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Sample records for gaba loss dopamine

  1. Enhanced GABA Transmission Drives Bradykinesia Following Loss of Dopamine D2 Receptor Signaling.

    PubMed

    Lemos, Julia C; Friend, Danielle M; Kaplan, Alanna R; Shin, Jung Hoon; Rubinstein, Marcelo; Kravitz, Alexxai V; Alvarez, Veronica A

    2016-05-18

    Bradykinesia is a prominent phenotype of Parkinson's disease, depression, and other neurological conditions. Disruption of dopamine (DA) transmission plays an important role, but progress in understanding the exact mechanisms driving slowness of movement has been impeded due to the heterogeneity of DA receptor distribution on multiple cell types within the striatum. Here we show that selective deletion of DA D2 receptors (D2Rs) from indirect-pathway medium spiny neurons (iMSNs) is sufficient to impair locomotor activity, phenocopying DA depletion models of Parkinson's disease, despite this mouse model having intact DA transmission. There was a robust enhancement of GABAergic transmission and a reduction of in vivo firing in striatal and pallidal neurons. Mimicking D2R signaling in iMSNs with Gi-DREADDs restored the level of tonic GABAergic transmission and rescued the motor deficit. These findings indicate that DA, through D2R activation in iMSNs, regulates motor output by constraining the strength of GABAergic transmission.

  2. Extrasynaptic release of GABA and dopamine by retinal dopaminergic neurons

    PubMed Central

    Hirasawa, Hajime; Contini, Massimo; Raviola, Elio

    2015-01-01

    In the mouse retina, dopaminergic amacrine (DA) cells synthesize both dopamine and GABA. Both transmitters are released extrasynaptically and act on neighbouring and distant retinal neurons by volume transmission. In simultaneous recordings of dopamine and GABA release from isolated perikarya of DA cells, a proportion of the events of dopamine and GABA exocytosis were simultaneous, suggesting co-release. In addition, DA cells establish GABAergic synapses onto AII amacrine cells, the neurons that transfer rod bipolar signals to cone bipolars. GABAA but not dopamine receptors are clustered in the postsynaptic membrane. Therefore, dopamine, irrespective of its site of release—synaptic or extrasynaptic—exclusively acts by volume transmission. Dopamine is released upon illumination and sets the gain of retinal neurons for vision in bright light. The GABA released at DA cells' synapses probably prevents signals from the saturated rods from entering the cone pathway when the dark-adapted retina is exposed to bright illumination. The GABA released extrasynaptically by DA and other amacrine cells may set a ‘GABAergic tone’ in the inner plexiform layer and thus counteract the effects of a spillover of glutamate released at the bipolar cell synapses of adjacent OFF and ON strata, thus preserving segregation of signals between ON and OFF pathways. PMID:26009765

  3. Mu opioid receptor modulation of somatodendritic dopamine overflow: GABA and glutamatergic mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Chefer, V.I.; Denoroy, L.; Zapata, A.; Shippenberg, T.S.

    2009-01-01

    Mu opioid receptor (MOR) regulation of somatodendritic dopamine neurotransmission in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) was investigated using conventional microdialysis in freely moving rats and mice. Reverse dialysis of the MOR agonist, DAMGO (50, 100 μM), into the VTA of rats produced a concentration-dependent increase in dialysate DA concentrations. Basal dopamine overflow in the VTA was unaltered in mice lacking the MOR gene. However, basal GABA overflow in these animals was significantly increased, while glutamate overflow was decreased. Intra-VTA perfusion of DAMGO to wildtype (WT) mice increased dopamine overflow. GABA concentrations were decreased whereas glutamate concentrations in the VTA were unaltered. Consistent with the loss of MOR, no effect of DAMGO was observed in MOR knockout (KO) mice. These data provide the first direct demonstration of tonically active MOR systems in the VTA that regulate basal glutamatergic and GABAergic neurotransmission in this region. We hypothesize that increased GABAergic neurotransmission following constitutive deletion of MOR is due to the elimination of a tonic inhibitory influence of MOR on GABA neurons in the VTA, whereas decreased glutamatergic neurotransmission in MOR KO mice is a consequence of intensified GABA tone on glutamatergic neurons and/or terminals. As a consequence, somatodendritic dopamine release is unaltered. Furthermore, MOR KO exhibit no positive correlation between basal dopamine levels and the glutamate/GABA ratio observed in WT animals. Together our findings indicate a critical role of VTA MOR in maintaining an intricate balance between excitatory and inhibitory inputs to dopaminergic neurons. PMID:19614973

