deposited at the same temperature, except for films deposited at 400 °C. Best film is the fully c-axis oriented AZO/STO deposited at 300 °C, which epitaxial strain and dislocation density are the lowest: electrical conductivity 310 S/cm, Seebeck coefficient -65 μV/K, and power factor 0.13 × 10-3 W m-1 K-2 at 300 K. Its performance increases with temperature. For instance, power factor is enhanced up to 0.55 × 10-3 W m-1 K-2 at 600 K, surpassing the best AZO film previously reported in literature.

  19. Spectroscopic Study of Deep Level Emissions from Acceptor Defects in ZnO Thin Films with Oxygen Rich Stoichiometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ilyas, Usman; Rawat, R. S.; Tan, T. L.

    2013-10-01

    This paper reports the tailoring of acceptor defects in oxygen rich ZnO thin films at different post-deposition annealing temperatures (500-800°C) and Mn doping concentrations. The XRD spectra exhibited the nanocrystalline nature of ZnO thin films along with inconsistent variation in lattice parameters suggesting the temperature-dependent activation of structural defects. Photoluminescence emission spectra revealed the temperature dependent variation in deep level emissions (DLE) with the presence of acceptors as dominating defects. The concentration of native defects was estimated to be increased with temperature while a reverse trend was observed for those with increasing doping concentration. A consistent decrease in DLE spectra, with increasing Mn content, revealed the quenching of structural defects in the optical band gap of ZnO favorable for good quality thin films with enhanced optical transparency.

  20. On the dependence of structural and ammonia gas sensing properties of ZnO thin films on Mg doping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goudarzi, Saeideh; Khojier, Kaykhosrow

    2018-01-01

    Ammonia is one of the most hazardous substances and it is extremely toxic if inhaled above the moderate level. Therefore, the detection of the ammonia at low concentration levels and at room temperature is one of the most challenging tasks. Among different methods to this goal, metal oxide semiconductors (MOSs) based vapor or gas sensors are mostly preferred because of their fast and high response, and cost effectiveness. This research reports the effect of Mg doping on structural and ammonia gas sensing properties of zinc oxide thin films. The spray pyrolysis technique was employed to deposit undoped and Mg-doped ZnO thin films on glass substrates. Doping concentration was varied from 0.003 to 0.009 M in steps of 0.002 M. The crystalline structure of the samples was confirmed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis while a field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM) was used to study the surface physical morphology of the samples. The sensitivity of the samples was investigated to ammonia gas with different concentrations in the range of 10 to 100 ppm at room temperature. The results reveal that the best sensitivity is attributed to the sample doped with 0.005 M Mg while an increase in Mg concentration results in a reduction in the sensitivity of the samples.

  1. Comparative study for highly Al and Mg doped ZnO thin films elaborated by sol gel method for photovoltaic application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Hallani, G.; Nasih, S.; Fazouan, N.; Liba, A.; Khuili, M.; Sajieddine, M.; Mabrouki, M.; Laanab, L.; Atmani, E. H.

    2017-04-01

    Transparent conducting oxides such as ZnO doped with Al or Mg are commonly used in solar cells, light emitting diodes, photodetectors, and ultraviolet laser diodes. In our work, we focus on a comparative study of the structural, optical, and electrical properties of ZnO films highly doped with Al (AZO) and Mg (MZO). These films are deposited on glass substrates by the sol-gel spin coating method. The doping concentrations for Al and Mg are fixed to 5%-30%. The XRD spectra indicate that all the samples are polycrystalline with hexagonal wurtzite structures, exhibiting a preferred orientation along the (002) plane. Low degradation in crystallinity was observed for MZO even at a Mg concentration of 30%. The MgO phase started to appear compared to Al-doped layers where smaller grains are formed inducing a deterioration in the films just after doping but no new phase appeared. This result is in agreement with other experimental results [J. K. Rath, Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 76, 431-487 (2003); Morris et al., J. Appl. Phys. 67, 1079-1087 (1990)]. By AFM analysis, the results indicate a significantly rough surface for MZO compared to AZO films. For equal Al and Mg dopant concentrations, we observe that the transmittance spectra of MZO thin films are wider than those of AZO, indicating a shift toward shorter wavelengths with an optical gap energy equal to 3.67 eV. The electrical measurements of AZO and MZO thin films were made using the I-V characteristic obtained by the four probe method. All the films present an ohmic behavior. The conductivity and the mobility of AZO films were found to be better than those of MZO.

  2. Improvement of GaN light-emitting diodes with surface-treated Al-doped ZnO transparent Ohmic contacts by holographic photonic crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, W. F.; Liu, Z. G.; Xie, Y. N.; Cai, J. F.; Liu, S.; Gong, H.; Wu, Z. Y.

    2012-06-01

    This letter presents a holographic photonic crystal (H-PhC) Al-doped ZnO (AZO) transparent Ohmic contact layer on p-GaN to increase the light output of GaN-based LEDs without destroying the p-GaN. The operating voltage of the PhC LEDs at 20 mA was almost the same as that of the typical planar AZO LEDs. While the resultant PhC LED devices exhibited significant improvements in light extraction, up to 1.22 times that of planar AZO LEDs without PhC integration. Temperature dependence of the integrated photoluminescence intensity indicates that this improvement can be attributed to the increased extraction efficiency due to the surface modification. These results demonstrate that the surface-treated AZO layer by H-PhCs is suitable for fabricating high-brightness GaN-based LEDs.

  3. Effect of precursor on epitaxially grown of ZnO thin film on p-GaN/sapphire (0 0 0 1) substrate by hydrothermal technique

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Sahoo, Trilochan; Ju, Jin-Woo; Kannan, V.

    2008-03-04

    Single crystalline ZnO thin film on p-GaN/sapphire (0 0 0 1) substrate, using two different precursors by hydrothermal route at a temperature of 90 deg. C were successfully grown. The effect of starting precursor on crystalline nature, surface morphology and optical emission of the films were studied. ZnO thin films were grown in aqueous solution of zinc acetate and zinc nitrate. X-ray diffraction analysis revealed that all the thin films were single crystalline in nature and exhibited wurtzite symmetry and c-axis orientation. The thin films obtained with zinc nitrate had a more pitted rough surface morphology compared to the filmmore » grown in zinc acetate. However the thickness of the films remained unaffected by the nature of the starting precursor. Sharp luminescence peaks were observed from the thin films almost at identical energies but deep level emission was slightly prominent for the thin film grown in zinc nitrate.« less

  4. Efficiencies of Eu{sup 3+} ions and hydrogen atoms as donors in ZnO thin films

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Akazawa, Housei, E-mail: akazawa.housei@lab.ntt.co.jp

    2016-09-15

    The donor efficiencies of Eu{sup 3+} ions and hydrogen atoms in ZnO crystalline films were investigated with reference to that of Ga{sup 3+} ions. It was found that Eu{sup 3+} ions acted as extrinsic donors in ZnO:Eu films, yielding a resistivity of 1.8 × 10{sup −3} Ω cm at a doping level of 1 at. %. This value is comparable to one for intrinsic donors in undoped ZnO films. The conductivity was maintained as the deposition temperature was increased to 200 °C, and this is evidence for the contribution of extrinsic donors. Deposition of Ga-doped and Eu-doped ZnO films in an H{sub 2}O gasmore » flow produced oxyhydrogenated ZnO:(Ga, H) and ZnO:(Eu, H) films in which the Ga{sup 3+} and Eu{sup 3+} donors were deactivated by oxidization. Nevertheless, hydrogen donors contributed to electrical conduction yielding a resistivity of 1 × 10{sup −2} Ω cm. Postannealing in an H{sub 2} gas ambient alleviated the excessive oxidization of the films and thereby reactivated the donor action of Ga{sup 3+} and Eu{sup 3+} ions, causing the resistivity to recover to 10{sup −3} Ω cm for ZnO:(Ga, H) and 10{sup −2} Ω cm for ZnO:(Eu, H). In contrast, vacuum annealing of ZnO:(Ga, H) and ZnO:(Eu, H) films increased resistivity through removal of hydrogen donors while not affecting the oxidized condition of the samples.« less

  5. Removal of micrometer size morphological defects and enhancement of ultraviolet emission by thermal treatment of Ga-doped ZnO nanostructures.

    PubMed

    Manzoor, Umair; Kim, Do K; Islam, Mohammad; Bhatti, Arshad S

    2014-01-01

    Mixed morphologies of Ga-doped Zinc Oxide (ZnO) nanostructures are synthesized by vapor transport method. Systematic scanning electron microscope (SEM) studies of different morphologies, after periodic heat treatments, gives direct evidence of sublimation. SEM micrographs give direct evidence that morphological defects of nanostructures can be removed by annealing. Ultra Violet (UV) and visible emission depends strongly on the annealing temperatures and luminescent efficiency of UV emission is enhanced significantly with each subsequent heat treatment. X-Ray diffraction (XRD) results suggest that crystal quality improved by annealing and phase separation may occur at high temperatures.

  6. Performance enhancement in Sb doped Cu(InGa)Se2 thin film solar cell by e-beam evaporation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jieyi; Shen, Honglie; Zhai, Zihao; Li, Yufang; Yi, Yunge

    2018-03-01

    To investigate the effects of Sb doping on the structural and electrical properties of Cu(InGa)Se2 (CIGS) thin films and solar cells, CIGS thin films, prepared by e-beam evaporation on soda-lime glass, were doped with lower and upper Sb layers in the precursor stacks respectively. Change of structure and introduction of stress were observed in the CIGS thin films with upper Sb layer in stack through XRD and Raman measurement. Both crystalline quality and compactness of CIGS thin films were improved by the doping of upper Sb layer in stack and the CIGS thin film showed an optimal structural property with 20 nm Sb layer. Movement of Fermi level of the surface of CIGS thin film after doping of upper Sb layer in stack and electrons transfer between Cu/Cu+ redox couple and CIGS thin films, which provided probability for the substitution of Sb for Cu sites at the surface of CIGS thin films, were proposed to explain the migration of Cu from the surface to the bulk of CIGS thin films. The larger barrier at the CIGS/CdS interface after doping of upper Sb layer in stack made contribution to the increase of VOC of CIGS solar cells. The efficiency of CIGS solar cell was improved from 3.3% to 7.2% after doping with 20 nm upper Sb. Compared to the CIGS solar cell with lower Sb layer in stack, in which an additional Cu2-xSe phase was found, the CIGS solar cell with upper Sb layer in stack possessed a higher efficiency.

  7. Doping assessment in GaAs nanowires.

    PubMed

    Goktas, N Isik; Fiordaliso, E M; LaPierre, R R

    2018-06-08

    Semiconductor nanowires (NWs) are a candidate technology for future optoelectronic devices. One of the critical issues in NWs is the control of impurity doping for the formation of p-n junctions. In this study, beryllium (p-type dopant) and tellurium (n-type dopant) in self-assisted GaAs NWs was studied. The GaAs NWs were grown on (111) Si by molecular beam epitaxy using the self-assisted method. The dopant incorporation in the self-assisted GaAs NWs was investigated using Raman spectroscopy, photoluminescence, secondary ion mass spectrometry and electron holography. Be-doped NWs showed similar carrier concentration as compared to thin film (TF) standards. However, Te-doped NWs showed at least a one order of magnitude lower carrier concentration as compared to TF standards. Dopant incorporation mechanisms in NWs are discussed.

  8. Doping assessment in GaAs nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isik Goktas, N.; Fiordaliso, E. M.; LaPierre, R. R.

    2018-06-01

    Semiconductor nanowires (NWs) are a candidate technology for future optoelectronic devices. One of the critical issues in NWs is the control of impurity doping for the formation of p–n junctions. In this study, beryllium (p-type dopant) and tellurium (n-type dopant) in self-assisted GaAs NWs was studied. The GaAs NWs were grown on (111) Si by molecular beam epitaxy using the self-assisted method. The dopant incorporation in the self-assisted GaAs NWs was investigated using Raman spectroscopy, photoluminescence, secondary ion mass spectrometry and electron holography. Be-doped NWs showed similar carrier concentration as compared to thin film (TF) standards. However, Te-doped NWs showed at least a one order of magnitude lower carrier concentration as compared to TF standards. Dopant incorporation mechanisms in NWs are discussed.

  9. Enhanced Performance in Al-Doped ZnO Based Transparent Flexible Transparent Thin-Film Transistors Due to Oxygen Vacancy in ZnO Film with Zn-Al-O Interfaces Fabricated by Atomic Layer Deposition.

    PubMed

    Li, Yang; Yao, Rui; Wang, Huanhuan; Wu, Xiaoming; Wu, Jinzhu; Wu, Xiaohong; Qin, Wei

    2017-04-05

    Highly conductive and optical transparent Al-doped ZnO (AZO) thin film composed of ZnO with a Zn-Al-O interface was fabricated by thermal atomic layer deposition (ALD) method. The as-prepared AZO thin film exhibits excellent electrical and optical properties with high stability and compatibility with temperature-sensitive flexible photoelectronic devices; film resistivity is as low as 5.7 × 10 -4 Ω·cm, the carrier concentration is high up to 2.2 × 10 21 cm -3 . optical transparency is greater than 80% in a visible range, and the growth temperature is below 150 °C on the PEN substrate. Compared with the conventional AZO film containing by a ZnO-Al 2 O 3 interface, we propose that the underlying mechanism of the enhanced electrical conductivity for the current AZO thin film is attributed to the oxygen vacancies deficiency derived from the free competitive growth mode of Zn-O and Al-O bonds in the Zn-Al-O interface. The flexible transparent transistor based on this AZO electrode exhibits a favorable threshold voltage and I on /I off ratio, showing promising for use in high-resolution, fully transparent, and flexible display applications.

  10. Synergistic effect of Indium and Gallium co-doping on growth behavior and physical properties of hydrothermally grown ZnO nanorods.

    PubMed

    Lim, Jun Hyung; Lee, Seung Muk; Kim, Hyun-Suk; Kim, Hyun You; Park, Jozeph; Jung, Seung-Boo; Park, Geun Chul; Kim, Jungho; Joo, Jinho

    2017-02-03

    We synthesized ZnO nanorods (NRs) using simple hydrothermal method, with the simultaneous incorporation of gallium (Ga) and indium (In), in addition, investigated the co-doping effect on the morphology, microstructure, electronic structure, and electrical/optical properties. The growth behavior of the doped NRs was affected by the nuclei density and polarity of the (001) plane. The c-axis parameter of the co-doped NRs was similar to that of undoped NRs due to the compensated lattice distortion caused by the presence of dopants that are both larger (In 3+ ) and smaller (Ga 3+ ) than the host Zn 2+ cations. Red shifts in the ultraviolet emission peaks were observed in all doped NRs, owing to the combined effects of NR size, band gap renormalization, and the presence of stacking faults created by the dopant-induced lattice distortions. In addition, the NR/p-GaN diodes using co-doped NRs exhibited superior electrical conductivity compared to the other specimens due to the increase in the charge carrier density of NRs and the relatively large effective contact area of (001) planes. The simultaneous doping of In and Ga is therefore anticipated to provide a broader range of optical, physical, and electrical properties of ZnO NRs for a variety of opto-electronic applications.

  11. Synergistic effect of Indium and Gallium co-doping on growth behavior and physical properties of hydrothermally grown ZnO nanorods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Jun Hyung; Lee, Seung Muk; Kim, Hyun-Suk; Kim, Hyun You; Park, Jozeph; Jung, Seung-Boo; Park, Geun Chul; Kim, Jungho; Joo, Jinho

    2017-02-01

    We synthesized ZnO nanorods (NRs) using simple hydrothermal method, with the simultaneous incorporation of gallium (Ga) and indium (In), in addition, investigated the co-doping effect on the morphology, microstructure, electronic structure, and electrical/optical properties. The growth behavior of the doped NRs was affected by the nuclei density and polarity of the (001) plane. The c-axis parameter of the co-doped NRs was similar to that of undoped NRs due to the compensated lattice distortion caused by the presence of dopants that are both larger (In3+) and smaller (Ga3+) than the host Zn2+ cations. Red shifts in the ultraviolet emission peaks were observed in all doped NRs, owing to the combined effects of NR size, band gap renormalization, and the presence of stacking faults created by the dopant-induced lattice distortions. In addition, the NR/p-GaN diodes using co-doped NRs exhibited superior electrical conductivity compared to the other specimens due to the increase in the charge carrier density of NRs and the relatively large effective contact area of (001) planes. The simultaneous doping of In and Ga is therefore anticipated to provide a broader range of optical, physical, and electrical properties of ZnO NRs for a variety of opto-electronic applications.

  12. Synergistic effect of Indium and Gallium co-doping on growth behavior and physical properties of hydrothermally grown ZnO nanorods

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Jun Hyung; Lee, Seung Muk; Kim, Hyun-Suk; Kim, Hyun You; Park, Jozeph; Jung, Seung-Boo; Park, Geun Chul; Kim, Jungho; Joo, Jinho

    2017-01-01

    We synthesized ZnO nanorods (NRs) using simple hydrothermal method, with the simultaneous incorporation of gallium (Ga) and indium (In), in addition, investigated the co-doping effect on the morphology, microstructure, electronic structure, and electrical/optical properties. The growth behavior of the doped NRs was affected by the nuclei density and polarity of the (001) plane. The c-axis parameter of the co-doped NRs was similar to that of undoped NRs due to the compensated lattice distortion caused by the presence of dopants that are both larger (In3+) and smaller (Ga3+) than the host Zn2+ cations. Red shifts in the ultraviolet emission peaks were observed in all doped NRs, owing to the combined effects of NR size, band gap renormalization, and the presence of stacking faults created by the dopant-induced lattice distortions. In addition, the NR/p-GaN diodes using co-doped NRs exhibited superior electrical conductivity compared to the other specimens due to the increase in the charge carrier density of NRs and the relatively large effective contact area of (001) planes. The simultaneous doping of In and Ga is therefore anticipated to provide a broader range of optical, physical, and electrical properties of ZnO NRs for a variety of opto-electronic applications. PMID:28155879

  13. Positron annihilation spectroscopy in doped p-type ZnO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majumdar, Sayanee; Sanyal, D.

    2011-07-01

    Positron annihilation lifetime (PAL) spectroscopy has been used to investigate the vacancy type defect of the Li and N doped ZnO. The mono-vacancies, shallow -vacancies and open volume defects have been found in both the Li and N doped ZnO. The mono-vacancies, shallow-vacancies and open volume defects increase in N-doped ZnO as the size of N is quite high compared to Li. Positron annihilation study showed that the doping above 1-3% Li and 3-4% N in ZnO are not required in order to achieve low resistivity, high hole concentration and good mobility.

  14. Polarity in GaN and ZnO: Theory, measurement, growth, and devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zúñiga-Pérez, Jesús; Consonni, Vincent; Lymperakis, Liverios; Kong, Xiang; Trampert, Achim; Fernández-Garrido, Sergio; Brandt, Oliver; Renevier, Hubert; Keller, Stacia; Hestroffer, Karine; Wagner, Markus R.; Reparaz, Juan Sebastián; Akyol, Fatih; Rajan, Siddharth; Rennesson, Stéphanie; Palacios, Tomás; Feuillet, Guy

    2016-12-01

    The polar nature of the wurtzite crystalline structure of GaN and ZnO results in the existence of a spontaneous electric polarization within these materials and their associated alloys (Ga,Al,In)N and (Zn,Mg,Cd)O. The polarity has also important consequences on the stability of the different crystallographic surfaces, and this becomes especially important when considering epitaxial growth. Furthermore, the internal polarization fields may adversely affect the properties of optoelectronic devices but is also used as a potential advantage for advanced electronic devices. In this article, polarity-related issues in GaN and ZnO are reviewed, going from theoretical considerations to electronic and optoelectronic devices, through thin film, and nanostructure growth. The necessary theoretical background is first introduced and the stability of the cation and anion polarity surfaces is discussed. For assessing the polarity, one has to make use of specific characterization methods, which are described in detail. Subsequently, the nucleation and growth mechanisms of thin films and nanostructures, including nanowires, are presented, reviewing the specific growth conditions that allow controlling the polarity of such objects. Eventually, the demonstrated and/or expected effects of polarity on the properties and performances of optoelectronic and electronic devices are reported. The present review is intended to yield an in-depth view of some of the hot topics related to polarity in GaN and ZnO, a fast growing subject over the last decade.

  15. Structure and thermoelectric properties of Al-doped ZnO films prepared by thermal oxidization under high magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Shiying; Peng, Sunjuan; Ma, Jun; Li, Guojian; Qin, Xuesi; Li, Mengmeng; Wang, Qiang

    2017-04-01

    This paper studies the effects of high magnetic field (HMF) on the structure, optical and thermoelectric properties of the doped ZnO thin films. The results show that both Al dopant and application of HMF can affect the crystal structure, surface morphology, elemental distribution and so on. The particles of the thin films become small and regular by doping Al. The ZnO films oxidized from the Au/Zn bilayer have needle structure. The ZnO films oxidized from the Au/Zn-Al bilayer transform to spherical from hexagonal due to the application of HMF. The transmittance decreases with doping Al because of the opaque of Al element and decreases with the application of HMF due to the dense structure obtained under HMF. Electrical resistivity (ρ) of the ZnO films without Al decreases with increasing measurement temperature (T) and is about 1.5 × 10-3 Ω·m at 210 °C. However, the ρ of the Al-doped ZnO films is less than 10-5 Ω·m. The Seebeck coefficient (S) of the films oxidized from the Au/Zn-Al films reduces with increasing T. The S values oxidized under 0 T and 12 T conditions are 2.439 μV/K and -3.415 μV/K at 210 °C, respectively. Power factor reaches the maximum value (3.198 × 10-4 W/m·K2) at 210 °C for the film oxidized under 12 T condition. These results indicate that the Al dopant and the application of HMF can be used to control structure and thermoelectric properties of doped ZnO films.

  16. Sequential PLD in oxygen/argon gas mixture of Al-doped ZnO thin films with improved electrical and optical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coman, Tudor; Timpu, Daniel; Nica, Valentin; Vitelaru, Catalin; Rambu, Alicia Petronela; Stoian, George; Olaru, Mihaela; Ursu, Cristian

    2017-10-01

    Highly conductive transparent Al-doped ZnO (AZO) thin films were obtained at room temperature through sequential PLD (SPLD) from Zn and Al metallic targets in an oxygen/argon gas mixture. We have investigated the structural, electrical and optical properties as a function of the oxygen/argon pressure ratio in the chamber. The measured Hall carrier concentration was found to increase with argon injection from 1.3 × 1020 to 6.7 × 1020 cm-3, while the laser shots ratio for Al/Zn targets ablation was kept constant. This increase was attributed to an enhancement of the substitution doping into the ZnO lattice. The argon injection also leads to an increase of the Hall mobility up to 20 cm2 V-1 s-1, attributed to a reduction of interstitial-type defects. Thus, the approach of using an oxygen/argon gas mixture during SPLD from metallic targets allows obtaining at room temperature AZO samples with high optical transmittance (about 90%) and low electrical resistivity (down to 5.1 × 10-4 Ω cm).

  17. REVIEW ARTICLE: Structure, microstructure and physical properties of ZnO based materials in various forms: bulk, thin film and nano

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Shubra; Thiyagarajan, P.; Mohan Kant, K.; Anita, D.; Thirupathiah, S.; Rama, N.; Tiwari, Brajesh; Kottaisamy, M.; Ramachandra Rao, M. S.

    2007-10-01

    ZnO is a unique material that offers about a dozen different application possibilities. In spite of the fact that the ZnO lattice is amenable to metal ion doping (3d and 4f), the physics of doping in ZnO is not completely understood. This paper presents a review of previous research works on ZnO and also highlights results of our research activities on ZnO. The review pertains to the work on Al and Mg doping for conductivity and band gap tuning in ZnO followed by a report on transition metal (TM) ion doped ZnO. This review also highlights the work on the transport and optical studies of TM ion doped ZnO, nanostructured growth (ZnO polycrystalline and thin films) by different methods and the formation of unique nano- and microstructures obtained by pulsed laser deposition and chemical methods. This is followed by results on ZnO encapsulated Fe3O4 nanoparticles that show promising trends suitable for various applications. We have also reviewed the non-linear characteristic studies of ZnO based heterostructures followed by an analysis on the work carried out on ZnO based phosphors, which include mainly the nanocrystalline ZnO encapsulated SiO2, a new class of phosphor that is suitable for white light emission.

  18. Electronic transport in highly conducting Si-doped ZnO thin films prepared by pulsed laser deposition

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Kuznetsov, Vladimir L.; Vai, Alex T.; Edwards, Peter P., E-mail: peter.edwards@chem.ox.ac.uk

    2015-12-07

    Highly conducting (ρ = 3.9 × 10{sup −4} Ωcm) and transparent (83%) polycrystalline Si-doped ZnO (SiZO) thin films have been deposited onto borosilicate glass substrates by pulsed laser deposition from (ZnO){sub 1−x}(SiO{sub 2}){sub x} (0 ≤ x ≤ 0.05) ceramic targets prepared using a sol-gel technique. Along with their structural, chemical, and optical properties, the electronic transport within these SiZO samples has been investigated as a function of silicon doping level and temperature. Measurements made between 80 and 350 K reveal an almost temperature-independent carrier concentration consistent with degenerate metallic conduction in all of these samples. The temperature-dependent Hall mobility has been modeled by considering the varying contribution of grainmore » boundary and electron-phonon scattering in samples with different nominal silicon concentrations.« less

  19. Structural and optical characterization of terbium doped ZnGa{sub 2}O{sub 4} thin films deposited by RF magnetron sputtering

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Somasundaram, K.; Department of Physics, Nallamuthu Gounder Mahalingam College, Pollachi-642001; Girija, K. G., E-mail: kgirija@barc.gov.in

    2016-05-23

    Tb{sup 3+} doped ZnGa{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanophosphor (21 nm) has been synthesized via low temperature polyol route and subsequently thin films of the same were deposited on glass and ITO substrates by RF magnetron sputtering. The films were characterized by X-ray Diffraction and luminescence measurements. The XRD pattern showed that Tb{sup 3+} doped ZnGa{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanophosphor has a cubic spinel phase. Luminescence behavior of the nanophosphor and as deposited sputtered film was investigated. The PL emission spectra of nanophosphor gave a broad ZnGa{sub 2}O{sub 4} host emission band along with a strong terbium emission and the thin films showedmore » only broad host emission band and there was no terbium ion emission.« less

  20. Effect of aging on ZnO and nitrogen doped P-Type ZnO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majumdar, Sayanee; Bhunia, S.

    2012-06-01

    The withholding of p-type conductivity in as-prepared and 3% nitrogen (N) doped zinc oxide (ZnO) even after 2 months of preparation was systematically studied. The films were grown on glass substrates by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) at 350 °C under different conditions, viz. under vacuum and at oxygen (O) ambience using 2000 laser pulses. In O ambience for as-prepared ZnO the carrier concentration reduces and mobility increases with increasing number of laser shots. The resistivity of as-prepared and 3% N-doped ZnO is found to increase with reduction in hole concentration after 60 days of aging while maintaining its p-type conductivity irrespective of growth condition. AFM and electrical properties showed aging effect on the doped and undoped samples. For as-prepared ZnO, with time, O migration makes the film high resistive by reducing free electron concentrations. But for N-doped p-type ZnO, O-migration, metastable N and hydrogen atom present in the source induced instability in structure makes it less conducting p-type.

  1. Removal of Micrometer Size Morphological Defects and Enhancement of Ultraviolet Emission by Thermal Treatment of Ga-Doped ZnO Nanostructures

    PubMed Central

    Manzoor, Umair; Kim, Do K.; Islam, Mohammad; Bhatti, Arshad S.

    2014-01-01

    Mixed morphologies of Ga-doped Zinc Oxide (ZnO) nanostructures are synthesized by vapor transport method. Systematic scanning electron microscope (SEM) studies of different morphologies, after periodic heat treatments, gives direct evidence of sublimation. SEM micrographs give direct evidence that morphological defects of nanostructures can be removed by annealing. Ultra Violet (UV) and visible emission depends strongly on the annealing temperatures and luminescent efficiency of UV emission is enhanced significantly with each subsequent heat treatment. X-Ray diffraction (XRD) results suggest that crystal quality improved by annealing and phase separation may occur at high temperatures. PMID:24489725

  2. Non-polar a-plane ZnO films grown on r-Al2O3 substrates using GaN buffer layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, C. X.; Chen, W.; Pan, X. H.; Chen, S. S.; Ye, Z. Z.; Huang, J. Y.

    2016-09-01

    In this work, GaN buffer layer has been used to grow non-polar a-plane ZnO films by laser-assisted and plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy. The thickness of GaN buffer layer ranges from ∼3 to 12 nm. The GaN buffer thickness effect on the properties of a-plane ZnO thin films is carefully investigated. The results show that the surface morphology, crystal quality and optical properties of a-plane ZnO films are strongly correlated with the thickness of GaN buffer layer. It was found that with 6 nm GaN buffer layer, a-plane ZnO films display the best crystal quality with X-ray diffraction rocking curve full-width at half-maximum of only 161 arcsec for the (101) reflection.

  3. Enhanced photoluminescence properties of Al doped ZnO films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, H. X.; Ding, J. J.

    2018-01-01

    Al doped ZnO films are fabricated by radio frequency magnetron sputtering. In general, visible emission is related to various defects in ZnO films. However, too much defects will cause light emission quench. So it is still a controversial issue to control appropriate defect concentrations. In this paper, based on our previous results, appropriate Al doping concentration is chosen to introduce more both interstitial Zn and O vacancy defects, which is responsible for main visible emission of ZnO films. A strong emission band located at 405 nm and a long tail peak is observed in the samples. As Al is doped in ZnO films, the intensity of emission peaks increases. Zn interstitial might increase with the increasing Al3+ substitute because ZnO was a self-assembled oxide compound. So Zn interstitial defect concentration in Al doped ZnO films will increase greatly, which results in the intensity of emission peaks increases.

  4. Effect of growth temperature on the epitaxial growth of ZnO on GaN by ALD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Särkijärvi, Suvi; Sintonen, Sakari; Tuomisto, Filip; Bosund, Markus; Suihkonen, Sami; Lipsanen, Harri

    2014-07-01

    We report on the epitaxial growth of ZnO on GaN template by atomic layer deposition (ALD). Diethylzinc (DEZn) and water vapour (H2O) were used as precursors. The structure and the quality of the grown ZnO layers were studied with scanning electron microscope (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), photoluminescence (PL) measurements and positron annihilation spectroscopy. The ZnO films were confirmed epitaxial, and the film quality was found to improve with increasing deposition temperature in the vicinity of the threshold temperature of two dimensional growth. We conclude that high quality ZnO thin films can be grown by ALD. Interestingly only separate Zn-vacancies were observed in the films, although ZnO thin films typically contain fairly high density of surface pits and vacancy clusters.

  5. Toward blue emission in ZnO based LED

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viana, Bruno; Pauporté, Thierry; Lupan, Oleg; Le Bahers, Tangui; Ciofini, Ilaria

    2012-03-01

    The bandgap engineering of ZnO nanowires by doping is of great importance for tunable light emitting diode (LED) applications. We present a combined experimental and computational study of ZnO doping with Cd or Cu atoms in the nanomaterial. Zn1-xTMxO (TM=Cu, Cd) nanowires have been epitaxially grown on magnesium-doped p-GaN by electrochemical deposition. The Zn1-xTMxO/p-GaN heterojunction was integrated in a LED structure. Nanowires act as the light emitters and waveguides. At room temperature, TM-doped ZnO based LEDs exhibit low-threshold emission voltage and electroluminescence emission shifted from ultraviolet to violet-blue spectral region compared to pure ZnO LEDs. The emission wavelength can be tuned by changing the transition metal (TM) content in the ZnO nanomaterial and the shift is discussed, including insights from DFT computational investigations.

  6. Ferroelectric behavior and reproducible Bi-stable resistance switching property in K-doped ZnO thin films as candidate for application in non-volatile memories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, J. W.; Subramaniam, N. G.; Kang, T. W.; Shon, Yoon; Kim, E. K.

    2015-05-01

    Potassium-doped ZnO thin films electrodeposited on indium tin oxide (ITO) coated glass substrates exhibited ferroelectric behavior with a remnant polarization of 0.2 μC/cm2. Especially, wave forms showing the applied input voltage Vi and output voltage Vo were obtained for Al/ZnO:K/ITO structure. It exhibits a superposition of Vi (input) and Vo (output) signal from Al/ZnO:K/ITO structure with a clear phase shift between the two wave forms which again confirms that the observed ferroelectric hysteresis curve is not related to leaky dielectric materials. The current-voltage characteristics of Al/ZnO:K/ITO structures measured for several cycles revealed bi-stable switching characteristics. The reproducible bi-stable switching characteristics for the mentioned structures had good retention in one particular resistance state. Around one order of switching was realized between low and high resistance states. The switching property thought to be polarization induced originating out from the ferroelectric properties of the potassium doped ZnO thin film. The switching between ZnO:K/ITO interface is assumed to be critical for stability in switching for several cycles. Possible application of this structure in non-volatile memories is explored.

  7. Atomic layer deposition of Nb-doped ZnO for thin film transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaw, A.; Wrench, J. S.; Jin, J. D.; Whittles, T. J.; Mitrovic, I. Z.; Raja, M.; Dhanak, V. R.; Chalker, P. R.; Hall, S.

    2016-11-01

    We present physical and electrical characterization of niobium-doped zinc oxide (NbZnO) for thin film transistor (TFT) applications. The NbZnO films were deposited using atomic layer deposition. X-ray diffraction measurements indicate that the crystallinity of the NbZnO films reduces with an increase in the Nb content and lower deposition temperature. It was confirmed using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy that Nb5+ is present within the NbZnO matrix. Furthermore, photoluminescence indicates that the band gap of the ZnO increases with a higher Nb content, which is explained by the Burstein-Moss effect. For TFT applications, a growth temperature of 175 °C for 3.8% NbZnO provided the best TFT characteristics with a saturation mobility of 7.9 cm2/Vs, the current On/Off ratio of 1 × 108, and the subthreshold swing of 0.34 V/decade. The transport is seen to follow a multiple-trap and release mechanism at lower gate voltages and percolation thereafter.

  8. Fabrication and Characterization of Fully Transparent ZnO Thin-Film Transistors and Self-Switching Nano-Diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Y.; Ashida, K.; Sasaki, S.; Koyama, M.; Maemoto, T.; Sasa, S.; Kasai, S.; Iñiguez-de-la-Torre, I.; González, T.

    2015-10-01

    Fully transparent zinc oxide (ZnO) based thin-film transistors (TFTs) and a new type of rectifiers calls self-switching nano-diodes (SSDs) were fabricated on glass substrates at room temperature by using low resistivity and transparent conducting Al- doped ZnO (AZO) thin-films. The deposition conditions of AZO thin-films were optimized with pulsed laser deposition (PLD). AZO thin-films on glass substrates were characterized and the transparency of 80% and resistivity with 1.6*10-3 Ωcm were obtained of 50 nm thickness. Transparent ZnO-TFTs were fabricated on glass substrates by using AZO thin-films as electrodes. A ZnO-TFT with 2 μm long gate device exhibits a transconductance of 400 μS/mm and an ON/OFF ratio of 2.8*107. Transparent ZnO-SSDs were also fabricated by using ZnO based materials and clear diode-like characteristics were observed.

  9. Enhanced room temperature ferromagnetism in electrodeposited Co-doped ZnO nanostructured thin films by controlling the oxygen vacancy defects

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Simimol, A.; Department of Physics, National Institute of Technology Calicut, Calicut 673601; Anappara, Aji A.

    We report the growth of un-doped and cobalt doped ZnO nanostructures fabricated on FTO coated glass substrates using electrodeposition method. A detailed study on the effects of dopant concentration on morphology, structural, optical, and magnetic properties of the ZnO nanostructures has been carried out systematically by varying the Co concentration (c.{sub Co}) from 0.01 to 1 mM. For c.{sub Co }≤ 0.2 mM, h-wurtzite phase with no secondary phases of Co were present in the ZnO nanostructures. For c.{sub Co} ≤ 0.2 mM, the photoluminescence spectra exhibited a decrease in the intensity of ultraviolet emission as well as band-gap narrowing with an increase in dopantmore » concentration. All the doped samples displayed a broad emission in the visible range and its intensity increased with an increase in Co concentration. It was found that the defect centers such as oxygen vacancies and zinc interstitials were the source of the visible emission. The X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy studies revealed, Co was primarily in the divalent state, replacing the Zn ion inside the tetrahedral crystal site of ZnO without forming any cluster or secondary phases of Co. The un-doped ZnO nanorods exhibited diamagnetic behavior and it remained up to a c.{sub Co} of 0.05 mM, while for c.{sub Co }> 0.05 mM, the ZnO nanostructures exhibited ferromagnetic behavior at room temperature. The coercivity increased to 695 G for 0.2 mM Co-doped sample and then it decreased for c.{sub Co }> 0.2 mM. Our results illustrate that up to a threshold concentration of 0.2 mM, the strong ferromagnetism is due to the oxygen vacancy defects centers, which exist in the Co-doped ZnO nanostructures. The origin of strong ferromagnetism at room temperature in Co-doped ZnO nanostructures is attributed to the s-d exchange interaction between the localized spin moments resulting from the oxygen vacancies and d electrons of Co{sup 2+} ions. Our findings provide a new insight for

  10. Fabrication of the heterojunction diode from Y-doped ZnO thin films on p-Si substrates by sol-gel method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Sanjeev K.; Singh, Satendra Pal; Kim, Deuk Young

    2018-02-01

    The heterojunction diode of yttrium-doped ZnO (YZO) thin films was fabricated on p-Si(100) substrates by sol-gel method. The post-annealing process was performed at 600 °C in vacuum for a short time (3 min) to prevent inter-diffusion of Zn, Y, and Si atoms. X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern of as-grown and annealed (600 °C in vacuum) films showed the preferred orientation along the c-axis (002) regardless of dopant concentrations. The uniform surface microstructure and the absence of other metal/oxide peaks in XRD pattern confirmed the excellence of films. The increasing bandgap and carrier concentration of YZO thin films were interpreted by the BM shift, that is, the Fermi level moves towards the conduction band edge. The current-voltage characteristics of the heterojunction diode, In/n-ZnO/p-Si/Al, showed a rectification behavior. The turn-on voltage and ideality factor of n-ZnO/p-Si and n-YZO/p-Si were observed to be 3.47 V, 2.61 V, and 1.97, 1.89, respectively. Y-dopant in ZnO thin films provided more donor electrons caused the shifting of Fermi-energy level towards the conduction band and strengthen the interest for heterojunction diodes.

  11. Luminescence dynamics of bound exciton of hydrogen doped ZnO nanowires

    DOE PAGES

    Yoo, Jinkyoung; Yi, Gyu -Chul; Chon, Bonghwan; ...

    2016-04-11

    In this study, all-optical camera, converting X-rays into visible photons, is a promising strategy for high-performance X-ray imaging detector requiring high detection efficiency and ultrafast detector response time. Zinc oxide is a suitable material for all-optical camera due to its fast radiative recombination lifetime in sub-nanosecond regime and its radiation hardness. ZnO nanostructures have been considered as proper building blocks for ultrafast detectors with spatial resolution in sub-micrometer scale. To achieve remarkable enhancement of luminescence efficiency n-type doping in ZnO has been employed. However, luminescence dynamics of doped ZnO nanostructures have not been thoroughly investigated whereas undoped ZnO nanostructures havemore » been employed to study their luminescence dynamics. Here we report a study of luminescence dynamics of hydrogen doped ZnO nanowires obtained by hydrogen plasma treatment. Hydrogen doping in ZnO nanowires gives rise to significant increase in the near-band-edge emission of ZnO and decrease in averaged photoluminescence lifetime from 300 to 140 ps at 10 K. The effects of hydrogen doping on the luminescent characteristics of ZnO nanowires were changed by hydrogen doping process variables.« less

  12. Low-Temperature Preparation of Ag-Doped ZnO Nanowire Arrays, DFT Study, and Application to Light-Emitting Diode.

    PubMed

    Pauporté, Thierry; Lupan, Oleg; Zhang, Jie; Tugsuz, Tugba; Ciofini, Ilaria; Labat, Frédéric; Viana, Bruno

    2015-06-10

    Doping ZnO nanowires (NWs) by group IB elements is an important challenge for integrating nanostructures into functional devices with better and tuned performances. The growth of Ag-doped ZnO NWs by electrodeposition at 90 °C using a chloride bath and molecular oxygen precursor is reported. Ag acts as an electrocatalyst for the deposition and influences the nucleation and growth of the structures. The silver atomic concentration in the wires is controlled by the additive concentration in the deposition bath and a content up to 3.7 atomic % is reported. XRD analysis shows that the integration of silver enlarges the lattice parameters of ZnO. The optical measurements also show that the direct optical bandgap of ZnO is reduced by silver doping. The bandgap shift and lattice expansion are explained by first principle calculations using the density functional theory (DFT) on the silver impurity integration as an interstitial (Ag(i)) and as a substitute of zinc atom (Ag(Zn)) in the crystal lattice. They notably indicate that Ag(Zn) doping forms an impurity band because of Ag 4d and O 2p orbital interactions, shifting the Fermi level toward the valence band. At least, Ag-doped ZnO vertically aligned nanowire arrays have been epitaxially grown on GaN(001) substrate. The heterostructure has been inserted in a light emitting device. UV-blue light emission has been achieved with a low emission threshold of 5 V and a tunable red-shifted emission spectrum related to the bandgap reduction induced by silver doping of the ZnO emitter material.

  13. Room temperature ferromagnetism in Cu doped ZnO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, Nasir; Singh, Budhi; Khan, Zaheer Ahmed; Ghosh, Subhasis

    2018-05-01

    We report the room temperature ferromagnetism in 2% Cu doped ZnO films grown by RF magnetron sputtering in different argon and oxygen partial pressure. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy was used to ascertain the oxidation states of Cu in ZnO. The presence of defects within Cu-doped ZnO films can be revealed by electron paramagnetic resonance. It has been observed that saturated magnetic moment increase as we increase the zinc vacancies during deposition.

  14. Heavily-doped ZnO:Al thin films prepared by using magnetron Co-sputtering: Optical and electrical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moon, Eun-A.; Jun, Young-Kil; Kim, Nam-Hoon; Lee, Woo-Sun

    2016-07-01

    Photovoltaic applications require transparent conducting-oxide (TCO) thin films with high optical transmittance in the visible spectral region (380 - 780 nm), low resistivity, and high thermal/chemical stability. The ZnO thin film is one of the most common alternatives to the conventional indium-tin-oxide (ITO) thin film TCO. Highly transparent and conductive ZnO thin films can be prepared by doping with group III elements. Heavily-doped ZnO:Al (AZO) thin films were prepared by using the RF magnetron co-sputtering method with ZnO and Al targets to obtain better characteristics at a low cost. The RF sputtering power to each target was varied to control the doping concentration in fixed-thickness AZO thin films. The crystal structures of the AZO thin films were analyzed by using X-ray diffraction. The morphological microstructure was observed by using scanning electron microscopy. The optical transmittance and the band gap energy of the AZO thin films were examined with an UV-visible spectrophotometer in the range of 300 - 1800 nm. The resistivity and the carrier concentration were examined by using a Hall-effect measurement system. An excellent optical transmittance > 80% with an appropriate band gap energy (3.26 - 3.27 eV) and an improved resistivity (~10 -1 Ω·cm) with high carrier concentration (1017 - 1019 cm -3) were demonstrated in 350-nm-thick AZO thin films for thin-film photovoltaic applications.

  15. Synthesis and characterization of three-dimensional transition metal ions doped zinc oxide based dilute magnetic semiconductor thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samanta, Kousik

    Dilute magnetic semiconductors (DMS), especially 3d-transition metal (TM) doped ZnO based DMS materials are the most promising candidates for optoelectronics and spintronics applications; e.g. in spin light emitting diode (SLED), spin transistors, and spin field effect transistors (SFET), etc. In the present dissertation, thin films of Zn1-xTMxO (TM = Co2+, Cu2+, and Mn2+) were grown on (0001) oriented Al2O3 substrates by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) technique. The films were highly c-axis oriented, nearly single crystalline, and defects free for a limited concentration of the dilution of transition metal ions. In particular, we have obtained single crystalline phases of Zn1-xTMxO thin films for up to 10, 3, and 5 stoichiometric percentages of Co2+, Cu2+, and Mn2+ respectively. Raman micro-probe system was used to understand the structural and lattice dynamical properties at different physical conditions. The confinement of optical phonons in the disorder lattice was explained by alloy potential fluctuation (APF) using a spatial correlation (SC) model. The detailed analysis of the optical phonon behavior in disorder lattice confirmed the substitution of the transition metal ions in Zn 2+ site of the ZnO host lattice. The secondary phases of ZnCo 2O4, CuO, and ZnMn2O4 were detected in higher Co, Cu, and Mn doped ZnO thin films respectively; where as, XRD did not detect these secondary phases in the same samples. Room temperature ferromagnetism was observed in Co2+ and Cu2+ ions doped ZnO thin films with maximum saturation magnetization (Ms) of 1.0 and 0.76 muB respectively. The origin of the observed ferromagnetism in Zn1-xCoxO thin films was tested by the controlled introduction of shallow donors (Al) in Zn0.9-x Co0.1O:Alx (x = 0.005 and 0.01) thin films. The saturation magnetization for the 10% Co-doped ZnO (1.0 muB /Co) at 300K reduced (˜0.25 muB/Co) due to Al doping. The observed ferromagnetism and the reduction due to Al doping can be explained by the Bound

  16. Effect of temperature on NH3 sensing by ZnO: Mg thin film grown by radio frequency magnetron sputtering technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vinoth, E.; Gopalakrishnan, N.

    2018-04-01

    Undoped and Mg doped (at l0 mol %) ZnO thin films have been grown on glass substrates by using the RF magnetron sputtering. The structural properties of the fabricated thin films were studied by X-ray diffraction analysis and it was found hexagonal wurtzite phase and preferential orientation along (002) of both films. Green Band Emission peaks in the Photoluminescence spectra confirm the structural defects such as oxygen vacancies (Vo) in the films. Uniform distribution of spherical shape morphology of grains observed in the both films by FESEM. However, the growth of grains was found in the Mg doped thin film. The temperature dependent ammonia sensing is done by the indigenously made gas sensing setup. The gas response of the both films was increased as the temperature increases, attains maximum at 75° C and then decreases. Response and recovery time measurementswere donefor boththe films and it shows the fast response time and quick recovery for doped thin film compared to the pure ZnO thin film.

  17. Highly active lanthanum doped ZnO nanorods for photodegradation of metasystox.

    PubMed

    Korake, P V; Dhabbe, R S; Kadam, A N; Gaikwad, Y B; Garadkar, K M

    2014-01-05

    La-doped ZnO nanorods with different La contents were synthesized by microwave assisted method and characterized by various sophisticated techniques such as XRD, UV-Vis., EDS, XPS, SEM and TEM. The XRD patterns of the La-doped ZnO indicate hexagonal crystal structure with an average crystallite size of 30nm. It was found that the crystallite size of La-doped ZnO is much smaller as compared to pure ZnO and decreases with increasing La content. The photocatalytic activity of 0.5mol% La-doped ZnO in the degradation of metasystox was studied. It was observed that degradation efficiency of metasystox over La-doped ZnO increases up to 0.5mol% doping then decreases for higher doping levels. Among the catalyst studied, the 0.5mol% La-doped ZnO was the most active, showing high photocatalytic activity for the degradation of metasystox. The maximum reduction of concentration of metasystox was observed under static condition at pH 8. Reduction in the Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) of metasystox was observed after 150min. The cytotoxicological studies of meristematic root tip cells of Allium cepa were studied. The results obtained indicate that photocatalytically degraded products of metasystox were less toxic as compared to metasystox. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Characterizations of low-temperature electroluminescence from ZnO nanowire light-emitting arrays on the p-GaN layer.

