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Sample records for gaas medipix2 hybrid

  1. Electron imaging with Medipix2 hybrid pixel detector.

    PubMed

    McMullan, G; Cattermole, D M; Chen, S; Henderson, R; Llopart, X; Summerfield, C; Tlustos, L; Faruqi, A R

    2007-01-01

    The electron imaging performance of Medipix2 is described. Medipix2 is a hybrid pixel detector composed of two layers. It has a sensor layer and a layer of readout electronics, in which each 55 microm x 55 microm pixel has upper and lower energy discrimination and MHz rate counting. The sensor layer consists of a 300 microm slab of pixellated monolithic silicon and this is bonded to the readout chip. Experimental measurement of the detective quantum efficiency, DQE(0) at 120 keV shows that it can reach approximately 85% independent of electron exposure, since the detector has zero noise, and the DQE(Nyquist) can reach approximately 35% of that expected for a perfect detector (4/pi(2)). Experimental measurement of the modulation transfer function (MTF) at Nyquist resolution for 120 keV electrons using a 60 keV lower energy threshold, yields a value that is 50% of that expected for a perfect detector (2/pi). Finally, Monte Carlo simulations of electron tracks and energy deposited in adjacent pixels have been performed and used to calculate expected values for the MTF and DQE as a function of the threshold energy. The good agreement between theory and experiment allows suggestions for further improvements to be made with confidence. The present detector is already very useful for experiments that require a high DQE at very low doses.

  2. First images of a digital autoradiography system based on a Medipix2 hybrid silicon pixel detector.

    PubMed

    Mettivier, Giovanni; Montesi, Maria Cristina; Russo, Paolo

    2003-06-21

    We present the first images of beta autoradiography obtained with the high-resolution hybrid pixel detector consisting of the Medipix2 single photon counting read-out chip bump-bonded to a 300 microm thick silicon pixel detector. This room temperature system has 256 x 256 square pixels of 55 microm pitch (total sensitive area of 14 x 14 mm2), with a double threshold discriminator and a 13-bit counter in each pixel. It is read out via a dedicated electronic interface and control software, also developed in the framework of the European Medipix2 Collaboration. Digital beta autoradiograms of 14C microscale standard strips (containing separate bands of increasing specific activity in the range 0.0038-32.9 kBq g(-1)) indicate system linearity down to a total background noise of 1.8 x 10(-3) counts mm(-2) s(-1). The minimum detectable activity is estimated to be 0.012 Bq for 36,000 s exposure and 0.023 Bq for 10,800 s exposure. The measured minimum detection threshold is less than 1600 electrons (equivalent to about 6 keV Si). This real-time system for beta autoradiography offers lower pixel pitch and higher sensitive area than the previous Medipix1-based system. It has a 14C sensitivity better than that of micro channel plate based systems, which, however, shows higher spatial resolution and sensitive area.

  3. Imaging visible light with Medipix2.

    PubMed

    Mac Raighne, Aaron; Brownlee, Colin; Gebert, Ulrike; Maneuski, Dzmitry; Milnes, James; O'Shea, Val; Rügheimer, Tilman K

    2010-11-01

    A need exists for high-speed single-photon counting optical imaging detectors. Single-photon counting high-speed detection of x rays is possible by using Medipix2 with pixelated silicon photodiodes. In this article, we report on a device that exploits the Medipix2 chip for optical imaging. The fabricated device is capable of imaging at >3000 frames/s over a 256×256 pixel matrix. The imaging performance of the detector device via the modulation transfer function is measured, and the presence of ion feedback and its degradation of the imaging properties are discussed.

  4. Medipix2 based CdTe microprobe for dental imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vykydal, Z.; Fauler, A.; Fiederle, M.; Jakubek, J.; Svestkova, M.; Zwerger, A.

    2011-12-01

    Medical imaging devices and techniques are demanded to provide high resolution and low dose images of samples or patients. Hybrid semiconductor single photon counting devices together with suitable sensor materials and advanced techniques of image reconstruction fulfil these requirements. In particular cases such as the direct observation of dental implants also the size of the imaging device itself plays a critical role. This work presents the comparison of 2D radiographs of tooth provided by a standard commercial dental imaging system (Gendex 765DC X-ray tube with VisualiX scintillation detector) and two Medipix2 USB Lite detectors one equipped with a Si sensor (300 μm thick) and one with a CdTe sensor (1 mm thick). Single photon counting capability of the Medipix2 device allows virtually unlimited dynamic range of the images and thus increases the contrast significantly. The dimensions of the whole USB Lite device are only 15 mm × 60 mm of which 25% consists of the sensitive area. Detector of this compact size can be used directly inside the patients' mouth.

  5. Design and test of data acquisition systems for the Medipix2 chip based on PC standard interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fanti, Viviana; Marzeddu, Roberto; Piredda, Giuseppina; Randaccio, Paolo

    2005-07-01

    We describe two readout systems for hybrid detectors using the Medipix2 single photon counting chip, developed within the Medipix Collaboration. The Medipix2 chip (256×256 pixels, 55 μm pitch) has an active area of about 2 cm 2 and is bump-bonded to a pixel semiconductor array of silicon or other semiconductor material. The readout systems we are developing are based on two widespread standard PC interfaces: parallel port and USB (Universal Serial Bus) version 1.1. The parallel port is the simplest PC interface even if slow and the USB is a serial bus interface present nowadays on all PCs and offering good performances.

  6. Medipix2 as a tool for proton beam characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bisogni, M. G.; Cirrone, G. A. P.; Cuttone, G.; Del Guerra, A.; Lojacono, P.; Piliero, M. A.; Romano, F.; Rosso, V.; Sipala, V.; Stefanini, A.

    2009-08-01

    Proton therapy is a technique used to deliver a highly accurate and effective dose for the treatment of a variety of tumor diseases. The possibility to have an instrument able to give online information could reduce the time necessary to characterize the proton beam. To this aim we propose a detection system for online proton beam characterization based on the Medipix2 chip. Medipix2 is a detection system based on a single event counter read-out chip, bump-bonded to silicon pixel detector. The read-out chip is a matrix of 256×256 cells, 55×55 μm 2 each. To demonstrate the capabilities of Medipix2 as a proton detector, we have used a 62 MeV flux proton beam at the CATANA beam line of the LNS-INFN laboratory. The measurements performed confirmed the good imaging performances of the Medipix2 system also for the characterization of proton beams.

  7. A noiseless, kHz frame rate imaging detector for AO wavefront sensors based on MCPs read out with the Medipix2 CMOS pixel chip

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vallerga, J. V.; McPhate, J. B.; Tremsin, A. S.; Siegmund, O. H. W.; Mikulec, B.; Clark, A. G.

    2004-12-01

    Future wavefront sensors in adaptive optics (AO) systems for the next generation of large telescopes (> 30 m diameter) will require large formats (512x512) , kHz frame rates, low readout noise (<3 electrons) and high optical QE. The current generation of CCDs cannot achieve the first three of these specifications simultaneously. We present a detector scheme that can meet the first three requirements with an optical QE > 40%. This detector consists of a vacuum tube with a proximity focused GaAs photocathode whose photoelectrons are amplified by microchannel plates and the resulting output charge cloud counted by a pixelated CMOS application specific integrated circuit (ASIC) called the Medipix2 (http://medipix.web.cern.ch/MEDIPIX/). Each 55 micron square pixel of the Medipix2 chip has an amplifier, discriminator and 14 bit counter and the 256x256 array can be read out in 287 microseconds. The chip is 3 side abuttable so a 512x512 array is feasible in one vacuum tube. We will present the first results with an open-faced, demountable version of the detector where we have mounted a pair of MCPs 500 microns above a Medipix2 readout inside a vacuum chamber and illuminated it with UV light. The results include: flat field response, spatial resolution, spatial linearity on the sub-pixel level and global event counting rate. We will also discuss the vacuum tube design and the fabrication issues associated with the Medipix2 surviving the tube making process.

  8. Measurement of pattern recognition efficiency of tracks generated by ionizing radiation in a Medipix2 device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouchami, J.; Gutiérrez, A.; Holy, T.; Houdayer, A.; Jakůbek, J.; Lebel, C.; Leroy, C.; Macana, J.; Martin, J.-P.; Pospíšil, S.; Prak, S.; Sabella, P.; Teyssier, C.; CERN Medipix Collaboration

    2011-05-01

    Several experiments were performed to establish the Medipix2 device capabilities for track recognition and its efficiency at measuring fluxes. A Medipix2 device was exposed to 241Am, 106Ru and 137Cs radioactive sources, separately and simultaneously. It was also exposed to heavy particle beams (protons and alpha-particles), recoiled on a gold foil to reduce the incoming flux and allow the study of the detector response struck by incoming particles at different incidence angles. For three proton beams (400 keV, 4 and 10 MeV), the device was exposed to the radioactive sources on top of beam, giving a mixed radiation field. To test the reliability of track recognition with this device, the activities of the radioactive sources were extracted from the experimental data and compared to the expected activities. Rotation of the Medipix2 device allowed the test of the heavy tracks recognition at different incidence angles.

  9. A comparison of GaAs and Si hybrid solar power systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heinbockel, J. H.; Roberts, A. S., Jr.

    1977-01-01

    Five different hybrid solar power systems using silicon solar cells to produce thermal and electric power are modeled and compared with a hybrid system using a GaAs cell. Among the indices determined are capital cost per unit electric power plus mechanical power, annual cost per unit electric energy, and annual cost per unit electric plus mechanical work. Current costs are taken to be $35,000/sq m for GaAs cells with an efficiency of 15% and $1000/sq m for Si cells with an efficiency of 10%. It is shown that hybrid systems can be competitive with existing methods of practical energy conversion. Limiting values for annual costs of Si and GaAs cells are calculated to be 10.3 cents/kWh and 6.8 cents/kWh, respectively. Results for both systems indicate that for a given flow rate there is an optimal operating condition for minimum cost photovoltaic output. For Si cell costs of $50/sq m optimal performance can be achieved at concentrations of about 10; for GaAs cells costing 1000/sq m, optimal performance can be obtained at concentrations of around 100. High concentration hybrid systems offer a distinct cost advantage over flat systems.

  10. The Measurement of Spectral Characteristics and Composition of Radiation in Atlas with MEDIPIX2-USB Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, M.; Doležal, Z.; Greiffenberg, D.; Heijne, E.; Holy, T.; Idárraga, J.; Jakůbek, J.; Král, V.; Králík, M.; Lebel, C.; Leroy, C.; Llopart, X.; Lord, G.; Maneuski, D.; Ouellette, O.; Sochor, V.; Pospíšil, S.; Suk, M.; Tlustos, L.; Vykydal, Z.; Wilhelm, I.

    2008-06-01

    A network of devices to perform real-time measurements of the spectral characteristics and composition of radiation in the ATLAS detector and cavern during its operation is being built. This system of detectors will be a stand alone system fully capable of delivering real-time images of fluxes and spectral composition of different particle species including slow and fast neutrons. The devices are based on MEDIPIX2 pixel silicon detectors that will be operated via active USB cables and USB-Ethernet extenders through an Ethernet network by a PC located in the USA15 ATLAS control room. The installation of 14 devices inside ATLAS (detector and cavern) is in progress.

  11. Dephasing of LO-phonon-plasmon hybrid modes in n-type GaAs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vallée, F.; Ganikhanov, F.; Bogani, F.

    1997-11-01

    The relaxation dynamics of coherent phononlike LO-phonon-plasmon hybrid modes is investigated in n-doped GaAs using an infrared time-resolved coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering technique. Measurements performed for different crystal temperatures in the range 10-300 K as a function of the electron density injected by doping show a large reduction of the hybrid mode dephasing time compared to the bare LO-phonon one for densities larger than 1016 cm-3. The results are interpreted in terms of coherent decay of the LO-phonon-plasmon mixed mode in the weak-coupling regime and yield information on the plasmon and electron relaxation. The estimated average electron momentum relaxation times are smaller than those deduced from Hall mobility measurements, as expected from our theoretical model.

  12. Application of the Medipix2 technology to space radiation dosimetry and hadron therapy beam monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinsky, Lawrence; Stoffle, Nicholas; Jakubek, Jan; Pospisil, Stanislav; Leroy, Claude; Gutierrez, Andrea; Kitamura, Hisashi; Yasuda, Nakahiro; Uchihori, Yulio

    2011-02-01

    The Medipix2 Collaboration, based at CERN, has developed the TimePix version of the Medipix pixel readout chip, which has the ability to provide either an ADC or TDC capability separately in each of its 256×256 pixels. When coupled to a Si detector layer, the device is an excellent candidate for application as an active dosimeter for use in space radiation environments. In order to facilitate such a development, data have been taken with heavy ions at the HIMAC facility in Chiba, Japan. In particular, the problem of determining the resolution of such a detector system with respect to heavy ions of differing charges and energies, but with similar d E/d x values has been explored for several ions. The ultimate problem is to parse the information in the pixel "footprint" images from the drift of the charge cloud produced in the detector layer. In addition, with the use of convertor materials, the detector can be used as a neutron detector, and it has been used both as a charged particle and neutron detector to evaluate the detailed properties of the radiation fields produced by hadron therapy beams. New versions of the basic chip design are ongoing.

  13. In-vivo x-ray micro-imaging and micro-CT with the Medipix2 semiconductor detector at UniAndes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caicedo, I.; Avila, C.; Gomez, B.; Bula, C.; Roa, C.; Sanabria, J.

    2012-02-01

    This poster contains the procedure to obtain micro-CTs and to image moving samples using the Medipix2 detector, with its corresponding results. The high granularity of the detector makes it suitable for micro-CT. We used commercial software (Octopus) to do the 3D reconstruction of the samples in the first place, and we worked on modifying free reconstruction software afterwards. Medipix has a very fast response ( ~ hundreds of nanoseconds) and high sensibility. These features allow obtaining nearly in-vivo high resolution (55m * 55m) images. We used an exposure time of 0.1 s for each frame, and the resulting images were animated. The High Energy Physics Group at UniAndes is a member of the Medipix3 collaboration. Its research activities are focused on developing set-ups for biomedical applications and particle tracking using the Medipix2 and Timepix detectors, and assessing the feasibility of the Medipix3 detector for future applications.

  14. Analysis of GaAs and Si solar energy hybrid systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heinbockel, J. H.; Roberts, A. S., Jr.

    1977-01-01

    Various silicon hybrid systems are modeled and compared with a gallium arsenide hybrid system. The hybrid systems modeled produce electric power and also thermal power which can be used for heating or air conditioning. Various performance indices are defined and used to compare the system performance: capital cost per electric power out; capital cost per total power out; capital cost per electric power plus mechanical power; annual cost per annual electric energy; and annual cost per annual electric energy plus annual mechanical work. These performance indices indicate that concentrator hybrid systems can be cost effective when compared with present day energy costs.

  15. Hybrid functional study of band structures of GaAs1-xNx and GaSb1-xNx alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Virkkala, Ville; Havu, Ville; Tuomisto, Filip; Puska, Martti J.

    2012-02-01

    Band structures of GaAs1-xNx and GaSb1-xNx alloys are studied in the framework of the density functional theory within the hybrid functional scheme (HSE06). We find that the scheme gives a clear improvement over the traditional (semi)local functionals in describing, in a qualitative agreement with experiments, the bowing of electron energy band gap in GaAs1-xNx alloys. In the case of GaSb1-xNx alloys, the hybrid functional used makes the study of band structures possible ab initio without any empirical parameter fitting. We explain the trends in the band gap reductions in the two materials that result mainly from the positions of the nitrogen-induced states with respect to the bottoms of the bulk conduction bands.

  16. GaAs MOEMS Technology

    SciTech Connect

    SPAHN, OLGA B.; GROSSETETE, GRANT D.; CICH, MICHAEL J.

    2003-03-01

    Many MEMS-based components require optical monitoring techniques using optoelectronic devices for converting mechanical position information into useful electronic signals. While the constituent piece-parts of such hybrid opto-MEMS components can be separately optimized, the resulting component performance, size, ruggedness and cost are substantially compromised due to assembly and packaging limitations. GaAs MOEMS offers the possibility of monolithically integrating high-performance optoelectronics with simple mechanical structures built in very low-stress epitaxial layers with a resulting component performance determined only by GaAs microfabrication technology limitations. GaAs MOEMS implicitly integrates the capability for radiation-hardened optical communications into the MEMS sensor or actuator component, a vitalmore » step towards rugged integrated autonomous microsystems that sense, act, and communicate. This project establishes a new foundational technology that monolithically combines GaAs optoelectronics with simple mechanics. Critical process issues addressed include selectivity, electrochemical characteristics, and anisotropy of the release chemistry, and post-release drying and coating processes. Several types of devices incorporating this novel technology are demonstrated.« less

  17. Heterojunction photovoltaics using GaAs nanowires and conjugated polymers.

    PubMed

    Ren, Shenqiang; Zhao, Ni; Crawford, Samuel C; Tambe, Michael; Bulović, Vladimir; Gradecak, Silvija

    2011-02-09

    We demonstrate an organic/inorganic solar cell architecture based on a blend of poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) and narrow bandgap GaAs nanowires. The measured increase of device photocurrent with increased nanowire loading is correlated with structural ordering within the active layer that enhances charge transport. Coating the GaAs nanowires with TiO(x) shells passivates nanowire surface states and further improves the photovoltaic performance. We find that the P3HT/nanowire cells yield power conversion efficiencies of 2.36% under white LED illumination for devices containing 50 wt % of TiO(x)-coated GaAs nanowires. Our results constitute important progress for the use of nanowires in large area solution processed hybrid photovoltaic cells and provide insight into the role of structural ordering in the device performance.

  18. The electronic and optical properties of quaternary GaAs1-x-y N x Bi y alloy lattice-matched to GaAs: a first-principles study.

    PubMed

    Ma, Xiaoyang; Li, Dechun; Zhao, Shengzhi; Li, Guiqiu; Yang, Kejian

    2014-01-01

    First-principles calculations based on density functional theory have been performed for the quaternary GaAs1-x-y N x Bi y alloy lattice-matched to GaAs. Using the state-of-the-art computational method with the Heyd-Scuseria-Ernzerhof (HSE) hybrid functional, electronic, and optical properties were obtained, including band structures, density of states (DOSs), dielectric function, absorption coefficient, refractive index, energy loss function, and reflectivity. It is found that the lattice constant of GaAs1-x-y N x Bi y alloy with y/x =1.718 can match to GaAs. With the incorporation of N and Bi into GaAs, the band gap of GaAs1-x-y N x Bi y becomes small and remains direct. The calculated optical properties indicate that GaAs1-x-y N x Bi y has higher optical efficiency as it has less energy loss than GaAs. In addition, it is also found that the electronic and optical properties of GaAs1-x-y N x Bi y alloy can be further controlled by tuning the N and Bi compositions in this alloy. These results suggest promising applications of GaAs1-x-y N x Bi y quaternary alloys in optoelectronic devices.

  19. GaAs Computer Technology

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-01-07

    AD-A259 259 FASTC-ID FOREIGN AEROSPACE SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY CENTER GaAs COMPUTER TECHNOLOGY (1) by Wang Qiao-yu 93-00999 Distrir bution t,,,Nm ted...FASTC- ID(RS)T-0310-92 HUMAN TRANSLATION FASTC-ID(RS)T-0310-92 7 January 1993 GaAs COMPUTER TECHNOLOGY (1) By: Wang Qiao-yu English pages: 6 Source...the best quality copy available. j C] " ------ GaAs Computer Technology (1) Wang Qiao-yu (Li-Shan Microelectronics Institute) Abstract: The paper

  20. A high-speed GaAs MESFET optical controller

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Claspy, P. C.; Bhasin, K. B.; Richard, M.; Bendett, M.; Gustafson, G.

    1989-01-01

    Optical interconnects are being considered for control signal distribution in phased array antennas. A packaged hybrid GaAs optical controller with a 1:16 demultiplexed output that is suitable for this application is described. The controller, which was fabricated using enhancement/depletion mode MESFET technology, operates at demultiplexer-limited input data rates up to 305 Mb/s and requires less than 200 microW optical input power.

  1. Microprocessor design for GaAs technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milutinovic, Veljko M.

    Recent advances in the design of GaAs microprocessor chips are examined in chapters contributed by leading experts; the work is intended as reading material for a graduate engineering course or as a practical R&D reference. Topics addressed include the methodology used for the architecture, organization, and design of GaAs processors; GaAs device physics and circuit design; design concepts for microprocessor-based GaAs systems; a 32-bit GaAs microprocessor; a 32-bit processor implemented in GaAs JFET; and a direct coupled-FET-logic E/D-MESFET experimental RISC machine. Drawings, micrographs, and extensive circuit diagrams are provided.

  2. Development of a 1K x 1K GaAs QWIP Far IR Imaging Array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jhabvala, M.; Choi, K.; Goldberg, A.; La, A.; Gunapala, S.

    2003-01-01

    In the on-going evolution of GaAs Quantum Well Infrared Photodetectors (QWIPs) we have developed a 1,024 x 1,024 (1K x1K), 8.4-9 microns infrared focal plane array (FPA). This 1 megapixel detector array is a hybrid using the Rockwell TCM 8050 silicon readout integrated circuit (ROIC) bump bonded to a GaAs QWIP array fabricated jointly by engineers at the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) and the Army Research Laboratory (ARL). The finished hybrid is thinned at the Jet Propulsion Lab. Prior to this development the largest format array was a 512 x 640 FPA. We have integrated the 1K x 1K array into an imaging camera system and performed tests over the 40K-90K temperature range achieving BLIP performance at an operating temperature of 76K (f/2 camera system). The GaAs array is relatively easy to fabricate once the superlattice structure of the quantum wells has been defined and grown. The overall arrays costs are currently dominated by the costs associated with the silicon readout since the GaAs array fabrication is based on high yield, well-established GaAs processing capabilities. In this paper we will present the first results of our 1K x 1K QWIP array development including fabrication methodology, test data and our imaging results.

  3. Super-Lattice Light Emitting Diodes (SLEDS) on GaAs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-03-31

    Super-Lattice Light Emitting Diodes (SLEDS) on GaAs Kassem Nabha1, Russel Ricker2, Rodney McGee1, Nick Waite1, John Prineas2, Sydney Provence2...infrared light emitting diodes (LEDs). Typically, the LED arrays are mated with CMOS read-in integrated circuit (RIIC) chips using flip-chip bonding. In...circuit (RIIC) chips using flip-chip bonding. This established technology is called Hybrid-super-lattice light emitting diodes (Hybrid- SLEDS). In

  4. Self-assembled InAs quantum dot formation on GaAs ring-like nanostructure templates

    PubMed Central

    Strom, NW; Wang, Zh M; AbuWaar, ZY; Mazur, Yu I; Salamo, GJ

    2007-01-01

    The evolution of InAs quantum dot (QD) formation is studied on GaAs ring-like nanostructures fabricated by droplet homo-epitaxy. This growth mode, exclusively performed by a hybrid approach of droplet homo-epitaxy and Stransky-Krastanor (S-K) based QD self-assembly, enables one to form new QD morphologies that may find use in optoelectronic applications. Increased deposition of InAs on the GaAs ring first produced a QD in the hole followed by QDs around the GaAs ring and on the GaAs (100) surface. This behavior indicates that the QDs prefer to nucleate at locations of high monolayer (ML) step density.

  5. New Passivation Methods of GaAs.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-01-01

    Fabrication of Thin Nitride Layers on GaAs 33 - 35 CHAPTER 7 Passivation of InGaAsP 36 - 37 CHAPTER 8 Emulsions on GaAs Surfaces 38 - 42 APPENDIX...not yet given any useful results. The deposition of SiO2 by using emulsions is pursued and first results on the possibility of GaAs doping are...glycol-tartaric acid based aqueous solution was used in order to anodically oxidise the gate notch after the source and drain ohmic contacts were formed

  6. GaAs homojunction solar cell development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flood, D. J.; Swartz, C. K.; Hart, R. E., Jr.

    1980-01-01

    The Lincoln Laboratory n(+)/p/p(+) GaAs shallow homojunction cell structure was successfully demonstrated on 2 by 2 cm GaAs substrates. Air mass zero efficiencies of the seven cells produced to date range from 13.6 to 15.6 percent. Current voltage (I-V) characteristics, spectral response, and measurements were made on all seven cells. Preliminary analysis of 1 MeV electron radiation damage data indicate excellent radiation resistance for these cells.

  7. InGaN working electrodes with assisted bias generated from GaAs solar cells for efficient water splitting.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shu-Yen; Sheu, J K; Lin, Yu-Chuan; Chen, Yu-Tong; Tu, S J; Lee, M L; Lai, W C

    2013-11-04

    Hydrogen generation through water splitting by n-InGaN working electrodes with bias generated from GaAs solar cell was studied. Instead of using an external bias provided by power supply, a GaAs-based solar cell was used as the driving force to increase the rate of hydrogen production. The water-splitting system was tuned using different approaches to set the operating points to the maximum power point of the GaAs solar cell. The approaches included changing the electrolytes, varying the light intensity, and introducing the immersed ITO ohmic contacts on the working electrodes. As a result, the hybrid system comprising both InGaN-based working electrodes and GaAs solar cells operating under concentrated illumination could possibly facilitate efficient water splitting.

  8. GaAs Monolithic Microwave Subsystem Technology Base

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-01-01

    To provide a captive source of reliable, high-quality GaAs substrates, a new crystal growth and substrate preparation facility which utilizes a high...Symp. GaAs and Related Compounds, Inst. Phys. Conf. Ser. 24, 6. 20. Wood, Woodcock and Harris (1978) GaAs and Related Compounds, Inst. Phys. Conf

  9. Crystal growth of device quality GaAs in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gatos, H. C.; Lagowski, J.

    1979-01-01

    The optimization of space processing of GaAs is described. The detailed compositional, structural, and electronic characterization of GaAs on a macro- and microscale and the relationships between growth parameters and the properties of GaAs are among the factors discussed. The key parameters limiting device performance are assessed.

  10. Doping assessment in GaAs nanowires.

    PubMed

    Goktas, N Isik; Fiordaliso, E M; LaPierre, R R

    2018-06-08

    Semiconductor nanowires (NWs) are a candidate technology for future optoelectronic devices. One of the critical issues in NWs is the control of impurity doping for the formation of p-n junctions. In this study, beryllium (p-type dopant) and tellurium (n-type dopant) in self-assisted GaAs NWs was studied. The GaAs NWs were grown on (111) Si by molecular beam epitaxy using the self-assisted method. The dopant incorporation in the self-assisted GaAs NWs was investigated using Raman spectroscopy, photoluminescence, secondary ion mass spectrometry and electron holography. Be-doped NWs showed similar carrier concentration as compared to thin film (TF) standards. However, Te-doped NWs showed at least a one order of magnitude lower carrier concentration as compared to TF standards. Dopant incorporation mechanisms in NWs are discussed.

  11. GaAs Solar Cell Radiation Handbook

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anspaugh, B. E.

    1996-01-01

    The handbook discusses the history of GaAs solar cell development, presents equations useful for working with GaAs solar cells, describes commonly used instrumentation techniques for assessing radiation effects in solar cells and fundamental processes occurring in solar cells exposed to ionizing radiation, and explains why radiation decreases the electrical performance of solar cells. Three basic elements required to perform solar array degradation calculations: degradation data for GaAs solar cells after irradiation with 1 MeV electrons at normal incidence; relative damage coefficients for omnidirectional electron and proton exposure; and the definition of the space radiation environment for the orbit of interest, are developed and used to perform a solar array degradation calculation.

  12. Doping assessment in GaAs nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isik Goktas, N.; Fiordaliso, E. M.; LaPierre, R. R.

    2018-06-01

    Semiconductor nanowires (NWs) are a candidate technology for future optoelectronic devices. One of the critical issues in NWs is the control of impurity doping for the formation of p–n junctions. In this study, beryllium (p-type dopant) and tellurium (n-type dopant) in self-assisted GaAs NWs was studied. The GaAs NWs were grown on (111) Si by molecular beam epitaxy using the self-assisted method. The dopant incorporation in the self-assisted GaAs NWs was investigated using Raman spectroscopy, photoluminescence, secondary ion mass spectrometry and electron holography. Be-doped NWs showed similar carrier concentration as compared to thin film (TF) standards. However, Te-doped NWs showed at least a one order of magnitude lower carrier concentration as compared to TF standards. Dopant incorporation mechanisms in NWs are discussed.

  13. GaAs photoconductive semiconductor switch

    DOEpatents

    Loubriel, Guillermo M.; Baca, Albert G.; Zutavern, Fred J.

    1998-01-01

    A high gain, optically triggered, photoconductive semiconductor switch (PCSS) implemented in GaAs as a reverse-biased pin structure with a passivation layer above the intrinsic GaAs substrate in the gap between the two electrodes of the device. The reverse-biased configuration in combination with the addition of the passivation layer greatly reduces surface current leakage that has been a problem for prior PCSS devices and enables employment of the much less expensive and more reliable DC charging systems instead of the pulsed charging systems that needed to be used with prior PCSS devices.

  14. GaAs photoconductive semiconductor switch

    DOEpatents

    Loubriel, G.M.; Baca, A.G.; Zutavern, F.J.

    1998-09-08

    A high gain, optically triggered, photoconductive semiconductor switch (PCSS) implemented in GaAs as a reverse-biased pin structure with a passivation layer above the intrinsic GaAs substrate in the gap between the two electrodes of the device is disclosed. The reverse-biased configuration in combination with the addition of the passivation layer greatly reduces surface current leakage that has been a problem for prior PCSS devices and enables employment of the much less expensive and more reliable DC charging systems instead of the pulsed charging systems that needed to be used with prior PCSS devices. 5 figs.

  15. GaAs optoelectronic neuron arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, Steven; Grot, Annette; Luo, Jiafu; Psaltis, Demetri

    1993-01-01

    A simple optoelectronic circuit integrated monolithically in GaAs to implement sigmoidal neuron responses is presented. The circuit integrates a light-emitting diode with one or two transistors and one or two photodetectors. The design considerations for building arrays with densities of up to 10,000/sq cm are discussed.

  16. GaAs Solar Cell Radiation Handbook

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anspaugh, B. E.

    1996-01-01

    History of GaAs solar cell development is provided. Photovoltaic equations are described along with instrumentation techniques for measuring solar cells. Radiation effects in solar cells, electrical performance, and spacecraft flight data for solar cells are discussed. The space radiation environment and solar array degradation calculations are addressed.

  17. Hybrid Molecular and Spin-Semiconductor Based Research

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-02-02

    thick layers of low- temperature-grown (LTG) GaAs, i.e. GaAs grown at lower than normal substrate temperatures in a molecular beam epitaxy system...1999 – Oct.31, 2004 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Hybrid Molecular and Spin-Semiconductor Based research 5. FUNDING NUMBERS DAAD19-99-1-0198...spintronic devices. Thrust III is entitled “ Molecular Electronics” and its objective is to develop, characterize and model organic/inorganic

  18. Electrical properties of GaAs metal–oxide–semiconductor structure comprising Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} gate oxide and AlN passivation layer fabricated in situ using a metal–organic vapor deposition/atomic layer deposition hybrid system

    SciTech Connect

    Aoki, Takeshi, E-mail: aokit@sc.sumitomo-chem.co.jp; Fukuhara, Noboru; Osada, Takenori

    2015-08-15

    This paper presents a compressive study on the fabrication and optimization of GaAs metal–oxide–semiconductor (MOS) structures comprising a Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} gate oxide, deposited via atomic layer deposition (ALD), with an AlN interfacial passivation layer prepared in situ via metal–organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). The established protocol afforded self-limiting growth of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} in the atmospheric MOCVD reactor. Consequently, this enabled successive growth of MOCVD-formed AlN and ALD-formed Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} layers on the GaAs substrate. The effects of AlN thickness, post-deposition anneal (PDA) conditions, and crystal orientation of the GaAs substrate on the electrical properties of the resultingmore » MOS capacitors were investigated. Thin AlN passivation layers afforded incorporation of optimum amounts of nitrogen, leading to good capacitance–voltage (C–V) characteristics with reduced frequency dispersion. In contrast, excessively thick AlN passivation layers degraded the interface, thereby increasing the interfacial density of states (D{sub it}) near the midgap and reducing the conduction band offset. To further improve the interface with the thin AlN passivation layers, the PDA conditions were optimized. Using wet nitrogen at 600 °C was effective to reduce D{sub it} to below 2 × 10{sup 12} cm{sup −2} eV{sup −1}. Using a (111)A substrate was also effective in reducing the frequency dispersion of accumulation capacitance, thus suggesting the suppression of traps in GaAs located near the dielectric/GaAs interface. The current findings suggest that using an atmosphere ALD process with in situ AlN passivation using the current MOCVD system could be an efficient solution to improving GaAs MOS interfaces.« less

  19. LEC GaAs for integrated circuit applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kirkpatrick, C. G.; Chen, R. T.; Homes, D. E.; Asbeck, P. M.; Elliott, K. R.; Fairman, R. D.; Oliver, J. D.

    1984-01-01

    Recent developments in liquid encapsulated Czochralski techniques for the growth of semiinsulating GaAs for integrated circuit applications have resulted in significant improvements in the quality and quantity of GaAs material suitable for device processing. The emergence of high performance GaAs integrated circuit technologies has accelerated the demand for high quality, large diameter semiinsulating GaAs substrates. The new device technologies, including digital integrated circuits, monolithic microwave integrated circuits and charge coupled devices have largely adopted direct ion implantation for the formation of doped layers. Ion implantation lends itself to good uniformity and reproducibility, high yield and low cost; however, this technique also places stringent demands on the quality of the semiinsulating GaAs substrates. Although significant progress was made in developing a viable planar ion implantation technology, the variability and poor quality of GaAs substrates have hindered progress in process development.

  20. GaAs shallow-homojunction solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fan, J. C. C.

    1981-01-01

    The feasibility of fabricating space resistant, high efficiency, light weight, low cost GaAs shallow homojunction solar cells for space application is investigated. The material preparation of ultrathin GaAs single crystal layers, and the fabrication of efficient GaAs solar cells on bulk GaAs substrates are discussed. Considerable progress was made in both areas, and conversion efficiency about 16% AMO was obtained using anodic oxide as a single layer antireflection coating. A computer design shows that even better cells can be obtained with double layer antireflection coating. Ultrathin, high efficiency solar cells were obtained from GaAs films prepared by the CLEFT process, with conversion efficiency as high as 17% at AMI from a 10 micrometers thick GaAs film. A organometallic CVD was designed and constructed.

  1. Crystal growth of device quality GaAs in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gatos, H. C.; Lagowski, J.

    1984-01-01

    The crystal growth, device processing and device related properties and phenomena of GaAs are investigated. Our GaAs research evolves about these key thrust areas. The overall program combines: (1) studies of crystal growth on novel approaches to engineering of semiconductor materials (i.e., GaAs and related compounds); (2) investigation and correlation of materials properties and electronic characteristics on a macro- and microscale; (3) investigation of electronic properties and phenomena controlling device applications and device performance. The ground based program is developed which would insure successful experimentation with and eventually processing of GaAs in a near zero gravity environment.

  2. Vertically aligned GaAs nanowires on graphite and few-layer graphene: generic model and epitaxial growth.

    PubMed

    Munshi, A Mazid; Dheeraj, Dasa L; Fauske, Vidar T; Kim, Dong-Chul; van Helvoort, Antonius T J; Fimland, Bjørn-Ove; Weman, Helge

    2012-09-12

    By utilizing the reduced contact area of nanowires, we show that epitaxial growth of a broad range of semiconductors on graphene can in principle be achieved. A generic atomic model is presented which describes the epitaxial growth configurations applicable to all conventional semiconductor materials. The model is experimentally verified by demonstrating the growth of vertically aligned GaAs nanowires on graphite and few-layer graphene by the self-catalyzed vapor-liquid-solid technique using molecular beam epitaxy. A two-temperature growth strategy was used to increase the nanowire density. Due to the self-catalyzed growth technique used, the nanowires were found to have a regular hexagonal cross-sectional shape, and are uniform in length and diameter. Electron microscopy studies reveal an epitaxial relationship of the grown nanowires with the underlying graphitic substrates. Two relative orientations of the nanowire side-facets were observed, which is well explained by the proposed atomic model. A prototype of a single GaAs nanowire photodetector demonstrates a high-quality material. With GaAs being a model system, as well as a very useful material for various optoelectronic applications, we anticipate this particular GaAs nanowire/graphene hybrid to be promising for flexible and low-cost solar cells.

  3. Excitation and De-Excitation Mechanisms of Er-Doped GaAs and A1GaAs.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-12-01

    AD-A258 814 EXCITATION AND DE -EXCITATION MECHANISMS OF Er-DOPED GaAs AND A1GaAs DISSERTATION David W. Elsaesser, Captain, USAF DTICY. ft £ICTE’’ )AN...0 8 1993U -o Wo- .%Approved for public release; Distribution unlimited 93 1 04 022 AFIT/DS/ENP/92-5 EXCITATION AND DE -EXCITATION MECHANISMS OF Er...public release; Distribution unlimited AFIT/DS/ENP/92D-005 EXCITATION AND DE -EXCITATION MECHANISMS OF Er-DOPED GaAs AND A1GaAs 4 toFlor -- David W

  4. Stacking InAs quantum dots over ErAs semimetal nanoparticles on GaAs (0 0 1) using molecular beam epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yuanchang; Eyink, Kurt G.; Grazulis, Lawrence; Hill, Madelyn; Peoples, Joseph; Mahalingam, Krishnamurthy

    2017-11-01

    Hybrid nanostructures are known to elicit an enhanced optical response. We study the directed alignment of ErAs metal nanoparticle (NP) and InAs quantum dot (QD) using molecular beam eptaxy (MBE) in a GaAs matrix. Due to high surface free energy caused by the crystal structure difference, overgrowth of an ErAs NP with GaAs forms a depression that condenses subsequent InAs adatoms to form an inverted QD self-aligned to the underlying ErAs NP. The ErAs NP growth, GaAs overgrowth, and InAs QD deposition were carefully controlled and studied with transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) to investigate their effects on the QD-NP alignment.

  5. Failure Mechanisms of GaAs Transistors - A Literature Survey

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-03-01

    doping profile cannot be as sharp as with epitaxial methods. This is the result of the statistics of the implantation and the general diffusion that...Speed GaAs Logic Gates 5.1 GaAs PLANAR TRANSITOR STRUCTURES USED IN IC’S Some planar transistor structures used in IC’s with examples of the

  6. Laser Induced Electrodeposition on Polyimide and GaAs Substrates

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-10-01

    6 3.1 Laser Gold Plating on Undoped Ga As Substrate ........... 6 3.1.1 Deposit Formation...22 iv LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS Figure Page 1. Experimental Set-Up . . . . . .................. 4 2. Laser Gold Pla’ting Undoped GaAs (100...9 3. Laser Gold Plating Undoped GaAs (100) Deposit Resistance Measurement ......................... .10 4. Laser Gold Plating on Polyimide

  7. Panel fabrication utilizing GaAs solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mardesich, N.

    1984-01-01

    The development of the GaAs solar cells for space applications is described. The activities in the fabrication of GaAs solar panels are outlined. Panels were fabricated while introducing improved quality control, soldering laydown and testing procedures. These panels include LIPS II, San Marco Satellite, and a low concentration panel for Rockwells' evaluation. The panels and their present status are discussed.

  8. GaAs VLSI for aerospace electronics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larue, G.; Chan, P.

    1990-01-01

    Advanced aerospace electronics systems require high-speed, low-power, radiation-hard, digital components for signal processing, control, and communication applications. GaAs VLSI devices provide a number of advantages over silicon devices including higher carrier velocities, ability to integrate with high performance optical devices, and high-resistivity substrates that provide very short gate delays, good isolation, and tolerance to many forms of radiation. However, III-V technologies also have disadvantages, such as lower yield compared to silicon MOS technology. Achieving very large scale integration (VLSI) is particularly important for fast complex systems. At very short gate delays (less than 100 ps), chip-to-chip interconnects severely degrade circuit clock rates. Complex systems, therefore, benefit greatly when as many gates as possible are placed on a single chip. To fully exploit the advantages of GaAs circuits, attention must be focused on achieving high integration levels by reducing power dissipation, reducing the number of devices per logic function, and providing circuit designs that are more tolerant to process and environmental variations. In addition, adequate noise margin must be maintained to ensure a practical yield.

  9. Electrode pattern design for GaAs betavoltaic batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haiyang, Chen; Jianhua, Yin; Darang, Li

    2011-08-01

    The sensitivities of betavoltaic batteries and photovoltaic batteries to series and parallel resistance are studied. Based on the study, an electrode pattern design principle of GaAs betavoltaic batteries is proposed. GaAs PIN junctions with and without the proposed electrode pattern are fabricated and measured under the illumination of 63Ni. Results show that the proposed electrode can reduce the backscattering and shadowing for the beta particles from 63Ni to increase the GaAs betavoltaic battery short circuit currents effectively but has little impact on the fill factors and ideal factors.

  10. Technology requirements for GaAs photovoltaic arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scott-Monck, J.; Rockey, D.

    1981-01-01

    An analysis based on percent GaAs solar cell weight and cost is performed to assess the utility of this cell for future space missions. It is shown that the GaAs substrate cost and the end-of-life (EOL) advantage the cell can provide over the space qualified silicon solar cell are the dominant factors determining potential use. Examples are presented to show that system level advantages resulting from reduction in solar panel area may warrant the use of GaAs at its current weight and projected initial cost provided the EOL advantage over silicon is at least 20 percent.

  11. GaAs core--shell nanowires for photovoltaic applications.

    PubMed

    Czaban, Josef A; Thompson, David A; LaPierre, Ray R

    2009-01-01

    We report the use of Te as an n-type dopant in GaAs core-shell p-n junction nanowires for use in photovoltaic devices. Te produced significant change in the morphology of GaAs nanowires grown by the vapor-liquid-solid process in a molecular beam epitaxy system. The increase in radial growth of nanowires due to the surfactant effect of Te had a significant impact on the operating characteristics of photovoltaic devices. A decrease in solar cell efficiency occurred when the Te-doped GaAs growth duration was increased.

  12. GaAs VLSI technology and circuit elements for DSP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikkelson, James M.

    1990-10-01

    Recent progress in digital GaAs circuit performance and complexity is presented to demonstrate the current capabilities of GaAs components. High density GaAs process technology and circuit design techniques are described and critical issues for achieving favorable complexity speed power and cost tradeoffs are reviewed. Some DSP building blocks are described to provide examples of what types of DSP systems could be implemented with present GaAs technology. DIGITAL GaAs CIRCUIT CAPABILITIES In the past few years the capabilities of digital GaAs circuits have dramatically increased to the VLSI level. Major gains in circuit complexity and power-delay products have been achieved by the use of silicon-like process technologies and simple circuit topologies. The very high speed and low power consumption of digital GaAs VLSI circuits have made GaAs a desirable alternative to high performance silicon in hardware intensive high speed system applications. An example of the performance and integration complexity available with GaAs VLSI circuits is the 64x64 crosspoint switch shown in figure 1. This switch which is the most complex GaAs circuit currently available is designed on a 30 gate GaAs gate array. It operates at 200 MHz and dissipates only 8 watts of power. The reasons for increasing the level of integration of GaAs circuits are similar to the reasons for the continued increase of silicon circuit complexity. The market factors driving GaAs VLSI are system design methodology system cost power and reliability. System designers are hesitant or unwilling to go backwards to previous design techniques and lower levels of integration. A more highly integrated system in a lower performance technology can often approach the performance of a system in a higher performance technology at a lower level of integration. Higher levels of integration also lower the system component count which reduces the system cost size and power consumption while improving the system reliability

  13. Comparisons of single event vulnerability of GaAs SRAMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weatherford, T. R.; Hauser, J. R.; Diehl, S. E.

    1986-12-01

    A GaAs MESFET/JFET model incorporated into SPICE has been used to accurately describe C-EJFET, E/D MESFET and D MESFET/resistor GaAs memory technologies. These cells have been evaluated for critical charges due to gate-to-drain and drain-to-source charge collection. Low gate-to-drain critical charges limit conventional GaAs SRAM soft error rates to approximately 1E-6 errors/bit-day. SEU hardening approaches including decoupling resistors, diodes, and FETs have been investigated. Results predict GaAs RAM cell critical charges can be increased to over 0.1 pC. Soft error rates in such hardened memories may approach 1E-7 errors/bit-day without significantly reducing memory speed. Tradeoffs between hardening level, performance and fabrication complexity are discussed.

  14. GaAs monolithic RF modules for SARSAT distress beacons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cauley, Michael A.

    1991-01-01

    Monolithic GaAs UHF components for use in SARSAT Emergency Distress beacons are under development by Microwave Monolithics, Inc., Simi Valley, CA. The components include a bi-phase modulator, driver amplifier, and a 5 watt power amplifier.

  15. Electrodeposition of Metal on GaAs Nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Chao; Einabad, Omid; Watkins, Simon; Kavanagh, Karen

    2010-10-01

    Copper (Cu) electrical contacts to freestanding gallium arsenide (GaAs) nanowires have been fabricated via electrodeposition. The nanowires are zincblende (111) oriented grown epitaxially on n-type Si-doped GaAs (111)B substrates by gold-catalyzed Vapor Liquid Solid (VLS) growth in a metal organic vapour phase epitaxy (MOVPE) reactor. The epitaxial electrodeposition process, based on previous work with bulk GaAs substrates, consists of a substrate oxide pre-etch in dilute ammonium-hydroxide carried out prior to galvanostatic electrodeposition in a pure Cu sulphate aqueous electrolyte at 20-60^oC. For GaAs nanowires, we find that Cu or Fe has a preference for growth on the gold catalyst avoiding the sidewalls. After removing gold, both metals still prefer to grow only on top of the nanowire, which has the largest potential field.

  16. Crystal Growth of Device Quality Gaas in Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gatos, H. C.

    1985-01-01

    The GaAs research evolves about these key thrust areas. The overall program combines: (1) studies of crystal growth on novel approaches to engineering of semiconductor material (i.e., GaAs and related compounds); (2) investigation and correlation of materials properties and electronic characteristics on a macro- and microscale; and (3) investigation of electronic properties and phenomena controlling device applications and device performance. This effort is aimed at the essential ground-based program which would insure successful experimentation with and eventually processing of GaAs in near zero gravity environment. It is believed that this program addresses in a unique way materials engineering aspects which bear directly on the future exploitation of the potential of GaAs and related materials in device and systems applications.

  17. Crystal growth of device quality GaAs in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gatos, H. C.; Lagowski, J.

    1983-01-01

    GaAs device technology has recently reached a new phase of rapid advancement, made possible by the improvement of the quality of GaAs bulk crystals. At the same time, the transition to the next generation of GaAs integrated circuits and optoelectronic systems for commercial and government applications hinges on new quantum steps in three interrelated areas: crystal growth, device processing and device-related properties and phenomena. Special emphasis is placed on the establishment of quantitative relationships among crystal growth parameters-material properties-electronic properties and device applications. The overall program combines studies of crystal growth on novel approaches to engineering of semiconductor material (i.e., GaAs and related compounds); investigation and correlation of materials properties and electronic characteristics on a macro- and microscale; and investigation of electronic properties and phenomena controlling device applications and device performance.

  18. Characteristics of GaAs with inverted thermal conversion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kang, C. H.; Lagowski, J.; Gatos, H. C.

    1987-01-01

    GaAs crystals exhibiting inverted thermal conversion (ITC) of resistivity were investigated in conjunction with standard semiinsulating (SI) GaAs regarding characteristics important in device processing. It was established that dislocation density and Si implant activation are unaffected by transformation to the ITC state. However, in ITC GaAs the controlled increase of the EL2 (native midgap donor) concentration during annealing makes it possible to attain resistivities one order of magnitude greater (e.g., about 10 to the 9th ohm cm of 300 K) than those attained in standard SI GaAs (e.g., 10 to the 7th-10 to the 8th ohm cm).

  19. Characterisation of semi-insulating GaAs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walukiewicz, W.; Pawlowicz, L.; Lagowski, J.; Gatos, H. C.

    1982-01-01

    Hole and electron mobilities as functions of temperature and ionised impurity concentration are calculated for GaAs. It is shown that these calculations, when used to analyse electrical properties of semi-insulating GaAs, enable an assessment of the Fermi energy position and ionised impurity concentration to be made. In contrast to previous work, the analysis does not require any phenomenological assumptions.

  20. Design optimization of GaAs betavoltaic batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Haiyanag; Jiang, Lan; Chen, Xuyuan

    2011-06-01

    GaAs junctions are designed and fabricated for betavoltaic batteries. The design is optimized according to the characteristics of GaAs interface states and the diffusion length in the depletion region of GaAs carriers. Under an illumination of 10 mCi cm-2 63Ni, the open circuit voltage of the optimized batteries is about ~0.3 V. It is found that the GaAs interface states induce depletion layers on P-type GaAs surfaces. The depletion layer along the P+PN+ junction edge isolates the perimeter surface from the bulk junction, which tends to significantly reduce the battery dark current and leads to a high open circuit voltage. The short circuit current density of the optimized junction is about 28 nA cm-2, which indicates a carrier diffusion length of less than 1 µm. The overall results show that multi-layer P+PN+ junctions are the preferred structures for GaAs betavoltaic battery design.

  1. Design and fabrication of GaAs OMIST photodetector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Xuejun; Lin, ShiMing; Liao, Qiwei; Gao, Junhua; Liu, Shi'an; Cheng, Peng; Wang, Hongjie; Zhang, Chunhui; Wang, Qiming

    1998-08-01

    We designed and fabricated GaAs OMIST (Optical-controlled Metal-Insulator-Semiconductor Thyristor) device. Using oxidation of AlAs layer that is grown by MBE forms the Ultra- Thin semi-Insulating layer (UTI) of the GAAS OMIST. The accurate control and formation of high quality semi-insulating layer (AlxOy) are the key processes for fabricating GaAs OMIST. The device exhibits a current-controlled negative resistance region in its I-V characteristics. When illuminated, the major effect of optical excitation is the reduction of the switching voltage. If the GaAs OMIST device is biased at a voltage below its dark switching voltage Vs, sufficient incident light can switch OMIST from high impedance low current 'off' state to low impedance high current 'on' state. The absorbing material of OMIST is GaAS, so if the wavelength of incident light within 600 to approximately 850 nm can be detected effectively. It is suitable to be used as photodetector for digital optical data process. The other attractive features of GaAs OMIST device include suitable conducted current, switching voltage and power levels for OEIC, high switch speed and high sensitivity to light or current injection.

  2. Early stages of Cs adsorption mechanism for GaAs nanowire surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diao, Yu; Liu, Lei; Xia, Sihao; Feng, Shu

    2018-03-01

    In this study, the adsorption mechanism of Cs adatoms on the (100) surface of GaAs nanowire with [0001] growth direction is investigated utilizing first principles method based on density function theory. The adsorption energy, work function, atomic structure and electronic property of clean surface and Cs-covered surfaces with different coverage are discussed. Results show that when only one Cs is adsorbed on the surface, the most favorable adsorption site is BGa-As. With increasing Cs coverage, work function gradually decreases and gets its minimum at 0.75 ML, then rises slightly when Cs coverage comes to 1 ML, indicating the existence of 'Cs-kill' phenomenon. According to further analysis, Cs activation process can effectively reduce the work function due to the formation of a downward band bending region and surface dipole moment directing from Cs adatom to the surface. As Cs coverage increases, the conduction band minimum and valence band maximum both shift towards lower energy side, contributed by the orbital hybridization between Cs-5s, Cs-5p states and Ga-4p, As-4s, As-4p states near Fermi level. The theoretical calculations and analysis in this study can improve the Cs activation technology for negative electron affinity optoelectronic devices based on GaAs nanowires, and also provide a reference for the further Cs/O or Cs/NF3 activation process.

  3. Tuning of few-electron states and optical absorption anisotropy in GaAs quantum rings.

    PubMed

    Wu, Zhenhua; Li, Jian; Li, Jun; Yin, Huaxiang; Liu, Yu

    2017-11-15

    The electronic and optical properties of a GaAs quantum ring (QR) with few electrons in the presence of the Rashba spin-orbit interaction (RSOI) and the Dresselhaus spin-orbit interaction (DSOI) have been investigated theoretically. The configuration interaction (CI) method is employed to calculate the eigenvalues and eigenstates of the multiple-electron QR accurately. Our numerical results demonstrate that the symmetry breaking induced by the RSOI and DSOI leads to an anisotropic distribution of multi-electron states. The Coulomb interaction offers additional modulation of the electron distribution and thus the optical absorption indices in the quantum rings. By tuning the magnetic/electric fields and/or electron numbers in a quantum ring, one can change its optical properties significantly. Our theory provides a new way to control the multi-electron states and optical properties of a QR by hybrid modulations or by electrical means only.

  4. Plasma deposited diamondlike carbon on GaAs and InP

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warner, J. D.; Pouch, J. J.; Alterovitz, S. A.; Liu, D. C.; Lanford, W. A.

    1984-01-01

    The properties of diamond like carbon films grown by RF flow discharge 30 kHz plasma using methane are reported. The Cls XPS line shape of films showed localized hybrid carbon bonds as low as 40 to as high as 95 percent. Infrared spectroscopy and N(15) nuclear reaction profiling data indicated 35 to 42 percent hydrogen, depending inversely on deposition temperature. The deposition rate of films on Si falls off exponentially with substrate temperature, and nucleation does not occur above 200 C on GaAs and InP. Optical data of the films showed bandgap values of 2.0 to 2.4 eV increasing monotonically with CH4 flow rate.

  5. Landau quantization in monolayer GaAs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, Hsien-Ching; Ho, Ching-Hong; Chang, Cheng-Peng; Chen, Chun-Nan; Chiu, Chih-Wei; Lin, Ming-Fa

    In the past decade, the discovery of graphene has opened the possibility of two-dimensional materials both in fundamental researches and technological applications. However, the gapless feature shrinks the applications of pristine graphene. Recently, researchers have new challenges and opportunities for post-graphene two-dimensional nanomaterials, such as silicene (Si), germanene (Ge), and tinene (Sn), due to the large enough energy gap (of the size comparable to the thermal energy at room temperature). Apart from the graphene analogs of group IV elements, the buckled honeycomb lattices of the binary compositions of group III-V elements have been proposed as a new class of post-graphene two-dimensional nanomaterials. In this study, the generalized tight-binding model considering the spin-orbital coupling is used to investigate the essential properties of monolayer GaAs. The Landau quantization, band structure, wave function, and density of states are discussed in detail. One of us (Hsien-Ching Chung) thanks Ming-Hui Chung and Su-Ming Chen for financial support. This work was supported in part by the Ministry of Science and Technology of Taiwan under Grant Number MOST 105-2811-M-017-003.

  6. Electrical and Optical Characterization of Sputtered Silicon Dioxide, Indium Tin Oxide, and Silicon Dioxide/Indium Tin Oxide Antireflection Coating on Single-Junction GaAs Solar Cells

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Wen-Jeng; Lin, Jian-Cheng; Liu, Jheng-Jie; Bai, Wen-Bin; Shiao, Hung-Pin

    2017-01-01

    This study characterized the electrical and optical properties of single-junction GaAs solar cells coated with antireflective layers of silicon dioxide (SiO2), indium tin oxide (ITO), and a hybrid layer of SiO2/ITO applied using Radio frequency (RF) sputtering. The conductivity and transparency of the ITO film were characterized prior to application on GaAs cells. Reverse saturation-current and ideality factor were used to evaluate the passivation performance of the various coatings on GaAs solar cells. Optical reflectance and external quantum efficiency response were used to evaluate the antireflective performance of the coatings. Photovoltaic current-voltage measurements were used to confirm the efficiency enhancement obtained by the presence of the anti-reflective coatings. The conversion efficiency of the GaAs cells with an ITO antireflective coating (23.52%) exceeded that of cells with a SiO2 antireflective coating (21.92%). Due to lower series resistance and higher short-circuit current-density, the carrier collection of the GaAs cell with ITO coating exceeded that of the cell with a SiO2/ITO coating. PMID:28773063

  7. Microwave GaAs Integrated Circuits On Quartz Substrates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siegel, Peter H.; Mehdi, Imran; Wilson, Barbara

    1994-01-01

    Integrated circuits for use in detecting electromagnetic radiation at millimeter and submillimeter wavelengths constructed by bonding GaAs-based integrated circuits onto quartz-substrate-based stripline circuits. Approach offers combined advantages of high-speed semiconductor active devices made only on epitaxially deposited GaAs substrates with low-dielectric-loss, mechanically rugged quartz substrates. Other potential applications include integration of antenna elements with active devices, using carrier substrates other than quartz to meet particular requirements using lifted-off GaAs layer in membrane configuration with quartz substrate supporting edges only, and using lift-off technique to fabricate ultrathin discrete devices diced separately and inserted into predefined larger circuits. In different device concept, quartz substrate utilized as transparent support for GaAs devices excited from back side by optical radiation.

  8. Interface demarcation in GaAs by current pulsing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matthiesen, D. H.; Kafalas, J. A.; Duchene, G. A.; Bellows, A. H.

    1990-01-01

    GTE Laboratories is currently conducting a program to investigate the effect of convection in the melt on the properties of bulk grown gallium arsenide (GaAs). In addition to extensive ground based experimentation, a Get Away Special growth system has been developed to grow two GaAs crystals aboard the Space Shuttle, each with a one inch diameter. In order to perform a complete segregation analysis of the crystals grown in space, it is necessary to measure the interface shape and growth rate as well as the spatial distribution of the selenium dopant. The techniques for interface demarcation in selenium doped GaAs by current pulsing have been developed at GTE Laboratories and successful interface demarcation has been achieved for current pulses ranging from 20 to 90 amps, in both single crystal and polycrystalline regions.

  9. Crystal growth of device quality GaAs in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gatos, H. C.; Lagowski, J.