  4. Glutamate-dopamine-GABA interactions in the aging basal ganglia.

    PubMed

    Mora, Francisco; Segovia, Gregorio; Del Arco, Alberto

    2008-08-01

    The study of neurotransmitter interactions gives a better understanding of the physiology of specific circuits in the brain. In this review we focus mostly on our own results on the interaction of the neurotransmitters glutamate, dopamine and GABA in the basal ganglia during the normal process of aging. We review first the studies on the action of endogenous glutamate on the extracellular concentrations of dopamine and GABA in the neostriatum and nucleus accumbens during aging. It was found that there exists an age-related change in the interaction of glutamate, dopamine and GABA and that these effects of aging exhibit a dorsal-to-ventral pattern of effects with no changes in the dorsal parts (dorsal striatum) and changes in the most ventral parts (nucleus accumbens). Second we reviewed the data on the effects of different ionotropic and metabotropic glutamate receptor agonists on the extracellular concentrations of dopamine and GABA in the nucleus accumbens. The results obtained clearly show the different contribution of each glutamate receptor subtype in the age-related changes produced on the interaction of glutamate, dopamine and GABA in this area of the brain. Third the effects of an enriched environment on the action of AMPA and NMDA-receptor agonists in the nucleus accumbens of rats during aging are also evaluated. Finally, and since the nucleus accumbens has been suggested to play a role in emotion and motivation and also motor behaviour, we speculated on the possibility of a specific contribution for the different glutamatergic pathways terminating in the nucleus accumbens and their interaction with a decreased dopamine playing a relevant role in motor behaviour during aging.

  5. Striatal cholinergic interneurons Drive GABA release from dopamine terminals.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Alexandra B; Hammack, Nora; Yang, Cindy F; Shah, Nirao M; Seal, Rebecca P; Kreitzer, Anatol C

    2014-04-01

    Striatal cholinergic interneurons are implicated in motor control, associative plasticity, and reward-dependent learning. Synchronous activation of cholinergic interneurons triggers large inhibitory synaptic currents in dorsal striatal projection neurons, providing one potential substrate for control of striatal output, but the mechanism for these GABAergic currents is not fully understood. Using optogenetics and whole-cell recordings in brain slices, we find that a large component of these inhibitory responses derive from action-potential-independent disynaptic neurotransmission mediated by nicotinic receptors. Cholinergically driven IPSCs were not affected by ablation of striatal fast-spiking interneurons but were greatly reduced after acute treatment with vesicular monoamine transport inhibitors or selective destruction of dopamine terminals with 6-hydroxydopamine, indicating that GABA release originated from dopamine terminals. These results delineate a mechanism in which striatal cholinergic interneurons can co-opt dopamine terminals to drive GABA release and rapidly inhibit striatal output neurons.

  6. Trans-synaptic (GABA-dopamine) modulation of cocaine induced dopamine release: A potential therapeutic strategy for cocaine abuse

    SciTech Connect

    Dewey, S.L.; Straughter-Moore, R.; Chen, R.

    1995-05-01

    We recently developed a new experimental strategy for measuring interactions between functionally-linked neurotransmitter systems in the primate and human brain with PET. As part of this research, we demonstrated that increases in endogenous GABA concentrations significantly reduced striatal dopamine concentrations in the primate brain. We report here the application of the neurotransmitter interaction paradigm with PET and with microdialysis to the investigation of a novel therapeutic strategy for treating cocaine abuse based on the ability of GABA to inhibit cocaine induced increases in striatal dopamine. Using gamma-vinyl GABA (GVG, a suicide inhibitor of GABA transaminase), we performed a series of PET studies where animals received a baseline PET scan with labeled raclopride injection, animals received cocaine (2.0 mg/kg). Normally, a cocaine challenge significantly reduces the striatal binding of {sup 11}C-raclopride. However, in animals pretreated with GVG, {sup 11}C-raclopride binding was less affected by a cocaine challenge compared to control studies. Furthermore, microdialysis studies in freely moving rats demonstrate that GVG (300 mg/kg) significantly inhibited cocaine-induced increases in extracellular dopamine release. GVG also attenuated cocaine-induced increases in locomotor activity. However, at a dose of 100 mg/kg, GVG had no effect. Similar findings were obtained with alcohol. Alcohol pretreatment dose dependantly (1-4 g/kg) inhibited cocaine-induced increases in extracellular dopamine concentrations in freely moving rats. Taken together, these studies suggest that therapeutic strategies targeted at increasing central GABA concentrations may be beneficial for the treatment of cocaine abuse.

  7. VTA GABA neurons modulate specific learning behaviors through the control of dopamine and cholinergic systems

    PubMed Central

    Creed, Meaghan C.; Ntamati, Niels R.; Tan, Kelly R.