    PubMed

    Lu, Tzu-Chun; Ke, Min-Yung; Yang, Sheng-Chieh; Cheng, Yun-Wei; Chen, Liang-Yi; Lin, Guan-Jhong; Lu, Yu-Hsin; He, Jr-Hau; Kuo, Hao-Chung; Huang, JianJang

    2010-12-15

    Low-temperature electroluminescence from ZnO nanowire light-emitting arrays is reported. By inserting a thin MgO current blocking layer in between ZnO nanowire and p-GaN, high-purity UV light emission at wavelength 398 nm was obtained. As the temperature is decreased, contrary to the typical GaN-based light emitting diodes, our device shows a decrease of optical output intensity. The results are associated with various carrier tunneling processes and frozen MgO defects.

  19. Anisotropic polaron localization and spontaneous symmetry breaking: Comparison of cation-site acceptors in GaN and ZnO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Y. Y.; Abtew, Tesfaye A.; Zhang, Peihong; Zhang, S. B.

    2014-10-01

    The behavior of cation substitutional hole doping in GaN and ZnO is investigated using hybrid density functional calculations. Our results reveal that Mg substitution for Ga (MgGa) in GaN can assume three different configurations. Two of the configurations are characterized by the formation of defect-bound small polaron (i.e., a large structural distortion accompanied by hole localization on one of the neighboring N atoms). The third one has a relatively small but significant distortion that is characterized by highly anisotropic polaron localization. In this third configuration, MgGa exhibits both effective-mass-like and noneffective-mass-like characters. In contrast, a similar defect in ZnO, LiZn, cannot sustain the anisotropic polaron in the hybrid functional calculation, but undergoes spontaneous breaking of a mirror symmetry through a mechanism driven by the hole localization. Finally, using NaZn in ZnO as an example, we show that the deep acceptor levels of the small-polaron defects could be made shallower by applying compressive strain to the material.

  20. Fabrication of nanostructured Al-doped ZnO thin film for methane sensing applications

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Shafura, A. K., E-mail: shafura@ymail.com; Azhar, N. E. I.; Uzer, M.

    2016-07-06

    CH{sub 4} gas sensor was fabricated using spin-coating method of the nanostructured ZnO thin film. Effect of annealing temperature on the electrical and structural properties of the film was investigated. Dense nanostructured ZnO film are obtained at higher annealing temperature. The optimal condition of annealing temperature is 500°C which has conductivity and sensitivity value of 3.3 × 10{sup −3} S/cm and 11.5%, respectively.

  1. A review of the growth, doping, and applications of β-Ga2O3 thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Razeghi, Manijeh; Park, Ji-Hyeon; McClintock, Ryan; Pavlidis, Dimitris; Teherani, Ferechteh H.; Rogers, David J.; Magill, Brenden A.; Khodaparast, Giti A.; Xu, Yaobin; Wu, Jinsong; Dravid, Vinayak P.

    2018-03-01

    β-Ga2O3 is emerging as an interesting wide band gap semiconductor for solar blind photo detectors (SBPD) and high power field effect transistors (FET) because of its outstanding material properties including an extremely wide bandgap (Eg 4.9eV) and a high breakdown field (8 MV/cm). This review summarizes recent trends and progress in the growth/doping of β-Ga2O3 thin films and then offers an overview of the state-of-the-art in SBPD and FET devices. The present challenges for β-Ga2O3 devices to penetrate the market in real-world applications are also considered, along with paths for future work.

  2. N doped ZnO and ZnO nanorods based p-n homojunction fabricated by ion implantation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakraborty, Mohua; Thangavel, R.; Asokan, K.

    2018-05-01

    Nitrogen (N) doped and undoped Zinc Oxide (ZnO) nanorod p-n homojunctions were fabricated by ion implantation method. The structural and optical characterizations showed that the N atoms doped into the ZnO crystal lattice. The UV-Vis absorption spectra revealed shift in optical absorption edge towards higher wavelength with ion implantation on ZnO, which attributed N acceptor levels above the valence band. The current-voltage (I-V) measurements exhibit a typical semiconductor rectification characteristic indicating the electrical conductivity of the N-doped ZnO nanorod have p-type conductivity. Moreover, a high photocurrent response has been observed with these p-n homojunctions.

  3. Eu-doped ZnO nanoparticles: Sonochemical synthesis, characterization, and sonocatalytic application.

    PubMed

    Khataee, Alireza; Karimi, Atefeh; Zarei, Mahmoud; Joo, Sang Woo

    2015-03-30

    Undoped and europium (III)-doped ZnO nanoparticles were prepared by a sonochemical method. The prepared samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis. The crystalline sizes of undoped and 3% Eu-doped ZnO were found to be 16.04 and 8.22nm, respectively. The particle size of Eu-doped ZnO nanoparticles was much smaller than that of pure ZnO. The synthesized nanocatalysts were used for the sonocatalytic degradation of Acid Red 17. Among the Eu-doped ZnO catalysts, 3% Eu-doped ZnO nanoparticles showed the highest sonocatalytic activity. The effects of various parameters such as catalyst loading, initial dye concentration, pH, ultrasonic power, the effect of oxidizing agents, and the presence of anions were investigated. The produced intermediates of the sonocatalytic process were monitored by GC-Mass (GC-MS) spectrometry. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Nucleation, Growth Mechanism, and Controlled Coating of ZnO ALD onto Vertically Aligned N-Doped CNTs.

    PubMed

    Silva, R M; Ferro, M C; Araujo, J R; Achete, C A; Clavel, G; Silva, R F; Pinna, N

    2016-07-19

    Zinc oxide thin films were deposited on vertically aligned nitrogen-doped carbon nanotubes (N-CNTs) by atomic layer deposition (ALD) from diethylzinc and water. The study demonstrates that doping CNTs with nitrogen is an effective approach for the "activation" of the CNTs surface for the ALD of metal oxides. Conformal ZnO coatings are already obtained after 50 ALD cycles, whereas at lower ALD cycles an island growth mode is observed. Moreover, the process allows for a uniform growth from the top to the bottom of the vertically aligned N-CNT arrays. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy demonstrates that ZnO nucleation takes place at the N-containing species on the surface of the CNTs by the formation of the Zn-N bonds at the interface between the CNTs and the ZnO film.

  5. ZnO for solar cell and thermoelectric applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Chuanle; Ghods, Amirhossein; Yunghans, Kelcy L.; Saravade, Vishal G.; Patel, Paresh V.; Jiang, Xiaodong; Kucukgok, Bahadir; Lu, Na; Ferguson, Ian

    2017-03-01

    ZnO-based materials show promise in energy harvesting applications, such as piezoelectric, photovoltaic and thermoelectric. In this work, ZnO-based vertical Schottky barrier solar cells were fabricated by MOCVD de- position of ZnO thin films on ITO back ohmic contact, while Ag served as the top Schottky contact. Various rapid thermal annealing conditions were studied to modify the carrier density and crystal quality. Greater than 200 nm thick ZnO films formed polycrystalline crystal structure, and were used to demonstrate Schottky solar cells. I-V characterizations of the devices showed photovoltaic performance, but but need further development. This is the first demonstration of vertical Schottky barrier solar cell based on wide bandgap ZnO film. Thin film and bulk ZnO grown by MOCVD or melt growth were also investigated in regards to their room- temperature thermoelectric properties. The Seebeck coefficient of bulk ZnO was found to be much larger than that of thin film ZnO at room temperature due to the higher crystal quality in bulk materials. The Seebeck coefficients decrease while the carrier concentration increases due to the crystal defects caused by the charge carriers. The co-doped bulk Zn0:96Ga0:02Al0:02O showed enhanced power factors, lower thermal conductivities and promising ZT values in the whole temperature range (300-1300 K).

  6. Structural and optoelectronic properties of ZnGaO thin film by pulsed laser deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Xiaowei; Wang, Li; Li, Shufeng; Gao, Dongwen; Pan, Yong

    2018-01-01

    ZnO has attracted much attention because of its high-energy gap and exciton binding energy at room temperature. Compared to ZnO thin films, ZnGaO thin films are more resistive to oxidation and have smaller deformation of lattice. In this study, the high purity ZnSe and Ga2O3 powders were weighted at a molar ratio of 18:1. Se was oxidized to Se2O3 and separated from the mixture powders by using conventional solid state reaction method in air, and the ZnGaO ceramic target was prepared. We fabricated the ZnGaO films on silica glass by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) method under different oxygen pressure at room temperature. The as-grown films were tested by X-ray diffraction and atomic force microscope (AFM) to diagnose the crystal structure and surface morphology. Moreover, we obtained the optical transmittance of ZnGaO film and found that the electrical conductivity capacity varied with the increase of oxygen pressure.

  7. Anomalous antibacterial activity and dye degradation by selenium doped ZnO nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Dutta, Raj Kumar; Nenavathu, Bhavani Prasad; Talukdar, Soumita

    2014-02-01

    Selenium doped ZnO nanoparticles synthesized by mechanochemical method were spherically shaped of size distribution of 10.2±3.4 nm measured by transmission electron microscopy. Diffused reflectance spectroscopy revealed increase in the band gap, ranging between 3.47 eV and 3.63 eV due to Se doping in ZnO nanoparticles. The antibacterial activity of pristine and Se doped ZnO nanoparticles was attributed to ROS (reactive oxygen species) generation in culture media confirmed by TBARS assay. Compared to complete inhibition of growth by 0.45 mg/mL of pristine ZnO nanoparticles, the batches of 0.45 mg/mL of selenium doped ZnO nanoparticles exhibited only 51% inhibition of growth of Escherichia coli. The reduced antibacterial activity of selenium doped ZnO nanoparticles was attributed to two opposing factors, e.g., ROS generation for inhibition of growth, countered by sustaining growth of E. coli due to availability of Se micronutrients in culture media, confirmed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer measurement. Higher ROS generation by selenium doped ZnO nanoparticles was attributed to creation of oxygen vacancies, confirmed from green emission peak observed at 565 nm. The impact of higher ROS generation by selenium doped ZnO nanoparticles was evident from enhanced photocatalytic degradation of trypan blue dye, than pristine ZnO nanoparticles. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. The investigation of Ga-doped ZnO as an interlayer for ohmic contact to Cd1-xZnxTe films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Yibin; Huang, Jian; Gu, Qingmiao; Meng, Hua; Tang, Ke; Shen, Yue; Zhang, Jijun; Wang, Linjun; Lu, Yicheng

    2017-12-01

    In this work, high quality Cd1-xZnxTe films were prepared on fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO) glass substrates by close-spaced sublimation (CSS) method. A low resistivity sputtered Ga-doped ZnO (GZO) film was used as an interlayer between Au electrodes and Cd1-xZnxTe films try to reduce the contact resistance and contribute to bring about a better Ohmic contact. Circular transmission line model (CTLM) was adopted to investigate the effects of GZO intermediate layer on the contact properties of Au/GZO/Cd1-xZnxTe structure. The results show a low contact resistivity of 0.37 Ω cm2 for Au/GZO contacts on Cd1-xZnxTe films. Cd1-xZnxTe film radiation detectors were also fabricated using Au/GZO contacts and an energy resolution of about 28% was obtained from a 60 KeV 241Am γ-ray source for the first time.

  9. Optical and structural properties of individual Co-doped ZnO microwires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolomys, O. F.; Strelchuk, V. V.; Rarata, S. V.; Hayn, R.; Savoyant, A.; Giovannelli, F.; Delorme, F.; Tkach, V.

    2018-06-01

    The Co-doped ZnO microwires (MWs) were grown using the optical furnace method. We used Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), polarized micro-Raman spectroscopy, photoluminescence (PL) and optical absorption spectroscopy to systematic investigation of the optical and structural properties of Co-doped ZnO MWs. The SEM analysis reveals that Co-doped ZnO MWs has hexagonal facets and cavity inside. The EDS results confirmed the presence and non-uniform distribution of Co impurities in the samples. Co doping of ZnO MWs leads to the decreased intensity, drastically broadening and high-energy shift of the NBE PL band. The red emission band at 1.85 eV originates from 2E(2G) → 4A2 (4F) intra-3d-transition of Co2+ in the ZnO lattice has been observed. The intense structured absorption bands within the near infrared ranges 3800-4800 and 5500-9000 cm-1 are caused by electronic spin-allowed transitions 4T2(F) ← 4A2(F) and 4T1(F) ← 4A2(F) of the tetrahedrally coordinated Co2+ (3 d7) ions substituting Zn2+ ions in Co-doped ZnO MWs. Micro-Raman studies of Co doped ZnO MWs show doping/disorder induced additional modes as compared to the undoped sample. The resonant enhancement of the additional local Co-related A1-symmetry Raman mode is observed in the parallel polarization geometry y(z , z) ybar . For the Co doped ZnO MWs, the enhancement of the additional Co-related local vibration mode with an increase in the excitation photon energy is also observed in the Raman spectra.

  10. Ultraviolet electroluminescence from nitrogen-doped ZnO-based heterojuntion light-emitting diodes prepared by remote plasma in situ atomic layer-doping technique.

    PubMed

    Chien, Jui-Fen; Liao, Hua-Yang; Yu, Sheng-Fu; Lin, Ray-Ming; Shiojiri, Makoto; Shyue, Jing-Jong; Chen, Miin-Jang

    2013-01-23

    Remote plasma in situ atomic layer doping technique was applied to prepare an n-type nitrogen-doped ZnO (n-ZnO:N) layer upon p-type magnesium-doped GaN (p-GaN:Mg) to fabricate the n-ZnO:N/p-GaN:Mg heterojuntion light-emitting diodes. The room-temperature electroluminescence exhibits a dominant ultraviolet peak at λ ≈ 370 nm from ZnO band-edge emission and suppressed luminescence from GaN, as a result of the decrease in electron concentration in ZnO and reduced electron injection from n-ZnO:N to p-GaN:Mg because of the nitrogen incorporation. The result indicates that the in situ atomic layer doping technique is an effective approach to tailoring the electrical properties of materials in device applications.

  11. Improvement for the performance of solar-blind photodetector based on β-Ga2O3 thin films by doping Zn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Xiaolong; Wu, Zhenping; Zhi, Yusong; An, Yuehua; Cui, Wei; Li, Linghong; Tang, Weihua

    2017-03-01

    Highly oriented (\\bar{2} 0 1 ) Ga2-x Zn x O3 thin films with different doping concentrations were grown on (0 0 0 1) sapphire substrates by laser molecular beam epitaxy technology. The expansion of lattice and the shrinkage of band gap with increasing doping level confirms the chemical substitution of Zn2+ ions into the Ga2O3 crystal lattice. The emission intensity of blue-violet emission bands enhanced with the increase of (ZnGa)‧ under 254 nm ultraviolet excitation, and the maximum was obtained at x  =  0.8. A metal-semiconductor-metal structured solar-blind photodetector based on Ga2-x Zn x O3 (x  =  0, 0.8) was made, the increasing responsivity and diminishing relaxation time constants for β-Ga2-x Zn x O3 (x  =  0.8) photodetector were observed with 254 nm ultraviolet illumination.

  12. Two-dimensional vanadium-doped ZnO nanosheet-based flexible direct current nanogenerator.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Manoj Kumar; Lee, Ju-Hyuck; Lee, Keun Young; Kim, Sang-Woo

    2013-10-22

    Here, we report the synthesis of lead-free single-crystalline two-dimensional (2D) vanadium(V)-doped ZnO nanosheets (NSs) and their application for high-performance flexible direct current (DC) power piezoelectric nanogenerators (NGs). The vertically aligned ZnO nanorods (NRs) converted to NS networks by V doping. Piezoresponse force microscopy studies reveal that vertical V-doped ZnO NS exhibit typical ferroelectricity with clear phase loops, butterfly, and well-defined hysteresis loops with a piezoelectric charge coefficient of up to 4 pm/V, even in 2D nanostructures. From pristine ZnO NR-based NGs, alternating current (AC)-type output current was observed, while from V-doped ZnO NS-based NGs, a DC-type output current density of up to 1.0 μAcm(-2) was surprisingly obtained under the same vertical compressive force. The growth mechanism, ferroelectric behavior, charge inverted phenomena, and high piezoelectric output performance observed from the V-doped ZnO NS are discussed in terms of the formation of an ionic layer of [V(OH)4(-)], permanent electric dipole, and the doping-induced resistive behavior of ZnO NS.

  13. Effects of substrate on the structure and orientation of ZnO thin film grown by rf-magnetron sputtering

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Liu, H. F.; Chua, S. J.; Hu, G. X.

    2007-10-15

    X-ray diffractions, Nomarski microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and photoluminescence have been used to study the effects of substrate on the structure and orientation of ZnO thin films grown by rf-magnetron sputtering. GaAs(001), GaAs(111), Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}(0002) (c-plane), and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}(1102) (r-plane) wafers have been selected as substrates in this study. X-ray diffractions reveal that the ZnO film grown on GaAs(001) substrate is purely textured with a high c-axis orientation while that grown on GaAs(111) substrate is a single ZnO(0002) crystal; a polycrystalline structure with a large-single-crystal area of ZnO(0002) is obtained on a c-plane Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} substrate whilemore » a ZnO(1120) single crystal is formed on an r-plane Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} substrate. There is absence of significant difference between the photoluminescence spectra collected from ZnO/GaAs(001), ZnO/GaAs(111), and ZnO/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}(0002), while the photoluminescence from ZnO/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}(1102) shows a reduced intensity together with an increased linewidth, which is, likely, due to the increased incorporation of native defects during the growth of ZnO(1120)« less

  14. Synthesis and Magnetic Properties of Ni-DOPED ZnO Thin Films: Experimental and AB INITIO Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rouchdi, M.; Salmani, E.; Hat, A. El; Hassanain, N.; Mzerd, A.

    Structural and magnetic properties of Zn1-xNixO thin films and diluted magnetic semiconductors have been investigated. This sample has been synthesized using a spray pyrolysis technique with a stoechiometric mixture of zinc acetate (C4H6O4Znṡ2H2O) and Nickel acetate (C4H6O4Niṡ 2H2O) on a heated glass substrate at 450∘C. The films were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), UV-Vis spectrophotometry and Hall Effect measurements. These films of ZnO crystallized in the hexagonal Wurtzite structure. The optical study showed that the band-gap energy was increased, from 3.3eV to 3.5eV, with increasing the Ni concentration. The film resistivity was affected by Ni-doping, and the best resistivity value 1.15×10-2 (Ω cm) was obtained for the film doped with 2 at.% Ni. The electronic structure and optical properties of the Wurtzite structure Zn1-xNixO were obtained by first-principles calculations using the Korringa-Kohn-Rostoker method combined with the coherent potential approximation (CPA), as well as CPA confirm our results.

  15. Structural and optical properties of GaAs(100) with a thin surface layer doped with chromium

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Seredin, P. V., E-mail: paul@phys.vsu.ru; Fedyukin, A. V.; Arsentyev, I. N.

    The aim of this study is to explore the structural and optical properties of single-crystal GaAs(100) doped with Cr atoms by burning them into the substrate at high temperatures. The diffusion of chromium into single-crystal GaAs(100) substrates brings about the formation of a thin (~20–40 μm) GaAs:Cr transition layer. In this case, chromium atoms are incorporated into the gallium-arsenide crystal lattice and occupy the regular atomic sites of the metal sublattice. As the chromium diffusion time is increased, such behavior of the dopant impurity yields changes in the energy structure of GaAs, a decrease in the absorption at free chargemore » carriers, and a lowering of the surface recombination rate. As a result, the photoluminescence signal from the sample is significantly enhanced.« less

  16. Effect of cobalt doping on the mechanical properties of ZnO nanowires

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Vahtrus, Mikk; Šutka, Andris

    In this work, we investigate the influence of doping on the mechanical properties of ZnO nanowires (NWs) by comparing the mechanical properties of pure and Co-doped ZnO NWs grown in similar conditions and having the same crystallographic orientation [0001]. The mechanical characterization included three-point bending tests made with atomic force microscopy and cantilever beam bending tests performed inside scanning electron microscopy. It was found that the Young's modulus of ZnO NWs containing 5% of Co was approximately a third lower than that of the pure ZnO NWs. Bending strength values were comparable for both materials and in both cases weremore » close to theoretical strength indicating high quality of NWs. Dependence of mechanical properties on NW diameter was found for both doped and undoped ZnO NWs. - Highlights: •Effect of Co doping on the mechanical properties of ZnO nanowires is studied. •Co substitutes Zn atoms in ZnO crystal lattice. •Co addition affects crystal lattice parameters. •Co addition results in significantly decreased Young's modulus of ZnO. •Bending strength for doped and undoped wires is close to the theoretical strength.« less

  17. Paramagnetic dysprosium-doped zinc oxide thin films grown by pulsed-laser deposition

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Lo, Fang-Yuh, E-mail: fangyuhlo@ntnu.edu.tw; Ting, Yi-Chieh; Chou, Kai-Chieh

    2015-06-07

    Dysprosium(Dy)-doped zinc oxide (Dy:ZnO) thin films were fabricated on c-oriented sapphire substrate by pulsed-laser deposition with doping concentration ranging from 1 to 10 at. %. X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman-scattering, optical transmission spectroscopy, and spectroscopic ellipsometry revealed incorporation of Dy into ZnO host matrix without secondary phase. Solubility limit of Dy in ZnO under our deposition condition was between 5 and 10 at. % according to XRD and Raman-scattering characteristics. Optical transmission spectroscopy and spectroscopic ellipsometry also showed increase in both transmittance in ultraviolet regime and band gap of Dy:ZnO with increasing Dy density. Zinc vacancies and zinc interstitials were identified by photoluminescencemore » spectroscopy as the defects accompanied with Dy incorporation. Magnetic investigations with a superconducting quantum interference device showed paramagnetism without long-range order for all Dy:ZnO thin films, and a hint of antiferromagnetic alignment of Dy impurities was observed at highest doping concentration—indicating the overall contribution of zinc vacancies and zinc interstitials to magnetic interaction was either neutral or toward antiferromagnetic. From our investigations, Dy:ZnO thin films could be useful for spin alignment and magneto-optical applications.« less

  18. GaN and ZnO nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fündling, Sönke; Sökmen, Ünsal; Behrends, Arne; Al-Suleiman, Mohamed Aid Mansur; Merzsch, Stephan; Li, Shunfeng; Bakin, Andrey; Wehmann, Hergo-Heinrich; Waag, Andreas; Lähnemann, Jonas; Jahn, Uwe; Trampert, Achim; Riechert, Henning

    2010-07-01

    GaN and ZnO are both wide band gap semiconductors with interesting properties concerning optoelectronic and sensor device applications. Due to the lack or the high costs of native substrates, alternatives like sapphire, silicon, or silicon carbide are taken, but the resulting lattice and thermal mismatches lead to increased defect densities which reduce the material quality. In contrast, nanostructures with high aspect ratio have lower defect densities as compared to layers. In this work, we give an overview on our results achieved on both ZnO as well as GaN based nanorods. ZnO nanostructures were grown by a wet chemical approach as well as by VPT on different substrates - even on flexible polymers. To compare the growth results we analyzed the structures by XRD and PL and show possible device applications. The GaN nano- and microstructures were grown by metal organic vapor phase epitaxy either in a self- organized process or by selective area growth for a better control of shape and material composition. Finally we take a look onto possible device applications, presenting our attempts, e.g., to build LEDs based on GaN nanostructures.

  19. Elemental, morphological, structural, optical, and magnetic properties of erbium doped ZnO nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poornaprakash, B.; Chalapathi, U.; Purusottam Reddy, B.; Prabhakar Vattikuti, S. V.; Siva Pratap Reddy, M.; Park, Si-Hyun

    2018-03-01

    The sensible tuning of the structural, optical, and magnetic properties of ZnO nanoparticles (NPs) with suitable doping can enhance their applicability in diverse fields. In this study, we synthesized ZnO NPs with Er (0-4 at%) doping and their elemental, structural, optical, and magnetic properties were studied. Both field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) studies of the suspensions consist of hexagonal shaped NPs. All the prepared NPs exhibited hexagonal phase as demonstrated by powder x-ray diffraction studies. A blue shift was observed in the Er doped ZnO NPs compared to pure ZnO, indicating the increased optical bandgap. Vibrating sample magnetometer studies exhibited the pure ZnO NPs was typical diamagnetic feature whereas all the Er doped ZnO NPs were paramagnetic feature at 300 K. This is the first paramagnetic report on Er doped ZnO NPs.

  20. Optical characterization of pure and Al-doped ZnO prepared by sol-gel method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belka, Radosław; Keczkowska, Justyna; Kasińska, Justyna

    2016-09-01

    In this paper the preparation process and optical characterization of pure and Al3+ doped zinc oxide (Al:ZnO) coatings will be presented. ZnO based materials have been studied extensively due to their potential applications in optoelectronic devices as conductive gas sensors, transparent conductive, electrodes, solar cell windows, varistors, UVfilters or photovoltaic cells. It is II-VI semiconductor with wide-band gap of 3.37 eV and large exciton binding energy of 60meV. It is possible to improve the conductivity of ZnO coating by intentionally doping ZnO with aluminium ions during preparation process. Such transparent and conducting thin films, known as AZO (Aluminium Zinc Oxide) films, are very good candidate for application as transparent conducting materials in many optoelectronic devices. The well-known sol-gel method is used for preparation of solution, coated on glass substrates by dip coating process. Prepared samples were investigated by Raman and UV-VIS spectroscopy. Transmittance as well as specular and diffuse reflectance spectroscopy methods were used for studies of optical parameters. We found that Al admixture influences on optical bandgap of ZnO.

  1. Influence of Te and Se doping on ZnO films growth by SILAR method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Güney, Harun; Duman, Ćaǧlar

    2016-04-01

    The AIP Successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) is an economic and simple method to growth thin films. In this study, SILAR method is used to growth Selenium (Se) and Tellurium (Te) doped zinc oxide (ZnO) thin films with different doping rates. For characterization of the films X-ray diffraction (XRD), absorbance and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) are used. XRD results are showed well-defined strongly (002) oriented crystal structure for all samples. Also, absorbance measurements show, Te and Se concentration are proportional and inversely proportional with band gap energy, respectively. SEM measurements show that the surface morphology and thickness of the material varied with Se and/or Te and varying concentrations.

  2. Influence of Te and Se doping on ZnO films growth by SILAR method

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Güney, Harun, E-mail: harunguney25@hotmail.com; Duman, Çağlar, E-mail: caglarduman@erzurum.edu.tr

    2016-04-18

    The AIP Successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) is an economic and simple method to growth thin films. In this study, SILAR method is used to growth Selenium (Se) and Tellurium (Te) doped zinc oxide (ZnO) thin films with different doping rates. For characterization of the films X-ray diffraction (XRD), absorbance and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) are used. XRD results are showed well-defined strongly (002) oriented crystal structure for all samples. Also, absorbance measurements show, Te and Se concentration are proportional and inversely proportional with band gap energy, respectively. SEM measurements show that the surface morphology and thickness ofmore » the material varied with Se and/or Te and varying concentrations.« less

  3. Nanoporous structures on ZnO thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gür, Emre; Kılıç, Bayram; Coşkun, C.; Tüzemen, S.; Bayrakçeken, Fatma

    2010-01-01

    Porous structures were formed on ZnO thin films which were grown by an electrochemical deposition (ECD) method. The growth processes were carried out in a solution of dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) zinc perchlorate, Zn(ClO 4) 2, at 120 ∘C on indium tin oxide (ITO) substrates. Optical and structural characterizations of electrochemically grown ZnO thin films have shown that the films possess high (0002) c-axis orientation, high nucleation, high intensity and low FWHM of UV emission at the band edge region and a sharp UV absorption edge. Nanoporous structures were formed via self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) of hexanethiol (C 6SH) and dodecanethiol (C 12SH). Scanning electron microscope (SEM) measurements showed that while a nanoporous structure (pore radius 20 nm) is formed on the ZnO thin films by hexanathiol solution, a macroporous structure (pore radius 360 nm) is formed by dodecanethiol solution. No significant variation is observed in X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements on the ZnO thin films after pore formation. However, photoluminescence (PL) measurements showed that green emission is observed as the dominant emission for the macroporous structures, while no variation is observed for the thin film nanoporous ZnO sample.

  4. Structural, magnetic and electronic structure properties of Co doped ZnO nanoparticles

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Kumar, Shalendra, E-mail: shailuphy@gmail.com; School of Materials Science and Engineering, Changwon National University, Changwon, Gyeongnam 641-773; Song, T.K., E-mail: tksong@changwon.ac.kr

    Highlights: • XRD and HR-TEM results show the single phase nature of Co doped ZnO nanoparticles. • XMCD and dc magnetization results indicate the RT-FM in Co doped ZnO nanoparticles. • Co L{sub 3,2} NEXAFS spectra infer that Co ions are in 2+ valence state. • O K edge NEXAFS spectra show that O vacancy increases with Co doping in ZnO. - Abstract: We reported structural, magnetic and electronic structure studies of Co doped ZnO nanoparticles. Doping of Co ions in ZnO host matrix has been studied and confirmed using various methods; such as X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanningmore » electron microscopy (FE-SEM), energy dispersed X-ray (EDX), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), near edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) spectroscopy, magnetic hysteresis loop measurements and X-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD). From the XRD and HR-TEM results, it is observed that Co doped ZnO nanoparticles have single phase nature with wurtzite structure and exclude the possibility of secondary phase formation. FE-SEM and TEM micrographs show that pure and Co doped nanoparticles are nearly spherical in shape. O K edge NEXAFS spectra indicate that O vacancies increase with Co doping. The Co L{sub 3,2} edge NEXAFS spectra revealed that Co ions are in 2+ valence state. DC magnetization hysteresis loops and XMCD results clearly showed the intrinsic origin of temperature ferromagnetism in Co doped ZnO nanoparticles.« less

  5. Correlation of structural properties with energy transfer of Eu-doped ZnO thin films prepared by sol-gel process and magnetron reactive sputtering

    PubMed Central

    Petersen, Julien; Brimont, Christelle; Gallart, Mathieu; Schmerber, Guy; Gilliot, Pierre; Ulhaq-Bouillet, Corinne; Rehspringer, Jean-Luc; Colis, Silviu; Becker, Claude; Slaoui, Abdelillah; Dinia, Aziz

    2010-01-01

    We investigated the structural and optical properties of Eu-doped ZnO thin films made by sol-gel technique and magnetron reactive sputtering on Si (100) substrate. The films elaborated by sol-gel process are polycrystalline while the films made by sputtering show a strongly textured growth along the c-axis. X-ray diffraction patterns and transmission electron microscopy analysis show that all samples are free of spurious phases. The presence of Eu2+ and Eu3+ into the ZnO matrix has been confirmed by x-ray photoemission spectroscopy. This means that a small fraction of Europium substitutes Zn2+ as Eu2+ into the ZnO matrix; the rest of Eu being in the trivalent state. This is probably due to the formation of Eu2O3 oxide at the surface of ZnO particles. This is at the origin of the strong photoluminescence band observed at 2 eV, which is characteristic of the 5D0→7F2 Eu3+ transition. In addition the photoluminescence excitonic spectra showed efficient energy transfer from the ZnO matrix to the Eu3+ ion, which is qualitatively similar for both films although the sputtered films have a better structural quality compared to the sol-gel process grown films. PMID:20644657

  6. Synthesis and magnetic properties of Zr doped ZnO Nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jing; Gao, Daqiang; Yang, Guijin; Zhang, Jinlin; Shi, Zhenhua; Zhang, Zhaohui; Zhu, Zhonghua; Xue, Desheng

    2011-11-10

    Zr doped ZnO nanoparticles are prepared by the sol-gel method with post-annealing. X-ray diffraction results show that all samples are the typical hexagonal wurtzite structure without any other new phase, as well as the Zr atoms have successfully entered into the ZnO lattices instead of forming other lattices. Magnetic measurements indicate that all the doping samples show room temperature ferromagnetism and the pure ZnO is paramagneism. The results of Raman and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy indicate that there are a lot of oxygen vacancies in the samples by doping element of Zr. It is considered that the observed ferromagnetism is related to the doping induced oxygen vacancies.

  7. Electron and hole stability in GaN and ZnO.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Aron; Catlow, C Richard A; Miskufova, Martina; Sokol, Alexey A

    2011-08-24

    We assess the thermodynamic doping limits of GaN and ZnO on the basis of point defect calculations performed using the embedded cluster approach and employing a hybrid non-local density functional for the quantum mechanical region. Within this approach we have calculated a staggered (type-II) valence band alignment between the two materials, with the N 2p states contributing to the lower ionization potential of GaN. With respect to the stability of free electron and hole carriers, redox reactions resulting in charge compensation by ionic defects are found to be largely endothermic (unfavourable) for electrons and exothermic (favourable) for holes, which is consistent with the efficacy of electron conduction in these materials. Approaches for overcoming these fundamental thermodynamic limits are discussed. © 2011 IOP Publishing Ltd

  8. Impedance measurement of Cobalt doped ZnO Quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiwari, Ram; Kaphle, Amrit; Hari, Parameswar

    We investigated structural, thermal and electrical properties of ZnO Quantum dots grown by precipitation method. QDs were spin coated on ITO and annealed at various temperatures ranging from 1000C to 300 0C. ZnO QDs were doped with cobalt for concentration ranging from 0-15%. XRD measurement showed increase in bond length, strain, dislocation density and Cell volume as the doping level varied from 0% to 15%. Impedance Spectroscopy measurements represented by Cole-Cole plot showed reduction in resistance as the cobalt doping concentration increased from 0-15%. Thermal activation energy was obtained by plotting resistivity Vs temperature for doped samples at temperatures from 1000C to 3000C. The thermal activation energy decreased from 85.13meV to 58.21meV as doping increased from 0-15%. Relaxation time was extracted by fitting data to RC model. Relaxation time varied from 61.57 ns to 3.76 ns as the cobalt concentration increased from 0% to 15%. We will also discuss applications of cobalt doped ZnO QDs on improving conversion efficiency of solar cells.

  9. Thickness-dependent magneto-optical effects in hole-doped GaS and GaSe multilayers: a first-principles study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Fei; Zhou, Xiaodong; Feng, Wanxiang; Fu, Botao; Yao, Yugui

    2018-04-01

    Recently, two-dimensional (2D) GaS and GaSe nanosheets were successfully fabricated and the measured electronic, mechanical, and optoelectronic properties are excellent. Here, using the first-principles density functional theory, we investigate the magnetic, optical, and magneto-optical (MO) Kerr and Faraday effects in hole-doped GaS and GaSe multilayers. GaS and GaSe monolayers (MLs) manifest ferromagnetic ground states by introducing even a small amount of hole doping, whereas the magnetism in GaS and GaSe multilayers are significantly different under hole doping. Our results show that ferromagnetic states can be easily established in GaS bilayers and trilayers under proper hole doping, however, most of GaSe multilayers are more favorable to nonmagnetic states. The magnetic moments in GaS multilayers are weakened remarkably with the increasing of thin film thickness and are negligible more than three MLs. This leads to the thickness dependence of MO Kerr and Faraday effects. Furthermore, the MO effects strongly depend on the doping concentration and therefore are electrically controllable by adjusting the number of holes via gate voltage. The substrate effects on the MO properties are also discussed. Combining the unique MO and other interesting physical properties make GaS and GaSe a superior 2D material platform for semiconductor MO and spintronic nanodevices.

  10. Influence of Co doping on combined photocatalytic and antibacterial activity of ZnO nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anandan, M.; Dinesh, S.; Krishnakumar, N.; Balamurugan, K.

    2016-11-01

    The present work aims to investigate the structural, optical, photocatalyst and antibacterial properties of bare and cobalt doped ZnO nanoparticles (NPs) with different concentrations Zn1-x Co x O (x = 0, 0.03, 0.06 and 0.09) synthesized by co-precipitation method. The XRD patterns confirmed that all samples of cobalt doped ZnO nanostructures revealed the formation of single phase having hexagonal wurtzite structure with crystallite size in the range of 31-41 nm. Further, the decreasing trend in lattice parameters and grain sizes were also seen with increasing doping concentrations which confirms the incorporation of Co ions into the ZnO lattice. This result was further supported by the FT-IR data. HR-TEM images demonstrated the distinct hexagonal like morphology with small agglomeration. The UV-visible absorption spectra exhibits red shift with increase in Co doping concentration in ZnO while corresponding bandgap energy of cobalt doped ZnO NPs decreased with increased Co doping concentration. PL spectra showed a weak UV and visible emission band which may be ascribed to the reduction in oxygen vacancy and defects by cobalt doping. XPS and EDX spectral results confirm the composition and the purity of Co doped ZnO NPs. Furthermore, the Co doped ZnO NPs were found to exhibit lesser photocatalytic activity for the degradation of methyl green dye under UV light illumination in comparison with the bare ZnO NPs. Moreover, anti-bacterial studies reveals that the Co doped ZnO NPs possess more antibacterial effect against gram positive Basillus subtills and gram negative Klebsiella pneumoniae bacterial strains than the bare ZnO NPs.

  11. Single and couple doping ZnO nanocrystals characterized by positron techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasang, Tenzin; Namratha, Keerthiraj; Guagliardo, Paul; Byrappa, Kullaiah; Ranganathaiah, Chikkakuntappa; Samarin, S.; Williams, J. F.

    2015-04-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanocrystals have been synthesized using a mild hydrothermal process using low temperatures and pressures with the advantages of free growth catalyst, low cost and alternative technology. Positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy and coincidence Doppler broadening (CDB) spectroscopic methods have been used to investigate the roles of single- and co-dopants and native defects of the ZnO nanocrystals controlled by the synthesis process. It is shown that single Ag1+ and Pd2+ dopants occupy interstitial sites of the ZnO lattice and single Ru3+ doping replaces Zn vacancies substitutionally with a significant effect on the CDB momentum ratio curves when compared using ZnO as the reference spectrum. The co-doping of the ZnO lattice with (Sn4+ + Co2+) shows similar CDB ratios as Ru3+ single-doping. Also co-doping with (Ag1+ + Pd2+) or (Ag1+ + W6+) shows significant decreases in the band gap energy up to about 12.6% compared to single doping. The momentum ratio curves, referenced to undoped ZnO, indicate dopants in interstitial and substitutional sites. The presence of transition metal ions interstitially will trap electrons which resist the recombination of electrons and in turn affect the conductivity of the material.

  12. Doping-induced spin-orbit splitting in Bi-doped ZnO nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aras, Mehmet; Güler-Kılıç, Sümeyra; Kılıç, ćetin

    2017-04-01

    Our predictions, based on density-functional calculations, reveal that surface doping of ZnO nanowires with Bi leads to a linear-in-k splitting of the conduction-band states, through spin-orbit interaction, due to the lowering of the symmetry in the presence of the dopant. This finding implies that spin polarization of the conduction electrons in Bi-doped ZnO nanowires could be controlled with applied electric (as opposed to magnetic) fields, making them candidate materials for spin-orbitronic applications. Our findings also show that the degree of spin splitting could be tuned by adjusting the dopant concentration. Defect calculations and ab initio molecular dynamics simulations indicate that stable doping configurations exhibiting the foregoing linear-in-k splitting could be realized under reasonable thermodynamic conditions.

  13. One-Step Synthesis of Monodisperse In-Doped ZnO Nanocrystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Qing Ling; Yang, Ye Feng; He, Hai Ping; Chen, Dong Dong; Ye, Zhi Zhen; Jin, Yi Zheng

    2010-05-01

    A method for the synthesis of high quality indium-doped zinc oxide (In-doped ZnO) nanocrystals was developed using a one-step ester elimination reaction based on alcoholysis of metal carboxylate salts. The resulting nearly monodisperse nanocrystals are well-crystallized with typically crystal structure identical to that of wurtzite type of ZnO. Structural, optical, and elemental analyses on the products indicate the incorporation of indium into the host ZnO lattices. The individual nanocrystals with cubic structures were observed in the 5% In-ZnO reaction, due to the relatively high reactivity of indium precursors. Our study would provide further insights for the growth of doped oxide nanocrystals, and deepen the understanding of doping process in colloidal nanocrystal syntheses.

  14. Highly sensitive H2 gas sensor of Co doped ZnO nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhati, Vijendra Singh; Ranwa, Sapana; Kumar, Mahesh

    2018-04-01

    In this report, the hydrogen gas sensing properties based on Co doped ZnO nanostructures are explored. The undoped and Co doped nanostructures were grown by RF magnetron sputtering system, and its structural, morphological, and hydrogen sensing behavior are investigated. The maximum relative response was occurred by the 2.5% Co doped ZnO nanostructures among undoped and other doped sensors. The enhancement of relative response might be due to large chemisorbed sites formation on the ZnO surface for the reaction to hydrogen gas.

  15. Al-doped ZnO seed layer-dependent crystallographic control of ZnO nanorods by using electrochemical deposition

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Son, Hyo-Soo; Choi, Nak-Jung; Kim, Kyoung-Bo

    Highlights: • Polar and semipolar ZnO NRs were successfully achieved by hydrothermal synthesis. • Semipolar and polar ZnO NRs were grown on ZnO and AZO/m-sapphire, respectively. • Al % of AZO/m-sapphire enhanced the lateral growth rate of polar ZnO NRs. - Abstract: We investigated the effect of an Al-doped ZnO film on the crystallographic direction of ZnO nanorods (NRs) using electrochemical deposition. From high-solution X-ray diffraction measurements, the crystallographic plane of ZnO NRs grown on (1 0 0) ZnO/m-plane sapphire was (1 0 1). The surface grain size of the (100) Al-doped ZnO (AZO) film decreased with increasing Al contentmore » in the ZnO seed layer, implying that the Al dopant accelerated the three-dimensional (3D) growth of the AZO film. In addition, it was found that with increasing Al doping concentration of the AZO seed layer, the crystal orientation of the ZnO NRs grown on the AZO seed layer changed from [1 0 1] to [0 0 1]. With increasing Al content of the nonpolar (1 0 0) AZO seed layer, the small surface grains with a few crystallographic planes of the AZO film changed from semipolar (1 0 1) ZnO NRs to polar (0 0 1) ZnO NRs due to the increase of the vertical [0 0 1] growth rate of the ZnO NRs owing to excellent electrical properties.« less

  16. Pure ultraviolet emission from ZnO quantum dots-based/GaN heterojunction diodes by MgO interlayer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Cheng; Liang, Renli; Chen, Jingwen; Zhang, Jun; Wang, Shuai; Zhao, Chong; Zhang, Wei; Dai, Jiangnan; Chen, Changqing

    2017-07-01

    We demonstrate the fabrication and characterization of ZnO/GaN-based heterojunction light-emitting diodes (LEDs) by using air-stable and solution-processable ZnO quantum dots (QDs) with a thin MgO interlayer acting as an electron blocking layer (EBL). The ZnO QDs/MgO/ p-GaN heterojunction can only display electroluminescence (EL) characteristic in reverse bias regime. Under sufficient reverse bias, a fairly pure ultraviolet EL emission located at 370 nm deriving from near band edge of ZnO with a full width at half maximum (FWHM) of 8.3 nm had been obtained, while the deep-level emission had been almost totally suppressed. The EL origination and corresponding carrier transport mechanisms were investigated qualitatively in terms of photoluminescence (PL) results and energy band diagram.[Figure not available: see fulltext.

  17. Effects of Si-doping on magnetic properties of Ga1-xCrxN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Zhongpo; Yang, Zongxian; Liu, Chang

    2015-01-01

    Ga1-xCrxN thin films with and without the Si doping have been prepared by molecular beam epitaxy. The samples have been investigated by X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoemission spectroscopy, photoluminescence, optical absorption spectra and magnetic measurements. It has been confirmed that for the undoped samples Cr in GaN is predominantly trivalent when substituting for Ga and that the Cr 3d state appears within the band gap of GaN. In Si doped specimens the upward shifts of the chemical potential are observed, and the electrons supplied by the Si doping are trapped at Cr sites forming Cr2+. As a result, the Si doping effects show an increase of the Curie temperature, and a reduction of the saturation magnetization in the Ga1-xCrxN:Si samples. The significant effect on the ferromagnetism with Si doping in Ga1-xCrxN is explained by the percolation theory of bound magnetic polarons.

  18. Studies on morphology, electrical and optical characteristics of Al-doped ZnO thin films grown by atomic layer deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Li; Chen, Xinliang; Zhou, Zhongxin; Guo, Sheng; Zhao, Ying; Zhang, Xiaodan

    2018-03-01

    Al doped ZnO (AZO) films deposited on glass substrates through the atomic layer deposition (ALD) technique are investigated with various temperatures from 100 to 250 °C and different Zn : Al cycle ratios from 20 : 0 to 20 : 3. Surface morphology, structure, optical and electrical properties of obtained AZO films are studied in detail. The Al composition of the AZO films is varied by controlling the ratio of Zn : Al. We achieve an excellent AZO thin film with a resistivity of 2.14 × 10‑3 Ω·cm and high optical transmittance deposited at 150 °C with 20 : 2 Zn : Al cycle ratio. This kind of AZO thin films exhibit great potential for optoelectronics device application. Project supported by the State Key Development Program for Basic Research of China (Nos. 2011CBA00706, 2011CBA00707) and the Tianjin Applied Basic Research Project and Cutting-Edge Technology Research Plan (No. 13JCZDJC26900).

  19. Properties of Al- and Ga-doped thin zinc oxide films treated with UV laser radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Asedy, Hayder J.; Al-Khafaji, Shuruq A.; Bakhtiar, Hazri; Bidin, Noriah

    2018-03-01

    This paper reports the Nd:YAG laser irradiation treated modified properties of aluminum (Al) and gallium (Ga) co-doped zinc oxide (ZnO) (AGZO) films prepared on Si-substrate via combined sol-gel and spin-coating method. The impact of varying laser energy (150-200 mJ) on the structure, morphology, electrical and optical properties of such AGZO films were determined. Laser-treated samples were characterized using various analytical tools. Present techniques could achieve a high-quality polycrystalline films compared with those produced via conventional high temperature processing. AGZO films irradiated with third harmonics UV radiation (355 nm) from Nd:YAG laser source revealed very low resistivity of 4.02 × 10- 3 Ω cm. The structural properties grain size was calculated firm the X-ray diffraction spectra using the Scherrer equation that increased from 12.7 to 22.5 nm as the annealing laser energy increased from (150-200) mJ. The differences in crystallinity and orientation are explained in terms of the thermal effect caused by laser irradiation. (FESEM) images have been demonstrated that Nd:YAG laser annealing can significantly improve the crystallinity level, densification, and surface flatness of sol-gel derived AGZO thin films that occurred as a result of laser processing. Synthesized AGZO films displayed favorable growth orientation along (101) lattice direction. AGZO films with energy band gap of 3.37-3.41 eV were obtained. Results on the crystallinity, surface morphology, roughness, bonding vibration, absorption, photoluminescence, and resistivity of the laser-irradiated films were analyzed and discussed.

  20. Electronic structure, magnetic and structural properties of Ni doped ZnO nanoparticles

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Kumar, Shalendra, E-mail: shailuphy@gmail.com; Vats, Prashant; Gautam, S.

    Highlights: • XRD, and HR-TEM results show the single phase nature of Ni doped ZnO nanoparticles. • dc magnetization results indicate the RT-FM in Ni doped ZnO nanoparticles. • Ni L{sub 3,2} edge NEXAFS spectra infer that Ni ions are in +2 valence state. • O K edge NEXAFS spectra show that O vacancy increases with Ni doping in ZnO. - Abstract: We report structural, magnetic and electronic structural properties of Ni doped ZnO nanoparticles prepared by auto-combustion method. The prepared nanoparticles were characterized by using X-ray diffraction (XRD), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM), near edge X-ray absorption finemore » structure (NEXAFS) spectroscopy, and dc magnetization measurements. The XRD and HR-TEM results indicate that Ni doped ZnO nanoparticles have single phase nature with wurtzite lattice and exclude the presence of secondary phase. NEXAFS measurements performed at Ni L{sub 3,2}-edges indicates that Ni ions are in +2 valence state and exclude the presence of Ni metal clusters. O K-edge NEXAFS spectra indicate an increase in oxygen vacancies with Ni-doping, while Zn L{sub 3,2}-edge show the absence of Zn-vacancies. The magnetization measurements performed at room temperature shows that pure and Ni doped ZnO exhibits ferromagnetic behavior.« less

  1. Sodium doping in ZnO crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parmar, N. S.; Lynn, K. G.

    2015-01-01

    ZnO bulk single crystals were doped with sodium by thermal diffusion. Positron annihilations spectroscopy confirms the filling of zinc vacancies, to >6 μm deep in the bulk. Secondary-ion mass spectrometry measurement shows the diffusion of sodium up to 8 μm with concentration (1-3.5) × 1017 cm-3. Broad photoluminescence excitation peak at 3.1 eV, with onset appearance at 3.15 eV in Na:ZnO, is attributed to an electronic transition from a NaZn level at ˜(220-270) meV to the conduction band. Resistivity in Na doped ZnO crystals increases up to (4-5) orders of magnitude at room temperature.