    1985-01-01

    The present program has been aimed at solving the fundamental and technological problems associated with Crystal Growth of Device Quality in Space. The initial stage of the program was devoted strictly to ground-based research. The unsolved problems associated with the growth of bulk GaAs in the presence of gravitational forces were explored. Reliable chemical, structural and electronic characterization methods were developed which would permit the direct relation of the salient materials parameters (particularly those affected by zero gravity conditions) to the electronic characteristics of single crystal GaAs, in turn to device performance. These relationships are essential for the development of optimum approaches and techniques. It was concluded that the findings on elemental semiconductors Ge and Si regarding crystal growth, segregation, chemical composition, defect interactions, and materials properties-electronic properties relationships are not necessarily applicable to GaAs (and to other semiconductor compounds). In many instances totally unexpected relationships were found to prevail.

  10. Oxygen in GaAs - Direct and indirect effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gatos, H. C.; Skowronski, M.; Pawlowicz, L.; Lagowski, J.

    1984-01-01

    Oxygen has profound effects on the key electronic properties and point defects of GaAs crystals. Thus, when added in the growth system, it decreases the free electron concentration and enhances the concentration of deep donors in the resulting crystals. Both of these effects are highly beneficial for achieving semi-insulating material and have been utilized for that purpose. They have been attributed to the tendency of oxygen to getter silicon impurities during crystal growth. Only recently, it has been found that oxygen in GaAs introduces also a midgap level, ELO, with essentially the same activation energy as EL2 but with four times greater electron capture cross section. The present report reassesses the electrical and optical properties of the midgap levels in GaAs crystals grown by the horizontal Bridgman (HB) and the Czochralski-LEC techniques. Emphasis is placed on the identification of the specific effects of ELO.

  11. Tight-binding analysis of Si and GaAs ultrathin bodies with subatomic wave-function resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Yaohua P.; Povolotskyi, Michael; Kubis, Tillmann; Boykin, Timothy B.; Klimeck, Gerhard

    2015-08-01

    Empirical tight-binding (ETB) methods are widely used in atomistic device simulations. Traditional ways of generating the ETB parameters rely on direct fitting to bulk experiments or theoretical electronic bands. However, ETB calculations based on existing parameters lead to unphysical results in ultrasmall structures like the As-terminated GaAs ultrathin bodies (UTBs). In this work, it is shown that more transferable ETB parameters with a short interaction range can be obtained by a process of mapping ab initio bands and wave functions to ETB models. This process enables the calibration of not only the ETB energy bands but also the ETB wave functions with corresponding ab initio calculations. Based on the mapping process, ETB models of Si and GaAs are parameterized with respect to hybrid functional calculations. Highly localized ETB basis functions are obtained. Both the ETB energy bands and wave functions with subatomic resolution of UTBs show good agreement with the corresponding hybrid functional calculations. The ETB methods can then be used to explain realistically extended devices in nonequilibrium that cannot be tackled with ab initio methods.

  12. Miniature X-band GaAs MMIC analog and bi-phase modulators for spaceborne communications applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mysoor, Narayan R.; Ali, Fazal

    1992-01-01

    The design concepts, analyses, and the development of GaAs monolithic microwave integrated circuit (MMIC) linear-phase and digital modulators for the next generation of spaceborne communications systems are summarized. The design approach uses a very compact lumped-element, quadrature hybrid, and MESFET-varactors to provide low-loss and well-controlled phase performance for deep-space transponder (DST) applications. The measured results of the MESFET-diode show a capacitance range of 2:1 under reverse bias, and a Q of 38 at 10 GHz. Three cascaded sections of hybrid-coupled reflection phase shifters have been modeled and simulations performed to provide an X-band (8415 +/- 50 MHz) DST phase modulator with +/-2.5 radians of peak phase deviation.

  13. Nuclear spin warm up in bulk n -GaAs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotur, M.; Dzhioev, R. I.; Vladimirova, M.; Jouault, B.; Korenev, V. L.; Kavokin, K. V.

    2016-08-01

    We show that the spin-lattice relaxation in n -type insulating GaAs is dramatically accelerated at low magnetic fields. The origin of this effect, which cannot be explained in terms of well-known diffusion-limited hyperfine relaxation, is found in the quadrupole relaxation, induced by fluctuating donor charges. Therefore, quadrupole relaxation, which governs low field nuclear spin relaxation in semiconductor quantum dots, but was so far supposed to be harmless to bulk nuclei spins in the absence of optical pumping, can be studied and harnessed in the much simpler model environment of n -GaAs bulk crystal.

  14. Amplification in Double Heterostructure GaAs Lasers.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-03-15

    done, for example, in the book by Siegman . When the laser signal which is to be amplified is a single mode, it is important to include the possibility...k A’AD-A097 862 AEROSPACE CORP EL SEGUNDO CA ELECTRONICS RESEARCH LAP) P 5 20/5 I AMPLIFICATION IN DOUBLE HETEROSTRUCTURE GAAS LASERS .(U IMAR al E...GARMIRE, M CHANG F04701-80-C-0081I UNCLASSIFIED TR GO81(6930 03)-2 SD-TA8-30 NL Amplification in Double Heterostructure GaAs Lasers E. GARMIRE nd M

  15. GaAs Surface Passivation for Device Applications.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-12-01

    Ga203.’" . QI. a) / b) x 2.5 •• 24 21 18 As3d a) b) x 2. / 0 II 2 46 43 40 BINDING ENERGY (eV) Fig. 3 XPS spectra from a Ga2O3 covered GaAs surface of Ga...wU 24 21 Gas 18 SAs3d As2O3 ) .. 46 43 40 BINDING ENERGY (e) Fig. 4 XPS spectra from a AsJ03- Ga2O3 covered GaAs surface of Ga 3d (upper panel) and As

  16. Phosphine Functionalization GaAs(111)A Surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Traub, M.; Biteen, J; Michalak, D

    Phosphorus-functionalized GaAs surfaces have been prepared by exposure of Cl-terminated GaAs(111)A surfaces to triethylphosphine (PEt3) or trichlorophosphine (PCl3), or by the direct functionalization of the native-oxide terminated GaAs(111)A surface with PCl3. The presence of phosphorus on each functionalized surface was confirmed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. High-resolution, soft X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy was used to evaluate the As and Ga 3d regions of such surfaces. On PEt3 treated surfaces, the Ga 3d spectra exhibited a bulk Ga peak as well as peaks that were shifted to 0.35, 0.92 and 1.86 eV higher binding energy. These peaks were assigned to residual Cl-terminated Gamore » surface sites, surficial Ga2O and surficial Ga2O3, respectively. For PCl3-treated surfaces, the Ga 3d spectra displayed peaks ascribable to bulk Ga(As), Ga2O, and Ga2O3, as well as a peak shifted 0.30 eV to higher binding energy relative to the bulk signal. A peak corresponding to Ga(OH)3, observed on the Cl-terminated surface, was absent from all of the phosphine-functionalized surfaces. After reaction of the Cl-terminated GaAs(111)A surface with PCl3 or PEt3, the As 3d spectral region was free of As oxides and As0. Although native oxide-terminated GaAs surfaces were free of As oxides after reaction with PCl3, such surfaces contained detectable amounts of As0. Photoluminescence measurements indicted that phosphine-functionalized surfaces prepared from Cl-terminated GaAs(111)A surfaces had better electrical properties than the native-oxide capped GaAs(111)A surface, while the native-oxide covered surface treated with PCl3 showed no enhancement in PL intensity.« less

  17. Cathodoluminescence Characterization of Ion Implanted GaAs.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-03-01

    technique that can be used to characterize the semiconductor device "in situ" before further processing can save the Air Force valuable time as well...Patterson Air Force Base,Ohio i! i ill i I ;Wow AFIT/DS/PH/80- I.i1I LEVELOO CATHODOLUMINESCENCE CHARACTERIZATION OF ION IPLANTED GaAs D I SSERUrAT ION...CATODOLUMINESCENCE CHARACTERIZATION .’ a .... OF ION IMPLANTED GaAs’ - .. .. Dtriy’ t’ c:’/ A’: t 1. - Cc;-,P by an i’or Milton L one B.S., M.S. Major USAF Approved

  18. GaAs laser diode pumped Nd:YAG laser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conant, L. C.; Reno, C. W.

    1974-01-01

    A 1.5-mm by 3-cm neodymium-ion doped YAG laser rod has been side pumped using a GaAs laser diode array tuned to the 8680-A absorption line, achieving a multimode average output power of 120 mW for a total input power of 20 W to the final-stage laser diode drivers. The pumped arrangement was designed to take advantage of the high brightness of a conventional GaAs array as a linear source by introducing the pump light through a slit into a close-wrapped gold coated pump cavity. This cavity forms an integrating chamber for the pump light.

  19. High efficiency thin-film GaAs solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stirn, R. J.

    1977-01-01

    Several oxidation techniques are discussed which have been found to increase the open circuit (V sub oc) of metal-GaAs Schottky barrier solar cells, the oxide chemistry, attempts to measure surface state parameters, the evolving characteristics of the solar cell as background contamination (has been decreased, but not eliminated), results of focused Nd/YAG laser beam recrystallization of Ge films evaporated onto tungsten, and studies of AMOS solar cells fabricated on sliced polycrystalline GaAs wafers. Also discussed are projected materials availability and costs for GaAs thin-film solar cells.

  20. Advanced GaAs Process Modeling. Volume 1

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-05-01

    COSATI CODES 18 . SUBJECT TERMS (Continue on reverse if necessary and identify by block number) FIELD GROUP SUB-GROUP Gallium Arsenide, MESFET, Process...Background 9 3.2 Model Calculations 10 3.3 Conclusions 17 IV. ION-IMPLANTATION INTO GaAs PROFILE DETERMINATION 18 4.1 Ion Implantation Profile...Determination in GaAs 18 4.1.1. Background 18 4.1.2. Experimental Measurements 20 4.1.3. Results 22 4.1.3.1 Ion-Energy Dependence 22 4.1.3.2. Tilt and Rotation

  1. Defect interactions in GaAs single crystals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gatos, H. C.; Lagowski, J.

    1984-01-01

    The two-sublattice structural configuration of GaAs and deviations from stoichiometry render the generation and interaction of electrically active point defects (and point defect complexes) critically important for device applications and very complex. Of the defect-induced energy levels, those lying deep into the energy band are very effective lifetime ""killers". The level 0.82 eV below the condition band, commonly referred to as EL2, is a major deep level, particularly in melt-grown GaAs. This level is associated with an antisite defect complex (AsGa - VAS). Possible mechanisms of its formation and its annihilation were further developed.

  2. Crystal growth of GaAs in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gatos, H. C.; Lagowski, J.; Pawlowicz, L. M.; Dabkowski, F.; Li, C. J.

    1984-01-01

    It is shown that stoichiometry variations in the GaAs melt during growth constitute the most critical parameter regarding defect formations and their interactions; this defect structure determines all relevant characteristics of GaAs. Convection in the melt leads to stoichiometric variations. Growth in axial magnetic fields reduces convection and permits the study of defect structure. In order to control stoichiometry in space and to accommodate expansion during solidification, a partially confined configuration was developed. A triangular prism is employed to contain the growth melt. This configuration permits the presence of the desired vapor phase in contact with the melt for controlling the melt stoichiometry.

  3. Investigation of high efficiency GaAs solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olsen, Larry C.; Dunham, Glen; Addis, F. W.; Huber, Dan; Linden, Kurt

    1989-01-01

    Investigations of basic mechanisms which limit the performance of high efficiency GaAs solar cells are discussed. P/N heteroface structures have been fabricated from MOCVD epiwafers. Typical AM1 efficiencies are in the 21 to 22 percent range, with a SERI measurement for one cell being 21.5 percent. The cells are nominally 1.5 x 1.5 cm in size. Studies have involved photoresponse, T-I-V analyses, and interpretation of data in terms of appropriate models to determine key cell parameters. Results of these studies are utilized to determine future approaches for increasing GaAs solar cell efficiencies.

  4. Scanning microwave microscopy applied to semiconducting GaAs structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buchter, Arne; Hoffmann, Johannes; Delvallée, Alexandra; Brinciotti, Enrico; Hapiuk, Dimitri; Licitra, Christophe; Louarn, Kevin; Arnoult, Alexandre; Almuneau, Guilhem; Piquemal, François; Zeier, Markus; Kienberger, Ferry

    2018-02-01

    A calibration algorithm based on one-port vector network analyzer (VNA) calibration for scanning microwave microscopes (SMMs) is presented and used to extract quantitative carrier densities from a semiconducting n-doped GaAs multilayer sample. This robust and versatile algorithm is instrument and frequency independent, as we demonstrate by analyzing experimental data from two different, cantilever- and tuning fork-based, microscope setups operating in a wide frequency range up to 27.5 GHz. To benchmark the SMM results, comparison with secondary ion mass spectrometry is undertaken. Furthermore, we show SMM data on a GaAs p-n junction distinguishing p- and n-doped layers.

  5. Structure of high-index GaAs surfaces - the discovery of the stable GaAs(2511) surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobi, K.; Geelhaar, L.; Márquez, J.

    We present a brief overview of surface structures of high-index GaAs surfaces, putting emphasis on recent progress in our own laboratory. By adapting a commercial scanning tunneling microscope (STM) to our molecular beam epitaxy and ultra high vacuum analysis chamber system, we have been able to atomically resolve the GaAs( {1} {1} {3})B(8 ×1), (114)Aα2(2×1), (137), (3715), and (2511) surface structures. In cooperation with P. Kratzer and M. Scheffler from the Theory Department of the Fritz-Haber Institute we determined the structure of some of these surfaces by comparing total-energy calculations and STM image simulations with the atomically resolved STM images. We present the results for the {112}, {113}, and {114} surfaces. Then we describe what led us to proceed into the inner parts of the stereographic triangle and to discover the hitherto unknown stable GaAs(2511) surface.

  6. Temperature dependent GaAs MMIC radiation effects

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, W.T.; Roussos, J.A.; Gerdes, J.

    1993-12-01

    The temperature dependence of pulsed neutron and flash x-ray radiation effects was studied in GaAs MMICs. Above room temperature the long term current transients are dominated by electron trapping in previously existing defects. At low temperature in the range 126 to 259 K neutron induced lattice damage appears to play an increasingly important role in producing long term current transients.

  7. GaAs Photovoltaics on Polycrystalline Ge Substrates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilt, David M.; Pal, AnnaMaria T.; McNatt, Jeremiah S.; Wolford, David S.; Landis, Geoffrey A.; Smith, Mark A.; Scheiman, David; Jenkins, Phillip P.; McElroy Bruce

    2007-01-01

    High efficiency III-V multijunction solar cells deposited on metal foil or even polymer substrates can provide tremendous advantages in mass and stowage, particularly for planetary missions. As a first step towards that goal, poly-crystalline p/i/n GaAs solar cells are under development on polycrystalline Ge substrates. Organo Metallic Vapor Phase Epitaxy (OMVPE) parameters for pre-growth bake, nucleation and deposition have been examined. Single junction p/i/n GaAs photovoltaic devices, incorporating InGaP front and back window layers, have been grown and processed. Device performance has shown a dependence upon the thickness of a GaAs buffer layer deposited between the Ge substrate and the active device structure. A thick (2 m) GaAs buffer provides for both increased average device performance as well as reduced sensitivity to variations in grain size and orientation. Illumination under IR light (lambda > 1 micron), the cells showed a Voc, demonstrating the presence of an unintended photoactive junction at the GaAs/Ge interface. The presence of this junction limited the efficiency to approx.13% (estimated with an anti-refection coating) due to the current mismatch and lack of tunnel junction interconnect.

  8. High purity, low dislocation GaAs single crystals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, R. T.; Holmes, D. E.; Kirkpatrick, C. G.

    1983-01-01

    Liquid encapsulated Czochralski crystal growth techniques for producing undoped, high resistivity, low dislocation material suitable for device applications is described. Technique development resulted in reduction of dislocation densities in 3 inch GaAs crystals. Control over the melt stoichiometry was determined to be of critical importance for the reduction of twinning and polycrystallinity during growth.

  9. Gallium arsenide (GaAs) power conversion concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nussberger, A. A.

    1980-01-01

    A summary design analysis of a GaAs power conversion system for the solar power satellite (SPS) is presented. Eight different satellite configuration options for the solar arrays are compared. Solar cell annealing effects after proton irradiation are considered. Mass estimates for the SPS and the effect of solar cell parameters on SPS array design are discussed.

  10. The 20 GHz power GaAs FET development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crandell, M.

    1986-01-01

    The development of power Field Effect Transistors (FET) operating in the 20 GHz frequency band is described. The major efforts include GaAs FET device development (both 1 W and 2 W devices), and the development of an amplifier module using these devices.

  11. First results from GaAs double-sided detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beaumont, S. P.; Bertin, R.; Booth, C. N.; Buttar, C.; Carraresi, L.; Cindolo, F.; Colocci, M.; Combley, F. H.; D'Auria, S.; del Papa, C.; Dogru, M.; Edwards, M.; Foster, F.; Francescato, A.; Gowdy, S.; Gray, R.; Hill, G.; Hou, Y.; Houston, P.; Hughes, G.; Jones, B. K.; Lynch, J. G.; Lisowski, B.; Matheson, J.; Nava, F.; Nuti, M.; O'Shea, V.; Pelfer, P. G.; Raine, C.; Santana, J.; Saunders, I. J.; Seller, P. H.; Shankar, K.; Sharp, P. H.; Skillicorn, I. O.; Sloan, T.; Smith, K. M.; ten Have, I.; Turnbull, R. M.; Vanni, U.; Zichichi, A.

    1994-09-01

    Preliminary results are presented on the performance of double-sided microstrip detectors using Schottky contacts on both sides of a semi-insulating (SI) GaAs substrate wafer, after exposure to 10 14 neutrons cm -2 at the ISIS facility. A qualitative explanation of the device behaviour is given.

  12. Femtosecond coherent emission from GaAs bulk microcavities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gurioli, Massimo; Bogani, Franco; Ceccherini, Simone; Colocci, Marcello; Beltram, Fabio; Sorba, Lucia

    1999-02-01

    The emission from a λ/2 GaAs bulk microcavity resonantly excited by femtosecond pulses has been characterized by using an interferometric correlation technique. It is found that the emission is dominated by the coherent signal due to light elastically scattered by disorder, and that scattering is predominantly originated from the lower polariton branch.

  13. GaAs Spectrometer for Electron Spectroscopy at Europa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lioliou, G.; Barnett, A. M.

    2016-12-01

    We propose a GaAs based electron spectrometer for a hypothetical future mission orbiting Europa. Previous observations at Europa's South Pole with the Hubble Space Telescope of hydrogen Lyman-α and oxygen OI 130.4 nm emissions were consistent with water vapor plumes [Roth et al., 2014, Science 343, 171]. Future observations and analysis of plumes on Europa could provide information about its subsurface structure and the distribution of liquid water within its icy shells [Rhoden at al. 2015, Icarus 253, 169]. In situ low energy (1keV - 100keV) electron spectroscopy along with UV imaging either in situ or with the Hubble Space Telescope Wide Field Camera 3 or similar would allow verification of the auroral observations being due to electron impact excitation of water vapor plumes. The proposed spectrometer includes a novel GaAs p+-i-n+ photodiode and a custom-made charge-sensitive preamplifier. The use of an early prototype GaAs detector for direct electron spectroscopy has already been demonstrated in ground based applications [Barnett et al., 2012, J. Instrum. 7, P09012]. Based on previous radiation hardness measurements of GaAs, the expected duration of the mission without degradation of the detector performance is estimated to be 4 months. Simulations and laboratory experiments characterising the detection performance of the proposed system are presented.

  14. The mismatch repair system protects against intergenerational GAA repeat instability in a Friedreich ataxia mouse model.

    PubMed

    Ezzatizadeh, Vahid; Pinto, Ricardo Mouro; Sandi, Chiranjeevi; Sandi, Madhavi; Al-Mahdawi, Sahar; Te Riele, Hein; Pook, Mark A

    2012-04-01

    Friedreich ataxia (FRDA) is an autosomal recessive neurodegenerative disorder caused by a dynamic GAA repeat expansion mutation within intron 1 of the FXN gene. Studies of mouse models for other trinucleotide repeat (TNR) disorders have revealed an important role of mismatch repair (MMR) proteins in TNR instability. To explore the potential role of MMR proteins on intergenerational GAA repeat instability in FRDA, we have analyzed the transmission of unstable GAA repeat expansions from FXN transgenic mice which have been crossed with mice that are deficient for Msh2, Msh3, Msh6 or Pms2. We find in all cases that absence of parental MMR protein not only maintains transmission of GAA expansions and contractions, but also increases GAA repeat mutability (expansions and/or contractions) in the offspring. This indicates that Msh2, Msh3, Msh6 and Pms2 proteins are not the cause of intergenerational GAA expansions or contractions, but act in their canonical MMR capacity to protect against GAA repeat instability. We further identified differential modes of action for the four MMR proteins. Thus, Msh2 and Msh3 protect against GAA repeat contractions, while Msh6 protects against both GAA repeat expansions and contractions, and Pms2 protects against GAA repeat expansions and also promotes contractions. Furthermore, we detected enhanced occupancy of Msh2 and Msh3 proteins downstream of the FXN expanded GAA repeat, suggesting a model in which Msh2/3 dimers are recruited to this region to repair mismatches that would otherwise produce intergenerational GAA contractions. These findings reveal substantial differences in the intergenerational dynamics of expanded GAA repeat sequences compared with expanded CAG/CTG repeats, where Msh2 and Msh3 are thought to actively promote repeat expansions. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. The mismatch repair system protects against intergenerational GAA repeat instability in a Friedreich ataxia mouse model

    PubMed Central

    Ezzatizadeh, Vahid; Pinto, Ricardo Mouro; Sandi, Chiranjeevi; Sandi, Madhavi; Al-Mahdawi, Sahar; te Riele, Hein; Pook, Mark A.

    2013-01-01

    Friedreich ataxia (FRDA) is an autosomal recessive neurodegenerative disorder caused by a dynamic GAA repeat expansion mutation within intron 1 of the FXN gene. Studies of mouse models for other trinucleotide repeat (TNR) disorders have revealed an important role of mismatch repair (MMR) proteins in TNR instability. To explore the potential role of MMR proteins on intergenerational GAA repeat instability in FRDA, we have analyzed the transmission of unstable GAA repeat expansions from FXN transgenic mice which have been crossed with mice that are deficient for Msh2, Msh3, Msh6 or Pms2. We find in all cases that absence of parental MMR protein not only maintains transmission of GAA expansions and contractions, but also increases GAA repeat mutability (expansions and/or contractions) in the offspring. This indicates that Msh2, Msh3, Msh6 and Pms2 proteins are not the cause of intergenerational GAA expansions or contractions, but act in their canonical MMR capacity to protect against GAA repeat instability. We further identified differential modes of action for the four MMR proteins. Thus, Msh2 and Msh3 protect against GAA repeat contractions, while Msh6 protects against both GAA repeat expansions and contractions, and Pms2 protects against GAA repeat expansions and also promotes contractions. Furthermore, we detected enhanced occupancy of Msh2 and Msh3 proteins downstream of the FXN expanded GAA repeat, suggesting a model in which Msh2/3 dimers are recruited to this region to repair mismatches that would otherwise produce intergenerational GAA contractions. These findings reveal substantial differences in the intergenerational dynamics of expanded GAA repeat sequences compared with expanded CAG/CTG repeats, where Msh2 and Msh3 are thought to actively promote repeat expansions. PMID:22289650

  16. Dynamics of reflection high-energy electron diffraction intensity oscillations during molecular beam epitaxial growth of GaAs on (111)B GaAs substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yen, M. Y.; Haas, T. W.

    1990-06-01

    We have observed intensity oscillations in reflection high-energy electron diffraction during molecular beam epitaxial growth of GaAs on (111)B GaAs substrates. These oscillations only exist over a narrow range of growth conditions and their behavior is strongly dependent on the migration kinetics of group III and the molecular dissociative reaction of group V elements.

  17. Studies of molecular-beam epitaxy growth of GaAs on porous Si substrates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mii, Y. J.; Kao, Y. C.; Wu, B. J.; Wang, K. L.; Lin, T. L.; Liu, J. K.

    1988-01-01

    GaAs has been grown on porous Si directly and on Si buffer layer-porous Si substrates by molecular-beam epitaxy. In the case of GaAs growth on porous Si, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) reveals that the dominant defects in GaAs layers grown on porous Si are microtwins and stacking faults, which originate from the GaAs/porous Si interface. GaAs is found to penetrate into the porous Si layers. By using a thin Si buffer layer (50 nm), GaAs penetration diminishes and the density of microtwins and stacking faults is largely reduced and localized at the GaAs/Si buffer interface. However, there is a high density of threading dislocations remaining. Both Si (100) aligned and four degree tilted substrates have been examined in this study. TEM results show no observable effect of the tilted substrates on the quality of the GaAs epitaxial layer.

  18. Lateral epitaxial overgowth of GaAs by organometallic chemical vapor deposition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gale, R. P.; Mcclelland, R. W.; Fan, J. C. C.; Bozler, C. O.

    1982-01-01

    Lateral epitaxial overgrowth of GaAs by organometallic chemical vapor deposition has been demonstrated. Pyrolytic decomposition of trimethylgallium and arsine, without the use of HCl, was used to deposit GaAs on substrates prepared by coating (110) GaAs wafers with SiO2, then using photolithography to open narrow stripes in the oxide. Lateral overgrowth was seeded by epitaxial deposits formed on the GaAs surfaces exposed by the stripe openings. The extent of lateral overgrowth was investigated as a function of stripe orientation and growth temperature. Ratios of lateral to vertical growth rates greater than five have been obtained. The lateral growth is due to surface-kinetic control for the two-dimensional growth geometry studied. A continuous epitaxial GaAs layer 3 microns thick has been grown over a patterned mask on a GaAs substrate and then cleaved from the substrate.

  19. Solar powered hybrid sensor module program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, J. M.; Holmes, H. K.

    1985-01-01

    Geo-orbital systems of the near future will require more sophisticated electronic and electromechanical monitoring and control systems than current satellite systems with an emphasis in the design on the electronic density and autonomy of the subsystem components. Results of a project to develop, design, and implement a proof-of-concept sensor system for space applications, with hybrids forming the active subsystem components are described. The design of the solar power hybrid sensor modules is discussed. Module construction and function are described. These modules combined low power CMOS electronics, GaAs solar cells, a crystal oscillatory standard UART data formatting, and a bidirectional optical data link into a single 1.25 x 1.25 x 0.25 inch hybrid package which has no need for electrical input or output. Several modules were built and tested. Applications of such a system for future space missions are also discussed.

  20. Cryogenic measurements of aerojet GaAs n-JFETs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goebel, John H.; Weber, Theodore T.

    1993-01-01

    The spectral noise characteristics of Aerojet gallium arsenide (GaAs) junction field effect transistors (JFET's) have been investigated down to liquid-helium temperatures. Noise characterization was performed with the field effect transistor (FET) in the floating-gate mode, in the grounded-gate mode to determine the lowest noise readings possible, and with an extrinsic silicon photodetector at various detector bias voltages to determine optimum operating conditions. The measurements indicate that the Aerojet GaAs JFET is a quiet and stable device at liquid helium temperatures. Hence, it can be considered a readout line driver or infrared detector preamplifier as well as a host of other cryogenic applications. Its noise performance is superior to silicon (Si) metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistor (MOSFET's) operating at liquid helium temperatures, and is equal to the best Si n channel junction field effect transistor (n-JFET's) operating at 300 K.

  1. Terahertz pulse induced intervalley scattering in photoexcited GaAs.

    PubMed

    Su, F H; Blanchard, F; Sharma, G; Razzari, L; Ayesheshim, A; Cocker, T L; Titova, L V; Ozaki, T; Kieffer, J-C; Morandotti, R; Reid, M; Hegmann, F A

    2009-06-08

    Nonlinear transient absorption bleaching of intense few-cycle terahertz (THz) pulses is observed in photoexcited GaAs using opticalpump--THz-probe techniques. A simple model of the electron transport dynamics shows that the observed nonlinear response is due to THz-electric- field-induced intervalley scattering over sub-picosecond time scales as well as an increase in the intravalley scattering rate attributed to carrier heating. Furthermore, the nonlinear nature of the THz pulse transmission at high peak fields leads to a measured terahertz conductivity in the photoexcited GaAs that deviates significantly from the Drude behavior observed at low THz fields, emphasizing the need to explore nonlinear THz pulse interactions with materials in the time domain.

  2. High purity low dislocation GaAs single crystals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, R. T.; Holmes, D. E.; Kirkpatrick, C. G.

    1982-01-01

    Recent advances in GaAs bulk crystal growth using the LEC (liquid encapsulated Czochralski) technique are described. The dependence of the background impurity concentration and the dislocation density distribution on the materials synthesis and growth conditions were investigated. Background impurity concentrations as low as 4 x 10 to the 15th power were observed in undoped LEC GaAs. The dislocation density in selected regions of individual ingots was very low, below the 3000 cm .3000/sq cm threshold. The average dislocation density over a large annular ring on the wafers fell below the 10000/sq cm level for 3 inch diameter ingots. The diameter control during the program advanced to a diameter variation along a 3 inch ingot less than 2 mm.

  3. Crystal growth of device quality GaAs in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gatos, H. C.; Lagowski, J.

    1986-01-01

    It was established that the findings on elemental semiconductors Ge and Si regarding crystal growth, segregation, chemical composition, defect interactions, and materials properties-electronic properties relationships are not necessarily applicable to GaAs (and to other semiconductor compounds). In many instances totally unexpected relationships were found to prevail. It was further established that in compound semiconductors with a volatile constituent, control of stoichiometry is far more critical than any other crystal growth parameter. It was also shown that, due to suppression of nonstoichiometric fluctuations, the advantages of space for growth of semiconductor compounds extend far beyond those observed in elemental semiconductors. A novel configuration was discovered for partial confinement of GaAs melt in space which overcomes the two major problems associated with growth of semiconductors in total confinement. They are volume expansion during solidification and control of pressure of the volatile constituent. These problems are discussed in detail.

  4. Optical detectors for GaAs MMIC integration: Technology assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Claspy, P. C.; Bhasin, K. B.

    1989-01-01

    Fiber optic links are being considered to transmit digital and analog signals in phased array antenna feed networks in space communications systems. The radiating elements in these arrays will be GaAs monolithic microwave integrated circuits (MMIC's) in numbers ranging from a few hundred to several thousand. If such optical interconnects are to be practical it appears essential that the associated components, including detectors, be monolithically integrated on the same chip as the microwave circuitry. The general issue of monolithic integration of microwave and optoelectronic components is addressed from the point of view of fabrication technology and compatibility. Particular attention is given to the fabrication technology of various types of GaAs optical detectors that are designed to operate at a wavelength of 830 nm.

  5. Crystal growth of device quality GaAs in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gatos, Harry C.; Lagowski, Jacek

    1989-01-01

    The program on Crystal Growth of Device Quality GaAs in Space was initiated in 1977. The initial stage covering 1977 to 1984 was devoted strictly to ground-based research. By 1985 the program had evolved into its next logical stage aimed at space growth experiments; however, since the Challenger disaster, the program has been maintained as a ground-based program awaiting activation of experimentation in space. The overall prgram has produced some 80 original scientific publications on GaAs crystal growth, crystal characterization, and new approaches to space processing. Publication completed in the last three years are listed. Their key results are outlined and discussed in the twelve publications included as part of the report.

  6. Insertion of GaAs MMICs into EW systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schineller, E. R.; Pospishil, A.; Grzyb, J.

    1989-09-01

    Development activities on a microwave/mm-wave monolithic IC (MIMIC) program are described, as well as the methodology for inserting these GaAs IC chips into several EW systems. The generic EW chip set developed on the MIMIC program consists of 23 broadband chip types, including amplifiers, oscillators, mixers, switches, variable attenuators, power dividers, and power combiners. These chips are being designed for fabrication using the multifunction self-aligned gate process. The benefits from GaAs IC insertion are quantified by a comparison of hardware units fabricated with existing MIC and digital ECL technology and the same units manufactured with monolithic technology. It is found that major improvements in cost, reliability, size, weight, and performance can be realized. Examples illustrating the methodology for technology insertion are presented.

  7. GaAs Optoelectronic Integrated-Circuit Neurons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, Steven H.; Kim, Jae H.; Psaltis, Demetri

    1992-01-01

    Monolithic GaAs optoelectronic integrated circuits developed for use as artificial neurons. Neural-network computer contains planar arrays of optoelectronic neurons, and variable synaptic connections between neurons effected by diffraction of light from volume hologram in photorefractive material. Basic principles of neural-network computers explained more fully in "Optoelectronic Integrated Circuits For Neural Networks" (NPO-17652). In present circuits, devices replaced by metal/semiconductor field effect transistors (MESFET's), which consume less power.

  8. Capless Annealing of Ion Implanted GaA.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-12-01

    1967). 10. " Thermophysical Properties of Matter," edited by Y. S. Touloukian (Plenum, New York, 1977), v. 13. 11. J. F. Gibbons, W. S. Johnson and S. W...temperatures of 850 C. Using rf spark-source mass spectrometry, an As con- centration in excess of the equilibrium value of As over GaAs at the annealing...38 4.0 SUMMARY AND RECOMMENDATIONS ................... *.* ...... ..... 46 5.0 REFERENCES ..................... *.. o

  9. Failure mechanism of THz GaAs photoconductive antenna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qadri, Syed B.; Wu, Dong H.; Graber, Benjamin D.; Mahadik, Nadeemullah A.; Garzarella, Anthony

    2012-07-01

    We investigated the failure mechanism of THz GaAs photoconductive antenna using high resolution x-ray diffraction topography. From these studies, it was found that grain boundaries are formed during the high frequency device operation. This results in the segregation of gold at the boundaries causing electromigration of the metal between the gold micro-strips. This disrupts the photocurrents from being produced by femtosecond laser thus preventing terahertz beam generation from the photoconductive antennae leading to device failure.

  10. Wafer-Fused Orientation-Patterned GaAs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-02-13

    frequencies utilizing existing industrial foundries. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Orientation-patterned Gallium Arsenide, hydride vapor phase epitaxy, quasi-phase... Gallium Arsenide, hydride vapor phase epitaxy, quasi-phase-matching, nonlinear frequency conversion 1. INTRODUCTION Quasi-phase-matching (QPM)1...and E. Lallier, “Second harmonic generation of CO2 laser using thick quasi-phase-matched GaAs layer grown by hydride vapour phase epitaxy

  11. Gallium arsenide (GaAs) solar cell modeling studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heinbockel, J. H.

    1980-01-01

    Various models were constructed which will allow for the variation of system components. Computer studies were then performed using the models constructed in order to study the effects of various system changes. In particular, GaAs and Si flat plate solar power arrays were studied and compared. Series and shunt resistance models were constructed. Models for the chemical kinetics of the annealing process were prepared. For all models constructed, various parametric studies were performed.

  12. On the dissolution properties of GaAs in Ga

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davidson, M. C.; Moynahan, A. H.

    1977-01-01

    The dissolution of GaAs in Ga was studied to determine the nature and cause of faceting effects. Ga was allowed to dissolve single crystalline faces under isothermal conditions. Of the crystalline planes with low number indices, only the (100) surface showed a direct correlation of dissolution sites to dislocations. The type of dissolution experienced depended on temperature, and there were three distinct types of behavior.

  13. Solar heating of GaAs nanowire solar cells.

    PubMed

    Wu, Shao-Hua; Povinelli, Michelle L

    2015-11-30

    We use a coupled thermal-optical approach to model the operating temperature rise in GaAs nanowire solar cells. We find that despite more highly concentrated light absorption and lower thermal conductivity, the overall temperature rise in a nanowire structure is no higher than in a planar structure. Moreover, coating the nanowires with a transparent polymer can increase the radiative cooling power by 2.2 times, lowering the operating temperature by nearly 7 K.

  14. Solar heating of GaAs nanowire solar cells

    DOE PAGES

    Wu, Shao-Hua; Povinelli, Michelle L.

    2015-09-25

    We use a coupled thermal-optical approach to model the operating temperature rise in GaAs nanowire solar cells. Our findings show that despite more highly concentrated light absorption and lower thermal conductivity, the overall temperature rise in a nanowire structure is no higher than in a planar structure. Moreover, coating the nanowires with a transparent polymer can increase the radiative cooling power by 2.2 times, lowering the operating temperature by nearly 7 K.

  15. Burst annealing of high temperature GaAs solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brothers, P. R.; Horne, W. E.

    1991-01-01

    One of the major limitations of solar cells in space power systems is their vulnerability to radiation damage. One solution to this problem is to periodically heat the cells to anneal the radiation damage. Annealing was demonstrated with silicon cells. The obstacle to annealing of GaAs cells was their susceptibility to thermal damage at the temperatures required to completely anneal the radiation damage. GaAs cells with high temperature contacts and encapsulation were developed. The cells tested are designed for concentrator use at 30 suns AMO. The circular active area is 2.5 mm in diameter for an area of 0.05 sq cm. Typical one sun AMO efficiency of these cells is over 18 percent. The cells were demonstrated to be resistant to damage after thermal excursions in excess of 600 C. This high temperature tolerance should allow these cells to survive the annealing of radiation damage. A limited set of experiments were devised to investigate the feasibility of annealing these high temperature cells. The effect of repeated cycles of electron and proton irradiation was tested. The damage mechanisms were analyzed. Limitations in annealing recovery suggested improvements in cell design for more complete recovery. These preliminary experiments also indicate the need for further study to isolate damage mechanisms. The primary objective of the experiments was to demonstrate and quantify the annealing behavior of high temperature GaAs cells. Secondary objectives were to measure the radiation degradation and to determine the effect of repeated irradiation and anneal cycles.

  16. Blueish green photoluminescence from nitrided GaAs(100) surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimaoka, Goro; Udagawa, Takashi

    1999-04-01

    Optical and structural studies were made on the Si-doped (100)GaAs surfaces nitrided at a temperature between 650° and 750°C for 15 min in the flowing NH 3 gas. The wavelength of photoluminescence (PL) spectra were observed to be shortened from 820 nm of the GaAs nitrided at 650°C with increasing nitridation temperature. Blueish green PL with wavelengths of approx. 490 nm and 470 nm were emitted from the nitrided surfaces at 700° and 750°C, respectively. Results of AES and SIMS indicated that the surfaces are nitrided as GaAs 1- xN x, (0< x≤1) alloy layer, and the nitrided region also tended to increase as the temperature raised. High-resolution transmission electron microscopic (HRTEM), transmission electron diffraction (TED) and energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) results showed that films peeled off from the nitrided surfaces consisted mainly of hexagonal, wurtzite-type gallium nitride (GaN) with stacking faults and microtwins.

  17. Transient GaAs plasmonic metasurfaces at terahertz frequencies

    DOE PAGES

    Yang, Yuanmu; Kamaraju, N.; Campione, Salvatore; ...

    2016-12-09

    Here we demonstrate the ultrafast formation of terahertz (THz) metasurfaces through all-optical creation of spatially modulated carrier density profiles in a deep-subwavelength GaAs film. The switch-on of the transient plasmon mode, governed by the GaAs effective electron mass and electron–phonon interactions, is revealed by structured-optical pump THz probe spectroscopy, on a time scale of 500 fs. By modulating the carrier density using different pump fluences, we observe a wide tuning of the electric dipole resonance of the transient GaAs metasurface from 0.5 THz to 1.7 THz. Furthermore, we numerically demonstrate that the metasurface presented here can be generalized to moremore » complex architectures for realizing functionalities such as perfect absorption, leading to a 30 dB modulation depth. In conclusion, the platform also provides a pathway to achieve ultrafast manipulation of infrared beams in the linear and, potentially, nonlinear regime.« less

  18. Heteroepitaxial growth of GaAs on (100) Ge/Si using migration enhanced epitaxy

    SciTech Connect

    Tanoto, H.; Loke, W. K.; Yoon, S. F.

    In this paper, heteroepitaxial growth of GaAs on nominal (100) Ge/Si substrate was investigated. The root-mean square surface roughness of the sample where the first few monolayers of the GaAs were nucleated by migration enhanced epitaxy (MEE) is four times smaller compared to the sample without such a process, indicating better surface planarity. From the (004) x-ray diffraction rocking curve measurement, the full width at half maximum of the GaAs layer nucleated by MEE is 40% lower compared to that of the GaAs layer without such a process, indicating better crystal quality. Furthermore, it was found that the sample wheremore » the GaAs layer was nucleated by MEE experienced early relaxation. As the MEE process promotes two-dimensional growth, the GaAs layer where nucleation was initiated by such a process has fewer islandlike formations. This leads to a pseudomorphically grown GaAs layer, which experiences higher strain compared to the GaAs layer with more islandlike formations, where most relaxation occurs on the free surface of the islands. Therefore, for the same layer thickness, the GaAs layer on (100) Ge/Si substrate where nucleation was initiated by MEE relaxed first.« less

  19. GaAs thin films and methods of making and using the same

    DOEpatents

    Boettcher, Shannon; Ritenour, Andrew; Boucher, Jason; Greenaway, Ann

    2016-06-14

    Disclosed herein are embodiments of methods for making GaAs thin films, such as photovoltaic GaAs thin films. The methods disclosed herein utilize sources, precursors, and reagents that do not produce (or require) toxic gas and that are readily available and relatively low in cost. In some embodiments, the methods are readily scalable for industrial applications and can provide GaAs thin films having properties that are at least comparable to or potentially superior to GaAs films obtained from conventional methods.

  20. Nitridation of porous GaAs by an ECR ammonia plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naddaf, M.; Hullavarad, S. S.; Ganesan, V.; Bhoraskar, S. V.

    2006-02-01

    The effect of surface porosity of GaAs on the nature of growth of GaN, by use of plasma nitridation of GaAs, has been investigated. Porous GaAs samples were prepared by anodic etching of n-type (110) GaAs wafers in HCl solution. Nitridation of porous GaAs samples were carried out by using an electron-cyclotron resonance-induced ammonia plasma. The formation of mixed phases of GaN was investigated using the grazing angle x-ray diffraction method. A remarkable improvement in the intensity of photoluminescence (PL) compared with that of GaN synthesized by direct nitriding of GaAs surface has been observed. The PL intensity of nitrided porous GaAs at the temperature of 380 °C was found to be about two orders of magnitude higher as compared with the directly nitrided GaAs at the temperature of 500 °C. The changes in the morphology of nitrided porous GaAs have been investigated using both scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy.

  1. Gate Drain Underlapped-PNIN-GAA-TFET for Comprehensively Upgraded Analog/RF Performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madan, Jaya; Chaujar, Rishu

    2017-02-01

    This work integrates the merits of gate-drain underlapping (GDU) and N+ source pocket on cylindrical gate all around tunnel FET (GAA-TFET) to form GDU-PNIN-GAA-TFET. It is analysed that the source pocket located at the source-channel junction narrows the tunneling barrier width at the tunneling junction and thereby enhances the ON-state current of GAA-TFET. Further, it is obtained that the GDU resists the extension of carrier density (built-up under the gated region) towards the drain side (under the underlapped length), thereby suppressing the ambipolar current and reducing the parasitic capacitances of GAA-TFET. Consequently, the amalgamated merits of both engineering schemes are obtained in GDU-PNIN-GAA-TFET that thus conquers the greatest challenges faced by TFET. Thus, GDU-PNIN-GAA-TFET results in an up-gradation in the overall performance of GAA-TFET. Moreover, it is realised that the RF figure of merits FOMs such as cut-off frequency (fT) and maximum oscillation frequency (fMAX) are also considerably improved with integration of source pocket on GAA-TFET. Thus, the improved analog and RF performance of GDU-PNIN-GAA-TFET makes it ideal for low power and high-speed applications.

  2. Inverted thermal conversion - GaAs, a new alternative material for integrated circuits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lagowski, J.; Gatos, H. C.; Kang, C. H.; Skowronski, M.; Ko, K. Y.

    1986-01-01

    A new type of GaAs is developed which exhibits inverted thermal conversion (ITC); i.e., it converts from conducting to semiinsulating upon annealing at about 850 C. In device fabrication, its low resistivity prior to high-temperature processing differentiates ITC GaAs from the standard semiinsulating GaAs. The ITC characteristics are obtained through control of the concentration of the midgap donor EL2 based on heat treatment and crystal-growth modification. Thus EL2 does not exist in the conducting state of ITC GaAs. Conversion to the semiinsulating state during 850 C annealing is caused by the formation of EL2.

  3. Testing a GaAs cathode in SRF gun

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, E.; Kewisch, J.; Ben-Zvi, I.

    RF electron guns with a strained superlattice GaAs cathode are expected to generate polarized electron beams of higher brightness and lower emittance than do DC guns, due to their higher field gradient at the cathode's surface and lower cathode temperature. We plan to install a bulk GaAs:Cs in a SRF gun to evaluate the performance of both the gun and the cathode in this environment. The status of this project is: In our 1.3 GHz 1/2 cell SRF gun, the vacuum can be maintained at nearly 10{sup -12} Torr because of cryo-pumping at 2K. With conventional activation of bulk GaAs,more » we obtained a QE of 10% at 532 nm, with lifetime of more than 3 days in the preparation chamber and have shown that it can survive in transport from the preparation chamber to the gun. The beam line has been assembled and we are exploring the best conditions for baking the cathode under vacuum. We report here the progress of our test of the GaAs cathode in the SRF gun. Future particle accelerators, such as eRHIC and the ILC require high-brightness, high-current polarized electrons. Strained superlattice GaAs:Cs has been shown to be an efficient cathode for producing polarized electrons. Activation of GaAs with Cs,O(F) lowers the electron affinity and makes it energetically possible for all the electrons, excited into the conduction band that drift or diffuse to the emission surface, to escape into the vacuum. Presently, all operating polarized electron sources, such as the CEBAF, are DC guns. In these devices, the excellent ultra-high vacuum extends the lifetime of the cathode. However, the low field gradient on the photocathode's emission surface of the DC guns limits the beam quality. The higher accelerating gradients, possible in the RF guns, generate a far better beam. Until recently, most RF guns operated at room temperature, limiting the vacuum to {approx}10{sup -9} Torr. This destroys the GaAs's NEA surface. The SRF guns combine the excellent vacuum conditions of DC guns and the

  4. Tolerance of GaAs as an original substrate for HVPE growth of free standing GaN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Mio; Sato, T.; Suemasu, T.; Hasegawa, F.

    2004-09-01

    In order to investigate possibility of thick GaN growth on a GaAs substrate by halide vapar phase epitaxy (HVPE), GaN was grown on GaAs(111)/Ti wafer with Ti deposited by E-gun. It was found that surface treatment of the GaAs substrate by HF solution deteriorated greatly the tolerence of GaAs and that Ti can protected GaAs from erosion by NH3. By depositing Ti on GaAs(111)A surface, a millor-like GaN layer could be grown at 1000 °C for 1 hour without serious deterioration of the original GaAs substrate. By increasing the growth rate, a thick free standing GaN will be obtained with GaAs as an original substrate in near future.

  5. Ka-band Ga-As FET noise receiver/device development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schellenberg, J. M.; Feng, M.; Hackett, L. H.; Watkins, E. T.; Yamasaki, H.

    1982-01-01

    The development of technology for a 30 GHz low noise receiver utilizing GaAs FET devices exclusively is discussed. This program required single and dual-gate FET devices, low noise FET amplifiers, dual-gate FET mixers, and FET oscillators operating at Ka-band frequencies. A 0.25 micrometer gate FET device, developed with a minimum noise figure of 3.3 dB at 29 GHz and an associated gain of 7.4 dB, was used to fabricate a 3-stage amplifier with a minimum noise figure and associated gain of 4.4 dB and 17 dB, respectively. The 1-dB gain bandwidth of this amplifier extended from below 26.5 GHz to 30.5 GHz. A dual-gate mixer with a 2 dB conversion loss and a minimum noise figure of 10 dB at 29 GHz as well as a dielectric resonator stabilized FET oscillator at 25 GHz for the receiver L0. From these components, a hybrid microwave integrated circuit receiver was constructed which demonstrates a minimum single-side band noise figure of 4.6 dB at 29 GHz with a conversion gain of 17 dB. The output power at the 1-dB gain compression point was -5 dBm.

  6. Implementation and Performance of GaAs Digital Signal Processing ASICs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitaker, William D.; Buchanan, Jeffrey R.; Burke, Gary R.; Chow, Terrance W.; Graham, J. Scott; Kowalski, James E.; Lam, Barbara; Siavoshi, Fardad; Thompson, Matthew S.; Johnson, Robert A.

    1993-01-01

    The feasibility of performing high speed digital signal processing in GaAs gate array technology has been demonstrated with the successful implementation of a VLSI communications chip set for NASA's Deep Space Network. This paper describes the techniques developed to solve some of the technology and implementation problems associated with large scale integration of GaAs gate arrays.

  7. 46 CFR Sec. 7 - Operation under current GAA/MSTS Southeast Asia Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... provisions of NSA Order 35 (OPR-2) to the particular circumstances of the present GAA/MSTS Southeast Asia... General Agency operations not related to the current GAA/MSTS Southeast Asia Program, NSA Order 35 (OPR-2... lieu of those appearing in sections 3 and 4 of NSA Order 35 (OPR-2). Continental United States ports do...

  8. 46 CFR Sec. 7 - Operation under current GAA/MSTS Southeast Asia Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... provisions of NSA Order 35 (OPR-2) to the particular circumstances of the present GAA/MSTS Southeast Asia... General Agency operations not related to the current GAA/MSTS Southeast Asia Program, NSA Order 35 (OPR-2... lieu of those appearing in sections 3 and 4 of NSA Order 35 (OPR-2). Continental United States ports do...

  9. 46 CFR Sec. 7 - Operation under current GAA/MSTS Southeast Asia Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... provisions of NSA Order 35 (OPR-2) to the particular circumstances of the present GAA/MSTS Southeast Asia... General Agency operations not related to the current GAA/MSTS Southeast Asia Program, NSA Order 35 (OPR-2... lieu of those appearing in sections 3 and 4 of NSA Order 35 (OPR-2). Continental United States ports do...

  10. 46 CFR Sec. 7 - Operation under current GAA/MSTS Southeast Asia Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... provisions of NSA Order 35 (OPR-2) to the particular circumstances of the present GAA/MSTS Southeast Asia... General Agency operations not related to the current GAA/MSTS Southeast Asia Program, NSA Order 35 (OPR-2... lieu of those appearing in sections 3 and 4 of NSA Order 35 (OPR-2). Continental United States ports do...

  11. 46 CFR Sec. 7 - Operation under current GAA/MSTS Southeast Asia Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... provisions of NSA Order 35 (OPR-2) to the particular circumstances of the present GAA/MSTS Southeast Asia... General Agency operations not related to the current GAA/MSTS Southeast Asia Program, NSA Order 35 (OPR-2... lieu of those appearing in sections 3 and 4 of NSA Order 35 (OPR-2). Continental United States ports do...

  12. Influence of GaAs substrate properties on the congruent evaporation temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spirina, A. A.; Nastovjak, A. G.; Shwartz, N. L.

    2018-03-01

    High-temperature annealing of GaAs(111)A and GaAs(111)B substrates under Langmuir evaporation conditions was studied using Monte Carlo simulation. The maximal value of the congruent evaporation temperature was estimated. The congruent evaporation temperature was demonstrated to be dependent on the surface orientation and concentration of surface defects.

  13. Prediction of dislocation generation during Bridgman growth of GaAs crystals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsai, C. T.; Yao, M. W.; Chait, Arnon

    1992-01-01

    Dislocation densities are generated in GaAs single crystals due to the excessive thermal stresses induced by temperature variations during growth. A viscoplastic material model for GaAs, which takes into account the movement and multiplication of dislocations in the plastic deformation, is developed according to Haasen's theory. The dislocation density is expressed as an internal state variable in this dynamic viscoplastic model. The deformation process is a nonlinear function of stress, strain rate, dislocation density and temperature. The dislocation density in the GaAs crystal during vertical Bridgman growth is calculated using a nonlinear finite element model. The dislocation multiplication in GaAs crystals for several temperature fields obtained from thermal modeling of both the GTE GaAs experimental data and artificially designed data are investigated.

  14. Prediction of dislocation generation during Bridgman growth of GaAs crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsai, C. T.; Yao, M. W.; Chait, Arnon

    1992-11-01

    Dislocation densities are generated in GaAs single crystals due to the excessive thermal stresses induced by temperature variations during growth. A viscoplastic material model for GaAs, which takes into account the movement and multiplication of dislocations in the plastic deformation, is developed according to Haasen's theory. The dislocation density is expressed as an internal state variable in this dynamic viscoplastic model. The deformation process is a nonlinear function of stress, strain rate, dislocation density and temperature. The dislocation density in the GaAs crystal during vertical Bridgman growth is calculated using a nonlinear finite element model. The dislocation multiplication in GaAs crystals for several temperature fields obtained from thermal modeling of both the GTE GaAs experimental data and artificially designed data are investigated.

  15. Formation of embedded plasmonic Ga nanoparticle arrays and their influence on GaAs photoluminescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, M.; Jeon, S.; Jen, T.; Lee, J.-E.; Sih, V.; Goldman, R. S.

    2017-07-01

    We introduce a novel approach to the seamless integration of plasmonic nanoparticle (NP) arrays into semiconductor layers and demonstrate their enhanced photoluminescence (PL) efficiency. Our approach utilizes focused ion beam-induced self-assembly of close-packed arrays of Ga NPs with tailorable NP diameters, followed by overgrowth of GaAs layers using molecular beam epitaxy. Using a combination of PL spectroscopy and electromagnetic computations, we identify a regime of Ga NP diameter and overgrown GaAs layer thickness where NP-array-enhanced absorption in GaAs leads to enhanced GaAs near-band-edge (NBE) PL efficiency, surpassing that of high-quality epitaxial GaAs layers. As the NP array depth and size are increased, the reduction in spontaneous emission rate overwhelms the NP-array-enhanced absorption, leading to a reduced NBE PL efficiency. This approach provides an opportunity to enhance the PL efficiency of a wide variety of semiconductor heterostructures.

  16. Understanding and Curing Structural Defects in Colloidal GaAs Nanocrystals

    SciTech Connect

    Srivastava, Vishwas; Liu, Wenyong; Janke, Eric M.

    2017-02-22

    Nearly three decades since the first report on the synthesis of colloidal GaAs nanocrystals (NCs), the preparation and properties of this material remain highly controversial. Traditional synthetic routes either fail to produce the GaAs phase or result in materials that do not show expected optical properties such as excitonic transitions. In this work, we demonstrate a variety of synthetic routes toward crystalline GaAs NCs. By using a combination of Raman, EXAFS and transient absorption spectroscopies, we conclude that unusual optical properties of 2 colloidal GaAs NCs can be related to the presence of vacancies and lattice disorder. We introduce novelmore » molten salt based annealing approach to alleviate these structural defects and show the emergence of size-dependent excitonic transitions in colloidal GaAs quantum dots.« less

  17. Comparison of photoemission characteristics between square and circular wire array GaAs photocathodes.

    PubMed

    Deng, Wenjuan; Peng, Xincun; Zou, Jijun; Wang, Weilu; Liu, Yun; Zhang, Tao; Zhang, Yijun; Zhang, Daoli

    2017-11-10

    Two types of negative electron affinity gallium arsenide (GaAs) wire array photocathodes were fabricated by reactive ion etching and inductively coupled plasma etching of bulk GaAs material. High density GaAs wire arrays with high periodicity and good morphology were verified using scanning electron microscopy, and photoluminescence spectra confirmed the wire arrays had good crystalline quality. Reflection spectra showed that circular GaAs wire arrays had superior light trapping compared with square ones. However, after Cs/O activation, the square GaAs wire array photocathodes showed enhanced spectral response. The integral sensitivity of the square wire array photocathodes was approximately 2.8 times that of the circular arrays.

  18. Integration of GaAs vertical-cavity surface emitting laser on Si by substrate removal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeh, Hsi-Jen J.; Smith, John S.

    1994-03-01

    The successful integration of strained quantum well InGaAs vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) on both Si and Cu substrates was described using a GaAs substrate removal technique. The GaAs VCSEL structure was metallized and bonded to the Si substrate after growth. The GaAs substrate was then removed by selective chemical wet etching. Finally, the bonded GaAs film metallized on the top (emitting) side and separate lasers were defined. This is the first time a VCSEL had been integrated on a Si substrate with its substrate removed. The performance enhancement of GaAs VCSELs bonded on good thermal conductors are demonstrated.

  19. Comparative research on activation technique for GaAs photocathodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Liang; Qian, Yunsheng; Chang, Benkang; Chen, Xinlong; Yang, Rui

    2012-03-01

    The properties of GaAs photocathodes mainly depend on the material design and activation technique. In early researches, high-low temperature two-step activation has been proved to get more quantum efficiency than high-temperature single-step activation. But the variations of surface barriers for two activation techniques have not been well studied, thus the best activation temperature, best Cs-O ratio and best activation time for two-step activation technique have not been well found. Because the surface photovoltage spectroscopy (SPS) before activation is only in connection with the body parameters for GaAs photocathode such as electron diffusion length and the spectral response current (SRC) after activation is in connection with not only body parameters but also surface barriers, thus the surface escape probability (SEP) can be well fitted through the comparative research between SPS before activation and SEP after activation. Through deduction for the tunneling process of surface barriers by Schrödinger equation, the width and height for surface barrier I and II can be well fitted through the curves of SEP. The fitting results were well proved and analyzed by quantitative analysis of angle-dependent X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (ADXPS) which can also study the surface chemical compositions, atomic concentration percentage and layer thickness for GaAs photocathodes. This comparative research method for fitting parameters of surface barriers through SPS before activation and SRC after activation shows a better real-time in system method for the researches of activation techniques.