    2014-01-01

    The mesolimbic reward system is primarily comprised of the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and the nucleus accumbens (NAc) as well as their afferent and efferent connections. This circuitry is essential for learning about stimuli associated with motivationally-relevant outcomes. Moreover, addictive drugs affect and remodel this system, which may underlie their addictive properties. In addition to dopamine (DA) neurons, the VTA also contains approximately 30% γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) neurons. The task of signaling both rewarding and aversive events from the VTA to the NAc has mostly been ascribed to DA neurons and the role of GABA neurons has been largely neglected until recently. GABA neurons provide local inhibition of DA neurons and also long-range inhibition of projection regions, including the NAc. Here we review studies using a combination of in vivo and ex vivo electrophysiology, pharmacogenetic and optogenetic manipulations that have characterized the functional neuroanatomy of inhibitory circuits in the mesolimbic system, and describe how GABA neurons of the VTA regulate reward and aversion-related learning. We also discuss pharmacogenetic manipulation of this system with benzodiazepines (BDZs), a class of addictive drugs, which act directly on GABAA receptors located on GABA neurons of the VTA. The results gathered with each of these approaches suggest that VTA GABA neurons bi-directionally modulate activity of local DA neurons, underlying reward or aversion at the behavioral level. Conversely, long-range GABA projections from the VTA to the NAc selectively target cholinergic interneurons (CINs) to pause their firing and temporarily reduce cholinergic tone in the NAc, which modulates associative learning. Further characterization of inhibitory circuit function within and beyond the VTA is needed in order to fully understand the function of the mesolimbic system under normal and pathological conditions. PMID:24478655

  8. GABA and Dopamine Release from Different Brain Regions in Mice with Chronic Exposure to Organophosphate Methamidophos

    PubMed Central

    Noriega-Ortega, Blanca Rosa; Armienta-Aldana, Ernesto; Cervantes-Pompa, José Ángel; Armienta-Aldana, Eduardo; Hernández-Ruíz, Enrique; Chaparro-Huerta, Verónica; Bravo-Cuellar, Alejandro; Beas-Zárate, Carlos

    2011-01-01

    Organophosphates such as methamidophos, usually used in the agricultural field, have harmful effects on humans. Exposures to insecticides has been associated with many disorders, including damage to the central and peripheral nervous system. Chronic exposure to organophosphates may lead to persistent neurological and neurobehavioral effects. This study was conducted to determine the effect of methamidophos on [3H]-dopamine (DA) and gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA) release from different brain regions after chronic exposure to it for 3, 6 or 9 months. After a six-month methamidophos treatment, the mice showed high susceptibility to convulsive seizures and a reduction in stimulated gamma aminobutyric acid release from the cerebral cortex and hippocampal slices, whereas stimulated (DA) release was slightly decreased from the striatum after three months of methamidophos exposure. The results indicate changes in gamma aminobutyric acid and dopamine neurotransmission, suggesting a specific neuronal damage. PMID:22272056

  9. Brain May Compensate for Dopamine Neuron Loss Early in Parkinson's

    MedlinePlus

    ... More Science News Brain May Compensate for Dopamine Neuron Loss Early in Parkinson’s - May 09 2014 Scientists ... at least 25 percent of the brain’s dopamine neurons already have been lost. So why do symptoms ...

  10. [Modulating effect of dopamine on amplitude of GABA-produced chemocontrolled currents in multipolar spinal cord neurons of ammocaete].

    PubMed

    Bukinich, A A

    2010-01-01

    By using the patch-clamp method in the whole cell configuration, modulating effect of dopamine on GABA-activated currents has been studied on isolated multipolar spinal cord neurons of the ammocaete (larva of the lamprey Lampetra planeri). At application of dopamine (5 microM), there was observed in some cases a decrease of the GABA-activated current, on average, by 33.3 +/- 8.7 (n = 8, p < 0.01), in other cases--an increase of the amplitude, on average, by 37.3 +/- 11.8% (n = 5, p < 0.01). Concentration of GABA amounted to 2 mM. Study of action of agonists of D1- and D2-receptors on amplitude of che-mocontrolled currents has shown that agonist of D1-receptors (+)-SKF-38393 (5 microM) decreases the GABA-activated current amplitude, on average, by 63.1 +/- 11.7% (n = 8, p < 0.01); the agonist of D2-receptors (-)-quinpirole (5 microM) produces in various cells the dopamine-like effects: an increase of the GABA-activated current amplitude, on average, by 61.0 +/- 13.8% (n = 8, p < 0.01) and a decrease of amplitude, on average, by 55.7 +/- 2.0 % (n = 6, p < 0.01). It has been shown that antagonist of D2-receptors sulpiride (5 microM) does not block effects produced by dopamine. The dopamine effects were partially blocked by antagonist of D1-receptors (+)-SCH-23390 (5 microM): a decrease of the GABA-activated amplitude current amounted, on average, to 11.7 +/- 1.8 % (n = 7, p < 0.01), while an increase of amplitude--8.3 +/- 2.0 % (n = 5,p < 0.01). At the same time, effects of agonist of D1-receptors quinpirole (5 microM) were partially blocked by antagonist of D1-receptors (+)-SCH-23390: a decrease of the GABA-activated current amplitude amounted, on average, to 9.2 +/- 3.4 % (n = 6, p < 0.01) and an increase of amplitude--6.3 +/- 1.8 % (n = 10, p < 0.01). The obtained data indicate differences of mechanisms of the receptor-mediated effect of agonists of dopamine receptors on GABA-activated and potential-activated currents of multipolar neurons of the ammocaete spinal