  2. Refractive index of erbium doped GaN thin films

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Alajlouni, S.; Sun, Z. Y.; Li, J.

    2014-08-25

    GaN is an excellent host for erbium (Er) to provide optical emission in the technologically important as well as eye-safe 1540 nm wavelength window. Er doped GaN (GaN:Er) epilayers were synthesized on c-plane sapphire substrates using metal organic chemical vapor deposition. By employing a pulsed growth scheme, the crystalline quality of GaN:Er epilayers was significantly improved over those obtained by conventional growth method of continuous flow of reaction precursors. X-ray diffraction rocking curve linewidths of less than 300 arc sec were achieved for the GaN (0002) diffraction peak, which is comparable to the typical results of undoped high quality GaN epilayers andmore » represents a major improvement over previously reported results for GaN:Er. Spectroscopic ellipsometry was used to determine the refractive index of the GaN:Er epilayers in the 1540 nm wavelength window and a linear dependence on Er concentration was found. The observed refractive index increase with Er incorporation and the improved crystalline quality of the GaN:Er epilayers indicate that low loss GaN:Er optical waveguiding structures are feasible.« less

  3. The Effects of Zr Doping on the Optical, Electrical and Microstructural Properties of Thin ZnO Films Deposited by Atomic Layer Deposition

    PubMed Central

    Herodotou, Stephania; Treharne, Robert E.; Durose, Ken; Tatlock, Gordon J.; Potter, Richard J.

    2015-01-01

    Transparent conducting oxides (TCOs), with high optical transparency (≥85%) and low electrical resistivity (10−4 Ω·cm) are used in a wide variety of commercial devices. There is growing interest in replacing conventional TCOs such as indium tin oxide with lower cost, earth abundant materials. In the current study, we dope Zr into thin ZnO films grown by atomic layer deposition (ALD) to target properties of an efficient TCO. The effects of doping (0–10 at.% Zr) were investigated for ~100 nm thick films and the effect of thickness on the properties was investigated for 50–250 nm thick films. The addition of Zr4+ ions acting as electron donors showed reduced resistivity (1.44 × 10−3 Ω·cm), increased carrier density (3.81 × 1020 cm−3), and increased optical gap (3.5 eV) with 4.8 at.% doping. The increase of film thickness to 250 nm reduced the electron carrier/photon scattering leading to a further reduction of resistivity to 7.5 × 10−4 Ω·cm and an average optical transparency in the visible/near infrared (IR) range up to 91%. The improved n-type properties of ZnO: Zr films are promising for TCO applications after reaching the targets for high carrier density (>1020 cm−3), low resistivity in the order of 10−4 Ω·cm and high optical transparency (≥85%). PMID:28793633

  4. Effects of O2 plasma post-treatment on ZnO: Ga thin films grown by H2O-thermal ALD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Yueh-Lin; Chuang, Jia-Hao; Huang, Tzu-Hsuan; Ho, Chong-Long; Wu, Meng-Chyi

    2013-03-01

    Transparent conducting oxides have been widely employed in optoelectronic devices using the various deposition methods such as sputtering, thermal evaporator, and e-gun evaporator technologies.1-3 In this work, gallium doped zinc oxide (ZnO:Ga) thin films were grown on glass substrates via H2O-thermal atomic layer deposition (ALD) at different deposition temperatures. ALD-GZO thin films were constituted as a layer-by-layer structure by stacking zinc oxides and gallium oxides. Diethylzinc (DEZ), triethylgallium (TEG) and H2O were used as zinc, gallium precursors and oxygen source, respectively. Furthermore, we investigated the influences of O2 plasma post-treatment power on the surface morphology, electrical and optical property of ZnO:Ga films. As the result of O2 plasma post-treatment, the characteristics of ZnO:Ga films exhibit a smooth surface, low resistivity, high carrier concentration, and high optical transmittance in the visible spectrum. However, the transmittance decreases with O2 plasma power in the near- and mid-infrared regions.

  5. Room temperature ferromagnetism in Mg-doped ZnO nanoparticles

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Singh, Jaspal, E-mail: jaspal0314@gmail.com; Vashihth, A.; Gill, Pritampal Singh

    Zn{sub 1-x}Mg{sub x}O (x = 0, 0,10) nanoparticles were successfully synthesized using sol-gel method. X-ray diffraction (XRD) confirms that the synthesized nanoparticles possess wurtzite phase having hexagonal structure. Morphological analysis was carried out using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) which depicts the spherical morphology of ZnO nanoparticles. Energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) showed the presence of Mg in ZnO nanoparticles. Electron spin resonance (ESR) signal was found to be decreasing with increasing of Mg-doping concentration. The room temperature ferromagnetism was observed in undoped and Mg-doped ZnO nanoparticles. The increase of Mg-doping concentration resulted in decrease of saturation magnetization value which could bemore » attributed to decrease of oxygen vacancies present in host nanoparticles.« less

  6. Highly transparent and lower resistivity of yttrium doped ZnO thin films grown on quartz glass by sol-gel method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaur, Narinder; Sharma, Sanjeev K.; Kim, Deuk Young; Singh, Narinder

    2016-11-01

    We prepared highly transparent yttrium-doped ZnO (YZO) thin films on quartz glass by a sol-gel method, and then annealed them at 600 °C in vacuum. All samples showed hexagonal wurtzite structure with a preferential orientation along the (002) direction. We observed the average grain size of Y: 2 at% thin film to be in the range of 15-20 nm. We observed blue shift in the optical bandgap (3.29 eV→3.32 eV) by increasing the Y concentration (0-2 at%), due to increasing the number of electrons, and replacing the di-valent (Zn2+) with tri-valent (Y3+) dopants. Replacing the higher ionic radii (Y3+) with smaller ionic radii (Zn2+) expanded the local volume of the lattice, which reduced the lattice defects, and increased the intensity ratio of NBE/DLE emission (INBE/IDLE). We also observed the lowest (172 meV) Urbach energy of Y: 2 at% thin film, and confirmed the high structural quality. Incorporation of the appropriate Y concentration (2 at%) improved the crystallinity of YZO thin films, which led to less carrier scattering and lower resistivity.

  7. Effect of cobalt doping on structural and optical properties of ZnO nanoparticles

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Singh, J.; Chanda, A., E-mail: anupamamatsc@gmail.com; Gupta, S.

    Cobalt doped ZnO nanoparticles of uniform sizes were prepared by a chemical method using ZnCl{sub 2} and NaOH as the source materials. The formation of Co-doped ZnO nanoparticles was confirmed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high resolution TEM (HR-TEM) and selected area electron diffraction (SAED) studies. The optical properties of obtained products were examined using room temperature UV-visible and FTIR spectroscopy. SAED of cobalt doped ZnO nanoparticles shows homogeneous distribution of nanoparticles with hexagonal structure. The HRTEM image of the Co-doped ZnO nanoparticles reveals a clear lattice spacing of 0.52 nm corresponding to the interplanar spacing of wurtzite ZnO (002) plane.more » The absorption band at 857 cm{sup −1} in FTIR spectra confirmed the tetrahedral coordination of Zn and a shift of absorption peak to shorter wavelength region and decrease in absorbance with Co doping.is observed in UV-Visible spectra.« less

  8. In vitro antibacterial activity of ZnO and Nd doped ZnO nanoparticles against ESBL producing Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hameed, Abdulrahman Syedahamed Haja; Karthikeyan, Chandrasekaran; Ahamed, Abdulazees Parveez; Thajuddin, Nooruddin; Alharbi, Naiyf S.; Alharbi, Sulaiman Ali; Ravi, Ganasan

    2016-04-01

    Pure ZnO and Neodymium (Nd) doped ZnO nanoparticles (NPs) were synthesized by the co-precipitation method. The synthesized nanoparticles retained the wurtzite hexagonal structure. From FESEM studies, ZnO and Nd doped ZnO NPs showed nanorod and nanoflower like morphology respectively. The FT-IR spectra confirmed the Zn-O stretching bands at 422 and 451 cm-1 for ZnO and Nd doped ZnO NPs respectively. From the UV-VIS spectroscopic measurement, the excitonic peaks were found around 373 nm and 380 nm for the respective samples. The photoluminescence measurements revealed that the broad emission was composed of ten different bands due to zinc vacancies, oxygen vacancies and surface defects. The antibacterial studies performed against extended spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) producing strains of Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae showed that the Nd doped ZnO NPs possessed a greater antibacterial effect than the pure ZnO NPs. From confocal laser scanning microscopic (CLSM) analysis, the apoptotic nature of the cells was confirmed by the cell shrinkage, disorganization of cell wall and cell membrane and dead cell of the bacteria. SEM analysis revealed the existence of bacterial loss of viability due to an impairment of cell membrane integrity, which was highly consistent with the damage of cell walls.

  9. Investigations into the impact of various substrates and ZnO ultra thin seed layers prepared by atomic layer deposition on growth of ZnO nanowire array

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    The impact of various substrates and zinc oxide (ZnO) ultra thin seed layers prepared by atomic layer deposition on the geometric morphology of subsequent ZnO nanowire arrays (NWs) fabricated by the hydrothermal method was investigated. The investigated substrates included B-doped ZnO films, indium tin oxide films, single crystal silicon (111), and glass sheets. Scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction measurements revealed that the geometry and aligment of the NWs were controlled by surface topography of the substrates and thickness of the ZnO seed layers, respectively. According to atomic force microscopy data, we suggest that the substrate, fluctuate amplitude and fluctuate frequency of roughness on ZnO seed layers have a great impact on the alignment of the resulting NWs, whereas the influence of the seed layers' texture was negligible. PMID:22759838

  10. Highly Sensitive and Selective Ethanol Sensor Fabricated with In-Doped 3DOM ZnO.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhihua; Tian, Ziwei; Han, Dongmei; Gu, Fubo

    2016-03-02

    ZnO is an important n-type semiconductor sensing material. Currently, much attention has been attracted to finding an effective method to prepare ZnO nanomaterials with high sensing sensitivity and excellent selectivity. A three-dimensionally ordered macroporous (3DOM) ZnO nanostructure with a large surface area is beneficial to gas and electron transfer, which can enhance the gas sensitivity of ZnO. Indium (In) doping is an effective way to improve the sensing properties of ZnO. In this paper, In-doped 3DOM ZnO with enhanced sensitivity and selectivity has been synthesized by using a colloidal crystal templating method. The 3DOM ZnO with 5 at. % of In-doping exhibits the highest sensitivity (∼88) to 100 ppm ethanol at 250 °C, which is approximately 3 times higher than that of pure 3DOM ZnO. The huge improvement to the sensitivity to ethanol was attributed to the increase in the surface area and the electron carrier concentration. The doping by In introduces more electrons into the matrix, which is helpful for increasing the amount of adsorbed oxygen, leading to high sensitivity. The In-doped 3DOM ZnO is a promising material for a new type of ethanol sensor.

  11. FAST TRACK COMMUNICATION High mobility and low operating voltage ZnGaO and ZnGaLiO transistors with spin-coated Al2O3 as gate dielectric

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, D. X.; Xu, J. B.

    2010-11-01

    Spin-coated alumina serving as a gate dielectric in thin film transistors shows interesting dielectric properties for low-voltage applications, despite a moderate capacitance. With Ga singly doped and Ga, Li co-doped ZnO as the active channel layers, typical mobilities of 4.7 cm2 V-1 s-1 and 2.1 cm2 V-1 s-1 are achieved, respectively. At a given gate bias, the operation current is much smaller than the previously reported values in low-voltage thin film transistors, primarily relying on the giant-capacitive dielectric. The reported devices combine advantages of high mobility, low power consumption, low cost and ease of fabrication. In addition to the transparent nature of both the dielectric and semiconducting active channels, the superior electrical properties of the devices may provide a new avenue for future transparent electronics.

  12. Mg-doped ZnO nanoparticles for efficient sunlight-driven photocatalysis.

    PubMed

    Etacheri, Vinodkumar; Roshan, Roshith; Kumar, Vishwanathan

    2012-05-01

    Magnesium-doped ZnO (ZMO) nanoparticles were synthesized through an oxalate coprecipitation method. Crystallization of ZMO upon thermal decomposition of the oxalate precursors was investigated using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) techniques. XRD studies point toward a significant c-axis compression and reduced crystallite sizes for ZMO samples in contrast to undoped ZnO, which was further confirmed by HRSEM studies. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), UV/vis spectroscopy and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy were employed to establish the electronic and optical properties of these nanoparticles. (XPS) studies confirmed the substitution of Zn(2+) by Mg(2+), crystallization of MgO secondary phase, and increased Zn-O bond strengths in Mg-doped ZnO samples. Textural properties of these ZMO samples obtained at various calcination temperatures were superior in comparison to the undoped ZnO. In addition to this, ZMO samples exhibited a blue-shift in the near band edge photoluminescence (PL) emission, decrease of PL intensities and superior sunlight-induced photocatalytic decomposition of methylene blue in contrast to undoped ZnO. The most active photocatalyst 0.1-MgZnO obtained after calcination at 600 °C showed a 2-fold increase in photocatalytic activity compared to the undoped ZnO. Band gap widening, superior textural properties and efficient electron-hole separation were identified as the factors responsible for the enhanced sunlight-driven photocatalytic activities of Mg-doped ZnO nanoparticles.

  13. Rare Earth Doped GaN Laser Structures Using Metal Modulated Epitaxy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-03-30

    from Eu-doped GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 75, pp. 1189–1191, 1999. 24. D. S . Lee and A. J. Steckl, “Room-temperature-grown rare- earth -doped GaN...luminescent thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 79, pp. 1962–1964,2001. 25. D. S . Lee and A. J. Steckl, “Lateral color integration on rare- earth doped... s . 0.259nm/ s =1.14E13cm-2/ s =1 ML/ s .Our plasma source was optimized to work at 1.5 sccm and 230 W RF power and it provides a growth rate of 0.8 ML/ s

  14. A vanadium-doped ZnO nanosheets-polymer composite for flexible piezoelectric nanogenerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Sung-Ho; Kwon, Yang Hyeog; Lee, Min Hyung; Jung, Joo-Yun; Seol, Jae Hun; Nah, Junghyo

    2016-01-01

    We report high performance flexible piezoelectric nanogenerators (PENGs) by employing vanadium (V)-doped ZnO nanosheets (NSs) and the polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) composite structure. The V-doped ZnO NSs were synthesized to overcome the inherently low piezoelectric properties of intrinsic ZnO. Ferroelectric phase transition induced in the V-doped ZnO NSs contributed to significantly improve the performance of the PENGs after the poling process. Consequently, the PENGs exhibited high output voltage and current up to ~32 V and ~6.2 μA, respectively, under the applied strain, which are sufficient to directly turn on a number of light emitting diodes (LEDs). The composite approach for PENG fabrication is scalable, robust, and reproducible during periodic bending/releasing over extended cycles. The approach introduced here extends the performance limits of ZnO-based PENGs and demonstrates their potential as energy harvesting devices.We report high performance flexible piezoelectric nanogenerators (PENGs) by employing vanadium (V)-doped ZnO nanosheets (NSs) and the polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) composite structure. The V-doped ZnO NSs were synthesized to overcome the inherently low piezoelectric properties of intrinsic ZnO. Ferroelectric phase transition induced in the V-doped ZnO NSs contributed to significantly improve the performance of the PENGs after the poling process. Consequently, the PENGs exhibited high output voltage and current up to ~32 V and ~6.2 μA, respectively, under the applied strain, which are sufficient to directly turn on a number of light emitting diodes (LEDs). The composite approach for PENG fabrication is scalable, robust, and reproducible during periodic bending/releasing over extended cycles. The approach introduced here extends the performance limits of ZnO-based PENGs and demonstrates their potential as energy harvesting devices. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr07185b

  15. Fabrication of ZnO and doped ZnO waveguides deposited by Spin Coating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohan, Rosmin Elsa; R, Neha P.; T, Shalu; C, Darshana K.; Sreelatha, K. S.

    2015-02-01

    In this paper, the synthesis of ZnO and doped Zn1-xAgxO (where x=0.03) nanoparticles by co- precipitation is reported. The precursors used were Zinc Nitrate and Potassium hydroxide pellets. For doping, 3% AgNO3 in ZnNO3 was considered as a separate buffer solution. The prepared nanoparticles were subsequently spin coated onto silica glass substrates at a constant chuck rate of 3000 rpm. The substrate acts as the lower cladding of a waveguide structure. The upper cladding is assumed to be air in the present investigation. The nanostructures of the ZnO powders in the doped and undoped cases were studied using X-ray Diffraction patterns. There was a decrease in the grain size with doping which increase the tunability of the powders to be used as photoluminescent devices. The optical characteristics of the sample were also investigated using UV-Visible spectrophotometer at 200-900 nm wavelengths. The photoluminescence peaks also report a dramatic increase in intensity at the same wavelength for the doped case compared to the undoped one.

  16. Correlations between 1/f noise and thermal treatment of Al-doped ZnO thin films deposited by direct current sputtering

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Barhoumi, A., E-mail: amira-barhoumi@yahoo.fr; Guermazi, S.; Leroy, G.

    2014-05-28

    Al-doped ZnO thin films (AZO) have been deposited on amorphous glass substrates by DC sputtering at different substrate temperatures T{sub s}. X-Ray diffraction results reveal that AZO thin films have a hexagonal wurtzite structure with (002) preferred orientation. (002) peaks indicate that the crystalline structure of the films is oriented with c-axis perpendicular to the substrate. Three-dimensional (3D) atomic force microscopy images of AZO thin films deposited on glass substrate at 200 °C, 300 °C, and 400 °C, respectively, shows the improvement of the crystallinity and the homogeneity of AZO thin films with T{sub s} which is in agreement with the noise measurements.more » The noise was characterized between 1 Hz and 100 kHz and we have obtained 1/f spectra. The noise is very sensitive to the crystal structure especially to the orientation of the crystallites which is perpendicular to the substrate and to the grain boundaries which generate a high current flow and a sharp increase in noise. Through time, R{sub sh} and [αμ]{sub eff} increase with the modification of the crystallinity of AZO thin films. Study of noise aging shows that the noise is more sensitive than resistivity for all AZO thin films.« less

  17. Bistability of hydrogen in ZnO: origin of doping limit and persistent photoconductivity.

    PubMed

    Nahm, Ho-Hyun; Park, C H; Kim, Yong-Sung

    2014-02-18

    Substitutional hydrogen at oxygen site (HO) is well-known to be a robust source of n-type conductivity in ZnO, but a puzzling aspect is that the doping limit by hydrogen is only about 10(18) cm(-3), even if solubility limit is much higher. Another puzzling aspect of ZnO is persistent photoconductivity, which prevents the wide applications of the ZnO-based thin film transistor. Up to now, there is no satisfactory theory about two puzzles. We report the bistability of HO in ZnO through first-principles electronic structure calculations. We find that as Fermi level is close to conduction bands, the HO can undergo a large lattice relaxation, through which a deep level can be induced, capturing electrons and the deep state can be transformed into shallow donor state by a photon absorption. We suggest that the bistability can give explanations to two puzzling aspects.

  18. Nanostructure of aluminium (Al) - Doped zinc oxide (AZO) thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hussin, Rosniza; Husin, M. Asri

    2017-12-01

    Aluminium (Al)-doped Zinc Oxide (ZnO) was deposited on glass substrates by using the sol-gel dip coating technique. Next, AZO sol-gel solution was produced via sol-gel method. Al was used as doped element with molar ratios of 1%, 2%, and 3%, while the calcination temperatures were set at 400°C, 500°C, and 600°C for 2 hours. In fact, characterization was carried out in order to determine the effect of calcination temperature and molar ratio of doping by using several techniques, such as X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM), Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM), and Ultraviolet-Visible spectroscopy (UV-Vis). XRD was performed to investigate the crystal structure in which the ZnO was in wurtzite hexagonal form. Next, Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS) was used to determine the composition of thin films where the result revealed the existence of zinc, oxygen, and aluminium. The roughness of the deposited film was later measured by using the AFM approach where the findings indicated increment in RMS from 8.496 nm to 35.883 nm as the temperature was increased. Additionally, FESEM was carried out to look into the microstructure surfaces of the deposited AZO thin film for increased temperature caused the particle to grow bigger for all molar ratio of dopant. Lastly, UV-Vis was conducted to study the optical properties of AZO, in which the result demonstrated that AZO thin film possessed the highest transmittance percentage among all samples above 90% with band gap value that ranged from 3.25 eV to 3.32 eV.

  19. High-performance InGaN/GaN MQW LEDs with Al-doped ZnO transparent conductive layers grown by MOCVD using H2O as an oxidizer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Jia-Yong; Pei, Yan-Li; Zhuo, Yi; Chen, Zi-Min; Hu, Rui-Qin; Cai, Guang-Shuo; Wang, Gang

    2016-11-01

    In this study, the high performance of InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well light-emitting diodes (LEDs) with Al-doped ZnO (AZO) transparent conductive layers (TCLs) has been demonstrated. The AZO-TCLs were fabricated on the n+-InGaN contact layer by metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) using H2O as an oxidizer at temperatures as low as 400 °C without any post-deposition annealing. It shows a high transparency (98%), low resistivity (510-4 Ω·cm), and an epitaxial-like excellent interface on p-GaN with an n+-InGaN contact layer. A forward voltage of 2.82 V @ 20 mA was obtained. Most importantly, the power efficiencies can be markedly improved by 53.8%@20 mA current injection and 39.6%@350 mA current injection compared with conventional LEDs with indium tin oxide TCL (LED-III), and by 28.8%@20 mA current injection and 4.92%@350 mA current injection compared with LEDs with AZO-TCL prepared by MOCVD using O2 as an oxidizer (LED-II), respectively. The results indicate that the AZO-TCL grown by MOCVD using H2O as an oxidizer is a promising TCL for a low-cost and high-efficiency GaN-based LED application. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61204091, 61404177, 51402366, and U1201254) and the Science and Technology Planning Project of Guangdong Province, China (Grant No. 2015B010132006).

  20. A detailed study on Sn4+ doped ZnO for enhanced photocatalytic degradation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beura, Rosalin; Pachaiappan, R.; Thangadurai, P.

    2018-03-01

    The samples of Sn4+ doped (1, 5, 10, 15, 20 & 30%) ZnO nanostructures were synthesized by a low temperature hydrothermal method. Structural analysis by XRD and Raman spectroscopy showed the hexagonal wurtzite phase of ZnO and the formation of a secondary phase Zn2SnO4 beyond 10% doping of Sn4+. Microstructural analysis by TEM also confirmed the wurtzite ZnO with rod as well as particle like structure. Presence of various functional groups (sbnd OH, sbnd CH, Znsbnd O) were confirmed by FTIR. Optical properties were studied by UV-vis absorption, photoluminescence emission spectroscopies and lifetime measurement. Band gap of the undoped and Sn4+ doped ZnO were analyzed by Tauc plot and it was observed that the band gap of the materials had slightly decreased from 3.2 to 3.16 eV and again increased to 3.23 eV with respect to the increase in the doping concentration from 1 to 30%. A significant change was also noticed in the photoluminescence emission properties of ZnO i.e. increase in the intensity of NBE emission and decrease in DLE, on subject to Sn4+ doping. Average PL lifetime had increased from 29.45 ns for ZnO to 30.62 ns upon 1% Sn ion doping in ZnO. Electrical properties studied by solid state impedance spectroscopy showed that the conductivity had increased by one order of magnitude (from 7.48×10-8 to 2.21×10-7 S/cm) on Sn4+ doping. Photocatalytic experiments were performed on methyl orange (MO) as a model industrial dye under UV light irradiation for different irradiation times. The optimum Sn4+ content in order to achieve highest photocatalytic activity was found to be 1% Sn 4+ doping. The enhancement was achieved due to a decrease in the band gap favoring the generation of electron-hole pairs and the enhanced PL life time that delays the recombination of these charge carrier formation. The third reason was that the increased electrical conductivity that indicated the faster charge transfer in this material to enhance the photocatalytic activity. The Sn

  1. In vitro antibacterial activity of ZnO and Nd doped ZnO nanoparticles against ESBL producing Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae

    PubMed Central

    Hameed, Abdulrahman Syedahamed Haja; Karthikeyan, Chandrasekaran; Ahamed, Abdulazees Parveez; Thajuddin, Nooruddin; Alharbi, Naiyf S.; Alharbi, Sulaiman Ali; Ravi, Ganasan

    2016-01-01

    Pure ZnO and Neodymium (Nd) doped ZnO nanoparticles (NPs) were synthesized by the co-precipitation method. The synthesized nanoparticles retained the wurtzite hexagonal structure. From FESEM studies, ZnO and Nd doped ZnO NPs showed nanorod and nanoflower like morphology respectively. The FT-IR spectra confirmed the Zn-O stretching bands at 422 and 451 cm−1 for ZnO and Nd doped ZnO NPs respectively. From the UV-VIS spectroscopic measurement, the excitonic peaks were found around 373 nm and 380 nm for the respective samples. The photoluminescence measurements revealed that the broad emission was composed of ten different bands due to zinc vacancies, oxygen vacancies and surface defects. The antibacterial studies performed against extended spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) producing strains of Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae showed that the Nd doped ZnO NPs possessed a greater antibacterial effect than the pure ZnO NPs. From confocal laser scanning microscopic (CLSM) analysis, the apoptotic nature of the cells was confirmed by the cell shrinkage, disorganization of cell wall and cell membrane and dead cell of the bacteria. SEM analysis revealed the existence of bacterial loss of viability due to an impairment of cell membrane integrity, which was highly consistent with the damage of cell walls. PMID:27071382

  2. Study of ZnO and Mg doped ZnO nanoparticles by sol-gel process

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Ansari, Mohd Meenhaz, E-mail: meenhazphysics@gmail.com; Arshad, Mohd; Tripathi, Pushpendra

    Nano-crystalline undoped and Mg doped ZnO (Mg-ZnO) nanoparticles with compositional formula Mg{sub x}Zn{sub 1-x}O (x=0,1,3,5,7,10 and 12 %) were synthesized using sol-gel process. The XRD diffraction peaks match with the pattern of the standard hexagonal structure of ZnO that reveals the formation of hexagonal wurtzite structure in all samples. SEM images demonstrates clearly the formation of spherical ZnO nanoparticles, and change of the morphology of the nanoparticles with the concentration of the magnesium, which is in close agreement with that estimated by Scherer formula based on the XRD pattern. To investigate the doping effect on optical properties, the UV–VIS absorptionmore » spectra was obtained and the band gap of the samples calculated.« less

  3. Environmentally induced chemical and morphological heterogeneity of zinc oxide thin films

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Jiang, Hua; Chou, Kang Wei; Petrash, Stanislas

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) thin films have been reported to suffer from degradation in electrical properties, when exposed to elevated heat and humidity, often leading to failures of electronic devices containing ZnO films. This degradation appears to be linked to water and oxygen penetration into the ZnO film. However, a direct observation in the ZnO film morphological evolution detailing structural and chemical changes has been lacking. Here, we systematically investigated the chemical and morphological heterogeneities of ZnO thin films caused by elevated heat and humidity, simulating an environmental aging. X-ray fluorescence microscopy, X-ray absorption spectroscopy, grazing incidence small angle and widemore » angle X-ray scattering, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), ultra-high-resolution SEM, and optical microscopy were carried out to examine ZnO and Al-doped ZnO thin films on two different substrates—silicon wafers and flexible polyethylene terephthalate (PET) films. In the un-doped ZnO thin film, the simulated environmental aging is resulting in pin-holes. In the Al-doped ZnO thin films, significant morphological changes occurred after the treatment, with an appearance of platelet-shaped structures that are 100–200 nm wide by 1 μm long. Synchrotron x-ray characterization further confirmed the heterogeneity in the aged Al-doped ZnO, showing the formation of anisotropic structures and disordering. X-ray diffraction and X-ray absorption spectroscopy indicated the formation of a zinc hydroxide in the aged Al-doped films. Utilizing advanced characterization methods, our studies provided information with an unprecedented level of details and revealed the chemical and morphologically heterogeneous nature of the degradation in ZnO thin films.« less

  4. Environmentally induced chemical and morphological heterogeneity of zinc oxide thin films

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Jiang, Hua; Chou, Kang Wei; Petrash, Stanislas

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) thin films have been reported to suffer from degradation in electrical properties, when exposed to elevated heat and humidity, often leading to failures of electronic devices containing ZnO films. This degradation appears to be linked to water and oxygen penetration into the ZnO film. However, a direct observation in the ZnO film morphological evolution detailing structural and chemical changes has been lacking. Here, we systematically investigated the chemical and morphological heterogeneities of ZnO thin films caused by elevated heat and humidity, simulating an environmental aging. X-ray fluorescence microscopy, X-ray absorption spectroscopy, grazing incidence small angle and widemore » angle X-ray scattering, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), ultra-high-resolution SEM, and optical microscopy were carried out to examine ZnO and Al-doped ZnO thin films on two different substrates—silicon wafers and flexible polyethylene terephthalate (PET) films. In the un-doped ZnO thin film, the simulated environmental aging is resulting in pin-holes. In the Al-doped ZnO thin films, significant morphological changes occurred after the treatment, with an appearance of platelet-shaped structures that are 100–200 nm wide by 1μm long. Synchrotron x-ray characterization further confirmed the heterogeneity in the aged Al-doped ZnO, showing the formation of anisotropic structures and disordering. X-ray diffraction and X-ray absorption spectroscopy indicated the formation of a zinc hydroxide in the aged Al-doped films. In conclusion, utilizing advanced characterization methods, our studies provided information with an unprecedented level of details and revealed the chemical and morphologically heterogeneous nature of the degradation in ZnO thin films.« less

  5. Environmentally induced chemical and morphological heterogeneity of zinc oxide thin films

    DOE PAGES

    Jiang, Hua; Chou, Kang Wei; Petrash, Stanislas; ...

    2016-09-02

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) thin films have been reported to suffer from degradation in electrical properties, when exposed to elevated heat and humidity, often leading to failures of electronic devices containing ZnO films. This degradation appears to be linked to water and oxygen penetration into the ZnO film. However, a direct observation in the ZnO film morphological evolution detailing structural and chemical changes has been lacking. Here, we systematically investigated the chemical and morphological heterogeneities of ZnO thin films caused by elevated heat and humidity, simulating an environmental aging. X-ray fluorescence microscopy, X-ray absorption spectroscopy, grazing incidence small angle and widemore » angle X-ray scattering, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), ultra-high-resolution SEM, and optical microscopy were carried out to examine ZnO and Al-doped ZnO thin films on two different substrates—silicon wafers and flexible polyethylene terephthalate (PET) films. In the un-doped ZnO thin film, the simulated environmental aging is resulting in pin-holes. In the Al-doped ZnO thin films, significant morphological changes occurred after the treatment, with an appearance of platelet-shaped structures that are 100–200 nm wide by 1μm long. Synchrotron x-ray characterization further confirmed the heterogeneity in the aged Al-doped ZnO, showing the formation of anisotropic structures and disordering. X-ray diffraction and X-ray absorption spectroscopy indicated the formation of a zinc hydroxide in the aged Al-doped films. In conclusion, utilizing advanced characterization methods, our studies provided information with an unprecedented level of details and revealed the chemical and morphologically heterogeneous nature of the degradation in ZnO thin films.« less

  6. Improving the selective cancer killing ability of ZnO nanoparticles using Fe doping.

    PubMed

    Thurber, Aaron; Wingett, Denise G; Rasmussen, John W; Layne, Janet; Johnson, Lydia; Tenne, Dmitri A; Zhang, Jianhui; Hanna, Charles B; Punnoose, Alex

    2012-06-01

    This work reports a new method to improve our recent demonstration of zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles (NPs) selectively killing certain human cancer cells, achieved by incorporating Fe ions into the NPs. Thoroughly characterized cationic ZnO NPs (∼6 nm) doped with Fe ions (Zn(1-x )Fe (x) O, x = 0-0.15) were used in this work, applied at a concentration of 24 μg/ml. Cytotoxicity studies using flow cytometry on Jurkat leukemic cancer cells show cell viability drops from about 43% for undoped ZnO NPs to 15% for ZnO NPs doped with 7.5% Fe. However, the trend reverses and cell viability increases with higher Fe concentrations. The non-immortalized human T cells are markedly more resistant to Fe-doped ZnO NPs than cancerous T cells, confirming that Fe-doped samples still maintain selective toxicity to cancer cells. Pure iron oxide samples displayed no appreciable toxicity. Reactive oxygen species generated with NP introduction to cells increased with increasing Fe up to 7.5% and decreased for >7.5% doping.

  7. Effect of Gallium Doping on the Characteristic Properties of Polycrystalline Cadmium Telluride Thin Film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ojo, A. A.; Dharmadasa, I. M.

    2017-08-01

    Ga-doped CdTe polycrystalline thin films were successfully electrodeposited on glass/fluorine doped tin oxide substrates from aqueous electrolytes containing cadmium nitrate (Cd(NO3)2·4H2O) and tellurium oxide (TeO2). The effects of different Ga-doping concentrations on the CdTe:Ga coupled with different post-growth treatments were studied by analysing the structural, optical, morphological and electronic properties of the deposited layers using x-ray diffraction (XRD), ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometry, scanning electron microscopy, photoelectrochemical cell measurement and direct-current conductivity test respectively. XRD results show diminishing (111)C CdTe peak above 20 ppm Ga-doping and the appearance of (301)M GaTe diffraction above 50 ppm Ga-doping indicating the formation of two phases; CdTe and GaTe. Although, reductions in the absorption edge slopes were observed above 20 ppm Ga-doping for the as-deposited CdTe:Ga layer, no obvious influence on the energy gap of CdTe films with Ga-doping were detected. Morphologically, reductions in grain size were observed at 50 ppm Ga-doping and above with high pinhole density within the layer. For the as-deposited CdTe:Ga layers, conduction type change from n- to p- were observed at 50 ppm, while the n-type conductivity were retained after post-growth treatment. Highest conductivity was observed at 20 ppm Ga-doping of CdTe. These results are systematically reported in this paper.

  8. Structure of (Ga2O3)2(ZnO)13 and a unified description of the homologous series (Ga2O3)2(ZnO)(2n + 1).

    PubMed

    Michiue, Yuichi; Kimizuka, Noboru; Kanke, Yasushi; Mori, Takao

    2012-06-01

    The structure of (Ga(2)O(3))(2)(ZnO)(13) has been determined by a single-crystal X-ray diffraction technique. In the monoclinic structure of the space group C2/m with cell parameters a = 19.66 (4), b = 3.2487 (5), c = 27.31 (2) Å, and β = 105.9 (1)°, a unit cell is constructed by combining the halves of the unit cell of Ga(2)O(3)(ZnO)(6) and Ga(2)O(3)(ZnO)(7) in the homologous series Ga(2)O(3)(ZnO)(m). The homologous series (Ga(2)O(3))(2)(ZnO)(2n + 1) is derived and a unified description for structures in the series is presented using the (3+1)-dimensional superspace formalism. The phases are treated as compositely modulated structures consisting of two subsystems. One is constructed by metal ions and another is by O ions. In the (3 + 1)-dimensional model, displacive modulations of ions are described by the asymmetric zigzag function with large amplitudes, which was replaced by a combination of the sawtooth function in refinements. Similarities and differences between the two homologous series (Ga(2)O(3))(2)(ZnO)(2n + 1) and Ga(2)O(3)(ZnO)(m) are clarified in (3 + 1)-dimensional superspace. The validity of the (3 + 1)-dimensional model is confirmed by the refinements of (Ga(2)O(3))(2)(ZnO)(13), while a few complex phenomena in the real structure are taken into account by modifying the model.

  9. Development of Room Temperature Excitonic Lasing From ZnO and MgZnO Thin Film Based Metal-Semiconductor-Metal Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suja, Mohammad Zahir Uddin

    Room temperature excitonic lasing is demonstrated and developed by utilizing metal-semiconductor-metal devices based on ZnO and MgZnO materials. At first, Cu-doped p-type ZnO films are grown on c-sapphire substrates by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy. Photoluminescence (PL) experiments reveal a shallow acceptor state at 0.15 eV above the valence band edge. Hall effect results indicate that a growth condition window is found for the formation of p-type ZnO thin films and the best conductivity is achieved with a high hole concentration of 1.54x1018 cm-3, a low resistivity of 0.6 O cm and a moderate mobility of 6.65 cm2 V -1 s-1 at room temperature. Metal oxide semiconductor (MOS) capacitor devices have been fabricated on the Cu-doped ZnO films and the characteristics of capacitance-voltage measurements demonstrate that the Cu-doped ZnO thin films under proper growth conditions are p-type. Seebeck measurements on these Cu-doped ZnO samples lead to positive Seebeck coefficients and further confirm the p-type conductivity. Other measurements such as XRD, XPS, Raman and absorption are also performed to elucidate the structural and optical characteristics of the Cu-doped p-type ZnO films. The p-type conductivity is explained to originate from Cu substitution of Zn with a valency of +1 state. However, all p-type samples are converted to n-type over time, which is mostly due to the carrier compensation from extrinsic defects of ZnO. To overcome the stability issue of p-type ZnO film, alternate devices other than p-n junction has been developed. Electrically driven plasmon-exciton coupled random lasing is demonstrated by incorporating Ag nanoparticles on Cu-doped ZnO metal-semiconductor-metal (MSM) devices. Both photoluminescence and electroluminescence studies show that emission efficiencies have been enhanced significantly due to coupling between ZnO excitons and Ag surface plasmons. With the incorporation of Ag nanoparticles on ZnO MSM structures, internal quantum

  10. Exciting transition metal doped dilute magnetic thin films: MgO:Er and ZnO:Er

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ćakıcı, T.; Sarıtaş, S.; Muǧlu, G. Merhan; Yıldırım, M.

    2017-02-01

    Erbium doped MgO and doped ZnO thin films have reasonably important properties applications in spintronic devices. These films were synthesized on glass substrates by Chemical Spray Pyrolysis (CSP) method. In the literature there has been almost no report on preparation of MgO:Er dilute magnetic thin films by means of CSP. Because doped thin films show different magnetic behaviors, depending upon the type of magnetic material ions, concentration of them, synthesis route and experimental conditions, synthesized MgO:Er and ZnO:Er films were compared to thin film properties. Optical analyses of the synthesized thin films were examined spectral absorption and transmittance measurements by UV-Vis double beam spectrophotometer technique. Structural analysis of the thin films was examined by using XRD, Raman Analysis, FE-SEM, EDX and AFM techniques. Also, magnetic properties of the MgO:Er and ZnO:Er films were investigated by vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) which show that diamagnetic behavior of the MgO:Er thin film and ferromagnetic (FM) behavior of the ZnO:Er film were is formed.

  11. Luminescence studies of laser MBE grown GaN on ZnO nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dewan, Sheetal; Tomar, Monika; Kapoor, Ashok K.; Tandon, R. P.; Gupta, Vinay

    2017-08-01

    GaN films have been successfully fabricated using Laser Molecular Beam Epitaxy (LMBE) technique on bare c-plane sapphire substrate and ZnO nanostructures (NS) decorated Si (100) substrates. The ZnO nanostructures were grown on Si (100) substrate using high pressure assisted Pulsed laser deposition technique in inert gas ambience. Discrete nanostructured morphology of ZnO was obtained using the PLD growth on Si substrates. Photoluminescence studies performed on the prepared GaN/Sapphire and GaN/ZnO-NS/Si systems, revealed a significant PL enhancement in case of GaN/ZnO-NS/Si system compared to the former. The hexagonal nucleation sites provided by the ZnO nanostructures strategically enhanced the emission of GaN film grown by Laser MBE Technique at relatively lower temperature of 700°C. The obtained results are attractive for the realization of highly luminescent GaN films on Si substrate for photonic devices.

  12. Preparation and antibacterial properties of titanium-doped ZnO from different zinc salts

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    To research the relationship of micro-structures and antibacterial properties of the titanium-doped ZnO powders and probe their antibacterial mechanism, titanium-doped ZnO powders with different shapes and sizes were prepared from different zinc salts by alcohothermal method. The ZnO powders were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (UV-vis), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and selected area electron diffraction (SAED), and the antibacterial activities of titanium-doped ZnO powders on Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus were evaluated. Furthermore, the tested strains were characterized by SEM, and the electrical conductance variation trend of the bacterial suspension was characterized. The results indicate that the morphologies of the powders are different due to preparation from different zinc salts. The XRD results manifest that the samples synthesized from zinc acetate, zinc nitrate, and zinc chloride are zincite ZnO, and the sample synthesized from zinc sulfate is the mixture of ZnO, ZnTiO3, and ZnSO4 · 3Zn (OH)2 crystal. UV-vis spectra show that the absorption edges of the titanium-doped ZnO powders are red shifted to more than 400 nm which are prepared from zinc acetate, zinc nitrate, and zinc chloride. The antibacterial activity of titanium-doped ZnO powders synthesized from zinc chloride is optimal, and its minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) are lower than 0.25 g L−1. Likewise, when the bacteria are treated by ZnO powders synthesized from zinc chloride, the bacterial cells are damaged most seriously, and the electrical conductance increment of bacterial suspension is slightly high. It can be inferred that the antibacterial properties of the titanium-doped ZnO powders are relevant to the microstructure, particle size, and the crystal. The powders can damage the

  13. Effects of Eu doping and O vacancy on the magnetic and optical properties of ZnO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ling-Feng, Qu; Qing-Yu, Hou; Xiao-Fang, Jia; Zhen-Chao, Xu; Chun-Wang, Zhao

    2018-02-01

    We calculated the electronic structure and optical properties of Eu mono-doped ZnO systems with or without O vacancy. We also determined the relative energy of ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic orders of Eu-double-doped ZnO systems. The double-doped systems possess high Curie temperature and achieve room temperature ferromagnetism. The magnetism in the Eu mono-doped system without O vacancy is caused by the -Eu3+-O2--Eu3+- bound magnetopolaron (BMP) model. The magnetism of Eu mono-doped ZnO systems with O vacancy is more stable than that without O vacancy, and such magnetism is attributed to the -Eu3+-VO++-Eu3+- BMP model. The absorption spectrum for mono-doped systems is red shifted, and this finding confirms that Eu-mono-doped ZnO is a candidate photocatalyst for various applications. Therefore, Eu-double-doped ZnO can be practically used as an unambiguous diluted magnetic semiconductor.

  14. Co-Doped ZnO nanoparticles: minireview.

    PubMed

    Djerdj, Igor; Jaglicić, Zvonko; Arcon, Denis; Niederberger, Markus

    2010-07-01

    Diluted magnetic semiconductors with a Curie temperature exceeding 300 K are promising candidates for spintronic devices and spin-based electronic technologies. We review recent achievements in the field of one of them: Co-doped ZnO at the nanoparticulate scale.

  15. Bistability of Hydrogen in ZnO: Origin of Doping Limit and Persistent Photoconductivity

    PubMed Central

    Nahm, Ho-Hyun; Park, C. H.; Kim, Yong-Sung

    2014-01-01

    Substitutional hydrogen at oxygen site (HO) is well-known to be a robust source of n-type conductivity in ZnO, but a puzzling aspect is that the doping limit by hydrogen is only about 1018 cm−3, even if solubility limit is much higher. Another puzzling aspect of ZnO is persistent photoconductivity, which prevents the wide applications of the ZnO-based thin film transistor. Up to now, there is no satisfactory theory about two puzzles. We report the bistability of HO in ZnO through first-principles electronic structure calculations. We find that as Fermi level is close to conduction bands, the HO can undergo a large lattice relaxation, through which a deep level can be induced, capturing electrons and the deep state can be transformed into shallow donor state by a photon absorption. We suggest that the bistability can give explanations to two puzzling aspects. PMID:24535157

  16. Rapid synthesis of Co, Ni co-doped ZnO nanoparticles: Optical and electrochemical properties

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Romeiro, Fernanda C.; Marinho, Juliane Z.; Lemos, Samantha C.S.

    We report for the first time a rapid preparation of Zn{sub 1−2x}Co{sub x}Ni{sub x}O nanoparticles via a versatile and environmentally friendly route, microwave-assisted hydrothermal (MAH) method. The Co, Ni co-doped ZnO nanoparticles present an effect on photoluminescence and electrochemical properties, exhibiting excellent electrocatalytic performance compared to undoped ZnO sample. Photoluminescence spectroscopy measurements indicated the reduction of the green–orange–red visible emission region after adding Co and Ni ions, revealing the formation of alternative pathways for the generated recombination. The presence of these metallic ions into ZnO creates different defects, contributing to a local structural disorder, as revealed by Raman spectra. Electrochemicalmore » experiments revealed that the electrocatalytic oxidation of dopamine on ZnO attached to multi-walled carbon nanotubes improved significantly in the Co, Ni co-doped ZnO samples when compared to pure ZnO. - Graphical abstract: Rapid synthesis of Co, Ni co-doped ZnO nanoparticles: optical and electrochemical properties. Co, Ni co-doped ZnO hexagonal nanoparticles with optical and electrocatalytic properties were successfully prepared for the first time using a microwave hydrothermal method at mild conditions. - Highlights: • Co{sup 2+} and Ni{sup 2+} into ZnO lattice obtained a mild and environmentally friendly process. • The heating method strongly influences in the growth and shape of the particles. • Short-range defects generated by the ions insertion affects the photoluminescence. • Doped ZnO nanoparticles improve the electrocatalytic properties of pure oxide.« less

  17. Synthesis and characterization of Ni doped ZnO nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamgadge, Y. S.; Gedam, P. P.; Ganorkar, R. P.; Mahure, M. A.; Pahurkar, V. G.; Muley, G. G.

    2018-05-01

    In this paper, we present synthesis of L-valine assisted surface modification of Ni doped ZnO nanoparticles (NPs) using chemical precipitation method. Samples were calcined at 500oC for 2h. Uncalcined and calcined samples were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) spectroscopy. Ni doped ZnO NPs with average particle size of 8 nm have been successfully obtained using L-valine as surface modifying agent. Increase in the particle size was observed after the calcination. XRD and TEM studies confirmed the purity, surface morphology and hexagonal wurtzite crystal structure of ZnO NPs. UV-vis spectroscopy indicated the blue shift of excitons absorption wavelength and surface modification by L-valine.

  18. Influence of Silver and Gold Nanoparticles and Thin Layers on Charge Carrier Generation in InGaN/GaN Multiple Quantum Well Structures and Crystalline Zinc Oxide Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mezdrogina, M. M.; Vinogradov, A. Ya.; Kozhanova, Yu. V.; Levitskii, V. S.

    2018-04-01

    It has been shown that Ag and Au nanoparticles and thin layers influence charge carrier generation in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well structures and crystalline ZnO films owing to the surface morphology heterogeneity of the semiconductors. When nanoparticles 10 < d < 20 nm in size are applied on InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well structures with surface morphology less nonuniform than that of ZnO films, the radiation intensity has turned out to grow considerably because of a plasmon resonance with the participation of localized plasmons. The application of Ag or Au layers on the surface of the structures strongly attenuates the radiation. When Ag and Au nanoparticles are applied on crystalline ZnO films obtained by rf magnetron sputtering, the radiation intensity in the short-wavelength part of the spectrum increases insignificantly because of their highly heterogeneous surface morphology.