  20. Micromechanical Switches on GaAs for Microwave Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Randall, John N.; Goldsmith, Chuck; Denniston, David; Lin, Tsen-Hwang

    1995-01-01

    In this presentation, we describe the fabrication of micro-electro-mechanical system (MEMS) devices, in particular, of low-frequency multi-element electrical switches using SiO2 cantilevers. The switches discussed are related to micromechanical membrane structures used to perform switching of optical signals on silicon substrates. These switches use a thin metal membrane which is actuated by an electrostatic potential, causing the switch to make or break contact. The advantages include: superior isolation, high power handling capabilities, high radiation hardening, very low power operations, and the ability to integrate onto GaAs monolithic microwave integrated circuit (MMIC) chips.

  1. Impurity and Defect Interactions in GaAs.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-02-29

    3 VPE a X X ASW 3 vIE 33 34 35 36"M-cVO Wawwmba (CM - Z TS 32 -~ - .35T 2II i I MS . 34 35 3 , b Wovor%~~e (€cm -) X3 FiS.l Characteristic donor peaks ...2). Far infrared photoconductivity measurements on Si doped GaAs grown by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) indicated that the impurity peak previously...difference is donor species dependent, each hydrogenic transition in a photothermal ionization spectrum contains several closely spaced peaks . Each peak cor

  2. Investigation of Optically Induced Avalanching in GaAs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-06-01

    by Bovino , et al 4 to increase the hold off voltage. The button switch design of Fig. 4c has been used by several researchers5 ’ 7 to obtain the...ul Long flashover palh Figure 3b. 434 Optical Jlatlern a. Mourou Switch b. Bovino Switch c. Button Switch Figure 4. Photoconductive Switches...Technology and Devices Laboratory, ERADCOM (by L. Bovino , et. all) 4 • The deposition recipe for the contacts is 1) 50 ANi (provides contact to GaAs

  3. GaAs circuits for monolithic optical controller

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gustafson, G.; Bendett, M.; Carney, J.; Mactaggart, R.; Palmquist, S.

    1988-01-01

    GaAs circuits for use in a fully monolithic 1 Gb/s optical controller have been developed and tested. The circuits include photodetectors, transimpedance amplifiers and 1:16 demultiplexers that can directly control the phase of MMIC phase shifters. The entire chip contains approximately 300 self-aligned gate E/D-mode MESFETs. The MESFETs have one micron-wide gate and the E-mode FETs typically have transconductance of 200 ms/mm. Results of simulations and tests are reported. Also, the design and layout of the fully monolithic chip is discussed.

  4. Preparation of Large-Diameter GaAs Crystals.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-09-18

    ionized impurity content for 40 n-type semi-insulating GaAs. Figure 17 Analysis (in wt %) of impurities in B203 after crystal growth 41 from PBN and quartz...encapsulant to the generation of defect clusters in LEC InP. (15 ) Statistics relative to the incidence of twinning for growth with dry ( ppm wt OH...and wet (> 1000 ppm wt OH) B203 are given in Fig. 5 for growths from fused-SiO 2 and PBN crucibles. A crystal is defined as having twinned if it

  5. Defects in GaAs films grown by MOMBE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Werner, K.; Heinecke, H.; Weyers, M.; Lüth, H.; Balk, P.

    1987-02-01

    The nature and densities of the defects obtained in MOMBE GaAs films have been studied. In addition to particulate matter deposited on the surface, imperfections in the substrate will lead to defect generation. Furthermore, the rate of generation is strongly affected by the ratio of the pressures of the group III alkyl and the group V hydride in the molecular beams and by the growth temperature, also on defect-free substrates. Doping has no effect on the defect structure of the surface. By proper choice of experimental conditions defect densities below 100 cm -2 may be consistently obtained.

  6. Dual-gate GaAs FET switches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vorhaus, J. L.; Fabian, W.; Ng, P. B.; Tajima, Y.

    1981-02-01

    A set of multi-pole, multi-throw switch devices consisting of dual-gate GaAs FET's is described. Included are single-pole, single-throw (SPST), double-pole, double-throw (DPDT), and single-pole four-throw (SP4T) switches. Device fabrication and measurement techniques are discussed. The device models for these switches were based on an equivalent circuit of a dual-gate FET. The devices were found to have substantial gain in X-band and low Ku-band.

  7. GaAs shallow-homojunction solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fan, J. C.

    1980-01-01

    With the objective of demonstrating the feasibility of fabricating 2 x 2 cm efficient, shallow homojunction GaAs solar cells for space applications, this program addresses the basic problems of material preparation and device fabrication. Significant progress was made and conversion efficiencies close to 16 percent at AM0 were obtained on 2 x 2 cm cells. Measurements and computer analyses on the n(+)/p/p(+) shallow homojunction cells indicate that such cell configuration should be very resistant to 1 MeV electron irradiation.

  8. Three-dimensional lattice rotation in GaAs nanowire growth on hydrogen-silsesquioxane covered GaAs (001) using molecular beam epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tran, Dat Q.; Pham, Huyen T.; Higashimine, Koichi; Oshima, Yoshifumi; Akabori, Masashi

    2018-05-01

    We report on crystallographic behaviors of inclined GaAs nanowires (NWs) self-crystallized on GaAs (001) substrate. The NWs were grown on hydrogen-silsesquioxane (HSQ) covered substrates using molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). Commonly, the epitaxial growth of GaAs < 111>B (B-polar) NWs is prominently observed on GaAs (001); however, we yielded a remarkable number of epitaxially grown GaAs < 111>A (A-polar) NWs in addition to the majorly obtained B-polar NWs. Such NW orientations are always accompanied by a typical inclined angle of 35° from (001) plane. NWs with another inclined angle of 74° were additionally observed and attributed to be < 111>-oriented, not in direct epitaxial relation with the substrate. Such 74° NWs' existence is related to first-order three-dimensional (3D) lattice rotation taking place at the very beginning of the growth. It turns out that spatially 60° lattice rotation around < 111> directions at GaAs seeds is essentially in charge of A- and B-polar 74° NWs. Transmission electron microscope observations reveal a high density of twinning in the B-polar NWs and twin-free characteristic in the A-polar NWs.

  9. Luminescence and Electroluminescence of Nd, Tm and Yb Doped GaAs and some II-Vi Compounds

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-02-28

    from the bandgap discontinuity (as was proposed in my publications [1,2]). Also, by using superlattice structure A1GaAs / GaAs: Er / AlGaAs, we could...n ipact ightemiting evic 10 3. The AlGaAs/GaAs: Er/A1GaAs superlattice structure. For the first time we designed the unipolar n’ - superlattice - n...structure as shown in Figure 5. The GaAs: Er/Alo.45Gao.55As superlattice was grown by MBE on an n’ GaAs: Si substrate. It consisted of 60 periods of

  10. Thermal stress cycling of GaAs solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Janousek, B. K.; Francis, R. W.; Wendt, J. P.

    1985-01-01

    A thermal cycling experiment was performed on GaAs solar cells to establish the electrical and structural integrity of these cells under the temperature conditions of a simulated low-Earth orbit of 3-year duration. Thirty single junction GaAs cells were obtained and tests were performed to establish the beginning-of-life characteristics of these cells. The tests consisted of cell I-V power output curves, from which were obtained short-circuit current, open circuit voltage, fill factor, and cell efficiency, and optical micrographs, spectral response, and ion microprobe mass analysis (IMMA) depth profiles on both the front surfaces and the front metallic contacts of the cells. Following 5,000 thermal cycles, the performance of the cells was reexamined in addition to any factors which might contribute to performance degradation. It is established that, after 5,000 thermal cycles, the cells retain their power output with no loss of structural integrity or change in physical appearance.

  11. Sn nanothreads in GaAs: experiment and simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semenikhin, I.; Vyurkov, V.; Bugaev, A.; Khabibullin, R.; Ponomarev, D.; Yachmenev, A.; Maltsev, P.; Ryzhii, M.; Otsuji, T.; Ryzhii, V.

    2016-12-01

    The gated GaAs structures like the field-effect transistor with the array of the Sn nanothreads was fabricated via delta-doping of vicinal GaAs surface by Sn atoms with a subsequent regrowth. That results in the formation of the chains of Sn atoms at the terrace edges. Two device models were developed. The quantum model accounts for the quantization of the electron energy spectrum in the self-consistent two-dimensional electric potential, herewith the electron density distribution in nanothread arrays for different gate voltages is calculated. The classical model ignores the quantization and electrons are distributed in space according to 3D density of states and Fermi-Dirac statistics. It turned out that qualitatively both models demonstrate similar behavior, nevertheless, the classical one is in better quantitative agreement with experimental data. Plausibly, the quantization could be ignored because Sn atoms are randomly placed along the thread axis. The terahertz hot-electron bolometers (HEBs) could be based on the structure under consideration.

  12. Structural phase transitions in GaAs to 108 GPa

    SciTech Connect

    Weir, S.T.; Vohra, Y.K.; Vanderborgh, C.A.

    1989-01-15

    The III-V compound GaAs was studied using energy-dispersive x-ray diffraction with a synchro- tron source up to a pressure of 108 GPa. When the pressure was increased to 16.6 GPa, the GaAs sample transformed from the zinc-blende structure to an orthorhombic structure (GaAs(II)), space group Pmm2, consisting of a primitive orthorhombic lattice with a basis of (0,0,0) and (0,(1/2,..cap alpha..), where ..cap alpha.. = 0.35. Upon a further increase of pressure to 24 +- 1 GPa, GaAs(II) transformed to another orthorhombic structure (GaAs(III)), space group Imm2, consisting of a body-centered orthorhombic lattice with a basis of (0,0,0) and (0, (1/2,..delta..),more » where ..delta.. is 0.425 at 28.1 GPa. With increasing pressure, ..delta.. approached (1/2 and the GaAs(III) structure gradually assumed the symmetry of the simple hexagonal structure. The transition to the simple hexagonal structure (GaAs(IV)) was completed in the vicinity of 60--80 GPa. The structure remains simple hexagonal up to at least 108 GPa, the highest pressure reached in this study.« less

  13. Optimization of conditions for thermal smoothing GaAs surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akhundov, I. O.; Kazantsev, D. M.; Kozhuhov, A. S.; Alperovich, V. L.

    2018-03-01

    GaAs thermal smoothing by annealing in conditions which are close to equilibrium between the surface and vapors of As and Ga was earlier proved to be effective for the step-terraced surface formation on epi-ready substrates with a small root-mean-square roughness (Rq ≤ 0.15 nm). In the present study, this technique is further developed in order to reduce the annealing duration and to smooth GaAs samples with a larger initial roughness. To this end, we proposed a two-stage anneal with the first high-temperature stage aimed at smoothing "coarse" relief features and the second stage focused on "fine" smoothing at a lower temperature. The optimal temperatures and durations of two-stage annealing are found by Monte Carlo simulations and adjusted after experimentation. It is proved that the temperature and duration of the first high-temperature stage are restricted by the surface roughening, which occurs due to deviations from equilibrium conditions.

  14. Image processing using Gallium Arsenide (GaAs) technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Warner H.

    1989-01-01

    The need to increase the information return from space-borne imaging systems has increased in the past decade. The use of multi-spectral data has resulted in the need for finer spatial resolution and greater spectral coverage. Onboard signal processing will be necessary in order to utilize the available Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS) communication channel at high efficiency. A generally recognized approach to the increased efficiency of channel usage is through data compression techniques. The compression technique implemented is a differential pulse code modulation (DPCM) scheme with a non-uniform quantizer. The need to advance the state-of-the-art of onboard processing was recognized and a GaAs integrated circuit technology was chosen. An Adaptive Programmable Processor (APP) chip set was developed which is based on an 8-bit slice general processor. The reason for choosing the compression technique for the Multi-spectral Linear Array (MLA) instrument is described. Also a description is given of the GaAs integrated circuit chip set which will demonstrate that data compression can be performed onboard in real time at data rate in the order of 500 Mb/s.

  15. Monolithic GaAs dual-gate FET phase shifter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, M.; Subbarao, S. N.; Menna, R.

    1981-09-01

    The objective of this program is to develop a monolithic GaAs dual-gate FET phase shifter, operating over the 4- to 8-GHz frequency band and capable of a continuously programmable phase shift from 0 deg through N times 360 deg where N is an integer. The phase shift is to be controllable to within +3 deg. This phase shifter will be capable of delivering an output power up to 0 dBm with an input and output VSWR of less than 1.5:1. Progress 1: The photomask of a 0 to 90 deg monolithic GaAs dual-gate FET phase shifter has been procured, and we are in the process of fabricating the phase shifter. 2: We have designed and fabricated a 50 ohm, 4-line interdigitated coupler. Also, we have designed and fabricated a 25-ohm, 6-line interdigitated coupler. The performance of both couplers agrees quite well with the theoretical results. Technical Problems: there was no major problem during this period.

  16. 28 percent efficient GaAs concentrator solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macmillan, H. F.; Hamaker, H. C.; Kaminar, N. R.; Kuryla, M. S.; Ladle Ristow, M.

    1988-01-01

    AlGaAs/GaAs heteroface solar concentrator cells which exhibit efficiencies in excess of 27 percent at high solar concentrations (over 400 suns, AM1.5D, 100 mW/sq cm) have been fabricated with both n/p and p/n configurations. The best n/p cell achieved an efficiency of 28.1 percent around 400 suns, and the best p/n cell achieved an efficiency of 27.5 percent around 1000 suns. The high performance of these GaAs concentrator cells compared to earlier high-efficiency cells was due to improved control of the metal-organic chemical vapor deposition growth conditions and improved cell fabrication procedures (gridline definition and edge passivation). The design parameters of the solar cell structures and optimized grid pattern were determined with a realistic computer modeling program. An evaluation of the device characteristics and a discussion of future GaAs concentrator cell development are presented.

  17. Performance and temperature dependencies of proton irradiated n/p GaAs and n/p silicon cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weinberg, I.; Swartz, C. K.; Hart, R. E., Jr.

    1985-01-01

    The n/p homojunction GaAs cell is found to be more radiation resistant than p/nheteroface GaAs under 10 MeV proton irradiation. Both GaAs cell types outperform conventional silicon n/p cells under the same conditions. An increase temperature dependency of maximum power for the GaAs n/p cells is attributed largely to differences in Voc between the two GaAs cell types. These results and diffusion length considerations are consistent with the conclusion that p-type GaAs is more radiation resistant than n-type and therefore that the n/p configuration is possibly favored for use in the space radiation environment. However, it is concluded that additional work is required in order to choose between the two GaAs cell configurations.

  18. Relation between trinucleotide GAA repeat length and sensory neuropathy in Friedreich's ataxia.

    PubMed

    Santoro, L; De Michele, G; Perretti, A; Crisci, C; Cocozza, S; Cavalcanti, F; Ragno, M; Monticelli, A; Filla, A; Caruso, G

    1999-01-01

    To verify if GAA expansion size in Friedreich's ataxia could account for the severity of sensory neuropathy. Retrospective study of 56 patients with Friedreich's ataxia selected according to homozygosity for GAA expansion and availability of electrophysiological findings. Orthodromic sensory conduction velocity in the median nerve was available in all patients and that of the tibial nerve in 46 of them. Data of sural nerve biopsy and of a morphometric analysis were available in 12 of the selected patients. The sensory action potential amplitude at the wrist (wSAP) and at the medial malleolus (m mal SAP) and the percentage of myelinated fibres with diameter larger than 7, 9, and 11 microm in the sural nerve were correlated with disease duration and GAA expansion size on the shorter (GAA1) and larger (GAA2) expanded allele in each pair. Pearson's correlation test and stepwise multiple regression were used for statistical analysis. A significant inverse correlation between GAA1 size and wSAP, m mal SAP, and percentage of myelinated fibres was found. Stepwise multiple regression showed that GAA1 size significantly affects electrophysiological and morphometric data, whereas duration of disease has no effect. The data suggest that the severity of the sensory neuropathy is probably genetically determined and that it is not progressive.

  19. Sulfur doping of GaAs with (NH4)2Sx solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jong-Lam

    1999-01-01

    A novel technique for sulfur doping to GaAs was demonstrated. The surface of GaAs was treated with (NH4)2Sx solution, subsequent to annealing using either furnace or rapid thermal processing. Sulfur atoms adsorbed at the surface of GaAs during the (NH4)2Sx treatment diffuse into GaAs during the annealing. The diffusion profiles of sulfur in both types of annealing treatments show a concave shape from the GaAs surface. Diffusion constants of sulfur determined using the Boltzmann-Matano technique increase with the decrease of sulfur concentration via the depth from the surface of GaAs. This suggests that immobile sulfur donor SAs+ forms at the near surface interacts with a Ga divacancy, and results in the production of mobile As interstitials, IAs. The IAs moves fast toward the inside of GaAs and kickout the SAs+ donor, producing a fast diffusing species of interstitial S atoms. The diffusion coefficients of sulfur determined are 2.5×10-14 cm2/s at 840 °C and 5×10-12 cm2/s at 900 °C. The sulfur doping technique is applied to the fabrication of metal-semiconductor field-effect transistors (MESFETs). The MESFETs with 1.0 μm gate length exhibit transconductance of 190 mS/mm, demonstrating the applicability of this technique to the formation of active channel layer of MESFETs.

  20. Probability of twin formation on self-catalyzed GaAs nanowires on Si substrate

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    We attempted to control the incorporation of twin boundaries in self-catalyzed GaAs nanowires (NWs). Self-catalyzed GaAs NWs were grown on a Si substrate under various arsenic pressures using molecular beam epitaxy and the vapor-liquid-solid method. When the arsenic flux is low, wurtzite structures are dominant in the GaAs NWs. On the other hand, zinc blende structures become dominant as the arsenic flux rises. We discussed this phenomenon on the basis of thermodynamics and examined the probability of twin-boundary formation in detail. PMID:23043754

  1. Arsenic ambient conditions preventing surface degradation of GaAs during capless annealing at high temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kang, C. H.; Kondo, K.; Lagowski, J.; Gatos, H. C.

    1987-01-01

    Changes in surface morphology and composition caused by capless annealing of GaAs were studied as a function of annealing temperature, T(GaAs), and the ambient arsenic pressure controlled by the temperature, T(As), of an arsenic source in the annealing ampul. It was established that any degradation of the GaAs surface morphology could be completely prevented, providing that T(As) was more than about 0.315T(GaAs) + 227 C. This empirical relationship is valid up to the melting point temperature of GaAs (1238 C), and it may be useful in some device-processing steps.

  2. Lightweight, Light-Trapped, Thin GaAs Solar Cells for Spacecraft Applications.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1995-10-05

    improve the efficiency of this type of cell. 2 The high efficiency and light weight of the cover glass supported GaAs solar cell can have a significant...is a 3-mil cover glass and 1-mil silicone adhesive on the front surface of the GaAs solar cell. Power Output 3000 400 -{ 2400 { N 300 S18200 W/m2...the ultra-thin, light-trapped GaAs solar ceill 3. Incorporate light trapping. 0 external quantum efficiency at 850 nm increased by 5.2% 4. Develop

  3. Epitaxial lateral overgrowth of GaAs: effect of doping on LPE growth behaviour

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zytkiewicz, Z. R.; Dobosz, D.; Pawlowska, M.

    1999-05-01

    Results of epitaxial lateral overgrowth (ELO) of GaAs on (001) GaAs substrates by liquid phase epitaxy are reported. We show that by introducing Si, Sn or Te impurities to the Ga-As solution the vertical growth rate is reduced while the lateral growth rate is significantly enhanced, which leads to a growth habit modification. Furthermore, the impurity incorporation into the growing layer is different on the upper and side surfaces of the ELO, reflecting the fundamental differences between the lateral and vertical growth modes. This phenomenon can be applied for studying the temporal development of ELO layers.

  4. Influence of arsenic flow on the crystal structure of epitaxial GaAs grown at low temperatures on GaAs (100) and (111)A substrates

    SciTech Connect

    Galiev, G. B.; Klimov, E. A.; Vasiliev, A. L.

    The influence of arsenic flow in a growth chamber on the crystal structure of GaAs grown by molecular-beam epitaxy at a temperature of 240°C on GaAs (100) and (111)A substrates has been investigated. The flow ratio γ of arsenic As4 and gallium was varied in the range from 16 to 50. GaAs films were either undoped, or homogeneously doped with silicon, or contained three equidistantly spaced silicon δ-layers. The structural quality of the annealed samples has been investigated by transmission electron microscopy. It is established for the first time that silicon δ-layers in “low-temperature” GaAs serve as formation centers ofmore » arsenic precipitates. Their average size, concentration, and spatial distribution are estimated. The dependence of the film structural quality on γ is analyzed. Regions 100–150 nm in size have been revealed in some samples and identified (by X-ray microanalysis) as pores. It is found that, in the entire range of γ under consideration, GaAs films on (111)A substrates have a poorer structural quality and become polycrystalline beginning with a thickness of 150–200 nm.« less

  5. Patterned radial GaAs nanopillar solar cells.

    PubMed

    Mariani, Giacomo; Wong, Ping-Show; Katzenmeyer, Aaron M; Léonard, Francois; Shapiro, Joshua; Huffaker, Diana L

    2011-06-08

    Photovoltaic devices using GaAs nanopillar radial p-n junctions are demonstrated by means of catalyst-free selective-area metal-organic chemical vapor deposition. Dense, large-area, lithographically defined vertical arrays of nanowires with uniform spacing and dimensions allow for power conversion efficiencies for this material system of 2.54% (AM 1.5 G) and high rectification ratio of 213 (at ±1 V). The absence of metal catalyst contamination results in leakage currents of ∼236 nA at -1 V. High-resolution scanning photocurrent microscopy measurements reveal the independent functioning of each nanowire in the array with an individual peak photocurrent of ∼1 nA at 544 nm. External quantum efficiency shows that the photocarrier extraction highly depends on the degenerately doped transparent contact oxide. Two different top electrode schemes are adopted and characterized in terms of Hall, sheet resistance, and optical transmittance measurements.

  6. Improvements of MCT MBE Growth on GaAs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ziegler, J.; Wenisch, J.; Breiter, R.; Eich, D.; Figgemeier, H.; Fries, P.; Lutz, H.; Wollrab, R.

    2014-08-01

    In recent years, continuous progress has been published in the development of HgCdTe (MCT) infrared (IR) focal plane arrays (FPAs) fabricated by molecular beam epitaxy on GaAs substrates. In this publication, further characterization of the state-of-the art 1280 × 1024 pixel, 15- μm pitch detector fabricated from this material in both the mid-wavelength (MWIR) and long-wavelength (LWIR) IR region will be presented. For MWIR FPAs, the percentage of defective pixel remains below 0.5% up to an operating temperature ( T OP) of around 100 K. For the LWIR FPA, an operability of 99.25% was achieved for a T OP of 76 K. Additionally, the beneficial effect of the inclusion of MCT layers with a graded composition region was investigated and demonstrated on current-voltage ( IV) characteristics on test diodes in a MWIR FPA.

  7. Development of a 2K x 2K GaAs QWIP Focal Plane Array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jhabvala, M.; Choi, K.; Jhabvala, C.; Kelly, D.; Hess, L.; Ewin, A.; La, A.; Wacynski, A.; Sun, J.; Adachi, T.; hide

    2013-01-01

    We are developing the next generation of GaAs Quantum Well Infrared Photodetector (QWIP) focal plane arrays (FPAs) in preparation for future NASA space-borne Earth observing missions. It is anticipated that these missions will require both wider ground spatial coverage as well as higher ground imaging resolution. In order to demonstrate our capability in meeting these future goals we have taken a two-tiered approach in the next stage of advanced QWIP focal plane array development. We will describe our progress in the development of a 512 x 3,200 (512 x 3K) array format for this next generation thermal imaging array for the NASA Landsat project. However, there currently is no existing readout integrated circuit (ROIC) for this format array.so to demonstrate the ability to scale-up an existing ROIC we developed a 1,920 x 2,048 (2K x 2K) array and it hybridized to a Raytheon SB419 CTIA readout integrated circuit that was scaled up from their existing 512 x 640 SB339 ROIC. Two versions of the 512 x 3K QWIP array were fabricated to accommodate a future design scale-up of both the Indigo 9803 ROIC based on a 25 micron pixel dimension and a scale up of the Indigo 9705 ROIC based on a 30 micron pixel dimension. Neither readout for the 512 x 3K has yet to be developed but we have fabricated both versions of the array. We describe the design, development and test results of this effort as well as the specific applications these FPAs are intended to address.

  8. Growth and characteristics of p-type doped GaAs nanowire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Bang; Yan, Xin; Zhang, Xia; Ren, Xiaomin

    2018-05-01

    The growth of p-type GaAs nanowires (NWs) on GaAs (111) B substrates by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) has been systematically investigated as a function of diethyl zinc (DEZn) flow. The growth rate of GaAs NWs was slightly improved by Zn-doping and kink is observed under high DEZn flow. In addition, the I–V curves of GaAs NWs has been measured and the p-type dope concentration under the II/III ratio of 0.013 and 0.038 approximated to 1019–1020 cm‑3. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 61376019, 61504010, 61774021) and the Fund of State Key Laboratory of Information Photonics and Optical Communications (Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications), China (Nos. IPOC2017ZT02, IPOC2017ZZ01).

  9. Consideration of velocity saturation in the design of GaAs varactor diodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crowe, Thomas W.; Peatman, William C. B.; Zimmermann, Ruediger; Zimmermann, Ralph

    1993-01-01

    The design of GaAs Schottky barrier varactor diodes is reconsidered in light of the recent discovery of velocity saturation effects in these devices. Experimental data is presented which confirms that improved multiplier performance can be achieved.

  10. Sidewall GaAs tunnel junctions fabricated using molecular layer epitaxy

    PubMed Central

    Ohno, Takeo; Oyama, Yutaka

    2012-01-01

    In this article we review the fundamental properties and applications of sidewall GaAs tunnel junctions. Heavily impurity-doped GaAs epitaxial layers were prepared using molecular layer epitaxy (MLE), in which intermittent injections of precursors in ultrahigh vacuum were applied, and sidewall tunnel junctions were fabricated using a combination of device mesa wet etching of the GaAs MLE layer and low-temperature area-selective regrowth. The fabricated tunnel junctions on the GaAs sidewall with normal mesa orientation showed a record peak current density of 35 000 A cm-2. They can potentially be used as terahertz devices such as a tunnel injection transit time effect diode or an ideal static induction transistor. PMID:27877466

  11. Growth and characterization of molecular beam epitaxial GaAs layers on porous silicon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, T. L.; Liu, J. K.; Sadwick, L.; Wang, K. L.; Kao, Y. C.

    1987-01-01

    GaAs layers have been grown on porous silicon (PS) substrates with good crystallinity by molecular beam epitaxy. In spite of the surface irregularity of PS substrates, no surface morphology deterioration was observed on epitaxial GaAs overlayers. A 10-percent Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy minimum channeling yield for GaAs-on-PS layers as compared to 16 percent for GaAs-on-Si layers grown under the same condition indicates a possible improvement of crystallinity when GaAs is grown on PS. Transmission electron microscopy reveals that the dominant defects in the GaAs-on-PS layers are microtwins and stacking faults, which originate from the GaAs/PS interface. GaAs is found to penetrate into the PS layers. n-type GaAs/p-type PS heterojunction diodes were fabricated with good rectifying characteristics.

  12. GaAs monolithic R.F. modules for SARSAT distress beacons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cauley, Michael A.

    1991-01-01

    Monolithic GaAs UHF components for use in SARSAT Emergency Distress beacons are under development by Microwave Monolithics, Inc., Simi Valley, CA. The components include a bi-phase modulator, driver amplifier, and a 5 watt power amplifier.

  13. Long-term radiation effects on GaAs solar cell characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heinbockel, J. H.; Doviak, M. J.

    1978-01-01

    This report investigates preliminary design considerations which should be considered for a space experiment involving Gallium Arsenide (GaAs) solar cells. The electron radiation effects on GaAs solar cells were conducted in a laboratory environment, and a statistical analysis of the data is presented. In order to augment the limited laboratory data, a theoretical investigation of the effect of radiation on GaAs solar cells is also developed. The results of this study are empirical prediction equations which can be used to estimate the actual damage of electrical characteristics in a space environment. The experimental and theoretical studies also indicate how GaAs solar cell parameters should be designed in order to withstand the effects of electron radiation damage.

  14. Two-Photon Pumped Synchronously Mode-Locked Bulk GaAs Laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, W. L.; Vaucher, A. M.; Ling, J. D.; Lee, C. H.

    1982-04-01

    Pulses 7 picoseconds or less in duration have been generated from a bulk GaAs crystal by a synchronous mode-locking technique. The GaAs crystal was optically pumped by two-photon absorption of the emission from a mode-locked Nd:glass laser. Two-photon absorption as the means of excitation increases the volume of the gain medium by increasing the pene-tration depth of the pump intensity, enabling generation of intra-cavity pulses with peak power in the megawatt range. Tuning of the wavelength of the GaAs emission is achieved by varying the temperature. A tuning range covering 840 nm to 885 nm has been observed over a temperature range from 97°K to 260°K. The intensity of the GaAs emission has also been observed to decrease as the temperature of the crystal is increased.

  15. Accelerated life testing and temperature dependence of device characteristics in GaAs CHFET devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gallegos, M.; Leon, R.; Vu, D. T.; Okuno, J.; Johnson, A. S.

    2002-01-01

    Accelerated life testing of GaAs complementary heterojunction field effect transistors (CHFET) was carried out. Temperature dependence of single and synchronous rectifier CHFET device characteristics were also obtained.

  16. Molecular beam epitaxial growth and structural characterization of ZnS on (001) GaAs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benz, R. G., II; Huang, P. C.; Stock, S. R.; Summers, C. J.

    1988-01-01

    The effect of surface nucleation processes on the quality of ZnS layers grown on (001) GaAs substrates by molecular beam epitaxy is reported. Reflection high energy electron diffraction indicated that nucleation at high temperatures produced more planar surfaces than nucleation at low temperatures, but the crystalline quality as assessed by X-ray double crystal diffractometry is relatively independent of nucleation temperature. A critical factor in layer quality was the initial roughness of the GaAs surfaces.

  17. A model for proton-irradiated GaAs solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, J. W.; Walker, G. H.; Outlaw, R. A.; Stock, L. V.

    1982-01-01

    A simple model for proton radiation damage in GaAs heteroface solar cells is developed. The model includes the effects of spatial nonuniformity of low energy proton damage. Agreement between the model and experimental proton damage data for GaAs heteroface solar cells is satisfactory. An extension of the model to include angular isotropy, as is appropriate for protons in space, is shown to result in significantly less cell damage than for normal proton incidence.

  18. New dynamic FET logic and serial memory circuits for VLSI GaAs technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eldin, A. G.

    1991-01-01

    The complexity of GaAs field effect transistor (FET) very large scale integration (VLSI) circuits is limited by the maximum power dissipation while the uniformity of the device parameters determines the functional yield. In this work, digital GaAs FET circuits are presented that eliminate the DC power dissipation and reduce the area to 50% of that of the conventional static circuits. Its larger tolerance to device parameter variations results in higher functional yield.

  19. Basic mechanisms study for MIS solar cell structures on GaAs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fonash, S. J.

    1978-01-01

    The solar cell structure examined is the MIS configuration on (n) GaAs. The metal room temperature oxide/(n) GaAs materials system was studied. Metals with electronegativities varying from 2.4 (Au) to 1.5 (Al) were used as the upper electrode. The thinnest metallization that did not interfere with the measurement techniques (by introducing essentially transmission line series resistance problems across a device) was used. Photovoltaic response was not optimized.

  20. Hb Beograd [beta121(GH4)Glu-->Val, GAA-->GTA] in the Turkish population.

    PubMed

    Atalay, Ayfer; Koyuncu, Hasan; Köseler, Aylin; Ozkan, Anzel; Atalay, Erol O

    2007-01-01

    Hb Beograd [beta121(GH4)Glu-->Val, GAA-->GTA] is a rare variant first reported in Yugoslavia and then in Turkey, Australia and New Zealand. We report two further unrelated cases from Turkey. The importance of identifying Hb Beograd at the molecular level, especially in regions where Hb D-Los Angeles [beta121(GH4)Glu-->Gln, GAA-->CAA] is prevalent, is emphasized.

  1. Large Signal Modeling and Analysis of the GaAs MESFET.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-07-09

    various dimensions and physical parameters. A powerful computer aided design system can be developed by automating the circuit element and parameter...circuit model of the GaAs MESFET to aid in the designs of microwave MESFET circuits. The circuit elements of this model are obtained either directly...34. -. ’ Abstract The purpose of this work is to develop a large signal signal lumped circuit model of the GaAs MESFET to aid In the designs of microwave MESFET

  2. Ferromagnetic GaAs structures with single Mn delta-layer fabricated using laser deposition.

    PubMed

    Danilov, Yuri A; Vikhrova, Olga V; Kudrin, Alexey V; Zvonkov, Boris N

    2012-06-01

    The new technique combining metal-organic chemical vapor epitaxy with laser ablation of solid targets was used for fabrication of ferromagnetic GaAs structures with single Mn delta-doped layer. The structures demonstrated anomalous Hall effect, planar Hall effect, negative and anisotropic magnetoresistance in temperature range of 10-35 K. In GaAs structures with only single Mn delta-layer (without additional 2D hole gas channel or quantum well) ferromagnetism was observed for the first time.

  3. Investigation of ZnSe-coated silicon substrates for GaAs solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huber, Daniel A.; Olsen, Larry C.; Dunham, Glen; Addis, F. William

    1993-01-01

    Studies are being carried out to determine the feasibility of using ZnSe as a buffer layer for GaAs solar cells grown on silicon. This study was motivated by reports in the literature indicating ZnSe films had been grown by metallorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) onto silicon with EPD values of 2 x 10(exp 5) cm(sup -2), even though the lattice mismatch between silicon and ZnSe is 4.16 percent. These results combined with the fact that ZnSe and GaAs are lattice matched to within 0.24 percent suggest that the prospects for growing high efficiency GaAs solar cells onto ZnSe-coated silicon are very good. Work to date has emphasized development of procedures for MOCVD growth of (100) ZnSe onto (100) silicon wafers, and subsequent growth of GaAs films on ZnSe/Si substrates. In order to grow high quality single crystal GaAs with a (100) orientation, which is desirable for solar cells, one must grow single crystal (100) ZnSe onto silicon substrates. A process for growth of (100) ZnSe was developed involving a two-step growth procedure at 450 C. Single crystal, (100) GaAs films were grown onto the (100) ZnSe/Si substrates at 610 C that are adherent and specular. Minority carrier diffusion lengths for the GaAs films grown on ZnSe/Si substrates were determined from photoresponse properties of Al/GaAs Schottky barriers. Diffusion lengths for n-type GaAs films are currently on the order of 0.3 microns compared to 2.0 microns for films grown simultaneously by homoepitaxy.

  4. Experimental investigation of millimeter-wave GaAs TED oscillators cooled to cryogenic temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rydberg, Anders; Kollberg, Erik

    1988-03-01

    The output power and operating (bias) point for 80-100-GHz GaAs TED oscillators have been investigated for temperatures between 300 and 40 K. It is shown experimentally that the power can be increased by as much as nearly four times by cooling the oscillator. The thermal design of the oscillator was studied for GaAs and InP TED oscillators.

  5. Temporal behavior of RHEED intensity oscillations during molecular beam epitaxial growth of GaAs and AlGaAs on (111)B GaAs substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yen, Ming Y.; Haas, T. W.

    1990-10-01

    We present the temporal behavior of intensity oscillations in reflection high-energy electron diffraction (RHEED) during molecular beam epitaxial (MBE) growth of GaAs and A1GaAs on (1 1 1)B GaAs substrates. The RHEED intensity oscillations were examined as a function of growth parameters in order to provide the insight into the dynamic characteristics and to identify the optimal condition for the two-dimensional layer-by-layer growth. The most intense RHEED oscillation was found to occur within a very narrow temperature range which seems to optimize the surface migration kinetics of the arriving group III elements and the molecular dissodiative reaction of the group V elements. The appearance of an initial transient of the intensity upon commencement of the growth and its implications are described.

  6. Supernormal hardness increase of dilute Ga(As, N) thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berggren, Jonas; Hanke, Michael; Luna, Esperanza; Trampert, Achim

    2017-03-01

    Hardness of epitaxial GaAs1-xNx films on GaAs(001) with different film thicknesses, varying from 80 to 700 nm, and nitrogen compositions x between zero (pure GaAs) and 0.031, were studied by means of nano-indentation. As a result, a disproportionate and monotonic increase by 17% in hardness was proved in the dilute range from GaAs to GaAs0.969N0.031. We are tracing this observation to solid solution strengthening, an extrinsic effect based on dislocation pinning due to interstitial nitrogen. On the other hand, intrinsic effects related to different electronegativities of As and N (i.e., altered bonding conditions) could be ruled out. Furthermore, in tensilely strained GaAs1-xNx layers, the appearance of cracks acts as the main strain relieving mechanism. A correlation between cracking and hardness reduction is investigated and discussed as a further relaxation pathway.

  7. Photovoltaic Properties of p-Doped GaAs Nanowire Arrays Grown on n-Type GaAs(111)B Substrate

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    We report on the molecular beam epitaxy growth of Au-assisted GaAs p-type-doped NW arrays on the n-type GaAs(111)B substrate and their photovoltaic properties. The samples are grown at different substrate temperature within the range from 520 to 580 °C. It is shown that the dependence of conversion efficiency on the substrate temperature has a maximum at the substrate temperature of 550 °C. For the best sample, the conversion efficiency of 1.65% and the fill factor of 25% are obtained. PMID:20672038

  8. Optically thin hybrid cavity for terahertz photo-conductive detectors

    DOE PAGES

    Thompson, Robert J.; Siday, T.; Glass, S.; ...

    2017-01-23

    Here, the efficiency of photoconductive (PC) devices, including terahertz detectors, is constrained by the bulk optical constants of PC materials. Here, we show that optical absorption in a PC layer can be modified substantially within a hybrid cavity containing nanoantennas and a Distributed Bragg Reflector. We find that a hybrid cavity, consisting of a GaAs PC layer of just 50 nm, can be used to absorb >75% of incident photons by trapping the light within the cavity. We provide an intuitive model, which describes the dependence of the optimum operation wavelength on the cavity thickness. We also find that themore » nanoantenna size is a critical parameter, small variations of which lead to both wavelength shifting and reduced absorption in the cavity, suggesting that impedance matching is key for achieving efficient absorption in the optically thin hybrid cavities.« less

  9. Study of strain boundary conditions and GaAs buffer sizes in InGaAs quantum dots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oyafuso, F.; Klimeck, G.; Boykin, T. B.; Bowen, R. C.; Allmen, P. von

    2003-01-01

    NEMO 3-D has been developed for the simulation of electronic structure in self-assembled InGaAs quantum dots on GaAs substrates. Typical self-assembled quantum dots in that material system contain about 0.5 to 1 million atoms. Effects of strain by the surrounding GaAs buffer modify the electronic structure inside the quantum dot significantly and a large GaAs buffer must be included in the strain and electronic structure.

  10. Alternatives to Arsine: The Atmospheric Pressure Organometallic Chemical Vapor Deposition Growth of GaAs Using Triethylarsenic.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-08-15

    SUPPLEMENTARY NOTATION 17. COSATI CODES 18 SUBJECT TERMS (Corinue on reverse if necessary and identify by block number) FIELD GROUP SUB-GROUP Epitaxy GaAs 9...Zr leiK m I141’ FIGURES 1 . Effect of Growth Parameters on Residual Doping Type ................... 7 2. Photoluminescence Spectrum of a GaAs Epilayer... 1 3 Successful homoepitaxial growth of high purity, unintentionally doped GaAs epilayers by organometallic chemical vapor deposition (OMCVD) has

  11. GaAs High Breakdown Voltage Front and Back Side Processed Schottky Detectors for X-Ray Detection

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-01

    front and back side processed, unintentionally doped bulk gallium -arsenic (GaAs) Schottky detectors and determined that GaAs detectors with a large...a few materials that fulfill these requirements are gallium -arsenic (GaAs) and cadmium-zinc-tellurium (CdZnTe or CZT). They are viable alternative...Whitehill, C.; Pospíšil, S.; Wilhem, I.; Doležal, Z.; Juergensen, H.; Heuken, M. Development of low-pressure vapour -phase epitaxial GaAs for medical imaging

  12. Delayed Triplet-State Formation through Hybrid Charge Transfer Exciton at Copper Phthalocyanine/GaAs Heterojunction.

    PubMed

    Lim, Heeseon; Kwon, Hyuksang; Kim, Sang Kyu; Kim, Jeong Won

    2017-10-05

    Light absorption in organic molecules on an inorganic substrate and subsequent electron transfer to the substrate create so-called hybrid charge transfer exciton (HCTE). The relaxation process of the HCTE states largely determines charge separation efficiency or optoelectronic device performance. Here, the study on energy and time-dispersive behavior of photoelectrons at the hybrid interface of copper phthalocyanine (CuPc)/p-GaAs(001) upon light excitation of GaAs reveals a clear pathway for HCTE relaxation and delayed triplet-state formation. According to the ground-state energy level alignment at the interface, CuPc/p-GaAs(001) shows initially fast hole injection from GaAs to CuPc. Thus, the electrons in GaAs and holes in CuPc form an unusual HCTE state manifold. Subsequent electron transfer from GaAs to CuPc generates the formation of the triplet state in CuPc with a few picoseconds delay. Such two-step charge transfer causes delayed triplet-state formation without singlet excitation and subsequent intersystem crossing within the CuPc molecules.

  13. GaAs Substrates for High-Power Diode Lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mueller, Georg; Berwian, Patrick; Buhrig, Eberhard; Weinert, Berndt

    GaAs substrate crystals with low dislocation density (Etch-Pit Density (EPD) < 500,^-2) and Si-doping ( ~10^18,^-3) are required for the epitaxial production of high-power diode-lasers. Large-size wafers (= 3 mathrm{in} -> >=3,) are needed for reducing the manufacturing costs. These requirements can be fulfilled by the Vertical Bridgman (VB) and Vertical Gradient Freeze (VGF) techniques. For that purpose we have developed proper VB/VGF furnaces and optimized the thermal as well as the physico-chemical process conditions. This was strongly supported by extensive numerical process simulation. The modeling of the VGF furnaces and processes was made by using a new computer code called CrysVUN++, which was recently developed in the Crystal Growth Laboratory in Erlangen.GaAs crystals with diameters of 2 and 3in were grown in pyrolytic Boron Nitride (pBN) crucibles having a small-diameter seed section and a conical part. Boric oxide was used to fully encapsulate the crystal and the melt. An initial silicon content in the GaAs melt of c (melt) = 3 x10^19,^-3 has to be used in order to achieve a carrier concentration of n = (0.8- 2) x10^18,^-3, which is the substrate specification of the device manufacturer of the diode-laser. The EPD could be reduced to values between 500,^-2 and 50,^-2 with a Si-doping level of 8 x10^17 to 1 x10^18,^-3. Even the 3in wafers have rather large dislocation-free areas. The lowest EPDs ( <100,^-2) are achieved for long seed wells of the crucible.

  14. A New GaAs Laser Radar for Atmospheric Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, R. T.; Stoliar, A. P.

    1973-01-01

    A special GaAs lidar using fiber coupled diode lasers was constructed for the purpose of measuring the extinction coefficient distribution within a large atmospheric volume at a rate compatible with atmospheric kinematics. The technique is based on taking backscatter signature ratios over spatial increments after the returns are normalized by pulse integration. Essential aspects of the lidar design are beam pulse power, repetition rate, detection system dynamic range and decay linearity. It was necessary to preclude the possibility of eye hazard under any operating conditions, including directly viewing the emitting aperture at close distance with a night-adapted eye. The electronic signal processing and control circuits were built to allow versatile operations. Extinction coefficient measurements were made in fog and clouds using a low-power laboratory version of the lidar, demonstrating feasibility. Data are presented showing range squared corrected backscatter profiles converted to extinction coefficient profiles, temporal signal fluctuations, and solar induced background noise. These results aided in the design of the lidar which is described. Functional tests of this lidar and the implications relevant to the design of a prototype model are discussed. This work was jointly sponsored by Sperry Rand Corporation under its Independent Research and Development program; the Air Force Avionics Laboratory, Wright Field, Dayton, Ohio; and the Naval Ammunition Depot, Crane, Indiana.

  15. High temperature GaAs X-ray detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lioliou, G.; Whitaker, M. D. C.; Barnett, A. M.

    2017-12-01

    Two GaAs p+-i-n+ mesa X-ray photodiodes were characterized for their electrical and photon counting X-ray spectroscopic performance over the temperature range of 100 °C to -20 °C. The devices had 10 μm thick i layers with different diameters: 200 μm (D1) and 400 μm (D2). The electrical characterization included dark current and capacitance measurements at internal electric field strengths of up to 50 kV/cm. The determined properties of the two devices were compared with previously reported results that were made with a view to informing the future development of photon counting X-ray spectrometers for harsh environments, e.g., X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy of planetary surfaces in high temperature environments. The best energy resolution obtained (Full Width at Half Maximum at 5.9 keV) decreased from 2.00 keV at 100 °C to 0.66 keV at -20 °C for the spectrometer with D1, and from 2.71 keV at 100 °C to 0.71 keV at -20 °C for the spectrometer with D2. Dielectric noise was found to be the dominant source of noise in the spectra, apart from at high temperatures and long shaping times, where the main source of photopeak broadening was found to be the white parallel noise.

  16. Si and GaAs photocapacitive MIS infrared detectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sher, A.; Tsuo, Y. H.; Moriarty, J. A.; Miller, W. E.; Crouch, R. K.

    1980-01-01

    Improvement of the previously reported photocapacitive MIS infrared detectors has led to the development of exceptional room-temperature devices. Unoptimized peak detectivities on the order of 10 to the 13th cm sq rt Hz/W, a value which exceeds the best obtainable from existing solid-state detectors, have now been consistently obtained in Si and GaAs devices using high-capacitance LaF3 or composite LaF3/native-oxide insulating layers. The measured spectral response of representative samples is presented and discussed in detail together with a simple theory which accounts for the observed behavior. The response of an ideal MIS photocapacitor is also contrasted with that of both a conventional photoconductor and a p-i-n photodiode, and reasons for the superior performance of the MIS detectors are given. Finally, fundamental studies on the electrical, optical, and noise characteristics of the MIS structures are analyzed and discussed in the context of infrared-detector applications.

  17. GaAs integrated circuits and heterojunction devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fowlis, Colin

    1986-06-01

    The state of the art of GaAs technology in the U.S. as it applies to digital and analog integrated circuits is examined. In a market projection, it is noted that whereas analog ICs now largely dominate the market, in 1994 they will amount to only 39 percent vs. 57 percent for digital ICs. The military segment of the market will remain the largest (42 percent in 1994 vs. 70 percent today). ICs using depletion-mode-only FETs can be constructed in various forms, the closest to production being BFL or buffered FET logic. Schottky diode FET logic - a lower power approach - can reach higher complexities and strong efforts are being made in this direction. Enhancement type devices appear essential to reach LSI and VLSI complexity, but process control is still very difficult; strong efforts are under way, both in the U.S. and in Japan. Heterojunction devices appear very promising, although structures are fairly complex, and special fabrication techniques, such as molecular beam epitaxy and MOCVD, are necessary. High-electron-mobility-transistor (HEMT) devices show significant performance advantages over MESFETs at low temperatures. Initial results of heterojunction bipolar transistor devices show promise for high speed A/D converter applications.

  18. Interface shape and crystallinity in LEC GaAs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tower, J. P.; Tobin, R.; Pearah, P. J.; Ware, R. M.

    1991-12-01

    Growth striation mapping was used to relate the growth interface shape to crystallinity failure modes in LEC growth of undoped <100> GaAs. The onset of twinning and polycrystallinity were both found to depend on the interface shape near the crystal periphery. The origins of polycrystalline growth were investigated in 8 kg, 3-inch and 4-inch diameter crystals. Interface maps of these crystals show that polycrystalline growth begins when the growth interface periphery turns down, independent of the shape of the central portions. The cause of initial grain boundary formation was found to be included gallium droplets which originate on the surface and migrate through the crystal toward the growth interface. Twinning occurs on {111} facets, usually during shoulder growth. Growth striations show that the sequence of events leading to twin formation consists of deep facet growth, followed by meltback and rapid regrowth. We found it possible to avoid twinning by reducing melt instabilities or by reducing the extent of facet growth.

  19. Highly efficient single-junction GaAs thin-film solar cell on flexible substrate.

    PubMed

    Moon, Sunghyun; Kim, Kangho; Kim, Youngjo; Heo, Junseok; Lee, Jaejin

    2016-07-20

    There has been much interest in developing a thin-film solar cell because it is lightweight and flexible. The GaAs thin-film solar cell is a top contender in the thin-film solar cell market in that it has a high power conversion efficiency (PCE) compared to that of other thin-film solar cells. There are two common structures for the GaAs solar cell: n (emitter)-on-p (base) and p-on-n. The former performs better due to its high collection efficiency because the electron diffusion length of the p-type base region is much longer than the hole diffusion length of the n-type base region. However, it has been limited to fabricate highly efficient n-on-p single-junction GaAs thin film solar cell on a flexible substrate due to technical obstacles. We investigated a simple and fast epitaxial lift-off (ELO) method that uses a stress originating from a Cr/Au bilayer on a 125-μm-thick flexible substrate. A metal combination of AuBe/Pt/Au is employed as a new p-type ohmic contact with which an n-on-p single-junction GaAs thin-film solar cell on flexible substrate was successfully fabricated. The PCE of the fabricated single-junction GaAs thin-film solar cells reached 22.08% under air mass 1.5 global illumination.

  20. Paths to light trapping in thin film GaAs solar cells.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Jianling; Fang, Hanlin; Su, Rongbin; Li, Kezheng; Song, Jindong; Krauss, Thomas F; Li, Juntao; Martins, Emiliano R

    2018-03-19

    It is now well established that light trapping is an essential element of thin film solar cell design. Numerous light trapping geometries have already been applied to thin film cells, especially to silicon-based devices. Less attention has been paid to light trapping in GaAs thin film cells, mainly because light trapping is considered less attractive due to the material's direct bandgap and the fact that GaAs suffers from strong surface recombination, which particularly affects etched nanostructures. Here, we study light trapping structures that are implemented in a high-bandgap material on the back of the GaAs active layer, thereby not perturbing the integrity of the GaAs active layer. We study photonic crystal and quasi-random nanostructures both by simulation and by experiment and find that the photonic crystal structures are superior because they exhibit fewer but stronger resonances that are better matched to the narrow wavelength range where GaAs benefits from light trapping. In fact, we show that a 1500 nm thick cell with photonic crystals achieves the same short circuit current as an unpatterned 4000 nm thick cell. These findings are significant because they afford a sizeable reduction in active layer thickness, and therefore a reduction in expensive epitaxial growth time and cost, yet without compromising performance.

  1. Multilayer self-organization of InGaAs quantum wires on GaAs surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhiming M.; Kunets, Vasyl P.; Xie, Yanze Z.; Schmidbauer, Martin; Dorogan, Vitaliy G.; Mazur, Yuriy I.; Salamo, Gregory J.

    2010-12-01

    Molecular-Beam Epitaxy growth of multiple In 0.4Ga 0.6As layers on GaAs (311)A and GaAs (331)A has been investigated by Atomic Force Microscopy and Photoluminescence. On GaAs (311)A, uniformly distributed In 0.4Ga 0.6As quantum wires (QWRs) with wider lateral separation were achieved, presenting a significant improvement in comparison with the result on single layer [H. Wen, Z.M. Wang, G.J. Salamo, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84 (2004) 1756]. On GaAs (331)A, In 0.4Ga 0.6As QWRs were revealed to be much straighter than in the previous report on multilayer growth [Z. Gong, Z. Niu, Z. Fang, Nanotechnology 17 (2006) 1140]. These observations are discussed in terms of the strain-field interaction among multilayers, enhancement of surface mobility at high temperature, and surface stability of GaAs (311)A and (331)A surfaces.

  2. Measurement of electron beam polarization produced by photoemission from bulk GaAs using twisted light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clayburn, Nathan; Dreiling, Joan; McCarter, James; Ryan, Dominic; Poelker, Matt; Gay, Timothy

    2012-06-01

    GaAs photocathodes produce spin polarized electron beams when illuminated with circularly polarized light with photon energy approximately equal to the bandgap energy [1, 2]. A typical polarization value obtained with bulk GaAs and conventional circularly polarized light is 35%. This study investigated the spin polarization of electron beams emitted from GaAs illuminated with ``twisted light,'' an expression that describes a beam of light having orbital angular momentum (OAM). In the experiment, 790nm laser light was focused to a near diffraction-limited spot size on the surface of the GaAs photocathode to determine if OAM might couple to valence band electron spin mediated by the GaAs lattice. Our polarization measurements using a compact retarding-field micro-Mott polarimeter [3] have established an upper bound on the polarization of the emitted electron beam of 2.5%. [4pt] [1] D.T. Pierce, F. Meier, P. Zurcher, Appl. Phys. Lett. 26 670 (1975).[0pt] [2] C.K. Sinclair, et al., PRSTAB 10 023501 (2007).[0pt] [3] J.L. McCarter, M.L. Stutzman, K.W. Trantham, T.G. Anderson, A.M. Cook, and T.J. Gay Nucl. Instrum. and Meth. A (2010).

  3. High-efficiency thin-film GaAs solar cells, phase2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yeh, Y. C. M.

    1981-01-01

    Thin GaAs epi-layers with good crystallographic quality were grown using a (100) Si-substrate on which a thin Ge epi-interlayer was grown by CVD from germane. Both antireflection-coated metal oxide semiconductor (AMOS) and n(+)/p homojunction structures were studied. The AMOS cells were fabricated on undoped-GaAs epi-layers deposited on bulk poly-Ge substrates using organo-metallic CVD film-growth, with the best achieved AM1 conversion efficiency being 9.1%. Both p-type and n(+)-type GaAs growth were optimized using 50 ppm dimethyl zinc and 1% hydrogen sulfide, respectively. A direct GaAs deposition method in fabricating ultra-thin top layer, epitaxial n(+)/p shallow homojunction solar cells on (100) GaAs substrates (without anodic thinning) was developed to produce large area (1 sq/cm) cells, with 19.4% AM1 conversion efficiency achieved. Additionally, an AM1 conversion efficiency of 18.4% (17.5% with 5% grid coverage) was achieved for a single crystal GaAs n(+)/p cell grown by OM-CVD on a Ge wafer.

  4. n-Type Doping of Vapor-Liquid-Solid Grown GaAs Nanowires.

    PubMed

    Gutsche, Christoph; Lysov, Andrey; Regolin, Ingo; Blekker, Kai; Prost, Werner; Tegude, Franz-Josef

    2011-12-01

    In this letter, n-type doping of GaAs nanowires grown by metal-organic vapor phase epitaxy in the vapor-liquid-solid growth mode on (111)B GaAs substrates is reported. A low growth temperature of 400°C is adjusted in order to exclude shell growth. The impact of doping precursors on the morphology of GaAs nanowires was investigated. Tetraethyl tin as doping precursor enables heavily n-type doped GaAs nanowires in a relatively small process window while no doping effect could be found for ditertiarybutylsilane. Electrical measurements carried out on single nanowires reveal an axially non-uniform doping profile. Within a number of wires from the same run, the donor concentrations ND of GaAs nanowires are found to vary from 7 × 10(17) cm(-3) to 2 × 10(18) cm(-3). The n-type conductivity is proven by the transfer characteristics of fabricated nanowire metal-insulator-semiconductor field-effect transistor devices.

  5. Spin-lattice relaxation of optically polarized nuclei in p -type GaAs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotur, M.; Dzhioev, R. I.; Vladimirova, M.; Cherbunin, R. V.; Sokolov, P. S.; Yakovlev, D. R.; Bayer, M.; Suter, D.; Kavokin, K. V.

    2018-04-01

    Spin-lattice relaxation of the nuclear spin system in p -type GaAs is studied using a three-stage experimental protocol including optical pumping and measuring the difference of the nuclear spin polarization before and after a dark interval of variable length. This method allows us to measure the spin-lattice relaxation time T1 of optically pumped nuclei "in the dark," that is, in the absence of illumination. The measured T1 values fall into the subsecond time range, being three orders of magnitude shorter than in earlier studied n -type GaAs. The drastic difference is further emphasized by magnetic-field and temperature dependencies of T1 in p -GaAs, showing no similarity to those in n -GaAs. This unexpected behavior finds its explanation in the spatial selectivity of the optical pumping in p -GaAs, that is only efficient in the vicinity of shallow donors, together with the quadrupole relaxation of nuclear spins, which is induced by electric fields within closely spaced donor-acceptor pairs. The developed theoretical model explains the whole set of experimental results.

  6. Interpolative modeling of GaAs FET S-parameter data bases for use in Monte Carlo simulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, L.; Purviance, J.

    1992-01-01

    A statistical interpolation technique is presented for modeling GaAs FET S-parameter measurements for use in the statistical analysis and design of circuits. This is accomplished by interpolating among the measurements in a GaAs FET S-parameter data base in a statistically valid manner.

  7. Use of a corrugated surface to enhance radiation tolerance in a GaAs solar cell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leon, Rosa P.; Piszczor, Michael F., Jr.

    1985-01-01

    The use of a corrugated surface on a GaAs solar cell and its effects on radiation resistance were studied. A compute code was developed to determine the performance of the cell for various geometric parameters. The large optical absorption coefficient of GaAs allows grooves to be only 4-5 micrometers deep. Using accepted material parameters for GaAs solar cells the theoretical performances were compared for various corrugated cells before and after minority carrier diffusion length degradation. The total power output was maximized for both n(+)/p and p(+)/n cells. Optimum values of 1.0-1.5 and 5.0 micrometers for groove and ridge widths respectively were determined.

  8. Monolithic optical integrated control circuitry for GaAs MMIC-based phased arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhasin, K. B.; Ponchak, G. E.; Kascak, T. J.