  11. Loss of UBE3A from TH-expressing neurons suppresses GABA co-release and enhances VTA-NAc optical self-stimulation.

    PubMed

    Berrios, Janet; Stamatakis, Alice M; Kantak, Pranish A; McElligott, Zoe A; Judson, Matthew C; Aita, Megumi; Rougie, Marie; Stuber, Garret D; Philpot, Benjamin D

    2016-01-01

    Motivated reward-seeking behaviours are governed by dopaminergic ventral tegmental area projections to the nucleus accumbens. In addition to dopamine, these mesoaccumbal terminals co-release other neurotransmitters including glutamate and GABA, whose roles in regulating motivated behaviours are currently being investigated. Here we demonstrate that loss of the E3-ubiquitin ligase, UBE3A, from tyrosine hydroxylase-expressing neurons impairs mesoaccumbal, non-canonical GABA co-release and enhances reward-seeking behaviour measured by optical self-stimulation. PMID:26869263

  12. Loss of UBE3A from TH-expressing neurons suppresses GABA co-release and enhances VTA-NAc optical self-stimulation.

    PubMed

    Berrios, Janet; Stamatakis, Alice M; Kantak, Pranish A; McElligott, Zoe A; Judson, Matthew C; Aita, Megumi; Rougie, Marie; Stuber, Garret D; Philpot, Benjamin D

    2016-02-12

    Motivated reward-seeking behaviours are governed by dopaminergic ventral tegmental area projections to the nucleus accumbens. In addition to dopamine, these mesoaccumbal terminals co-release other neurotransmitters including glutamate and GABA, whose roles in regulating motivated behaviours are currently being investigated. Here we demonstrate that loss of the E3-ubiquitin ligase, UBE3A, from tyrosine hydroxylase-expressing neurons impairs mesoaccumbal, non-canonical GABA co-release and enhances reward-seeking behaviour measured by optical self-stimulation.

  13. Neuropeptide co-release with GABA may explain functional non-monotonic uncertainty responses in dopamine neurons.

    PubMed

    Tan, Can Ozan; Bullock, Daniel

    2008-01-17

    Co-release of the inhibitory neurotransmitter GABA and the neuropeptide substance-P (SP) from single axons is a conspicuous feature of the basal ganglia, yet its computational role, if any, has not been resolved. In a new learning model, co-release of GABA and SP from axons of striatal projection neurons emerges as a highly efficient way to compute the uncertainty responses that are exhibited by dopamine (DA) neurons when animals adapt to probabilistic contingencies between rewards and the stimuli that predict their delivery. Such uncertainty-related dopamine release appears to be an adaptive phenotype, because it promotes behavioral switching at opportune times. Understanding the computational linkages between SP and DA in the basal ganglia is important, because Huntington's disease is characterized by massive SP depletion, whereas Parkinson's disease is characterized by massive DA depletion.

  14. Concentration-dependent activation of dopamine receptors differentially modulates GABA release onto orexin neurons.

    PubMed

    Linehan, Victoria; Trask, Robert B; Briggs, Chantalle; Rowe, Todd M; Hirasawa, Michiru