  19. Synthesis and characterization of ZnO thin films

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Anilkumar, T. S., E-mail: anil24march@gmail.com; Girija, M. L., E-mail: girija.ml.grt1@gmail.com; Venkatesh, J., E-mail: phph9502@yahoo.com

    2016-05-06

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) Thin films were deposited on glass substrate using Spin coating method. Zinc acetate dehydrate, Carbinol and Mono-ethanolamine were used as the precursor, solvent and stabilizer respectively to prepare ZnO Thin-films. The molar ratio of Monoethanolamine to Zinc acetate was maintained as approximately 1. The thickness of the films was determined by Interference technique. The optical properties of the films were studied by UV Vis-Spectrophotometer. From transmittance and absorbance curve, the energy band gap of ZnO is found out. Electrical Conductivity measurements of ZnO are carried out by two probe method and Activation energy for the electrical conductivitymore » of ZnO are found out. The crystal structure and orientation of the films were analyzed by XRD. The XRD patterns show that the ZnO films are polycrystalline with wurtzite hexagonal structure.« less

  20. Spectroscopic and fiber optic ethanol sensing properties Gd doped ZnO nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Noel, J L; Udayabhaskar, R; Renganathan, B; Muthu Mariappan, S; Sastikumar, D; Karthikeyan, B

    2014-11-11

    We report the structural, optical and gas sensing properties of prepared pure and Gd doped ZnO nanoparticles through solgel method at moderate temperature. Structural studies are carried out by X-ray diffraction method confirms hexagonal wurtzite structure and doping induced changes in lattice parameters is observed. Optical absorption spectral studies shows red shift in the absorption peak corresponds to band-gap from 3.42 eV to 3.05 eV and broad absorption in the visible range after Gd doping is observed. Scanning electron microscopic studies shows increase in particle size where the particle diameters increase from few nm to micrometers after Gd doping. The clad modified ethanol fiber-optic sensor studies for ethanol sensing exhibits best sensitivity for the 3% Gd doped ZnO nanoparticles and the sensitivity get lowered incase of higher percentage of Gd doped ZnO sample. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Switchable Schottky diode characteristics induced by electroforming process in Mn-doped ZnO thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nam, Yoonseung; Hwang, Inrok; Oh, Sungtaek; Lee, Sangik; Lee, Keundong; Hong, Sahwan; Kim, Jinsoo; Choi, Taekjib; Ho Park, Bae

    2013-04-01

    We investigated the asymmetric current-voltage (I-V) characteristics and accompanying unipolar resistive switching of pure ZnO and Mn(1%)-doped ZnO (Mn:ZnO) films sandwiched between Pt electrodes. After electroforming, a high resistance state of the Mn:ZnO capacitor revealed switchable diode characteristics whose forward direction was determined by the polarity of the electroforming voltage. Linear fitting of the I-V curves highlighted that the rectifying behavior was influenced by a Schottky barrier at the Pt/Mn:ZnO interface. Our results suggest that formation of conducting filaments from the cathode during the electroforming process resulted in a collapse of the Schottky barrier (near the cathode), and rectifying behaviors dominated by a remnant Schottky barrier near the anode.

  2. Synthesis of highly efficient antibacterial agent Ag doped ZnO nanorods: Structural, Raman and optical properties

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Jan, Tariq; Iqbal, Javed, E-mail: javed.saggu@iiu.edu.pk; Ismail, Muhammad

    Here, synthesis, structural, morphological, Raman, optical properties and antibacterial activity of undoped and Ag doped ZnO nanorods by chemical co-precipitation technique have been reported. Structural analysis has revealed that Ag doping cannot deteriorate the structure of ZnO and wurtzite phase is maintained. Lattice constants are found to be decreased with the Ag doping. Fourier transform infrared and Raman spectroscopy also confirm the X-ray diffraction results. Scanning electron microscopy results have demonstrated the formation of ZnO nanorods with average diameter and length of 96 nm and 700 nm, respectively. Raman spectroscopy results suggest that the Ag doping enhances the number of defects inmore » ZnO crystal. It has been found from optical study that Ag doping results in positional shift of band edge absorption peak. This is attributed to the successful incorporation of Ag dopant into ZnO host matrix. The antibacterial activity of prepared nanorods has been determined by two different methods and compared to that of undoped ZnO nanorods. Ag doped ZnO nanorods exhibit excellent antibacterial activity as compared to that of undoped ZnO nanorods. This excellent antibacterial activity may be attributed to the presence of oxygen vacancies and Zn{sup 2+} interstitial defects. Our preliminary findings suggest that Ag doped ZnO nanorods can be used externally to control the spreading of infections related with tested bacterial strains.« less

  3. Study of cobalt effect on structural and optical properties of Dy doped ZnO nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Pawan; Pandey, Praveen C.

    2018-05-01

    The present study has been carried out to investigate the effect of Co doping on structural and optical properties of Dy doped ZnO nanoparticles. We have prepared pure Zinc oxide, Dy (1%) doped ZnO and Dy (1%) doped ZnO co-doped with Co(2%) with the help of simple sol-gel combustion method. The structural analysis carried out using X-ray diffraction spectra (XRD) indicates substitution of Dy and Co at Zn site of ZnO crystal structure and hexagonal crystal structure without any secondary phase formation in all the samples. The surface morphology was analyzed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Absorption study indicates that Dy doping causes a small shift in band edge, while Co co-doping results significant change is absorption edge as well as introduce defect level absorption in the visible region. The band gap of samples decreases due to Dy and Co doping, which can be attributed to defect level formation below the conduction band in the system.

  4. Structure and Electric Conduction in Pulsed Laser-Deposited ZnO Thin Films Individually Doped with N, P, or Na

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiao, D. L.; Zhong, X. C.; Qiu, W. Q.; Zhang, H.; Liu, Z. W.; Zhang, G. Q.

    2018-03-01

    N-, P-, and Na-doped ZnO films with c-axis orientation were produced by pulsed laser deposition using N2O or O2 as the reaction gas. The effects of deposition temperature and deposition pressure on the lattice structure, morphology, and electric conduction have been investigated. High gas pressure leads to large-sized grains with large grain barriers, which cause a reduced mobility. P acts as an acceptor and the number of compensating defects in the P-doped film is reduced under high O2 pressure. Na also acts as an acceptor, and the effects of high temperature on Na-doped films are encouraging as the solubility of the dopant is high. However, high temperature may cause less incorporation of N and P in the film. In the present work, p-type conduction has not been obtained in N- and P-doped films despite a wide range of processing parameters employed. Na-doped films display an increasing trend towards p-type films at high temperatures and high O2 pressures. These results provide an insight on how these dopants behave in ZnO films and indicate that the careful selection of the deposition conditions is necessary in order to obtain p-type films by pulsed laser deposition.

  5. Thermal process induced change of conductivity in As-doped ZnO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, S. C.; Fan, J. C.; Ling, C. C.

    2012-02-01

    Arsenic-doped ZnO films were fabricated by radio frequency magnetron sputtering method with different substrate temperature TS. Growing with the low substrate temperature of TS=200°C yielded n-type semi-insulating sample. Increasing the substrate temperature would yield p-type ZnO film and reproducible p-type film could be produced at TS~450°C. Post-growth annealing of the n-type As-doped ZnO sample grown at the low substrate temperature (TS=200°C) in air at 500°C also converted the film to p-type conductivity. Further increasing the post-growth annealing temperature would convert the p-type sample back to n-type. With the results obtained from the studies of positron annihilation spectroscopy (PAS), photoluminescence (PL), cathodoluminescence (CL), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS) and nuclear reaction analysis (NRA), we have proposed mechanisms to explain for the thermal process induced conduction type conversion as observed in the As-doped ZnO films.

  6. Impact of nanostructured thin ZnO film in ultraviolet protection.

    PubMed

    Sasani Ghamsari, Morteza; Alamdari, Sanaz; Han, Wooje; Park, Hyung-Ho

    2017-01-01

    Nanoscale ZnO is one of the best choices for ultraviolet (UV) protection, not only because of its antimicrobial properties but also due to its potential application for UV preservation. However, the behavior of nanostructured thin ZnO films and long-term effects of UV-radiation exposure have not been studied yet. In this study, we investigated the UV-protection ability of sol gel-derived thin ZnO films after different exposure times. Scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, and UV-visible optical spectroscopy were carried out to study the structure and optical properties of the ZnO films as a function of the UV-irradiation time. The results obtained showed that the prepared thin ZnO films were somewhat transparent under the visible wavelength region and protective against UV radiation. The UV-protection factor was 50+ for the prepared samples, indicating that they were excellent UV protectors. The deposited thin ZnO films demonstrated promising antibacterial potential and significant light absorbance in the UV range. The experimental results suggest that the synthesized samples have potential for applications in the health care field.

  7. Smart chemical sensors using ZnO semiconducting thin films for freshness detection of foods and beverages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nanto, Hidehito; Kobayashi, Toshiki; Dougami, Naganori; Habara, Masaaki; Yamamoto, Hajime; Kusano, Eiji; Kinbara, Akira; Douguchi, Yoshiteru

    1998-07-01

    The sensitivity of the chemical sensor, based on the resistance change of Al2O3-doped and SnO2-doped ZnO (ZnO:Al and ZnO:SnO2) thin film, is studied for exposure to various gases. It is found that the ZnO:Al and ZnO:Sn thin film chemical sensor has a high sensitivity and excellent selectivity for amine (TMA and DMA) gas and ethanol gas, respectively. The ZnO:Al (5.0 wt%) thin film chemical sensor which exhibit a high sensitivity for exposure to odors from rotten sea foods, such as salmon, sea bream, oyster, squid and sardine, responds to the freshness change of these sea foods. The ZnO:SnO2 (78 wt%) thin film chemical sensor which exhibit a high sensitivity for exposure to aroma from alcohols, such as wine, Japanese sake, and whisky, responds to the freshness change of these alcohols.

  8. Defect-mediated magnetism of transition metal doped zinc oxide thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts, Bradley Kirk

    Magnetism in transition metal doped wide band-gap materials is of interest to further the fundamental science of materials and future spintronics applications. Large inter-dopant separations require mediation of ferromagnetism by some method; carrier-mediated mechanisms are typically applicable to dilute magnetic semiconductors with low Curie temperatures. Dilute magnetic oxides, commonly with poor conductivity and TC above room temperature, cannot be described within this theory. Recent experiment and theory developments suggest that ferromagnetic exchange in these materials can be mediated by defects. This research includes experimental results justifying and developing this approach. Thin films of Cr doped ZnO (band gap ˜3.3 eV) were deposited with several processing variations to enhance the effects of either 0-dimensional (vacancy, hydrogen-related defect) or two-dimensional defects (surface/interface) and thereby affect magnetism and conductivity. We observe surface magnetism in dielectric thin films of oxygen-saturated ZnO:Cr with spontaneous magnetic moment and conductance dropping approximately exponentially with increasing thickness. Uniform defect concentrations would not result in such magnetic ordering behavior indicating that magnetism is mediated either by surface defects or differing concentrations of point defects near the surface. Polarized neutron reflectivity profiling confirms a magnetically active region of ˜8 nm at the film surface. Hydrogen is notoriously present as a defect and carrier dopant in ZnO, and artificial introduction of hydrogen in dielectric ZnO:Cr films results in varying electronic and magnetic behavior. Free carriers introduced with hydrogen doping are not spin-polarized requiring an alternative explanation for ferromagnetism. We find from positron annihilation spectroscopy measurements that hydrogen doping increases the concentration of an altered VZn-related defect (a preliminary interpretation) throughout the film, which

  9. Injection Laser Using Rare Earth Doped GaN Thin Films for Visible and Infrared Applications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-05-01

    system is used to measure the conductivity of GaN thin films in Nanolab. Undoped GaN thin films are usually n-type conductive with the electron ...being investigated for potential applications in optical communication and displays, due to the wide and direct energy bandgap of GaN resulting in low...enhancement on Eu3+ PL intensity. The electrical properties of GaN:RE thin films were changed from high resistive to

  10. Thin film electroluminescent cells on the basis of Ce-doped CaGa2S4 and SrGa2S4 prepared by flash evaporation method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gambarov, E.; Bayramov, A.; Kato, A.; Iida, S.

    2006-09-01

    Ce-doped CaGa2S4 and SrGa2S4 thin film electroluminescent (TFEL) devices were prepared for the first time on the basis of films deposited by flash evaporation method. Significant crystallization, stoichiometry improvement of the films and increase of photoluminescence intensity were found after annealing in H2S and O2 gas stream. EL spectra of the cells exhibited the characteristic double-band emission similar to that seen for Ce3+ activated CaGa2S4 and SrGa2S4 films under photon excitation. Applied voltage and frequency dependences of the electroluminescence were studied. Low voltage operation as low as 20 V was observed for these cells. Luminance of about 4 cd/m2 at 100 V operating voltage with 2.5 kHz frequency was achieved for the TFEL cell with films annealed in O2 gas stream.

  11. Au-Doped Indium Tin Oxide Ohmic Contacts to p-Type GaN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, H.; Andagana, H. B.; Cao, X. A.

    2010-05-01

    Indium tin oxide (ITO) thin films doped with Au, Ni, or Pt (3.5 at.% to 10.5 at.%) were deposited on p-GaN epilayers (Mg ~4 × 1019 cm-3) using direct-current (DC) sputter codeposition. It was found that undoped ITO con- tacts to p-GaN exhibited leaky Schottky behavior, whereas the incorporation of a small amount of Au (3.5 at.% to 10.5 at.%) significantly improved their ohmic characteristics. Compared with standard Ni/ITO contacts, the Au-doped ITO contacts had a similar specific contact resistance in the low 10-2 Ω cm-2 range, but were more stable above 600°C and more transparent at blue wavelengths. These results provide support for the use of Au-doped ITO ohmic contact to p-type GaN in high-brightness blue light-emitting diodes.

  12. A facile green antisolvent approach to Cu2+-doped ZnO nanocrystals with visible-light-responsive photoactivities.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yi-Hsuan; Lin, Wei-Hao; Yang, Chao-Yao; Chiu, Yi-Hsuan; Pu, Ying-Chih; Lee, Min-Han; Tseng, Yuan-Chieh; Hsu, Yung-Jung

    2014-08-07

    An environmentally benign antisolvent method has been developed to prepare Cu(2+)-doped ZnO nanocrystals with controllable dopant concentrations. A room temperature ionic liquid, known as a deep eutectic solvent (DES), was used as the solvent to dissolve ZnO powders. Upon the introduction of the ZnO-containing DES into a bad solvent which shows no solvation to ZnO, ZnO was precipitated and grown due to the dramatic decrease of solubility. By adding Cu(2+) ions to the bad solvent, the growth of ZnO from the antisolvent process was accompanied by Cu(2+) introduction, resulting in the formation of Cu(2+)-doped ZnO nanocrystals. The as-prepared Cu(2+)-doped ZnO showed an additional absorption band in the visible range (400-800 nm), which conduced to an improvement in the overall photon harvesting efficiency. Time-resolved photoluminescence spectra, together with the photovoltage information, suggested that the doped Cu(2+) may otherwise trap photoexcited electrons during the charge transfer process, inevitably depressing the photoconversion efficiency. The photoactivity of Cu(2+)-doped ZnO nanocrystals for photoelectrochemical water oxidation was effectively enhanced in the visible region, which achieved the highest at 2.0 at% of Cu(2+). A further increase in the Cu(2+) concentration however led to a decrease in the photocatalytic performance, which was ascribed to the significant carrier trapping caused by the increased states given by excessive Cu(2+). The photocurrent action spectra illustrated that the enhanced photoactivity of the Cu(2+)-doped ZnO nanocrystals was mainly due to the improved visible photon harvesting achieved by Cu(2+) doping. These results may facilitate the use of transition metal ion-doped ZnO in other photoconversion applications, such as ZnO based dye-sensitized solar cells and magnetism-assisted photocatalytic systems.

  13. A vanadium-doped ZnO nanosheets-polymer composite for flexible piezoelectric nanogenerators.

    PubMed

    Shin, Sung-Ho; Kwon, Yang Hyeog; Lee, Min Hyung; Jung, Joo-Yun; Seol, Jae Hun; Nah, Junghyo

    2016-01-21

    We report high performance flexible piezoelectric nanogenerators (PENGs) by employing vanadium (V)-doped ZnO nanosheets (NSs) and the polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) composite structure. The V-doped ZnO NSs were synthesized to overcome the inherently low piezoelectric properties of intrinsic ZnO. Ferroelectric phase transition induced in the V-doped ZnO NSs contributed to significantly improve the performance of the PENGs after the poling process. Consequently, the PENGs exhibited high output voltage and current up to ∼32 V and ∼6.2 μA, respectively, under the applied strain, which are sufficient to directly turn on a number of light emitting diodes (LEDs). The composite approach for PENG fabrication is scalable, robust, and reproducible during periodic bending/releasing over extended cycles. The approach introduced here extends the performance limits of ZnO-based PENGs and demonstrates their potential as energy harvesting devices.

  14. Impact of nanostructured thin ZnO film in ultraviolet protection

    PubMed Central

    Sasani Ghamsari, Morteza; Alamdari, Sanaz; Han, Wooje; Park, Hyung-Ho

    2017-01-01

    Nanoscale ZnO is one of the best choices for ultraviolet (UV) protection, not only because of its antimicrobial properties but also due to its potential application for UV preservation. However, the behavior of nanostructured thin ZnO films and long-term effects of UV-radiation exposure have not been studied yet. In this study, we investigated the UV-protection ability of sol gel-derived thin ZnO films after different exposure times. Scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, and UV-visible optical spectroscopy were carried out to study the structure and optical properties of the ZnO films as a function of the UV-irradiation time. The results obtained showed that the prepared thin ZnO films were somewhat transparent under the visible wavelength region and protective against UV radiation. The UV-protection factor was 50+ for the prepared samples, indicating that they were excellent UV protectors. The deposited thin ZnO films demonstrated promising antibacterial potential and significant light absorbance in the UV range. The experimental results suggest that the synthesized samples have potential for applications in the health care field. PMID:28096668

  15. Perovskite solar cells based on nanocolumnar plasma-deposited ZnO thin films.

    PubMed

    Ramos, F Javier; López-Santos, Maria C; Guillén, Elena; Nazeeruddin, Mohammad Khaja; Grätzel, Michael; Gonzalez-Elipe, Agustin R; Ahmad, Shahzada

    2014-04-14

    ZnO thin films having a nanocolumnar microstructure are grown by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition at 423 K on pre-treated fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) substrates. The films consist of c-axis-oriented wurtzite ZnO nanocolumns with well-defined microstructure and crystallinity. By sensitizing CH3NH3PbI3 on these photoanodes a power conversion of 4.8% is obtained for solid-state solar cells. Poly(triarylamine) is found to be less effective when used as the hole-transport material, compared to 2,2',7,7'-tetrakis(N,N-di-p-methoxyphenylamine)-9,9'-spirobifluorene (spiro-OMeTAD), while the higher annealing temperature of the perovskite leads to a better infiltration in the nanocolumnar structure and an enhancement of the cell efficiency. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Low-temperature photoluminescence study of thin epitaxial GaAs films on Ge substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brammertz, Guy; Mols, Yves; Degroote, Stefan; Motsnyi, Vasyl; Leys, Maarten; Borghs, Gustaaf; Caymax, Matty

    2006-05-01

    Thin epitaxial GaAs films, with thickness varying from 140 to 1000 nm and different Si doping levels, were grown at 650 °C by organometallic vapor phase epitaxy on Ge substrates and analyzed by low-temperature photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy. All spectra of thin GaAs on Ge show two different structures, one narrow band-to-band (B2B) structure at an energy of ~1.5 eV and a broad inner-band-gap (IB) structure at an energy of ~1.1 eV. Small strain in the thin GaAs films causes the B2B structure to be separated into a light-hole and a heavy-hole peak. At 2.5 K the good structural quality of the thin GaAs films on Ge can be observed from the narrow excitonic peaks. Peak widths of less than 1 meV are measured. GaAs films with thickness smaller than 200 nm show B2B PL spectra with characteristics of an n-type doping level of approximately 1018 at./cm3. This is caused by heavy Ge diffusion from the substrate into the GaAs at the heterointerface between the two materials. The IB structure observed in all films consists of two Gaussian peaks with energies of 1.04 and 1.17 eV. These deep trapping states arise from Ge-based complexes formed within the GaAs at the Ge-GaAs heterointerface, due to strong diffusion of Ge atoms into the GaAs. Because of similarities with Si-based complexes, the peak at 1.04 eV was identified to be due to a GeGa-GeAs complex, whereas the peak at 1.17 eV was attributed to the GeGa-VGa complex. The intensity of the IB structure decreases strongly as the GaAs film thickness is increased. PL intensity of undoped GaAs films containing antiphase domains (APDs) is four orders of magnitude lower than for similar films without APDs. This reduction in intensity is due to the electrically active Ga-Ga and As-As bonds at the boundaries between the different APDs. When the Si doping level is increased, the PL intensity of the APD-containing films is increased again as well. A film containing APDs with a Si doping level of ~1018 at./cm3 has only a factor 10

  17. Defect mediated magnetic interaction and high Tc ferromagnetism in Co doped ZnO nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Pal, Bappaditya; Giri, P K

    2011-10-01

    Structural, optical and magnetic studies have been carried out for the Co-doped ZnO nanoparticles (NPs). ZnO NPs are doped with 3% and 5% Co using ball milling and ferromagnetism (FM) is studied at room temperature and above. A high Curie temperature (Tc) has been observed from the Co doped ZnO NPs. X-ray diffraction and high resolution transmission electron microscopy analysis confirm the absence of metallic Co clusters or any other phase different from würtzite-type ZnO. UV-visible absorption and photoluminescence studies on the doped samples show change in band structure and oxygen vacancy defects, respectively. Micro-Raman studies of doped samples shows defect related additional strong bands at 547 and 574 cm(-1) confirming the presence of oxygen vacancy defects in ZnO lattice. The field dependence of magnetization (M-H curve) measured at room temperature exhibits the clear M-H loop with saturation magnetization and coercive field of the order of 4-6 emu/g and 260 G, respectively. Temperature dependence of magnetization measurement shows sharp ferromagnetic to paramagnetic transition with a high Tc = 791 K for 3% Co doped ZnO NPs. Ferromagnetic ordering is interpreted in terms of overlapping of polarons mediated through oxygen vacancy defects based on the bound magnetic polaron (BMP) model. We show that the observed FM data fits well with the BMP model involving localised carriers and magnetic cations.

  18. Synthesis and characterization of rod like C doped ZnO nanoparticles with enhanced photocatalytic activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Labhane, P. K.; Sapkal, B. M.; Sonawane, G. H.

    2018-05-01

    Carbon (C) doped ZnO rod like nanoparticles were prepared by simple co-precipitation method. The effect of C doping on ZnO has been evaluated by using XRD, Williamson-Hall Plot, FESEM and EDX data. UV light assisted photocatalytic activities of prepared samples were evaluated spectrophotometrically by the degradation of methylene blue (MB). C doped ZnO shows excellent catalytic efficiency compared to pure ZnO, degrading MB completely within 100 min under UV light. Photocatalysis follows the first order kinetics law and the calculated apparent reaction kinetics rate constant suggest the better activity of C-ZnO.

  19. Eradication of Multi-drug Resistant Bacteria by Ni Doped ZnO Nanorods: Structural, Raman and optical characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jan, Tariq; Iqbal, Javed; Ismail, Muhammad; Mansoor, Qaisar; Mahmood, Arshad; Ahmad, Amaar

    2014-07-01

    In this paper, ZnO nanorods doped with varying amounts of Ni have been prepared by chemical co-precipitation technique. Structural investigations provide the evidence that Ni is successfully doped into ZnO host matrix without having any secondary phases. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images reveal the formation of rodlike structure of undoped ZnO with average length and diameter of 1 μm and 80 nm, respectively. Raman spectroscopy results show that the E1LO phonons mode band shifts to the higher values with Ni doping, which is attributed to large amount of crystal defects. Ni doping is also found to greatly influence the optical properties of ZnO nanorods. The influence of Ni doping on antibacterial characteristics of ZnO nanorods have been studied by measuring the growth curves of Escherichia coli (E. coli), Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa) bacteria in the presence of prepared nanorods. ZnO nanorods antibacterial potency is found to increase remarkably with Ni doping against S. aureus and P. aeruginosa microbials, which might possibly be due to the increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. Interestingly, it is observed that Ni doped ZnO nanorods completely eradicates these multi-drug resistant bacteria.

  20. Effects of alloy composition and Si-doping on vacancy defect formation in (InxGa1-x)2O3 thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prozheeva, V.; Hölldobler, R.; von Wenckstern, H.; Grundmann, M.; Tuomisto, F.

    2018-03-01

    Various nominally undoped and Si-doped (InxGa1-x)2O3 thin films were grown by pulsed laser deposition in a continuous composition spread mode on c-plane α-sapphire and (100)-oriented MgO substrates. Positron annihilation spectroscopy in the Doppler broadening mode was used as the primary characterisation technique in order to investigate the effect of alloy composition and dopant atoms on the formation of vacancy-type defects. In the undoped samples, we observe a Ga2O3-like trend for low indium concentrations changing to In2O3-like behaviour along with the increase in the indium fraction. Increasing indium concentration is found to suppress defect formation in the undoped samples at [In] > 70 at. %. Si doping leads to positron saturation trapping in VIn-like defects, suggesting a vacancy concentration of at least mid-1018 cm-3 independent of the indium content.

  1. The structural, electronic and optical properties of Nd doped ZnO using first-principles calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Jun-Qing; Zhang, Jian-Min; Chen, Guo-Xiang; Wu, Hua; Yang, Xu

    2018-04-01

    The density functional theory calculations using general gradient approximation (GGA) applying Perdew-Burke-Ernzerhof (PBE) as correlation functional have been systematically performed to research the formation energy, the electronic structures, band structures, total and partial DOS, and optical properties of Nd doping ZnO with the content from 6.25% to 12.5%. The formation energies are negative for both models, which show that two structures are energetically stable. Nd doping ZnO crystal is found to be a direct band gap semiconductor and Fermi level shifts upward into conduction band, which show the properties of n-type semiconductor. Band structures are more compact after Nd doping ZnO, implying that Nd doping induces the strong interaction between different atoms. Nd doping ZnO crystal presents occupied states at near Fermi level, which mainly comes from the Nd 4f orbital. The calculated optical properties imply that Nd doping causes a red-shift of absorption peaks, and enhances the absorption of the visible light.

  2. Nondegenerate n-type doping phenomenon on molybdenum disulfide (MoS{sub 2}) by zinc oxide (ZnO)

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Kang, Dong-Ho; Hong, Seong-Taek; Oh, Aely

    Highlights: • We have demonstrated nondegenerate n-type doping phenomenon of MoS{sub 2} by ZnO. • ZnO doping improved the electrical parameters of MoS{sub 2} transistor (I{sub on}↑, μ{sub FE}↑, n↑). • The reduction of ZnO doping effect (ΔV{sub TH}: ∼75% ↓) was observed in air. • The highest photoresponsivity of ZnO-doped MoS{sub 2} photodetector was 3.18 × 10{sup 3} A/W. • The highest detectivity of ZnO-doped MoS{sub 2} photodetector was 5.94 × 10{sup 12} Jones. - Abstract: In this paper, we have demonstrated nondegenerate n-type doping phenomenon of MoS{sub 2} by ZnO. The ZnO doping effects were systematically investigated bymore » Raman spectroscopy and electrical/optical measurements (I{sub D}–V{sub G} with/without exposure to 520, 655, 785, and 850 nm laser sources). The ZnO doping improved the performance parameters of MoS{sub 2}-based electronics (I{sub on}↑, μ{sub FE}↑, n↑) owing to reduction of the effective barrier height between the source and the MoS{sub 2} channel. We also monitored the effects of ZnO doping during exposure to air; reduction in ΔV{sub TH} of about 75% was observed after 156 h. In addition, the optoelectronic performance of the MoS{sub 2} photodetector was enhanced due to the reduction of the recombination rate of photogenerated carriers caused by ZnO doping. In our results, the highest photoresponsivity (about 3.18 × 10{sup 3} A/W) and detectivity (5.94 × 10{sup 12} Jones) of the ZnO-doped photodetector were observed for 520 nm laser exposure.« less

  3. Substrate effect on the room-temperature ferromagnetism in un-doped ZnO films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhan, Peng; Wang, Weipeng; Xie, Zheng; Li, Zhengcao; Zhang, Zhengjun; Zhang, Peng; Wang, Baoyi; Cao, Xingzhong

    2012-07-01

    Room-temperature ferromagnetism was achieved in un-doped ZnO films on silicon and quartz substrates. Photoluminescence measurement and positron annihilation analysis suggested that the ferromagnetism was originated from singly occupied oxygen vacancies (roughly estimated as ˜0.55 μB/vacancy), created in ZnO films by annealing in argon. The saturated magnetization of ZnO films was enhanced from ˜0.44 emu/g (on quartz) to ˜1.18 emu/g (on silicon) after annealing at 600 °C, as silicon acted as oxygen getter and created more oxygen vacancies in ZnO films. This study clarified the origin of ferromagnetism in un-doped ZnO and provides an idea to enhance the ferromagnetism.

  4. Development of nanostructured ZnO thin film via electrohydrodynamic atomization technique and its photoconductivity characteristics.

    PubMed

    Duraisamy, Navaneethan; Kwon, Ki Rin; Jo, Jeongdai; Choi, Kyung-Hyun

    2014-08-01

    This article presents the non-vacuum technique for the preparation of nanostructured zinc oxide (ZnO) thin film on glass substrate through electrohydrodynamic atomization (EHDA) technique. The detailed process parameters for achieving homogeneous ZnO thin films are clearly discussed. The crystallinity and surface morphology of ZnO thin film are investigated by X-ray diffraction and field emission scanning electron microscopy. The result shows that the deposited ZnO thin film is oriented in the wurtzite phase with void free surface morphology. The surface roughness of deposited ZnO thin film is found to be ~17.8 nm. The optical properties of nanostructured ZnO thin films show the average transmittance is about 90% in the visible region and the energy band gap is found to be 3.17 eV. The surface chemistry and purity of deposited ZnO thin films are analyzed by fourier transform infrared and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, conforming the presence of Zn-O in the deposited thin films without any organic moiety. The photocurrent measurement of nanostructured ZnO thin film is examined in the presence of UV light illumination with wavelength of 365 nm. These results suggest that the deposited nanostructured ZnO thin film through EHDA technique possess promising applications in the near future.

  5. Structural studies and band gap tuning of Cr doped ZnO nanoparticles

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Srinet, Gunjan, E-mail: gunjansrinet@gmail.com; Kumar, Ravindra, E-mail: gunjansrinet@gmail.com; Sajal, Vivek, E-mail: gunjansrinet@gmail.com

    2014-04-24

    Structural and optical properties of Cr doped ZnO nanoparticles prepared by the thermal decomposition method are presented. X-ray diffraction studies confirmed the substitution of Cr on Zn sites without changing the wurtzite structure of ZnO. Modified form of W-H equations was used to calculate various physical parameters and their variation with Cr doping is discussed. Significant red shift was observed in band gap, i.e., a band gap tuning is achieved by Cr doping which could eventually be useful for optoelectronic applications.

  6. Strong compensation hinders the p-type doping of ZnO: a glance over surface defect levels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, B.

    2016-07-01

    We propose a surface doping model of ZnO to elucidate the p-type doping and compensations in ZnO nanomaterials. With an N-dopant, the effects of N on the ZnO surface demonstrate a relatively shallow acceptor level in the band gap. As the dimension of the ZnO materials decreases, the quantum confinement effects will increase and render the charge transfer on surface to influence the shifting of Fermi level, by evidence of transition level changes of the N-dopant. We report that this can overwhelm the intrinsic p-type conductivity and transport of the ZnO bulk system. This may provide a possible route of using surface doping to modify the electronic transport and conductivity of ZnO nanomaterials.

  7. Polarization induced conductive AFM on cobalt doped ZnO nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahoo, Pradosh Kumar; Mangamma, G.; Rajesh, A.; Kamruddin, M.; Dash, S.

    2017-05-01

    In the present work cobalt doped ZnO (CZO) nanostructures (NS) have been synthesized by of sol-gel and spin coating process. After the crystal phase confirmation by GIXRD and Raman spectroscopy, Conductive Atomic Force Microscopy (C-AFM) measurement was performed on CZO NS which shows the random distribution of electrically conducting zones on the surface of the material exhibiting current in the range 4-170 pA. We provide the possible mechanisms for variation in current distribution essential for quantitative understanding of transport properties of ZnO NS in doped and undoped forms.

  8. Defect studies of ZnO single crystals electrochemically doped with hydrogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Čížek, J.; Žaludová, N.; Vlach, M.; Daniš, S.; Kuriplach, J.; Procházka, I.; Brauer, G.; Anwand, W.; Grambole, D.; Skorupa, W.; Gemma, R.; Kirchheim, R.; Pundt, A.

    2008-03-01

    Various defect studies of hydrothermally grown (0001) oriented ZnO crystals electrochemically doped with hydrogen are presented. The hydrogen content in the crystals is determined by nuclear reaction analysis and it is found that already 0.3at.% H exists in chemically bound form in the virgin ZnO crystals. A single positron lifetime of 182ps is detected in the virgin crystals and attributed to saturated positron trapping at Zn vacancies surrounded by hydrogen atoms. It is demonstrated that a very high amount of hydrogen (up to ˜30at.%) can be introduced into the crystals by electrochemical doping. More than half of this amount is chemically bound, i.e., incorporated into the ZnO crystal lattice. This drastic increase of the hydrogen concentration is of marginal impact on the measured positron lifetime, whereas a contribution of positrons annihilated by electrons belonging to O-H bonds formed in the hydrogen doped crystal is found in coincidence Doppler broadening spectra. The formation of hexagonal shape pyramids on the surface of the hydrogen doped crystals by optical microscopy is observed and discussed.

  9. Synthesis of p-type ZnO films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryu, Y. R.; Zhu, S.; Look, D. C.; Wrobel, J. M.; Jeong, H. M.; White, H. W.

    2000-06-01

    p-Type ZnO obtained by arsenic (As) doping is reported for the first time. Arsenic-doped ZnO (ZnO : As) films have been deposited on (0 0 1)-GaAs substrates by pulsed laser ablation. The process of synthesizing p-type ZnO : As films was performed in an ambient gas of ultra-pure (99.999%) oxygen. The ambient gas pressure was 35 mTorr with the substrate temperature in the range 300-450°C. ZnO films grown at 400°C and 450°C are p-type and As is a good acceptor. The acceptor peak is located at 3.32 eV and its binding energy is about 100 meV. Acceptor concentrations of As atoms in ZnO films were in the range from high 10 17 to high 10 21 atoms/cm 3 as determined by secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS) and Hall effect measurements.

  10. Mediator-free interaction of glucose oxidase, as model enzyme for immobilization, with Al-doped and undoped ZnO thin films laser-deposited on polycarbonate supports.

    PubMed

    V T K P, Fidal; Inguva, Saikumar; Krishnamurthy, Satheesh; Marsili, Enrico; Mosnier, Jean-Paul; T S, Chandra

    2017-01-01

    Al doped and undoped ZnO thin films were deposited by pulsed-laser deposition on polycarbonate sheets. The films were characterized by optical transmission, Hall effect measurement, XRD and SEM. Optical transmission and surface reflectometry studies showed good transparency with thicknesses ∼100nm and surface roughness of 10nm. Hall effect measurements showed that the sheet carrier concentration was -1.44×10 15 cm -2 for AZO and -6×10 14 cm -2 for ZnO. The films were then modified by drop-casting glucose oxidase (GOx) without the use of any mediators. Higher protein concentration was observed on ZnO as compared to AZO with higher specific activity for ZnO (0.042Umg -1 ) compared to AZO (0.032Umg -1 ), and was in agreement with cyclic voltemmetry (CV). X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) suggested that the protein was bound by dipole interactions between AZO lattice oxygen and the amino group of the enzyme. Chronoamperometry showed sensitivity of 5.5μAmM -1 cm -2 towards glucose for GOx/AZO and 2.2μAmM -1 cm -2 for GOx/ZnO. The limit of detection (LoD) was 167μM of glucose for GOx/AZO, as compared to 360μM for GOx/ZnO. The linearity was 0.28-28mM for GOx/AZO whereas it was 0.6-28mM for GOx/ZnO with a response time of 10s. Possibly due to higher enzyme loading, the decrease of impedance in presence of glucose was larger for GOx/ZnO as compared to GOx/AZO in electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). Analyses with clinical blood serum samples showed that the systems had good reproducibility and accuracy. The characteristics of novel ZnO and AZO thin films with GOx as a model enzyme, should prove useful for the future fabrication of inexpensive, highly sensitive, disposable electrochemical biosensors for high throughput diagnostics. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Synthesis and annealing study of RF sputtered ZnO thin film

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Singh, Shushant Kumar, E-mail: singhshushant86@gmail.com; Sharma, Himanshu; Singhal, R.

    2016-05-23

    In this paper, we have investigated the annealing effect on optical and structural properties of ZnO thin films, synthesized by RF magnetron sputtering. ZnO thin films were deposited on glass and silicon substrates simultaneously at a substrate temperature of 300 °C using Argon gas in sputtering chamber. Thickness of as deposited ZnO thin film was found to be ~155 nm, calculated by Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy (RBS). These films were annealed at 400 °C and 500 °C temperature in the continuous flow of oxygen gas for 1 hour in tube furnace. X-ray diffraction analysis confirmed the formation of hexagonal wurtzite structuremore » of ZnO thin film along the c-axis (002) orientation. Transmittance of thin films was increased with increasing the annealing temperature estimated by UV-visible transmission spectroscopy. Quality and texture of the thin films were improved with annealing temperature, estimated by Raman spectroscopy.« less

  12. Structural, Optical, and Photocatalytic Properties of Quasi-One-Dimensional Nanocrystalline ZnO, ZnOC:nC Composites, and C-doped ZnO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shalaeva, E. V.; Gyrdasova, O. I.; Krasilnikov, V. N.; Melkozerova, M. A.; Baklanova, I. V.; Buldakova, L. Yu.

    Various thermolysis rotes of zinc glicolate complexes are considered for the synthesis of quasi-one-dimensional nanostructured aggregates ZnO and Zn-O-C used as photocatalysts. Structural features of quasi-one-dimensional aggregates Zn-O-C and ZnO are investigated in detail. Transmission electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy methods demonstrate that the aggregates Zn-O-C have either composite structure (ZnO crystallites in amorphous carbon matrix) or a C-doped ZnO single-phase structure depending on heat treatment conditions, and that all the aggregates exhibit as a rule a tubular morphology, a nanocrystalline structure with a high specific surface area, and a high concentration of singly charged oxygen vacancies. The mechanism of the nanocrystalline structure formation is discussed and the effect of thermolysis condition on the formation of the textured structure of aggregates is investigated. The results of examination of the photocatalytic and optical absorption properties of the synthesized aggregates are presented. The photocatalytic activity for the hydroquinone oxidation reaction under ultraviolet and visible light increases in the series: the reference ZnO powder, quasi-one-dimensional ZnO, quasi-one-dimensional aggregates C-doped ZnO, and this tendency correlates with the reduction of the optical gap width. As a result of our studies, we have arrived at an important conclusion that thermal treatment of ZnO:nC composites allows a C-doped ZnO with high catalytic activity. This increasing photoactivity of C-doped ZnO aggregates is attributed to the optimal specific surface area and electron-energy spectrum restructuring to be produced owing to the presence of singly charged oxygen vacancies and carbon dissolved in the ZnO lattice.

  13. Effect of Eu3+ doping on the structural, morphological and luminescence properties ZnO nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vinoditha, U.; Balakrishna, K. M.; Sarojini, B. K.; Narayana, B.; Kumara, K.

    2018-05-01

    Pure and Eu3+ ions (1, 3, 5 atomic wt%) doped ZnO nanostructures are synthesized by a surfactant assisted hydrothermal method. The effect of doping concentrations on structural, morphological and optical properties of ZnO nanostructures is studied. The XRD analysis shows good crystallinity and the phase purity of the ZnO nanostructures. A shift in the standard Zn-O stretching mode after Eu3+ doping is observed in the FTIR spectra. The images of FESEM demonstrate the morphological variations from hexagonal nanorods to nanoflowers on varying the dopant concentrations. Substitution of Eu3+ ions into Zn2+ sites is confirmed by EDX analysis. The dominance of particle shape over the UV-Visible absorption properties of the prepared samples is noticed. The photoluminescence (PL) emission of undoped and doped ZnO nanostructures show dominant near band edge emission (NBE) in the UV region and minor defect induced deep level emissions in the visible region.

  14. Synergistic effects of Mo and F doping on the quality factor of ZnO thin films prepared by a fully automated home-made nebulizer spray technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ravichandran, K.; Dineshbabu, N.; Arun, T.; Manivasaham, A.; Sindhuja, E.

    2017-01-01

    Transparent conducting oxide films of undoped, Mo doped, Mo + F co-doped ZnO were deposited using a facile homemade nebulizer spray pyrolysis technique. The effects of Mo and F doping on the structural, optical, electrical and surface morphological properties were investigated using XRD, UV-vis-NIR spectroscopy, I-V and Hall probe techniques, FESEM and AFM, and XPS, respectively. The XRD analysis confirms that all the films are well crystallized with hexagonal wurtzite structure. All the synthesized samples exhibit high transmittance (above 85%) in the visible region. The current-voltage (I-V) characteristics show the ohmic conduction nature of the films. The Hall probe measurements show that the synergistic effects of Mo and F doping cause desirable improvements in the quality factor of the ZnO films. A minimum resistivity of 5.12 × 10-3 Ω cm with remarkably higher values of mobility and carrier concentration is achieved for Mo (2 at.%) + F (15 at.%) co-doped ZnO films. A considerable variation in the intensity of deep level emission caused by Mo and F doping is observed in the photoluminescence (PL) studies. The presence of the constituent elements in the samples is confirmed by XPS analysis.

  15. High temperature ferromagnetism in Ni doped ZnO nanoparticles: Milling time dependence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pal, Bappaditya; Giri, P. K.; Sarkar, D.

    2014-04-01

    We report on the room temperature ferromagnetism (RT FM) in the Zn1-xNixO (x = 0, 0.03, and 0.05) nanoparticles (NPs) synthesized by a ball milling technique. X-ray diffraction analysis confirms the single crystalline ZnO wurtzite structure with presence of small intensity secondary phase related peak which disappear with increasing milling time for Ni doped samples. HRTEM lattice images show that the doped NPs are single crystalline with a dspacing of 2.44 Å. Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy analysis confirms the presence of Ni ions in the ZnO matrix. Magnetic measurement (RT) exhibits the hysteresis loop with saturation magnetization (Ms) of 1.6-2.56 (emu/g) and coercive field (Hc) of 296-322 Oe. M-T measurement shows a Curie temperature of the order of 325°C for 3% Ni doped sample. Micro -Raman studies show doping/disorder induced additional modes at ˜510, 547, 572 cm-1 in addition to 437 cm-1 peak of pure ZnO. UV-Vis absorption spectra illustrate band gap shift due to doping. Alteration of Ms value with the variation of doping concentration and milling time has been studied and discussed.

  16. Electrically excited hot-electron dominated fluorescent emitters using individual Ga-doped ZnO microwires via metal quasiparticle film decoration.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yang; Jiang, Mingming; Zhang, Zhenzhong; Li, Binghui; Zhao, Haifeng; Shan, Chongxin; Shen, Dezhen

    2018-03-28

    The generation of hot electrons from metal nanostructures through plasmon decay provided a direct interfacial charge transfer mechanism, which no longer suffers from the barrier height restrictions observed for metal/semiconductor interfaces. Metal plasmon-mediated energy conversion with higher efficiency has been proposed as a promising alternative to construct novel optoelectronic devices, such as photodetectors, photovoltaic and photocatalytic devices, etc. However, the realization of the electrically-driven generation of hot electrons, and the application in light-emitting devices remain big challenges. Here, hybrid architectures comprising individual Ga-doped ZnO (ZnO:Ga) microwires via metal quasiparticle film decoration were fabricated. The hottest spots could be formed towards the center of the wires, and the quasiparticle films were converted into physically isolated nanoparticles by applying a bias onto the wires. Thus, the hot electrons became spatially localized towards the hottest regions, leading to a release of energy in the form of emitting photons. By adjusting the sputtering times and appropriate alloys, such as Au and Ag, wavelength-tunable emissions could be achieved. To exploit the EL emission characteristics, metal plasmons could be used as active elements to mediate the generation of hot electrons from metal nanostructures, which are located in the light-emitting regions, followed by injection into ZnO:Ga microwire-channels; thus, the production of plasmon decay-induced hot-electrons could function as an efficient approach to dominate emission wavelengths. Therefore, by introducing metal nanostructure decoration, individual ZnO:Ga microwires can be used to construct wavelength-tunable fluorescent emitters. The hybrid architectures of metal-ZnO micro/nanostructures offer a fantastic candidate to broaden the potential applications of semiconducting optoelectronic devices, such as photovoltaic devices, photodetectors, optoelectronic sensors, etc.

  17. Synthesis of nanocrystalline ZnO thin films by electron beam evaporation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kondkar, V.; Rukade, D.; Bhattacharyya, V.

    2018-05-01

    Nanocrystalline ZnO thin films have potential for applications in variety of optoelectronic devices. In the present study, nanocrystalline thin films of ZnO are grown on fused silica substrate using electron beam (e-beam) evaporation technique. Phase identification is carried out using Glancing angle X-ray diffraction (GAXRD) and Raman spectroscopy. Ultraviolet-Visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopic analysis is carried out to calculate energy band gap of the ZnO film. Surface morphology of the film is investigated using atomic force microscopy (AFM) and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM). Highly quality nanocrystalline thin films of hexagonal wurtzite ZnO are synthesized using e-beam evaporation technique.

  18. Electrical tuning of spin splitting in Bi-doped ZnO nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aras, Mehmet; Kılıç, ćetin

    2018-01-01

    The effect of applying an external electric field on doping-induced spin-orbit splitting of the lowest conduction-band states in a bismuth-doped zinc oxide nanowire is studied by performing electronic structure calculations within the framework of density functional theory. It is demonstrated that spin splitting in Bi-doped ZnO nanowires could be tuned and enhanced electrically via control of the strength and direction of the applied electric field, thanks to the nonuniform and anisotropic response of the ZnO:Bi nanowire to external electric fields. The results reported here indicate that a single ZnO nanowire doped with a low concentration of Bi could function as a spintronic device, the operation of which is controlled by applied lateral electric fields.

  19. The shift of optical band gap in W-doped ZnO with oxygen pressure and doping level

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Chu, J.; Chongqing Institute of Green and Intelligent Technology, Chinese Academy of Science, Chongqing 400714; Peng, X.Y.

    2014-06-01

    Highlights: • CVD–PLD co-deposition technique was used. • Better crystalline of the ZnO samples causes the redshift of the optical band gap. • Higher W concentration induces blueshift of the optical band gap. - Abstract: Tungsten-doped (W-doped) zinc oxide (ZnO) nanostructures were synthesized on quartz substrates by pulsed laser and hot filament chemical vapor co-deposition technique under different oxygen pressures and doping levels. We studied in detail the morphological, structural and optical properties of W-doped ZnO by SEM, XPS, Raman scattering, and optical transmission spectra. A close correlation among the oxygen pressure, morphology, W concentrations and the variation of bandmore » gaps were investigated. XPS and Raman measurements show that the sample grown under the oxygen pressure of 2.7 Pa has the maximum tungsten concentration and best crystalline structure, which induces the redshift of the optical band gap. The effect of W concentration on the change of morphology and shift of optical band gap was also studied for the samples grown under the fixed oxygen pressure of 2.7 Pa.« less

  20. Band gap and conductivity variations of ZnO thin films by doping with Aluminium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vattappalam, Sunil C.; Thomas, Deepu; T, Raju Mathew; Augustine, Simon; Mathew, Sunny

    2015-02-01

    Zinc Oxide thin films were prepared by Successive Ionic layer adsorption and reaction technique(SILAR). Aluminium was doped for different doping concentrations from 3 at.% to 12 at.% in steps of 3 at.%. Conductivity of the samples were taken at different temperatures. UV Spectrograph of the samples were taken and the band gap of each sample was found from the data. It was observed that as the doping concentration of Aluminium increases, the band gap of the samples decreases and concequently conductivity of the samples increases.