    1985-01-01

    Gallium arsenide (GaAs) monolithic microwave integrated circuits (MMIC's) show promise in phased-array antenna applications for future space communications systems. Their efficient usage will depend on the control of amplitude and phase signals for each MMIC element in the phased array and in the low-loss radiofrequency feed. For a phased array contining several MMIC elements a complex system is required to control and feed each element. The characteristics of GaAs MMIC's for 20/30-GHz phased-array systems are discussed. The optical/MMIC interface and the desired characteristics of optical integrated circuits (OIC's) for such an interface are described. Anticipated fabrication considerations for eventual full monolithic integration of optical integrated circuits with MMIC's on a GaAs substrate are presented.

  9. Effects of ultrathin oxides in conducting MIS structures on GaAs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Childs, R. B.; Ruths, J. M.; Sullivan, T. E.; Fonash, S. J.

    1978-01-01

    Schottky barrier-type GaAs baseline devices (semiconductor surface etched and then immediately metalized) and GaAs conducting metal oxide-semiconductor devices are fabricated and characterized. The baseline surfaces (no purposeful oxide) are prepared by a basic or an acidic etch, while the surface for the MIS devices are prepared by oxidizing after the etch step. The metallizations used are thin-film Au, Ag, Pd, and Al. It is shown that the introduction of purposeful oxide into these Schottky barrier-type structures examined on n-type GaAs modifies the barrier formation, and that thin interfacial layers can modify barrier formation through trapping and perhaps chemical reactions. For Au- and Pd-devices, enhanced photovoltaic performance of the MIS configuration is due to increased barrier height.

  10. GaAs quantum dots in a GaP nanowire photodetector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuyanov, P.; McNamee, S. A.; LaPierre, R. R.

    2018-03-01

    We report the structural, optical and electrical properties of GaAs quantum dots (QDs) embedded along GaP nanowires. The GaP nanowires contained p-i-n junctions with 15 consecutively grown GaAs QDs within the intrinsic region. The nanowires were grown by molecular beam epitaxy using the self-assisted vapor-liquid-solid process. The crystal structure of the NWs alternated between twinned ZB and WZ as the composition along the NW alternated between the GaP barriers and the GaAs QDs, respectively, leading to a polytypic structure with a periodic modulation of the NW sidewall facets. Photodetector devices containing QDs showed absorption beyond the bandgap of GaP in comparison to nanowires without QDs. Voltage-dependent measurements suggested a field emission process of carriers from the QDs.

  11. Fermi level pinning at epitaxial Si on GaAs(100) interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silberman, J. A.; de Lyon, T. J.; Woodall, J. M.

    1991-12-01

    GaAs Schottky barrier contacts and metal-insulator-semiconductor structures that include thin epitaxial Si interfacial layers operate in a manner consistent with an unpinned Fermi level at the GaAs interface. These findings raise the question of whether this effect is an intrinsic property of the epitaxial GaAs(100)-Si interface. We have used x-ray photoemission spectroscopy to monitor the Fermi level position during in situ growth of thin epitaxial Si layers. In particular, films formed on heavily doped n- and p-type substrates were compared so as to use the large depletion layer fields available with high impurity concentration as a field-effect probe of the interface state density. The results demonstrate that epitaxial bonding at the interface alone is insufficient to eliminate Fermi level pinning, indicating that other mechanisms affect the interfacial charge balance in the devices that utilize Si interlayers.

  12. Spectrally resolved localized states in GaAs 1– xBi x

    DOE PAGES

    Christian, Theresa M.; Alberi, Kirstin; Beaton, Daniel A.; ...

    2017-02-01

    In this study, the role of localized states and their influence on the broader band structure remains a crucial question in understanding the band structure evolution in GaAs 1-xBi x. Here in this work, we present clear spectroscopic observations of recombination at several localized states in GaAs 1-xBi x. Sharp and recognizable photoluminescence features appear in multiple samples and redshift as a function of GaBi fraction between x = 0.16% and 0.4% at a linearized rate of 34 meV per % Bi, weaker than the redshift associated with band-to-band recombination. Interpreting these results in terms of radiative recombination between localizedmore » holes and free electrons sheds light on the relative movement of the conduction band minimum and the characteristics of localized bismuth-related trap states in GaAs 1-xBi x alloys.« less

  13. Electric field effects on the optical properties of buckled GaAs monolayer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bahuguna, Bhagwati Prasad; Saini, L. K.; Sharma, Rajesh O.

    2018-04-01

    Buckled GaAs monolayer has a direct band gap semiconductor with energy gap of 1.31 eV in the absence of electric field. When we applied transverse electric field, the value of band gap decreases with increasing of electric field strength. In our previous work [1], it is observed that the buckled GaAs monolayer becomes metallic at 1.3 V/Å. In the present work, we investigate the optical properties such as photon energy-dependent dielectric functions, extinction coefficient, refractive index, absorption spectrum and reflectivity of buckled GaAs monolayer in the semiconducting phase i.e. absence of external electric field and metallic phase i.e. presence of external electric field using density functional theory.

  14. The ZnSe(110) puzzle - Comparison with GaAs(110)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duke, C. B.; Paton, A.; Kahn, A.; Tu, D.-W.

    1984-01-01

    The surface structure of monocrystalline ZnSe(110) and of 4-5-nm-thick ZnSe(110) layers epitaxially grown on GaAs(110) is investigated by means of elastic LEED and AES; the results are analyzed using the computer programs and R-factor methods of Duke et al. (1981 and 1983), presented in graphs and tables, and compared to those for GaAs(110). Significant differences are attributed to bond-length-conserving outward rotation of Se and inward rotation of Zn in the top layer, with an angle of 4 deg between the actual plane of the cation-anion chain and the truncated bulk surface. The R intensities measured for ZnSe(110) and GaAs(110) are given as Rx = 0.22 and RI = 0.21 and Rx = 0.24 and RI = 0.16, respectively.

  15. Nanoscale Footprints of Self-Running Gallium Droplets on GaAs Surface

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Jiang; Wang, Zhiming M.; Li, Alvason Z.; Benamara, Mourad; Li, Shibin; Salamo, Gregory J.

    2011-01-01

    In this work, the nanoscale footprints of self-driven liquid gallium droplet movement on a GaAs (001) surface will be presented and analyzed. The nanoscale footprints of a primary droplet trail and ordered secondary droplets along primary droplet trails are observed on the GaAs surface. A well ordered nanoterrace from the trail is left behind by a running droplet. In addition, collision events between two running droplets are investigated. The exposed fresh surface after a collision demonstrates a superior evaporation property. Based on the observation of droplet evolution at different stages as well as nanoscale footprints, a schematic diagram of droplet evolution is outlined in an attempt to understand the phenomenon of stick-slip droplet motion on the GaAs surface. The present study adds another piece of work to obtain the physical picture of a stick-slip self-driven mechanism in nanoscale, bridging nano and micro systems. PMID:21673965

  16. Low-temperature photoluminescence study of thin epitaxial GaAs films on Ge substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brammertz, Guy; Mols, Yves; Degroote, Stefan; Motsnyi, Vasyl; Leys, Maarten; Borghs, Gustaaf; Caymax, Matty

    2006-05-01

    Thin epitaxial GaAs films, with thickness varying from 140 to 1000 nm and different Si doping levels, were grown at 650 °C by organometallic vapor phase epitaxy on Ge substrates and analyzed by low-temperature photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy. All spectra of thin GaAs on Ge show two different structures, one narrow band-to-band (B2B) structure at an energy of ~1.5 eV and a broad inner-band-gap (IB) structure at an energy of ~1.1 eV. Small strain in the thin GaAs films causes the B2B structure to be separated into a light-hole and a heavy-hole peak. At 2.5 K the good structural quality of the thin GaAs films on Ge can be observed from the narrow excitonic peaks. Peak widths of less than 1 meV are measured. GaAs films with thickness smaller than 200 nm show B2B PL spectra with characteristics of an n-type doping level of approximately 1018 at./cm3. This is caused by heavy Ge diffusion from the substrate into the GaAs at the heterointerface between the two materials. The IB structure observed in all films consists of two Gaussian peaks with energies of 1.04 and 1.17 eV. These deep trapping states arise from Ge-based complexes formed within the GaAs at the Ge-GaAs heterointerface, due to strong diffusion of Ge atoms into the GaAs. Because of similarities with Si-based complexes, the peak at 1.04 eV was identified to be due to a GeGa-GeAs complex, whereas the peak at 1.17 eV was attributed to the GeGa-VGa complex. The intensity of the IB structure decreases strongly as the GaAs film thickness is increased. PL intensity of undoped GaAs films containing antiphase domains (APDs) is four orders of magnitude lower than for similar films without APDs. This reduction in intensity is due to the electrically active Ga-Ga and As-As bonds at the boundaries between the different APDs. When the Si doping level is increased, the PL intensity of the APD-containing films is increased again as well. A film containing APDs with a Si doping level of ~1018 at./cm3 has only a factor 10

  17. Optical techniques to feed and control GaAs MMIC modules for phased array antenna applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhasin, K. B.; Anzic, G.; Kunath, R. R.; Connolly, D. J.

    A complex signal distribution system is required to feed and control GaAs monolithic microwave integrated circuits (MMICs) for phased array antenna applications above 20 GHz. Each MMIC module will require one or more RF lines, one or more bias voltage lines, and digital lines to provide a minimum of 10 bits of combined phase and gain control information. In a closely spaced array, the routing of these multiple lines presents difficult topology problems as well as a high probability of signal interference. To overcome GaAs MMIC phased array signal distribution problems optical fibers interconnected to monolithically integrated optical components with GaAs MMIC array elements are proposed as a solution. System architecture considerations using optical fibers are described. The analog and digital optical links to respectively feed and control MMIC elements are analyzed. It is concluded that a fiber optic network will reduce weight and complexity, and increase reliability and performance, but higher power will be required.

  18. Optical techniques to feed and control GaAs MMIC modules for phased array antenna applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhasin, K. B.; Anzic, G.; Kunath, R. R.; Connolly, D. J.

    1986-01-01

    A complex signal distribution system is required to feed and control GaAs monolithic microwave integrated circuits (MMICs) for phased array antenna applications above 20 GHz. Each MMIC module will require one or more RF lines, one or more bias voltage lines, and digital lines to provide a minimum of 10 bits of combined phase and gain control information. In a closely spaced array, the routing of these multiple lines presents difficult topology problems as well as a high probability of signal interference. To overcome GaAs MMIC phased array signal distribution problems optical fibers interconnected to monolithically integrated optical components with GaAs MMIC array elements are proposed as a solution. System architecture considerations using optical fibers are described. The analog and digital optical links to respectively feed and control MMIC elements are analyzed. It is concluded that a fiber optic network will reduce weight and complexity, and increase reliability and performance, but higher power will be required.

  19. Frequency-tunable continuous-wave terahertz sources based on GaAs plasmonic photomixers

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Shang-Hua; Jarrahi, Mona; Electrical Engineering Department, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California 90095

    2015-09-28

    We present frequency-tunable, continuous-wave terahertz sources based on GaAs plasmonic photomixers, which offer high terahertz radiation power levels at 50% radiation duty cycle. The use of plasmonic contact electrodes enhances photomixer quantum efficiency while maintaining its ultrafast operation by concentrating a large number of photocarriers in close proximity to the device contact electrodes. Additionally, the relatively high thermal conductivity and high resistivity of GaAs allow operation under high optical pump power levels and long duty cycles without reaching the thermal breakdown limit of the photomixer. We experimentally demonstrate continuous-wave terahertz radiation with a radiation frequency tuning range of more thanmore » 2 THz and a record-high radiation power of 17 μW at 1 THz through plasmonic photomixers fabricated on a low temperature grown GaAs substrate at 50% radiation duty cycle.« less

  20. Growth of GaAs crystals from the melt in a partially confined configuration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gatos, Harry C.; Lagowski, Jacek

    1988-01-01

    The experimental approach was directed along two main goals: (1) the implementation of an approach to melt growth in a partially confined configuration; and (2) the investigation of point defect interaction and electronic characteristics as related to thermal treatment following solidification and stoichiometry. Significant progress was made along both fronts. Crystal growth of GaAs in triangular ampuls was already carried out successfully and consistent with the model. In fact, pronounced surface tension phenomena which cannot be observed in ordinary confinement system were identified and should premit the assessment of Maragoni effects prior to space processing. Regarding thermal treatment, it was discovered that the rate of cooling from elevated temperatures is primarily responsible for a whole class of defect interactions affecting the electronic characteristics of GaAs and that stoichiometry plays a critical role in the quality of GaAs.

  1. Nitride surface passivation of GaAs nanowires: impact on surface state density.

    PubMed

    Alekseev, Prokhor A; Dunaevskiy, Mikhail S; Ulin, Vladimir P; Lvova, Tatiana V; Filatov, Dmitriy O; Nezhdanov, Alexey V; Mashin, Aleksander I; Berkovits, Vladimir L

    2015-01-14

    Surface nitridation by hydrazine-sulfide solution, which is known to produce surface passivation of GaAs crystals, was applied to GaAs nanowires (NWs). We studied the effect of nitridation on conductivity and microphotoluminescence (μ-PL) of individual GaAs NWs using conductive atomic force microscopy (CAFM) and confocal luminescent microscopy (CLM), respectively. Nitridation is found to produce an essential increase in the NW conductivity and the μ-PL intensity as well evidence of surface passivation. Estimations show that the nitride passivation reduces the surface state density by a factor of 6, which is of the same order as that found for GaAs/AlGaAs nanowires. The effects of the nitride passivation are also stable under atmospheric ambient conditions for six months.

  2. Negative differential velocity in ultradilute GaAs1-xNx alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogiatzis, N.; Rorison, J. M.

    2011-04-01

    We present theoretical results on steady state characteristics in bulk GaAs1-xNx alloys (x ≤ 0.2) using the single electron Monte-Carlo method. Two approaches have been used; the first assumes a GaAs band with a strong nitrogen scattering resonance and the second uses the band anti-crossing model, in which the localized N level interacts with the GaAs band strongly perturbing the conduction band. In the first model we observe two negative differential velocity peaks, the lower one associated with nitrogen scattering while the higher one with polar optical phonon emission accounting for the nonparabolicity effect. In the second model one negative differential velocity peak is observed associated with polar optical phonon emission. Good agreement with experimental low field mobility is obtained from the first model. We also comment on the results from both Models when the intervalley Г → L transfer is accounted for.

  3. Wafer-scale layer transfer of GaAs and Ge onto Si wafers using patterned epitaxial lift-off

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mieda, Eiko; Maeda, Tatsuro; Miyata, Noriyuki; Yasuda, Tetsuji; Kurashima, Yuichi; Maeda, Atsuhiko; Takagi, Hideki; Aoki, Takeshi; Yamamoto, Taketsugu; Ichikawa, Osamu; Osada, Takenori; Hata, Masahiko; Ogawa, Arito; Kikuchi, Toshiyuki; Kunii, Yasuo

    2015-03-01

    We have developed a wafer-scale layer-transfer technique for transferring GaAs and Ge onto Si wafers of up to 300 mm in diameter. Lattice-matched GaAs or Ge layers were epitaxially grown on GaAs wafers using an AlAs release layer, which can subsequently be transferred onto a Si handle wafer via direct wafer bonding and patterned epitaxial lift-off (ELO). The crystal properties of the transferred GaAs layers were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), photoluminescence, and the quality of the transferred Ge layers was characterized using Raman spectroscopy. We find that, after bonding and the wet ELO processes, the quality of the transferred GaAs and Ge layers remained the same compared to that of the as-grown epitaxial layers. Furthermore, we realized Ge-on-insulator and GaAs-on-insulator wafers by wafer-scale pattern ELO technique.

  4. Mn Impurity in Bulk GaAs Crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pawłowski, M.; Piersa, M.; Wołoś, A.; Palczewska, M.; Strzelecka, G.; Hruban, A.; Gosk, J.; Kamińska, M.; Twardowski, A.

    2006-11-01

    Magnetic and electron transport properties of GaAs:Mn crystals grown by Czochralski method were studied. Electron spin resonance showed the presence of Mn acceptor A in two charge states: singly ionized A- in the form of Mn2+(d5), and neutral A0 in the form of Mn2+(d5) plus a bound hole (h). It was possible to determine the relative concentration of both types of centers from intensity of the corresponding electron spin resonance lines. Magnetization measured as a function of magnetic field (up to 6 T) in the temperature range of 2-300 K revealed overall paramagnetic behavior of the samples. Effective spin was found to be about 1.5 value, which was consistent with the presence of two types of Mn configurations. In most of the studied samples the dominance of Mn2+(d5)+h configuration was established and it increased after annealing of native donors. The total value of Mn content was obtained from fitting of magnetization curves with the use of parameters obtained from electron spin resonance. In electron transport, two mechanisms of conductivity were observed: valence band transport dominated above 70 K, and hopping conductivity within Mn impurity band at lower temperatures. From the analysis of the hopping conductivity and using the obtained values of the total Mn content, the effective radius of Mn acceptor in GaAs was estimated as a = 11 ± 3 Å.

  5. Rare-earth gate oxides for GaAs MOSFET application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwon, Kwang-Ho; Yang, Jun-Kyu; Park, Hyung-Ho; Kim, Jongdae; Roh, Tae Moon

    2006-08-01

    Rare-earth oxide films for gate dielectric on n-GaAs have been investigated. The oxide films were e-beam evaporated on S-passivated GaAs, considering interfacial chemical bonding state and energy band structure. Rare-earth oxides such as Gd 2O 3, (Gd xLa 1- x) 2O 3, and Gd-silicate were employed due to high resistivity and no chemical reaction with GaAs. Structural and bonding properties were characterized by X-ray photoemission, absorption, and diffraction. The electrical characteristics of metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) diodes were correlated with material properties and energy band structures to guarantee the feasibility for MOS field effect transistor (FET) application. Gd 2O 3 films were grown epitaxially on S-passivated GaAs (0 0 1) at 400 °C. The passivation induced a lowering of crystallization temperature with an epitaxial relationship of Gd 2O 3 (4 4 0) and GaAs (0 0 1). A better lattice matching relation between Gd 2O 3 and GaAs substrate was accomplished by the substitution of Gd with La, which has larger ionic radius. The in-plane relationship of (Gd xLa 1- x) 2O 3 (4 4 0) with GaAs (0 0 1) was found and the epitaxial films showed an improved crystalline quality. Amorphous Gd-silicate film was synthesized by the incorporation of SiO 2 into Gd 2O 3. These amorphous Gd-silicate films excluded defect traps or current flow path due to grain boundaries and showed a relatively larger energy band gap dependent on the contents of SiO 2. Energy band parameters such as Δ EC, Δ EV, and Eg were effectively controlled by the film composition.

  6. Analysis of GAA/TTC DNA triplexes using nuclear magnetic resonance and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Mariappan, S V Santhana; Cheng, Xun; van Breemen, Richard B; Silks, Louis A; Gupta, Goutam

    2004-11-15

    The formation of a GAA/TTC DNA triplex has been implicated in Friedreich's ataxia. The destabilization of GAA/TTC DNA triplexes either by pH or by binding to appropriate ligands was analyzed by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and positive-ion electrospray mass spectrometry. The triplexes and duplexes were identified by changes in the NMR chemical shifts of H8, H1, H4, 15N7, and 15N4. The lowest pH at which the duplex is detectable depends upon the overall stability and the relative number of Hoogsteen C composite function G to T composite function A basepairs. A melting pH (pHm) of 7.6 was observed for the destabilization of the (GAA)2T4(TTC)2T4(CTT)2 triplex to the corresponding Watson-Crick duplex and the T4(CTT)2 overhang. The mass spectrometric analyses of (TTC)6.(GAA)6 composite function(TTC)6 triplex detected ions due to both triplex and single-stranded oligonucleotides under acidic conditions. The triplex ions disappeared completely at alkaline pH. Duplex and single strands were detectable only at neutral and alkaline pH values. Mass spectrometric analyses also showed that minor groove-binding ligands berenil, netropsin, and distamycin and the intercalating ligand acridine orange destabilize the (TTC)6.(GAA)6 composite function (TTC)6 triplex. These NMR and mass spectrometric methods may function as screening assays for the discovery of agents that destabilize GAA/TTC triplexes and as general methods for the characterization of structure, dynamics, and stability of DNA and DNA-ligand complexes.

  7. GaAs QWIP Array Containing More Than a Million Pixels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jhabvala, Murzy; Choi, K. K.; Gunapala, Sarath

    2005-01-01

    A 1,024 x 1,024-pixel array of quantum-well infrared photodetectors (QWIPs) has been built on a 1.8 x 1.8- cm GaAs chip. In tests, the array was found to perform well in detecting images at wavelengths from 8 to 9 m in operation at temperatures between 60 and 70 K. The largest-format QWIP prior array that performed successfully in tests contained 512 x 640 pixels. There is continuing development effort directed toward satisfying actual and anticipated demands to increase numbers of pixels and pixel sizes in order to increase the imaging resolution of infrared photodetector arrays. A 1,024 x 1,024-pixel and even larger formats have been achieved in the InSb and HgCdTe material systems, but photodetector arrays in these material systems are very expensive and manufactured by fewer than half a dozen large companies. In contrast, GaAs-photodetector-array technology is very mature, and photodetectors in the GaAs material system can be readily manufactured by a wide range of industrial technologists, by universities, and government laboratories. There is much similarity between processing in the GaAs industry and processing in the pervasive silicon industry. With respect to yield and cost, the performance of GaAs technology substantially exceeds that of InSb and HgCdTe technologies. In addition, GaAs detectors can be designed to respond to any portion of the wavelength range from 3 to about 16 micrometers - a feature that is very desirable for infrared imaging. GaAs QWIP arrays, like the present one, have potential for use as imaging sensors in infrared measuring instruments, infrared medical imaging systems, and infrared cameras.

  8. Disruption of Higher Order DNA Structures in Friedreich’s Ataxia (GAA)n Repeats by PNA or LNA Targeting

    PubMed Central

    Bergquist, Helen; Rocha, Cristina S. J.; Álvarez-Asencio, Rubén; Nguyen, Chi-Hung; Rutland, Mark. W.; Smith, C. I. Edvard; Good, Liam; Nielsen, Peter E.; Zain, Rula

    2016-01-01

    Expansion of (GAA)n repeats in the first intron of the Frataxin gene is associated with reduced mRNA and protein levels and the development of Friedreich’s ataxia. (GAA)n expansions form non-canonical structures, including intramolecular triplex (H-DNA), and R-loops and are associated with epigenetic modifications. With the aim of interfering with higher order H-DNA (like) DNA structures within pathological (GAA)n expansions, we examined sequence-specific interaction of peptide nucleic acid (PNA) with (GAA)n repeats of different lengths (short: n=9, medium: n=75 or long: n=115) by chemical probing of triple helical and single stranded regions. We found that a triplex structure (H-DNA) forms at GAA repeats of different lengths; however, single stranded regions were not detected within the medium size pathological repeat, suggesting the presence of a more complex structure. Furthermore, (GAA)4-PNA binding of the repeat abolished all detectable triplex DNA structures, whereas (CTT)5-PNA did not. We present evidence that (GAA)4-PNA can invade the DNA at the repeat region by binding the DNA CTT strand, thereby preventing non-canonical-DNA formation, and that triplex invasion complexes by (CTT)5-PNA form at the GAA repeats. Locked nucleic acid (LNA) oligonucleotides also inhibited triplex formation at GAA repeat expansions, and atomic force microscopy analysis showed significant relaxation of plasmid morphology in the presence of GAA-LNA. Thus, by inhibiting disease related higher order DNA structures in the Frataxin gene, such PNA and LNA oligomers may have potential for discovery of drugs aiming at recovering Frataxin expression. PMID:27846236

  9. Enhanced second-harmonic generation from resonant GaAs gratings.

    PubMed

    de Ceglia, D; D'Aguanno, G; Mattiucci, N; Vincenti, M A; Scalora, M

    2011-03-01

    We theoretically study second harmonic generation in nonlinear, GaAs gratings. We find large enhancement of conversion efficiency when the pump field excites the guided mode resonances of the grating. Under these circumstances the spectrum near the pump wavelength displays sharp resonances characterized by dramatic enhancements of local fields and favorable conditions for second-harmonic generation, even in regimes of strong linear absorption at the harmonic wavelength. In particular, in a GaAs grating pumped at 1064 nm, we predict second-harmonic conversion efficiencies approximately 5 orders of magnitude larger than conversion rates achievable in either bulk or etalon structures of the same material.

  10. Low temperature growth and electrical characterization of insulators for GaAs MISFETS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Borrego, J. M.; Ghandhi, S. K.

    1981-01-01

    Progress in the low temperature growth of oxides and layers on GaAs and the detailed electrical characterization of these oxides is reported. A plasma anodization system was designed, assembled, and put into operation. A measurement system was assembled for determining capacitance and conductance as a function of gate voltage for frequencies in the range from 1 Hz to 1 MHz. Initial measurements were carried out in Si-SiO2 capacitors in order to test the system and in GaAs MIS capacitors abricated using liquid anodization.

  11. A thermochemical model of radiation damage and annealing applied to GaAs solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conway, E. J.; Walker, G. H.; Heinbockel, J. H.

    1981-01-01

    Calculations of the equilibrium conditions for continuous radiation damage and thermal annealing are reported. The calculations are based on a thermochemical model developed to analyze the incorporation of point imperfections in GaAs, and modified by introducing the radiation to produce native lattice defects rather than high-temperature and arsenic atmospheric pressure. The concentration of a set of defects, including vacancies, divacancies, and impurity vacancy complexes, are calculated as a function of temperature. Minority carrier lifetimes, short circuit current, and efficiency are deduced for a range of equilibrium temperatures. The results indicate that GaAs solar cells could have a mission life which is not greatly limited by radiation damage.

  12. Fabrication of p(+)-n junction GaAs solar cells by a novel method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ghandhi, S. K.; Mathur, G.; Rode, H.; Borrego, J. M.

    1984-01-01

    A novel method for making p(+)-n diffused junction GaAs solar cells, with the formation of a diffusion source, an anti-reflective coating, and a protective cover glass in a single chemical-vapor deposition operation is discussed. Consideration is given to device fabrication and to solar-cell characteristics. The advantages of the technique are that the number of process steps is kept to an absolute minimum, the fabrication procedure is low-cost, and the GaAs surface is protected during the entire operation.

  13. Intrinsic Spin-Hall Effect in n-Doped Bulk GaAs

    SciTech Connect

    Bernevig, B.Andrei; Zhang, Shou-Cheng; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.

    2010-01-15

    We show that the bulk Dresselhauss (k{sup 3}) spin-orbit coupling term leads to an intrinsic spin-Hall effect in n-doped bulk GaAs, but without the appearance of uniform magnetization. The spin-Hall effect in strained and unstrained bulk GaAs has been recently observed experimentally by Kato et. al. [1]. We show that the experimental result is quantitatively consistent with the intrinsic spin-Hall effect due to the Dresselhauss term, when lifetime broadening is taken into account. On the other hand, extrinsic contribution to the spin-Hall effect is several orders of magnitude smaller than the observed effect.

  14. Structural and optical characteristics of GaAs films grown on Si/Ge substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rykov, A. V.; Dorokhin, M. V.; Vergeles, P. S.; Baidus, N. V.; Kovalskiy, V. A.; Yakimov, E. B.; Soltanovich, O. A.

    2018-03-01

    A GaAs/AlAs heterostructure and a GaAs film grown on Si/Ge substrates have been fabricated and studied. A Ge buffer on a silicon substrate was fabricated using the MBE process. A3B5 films were grown by MOCVD at low pressures. Photoluminescence spectroscopy was used to define the optical quality of A3B5 films. Structural properties were investigated using the electron beam induced current method. It was established that despite a rather high density of dislocations on the epitaxial layers, the detected photoluminescence radiation of layers indicates the acceptable crystalline quality of the top GaAs layer.

  15. Second harmonic generation in photonic crystal cavities in (111)-oriented GaAs

    SciTech Connect

    Buckley, Sonia, E-mail: bucklesm@stanford.edu; Radulaski, Marina; Vučković, Jelena

    2013-11-18

    We demonstrate second harmonic generation at telecommunications wavelengths in photonic crystal cavities in (111)-oriented GaAs. We fabricate 30 photonic crystal structures in both (111)- and (100)-oriented GaAs and observe an increase in generated second harmonic power in the (111) orientation, with the mean power increased by a factor of 3, although there is a large scatter in the measured values. We discuss possible reasons for this increase, in particular, the reduced two photon absorption for transverse electric modes in (111) orientation, as well as a potential increase due to improved mode overlap.

  16. Radiation testing of GaAs on CRRES and LIPS experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trumble, T. M.; Masloski, K.

    1984-01-01

    The radiation damage of solar cells has become a prime concern to the U.S. Air Force due to longer satellite lifetime requirements. Flight experiments were undertaken on the Navy Living Plume Shield (LPS) satellite and the NASA/Air Force Combined Release and Radiation Effects Satellite (CRRES) to complement existing radiation testing. Each experiment, the rationale behind it, and its approach and status are presented. The effect of space radiation on gallium arsenide (GaAs) solar cells was the central parameter investigated. Specifications of the GaAs solar cells are given.

  17. Photoluminescence Study of N-Type Thermal Conversion in Semi-Insulating GaAs.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-12-01

    free electron to the crystal. For example, in GaAs, a tellurium atom on an arsenic site (TeAs) or a silicon atom on a gallium site (SiGa) are donor atoms...Photoconductivity Photoluminescenc Silicon, SiGa 5.81 6.80 Germanium, GeGa 6.08 Sulfur, SAs 6.10 Selenium, SeAs 5.89 6.10 Tellurium , TeAs When an electron...34 to the neutral donor or acceptor (Ref 16:15). The following excitonic com- plexes have been observed in GaAs: (i) exciton bound to a neutron donor at

  18. Diffraction studies of the high pressure phases of GaAs and GaP

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baublitz, M., Jr.; Ruoff, A. L.

    1982-01-01

    High pressure structural phase transitions of GaAs and GaP have been studied by energy dispersive X-ray diffraction with the radiation from the Cornell High Energy Synchrotron Source. GaAs began to transform at 172 + or - 7 kbar to an orthorhombic structure possibly belonging to space group Fmmm. GaP transformed to a tetragonal beta-Sn type phase at 215 + or - 8 kbar. Although pressure transmitting media were used to minimize shear stresses in the specimens, the high pressure diffraction results were interpreted as showing evidence for planar defects in the specimens.

  19. Single crystal and polycrystalline GaAs solar cells using AMOS technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stirn, R. J.; Yeh, Y. C. M.

    1976-01-01

    A description is given of current technology for fabricating single AMOS (antireflection-coated metal oxide semiconductor) solar cells, with attention given to thermal, plasma, and anodic oxidation, native oxide stripping, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy results. Some preliminary results are presented on the chemistry and electrical characterization of such cells, and the characteristics of cells fabricated on sliced polycrystalline GaAs wafers are examined. Consideration is also given to the recrystallization of evaporated Ge films for use as low-cost substrates for polycrystalline GaAs solar cells.

  20. Biexciton emission from single isoelectronic traps formed by nitrogen-nitrogen pairs in GaAs

    SciTech Connect

    Takamiya, Kengo; Fukushima, Toshiyuki; Yagi, Shuhei

    2013-12-04

    We have studied photoluminescence (PL) from individual isoelectronic traps formed by nitrogen-nitrogen (NN) pairs in GaAs. Sharp emission lines due to exciton and biexciton were observed from individual isoelectronic traps in nitrogen atomic-layer doped (ALD) GaAs. The binding energy of biexciton bound to individual isoelectronic traps was approximately 8 meV. Both the exciton and biexciton luminescence lines show completely random polarization and no fine-structure splitting. These results are desirable to the application to the quantum cryptography used in the field of quantum information technology.

  1. Photovoltaic Performance of a Nanowire/Quantum Dot Hybrid Nanostructure Array Solar Cell.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yao; Yan, Xin; Zhang, Xia; Ren, Xiaomin

    2018-02-23

    An innovative solar cell based on a nanowire/quantum dot hybrid nanostructure array is designed and analyzed. By growing multilayer InAs quantum dots on the sidewalls of GaAs nanowires, not only the absorption spectrum of GaAs nanowires is extended by quantum dots but also the light absorption of quantum dots is dramatically enhanced due to the light-trapping effect of the nanowire array. By incorporating five layers of InAs quantum dots into a 500-nm high-GaAs nanowire array, the power conversion efficiency enhancement induced by the quantum dots is six times higher than the power conversion efficiency enhancement in thin-film solar cells which contain the same amount of quantum dots, indicating that the nanowire array structure can benefit the photovoltaic performance of quantum dot solar cells.

  2. Photovoltaic Performance of a Nanowire/Quantum Dot Hybrid Nanostructure Array Solar Cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Yao; Yan, Xin; Zhang, Xia; Ren, Xiaomin

    2018-02-01

    An innovative solar cell based on a nanowire/quantum dot hybrid nanostructure array is designed and analyzed. By growing multilayer InAs quantum dots on the sidewalls of GaAs nanowires, not only the absorption spectrum of GaAs nanowires is extended by quantum dots but also the light absorption of quantum dots is dramatically enhanced due to the light-trapping effect of the nanowire array. By incorporating five layers of InAs quantum dots into a 500-nm high-GaAs nanowire array, the power conversion efficiency enhancement induced by the quantum dots is six times higher than the power conversion efficiency enhancement in thin-film solar cells which contain the same amount of quantum dots, indicating that the nanowire array structure can benefit the photovoltaic performance of quantum dot solar cells.

  3. Performance and temperature dependencies of proton irradiated n/p and p/n GaAs and n/p silicon cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weinberg, I.; Swartz, C. K.; Hart, R. E., Jr.

    1985-01-01

    n/p homojunction GaAs cells are found to be more radiation resistant than p/n heteroface GaAs under 10 MeV proton irradiation. Both GaAs cell types outperform conventional silicon n/p cells under the same conditions. An increased temperature dependency of maximum power for the GaAs n/p cells is attributed to differences in Voc between the two GaAs cell types. These results and diffusion length considerations are consistent with the conclusion that p-type GaAs is more radiation resistant than n-type and therefore that the n/p configuration is possibly favored for use in the space radiation environment. However, it is concluded that additional work is required in order to choose between the two GaAs cell configurations.

  4. Origin and enhancement of the 1.3 μm luminescence from GaAs treated by ion-implantation and flash lamp annealing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Kun; Prucnal, S.; Skorupa, W.; Helm, M.; Zhou, Shengqiang

    2013-09-01

    GaAs and GaAs based materials have outstanding optoelectronic properties and are widely used as light emitting media in devices. Many approaches have been applied to GaAs to generate luminescence at 0.88, 1.30, and 1.55 μm which are transmission windows of optical fibers. In this paper, we present the photoluminescence at 1.30 μm from deep level defects in GaAs treated by ion-implantation and flash lamp annealing (FLA). Such emission, which exhibits superior temperature stability, can be obtained from FLA treated virgin GaAs as well as doped GaAs. Indium-doping in GaAs can greatly enhance the luminescence. By photoluminescence, Raman measurements, and positron annihilation spectroscopy, we conclude that the origin of the 1.30 μm emission is from transitions between the VAs-donor and X-acceptor pairs.

  5. GaSb thermophotovoltaic cells grown on GaAs by molecular beam epitaxy using interfacial misfit arrays

    SciTech Connect

    Juang, Bor-Chau, E-mail: bcjuang@ucla.edu; Laghumavarapu, Ramesh B.; Foggo, Brandon J.

    There exists a long-term need for foreign substrates on which to grow GaSb-based optoelectronic devices. We address this need by using interfacial misfit arrays to grow GaSb-based thermophotovoltaic cells directly on GaAs (001) substrates and demonstrate promising performance. We compare these cells to control devices grown on GaSb substrates to assess device properties and material quality. The room temperature dark current densities show similar characteristics for both cells on GaAs and on GaSb. Under solar simulation the cells on GaAs exhibit an open-circuit voltage of 0.121 V and a short-circuit current density of 15.5 mA/cm{sup 2}. In addition, the cells on GaAsmore » substrates maintain 10% difference in spectral response to those of the control cells over a large range of wavelengths. While the cells on GaSb substrates in general offer better performance than the cells on GaAs substrates, the cost-savings and scalability offered by GaAs substrates could potentially outweigh the reduction in performance. By further optimizing GaSb buffer growth on GaAs substrates, Sb-based compound semiconductors grown on GaAs substrates with similar performance to devices grown directly on GaSb substrates could be realized.« less

  6. SEMICONDUCTOR TECHNOLOGY: GaAs surface wet cleaning by a novel treatment in revolving ultrasonic atomization solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaijin, Li; Liming, Hu; Ye, Wang; Ye, Yang; Hangyu, Peng; Jinlong, Zhang; Li, Qin; Yun, Liu; Lijun, Wang

    2010-03-01

    A novel process for the wet cleaning of GaAs surface is presented. It is designed for technological simplicity and minimum damage generated within the GaAs surface. It combines GaAs cleaning with three conditions consisting of (1) removal of thermodynamically unstable species and (2) surface oxide layers must be completely removed after thermal cleaning, and (3) a smooth surface must be provided. Revolving ultrasonic atomization technology is adopted in the cleaning process. At first impurity removal is achieved by organic solvents; second NH4OH:H2O2:H2O = 1:1:10 solution and HCl: H2O2:H2O = 1:1:20 solution in succession to etch a very thin GaAs layer, the goal of the step is removing metallic contaminants and forming a very thin oxidation layer on the GaAs wafer surface; NH4OH:H2O = 1:5 solution is used as the removed oxide layers in the end. The effectiveness of the process is demonstrated by the operation of the GaAs wafer. Characterization of the oxide composition was carried out by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Metal-contamination and surface morphology was observed by a total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy and atomic force microscope. The research results show that the cleaned surface is without contamination or metal contamination. Also, the GaAs substrates surface is very smooth for epitaxial growth using the rotary ultrasonic atomization technology.

  7. Photoelectrochemical Water Oxidation by GaAs Nanowire Arrays Protected with Atomic Layer Deposited NiO x Electrocatalysts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Joy; Xu, Xiaoqing; Parameshwaran, Vijay; Baker, Jon; Bent, Stacey; Wong, H.-S. Philip; Clemens, Bruce

    2018-02-01

    Photoelectrochemical (PEC) hydrogen production makes possible the direct conversion of solar energy into chemical fuel. In this work, PEC photoanodes consisting of GaAs nanowire (NW) arrays were fabricated, characterized, and then demonstrated for the oxygen evolution reaction (OER). Uniform and periodic GaAs nanowire arrays were grown on a heavily n-doped GaAs substrates by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition selective area growth. The nanowire arrays were characterized using cyclic voltammetry and impedance spectroscopy in a non-aqueous electrochemical system using ferrocene/ferrocenium (Fc/Fc+) as a redox couple, and a maximum oxidation photocurrent of 11.1 mA/cm2 was measured. GaAs NW arrays with a 36 nm layer of nickel oxide (NiO x ) synthesized by atomic layer deposition were then used as photoanodes to drive the OER. In addition to acting as an electrocatalyst, the NiO x layer served to protect the GaAs NWs from oxidative corrosion. Using this strategy, GaAs NW photoanodes were successfully used for the oxygen evolution reaction. This is the first demonstration of GaAs NW arrays for effective OER, and the fabrication and protection strategy developed in this work can be extended to study any other nanostructured semiconductor materials systems for electrochemical solar energy conversion.

  8. Effect of low and staggered gap quantum wells inserted in GaAs tunnel junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Louarn, K.; Claveau, Y.; Marigo-Lombart, L.; Fontaine, C.; Arnoult, A.; Piquemal, F.; Bounouh, A.; Cavassilas, N.; Almuneau, G.

    2018-04-01

    In this article, we investigate the impact of the insertion of either a type I InGaAs or a type II InGaAs/GaAsSb quantum well on the performances of MBE-grown GaAs tunnel junctions (TJs). The devices are designed and simulated using a quantum transport model based on the non-equilibrium Green’s function formalism and a 6-band k.p Hamiltonian. We experimentally observe significant improvements of the peak tunneling current density on both heterostructures with a 460-fold increase for a moderately doped GaAs TJ when the InGaAs QW is inserted at the junction interface, and a 3-fold improvement on a highly doped GaAs TJ integrating a type II InGaAs/GaAsSb QW. Thus, the simple insertion of staggered band lineup heterostructures enables us to reach a tunneling current well above the kA cm‑2 range, equivalent to the best achieved results for Si-doped GaAs TJs, implying very interesting potential for TJ-based components, such as multi-junction solar cells, vertical cavity surface emitting lasers and tunnel-field effect transistors.

  9. Core-level photoemission investigation of atomic-fluorine adsorption on GaAs(110)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McLean, A. B.; Terminello, L. J.; McFeely, F. R.

    1989-12-01

    The adsorption of atomic F on the cleaved GaAs(110) surface has been studied with use of high-resolution core-level photoelectron spectroscopy by exposing the GaAs(110) surfaces to XeF2, which adsorbs dissociatively, leaving atomic F behind. This surface reaction produces two chemically shifted components in the Ga 3d core-level emission which are attributed to an interfacial monofluoride and a stable trifluoride reaction product, respectively. The As 3d core level develops only one chemically shifted component and from its exposure-dependent behavior it is attributed to an interfacial monofluoride. Least-squares analysis of the core-level line shapes revealed that (i) the F bonds to both the anion and the cation , (ii) the GaF3 component (characteristic of strong interfacial reaction) and the surface core-level shifted component (characteristic of a well ordered, atomically clean surface) are present together over a relatively large range of XeF2 exposures, and (iii) it is the initial disruption of the GaAs(110) surface that is the rate-limiting step in this surface reaction. These results are compared with similar studies of Cl and O adsorption on GaAs(110).

  10. Langley program of GaAs solar cells. [emphasizing energy conversion efficiency and radiation resistance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conway, E. J.

    1979-01-01

    A brief overview of the development of GaAs solar cell technology is provided. An 18 to 20 percent AMO efficiency, stability under radiation and elevated-temperature operation, and high power-to-weight ratio are among the factors studied. Cell cost and availability are also examined.

  11. Structures, Properties and Defects of SrTiO3/GaAs Hetero-interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Liang; Bhatnagar, Kunal; Droopad, Ravi; Öğüt, Serdar; Klie, Robert

    SrTiO3 thin film can be epitaxially grown on GaAs substrate and used as a platform for growing other oxides to create functional metal-oxide-semiconductor devices, where a high-quality SrTiO3/GaAs interface is essential. We studied the structural and electronic properties of SrTiO3/GaAs hetero-interfaces at atomic level using scanning transmission electron microscopy and first-principles calculations. Our results suggest the preferred termination of GaAs (001) is significantly dependent on the oxygen concentration in the first oxide layer. The favorable interface structure is characterized as oxygen-deficient SrO in contact with arsenic and is observed in both experiment and simulation. The electronic properties are calculated and found to be tunable by interfacial defects such as oxygen, gallium and arsenic vacancies. This work was supported by the National Science Foundation (Grant No. DMR-1408427). This work made use of instruments in the Electron Microscopy Service and the High Performance Computing Clusters at University of Illinois at Chicago.

  12. Accelerated GaAs growth through MOVPE for low-cost PV applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ubukata, Akinori; Sodabanlu, Hassanet; Watanabe, Kentaroh; Koseki, Shuichi; Yano, Yoshiki; Tabuchi, Toshiya; Sugaya, Takeyoshi; Matsumoto, Koh; Nakano, Yoshiaki; Sugiyama, Masakazu

    2018-05-01

    The high growth rate of epitaxial GaAs was investigated using a novel horizontal metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy (MOVPE) reactor, from the point of view of realizing low-cost photovoltaic (PV) solar cells. The GaAs growth rate exhibited an approximately linear relationship with the amount of trimethylgalium (TMGa) supplied, up to a rate of 90 μm/h. The distribution of growth rate was observed for a two-inch wafer, along the flow direction, and the normalized profile of the distribution was found to be independent of the precursor input, from 20 to 70 μm/h. These tendencies indicated that significant parasitic prereaction did not occur in the gaseous phase, for this range of growth rate. GaAs p-n single-junction solar cells were successfully fabricated at growth rates of 20, 60, and 80 μm/h. The conversion efficiency of the cell grown at 80 μm/h was comparable to that of the 20 μm/h cell, indicating the good quality and properties of GaAs. The epitaxial growth exhibited good uniformity, as evidenced by the uniformity of the cell performance across the wafer, from the center to the edge. The result indicated the potential of high-throughput MOVPE for low-cost production, not only for PV devices but also for other semiconductor applications.

  13. An observation of direct-gap electroluminescence in GaAs structures with Ge quantum wells

    SciTech Connect

    Aleshkin, V. Ya.; Dikareva, N. V.; Dubinov, A. A., E-mail: sanya@ipm.sci-nnov.ru

    2015-02-15

    A light-emitting diode structure based on GaAs with eight narrow Ge quantum wells is grown by laser sputtering. An electroluminescence line polarized predominately in the plane parallel to the constituent layers of the structure is revealed. The line corresponds to the direct optical transitions in momentum space in the Ge quantum wells.

  14. DFT algorithms for bit-serial GaAs array processor architectures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcmillan, Gary B.

    1988-01-01

    Systems and Processes Engineering Corporation (SPEC) has developed an innovative array processor architecture for computing Fourier transforms and other commonly used signal processing algorithms. This architecture is designed to extract the highest possible array performance from state-of-the-art GaAs technology. SPEC's architectural design includes a high performance RISC processor implemented in GaAs, along with a Floating Point Coprocessor and a unique Array Communications Coprocessor, also implemented in GaAs technology. Together, these data processors represent the latest in technology, both from an architectural and implementation viewpoint. SPEC has examined numerous algorithms and parallel processing architectures to determine the optimum array processor architecture. SPEC has developed an array processor architecture with integral communications ability to provide maximum node connectivity. The Array Communications Coprocessor embeds communications operations directly in the core of the processor architecture. A Floating Point Coprocessor architecture has been defined that utilizes Bit-Serial arithmetic units, operating at very high frequency, to perform floating point operations. These Bit-Serial devices reduce the device integration level and complexity to a level compatible with state-of-the-art GaAs device technology.

  15. The Development of a GaAs MMIC Reliability and Space Qualification Guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ponchak, G.; Kayali, S.; Huang, H-C.

    1994-01-01

    This paper discusses the need for a space qualification guide, provides a brief description of some common GaAs failure mechanisms, the approach that the NASA MMIC Reliability Assurance Program is following to develop the guide, and the status of the program.

  16. Response of GaAs charge storage devices to transient ionizing radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hetherington, D. L.; Klem, J. F.; Hughes, R. C.; Weaver, H. T.

    Charge storage devices in which non-equilibrium depletion regions represent stored charge are sensitive to ionizing radiation. This results since the radiation generates electron-hole pairs that neutralize excess ionized dopant charge. Silicon structures, such as dynamic RAM or CCD cells are particularly sensitive to radiation since carrier diffusion lengths in this material are often much longer than the depletion width, allowing collection of significant quantities of charge from quasi-neutral sections of the device. For GaAs the situation is somewhat different in that minority carrier diffusion lengths are shorter than in silicon, and although mobilities are higher, we expect a reduction of radiation sensitivity as suggested by observations of reduced quantum efficiency in GaAs solar cells. Dynamic memory cells in GaAs have potential increased retention times. In this paper, we report the response of a novel GaAs dynamic memory element to transient ionizing radiation. The charge readout technique is nondestructive over a reasonable applied voltage range and is more sensitive to stored charge than a simple capacitor.

  17. Photon counting microstrip X-ray detectors with GaAs sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruat, M.; Andrä, M.; Bergamaschi, A.; Barten, R.; Brückner, M.; Dinapoli, R.; Fröjdh, E.; Greiffenberg, D.; Lopez-Cuenca, C.; Lozinskaya, A. D.; Mezza, D.; Mozzanica, A.; Novikov, V. A.; Ramilli, M.; Redford, S.; Ruder, C.; Schmitt, B.; Shi, X.; Thattil, D.; Tinti, G.; Tolbanov, O. P.; Tyazhev, A.; Vetter, S.; Zarubin, A. N.; Zhang, J.

    2018-01-01

    High-Z sensors are increasingly used to overcome the poor efficiency of Si sensors above 15 keV, and further extend the energy range of synchrotron and FEL experiments. Detector-grade GaAs sensors of 500 μm thickness offer 98% absorption efficiency at 30 keV and 50% at 50 keV . In this work we assess the usability of GaAs sensors in combination with the MYTHEN photon-counting microstrip readout chip developed at PSI. Different strip length and pitch are compared, and the detector performance is evaluated in regard of the sensor material properties. Despite increased leakage current and noise, photon-counting strips mounted with GaAs sensors can be used with photons of energy as low as 5 keV, and exhibit excellent linearity with energy. The charge sharing is doubled as compared to silicon strips, due to the high diffusion coefficient of electrons in GaAs.

  18. Design of quantum efficiency measurement system for variable doping GaAs photocathode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Liang; Yang, Kai; Liu, HongLin; Chang, Benkang

    2008-03-01

    To achieve high quantum efficiency and good stability has been a main direction to develop GaAs photocathode recently. Through early research, we proved that variable doping structure is executable and practical, and has great potential. In order to optimize variable doping GaAs photocathode preparation techniques and study the variable doping theory deeply, a real-time quantum efficiency measurement system for GaAs Photocathode has been designed. The system uses FPGA (Field-programmable gate array) device, and high speed A/D converter to design a high signal noise ratio and high speed data acquisition card. ARM (Advanced RISC Machines) core processor s3c2410 and real-time embedded system are used to obtain and show measurement results. The measurement precision of photocurrent could reach 1nA, and measurement range of spectral response curve is within 400~1000nm. GaAs photocathode preparation process can be real-time monitored by using this system. This system could easily be added other functions to show the physic variation of photocathode during the preparation process more roundly in the future.

  19. A new structure for comparing surface passivation materials of GaAs solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Desalvo, Gregory C.; Barnett, Allen M.

    1989-01-01

    The surface recombination velocity (S sub rec) for bare GaAs is typically as high as 10 to the 6th power to 10 to the 7th power cm/sec, which dramatically lowers the efficiency of GaAs solar cells. Early attempts to circumvent this problem by making an ultra thin junction (xj less than .1 micron) proved unsuccessful when compared to lowering S sub rec by surface passivation. Present day GaAs solar cells use an GaAlAs window layer to passivate the top surface. The advantages of GaAlAs in surface passivation are its high bandgap energy and lattice matching to GaAs. Although GaAlAs is successful in reducing the surface recombination velocity, it has other inherent problems of chemical instability (Al readily oxidizes) and ohmic contact formation. The search for new, more stable window layer materials requires a means to compare their surface passivation ability. Therefore, a device structure is needed to easily test the performance of different passivating candidates. Such a test device is described.

  20. Electrophilic surface sites as precondition for the chemisorption of pyrrole on GaAs(001) surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Bruhn, Thomas; Leibniz-Institut für Analytische Wissenschaften - ISAS - e.V., Albert-Einstein-Str.9, 12489 Berlin; Fimland, Bjørn-Ove

    We report how the presence of electrophilic surface sites influences the adsorption mechanism of pyrrole on GaAs(001) surfaces. For this purpose, we have investigated the adsorption behavior of pyrrole on different GaAs(001) reconstructions with different stoichiometries and thus different surface chemistries. The interfaces were characterized by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, scanning tunneling microscopy, and by reflectance anisotropy spectroscopy in a spectral range between 1.5 and 5 eV. On the As-rich c(4 × 4) reconstruction that exhibits only nucleophilic surface sites, pyrrole was found to physisorb on the surface without any significant modification of the structural and electronic properties of the surface. Onmore » the Ga-rich GaAs(001)-(4 × 2)/(6 × 6) reconstructions which exhibit nucleophilic as well as electrophilic surface sites, pyrrole was found to form stable covalent bonds mainly to the electrophilic (charge deficient) Ga atoms of the surface. These results clearly demonstrate that the existence of electrophilic surface sites is a crucial precondition for the chemisorption of pyrrole on GaAs(001) surfaces.« less

  1. Elastomeric nanoparticle composites covalently bound to Al2O3/GaAs surfaces.

    PubMed

    Song, Hyon Min; Ye, Peide D; Ivanisevic, Albena

    2007-08-28

    This article reports the modification of Al2O3/GaAs surfaces with multifunctional soft materials. Siloxane elastomers were covalently bound to dopamine-modified Al2O3/GaAs semiconductor surfaces using MPt (M = Fe, Ni) nanoparticles. The sizes of the monodisperse FePt and NiPt nanoparticles were less than 5 nm. The surfaces of the nanoparticles as well as the Al2O3/GaAs substrates were modified with allyl-functionalized dopamine that utilized a dihydroxy group as a strong ligand. The immobilization of the elastomers was performed via a hydrosilation reaction of the allyl-functionalized dopamines with the siloxane backbones. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) experiments confirmed the covalent bonding of the siloxane elastomers to the oxide layer on the semiconductor surface. Fourier transform-infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy (FT-IRRAS) measurements revealed that the allyl functional groups are bonded to the siloxane backbones. The FT-IRRAS data also showed that the density of the allyl groups on the surface was lower than that of the siloxane backbones. The mechanical properties of the surface-bound nanocomposites were tested using nanoindentation experiments. The nanoindentation data showed that the soft matrix composed of the elastomeric coating on the surfaces behaves differently from the inner, hard Al2O3/GaAs substrate.

  2. Covalent attachment of TAT peptides and thiolated alkyl molecules on GaAs surfaces.

    PubMed

    Cho, Youngnam; Ivanisevic, Albena

    2005-07-07

    Four TAT peptide fragments were used to functionalize GaAs surfaces by adsorption from solution. In addition, two well-studied alkylthiols, mercaptohexadecanoic acid (MHA) and 1-octadecanethiol (ODT) were utilized as references to understand the structure of the TAT peptide monolayer on GaAs. The different sequences of TAT peptides were employed in recognition experiments where a synthetic RNA sequence was tested to verify the specific interaction with the TAT peptide. The modified GaAs surfaces were characterized by atomic force microscopy (AFM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and Fourier transform infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy (FT-IRRAS). AFM studies were used to compare the surface roughness before and after functionalization. XPS allowed us to characterize the chemical composition of the GaAs surface and conclude that the monolayers composed of different sequences of peptides have similar surface chemistries. Finally, FT-IRRAS experiments enabled us to deduce that the TAT peptide monolayers have a fairly ordered and densely packed alkyl chain structure. The recognition experiments showed preferred interaction of the RNA sequence toward peptides with high arginine content.

  3. MBE growth of GaAs and InAs nanowires using colloidal Ag nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ilkiv, I. V.; Reznik, R. R.; Kotlyar, K. P.; Bouravleuv, A. D.; Cirlin, G. E.

    2017-11-01

    Ag colloidal nanoparticles were used as a catalyst for molecular beam epitaxy of GaAs and InAs nanowires on the Si(111) substrates. The scanning electron microscopy measurements revealed that nanowires obtained are uniform and have small size distribution.

  4. Self-catalyzed GaAs nanowires on silicon by hydride vapor phase epitaxy.

    PubMed

    Dong, Zhenning; André, Yamina; Dubrovskii, Vladimir G; Bougerol, Catherine; Leroux, Christine; Ramdani, Mohammed R; Monier, Guillaume; Trassoudaine, Agnès; Castelluci, Dominique; Gil, Evelyne

    2017-03-24

    Gold-free GaAs nanowires on silicon substrates can pave the way for monolithic integration of photonic nanodevices with silicon electronic platforms. It is extensively documented that the self-catalyzed approach works well in molecular beam epitaxy but is much more difficult to implement in vapor phase epitaxies. Here, we report the first gallium-catalyzed hydride vapor phase epitaxy growth of long (more than 10 μm) GaAs nanowires on Si(111) substrates with a high integrated growth rate up to 60 μm h -1 and pure zincblende crystal structure. The growth is achieved by combining a low temperature of 600 °C with high gaseous GaCl/As flow ratios to enable dechlorination and formation of gallium droplets. GaAs nanowires exhibit an interesting bottle-like shape with strongly tapered bases, followed by straight tops with radii as small as 5 nm. We present a model that explains the peculiar growth mechanism in which the gallium droplets nucleate and rapidly swell on the silicon surface but then are gradually consumed to reach a stationary size. Our results unravel the necessary conditions for obtaining gallium-catalyzed GaAs nanowires by vapor phase epitaxy techniques.

  5. Room Temperature Sensing Achieved by GaAs Nanowires and oCVD Polymer Coating.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaoxue; Ermez, Sema; Goktas, Hilal; Gradečak, Silvija; Gleason, Karen

    2017-06-01

    Novel structures comprised of GaAs nanowire arrays conformally coated with conducting polymers (poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) or poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene-co-3-thiophene acetic acid) display both sensitivity and selectivity to a variety of volatile organic chemicals. A key feature is room temperature operation, so that neither a heater nor the power it would consume, is required. It is a distinct difference from traditional metal oxide sensors, which typically require elevated operational temperature. The GaAs nanowires are prepared directly via self-seeded metal-organic chemical deposition, and conducting polymers are deposited on GaAs nanowires using oxidative chemical vapor deposition (oCVD). The range of thickness for the oCVD layer is between 100 and 200 nm, which is controlled by changing the deposition time. X-ray diffraction analysis indicates an edge-on alignment of the crystalline structure of the PEDOT coating layer on GaAs nanowires. In addition, the positive correlation between the improvement of sensitivity and the increasing nanowire density is demonstrated. Furthermore, the effect of different oCVD coating materials is studied. The sensing mechanism is also discussed with studies considering both nanowire density and polymer types. Overall, the novel structure exhibits good sensitivity and selectivity in gas sensing, and provides a promising platform for future sensor design. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Modified energetics and growth kinetics on H-terminated GaAs (110)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galiana, B.; Benedicto, M.; Díez-Merino, L.; Lorbek, S.; Hlawacek, G.; Teichert, C.; Tejedor, P.