    2015-08-01

    Dopamine (DA) and orexin neurons play important roles in reward and food intake. There are anatomical and functional connections between these two cell groups: orexin peptides stimulate DA neurons in the ventral tegmental area and DA inhibits orexin neurons in the hypothalamus. However, the cellular mechanisms underlying the action of DA on orexin neurons remain incompletely understood. Therefore, the effect of DA on inhibitory transmission to orexin neurons was investigated in rat brain slices using the whole-cell patch-clamp technique. We found that DA modulated the frequency of spontaneous and miniature IPSCs (mIPSCs) in a concentration-dependent bidirectional manner. Low (1 μM) and high (100 μM) concentrations of DA decreased and increased IPSC frequency, respectively. These effects did not accompany a change in mIPSC amplitude and persisted in the presence of G-protein signaling inhibitor GDPβS in the pipette, suggesting that DA acts presynaptically. The decrease in mIPSC frequency was mediated by D2 receptors whereas the increase required co-activation of D1 and D2 receptors and subsequent activation of phospholipase C. In summary, our results suggest that DA has complex effects on GABAergic transmission to orexin neurons, involving cooperation of multiple receptor subtypes. The direction of dopaminergic influence on orexin neurons is dependent on the level of DA in the hypothalamus. At low levels DA disinhibits orexin neurons whereas at high levels it facilitates GABA release, which may act as negative feedback to curb the excitatory orexinergic output to DA neurons. These mechanisms may have implications for consummatory and motivated behaviours.

  15. Ventral tegmental area dopamine and GABA neurons: Physiological properties and expression of mRNA for endocannabinoid biosynthetic elements

    PubMed Central

    Merrill, Collin B.; Friend, Lindsey N.; Newton, Scott T.; Hopkins, Zachary H.; Edwards, Jeffrey G.

    2015-01-01

    The ventral tegmental area (VTA) is involved in adaptive reward and motivation processing and is composed of dopamine (DA) and GABA neurons. Defining the elements regulating activity and synaptic plasticity of these cells is critical to understanding mechanisms of reward and addiction. While endocannabinoids (eCBs) that potentially contribute to addiction are known to be involved in synaptic plasticity mechanisms in the VTA, where they are produced is poorly understood. In this study, DA and GABAergic cells were identified using electrophysiology, cellular markers, and a transgenic mouse model that specifically labels GABA cells. Using single-cell RT-qPCR and immunohistochemistry, we investigated mRNA and proteins involved in eCB signaling such as diacylglycerol lipase α, N-acyl-phosphatidylethanolamine-specific phospholipase D, and 12-lipoxygenase, as well as type I metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs). Our results demonstrate the first molecular evidence of colocalization of eCB biosynthetic enzyme and type I mGluR mRNA in VTA neurons. Further, these data reveal higher expression of mGluR1 in DA neurons, suggesting potential differences in eCB synthesis between DA and GABA neurons. These data collectively suggest that VTA GABAergic and DAergic cells have the potential to produce various eCBs implicated in altering neuronal activity or plasticity in adaptive motivational reward or addiction. PMID:26553597

  16. Effects of volatile and intravenous anesthetics on the uptake of GABA, glutamate and dopamine by their transporters heterologously expressed in COS cells and in rat brain synaptosomes.

    PubMed

    Sugimura, M; Kitayama, S; Morita, K; Irifune, M; Takarada, T; Kawahara, M; Dohi, T

    2001-08-01

    Although the neurotransmitter uptake system is considered a possible target for the presynaptic action of anesthetic agents, observations are inconsistent concerning effects on the transporter and their clinical relevance. The present study examined the effects of volatile and intravenous anesthetics on the uptake of GABA, glutamate and dopamine in COS cells heterologously expressing the transporters for these neurotransmitters and in the rat brain synaptosomes. Halothane and isoflurane, but not thiamylal or thiopental, significantly inhibited uptake by COS cell systems of GABA, dopamine and glutamic acid in a concentration-dependent manner within clinically relevant ranges for anesthesia induced by these agents. Similarly, in synaptosomes halothane and isoflurane but not thiopental significantly suppressed the uptake of GABA and glutamic acid, respectively. These results do not support the hypothesis that volatile and intravenous anesthetics exert their action via specific inhibition of GABA uptake to enhance inhibitory GABAergic neuronal activity. Rather, they suggest that presynaptic uptake systems for various neurotransmitters including GABA may be the molecular targets for volatile anesthetic agents.

  17. Cocaine disinhibits dopamine neurons in the ventral tegmental area via use-dependent blockade of GABA neuron voltage-sensitive sodium channels.