  1. High-Hall-Mobility Al-Doped ZnO Films Having Textured Polycrystalline Structure with a Well-Defined (0001) Orientation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nomoto, Junichi; Makino, Hisao; Yamamoto, Tetsuya

    2016-06-01

    Five hundred-nanometer-thick ZnO-based textured polycrystalline films consisting of 490-nm-thick Al-doped ZnO (AZO) films deposited on 10-nm-thick Ga-doped ZnO (GZO) films exhibited a high Hall mobility ( μ H) of 50.1 cm2/Vs with a carrier concentration ( N) of 2.55 × 1020 cm-3. Firstly, the GZO films were prepared on glass substrates by ion plating with dc arc discharge, and the AZO films were then deposited on the GZO films by direct current magnetron sputtering (DC-MS). The GZO interface layers with a preferential c-axis orientation play a critical role in producing AZO films with texture development of a well-defined (0001) orientation, whereas 500-nm-thick AZO films deposited by only DC-MS showed a mixture of the c-plane and the other plane orientation, to exhibit a μ H of 38.7 cm2/Vs with an N of 2.22 × 1020 cm-3.

  2. Percentage of different aluminum doping influence the morphological and optical properties of ZnO nanostructured growth for sensor application

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Mohamed, R., E-mail: ruziana12@gmail.com; NANO-SciTech Centre, Institue of Science, Universiti Teknologi MARA, 40450 Shah Alam, Selangor; Faculty of Applied Sciences, Universiti Teknologi MARA Pahang, 26400 Bandar Tun Razak Jengka, Pahang

    In this work, Zinc Oxide (ZnO) with different aluminum (Al) doping percentage was synthesis by sol gel immersion method. Al doped ZnO at various doping percentage from 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5. It was found that with different Al percentage influence the morphological and optical properties of ZnO growth. Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope (FESEM) image showed the use of different Al doping causes the difference in geometry and size of ZnO nanorods growth. Based on UV-Vis spectroscopy, the transmittance at 1% Al doping has the highest spectrum.

  3. THz emission of donor and acceptor doped GaAs/AlGaAs quantum well structures with inserted thin AlAs monolayer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Dommelen, Paphavee; Daengngam, Chalongrat; Kalasuwan, Pruet

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, we explore THz range optical intersubband transition energies in a donor doped quantum well of a GaAs/AlGaAs system as a function of the insertion position of an AlAs monolayer in the GaAs quantum well. In simulated models, the optical transition energies between electron subband levels 1 and 2 were higher in the doped structure than in the undoped structure. This may be because the envelope wave function of the second electron subband strongly overlapped the envelope wave function of the first electron subband and influenced the optical intersubband transition between the two levels in the THz range. At different levels of bias voltage at the Schottky barrier on the donor doped structure, the electric field in the growth direction of the structure linearly increased the further away the AlAs monolayer was placed from the reference position. We also simulated the optical transition energies between acceptor energy levels of the acceptor doped structure as a function of the insertion position of the AlAs monolayer. The acceptor doped structure induced THz range emission whereas the undoped structure induced mid-IR emission.

  4. The investigation of Ce doped ZnO crystal: The electronic, optical and magnetic properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Jun-Qing; Zhang, Jian-Min; Qiu, Ze-Gang; Yang, Xu; Li, Zhi-Qin

    2018-04-01

    The electronic, optical and magnetic properties of Ce doped ZnO crystal have been studied by using first principles method. The research of formation energies show that Ce doped ZnO is energetically stable, and the formation energies reduce from 6.25% to 12.5% for Ce molar percentage. The energy band is still direct band gap after Ce doped, and band gap increases with the increase of Cesbnd Ce distance. The Fermi level moves upward into conduction band and the DOS moves to lower energy with the increase of Ce concentration, which showing the properties of n-type semiconductor. The calculated optical properties imply that Ce doped causes a red-shift of absorption peaks, and enhances the absorption of the visible light. The transition from ferromagnetic to antiferromagnetic has been found in Ce doped ZnO.

  5. Controlled Growth of Parallel Oriented ZnO Nanostructural Arrays on Ga2O3 Nanowires

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-11-01

    Controlled Growth of Parallel Oriented ZnO Nanostructural Arrays on Ga2O3 Nanowires Lena Mazeina,* Yoosuf N. Picard, and Sharka M. Prokes Electronics...Manuscript ReceiVed NoVember 6, 2008 ABSTRACT: Novel hierarchical ZnO- Ga2O3 nanostructures were fabricated via a two stage growth process. Nanowires of Ga2O3 ...nanobrushes (NBs) with Ga2O3 as the core and ZnO as the branches self-assembling symmetrically in six equiangular directions around the core

  6. Praseodymium - A Competent Dopant for Luminescent Downshifting and Photocatalysis in ZnO Thin Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narayanan, Nripasree; Deepak, N. K.

    2018-05-01

    Highly transparent and conducting Zinc oxide (ZnO) thin films doped with Praseodymium (Pr) were deposited on glass substrates by using the spray pyrolysis method. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis revealed the polycrystallinity of the deposited films with a hexagonal wurtzite structure, whereas the energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) analysis confirmed the incorporation of Pr in the films. The optical energy gap decreased by Pr doping due to the merging of the conduction band with the impurity bands formed within the forbidden gap. The room temperature photoluminescence spectra of the Pr-doped film showed enhancement of visible emission, suggesting efficient luminescent downshifting. The photocatalytic activity of the Pr-doped films is higher than that of undoped films due to the effective suppression of the rapid recombination of the photo-generated electron-hole pairs. The impurity levels formed within the forbidden gap act as efficient luminescent centers and electron traps, which lead to luminescent downshifting and enhanced photocatalytic activity.

  7. Investigations on photoelectrochemical performance of boron doped ZnO nanorods synthesized by facile hydrothermal technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Akash; Chakraborty, Mohua; Thangavel, R.

    2018-05-01

    Undoped and 10% Boron (B)-doped Zinc Oxide nanorods (ZnO NRs) on Tin doped Indium Oxide (ITO) coated glass substrates were synthesized using facile sol-gel, spin coating and hydrothermal method. The impact of adding Boron on the structural, optical properties, surface morphology and photoelectrochemical (PEC) performances of the ZnO NRs have been investigated. The XRD pattern confirmed the formation of pure hexagonal phase with space group P63mc (186). The same can also be clearly observed form the FESEM images. The UV-Vis study shows the narrowing in band gap from 3.22 eV to 3.19 eV with incorporation of Boron in ZnO matrix. The B-doped ZnO NRs sample shows an enhanced photocurrent density of 1.31 mA/cm2 at 0.5 V (vs. Ag/AgCl), which is more than 171% enhancement compared to bare ZnO NRs (0.483 mA/cm2) in 0.1 M Na2SO4 aqueous solution. The results clearly indicates that the boron doped ZnO NRs can be used as an efficient photoelectrode material for photoelectrochemical cell.

  8. Structural and plasmonic properties of noble metal doped ZnO nanomaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pathak, Trilok K.; Swart, H. C.; Kroon, R. E.

    2018-04-01

    Noble metal doped ZnO has been synthesized by the combustion method and the effect of different metals (Ag, Au, Pd) on the structural, morphological, optical, photoluminescence and localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) properties has been investigated. X-ray diffraction analysis revealed that the ZnO had a hexagonal wurtzite structure and the crystallite sizes were affected by the doping. The formation of noble metal nanoparticles (NPs) was investigated using transmission electron microscopy and diffuse reflectance spectra. The LSPR of the metallic NPs was predicted using Mie theory calculations. The absorption spectra were calculated using the Kubelka-Munk function and the optical bandgap varied from 3.06 to 3.18 eV for the different doping materials. The experimental results suggest that the origin of enhanced emission was due to direct interaction between the laser photons and the noble material NPs which in turn leads to photoemission transfer of electrons from the noble metals NPs to the conduction band of ZnO.

  9. ZnO Thin Film Electronics for More than Displays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramirez, Jose Israel

    Zinc oxide thin film transistors (TFTs) are investigated in this work for large-area electronic applications outside of display technology. A constant pressure, constant flow, showerhead, plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposition (PEALD) process has been developed to fabricate high mobility TFTs and circuits on rigid and flexible substrates at 200 °C. ZnO films and resulting devices prepared by PEALD and pulsed laser deposition (PLD) have been compared. Both PEALD and PLD ZnO films result in densely packed, polycrystalline ZnO thin films that were used to make high performance devices. PEALD ZnO TFTs deposited at 300 °C have a field-effect mobility of ˜ 40 cm2/V-s (and > 20 cm2/V-S deposited at 200 °C). PLD ZnO TFTs, annealed at 400 °C, have a field-effect mobility of > 60 cm2/V-s (and up to 100 cm2/V-s). Devices, prepared by either technique, show high gamma-ray radiation tolerance of up to 100 Mrad(SiO2) with only a small radiation-induced threshold voltage shift (VT ˜ -1.5 V). Electrical biasing during irradiation showed no enhanced radiation-induced effects. The study of the radiation effects as a function of material stack thicknesses revealed the majority of the radiation-induced charge collection happens at the semiconductor-passivation interface. A simple sheet-charge model at that interface can describe the radiation-induced charge in ZnO TFTs. By taking advantage of the substrate-agnostic process provided by PEALD, due to its low-temperature and excellent conformal coatings, ZnO electronics were monolithically integrated with thin-film complex oxides. Application-based examples where ZnO electronics provide added functionality to complex oxide-based devices are presented. In particular, the integration of arrayed lead zirconate titanate (Pb(Zr, Ti)O3 or PZT) thin films with ZnO electronics for microelectromechanical systems (MEMs) and deformable mirrors is demonstrated. ZnO switches can provide voltage to PZT capacitors with fast charging and slow

  10. Mn-doping-induced photocatalytic activity enhancement of ZnO nanorods prepared on glass substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Putri, Nur Ajrina; Fauzia, Vivi; Iwan, S.; Roza, Liszulfah; Umar, Akrajas Ali; Budi, Setia

    2018-05-01

    Mn-doped ZnO nanorods were synthesized on glass substrates via a two-steps process of ultrasonic spray pyrolysis and hydrothermal methods with four different concentrations Mn-doping (0, 1, 3, and 7 mol%). Introduction of Mn into ZnO is known could enhance the photocatalytic activity owing to the increase in the defect sites that effectively suppress the recombination of free electrons and holes. In this study, results show that Mn-doping has effectively modified the nucleations and crystal growth of ZnO, as evidenced by the increasing in the diameter, height, and the number of nanorods per unit area, besides slightly reduced the band gap and increased the oxygen vacancy concentrations in the ZnO lattice. This condition has successfully multiplied the photocatalytic performance of the ZnO nanorods in the degradation of methylene blue (MB) compared to the undoped-ZnO sample where in the typical process the MB can be degraded approximately 77% within only 35 min under a UV light irradiation.

  11. Heavy Mg-doping of (Al,Ga)N films for potential applications in deep ultraviolet light-emitting structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Y. H.; Towe, E.

    2018-03-01

    Doping of high aluminum-containing (Al,Ga)N thin films has remained a challenging problem that has hindered progress in the development of deep ultraviolet light-emitters. This paper reports on the synthesis and use of heavily doped (Al,Ga)N films in deep ultraviolet (˜274 nm) light-emitting structures; these structures were synthesized by molecular beam epitaxy under liquid-metal growth conditions that facilitate the incorporation of extremely high density of Mg dopant impurities (up to 5 × 1019 cm-3) into aluminum-rich (Al,Ga)N thin films. Prototypical light-emitting diode structures incorporating Al0.7Ga0.3N films doped with Mg impurities that ionize to give free hole carrier concentrations of up to 6 × 1017 cm-3 exhibit external quantum efficiencies of up 0.56%; this is an improvement from previous devices made from molecular beam epitaxy-grown materials. This improvement is believed to be due to the high hole carrier concentration enabled by the relatively low activation energy of 220 meV compared to the expected values of 408-507 meV for Al0.7Ga0.3N films.

  12. Defect-related photoluminescence in Mg-doped GaN nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reshchikov, M. A.; Shahedipour-Sandvik, F.; Messer, B. J.; Jindal, V.; Tripathi, N.; Tungare, M.

    2009-12-01

    Thin film of GaN:Mg, pyramidal GaN:Mg on GaN, sapphire and AlN substrates were grown in a MOCVD system under same growth conditions and at the same time. In samples with Mg-doped GaN pyramids on GaN:Si template a strong ultraviolet (UVL) band with few phonon replicas dominated at low temperature and was attributed to transitions from shallow donors to shallow Mg acceptor. In samples grown on sapphire and AlN substrates the UVL band appeared as a structureless band with the maximum at about 3.25 eV. There is a possibility that the structureless UVL band and the UVL band with phonon structure have different origin. In addition to the UVL band, the blue luminescence (BL) band peaking at 2.9 eV was observed in samples representing GaN:Mg pyramids on GaN:Si substrate. It is preliminary attributed to transitions from shallow donors to Zn acceptor in GaN:Si substrate.

  13. Influence of δ p-doping on the behaviour of GaAs/AlGaAs SAM-APDs for synchrotron radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinhartova, T.; Nichetti, C.; Antonelli, M.; Cautero, G.; Menk, R. H.; Pilotto, A.; Driussi, F.; Palestri, P.; Selmi, L.; Koshmak, K.; Nannarone, S.; Arfelli, F.; Dal Zilio, S.; Biasiol, G.

    2017-11-01

    This work focuses on the development and the characterization of avalanche photodiodes with separated absorption and multiplication regions grown by molecular beam epitaxy. The i-GaAs absorption region is separated from the multiplication region by a δ p-doped layer of carbon atoms, which ensures that after applying a reverse bias, the vast majority of the potential drops in the multiplication region. Therein, thin layers of AlGaAs and GaAs alternate periodically in a so-called staircase structure to create a periodic modulation of the band gap, which under bias enables a well-defined charge multiplication and results in a low multiplication noise. The influence of the concentration of carbon atoms in the δ p-doped layer on the device characteristics was investigated and experimental data are presented together with simulation results.

  14. InGaN-based thin film solar cells: Epitaxy, structural design, and photovoltaic properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sang, Liwen; Liao, Meiyong; Koide, Yasuo; Sumiya, Masatomo

    2015-03-01

    InxGa1-xN, with the tunable direct bandgaps from ultraviolet to near infrared region, offers a promising candidate for the high-efficiency next-generation thin-film photovoltaic applications. Although the adoption of thick InGaN film as the active region is desirable to obtain efficient light absorption and carrier collection compared to InGaN/GaN quantum wells structure, the understanding on the effect from structural design is still unclear due to the poor-quality InGaN films with thickness and difficulty of p-type doping. In this paper, we comprehensively investigate the effects from film epitaxy, doping, and device structural design on the performances of the InGaN-based solar cells. The high-quality InGaN thick film is obtained on AlN/sapphire template, and p-In0.08Ga0.92N is achieved with a high hole concentration of more than 1018 cm-3. The dependence of the photovoltaic performances on different structures, such as active regions and p-type regions is analyzed with respect to the carrier transport mechanism in the dark and under illumination. The strategy of improving the p-i interface by using a super-thin AlN interlayer is provided, which successfully enhances the performance of the solar cells.

  15. Enzymatic glucose detection using ZnO nanorods on the gate region of AlGaN /GaN high electron mobility transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, B. S.; Wang, H. T.; Ren, F.; Pearton, S. J.; Morey, T. E.; Dennis, D. M.; Johnson, J. W.; Rajagopal, P.; Roberts, J. C.; Piner, E. L.; Linthicum, K. J.

    2007-12-01

    ZnO nanorod-gated AlGaN /GaN high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs) are demonstrated for the detection of glucose. A ZnO nanorod array was selectively grown on the gate area using low temperature hydrothermal decomposition to immobilize glucose oxidase (GOx). The one-dimensional ZnO nanorods provide a large effective surface area with high surface-to-volume ratio and provide a favorable environment for the immobilization of GOx. The AlGaN /GaN HEMT drain-source current showed a rapid response of less than 5s when target glucose in a buffer with a pH value of 7.4 was added to the GOx immobilized on the ZnO nanorod surface. We could detect a wide range of concentrations from 0.5nMto125μM. The sensor exhibited a linear range from 0.5nMto14.5μM and an experiment limit of detection of 0.5nM. This demonstrates the possibility of using AlGaN /GaN HEMTs for noninvasive exhaled breath condensate based glucose detection of diabetic application.

  16. Sb-related defects in Sb-doped ZnO thin film grown by pulsed laser deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Caiqin; Ho, Lok-Ping; Azad, Fahad; Anwand, Wolfgang; Butterling, Maik; Wagner, Andreas; Kuznetsov, Andrej; Zhu, Hai; Su, Shichen; Ling, Francis Chi-Chung

    2018-04-01

    Sb-doped ZnO films were fabricated on c-plane sapphire using the pulsed laser deposition method and characterized by Hall effect measurement, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, photoluminescence, and positron annihilation spectroscopy. Systematic studies on the growth conditions with different Sb composition, oxygen pressure, and post-growth annealing were conducted. If the Sb doping concentration is lower than the threshold ˜8 × 1020 cm-3, the as-grown films grown with an appropriate oxygen pressure could be n˜4 × 1020 cm-3. The shallow donor was attributed to the SbZn related defect. Annealing these samples led to the formation of the SbZn-2VZn shallow acceptor which subsequently compensated for the free carrier. For samples with Sb concentration exceeding the threshold, the yielded as-grown samples were highly resistive. X-ray diffraction results showed that the Sb dopant occupied the O site rather than the Zn site as the Sb doping exceeded the threshold, whereas the SbO related deep acceptor was responsible for the high resistivity of the samples.

  17. Effect of neutral red incorporation on Al-doped ZnO thin films and its bio-electrochemical interaction with NAD+/NADP+ dependent enzymes.

    PubMed

    V T, Fidal; T S, Chandra

    2018-09-01

    A new approach to deposition of electroactive ZnO thin films have been carried out, by one-pot chemical bath deposition with Al dopant and incorporation of neutral red as organic mediator. The morphological, structural and functional characterization of the neutral red incorporated, Al-doped ZnO (NR-AZO) film was carried out using electron microscopy, FTIR, XRD and EIS respectively. The incorporated neutral red was found to induce strain in the crystal of AZO proportional to the concentration used in depositing solution which further affected the charge transfer resistance of the films in solution. One mM neutral red was found to be the optimum concentration for both conductivity and response to NADH/NADPH. The response of the films was further validated by immobilizing NAD + dependent alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and NADP + dependent glucose dehydrogenase (GDH) independently. The ADH/NR-AZO showed a sensitivity of 3.2 μA cm -2  mM -1 with a LoD of 1.7 μM of ethanol in the range 5.6 μM-7 mM, whereas GDH/NR-AZO showed a sensitivity of 4.33 μA cm -2  mM -1 with a LoD of 27 μM of glucose in the range 90 μM-4 mM. This method serves as a simple alternative to immobilize the organic redox dyes into the inorganic thin films in a single step making it electroactive towards specific biomolecules. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. A dual-colored bio-marker made of doped ZnO nanocrystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Y. L.; Fu, S.; Tok, A. I. Y.; Zeng, X. T.; Lim, C. S.; Kwek, L. C.; Boey, F. C. Y.

    2008-08-01

    Bio-compatible ZnO nanocrystals doped with Co, Cu and Ni cations, surface capped with two types of aminosilanes and titania are synthesized by a soft chemical process. Due to the small particle size (2-5 nm), surface functional groups and the high photoluminescence emissions at the UV and blue-violet wavelength ranges, bio-imaging on human osteosarcoma (Mg-63) cells and histiocytic lymphoma U-937 monocyte cells showed blue emission at the nucleus and bright turquoise emission at the cytoplasm simultaneously. This is the first report on dual-color bio-images labeled by one semiconductor nanocrystal colloidal solution. Bright green emission was detected on mung bean seedlings labeled by all the synthesized ZnO nanocrystals. Cytotoxicity tests showed that the aminosilanes capped nanoparticles are non-toxic. Quantum yields of the nanocrystals varied from 79% to 95%. The results showed the potential of the pure ZnO and Co-doped ZnO nanocrystals for live imaging of both human cells and plant systems.

  19. Rare-metal-free high-performance Ga-Sn-O thin film transistor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsuda, Tokiyoshi; Umeda, Kenta; Kato, Yuta; Nishimoto, Daiki; Furuta, Mamoru; Kimura, Mutsumi

    2017-03-01

    Oxide semiconductors have been investigated as channel layers for thin film transistors (TFTs) which enable next-generation devices such as high-resolution liquid crystal displays (LCDs), organic light emitting diode (OLED) displays, flexible electronics, and innovative devices. Here, high-performance and stable Ga-Sn-O (GTO) TFTs were demonstrated for the first time without the use of rare metals such as In. The GTO thin films were deposited using radiofrequency (RF) magnetron sputtering. A high field effect mobility of 25.6 cm2/Vs was achieved, because the orbital structure of Sn was similar to that of In. The stability of the GTO TFTs was examined under bias, temperature, and light illumination conditions. The electrical behaviour of the GTO TFTs was more stable than that of In-Ga-Zn-O (IGZO) TFTs, which was attributed to the elimination of weak Zn-O bonds.

  20. Rare-metal-free high-performance Ga-Sn-O thin film transistor

    PubMed Central

    Matsuda, Tokiyoshi; Umeda, Kenta; Kato, Yuta; Nishimoto, Daiki; Furuta, Mamoru; Kimura, Mutsumi

    2017-01-01

    Oxide semiconductors have been investigated as channel layers for thin film transistors (TFTs) which enable next-generation devices such as high-resolution liquid crystal displays (LCDs), organic light emitting diode (OLED) displays, flexible electronics, and innovative devices. Here, high-performance and stable Ga-Sn-O (GTO) TFTs were demonstrated for the first time without the use of rare metals such as In. The GTO thin films were deposited using radiofrequency (RF) magnetron sputtering. A high field effect mobility of 25.6 cm2/Vs was achieved, because the orbital structure of Sn was similar to that of In. The stability of the GTO TFTs was examined under bias, temperature, and light illumination conditions. The electrical behaviour of the GTO TFTs was more stable than that of In-Ga-Zn-O (IGZO) TFTs, which was attributed to the elimination of weak Zn-O bonds. PMID:28290547

  1. Rare-metal-free high-performance Ga-Sn-O thin film transistor.

    PubMed

    Matsuda, Tokiyoshi; Umeda, Kenta; Kato, Yuta; Nishimoto, Daiki; Furuta, Mamoru; Kimura, Mutsumi

    2017-03-14

    Oxide semiconductors have been investigated as channel layers for thin film transistors (TFTs) which enable next-generation devices such as high-resolution liquid crystal displays (LCDs), organic light emitting diode (OLED) displays, flexible electronics, and innovative devices. Here, high-performance and stable Ga-Sn-O (GTO) TFTs were demonstrated for the first time without the use of rare metals such as In. The GTO thin films were deposited using radiofrequency (RF) magnetron sputtering. A high field effect mobility of 25.6 cm 2 /Vs was achieved, because the orbital structure of Sn was similar to that of In. The stability of the GTO TFTs was examined under bias, temperature, and light illumination conditions. The electrical behaviour of the GTO TFTs was more stable than that of In-Ga-Zn-O (IGZO) TFTs, which was attributed to the elimination of weak Zn-O bonds.

  2. High-resolution photoluminescence spectroscopy of Sn-doped ZnO single crystals

    DOE PAGES

    Kumar, E. Senthil; Mohammadbeigi, F.; Boatner, Lynn A.; ...

    2016-01-01

    Here, Group IV donors in ZnO are poorly understood, despite evidence that they are effective n-dopants. We present high-resolution photoluminescence spectroscopy studies of unintentionally doped and Sn doped ZnO single crystals grown by the chemical vapor transport method. Doped samples showed greatly increased emission from the I10 bound exciton transition which was recently proven to be related to the incorporation of Sn impurities based on radio-isotope studies. PL linewidths are exceptionally sharp for these samples, enabling clear identification of several donor species. Temperature dependent PL measurements of the I10 line emission energy and intensity dependence reveal a behavior similar tomore » other shallow donors in ZnO. Ionized donor bound exciton and two electron satellite transitions of the I10 transition are unambiguously identified and yield a donor binding energy of 71 meV. In contrast to recent reports of Ge-related donors in ZnO, the spectroscopic binding energy for the Sn-related donor bound exciton follows a linear relationship with donor binding energy (Haynes rule), confirming the shallow nature of this defect center, which we attribute to a SnZn double donor compensated by an unknown single acceptor.« less

  3. Structural, optical, and electrical properties of Ni-doped ZnO nanorod arrays prepared via sonicated sol-gel immersion method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ismail, A. S.; Mamat, M. H.; Malek, M. F.; Saidi, S. A.; Yusoff, M. M.; Mohamed, R.; Sin, N. D. Md; Suriani, A. B.; Rusop, M.

    2018-05-01

    Nickel (Ni)-doped zinc oxide (ZnO) nanorod array films were synthesised using sonicated sol-gel immersion method. The FESEM images showed that the Ni-doped ZnO nanorod arrays possess hexagonal shape with average diameter about 120 nm and thickness about 1.10 µm. The Ni-doped ZnO nanorod arrays possess better transmittance properties with 3.27 eV of optical band gap energy and 40 meV of urbach energy. The current-voltage (I-V) measurement indicated that the conductivity of ZnO film slightly improved with Ni-doping. The doped film displayed good humidity sensing performance with sensitivity of 1.21.

  4. Fabrication and characterization of thin-film phosphor combinatorial libraries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mordkovich, V. Z.; Jin, Zhengwu; Yamada, Y.; Fukumura, T.; Kawasaki, M.; Koinuma, H.

    2002-05-01

    The laser molecular beam epitaxy method was employed to fabricate thin-film combinatorial libraries of ZnO-based phosphors on different substrates. Fabrication of both pixel libraries, on the example of Fe-doped ZnO, and spread libraries, on the example of Eu-doped ZnO, has been demonstrated. Screening of the Fe-doped ZnO libraries led to the discovery of weak green cathodoluminescence with the maximum efficiency at the Fe content of 0.58 mol %. Screening of the Eu-doped ZnO libraries led to the discovery of unusual reddish-violet cathodoluminescence which is observed in a broad range of Eu concentration. No photoluminescence was registered in either system.

  5. Growth and properties of electrodeposited transparent Al-doped ZnO nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baka, O.; Mentar, L.; Khelladi, M. R.; Azizi, A.

    2015-12-01

    Al-doped zinc oxide (AZO) nanostructures were fabricated on fluorine-doped tin-oxide (FTO)- coated glass substrates by using electrodeposition. The effects of the doping concentration of Al on the morphological, microstructural, electrical and optical properties of the nanostructures were investigated. From the field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) observation, when the amount of Al was increased in the solution, the grains size was observed to decreases. The observed changes in the morphology indicate that Al acts as nucleation centers in the vacancy sites of ZnO and destroys the crystalline structure at high doping level. Effectively, the X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis indicated that the undoped and the doped ZnO nanostructures has a polycrystalline nature and a hexagonal wurtzite structure with a (002) preferential orientation. The photoluminescence (PL) room-temperature measurements showed that the incorporation of Al in the Zn lattice can improve the intensity of ultraviolet (UV) emission, thus suggesting its greater prospects for use in UV optoelectronic devices.

  6. Structural, morphological and magnetic properties of pure and Ni-doped ZnO nanoparticles synthesized by sol-gel method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Undre, Pallavi G.; Birajdar, Shankar D.; Kathare, R. V.; Jadhav, K. M.

    2018-05-01

    In this work pure and Ni-doped ZnO nanoparticles have been prepared by sol-gel method. Influence of nickel doping on structural, morphological and magnetic properties of prepared nanoparticles was investigated by X-ray diffraction technique (XRD), Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Pulse field magnetic hysteresis loop. X-ray diffraction pattern shows the formation of a single phase with hexagonal wurtzite structure of both pure and Ni-doped ZnO nanoparticles. The lattice parameters `an' and `c' of Ni-doped ZnO is slightly less than that of pure ZnO nanoparticles. The crystalline size of prepared nanoparticles is found to be in 29 and 31 nm range. SEM technique used to examine the surface morphology of samples, SEM image confirms the nanocrystalline nature of present samples. From the pulse field hysteresis loop technique pure and Ni-doped ZnO nanoparticles show diamagnetic and ferromagnetic behavior at room temperature respectively.

  7. Enhanced luminescence in Eu-doped ZnO nanocrystalline films

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Suzuki, Keigo, E-mail: ksuzuki@murata.com; Murayama, Koji; Tanaka, Nobuhiko

    We found an enhancement of Eu{sup 3+} emissions in Eu-doped ZnO nanocrystalline films fabricated by microemulsion method. The Eu{sup 3+} emission intensities were increased by reducing annealing temperatures from 633 K to 533 K. One possible explanation for this phenomenon is that the size reduction enhances the energy transfer from ZnO nanoparticles to Eu{sup 3+} ions. Also, the shift of the charge-transfer band into the low-energy side of the absorption edge is found to be crucial, which seems to expedite the energy transfer from O atoms to Eu{sup 3+} ions. These findings will be useful for the material design of Eu-doped ZnOmore » phosphors.« less

  8. Aluminum doping tunes band gap energy level as well as oxidative stress-mediated cytotoxicity of ZnO nanoparticles in MCF-7 cells

    PubMed Central

    Akhtar, Mohd Javed; Alhadlaq, Hisham A.; Alshamsan, Aws; Majeed Khan, M.A.; Ahamed, Maqusood

    2015-01-01

    We investigated whether Aluminum (Al) doping tunes band gap energy level as well as selective cytotoxicity of ZnO nanoparticles in human breast cancer cells (MCF-7). Pure and Al-doped ZnO nanoparticles were prepared by a simple sol-gel method. Characterization study confirmed the formation of single phase of AlxZn1-xO nanocrystals with the size range of 33–55 nm. Al-doping increased the band gap energy of ZnO nanoparticles (from 3.51 eV for pure to 3.87 eV for Al-doped ZnO). Al-doping also enhanced the cytotoxicity and oxidative stress response of ZnO nanoparticles in MCF-7 cells. The IC50 for undoped ZnO nanoparticles was 44 μg/ml while for the Al-doped ZnO counterparts was 31 μg/ml. Up-regulation of apoptotic genes (e.g. p53, bax/bcl2 ratio, caspase-3 & caspase-9) along with loss of mitochondrial membrane potential suggested that Al-doped ZnO nanoparticles induced apoptosis in MCF-7 cells through mitochondrial pathway. Importantly, Al-doping did not change the benign nature of ZnO nanoparticles towards normal cells suggesting that Al-doping improves the selective cytotoxicity of ZnO nanoparticles toward MCF-7 cells without affecting the normal cells. Our results indicated a novel approach through which the inherent selective cytotoxicity of ZnO nanoparticles against cancer cells can be further improved. PMID:26347142

  9. Aluminum doping tunes band gap energy level as well as oxidative stress-mediated cytotoxicity of ZnO nanoparticles in MCF-7 cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akhtar, Mohd Javed; Alhadlaq, Hisham A.; Alshamsan, Aws; Majeed Khan, M. A.; Ahamed, Maqusood

    2015-09-01

    We investigated whether Aluminum (Al) doping tunes band gap energy level as well as selective cytotoxicity of ZnO nanoparticles in human breast cancer cells (MCF-7). Pure and Al-doped ZnO nanoparticles were prepared by a simple sol-gel method. Characterization study confirmed the formation of single phase of AlxZn1-xO nanocrystals with the size range of 33-55 nm. Al-doping increased the band gap energy of ZnO nanoparticles (from 3.51 eV for pure to 3.87 eV for Al-doped ZnO). Al-doping also enhanced the cytotoxicity and oxidative stress response of ZnO nanoparticles in MCF-7 cells. The IC50 for undoped ZnO nanoparticles was 44 μg/ml while for the Al-doped ZnO counterparts was 31 μg/ml. Up-regulation of apoptotic genes (e.g. p53, bax/bcl2 ratio, caspase-3 & caspase-9) along with loss of mitochondrial membrane potential suggested that Al-doped ZnO nanoparticles induced apoptosis in MCF-7 cells through mitochondrial pathway. Importantly, Al-doping did not change the benign nature of ZnO nanoparticles towards normal cells suggesting that Al-doping improves the selective cytotoxicity of ZnO nanoparticles toward MCF-7 cells without affecting the normal cells. Our results indicated a novel approach through which the inherent selective cytotoxicity of ZnO nanoparticles against cancer cells can be further improved.

  10. Aluminum doping tunes band gap energy level as well as oxidative stress-mediated cytotoxicity of ZnO nanoparticles in MCF-7 cells.

    PubMed

    Akhtar, Mohd Javed; Alhadlaq, Hisham A; Alshamsan, Aws; Majeed Khan, M A; Ahamed, Maqusood

    2015-09-08

    We investigated whether Aluminum (Al) doping tunes band gap energy level as well as selective cytotoxicity of ZnO nanoparticles in human breast cancer cells (MCF-7). Pure and Al-doped ZnO nanoparticles were prepared by a simple sol-gel method. Characterization study confirmed the formation of single phase of Al(x)Zn(1-x)O nanocrystals with the size range of 33-55 nm. Al-doping increased the band gap energy of ZnO nanoparticles (from 3.51 eV for pure to 3.87 eV for Al-doped ZnO). Al-doping also enhanced the cytotoxicity and oxidative stress response of ZnO nanoparticles in MCF-7 cells. The IC50 for undoped ZnO nanoparticles was 44 μg/ml while for the Al-doped ZnO counterparts was 31 μg/ml. Up-regulation of apoptotic genes (e.g. p53, bax/bcl2 ratio, caspase-3 &caspase-9) along with loss of mitochondrial membrane potential suggested that Al-doped ZnO nanoparticles induced apoptosis in MCF-7 cells through mitochondrial pathway. Importantly, Al-doping did not change the benign nature of ZnO nanoparticles towards normal cells suggesting that Al-doping improves the selective cytotoxicity of ZnO nanoparticles toward MCF-7 cells without affecting the normal cells. Our results indicated a novel approach through which the inherent selective cytotoxicity of ZnO nanoparticles against cancer cells can be further improved.

  11. Highly stable precursor solution containing ZnO nanoparticles for the preparation of ZnO thin film transistors.

    PubMed

    Huang, Heh-Chang; Hsieh, Tsung-Eong

    2010-07-23

    ZnO particles with an average size of about 5 nm were prepared via a sol-gel chemical route and the silane coupling agent, (3-glycidyloxypropyl)-trimethoxysilane (GPTS), was adopted to enhance the dispersion of the ZnO nanoparticles in ethyl glycol (EG) solution. A ZnO surface potential as high as 66 mV was observed and a sedimentation test showed that the ZnO precursor solution remains transparent for six months of storage, elucidating the success of surface modification on ZnO nanoparticles. The ZnO thin films were then prepared by spin coating the precursor solution on a Si wafer and annealing treatments at temperatures up to 500 degrees C were performed for subsequent preparation of ZnO thin film transistors (TFTs). Microstructure characterization revealed that the coalescence of ZnO nanoparticles occurs at temperatures as low as 200 degrees C to result in a highly uniform, nearly pore-free layer. However, annealing at higher temperatures was required to remove organic residues in the ZnO layer for satisfactory device performance. The 500 degrees C-annealed ZnO TFT sample exhibited the best electrical properties with on/off ratio = 10(5), threshold voltage = 17.1 V and mobility (micro) = 0.104 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1).

  12. Investigation of the structural, optical and electrical transport properties of n-doped CdSe thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, H. M.; Abd El-Ghanny, H. A.

    2008-04-01

    Thin films of (CdSe)90(In2O3)10, (CdSe)90(SnO2)10 and (CdSe)90(ZnO)10 have been grown on glass substrates by the electron beam evaporation technique. It has been found that undoped and Sn or In doped CdSe films have two direct transitions corresponding to the energy gaps Eg and Eg+Δ due to spin-orbit splitting of the valence band. The electrical resistivity for n-doped CdSe thin films as a function of light exposure time has been studied. The influence of doping on the structural, optical and electrical characteristics of In doped CdSe films has been investigated in detail. The lattice parameters, grain size and dislocation were determined from x-ray diffraction patterns. The optical transmittance and band gap of these films were determined using a double beam spectrophotometer. The DC conductivity of the films was measured in vacuum using a two-probe technique.

  13. Microstructure of ZnO Thin Films Deposited by High Power Impulse Magnetron Sputtering (Postprint)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-03-01

    AFRL-RX-WP-JA-2015-0185 MICROSTRUCTURE OF ZNO THIN FILMS DEPOSITED BY HIGH POWER IMPULSE MAGNETRON SPUTTERING (POSTPRINT) A. N. Reed...COVERED (From – To) 29 January 2013 – 16 February 2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE MICROSTRUCTURE OF ZNO THIN FILMS DEPOSITED BY HIGH POWER IMPULSE MAGNETRON...ABSTRACT High power impulse magnetron sputtering was used to deposit thin (~100 nm) zinc oxide (ZnO) films from a ceramic ZnO target onto substrates

  14. Effects on the magnetic and optical properties of Co-doped ZnO at different electronic states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huo, Qingyu; Xu, Zhenchao; Qu, Linfeng

    2017-12-01

    Both blue and red shifts in the absorption spectrum of Co-doped ZnO have been reported at a similar concentration range of doped Co. Moreover, the sources of magnetism of Co-doped ZnO are controversial. To solve these problems, the geometry optimization and energy of different Co-doped ZnO systems were calculated at the states of electron spin polarization and nonspin polarization by adopting plane-wave ultra-soft pseudopotential technology based on density function theory. At the state of electron nonspin polarization, the total energies increased as the concentration of Co-doped increased. The doped systems also became unstable. The formation energies increased and doping became difficult. Furthermore, the band gaps widened and the absorption spectrum exhibited a blue shift. The band gaps were corrected by local-density approximation + U at the state of electron spin polarization. The magnetic moments of the doped systems weakened as the concentration of doped Co increased. The magnetic moments were derived from the coupling effects of sp-d. The band gaps narrowed and the absorption spectrum exhibited a red shift. The inconsistencies of the band gaps and absorption spectrum at the states of electron spin polarization and nonspin polarization were first discovered in this research, and the sources of Co-doped ZnO magnetism were also reinterpreted.

  15. Intrinsic ferromagnetism in nanocrystalline Mn-doped ZnO depending on Mn concentration.

    PubMed

    Subramanian, Munisamy; Tanemura, Masaki; Hihara, Takehiko; Soga, Tetsuo; Jimbo, Takashi

    2011-04-01

    The physical properties of Zn(1-x)Mn(x)O nanoparticles synthesized by thermal decomposition are extensively investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Raman light scattering and Hysteresis measurements. XRD and XPS spectra reveal the absence of secondary phase in nanocrystalline ZnO doped with 5% or less Mn; and, later confirms that the valance state of Mn to be 2+ for all the samples. Raman spectra exhibit a peak at 660 cm(-1) which we attribute to the intrinsic lattice defects of ZnO with increasing Mn concentration. Overall, our results demonstrate that ferromagnetic properties can be realized while Mn-doped ZnO obtained in the nanocrystalline form.

  16. Low-cost growth of magnesium doped gallium nitride thin films by sol-gel spin coating method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amin, N. Mohd; Ng, S. S.

    2018-01-01

    Low-cost sol-gel spin coating growth of magnesium (Mg) doped gallium nitride (GaN) thin films with different concentrations of Mg was reported. The effects of the Mg concentration on the structural, surface morphology, elemental compositions, lattice vibrational, and electrical properties of the deposited films were investigated. X-ray diffraction results show that the Mg-doped samples have wurtzite structure with preferred orientation of GaN(002). The crystallite size decreases and the surface of the films with pits/pores were formed, while the crystalline quality of the films degraded as the Mg concentration increases from 2% to 6. %. All the Raman active phonon modes of the wurtzite GaN were observed while a broad peak attributed to the Mg-related lattice vibrational mode was detected at 669 cm-1. Hall effect results show that the resistivity of the thin films decreases while the hole concentration and hall mobility of thin films increases as the concentration of the Mg increases.

  17. Seedless-grown of ZnO thin films for photoelectrochemical water splitting application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdullah, Aidahani; Hamid, Muhammad Azmi Abdul; Chiu, W. S.

    2018-04-01

    We developed a seedless hydrothermal method to grow a flower like ZnO nanorods. Prior to the growth, a layer of Au thin film is sputtered onto the surface of indium tin oxide (ITO) coated glass substrate. The morphological, structural and optical properties of the ZnO nanostructures were characterized by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and diffuse reflection measurement to understand the growth process of the working thin film. The photoelectrochemical (PEC) results suggest that the deposition of ZnO nanorods on Au nanoparticles plays an important role in enhancing the photoelectrode activity. H2 evolution from photo-splitting of water over Au-incorporated ZnO in the 0.1M NaOH liquid system was enhanced, compared to that over bare ZnO; particularly, the production of 15.5 µL of H2 gas after twenty five minutes exposure of ZnO grown on Au-coated thin film.

  18. Ultraviolet emission enhancement in ZnO thin films modified by nanocrystalline TiO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Gaige; Lu, Xi; Qian, Liming; Xian, Fenglin

    2017-05-01

    In this study, nanocrystalline TiO2 modified ZnO thin films were prepared by electron beam evaporation. The structural, morphological and optical properties of the samples were analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), UV-visible spectroscopy, fluorescence spectroscopy, respectively. The composition of the films was examined by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). The photoluminescent spectrum shows that the pure ZnO thin film exhibits an ultraviolet (UV) emission peak and a strong green emission band. Surface analysis indicates that the ZnO thin film contains many oxygen vacancy defects on the surface. After the ZnO thin film is modified by the nanocrystalline TiO2 layer, the UV emission of ZnO is largely enhanced and the green emission is greatly suppressed, which suggests that the surface defects such as oxygen vacancies are passivated by the TiO2 capping layer. As for the UV emission enhancement of the ZnO thin film, the optimized thickness of the TiO2 capping layer is ∼16 nm. When the thickness is larger than 16 nm, the UV emission of the ZnO thin film will decrease because the TiO2 capping layer absorbs most of the excitation energy. The UV emission enhancement in the nanocrystalline TiO2 modified ZnO thin film can be attributed to surface passivation and flat band effect.

  19. Influence of a Boron Precursor on the Growth and Optoelectronic Properties of Electrodeposited Zinc Oxide Thin Film.

    PubMed

    Tsin, Fabien; Thomere, Angélica; Bris, Arthur Le; Collin, Stéphane; Lincot, Daniel; Rousset, Jean

    2016-05-18

    Highly transparent and conductive materials are required for many industrial applications. One of the interesting features of ZnO is the possibility to dope it using different elements, hence improving its conductivity. Results concerning the zinc oxide thin films electrodeposited in a zinc perchlorate medium containing a boron precursor are presented in this study. The addition of boron to the electrolyte leads to significant effects on the morphology and crystalline structure as well as an evolution of the optical properties of the material. Varying the concentration of boric acid from 0 to 15 mM strongly improves the compactness of the deposit and increases the band gap from 3.33 to 3.45 eV. Investigations were also conducted to estimate and determine the influence of boric acid on the electrical properties of the ZnO layers. As a result, no doping effect effect by boron was demonstrated. However, the role of boric acid on the material quality has also been proven and discussed. Boric acid strongly contributes to the growth of high quality electrodeposited zinc oxide. The high doping level of the film can be attributed to the perchlorate ions introduced in the bath. Finally, a ZnO layer electrodeposited in a boron rich electrolyte was tested as front contact of a Cu(In, Ga)(S, Se)2 based solar cell. An efficiency of 12.5% was measured with a quite high fill factor (>70%) which confirms the high conductivity of the ZnO thin film.

  20. Li diffusion in epitaxial (11 $bar 2$ 0) ZnO thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, P.; Zhong, J.; Emanetoglu, N. W.; Chen, Y.; Muthukumar, S.; Lu, Y.

    2004-06-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) possesses many interesting properties, such as a wide energy bandgap, large photoconductivity, and high excitonic binding energy. Chemical-vapor-deposition-grown ZnO films generally show n-type conductivity. A compensation doping process is needed to achieve piezoelectric ZnO, which is needed for surface acoustic wave (SAW), bulk acoustic wave, and micro-electromechanical system devices. In this work, a gas-phase diffusion process is developed to achieve piezoelectric (11bar 20) ZnO films. Comparative x-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) measurements confirmed that high crystal quality and good surface morphology were preserved after diffusion. Photoluminescence (PL) measurements show a broad band emission with a peak wavelength at ˜580 nm, which is associated with Li doping. The SAW, including both Rayleigh-wave and Love-wave modes, is achieved along different directions in piezoelectric (11bar 20) ZnO films grown on an r-plane sapphire substrate.

  1. Electrical properties of zinc-oxide-based thin-film transistors using strontium-oxide-doped semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Shao-Hang; Zhang, Nan; Hu, Yong-Sheng; Chen, Hong; Jiang, Da-Peng; Liu, Xing-Yuan

    2015-10-01

    Strontium-zinc-oxide (SrZnO) films forming the semiconductor layers of thin-film transistors (TFTs) are deposited by using ion-assisted electron beam evaporation. Using strontium-oxide-doped semiconductors, the off-state current can be dramatically reduced by three orders of magnitude. This dramatic improvement is attributed to the incorporation of strontium, which suppresses carrier generation, thereby improving the TFT. Additionally, the presence of strontium inhibits the formation of zinc oxide (ZnO) with the hexagonal wurtzite phase and permits the formation of an unusual phase of ZnO, thus significantly changing the surface morphology of ZnO and effectively reducing the trap density of the channel. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 6140031454) and the Innovation Program of Chinese Academy of Sciences and State Key Laboratory of Luminescence and Applications.

  2. Epitaxial growth and magnetic properties of ultraviolet transparent Ga2O3/(Ga1-xFex)2O3 multilayer thin films.

    PubMed

    Guo, Daoyou; An, Yuehua; Cui, Wei; Zhi, Yusong; Zhao, Xiaolong; Lei, Ming; Li, Linghong; Li, Peigang; Wu, Zhenping; Tang, Weihua

    2016-04-28

    Multilayer thin films based on the ferromagnetic and ultraviolet transparent semiconductors may be interesting because their magnetic/electronic/photonic properties can be manipulated by the high energy photons. Herein, the Ga2O3/(Ga1-xFex)2O3 multilayer epitaxial thin films were obtained by alternating depositing of wide band gap Ga2O3 layer and Fe ultrathin layer due to inter diffusion between two layers at high temperature using the laser molecular beam epitaxy technique. The multilayer films exhibits a preferred growth orientation of crystal plane, and the crystal lattice expands as Fe replaces Ga site. Fe ions with a mixed valence of Fe(2+) and Fe(3+) are stratified distributed in the film and exhibit obvious agglomerated areas. The multilayer films only show a sharp absorption edge at about 250 nm, indicating a high transparency for ultraviolet light. What's more, the Ga2O3/(Ga1-xFex)2O3 multilayer epitaxial thin films also exhibits room temperature ferromagnetism deriving from the Fe doping Ga2O3.

  3. Facile hydrothermal synthesis of mn doped ZnO nanopencils for development of amperometric glucose biosensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shukla, Mayoorika; Pramila; Agrawal, Jitesh; Dixit, Tejendra; Palani, I. A.; Singh, Vipul

    2018-05-01

    Mn doped ZnO nanopencils were synthesized via low temperature hydrothermal process for fabrication of enzymatic electrochemical glucose biosensor. The KMnO4 was found to play a dual role in modifying morphology and inducing Mn doping. Interestingly, two different types of morphologies viz nanorods and nanopencils along with Mn doping in the later were obtained. Incorporation of Mn has shown a tremendous effect on the morphological variations, repression of defects and electrochemical charge transfer at electrode electrolyte interface. The possible reason behind obtained morphological changes has been proposed which in turn were responsible for the improvement in the different figure of merits of as fabricated enzymatic electrochemical biosensor. There has been a 17 fold enhancement in the sensitivity of the as fabricated glucose biosensor from ZnO nanorods to Mn doped ZnO nanopencils which can be attributed to morphological variation and Mn doping.

  4. Passive optical limiting studies of nanostructured Cu doped ZnO-PVA composite thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamgadge, Y. S.; Sunatkari, A. L.; Talwatkar, S. S.; Pahurkar, V. G.; Muley, G. G.