    2013-10-01

    Atomic hydrogen modification of the surface energy of GaAs (110) epilayers, grown at high temperatures from molecular beams of Ga and As4, has been investigated by friction force microscopy (FFM). The reduction of the friction force observed with longer exposures to the H beam has been correlated with the lowering of the surface energy originated by the progressive de-relaxation of the GaAs (110) surface occurring upon H chemisorption. Our results indicate that the H-terminated GaAs (110) epilayers are more stable than the As-stabilized ones, with the minimum surface energy value of 31 meV/Å2 measured for the fully hydrogenated surface. A significant reduction of the Ga diffusion length on the H-terminated surface irrespective of H coverage has been calculated from the FFM data, consistent with the layer-by-layer growth mode and the greater As incorporation coefficient determined from real-time reflection high-energy electron diffraction studies. Arsenic incorporation through direct dissociative chemisorption of single As4 molecules mediated by H on the GaAs (110) surface has been proposed as the most likely explanation for the changes in surface kinetics observed.

  7. Surface segregation and the Al problem in GaAs quantum wells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, Yoon Jang; Baldwin, K. W.; West, K. W.; Shayegan, M.; Pfeiffer, L. N.

    2018-03-01

    Low-defect two-dimensional electron systems (2DESs) are essential for studies of fragile many-body interactions that only emerge in nearly-ideal systems. As a result, numerous efforts have been made to improve the quality of modulation-doped AlxGa1 -xAs /GaAs quantum wells (QWs), with an emphasis on purifying the source material of the QW itself or achieving better vacuum in the deposition chamber. However, this approach overlooks another crucial component that comprises such QWs, the AlxGa1 -xAs barrier. Here we show that having a clean Al source and hence a clean barrier is instrumental to obtain a high-quality GaAs 2DES in a QW. We observe that the mobility of the 2DES in GaAs QWs declines as the thickness or Al content of the AlxGa1 -xAs barrier beneath the QW is increased, which we attribute to the surface segregation of oxygen atoms that originate from the Al source. This conjecture is supported by the improved mobility in the GaAs QWs as the Al cell is cleaned out by baking.

  8. Divacancy complexes induced by Cu diffusion in Zn-doped GaAs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elsayed, M.; Krause-Rehberg, R.; Korff, B.; Ratschinski, I.; Leipner, H. S.

    2013-08-01

    Positron annihilation spectroscopy was applied to investigate the nature and thermal behavior of defects induced by Cu diffusion in Zn-doped p-type GaAs crystals. Cu atoms were intentionally introduced in the GaAs lattice through thermally activated diffusion from a thin Cu capping layer at 1100 °C under defined arsenic vapor pressure. During isochronal annealing of the obtained Cu-diffused GaAs in the temperature range of 450-850 K, vacancy clusters were found to form, grow and finally disappear. We found that annealing at 650 K triggers the formation of divacancies, whereas further increasing in the annealing temperature up to 750 K leads to the formation of divacancy-copper complexes. The observations suggest that the formation of these vacancy-like defects in GaAs is related to the out-diffusion of Cu. Two kinds of acceptors are detected with a concentration of about 1016 - 1017 cm-3, negative ions and arsenic vacancy copper complexes. Transmission electron microscopy showed the presence of voids and Cu precipitates which are not observed by positron measurements. The positron binding energy to shallow traps is estimated using the positron trapping model. Coincidence Doppler broadening spectroscopy showed the presence of Cu in the immediate vicinity of the detected vacancies. Theoretical calculations suggested that the detected defect is VGaVAs-2CuGa.

  9. High-Performance GaAs Nanowire Solar Cells for Flexible and Transparent Photovoltaics.

    PubMed

    Han, Ning; Yang, Zai-xing; Wang, Fengyun; Dong, Guofa; Yip, SenPo; Liang, Xiaoguang; Hung, Tak Fu; Chen, Yunfa; Ho, Johnny C

    2015-09-16

    Among many available photovoltaic technologies at present, gallium arsenide (GaAs) is one of the recognized leaders for performance and reliability; however, it is still a great challenge to achieve cost-effective GaAs solar cells for smart systems such as transparent and flexible photovoltaics. In this study, highly crystalline long GaAs nanowires (NWs) with minimal crystal defects are synthesized economically by chemical vapor deposition and configured into novel Schottky photovoltaic structures by simply using asymmetric Au-Al contacts. Without any doping profiles such as p-n junction and complicated coaxial junction structures, the single NW Schottky device shows a record high apparent energy conversion efficiency of 16% under air mass 1.5 global illumination by normalizing to the projection area of the NW. The corresponding photovoltaic output can be further enhanced by connecting individual cells in series and in parallel as well as by fabricating NW array solar cells via contact printing showing an overall efficiency of 1.6%. Importantly, these Schottky cells can be easily integrated on the glass and plastic substrates for transparent and flexible photovoltaics, which explicitly demonstrate the outstanding versatility and promising perspective of these GaAs NW Schottky photovoltaics for next-generation smart solar energy harvesting devices.

  10. Enhancement of conductance of GaAs sub-microwires under external stimuli

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qu, Xianlin; Deng, Qingsong; Zheng, Kun

    2018-03-01

    Semiconductors with one dimension on the micro-nanometer scale have many unique physical properties that are remarkably different from those of their bulk counterparts. Moreover, changes in the external field will further modulate the properties of the semiconductor micro-nanomaterials. In this study, we used focused ion beam technology to prepare freestanding ⟨111⟩-oriented GaAs sub-microwires from a GaAs substrate. The effects of laser irradiation and bending or buckling deformation induced by compression on the electrical transport properties of an individual GaAs sub-microwire were studied. The experimental results indicate that both laser irradiation and bending deformation can enhance their electrical transport properties, the laser irradiation resulted in a conductance enhancement of ˜30% compared to the result with no irradiation, and in addition, bending deformation changed the conductance by as much as ˜180% when the average strain was approximately 1%. The corresponding mechanisms are also discussed. This study provides beneficial insight into the fabrication of electronic and optoelectronic devices based on GaAs micro/nano-wires.

  11. Effects of surface passivation on twin-free GaAs nanosheets.

    PubMed

    Arab, Shermin; Chi, Chun-Yung; Shi, Teng; Wang, Yuda; Dapkus, Daniel P; Jackson, Howard E; Smith, Leigh M; Cronin, Stephen B

    2015-02-24

    Unlike nanowires, GaAs nanosheets exhibit no twin defects, stacking faults, or dislocations even when grown on lattice mismatched substrates. As such, they are excellent candidates for optoelectronic applications, including LEDs and solar cells. We report substantial enhancements in the photoluminescence efficiency and the lifetime of passivated GaAs nanosheets produced using the selected area growth (SAG) method with metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). Measurements are performed on individual GaAs nanosheets with and without an AlGaAs passivation layer. Both steady-state photoluminescence and time-resolved photoluminescence spectroscopy are performed to study the optoelectronic performance of these nanostructures. Our results show that AlGaAs passivation of GaAs nanosheets leads to a 30- to 40-fold enhancement in the photoluminescence intensity. The photoluminescence lifetime increases from less than 30 to 300 ps with passivation, indicating an order of magnitude improvement in the minority carrier lifetime. We attribute these enhancements to the reduction of nonradiative recombination due to the compensation of surface states after passivation. The surface recombination velocity decreases from an initial value of 2.5 × 10(5) to 2.7 × 10(4) cm/s with passivation.

  12. The Creation of Multimedia Resources to Support the Gaelic Athletic Association (GAA) Coach Education Programme (CEP)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crotty, Yvonne; D'Arcy, Jimmy; Sweeney, David

    2016-01-01

    The Gaelic Athletic Association (GAA) is an Irish amateur sporting and cultural organisation. It represents in excess of 20,000 teams nationwide and is committed to supporting the development of players and coaches through its Coach Education Programme (CEP). A strategic goal of the CEP is to supplement the traditional field based coach education…

  13. Maskless micro/nanofabrication on GaAs surface by friction-induced selective etching

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, a friction-induced selective etching method was developed to produce nanostructures on GaAs surface. Without any resist mask, the nanofabrication can be achieved by scratching and post-etching in sulfuric acid solution. The effects of the applied normal load and etching period on the formation of the nanostructure were studied. Results showed that the height of the nanostructure increased with the normal load or the etching period. XPS and Raman detection demonstrated that residual compressive stress and lattice densification were probably the main reason for selective etching, which eventually led to the protrusive nanostructures from the scratched area on the GaAs surface. Through a homemade multi-probe instrument, the capability of this fabrication method was demonstrated by producing various nanostructures on the GaAs surface, such as linear array, intersecting parallel, surface mesas, and special letters. In summary, the proposed method provided a straightforward and more maneuverable micro/nanofabrication method on the GaAs surface. PMID:24495647

  14. Dopant diffusion and segregation in semiconductor heterostructures: Part III, diffusion of Si into GaAs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, C.-H.; Gösele, U. M.; Tan, T. Y.

    We have mentioned previously that in the third part of the present series of papers, a variety of n-doping associated phenomena will be treated. Instead, we have decided that this paper, in which the subject treated is diffusion of Si into GaAs, shall be the third paper of the series. This choice is arrived at because this subject is a most relevent heterostructure problem, and also because of space and timing considerations. The main n-type dopant Si in GaAs is amphoteric which may be incorporated as shallow donor species SiGa+ and as shallow acceptor species SiAs-. The solubility of SiAs- is much lower than that of SiGa+ except at very high Si concentration levels. Hence, a severe electrical self-compensation occurs at very high Si concentrations. In this study we have modeled the Si distribution process in GaAs by assuming that the diffusing species is SiGa+ which will convert into SiAs- in accordance with their solubilities and that the point defect species governing the diffusion of SiGa+ are triply-negatively-charged Ga vacancies VGa3-. The outstanding features of the Si indiffusion profiles near the Si/GaAs interface have been quantitatively explained for the first time. Deposited on the GaAs crystal surface, the Si source material is a polycrystalline Si layer which may be undoped or n+-doped using As or P. Without the use of an As vapor phase in the ambient, the As- and P-doped source materials effectively render the GaAs crystals into an As-rich composition, which leads to a much more efficient Si indiffusion process than for the case of using undoped source materials which maintains the GaAs crystals in a relatively As-poor condition. The source material and the GaAs crystal together form a heterostructure with its junction influencing the electron distribution in the region, which, in turn, affects the Si indiffusion process prominently.

  15. Formation of a pn junction on an anisotropically etched GaAs surface using metalorganic chemical vapor deposition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leon, R. P.; Bailey, S. G.; Mazaris, G. A.; Williams, W. D.

    1986-01-01

    A continuous p-type GaAs epilayer has been deposited on an n-type sawtooth GaAs surface using MOCVD. A wet chemical etching process was used to expose the intersecting (111)Ga and (-1 -1 1)Ga planes with 6-micron periodicity. Charge-collection microscopy was used to verify the presence of the pn junction thus formed and to measure its depth. The ultimate goal of this work is to fabricate a V-groove GaAs cell with improved absorptivity, high short-circuit current, and tolerance to particle radiation.

  16. Structural and electronic properties of isovalent boron atoms in GaAs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krammel, C. M.; Nattermann, L.; Sterzer, E.; Volz, K.; Koenraad, P. M.

    2018-04-01

    Boron containing GaAs, which is grown by metal organic vapour phase epitaxy, is studied at the atomic level by cross-sectional scanning tunneling microscopy (X-STM) and spectroscopy (STS). In topographic X-STM images, three classes of B related features are identified, which are attributed to individual B atoms on substitutional Ga sites down to the second layer below the natural {110} cleavage planes. The X-STM contrast of B atoms below the surface reflects primarily the structural modification of the GaAs matrix by the small B atoms. However, B atoms in the cleavage plane have in contrast to conventional isovalent impurities, such as Al and In, a strong influence on the local electronic structure similar to donors or acceptors. STS measurements show that B in the GaAs {110} surfaces gives rise to a localized state short below the conduction band (CB) edge while in bulk GaAs, the B impurity state is resonant with the CB. The analysis of BxGa1-xAs/GaAs quantum wells reveals a good crystal quality and shows that the incorporation of B atoms in GaAs can be controlled along the [001] growth direction at the atomic level. Surprisingly, the formation of the first and fourth nearest neighbor B pairs, which are oriented along the <110 > directions, is strongly suppressed at a B concentration of 1% while the third nearest neighbor B pairs are found more than twice as often than expected for a completely spatially random pattern.

  17. Photo-recovery of electron-irradiated GaAs solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meulenberg, Andrew

    1995-01-01

    The first long-term (3000 hours) UV testing of unirradiated and 1 MeV electron-irradiated GaAs solar cells, with multilayer-coated coverslides to reduce solar array operating temperature, has produced some unexpected and important results. Two results, independent of the coverslide coatings, are of particular importance in terms of the predictability of GaAs solar-array lifetime in space: ( 1) The GaAs/Ge solar cells used for this series of tests displayed a much higher radiation degradation than that predicted based on JPL Solar Cell Radiation Handbook data. Covered cells degraded more in Isc than did bare cells. Short-term illumination at 60 C did not produce significant recovery (-1%) of the radiation damage. (2) However, electron radiation damage to these GaAs solar celIs anneals at 40 C when exposed to approximately 1 sun AM0 UV light sources for extended periods. The effect appears to be roughly linear with time (-1% of lsc per 1000 UVSH), is large (greater than or equal to 3%), and has not yet saturated (at 3000 hours). This photo-recovery of radiation damage to GaAs solar cells is a new effect and potentially important to the spacecraft community. The figure compares the effects of extended UV on irradiated and unirradiated GaAs solar cells with INTELSAT-6 Si cells. The effect and its generality, the extent of and conditions for photo-recovery, and the implications of such recovery for missions in radiation environments have not yet been determined.

  18. Surface science analysis of GaAs photocathodes following sustained electron beam delivery

    SciTech Connect

    Carlos Hernandez-Garcia, Fay Hannon, Marcy Stutzman, V. Shutthanandan, Z. Zhu, M. Nandasri, S. V. Kuchibhatla, S. Thevuthasan, W. P. Hess

    2012-06-01

    Degradation of the photocathode materials employed in photoinjectors represents a challenge for sustained operation of nuclear physics accelerators and high power Free Electron Lasers (FEL). Photocathode quantum efficiency (QE) degradation is due to residual gasses in the electron source vacuum system being ionized and accelerated back to the photocathode. These investigations are a first attempt to characterize the nature of the photocathode degradation, and employ multiple surface and bulk analysis techniques to investigate damage mechanisms including sputtering of the Cs-oxidant surface monolayer, other surface chemistry effects, and ion implantation. Surface and bulk analysis studies were conducted on two GaAs photocathodes,more » which were removed from the JLab FEL DC photoemission gun after delivering electron beam, and two control samples. The analysis techniques include Helium Ion Microscopy (HIM), Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry (RBS), Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) and Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (SIMS). In addition, two high-polarization strained superlattice GaAs photocathode samples, one removed from the Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF) photoinjector and one unused, were also analyzed using Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and SIMS. It was found that heat cleaning the FEL GaAs wafer introduces surface roughness, which seems to be reduced by prolonged use. The bulk GaAs samples retained a fairly well organized crystalline structure after delivering beam but shows evidence of Cs depletion on the surface. Within the precision of the SIMS and RBS measurements the data showed no indication of hydrogen implantation or lattice damage from ion back bombardment in the bulk GaAs wafers. In contrast, SIMS and TEM measurements of the strained superlattice photocathode show clear crystal damage in the wafer from ion back bombardment.« less

  19. Hybrid Vehicles

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-12-08

    chassis) by a ground strap, wire, welded connection or other suitable low-resistance mechanical connection. Case ground connectors routed from other...environment of a hybrid electric vehicle. Alternative temperature measuring transducers, e.g., thermistors , should be considered when thermocouples are...A 3. Is the ground connection to the chassis or frame mechanically secured by one of the following methods? a. Secured to a spot- welded

  20. Temperature effect on the coupling between coherent longitudinal phonons and plasmons in n -type and p -type GaAs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Jianbo; Zhang, Hang; Sun, Yi; Misochko, Oleg V.; Nakamura, Kazutaka G.

    2018-04-01

    The coupling between longitudinal optical (LO) phonons and plasmons plays a fundamental role in determining the performance of doped semiconductor devices. In this work, we report a comparative investigation into the dependence of the coupling on temperature and doping in n - and p -type GaAs by using ultrafast coherent phonon spectroscopy. A suppression of coherent oscillations has been observed in p -type GaAs at lower temperature, strikingly different from n -type GaAs and other materials in which coherent oscillations are strongly enhanced by cooling. We attribute this unexpected observation to a cooling-induced elongation of the depth of the depletion layer which effectively increases the screening time of the surface field due to a slow diffusion of photoexcited carriers in p -type GaAs. Such an increase breaks the requirement for the generation of coherent LO phonons and, in turn, LO phonon-plasmon coupled modes because of their delayed formation in time.

  1. High power cascaded mid-infrared InAs/GaSb light emitting diodes on mismatched GaAs

    SciTech Connect

    Provence, S. R., E-mail: sydney-provence@uiowa.edu; Ricker, R.; Aytac, Y.

    2015-09-28

    InAs/GaSb mid-wave, cascaded superlattice light emitting diodes are found to give higher radiance when epitaxially grown on mismatched GaAs substrates compared to lattice-matched GaSb substrates. Peak radiances of 0.69 W/cm{sup 2}-sr and 1.06 W/cm{sup 2}-sr for the 100 × 100 μm{sup 2} GaSb and GaAs-based devices, respectively, were measured at 77 K. Measurement of the recombination coefficients shows the shorter Shockley-Read-Hall recombination lifetime as misfit dislocations for growth on GaAs degrade the quantum efficiency only at low current injection. The improved performance on GaAs was found to be due to the higher transparency and improved thermal properties of the GaAs substrate.

  2. GaAs monolayer: Excellent SHG responses and semi metallic to metallic transition modulated by vacancy effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rozahun, Ilmira; Bahti, Tohtiaji; He, Guijie; Ghupur, Yasenjan; Ablat, Abduleziz; Mamat, Mamatrishat

    2018-05-01

    Monolayer materials are considered as a promising candidate for novel applications due to their attractive magnetic, electronic and optical properties. Investigation on nonlinear optical (NLO) properties and effect of vacancy on monolayer materials are vital to property modulations of monolayers and extending their applications. In this work, with the aid of first-principles calculations, the crystal structure, electronic, magnetic, and optical properties of GaAs monolayers with the vacancy were investigated. The result shows gallium arsenic (GaAs) monolayer produces a strong second harmonic generation (SHG) response. Meanwhile, the vacancy strongly affects structural, electronic, magnetic and optical properties of GaAs monolayers. Furthermore, arsenic vacancy (VAs) brings semi metallic to metallic transition, while gallium vacancy (VGa) causes nonmagnetic to magnetic conversion. Our result reveals that GaAs monolayer possesses application potentials in Nano-amplifying modulator and Nano-optoelectronic devices, and may provide useful guidance in designing new generation of Nano-electronic devices.

  3. Scaling behavior of GaAs and GaMnAs quantum rings grown by droplet epitaxy

    SciTech Connect

    Placidi, E.; Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Roma 'Tor Vergata,' via della Ricerca Scientifica 1, 00133 Roma Italy; Arciprete, F.

    2012-10-01

    The transition from the liquid phase of Ga droplets to the formation of GaAs and GaMnAs quantum rings has been studied as a function of temperature. We show that different aggregation processes involve the GaAs (GaMnAs) island and the droplet formation. Furthermore, the aspect ratio of the islands exhibits an anomalous scaling law related to a tendency to aggregate in the vertical direction.

  4. Hybrid Gear

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Handschuh, Robert F. (Inventor); Roberts, Gary D. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    A hybrid gear consisting of metallic outer rim with gear teeth and metallic hub in combination with a composite lay up between the shaft interface (hub) and gear tooth rim is described. The composite lay-up lightens the gear member while having similar torque carrying capability and it attenuates the impact loading driven noise/vibration that is typical in gear systems. The gear has the same operational capability with respect to shaft speed, torque, and temperature as an all-metallic gear as used in aerospace gear design.

  5. Novel anti-reflection technology for GaAs single-junction solar cells using surface patterning and Au nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Kim, Youngjo; Lam, Nguyen Dinh; Kim, Kangho; Kim, Sangin; Rotermund, Fabian; Lim, Hanjo; Lee, Jaejin

    2012-07-01

    Single-junction GaAs solar cell structures were grown by low-pressure MOCVD on GaAs (100) substrates. Micro-rod arrays with diameters of 2 microm, 5 microm, and 10 microm were fabricated on the surfaces of the GaAs solar cells via photolithography and wet chemical etching. The patterned surfaces were coated with Au nanoparticles using an Au colloidal solution. Characteristics of the GaAs solar cells with and without the micro-rod arrays and Au nanoparticles were investigated. The short-circuit current density of the GaAs solar cell with 2 microm rod arrays and Au nanoparticles increased up to 34.9% compared to that of the reference cell without micro-rod arrays and Au nanoparticles. The conversion efficiency of the GaAs solar cell that was coated with Au nanoparticles on the patterned surface with micro-rod arrays can be improved from 14.1% to 19.9% under 1 sun AM 1.5G illumination. These results show that micro-rod arrays and Au nanoparticle coating can be applied together in surface patterning to achieve a novel cost-effective anti-reflection technology.

  6. Growth of High-Quality GaAs on Ge by Controlling the Thickness and Growth Temperature of Buffer Layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Xu-Liang; Pan, Jiao-Qing; Yu, Hong-Yan; Li, Shi-Yan; Wang, Bao-Jun; Bian, Jing; Wang, Wei

    2014-12-01

    High-quality GaAs thin films grown on miscut Ge substrates are crucial for GaAs-based devices on silicon. We investigate the effect of different thicknesses and temperatures of GaAs buffer layers on the crystal quality and surface morphology of GaAs on Ge by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition. Through high resolution x-ray diffraction measurements, it is demonstrated that the full width at half maximum for the GaAs epilayer (Ge substrate) peak could achieve 19.3 (11.0) arcsec. The value of etch pit density could be 4×104 cm-2. At the same time, GaAs surfaces with no pyramid-shaped pits are obtained when the buffer layer growth temperature is lower than 360°C, due to effective inhibition of initial nucleation at terraces of the Ge surface. In addition, it is shown that large island formation at the initial stage of epitaxial growth is a significant factor for the final rough surface and that this initial stage should be carefully controlled when a device quality GaAs surface is desired.

  7. First tests of Timepix detectors based on semi-insulating GaAs matrix of different pixel size

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaťko, B.; Kubanda, D.; Žemlička, J.; Šagátová, A.; Zápražný, Z.; Boháček, P.; Nečas, V.; Mora, Y.; Pichotka, M.; Dudák, J.

    2018-02-01

    In this work, we have focused on Timepix detectors coupled with the semi-insulating GaAs material sensor. We used undoped bulk GaAs material with the thickness of 350 μm. We prepared and tested four pixelated detectors with 165 μm and 220 μm pixel size with two versions of technology preparation, without and with wet chemically etched trenches around each pixel. We have carried out adjustment of GaAs Timepix detectors to optimize their performance. The energy calibration of one GaAs Timepix detector in Time-over-threshold mode was performed with the use of 241Am and 133Ba radioisotopes. We were able to detect γ-photons with the energy up to 160 keV. The X-ray imaging quality of GaAs Timepix detector was tested with X-ray source using various samples. After flat field we obtained very promising imaging performance of tested GaAs Timepix detectors.

  8. Giant and reversible enhancement of the electrical resistance of GaAs1-xNx by hydrogen irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alvarez, J.; Kleider, J.-P.; Trotta, R.; Polimeni, A.; Capizzi, M.; Martelli, F.; Mariucci, L.; Rubini, S.

    2011-08-01

    The electrical properties of untreated and hydrogen-irradiated GaAs1-xNx are investigated by conductive-probe atomic force microscopy (CP-AFM). After hydrogen irradiation, the resistance R of GaAs1-xNx increases by more than three orders of magnitude while that of a N-free GaAs reference slightly decreases. Thermal annealing at 550 °C of H-irradiated GaAs1-xNx restores the pristine electrical properties of the as-grown sample thus demonstrating that this phenomenon is fully reversible. These effects are attributed to the nitrogen-hydrogen complexes that passivate N in GaAs1-xNx (thus restoring the energy gap of N-free GaAs) and, moreover, reduce the carrier scattering time by more than one order of magnitude. This opens up a route to the fabrication of planar conductive/resistive/conductive heterostructures with submicrometer spatial resolution, which is also reported here.

  9. Hybrid Simulator

    SciTech Connect

    Trujillo, David J.; Sridharan, Srikesh; Weinstock, Irvin

    HybSim (short for Hybrid Simulator) is a flexible, easy to use screening tool that allows the user to quanti the technical and economic benefits of installing a village hybrid generating system and simulates systems with any combination of —Diesel generator sets —Photovoltaic arrays -Wind Turbines and -Battery energy storage systems Most village systems (or small population sites such as villages, remote military bases, small communities, independent or isolated buildings or centers) depend on diesel generation systems for their source of energy. HybSim allows the user to determine other "sources" of energy that can greatly reduce the dollar to kilo-watt hourmore » ratio. Supported by the DOE, Energy Storage Program, HybSim was initially developed to help analyze the benefits of energy storage systems in Alaskan villages. Soon after its development, other sources of energy were added providing the user with a greater range of analysis opportunities and providing the village with potentially added savings. In addition to village systems, HybSim has generated interest for use from military institutions in energy provisions and USAID for international village analysis.« less

  10. Diffusion length measurements of thin GaAs solar cells by means of energetic electrons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vonross, O.

    1980-01-01

    A calculation of the short circuit current density (j sub sc) of a thin GaAs solar cell induced by fast electrons is presented. It is shown that in spite of the disparity in thickness between the N-type portion of the junction and the P-type portion of the junction, the measurement of the bulk diffusion length L sub p of the N-type part of the junction is seriously hampered due to the presence of a sizable contribution to the j sub sc from the P-type region of the junction. Corrections of up to 50% had to be made in order to interpret the data correctly. Since these corrections were not amenable to direct measurements it is concluded that the electron beam method for the determination of the bulk minority carrier diffusion length, which works so well for Si solar cells, is a poor method when applied to thin GaAs cells.

  11. Gate-Sensing the Potential Landscape of a GaAs Two-Dimensional Electron Gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Croot, Xanthe; Mahoney, Alice; Pauka, Sebastian; Colless, James; Reilly, David; Watson, John; Fallahi, Saeed; Gardner, Geoff; Manfra, Michael; Lu, Hong; Gossard, Arthur

    In situ dispersive gate sensors hold potential as a means of enabling the scalable readout of quantum dot arrays. Sensitive to quantum capacitance, dispersive sensors have been used to detect inter- and intra-dot transitions in GaAs double quantum dots, and can distinguish the spin states of singlet triplet qubits. In addition, the gate-sensing technique is likely of value in probing the physics of Majorana zero modes in nanowire devices. Beyond the readout signatures associated with charge and spin configurations of qubits, gate-sensing is sensitive to trapped charge in the potential landscape. Here, we report gate-sensing signals arising from tunnelling of electrons between puddles of trapped charge in a GaAs 2DEG. We examine these signals in a family of different devices with varying mobilities, and as a function of temperature and bias. Implications for qubit readout using the gate-sensing technique are discussed.

  12. Signal velocity and group velocity for an optical pulse propagating through a GaAs cavity.

    PubMed

    Centini, Marco; Bloemer, Mark; Myneni, Krishna; Scalora, Michael; Sibilia, Concita; Bertolotti, Mario; D'Aguanno, Giuseppe

    2003-07-01

    We present measurements of the signal and group velocities for chirped optical pulses propagating through a GaAs cavity. The signal velocity is based on a specified signal-to-noise ratio at the detector. Under our experimental conditions, the chirp substantially modifies the group velocity of the pulse, but leaves the signal velocity unaltered. At unity transmittance, the velocities are equal. In general, when the transmittance is less than unity, the group velocity is faster than the signal velocity. While the group velocity can be negative, the signal velocity is always less than c/n, where c is the speed of light in vacuum and n is the refractive index of GaAs. To our knowledge, this is the first measurement of both the group velocity and the signal velocity in any system.

  13. Optical pumping and negative luminescence polarization in charged GaAs quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shabaev, Andrew; Stinaff, Eric A.; Bracker, Allan S.; Gammon, Daniel; Efros, Alexander L.; Korenev, Vladimir L.; Merkulov, Igor

    2009-01-01

    Optical pumping of electron spins and negative photoluminescence polarization are observed when interface quantum dots in a GaAs quantum well are excited nonresonantly by circularly polarized light. Both observations can be explained by the formation of long-lived dark excitons through hole spin relaxation in the GaAs quantum well prior to exciton capture. In this model, optical pumping of resident electron spins is caused by capture of dark excitons and recombination in charged quantum dots. Negative polarization results from accumulation of dark excitons in the quantum well and is enhanced by optical pumping. The dark exciton model describes the experimental results very well, including intensity and bias dependence of the photoluminescence polarization and the Hanle effect.

  14. Physical mechanism of coherent acoustic phonons generation and detection in GaAs semiconductor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babilotte, P.; Morozov, E.; Ruello, P.; Mounier, D.; Edely, M.; Breteau, J.-M.; Bulou, A.; Gusev, V.

    2007-12-01

    We first describe the picosecond acoustic interferometry study of GaAs with two-colors pump-probe laser pulses. The dependence of the generation process on the pump wavelength and the detection process on the probe wavelength both can cause the shift in the phase of the Brillouin signal. Secondly, in order to distinguish the short high frequency wideband acoustic pulse from low frequency Brillouin contribution, we accomplished experiments with (100)GaAs semiconductor coated by a transparent and photoelastically inactive thin film, serving a delay line for the acoustic pulse. Even with highly penetrating pump light (approx 680nm), short acoustic disturbances of approx 7ps of duration have been registered.

  15. Monolithic barrier-all-around high electron mobility transistor with planar GaAs nanowire channel.

    PubMed

    Miao, Xin; Zhang, Chen; Li, Xiuling

    2013-06-12

    High-quality growth of planar GaAs nanowires (NWs) with widths as small as 35 nm is realized by comprehensively mapping the parameter space of group III flow, V/III ratio, and temperature as the size of the NWs scales down. Using a growth mode modulation scheme for the NW and thin film barrier layers, monolithically integrated AlGaAs barrier-all-around planar GaAs NW high electron mobility transistors (NW-HEMTs) are achieved. The peak extrinsic transconductance, drive current, and effective electron velocity are 550 μS/μm, 435 μA/μm, and ~2.9 × 10(7) cm/s, respectively, at 2 V supply voltage with a gate length of 120 nm. The excellent DC performance demonstrated here shows the potential of this bottom-up planar NW technology for low-power high-speed very-large-scale-integration (VLSI) circuits.

  16. Dual demodulation interferometer with two-wave mixing in GaAs photorefractive crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhenzhen, Zhang; Zhongqing, Jia; Guangrong, Ji; Qiwu, Wang

    2018-07-01

    A dual demodulation interferometer with two-wave mixing (TWM) in the GaAs photorefractive crystal (PRC) is proposed and experimentally demonstrated. The GaAs PRC has tiny temperature change under high voltage thus not requiring thermoelectric cooler (TEC) to stabilize the temperature, and adaptive to low frequency fluctuation below 200 Hz. The system is an unbalanced TWM interferometer, which could demodulate the phase change both space variation and wavelength shift induced by strain. Two demodulation modes' formulas are provided in theory respectively. Experimental results have been tested and compared with theoretical analysis, demonstrating that it is a practical and flexible system for detection of mechanical vibration or structure health monitoring (SHM) in engineering by selecting different demodulation mode.

  17. Photoreflectance from GaAs and GaAs/GaAs interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sydor, Michael; Angelo, James; Wilson, Jerome J.; Mitchel, W. C.; Yen, M. Y.

    1989-10-01

    Photoreflectance from semi-insulating GaAs, and GaAs/GaAs interfaces, is discussed in terms of its behavior with temperature, doping, epilayer thickness, and laser intensity. Semi-insulating substrates show an exciton-related band-edge signal below 200 K and an impurity-related photoreflectance above 400 K. At intermediate temperatures the band-edge signal from thin GaAs epilayers contains a contribution from the epilayer-substrate interface. The interface effect depends on the epilayer's thickness, doping, and carrier mobility. The effect broadens the band-edge photoreflectance by 5-10 meV, and artifically lowers the estimates for the critical-point energy, ECP, obtained through the customary third-derivative functional fit to the data.

  18. A GaAs vector processor based on parallel RISC microprocessors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Misko, Tim A.; Rasset, Terry L.

    A vector processor architecture based on the development of a 32-bit microprocessor using gallium arsenide (GaAs) technology has been developed. The McDonnell Douglas vector processor (MVP) will be fabricated completely from GaAs digital integrated circuits. The MVP architecture includes a vector memory of 1 megabyte, a parallel bus architecture with eight processing elements connected in parallel, and a control processor. The processing elements consist of a reduced instruction set CPU (RISC) with four floating-point coprocessor units and necessary memory interface functions. This architecture has been simulated for several benchmark programs including complex fast Fourier transform (FFT), complex inner product, trigonometric functions, and sort-merge routine. The results of this study indicate that the MVP can process a 1024-point complex FFT at a speed of 112 microsec (389 megaflops) while consuming approximately 618 W of power in a volume of approximately 0.1 ft-cubed.

  19. Surface ordering of (In,Ga)As quantum dots controlled by GaAs substrate indexes

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Zh.M.; Seydmohamadi, Sh.; Lee, J.H.

    Self-organized surface ordering of (In,Ga)As quantum dots in a GaAs matrix was investigated using stacked multiple quantum dot layers prepared by molecular-beam epitaxy. While one-dimensional chain-like ordering is formed on singular and slightly misorientated GaAs(100) surfaces, we report on two-dimensional square-like ordering that appears on GaAs(n11)B, where n is 7, 5, 4, and 3. Using a technique to control surface diffusion, the different ordering patterns are found to result from the competition between anisotropic surface diffusion and anisotropic elastic matrix, a similar mechanism suggested before by Solomon [Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2073 (2004)].

  20. Ab initio study of (Fe, Ni) doped GaAs: Magnetic, electronic properties and Faraday rotation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sbai, Y.; Ait Raiss, A.; Bahmad, L.; Benyoussef, A.

    2017-06-01

    The interesting diluted magnetic semiconductor (DMS), Gallium Arsenide (GaAs), was doped with the transition metals magnetic impurities: iron (Fe) and Nickel (Ni), in one hand to study the magnetic and magneto-optical properties of the material Ga(Fe, Ni) As, in the other hand to investigate the effect of the doping on the properties of this material, the calculations were performed within the spin polarized density functional theory (DFT) and generalized gradient approximation (GGA) with AKAI KKR-CPA method, the density of states (DOS) for different doping concentrations were calculated, giving the electronical properties, as well as the magnetic state and magnetic states energy, also the effect of these magnetic impurities on the Faraday rotation as magneto-optical property. Furthermore, we found the stable magnetic state for our doped material GaAs.

  1. Growth of semimetallic ErAs films epitaxially embedded in GaAs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crook, Adam M.; Nair, Hari P.; Lee, Jong H.; Ferrer, Domingo A.; Akinwande, Deji; Bank, Seth R.

    2011-10-01

    We present models for the growth and electrical conductivity of ErAs films grown with the nanoparticle-seeded film growth technique. This growth mode overcomes the mismatch in rotational symmetry between the rocksalt ErAs crystal structure and the zincblende GaAs crystal structure. This results in films of ErAs grown through a thin film of GaAs that preserves the symmetry of the substrate. The conductivity of the films, as a function of film thickness, are investigated and a surface roughness model is used to explain observed trends. Transmission electron micrographs confirm the suppression of anti-phase domains. A simple diffusion model is developed to describe the diffusion and incorporation of surface erbium into subsurface ErAs layers and predict potential failure mechanisms of the growth method.

  2. Effects of ion bombardment on bulk GaAs photocathodes with different surface-cleavage planes

    DOE PAGES

    Liu, Wei; Zhang, Shukui; Stutzman, Marcy; ...

    2016-10-24

    Bulk GaAs samples with different surface cleave planes were implanted with 100 and 10 000 V hydrogen ions inside an ultrahigh vacuum test apparatus to simulate ion back-bombardment of the photocathode inside a DC high voltage photogun. The photocathode yield, or quantum efficiency, could easily be recovered following implantation with 100 V hydrogen ions but not for 10 000 V ions. Moreover, the implantation damage with 10 000 V hydrogen ions was more pronounced for GaAs photocathode samples with (100) and (111A) cleave planes, compared to the photocathode with (110) cleave plane. Lastly, this result is consistent with enhanced ionmore » channeling for the (110) cleave plane compared to the other cleave planes, with ions penetrating deeper into the photocathode material beyond the absorption depth of the laser light and beyond the region of the photocathode where the photoemitted electrons originate.« less

  3. Final states in Si and GaAs via RF μSR spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kreitzman, S. R.; Pfiz, T.; Sun-Mack, S.; Riseman, T. M.; Brewer, J. H.; Williams, D. Ll.; Estle, T. L.

    1991-02-01

    The ionization of muonium centers in Si and GaAs have been studied using radio frequency (RF) resonant techniques. In Si all three muonic centers are detectable by RF. No evidence was found for delayed Mu and Mu* states at any temperature. However, our results on the diamagnetic final state (μ{f/+}) show that it is composed of prompt fractions (as seen by conventional μSR) and delayed fractions arising from the ionization of Mu* and Mu. We observe a full μ{f/+} fraction at 317 K when the Mu relaxation rate is above 10 μs-1. GaAs differs from the situation in Si in that we observed only a partial conversion of Mu* and Mu to a μ+ final state up to 310 K in spite of the fact that the transverse field relaxation rates become very high at 150 and 250 K respectively.

  4. Effects of gold diffusion on n-type doping of GaAs nanowires.

    PubMed

    Tambe, Michael J; Ren, Shenqiang; Gradecak, Silvija

    2010-11-10

    The deposition of n-GaAs shells is explored as a method of n-type doping in GaAs nanowires grown by the Au-mediated metal-organic chemical vapor deposition. Core-shell GaAs/n-GaAs nanowires exhibit an unintended rectifying behavior that is attributed to the Au diffusion during the shell deposition based on studies using energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, current-voltage, capacitance-voltage, and Kelvin probe force measurements. Removing the gold prior to n-type shell deposition results in the realization of n-type GaAs nanowires without rectification. We directly correlate the presence of gold impurities to nanowire electrical properties and provide an insight into the role of seed particles on the properties of nanowires and nanowire heterostructures.

  5. The presence of isolated hydrogen donors in heavily carbon-doped GaAs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fushimi, Hiroshi; Wada, Kazumi

    1994-12-01

    The deactivation mechanism of carbon acceptors in GaAs has systematically been studied by measuring the annealing behavior and depth profiles of the carrier concentration. It is found that hydrogen impurities dominate carbon deactivation. Their deactivation undergoes two different ways: Hydrogen donors isolated from carbon acceptors compensate carbon and hydrogen impurities neutralize the carbon by forming neutral carbon-hydrogen complexes. The compensating hydrogen donors diffuse out extremely fast at relatively low temperatures. This is, to the best of our knowledge, the first report on the presence of isolated hydrogen donors in heavily carbon-doped GaAs. The dissociation of carbon-hydrogen complexes is much slower than reported. The mechanism is discussed in terms of a hydrogen retrapping effect by carbon.

  6. GaAs Solar Cells on V-Grooved Silicon via Selective Area Growth: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Warren, Emily L; Jain, Nikhil; Tamboli, Adele C

    Interest in integrating III-Vs onto Si has recently resurged as a promising pathway towards high-efficiency, low-cost tandem photovoltaics. Here, we present a single junction GaAs solar cell grown monolithically on polished Si (001) substrates using V-grooves, selective area growth, and aspect ratio trapping to mitigate defect formation without the use of expensive, thick graded buffers. The GaAs is free of antiphase domains and maintains a relatively low TDD of 4x107 cm-2, despite the lack of a graded buffer. This 6.25 percent-efficient demonstration solar cell shows promise for further improvements to III-V/Si tandems to enable cost-competitive photovoltaics.

  7. LEED and AES characterization of the GaAs(110)-ZnSe interface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tu, D.-W.; Kahn, A.

    1984-01-01

    In this paper, a study is conducted of the composition and structure of epitaxial ZnSe films grown by congruent evaporation on GaAs(110) at a rate of 2 A/min. It is found that the films grown on 300 C GaAs are nearly stoichiometric and form an abrupt interface with the substrate. Films grown at higher temperature (T greater than 350-400 C) are Se rich. The crystallinity of films grown at 300 C is good and their surface atomic geometry is identical to that of a ZnSe crystal. The GaAs-ZnSe interface geometry seems to be dominated by the Se-substrate bonds. The adsorption of Se, during the formation of very thin ZnSe films (2-3 A), produces a (1 x 2) LEED pattern and modifications of the LEED I-V profiles, which probably indicate a change in the substrate atomic relaxation.

  8. Design and implementation of GaAs HBT circuits with ACME

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hutchings, Brad L.; Carter, Tony M.

    1993-01-01

    GaAs HBT circuits offer high performance (5-20 GHz) and radiation hardness (500 Mrad) that is attractive for space applications. ACME is a CAD tool specifically developed for HBT circuits. ACME implements a novel physical schematic-capture design technique where designers simultaneously view the structure and physical organization of a circuit. ACME's design interface is similar to schematic capture; however, unlike conventional schematic capture, designers can directly control the physical placement of both function and interconnect at the schematic level. In addition, ACME provides design-time parasitic extraction, complex wire models, and extensions to Multi-Chip Modules (MCM's). A GaAs HBT gate-array and semi-custom circuits have been developed with ACME; several circuits have been fabricated and found to be fully functional .

  9. Periodic surface structure bifurcation induced by ultrafast laser generated point defect diffusion in GaAs

    SciTech Connect

    Abere, Michael J.; Yalisove, Steven M.; Torralva, Ben

    2016-04-11

    The formation of high spatial frequency laser induced periodic surface structures (HSFL) with period <0.3 λ in GaAs after irradiation with femtosecond laser pulses in air is studied. We have identified a point defect generation mechanism that operates in a specific range of fluences in semiconductors between the band-gap closure and ultrafast-melt thresholds that produces vacancy/interstitial pairs. Stress relaxation, via diffusing defects, forms the 350–400 nm tall and ∼90 nm wide structures through a bifurcation process of lower spatial frequency surface structures. The resulting HSFL are predominately epitaxial single crystals and retain the original GaAs stoichiometry.

  10. Properties of epitaxial BaTiO{sub 3} deposited on GaAs

    SciTech Connect

    Contreras-Guerrero, R.; Droopad, R.; Veazey, J. P.

    2013-01-07

    Single crystal BaTiO{sub 3} (BTO) has been grown epitaxially on GaAs using molecular beam epitaxy with a 2 unit cell SrTiO{sub 3} nucleation layer. The oxide film is lattice-matched to GaAs through an in-plane rotation of 45 Degree-Sign relative to the (100) surface leading to c-axis orientation of the BaTiO{sub 3}. X-ray diffraction confirmed the crystallinity and orientation of the oxide film with a full width half maximum of 0.58 Degree-Sign for a 7.5 nm thick layer. Piezoresponse force microscopy was used to characterize the ferroelectric domains in the BaTiO{sub 3} layer, and a coercive voltage of 1-2 V andmore » piezoresponse amplitude {approx}5 pm/V was measured.« less

  11. Chemical Composition of Nanoporous Layer Formed by Electrochemical Etching of p-Type GaAs.

    PubMed

    Bioud, Youcef A; Boucherif, Abderraouf; Belarouci, Ali; Paradis, Etienne; Drouin, Dominique; Arès, Richard

    2016-12-01

    We have performed a detailed characterization study of electrochemically etched p-type GaAs in a hydrofluoric acid-based electrolyte. The samples were investigated and characterized through cathodoluminescence (CL), X-ray diffraction (XRD), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). It was found that after electrochemical etching, the porous layer showed a major decrease in the CL intensity and a change in chemical composition and in the crystalline phase. Contrary to previous reports on p-GaAs porosification, which stated that the formed layer is composed of porous GaAs, we report evidence that the porous layer is in fact mainly constituted of porous As 2 O 3 . Finally, a qualitative model is proposed to explain the porous As 2 O 3 layer formation on p-GaAs substrate.

  12. Nanopatterning as a Probe of Unstable Growth on GaAs(001)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cosert, Krista; Lin, Chuan-Fu; Hammouda, Ajmi; Kan, Hung-Chih; Subrumaniam, Kanakaraju; Richardson, Chris; Phaneuf, Ray

    2009-03-01

    We report on observations of unstable growth on nanopatterned GaAs(001) surfaces. For growth at 500^oC, 1 ML/sec and an As2/Ga beam equivalent pressure ratio of 10:1, we find that grooves oriented at right angles to [110] produce a build up of ridges of GaAs at the upper edges, while for grooves oriented at right angles to [110] no ridges form; instead cusps evolve at the bottoms of such grooves [1]. The cusp-forming grooves show a pronounced initial amplification of depth during growth which changes with length/width ratio, and become more narrow. The ridge-forming grooves instead broaden during growth. We compare these experimental observations with kinetic Monte Carlo simulations in which a small anisotropic Ehrlich-Schwoebel barrier is included. [1] T. Tadayyon-Eslami, H.-C. Kan, L. C. Calhoun and R. J. Phaneuf, Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 126101 (2006)

  13. High-efficiency thin-film GaAs solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stirn, R. J.

    1979-01-01

    GaAs chemical vapor deposition (CVD) growth on single-crystal GaAs substrates was investigated over a temperature range of 600 to 750 C, As/GA mole-ratio range of 3 to 11, and gas molefraction range 5 x 10 to the minus 9th power to 7x 10 to the minus 7th power for H2S doping. GasAs CVD growth on recrystallized Ge films was investigated for a temperature range of 550 to 700 C, an As/GA mole ratio of 5, and for various H2S mole fraction. The highest efficiency cell observed on these films with 2 mm dots was 4.8% (8% when AR-coated). Improvements in fill factor and opencircuit voltage by about 40% each are required in order to obtain efficiencies of 15% or greater.

  14. Developing Low-Noise GaAs JFETs For Cryogenic Operation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cunningham, Thomas J.

    1995-01-01

    Report discusses aspects of effort to develop low-noise, low-gate-leakage gallium arsenide-based junction field-effect transistors (JFETs) for operation at temperature of about 4 K as readout amplifiers and multiplexing devices for infrared-imaging devices. Transistors needed to replace silicon transistors, relatively noisy at 4 K. Report briefly discusses basic physical principles of JFETs and describes continuing process of optimization of designs of GaAs JFETs for cryogenic operation.

  15. GaAs digital dynamic IC's for applications up to 10 GHz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rocchi, M.; Gabillard, B.

    1983-06-01

    To evaluate the potentiality of GaAs MESFET's as transmitting gates, dynamic TT-bar flip-flops have been fabricated using a self-aligned planar process. The maximum operating frequency is 10.2 GHz, which is the best speed performance ever reported for a digital circuit. The performance of the transmitting gates within the circuits are discussed in detail. Speed improvement and topological simplification of fully static LSI subsystems are investigated.

  16. InP and GaAs characterization with variable stoichiometry obtained by molecular spray

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Massies, J.; Linh, N. T.; Olivier, J.; Faulconnier, P.; Poirier, R.

    1979-01-01

    Both InP and GaAs surfaces were studied in parallel. A molecular spray technique was used to obtain two semiconductor surfaces with different superficial compositions. The structures of these surfaces were examined by electron diffraction. Electron energy loss was measured spectroscopically in order to determine surface electrical characteristics. The results are used to support conclusions relative to the role of surface composition in establishing a Schottky barrier effect in semiconductor devices.

  17. Optical Orientation of Mn2+ Ions in GaAs in Weak Longitudinal Magnetic Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akimov, I. A.; Dzhioev, R. I.; Korenev, V. L.; Kusrayev, Yu. G.; Sapega, V. F.; Yakovlev, D. R.; Bayer, M.

    2011-04-01

    We report on optical orientation of Mn2+ ions in bulk GaAs subject to weak longitudinal magnetic fields (B≤100mT). A manganese spin polarization of 25% is directly evaluated by using spin-flip Raman scattering. The dynamical Mn2+ polarization occurs due to the s-d exchange interaction with optically oriented conduction band electrons. Time-resolved photoluminescence reveals a nontrivial electron spin dynamics, where the oriented Mn2+ ions tend to stabilize the electron spins.

  18. GaAs MMIC: recovery from upset by x-ray pulse

    SciTech Connect

    Armendariz, M.G.; Castle, J.G. Jr.

    1986-01-01

    Tolerance for fast neutrons and total ionizing dose is a feature of GaAs microwave monolithic integrated circuits (MMIC). However, upset during an ionizing pulse is expected to occur and delayed recovery due to backgating may be a problem. The purpose of this study of an experimental MMIC design is to observe the recovery of oscillator power output following upset by a short ionizing pulse as a function of applied bias, dose per pulse and case temperature.

  19. W-band GaAs camel-cathode Gunn devices produced by MBE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beall, R. B.; Battersby, S. J.; Grecian, P. J.; Jones, S.; Smith, G.

    1989-06-01

    The dc and microwave performance of a novel second-harmonic W-band GaAs Gunn device incorporating a camel barrier are reported. Comparison with conventional Gunn devices shows significant improvement in power output and dc to RF conversion efficiency for the new structure. The frequency at which the maximum power is produced is lower for the camel cathode Gunn device, an observation attributed to a reduction in the length of the acceleration zone.

  20. Fabrication and characterization of GaAs Schottky barrier photodetectors for microwave fiber optic links

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blauvelt, H.; Thurmond, G.; Parsons, J.; Lewis, D.; Yen, H.

    1984-08-01

    High-speed GaAs Schottky barrier photodiodes have been fabricated and characterized. These detectors have 3-dB bandwidths of 20 GHz and quantum efficiencies as high as 70 percent. The response of the detectors to light modulated at 1-18 GHz has been directly measured. Microwave modulated optical signals were obtained by using a LiNbO3 traveling wave modulator and by heterodyning two laser diodes.

  1. Intermixing optical and microwave signals in GaAs microstrip circuits for phase-locking applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ming G.; Chauchard, Eve A.; Lee, Chi H.; Hung, Hing-Loi A.

    1990-12-01

    The microwave modulation of the interference generated by optical beams that are reflected from the top and bottom surfaces of GaAs substrate adjacent to a microstrip line is studied. The detected modulation is used to directly characterize the electrooptic effect. This optical-microwave intermixing technique is applied to phase-lock a free-running microwave oscillator with picosecond laser pulses. One potential application of this technique is for the optical on-wafer characterization of MMICs.

  2. Photovoltaic characteristics of diffused P/+N bulk GaAs solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Borrego, J. M.; Keeney, R. P.; Bhat, I. B.; Bhat, K. N.; Sundaram, L. G.; Ghandhi, S. K.

    1982-01-01

    The photovoltaic characteristics of P(+)N junction solar cells fabricated on bulk GaAs by an open tube diffusion technique are described in this paper.Spectral response measurements were analyzed in detail and compared to a computer simulation in order to determine important material parameters. It is projected that proper optimization of the cell parameters can increase the efficiency of the cells from 12.2 percent to close to 20 percent.

  3. Energetics and Dynamics of GaAs Epitaxial Growth via Quantum Wave Packet Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dzegilenko, Fedor N.; Saini, Subhash (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    The dynamics of As(sub 2) molecule incorporation into the flat Ga-terminated GaAs(100) surface is studied computationally. The time-dependent Schrodinger equation is solved on a two-dimensional potential energy surface obtained using density functional theory calculations. The probabilities of trapping and subsequent dissociation of the molecular As(sub 2) bond are calculated as a function of beam translational energy and vibrational quantum number of As(sub 2).

  4. Electrodeposition of CdSe on GaAs and InP substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Etcheberry, A.; Cachet, H.; Cortes, R.; Froment, M.

    2001-06-01

    Epitaxial CdSe layers have been electrodeposited on the (1 0 0) and ( 1¯ 1¯ 1¯) faces of GaAs and InP single crystals. Chemical composition and crystalline quality of CdSe have been studied by X-photoelectron spectroscopy, reflection high energy electron diffraction and X-ray diffraction. Influence of the substrate has been pointed out.

  5. High quality GaAs single photon emitters on Si substrate

    SciTech Connect

    Bietti, S.; Sanguinetti, S.; Cavigli, L.

    2013-12-04

    We describe a method for the direct epitaxial growth of a single photon emitter, based on GaAs quantum dots fabricated by droplet epitaxy, working at liquid nitrogen temperatures on Si substrates. The achievement of quantum photon statistics up to T=80 K is directly proved by antibunching in the second order correlation function as measured with a H anbury Brown and Twiss interferometer.

  6. A simple model of proton damage in GaAs solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, J. W.; Walker, G. H.; Outlaw, R. A.

    1982-01-01

    A simple proton damage model for GaAs solar cells is derived and compared to experimental values of change in short circuit currents. The recombination cross section associated with the defects was determined from the experimental comparison to be approximately 1.2 x 10 to the -13th power sq cm in fair agreement with values determined from the deep level transient spectroscopy technique.

  7. Chemical etching and organometallic chemical vapor deposition on varied geometries of GaAs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, Sheila G.; Landis, Geoffrey A.; Wilt, David M.

    1989-01-01

    Results of micron-spaced geometries produced by wet chemical etching and subsequent OMCVD growth on various GaAs surfaces are presented. The polar lattice increases the complexity of the process. The slow-etch planes defined by anisotropic etching are not always the same as the growth facets produced during MOCVD deposition, especially for deposition on higher-order planes produced by the hex groove etching.

  8. Velocity surface measurements for ZnO films over /001/-cut GaAs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Yoonkee; Hunt, William D.; Liu, Yongsheng; Jen, Cheng-Kuei

    1994-01-01

    A potential application for a piezoelectic film deposited on a GaAs substrate is the monolithic integration of surface acoustic wave (SAW) devices with GaAs electronics. Knowledge of the SAW properties of the filmed structure is critical for the optimum design of such devices. In this article, the measurements of the velocity surface, which directly affects the SAW diffraction, on the bare and metallized ZnO/SiO2 or Si3N4/GaAs /001/-cut samples are reported using two different techniques: (1) knife-edge laser probe, (2) line-focus-beam scanning acoustic microscope. Comparisons, such as measurement accuracy and tradeoffs, between the former (dry) and the latter (wet) method are given. It is found that near the group of zone axes (110) propagation direction the autocollimating SAW property of the bare GaAs changes into a noncollimating one for the layered structure, but a reversed phenomenon exists near the group of zone axes (100) direction. The passivation layer of SiO2 or Si3N4 (less than 0.2 micrometer thick) and the metallization layer change the relative velocity but do not significantly affect the velocity surface. On the other hand, the passivation layer reduces the propagation loss by 0.5-1.3 dB/microseconds at 240 MHz depending upon the ZnO film thickness. Our SAW propagation measurements agree well with theorectical calculations. We have also obtained the anisotropy factors for samples with ZnO films of 1.6, 2.8, and 4.0 micrometer thickness. Comparisons concerning the piezoelectric coupling and acoustic loss between dc triode and rf magnetron sputtered ZnO films are provided.

  9. Imaging performance of a Timepix detector based on semi-insulating GaAs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaťko, B.; Zápražný, Z.; Jakůbek, J.; Šagátová, A.; Boháček, P.; Sekáčová, M.; Korytár, D.; Nečas, V.; Žemlička, J.; Mora, Y.; Pichotka, M.

    2018-01-01

    This work focused on a Timepix chip [1] coupled with a bulk semi-insulating GaAs sensor. The sensor consisted of a matrix of 256 × 256 pixels with a pitch of 55 μm bump-bonded to a Timepix ASIC. The sensor was processed on a 350 μm-thick SI GaAs wafer. We carried out detector adjustment to optimize its performance. This included threshold equalization with setting up parameters of the Timepix chip, such as Ikrum, Pream, Vfbk, and so on. The energy calibration of the GaAs Timepix detector was realized using a 241Am radioisotope in two Timepix detector modes: time-over-threshold and threshold scan. An energy resolution of 4.4 keV in FWHM (Full Width at Half Maximum) was observed for 59.5 keV γ-photons using threshold scan mode. The X-ray imaging quality of the GaAs Timepix detector was tested using various samples irradiated by an X-ray source with a focal spot size smaller than 8 μm and accelerating voltage up to 80 kV. A 700 μm × 700 μm gold testing object (X-500-200-16Au with Siemens star) fabricated with high precision was used for the spatial resolution testing at different values of X-ray image magnification (up to 45). The measured spatial resolution of our X-ray imaging system was about 4 μm.

  10. Molecular Beam Epitaxial Growth of GaAs on (631) Oriented Substrates

    SciTech Connect

    Cruz Hernandez, Esteban; Rojas Ramirez, Juan-Salvador; Contreras Hernandez, Rocio

    2007-02-09

    In this work, we report the study of the homoepitaxial growth of GaAs on (631) oriented substrates by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). We observed the spontaneous formation of a high density of large scale features on the surface. The hilly like features are elongated towards the [-5, 9, 3] direction. We show the dependence of these structures with the growth conditions and we present the possibility of to create quantum wires structures on this surface.