    PubMed

    Steffensen, Scott C; Taylor, Seth R; Horton, Malia L; Barber, Elise N; Lyle, Laura T; Stobbs, Sarah H; Allison, David W

    2008-11-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of cocaine on gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and dopamine (DA) neurons in the ventral tegmental area (VTA). Utilizing single-unit recordings in vivo, microelectrophoretic administration of DA enhanced the firing rate of VTA GABA neurons via D2/D3 DA receptor activation. Lower doses of intravenous cocaine (0.25-0.5 mg/kg), or the DA transporter (DAT) blocker methamphetamine, enhanced VTA GABA neuron firing rate via D2/D3 receptor activation. Higher doses of cocaine (1.0-2.0 mg/kg) inhibited their firing rate, which was not sensitive to the D2/D3 antagonist eticlopride. The voltage-sensitive sodium channel (VSSC) blocker lidocaine inhibited the firing rate of VTA GABA neurons at all doses tested (0.25-2.0 mg/kg). Cocaine or lidocaine reduced VTA GABA neuron spike discharges induced by stimulation of the internal capsule (ICPSDs) at dose levels 0.25-2 mg/kg (IC(50) 1.2 mg/kg). There was no effect of DA or methamphetamine on ICPSDs, or of DA antagonists on cocaine inhibition of ICPSDs. In VTA GABA neurons in vitro, cocaine reduced (IC(50) 13 microm) current-evoked spikes and TTX-sensitive sodium currents in a use-dependent manner. In VTA DA neurons, cocaine reduced IPSCs (IC(50) 13 microm), increased IPSC paired-pulse facilitation and decreased spontaneous IPSC frequency, without affecting miniature IPSC frequency or amplitude. These findings suggest that cocaine acts on GABA neurons to reduce activity-dependent GABA release on DA neurons in the VTA, and that cocaine's use-dependent blockade of VTA GABA neuron VSSCs may synergize with its DAT inhibiting properties to enhance mesolimbic DA transmission implicated in cocaine reinforcement.

  18. Acute cocaine exposure weakens GABA(B) receptor-dependent G-protein-gated inwardly rectifying K+ signaling in dopamine neurons of the ventral tegmental area.

    PubMed

    Arora, Devinder; Hearing, Matthew; Haluk, Desirae M; Mirkovic, Kelsey; Fajardo-Serrano, Ana; Wessendorf, Martin W; Watanabe, Masahiko; Luján, Rafael; Wickman, Kevin

    2011-08-24

    Enhanced glutamatergic neurotransmission in dopamine (DA) neurons of the ventral tegmental area (VTA), triggered by a single cocaine injection, represents an early adaptation linked to the more enduring effects of abused drugs that characterize addiction. Here, we examined the impact of in vivo cocaine exposure on metabotropic inhibitory signaling involving G-protein-gated inwardly rectifying K(+) (Girk) channels in VTA DA neurons. Somatodendritic Girk currents evoked by the GABA(B) receptor (GABA(B)R) agonist baclofen were diminished in a dose-dependent manner in mice given a single cocaine injection. This adaptation persisted for 3-4 d, was specific for DA neurons of the VTA, and occurred in parallel with an increase in spontaneous glutamatergic neurotransmission. No additional suppression of GABA(B)R-Girk signaling was observed following repeated cocaine administration. While total Girk2 and GABA(B)R1 mRNA and protein levels were unaltered by cocaine exposure in VTA DA neurons, the cocaine-induced decrease in GABA(B)R-Girk signaling correlated with a reduction in Girk2-containing channels at the plasma membrane in VTA DA neurons. Systemic pretreatment with sulpiride, but not SCH23390 (7-chloro-3-methyl-1-phenyl-1,2,4,5-tetrahydro-3-benzazepin-8-ol), prevented the cocaine-induced suppression of GABA(B)R-Girk signaling, implicating D(2/3) DA receptor activation in this adaptation. The acute cocaine-induced weakening of somatodendritic Girk signaling complements the previously demonstrated cocaine-induced strengthening of glutamatergic neurotransmission, likely contributing to enhanced output of VTA DA neurons during the early stages of addiction. PMID:21865468

  19. A neuron-glia interaction involving GABA Transaminase contributes to sleep loss in sleepless mutants

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Wen-Feng; Maguire, Sarah; Sowcik, Mallory; Luo, Wenyu; Koh, Kyunghee; Sehgal, Amita

    2014-01-01

    Sleep is an essential process and yet mechanisms underlying it are not well understood. Loss of the Drosophila quiver/sleepless (qvr/sss) gene increases neuronal excitability and diminishes daily sleep, providing an excellent model for exploring the underpinnings of sleep regulation. Here, we used a proteomic approach to identify proteins altered in sss brains. We report that loss of sleepless post-transcriptionally elevates the CG7433 protein, a mitochondrial γ-aminobutyric acid transaminase (GABAT), and reduces GABA in fly brains. Loss of GABAT increases daily sleep and improves sleep consolidation, indicating that GABAT promotes wakefulness. Importantly, disruption of the GABAT gene completely suppresses the sleep phenotype of sss mutants, demonstrating that GABAT is required for loss of sleep in sss mutants. While SSS acts in distinct populations of neurons, GABAT acts in glia to reduce sleep in sss flies. Our results identify a novel mechanism of interaction between neurons and glia that is important for the regulation of sleep. PMID:24637426

  20. Increased expression of the dopamine transporter leads to loss of dopamine neurons, oxidative stress and l-DOPA reversible motor deficits.