    2016-01-01

    We prepared undoped and Cu doped ZnO semiconducting nanoparticles (NPs) by chemical co-precipitation method and obtained Cu doped ZnO-polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) nanocomposite thin films by spin coating to investigate third order nonlinear optical and optical limiting properties under cw laser excitation. Powder samples of NPs were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. XRD pattern and FE-SEM micrograph revealed the presence of hexagonal wurtzite phase ZnO NPs having uniform morphology with average particle size of 20 nm. The presence of excitons and absorption peaks in the range 343-360 nm, revealed by UV-vis study, were attributed to excitons in n = 1 quantum state. Third order NLO properties of all composite thin films were investigated by He-Ne continuous wave (cw) laser of wavelength 632.8 nm using Z-scan technique. Thermally stimulated enhanced values of nonlinear refraction and absorption coefficients were obtained which may be attributed to self-defocusing effect, reverse saturable absorption, weak free carrier absorption and surface states properties originated from thermo optic effect. Optical limiting properties have been studied using cw diode laser of wavelength 808 nm and results are presented.

  5. Properties of NiZnO Thin Films with Different Amounts of Al Doping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kayani, Zohra N.; Fatima, Gulnaz; Zulfiqar, Bareera; Riaz, Saira; Naseem, Shahzad

    2017-10-01

    Transparent Al-doped NiZnO thin films have been fabricated by sol-gel dip coating and investigated using scanning electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction analysis, ultraviolet-visible-near infrared (UV-Vis-NIR) spectrophotometry, vibrating-sample magnetometry, and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy. The Al-doped NiZnO films consisted of ZnO hexagonal and α-Al2O3 rhombohedral phases as the Al incorporation was gradually increased from 1 at.% up to 3 at.%. A decrease in the optical bandgap from 3.90 eV to 3.09 eV was observed for films grown with Al content of 1 at.% to 2.5 at.%, but at 3 at.% Al, the bandgap increased to 3.87 eV. Optical transmittance of 96% was achieved for these transparent oxide films. Study of their magnetic properties revealed that increasing Al percentage resulted in enhanced ferromagnetism. The saturated magnetization increased with increasing Al percentage. The ferromagnetic properties of Al-doped NiZnO are mediated by electrons. The surface of the deposited thin films consisted of nanowires, nanorods, porous surface, and grains.

  6. An over 18%-efficiency completely buffer-free Cu(In,Ga)Se2 solar cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishizuka, Shogo; Nishinaga, Jiro; Koida, Takashi; Shibata, Hajime

    2018-07-01

    In this letter, an independently certified photovoltaic efficiency of 18.4% demonstrated from a completely buffer-layer-free Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGS) solar cell is reported. A Si-doped CIGS thin film was used as the photoabsorber layer and a conductive B-doped ZnO (BZO) front electrode layer was directly deposited on the CIGS layer. Metastable acceptor activation by heat-light soaking treatment was performed to maximize the efficiency. The results presented here are expected to serve as a benchmark for simplified-structure CIGS devices as well as a reference for discussions on the role of buffer layers used in conventional CIGS solar cells.

  7. Effects on the optical properties and conductivity of Ag-N co-doped ZnO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Zhenchao; Hou, Qingyu; Qu, Lingfeng

    2017-01-01

    Nowadays, the studies of the effects on the optical bandgap, absorption spectrum, and electrical properties of Ag-N co-doped ZnO have been extensively investigated. However, Ag and N atoms in doped systems are randomly doped, and the asymmetric structure of ZnO is yet to be explored. In this paper, the geometric structure, stability, density of states, absorption spectra and conductivity of pure and Ag-N co-doped Zn1-xAgxO1-xNx(x=0.03125, 0.0417 and 0.0625) in different orientations are calculated by using plane-wave ultrasoft pseudopotential on the basis of density functional theory with GGA+U method. Results show that the volume, equivalent total energy and formation energy of the doped system increase as the concentration of Ag-N co-doped Zn1-xAgxO1-xNx increases at the same doping mode. The doped systems also become unstable, and difficulty in doping. At the same concentration of Ag-N co-doped Zn1-xAgxO1-xNx, the systems with Ag-N along the c-axis orientation is unstable, and doping is difficult. The optical bandgap of Ag-N co-doped systems is narrower than that of the pure ZnO. At the same doping mode, the optical bandgap of the systems with Ag-N perpendicular to the c-axis orientation becomes narrow as the concentration of Ag-N co-doped Zn1-xAgxO1-xNx increases. The absorption spectra of the doped systems exhibit a red shift, and this red shift becomes increasingly significant as the concentration of Ag-N co-doped Zn1-xAgxO1-xNx increases. Under the same condition, the relative hole concentrations of the doped systems increases, the hole effective mass in valence band maximum decreases, the hole mobility decreases, the ionization energy decreases, Bohr radius increases, the conductance increases and the conductivity become better. Our results may be used as a basis for the designing and preparation of new optical and electrical materials for Ag-N co-doped ZnO applied in low temperature end of temperature difference battery.

  8. First-principles research on the optical and electrical properties and mechanisms of In-doped ZnO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, Qingyu; Xi, Dongmin; Li, Wenling; Jia, Xiaofang; Xu, Zhenchao

    2018-05-01

    The absorption spectra and conductivity of In-doped ZnO still exhibit differences. To resolve this contradiction, the ZnO supercell models with different In doping amounts and the Zn0.9375In0.0625(Zni)0.0625O supercell model were both constructed. When the geometrical structure of all the models was optimized, the GGA + U and GGA used to calculate the energy. In the range of In doping used in this study, the formation energy of In-doped ZnO under Zn-rich conditions is lower than that under O-rich conditions, thereby implying a more stability of In-doped ZnO under Zn-rich than that under O-rich. With the increased In doping content, the volume and the formation energy of the doped system increase, the doped systems become unstable, and doping becomes difficult. Furthermore, the band gaps are narrowed, and the red shift of absorption spectrum is enhanced. In the In doping amount ranging within 0.01389-0.05556, the electron effective mass decreases first and subsequently increases, and the electron concentration increases. The mobility and conductivity also increase first and subsequently decrease. These results are in accordance with the experimental results. The volume of Zn0.9375In0.0625(Zni)0.0625O with the coexistence of In replacing Zn and interstitial Zn is large. The band gap is widened and the absorption spectrum is blue-shifted in the UV region.

  9. Thermal conductivity of bulk and thin film β-Ga2O3 measured by the 3ω technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blumenschein, N.; Slomski, M.; Paskov, P. P.; Kaess, F.; Breckenridge, M. H.; Muth, J. F.; Paskova, T.

    2018-02-01

    Thermal conductivity of undoped and Sn-doped β-Ga2O3 bulk and single-crystalline thin films have been measured by the 3ω technique. The bulk samples were grown by edge-defined film-field growth (EFG) method, while the thin films were grown on c-plane sapphire by pulsed-laser deposition (PLD). All samples were with (-201) surface orientation. Thermal conductivity of bulk samples was calculated along the in-plane and cross-plane crystallographic directions, yielding a maximum value of 29 W/m-K in the [010] direction at room temperature. A slight thermal conductivity decrease was observed in the Sn-doped bulk samples, which was attributed to enhanced phonon-impurity scattering. The differential 3ω method was used for β-Ga2O3 thin film samples due to the small film thickness. Results show that both undoped and Sndoped films have a much lower thermal conductivity than that of the bulk samples, which is consistent with previous reports in the literature showing a linear relationship between thermal conductivity and film thickness. Similarly to bulk samples, Sn-doped thin films have exhibited a thermal conductivity decrease. However, this decrease was found to be much greater in thin film samples, and increased with Sn doping concentration. A correlation between thermal conductivity and defect/dislocation density was made for the undoped thin films.

  10. Low-frequency zone boundary phonons in Li doped ZnO ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yadav, Harish Kumar; Sreenivas, K.; Gupta, Vinay; Katiyar, R. S.

    2008-09-01

    Room temperature Raman spectra of Li doped ZnO (Zn1-xLixO) ceramics with varying Li concentrations (x =0.0, 0.05, 0.10, and 0.15) are investigated in this study. Four peaks were identified at 96.6, 127, 157, and 194 cm-1 in the Li doped samples. The peaks at 127, 157, and 194 cm-1 are assigned to zone boundary phonons in ZnO [J. M. Calleja and M. Cardona, Phys. Rev. B 16, 3753 (1977)], and appear due to disorder in ZnO lattice with Li incorporation. Lithium, owing to its smaller radius, adjusts itself anywhere in the ZnO lattice and breaks the crystal translational symmetry to a large extent, compared to other dopants. Disorder in the lattice is seen to be finely modulated with varying Li content. The peak at 96.6 cm-1 is hypothesized to be a projection of the vibrational motion of Li atoms at lower frequencies, which contributes in a major fashion at higher frequencies, due to its lighter mass than Zn or O atoms.

  11. Performance improvement for solution-processed high-mobility ZnO thin-film transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sha Li, Chen; Li, Yu Ning; Wu, Yi Liang; Ong, Beng S.; Loutfy, Rafik O.

    2008-06-01

    The fabrication technology of stable, non-toxic, transparent, high performance zinc oxide (ZnO) thin-film semiconductors via the solution process was investigated. Two methods, which were, respectively, annealing a spin-coated precursor solution and annealing a drop-coated precursor solution, were compared. The prepared ZnO thin-film semiconductor transistors have well-controlled, preferential crystal orientation and exhibit superior field-effect performance characteristics. But the ZnO thin-film transistor (TFT) fabricated by annealing a drop-coated precursor solution has a distinctly elevated linear mobility, which further approaches the saturated mobility, compared with that fabricated by annealing a spin-coated precursor solution. The performance of the solution-processed ZnO TFT was further improved when substituting the spin-coating process by the drop-coating process.

  12. Effect of in situ Al doping on structure and optical properties of ZnO nanowires grown by MOCVD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Souissi, H.; Jabri, S.; Souissi, A.; Lusson, A.; Galtier, P.; Meftah, A.; Sallet, V.; Oueslati, M.

    2018-01-01

    Al-doped ZnO nanowires (NWs) were grown on C-axis oriented sapphire by metal organic chemical vapor deposition using dimethylzinc-triethylamine (DMZn-TEN), nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and TMAl as zinc, oxygen and aluminum doping sources respectively. The NWs morphology has been characterized by scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The photoluminescence (PL) spectra exhibit a strong excitonic transition bond that confirms the Al incorporation in the ZnO NWs. Raman results support PL conclusion by showing additional modes in Al-doped ZnO NWs at nearly 270, 510, 579 and 641 cm-1. The micro-Raman scattering analysis along a single Al-doped ZnO needle-like NW shows an increase of the Al concentration from the basis to the tip of the wire.

  13. Enhanced light extraction of GaN-based light-emitting diodes with periodic textured SiO2 on Al-doped ZnO transparent conductive layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Zhao; Bingfeng, Fan; Yiting, Chen; Yi, Zhuo; Zhoujun, Pang; Zhen, Liu; Gang, Wang

    2016-07-01

    We report an effective enhancement in light extraction of GaN-based light-emitting diodes (LEDs) with an Al-doped ZnO (AZO) transparent conductive layer by incorporating a top regular textured SiO2 layer. The 2 inch transparent through-pore anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) membrane was fabricated and used as the etching mask. The periodic pore with a pitch of about 410 nm was successfully transferred to the surface of the SiO2 layer without any etching damages to the AZO layer and the electrodes. The light output power was enhanced by 19% at 20 mA and 56% at 100 mA compared to that of the planar LEDs without a patterned surface. This approach offers a technique to fabricate a low-cost and large-area regular pattern on the LED chip for achieving enhanced light extraction without an obvious increase of the forward voltage. ).

  14. Photocatalytic degradation of humic substances in aqueous solution using Cu-doped ZnO nanoparticles under natural sunlight irradiation.

    PubMed

    Maleki, Afshin; Safari, Mahdi; Shahmoradi, Behzad; Zandsalimi, Yahya; Daraei, Hiua; Gharibi, Fardin

    2015-11-01

    In this study, Cu-doped ZnO nanoparticles were investigated as an efficient synthesized catalyst for photodegradation of humic substances in aqueous solution under natural sunlight irradiation. Cu-doped ZnO nanocatalyst was prepared through mild hydrothermal method and was characterized using FT-IR, powder XRD and SEM techniques. The effect of operating parameters such as doping ratio, initial pH, catalyst dosage, initial concentrations of humic substances and sunlight illuminance were studied on humic substances degradation efficiency. The results of characterization analyses of samples confirmed the proper synthesis of Cu-doped ZnO nanocatalyst. The experimental results indicated the highest degradation efficiency of HS (99.2%) observed using 1.5% Cu-doped ZnO nanoparticles at reaction time of 120 min. Photocatalytic degradation efficiency of HS in a neutral and acidic pH was much higher than that at alkaline pH. Photocatalytic degradation of HS was enhanced with increasing the catalyst dosage and sunlight illuminance, while increasing the initial HS concentration led to decrease in the degradation efficiency of HS. Conclusively, Cu-doped ZnO nanoparticles can be used as a promising and efficient catalyst for degradation of HS under natural sunlight irradiation.

  15. Polycrystalline ZnO and Mn-doped ZnO nanorod arrays with variable dopant content via a template based synthesis from Zn(II) and Mn(II) Schiff base type single source molecular precursors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pashchanka, Mikhail; Hoffmann, Rudolf C.; Burghaus, Olaf; Corzilius, Björn; Cherkashinin, Gennady; Schneider, Jörg J.

    2011-01-01

    The synthesis and full characterisation of pure and Mn-doped polycrystalline zinc oxide nanorods with tailored dopant content are obtained via a single source molecular precursor approach using two Schiff base type coordination compounds is reported. The infiltration of precursor solutions into the cylindrical pores of a polycarbonate template and their thermal conversion into a ceramic green body followed by dissolution of the template gives the desired ZnO and Mn-doped ZnO nanomaterial as compact rods. The ZnO nanorods have a mean diameter between 170 and 180 nm or 60-70 nm, depending on the template pore size employed, comprising a length of 5-6 μm. These nanorods are composed of individual sub-5 nm ZnO nanocrystals. Exact doping of these hierarchically structured ZnO nanorods was achieved by introducing Mn(II) into the ZnO host lattice with the precursor complex Diaquo-bis[2-(meth-oxyimino)-propanoato]manganese, which allows to tailor the exact Mn(II) doping content of the ZnO rods. Investigation of the Mn-doped ZnO samples by XRD, TEM, XPS, PL and EPR, reveals that manganese occurs exclusively in its oxidation state + II and is distributed within the volume as well as on the surface of the ZnO host.

  16. Deposition and composition-control of Mn-doped ZnO thin films by combinatorial pulsed laser deposition using two delayed plasma plumes

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Sanchez-Ake, C.; Camacho, R.; Moreno, L.

    2012-08-15

    Thin films of ZnO doped with manganese were deposited by double-beam, combinatorial pulsed laser deposition. The laser-induced plasmas were studied by means of fast photography and using a Langmuir probe, whereas the films were analyzed by x-ray-diffraction and energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy. The effect of the relative delay between plasma plumes on the characteristics of the films was analyzed. It was found that using this parameter, it is possible to control the dopant content keeping the oriented wurtzite structure of the films. The minimum content of Mn was found for plume delays between 0 and 10 {mu}s as the interaction betweenmore » plasmas scatters the dopant species away from the substrate, thus reducing the incorporation of Mn into the films. Results suggest that for delays shorter than {approx}100 {mu}s, the expansion of the second plume through the region behind the first plume affects the composition of the film.« less

  17. Effect of polyvinyl alcohol on electrochemically deposited ZnO thin films for DSSC applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marimuthu, T.; Anandhan, N.

    2017-05-01

    Nanostructures of zinc oxide (ZnO) thin film are electrochemically deposited in the absence and presence of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) on fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO) substrate. X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns and Raman spectroscopy confirmed the formation of hexagonal structure of ZnO. The film prepared in the presence of PVA showed a better crystallinity and its crystalline growth along the (002) plane orientation. Field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM) images display nanowire arrays (NWAs) and sponge like morphology for films prepared in the absence and presence of PVA, respectively. Photoluminescence (PL) spectra depict the film prepared in the presence PVA having less atomic defects with good crystal quality compared with other film. Dye sensitized solar cell (DSSC) is constructed using low cost eosin yellow dye and current-voltage (J-V) curve is recorded for optimized sponge like morphology based solar cell.

  18. Electrical properties of tin-doped zinc oxide nanostructures doped at different dopant concentrations

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Nasir, M. F., E-mail: babaibaik2002@yahoo.com; Zainol, M. N., E-mail: nizarzainol@yahoo.com; Hannas, M., E-mail: mhannas@gmail.com

    This project has been focused on the electrical and optical properties respectively on the effect of Tin doped zinc oxide (ZnO) thin films at different dopant concentrations. These thin films were doped with different Sn dopant concentrations at 1 at%, 2 at%, 3 at%, 4 at% and 5 at% was selected as the parameter to optimize the thin films quality while the annealing temperature is fixed 500 °C. Sn doped ZnO solutions were deposited onto the glass substrates using sol-gel spin coating method. This project was involved with three phases, which are thin films preparation, deposition and characterization. The thinmore » films were characterized using Current Voltage (I-V) measurement and ultraviolet-visible-near-infrared (UV-vis-NIR) spectrophotometer (Perkin Elmer Lambda 750) for electrical properties and optical properties. The electrical properties show that the resistivity is the lowest at 4 at% Sn doping concentration with the value 3.08 × 10{sup 3} Ωcm{sup −1}. The absorption coefficient spectrum obtained shows all films exhibit very low absorption in the visible (400-800 nm) and near infrared (NIR) (>800 nm) range but exhibit high absorption in the UV range.« less

  19. Chemical lift-off and direct wafer bonding of GaN/InGaN P-I-N structures grown on ZnO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pantzas, K.; Rogers, D. J.; Bove, P.; Sandana, V. E.; Teherani, F. H.; El Gmili, Y.; Molinari, M.; Patriarche, G.; Largeau, L.; Mauguin, O.; Suresh, S.; Voss, P. L.; Razeghi, M.; Ougazzaden, A.

    2016-02-01

    p-GaN/i-InGaN/n-GaN (PIN) structures were grown epitaxially on ZnO-buffered c-sapphire substrates by metal organic vapor phase epitaxy using the industry standard ammonia precursor for nitrogen. Scanning electron microscopy revealed continuous layers with a smooth interface between GaN and ZnO and no evidence of ZnO back-etching. Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy revealed a peak indium content of just under 5 at% in the active layers. The PIN structure was lifted off the sapphire by selectively etching away the ZnO buffer in an acid and then direct bonded onto a glass substrate. Detailed high resolution transmission electron microscoy and grazing incidence X-ray diffraction studies revealed that the structural quality of the PIN structures was preserved during the transfer process.

  20. Comparative study of ZnO nanorods and thin films for chemical and biosensing applications and the development of ZnO nanorods based potentiometric strontium ion sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khun, K.; Ibupoto, Z. H.; Chey, C. O.; Lu, Jun.; Nur, O.; Willander, M.

    2013-03-01

    In this study, the comparative study of ZnO nanorods and ZnO thin films were performed regarding the chemical and biosensing properties and also ZnO nanorods based strontium ion sensor is proposed. ZnO nanorods were grown on gold coated glass substrates by the hydrothermal growth method and the ZnO thin films were deposited by electro deposition technique. ZnO nanorods and thin films were characterised by field emission electron microscopy [FESEM] and X-ray diffraction [XRD] techniques and this study has shown that the grown nanostructures are highly dense, uniform and exhibited good crystal quality. Moreover, transmission electron microscopy [TEM] was used to investigate the quality of ZnO thin film and we observed that ZnO thin film was comprised of nano clusters. ZnO nanorods and thin films were functionalised with selective strontium ionophore salicylaldehyde thiosemicarbazone [ST] membrane, galactose oxidase, and lactate oxidase for the detection of strontium ion, galactose and L-lactic acid, respectively. The electrochemical response of both ZnO nanorods and thin films sensor devices was measured by using the potentiometric method. The strontium ion sensor has exhibited good characteristics with a sensitivity of 28.65 ± 0.52 mV/decade, for a wide range of concentrations from 1.00 × 10-6 to 5.00 × 10-2 M, selectivity, reproducibility, stability and fast response time of 10.00 s. The proposed strontium ion sensor was used as indicator electrode in the potentiometric titration of strontium ion versus ethylenediamine tetra acetic acid [EDTA]. This comparative study has shown that ZnO nanorods possessed better performance with high sensitivity and low limit of detection due to high surface area to volume ratio as compared to the flat surface of ZnO thin films.

  1. Observation of defect-assisted enhanced visible whispering gallery modes in ytterbium-doped ZnO microsphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khanum, Rizwana; Moirangthem, Rakesh S.; Das, Nayan Mani

    2017-06-01

    Smooth surfaced and crystalline undoped and ytterbium doped zinc oxide (ZnO) microspheres having an approximate size of 3-5 μm were synthesized by hydrothermal process. Out of these microspheres, a single microparticle was chosen and engaged as a whispering gallery wave microresonator. The defect induced luminescence from an individual ZnO microsphere was investigated with micro-photoluminescence measurement in the spectral range of 565 to 740 nm under the excitation of a green laser having a centered wavelength at 532 nm. The defects-related emissions from a single ZnO microsphere show optical resonance peaks so-called "whispering gallery modes" (WGMs) which are confirmed with the theoretical calculation. Further, ZnO microspheres were chemically doped with the different molar percentages of Ytterbium (Yb), and enhancement in their emission properties was investigated. Our experimental results show that ZnO microspheres with 0.5 mol. % doping of Yb gives the strongest optical emission and has highest Q-factor which can be employed in the development of WGM based optical biosensor or laser.

  2. Enhanced photoluminescence and Raman properties of Al-Doped ZnO nanostructures prepared using thermal chemical vapor deposition of methanol assisted with heated brass.

    PubMed

    Thandavan, Tamil Many K; Gani, Siti Meriam Abdul; San Wong, Chiow; Md Nor, Roslan

    2015-01-01

    Vapor phase transport (VPT) assisted by mixture of methanol and acetone via thermal evaporation of brass (CuZn) was used to prepare un-doped and Al-doped zinc oxide (ZnO) nanostructures (NSs). The structure and morphology were characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and x-ray diffraction (XRD). Photoluminescence (PL) properties of un-doped and Al-doped ZnO showed significant changes in the optical properties providing evidence for several types of defects such as zinc interstitials (Zni), oxygen interstitials (Oi), zinc vacancy (Vzn), singly charged zinc vacancy (VZn-), oxygen vacancy (Vo), singly charged oxygen vacancy (Vo+) and oxygen anti-site defects (OZn) in the grown NSs. The Al-doped ZnO NSs have exhibited shifted PL peaks at near band edge (NBE) and red luminescence compared to the un-doped ZnO. The Raman scattering results provided evidence of Al doping into the ZnO NSs due to peak shift from 145 cm-1 to an anomalous peak at 138 cm-1. Presence of enhanced Raman signal at around 274 and 743 cm-1 further confirmed Al in ZnO NSs. The enhanced D and G band in all Al-doped ZnO NSs shows possible functionalization and doping process in ZnO NSs.

  3. Epitaxial growth and magnetic properties of ultraviolet transparent Ga2O3/(Ga1−xFex)2O3 multilayer thin films

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Daoyou; An, Yuehua; Cui, Wei; Zhi, Yusong; Zhao, Xiaolong; Lei, Ming; Li, Linghong; Li, Peigang; Wu, Zhenping; Tang, Weihua

    2016-01-01

    Multilayer thin films based on the ferromagnetic and ultraviolet transparent semiconductors may be interesting because their magnetic/electronic/photonic properties can be manipulated by the high energy photons. Herein, the Ga2O3/(Ga1−xFex)2O3 multilayer epitaxial thin films were obtained by alternating depositing of wide band gap Ga2O3 layer and Fe ultrathin layer due to inter diffusion between two layers at high temperature using the laser molecular beam epitaxy technique. The multilayer films exhibits a preferred growth orientation of crystal plane, and the crystal lattice expands as Fe replaces Ga site. Fe ions with a mixed valence of Fe2+ and Fe3+ are stratified distributed in the film and exhibit obvious agglomerated areas. The multilayer films only show a sharp absorption edge at about 250 nm, indicating a high transparency for ultraviolet light. What’s more, the Ga2O3/(Ga1−xFex)2O3 multilayer epitaxial thin films also exhibits room temperature ferromagnetism deriving from the Fe doping Ga2O3. PMID:27121446

  4. Absolute surface energy calculations of Wurtzite (0001)/(000-1): a study of ZnO and GaN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jingzhao; Zhang, Yiou; Tse, Kinfai; Deng, Bei; Xu, Hu; Zhu, Junyi

    The accurate absolute surface energies of (0001)/(000-1) surfaces of wurtzite structures are crucial in determining the thin film growth mode of important energy materials. However, the surface energies still remain to be solved due to the intrinsic difficulty of calculating dangling bond energy of asymmetrically bonded surface atoms. We used a pseudo-hydrogen passivation method to estimate the dangling bond energy and calculate the polar surfaces of ZnO and GaN. The calculations were based on the pseudo chemical potentials obtained from a set of tetrahedral clusters or simple pseudo-molecules, using density functional theory approaches, for both GGA and HSE. And the surface energies of (0001)/(000-1) surfaces of wurtzite ZnO and GaN we obtained showed relatively high self-consistencies. A wedge structure calculation with a new bottom surface passivation scheme of group I and group VII elements was also proposed and performed to show converged absolute surface energy of wurtzite ZnO polar surfaces. Part of the computing resources was provided by the High Performance Cluster Computing Centre, Hong Kong Baptist University. This work was supported by the start-up funding and direct Grant with the Project code of 4053134 at CUHK.

  5. Effect of ZnO buffer layer on phase transition properties of vanadium dioxide thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Huiqun; Li, Lekang; Li, Chunbo

    2016-03-01

    VO2 thin films were prepared on ZnO buffer layers by DC magnetron sputtering at room temperature using vanadium target and post annealing at 400 °C. The ZnO buffer layers with different thickness deposited on glass substrates by magnetron sputtering have a high visible and near infrared optical transmittance. The electrical resistivity and the phase transition properties of the VO2/ZnO composite thin films in terms of temperature were investigated. The results showed that the resistivity variation of VO2 thin film with ZnO buffer layer deposited for 35 min was 16 KΩ-cm. The VO2/ZnO composite thin films exhibit a reversible semiconductor-metal phase transition at 48 °C.

  6. Effect of nitrogen doping on structural, morphological, optical and electrical properties of radio frequency magnetron sputtered zinc oxide thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perumal, R.; Hassan, Z.

    2016-06-01

    Zinc oxide receives remarkable attention due to its several attractive physical properties. Zinc oxide thin films doped with nitrogen were grown by employing RF magnetron sputtering method at room temperature. Doping was accomplished in gaseous medium by mixing high purity nitrogen gas along with argon sputtering gas. Structural studies confirmed the high crystalline nature with c-axis oriented growth of the nitrogen doped zinc oxide thin films. The tensile strain was developed due to the incorporation of the nitrogen into the ZnO crystal lattice. Surface roughness of the grown films was found to be decreased with increasing doping level was identified through atomic force microscope analysis. The presenting phonon modes of each film were confirmed through FTIR spectral analysis. The increasing doping level leads towards red-shifting of the cut-off wavelength due to decrement of the band gap was identified through UV-vis spectroscopy. All the doped films exhibited p-type conductivity was ascertained using Hall measurements and the obtained results were presented.

  7. Synthesis, self-assembly, and properties of Mn doped ZnO nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Barick, K C; Bahadur, D

    2007-06-01

    We report here a novel process to prepare Mn doped ZnO nanoparticles by a soft chemical route at low temperature. The synthesis process is based on the hydrolysis of zinc acetate dihydrate and manganese acetate tetrahydrate heated under reflux to 160-175 degrees C using diethylene glycol as a solvent. X-ray diffraction analysis reveals that the Mn doped ZnO crystallizes in a wurtzite structure with crystal size of 15-25 nm. These nano size crystallites of Mn doped ZnO self-organize into polydisperse spheres in size ranging from 100-400 nm. Transmission Electron Microscopy image also shows that each sphere is made up of numerous nanocrystals of average diameter 15-25 nm. By means of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and electron spin resonance spectroscopy, we determined the valence state of Mn ions as 2+. These nanoparticles were found to be ferromagnetic at room temperature. Monodisperse porous spheres (approximately 250 nm) were obtained by size selective separation technique and then self-assembled in a closed pack periodic array through sedimentation with slow solvent evaporation, which gives strong opalescence in visible region.

  8. Role of nickel doping on structural, optical, magnetic properties and antibacterial activity of ZnO nanoparticles

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Vijayaprasath, G.; Murugan, R.; Palanisamy, S.

    Highlights: • The XRD analyses revealed that the synthesizes nickel doped ZnO (Zn{sub 1−x}Ni{sub x}O, x = 0.0, 0.03, 0.06 and 0.09) nanostructures have hexagonal wurtzite structure. • The photoluminescence measurements revealed that the broad emission was composed of different bands due to zinc and oxygen vacancies. • X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) confirmed the Ni incorporation in ZnO lattice as Ni{sup 2+} ions. • Room temperature ferromagnetism was observed due to the oxygen vacancies and zinc interstitials are the main reasons for ferromagnetism in Ni doped ZnO NPs. - Abstract: Zn{sub 1−x}Ni{sub x}O nanoparticles were synthesized by co-precipitation method. Themore » crystallite sizes of the synthesized samples found to decrease from 38 to 26 nm with increase in nickel concentration. FTIR spectra confirmed the presence of Zn−O stretching bands at 577, 573, 569 and 565 cm{sup −1} in the respective ZnO NPs. Optical absorption spectra revealed the red shifted and estimated band gap is found to decrease with increase of Ni doping concentration. The PL spectra of all the samples exhibited a broad emission at 390 nm in the visible range. The carriers (donors) bounded on the Ni sites were observed from the micro Raman spectroscopic studies. Pure and Ni doped ZnO NPs showed significant changes in the M–H loop, especially the diamagnetic behavior changed into ferromagnetic nature for Ni doped samples. The antiferromagnetic super-exchange interactions between Ni{sup 2+} ions is increased in higher Ni doped ZnO NPs and also their antibacterial activity has been studied.« less

  9. Nitrogen grain-boundary passivation of In-doped ZnO transparent conducting oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, D.; Butt, M. Z.; Coughlan, C.; Caffrey, D.; Shvets, I. V.; Fleischer, K.

    2018-04-01

    We have investigated the properties and conduction limitations of spray pyrolysis grown, low-cost transparent conducting oxide ZnO thin films doped with indium. We analyze the optical, electrical, and crystallographic properties as functions of In content with a specific focus on postgrowth heat treatment of these thin films at 320 ∘C in an inert, nitrogen atmosphere, which improves the films electrical properties considerably. The effect was found to be dominated by nitrogen-induced grain-boundary passivation, identified by a combined study using i n situ resistance measurement upon annealing, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, photoluminescence, and x-ray diffraction studies. We also highlight the chemical mechanism of morphologic and crystallographic changes found in films with high indium content. By optimizing growth conditions according to these findings, ZnO:In with a resistivity as low as 2 ×10 -3Ω cm , high optical quality (T ≈90 % ), and sheet resistance of 32 Ω /□ has been obtained without any need for postgrowth treatments.

  10. Cu-doped ZnO nanorod arrays: the effects of copper precursor and concentration

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Cu-doped ZnO nanorods have been grown at 90°C for 90 min onto a quartz substrate pre-coated with a ZnO seed layer using a hydrothermal method. The influence of copper (Cu) precursor and concentration on the structural, morphological, and optical properties of ZnO nanorods was investigated. X-ray diffraction analysis revealed that the nanorods grown are highly crystalline with a hexagonal wurtzite crystal structure grown along the c-axis. The lattice strain is found to be compressive for all samples, where a minimum compressive strain of −0.114% was obtained when 1 at.% Cu was added from Cu(NO3)2. Scanning electron microscopy was used to investigate morphologies and the diameters of the grown nanorods. The morphological properties of the Cu-doped ZnO nanorods were influenced significantly by the presence of Cu impurities. Near-band edge (NBE) and a broad blue-green emission bands at around 378 and 545 nm, respectively, were observed in the photoluminescence spectra for all samples. The transmittance characteristics showed a slight increase in the visible range, where the total transmittance increased from approximately 80% for the nanorods doped with Cu(CH3COO)2 to approximately 90% for the nanorods that were doped with Cu(NO3)2. PMID:24855460

  11. Characterization of conductive Al-doped ZnO thin films for plasmonic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masouleh, F. F.; Sinno, I.; Buckley, R. G.; Gouws, G.; Moore, C. P.

    2018-02-01

    Highly conductive and transparent Al-doped zinc oxide films were produced by RF magnetron sputtering for plasmonic applications in the infrared region of the spectrum. These films were characterized using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, the Hall effect, Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy and spectral data analysis. Analysis of the results shows a carrier concentration of up to 2.6 × 1020 cm-3, as well as transmission over 80% near the plasma frequency where plasmonic properties are expected. The plasma frequency was calculated from the spectroscopy measurements and subsequent data analysis, and was in agreement with the results from the Hall effect measurements and the free electron gas (Drude) model. Based on these results, the Al-doped zinc oxide thin films are well-suited for plasmonic applications in the infrared region.

  12. Improving ultraviolet photodetection of ZnO nanorods by Cr doped ZnO encapsulation process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Safa, S.; Mokhtari, S.; Khayatian, A.; Azimirad, R.

    2018-04-01

    Encapsulated ZnO nanorods (NRs) with different Cr concentration (0-4.5 at.%) were prepared in two different steps. First, ZnO NRs were grown by hydrothermal method. Then, they were encapsulated by dip coating method. The prepared samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy, and ultraviolet (UV)-visible spectrophotometer analyses. XRD analysis proved that Cr incorporated into the ZnO structure successfully. Based on optical analysis, band gap changes in the range of 2.74-3.84 eV. Finally, UV responses of all samples were deeply investigated. It revealed 0.5 at.% Cr doped sample had the most photocurrent (0.75 mA) and photoresponsivity (0.8 A/W) of all which were about three times greater than photocurrent and photoresponsivity of the undoped sample.

  13. Effects of Chromium Dopant on Ultraviolet Photoresponsivity of ZnO Nanorods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mokhtari, S.; Safa, S.; Khayatian, A.; Azimirad, R.

    2017-07-01

    Structural and optical properties of bare ZnO nanorods, ZnO-encapsulated ZnO nanorods, and Cr-doped ZnO-encapsulated ZnO nanorods have been investigated. Encapsulated ZnO nanorods were grown using a simple two-stage method in which ZnO nanorods were first grown on a glass substrate directly from a hydrothermal bath, then encapsulated with a thin layer of Cr-doped ZnO by dip coating. Comparative study of x-ray diffraction patterns showed that Cr was successfully incorporated into the shell layer of ZnO nanorods. Moreover, energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy confirmed presence of Cr in this sample. It was observed that the thickness of the shell layer around the core of the ZnO nanorods was at least about 20 nm. Transmission electron microscopy of bare ZnO nanorods revealed single-crystalline structure. Based on optical results, both the encapsulation process and addition of Cr dopant decreased the optical bandgap of the samples. Indeed, the optical bandgap values of Cr-doped ZnO-encapsulated ZnO nanorods, ZnO-encapsulated ZnO nanorods, and bare ZnO nanorods were 2.89 eV, 3.15 eV, and 3.34 eV, respectively. The ultraviolet (UV) parameters demonstrated that incorporation of Cr dopant into the shell layer of ZnO nanorods considerably facilitated formation and transportation of photogenerated carriers, optimizing their performance as a practical UV detector. As a result, the photocurrent of the Cr-doped ZnO-encapsulated ZnO nanorods was the highest (0.6 mA), compared with ZnO-encapsulated ZnO nanorods and bare ZnO nanorods (0.21 mA and 0.06 mA, respectively).

  14. Direct Heteroepitaxial Growth of ZnO over GaN Crystal in Aqueous Solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamada, Takahiro; Ito, Akihiro; Nagao, Nobuaki; Suzuki, Nobuyasu; Fujii, Eiji; Tsujimura, Ayumu

    2013-04-01

    We report on the structural and electrical properties of ZnO films grown on surface-treated GaN/Al2O3 substrates by chemical bath deposition. X-ray diffraction analysis indicated that the ZnO films had a single-crystalline wurtzite structure with c-axis orientation. The ZnO film exhibited n-type conduction with a carrier concentration of 6.9 ×1018 cm-3, an electron mobility of 41 cm2/(V.s), and a resistivity of 2.2 ×10-2 Ω.cm. A low specific contact resistivity of 4.3 ×10-3 Ω.cm2 was obtained at the ZnO/n-GaN interface. Additionally, the ZnO film exhibited high transparency in the visible and infrared region.

  15. Gas-sensing performances of Cd-doped ZnO nanoparticles synthesized by a surfactant-mediated method for n-butanol gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Rongjun; Li, Kejin; Wang, Zhezhe; Xing, Xinxin; Wang, Yude

    2018-01-01

    Zinc oxide nanoparticles with the different Cd doping contents were prepared by with a surfactant-mediated method in this paper. The effects of Cd doping on the gas sensing properties of the ZnO nanoparticles were studied. The morphology and microstructure of as-prepared samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD); scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and high-resolution TEM (HRTEM), respectively. The results reveal that all the products are the high crystalline hexagonal wurtzite ZnO crystal structure. The gas-sensing characteristics of the Cd doped ZnO nanoparticles for volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were investigated. At its optimal operation temperature of 300 °C, the sensing properties of the Cd doped ZnO nanoparticles for n-butanol gas exhibit a high-performance gas sensing performances including high gas response, good selectivity, response/recovery time, and repeatability as well as stability. Especially, its response reaches 130 for 100 ppm n-butanol of ZnO nanoparticles with 2.5% Cd doping. Those values demonstrate the potential of using as-prepared Cd doped ZnO nanoparticles for n-butanol gas detection, making them to be promising candidates for practical detectors to n-butanol gas. Apart from these, the mechanism related to the advanced properties was also investigated and presented.

  16. The thickness design of unintentionally doped GaN interlayer matched with background doping level for InGaN-based laser diodes

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Chen, P.; Zhao, D. G., E-mail: dgzhao@red.semi.ac.cn; Jiang, D. S.

    2016-03-15

    In order to reduce the internal optical loss of InGaN laser diodes, an unintentionally doped GaN (u-GaN) interlayer is inserted between InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well active region and Al{sub 0.2}Ga{sub 0.8}N electron blocking layer. The thickness design of u-GaN interlayer matching up with background doping level for improving laser performance is studied. It is found that a suitably chosen u-GaN interlayer can well modulate the optical absorption loss and optical confinement factor. However, if the value of background doping concentration of u-GaN interlayer is too large, the output light power may decrease. The analysis of energy band diagram of amore » LD structure with 100 nm u-GaN interlayer shows that the width of n-side depletion region decreases when the background concentration increases, and may become even too small to cover whole MQW, resulting in a serious decrease of the output light power. It means that a suitable interlayer thickness design matching with the background doping level of u-GaN interlayer is significant for InGaN-based laser diodes.« less

  17. Origin of high carrier mobility and low residual stress in RF superimposed DC sputtered Al doped ZnO thin film for next generation flexible devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Naveen; Dubey, Ashish; Bahrami, Behzad; Venkatesan, S.; Qiao, Qiquan; Kumar, Mukesh

    2018-04-01

    In this work, the energy and flux of high energetic ions were controlled by RF superimposed DC sputtering process to increase the grain size and suppress grain boundary potential with minimum residual stress in Al doped ZnO (AZO) thin film. AZO thin films were deposited at different RF/(RF + DC) ratios by keeping total power same and were investigated for their electrical, optical, structural and nanoscale grain boundaries potential. All AZO thin film showed high crystallinity and orientation along (002) with peak shift as RF/(RF + DC) ratio increased from 0.0, pure DC, to 1.0, pure RF. This peak shift was correlated with high residual stress in as-grown thin film. AZO thin film grown at mixed RF/(RF + DC) of 0.75 showed high electron mobility, low residual stress and large crystallite size in comparison to other AZO thin films. The nanoscale grain boundary potential was mapped using Kelvin Probe Force Microscopy in all AZO thin film and it was observed that carrier mobility is controlled not only by grains size but also by grain boundary potential. The XPS analysis confirms the variation in oxygen vacancies and zinc interstitials which explain the origin of low grain boundaries potential and high carrier mobility in AZO thin film deposited at 0.75 RF/(RF + DC) ratio. This study proposes a new way to control the grain size and grain boundary potential to further tune the optoelectronic-mechanical properties of AZO thin films for next generation flexible and optoelectronic devices.

  18. Enhancement of multiple-phonon resonant Raman scattering in Co-doped ZnO nanorods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phan, The-Long; Vincent, Roger; Cherns, David; Dan, Nguyen Huy; Yu, Seong-Cho

    2008-08-01

    We have studied Raman scattering in Co-doped ZnO nanorods prepared by thermal diffusion. Experimental results show that the features of their non-resonant spectra are similar to Raman spectra from Co-doped ZnO materials investigated previously. Under resonant conditions, however, there is a strong enhancement of multiple-phonon Raman scattering processes. Longitudinal optical (LO)-phonon overtones up to eleventh order are observed. The modes become more obvious when the Co concentration diffused into ZnO nanorods goes to an appropriate value. This phenomenon is explained due to the shift of the band-gap energy and also due to the decrease in the intensity of near-band-edge luminescence. Our observation is in agreement with the prediction [J. F. Scott, Phys. Rev. B 2, 1209 (1970)] that the number of LO-phonon lines in ZnO is higher than that observed for CdS.

  19. Transparent ZnO-based ohmic contact to p-GaN

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Kaminska, E.; Piotrowska, A.; Golaszewska, K.

    2002-04-09

    Highly conductive ZnO films were fabricated on p-GaN in a two-step process. First, zinc was thermally evaporated on p-GaN. Next, zinc film was oxidized in oxygen flow. To increase the conductivity of ZnO, nitrogen was introduced into zinc during its deposition. The above procedure proved successful in fabricating ZnO of the resistivity of {approx}1 x 10{sup -3} {Omega}cm and resulted in ohmic contacts of resistivity {approx}1 x 10{sup -2} {Omega}cm{sup 2} to low-doped p-GaN, and light transmittance of {approx}75% in the wavelength range of 400-700 nm.

  20. Electron paramagnetic resonance in Cu-doped ZnO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buchheit, R.; Acosta-Humánez, F.; Almanza, O.

    2016-04-01

    In this work, ZnO and Cu-doped ZnO nanoparticles (Zn1-xCuxO, x = 3%), with a calcination temperature of 500∘C were synthesized using the sol-gel method. The particles were analyzed using atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) at X-band, measurement in a temperature range from 90 K to room temperature. AAS confirmed a good correspondence between the experimental doping concentration and the theoretical value. XRD reveals the presence of ZnO phase in hexagonal wurtzite structure and a nanoparticle size for the samples synthesized. EPR spectroscopy shows the presence of point defects in both samples with g-values of g = 1.959 for shallow donors and g = 2.004 for ionized vacancies. It is important when these materials are required have been used as catalysts, as suggested that it is not necessary prepare them at higher temperature. A simulation of the Cu EPR signal using an anisotropic spin Hamiltonian was performed and showed good coincidence with the experimental spectra. It was shown that Cu2+ ions enter interstitial octahedral sites of orthorhombic symmetry in the wurtzite crystal structure. Temperature dependence of the EPR linewidth and signal intensity shows a paramagnetic behavior of the sample in the measurement range. A Néel temperature TN = 78 ± 19 K was determined.

  1. Manipulation of ZnO composition affecting electrical properties of MEH-PPV: ZnO nanocomposite thin film via spin coating for OLEDs application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azhar, N. E. A.; Shariffudin, S. S.; Alrokayan, Salman A. H.; Khan, Haseeb A.; Rusop, M.

    2018-05-01

    Recent investigations of the promising materials for optoelectronic have been demonstrated by introducing n-type inorganic material into conjugated polymer. Morphology, optical and electrical of nanocomposites thin films based on poly[2-methoxy-5-(2'-ethyl-hexyloxy)-1,4-phenylene vinylene] (MEH-PPV) and zinc oxide (ZnO) nanotetrapods with various ZnO composition (0 wt% to 0.4 wt%) have been investigated. The MEH-PPV: ZnO nanocomposite thin film was deposited using spin-coating method. Surface morphology was characterized using field emission scanning electron microscopy and shows the uniform dispersion of MEH-PPV and ZnO phases for sample deposited at 0.2 wt%. The photoluminescence (PL) spectra shows the visible emission intensities increased when the ZnO composition increased. The current-voltage (I-V) measurement shows the highest conductivity of nanocomposite thin film deposited at 0.2 wt% of ZnO is 7.40 × 10-1 S. cm-1. This study will provide better performance and suitable for optoelectronic device especially OLEDs application.

  2. MOF-Derived ZnO Nanoparticles Covered by N-Doped Carbon Layers and Hybridized on Carbon Nanotubes for Lithium-Ion Battery Anodes.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hui; Wang, Yunsong; Zhao, Wenqi; Zou, Mingchu; Chen, Yijun; Yang, Liusi; Xu, Lu; Wu, Huaisheng; Cao, Anyuan

    2017-11-01

    Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) have many promising applications in energy and environmental areas such as gas separation, catalysis, supercapacitors, and batteries; the key toward those applications is controlled pyrolysis which can tailor the porous structure, improve electrical conductivity, and expose metal ions in MOFs. Here, we present a systematic study on the structural evolution of zeolitic imidazolate frameworks hybridized on carbon nanotubes (CNTs) during the carbonization process. We show that a number of typical products can be obtained, depending on the annealing time, including (1) CNTs wrapped by relatively thick carbon layers, (2) CNTs grafted by ZnO nanoparticles which are covered by thin nitrogen-doped carbon layers, and (3) CNTs grafted by aggregated ZnO nanoparticles. We also investigated the electrochemical properties of those hybrid structures as freestanding membrane electrodes for lithium ion batteries, and the second one (CNT-supported ZnO covered by N-doped carbon) shows the best performance with a high specific capacity (850 mA h/g at a current density of 100 mA/g) and excellent cycling stability. Our results indicate that tailoring and optimizing the MOF-CNT hybrid structure is essential for developing high-performance energy storage systems.

  3. Effect of doping on structural, optical and electrical properties of nanostructure ZnO films deposited onto a-Si:H/Si heterojunction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sali, S.; Boumaour, M.; Kermadi, S.; Keffous, A.; Kechouane, M.

    2012-09-01

    We investigated the structural; optical and electrical properties of ZnO thin films as the n-type semiconductor for silicon a-Si:H/Si heterojunction photodiodes. The ZnO film forms the front contact of the super-strata solar cell and has to exhibit good electrical (high conductivity) and optical (high transmittance) properties. In this paper we focused our attention on the influence of doping on device performance. The results show that the X-ray diffraction (XRD) spectra revealed a preferred orientation of the crystallites along c-axis. SEM images show that all films display a granular, polycrystalline morphology and the ZnO:Al exhibits a better grain uniformity. The transmittance of the doped films was found to be higher when compared to undoped ZnO. A low resistivity of the order of 2.8 × 10-4 Ω cm is obtained for ZnO:Al using 0.4 M concentration of zinc acetate. The photoluminescence (PL) spectra exhibit a blue band with two peaks centered at 442 nm (2.80 eV) and 490 nm (2.53 eV). It is noted that after doping the ZnO films a shift of the band by 22 nm (0.15 eV) is recorded and a high luminescence occurs when using Al as a dopant. Dark I-V curves of ZnO/a-Si:H/Si structure showed large difference, which means there is a kind of barrier to current flow between ZnO and a-Si:H layer. Doping films was applied and the turn-on voltages are around 0.6 V. Under reverse bias, the current of the ZnO/a-Si:H/Si heterojunction is larger than that of ZnO:Al/a-Si:H/Si. The improvement with ZnO:Al is attributed to a higher number of generated carriers in the nanostructure (due to the higher transmittance and a higher luminescence) that increases the probability of collisions.

  4. Amplified spontaneous emission from ZnO in n-ZnO/ZnO nanodots-SiO(2) composite/p-AlGaN heterojunction light-emitting diodes.