  11. Hybrid solar collector using nonimaging optics and photovoltaic components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winston, Roland; Yablonovitch, Eli; Jiang, Lun; Widyolar, Bennett K.; Abdelhamid, Mahmoud; Scranton, Gregg; Cygan, David; Kozlov, Alexandr

    2015-08-01

    The project team of University of California at Merced (UC-M), Gas Technology Institute, and Dr. Eli Yablonovitch of University of California at Berkeley developed a novel hybrid concentrated solar photovoltaic thermal (PV/T) collector using nonimaging optics and world record single-junction Gallium arsenide (GaAs) PV components integrated with particle laden gas as thermal transfer and storage media, to simultaneously generate electricity and high temperature dispatchable heat. The collector transforms a parabolic trough, commonly used in CSP plants, into an integrated spectrum-splitting device. This places a spectrum-sensitive topping element on a secondary reflector that is registered to the thermal collection loop. The secondary reflector transmits higher energy photons for PV topping while diverting the remaining lower energy photons to the thermal media, achieving temperatures of around 400°C even under partial utilization of the solar spectrum. The collector uses the spectral selectivity property of Gallium arsenide (GaAs) cells to maximize the exergy output of the system, resulting in an estimated exergy efficiency of 48%. The thermal media is composed of fine particles of high melting point material in an inert gas that increases heat transfer and effectively stores excess heat in hot particles for later on-demand use.

  12. GaAs photovoltaics and optoelectronics using releasable multilayer epitaxial assemblies.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Jongseung; Jo, Sungjin; Chun, Ik Su; Jung, Inhwa; Kim, Hoon-Sik; Meitl, Matthew; Menard, Etienne; Li, Xiuling; Coleman, James J; Paik, Ungyu; Rogers, John A

    2010-05-20

    Compound semiconductors like gallium arsenide (GaAs) provide advantages over silicon for many applications, owing to their direct bandgaps and high electron mobilities. Examples range from efficient photovoltaic devices to radio-frequency electronics and most forms of optoelectronics. However, growing large, high quality wafers of these materials, and intimately integrating them on silicon or amorphous substrates (such as glass or plastic) is expensive, which restricts their use. Here we describe materials and fabrication concepts that address many of these challenges, through the use of films of GaAs or AlGaAs grown in thick, multilayer epitaxial assemblies, then separated from each other and distributed on foreign substrates by printing. This method yields large quantities of high quality semiconductor material capable of device integration in large area formats, in a manner that also allows the wafer to be reused for additional growths. We demonstrate some capabilities of this approach with three different applications: GaAs-based metal semiconductor field effect transistors and logic gates on plates of glass, near-infrared imaging devices on wafers of silicon, and photovoltaic modules on sheets of plastic. These results illustrate the implementation of compound semiconductors such as GaAs in applications whose cost structures, formats, area coverages or modes of use are incompatible with conventional growth or integration strategies.

  13. Hydrogenation of GaAs covered by GaAlAs and subgrain boundary passivation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Djemel, A.; Castaing, J.; Chevallier, J.; Henoc, P.

    1992-12-01

    Cathodoluminescence (CL) has been performed to study the influence of hydrogen on electronic properties of GaAs with and without a GaAlAs layer. Recombination at sub-boundaries has been examined. These extended defects have been introduced by high temperature plastic deformation. The results show that they are passivated by hydrogen. The penetration of hydrogen is slowed down by the GaAlAs layer. La cathodoluminescence (CL) a été utilisée pour étudier l'influence de l'hydrogène sur les propriétés électroniques de GaAs nu et recouvert d'une couche de GaAlAs. Le caractère recombinant des sous-joints de grains a été examiné. Ces défauts étendus ont été introduits par déformation plastique à chaud. Les résultats montrent que l'hydrogène passive ces défauts. La pénétration de l'hydrogène à l'intérieur de GaAs est retardée par la présence de la couche de GaAlAs.

  14. Aging behavior of Au-based ohmic contacts to GaAs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fatemi, Navid S.

    1989-01-01

    Gold based alloys, commonly used as ohmic contacts for solar cells, are known to react readily with GaAs. It is shown that the contact interaction with the underlying GaAs can continue even at room temperature upon aging, altering both the electrical characteristics of the contacts and the nearby pn junction. Au-Ge-Ni as-deposited (no heat-treatment) contacts made to thin emitter (0.15 microns) GaAs diodes have shown severe shunting of the pn junction upon aging for several months at room temperature. The heat-treated contacts, despite showing degradation in contact resistance, did not affect the underlying pn junction. Au-Zn-Au contacts to p-GaAs emitter (0.2 microns) diodes, however, showed slight improvement in contact resistance upon 200 C isothermal annealing for several months, without degrading the pn junction. The effect of aging on electrical characteristics of the as-deposited and heat-treated contacts and the nearby pn junction, as well as on the surface morphology of the contacts are presented.

  15. Aging behavior of Au-based ohmic contacts to GaAs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fatemi, Navid S.

    1988-01-01

    Gold based alloys, commonly used as ohmic contacts for solar cells, are known to react readily with GaAs. It is shown that the contact interaction with the underlying GaAs can continue even at room temperature upon aging, altering both the electrical characteristics of the contacts and the nearby pn junction. Au-Ge-Ni as-deposited (no heat treatment) contacts made to thin emitter (0.15 micrometer) GaAs diodes have shown severe shunting of the pn junction upon aging for several months at room temperature. The heat-treated contacts, despite showing degradation in contact resistance did not affect the underlying pn junction. Au-Zn-Au contacts to p-GaAs emitter (0.2 micrometer) diodes, however, showed slight improvement in contact resistance upon 200 C isothermal annealing for several months, without degrading the pn junction. The effect of aging on electrical characteristics of the as-deposited and heat-treated contacts and the nearby pn junction, as well as on the surface morphology of the contacts are presented.

  16. Interface dynamics and crystal phase switching in GaAs nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobsson, Daniel; Panciera, Federico; Tersoff, Jerry; Reuter, Mark C.; Lehmann, Sebastian; Hofmann, Stephan; Dick, Kimberly A.; Ross, Frances M.

    2016-03-01

    Controlled formation of non-equilibrium crystal structures is one of the most important challenges in crystal growth. Catalytically grown nanowires are ideal systems for studying the fundamental physics of phase selection, and could lead to new electronic applications based on the engineering of crystal phases. Here we image gallium arsenide (GaAs) nanowires during growth as they switch between phases as a result of varying growth conditions. We find clear differences between the growth dynamics of the phases, including differences in interface morphology, step flow and catalyst geometry. We explain these differences, and the phase selection, using a model that relates the catalyst volume, the contact angle at the trijunction (the point at which solid, liquid and vapour meet) and the nucleation site of each new layer of GaAs. This model allows us to predict the conditions under which each phase should be observed, and use these predictions to design GaAs heterostructures. These results could apply to phase selection in other nanowire systems.

  17. Measurements with Si and GaAs pixel detectors bonded to photon counting readout chips

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwarz, C.; Campbell, M.; Goeppert, R.; Ludwig, J.; Mikulec, B.; Runge, K.; Smith, K. M.; Snoeys, W.

    2001-06-01

    Detectors fabricated with SI-GaAs and Si bulk material were bonded to Photon Counting Chips (PCC), developed in the framework of the MEDIPIX Collaboration. The PCC consists of a matrix of 64×64 identical square pixels (170 μm×170 μm) with a 15-bit counter in each cell. We investigated the imaging properties of these detector systems under exposure of a dental X-ray tube at room temperature. The image homogeneity and the mean count rate were determined via flood exposure images and compared. Exposures for GaAs detectors exhibit a 3 times larger spread in count rate per image in comparison to Si detectors. This also results in a 3 times worse signal to noise ratio. IV-characteristics and X-ray images at different values of the detectors bias voltage were also taken and show a 30 times higher leakage current for GaAs. The Si detector is fully active beginning from 70 V, whereas the GaAs detector does not reach full charge collection. The presampling modulation transfer function of both assembly types was measured via slit images and gives a spatial resolution of 4.3 lp/mm for both detector systems.

  18. Reflection Properties of Metallic Gratings on ZnO Films over GaAs Substrates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hickernell, Fred S.; Kim, Yoonkee; Hunt, William D.

    1994-01-01

    A potential application for piezoelectric film deposited on GaAs substrates is the monolithic integration of surface acoustic wave (SAW) devices with GaAs electronics. Metallic gratings are basic elements required for the construction of such devices, and analyzing the reflectivity and the velocity change due to metallic gratings is often a critical design parameter. In this article, Datta and Hunsinger technique is extended to the case of a multilayered structure, and the developed technique is applied to analyze shorted and open gratings on ZnO films sputtered over (001)-cut (110)-propagating GaAs substrates. The analysis shows that zero reflectivity of shorted gratings can be obtained by a combination of the ZnO film and the metal thickness and the metalization ratio of the grating. Experiments are performed on shorted and an open gratings (with the center frequency of about 180 MHz) for three different metal thicknesses over ZnO films which are 0.8 and 2.6 micrometers thick. From the experiments, zero reflectivity at the resonant frequency of the grating is observed for a reasonable thickness (h/Alpha = 0.5%) of aluminum metalization. The velocity shift between the shorted and the open grating is also measured to be 0.18 MHz and 0.25 MHz for 0.8 and 1.6 micrometers respectively. The measured data show relatively good agreement with theoretical predictions.

  19. High-efficiency, radiation-resistant GaAs space cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bertness, K. A.; Ristow, M. Ladle; Grounner, M.; Kuryla, M. S.; Werthen, J. G.

    1991-01-01

    Although many GaAs solar cells are intended for space applicatons, few measurements of cell degradation after radiation are available, particularly for cells with efficiencies exceeding 20 percent (one-sun, AMO). Often the cell performance is optimized for the highest beginning-of-life (BOL) efficiency, despite the unknown effect of such design on end-of-life (EOL) efficiencies. The results of a study of the radiation effects on p-n GaAs cells are presented. The EOL efficiency of GaAs space cell can be increased by adjusting materials growth parameters, resulting in a demonstration of 16 percent EOL efficiency at one-sun, AMO. Reducing base doping levels to below 3 x 10(exp 17)/cu m and decreasing emitter thickness to 0.3 to 0.5 micron for p-n cells led to significant improvements in radiation hardness as measured by EOL/BOL efficiency ratios for irradiation of 10(exp -15)/sq cm electrons at 1 MeV. BOL efficiency was not affected by changes in emitter thickness but did improve with lower base doping.

  20. Detection of oxygen-related defects in GaAs by exo-electron emission spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hulluvarad, Shiva S.; Naddaf, M.; Bhoraskar, S. V.

    2001-10-01

    The influence of intentional introduction of oxygen, at the surface of GaAs, on its native surface states was studied. Oxygen was made to interact with the surface of GaAs by three different means: (1) by growing native oxides, (2) exposing to oxygen plasma in an electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) plasma reactor and by (3) high energy oxygen ion irradiation. Thermally stimulated exo-electron emission (TSEE) spectroscopy was used to estimate the relative densities and energies of the surface states induced by the three different modes of introducing oxygen. Out of the two native defect levels found in GaAs by TSEE; at 325 K (0.7 eV below Ec) and at 415 K (0.9 below Ec); the former is seen to get broadened or split into multiple peaks in each of the methods. Multiple peaks in TSEE signify the presence of a closely spaced band of defect levels. Therefore the results exclusively point out that oxygen-related complexes contribute to the formation of a band of defects centered at 325 K in TSEE which is correlated to an energy level 0.7 eV below Ec known as the EL2 defect level. The results reported in this paper thus confirm that the TSEE peak at 0.7 eV below Ec is related to oxygen induced defects whereas the peak at 0.9 eV is not affected by the presence of oxygen-related species.

  1. Tunneling effect on double potential barriers GaAs and PbS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prastowo, S. H. B.; Supriadi, B.; Ridlo, Z. R.; Prihandono, T.

    2018-04-01

    A simple model of transport phenomenon tunnelling effect through double barrier structure was developed. In this research we concentrate on the variation of electron energy which entering double potential barriers to transmission coefficient. The barriers using semiconductor materials GaAs (Galium Arsenide) with band-gap energy 1.424 eV, distance of lattice 0.565 nm, and PbS (Lead Sulphide) with band gap energy 0.41 eV distance of lattice is 18 nm. The Analysisof tunnelling effect on double potentials GaAs and PbS using Schrodinger’s equation, continuity, and matrix propagation to get transmission coefficient. The maximum energy of electron that we use is 1.0 eV, and observable from 0.0025 eV- 1.0 eV. The shows the highest transmission coefficient is0.9982 from electron energy 0.5123eV means electron can pass the barriers with probability 99.82%. Semiconductor from materials GaAs and PbS is one of selected material to design semiconductor device because of transmission coefficient directly proportional to bias the voltage of semiconductor device. Application of the theoretical analysis of resonant tunnelling effect on double barriers was used to design and develop new structure and combination of materials for semiconductor device (diode, transistor, and integrated circuit).

  2. Engineering Controlled Spalling in (100)-Oriented GaAs for Wafer Reuse

    SciTech Connect

    Sweet, Cassi A.; McNeely, Joshua E.; Gorman, Brian

    Controlled spalling offers a way to cleave thin, single-crystal films or devices from wafers, particularly if the fracture planes in the material are oriented parallel to the wafer surface. Unfortunately, misalignment between the favored fracture planes and the wafer surface preferred for photovoltaic growth in (100)-oriented GaAs produces a highly faceted surface when subject to controlled spalling. This highly faceted cleavage surface is problematic in several ways: (1) it can result in large variations of spall depth due to unstable crack propagation; (2) it may introduce defects into the device zone or underlying substrate; and (3) it consumes many micronsmore » of material outside of the device zone. We present the ways in which we have engineered controlled spalling for (100)-oriented GaAs to minimize these effects. We expand the operational window for controlled spalling to avoid spontaneous spalling, find no evidence of dislocation activity in the spalled film or the parent wafer, and reduce facet height and facet height irregularity. Resolving these issues provides a viable path forward for reducing III-V device cost through the controlled spalling of (100)-oriented GaAs devices and subsequent wafer reuse when these processes are combined with a high-throughput growth method such as Hydride Vapor Phase Epitaxy.« less

  3. LEO Flight Testing of GaAs on Si Solar Cells Aboard MISSES

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilt, David M.; Clark, Eric B.; Ringel, Steven A.; Andre, Carrie L.; Smith, Mark A.; Scheiman, David A.; Jenkins, Phillip P.; Maurer, William F.; Fitzgerald, Eugene A.; Walters, R. J.

    2004-01-01

    Previous research efforts have demonstrated small area (0.04 cm) GaAs on Si (GaAs/Si) solar cells with AM0 efficiencies in excess of 17%. These results were achieved on Si substrates coated with a step graded buffer of Si(x),Ge(1-x) alloys graded to 100% Ge. Recently, a 100-fold increase in device area was accomplished for these devices in preparation for on-orbit testing of this technology aboard Materials International Space Station Experiment number 5 (MISSE5). The GaAs/Si MISSE5 experiment contains five (5) GaAs/Si test devices with areas of lcm(exp 2) and 4cm(exp 4) as well as two (2) GaAs on GaAs control devices. Electrical performance data, measured on-orbit for three (3) of the test devices and one (1) of the control devices, will be telemetered to ground stations daily. After approximately one year on orbit, the MISSE5 payload will be returned to Earth for post flight evaluation. This paper will discuss the development of the GaAs/Si devices for the MISSE5 flight experiment and will present recent ground and on-orbit performance data.

  4. Periodic annealing of radiation damage in GaAs solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loo, R. Y.; Knechtli, R. C.; Kamath, G. S.

    1980-01-01

    Continuous annealing of GaAs solar cells is compared with periodic annealing to determine their relative effectiveness in minimizing proton radiation damage. It is concluded that continuous annealing of the cells in space at 150 C can effectively reduce the proton radiation damage to the GaAs solar cells. Periodic annealing is most effective if it can be initiated at relatively low fluences (approximating continuous annealing), especially if low temperatures of less than 200 C are to be used. If annealing is started only after the fluence of the damaging protons has accumulated to a high value 10 to the 11th power sq/pcm), effective annealing is still possible at relatively high temperatures. Finally, since electron radiation damage anneals even more easily than proton radiation damage, substantial improvements in GaAs solar cell life can be achieved by incorporating the proper annealing capabilities in solar panels for practical space missions where both electron and proton radiation damage have to be minimized.

  5. Interface dynamics and crystal phase switching in GaAs nanowires.

    PubMed

    Jacobsson, Daniel; Panciera, Federico; Tersoff, Jerry; Reuter, Mark C; Lehmann, Sebastian; Hofmann, Stephan; Dick, Kimberly A; Ross, Frances M

    2016-03-17

    Controlled formation of non-equilibrium crystal structures is one of the most important challenges in crystal growth. Catalytically grown nanowires are ideal systems for studying the fundamental physics of phase selection, and could lead to new electronic applications based on the engineering of crystal phases. Here we image gallium arsenide (GaAs) nanowires during growth as they switch between phases as a result of varying growth conditions. We find clear differences between the growth dynamics of the phases, including differences in interface morphology, step flow and catalyst geometry. We explain these differences, and the phase selection, using a model that relates the catalyst volume, the contact angle at the trijunction (the point at which solid, liquid and vapour meet) and the nucleation site of each new layer of GaAs. This model allows us to predict the conditions under which each phase should be observed, and use these predictions to design GaAs heterostructures. These results could apply to phase selection in other nanowire systems.

  6. Modeling and Simulation of Capacitance-Voltage Characteristics of a Nitride GaAs Schottky Diode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ziane, Abderrezzaq; Amrani, Mohammed; Benamara, Zineb; Rabehi, Abdelaziz

    2018-06-01

    A nitride GaAs Schottky diode has been fabricated by the nitridation of GaAs substrates using a radio frequency discharge nitrogen plasma source with a layer thickness of approximately 0.7 nm of GaN. The capacitance-voltage (C-V) characteristics of the Au/GaN/GaAs structure were investigated at room temperature for different frequencies, ranging from 1 kHz to 1 MHz. The C-V measurements for the Au/GaN/GaAs Schottky diode were found to be strongly dependent on the bias voltage and the frequency. The capacitance curves depict an anomalous peak and a negative capacitance phenomenon, indicating the presence of continuous interface state density behavior. A numerical drift-diffusion model based on the Scharfetter-Gummel algorithm was elaborated to solve a system composed of the Poisson and continuities equations. In this model, we take into account the continuous interface state density, and we have considered exponential and Gaussian distributions of trap states in the band gap. The effects of the GaAs doping concentration and the trap state density are discussed. We deduce the shape and values of the trap states, then we validate the developed model by fitting the computed C-V curves with experimental measurements at low frequency.

  7. GaAs nanowire array solar cells with axial p-i-n junctions.

    PubMed

    Yao, Maoqing; Huang, Ningfeng; Cong, Sen; Chi, Chun-Yung; Seyedi, M Ashkan; Lin, Yen-Ting; Cao, Yu; Povinelli, Michelle L; Dapkus, P Daniel; Zhou, Chongwu

    2014-06-11

    Because of unique structural, optical, and electrical properties, solar cells based on semiconductor nanowires are a rapidly evolving scientific enterprise. Various approaches employing III-V nanowires have emerged, among which GaAs, especially, is under intense research and development. Most reported GaAs nanowire solar cells form p-n junctions in the radial direction; however, nanowires using axial junction may enable the attainment of high open circuit voltage (Voc) and integration into multijunction solar cells. Here, we report GaAs nanowire solar cells with axial p-i-n junctions that achieve 7.58% efficiency. Simulations show that axial junctions are more tolerant to doping variation than radial junctions and lead to higher Voc under certain conditions. We further study the effect of wire diameter and junction depth using electrical characterization and cathodoluminescence. The results show that large diameter and shallow junctions are essential for a high extraction efficiency. Our approach opens up great opportunity for future low-cost, high-efficiency photovoltaics.

  8. Detecting Fermi-level shifts by Auger electron spectroscopy in Si and GaAs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Debehets, J.; Homm, P.; Menghini, M.; Chambers, S. A.; Marchiori, C.; Heyns, M.; Locquet, J. P.; Seo, J. W.

    2018-05-01

    In this paper, changes in surface Fermi-level of Si and GaAs, caused by doping and cleaning, are investigated by Auger electron spectroscopy. Based on the Auger voltage contrast, we compared the Auger transition peak energy but with higher accuracy by using a more accurate analyzer and an improved peak position determination method. For silicon, a peak shift as large as 0.46 eV was detected when comparing a cleaned p-type and n-type wafer, which corresponds rather well with the theoretical difference in Fermi-levels. If no cleaning was applied, the peak position did not differ significantly for both wafer types, indicating Fermi-level pinning in the band gap. For GaAs, peak shifts were detected after cleaning with HF and (NH4)2S-solutions in an inert atmosphere (N2-gas). Although the (NH4)2S-cleaning in N2 is very efficient in removing the oxygen from the surface, the observed Ga- and As-peak shifts are smaller than those obtained after the HF-cleaning. It is shown that the magnitude of the shift is related to the surface composition. After Si-deposition on the (NH4)2S-cleaned surface, the Fermi-level shifts back to a similar position as observed for an as-received wafer, indicating that this combination is not successful in unpinning the Fermi-level of GaAs.

  9. GaAs CLEFT solar cells for space applications. [CVD thin film growth technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fan, J. C. C.; Mcclelland, R. W.; King, B. D.

    1984-01-01

    Although GaAs solar cells are radiation-resistant and have high conversion efficiencies, there are two major obstacles that such cells must overcome before they can be widely adopted for space applications: GaAs wafers are too expensive and cells made from these wafers are too heavy. The CLEFT process permits the growth of thin single-crystal films on reusable substrates, resulting in a drastic reduction in both cell cost and cell weight. Recent advances in CLEFT technology have made it possible to achieve efficiencies of about 14 percent AM0 for 0.51-sq cm GaAs solar cells 5 microns thick with a 41-mil-thick coverglass. In preliminary experiments efficiencies close to 19 percent AM1 have been obtained for 10-micron-thick cells. It is suggested that the CLEFT technology should yield inexpensive, highly efficient modules with a beginning-of-life specific power close to 1 kW/kg (for a coverglass thickness of 4 mils).

  10. Analysis of twin defects in GaAs(111)B molecular beam epitaxy growth

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Yeonjoon; Cich, Michael J.; Zhao, Rian

    2000-05-01

    The formation of twin is common during GaAs(111) and GaN(0001) molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) metalorganic chemical vapor deposition growth. A stacking fault in the zinc-blende (ZB)(111) direction can be described as an insertion of one monolayer of wurtzite structure, sandwiched between two ZB structures that have been rotated 60 degree sign along the growth direction. GaAs(111)A/B MBE growth within typical growth temperature regimes is complicated by the formation of pyramidal structures and 60 degree sign rotated twins, which are caused by faceting and stacking fault formation. Although previous studies have revealed much about the structure of these twins, a well-establishedmore » simple nondestructive characterization method which allows the measurement of total aerial density of the twins does not exist at present. In this article, the twin density of AlGaAs layers grown on 1 degree sign miscut GaAs(111)B substrates has been measured using high resolution x-ray diffraction, and characterized with a combination of Nomarski microscopy, atomic force microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. These comparisons permit the relationship between the aerial twin density and the growth condition to be determined quantitatively. (c) 2000 American Vacuum Society.« less

  11. Image quality of a pixellated GaAs X-ray detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, G. C.; Makham, S.; Bourgoin, J. C.; Mauger, A.

    2007-02-01

    X-ray detection requires materials with large atomic numbers Z in order to absorb the radiation efficiently. In case of X-ray imaging, fluorescence is a limiting factor for the spatial resolution and contrast at energies above the kα threshold. Since both the energy and yield of the fluorescence of a given material increase with the atomic number, there is an optimum value of Z. GaAs, which can now be epitaxially grown as self-supported thick layers to fulfil the requirements for imaging (good homogeneity of the electronic properties) corresponds to this optimum. Image performances obtained with this material are evaluated in terms of line spread function and modulation transfer function, and a comparison with CsI is made. We evaluate the image contrast obtained for a given object contrast with GaAs and CsI detectors, in the photon energy range of medical applications. Finally, we discuss the minimum object size, which can be detected by these detectors in of mammography conditions. This demonstrates that an object of a given size can be detected using a GaAs detector with a dose at least 100 times lower than using a CsI detector.

  12. Displacement damage and predicted non-ionizing energy loss in GaAs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Fei; Chen, Nanjun; Hernandez-Rivera, Efrain; Huang, Danhong; LeVan, Paul D.

    2017-03-01

    Large-scale molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, along with bond-order interatomic potentials, have been applied to study the defect production for lattice atom recoil energies from 500 eV to 20 keV in gallium arsenide (GaAs). At low energies, the most surviving defects are single interstitials and vacancies, and only 20% of the interstitial population is contained in clusters. However, a direct-impact amorphization in GaAs occurs with a high degree of probability during the cascade lifetime for Ga PKAs (primary knock-on atoms) with energies larger than 2 keV. The results reveal a non-linear defect production that increases with the PKA energy. The damage density within a cascade core is evaluated, and used to develop a model that describes a new energy partition function. Based on the MD results, we have developed a model to determine the non-ionizing energy loss (NIEL) in GaAs, which can be used to predict the displacement damage degradation induced by space radiation on electronic components. The calculated NIEL predictions are compared with the available data, thus validating the NIEL model developed in this study.

  13. Periodic Two-Dimensional GaAs and InGaAs Quantum Rings Grown on GaAs (001) by Droplet Epitaxy.

    PubMed

    Tung, Kar Hoo Patrick; Huang, Jian; Danner, Aaron

    2016-06-01

    Growth of ordered GaAs and InGaAs quantum rings (QRs) in a patterned SiO2 nanohole template by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) using droplet epitaxy (DE) process is demonstrated. DE is an MBE growth technique used to fabricate quantum nanostructures of high crystal quality by supplying group III and group V elements in separate phases. In this work, ordered QRs grown on an ordered nanohole template are compared to self-assembled QRs grown with the same DE technique without the nanohole template. This study allows us to understand and compare the surface kinetics of Ga and InGa droplets when a template is present. It is found that template-grown GaAs QRs form clustered rings which can be attributed to low mobility of Ga droplets resulting in multiple nucleation sites for QR formation when As is supplied. However, the case of template-grown InGaAs QRs only one ring is formed per nanohole; no clustering is observed. The outer QR diameter is a close match to the nanohole template diameter. This can be attributed to more mobile InGa droplets, which coalesce from an Ostwald ripening to form a single large droplet before As is supplied. Thus, well-patterned InGaAs QRs are demonstrated and the kinetics of their growth are better understood which could potentially lead to improvements in the future devices that require the unique properties of patterned QRs.

  14. Hybridized tetraquarks

    DOE PAGES

    Esposito, Angelo; Pilloni, Alessadro; Polosa, A. D.

    2016-05-12

    In this study, we propose a new interpretation of the neutral and charged X,Z exotic hadron resonances. Hybridized-tetraquarks are neither purely compact tetraquark states nor bound or loosely bound molecules. The latter would require a negative or zero binding energy whose counterpart in h-tetraquarks is a positive quantity. The formation mechanism of this new class of hadrons is inspired by that of Feshbach metastable states in atomic physics. The recent claim of an exotic resonance in the B 0 s π ± channel by the D0 collaboration and the negative result presented subsequently by the LHCb collaboration are understood inmore » this scheme, together with a considerable portion of available data on X, Z particles. Considerations on a state with the same quantum numbers as the X(5568) are also made.« less

  15. Chemical beam epitaxy of GaAs1-xNx using MMHy and DMHy precursors, modeled by ab initio study of GaAs(100) surfaces stability over As2, H2 and N2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valencia, Hubert; Kangawa, Yoshihiro; Kakimoto, Koichi

    2017-06-01

    Using ab initio calculations, a simple model for GaAs1-xNx vapor-phase epitaxy on (100) surface of GaAs was created. By studying As2 and H2 molecules adsorptions and As/N atom substitutions on (100) GaAs surfaces, we obtain a relative stability diagram of all stable surfaces under varying As2, H2, and N2 conditions. We previously proved that this model could describe the vapor-phase epitaxy of GaAs1-x Nx with simple, fully decomposed, precursors. In this paper, we show that in more complex reaction conditions using monomethylhydrazine (MMHy), and dimethylhydrazine (DMHy), it is still possible to use our model to obtain an accurate description of the temperature and pressure stability domains for each surfaces, linked to chemical beam epitaxy (CBE) growth conditions. Moreover, the different N-incorporation regimes observed experimentally at different temperature can be explain and predict by our model. The use of MMHy and DMHy precursors can also be rationalized. Our model should then help to better understand the conditions needed to obtain an high quality GaAs1-xNx using vapor-phase epitaxy.

  16. High Quality GaAs Growth by MBE on Si Using GeSi Buffers and Prospects for Space Photovoltaics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carlin, J. A.; Ringel, S. A.; Fitzgerald, E. A.; Bulsara, M.

    2005-01-01

    III-V solar cells on Si substrates are of interest for space photovoltaics since this would combine high performance space cells with a strong, lightweight and inexpensive substrate. However, the primary obstacles blocking III-V/Si cells from achieving high performance to date have been fundamental materials incompatabilities, namely the 4% lattice mismatch between GaAs and Si, and the large mismatch in thermal expansion coefficient. In this paper, we report on the molecular beam epitaxial (MBE) growth and properties of GaAs layers and single junction GaAs cells on Si wafers which utilize compositionally graded GeSi Intermediate buffers grown by ultra-high vacuum chemical vapor deposition (UHVCVD) to mitigate the large lattice mismatch between GaAs and Si. Ga As cell structures were found to incorporate a threading dislocation density of 0.9-1.5 x 10 (exp 6) per square centimeter, identical to the underlying relaxed Ge cap of the graded buffer, via a combination of transmission electron microscopy, electron beam induced current, and etch pit density measurements. AlGaAs/GaAs double heterostructures wre grown on the GeSi/Si substrates for time-resolved photoluminescence measurements, which revealed a bulk GaAs minority carrier lifetime in excess of 10 ns, the highest lifetime ever reported for GaAs on Si. A series of growth were performed to ass3ss the impact of a GaAs buffer to a thickness of only 0.1 micrometer. Secondary ion mass spectroscopy studies revealed that there is negligible cross diffusion of Ga, As and Ge at he III-V/Ge interface, identical to our earlier findings for GaAs grown on Ge wafers using MBE. This indicates that there is no need for a buffer to "bury" regions of high autodopjing,a nd that either pn or np configuration cells are easily accomodated by these substrates. Preliminary diodes and single junction Al Ga As heteroface cells were grown and fabricated on the Ge/GeSi/Si substrates for the first time. Diodes fabricated on GaAs, Ge and Ge

  17. In-situ ellipsometric studies of optical and surface properties of GaAs(100) at elevated temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yao, Huade; Snyder, Paul G.

    1991-01-01

    A rotating-polarizer ellipsometer was attached to an ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) chamber. A GaAs(100) sample was introduced into the UHV chamber and heated at anumber of fixed elevated temperatures, without arsenic overpressure. In-situ spectroscopic ellipsometric (SE) measurements were taken, through a pair of low-strain quartz windows, to monitor the surface changes and measure the pseudodielectric functions at elevated temperatures. Real-time data from GaAs surface covered with native oxide showed clearly the evolution of oxide desorption at approximately 580 C. In addition, surface degradation was found before and after the oxide desorption. An oxide free and smooth GaAs surface was obtained by depositing an arsenic protective coating onto a molecular beam epitaxy grown GaAs surface. The arsenic coating was evaporated immediately prior to SE measurements. A comparison showed that our room temperature data from this GaAs surface, measured in the UHV, are in good agreement with those in the literature obtained by wet-chemical etching. The surface also remained clean and smooth at higher temperatures, so that reliable temperature-dependent dielectric functions were obtained.

  18. Expanded GAA repeats impair FXN gene expression and reposition the FXN locus to the nuclear lamina in single cells.

    PubMed

    Silva, Ana M; Brown, Jill M; Buckle, Veronica J; Wade-Martins, Richard; Lufino, Michele M P

    2015-06-15

    Abnormally expanded DNA repeats are associated with several neurodegenerative diseases. In Friedreich's ataxia (FRDA), expanded GAA repeats in intron 1 of the frataxin gene (FXN) reduce FXN mRNA levels in averaged cell samples through a poorly understood mechanism. By visualizing FXN expression and nuclear localization in single cells, we show that GAA-expanded repeats decrease the number of FXN mRNA molecules, slow transcription, and increase FXN localization at the nuclear lamina (NL). Restoring histone acetylation reverses NL positioning. Expanded GAA-FXN loci in FRDA patient cells show increased NL localization with increased silencing of alleles and reduced transcription from alleles positioned peripherally. We also demonstrate inefficiencies in transcription initiation and elongation from the expanded GAA-FXN locus at single-cell resolution. We suggest that repressive epigenetic modifications at the expanded GAA-FXN locus may lead to NL relocation, where further repression may occur. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Theoretical and experimental study of highly textured GaAs on silicon using a graphene buffer layer

    SciTech Connect

    Alaskar, Yazeed; Arafin, Shamsul; Lin, Qiyin

    2015-09-01

    A novel heteroepitaxial growth technique, quasi-van der Waals epitaxy, promises the ability to deposit three-dimensional GaAs materials on silicon using two-dimensional graphene as a buffer layer by overcoming the lattice and thermal expansion mismatch. In this study, density functional theory (DFT) simulations were performed to understand the interactions at the GaAs/graphene hetero-interface as well as the growth orientations of GaAs on graphene. To develop a better understanding of the molecular beam epitaxy-grown GaAs films on graphene, samples were characterized by x-ray diffraction (..theta..-2..theta.. scan, ..omega..-scan, grazing incidence XRD and pole figure measurement) and transmission electron microscopy. The realizations of smoothmore » GaAs films with a strong (111) oriented fiber-texture on graphene/silicon using this deposition technique are a milestone towards an eventual demonstration of the epitaxial growth of GaAs on silicon, which is necessary for integrated photonics application.« less

  20. Structural and optical characterization of GaAs nano-crystals selectively grown on Si nano-tips by MOVPE.

    PubMed

    Skibitzki, Oliver; Prieto, Ivan; Kozak, Roksolana; Capellini, Giovanni; Zaumseil, Peter; Arroyo Rojas Dasilva, Yadira; Rossell, Marta D; Erni, Rolf; von Känel, Hans; Schroeder, Thomas

    2017-03-01

    We present the nanoheteroepitaxial growth of gallium arsenide (GaAs) on nano-patterned silicon (Si) (001) substrates fabricated using a CMOS technology compatible process. The selective growth of GaAs nano-crystals (NCs) was achieved at 570 °C by MOVPE. A detailed structure and defect characterization study of the grown nano-heterostructures was performed using scanning transmission electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction, micro-Raman, and micro-photoluminescence (μ-PL) spectroscopy. The results show single-crystalline, nearly relaxed GaAs NCs on top of slightly, by the SiO 2 -mask compressively strained Si nano-tips (NTs). Given the limited contact area, GaAs/Si nanostructures benefit from limited intermixing in contrast to planar GaAs films on Si. Even though a few growth defects (e.g. stacking faults, micro/nano-twins, etc) especially located at the GaAs/Si interface region were detected, the nanoheterostructures show intensive light emission, as investigated by μ-PL spectroscopy. Achieving well-ordered high quality GaAs NCs on Si NTs may provide opportunities for superior electronic, photonic, or photovoltaic device performances integrated on the silicon technology platform.

  1. Photoelectron and Auger electron diffraction studies of a sulfur-terminated GaAs(001)-(2×6) surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimoda, M.; Tsukamoto, S.; Koguchi, N.

    1998-01-01

    Core-level X-ray photoelectron diffraction (XPD) and Auger electron diffraction (AED) have been applied to investigate the sulfur-terminated GaAs(001)-(2×6) surface. No forward scattering peaks were found in the XPD pattern of S 2s emission, indicating that adsorbed S atoms form a single layer on the GaAs substrate. In accordance with the zincblende structure of GaAs, the AED patterns of Ga L 3M 45M 45 and As L 3M 45M 45 emission almost coincide with each other, if one of the emissions is rotated by 90° around the [001] direction. This fact suggests that the diffraction patterns mainly reflect the structure of the bulk GaAs crystal. In order to investigate the surface structure, AED patterns in large polar angles were analyzed with single scattering cluster (SSC) calculations. The best result was obtained with a model cluster where the S-S bond length was set at 0.28 nm, 30% shorter than the corresponding length of the ideal (1×1) structure, and the adsorption height was set at 0.12-0.13 nm, 10% shorter than the ideal interlayer distance of GaAs(001) planes. These values are in good agreement with the results of STM measurements. A modulation of the inter-dimer distance was also found, suggesting the existence of missing dimers.

  2. ZnSe Window Layers for GaAs and GaInP2 Solar Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olsen, Larry C.

    1997-01-01

    This report concerns studies of the use of n-type ZnSe as a window layer for n/p GaAs and GaInP2 solar cells. Emphasis was placed in this phase of the project on characterizing the interface between n-type ZnSe films grown on epi-GaAs films grown onto single crystal GaAs. Epi-GaAs and heteroepitaxial ZnSe films were grown by MOCVD with a Spire 50OXT Reactor. After growing epitaxial GaAs films on single crystal GaAs wafers, well-oriented crystalline ZnSe films were grown by MOCVD. ZnSe films were grown with substrate temperatures ranging from 250 C to 450 C. Photoluminescence studies carried out by researchers at NASA Lewis determined that the surface recombination velocity at a GaAs surface was significantly reduced after the deposition of a heteroepitaxial layer of ZnSe. The optimum temperature for ZnSe deposition appears to be on the order of 350 C.

  3. Manipulation of morphology and structure of the top of GaAs nanowires grown by molecular-beam epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Lixia; Pan, Dong; Yu, Xuezhe; So, Hyok; Zhao, Jianhua

    2017-10-01

    Self-catalyzed GaAs nanowires (NWs) are grown on Si (111) substrates by molecular-beam epitaxy. The effect of different closing sequences of the Ga and As cell shutters on the morphology and structural phase of GaAs NWs is investigated. For the sequences of closing the Ga and As cell shutters simultaneously or closing the As cell shutter 1 min after closing the Ga cell shutter, the NWs grow vertically to the substrate surface. In contrast, when the As cell shutter is closed first, maintaining the Ga flux is found to be critical for the following growth of GaAs NWs, which can change the growth direction from [111] to < 11\\bar{1}> . The evolution of the morphology and structural phase transition at the tips of these GaAs NWs confirm that the triple-phase-line shift mode is at work even for the growth with different cell shutter closing sequences. Our work will provide new insights for better understanding of the growth mechanism and realizing of the morphology and structure control of the GaAs NWs. Project supported partly by the MOST of China (No. 2015CB921503), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 61504133, 61334006, 61404127), and Youth Innovation Promotion Association, CAS (No. 2017156).

  4. Reflection high energy electron diffraction study of nitrogen plasma interactions with a GaAs (100) surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hauenstein, R. J.; Collins, D. A.; Cai, X. P.; O'Steen, M. L.; McGill, T. C.

    1995-05-01

    Effect of a nitrogen electron-cyclotron-resonance (ECR) microwave plasma on near-surface composition, crystal structure, and morphology of the As-stabilized GaAs (100) surface is investigated with the use of digitally image-processed in situ reflection high energy electron diffraction. Nitridation is performed on molecular beam epitaxially (MBE) grown GaAs surfaces near 600 °C under typical conditions for ECR microwave plasma-assisted MBE growth of GaN films on GaAs. Brief plasma exposures (≊3-5 s) are shown to result in a specular, coherently strained, relatively stable, GaN film approximately one monolayer in thickness, which can be commensurately overgrown with GaAs while longer exposures (up to 1 min) result in incommensurate zincblende epitaxial GaN island structures. Specular and nonspecular film formations are explained in terms of N-for-As surface and subsurface anion exchange reactions, respectively. Commensurate growth of ultrathin buried GaN layers in GaAs is achieved.

  5. Hybrid mimics and hybrid vigor in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Li; Greaves, Ian K.; Groszmann, Michael; Wu, Li Min; Dennis, Elizabeth S.; Peacock, W. James

    2015-01-01

    F1 hybrids can outperform their parents in yield and vegetative biomass, features of hybrid vigor that form the basis of the hybrid seed industry. The yield advantage of the F1 is lost in the F2 and subsequent generations. In Arabidopsis, from F2 plants that have a F1-like phenotype, we have by recurrent selection produced pure breeding F5/F6 lines, hybrid mimics, in which the characteristics of the F1 hybrid are stabilized. These hybrid mimic lines, like the F1 hybrid, have larger leaves than the parent plant, and the leaves have increased photosynthetic cell numbers, and in some lines, increased size of cells, suggesting an increased supply of photosynthate. A comparison of the differentially expressed genes in the F1 hybrid with those of eight hybrid mimic lines identified metabolic pathways altered in both; these pathways include down-regulation of defense response pathways and altered abiotic response pathways. F6 hybrid mimic lines are mostly homozygous at each locus in the genome and yet retain the large F1-like phenotype. Many alleles in the F6 plants, when they are homozygous, have expression levels different to the level in the parent. We consider this altered expression to be a consequence of transregulation of genes from one parent by genes from the other parent. Transregulation could also arise from epigenetic modifications in the F1. The pure breeding hybrid mimics have been valuable in probing the mechanisms of hybrid vigor and may also prove to be useful hybrid vigor equivalents in agriculture. PMID:26283378

  6. Room temperature lasing of GaAs quantum wire vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers grown on (7 7 5) B GaAs substrates by molecular beam epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Higuchi, Y.; Osaki, S.; Kitada, T.; Shimomura, S.; Takasuka, Y.; Ogura, M.; Hiyamizu, S.

    2006-06-01

    Self-organized GaAs/(GaAs) 4(AlAs) 2 quantum wires (QWRs) grown on (7 7 5) B-oriented GaAs substrates by molecular beam epitaxy have been applied to an active region of vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs). The (7 7 5) B GaAs QWR-VCSEL with an aperture diameter of 3 μm lased at a wavelength of 765 nm with a threshold current of 0.38 mA at room temperature. This is the first demonstration of laser operation of the QWR-VCSEL by current injection. The light output was linearly polarized in the direction parallel to the QWRs due to the optical anisotropy of the self-organized (7 7 5) B GaAs QWRs.

  7. Terahertz-radiation generation and detection in low-temperature-grown GaAs epitaxial films on GaAs (100) and (111)A substrates

    SciTech Connect

    Galiev, G. B.; Pushkarev, S. S., E-mail: s-s-e-r-p@mail.ru; Buriakov, A. M.

    The efficiency of the generation and detection of terahertz radiation in the range up to 3 THz by LT-GaAs films containing equidistant Si doping δ layers and grown by molecular beam epitaxy on GaAs (100) and (111)Ga substrates is studied by terahertz spectroscopy. Microstrip photoconductive antennas are fabricated on the film surface. Terahertz radiation is generated by exposure of the antenna gap to femtosecond optical laser pulses. It is shown that the intensity of terahertz radiation from the photoconductive antenna on LT-GaAs/GaAs (111)Ga is twice as large as the intensity of a similar antenna on LT-GaAs/GaAs(100) and the sensitivity ofmore » the antenna on LT-GaAs/GaAs (111)Ga as a terahertz-radiation detector exceeds that of the antenna on LT-GaAs/GaAs(100) by a factor of 1.4.« less

  8. Capacitive coupling in hybrid graphene/GaAs nanostructures

    SciTech Connect

    Simonet, Pauline, E-mail: psimonet@phys.ethz.ch; Rössler, Clemens; Krähenmann, Tobias

    2015-07-13

    Coupled hybrid nanostructures are demonstrated using the combination of lithographically patterned graphene on top of a two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) buried in a GaAs/AlGaAs heterostructure. The graphene forms Schottky barriers at the surface of the heterostructure and therefore allows tuning the electronic density of the 2DEG. Conversely, the 2DEG potential can tune the graphene Fermi energy. Graphene-defined quantum point contacts in the 2DEG show half-plateaus of quantized conductance in finite bias spectroscopy and display the 0.7 anomaly for a large range of densities in the constriction, testifying to their good electronic properties. Finally, we demonstrate that the GaAs nanostructure canmore » detect charges in the vicinity of the heterostructure's surface. This confirms the strong coupling of the hybrid device: localized states in the graphene ribbon could, in principle, be probed by the underlying confined channel. The present hybrid graphene/GaAs nanostructures are promising for the investigation of strong interactions and coherent coupling between the two fundamentally different materials.« less

  9. Fabrication of GaAs symmetric pyramidal mesas prepared by wet-chemical etching using AlAs interlayer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kicin, S.; Cambel, V.; Kuliffayová, M.; Gregušová, D.; Kováčová, E.; Novák, J.; Kostič, I.; Förster, A.

    2002-01-01

    We present a wet-chemical-etching method developed for the preparation of GaAs four-sided pyramid-shaped mesas. The method uses a fast lateral etching of AlAs interlayer that influences the cross-sectional profiles of etched structures. We have tested the method using H3PO4:H2O2:H2O etchant for the (100) GaAs patterning. The sidewalls of the prepared pyramidal structures together with the (100) bottom facet formed the cross-sectional angles 25° and 42° for mask edges parallel, resp. perpendicular to {011} cleavage planes. For mask edges turned in 45° according to the cleavage planes, 42° cross-sectional angles were obtained. Using the method, symmetric and more than 10-μm-high GaAs "Egyptian" pyramids with smooth tilted facets were prepared.

  10. Quantum-confinement effects on conduction band structure of rectangular cross-sectional GaAs nanowires

    SciTech Connect

    Tanaka, H., E-mail: tanaka@semicon.kuee.kyoto-u.ac.jp; Morioka, N.; Mori, S.

    2014-02-07

    The conduction band structure and electron effective mass of GaAs nanowires with various cross-sectional shapes and orientations were calculated by two methods, a tight-binding method and an effective mass equation taking the bulk full-band structure into account. The effective mass of nanowires increases as the cross-sectional size decreases, and this increase in effective mass depends on the orientations and substrate faces of nanowires. Among [001], [110], and [111]-oriented rectangular cross-sectional GaAs nanowires, [110]-oriented nanowires with wider width along the [001] direction showed the lightest effective mass. This dependence originates from the anisotropy of the Γ valley of bulk GaAs. Themore » relationship between effective mass and bulk band structure is discussed.« less

  11. Growth of GaAs from a free surface melt under controlled arsenic pressure in a partially confined configuration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gatos, H. C.; Lagowski, J.; Wu, Y.

    1988-01-01

    A partially confined configuration for the growth of GaAs from melt in space was developed, consisting of a triangular prism containing the seed crystal and source material in the form of a rod. It is suggested that the configuration overcomes two obstacles in the growth of GaAs in space: total confinement in a quartz crucible and lack of arsenic pressure control. Ground tests of the configuration show that it is capable of crystal growth in space and is useful for studying the growth of GaAs from a free-surface melt on earth. The resulting chemical composition, electrical property variations, and phenomenological models to account for the results are presented.

  12. Investigation of the fabrication mechanism of self-assembled GaAs quantum rings grown by droplet epitaxy.

    PubMed

    Tong, C Z; Yoon, S F

    2008-09-10

    We have directly imaged the formation of a GaAs quantum ring (QR) using droplet epitaxy followed by annealing in arsenic ambient. Based on the atomic force micrograph measurement and the analysis of surface energy, we determine that the formation of self-assembled GaAs QRs is due to the gallium atom's diffusion and crystallization driven by the gradient of surface energy. The phenomenon that GaAs is etched by the gallium droplets is reported and analyzed. It has been demonstrated that the epitaxy layers, such as AlAs and InGaP, can be used as the etching stop layer and hence can be used to control the shape and height of the QRs.

  13. GaAs and 3-5 compound solar cells status and prospects for use in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flood, D. J.; Brinker, D. J.

    1984-01-01

    Gallium arsenide solar cells equal or supass the best silicon solar cells in efficiency, radiation resistance, annealability, and in the capability to produce usable power output at elevated temperatures. NASA has been involved in a long range research and development program to capitalize on these manifold advantages, and to explore alternative III-V compounds for additional potential improvements. The current status and future prospects for research and development in this area are reviewed and the progress being made toward development of GaAs cells suitable for variety of space missions is discussed. Cell types under various stages of development include n(+)/p shallow homojunction thin film GaAs cells, x100 concentration ratio p/n and n/p GaAs small area concentrator cells, mechanically-stacked, two-junction tandem cells, and three-junction monolithic cascade cells, among various other cell types.

  14. Structural and optical properties of GaAs(100) with a thin surface layer doped with chromium

    SciTech Connect

    Seredin, P. V., E-mail: paul@phys.vsu.ru; Fedyukin, A. V.; Arsentyev, I. N.

    The aim of this study is to explore the structural and optical properties of single-crystal GaAs(100) doped with Cr atoms by burning them into the substrate at high temperatures. The diffusion of chromium into single-crystal GaAs(100) substrates brings about the formation of a thin (~20–40 μm) GaAs:Cr transition layer. In this case, chromium atoms are incorporated into the gallium-arsenide crystal lattice and occupy the regular atomic sites of the metal sublattice. As the chromium diffusion time is increased, such behavior of the dopant impurity yields changes in the energy structure of GaAs, a decrease in the absorption at free chargemore » carriers, and a lowering of the surface recombination rate. As a result, the photoluminescence signal from the sample is significantly enhanced.« less

  15. Interface states and internal photoemission in p-type GaAs metal-oxide-semiconductor surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kashkarov, P. K.; Kazior, T. E.; Lagowski, J.; Gatos, H. C.

    1983-01-01

    An interface photodischarge study of p-type GaAs metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) structures revealed the presence of deep interface states and shallow donors and acceptors which were previously observed in n-type GaAs MOS through sub-band-gap photoionization transitions. For higher photon energies, internal photoemission was observed, i.e., injection of electrons to the conduction band of the oxide from either the metal (Au) or from the GaAs valence band; the threshold energies were found to be 3.25 and 3.7 + or - 0.1 eV, respectively. The measured photoemission current exhibited a thermal activation energy of about 0.06 eV, which is consistent with a hopping mechanism of electron transport in the oxide.

  16. EBIC spectroscopy - A new approach to microscale characterization of deep levels in semi-insulating GaAs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, C.-J.; Sun, Q.; Lagowski, J.; Gatos, H. C.

    1985-01-01

    The microscale characterization of electronic defects in (SI) GaAs has been a challenging issue in connection with materials problems encountered in GaAs IC technology. The main obstacle which limits the applicability of high resolution electron beam methods such as Electron Beam-Induced Current (EBIC) and cathodoluminescence (CL) is the low concentration of free carriers in semiinsulating (SI) GaAs. The present paper provides a new photo-EBIC characterization approach which combines the spectroscopic advantages of optical methods with the high spatial resolution and scanning capability of EBIC. A scanning electron microscope modified for electronic characterization studies is shown schematically. The instrument can operate in the standard SEM mode, in the EBIC modes (including photo-EBIC and thermally stimulated EBIC /TS-EBIC/), and in the cathodo-luminescence (CL) and scanning modes. Attention is given to the use of CL, Photo-EBIC, and TS-EBIC techniques.

  17. Gettering of donor impurities by V in GaAs and the growth of semi-insulating crystals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ko, K. Y.; Lagowski, J.; Gatos, H. C.

    1989-01-01

    Vanadium added to the GaAs melt getters shallow donor impurities (Si and S) and decreases their concentration in the grown crystals. This gettering is driven by chemical reactions in the melt rather than in the solid. Employing V gettering, reproducibly semi-insulating GaAs were grown by horizontal Bridgman and liquid-encapsulated Czochralski techniques, although V did not introduce any midgap energy levels. The compensation mechanism in these crystals was controlled by the balance between the native midgap donor EL2 and residual shallow acceptors. Vanadium gettering contributed to the reduction of the concentration of shallow donors below the concentration of acceptors. The present findings clarify the long-standing controversy on the role of V in achieving semi-insulating GaAs.

  18. Focusing effect of bent GaAs crystals for γ-ray Laue lenses: Monte Carlo and experimental results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Virgilli, E.; Frontera, F.; Rosati, P.; Bonnini, E.; Buffagni, E.; Ferrari, C.; Stephen, J. B.; Caroli, E.; Auricchio, N.; Basili, A.; Silvestri, S.

    2016-02-01

    We report on results of observation of the focusing effect from the planes (220) of Gallium Arsenide (GaAs) crystals. We have compared the experimental results with the Monte Carlo simulations of the focusing capability of GaAs tiles performed with a dedicated ray-tracer. The GaAs tiles were bent using a lapping process developed at the cnr/imem - Parma (Italy) in the framework of the laue project, funded by ASI, dedicated to build a broad band Laue lens prototype for astrophysical applications in the hard X-/soft γ-ray energy range (80-600 keV). We present and discuss the results obtained from their characterization, mainly in terms of focusing capability. Bent crystals will significantly increase the signal to noise ratio of a telescope based on a Laue lens, consequently leading to an unprecedented enhancement of sensitivity with respect to the present non focusing instrumentation.

  19. Crystal Orientation Controlled Photovoltaic Properties of Multilayer GaAs Nanowire Arrays.

    PubMed

    Han, Ning; Yang, Zai-Xing; Wang, Fengyun; Yip, SenPo; Li, Dapan; Hung, Tak Fu; Chen, Yunfa; Ho, Johnny C

    2016-06-28

    In recent years, despite significant progress in the synthesis, characterization, and integration of various nanowire (NW) material systems, crystal orientation controlled NW growth as well as real-time assessment of their growth-structure-property relationships still presents one of the major challenges in deploying NWs for practical large-scale applications. In this study, we propose, design, and develop a multilayer NW printing scheme for the determination of crystal orientation controlled photovoltaic properties of parallel GaAs NW arrays. By tuning the catalyst thickness and nucleation and growth temperatures in the two-step chemical vapor deposition, crystalline GaAs NWs with uniform, pure ⟨110⟩ and ⟨111⟩ orientations and other mixture ratios can be successfully prepared. Employing lift-off resists, three-layer NW parallel arrays can be easily attained for X-ray diffraction in order to evaluate their growth orientation along with the fabrication of NW parallel array based Schottky photovoltaic devices for the subsequent performance assessment. Notably, the open-circuit voltage of purely ⟨111⟩-oriented NW arrayed cells is far higher than that of ⟨110⟩-oriented NW arrayed counterparts, which can be interpreted by the different surface Fermi level pinning that exists on various NW crystal surface planes due to the different As dangling bond densities. All this indicates the profound effect of NW crystal orientation on physical and chemical properties of GaAs NWs, suggesting the careful NW design considerations for achieving optimal photovoltaic performances. The approach presented here could also serve as a versatile and powerful platform for in situ characterization of other NW materials.

  20. Electrical properties of spin coated ultrathin titanium oxide films on GaAs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dutta, Shankar; Pal, Ramjay; Chatterjee, Ratnamala

    2015-04-01

    In recent years, ultrathin (<50 nm) metal oxide films have been being extensively studied as high-k dielectrics for future metal oxide semiconductor (MOS) technology. This paper discusses deposition of ultrathin TiO2 films (˜10 nm) on GaAs substrates (one sulfur-passivated, another unpassivated) by spin coating technique. The sulfur passivation is done to reduce the surface states of GaAs substrate. After annealing at 400 °C in a nitrogen environment, the TiO2 films are found to be polycrystalline in nature with rutile phase. The TiO2 films exhibit consistent grain size of 10-20 nm with thickness around 10-12 nm. Dielectric constants of the films are found to be 65.4 and 47.1 corresponding to S-passivated and unpassivated substrates, respectively. Corresponding threshold voltages of the MOS structures are measured to be -0.1 V to -0.3 V for the S-passivated and unpassivated samples, respectively. The S-passivated TiO2 film showed improved (lower) leakage current density (5.3 × 10-4 A cm-2 at 3 V) compared to the unpassivated film (1.8 × 10-3 A/cm2 at 3 V). Dielectric breakdown-field of the TiO2 films on S-passivated and unpassivated GaAs samples are found to be 8.4 MV cm-1 and 7.2 MV cm-1 respectively.

  1. Structural modifications of silicon-implanted GaAs induced by the athermal annealing technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qadri, S. B.; Yousuf, M.; Kendziora, C. A.; Nachumi, B.; Fischer, R.; Grun, J.; Rao, M. V.; Tucker, J.; Siddiqui, S.; Ridgway, M. C.

    2004-12-01

    We have used high-resolution X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy to investigate structural modifications inside and outside the focal region of Si-implanted GaAs samples that have been irradiated at high power by a focused short-pulse laser. Si atoms implanted into the GaAs matrix generate exciton-induced local lattice expansion, resulting in a satellite on the lower-angle side of the Bragg peak. After the laser pulse irradiation, surface features inside and outside the focal spot suggest the presence of Bernard convection cells, indicating that a rapid melting and re-crystallization has taken place. Moreover, the laser irradiation induces a compressive strain inside the focal spot, since the satellite appears on the higher-angle side of the Bragg peak. The stress maximizes at the center of the focal spot and extends far outside the irradiated area (approximately 2.5-mm away from the bull’s eye), suggesting the propagation of a laser-induced mechanical wave. The maximum compressive stress inside the focal spot corresponds to 2.7 GPa. Raman spectra inside the focal spot resemble that of pristine GaAs, indicating that rapid melting has introduced significant heterogeneity, with zones of high and low Si concentration. X-ray measurements indicate that areas inside the focal spot and annealed areas outside of the focal spot contain overtones of a minor tetragonal distortion of the lattice, consistent with the observed relaxation of Raman selection rules when compared with the parent zinc-blende structure.

  2. Time-resolved photoluminescence characterization of GaAs nanowire arrays on native substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dagytė, Vilgailė; Barrigón, Enrique; Zhang, Wei; Zeng, Xulu; Heurlin, Magnus; Otnes, Gaute; Anttu, Nicklas; Borgström, Magnus T.