    PubMed

    Masoud, S T; Vecchio, L M; Bergeron, Y; Hossain, M M; Nguyen, L T; Bermejo, M K; Kile, B; Sotnikova, T D; Siesser, W B; Gainetdinov, R R; Wightman, R M; Caron, M G; Richardson, J R; Miller, G W; Ramsey, A J; Cyr, M; Salahpour, A

    2015-02-01

    The dopamine transporter is a key protein responsible for regulating dopamine homeostasis. Its function is to transport dopamine from the extracellular space into the presynaptic neuron. Studies have suggested that accumulation of dopamine in the cytosol can trigger oxidative stress and neurotoxicity. Previously, ectopic expression of the dopamine transporter was shown to cause damage in non-dopaminergic neurons due to their inability to handle cytosolic dopamine. However, it is unknown whether increasing dopamine transporter activity will be detrimental to dopamine neurons that are inherently capable of storing and degrading dopamine. To address this issue, we characterized transgenic mice that over-express the dopamine transporter selectively in dopamine neurons. We report that dopamine transporter over-expressing (DAT-tg) mice display spontaneous loss of midbrain dopamine neurons that is accompanied by increases in oxidative stress markers, 5-S-cysteinyl-dopamine and 5-S-cysteinyl-DOPAC. In addition, metabolite-to-dopamine ratios are increased and VMAT2 protein expression is decreased in the striatum of these animals. Furthermore, DAT-tg mice also show fine motor deficits on challenging beam traversal that are reversed with l-DOPA treatment. Collectively, our findings demonstrate that even in neurons that routinely handle dopamine, increased uptake of this neurotransmitter through the dopamine transporter results in oxidative damage, neuronal loss and l-DOPA reversible motor deficits. In addition, DAT over-expressing animals are highly sensitive to MPTP-induced neurotoxicity. The effects of increased dopamine uptake in these transgenic mice could shed light on the unique vulnerability of dopamine neurons in Parkinson's disease.

  1. Autoradiographic analysis of 3H-glutamate, 3H-dopamine, and 3H-GABA accumulation in rabbit retina after kainic acid treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Hampton, C.K.; Redburn, D.A.

    1983-01-01

    We have previously reported that exposure of isolated rabbit retina to 10(-3) M kainic acid produces profound morphological changes in specific retinal neurons (Hampton et al, 1981). We noted specific swelling of horizontal cell bodies and neurites, necrosis of cell bodies in the amacrine and ganglion cell layers, and swelling of elements in the inner plexiform layer. We now report a differential sensitivity to kainic acid of specific subclasses of amacrine cells autoradiographically labeled with 3H-glutamate, 3H-GABA, or 3H-dopamine. Three different effects were observed: (1) Labeling of neurons after incubation in 3H-glutamate was uniformly reduced while labeling of glia was much less affected. (2) The accumulation of 3H-dopamine was also decreased by kainic acid in two of the three labeled bands of the inner plexiform layer. The outermost labeled band was insensitive to kainic acid at the highest concentration tested (10(-2) M). These findings provide a basis for the subclassification of dopaminergic amacrine cells into at least two subclasses based on their sensitivity to kainic acid. (3) Kainic acid caused a dramatic increase in the labeling of GABAergic amacrine cell bodies and their terminals. This increased intensity may reflect a compensatory increase in uptake activity in response to kainic acid-induced depletion of endogenous GABA stores. These results confirm the highly toxic nature of kainic acid and demonstrate a high degree of specificity and complexity in its action in the retina.

  2. Discrete regional distribution of biochemical markers for the dopamine, noradrenaline, serotonin, GABA and acetylcholine systems in the monkey brain (Cebus Apella). Effects of stress.