    PubMed

    Shih, Ying Tsang; Wu, Mong Kai; Li, Wei Chih; Kuan, Hon; Yang, Jer Ren; Shiojiri, Makoto; Chen, Miin Jang

    2009-04-22

    This study demonstrates amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) of the ultraviolet (UV) electroluminescence (EL) from ZnO at lambda~380 nm in the n-ZnO/ZnO nanodots-SiO(2) composite/p- Al(0.12)Ga(0.88)N heterojunction light-emitting diode. A SiO(2) layer embedded with ZnO nanodots was prepared on the p-type Al(0.12)Ga(0.88)N using spin-on coating of SiO(2) nanoparticles followed by atomic layer deposition (ALD) of ZnO. An n-type Al-doped ZnO layer was deposited upon the ZnO nanodots-SiO(2) composite layer also by the ALD technique. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) reveals that the ZnO nanodots embedded in the SiO(2) matrix have diameters of 3-8 nm and the wurtzite crystal structure, which allows the transport of carriers through the thick ZnO nanodots-SiO(2) composite layer. The high quality of the n-ZnO layer was manifested by the well crystallized lattice image in the HRTEM picture and the low-threshold optically pumped stimulated emission. The low refractive index of the ZnO nanodots-SiO(2) composite layer results in the increase in the light extraction efficiency from n-ZnO and the internal optical feedback of UV EL into n-ZnO layer. Consequently, significant enhancement of the UV EL intensity and super-linear increase in the EL intensity, as well as the spectral narrowing, with injection current were observed owing to ASE in the n-ZnO layer.

  5. Morphology-controllable of Sn doped ZnO nanorods prepared by spray pyrolysis for transparent electrode application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hameed, M. Shahul; Princice, J. Joseph; Babu, N. Ramesh; Zahirullah, S. Syed; Deshmukh, Sampat G.; Arunachalam, A.

    2018-05-01

    Transparent conductive Sn doped ZnO nanorods have been deposited at various doping level by spray pyrolysis technique on glass substrate. The structural, surface morphological and optical properties of these films have been investigated with the help of X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM), atomic force microscope (AFM) and UV-Vis spectrophotometer respectively. XRD patterns revealed a successful high quality growth of single crystal ZnO nanorods with hexagonal wurtzite structure having (002) preferred orientation. The scanning electron microscope (SEM) image of the prepared films exposed the uniform distribution of Sn doped ZnO nanorod shaped grains. All these films were highly transparent in the visible region with average transmittance of 90%.

  6. Bilayered Oxide thin films for transparent electrode application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dutta, Titas; Narayan, Jagdish

    2008-10-01

    Ga doped ZnO films with electrical and optical properties comparable to indium tin oxide (ITO) is a promising candidate for transparent conducting oxides (TCOs) because of its superior stability in hydrogen environment, benign nature and relatively inexpensive supply. However, ZnO based TCO films suffer from low work function, which is a critical parameter for device applications. We report here the growth of a novel bilayered structure consisting of very thin (few monolayers) ITO, MoOx layer on Zn0.95Ga0.05O film for transparent electrode applications by using pulsed laser deposition technique at different temperatures and oxygen partial pressure. The characteristics of the ITO film and the heterostructure have been investigated in detail using XRD, TEM, XPS, and electrical and optical property measurements. It is envisaged that the overall transmittance and the resistivity are dictated by the thicker layer of ZnGa0.05O beneath the ITO layer. Hence, this study is aimed to improve the surface characteristics without affecting the overall transmittance and sheet resistance. This will enhance the transport of the carriers across the heterojunction in the device, thus, resulting in the increase in device efficiency.

  7. Optical properties of beryllium-doped GaSb epilayers grown on GaAs substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Zhuo; Chen, Baile; Chen, Xiren; Shao, Jun; Gong, Qian; Liu, Huiyun; Wu, Jiang

    2018-05-01

    In this work, the effects of p-type beryllium (Be) doping on the optical properties of GaSb epilayers grown on GaAs substrate by Molecular Beam Epitaxy (MBE) have been studied. Temperature- and excitation power-dependent photoluminescence (PL) measurements were performed on both nominally undoped and intentionally Be-doped GaSb layers. Clear PL emissions are observable even at the temperature of 270 K from both layers, indicating the high material quality. In the Be-doped GaSb layer, the transition energies of main PL features exhibit red-shift up to ∼7 meV, and the peak widths characterized by Full-Width-at-Half-Maximum (FWHM) also decrease. In addition, analysis on the PL integrated intensity in the Be-doped sample reveals a gain of emission signal, as well as a larger carrier thermal activation energy. These distinctive PL behaviors identified in the Be-doped GaSb layer suggest that the residual compressive strain is effectively relaxed in the epilayer, due possibly to the reduction of dislocation density in the GaSb layer with the intentional incorporation of Be dopants. Our results confirm the role of Be as a promising dopant in the improvement of crystalline quality in GaSb, which is a crucial factor for growth and fabrication of high quality strain-free GaSb-based devices on foreign substrates.

  8. Structural, electrical and optical properties of Al-Sn codoped ZnO transparent conducting layer deposited by spray pyrolysis technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bedia, A.; Bedia, F. Z.; Aillerie, M.; Maloufi, N.

    2017-11-01

    Low cost Al-Sn codoped ZnO (ATZO) Transparent Conductive Oxide films were deposited by spray pyrolysis on glass substrate. The influence of Al-Sn codoping on the structural, optical and electrical properties of ZnO thin films was studied by comparing the same properties obtained in undoped ZnO, Al doped ZnO (AZO) and Sn doped ZnO (TZO) thin films. The so-obtained films crystallized in hexagonal wurtzite structure. The morphology and structural defects have been investigated by both High resolution Field Effect Scanning Electron Microscopy (FE-SEM) and Raman spectroscopy at 532 nm excitation source. In the visible region, the undoped and doped films show an average transmittance of the order of 85%, while for ATZO thin film, it is of the order of 72%, which points out a degradation of the optical properties due to the co-doping. The optical band gap of ATZO thin film achieves 3.31eV and this shift, compared to the referred samples is attributed to the Burstein-Moss (BM) and band gap narrowing (BGN) opposite effects which is due to the increase of the carrier concentration in degenerate semiconductors. Within all the samples, the ATZO thin film exhibits the lowest electrical resistivity of 4.56 × 10-3 Ωcm with a Hall mobility equal to 2.13 cm2 V-1s-1, and the highest carrier concentration of 6.41 × 1020 cm-3. The performance of ATZO transparent conductive oxide film are determined by its figure of merit (φTC), found equal to 1.69 10-4 Ω-1, which is a suitable value for potentially high-performance solar cell applications.

  9. Pure and Sn-doped ZnO films produced by pulsed laser deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holmelund, E.; Schou, J.; Tougaard, S.; Larsen, N. B.

    2002-09-01

    A new technique, metronome doping, has been used for doping of films during pulsed laser deposition (PLD). This technique makes it possible to dope continuously during film growth with different concentrations of a dopant in one deposition sequence. Films of pure and doped ZnO have been produced with Sn concentrations up to 16%. The specific resistivity is found to increase and the transmission of visible light to decrease with increasing Sn concentration.

  10. MOCVD Growth and Characterization of n-type Zinc Oxide Thin Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ben-Yaacov, Tammy

    In the past decade, there has been widespread effort in the development of zinc oxide as a II-V1 semiconductor material. ZnO has potential advantages in optoelectronip device applications due to its unique electrical and optical properties. What stands out among these properties is its wide direct bandgap of 3.37 eV and its high electrical conductivity and transparency in the visible and near-UV regions of the spectrum. ZnO can be grown heteroepitaxially on GaN under near lattice-matched conditions and homoepitaxially as well, as high-quality bulk ZnO substrates are commercially available. This dissertation focuses on the development of the growth of high-quality, single crystal n-type ZnO films, control of n-type conductivity, as well as its application as a transparent contact material in GaN-based devices. The first part of this dissertation is an extensive heteroepitaxial and homoepitaxial growth study presenting the properties of ZnO(0001) layers grown on GaN(0001) templates and ZnO(0001) substrates. We show that deposition on GaN requires a two-step growth technique involving the growth of a low temperature nucleation layer before growing a high temperature epitaxial layer in order to obtain smooth ZnO films with excellent crystal quality and step-flow surface morphology. We obtained homoepitaxial ZnO(0001) films of structural quality and surface morphology that is comparable to the as-received substrates, and showed that a high growth temperature (≥1000°C) is needed in order to achieve step-flow growth mode. We performed n-type doping experiments, and established the conditions for which Indium effectively controls the n-type conductivity of ZnO films grown on GaN(0001) templates. A peak carrier concentration of 3.22x 10 19cm-3 and minimum sheet resistance of 97 O/square was achieved, while simultaneously maintaining good morphology and crystal quality. Finally, we present In-doped ZnO films implemented as p-contacts for GaN-based solar cells and LEDs

  11. Preparation, structural and luminescent properties of nanocrystalline ZnO films doped Ag by close space sublimation method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khomchenko, Viktoriya; Mazin, Mikhail; Sopinskyy, Mykola; Lytvyn, Oksana; Dan'ko, Viktor; Piryatinskii, Yurii; Demydiuk, Pavlo

    2018-05-01

    The simple way for silver doping of ZnO films is presented. The ZnO films were prepared by reactive rf-magnetron sputtering on silicon and sapphire substrates. Ag doping is carried out by sublimation of the Ag source located at close space at atmospheric pressure in air. Then the ZnO and ZnO-Ag films were annealed in wet media. The microstructure and optical properties of the films were compared and studied by atomic force microscopy (AFM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), photoluminescence (PL) and cathodoluminescence (CL). XRD results indicated that all the ZnO films have a polycrystalline hexagonal structure and a preferred orientation with the c-axis perpendicular to the substrate. The annealing and Ag doping promote increasing grain's sizes and modification of grain size distribution. The effect of substrate temperature, substrate type, Ag doping and post-growth annealing of the films was studied by PL spectroscopy. The effect of Ag doping was obvious and identical for all the films, namely the wide visible bands of PL spectra are suppressed by Ag doping. The intensity of ultraviolet band increased 15 times as compared to their reference films on sapphire substrate. The ultraviolet/visible emission ratio was 20. The full width at half maximum (FWHM) for a 380 nm band was 14 nm, which is comparable with that of epitaxial ZnO. The data implies the high quality of ZnO-Ag films. Possible mechanisms to enhance UV emission are discussed.

  12. Room temperature enhanced red emission from novel Eu(3+) doped ZnO nanocrystals uniformly dispersed in nanofibers.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yongzhe; Liu, Yanxia; Li, Xiaodong; Wang, Qi Jie; Xie, Erqing

    2011-10-14

    Achieving red emission from ZnO-based materials has long been a goal for researchers in order to realize, for instance, full-color display panels and solid-state light-emitting devices. However, the current technique using Eu(3+) doped ZnO for red emission generation has a significant drawback in that the energy transfer from ZnO to Eu(3+) is inefficient, resulting in a low intensity red emission. In this paper, we report an efficient energy transfer scheme for enhanced red emission from Eu(3+) doped ZnO nanocrystals by fabricating polymer nanofibers embedded with Eu(3+) doped ZnO nanocrystals to facilitate the energy transfer. In the fabrication, ZnO nanocrystals are uniformly dispersed in polymer nanofibers prepared by the high electrical field electrospinning technique. Enhanced red emission without defect radiation from the ZnO matrix is observed. Three physical mechanisms for this observation are provided and explained, namely a small ZnO crystal size, uniformity distribution of ZnO nanocrystals in polymers (PVA in this case), and strong bonding between ZnO and polymer through the -OH group bonding. These explanations are supported by high resolution transmission emission microscopy measurements, resonant Raman scattering characterizations, photoluminescence spectra and photoluminescence excitation spectra measurements. In addition, two models exploring the 'accumulation layer' and 'depletion layer' are developed to explain the reasons for the more efficient energy transfer in our ZnO nanocrystal system compared to that in the previous reports. This study provides an important approach to achieve enhanced energy transfer from nanocrystals to ions which could be widely adopted in rare earth ion doped materials. These discoveries also provide more insights into other energy transfer problems in, for example, dye-sensitized solar cells and quantum dot solar cells.

  13. Structural, chemical and optical evaluation of Cu-doped ZnO nanoparticles synthesized by an aqueous solution method

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Iribarren, A., E-mail: augusto@imre.oc.uh.cu; Hernández-Rodríguez, E.; Maqueira, L.

    Highlights: • Cu-doped ZnO nanoparticles obtained by chemical synthesis. • Substitutional or interstitial Cu into ZnO lead specific structural, chemical, and optical changes. • Incorporation efficiency of Cu atoms in ZnO as a function of the Cu concentration in the precursor dissolution. - Abstract: In this work a study of ZnO and Cu-doped ZnO nanoparticles obtained by chemical synthesis in aqueous media was carried out. Structural analysis gave the dominant presence of wurtzite ZnO phase forming a solid solution Zn{sub 1−x}Cu{sub x}O. For high Cu doping CuO phase is also present. For low Cu concentration the lattice shrinks due tomore » Cu atoms substitute Zn atoms. For high Cu concentration the lattice enlarges due to predominance of interstitial Cu. From elemental analysis we determined and analyzed the incorporation efficiency of Cu atoms in Zn{sub 1−x}Cu{sub x}O as a function of the Cu concentration in the precursor dissolution. Combining structural and chemical results we described the Cu/Zn precursor concentrations r{sub w} in which the solid solution of Cu in ZnO is predominant. In the region located at r{sub w} ≈ 0.2–0.3 it is no longer valid. For Cu/Zn precursor concentration r{sub w} > 0.3 interstitial Cu dominates, and some amount of copper oxide appears. As the Cu concentration increases, the effective size of nanoparticles decreases. Photoluminescence (PL) measurements of the Cu-doped ZnO nanoparticles were carried out and analyzed.« less

  14. Enhanced thermoelectric transport in modulation-doped GaN/AlGaN core/shell nanowires.

    PubMed

    Song, Erdong; Li, Qiming; Swartzentruber, Brian; Pan, Wei; Wang, George T; Martinez, Julio A

    2016-01-08

    The thermoelectric properties of unintentionally n-doped core GaN/AlGaN core/shell N-face nanowires are reported. We found that the temperature dependence of the electrical conductivity is consistent with thermally activated carriers with two distinctive donor energies. The Seebeck coefficient of GaN/AlGaN nanowires is more than twice as large as that for the GaN nanowires alone. However, an outer layer of GaN deposited onto the GaN/AlGaN core/shell nanowires decreases the Seebeck coefficient at room temperature, while the temperature dependence of the electrical conductivity remains the same. We attribute these observations to the formation of an electron gas channel within the heavily-doped GaN core of the GaN/AlGaN nanowires. The room-temperature thermoelectric power factor for the GaN/AlGaN nanowires can be four times higher than the GaN nanowires. Selective doping in bandgap engineered core/shell nanowires is proposed for enhancing the thermoelectric power.

  15. Highly textured and transparent RF sputtered Eu2O3 doped ZnO films

    PubMed Central

    Sreedharan, Remadevi Sreeja; Ganesan, Vedachalaiyer; Sudarsanakumar, Chellappan Pillai; Bhavsar, Kaushalkumar; Prabhu, Radhakrishna; Mahadevan Pillai, Vellara Pappukutty Pillai

    2015-01-01

    Background Zinc oxide (ZnO) is a wide, direct band gap II-VI oxide semiconductor. ZnO has large exciton binding energy at room temperature, and it is a good host material for obtaining visible and infrared emission of various rare-earth ions. Methods Europium oxide (Eu2O3) doped ZnO films are prepared on quartz substrate using radio frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering with doping concentrations 0, 0.5, 1, 3 and 5 wt%. The films are annealed in air at a temperature of 773 K for 2 hours. The annealed films are characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), micro-Raman spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy, ultraviolet (UV)-visible spectroscopy and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy. Results XRD patterns show that the films are highly c-axis oriented exhibiting hexagonalwurtzite structure of ZnO. Particle size calculations using Debye-Scherrer formula show that average crystalline size is in the range 15–22 nm showing the nanostructured nature of the films. The observation of low- and high-frequency E2 modes in the Raman spectra supports the hexagonal wurtzite structure of ZnO in the films. The surface morphology of the Eu2O3 doped films presents dense distribution of grains. The films show good transparency in the visible region. The band gaps of the films are evaluated using Tauc plot model. Optical constants such as refractive index, dielectric constant, loss factor, and so on are calculated using the transmittance data. The PL spectra show both UV and visible emissions. Conclusion Highly textured, transparent, luminescent Eu2O3 doped ZnO films have been synthesized using RF magnetron sputtering. The good optical and structural properties and intense luminescence in the ultraviolet and visible regions from the films suggest their suitability for optoelectronic applications. PMID:25765728

  16. Synthesis and Characterization of Doped ZnO Nanomaterials: Potential Application in Third Generation Solar Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adcock Smith, Echo D.

    ZnO nanomaterials are being incorporated into next-generation solar cell designs including dye-sensitized solar cells, multijunction solar cells, and quantum dot sensitized solar cells. ZnO nanorod (NR) arrays and nanoparticles (NP) used in these devices are typically fabricated using chemical vapor deposition and/or high-temperature reaction conditions. These methods are costly, require high energy, pressure or excessive time, but produce repeatable, defined growth that is capable of easily incorporating metal dopants. Less expensive methods of fabrication such as chemical bath deposition (CBD) eliminate the costly steps but can suffer from undefined growth, excessive waste and have a difficult time incorporating dopants into ZnO materials without additives or increased pH. This dissertation presents a novel method of growing cobalt and vanadium doped ZnO nanomaterials through microwave synthesis. The cobalt growth was compared to standard CBD and found to be faster, less wasteful, reproducible and better at incorporating cobalt ions into the ZnO lattice than typical oven CBD method. The vanadium doped ZnO microwave synthesis procedure was found to produce nanorods, nanorod arrays, and nanoparticles simultaneously. Neither the cobalt nor the vanadium growth required pH changes, catalysts or additives to assist in doping and therefore use less materials than traditional CBD. This research is important because it offers a simple, quick way to grow ZnO nanostructures and is the first to report on growing both cobalt and vanadium doped zinc oxide nanorod arrays using microwave synthesis. This synthesis method presented is a viable candidate for replacing conventional growth synthesis which will result in lowering the cost and time of production of photovoltaics while helping drive forward the development of next-generation solar cells.

  17. Nonlinear absorption properties of ZnO and Al doped ZnO thin films under continuous and pulsed modes of operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandeep, K. M.; Bhat, Shreesha; Dharmaprakash, S. M.

    2018-06-01

    In the present investigation, we present the variations in nonlinear optical (NLO) properties of undoped and Al doped ZnO (AZO) films under two different off-resonant regimes using continuous and pulsed mode lasers. Z-scan open aperture experiment is performed to quantify nonlinear absorption constant and imaginary component of third order susceptibility. Reverse saturable absorption (RSA) and saturable absorption (SA) behaviors are noticed in both undoped and AZO films under pulsed mode and continuous wavelength (CW) regime respectively. The RSA and SA behavior observed in the films are attributed to two photon absorption (TPA) and thermal lensing properties respectively. The thermal lensing is assisted by the thermo-optic effects within the films due to the continuous illumination of the laser.

  18. Influence of ZnO nanorod on the luminescent and electrical properties of fluorescent dye-doped polymer nanocomposite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, T.; Xu, Z.; Qian, L.; Tao, D. L.; Teng, F.; Xu, X. R.

    2006-11-01

    The luminescent properties of fluorescent dye-doped polymer dispersed with ZnO nanorods were investigated. Embedding ZnO nanorods in blend film results in a blue-shifted emission of fluorescent dye. It is accounted for in terms of the difference in permittivity between inorganic oxide nano-material and dye-doped polymer. Moreover, polymer light-emitting diodes with the addition of ZnO nanorods showed the lower threshold voltage and the higher charge current and electroluminescence efficiency.

  19. High-quality ZnO growth, doping, and polarization effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kun, Tang; Shulin, Gu; Jiandong, Ye; Shunming, Zhu; Rong, Zhang; Youdou, Zheng

    2016-03-01

    The authors have reported their recent progress in the research field of ZnO materials as well as the corresponding global advance. Recent results regarding (1) the development of high-quality epitaxy techniques, (2) the defect physics and the Te/N co-doping mechanism for p-type conduction, and (3) the design, realization, and properties of the ZnMgO/ZnO hetero-structures have been shown and discussed. A complete technology of the growth of high-quality ZnO epi-films and nano-crystals has been developed. The co-doping of N plus an iso-valent element to oxygen has been found to be the most hopeful path to overcome the notorious p-type hurdle. High mobility electrons have been observed in low-dimensional structures utilizing the polarization of ZnMgO and ZnO. Very different properties as well as new physics of the electrons in 2DEG and 3DES have been found as compared to the electrons in the bulk. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 61025020, 61274058, 61322403, 61504057, 61574075), the Natural Science Foundation of Jiangsu Province (Nos. BK2011437, BK20130013, BK20150585), the Priority Academic Program Development of Jiangsu Higher Education Institutions, and the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities.

  20. Si-Doping Effects in Cu(In,Ga)Se2 Thin Films and Applications for Simplified Structure High-Efficiency Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Ishizuka, Shogo; Koida, Takashi; Taguchi, Noboru; Tanaka, Shingo; Fons, Paul; Shibata, Hajime

    2017-09-13

    We found that elemental Si-doped Cu(In,Ga)Se 2 (CIGS) polycrystalline thin films exhibit a distinctive morphology due to the formation of grain boundary layers several tens of nanometers thick. The use of Si-doped CIGS films as the photoabsorber layer in simplified structure buffer-free solar cell devices is found to be effective in enhancing energy conversion efficiency. The grain boundary layers formed in Si-doped CIGS films are expected to play an important role in passivating CIGS grain interfaces and improving carrier transport. The simplified structure solar cells, which nominally consist of only a CIGS photoabsorber layer and a front transparent and a back metal electrode layer, demonstrate practical application level solar cell efficiencies exceeding 15%. To date, the cell efficiencies demonstrated from this type of device have remained relatively low, with values of about 10%. Also, Si-doped CIGS solar cell devices exhibit similar properties to those of CIGS devices fabricated with post deposition alkali halide treatments such as KF or RbF, techniques known to boost CIGS device performance. The results obtained offer a new approach based on a new concept to control grain boundaries in polycrystalline CIGS and other polycrystalline chalcogenide materials for better device performance.

  1. Free and bound excitons in thin wurtzite GaN layers on sapphire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merz, C.; Kunzer, M.; Kaufmann, U.; Akasaki, I.; Amano, H.

    1996-05-01

    Free and bound excitons have been studied by photoluminescence in thin (0268-1242/11/5/010/img8) wurtzite-undoped GaN, n-type GaN:Si as well as p-type GaN:Mg and GaN:Zn layers grown by metal-organic chemical vapour phase deposition (MOCVD). An accurate value for the free A exciton binding energy and an estimate for the isotropically averaged hole mass of the uppermost 0268-1242/11/5/010/img9 valence band are deduced from the data on undoped samples. The acceptor-doped samples reveal recombination lines which are attributed to excitons bound to 0268-1242/11/5/010/img10 and 0268-1242/11/5/010/img11 respectively. These lines are spectrally clearly separated and the exciton localization energies are in line with Haynes' rule. Whenever a comparison is possible, it is found that the exciton lines in these thin MOCVD layers are ultraviolet-shifted by 20 to 25 meV as compared to quasi-bulk (0268-1242/11/5/010/img12) samples. This effect is interpreted in terms of the compressive hydrostatic stress component which thin GaN layers experience when grown on sapphire with an AlN buffer layer.

  2. Directional and magnetic field enhanced emission of Cu-doped ZnO nanowires/p-GaN heterojunction light-emitting diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viana, Bruno; Lupan, Oleg; Pauporté, Thierry

    2011-01-01

    The electrochemical deposition technique was used for the preparation of Cu-doped ZnO-nanowire-based emitters. Nanowires of high structural and optical quality were epitaxially grown on p-GaN single crystalline film substrates. We found that the emission is directional with a wavelength that is tuned and redshifted toward the visible region by doping with Cu in nanowires. Furthermore, Cu-doped ZnO-nanowires show an enhancement of the transition probability under magnetic field.

  3. Synthesis and characterization of single-phase Mn-doped ZnO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chattopadhyay, S.; Dutta, S.; Banerjee, A.; Jana, D.; Bandyopadhyay, S.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Sarkar, A.

    2009-05-01

    Different samples of Zn 1-xMn xO series have been prepared using conventional solid-state sintering method. We identified up to what extent doping will enable us to synthesize single-phase polycrystalline Mn-doped ZnO sample, which is one of the prerequisites for dilute magnetic semiconductor, and we have analyzed its some other physical aspects. In synthesizing the samples, proportion of Mn varies from 1 to 5 at%. However, the milling time varied (6, 12, 24, 48 and 96 h) only for 2 at% Mn-doped samples while for other samples (1, 3, 4 and 5 at% Mn doped) the milling time has been fixed to 96 h. Room-temperature X-ray diffraction (XRD) data reveal that all of the prepared samples up to 3 at% of Mn doping exhibit wurtzite-type structure, and no segregation of Mn and/or its oxides has been found. The 4 at% Mn-doped samples show a weak peak of ZnMn 2O 4 apart from the other usual peaks of ZnO and the intensity of this impurity peak has been further increased for 5 at% of Mn doping. So beyond 3 at% doping, single-phase behavior is destroyed. Band gap for all the 2 at% Mn-doped samples has been estimated to be between 3.21 and 3.19 eV and the reason for this low band gap values has been explained through the grain boundary trapping model. The room-temperature resistivity measurement shows an increase of resistivity up to 48 h of milling and with further milling it saturates. The defect state of these samples has been investigated using the positron annihilation lifetime (PAL) spectroscopy technique. Here all the relevant lifetime parameters of positron i.e. free annihilation ( τ1) at defect site ( τ2) and average ( τav) increases with milling time.

  4. Study of defects and vacancies in structural properties of Mn, co-doped oxides: ZnO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Harish; Kaushik, A.; Alvi, P. A.; Dalela, B.; Dalela, S.

    2018-05-01

    The paper deals with the Structural properties on Mn, Co doped oxides ZnO samples using XRD, Positron Annihilation Lifetime (PAL) Spectra and Raman Spectra. The Mn, Co doped ZnO samples crystallize in a wurtzite structure without any impurity phases in XRD Spectra. The defect state of these samples has been investigated by using positron annihilation lifetime (PAL) spectroscopy technique in which all the relevant lifetime parameters are measured for all the spectra. The results are explained in the direction of doping concentration in these samples in terms of defects structure on Zn lattice site VZn and oxygen defects Vo.

  5. Preparation and characterization of double layer thin films ZnO/ZnO:Ag for methylene blue photodegradation

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Wibowo, Singgih, E-mail: singgih@st.fisika.undip.ac.id; Sutanto, Heri, E-mail: herisutanto@undip.ac.id

    2016-02-08

    Double layer (DL) thin films of zinc oxide and silver-doped zinc oxide (ZnO/ZnO:Ag) were deposited on glass substrate by sol-gel spray coating technique. The prepared thin films were subjected for optical and photocatalytic studies. UV-visible transmission spectra shows that the subtitution of Ag in ZnO leads to band gap reduction. The influence of Ag doping on the photocatalytic activity of ZnO for the degradation of methylene blue dye was studied under solar radiation. The light absorption over an extended visible region by Ag ion doping in ZnO film contributed equally to improve the photocatalytic activity up to 98.29%.

  6. Third generation biosensing matrix based on Fe-implanted ZnO thin film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saha, Shibu; Gupta, Vinay; Sreenivas, K.; Tan, H. H.; Jagadish, C.

    2010-09-01

    Third generation biosensor based on Fe-implanted ZnO (Fe-ZnO) thin film has been demonstrated. Implantation of Fe in rf-sputtered ZnO thin film introduces redox center along with shallow donor level and thereby enhance its electron transfer property. Glucose oxidase (GOx), chosen as model enzyme, has been immobilized on the surface of the matrix. Cyclic voltammetry and photometric assay show that the prepared bioelectrode, GOx/Fe-ZnO/ITO/Glass is sensitive to the glucose concentration with enhanced response of 0.326 μA mM-1 cm-2 and low Km of 2.76 mM. The results show promising application of Fe-implanted ZnO thin film as an attractive matrix for third generation biosensing.

  7. Highly conductive homoepitaxial Si-doped Ga2O3 films on (010) β-Ga2O3 by pulsed laser deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leedy, Kevin D.; Chabak, Kelson D.; Vasilyev, Vladimir; Look, David C.; Boeckl, John J.; Brown, Jeff L.; Tetlak, Stephen E.; Green, Andrew J.; Moser, Neil A.; Crespo, Antonio; Thomson, Darren B.; Fitch, Robert C.; McCandless, Jonathan P.; Jessen, Gregg H.

    2017-07-01

    Si-doped Ga2O3 thin films were fabricated by pulsed laser deposition on semi-insulating (010) β-Ga2O3 and (0001) Al2O3 substrates. Films deposited on β-Ga2O3 showed single crystal, homoepitaxial growth as determined by high resolution transmission electron microscopy and x-ray diffraction. Corresponding films deposited on Al2O3 were mostly single phase, polycrystalline β-Ga2O3 with a preferred (20 1 ¯ ) orientation. An average conductivity of 732 S cm-1 with a mobility of 26.5 cm2 V-1 s-1 and a carrier concentration of 1.74 × 1020 cm-3 was achieved for films deposited at 550 °C on β-Ga2O3 substrates as determined by Hall-Effect measurements. Two orders of magnitude improvement in conductivity were measured using native substrates versus Al2O3. A high activation efficiency was obtained in the as-deposited condition. The high carrier concentration Ga2O3 thin films achieved by pulsed laser deposition enable application as a low resistance ohmic contact layer in β-Ga2O3 devices.

  8. Enhanced thermoelectric transport in modulation-doped GaN/AlGaN core/shell nanowires

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Song, Erdong; Li, Qiming; Swartzentruber, Brian

    2015-11-25

    The thermoelectric properties of unintentionally n-doped core GaN/AlGaN core/shell N-face nanowires are reported. We found that the temperature dependence of the electrical conductivity is consistent with thermally activated carriers with two distinctive donor energies. The Seebeck coefficient of GaN/AlGaN nanowires is more than twice as large as that for the GaN nanowires alone. However, an outer layer of GaN deposited onto the GaN/AlGaN core/shell nanowires decreases the Seebeck coefficient at room temperature, while the temperature dependence of the electrical conductivity remains the same. We attribute these observations to the formation of an electron gas channel within the heavily-doped GaN coremore » of the GaN/AlGaN nanowires. The room-temperature thermoelectric power factor for the GaN/AlGaN nanowires can be four times higher than the GaN nanowires. As a result, selective doping in bandgap engineered core/shell nanowires is proposed for enhancing the thermoelectric power.« less

  9. Surface-emitting stimulated emission in high-quality ZnO thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, X. Q.; Suemune, Ikuo; Kumano, H.; Wang, J.; Huang, S. H.

    2004-10-01

    High-quality ZnO thin films were grown by plasma-enhanced molecular-beam epitaxy on sapphire substrates. Three excitonic transitions associated with the valence bands A, B, and C were clearly revealed in the reflectance spectrum measured at 33K. This result indicates that the ZnO thin films have the wurtzite crystalline structure. The emission spectra were measured with backscattering geometry at room temperature. When the excitation exceeded a certain value, linewidth narrowing, nonlinear rise of emission intensity, and the shortening of the carrier lifetime were clearly observed and these demonstrate the onset of stimulated emission. Together with the ZnO thickness dependence, we conclude that the observation of a stimulated emission in a direction perpendicular to the film surface is predominantly due to scattering of the in-plane stimulated emission by slightly remaining surface undulations in the ZnO films.

  10. Effect of heavy Ag doping on the physical properties of ZnO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, Qingyu; Zhao, Chunwang; Jia, Xiaofang; Xu, Zhenchao

    2018-04-01

    The band structure, density of state and absorption spectrum of Zn1‑xAgxO (x = 0.02778, 0.04167) were calculated. Results indicated that a higher doping content of Ag led to a higher total energy, lower stability, higher formation energy, narrower bandgap, more significant red shift of the absorption spectrum, higher relative concentration of free hole, smaller hole effective mass, lower mobility and better conductivity. Furthermore, four types of model with the same doping content of double Ag-doped Zn1‑xAgxO (x = 0.125) but different manners of doping were established. Two types of models with different doping contents of double Ag-doped Zn1‑xAgxO (x = 0.0626, 0.0833) but the same manner of doping, were also established. Under the same doping content and different ordering occupations in Ag double doping, the doped system almost caused magnetic quenching upon the nearest neighbor -Ag-O-Ag- bonding at the direction partial to the a- or b-axis. Upon the next-nearest neighbor of -Ag-O-Zn-O-Ag- bonding at the direction partial to the c-axis, the total magnetic moment of the doped system increased, and the doped system reached a Curie temperature above the room-temperature. All these results indicated that the magnetic moments of Ag double-doped ZnO systems decreased with increased Ag doping content. Within the range of the mole number of the doping content of 0.02778-0.04167, a greater Ag doping content led to a narrower bandgap of the doped system and a more significant red shift in the absorption spectrum. The absorption spectrum of the doped ZnO system with interstitial Ag also shows a red shift.

  11. Effects of the carrier concentration on polarity determination in Ga-doped ZnO films by hard x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Huaping; Makino, Hisao; Kobata, Masaaki; Nomoto, Junichi; Kobayashi, Keisuke; Yamamoto, Tetsuya

    2018-03-01

    Core level (CL) and valence band (VB) spectra of heavily Ga-doped ZnO (GZO) films with carrier concentrations (Ne) ranging from 1.8 × 1020 to 1.0 × 1021 cm-3 were measured by high-resolution Al Kα (hν = 1486.6 eV) x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Cr Kα (hν = 5414.7 eV) hard x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (HAXPES). The CL spectra of the GZO films measured by XPS had little dependence on Ne. In contrast, clear differences in asymmetric broadening were observed in the HAXPES spectra owing to the large probing depth. The asymmetry in the Zn 2p3/2 and O 1s HAXPES spectra is mainly attributed to the energy loss of the conduction electron plasmon caused by the high Ne of the GZO films. Similar asymmetry was also observed in the VB spectra of these GZO films. It was found that such asymmetry plays a crucial role in the determination of crystal polarity. With increasing Ne, the intensity of the sub-peak at a binding energy Eb of about 5 eV in the VB spectrum decreased and the sub-peak became indistinguishable. We clarified the limitation of the criterion using the sub-peak and proposed an alternative method for polarity determination.

  12. Does doping with aluminum alter the effects of ZnO nanoparticles on the metabolism of soil pseudomonads?

    PubMed

    Fang, Tommy; Watson, Jean-Luc; Goodman, Jordan; Dimkpa, Christian O; Martineau, Nicole; Das, Siddhartha; McLean, Joan E; Britt, David W; Anderson, Anne J

    2013-02-22

    Doping of ZnO nanoparticles (NPs) is being used to increase their commercialization in the optical and semiconductor fields. This paper addresses whether doping with Al alters how ZnO NPs at nonlethal levels modifies the metabolism of soil-borne pseudomonads which are beneficial in performing bioremediation or promoting plant growth. The differences in X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns, observed between commercial ZnO and Al-doped ZnO NPs indicated the aluminum was present as Al NPs. Both particles aggregated in the bacterial growth medium and formed colloids of different surface charges. They had similar effects on bacterial metabolism: rapid, dose-dependent loss in light output indicative of temporary toxicity in a biosensor constructed in Pseudomonas putida KT2440; increased production of a fluorescent pyoverdine-type siderophore, and decreased levels of indole acetic acid and phenazines in Pseudomonas chlororaphis O6. Solubilization of Zn and Al from the NPs contributed to these responses to different extents. These findings indicate that Al-doping of the ZnO NPs did not reduce the ability of the NPs to alter bacterial metabolism in ways that could influence performance of the pseudomonads in their soil environment. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  13. Potassium acceptor doping of ZnO crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parmar, Narendra S.; Corolewski, Caleb D.; McCluskey, Matthew D.; Lynn, K. G.

    2015-05-01

    ZnO bulk single crystals were doped with potassium by diffusion at 950°C. Positron annihilation spectroscopy confirms the filling of zinc vacancies and a different trapping center for positrons. Secondary ion mass spectroscopy measurements show the diffusion of potassium up to 10 μm with concentration ˜1 × 1016 cm-3. IR measurements show a local vibrational mode (LVM) at 3226 cm-1, at a temperature of 9 K, in a potassium doped sample that was subsequently hydrogenated. The LVM is attributed to an O-H bond-stretching mode adjacent to a potassium acceptor. When deuterium substitutes for hydrogen, a peak is observed at 2378 cm-1. The O-H peak is much broader than the O-D peak, perhaps due to an unusually low vibrational lifetime. The isotopic frequency ratio is similar to values found in other hydrogen complexes. Potassium doping increases the resistivity up to 3 orders of magnitude at room temperature. The doped sample has a donor level at 0.30 eV.

  14. Potassium acceptor doping of ZnO crystals

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Parmar, Narendra S., E-mail: nparmar@wsu.edu; Lynn, K. G.; Department of Physics and Astronomy, Washington State University, Pullman, Washington 99164-2814

    2015-05-15

    ZnO bulk single crystals were doped with potassium by diffusion at 950°C. Positron annihilation spectroscopy confirms the filling of zinc vacancies and a different trapping center for positrons. Secondary ion mass spectroscopy measurements show the diffusion of potassium up to 10 μm with concentration ∼1 × 10{sup 16} cm{sup −3}. IR measurements show a local vibrational mode (LVM) at 3226 cm{sup −1}, at a temperature of 9 K, in a potassium doped sample that was subsequently hydrogenated. The LVM is attributed to an O–H bond-stretching mode adjacent to a potassium acceptor. When deuterium substitutes for hydrogen, a peak is observedmore » at 2378 cm{sup −1}. The O-H peak is much broader than the O-D peak, perhaps due to an unusually low vibrational lifetime. The isotopic frequency ratio is similar to values found in other hydrogen complexes. Potassium doping increases the resistivity up to 3 orders of magnitude at room temperature. The doped sample has a donor level at 0.30 eV.« less

  15. High performance thin film transistor with ZnO channel layer deposited by DC magnetron sputtering.

    PubMed

    Moon, Yeon-Keon; Moon, Dae-Yong; Lee, Sang-Ho; Jeong, Chang-Oh; Park, Jong-Wan

    2008-09-01

    Research in large area electronics, especially for low-temperature plastic substrates, focuses commonly on limitations of the semiconductor in thin film transistors (TFTs), in particular its low mobility. ZnO is an emerging example of a semiconductor material for TFTs that can have high mobility, while a-Si and organic semiconductors have low mobility (<1 cm2/Vs). ZnO-based TFTs have achieved high mobility, along with low-voltage operation low off-state current, and low gate leakage current. In general, ZnO thin films for the channel layer of TFTs are deposited with RF magnetron sputtering methods. On the other hand, we studied ZnO thin films deposited with DC magnetron sputtering for the channel layer of TFTs. After analyzing the basic physical and chemical properties of ZnO thin films, we fabricated a TFT-unit cell using ZnO thin films for the channel layer. The field effect mobility (micro(sat)) of 1.8 cm2/Vs and threshold voltage (Vth) of -0.7 V were obtained.

  16. Indium doped ZnO nano-powders prepared by RF thermal plasma treatment of In2O3 and ZnO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Mi-Yeon; Song, Min-Kyung; Seo, Jun-Ho; Kim, Min-Ho

    2015-06-01

    Indium doped ZnO nano-powders were synthesized by the RF thermal plasma treatment of In2O3 and ZnO. For this purpose, micron-sized ZnO powder was mixed with In2O3 powder at the In/Zn ratios of 0.0, 1.2, and 2.4 at. % by ball milling for 1 h, after which the mixtures were injected into RF thermal plasma generated at the plate power level of ˜140 kV A. As observed from the field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) images of the RF plasma-treated powders, hexagonal prism-shaped nano-crystals were mainly obtained along with multi-pod type nano-particles, where the number of multi-pods decreased with increasing In/Zn ratios. In addition, the X-ray diffraction (XRD) data for the as-treated nano-powders showed the diffraction peaks for the In2O3 present in the precursor mixture to disappear, while the crystalline peaks for the single phase of ZnO structure shifted toward lower Bragg angles. In the UV-vis absorption spectra of the as-treated powders, redshifts were also observed with increases of the In/Zn ratios. Together with the FE-SEM images and the XRD data, the redshifts were indicative of the doping process of ZnO with indium, which took place during the RF thermal plasma treatment of In2O3 and ZnO.

  17. Structural and photoluminescence properties of Ce, Dy, Er-doped ZnO nanoparticles

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Jayachandraiah, C.; Kumar, K. Siva; Krishnaiah, G., E-mail: ginnerik@gmail.com

    2015-06-24

    Undoped ZnO and rare earth elements (Ce, Dy and Er with 2 at. %) doped nanoparticles were synthesized by wet chemical co-precipitation method at 90°C with Polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) as capping agent. The structural, morphological, compositional and photoluminescence studies were performed with X-ray diffraction (XRD), Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), FTIR spectroscopy and Photoluminescence (PL) respectively. XRD results revealed hexagonal wurtzite structure with average particle size around 18 nm - 14 nm and are compatible with TEM results. EDS confirm the incorporation of Ce, Dy and Er elements into the host ZnO matrix and is validated by FTIR analysis. PLmore » studies showed a broad intensive emission peak at 558 nm in all the samples. The intensity for Er- doped ZnO found maximum with additional Er shoulder peaks at 516nm and 538 nm. No Ce, Dy emission centers were found in spectra.« less

  18. Microstructural analysis and thermoelectric properties of Sn-Al co-doped ZnO ceramics

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Hoemke, Joshua, E-mail: jhoemke@sigma.t.u-tokyo.ac.jp; Tochigi, Eita; Shibata, Naoya

    2016-08-26

    Sn-Al co-doped polycrystalline ZnO ceramics were prepared by sintering in air. Phase and microstructure analysis was performed by X-ray diffraction and SEM-EDS and thermoelectric properties were measured. XRD analysis showed a ZnO primary phase as well as secondary phase peaks due to the formation of a Zn{sub 2}SnO{sub 4} spinel phase or SnO{sub 2}(ZnO:Sn-Al){sub m} intergrowth phase. SEM analysis revealed a dense microstructure with a small number of nanometric pores, consistent with the measured density of 5.48 g/cm{sup 3}. An activated electrical conductivity characteristic of a semiconducting material was observed as well as a negative Seebeck coefficient with both valuesmore » increasing in absolute value from RT to 730 °C. The power factor had a maximum value of 3.73×10{sup −4} W m{sup −1} K{sup −2} at 730 °C. Thermal conductivity measurements showed a significant reduction over the measured temperature range compared to undoped ZnO. This could be attributed to grain size reduction, the formation of a nanoscale secondary phase or a reduction in crystallinity caused by Sn-Al co-doping. A maximum ZT of 0.06 was obtained at 750 °C for the Sn-Al co-doped ZnO ceramics.« less

  19. Preparation and characterization of undoped and cobalt doped ZnO for antimicrobial use.

    PubMed

    Stoica, Angelica Oprea; Andronescu, Ecaterina; Ghitulica, Cristina Daniela; Voicu, Georgeta; Grumezescu, Alexandru Mihai; Popa, Marcela; Chifiriuc, Mariana Carmen

    2016-08-30

    The objective of this study was to carry out the synthesis by sol-gel method of undoped and cobalt doped ZnO, with different cobalt concentrations (0.5-5mol%), using as stabilizer monoethanolamine (MEA) in a molar ratio ZnO:MEA=1:2. The dry gel was thermally treated at 500°C/5h, respectively at 1100°C/30min. All the thermal treated samples were of wurtzite type with an hexagonal structure. The doping with Co(2+) induced change of lattice parameters and of crystallite size, proving the successful interleaving of Co(2+) into the ZnO lattice. From the morphological point of view, the thermal treatment at 1100°C/30min led to a higher degree of compactness of the ZnO granules. At 500°C/5h there were formed polyhedral or spherical nanometric particles (25-50nm) which have been agglomerated into aggregates with sizes over 1μm. From the biological point of view, the quantitative analyses of antimicrobial activity have shown that the ZnO doped with cobalt has inhibited the ability of the Bacillus subtilis and Escherichia coli bacterial strains to colonize the inert substrate and therefore, can be used in the design of new antimicrobial strategies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Chromium and Ruthenium-Doped Zinc Oxide Thin Films for Propane Sensing Applications

    PubMed Central

    Gómez-Pozos, Heberto; González-Vidal, José Luis; Torres, Gonzalo Alberto; Rodríguez-Baez, Jorge; Maldonado, Arturo; de la Luz Olvera, María; Acosta, Dwight Roberto; Avendaño-Alejo, Maximino; Castañeda, Luis

    2013-01-01

    Chromium and ruthenium-doped zinc oxide (ZnO:Cr) and (ZnO:Ru) thin solid films were deposited on soda-lime glass substrates by the sol-gel dip-coating method. A 0.6 M solution of zinc acetate dihydrate dissolved in 2-methoxyethanol and monoethanolamine was used as basic solution. Chromium (III) acetylacetonate and Ruthenium (III) trichloride were used as doping sources. The Ru incorporation and its distribution profile into the films were proved by the SIMS technique. The morphology and structure of the films were studied by SEM microscopy and X-ray diffraction measurements, respectively. The SEM images show porous surfaces covered by small grains with different grain size, depending on the doping element, and the immersions number into the doping solutions. The sensing properties of ZnO:Cr and ZnO:Ru films in a propane (C3H8) atmosphere, as a function of the immersions number in the doping solution, have been studied in the present work. The highest sensitivity values were obtained for films doped from five immersions, 5.8 and 900, for ZnO:Cr and ZnO:Ru films, respectively. In order to evidence the catalytic effect of the chromium (Cr) and ruthenium (Ru), the sensing characteristics of undoped ZnO films are reported as well. PMID:23482091

  1. The influence of doping element on structural and luminescent characteristics of ZnS thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kryshtab, T.; Khomchenko, V. S.; Andraca-Adame, J. A.; Rodionov, V. E.; Khachatryan, V. B.; Tzyrkunov, Yu. A.

    2006-10-01

    For the fabrication of green and blue emitting ZnS structures the elements of I, III, and VII groups (Cu, Al, Ga, Cl) are used as dopants. The influence of type of impurity, doping technique, and type of substrate on crystalline structure and surface morphology together with luminescent properties was investigated. The doping of thin films was realized during the growth process and/or post-deposition thermal treatment. ZnS thin films were deposited by physical (EBE) and chemical (MOCVD) methods onto glass or ceramic (BaTiO 3) substrates. Closed spaced evaporation and thermodiffusion methods were used for the post-deposition doping of ZnS films. X-ray diffraction (XRD) techniques, atomic force microscopy (AFM), and measurements of photoluminescent (PL) spectra were used for the investigations. It was shown that the doping by the elements of I (Cu) and III (Al, Ga) groups does not change the crystal structure during the thermal treatment up to 1000 ∘C, whereas simultaneous use of the elements of I (Cu) and VII (Cl) groups leads to decrease of the phase transition temperature to 800 ∘C. The presence of impurities in the growth process leads to a grain size increase. At post-deposition treatment Ga and Cl act as activators of recrystallization process. The transition of ZnS sphalerite lattice to wurtzite one leads to the displacement of the blue emission band position towards the short-wavelength range by 10 nm.