    2017-12-01

    Time-resolved photoluminescence (TRPL) measurements of nanowires (NWs) are often carried out on broken-off NWs in order to avoid the ensemble effects as well as substrate contribution. However, the development of NW-array solar cells could benefit from non-destructive optical characterization to allow faster feedback and further device processing. With this work, we show that different NW array and substrate spectral behaviors with delay time and excitation power can be used to determine which part of the sample dominates the detected spectrum. Here, we evaluate TRPL characterization of dense periodic as-grown GaAs NW arrays on a p-type GaAs substrate, including a sample with uncapped GaAs NWs and several samples passivated with AlGaAs radial shell of varied composition and thickness. We observe a strong spectral overlap of substrate and NW signals and find that the NWs can absorb part of the substrate luminescence signal, thus resulting in a modified substrate signal. The level of absorption depends on the NW-array geometry, making a deconvolution of the NW signal very difficult. By studying TRPL of substrate-only and as-grown NWs at 770 and 400 nm excitation wavelengths, we find a difference in spectral behavior with delay time and excitation power that can be used to assess whether the signal is dominated by the NWs. We find that the NW signal dominates with 400 nm excitation wavelength, where we observe two different types of excitation power dependence for the NWs capped with high and low Al composition shells. Finally, from the excitation power dependence of the peak TRPL signal, we extract an estimate of background carrier concentration in the NWs.

  3. Space qualification of IR-reflecting coverslides for GaAs solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meulenberg, Andrew

    1995-01-01

    Improvements to GaAs solar array performance, from the use on solar cell coverslides of several reflecting coatings that reject unusable portions of the solar spectrum, are quantified. Blue-red-rejection (BRR) coverslides provide both infrared reflection (IRR) and ultraviolet rejection (UVR). BRR coverslides were compared to conventional antireflection (AR) and ultraviolet (UV) coated coverslides. A 2% improvement in peak-power output, relative to that from Ar-coated coverslides, is seen for cells utilizing BRR coverslides with the widest bandpass. Coverslide BRR-filter bandpass width and covered-solar-cell short-circuit current is a function of incident light angle and the observed narrower-bandpass filters are more sensitive to change in angle from the normal than are wide-bandpass filters. The first long-term (3000 hours) UV testing of unirradiated and 1 MeV electron-irradiated GaAs solar cells, with multilayer-coated coverslides to reduce solar array operating temperature, has indicated that all multilayer coatings on coverslides and solar cells will experience degradation from the space environment (UV and/or electrons). Five types of coverslide coatings, designed for GaAs solar cells, were tested as part of a NASA-sponsored space-flight qualification for BRR, multi-layer-coated, coverslides. The reponse to the different radiations varied with the coatings. The extent of degradation and its consequences on the solar cell electrical characteristics depend upon the coatings and the radiation. In some cases, an improved optical coupling was observed during long-term UV exposure to the optical stack. The benefits of multi-layered solar cell optics may depend upon both the duration and the radiation environment of a mission.

  4. Structural Study of GaAs(001):In 4×2 Surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, T.-L.; Zegenhagen, J.; Lyman, P. F.; Bedzyk, M. J.

    1997-03-01

    In a STM and LEED investigation (U. Resch-Esser et al., JVST B 13, 1672 (1995)), the indium-terminated GaAs(001) surface exhibited a (4×2) reconstruction. Based on this study, a dimer model, similar to that proposed by Biegelsen et al. (PRB 41, 5701(1990)) for the (4×2) clean surface, was proposed. However, the detailed local structure of the In ad-atoms was not resolvable from the STM image. In this work, we applied in situ x-ray standing wave (XSW) measurements to determine the surface structure of the GaAs(001) upon the adsorption of In at low coverages. The (4×2)/c(8×2) In-terminated GaAs(001) surface (Θ_In = 0.2 ML) was prepared by MBE. The (004) XSW measurement showed that the In ad-atoms were located 1.61 Åabove the (004) diffraction planes. At higher In coverages (up to 0.6 ML) the In (004) coherent fraction was small. This is consistent with the ladder-type pattern observed by STM at Θ_In > 0.5 ML, which indicated that there were two coexisting surface structures. For Θ_In = 0.2 ML, we found that our off-normal XSW measurements did not agree with the model proposed by Resch-Esser et al.. This work is sponsored by DOE-BES No. W-31-109-ENG-38 and by NSF No. DMR-9632472.

  5. GAA repeat expansion mutation mouse models of Friedreich ataxia exhibit oxidative stress leading to progressive neuronal and cardiac pathology.

    PubMed

    Al-Mahdawi, Sahar; Pinto, Ricardo Mouro; Varshney, Dhaval; Lawrence, Lorraine; Lowrie, Margaret B; Hughes, Sian; Webster, Zoe; Blake, Julian; Cooper, J Mark; King, Rosalind; Pook, Mark A

    2006-11-01

    Friedreich ataxia (FRDA) is a neurodegenerative disorder caused by an unstable GAA repeat expansion mutation within intron 1 of the FXN gene. However, the origins of the GAA repeat expansion, its unstable dynamics within different cells and tissues, and its effects on frataxin expression are not yet completely understood. Therefore, we have chosen to generate representative FRDA mouse models by using the human FXN GAA repeat expansion itself as the genetically modified mutation. We have previously reported the establishment of two lines of human FXN YAC transgenic mice that contain unstable GAA repeat expansions within the appropriate genomic context. We now describe the generation of FRDA mouse models by crossbreeding of both lines of human FXN YAC transgenic mice with heterozygous Fxn knockout mice. The resultant FRDA mice that express only human-derived frataxin show comparatively reduced levels of frataxin mRNA and protein expression, decreased aconitase activity, and oxidative stress, leading to progressive neurodegenerative and cardiac pathological phenotypes. Coordination deficits are present, as measured by accelerating rotarod analysis, together with a progressive decrease in locomotor activity and increase in weight. Large vacuoles are detected within neurons of the dorsal root ganglia (DRG), predominantly within the lumbar regions in 6-month-old mice, but spreading to the cervical regions after 1 year of age. Secondary demyelination of large axons is also detected within the lumbar roots of older mice. Lipofuscin deposition is increased in both DRG neurons and cardiomyocytes, and iron deposition is detected in cardiomyocytes after 1 year of age. These mice represent the first GAA repeat expansion-based FRDA mouse models that exhibit progressive FRDA-like pathology and thus will be of use in testing potential therapeutic strategies, particularly GAA repeat-based strategies.

  6. Advanced digital modulation: Communication techniques and monolithic GaAs technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, S. G.; Oliver, J. D., Jr.; Kot, R. C.; Richards, C. R.

    1983-01-01

    Communications theory and practice are merged with state-of-the-art technology in IC fabrication, especially monolithic GaAs technology, to examine the general feasibility of a number of advanced technology digital transmission systems. Satellite-channel models with (1) superior throughput, perhaps 2 Gbps; (2) attractive weight and cost; and (3) high RF power and spectrum efficiency are discussed. Transmission techniques possessing reasonably simple architectures capable of monolithic fabrication at high speeds were surveyed. This included a review of amplitude/phase shift keying (APSK) techniques and the continuous-phase-modulation (CPM) methods, of which MSK represents the simplest case.

  7. Time-resolved photoinduced thermoelectric and transport currents in GaAs nanowires.

    PubMed

    Prechtel, Leonhard; Padilla, Milan; Erhard, Nadine; Karl, Helmut; Abstreiter, Gerhard; Fontcuberta I Morral, Anna; Holleitner, Alexander W

    2012-05-09

    In order to clarify the temporal interplay of the different photocurrent mechanisms occurring in single GaAs nanowire based circuits, we introduce an on-chip photocurrent pump-probe spectroscopy with a picosecond time resolution. We identify photoinduced thermoelectric, displacement, and carrier lifetime limited currents as well as the transport of photogenerated holes to the electrodes. Moreover, we show that the time-resolved photocurrent spectroscopy can be used to investigate the drift velocity of photogenerated carriers in semiconducting nanowires. Hereby, our results are relevant for nanowire-based optoelectronic and photovoltaic applications.

  8. Equivalent electron fluence for space qualification of shallow junction heteroface GaAs solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, J. W.; Stock, L. V.

    1984-01-01

    It is desirable to perform qualification tests prior to deployment of solar cells in space power applications. Such test procedures are complicated by the complex mixture of differing radiation components in space which are difficult to simulate in ground test facilities. Although it has been shown that an equivalent electron fluence ratio cannot be uniquely defined for monoenergetic proton exposure of GaAs shallow junction cells, an equivalent electron fluence test can be defined for common spectral components of protons found in space. Equivalent electron fluence levels for the geosynchronous environment are presented.

  9. Measurement of minority carrier diffusion lengths in GaAs nanowires by a nanoprobe technique

    SciTech Connect

    Darbandi, A.; Watkins, S. P., E-mail: simonw@sfu.ca

    Minority carrier diffusion lengths in both p-type and n-type GaAs nanowires were studied using electron beam induced current by means of a nanoprobe technique without lithographic processing. The diffusion lengths were determined for Au/GaAs rectifying junctions as well as axial p-n junctions. By incorporating a thin lattice-matched InGaP passivating shell, a 2-fold enhancement in the minority carrier diffusion lengths and one order of magnitude reduction in the surface recombination velocity were achieved.

  10. Optically controlled phased array antenna concepts using GaAs monolithic microwave integrated circuits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kunath, R. R.; Bhasin, K. B.

    1986-01-01

    The desire for rapid beam reconfigurability and steering has led to the exploration of new techniques. Optical techniques have been suggested as potential candidates for implementing these needs. Candidates generally fall into one of two areas: those using fiber optic Beam Forming Networks (BFNs) and those using optically processed BFNs. Both techniques utilize GaAs Monolithic Microwave Integrated Circuits (MMICs) in the BFN, but the role of the MMIC for providing phase and amplitude variations is largely eliminated by some new optical processing techniques. This paper discusses these two types of optical BFN designs and provides conceptual designs of both systems.

  11. Long-term temperature effects on GaAs solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heinbockel, J. H.; Hong, K. H.

    1979-01-01

    The thermal degradation of AlGaAs solar cells resulting from a long-term operation in a space environment is investigated. The solar cell degradation effects caused by zinc and aluminum diffusion as well as deterioration by arsenic evaporation are presented. Also, the results are presented of experimental testing and measurements of various GaAs solar cell properties while the solar cell was operating in the temperature range of 27 C to 350 C. In particular, the properties of light current voltage curves, dark current voltage curves, and spectral response characteristics are given. Finally, some theoretical models for the annealing of radiation damage over various times and temperatures are included.

  12. Optical orientation of Mn2+ ions in GaAs in weak longitudinal magnetic fields.

    PubMed

    Akimov, I A; Dzhioev, R I; Korenev, V L; Kusrayev, Yu G; Sapega, V F; Yakovlev, D R; Bayer, M

    2011-04-08

    We report on optical orientation of Mn2+ ions in bulk GaAs subject to weak longitudinal magnetic fields (B≤100  mT). A manganese spin polarization of 25% is directly evaluated by using spin-flip Raman scattering. The dynamical Mn2+ polarization occurs due to the s-d exchange interaction with optically oriented conduction band electrons. Time-resolved photoluminescence reveals a nontrivial electron spin dynamics, where the oriented Mn2+ ions tend to stabilize the electron spins.

  13. Fine Structure of Trious and Excitons in Single GaAs Quantum Dots

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-08-30

    RAPID COMMUNICATIONS PHYSICAL REVIEW B 66, 081310~R! ~2002!Fine structure of trions and excitons in single GaAs quantum dots J. G. Tischler, A. S ...fine structure of single localized excitons and trions. DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevB.66.081310 PACS number~ s !: 78.67.Hc, 73.21.2b, 71.35.2yAlthough the...AUTHOR( S ) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME( S ) AND ADDRESS(ES) Naval Research Laboratory

  14. Surface intervalley scattering on GaAs(110): Direct observation with picosecond laser photoemission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haight, R.; Silberman, J. A.

    1989-02-01

    Angle-resolved laser photoemission investigations of the laser excited GaAs(110) surface have revealed a previously unobserved valley of the C3 unoccupied surface band whose minimum is at X¯ in the surface Brillouin zone. Electron population in this valley increases only as a result of scattering from the directly photoexcited valley at Γ¯. With high momentum resolution, we have isolated the dynamic electron population changes at both Γ¯ and X¯ and deduced the scattering time between the two valleys.

  15. Surface intervalley scattering on GaAs(110) studied with picosecond laser photoemission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haight, R.; Silberman, J. A.

    1990-01-01

    Laser-based photoemission sources provide the unique opportunity to study dynamic electronic processes at surfaces and interfaces. Using angle-resolved, laser photoemission with < 1 ps time resolution, we have directly observed a new surface band at the X¯ point in the GaAs(110) surface Brillouin zone. The appearance of electron population in this valley occurs only as a result of scattering from the directly photoexcited valley at overlineГ. The momentum resolution of our experiment has permitted us to isolate the dynamic electron population changes at both overlineГ and X¯ and to deduce the scattering time between the two valleys.

  16. Circularly polarized lasing in chiral modulated semiconductor microcavity with GaAs quantum wells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demenev, A. A.; Kulakovskii, V. D.; Schneider, C.; Brodbeck, S.; Kamp, M.; Höfling, S.; Lobanov, S. V.; Weiss, T.; Gippius, N. A.; Tikhodeev, S. G.

    2016-10-01

    We report close to circularly polarized lasing at ℏ ω = 1.473 and 1.522 eV from an AlAs/AlGaAs Bragg microcavity, with 12 GaAs quantum wells in the active region and chirally etched upper distributed Bragg refractor under optical pump at room temperature. The advantage of using the chiral photonic crystal with a large contrast of dielectric permittivities is its giant optical activity, allowing to fabricate a very thin half-wave plate, with a thickness of the order of the emitted light wavelength, and to realize the monolithic control of circular polarization.

  17. Enhanced beam coupling modulation using the polarization properties of photorefractive GaAs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Partovi, Afshin; Garmire, Elsa M.; Cheng, Li-Jen

    1987-01-01

    Observation is reported of a rotation in the polarization of the two photorefractive recording beams in GaAs for a configuration with the internally generated space-charge field along the line 110 crystallographic orientation. This rotation is a result of simultaneous constructive and destructive beam coupling in each beam for the optical electric field components along the two electrooptically induced principal dielectric axes of the crystal. By turning one of the beams on and off, the intensity of the other beam after the crystal and a polarization analyzer can be modulated by as much as 500 percent. This result is of particular importance for optical information processing applications.

  18. First principle calculation in FeCo overlayer on GaAs substrate

    SciTech Connect

    Jain, Vishal, E-mail: vjain045@gmail.com; Lakshmi, N.; Jain, Vivek Kumar

    In this work the first principle electronic structure calculation is reported for FeCo/GaAs thin film system to investigate the effect of orientation on the electronic structural properties. A unit cell describing FeCo layers and GaAs layers is constructed for (100), (110), (111) orientation with vacuum of 30Å to reduce dimensions. It is found that although the (110) orientation is energetically more favorable than others, the magnetic moment is quite large in (100) and (111) system compared to the (110) and is due to the total DOS variation with orientation.

  19. Visible GaAs/0.7/P/0.3/ CW heterojunction lasers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kressel, H.; Olsen, G. H.; Nuese, C. J.

    1977-01-01

    The paper reports the first low-threshold red-light-emitting heterojunction laser diodes consisting of lattice-matched Ga(As,P)/(In,Ga)P heteroepitaxial layers. A room-temperature threshold current of 3400 A/sq cm was obtained at a wavelength of about 7000 A; this value is substantially lower than those achieved at this wavelength with (Al,Ga)As lasers. For the first time, continuous-wave laser operation at temperatures as high as 10 C has been obtained for GaAs(1-x)P(x).

  20. Bulk unipolar diodes formed in GaAs by ion implantation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hutchinson, S.; Kelly, M. J.; Gwilliam, R.; Sealy, B. J.; Carr, M.

    1999-01-01

    In an attempt to emulate epitaxially manufactured semiconductor multilayers for microwave device applications, we have produced a camel diode structure in GaAs for the first time, using the tail of a Mg + implant into a molecular beam epitaxially grown n +-n --n + structure. Using a range of ion energies and doses, samples are observed to exhibit bulk unipolar diode characteristics. With low dose and energy, a diode with barrier height of ˜0.8 V and ideality factor ˜1.25 is achieved. 'Punch through' diode characteristics are obtained at high ion dose and energy, some with knee voltages in excess of 7 V.

  1. AC-coupled GaAs microstrip detectors with a new type of integrated bias resistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irsigler, R.; Geppert, R.; Göppert, R.; Hornung, M.; Ludwig, J.; Rogalla, M.; Runge, K.; Schmid, Th.; Söldner-Rembold, A.; Webel, M.; Weber, C.

    1998-02-01

    Full-size single-sided GaAs microstrip detectors with integrated coupling capacitors and bias resistors have been fabricated on 3″ substrate wafers. PECVD deposited SiO 2 and {SiO 2}/{Si 3N 4} layers were used to provide coupling capacitances of 32.5 and 61.6 pF/cm, respectively. The resistors are made of sputtered CERMET using simple lift of technique. The sheet resistivity of 78 kΩ/□ and the thermal coefficient of resistance of less than 4 × 10 -3/°C satisfy the demands of small area biasing resistors, working on a wide temperature range.

  2. p-type zinc-blende GaN on GaAs substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, M. E.; Xue, G.; Zhou, G. L.; Greene, J. E.; Morkoç, H.

    1993-08-01

    We report p-type cubic GaN. The Mg-doped layers were grown on vicinal (100) GaAs substrates by plasma-enhanced molecular beam epitaxy. Thermally sublimed Mg was, with N2 carrier gas, fed into an electron-cyclotron resonance source. p-type zinc-blende-structure GaN films were achieved with hole mobilities as high as 39 cm2/V s at room temperature. The cubic nature of the films were confirmed by x-ray diffractometry. The depth profile of Mg was investigated by secondary ions mass spectroscopy.

  3. Ultrafast properties of femtosecond-laser-ablated GaAs and its application to terahertz optoelectronics.

    PubMed

    Madéo, Julien; Margiolakis, Athanasios; Zhao, Zhen-Yu; Hale, Peter J; Man, Michael K L; Zhao, Quan-Zhong; Peng, Wei; Shi, Wang-Zhou; Dani, Keshav M

    2015-07-15

    We report on the first terahertz (THz) emitter based on femtosecond-laser-ablated gallium arsenide (GaAs), demonstrating a 65% enhancement in THz emission at high optical power compared to the nonablated device. Counter-intuitively, the ablated device shows significantly lower photocurrent and carrier mobility. We understand this behavior in terms of n-doping, shorter carrier lifetime, and enhanced photoabsorption arising from the ablation process. Our results show that laser ablation allows for efficient and cost-effective optoelectronic THz devices via the manipulation of fundamental properties of materials.

  4. Quantum Information Processing with Large Nuclear Spins in GaAs Semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leuenberger, Michael N.; Loss, Daniel; Poggio, M.; Awschalom, D. D.

    2003-03-01

    We propose an implementation for quantum information processing based on coherent manipulations of nuclear spins I=3/2 in GaAs semiconductors. We describe theoretically an NMR method which involves multiphoton transitions and which exploits the nonequidistance of nuclear spin levels due to quadrupolar splittings. Starting from known spin anisotropies we derive effective Hamiltonians in a generalized rotating frame, valid for arbitrary I, which allow us to describe the nonperturbative time evolution of spin states generated by magnetic rf fields. We identify an experimentally observable regime for multiphoton Rabi oscillations. In the nonlinear regime, we find Berry phase interference. Ref: PRL 89, 207601 (2002).

  5. Quantum Information Processing with Large Nuclear Spins in GaAs Semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leuenberger, Michael N.; Loss, Daniel; Poggio, M.; Awschalom, D. D.

    2002-10-01

    We propose an implementation for quantum information processing based on coherent manipulations of nuclear spins I=3/2 in GaAs semiconductors. We describe theoretically an NMR method which involves multiphoton transitions and which exploits the nonequidistance of nuclear spin levels due to quadrupolar splittings. Starting from known spin anisotropies we derive effective Hamiltonians in a generalized rotating frame, valid for arbitrary I, which allow us to describe the nonperturbative time evolution of spin states generated by magnetic rf fields. We identify an experimentally observable regime for multiphoton Rabi oscillations. In the nonlinear regime, we find Berry phase interference.

  6. Photoreflectance measurements of unintentional impurity concentrations in undoped GaAs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sydor, Michael; Angelo, James; Mitchel, William; Haas, T. W.; Yen, Ming-Yuan

    1989-07-01

    Modulated photoreflectance is used to measure the unintentional impurity concentrations in undoped epitaxial GaAs. A photoreflectance signal above the band gap spreads with the unintentional impurity concentrations and shows well-defined Franz-Keldysh peaks whose separation provide a good measure of the current carrier concentrations. In samples less than 3-micron thick, a photoreflectance signal at the band edge contains a substrate-epilayer interface effect which precludes the analysis of the data by using the customary third derivative functional fits for low electric fields.

  7. Free Carrier Induced Spectral Shift for GaAs Filled Metallic Hole Arrays

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-03-13

    Bahae , G. I . Stegeman, K. Al-hemyari, J. S. Aitchison, and C. N. Ironside, “Limitation due to three-photon absorption on the useful spectral range...Free carrier induced spectral shift for GaAs filled metallic hole arrays Jingyu Zhang 1,2,* , Bin Xiang 3 , Mansoor Sheik- Bahae 4 , and S. R. J...OCIS codes: (310.6628) Subwavelength structures;(190.4350) Nonlinear optics at surfaces References and links 1. J. M. Luther, P. K. I . Jain, T. Ewers

  8. Low defect densities in molecular beam epitaxial GaAs achieved by isoelectronic In doping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhattacharya, P. K.; Dhar, S.; Berger, P.; Juang, F.-Y.

    1986-01-01

    A study has been made of the effects of adding small amounts of In (0.2-1.2 pct) to GaAs grown by molecular beam epitaxy. The density of four electron traps decreases in concentration by an order of magnitude, and the peak intensities of prominent emissions in the excitonic spectra are reduced with increase in In content. Based on the higher surface migration rate of In, compared to Ga, at the growth temperatures it is apparent that the traps and the excitonic transitions are related to point defects. This agrees with earlier observations by Briones and Collins (1982) and Skromme et al. (1985).

  9. High Concentrating GaAs Cell Operation Using Optical Waveguide Solar Energy System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nakamura, T.; Case, J. A.; Timmons, M. L.

    2004-01-01

    This paper discusses the result of the concentrating photovoltaic (CPV) cell experiments conducted with the Optical Waveguide (OW) Solar Energy System. The high concentration GaAs cells developed by Research Triangle Institute (RTI) were combined with the OW system in a "fiber-on-cell" configuration. The sell performance was tested up to the solar concentration of 327. Detailed V-I characteristics, power density and efficiency data were collected. It was shown that the CPV cells combined with the OW solar energy system will be an effective electric power generation device.

  10. Spatial modulation of the Fermi level by coherent illumination of undoped GaAs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nolte, D. D.; Olson, D. H.; Glass, A. M.

    1989-11-01

    The Fermi level in undoped GaAs has been modulated spatially by optically quenching EL2 defects. The spatial gradient of the Fermi level produces internal electric fields that are much larger than fields generated by thermal diffusion alone. The resulting band structure is equivalent to a periodic modulation-doped p-i-p structure of alternating insulating and p-type layers. The internal fields are detected via the electro-optic effect by the diffraction of a probe laser in a four-wave mixing geometry. The direct control of the Fermi level distinguishes this phenomenon from normal photorefractive behavior and introduces a novel nonlinear optical process.

  11. High-efficiency V-band GaAs IMPATT diodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ma, Y. E.; Benko, E.; Trinh, T.; Erickson, L. P.; Mattord, T. J.

    1984-01-01

    Double-drift GaAs IMPATT diodes were designed for V-band frequency operations and fabricated using molecular-beam epitaxy. The diodes were fabricated in two configurations: (1) circular mesa diodes with silver-plated (integrated) heat sinks: (2) pill-type diodes bonded to diamond heat sinks. Both configurations utilized a miniature quartz-ring package. Output power greater than 1 W CW was achieved at V-band frequencies from diodes on diamond heat sinks. The best conversion efficiency was 13.3 percent at 55.5 GHz with 1 W output power.

  12. Planar regions of GaAs (001) prepared by Ga droplet motion

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng, Changxi, E-mail: changxi.zheng@monash.edu; Tang, Wen-Xin; Jesson, David E., E-mail: jessonDE@cardiff.ac.uk

    2016-07-15

    The authors describe a simple method for obtaining planar regions of GaAs (001) suitable for surface science studies. The technique, which requires no buffer layer growth, atomic hydrogen source, or the introduction of As flux, employs controllable Ga droplet motion to create planar trail regions during Langmuir evaporation. Low-energy electron microscopy/diffraction techniques are applied to monitor the droplet motion and characterize the morphology and the surface reconstruction. It is found that the planar regions exhibit atomic flatness at the level of a high-quality buffer layer.

  13. Phase transformation of GaAs at high pressures and temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ono, Shigeaki; Kikegawa, Takumi

    2018-02-01

    The high-pressure behavior of gallium arsenide, GaAs, has been investigated using an in-situ X-ray powder diffraction technique in a diamond anvil cell combined with a resistance heating method, at pressures and temperatures up to 25 GPa and 1000 K respectively. The pressure-induced phase transition from a zincblende to an orthorhombic (Cmcm) structure was observed. This transition occurred at 17.3 GPa and at room temperature, where a negative temperature dependence for this transition was confirmed. The transition boundary was determined to be P (GPa) = 18.0 - 0.0025 × T (K).

  14. Reliability of Cascaded THz Frequency Chains with Planar GaAs Circuits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maiwald, Frank; Schlecht, Erich; Lin, Robert; Ward, John; Pearson, John; Siegel, Peter; Mehdi, Imran

    2004-01-01

    Planar GaAs Schottky diodes will be utilized for all of the LO chains on the HIPI instrument for the Herschel Space Observatory. A better understanding of device degradation mechanisms is desirable in order to specify environmental and operational conditions that do not reduce device life times. Failures and degradation associated with ESD (Electrostatic Discharge), high temperatures, DC currents and RF induced current and heating have been investigated. The goal is to establish a procedure to obtain the safe operating range for a given frequency multiplier.

  15. New method for MBE growth of GaAs nanowires on silicon using colloidal Au nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouravleuv, A.; Ilkiv, I.; Reznik, R.; Kotlyar, K.; Soshnikov, I.; Cirlin, G.; Brunkov, P.; Kirilenko, D.; Bondarenko, L.; Nepomnyaschiy, A.; Gruznev, D.; Zotov, A.; Saranin, A.; Dhaka, V.; Lipsanen, H.

    2018-01-01

    We present a new method for the deposition of colloidal Au nanoparticles on the surface of silicon substrates based on short-time Ar plasma treatment without the use of any polymeric layers. The elaborated method is compatible with molecular beam epitaxy, which allowed us to carry out the detailed study of GaAs nanowire synthesis on Si(111) substrates using colloidal Au nanoparticles as seeds for their growth. The results obtained elucidated the causes of the difference between the initial nanoparticle sizes and the diameters of the grown nanowires.

  16. Structural and electronic properties of GaAs and GaP semiconductors

    SciTech Connect

    Rani, Anita; Kumar, Ranjan

    2015-05-15

    The Structural and Electronic properties of Zinc Blende phase of GaAs and GaP compounds are studied using self consistent SIESTA-code, pseudopotentials and Density Functional Theory (DFT) in Local Density Approximation (LDA). The Lattice Constant, Equillibrium Volume, Cohesive Energy per pair, Compressibility and Band Gap are calculated. The band gaps calcultated with DFT using LDA is smaller than the experimental values. The P-V data fitted to third order Birch Murnaghan equation of state provide the Bulk Modulus and its pressure derivatives. Our Structural and Electronic properties estimations are in agreement with available experimental and theoretical data.

  17. Highly controllable ICP etching of GaAs based materials for grating fabrication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weibin, Qiu; Jiaxian, Wang

    2012-02-01

    Highly controllable ICP etching of GaAs based materials with SiCl4/Ar plasma is investigated. A slow etching rate of 13 nm/min was achieved with RF1 D 10 W, RF2 D 20 W and a high ratio of Ar to SiCl4 flow. First order gratings with 25 nm depth and 140 nm period were fabricated with the optimal parameters. AFM analysis indicated that the RMS roughness over a 10 × 10 μm2 area was 0.3 nm, which is smooth enough to regrow high quality materials for devices.

  18. Solar hydrogen production using epitaxial SrTiO 3 on a GaAs photovoltaic

    DOE PAGES

    Kornblum, L.; Fenning, D. P.; Faucher, J.; ...

    2016-12-22

    We demonstrate an oxide-stabilized III–V photoelectrode architecture for solar fuel production from water in neutral pH. For this tunable architecture we demonstrate 100% Faradaic efficiency for hydrogen evolution, and incident photon-to-current efficiencies (IPCE) exceeding 50%. High IPCE for hydrogen evolution is a consequence of the low-loss interface achieved via epitaxial growth of a thin oxide on a GaAs solar cell. Developing optimal energetic alignment across the interfaces of the photoelectrode using well-established III–V technology is key to obtaining high performance. This advance constitutes a critical milestone towards efficient, unassisted fuel production from solar energy.

  19. Plasmon-mediated circularly polarized luminescence of GaAs in a scanning tunneling microscope

    SciTech Connect

    Mühlenberend, Svenja; Gruyters, Markus; Berndt, Richard, E-mail: berndt@physik.uni-kiel.de

    2015-12-14

    The electroluminescence from p-type GaAs(110) in a scanning tunneling microscope has been investigated at 6 K. Unexpectedly, high degrees of circular polarization have often been observed with ferromagnetic Ni tips and also with paramagnetic W and Ag tips. The data are interpreted in terms of two distinct excitation mechanisms. Electron injection generates intense luminescence with low polarization. Plasmon-mediated generation of electron-hole pairs leads to less intense emission, which, however, is highly polarized for many tips.

  20. A new theoretical approach to adsorption desorption behavior of Ga on GaAs surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kangawa, Y.; Ito, T.; Taguchi, A.; Shiraishi, K.; Ohachi, T.

    2001-11-01

    We propose a new theoretical approach for studying adsorption-desorption behavior of atoms on semiconductor surfaces. The new theoretical approach based on the ab initio calculations incorporates the free energy of gas phase; therefore we can calculate how adsorption and desorption depends on growth temperature and beam equivalent pressure (BEP). The versatility of the new theoretical approach was confirmed by the calculation of Ga adsorption-desorption transition temperatures and transition BEPs on the GaAs(0 0 1)-(4×2)β2 Ga-rich surface. This new approach is feasible to predict how adsorption and desorption depend on the growth conditions.

  1. Optoelectronic simulation of GaAs solar cells with angularly selective filters

    SciTech Connect

    Kraus, Tobias, E-mail: tobias.kraus@ise.fraunhofer.de; Höhn, Oliver; Hauser, Hubert

    We discuss the influence of angularly selective filters on thin film gallium arsenide solar cells. For this reason, the detailed balance model was refined to fit our needs with respect to Auger recombination, reflection, transmission, and realistic absorption. For calculating real systems, an approach was made to include optical effects of angularly selective filters into electron-hole dynamic equations implemented in PC1D, a one dimensional solar cell calculation tool. With this approach, we find a relative V{sub oc} increase of 5% for an idealized 100 nm GaAs cell, including Auger recombination.

  2. Determination of carrier concentration and compensation microprofiles in GaAs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jastrzebski, L.; Lagowski, J.; Walukiewicz, W.; Gatos, H. C.

    1980-01-01

    Simultaneous microprofiling of semiconductor free carrier, donor, and acceptor concentrations was achieved for the first time from the absolute value of the free carrier absorption coefficient and its wavelength dependence determined by IR absorption in a scanning mode. Employing Ge- and Si-doped melt-grown GaAs, striking differences were found between the variations of electron concentration and those of ionized impurity concentrations. These results showed clearly that the electronic characteristics of this material are controlled by amphoteric doping and deviations from stoichiometry rather than by impurity segregation.

  3. Identification of oxygen-related midgap level in GaAs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lagowski, J.; Lin, D. G.; Gatos, H. C.; Aoyama, T.

    1984-01-01

    An oxygen-related deep level ELO was identified in GaAs employing Bridgman-grown crystals with controlled oxygen doping. The activation energy of ELO is almost the same as that of the dominant midgap level: EL2. This fact impedes the identification of ELO by standard deep level transient spectroscopy. However, it was found that the electron capture cross section of ELO is about four times greater than that of EL2. This characteristic served as the basis for the separation and quantitative investigation of ELO employing detailed capacitance transient measurements in conjunction with reference measurements on crystals grown without oxygen doping and containing only EL2.

  4. Outdiffusion of recombination centers from the substrate into LPE layers - GaAs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jastrzebski, L.; Lagowski, J.; Gatos, H. C.

    1979-01-01

    Experimental results are presented showing that outdiffusion of recombination centers from the GaAs substrate into the epitaxial layer takes place during growth. Such outdiffusion decreases the carrier lifetime in the epitaxial layer to much lower values than the radiative recombination limit. Furthermore, it introduces a lifetime gradient across the epitaxial layer which depends critically on the growth velocity and thermal treatment. High rates of growth (such as those attainable in electroepitaxy) and high cooling rates can minimize the adverse effects of normally available substrates on the epitaxial layers; however, good quality substrates are essential for the consistent growth of device quality layers.

  5. On the behaviour and origin of the major deep level (EL2) in GaAs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lagowski, J.; Parsey, J. M.; Kaminska, M.; Wada, K.; Gatos, H. C.

    1982-01-01

    In an extensive crystal growth and characterization study of Bridgman-grown GaAs it was established that the following factors affect the concentration of the EL2 level: (1) the As pressure during growth; (2) the partial pressure of Ga2O; (3) the concentration of shallow donors and acceptors; and (4) the post-growth cooling cycle. The role of these factors is qualitatively and quantitatively explained by attributing the 0.82 eV donor state to the antisite defect As-sub-Ga formed as a result of Ga-vacancy migration during the post-growth cooling of the crystals.

  6. Exciton-polariton dynamics in a GaAs bulk microcavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ceccherini, S.; Gurioli, M.; Bogani, F.; Colocci, M.; Tredicucci, A.; Bassani, F.; Beltram, F.; Sorba, L.

    1998-01-01

    We present a full analysis of exciton dynamics in a GaAs λ/2 bulk microcavity following excitation by ultrafast laser pulses. Coherent dynamics was probed by means of an interferometric technique; beating and dephasing times were studied for various excitation intensities. At high incident power, population effects begin to show up reducing exciton oscillator strength and suppressing Rabi splitting. This feature produces marked non-linearities in the input-output characteristic of the optical functions, which were studied in view of reaching bistable operation. Theoretical calculations performed within the transfer-matrix framework show good agreement with experimental results.

  7. MEDIPIX: a VLSI chip for a GaAs pixel detector for digital radiology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amendolia, S. R.; Bertolucci, E.; Bisogni, M. G.; Bottigli, U.; Ceccopieri, A.; Ciocci, M. A.; Conti, M.; Delogu, P.; Fantacci, M. E.; Maestro, P.; Marzulli, V.; Pernigotti, E.; Romeo, N.; Rosso, V.; Rosso, P.; Stefanini, A.; Stumbo, S.

    1999-02-01

    A GaAs pixel detector designed for digital mammography, equipped with a 36-channel single photon counting discrete read-out electronics, was tested using a test object developed for quality control purposes in mammography. Each pixel was 200×200 μm 2 large, and 200 μm deep. The choice of GaAs with respect to silicon (largely used in other applications and with a more established technique) has been made because of the much better detection efficiency at mammographic energies, combined with a very good charge collection efficiency achieved thanks to new ohmic contacts. This GaAs detector is able to perform a measurement of low-contrast details, with minimum contrast lower (nearly a factor two) than that typically achievable with standard mammographic film+screen systems in the same conditions of clinical routine. This should allow for an earlier diagnosis of breast tumour masses. Due to these encouraging results, the next step in the evolution of our imaging system based on GaAs detectors has been the development of a VLSI front-end prototype chip (MEDIPIX ) in order to cover a much larger diagnostic area. The chip reads 64×64 channels in single photon counting mode, each one 170 μm wide. Each channel contains also a test input where a signal can be simulated, injecting a known charge through a 16 f F capacitor. Fake signals have been injected via the test input measuring and equalizing minimum thresholds for all the channels. On an average, in most of the performing chips available up to now, we have found that it is possible to set a threshold as low as 1800 electrons with an RMS of 150 electrons (10 standard deviations lower than the 20 keV photon signal roughly equivalent to 4500 electrons). The detector, bump-bonded to the chip, will be tested and a ladder of detectors will be prepared to be able to scan large surface objects.

  8. Millimeter-wave generation and characterization of a GaAs FET by optical mixing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ni, David C.; Fetterman, Harold R.; Chew, Wilbert

    1990-01-01

    Coherent mixing of optical radiation from a tunable continuous-wave dye laser and a stabilized He-Ne laser was used to generate millimeter-wave signals in GaAs FETs attached to printed-circuit millimeter-wave antennas. The generated signal was further down-converted to a 2-GHz IF by an antenna-coupled millimeter-wave local oscillator at 62 GHz. Detailed characterizations of power and S/N under different bias conditions have been performed. This technique is expected to allow signal generation and frequency-response evaluation of millimeter-wave devices at frequencies as high as 100 GHz.

  9. Mechanism of asymmetric lineshape broadening in GaAs1-xNx Raman spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mialitsin, Aleksej; Fluegel, Brian; Ptak, Aaron; Mascarenhas, Angelo

    2012-07-01

    Resonance Raman spectroscopy is used to probe the asymmetric broadening of the LO phonon linewidth in a dilute GaAs1-xNx alloy (x=0.41%). Electronic Raman scattering from a broad continuum is observed that gets enhanced concurrently with the LO phonon linewidth under resonance. The Fano interaction between the LO phonon and the electronic continuum is used to develop a model that satisfactorily explains the origin of the asymmetric LO phonon linewidth broadening in this abnormal alloy as arising due to coupling between the discrete and the continuum configurations.

  10. Growth features and spectroscopic structure investigations of nanoprofiled AlN films formed on misoriented GaAs substrates

    SciTech Connect

    Seredin, P. V., E-mail: paul@phys.vsu.ru; Goloshchapov, D. L.; Lenshin, A. S.

    Nanostructured aluminum-nitride films are formed by reactive ion-plasma sputtering onto GaAs substrates with different orientations. The properties of the films are studied via structural analysis, atomic force microscopy, and infrared and visible–ultraviolet spectroscopy. The aluminum-nitride films can have a refractive index in the range of 1.6–4.0 at a wavelength of ~250 nm and an optical band gap of ~5 eV. It is shown that the morphology, surface composition, and optical characteristics of AlN/GaAs heterophase systems can be controlled using misoriented GaAs substrates.

  11. Arsine flow requirement for the flow modulation growth of high purity GaAs using adduct-grade triethylgallium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pitts, B. L.; Emerson, D. T.; Shealy, J. R.

    1992-10-01

    Using arsine and triethylgallium with flow modulation, organometallic vapor phase epitaxy can produce high purity GaAs layers with V/III molar ratios near unity. We have estimated that under appropriate growth conditions the arsine incorporation efficiency into epitaxial GaAs can exceed 30%. The arsine flow requirement for obtaining good morphology has been identified over a range of substrate temperatures using adduct-grade triethylgallium. The process described reduces the environmental impact and life safety risk of the hydride based organometallic vapor phase epitaxial method.

  12. Electronic passivation of n- and p-type GaAs using chemical vapor deposited GaS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tabib-Azar, Massood; Kang, Soon; Macinnes, Andrew N.; Power, Michael B.; Barron, Andrew R.; Jenkins, Phillip P.; Hepp, Aloysius F.

    1993-01-01

    We report on the electronic passivation of n- and p-type GaAs using CVD cubic GaS. Au/GaS/GaAs-fabricated metal-insulator-semiconductor (MIS) structures exhibit classical high-frequency capacitor vs voltage (C-V) behavior with well-defined accumulation and inversion regions. Using high- and low-frequency C-V, the interface trap densities of about 10 exp 11/eV per sq cm on both n- and p-type GaAs are determined. The electronic condition of GaS/GaAs interface did not show any deterioration after a six week time period.

  13. Hydraulic Hybrid Vehicles

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA and the United Parcel Service (UPS) have developed a hydraulic hybrid delivery vehicle to explore and demonstrate the environmental benefits of the hydraulic hybrid for urban pick-up and delivery fleets.

  14. Hybrid rocket propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holzman, Allen L.

    1993-01-01

    Topics addressed are: (1) comparison of the theoretical impulses; (2) comparison of the density-specific impulses; (3) general propulsion system features comparison; (4) hybrid systems, booster applications; and (5) hybrid systems, upper stage propulsion applications.

  15. Hybrid perovskite films approaching the radiative limit with over 90% photoluminescence quantum efficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braly, Ian L.; deQuilettes, Dane W.; Pazos-Outón, Luis M.; Burke, Sven; Ziffer, Mark E.; Ginger, David S.; Hillhouse, Hugh W.

    2018-06-01

    Reducing non-radiative recombination in semiconducting materials is a prerequisite for achieving the highest performance in light-emitting and photovoltaic applications. Here, we characterize both external and internal photoluminescence quantum efficiency and quasi-Fermi-level splitting of surface-treated hybrid perovskite (CH3NH3PbI3) thin films. With respect to the material bandgap, these passivated films exhibit the highest quasi-Fermi-level splitting measured to date, reaching 97.1 ± 0.7% of the radiative limit, approaching that of the highest performing GaAs solar cells. We confirm these values with independent measurements of internal photoluminescence quantum efficiency of 91.9 ± 2.7% under 1 Sun illumination intensity, setting a new benchmark for these materials. These results suggest hybrid perovskite solar cells are inherently capable of further increases in power conversion efficiency if surface passivation can be combined with optimized charge carrier selective interfaces.

  16. From hybrid swarms to swarms of hybrids

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The introgression of modern humans (Homo sapiens) with Neanderthals 40,000 YBP after a half-million years of separation, may have led to the best example of a hybrid swarm on earth. Modern trade and transportation in support of the human hybrids has continued to introduce additional species, genotyp...

  17. Mesoscale hybrid calibration artifact

    DOEpatents

    Tran, Hy D.; Claudet, Andre A.; Oliver, Andrew D.

    2010-09-07

    A mesoscale calibration artifact, also called a hybrid artifact, suitable for hybrid dimensional measurement and the method for make the artifact. The hybrid artifact has structural characteristics that make it suitable for dimensional measurement in both vision-based systems and touch-probe-based systems. The hybrid artifact employs the intersection of bulk-micromachined planes to fabricate edges that are sharp to the nanometer level and intersecting planes with crystal-lattice-defined angles.

  18. Hybrid armature projectile

    DOEpatents

    Hawke, Ronald S.; Asay, James R.; Hall, Clint A.; Konrad, Carl H.; Sauve, Gerald L.; Shahinpoor, Mohsen; Susoeff, Allan R.

    1993-01-01

    A projectile for a railgun that uses a hybrid armature and provides a seed block around part of the outer surface of the projectile to seed the hybrid plasma brush. In addition, the hybrid armature is continuously vaporized to replenish plasma in a plasma armature to provide a tandem armature and provides a unique ridge and groove to reduce plasama blowby.

  19. Hybrid armature projectile

    DOEpatents

    Hawke, R.S.; Asay, J.R.; Hall, C.A.; Konrad, C.H.; Sauve, G.L.; Shahinpoor, M.; Susoeff, A.R.

    1993-03-02

    A projectile for a railgun that uses a hybrid armature and provides a seed block around part of the outer surface of the projectile to seed the hybrid plasma brush. In addition, the hybrid armature is continuously vaporized to replenish plasma in a plasma armature to provide a tandem armature and provides a unique ridge and groove to reduce plasma blowby.

  20. Heteroepitaxial growth of Ge films on (100) GaAs by pyrolysis of digermane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eres, Djula; Lowndes, Douglas H.; Tischler, J. Z.; Sharp, J. W.; Geohegan, D. B.; Pennycook, S. J.

    1989-08-01

    Pyrolysis of high-purity digermane (Ge2 H6 ) has been used to grow epitaxial Ge films of high crystalline quality on (100) GaAs substrates in a low-pressure environment. X-ray double-crystal diffractometry shows that fully commensurate, coherently strained epitaxial Ge films can be grown on (100) GaAs at digermane partial pressures of 0.05-40 mTorr for substrate temperatures of 380-600 °C. Amorphous films also were deposited. Information about the crystalline films surface morphology, growth mode, and microstructure was obtained from scanning electron microscopy, cross-section transmission electron microscopy, and in situ reflectivity measurements. The amorphous-to-crystalline transition temperature and the morphology of the crystalline films were both found to depend on deposition conditions (primarily the incidence rate of Ge-bearing species and the substrate temperature). Epitaxial growth rates using digermane were found to be about two orders of magnitude higher than rates using germane (GeH4 ) under similar experimental conditions.

  1. A GaAs pixel detectors-based digital mammographic system: Performances and imaging tests results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Annovazzi, A.; Amendolia, S. R.; Bigongiari, A.; Bisogni, M. G.; Catarsi, F.; Cesqui, F.; Cetronio, A.; Colombo, F.; Delogu, P.; Fantacci, M. E.; Gilberti, A.; Lanzieri, C.; Lavagna, S.; Novelli, M.; Passuello, G.; Paternoster, G.; Pieracci, M.; Poletti, M.; Quattrocchi, M.; Rosso, V.; Stefanini, A.; Testa, A.; Venturelli, L.

    2007-06-01

    The prototype presented in this paper is based on GaAs pixel detectors read-out by the PCC/MEDIPIX I circuit. The active area of a sensor is about 1 cm 2 therefore to cover the typical irradiation field used in mammography (18×24 cm 2), 18 GaAs detection units have been organized in two staggered rows of nine chips each and moved by a stepper motor in the orthogonal direction. The system is integrated in a mammographic equipment which comprehends the X-ray tube, the bias and data acquisition systems and the PC-based control system. The prototype has been developed in the framework of the Integrated Mammographic Imaging (IMI) project, an industrial research activity aiming to develop innovative instrumentation for morphologic and functional imaging. The project has been supported by the Italian Ministry of Education, University and Research (MIUR) and by five Italian High Tech companies, Alenia Marconi Systems (AMS), CAEN, Gilardoni, LABEN and Poli.Hi.Tech., in collaboration with the universities of Ferrara, Roma "La Sapienza", Pisa and the Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN). In this paper, we report on the electrical characterization and the first imaging test results of the digital mammographic system. To assess the imaging capability of such a detector we have built a phantom, which simulates the breast tissue with malignancies. The radiographs of the phantom, obtained by delivering an entrance dose of 4.8 mGy, have shown particulars with a measured contrast below 1%.

  2. GaAs Supercomputing: Architecture, Language, And Algorithms For Image Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johl, John T.; Baker, Nick C.

    1988-10-01

    The application of high-speed GaAs processors in a parallel system matches the demanding computational requirements of image processing. The architecture of the McDonnell Douglas Astronautics Company (MDAC) vector processor is described along with the algorithms and language translator. Most image and signal processing algorithms can utilize parallel processing and show a significant performance improvement over sequential versions. The parallelization performed by this system is within each vector instruction. Since each vector has many elements, each requiring some computation, useful concurrent arithmetic operations can easily be performed. Balancing the memory bandwidth with the computation rate of the processors is an important design consideration for high efficiency and utilization. The architecture features a bus-based execution unit consisting of four to eight 32-bit GaAs RISC microprocessors running at a 200 MHz clock rate for a peak performance of 1.6 BOPS. The execution unit is connected to a vector memory with three buses capable of transferring two input words and one output word every 10 nsec. The address generators inside the vector memory perform different vector addressing modes and feed the data to the execution unit. The functions discussed in this paper include basic MATRIX OPERATIONS, 2-D SPATIAL CONVOLUTION, HISTOGRAM, and FFT. For each of these algorithms, assembly language programs were run on a behavioral model of the system to obtain performance figures.

  3. Long exciton lifetimes in stacking-fault-free wurtzite GaAs nanowires

    SciTech Connect

    Furthmeier, Stephan, E-mail: stephan.furthmeier@ur.de; Dirnberger, Florian; Hubmann, Joachim

    We present a combined photoluminescence and transmission electron microscopy study of single GaAs nanowires. Each wire was characterized both in microscopy and spectroscopy, allowing a direct correlation of the optical and the structural properties. By tuning the growth parameters, the nanowire crystal structure is optimized from a highly mixed zincblende–wurtzite structure to pure wurtzite. We find the latter one to be stacking-fault-free over nanowire lengths up to 4.1 μm. We observe the emission of purely wurtzite nanowires to occur only with polarization directions perpendicular to the wurtzite c{sup ^}-axis, as expected from the hexagonal unit cell symmetry. The free exciton recombinationmore » energy in the wurtzite structure is 1.518 eV at 5 K with a narrow linewidth of 4 meV. Most notably, these pure wurtzite nanowires display long carrier recombination lifetimes of up to 11.2 ns, exceeding reported lifetimes in bulk GaAs and state-of-the-art 2D GaAs/AlGaAs heterostructures.« less

  4. GaAs buffer layer technique for vertical nanowire growth on Si substrate

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Xiaoqing, E-mail: steelxu@stanford.edu; Parizi, Kokab B.; Huo, Yijie

    2014-02-24

    Gold catalyzed vapor-liquid-solid method is widely applied to III–V nanowire (NW) growth on Si substrate. However, the easy oxidation of Si, possible Si contamination in the NWs, high defect density in the NWs, and high sensitivity of the NW morphology to growth conditions largely limit its controllability. In this work, we developed a buffer layer technique by introducing a GaAs thin film with predefined polarity as a template. It is found that samples grown on these buffer layers all have high vertical NW yields in general, due to the single-orientation of the buffer layers. Low temperature buffer with smoother surfacemore » leads to highest yield of vertical NWs, while high temperature (HT) buffer with better crystallinity results in perfect NW quality. The defect-free property we observed here is very promising for optoelectronic device applications based on GaAs NW. Moreover, the buffer layers can eliminate Si contamination by preventing Si-Au alloy formation and by increasing the thickness of the Si diffusion barrier, thus providing more flexibility to vertical NW growth. The buffer layer technique we demonstrated here could be easily extended to other III-V on Si system for electronic and photonic applications.« less

  5. A graphene/single GaAs nanowire Schottky junction photovoltaic device.

    PubMed

    Luo, Yanbin; Yan, Xin; Zhang, Jinnan; Li, Bang; Wu, Yao; Lu, Qichao; Jin, Chenxiaoshuai; Zhang, Xia; Ren, Xiaomin

    2018-05-17

    A graphene/nanowire Schottky junction is a promising structure for low-cost high-performance optoelectronic devices. Here we demonstrate a graphene/single GaAs nanowire Schottky junction photovoltaic device. The Schottky junction is fabricated by covering a single layer graphene onto an n-doped GaAs nanowire. Under 532 nm laser excitation, the device exhibits a high responsivity of 231 mA W-1 and a short response/recover time of 85/118 μs at zero bias. Under AM 1.5 G solar illumination, the device has an open-circuit voltage of 75.0 mV and a short-circuit current density of 425 mA cm-2, yielding a remarkable conversion efficiency of 8.8%. The excellent photovoltaic performance of the device is attributed to the strong built-in electric field in the Schottky junction as well as the transparent property of graphene. The device is promising for self-powered high-speed photodetectors and low-cost high-efficiency solar cells.

  6. Selective Area Growth of GaAs on Si Patterned Using Nanoimprint Lithography

    SciTech Connect

    Warren, Emily L.; Makoutz, Emily A.; Horowitz, Kelsey A. W.

    Heteroepitaxial selective area growth (SAG) of GaAs on patterned Si substrates is a potential low-cost approach to integrate III-V and Si materials for tandem or multijunction solar cells. The use of nanoscale openings in a dielectric material can minimize nucleation-related defects and allow thinner buffer layers to be used to accommodate lattice mismatch between Si and an epitaxial III-V layer. For photovoltaic applications, the cost of patterning and growth, as well as the impact on the performance of the Si bottom cell must be considered. We present preliminary results on the use of soft nanoimprint lithography (SNIL) to create patternedmore » nucleation templates for the heteroepitaxial SAG of GaAs on Si. We demonstrate that SNIL patterning of passivating layers on the Si substrate improves measured minority carrier properties relative to unprotected Si. Cost modeling of the SNIL process shows that adding a patterning step only adds a minor contribution to the overall cost of a tandem III-V/Si solar cell, and can enable significant savings if it enables thinner buffer layers.« less

  7. Nanostructured GaAs solar cells via metal-assisted chemical etching of emitter layers.

    PubMed

    Song, Yunwon; Choi, Keorock; Jun, Dong-Hwan; Oh, Jungwoo

    2017-10-02

    GaAs solar cells with nanostructured emitter layers were fabricated via metal-assisted chemical etching. Au nanoparticles produced via thermal treatment of Au thin films were used as etch catalysts to texture an emitter surface with nanohole structures. Epi-wafers with emitter layers 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 um in thickness were directly textured and a window layer removal process was performed before metal catalyst deposition. A nanohole-textured emitter layer provides effective light trapping capabilities, reducing the surface reflection of a textured solar cell by 11.0%. However, because the nanostructures have high surface area to volume ratios and large numbers of defects, various photovoltaic properties were diminished by high recombination losses. Thus, we have studied the application of nanohole structures to GaAs emitter solar cells and investigated the cells' antireflection and photovoltaic properties as a function of the nanohole structure and emitter thickness. Due to decreased surface reflection and improved shunt resistance, the solar cell efficiency increased from 4.25% for non-textured solar cells to 7.15% for solar cells textured for 5 min.

  8. Silicon incorporation in GaAs: From delta-doping to monolayer insertion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, J.; Newman, R. C.; Roberts, C.

    1995-08-01

    Raman spectroscopy was used to study the incorporation of Si into doping layers in GaAs, grown by molecular beam epitaxy at a temperature of 400 °C, for Si concentrations ranging from the δ-doping level to a ML coverage. The strength of the scattering by local vibrational modes of substitutional Si was almost constant for Si areal concentration [Si]A in the range 5×1012<[Si]A<5×1013 cm-2 but then decreased, dropping below the detection limit for [Si]A≳3×1014 cm-2. At these concentrations a new vibrational band emerged at a frequency close to 470 cm-1 and developed into the optic zone center phonon of a coherently strained epitaxial layer of Si embedded in GaAs when a coverage of ≊1.5 ML (9.3×1014 cm-2) was reached. These findings strongly indicate that the observed saturation and the eventual decrease of the concentration of substitutional silicon is caused by an increasing incorporation of deposited Si into two-dimensional islands of covalently bonded Si.

  9. Highly indistinguishable and strongly entangled photons from symmetric GaAs quantum dots.

    PubMed

    Huber, Daniel; Reindl, Marcus; Huo, Yongheng; Huang, Huiying; Wildmann, Johannes S; Schmidt, Oliver G; Rastelli, Armando; Trotta, Rinaldo

    2017-05-26

    The development of scalable sources of non-classical light is fundamental to unlocking the technological potential of quantum photonics. Semiconductor quantum dots are emerging as near-optimal sources of indistinguishable single photons. However, their performance as sources of entangled-photon pairs are still modest compared to parametric down converters. Photons emitted from conventional Stranski-Krastanov InGaAs quantum dots have shown non-optimal levels of entanglement and indistinguishability. For quantum networks, both criteria must be met simultaneously. Here, we show that this is possible with a system that has received limited attention so far: GaAs quantum dots. They can emit triggered polarization-entangled photons with high purity (g (2) (0) = 0.002±0.002), high indistinguishability (0.93±0.07 for 2 ns pulse separation) and high entanglement fidelity (0.94±0.01). Our results show that GaAs might be the material of choice for quantum-dot entanglement sources in future quantum technologies.

  10. Highly indistinguishable and strongly entangled photons from symmetric GaAs quantum dots

    PubMed Central

    Huber, Daniel; Reindl, Marcus; Huo, Yongheng; Huang, Huiying; Wildmann, Johannes S.; Schmidt, Oliver G.; Rastelli, Armando; Trotta, Rinaldo

    2017-01-01

    The development of scalable sources of non-classical light is fundamental to unlocking the technological potential of quantum photonics. Semiconductor quantum dots are emerging as near-optimal sources of indistinguishable single photons. However, their performance as sources of entangled-photon pairs are still modest compared to parametric down converters. Photons emitted from conventional Stranski–Krastanov InGaAs quantum dots have shown non-optimal levels of entanglement and indistinguishability. For quantum networks, both criteria must be met simultaneously. Here, we show that this is possible with a system that has received limited attention so far: GaAs quantum dots. They can emit triggered polarization-entangled photons with high purity (g(2)(0) = 0.002±0.002), high indistinguishability (0.93±0.07 for 2 ns pulse separation) and high entanglement fidelity (0.94±0.01). Our results show that GaAs might be the material of choice for quantum-dot entanglement sources in future quantum technologies. PMID:28548081

  11. GaAs Solar Cells Grown on Unpolished, Spalled Ge Substrates: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Cavalli, Alessandro; Johnston, Steven; Sulas, Dana

    Decreasing the cost of single-crystal substrates by wafer reuse techniques has long been sought for III-V solar cells. Controlled spalling of III-V devices is a possible pathway for epitaxial liftoff, which would help reduce costs, but chemo- mechanical polishing after liftoff tends to limit the potential cost savings. Growth on an unpolished spalled surface would be an additional step toward lower costs, but it is crucial to show high efficiency solar cell devices on these unprocessed substrates. In this study, we spalled 2-inch Ge wafers using a Ni stressor layer, and then grew GaAs solar cells by HVPE on themore » spalled Ge surface without any other surface treatment. We show a 12.8% efficient single-junction device, without anti-reflection coating, with quantum efficiency very close to identical devices grown by HVPE on non-spalled GaAs substrates. Demonstrating a high carrier collection on unpolished spalled wafers is a step toward reducing substrate-related liftoff and reuse costs.« less

  12. Surface reconstruction of GaAs(001) nitrided under the controlled As partial pressure [rapid communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imayoshi, Takahiro; Oigawa, Haruhiro; Shigekawa, Hidemi; Tokumoto, Hiroshi

    2003-08-01

    Under the controlled As partial pressure, the nitridation process of GaAs(0 0 1)-(2 × 4) surface was studied using a scanning tunneling microscope (STM) combined with an electron cyclotron resonance plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy system. With either prolonging the nitridation time or decreasing the As partial pressure, the previously reported (3 × 3) structure with two dimers per surface cell ((3 × 3)-2D) was found to progressively convert into a new (3 × 3) structure characterized by one dimer per surface cell ((3 × 3)-1D). Reversely the exposure to arsenic transformed the structure from (3 × 3)-1D to (3 × 3)-2D, suggesting that the topmost layer is composed of As 2-dimers. Based on these STM images together with the X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy data, we propose the new As 2-dimer coverage models to explain both (3 × 3)-1D and -2D structures involving the exchange reaction of arsenic with nitrogen in the subsurface region of GaAs.