  2. Zinc interstitial threshold in Al-doped ZnO film: Effect on microstructure and optoelectronic properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Chetan C.; Panda, Emila

    2018-04-01

    In order to know the threshold quantity of the zinc interstitials that contributes to an increase in carrier concentration in the Al-doped ZnO (AZO) films and their effect on the overall microstructure and optoelectronic properties of these films, in this work, Zn-rich-AZO and ZnO thin films are fabricated by adding excess zinc (from a zinc metallic target) during their deposition in RF magnetron sputtering and are then investigated using a wide range of experimental techniques. All these films are found to grow in a ZnO hexagonal wurtzite crystal structure with strong (002) orientation of the crystallites, with no indication of Al2O3, metallic Zn, and Al. The excessively introduced zinc in these AZO and/or ZnO films is found to increase the shallow donor level defects (i.e., zinc interstitials and oxygen-related electronic defect states), which is found to significantly increase the carrier concentration in these films. Additionally, aluminum is seen to enhance the creation of these electronic defect states in these films, thereby contributing more to the overall carrier concentration of these films. However, carrier mobility is found to decrease when the carrier concentration values are higher than 4 × 1020 cm-3, because of the electron-electron scattering. Whereas the optical band gap of the ZnO films is found to increase with increasing carrier concentration because of the Burstein-Moss shift, these decrease for the AZO films due to the band gap narrowing effect caused by excess carrier concentration.

  3. Single crystalline ZnO radial homojunction light-emitting diodes fabricated by metalorganic chemical vapour deposition

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Yoo, Jinkyoung; Ahmed, Towfiq; Tang, Wei

    ZnO radial p–n junction architecture has the potential for forward-leap of light-emitting diode (LED) technology in terms of higher efficacy and economical production. Here, we report on ZnO radial p–n junction-based light emitting diodes prepared by full metalorganic chemical vapour deposition (MOCVD) with hydrogen-assisted p-type doping approach. The p-type ZnO(P) thin films were prepared by MOCVD with the precursors of dimethylzinc, tert-butanol, and tertiarybutylphosphine. Controlling the precursor flow for dopant results in the systematic change of doping concentration, Hall mobility, and electrical conductivity. Moreover, the approach of hydrogen-assisted phosphorous doping in ZnO expands the understanding of doping behaviour in ZnO.more » Ultraviolet and visible electroluminescence of ZnO radial p–n junction was demonstrated through a combination of position-controlled nano/microwire and crystalline p-type ZnO(P) radial shell growth on the wires. Lastly, the reported research opens a pathway of realisation of production-compatible ZnO p–n junction LEDs.« less

  4. Single crystalline ZnO radial homojunction light-emitting diodes fabricated by metalorganic chemical vapour deposition

    DOE PAGES

    Yoo, Jinkyoung; Ahmed, Towfiq; Tang, Wei; ...

    2017-09-05

    ZnO radial p–n junction architecture has the potential for forward-leap of light-emitting diode (LED) technology in terms of higher efficacy and economical production. Here, we report on ZnO radial p–n junction-based light emitting diodes prepared by full metalorganic chemical vapour deposition (MOCVD) with hydrogen-assisted p-type doping approach. The p-type ZnO(P) thin films were prepared by MOCVD with the precursors of dimethylzinc, tert-butanol, and tertiarybutylphosphine. Controlling the precursor flow for dopant results in the systematic change of doping concentration, Hall mobility, and electrical conductivity. Moreover, the approach of hydrogen-assisted phosphorous doping in ZnO expands the understanding of doping behaviour in ZnO.more » Ultraviolet and visible electroluminescence of ZnO radial p–n junction was demonstrated through a combination of position-controlled nano/microwire and crystalline p-type ZnO(P) radial shell growth on the wires. Lastly, the reported research opens a pathway of realisation of production-compatible ZnO p–n junction LEDs.« less

  5. Electrodeposition of ZnO window layer for an all-atmospheric fabrication process of chalcogenide solar cell

    PubMed Central

    Tsin, Fabien; Venerosy, Amélie; Vidal, Julien; Collin, Stéphane; Clatot, Johnny; Lombez, Laurent; Paire, Myriam; Borensztajn, Stephan; Broussillou, Cédric; Grand, Pierre Philippe; Jaime, Salvador; Lincot, Daniel; Rousset, Jean

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the low cost electrodeposition of a transparent and conductive chlorine doped ZnO layer with performances comparable to that produced by standard vacuum processes. First, an in-depth study of the defect physics by ab-initio calculation shows that chlorine is one of the best candidates to dope the ZnO. This result is experimentally confirmed by a complete optical analysis of the ZnO layer deposited in a chloride rich solution. We demonstrate that high doping levels (>1020 cm−3) and mobilities (up to 20 cm2 V−1 s−1) can be reached by insertion of chlorine in the lattice. The process developed in this study has been applied on a CdS/Cu(In,Ga)(Se,S)2 p-n junction produced in a pilot line by a non vacuum process, to be tested as solar cell front contact deposition method. As a result efficiency of 14.3% has been reached opening the way of atmospheric production of Cu(In,Ga)(Se,S)2 solar cell. PMID:25753657

  6. Electrodeposition of ZnO window layer for an all-atmospheric fabrication process of chalcogenide solar cell.

    PubMed

    Tsin, Fabien; Venerosy, Amélie; Vidal, Julien; Collin, Stéphane; Clatot, Johnny; Lombez, Laurent; Paire, Myriam; Borensztajn, Stephan; Broussillou, Cédric; Grand, Pierre Philippe; Jaime, Salvador; Lincot, Daniel; Rousset, Jean

    2015-03-10

    This paper presents the low cost electrodeposition of a transparent and conductive chlorine doped ZnO layer with performances comparable to that produced by standard vacuum processes. First, an in-depth study of the defect physics by ab-initio calculation shows that chlorine is one of the best candidates to dope the ZnO. This result is experimentally confirmed by a complete optical analysis of the ZnO layer deposited in a chloride rich solution. We demonstrate that high doping levels (>10(20) cm(-3)) and mobilities (up to 20 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1)) can be reached by insertion of chlorine in the lattice. The process developed in this study has been applied on a CdS/Cu(In,Ga)(Se,S)2 p-n junction produced in a pilot line by a non vacuum process, to be tested as solar cell front contact deposition method. As a result efficiency of 14.3% has been reached opening the way of atmospheric production of Cu(In,Ga)(Se,S)2 solar cell.

  7. Abnormal temperature dependence of conductance of single Cd-doped ZnO nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Q. H.; Wan, Q.; Wang, Y. G.; Wang, T. H.

    2005-06-01

    Positive temperature coefficient of resistance is observed on single Cd-doped ZnO nanowires. The current along the nanowire increases linearly with the bias and saturates at large biases. The conductance is greatly enhanced either by ultraviolet illumination or infrared illumination. However, the conductance decreases with increasing temperature, in contrast to the reported temperature behavior either for ZnO nanostructures or for CdO nanoneedles. The increase of the conductance under illumination is related to surface effect and the decrease with increasing temperature to bulk effect. These results show that Cd doping does not change surface effect but affects bulk effect. Such a bulk effect could be used to realize on-chip temperature-independent varistors.

  8. Structure, morphology and optical properties of undoped and MN-doped ZnO(1-x)Sx nano-powders prepared by precipitation method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dejene, F. B.; Onani, M. O.; Koao, L. F.; Wako, A. H.; Motloung, S. V.; Yihunie, M. T.

    2016-01-01

    The undoped and Mn-doped ZnO(1-x)Sx nano-powders were successfully synthesized by precipitation method without using any capping agent. Its structure, morphology, elemental analysis, optical and luminescence properties were determined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), UV-vis spectroscopy (UV) and photoluminescence spectroscopy (PL). A typical SEM image of the un-doped ZnO(1-x)Sx nanoparticles exhibit flake like structures that changes to nearly spherical particles with Mn-doping. The XRD of undoped and Mn doped ZnO(1-x)Sx pattern reveals the formation of a product indexed to the hexagonal wurtzite phase of ZnS. The nanopowders have crystallite sizes estimated from XRD measurements were in the range of 10-20 nm. All the samples showed absorption maximum of ZnO(1-x)Sx at 271 nm and high transmittance in UV and visible region, respectively. The undoped ZnO(1-x)Sx nanoparticles show strong room-temperature photoluminescence with four emission bands centering at 338 nm, 384 nm, 448 nm and 705 nm that may originate to the impurity of ZnO(1-x)Sx, existence of oxide related defects. The calculated bandgap of the nanocrystalline ZnO(1-x)Sx showed a blue-shift with respect to the Mn-doping. The PL spectra of the Mn-doped samples exhibit a strong orange emission at around 594 nm attributed to the 4T1-6A1 transition of the Mn2+ ions.

  9. Comparative study on the physical properties of transition metal-doped (Co, Ni, Fe, and Mn) ZnO nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azab, A. A.; Ateia, Ebtesam E.; Esmail, S. A.

    2018-07-01

    Nano-crystalline of TM-doped ZnO with general formula Zn0.97TM0.03O (TM: Mn, Fe, Co, and Ni) was prepared using sol-gel method. The dependence of crystal structure, morphology, and optical and magnetic properties on the type of transition metals was investigated. The XRD investigation of pure and TM-doped ZnO nanoparticles samples confirms the formation of single-phase hexagonal wurtzite structure. The estimated crystallite sizes are found in the range of 17 and 38 nm for the doped and pure samples, respectively. The obtained data suggest that the dopant type plays a vital role in the physical properties of the investigated samples. The optical band-gap energy Eg has been calculated from near infrared (NIR) and visible (VIS) reflectance spectra using the Kubelka-Munk function. Minimum value of 2.398 eV and maximum one of 3.29 eV were obtained for Manganese-doped ZnO and pure ZnO, respectively. The analysis of XRD and VSM of the samples confirms that the observed room-temperature (RT) ferromagnetism can be attributed to an intrinsic property of doped material sample and not due to formation of any secondary phase. The magnetic results show that Mn is the most effective dopant for producing ferromagnetism in nanoparticles of ZnO.

  10. Local structure analysis of diluted magnetic semiconductor Co and Al co-doped ZnO nanoparticles

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Hyodo, K.; Morimoto, S.; Yamazaki, T.

    2016-02-01

    In this study, Co and Al ions co-doped ZnO nanoparticles (Zn(Al, Co)O NPs) were prepared by our original chemical preparation method. The obtained samples prepared by this method, were encapsulated in amorphous SiO{sub 2}. X-ray diffraction (XRD) results showed Zn(Al, Co)O NPs had a single-phase nature with hexagonal wurtzite structure. These particle sizes could be controlled to be approximately 30 nm. We investigate the effect that the increase in the carrier has on the magnetization by doping Al to Co-doped ZnO NPs. The local structures were qualitatively analyzed using X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) measurements.

  11. Photocatalytic degradation of organic dyes by Er3+: YAlO3/Co- and Fe-doped ZnO coated composites under solar irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yang; Lu, Chunxiao; Tang, Liang; Song, Yahui; Wei, Shengnan; Rong, Yang; Zhang, Zhaohong; Wang, Jun

    2016-12-01

    In this work, the Er3+: YAlO3/Co- and Fe-doped ZnO coated composites were prepared by the sol-gel method. Then, they were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). Photo-degradation of azo fuchsine (AF) as a model dye under solar light irradiation was studied to evaluate the photocatalytic activity of the Er3+: YAlO3/Co- and Fe-doped ZnO coated composites. It was found that the photocatalytic activity of Co- and Fe-doped ZnO composites can be obviously enhanced by upconversion luminescence agent (Er3+: YAlO3). Besides, the photocatalytic activity of Er3+: YAlO3/Fe-doped ZnO is better than that of Er3+: YAlO3/Co-doped ZnO. The influence of experiment conditions, such as the concentration of Er3+: YAlO3, heat-treatment temperature and time on the photocatalytic activity of the Er3+: YAlO3/Co- and Fe-doped ZnO coated composites was studied. In addition, the effects of solar light irradiation time, dye initial concentration, Er3+: YAlO3/Co- and Fe-doped ZnO amount on the photocatalytic degradation of azo fuchsine in aqueous solution were investigated in detail. Simultaneously, some other organic dyes, such as Methyl Orange (MO), Rhodamine B (RM-B), Acid Red B (AR-B), Congo Red (CR), and Methyl Blue (MB) were also studied. The possible excitation principle of Er3+: YAlO3/Co- and Fe-doped ZnO coated composites under solar light irradiation and the photocatalytic degradation mechanism of organic dyes were discussed.

  12. ZnO/p-GaN heterostructure for solar cells and the effect of ZnGa2O4 interlayer on their performance.

    PubMed

    Nam, Seung Yong; Choi, Yong Seok; Lee, Ju Ho; Park, Seong Ju; Lee, Jeong Yong; Lee, Dong Seon

    2013-01-01

    We report the usage of ZnO material as an alternative for n-GaN for realizing III-nitride based solar cell. The fabricated solar cell shows large turn-on voltage of around 8 volts and a rapid decrease of photocurrent at low bias voltage under darkness and 1-sun illumination conditions, respectively. This phenomenon can be attributed to the formation of high-resistive ultra-thin layers at the ZnO/ p-GaN junction interface during high temperature deposition. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) studies carried out on the grown samples reveals that the ultra-thin layer consists of ZnGa2O4. It is found that the presence of insulating ZnGa2O4 film is detrimental in the performance of proposed heterostructure for solar cells.

  13. Annealing induced reorientation of crystallites in Sn doped ZnO films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ravichandran, K.; Vasanthi, M.; Thirumurugan, K.; Sakthivel, B.; Karthika, K.

    2014-11-01

    Tin doped ZnO thin films were prepared by employing a simplified spray pyrolysis technique using a perfume atomizer and subsequently annealed under different temperatures from 350 °C to 500 °C in steps of 50 °C. The structural, optical, electrical, photoluminescence and surface morphological properties of the as-deposited films were studied and compared with that of the annealed films. The X-ray diffraction studies showed that as-deposited film exhibits preferential orientation along the (0 0 2) plane and it changes in favour of (1 0 0) plane after annealing. The increase in crystallite size due to annealing is explained on the basis of Ostwald ripening effect. It is found that the optical transmittance and band gap increases with increase in annealing temperature. A slight decrease in resistivity caused by annealing is discussed in correlation with annealing induced defect modifications and surface morphology.

  14. Fabrication of tantalum and nitrogen codoped ZnO (Ta, N-ZnO) thin films using the electrospay: twin applications as an excellent transparent electrode and a field emitter.

    PubMed

    Mahmood, Khalid; Park, Seung Bin; Sung, Hyung Jin

    2013-05-01

    The realization of stable p-type nitrogen-doped ZnO thin films with durable and controlled growth is important for the fabrication of nanoscale electronic and optoelectronic devices. ZnO thin films codoped with tantalum and nitrogen (Ta, N-ZnO) were fabricated by using the electrospraying method at an atmospheric pressure. X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies demonstrated that all the prepared films were polycrystalline in nature with hexagonal wurtzite structure. In addition, a shift in the XRD patterns was observed, and the crystal orientation was changed at a certain amount of nitrogen (>6 at.%) in the starting solution. Analysis of X-ray diffraction patterns and X-ray photoelectron spectra revealed that nitrogen which was combined with the zinc atom (N-Zn) was successfully doped into the ZnO crystal lattice. It was also observed that 2 at.% tantalum and 6 at.% nitrogen (2 at.% Ta and 6 at.% N) were the optimal dopant amounts to achieve the minimum resistivity of about 9.70 × 10(-5) Ω cm and the maximum transmittance of 98% in the visible region. Consequently, the field-emission characteristics of such a Ta, N-ZnO emitter can exhibit the higher current density of 1.33 mA cm(-2), larger field-enhancement factor (β) of 4706, lower turn-on field of 2.6 V μm(-1), and lower threshold field of 3.5 V μm(-1) attributed to the enhanced conductivity and better crystallinity of films. Moreover, the obtained values of resistivity were closest to the lowest resistivity values among the doped ZnO films as well as to the indium tin oxide (ITO) resistivity values that were previously studied. We confirmed that the tantalum and nitrogen atoms substitution in the ZnO lattice induced positive effects in terms of enhancing the free carrier concentration which will further improve the electrical, optical, and field-emission properties. The proposed electrospraying method was well suitable for the fabrication of Ta, N-ZnO thin films at optimum conditions with superior electrical

  15. Acceptor Type Vacancy Complexes In As-Grown ZnO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zubiaga, A.; Tuomisto, F.; Zuñiga-Pérez, J.

    2010-11-01

    One of the many technological areas that ZnO is interesting for is the construction of opto-electronic devices working in the blue-UV range as its large band gap (˜3.4 eV at 10 K) makes them suitable for that purpose. As-grown ZnO shows generally n-type conductivity partially due to the large concentration of unintentional shallow donors, like H, but impurities can also form complexes with acceptor type defects (Zn vacancy) leading to the creation of compensating defects. Recently, LiZn and NaZn acceptors have been measured and H could form similar type of defects. Doppler Broadening Positron Annihilation spectroscopy experimental results on the observation of Zn related vacancy complexes in ZnO thin films, as-grown, O implanted and Al doped will be presented. Results show that as-grown ZnO film show small Zn vacancy related complexed that could be related to presence of H as a unintentional doping element.

  16. Spray deposited gallium doped tin oxide thinfilm for acetone sensor application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Preethi, M. S.; Bharath, S. P.; Bangera, Kasturi V.

    2018-04-01

    Undoped and gallium doped (1 at.%, 2 at.% and 3 at.%) tin oxide thin films were prepared using spray pyrolysis technique by optimising the deposition conditions such as precursor concentration, substrate temperature and spraying rate. X-ray diffraction analysis revealed formation of tetragonally structured polycrystalline films. The SEM micrographs of Ga doped films showed microstructures. The electrical resistivity of the doped films was found to be more than that of the undoped films. The Ga-doped tin oxide thin films were characterised for gas sensors. 1 at.% Ga doped thin films were found to be better acetone gas sensor, showed 68% sensitivity at 350°C temperature.

  17. Synergistic effect of N-decorated and Mn2+ doped ZnO nanofibers with enhanced photocatalytic activity

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yuting; Cheng, Jing; Yu, Suye; Alcocer, Enric Juan; Shahid, Muhammad; Wang, Ziyuan; Pan, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Here we report a high efficiency photocatalyst, i.e., Mn2+-doped and N-decorated ZnO nanofibers (NFs) enriched with vacancy defects, fabricated via electrospinning and a subsequent controlled annealing process. This nanocatalyst exhibits excellent visible-light photocatalytic activity and an apparent quantum efficiency up to 12.77%, which is 50 times higher than that of pure ZnO. It also demonstrates good stability and durability in repeated photocatalytic degradation experiments. A comprehensive structural analysis shows that high density of oxygen vacancies and nitrogen are introduced into the nanofibers surface. Hence, the significant enhanced visible photocatalytic properties for Mn-ZnO NFs are due to the synergetic effects of both Mn2+ doping and N decorated. Further investigations exhibit that the Mn2+-doping facilitates the formation of N-decorated and surface defects when annealing in N2 atmosphere. N doping induce the huge band gap decrease and thus significantly enhance the absorption of ZnO nanofibers in the range of visible-light. Overall, this paper provides a new approach to fabricate visible-light nanocatalysts using both doping and annealing under anoxic ambient. PMID:27600260

  18. Photoreflectance from GaAs and GaAs/GaAs interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sydor, Michael; Angelo, James; Wilson, Jerome J.; Mitchel, W. C.; Yen, M. Y.

    1989-10-01

    Photoreflectance from semi-insulating GaAs, and GaAs/GaAs interfaces, is discussed in terms of its behavior with temperature, doping, epilayer thickness, and laser intensity. Semi-insulating substrates show an exciton-related band-edge signal below 200 K and an impurity-related photoreflectance above 400 K. At intermediate temperatures the band-edge signal from thin GaAs epilayers contains a contribution from the epilayer-substrate interface. The interface effect depends on the epilayer's thickness, doping, and carrier mobility. The effect broadens the band-edge photoreflectance by 5-10 meV, and artifically lowers the estimates for the critical-point energy, ECP, obtained through the customary third-derivative functional fit to the data.

  19. CROSS-DISCIPLINARY PHYSICS AND RELATED AREAS OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY: Effect of Annealing Conditions on Properties of Sol-Gel Derived Al-Doped ZnO Thin Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Mei-Zhen; Zhang, Feng; Liu, Jing; Sun, Hui-Na

    2009-08-01

    Transparent conductive Al-doped ZnO (AZO) thin films are prepared on normal glass substrates by the sol-gel spin coating method. The effects of drying conditions, annealing temperature and cooling rate on the structural, electrical and optical properties of AZO films are investigated by x-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, the four-point probe method and UV-VIS spectrophotometry, respectively. The deposited films show a hexagonal wurtzite structure and high preferential c-axis orientation. As the drying temperature increases from 100°C to 300°C the resistivity of AZO films decreases dramatically. In contrast to the annealed films cooled in a furnace and in air, the resistivity of the annealed film which is cooled at -15°C is greatly reduced. Increasing the cooling rate dramatically increases the electrical conductivity of AZO films.

  20. Effect of Ce doping on structural, optical and photocatalytic properties of ZnO nano-structures.

    PubMed

    Selvam, N Clament Sagaya; Vijaya, J Judith; Kennedy, L John

    2014-03-01

    A novel self-assembled pure and Ce doped ZnO nano-particles (NPs) were successfully synthesized by a simple low temperature co-precipitation method. The prepared photocatalysts were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), High resolution scanning electron microscopy (HR-SEM), High resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM), diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) and Photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy. The results indicated that the prepared photocatalysts shows a novel morphology, high crystallinity, uniform size distribution, and more defects. Photocatalytic degradation (PCD) of nonylphenol, a potent endocrine disrupting chemical in aqueous medium was investigated. Higher amount of oxygen defects exhibits enhanced PCD of nonylphenol. In addition, the influence of the Ce contents on the structure, morphology, absorption, emission and photocatalytic activity of ZnO nanoparticles (NPs) were investigated systematically. The relative PCD efficiency of pure ZnO, Ce-doped ZnO NPs and commercial TiO2 (Degussa P-25) have also been discussed.

  1. Efficient optical activation of Eu3+ ions doped in ZnGa2O4 thin films: Correlation between crystalline phase and photoluminescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akazawa, Housei; Shinojima, Hiroyuki

    2018-06-01

    The physicochemical properties of Eu-doped zinc gallate (ZnGaxO1+1.5x:Eu) (1 < x < 6) thin films were investigated by means of photoluminescence (PL) triggered by band-to-band transitions of the host crystal at λ = 325 nm. Close correspondence between PL spectra and crystalline phases was verified by performing combinatorial measurements over four-inch substrates on which there was a spread of Ga/Zn composition ratios. The phase formation kinetics for deposition with H2O as an oxygen source gas followed by post annealing were similar to those of hydrothermal synthesis. ZnGa2O4 preferentially formed for a wide range of compositions between 1 < x < 4 and post annealing temperatures between 400 and 800 °C; intense emissions from Eu3+ ions were observed from the films. In contrast, the phase formation kinetics for deposition with O2 gas followed by post annealing were similar to those of solid-state reactions. Vacuum annealing above 500 °C caused preferential losses of Ga atoms and precipitation of Zn2Ga2O5 crystallites at x < 4, whereas ZnGa2O4 formed when a large amount of Ga (x > 6) was initially contained in the as-deposited state. The resulting PL spectra from Zn2Ga2O5 exhibited only a broad emission band from 450 to 700 nm, which was ascribed to defects in the poorly crystallized Zn:Ga = 1:1 phase. When the films deposited with O2 were post annealed in an O2 ambient, Zn atoms were lost, producing β-Ga2O3 as the primary phase accompanied with ZnGa2O4. The resulting Eu3+ emission was very weak, possibly because the Eu3+ ions attached to Ga2O3 domains were not emission-active and/or could not be efficiently excited due to wide bandgap (5 eV). When ZnGa2O4:Eu films were crystallized during deposition at elevated temperatures, weak emissions only from Eu3+ ions were observed. Taken together, these experimental results indicate that Eu3+ ions attached to ZnGa2O4 are highly emission-active; i.e., ZnGa2O4 is a particularly good host crystal with which to secure

  2. Doping and compensation in Al-rich AlGaN grown on single crystal AlN and sapphire by MOCVD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bryan, Isaac; Bryan, Zachary; Washiyama, Shun; Reddy, Pramod; Gaddy, Benjamin; Sarkar, Biplab; Breckenridge, M. Hayden; Guo, Qiang; Bobea, Milena; Tweedie, James; Mita, Seiji; Irving, Douglas; Collazo, Ramon; Sitar, Zlatko

    2018-02-01

    In order to understand the influence of dislocations on doping and compensation in Al-rich AlGaN, thin films were grown by metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) on different templates on sapphire and low dislocation density single crystalline AlN. AlGaN grown on AlN exhibited the highest conductivity, carrier concentration, and mobility for any doping concentration due to low threading dislocation related compensation and reduced self-compensation. The onset of self-compensation, i.e., the "knee behavior" in conductivity, was found to depend only on the chemical potential of silicon, strongly indicating the cation vacancy complex with Si as the source of self-compensation. However, the magnitude of self-compensation was found to increase with an increase in dislocation density, and consequently, AlGaN grown on AlN substrates demonstrated higher conductivity over the entire doping range.

  3. Electronic and Magnetic Properties of Ni-Doped Zinc-Blende ZnO: A First-Principles Study.

    PubMed

    Xue, Suqin; Zhang, Fuchun; Zhang, Shuili; Wang, Xiaoyang; Shao, Tingting

    2018-04-26

    The electronic structure, band structure, density of state, and magnetic properties of Ni-doped zinc-blende (ZB) ZnO are studied by using the first-principles method based on the spin-polarized density-functional theory. The calculated results show that Ni atoms can induce a stable ferromagnetic (FM) ground state in Ni-doped ZB ZnO. The magnetic moments mainly originate from the unpaired Ni 3 d orbitals, and the O 2 p orbitals contribute a little to the magnetic moments. The magnetic moment of a supercell including a single Ni atom is 0.79 μ B . The electronic structure shows that Ni-doped ZB ZnO is a half-metallic FM material. The strong spin-orbit coupling appears near the Fermi level and shows obvious asymmetry for spin-up and spin-down density of state, which indicates a significant hybrid effects from the Ni 3 d and O 2 p states. However, the coupling of the anti-ferromagnetic (AFM) state show metallic characteristic, the spin-up and spin-down energy levels pass through the Fermi surface. The magnetic moment of a single Ni atom is 0.74 μ B . Moreover, the results show that the Ni 3 d and O 2 p states have a strong p - d hybridization effect near the Fermi level and obtain a high stability. The above theoretical results demonstrate that Ni-doped zinc blende ZnO can be considered as a potential half-metal FM material and dilute magnetic semiconductors.

  4. A novel fabrication methodology for sulfur-doped ZnO nanorods as an active photoanode for improved water oxidation in visible-light regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, A.; Ahmed, M. I.; Adam, A.; Azad, A.-M.; Qamar, M.

    2017-02-01

    Incorporation of foreign moiety in the lattice of semiconductors significantly alters their optoelectronic behavior and opens a plethora of new applications. In this paper, we report the synthesis of sulfur-doped zinc oxide (S-doped ZnO) nanorods by reacting ZnO nanorods with diammonium sulfide in vapor phase. Microscopic investigation revealed that the morphological features, such as, the length (2-4 μm) and width (100-250 nm) of the original hexagonal ZnO nanorods remained intact post-sulfidation. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis of the sulfide sample confirmed the incorporation of sulfur into ZnO lattice. The optical measurements suggested the extension of absorption threshold into visible region upon sulfidation. Photoelectrochemical (PEC) activities of pure and S-doped ZnO nanorods were compared for water oxidation in visible light (λ > 420 nm), which showed several-fold increment in the performance of S-doped ZnO sample; the observed amelioration in the PEC activity was rationalized in terms of preferred visible light absorption and low resistance of sulfide sample, as evidenced by optical and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy.

  5. Ultra High p-doping Material Research for GaN Based Light Emitters

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Vladimir Dmitriev

    2007-06-30

    The main goal of the Project is to investigate doping mechanisms in p-type GaN and AlGaN and controllably fabricate ultra high doped p-GaN materials and epitaxial structures. Highly doped p-type GaN-based materials with low electrical resistivity and abrupt doping profiles are of great importance for efficient light emitters for solid state lighting (SSL) applications. Cost-effective hydride vapor phase epitaxial (HVPE) technology was proposed to investigate and develop p-GaN materials for SSL. High p-type doping is required to improve (i) carrier injection efficiency in light emitting p-n junctions that will result in increasing of light emitting efficiency, (ii) current spreading inmore » light emitting structures that will improve external quantum efficiency, and (iii) parameters of Ohmic contacts to reduce operating voltage and tolerate higher forward currents needed for the high output power operation of light emitters. Highly doped p-type GaN layers and AlGaN/GaN heterostructures with low electrical resistivity will lead to novel device and contact metallization designs for high-power high efficiency GaN-based light emitters. Overall, highly doped p-GaN is a key element to develop light emitting devices for the DOE SSL program. The project was focused on material research for highly doped p-type GaN materials and device structures for applications in high performance light emitters for general illumination P-GaN and p-AlGaN layers and multi-layer structures were grown by HVPE and investigated in terms of surface morphology and structure, doping concentrations and profiles, optical, electrical, and structural properties. Tasks of the project were successfully accomplished. Highly doped GaN materials with p-type conductivity were fabricated. As-grown GaN layers had concentration N{sub a}-N{sub d} as high as 3 x 10{sup 19} cm{sup -3}. Mechanisms of doping were investigated and results of material studies were reported at several International conferences

  6. Soluble Supercapacitors: Large and Reversible Charge Storage in Colloidal Iron-Doped ZnO Nanocrystals.

    PubMed

    Brozek, Carl K; Zhou, Dongming; Liu, Hongbin; Li, Xiaosong; Kittilstved, Kevin R; Gamelin, Daniel R

    2018-05-09

    Colloidal ZnO semiconductor nanocrystals have previously been shown to accumulate multiple delocalized conduction-band electrons under chemical, electrochemical, or photochemical reducing conditions, leading to emergent semimetallic characteristics such as quantum plasmon resonances and raising prospects for application in multielectron redox transformations. Here, we demonstrate a dramatic enhancement in the capacitance of colloidal ZnO nanocrystals through aliovalent Fe 3+ -doping. Very high areal and volumetric capacitances (33 μF cm -2 , 233 F cm -3 ) are achieved in Zn 0.99 Fe 0.01 O nanocrystals that rival those of the best supercapacitors used in commercial energy-storage devices. The redox properties of these nanocrystals are probed by potentiometric titration and optical spectroscopy. These data indicate an equilibrium between electron localization by Fe 3+ dopants and electron delocalization within the ZnO conduction band, allowing facile reversible charge storage and removal. As "soluble supercapacitors", colloidal iron-doped ZnO nanocrystals constitute a promising class of solution-processable electronic materials with large charge-storage capacity attractive for future energy-storage applications.

  7. Optical reflectance of solution processed quasi-superlattice ZnO and Al-doped ZnO (AZO) channel materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buckley, Darragh; McCormack, Robert; O'Dwyer, Colm

    2017-04-01

    The angle-resolved reflectance of high crystalline quality, c-axis oriented ZnO and AZO single and periodic quasi-superlattice (QSL) spin-coated TFT channels materials are presented. The data is analysed using an adapted model to accurately determine the spectral region for optical thickness and corresponding reflectance. The optical thickness agrees very well with measured thickness of 1-20 layered QSL thin films determined by transmission electron microscopy if the reflectance from lowest interference order is used. Directional reflectance for single layers or homogeneous QSLs of ZnO and AZO channel materials exhibit a consistent degree of anti-reflection characteristics from 30 to 60° (~10-12% reflection) for thickness ranging from ~40 nm to 500 nm. The reflectance of AZO single layer thin films is  <10% from 30 to 75° at 514.5 nm, and  <6% at 632.8 nm from 30-60°. The data show that ZnO and AZO with granular or periodic substructure behave optically as dispersive, continuous thin films of similar thickness, and angle-resolved spectral mapping provides a design rule for transparency or refractive index determination as a function of film thickness, substructure (dispersion) and viewing angle.

  8. Performance enhancement of GaN ultraviolet avalanche photodiodes with p-type δ-doping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bayram, C.; Pau, J. L.; McClintock, R.; Razeghi, M.

    2008-06-01

    High quality δ-doped p-GaN is used as a means of improving the performance of back-illuminated GaN avalanche photodiodes (APDs). Devices with δ-doped p-GaN show consistently lower leakage current and lower breakdown voltage than those with bulk p-GaN. APDs with δ-doped p-GaN also achieve a maximum multiplication gain of 5.1×104, more than 50 times higher than that obtained in devices with bulk p-GaN. The better device performance of APDs with δ-doped p-GaN is attributed to the higher structural quality of the p-GaN layer achieved via δ-doping.

  9. Electronic structure and p-type doping of ZnSnN2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Tianshi; Janotti, Anderson; Ni, Chaoying

    ZnSnN2 is a promising solar-cell absorber material composed of earth abundant elements. Little is known about doping, defects, and how the valence and conduction bands in this material align with the bands in other semiconductors. Using density functional theory with the the Heyd-Scuseria-Ernzerhof hybrid functional (HSE06), we investigate the electronic structure of ZnSnN2, its band alignment to other semiconductors, such as GaN and ZnO, the possibility of p-type doping, and the possible causes of the observed unintentional n-type conductivity. We find that the position of the valence-band maximum of ZnSnN2 is 0.55 eV higher than that of GaN, yet the conduction-band minimum is close to that in ZnO. As possible p-type dopants, we explore Li, Na, and K substituting on the Zn site. Finally, we discuss the cause of unintentional n-type conductivity by analyzing the position of the conduction-band minimum with respect to that of GaN and ZnO.

  10. Fabrication of highly efficient ZnO nanoscintillators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Procházková, Lenka; Gbur, Tomáš; Čuba, Václav; Jarý, Vítězslav; Nikl, Martin

    2015-09-01

    Photo-induced synthesis of high-efficiency ultrafast nanoparticle scintillators of ZnO was demonstrated. Controlled doping with Ga(III) and La(III) ions together with the optimized method of ZnO synthesis and subsequent two-step annealing in air and under reducing atmosphere allow to achieve very high intensity of UV exciton luminescence, up to 750% of BGO intensity magnitude. Fabricated nanoparticles feature extremely short sub-nanosecond photoluminescence decay times. Temperature dependence of the photoluminescence spectrum within 8-340 K range was investigated and shows the absence of visible defect-related emission within all temperature intervals.

  11. Superhydrophobic Ag decorated ZnO nanostructured thin film as effective surface enhanced Raman scattering substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jayram, Naidu Dhanpal; Sonia, S.; Poongodi, S.; Kumar, P. Suresh; Masuda, Yoshitake; Mangalaraj, D.; Ponpandian, N.; Viswanathan, C.

    2015-11-01

    The present work is an attempt to overcome the challenges in the fabrication of super hydrophobic silver decorated zinc oxide (ZnO) nanostructure thin films via thermal evaporation process. The ZnO nanowire thin films are prepared without any surface modification and show super hydrophobic nature with a contact angle of 163°. Silver is further deposited onto the ZnO nanowire to obtain nanoworm morphology. Silver decorated ZnO (Ag@ZnO) thin films are used as substrates for surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) studies. The formation of randomly arranged nanowire and silver decorated nanoworm structure is confirmed using FESEM, HR-TEM and AFM analysis. Crystallinity and existence of Ag on ZnO are confirmed using XRD and XPS studies. A detailed growth mechanism is discussed for the formation of the nanowires from nanobeads based on various deposition times. The prepared SERS substrate reveals a reproducible enhancement of 3.082 × 107 M for Rhodamine 6G dye (R6G) for 10-10 molar concentration per liter. A higher order of SERS spectra is obtained for a contact angle of 155°. Thus the obtained thin films show the superhydrophobic nature with a highly enhanced Raman spectrum and act as SERS substrates. The present nanoworm morphology shows a new pathway for the construction of semiconductor thin films for plasmonic studies and challenges the orderly arranged ZnO nanorods, wires and other nano structure substrates used in SERS studies.

  12. Aluminum gallium nitride (GaN)/GaN high electron mobility transistor-based sensors for glucose detection in exhaled breath condensate.

    PubMed

    Chu, Byung Hwan; Kang, Byoung Sam; Hung, Sheng Chun; Chen, Ke Hung; Ren, Fan; Sciullo, Andrew; Gila, Brent P; Pearton, Stephen J

    2010-01-01

    Immobilized aluminum gallium nitride (AlGaN)/GaN high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs) have shown great potential in the areas of pH, chloride ion, and glucose detection in exhaled breath condensate (EBC). HEMT sensors can be integrated into a wireless data transmission system that allows for remote monitoring. This technology offers the possibility of using AlGaN/GaN HEMTs for extended investigations of airway pathology of detecting glucose in EBC without the need for clinical visits. HEMT structures, consisting of a 3-microm-thick undoped GaN buffer, 30-A-thick Al(0.3)Ga(0.7)N spacer, and 220-A-thick silicon-doped Al(0.3)Ga(0.7)N cap layer, were used for fabricating the HEMT sensors. The gate area of the pH, chloride ion, and glucose detection was immobilized with scandium oxide (Sc(2)O(3)), silver chloride (AgCl) thin film, and zinc oxide (ZnO) nanorods, respectively. The Sc(2)O(3)-gated sensor could detect the pH of solutions ranging from 3 to 10 with a resolution of approximately 0.1 pH. A chloride ion detection limit of 10(-8) M was achieved with a HEMT sensor immobilized with the AgCl thin film. The drain-source current of the ZnO nanorod-gated AlGaN/GaN HEMT sensor immobilized with glucose oxidase showed a rapid response of less than 5 seconds when the sensor was exposed to the target glucose in a buffer with a pH value of 7.4. The sensor could detect a wide range of concentrations from 0.5 nM to 125 microM. There is great promise for using HEMT-based sensors to enhance the detection sensitivity for glucose detection in EBC. Depending on the immobilized material, HEMT-based sensors can be used for sensing different materials. These electronic detection approaches with rapid response and good repeatability show potential for the investigation of airway pathology. The devices can also be integrated into a wireless data transmission system for remote monitoring applications. This sensor technology could use the exhaled breath condensate to measure the

  13. Aluminum Gallium Nitride (GaN)/GaN High Electron Mobility Transistor-Based Sensors for Glucose Detection in Exhaled Breath Condensate

    PubMed Central

    Chu, Byung Hwan; Kang, Byoung Sam; Hung, Sheng Chun; Chen, Ke Hung; Ren, Fan; Sciullo, Andrew; Gila, Brent P.; Pearton, Stephen J.

    2010-01-01

    Background Immobilized aluminum gallium nitride (AlGaN)/GaN high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs) have shown great potential in the areas of pH, chloride ion, and glucose detection in exhaled breath condensate (EBC). HEMT sensors can be integrated into a wireless data transmission system that allows for remote monitoring. This technology offers the possibility of using AlGaN/GaN HEMTs for extended investigations of airway pathology of detecting glucose in EBC without the need for clinical visits. Methods HEMT structures, consisting of a 3-μm-thick undoped GaN buffer, 30-Å-thick Al0.3Ga0.7N spacer, and 220-Å-thick silicon-doped Al0.3Ga0.7N cap layer, were used for fabricating the HEMT sensors. The gate area of the pH, chloride ion, and glucose detection was immobilized with scandium oxide (Sc2O3), silver chloride (AgCl) thin film, and zinc oxide (ZnO) nanorods, respectively. Results The Sc2O3-gated sensor could detect the pH of solutions ranging from 3 to 10 with a resolution of ∼0.1 pH. A chloride ion detection limit of 10-8 M was achievedt with a HEMT sensor immobilized with the AgCl thin film. The drain–source current of the ZnO nanorod-gated AlGaN/GaN HEMT sensor immobilized with glucose oxidase showed a rapid response of less than 5 seconds when the sensor was exposed to the target glucose in a buffer with a pH value of 7.4. The sensor could detect a wide range of concentrations from 0.5 nM to 125 μM. Conclusion There is great promise for using HEMT-based sensors to enhance the detection sensitivity for glucose detection in EBC. Depending on the immobilized material, HEMT-based sensors can be used for sensingt different materials. These electronic detection approaches with rapid response and good repeatability show potential for the investigation of airway pathology. The devices can also be integrated into a wireless data transmission system for remote monitoring applications. This sensor technology could use the exhaled breath condensate to

  14. Oxygen deficiency and Sn doping of amorphous Ga{sub 2}O{sub 3}

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Heinemann, M. D.; Unold, T.; Berry, J.

    2016-01-11

    The potential of effectively n-type doping Ga{sub 2}O{sub 3} considering its large band gap has made it an attractive target for integration into transistors and solar cells. As a result amorphous GaO{sub x} is now attracting interest as an electron transport layer in solar cells despite little information on its opto-electrical properties. Here we present the opto-electronic properties, including optical band gap, electron affinity, and charge carrier density, for amorphous GaO{sub x} thin films deposited by pulsed laser deposition. These properties are strongly dependent on the deposition temperature during the deposition process. The deposition temperature has no significant influence onmore » the general structural properties but produces significant changes in the oxygen stoichiometry of the films. The density of the oxygen vacancies is found to be related to the optical band gap of the GaO{sub x} layer. It is proposed that the oxygen deficiency leads to defect band below the conduction band minimum that increases the electron affinity. These properties facilitate the use of amorphous GaO{sub x} as an electron transport layer in Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2} and in Cu{sub 2}O solar cells. Further it is shown that at low deposition temperatures, extrinsic doping with Sn is effective at low Sn concentrations.« less

  15. Oxygen partial pressure influence on the character of InGaZnO thin films grown by PLD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Yi; Wang, Li

    2012-11-01

    The amorphous oxide semiconductors (AOSs) are promising for emerging large-area optoelectronic applications because of capability of large-area, uniform deposition at low temperatures such as room temperature (RT). Indium-gallium-zinc oxide (InGaZnO) thin film is a promising amorphous semiconductors material in thin film transistors (TFT) for its excellent electrical properties. In our work, the InGaZnO thin films are fabricated on the SiO2 glass using pulsed laser deposition (PLD) in the oxygen partial pressure altered from 1 to 10 Pa at RT. The targets were prepared by mixing Ga2O3, In2O3, and ZnO powder at a mol ratio of 1: 7: 2 before the solid-state reactions in a tube furnace at the atmospheric pressure. The targets were irradiated by an Nd:YAG laser(355nm). Finally, we have three films of 270nm, 230nm, 190nm thick for 1Pa, 5Pa, 10Pa oxygen partial pressure. The product thin films were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), atomic force microscopy (AFM), Hall-effect investigation. The comparative study demonstrated the character changes of the structure and electronic transport properties, which is probably occurred as a fact of the different oxygen partial pressure used in the PLD.

  16. A comparative study of physico-chemical properties of CBD and SILAR grown ZnO thin films

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Jambure, S.B.; Patil, S.J.; Deshpande, A.R.

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Schematic model indicating ZnO nanorods by CBD (Z{sub 1}) and nanograins by SILAR (Z{sub 2}). - Highlights: • Simple methods for the synthesis of ZnO thin films. • Comparative study of physico-chemical properties of ZnO thin films prepared by CBD and SILAR methods. • CBD outperforms SILAR method. - Abstract: In the present work, nanocrystalline zinc oxide (ZnO) thin films have been successfully deposited onto glass substrates by simple and economical chemical bath deposition (CBD) and successive ionic layer adsorption reaction (SILAR) methods. These films were further characterized for their structural, optical, surface morphological and wettability properties. Themore » X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns for both CBD and SILAR deposited ZnO thin films reveal the highly crystalline hexagonal wurtzite structure. From optical studies, band gaps obtained are 2.9 and 3.0 eV for CBD and SILAR deposited thin films, respectively. The scanning electron microscope (SEM) patterns show growth of well defined randomly oriented nanorods and nanograins on the CBD and SILAR deposited samples, respectively. The resistivity of CBD deposited films (10{sup 2} Ω cm) is lower than that of SILAR deposited films (10{sup 5} Ω cm). Surface wettability studies show hydrophobic nature for both films. From the above results it can be concluded that CBD grown ZnO thin films show better properties as compared to SILAR method.« less

  17. Mechanism of radiative recombination in acceptor-doped bulk GaN crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godlewski, M.; Suski, T.; Grzegory, I.; Porowski, S.; Bergman, J. P.; Chen, W. M.; Monemar, B.

    1999-12-01

    Optical and electrical properties of acceptor-doped bulk GaN crystals are discussed. Though introducing Zn and Ca to bulk GaN does not significantly change electron concentration, it results in the appearance of a blue photoluminescence band accompanying the relatively strong yellow band usually present. Highly resistive GaN : Mg crystals are obtained when high amount of Mg is introduced to the Ga melt during high-pressure synthesis. Change of electrical properties of Mg-doped bulk crystals is accompanied by the appearance of a strong blue emission of GaN similar to that in Ca- and Zn-doped crystals. Optically detected magnetic resonance investigations indicate a multi-band character of this blue emission and suggest possible mechanism of compensation in acceptor-doped bulk GaN.

  18. High carrier concentration ZnO nanowire arrays for binder-free conductive support of supercapacitors electrodes by Al doping.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Xin; Sun, Yihui; Yan, Xiaoqin; Sun, Xu; Zhang, Guangjie; Zhang, Qian; Jiang, Yaru; Gao, Wenchao; Zhang, Yue

    2016-12-15

    Doping semiconductor nanowires (NWs) for altering their electrical and optical properties is a critical strategy for tailoring the performance of nanodevices. Here, we prepared in situ Al-doped ZnO nanowire arrays by using continuous flow injection (CFI) hydrothermal method to promote the conductivity. This reasonable method offers highly stable precursor concentration for doping that effectively avoid the appearance of the low conductivity ZnO nanosheets. Benefit from this, three orders of magnitude rise of the carrier concentration from 10 16 cm -3 to 10 19 cm -3 can be achieved compared with the common hydrothermal (CH) mothed in Mott-Schottky measurement. Possible effect of Al-doping was discussed by first-principle theory. On this basis, Al-doped ZnO nanowire arrays was developed as a binder-free conductive support for supercapacitor electrodes and high capacitance was triggered. It is owing to the dramatically decreased transfer resistance induced by the growing free-moving electrons and holes. Our results have a profound significance not merely in the controlled synthesis of other doping nanomaterials by co-precipitation method but also in the application of binder-free energy materials or other materials. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Tri-functional Fe2O3-encased Ag-doped ZnO nanoframework: magnetically retrievable antimicrobial photocatalyst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karunakaran, Chockalingam; Vinayagamoorthy, Pazhamalai

    2016-11-01

    Fe2O3-encased ZnO nanoframework was obtained by hydrothermal method and was doped with Ag through photoreduction process. Energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high resolution TEM, selected area electron diffractometry, x-ray diffractometry and Raman spectroscopy were employed for the structural characterization of the synthesized material. While the charge transfer resistance of the prepared nanomaterial is larger than those of Fe2O3 and ZnO the coercivity of the nanocomposite is less than that of hydrothermally obtained Fe2O3 nanostructures. Although Fe2O3/Ag-ZnO exhibits weak visible light absorption its band gap energy does not differ from that of ZnO. The photoluminescence of the fabricated nanoframework is similar to that of ZnO. The radiative recombination of charge carriers is slightly slower in Fe2O3/Ag-ZnO than in ZnO. The synthesized Fe2O3-encased Ag-doped ZnO, under UV A light, exhibits sustainable photocatalytic activity to degrade dye and is magnetically recoverable. Also, the Fe2O3/Ag-ZnO nanocomposite disinfects bacteria effectively in absence of direct illumination.

  20. Effect of Fe doping concentration on photocatalytic activity of ZnO nanosheets under natural sunlight

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Khokhra, Richa; Kumar, Rajesh, E-mail: rajesh.kumar@juit.ac.in

    2015-05-15

    A facile room temperature, aqueous solution-based chemical method has been adopted for large-scale synthesis of Fe doped ZnO nanosheets. The XRD and SEM results reveal the as-synthesized products well crystalline and accumulated by large amount of interweave nanosheets, respectively. Energy dispersive spectroscopy data confirmed Fe doping of the ZnO nanosheets with a varying Fe concentration. The photoluminescence spectrum reveals a continuous suppression of defect related emissions intensity by increasing the concentration of the Fe ion. A photocatalytic activity using these samples under sunlight irradiation in the mineralization of methylene blue dye was investigated. The photocatalytic activity of Fe doped ZnOmore » nanosheets depends upon the presence of surface oxygen vacancies.« less