  13. Detecting Fermi-level shifts by Auger electron spectroscopy in Si and GaAs

    SciTech Connect

    Debehets, J.; Homm, P.; Menghini, M.

    In this study, changes in surface Fermi-level of Si and GaAs, caused by doping and cleaning, are investigated by Auger electron spectroscopy. Based on the Auger voltage contrast, we compared the Auger transition peak energy but with higher accuracy by using a more accurate analyzer and an improved peak position determination method. For silicon, a peak shift as large as 0.46 eV was detected when comparing a cleaned p-type and n-type wafer, which corresponds rather well with the theoretical difference in Fermi-levels. If no cleaning was applied, the peak position did not differ significantly for both wafer types, indicating Fermi-levelmore » pinning in the band gap. For GaAs, peak shifts were detected after cleaning with HF and (NH 4) 2S-solutions in an inert atmosphere (N 2-gas). Although the (NH 4) 2S-cleaning in N 2 is very efficient in removing the oxygen from the surface, the observed Ga- and As-peak shifts are smaller than those obtained after the HF-cleaning. It is shown that the magnitude of the shift is related to the surface composition. After Si-deposition on the (NH 4) 2S-cleaned surface, the Fermi-level shifts back to a similar position as observed for an as-received wafer, indicating that this combination is not successful in unpinning the Fermi-level of GaAs.« less

  14. MIM capacitors with various Al2O3 thicknesses for GaAs RFIC application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiahui, Zhou; Hudong, Chang; Honggang, Liu; Guiming, Liu; Wenjun, Xu; Qi, Li; Simin, Li; Zhiyi, He; Haiou, Li

    2015-05-01

    The impact of various thicknesses of Al2O3 metal—insulator—metal (MIM) capacitors on direct current and radio frequency (RF) characteristics is investigated. For 20 nm Al2O3, the fabricated capacitor exhibits a high capacitance density of 3850 pF/mm2 and acceptable voltage coefficients of capacitance of 681 ppm/V2 at 1 MHz. An outstanding VCC-α of 74 ppm/V2 at 1 MHz, resonance frequency of 8.2 GHz and Q factor of 41 at 2 GHz are obtained by 100 nm Al2O3 MIM capacitors. High-performance MIM capacitors using GaAs process and atomic layer deposition Al2O3 could be very promising candidates for GaAs RFIC applications. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 61274077, 61474031), the Guangxi Natural Science Foundation (No. 2013GXNSFGA019003), the Guangxi Department of Education Project (No. 201202ZD041), the Guilin City Technology Bureau (Nos. 20120104-8, 20130107-4), the China Postdoctoral Science Foundation Funded Project (Nos. 2012M521127, 2013T60566), the National Basic Research Program of China (Nos. 2011CBA00605, 2010CB327501), the Innovation Project of GUET Graduate Education (Nos. GDYCSZ201448, GDYCSZ201449), the State Key Laboratory of Electronic Thin Films and Integrated Devices, UESTC (No. KFJJ201205), and the Guilin City Science and Technology Development Project (Nos. 20130107-4, 20120104-8).

  15. Strain-driven growth of GaAs(111) quantum dots with low fine structure splitting

    SciTech Connect

    Yerino, Christopher D.; Jung, Daehwan; Lee, Minjoo Larry, E-mail: minjoo.lee@yale.edu

    2014-12-22

    Symmetric quantum dots (QDs) on (111)-oriented surfaces are promising candidates for generating polarization-entangled photons due to their low excitonic fine structure splitting (FSS). However, (111) QDs are difficult to grow. The conventional use of compressive strain to drive QD self-assembly fails to form 3D nanostructures on (111) surfaces. Instead, we demonstrate that (111) QDs self-assemble under tensile strain by growing GaAs QDs on an InP(111)A substrate. Tensile GaAs self-assembly produces a low density of QDs with a symmetric triangular morphology. Coherent, tensile QDs are observed without dislocations, and the QDs luminescence at room temperature. Single QD measurements reveal low FSSmore » with a median value of 7.6 μeV, due to the high symmetry of the (111) QDs. Tensile self-assembly thus offers a simple route to symmetric (111) QDs for entangled photon emitters.« less

  16. Discriminating a deep gallium antisite defect from shallow acceptors in GaAs using supercell calculations

    DOE PAGES

    Schultz, Peter A.

    2016-03-01

    For the purposes of making reliable first-principles predictions of defect energies in semiconductors, it is crucial to distinguish between effective-mass-like defects, which cannot be treated accurately with existing supercell methods, and deep defects, for which density functional theory calculations can yield reliable predictions of defect energy levels. The gallium antisite defect GaAs is often associated with the 78/203 meV shallow double acceptor in Ga-rich gallium arsenide. Within a conceptual framework of level patterns, analyses of structure and spin stabilization can be used within a supercell approach to distinguish localized deep defect states from shallow acceptors such as B As. Thismore » systematic approach determines that the gallium antisite supercell results has signatures inconsistent with an effective mass state and cannot be the 78/203 shallow double acceptor. Lastly, the properties of the Ga antisite in GaAs are described, total energy calculations that explicitly map onto asymptotic discrete localized bulk states predict that the Ga antisite is a deep double acceptor and has at least one deep donor state.« less

  17. Effect of carbon tetrabromide on the morphology of GaAs nanowires.

    PubMed

    Salehzadeh, O; Watkins, S P

    2011-04-22

    Carbon is a commonly used p-type dopant in planar III-V semiconductors, however its use in nanowire (NW) growth has been much less reported. In this work we show that the morphology of gold assisted GaAs NWs can be strongly modified by the presence of CBr(4) vapor during growth by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy. GaAs NWs were grown under conditions which result in strong tapering and lateral growth at low growth temperatures by the use of triethylgallium (TEGa) instead of the more usual precursor, trimethylgallium (TMGa). Under these conditions, NWs grown in the presence of CBr(4) exhibit higher axial and lower radial growth rates, and negligible tapering compared with NWs grown in the absence of CBr(4) under the same conditions. We attribute this primarily to the suppression of the 2d growth rate by CBr(4), which enhances the axial growth rate of the nanowires. NWs grown with CBr(4) show stacking-fault-free zincblende structure, while the NWs grown without CBr(4) show a high density of stacking faults. This work underlines the striking effects which precursor chemistry can have on nanowire morphology.

  18. GaAs Coupled Micro Resonators with Enhanced Sensitive Mass Detection

    PubMed Central

    Chopard, Tony; Lacour, Vivien; Leblois, Therese

    2014-01-01

    This work demonstrates the improvement of mass detection sensitivity and time response using a simple sensor structure. Indeed, complicated technological processes leading to very brittle sensing structures are often required to reach high sensitivity when we want to detect specific molecules in biological fields. These developments constitute an obstacle to the early diagnosis of diseases. An alternative is the design of coupled structures. In this study, the device is based on the piezoelectric excitation and detection of two GaAs microstructures vibrating in antisymmetric modes. GaAs is a crystal which has the advantage to be micromachined easily using typical clean room processes. Moreover, we showed its high potential in direct biofunctionalisation for use in the biological field. A specific design of the device was performed to improve the detection at low mass and an original detection method has been developed. The principle is to exploit the variation in amplitude at the initial resonance frequency which has in the vicinity of weak added mass the greatest slope. Therefore, we get a very good resolution for an infinitely weak mass: relative voltage variation of 8%/1 fg. The analysis is based on results obtained by finite element simulation. PMID:25474375

  19. Dyakonov-Perel Effect on Spin Dephasing in n-Type GaAs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ning, C. Z.; Wu, M. W.

    2003-01-01

    A paper presents a study of the contribution of the Dyakonov-Perel (DP) effect to spin dephasing in electron-donor-doped bulk GaAs in the presence of an applied steady, moderate magnetic field perpendicular to the growth axis of the GaAs crystal. (The DP effect is an electron-wave-vector-dependent spin-state splitting of the conduction band, caused by a spin/orbit interaction in a crystal without an inversion center.) The applicable Bloch equations of kinetics were constructed to include terms accounting for longitudinal optical and acoustic phonon scattering as well as impurity scattering. The contributions of the aforementioned scattering mechanisms to spin-dephasing time in the presence of DP effect were examined by solving the equations numerically. Spin-dephasing time was obtained from the temporal evolution of the incoherently summed spin coherence. Effects of temperature, impurity level, magnetic field, and electron density on spin-dephasing time were investigated. Spin-dephasing time was found to increase with increasing magnetic field. Contrary to predictions of previous simplified treatments of the DP effect, spin-dephasing time was found to increase with temperature in the presence of impurity scattering. These results were found to agree qualitatively with results of recent experiments.

  20. Detecting Fermi-level shifts by Auger electron spectroscopy in Si and GaAs

    DOE PAGES

    Debehets, J.; Homm, P.; Menghini, M.; ...

    2018-01-12

    In this study, changes in surface Fermi-level of Si and GaAs, caused by doping and cleaning, are investigated by Auger electron spectroscopy. Based on the Auger voltage contrast, we compared the Auger transition peak energy but with higher accuracy by using a more accurate analyzer and an improved peak position determination method. For silicon, a peak shift as large as 0.46 eV was detected when comparing a cleaned p-type and n-type wafer, which corresponds rather well with the theoretical difference in Fermi-levels. If no cleaning was applied, the peak position did not differ significantly for both wafer types, indicating Fermi-levelmore » pinning in the band gap. For GaAs, peak shifts were detected after cleaning with HF and (NH 4) 2S-solutions in an inert atmosphere (N 2-gas). Although the (NH 4) 2S-cleaning in N 2 is very efficient in removing the oxygen from the surface, the observed Ga- and As-peak shifts are smaller than those obtained after the HF-cleaning. It is shown that the magnitude of the shift is related to the surface composition. After Si-deposition on the (NH 4) 2S-cleaned surface, the Fermi-level shifts back to a similar position as observed for an as-received wafer, indicating that this combination is not successful in unpinning the Fermi-level of GaAs.« less

  1. A 1.2 THz Planar Tripler Using GaAs Membrane Based Chips

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bruston, J.; Maestrini, A.; Pukala, D.; Martin, S.; Nakamura, B.; Mehdi, I.

    2001-01-01

    Fabrication technology for submillimeter-wave monolithic circuits has made tremendous progress in recent years and it is now possible to fabricate sub-micron GaAs Schottky devices on a number of substrate types, such as membranes, frame-less membranes or substrateless circuits. These new technologies allow designers to implement very high frequency circuits, either Schottky mixers or multipliers, in a radically new manner. This paper will address the design, fabrication, and preliminary results of a 1.2 THz planar tripler fabricated on a GaAs frame-less membrane, the concept of which was described previously. The tripler uses a diode pair in an antiparallel configuration similar to designs used at lower frequency. To date, this tripler has produced a peak output power of 80 microW with 0.9% efficiency at room temperature (at 1126 GHz). The measured fix-tuned 3 dB bandwidth is about 3.5%. When cooled, the output power reached a peak of 195 microW at 120 K and 250 microW at 50 K. The ease with which this circuit was implemented along with the superb achieved performance indicates that properly designed planar devices such as this tripler can now usher in a new era of practical very high frequency multipliers.

  2. Tunneling Spectroscopy of Chemically Treated Surfaces of GaAs(001)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Jia-Fa; Tokumoto, Hiroshi

    1996-03-01

    Effect of surface chemical treatment on the surface electronic properties of GaAs(001) was studied by tunneling spectroscopy. Samples of highly-Si-doped GaAs were first cleaned and etched using conventional processes, then soaked in aqueous solutions of (NH_4)_2Sx and/or NH_4F for few hours, and finally rinsed in ethanol. The constant separation spectroscopy was done under pure N2 ambient at room temperature (295K) with our scanning tunneling microscope (STM). As a result, the sulfide treament lead to electron tunnelings starting typically at the sample voltages of -0.50 V and 0.90 V at initial settings of 1.50 V and 0.20 nA. For etched-only surface, however, the starting voltages were -0.70 V and 0.70 V. Effects of heating, laser-irradiation, and the fluoride treatment will be presented. Also, the mechanism of the shift of the surface Fermi level will be discussed.

  3. Understanding the true shape of Au-catalyzed GaAs nanowires.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Nian; Wong-Leung, Jennifer; Joyce, Hannah J; Gao, Qiang; Tan, Hark Hoe; Jagadish, Chennupati

    2014-10-08

    With increasing interest in nanowire-based devices, a thorough understanding of the nanowire shape is required to gain tight control of the quality of nanowire heterostructures and improve the performance of related devices. We present a systematic study of the sidewalls of Au-catalyzed GaAs nanowires by investigating the faceting process from the beginning with vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) nucleation, followed by the simultaneous radial growth on the sidewalls, and to the end with sidewall transformation during annealing. The VLS nucleation interface of our GaAs nanowires is revealed by examining cross sections of the nanowire, where the nanowire exhibits a Reuleaux triangular shape with three curved surfaces along {112}A. These curved surfaces are not thermodynamically stable and adopt {112}A facets during radial growth. We observe clear differences in radial growth rate between the ⟨112⟩A and ⟨112⟩B directions with {112}B facets forming due to the slower radial growth rate along ⟨112⟩B directions. These sidewalls transform to {110} facets after high temperature (>500 °C) annealing. A nucleation model is proposed to explain the origin of the Reuleaux triangular shape of the nanowires, and the sidewall evolution is explained by surface kinetic and thermodynamic limitations.

  4. Determination of n-Type Doping Level in Single GaAs Nanowires by Cathodoluminescence.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hung-Ling; Himwas, Chalermchai; Scaccabarozzi, Andrea; Rale, Pierre; Oehler, Fabrice; Lemaître, Aristide; Lombez, Laurent; Guillemoles, Jean-François; Tchernycheva, Maria; Harmand, Jean-Christophe; Cattoni, Andrea; Collin, Stéphane

    2017-11-08

    We present an effective method of determining the doping level in n-type III-V semiconductors at the nanoscale. Low-temperature and room-temperature cathodoluminescence (CL) measurements are carried out on single Si-doped GaAs nanowires. The spectral shift to higher energy (Burstein-Moss shift) and the broadening of luminescence spectra are signatures of increased electron densities. They are compared to the CL spectra of calibrated Si-doped GaAs layers, whose doping levels are determined by Hall measurements. We apply the generalized Planck's law to fit the whole spectra, taking into account the electron occupation in the conduction band, the bandgap narrowing, and band tails. The electron Fermi levels are used to determine the free electron concentrations, and we infer nanowire doping of 6 × 10 17 to 1 × 10 18  cm -3 . These results show that cathodoluminescence provides a robust way to probe carrier concentrations in semiconductors with the possibility of mapping spatial inhomogeneities at the nanoscale.

  5. Removal of ion-implanted photoresists on GaAs using two organic solvents in sequence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, Eunseok; Na, Jihoon; Lee, Seunghyo; Lim, Sangwoo

    2016-07-01

    Organic solvents can effectively remove photoresists on III-V channels without damage or etching of the channel material during the process. In this study, a two-step sequential photoresist removal process using two different organic solvents was developed to remove implanted ArF and KrF photoresists at room temperature. The effects of organic solvents with either low molar volumes or high affinities for photoresists were evaluated to find a proper combination that can effectively remove high-dose implanted photoresists without damaging GaAs surfaces. The performance of formamide, acetonitrile, nitromethane, and monoethanolamine for the removal of ion-implanted ArF and KrF photoresists were compared using a two-step sequential photoresist removal process followed by treatment in dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO). Among the various combinations, the acetonitrile + DMSO two-step sequence exhibited the best removal of photoresists that underwent ion implantation at doses of 5 × 1013-5 × 1015 atoms/cm2 on both flat and trench-structured GaAs surfaces. The ability of the two-step process using organic solvents to remove the photoresists can be explained by considering the affinities of solvents for a polymer and its permeability through the photoresist.

  6. EL2 and related defects in GaAs - Challenges and pitfalls

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gatos, H. C.; Lagowski, J.

    1985-01-01

    The incorporation process of nonequilibrium vacancies in melt-grown GaAs is strongly complicated by deviations from stoichiometry, and the presence of two sublattices. Many of the microdefects originating in these vacancies and their interactions introduce energy levels (shallow and deep) within the energy gap. The direct identification of the chemical or structural signature of these defects and its direct correlation to their electronic behavior is not generally possible. It is therefore necessary to rely on indirect methods and phenomenological models and be confronted with the associated pitfalls. EL2, a microdefect introducing a deep donor level, has been in the limelight in recent years because it is believed to be responsible for the semi-insulating behavior of undoped GaAs. Although much progress has been made towards understanding its origin and nature, some relevant questions remain unanswered. An attempt is made to assess the present status of understanding of EL2 in the light of the most recent results.

  7. Discriminating a deep defect from shallow acceptors in supercell calculations: gallium antisite in GaAs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schultz, Peter

    To make reliable first principles predictions of defect energies in semiconductors, it is crucial to discriminate between effective-mass-like defects--for which existing supercell methods fail--and deep defects--for which density functional theory calculations can yield reliable predictions of defect energy levels. The gallium antisite GaAs is often associated with the 78/203 meV shallow double acceptor in Ga-rich gallium arsenide. Within a framework of level occupation patterns, analyses of structure and spin stabilization can be used within a supercell approach to distinguish localized deep defect states from shallow acceptors such as BAs. This systematic analysis determines that the gallium antisite is inconsistent with a shallow state, and cannot be the 78/203 shallow double acceptor. The properties of the Ga antisite in GaAs are described, predicting that the Ga antisite is a deep double acceptor and has two donor states, one of which might be accidentally shallow. -- Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Company, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under Contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  8. Fabrication and characterization of the noble metal nanostructures on the GaAs surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gladskikh, Polina V.; Gladskikh, Igor A.; Toropov, Nikita A.; Vartanyan, Tigran A.

    2016-04-01

    Self-assembled silver, gold, and copper nanostructures on the monocrystalline GaAs (100) wafer surface were obtained via physical vapor deposition and characterized by optical reflection spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and current-voltage curve measurements. Reflection spectra of the samples with Ag equivalent thicknesses of 2, 5, 7.5, and 10 nm demonstrated wide plasmonic bands in the visible range of spectra. Thermal annealing of the nanostructures led to narrowing of the plasmonic bands of Au and Ag nanostructures caused by major transformations of the film morphology. While the as prepared films predominantly had a small scale labyrinth structure, after annealing well-separated nanoislands are formed on the gallium arsenide surface. A clear correlation between films morphology and their optical and electrical properties is elucidated. Annealing of the GaAs substrate with Ag nanostructures at 100 °C under control of the resistivity allowed us to obtain and fix the structure at the percolation threshold. It is established that the samples at the percolation threshold possess the properties of resistance switching and hysteresis.

  9. High-reliability GaAs image intensifier with unfilmed microchannel plate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bender, Edward J.; Estrera, Joseph P.; Ford, C. E.; Giordana, A.; Glesener, John W.; Lin, P. P.; Nico, A. J.; Sinor, Timothy W.; Smithson, R. H.

    1999-07-01

    Current GaAs image intensifier technology requires that the microchannel plate (MCP) have a thin dielectric film on the side facing the photocathode. This protective coating substantially reduces the amount of outgassing of ions and neutral species from the microchannels. The prevention of MCP outgassing is necessary in order to prevent the `poisoning' of the Cs:O surface on the GaAs photocathode. Many authors have experimented with omitting the MCP coating. The results of such experiments invariably lead to an intensifier with a reported useful life of less than 100 hours, due to contamination of the Cs:O layer on the photocathode. Unfortunately, the MCP film is also a barrier to electron transport within the intensifier. Substantial enhancement of the image intensifier operating parameters is the motivation for the removal of the MCP film. This paper presents results showing for the first time that it is possible to fabricate a long lifetime image intensifier with a single uncoated MCP.

  10. Probing the excited subband dispersion of holes confined to GaAs wide quantum wells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jo, Insun; Liu, Yang; Deng, H.; Shayegan, M.; Pfeiffer, L. N.; West, K. W.; Baldwin, K. W.; Winkler, R.

    Owing to the strong spin-orbit coupling and their large effective mass, the two-dimensional (2D) holes in modulation-doped GaAs quantum wells provide a fertile test bed to study the rich physics of low-dimensional systems. In a wide quantum well, even at moderate 2D densities, the holes start to occupy the excited subband, a subband whose dispersion is very unusual and has a non-monotonic dependence on the wave vector. Here, we study a 2D hole system confined to a 40-nm-thick (001) GaAs quantum well and demonstrate that, via the application of both front and back gates, the density can be tuned in a wide range, between ~1 and 2 ×1011 cm-2. Using Fourier analysis of the low-field Shubnikov-de Haas oscillations, we investigate the population of holes and the spin-orbit interaction induced spin-splitting in different subbands. We discuss the results in light of self-consistent quantum calculations of magneto-oscillations. Work support by the DOE BES (DE-FG02-00-ER45841), the NSF (Grants DMR-1305691 and MRSEC DMR-1420541), the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation (Grant GBMF4420), and Keck Foundation for experiments, and the NSF Grant DMR-1310199 for calculations.

  11. The 25 percent-efficient GaAs Cassegrainian concentrator cell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamaker, H. C.; Grounner, M.; Kaminar, N. R.; Kuryla, M. S.; Ladle, M. J.; Liu, D. D.; Macmillan, H. F.; Partain, L. D.; Virshup, G. F.; Werthen, J. G.

    1989-01-01

    Very high-efficiency GaAs Cassegrainian solar cells have been fabricated in both the n-p and p-n configurations. The n-p configuration exhibits the highest efficiency at concentration, the best cells having an efficiency eta of 24.5 percent (100X, AM0, temperature T = 28 C). Although the cells are designed for operation at this concentration, peak efficiency is observed near 300 suns (eta = 25.1 percent). To our knowledge, this is the highest reported solar cell efficiency for space applications. The improvement in efficiency over that reported at the previous SPRAT conference is attributed primarily to lower series resistance and improved grid-line plating procedures. Using previously measured temperature coefficients, researchers estimate that the n-p GaAs cells should deliver approximately 22.5 percent efficiency at the operating conditions of 100 suns and T = 80 C. This performance exceeds the NASA program goal of 22 percent for the Cassegrainian cell. One hundred Cassegrainian cells have been sent to NASA as deliverables, sixty-eight in the n-p configuration and thirty-two in the p-n configuration.

  12. Carbon doping in molecular beam epitaxy of GaAs from a heated graphite filament

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malik, R. J.; Nottenberg, R. N.; Schubert, E. F.; Walker, J. F.; Ryan, R. W.

    1988-01-01

    Carbon doping of GaAs grown by molecular beam epitaxy has been obtained for the first time by use of a heated graphite filament. Controlled carbon acceptor concentrations over the range of 10 to the 17th-10 to the 20th/cu cm were achieved by resistively heating a graphite filament with a direct current power supply. Capacitance-voltage, p/n junction and secondary-ion mass spectrometry measurements indicate that there is negligible diffusion of carbon during growth and with postgrowth rapid thermal annealing. Carbon was used for p-type doping in the base of Npn AlGaAs/GaAs heterojunction bipolar transistors. Current gains greater than 100 and near-ideal emitter heterojunctions were obtained in transistors with a carbon base doping of 1 x 10 to the 19th/cu cm. These preliminary results indicate that carbon doping from a solid graphite source may be an attractive substitute for beryllium, which is known to have a relatively high diffusion coefficient in GaAs.

  13. Quenching of dynamic nuclear polarization by spin-orbit coupling in GaAs quantum dots.

    PubMed

    Nichol, John M; Harvey, Shannon P; Shulman, Michael D; Pal, Arijeet; Umansky, Vladimir; Rashba, Emmanuel I; Halperin, Bertrand I; Yacoby, Amir

    2015-07-17

    The central-spin problem is a widely studied model of quantum decoherence. Dynamic nuclear polarization occurs in central-spin systems when electronic angular momentum is transferred to nuclear spins and is exploited in quantum information processing for coherent spin manipulation. However, the mechanisms limiting this process remain only partially understood. Here we show that spin-orbit coupling can quench dynamic nuclear polarization in a GaAs quantum dot, because spin conservation is violated in the electron-nuclear system, despite weak spin-orbit coupling in GaAs. Using Landau-Zener sweeps to measure static and dynamic properties of the electron spin-flip probability, we observe that the size of the spin-orbit and hyperfine interactions depends on the magnitude and direction of applied magnetic field. We find that dynamic nuclear polarization is quenched when the spin-orbit contribution exceeds the hyperfine, in agreement with a theoretical model. Our results shed light on the surprisingly strong effect of spin-orbit coupling in central-spin systems.

  14. Ab initio study of GaAs(100) surface stability over As2, H2 and N2 as a model for vapor-phase epitaxy of GaAs1-xNx

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valencia, Hubert; Kangawa, Yoshihiro; Kakimoto, Koichi

    2015-12-01

    GaAs(100) c(4×4) surfaces were examined by ab initio calculations, under As2, H2 and N2 gas mixed conditions as a model for GaAs1-xNx vapor-phase epitaxy (VPE) on GaAs(100). Using a simple model consisting of As2 and H2 molecules adsorptions and As/N atom substitutions, it was shown to be possible to examine the crystal growth behavior considering the relative stability of the resulting surfaces against the chemical potential of As2, H2 and N2 gases. Such simple model allows us to draw a picture of the temperature and pressure stability domains for each surfaces that can be linked to specific growth conditions, directly. We found that, using this simple model, it is possible to explain the different N-incorporation regimes observed experimentally at different temperatures, and to predict the transition temperature between these regimes. Additionally, a rational explanation of N-incorporation ratio for each of these regimes is provided. Our model should then lead to a better comprehension and control of the experimental conditions needed to realize a high quality VPE of GaAs1-xNx.

  15. Reflection high energy electron diffraction and reflectance difference studies of surface anisotropy in InGaAs chemical beam epitaxy on flat and vicinal (001) GaAs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Junno, B.; Paulsson, G.; Miller, M.; Samuelson, L.

    1994-03-01

    InGaAs quantum wells (QWs) were grown in a chemical beam epitaxy (CBE) machine with trimethylindium (TMI), triethylgallium (TEG) and tertiarybutylarsine (TBA) as precursors. Growth was monitored in-situ by reflectance difference (RD) and reflection high energy electron diffraction (RHEED), on both flat and vicinal (2° off in the <111> A direction) (001)GaAs substrates. The RD was monitored at 632.8 nm. At this wavelength the RD signal from a GaAs surface is primarily related to the absorption by Ga dimers. When InGaAs had been grown, both the average RD signal and the amplitude of the RD oscillations for the subsequent growth of GaAs increased significantly, compared to GaAs growth on GaAs. This In influence was found to persist even after the growth of 20-30 ML of pure GaAs. As a result we were able to monitor growth oscillations with RD and RHEED simultaneously during growth of quantum wells of InGaAs in GaAs. As a conclusion to these observations we suggest that the group III dimer bond concentration, detected in the RD signal, increases.

  16. Optimization of GaAs Nanowire Pin Junction Array Solar Cells by Using AlGaAs/GaAs Heterojunctions.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yao; Yan, Xin; Wei, Wei; Zhang, Jinnan; Zhang, Xia; Ren, Xiaomin

    2018-04-25

    We optimized the performance of GaAs nanowire pin junction array solar cells by introducing AlGaAs/GaAs heterejunctions. AlGaAs is used for the p type top segment for axial junctions and the p type outer shell for radial junctions. The AlGaAs not only serves as passivation layers for GaAs nanowires but also confines the optical generation in the active regions, reducing the recombination loss in heavily doped regions and the minority carrier recombination at the top contact. The results show that the conversion efficiency of GaAs nanowires can be greatly enhanced by using AlGaAs for the p segment instead of GaAs. A maximum efficiency enhancement of 8.42% has been achieved in this study. And for axial nanowire, by using AlGaAs for the top p segment, a relatively long top segment can be employed without degenerating device performance, which could facilitate the fabrication and contacting of nanowire array solar cells. While for radial nanowires, AlGaAs/GaAs nanowires show better tolerance to p-shell thickness and surface condition.

  17. Secondary ion mass spectrometry study of ex situ annealing of epitaxial GaAs grown on Si substrates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Radhakrishnan, G.; Mccullough, O.; Cser, J.; Katz, J.

    1988-01-01

    Samples of epitaxial GaAs grown on (100) Si substrates using molecular beam epitaxy were annealed at four different temperatures, from 800 to 950 C. Following annealing, the samples were analyzed using secondary ion mass spectrometry. Depth profiles of Ga, As, and Si reveal optimum conditions for annealing, and place a lower limit on a damage threshold for GaAs/Si substrates.

  18. Modeling charge collection efficiency degradation in partially depleted GaAs photodiodes using the 1- and 2-carrier Hecht equations

    DOE PAGES

    Auden, E. C.; Vizkelethy, G.; Serkland, D. K.; ...

    2017-03-24

    Here, the Hecht equation can be used to model the nonlinear degradation of charge collection efficiency (CCE) in response to radiation-induced displacement damage in both fully and partially depleted GaAs photodiodes. CCE degradation is measured for laser-generated photocurrent as a function of fluence and bias in Al 0.3Ga 0.7As/GaAs/Al 0.25Ga 0.75As p-i-n photodiodes which have been irradiated with 12 MeV C and 7.5 MeV Si ions. CCE is observed to degrade more rapidly with fluence in partially depleted photodiodes than in fully depleted photodiodes. When the intrinsic GaAs layer is fully depleted, the 2-carrier Hecht equation describes CCE degradation asmore » photogenerated electrons and holes recombine at defect sites created by radiation damage in the depletion region. If the GaAs layer is partially depleted, CCE degradation is more appropriately modeled as the sum of the 2-carrier Hecht equation applied to electrons and holes generated within the depletion region and the 1-carrier Hecht equation applied to minority carriers that diffuse from the field-free (non-depleted) region into the depletion region. Enhanced CCE degradation is attributed to holes that recombine within the field-free region of the partially depleted intrinsic GaAs layer before they can diffuse into the depletion region.« less

  19. Analysis of parametric drift of a MESFET-based GaAs MMIC due to 125[degrees]C storage

    SciTech Connect

    Dreike, P.L.; Barton, D.L.; Sandoval, C.E.

    1992-01-01

    Microwave parameters drifted significantly for two out of twenty- nine GaAs MESFET-based MMICs during ten weeks of storage at 125[degrees]C and 150[degrees]C. Analysis using measured, post- storage, FET characteristics and the microwave behavior indicates that all of the FETs in the MMICs drifted, most likely due to contamination.

  20. Analysis of parametric drift of a MESFET-based GaAs MMIC due to 125{degrees}C storage

    SciTech Connect

    Dreike, P.L.; Barton, D.L.; Sandoval, C.E.

    1992-10-01

    Microwave parameters drifted significantly for two out of twenty- nine GaAs MESFET-based MMICs during ten weeks of storage at 125{degrees}C and 150{degrees}C. Analysis using measured, post- storage, FET characteristics and the microwave behavior indicates that all of the FETs in the MMICs drifted, most likely due to contamination.

  1. Optimization of GaAs Nanowire Pin Junction Array Solar Cells by Using AlGaAs/GaAs Heterojunctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Yao; Yan, Xin; Wei, Wei; Zhang, Jinnan; Zhang, Xia; Ren, Xiaomin

    2018-04-01

    We optimized the performance of GaAs nanowire pin junction array solar cells by introducing AlGaAs/GaAs heterejunctions. AlGaAs is used for the p type top segment for axial junctions and the p type outer shell for radial junctions. The AlGaAs not only serves as passivation layers for GaAs nanowires but also confines the optical generation in the active regions, reducing the recombination loss in heavily doped regions and the minority carrier recombination at the top contact. The results show that the conversion efficiency of GaAs nanowires can be greatly enhanced by using AlGaAs for the p segment instead of GaAs. A maximum efficiency enhancement of 8.42% has been achieved in this study. And for axial nanowire, by using AlGaAs for the top p segment, a relatively long top segment can be employed without degenerating device performance, which could facilitate the fabrication and contacting of nanowire array solar cells. While for radial nanowires, AlGaAs/GaAs nanowires show better tolerance to p-shell thickness and surface condition.

  2. Raman scattering studies of strain effects in (100) and (311)B GaAs1-xBix epitaxial layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steele, J. A.; Lewis, R. A.; Henini, M.; Lemine, O. M.; Alkaoud, A.

    2013-11-01

    We report room-temperature Raman studies of strained (100) and (311)B GaAs1-xBix epitaxial layers for x ≤ 0.039. The Raman spectra exhibit a two-mode behavior, as well as disorder-activated GaAs-like phonons. The experimental results show that the GaAs-like LO(Γ) mode experiences a strong composition-dependent redshift as a result of alloying. The peak frequency decreases linearly from the value for pure GaAs (˜293 cm-1) with the alloyed Bi fraction x and the introduced in-plane lattice strain ɛ∥, by ΔωLO=Δωalloy-Δωstrain. X-ray diffraction measurements are used to determine x and ɛ∥ allowing Δωalloy to be decoupled and is estimated to be -12(±4) cm-1/x for (100) GaAs1-xBix. ΔωLO is measured to be roughly double for samples grown on (311)B-oriented substrates to that of (100) GaAs. This large difference in redshift is accounted for by examining the Bi induced strain, effects from alloying, and defects formed during high-index (311)B crystal growth.

  3. First principles calculations of La2O3/GaAs interface properties under biaxial strain and hydrostatic pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Li-Bin; Li, Ming-Biao; Xiu, Xiao-Ming; Liu, Xu-Yang; Zhang, Kai-Cheng; Li, Chun-Ran; Dong, Hai-Kuan

    2017-04-01

    La2O3 is a potential dielectric material with high permittivity (high-κ) for metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) devices. However, band offsets and oxide defects should still be concerned. Smaller band offsets and carrier traps increase leakage current, and degenerate performance of the devices. In this paper, the interface behaviors of La2O3/GaAs under biaxial strain and hydrostatic pressure are investigated, which is performed by first principles calculations based on density functional theory (DFT). Strain engineering is attempted to improve performance of the metal/La2O3/GaAs devices. First of all, we creatively realize band alignment of La2O3/GaAs interface under biaxial strain and hydrostatic pressure. The proper biaxial tensile strain can effectively increase valence band offsets (VBO) and conduction band offsets (CBO), which can be used to suppress leakage current. However, the VBO will decrease with the increase of hydrostatic pressure, indicating that performance of the devices is degenerated. Then, a direct tunneling leakage current model is used to investigate current and voltage characteristics of the metal/La2O3/GaAs. The impact of biaxial strain and hydrostatic pressure on leakage current is discussed. At last, formation energies and transition levels of oxygen interstitial (Oi) and oxygen vacancy (VO) in La2O3 are assessed. We investigate how they will affect performance of the devices.

  4. GaAs on Si epitaxy by aspect ratio trapping: Analysis and reduction of defects propagating along the trench direction

    SciTech Connect

    Orzali, Tommaso, E-mail: tommaso.orzali@sematech.org; Vert, Alexey; O'Brien, Brendan

    2015-09-14

    The Aspect Ratio Trapping technique has been extensively evaluated for improving the quality of III-V heteroepitaxial films grown on Si, due to the potential for terminating defects at the sidewalls of SiO{sub 2} patterned trenches that enclose the growth region. However, defects propagating along the trench direction cannot be effectively confined with this technique. We studied the effect of the trench bottom geometry on the density of defects of GaAs fins, grown by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition on 300 mm Si (001) wafers inside narrow (<90 nm wide) trenches. Plan view and cross sectional Scanning Electron Microscopy and Transmission Electron Microscopy, togethermore » with High Resolution X-Ray Diffraction, were used to evaluate the crystal quality of GaAs. The prevalent defects that reach the top surface of GaAs fins are (111) twin planes propagating along the trench direction. The lowest density of twin planes, ∼8 × 10{sup 8 }cm{sup −2}, was achieved on “V” shaped bottom trenches, where GaAs nucleation occurs only on (111) Si planes, minimizing the interfacial energy and preventing the formation of antiphase boundaries.« less

  5. Modeling charge collection efficiency degradation in partially depleted GaAs photodiodes using the 1- and 2-carrier Hecht equations

    SciTech Connect

    Auden, E. C.; Vizkelethy, G.; Serkland, D. K.

    Here, the Hecht equation can be used to model the nonlinear degradation of charge collection efficiency (CCE) in response to radiation-induced displacement damage in both fully and partially depleted GaAs photodiodes. CCE degradation is measured for laser-generated photocurrent as a function of fluence and bias in Al 0.3Ga 0.7As/GaAs/Al 0.25Ga 0.75As p-i-n photodiodes which have been irradiated with 12 MeV C and 7.5 MeV Si ions. CCE is observed to degrade more rapidly with fluence in partially depleted photodiodes than in fully depleted photodiodes. When the intrinsic GaAs layer is fully depleted, the 2-carrier Hecht equation describes CCE degradation asmore » photogenerated electrons and holes recombine at defect sites created by radiation damage in the depletion region. If the GaAs layer is partially depleted, CCE degradation is more appropriately modeled as the sum of the 2-carrier Hecht equation applied to electrons and holes generated within the depletion region and the 1-carrier Hecht equation applied to minority carriers that diffuse from the field-free (non-depleted) region into the depletion region. Enhanced CCE degradation is attributed to holes that recombine within the field-free region of the partially depleted intrinsic GaAs layer before they can diffuse into the depletion region.« less

  6. Modeling charge collection efficiency degradation in partially depleted GaAs photodiodes using the 1- and 2-carrier Hecht equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Auden, E. C.; Vizkelethy, G.; Serkland, D. K.; Bossert, D. J.; Doyle, B. L.

    2017-05-01

    The Hecht equation can be used to model the nonlinear degradation of charge collection efficiency (CCE) in response to radiation-induced displacement damage in both fully and partially depleted GaAs photodiodes. CCE degradation is measured for laser-generated photocurrent as a function of fluence and bias in Al0.3Ga0.7As/GaAs/Al0.25Ga0.75As p-i-n photodiodes which have been irradiated with 12 MeV C and 7.5 MeV Si ions. CCE is observed to degrade more rapidly with fluence in partially depleted photodiodes than in fully depleted photodiodes. When the intrinsic GaAs layer is fully depleted, the 2-carrier Hecht equation describes CCE degradation as photogenerated electrons and holes recombine at defect sites created by radiation damage in the depletion region. If the GaAs layer is partially depleted, CCE degradation is more appropriately modeled as the sum of the 2-carrier Hecht equation applied to electrons and holes generated within the depletion region and the 1-carrier Hecht equation applied to minority carriers that diffuse from the field-free (non-depleted) region into the depletion region. Enhanced CCE degradation is attributed to holes that recombine within the field-free region of the partially depleted intrinsic GaAs layer before they can diffuse into the depletion region.

  7. OM-VPE growth of Mg-doped GaAs. [OrganoMetallic-Vapor Phase Epitaxy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, C. R.; Dietze, W. T.; Ludowise, M. J.

    1982-01-01

    The epitaxial growth of Mg-doped GaAs by the organometallic vapor phase epitaxial process (OM-VPE) has been achieved for the first time. The doping is controllable over a wide range of input fluxes of bis (cyclopentadienyl) magnesium, (C5H5)2Mg, the organometallic precursor to Mg.

  8. Isolating GaSb membranes grown metamorphically on GaAs substrates using highly selective substrate removal etch processes

    SciTech Connect

    Lavrova, Olga; Balakrishnan, Ganesh

    2017-02-24

    The etch rates of NH 4OH:H 2O 2 and C 6H 8O 7:H 2O 2 for GaAs and GaSb have been investigated to develop a selective etch for GaAs substrates and to isolate GaSb epilayers grown on GaAs. The NH 4OH:H 2O 2 solution has a greater etch rate differential for the GaSb/GaAs material system than C 6H 8O 7:H 2O 2 solution. The selectivity of NH 4OH:H 2O 2 for GaAs/GaSb under optimized etch conditions has been observed to be as high as 11471 ± 1691 whereas that of C 6H 8O 7:H 2O 2 has been measured upmore » to 143 ± 2. The etch contrast has been verified by isolating 2 μm thick GaSb epi-layers that were grown on GaAs substrates. GaSb membranes were tested and characterized with high-resolution X-Ray diffraction (HR-XRD) and atomic force microscopy (AFM).« less

  9. Growth of GaAs “nano ice cream cones” by dual wavelength pulsed laser ablation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schamp, C. T.; Jesser, W. A.; Shivaram, B. S.

    2007-05-01

    Harmonic generation crystals inherently offer the possibility of using multiple wavelengths of light in a single laser pulse. In the present experiment, the fundamental (1064 nm) and second harmonic (532 nm) wavelengths from an Nd:YAG laser are focused together on GaAs and GaSb targets for ablation. Incident energy densities up to about 45 J/cm 2 at 10 Hz with substrate temperatures between 25 and 600 °C for durations of about 60 s have been used in an ambient gas pressure of about 10 -6 Torr. The ablated material was collected on electron-transparent amorphous carbon films for TEM analysis. Apart from a high density of isolated nanocrystals, the most common morphology observed consists of a crystalline GaAs cone-like structure in contact with a sphere of liquid Ga, resembling an "ice cream cone", typically 50-100 nm in length. For all of the heterostuctures of this type, the liquid/solid/vacuum triple junction is found to correspond to the widest point on the cone. These heterostructures likely form by preferential evaporation of As from molten GaAs drops ablated from the target. The resulting morphology minimizes the interfacial and surface energies of the liquid Ga and solid GaAs.

  10. Use of Displacement Damage Dose in an Engineering Model of GaAs Solar Cell Radiation Damage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morton, T. L.; Chock, R.; Long, K. J.; Bailey, S.; Messenger, S. R.; Walters, R. J.; Summers, G. P.

    2005-01-01

    Current methods for calculating damage to solar cells are well documented in the GaAs Solar Cell Radiation Handbook (JPL 96-9). An alternative, the displacement damage dose (D(sub d)) method, has been developed by Summers, et al. This method is currently being implemented in the SAVANT computer program.

  11. Study on the high-power semi-insulating GaAs PCSS with quantum well structure

    SciTech Connect

    Luan, Chongbiao; Wang, Bo; Huang, Yupeng

    A high-power semi-insulating GaAs photoconductive semiconductor switch (PCSS) with quantum well structure was fabricated. The AlGaAs layer was deposited on the surface of the GaAs material, and the reflecting film and the antireflection film have been made on the surface of the GaAs and AlGaAs, respectively. When the prepared PCSS worked at a bias voltage of 9.8 kV and triggered by a laser pulse with an incident optical energy of 5.4 mJ, a wavelength of 1064 nm and an optical pulse width of 25 ns, the on-state resistance of the AlGaAs/GaAs PCSS was only 0.45 Ω, and the longevity ofmore » the AlGaAs/GaAs PCSS was larger than 10{sup 6} shots. The results show that this structure reduces the on-state resistance and extends the longevity of the GaAs PCSS.« less

  12. Hybridization and extinction.

    PubMed

    Todesco, Marco; Pascual, Mariana A; Owens, Gregory L; Ostevik, Katherine L; Moyers, Brook T; Hübner, Sariel; Heredia, Sylvia M; Hahn, Min A; Caseys, Celine; Bock, Dan G; Rieseberg, Loren H

    2016-08-01

    Hybridization may drive rare taxa to extinction through genetic swamping, where the rare form is replaced by hybrids, or by demographic swamping, where population growth rates are reduced due to the wasteful production of maladaptive hybrids. Conversely, hybridization may rescue the viability of small, inbred populations. Understanding the factors that contribute to destructive versus constructive outcomes of hybridization is key to managing conservation concerns. Here, we survey the literature for studies of hybridization and extinction to identify the ecological, evolutionary, and genetic factors that critically affect extinction risk through hybridization. We find that while extinction risk is highly situation dependent, genetic swamping is much more frequent than demographic swamping. In addition, human involvement is associated with increased risk and high reproductive isolation with reduced risk. Although climate change is predicted to increase the risk of hybridization-induced extinction, we find little empirical support for this prediction. Similarly, theoretical and experimental studies imply that genetic rescue through hybridization may be equally or more probable than demographic swamping, but our literature survey failed to support this claim. We conclude that halting the introduction of hybridization-prone exotics and restoring mature and diverse habitats that are resistant to hybrid establishment should be management priorities.

  13. Study of subband electronic structure of Si δ-doped GaAs using magnetotransport measurements in tilted magnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, G.; Hauser, N.; Jagadish, C.; Antoszewski, J.; Xu, W.

    1996-06-01

    Si δ-doped GaAs grown by metal organic vapor phase epitaxy (MOVPE) is characterized using magnetotransport measurements in tilted magnetic fields. Angular dependence of the longitudinal magnetoresistance (Rxx) vs the magnetic field (B) traces in tilted magnetic fields is used to examine the existence of a quasi-two-dimensional electron gas. The subband electron densities (ni) are obtained applying fast Fourier transform (FFT) analysis to the Rxx vs B trace and using mobility spectrum (MS) analysis of the magnetic field dependent Hall data. Our results show that (1) the subband electron densities remain roughly constant when the tilted magnetic field with an angle <30° measured from the Si δ-doped plane normal is ramped up to 13 T; (2) FFT analysis of the Rxx vs B trace and MS analysis of the magnetic field dependent Hall data both give the comparable results on subband electron densities of Si δ-doped GaAs with low δ-doping concentration, however, for Si δ-doped GaAs with very high δ-doping concentration, the occupation of the lowest subbands cannot be well resolved in the MS analysis; (3) the highest subband electron mobility reported to date of 45 282 cm2/s V is observed in Si δ-doped GaAs at 77 K in the dark; and (4) the subband electron densities of Si δ-doped GaAs grown by MOVPE at 700 °C are comparable to those grown by MBE at temperatures below 600 °C. A detailed study of magnetotransport properties of Si δ-doped GaAs in the parallel magnetic fields is then carried out to further confirm the subband electronic structures revealed by FFT and MS analysis. Our results are compared to theoretical calculation previously reported in literature. In addition, influence of different cap layer structures on subband electronic structures of Si δ-doped GaAs is observed and also discussed.

  14. The GAAS metagenomic tool and its estimations of viral and microbial average genome size in four major biomes.

    PubMed

    Angly, Florent E; Willner, Dana; Prieto-Davó, Alejandra; Edwards, Robert A; Schmieder, Robert; Vega-Thurber, Rebecca; Antonopoulos, Dionysios A; Barott, Katie; Cottrell, Matthew T; Desnues, Christelle; Dinsdale, Elizabeth A; Furlan, Mike; Haynes, Matthew; Henn, Matthew R; Hu, Yongfei; Kirchman, David L; McDole, Tracey; McPherson, John D; Meyer, Folker; Miller, R Michael; Mundt, Egbert; Naviaux, Robert K; Rodriguez-Mueller, Beltran; Stevens, Rick; Wegley, Linda; Zhang, Lixin; Zhu, Baoli; Rohwer, Forest

    2009-12-01

    Metagenomic studies characterize both the composition and diversity of uncultured viral and microbial communities. BLAST-based comparisons have typically been used for such analyses; however, sampling biases, high percentages of unknown sequences, and the use of arbitrary thresholds to find significant similarities can decrease the accuracy and validity of estimates. Here, we present Genome relative Abundance and Average Size (GAAS), a complete software package that provides improved estimates of community composition and average genome length for metagenomes in both textual and graphical formats. GAAS implements a novel methodology to control for sampling bias via length normalization, to adjust for multiple BLAST similarities by similarity weighting, and to select significant similarities using relative alignment lengths. In benchmark tests, the GAAS method was robust to both high percentages of unknown sequences and to variations in metagenomic sequence read lengths. Re-analysis of the Sargasso Sea virome using GAAS indicated that standard methodologies for metagenomic analysis may dramatically underestimate the abundance and importance of organisms with small genomes in environmental systems. Using GAAS, we conducted a meta-analysis of microbial and viral average genome lengths in over 150 metagenomes from four biomes to determine whether genome lengths vary consistently between and within biomes, and between microbial and viral communities from the same environment. Significant differences between biomes and within aquatic sub-biomes (oceans, hypersaline systems, freshwater, and microbialites) suggested that average genome length is a fundamental property of environments driven by factors at the sub-biome level. The behavior of paired viral and microbial metagenomes from the same environment indicated that microbial and viral average genome sizes are independent of each other, but indicative of community responses to stressors and environmental conditions.

  15. Characteristic measurement for femtosecond laser pulses using a GaAs PIN photodiode as a two-photon photovoltaic receiver

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Junbao; Xia, Wei; Wang, Ming

    2017-06-01

    Photodiodes that exhibit a two-photon absorption effect within the spectral communication band region can be useful for building an ultra-compact autocorrelator for the characteristic inspection of optical pulses. In this work, we develop an autocorrelator for measuring the temporal profile of pulses at 1550 nm from an erbium-doped fiber laser based on the two-photon photovoltaic (TPP) effect in a GaAs PIN photodiode. The temporal envelope of the autocorrelation function contains two symmetrical temporal side lobes due to the third order dispersion of the laser pulses. Moreover, the joint time-frequency distribution of the dispersive pulses and the dissimilar two-photon response spectrum of GaAs and Si result in different delays for the appearance of the temporal side lobes. Compared with Si, GaAs displays a greater sensitivity for pulse shape reconstruction at 1550 nm, benefiting from the higher signal-to-noise ratio of the side lobes and the more centralized waveform of the autocorrelation trace. We also measure the pulse width using the GaAs PIN photodiode, and the resolution of the measured full width at half maximum of the TPP autocorrelation trace is 0.89 fs, which is consistent with a conventional second-harmonic generation crystal autocorrelator. The GaAs PIN photodiode is shown to be highly suitable for real-time second-order autocorrelation measurements of femtosecond optical pulses. It is used both for the generation and detection of the autocorrelation signal, allowing the construction of a compact and inexpensive intensity autocorrelator.

  16. ZnO Films on {001}-Cut <110>-Propagating GaAs Substrates for Surface Acoustic Wave Device Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Yoonkee; Hunt, William D.; Hickernell, Frederick S.; Higgins, Robert J.; Jen, Cheng-Kuei

    1995-01-01

    A potential application for piezoelectric films on GaAs substrates is the monolithic integration of surface acoustic wave (SAW) devices with GaAs electronics. Knowledge of the SAW properties of the layered structure is critical for the optimum and accurate design of such devices. The acoustic properties of ZnO films sputtered on {001}-cut <110> -propagating GaAs substrates are investigated in this article, including SAW Velocity effective piezoelectric coupling constant, propagation loss. diffraction, velocity surface, and reflectivity of shorted and open metallic gratings. The measurements of these essential SAW properties for the frequency range between 180 and 360 MHz have been performed using a knife-edge laser probe for film thicknesses over the range of 1.6-4 micron and with films or different grain sizes. The high quality of dc triode sputtered films was observed as evidenced by high K(exp 2) and low attenuation. The measurements of the velocity surface, which directly affects the SAW diffraction, on the bare and metalized ZnO on SiO2, or Si3N4 on {001}-cut GaAs samples are reported using two different techniques: 1) knife-edge laser probe, 2) line-focus-beam scanning acoustic microscope. It was found that near the <110> propagation direction, the focusing SAW property of the bare GaAs changes into a nonfocusing one for the layered structure, but a reversed phenomenon exists near the <100> direction. Furthermore, to some extent the diffraction of the substrate can be controlled with the film thickness. The reflectivity of shorted and open gratings are also analyzed and measured. Zero reflectivity is observed for a shorted grating. There is good agreement between the measured data and theoretical values.

  17. Detecting Fermi-level shifts by Auger electron spectroscopy in Si and GaAs

    SciTech Connect

    Debehets, J.; Homm, P.; Menghini, M.

    In this paper, changes in surface Fermi-level of Si and GaAs, caused by doping and cleaning, are investigated by Auger electron spectroscopy. Based on the Auger voltage contrast, we compared the Auger transition peak energy but with higher accuracy by using a more accurate detector and an improved peak position determination method. For silicon, a peak shift as large as 0.46 eV was detected when comparing a cleaned p-type and n-type wafer, which corresponds rather well with the theoretical difference in Fermi-level. If no cleaning was applied, the peak position did not differ significantly for both wafer types, indicating Fermi-levelmore » pinning in the band gap. For GaAs, peak shifts were detected after cleaning with HF and (NH4)2S-solutions in an inert atmosphere (N2-gas). Although the (NH4)2S-cleaning in N2 is very efficient in removing the oxygen from the surface, the observed Ga- and As-peak shifts are smaller than those obtained after the HF-cleaning. It is shown that the magnitude of the shift is related to the surface composition. After Si-deposition on the (NH4)2S-cleaned surface, the Fermi-level shifts back to a similar position as observed for an as-received wafer, indicating that this combination is not successful in unpinning the Fermi-level of GaAs. This work has been funded by J.D.'s PhD fellowship of the Fund of Scientific Research-Flanders (FWO-V) (Dossier No. 11U4516N). P.H. acknowledges support from Becas Chile-CONICYT. This research was also supported by the FWO Odysseus Program, the Belgian Hercules Stichting with the Project No. Her/08/25 and AKUL/13/19 and the KU Leuven project GOA "Fundamental challenges in Semiconductor Research". The authors would also like to thank Bastiaan Opperdoes and Ludwig Henderix for technical support. The work was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy (USDOE), Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Division of Materials Sciences and Engineering, and performed in the Environmental Molecular

  18. Hybrid photonic signal processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghauri, Farzan Naseer

    This thesis proposes research of novel hybrid photonic signal processing systems in the areas of optical communications, test and measurement, RF signal processing and extreme environment optical sensors. It will be shown that use of innovative hybrid techniques allows design of photonic signal processing systems with superior performance parameters and enhanced capabilities. These applications can be divided into domains of analog-digital hybrid signal processing applications and free-space---fiber-coupled hybrid optical sensors. The analog-digital hybrid signal processing applications include a high-performance analog-digital hybrid MEMS variable optical attenuator that can simultaneously provide high dynamic range as well as high resolution attenuation controls; an analog-digital hybrid MEMS beam profiler that allows high-power watt-level laser beam profiling and also provides both submicron-level high resolution and wide area profiling coverage; and all optical transversal RF filters that operate on the principle of broadband optical spectral control using MEMS and/or Acousto-Optic tunable Filters (AOTF) devices which can provide continuous, digital or hybrid signal time delay and weight selection. The hybrid optical sensors presented in the thesis are extreme environment pressure sensors and dual temperature-pressure sensors. The sensors employ hybrid free-space and fiber-coupled techniques for remotely monitoring a system under simultaneous extremely high temperatures and pressures.

  19. Microwave Hybrid Integrated Circuit Applicatins of High Transition Temperature Superconductor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Shih-Lin

    This research work involves microwave characterization of high Tc superconducting (HTS) thin film using microstrip ring resonators, studying the nonlinear properties of HTS thin film transmission lines using two-tone intermodulation technique, coupling mechanisms and coupling factors of microstrip ring resonators side coupled to a microstrip line, two-port S-parameters measurements of GaAs MESFET at low temperature, and the design and implementation of hybrid ring resonator stabilized microwave oscillator using both metal films and superconducting films. A microstrip ring resonators operating at 10 GHz have been fabricated from YBCO HTS thin films deposited on one side of LaAl_2O_3 substrates. Below 60^circ Kelvin the measured unloaded Q of the HTS thin film microstrip ring resonators are more than 1.5 times that of gold film resonators. The two distinct but very close resonance peaks of a ring resonator side coupled to a microstrip line are experimentally identified as due to odd-mode and even-mode coupling. These two mechanisms have different characteristic equivalent circuit models and lead to different coupling coefficients and loaded resonance frequencies. The coupling factors for the two coupling modes are calculated using piecewise coupled line approximations. The two-port S-parameters measurement techniques and GaAs MESFET low temperature DC and microwave characteristics have been investigated. A system errors model including the errors caused by the line constriction at low temperature has been proposed and a temperature errors correction procedure has been developed for the two-port microwave S-parameters measurements at low temperature. The measured GaAs MESFET DC characteristics shows a 20% increase in transconductance at 77^circ K. There is also a 2 db increase in /S21/ at 77^circ K. The microwave oscillator stabilized with both metal and HTS thin film ring resonators have been studied. The tuning ability of the oscillator by a varactor diode has also

  20. Real-time observation of FIB-created dots and ripples on GaAs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rose, F.; Fujita, H.; Kawakatsu, H.

    2008-01-01

    We report a phenomenological study of Ga dots and ripples created by a focused ion beam (FIB) on the GaAs(001) surface. Real-time observation of dot diffusion and ripple formation was made possible by recording FIB movies. In the case of FIB irradiation with a 40 nA current of Ga+ ions accelerated under 40 kV with an incidence angle of θ = 30°, increasing ion dose gives rise to three different regimes. In Regime 1, dots with lateral sizes in the range 50-460 nm are formed. Dots diffuse under continuous sputtering. In Regime 2, dots self-assemble into Bradley and Harper (BH) type ripples with a pseudo-period of λ = 1150 ± 25 nm. In Regime 3, ripples are eroded and the surface topology evolves into microplanes. In the case of normal incidence, FIB sputtering leads only to the formation of dots, without surface rippling.