    PubMed

    Häggström, J E; Sjöquist, B; Eckernäs, S A; Ingvast, A; Gunne, L M

    1984-01-01

    Brains from Cebus Apella monkeys have been mapped biochemically using a cryo-section technique which enables exact micro-dissectioning of tissue. Two neurotransmitters; noradrenaline (NA) and gamma-amino-butyric acid (GABA) were measured by gas chromatography-masspectrometry technique. In addition biochemical markers reflecting metabolic activity in the dopamine (homovanillic acid, HVA, 3, 4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid, DOPAC), serotonin (5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid, 5-HIAA), noradrenaline (4-hydroxy-3-methoxy-phenylglycol, HMPG), acetylcholine (choline acetyltransferase, CAT) and GABA (glutamic acid decarboxylase, GAD) transmitter systems were assayed. The distribution of these transmitter markers roughly corresponded to earlier studies in other non-human primates, whereas similar studies on the human brain generally show lower concentrations and enzyme activities. One monkey exposed to severe stress immediately before death deviated from the normal animals with regard to HVA, 5-HIAA, GAD and GABA. For the study of neuroleptic drugs, and notably their neurological side-effects, Cebus Apella monkeys have turned out to be particularly useful. In our laboratory we have employed this species of monkey to develop a model for acute dystonia and tardive dyskinesia (Gunne and Barany 1976, 1979, Barany et al. 1979). As a first step in the topological mapping of brain neuro-chemistry in these animals we here present data from normal monkeys, not treated with neuroleptics. During the ongoing project there was an unplanned "stress experiment" in one monkey, which had a nightly fight with a cage partner and had to be sacrificed the morning after due to severe wounds. The present communication describes a method for obtaining well-defined samples from monkey brains and presents the data on homovanillic acid (HVA), 3.4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC), 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA), noradrenaline (NA), 4-hydroxy-3-methoxy-phenyl glycol (HMPG), choline acetyltransferase (Ch

  3. VMAT2 and dopamine neuron loss in a primate model of Parkinson’s disease

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ming-Kai; Kuwabara, Hiroto; Zhou, Yun; Adams, Robert J.; Brašić, James R.; McGlothan, Jennifer L.; Verina, Tatyana; Burton, Neal C.; Alexander, Mohab; Kumar, Anil; Wong, Dean F.; Guilarte, Tomás R.

    2014-01-01

    We used positron emission tomography (PET) to measure the earliest change in dopaminergic synapses and glial cell markers in a chronic, low-dose MPTP non-human primate model of Parkinson’s disease (PD). In vivo levels of dopamine transporters (DAT), vesicular monoamine transporter-type 2 (VMAT2), amphetamine-induced dopamine release (AMPH-DAR), D2-dopamine receptors (D2R) and translocator protein 18 kDa (TSPO) were measured longitudinally in the striatum of MPTP-treated animals. We report an early (2 months) decrease (46%) of striatal VMAT2 in asymptomatic MPTP animals that preceded changes in DAT, D2R, and AMPH-DAR and was associated with increased TSPO levels indicative of a glial response. Subsequent PET studies showed progressive loss of all pre-synaptic dopamine markers in the striatum with expression of parkinsonism. However, glial cell activation did not track disease progression. These findings indicate that decreased VMAT2 is a key pathogenic event that precedes nigrostriatal dopamine neuron degeneration. The loss of VMAT2 may result from an association with α-synuclein aggregation induced by oxidative stress. Disruption of dopamine sequestration by reducing VMAT2 is an early pathogenic event in the dopamine neuron degeneration that occurs in the MPTP non-human primate model of PD. Genetic or environmental factors that decrease VMAT2 function may be important determinants of PD. PMID:17988241

  4. Cannabinoid agonists stimulate [3H]GABA release in the globus pallidus of the rat when G(i) protein-receptor coupling is restricted: role of dopamine D2 receptors.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, Brenda; Paz, Francisco; Florán, Leonor; Aceves, Jorge; Erlij, David; Florán, Benjamín

    2009-03-01

    The motor effects of cannabinoids in the globus pallidus appear to be caused by increases in interstitial GABA. To elucidate the mechanism of this response, we investigated the effect of the selective cannabinoid type 1 receptor (CB1) cannabinoid agonist arachidonyl-2-chloroethylamide (ACEA) on [(3)H]GABA release in slices of the rat globus pallidus. ACEA had two effects: concentrations between 10(-8) and 10(-6) M stimulated release, whereas higher concentrations (IC(50) approximately 10(-6) M) inhibited it. Another cannabinoid agonist, WIN-55,212-2, also had bimodal effects on release. Studies of cAMP production indicate that under conditions of low G(i/o), availability the coupling of CB1 receptors with G(i/o) proteins can be changed into CB1:G(s/olf) coupling; therefore, we determined the effects of conditions that limit G(i/o) availability on [(3)H]GABA release. Blockers of G(i/o) protein interactions, pertussis toxin and N-ethylmaleimide, transformed the inhibitory effects of ACEA on GABA release into stimulation. It also has been suggested that stimulation of D2 receptors can reduce G(i/o) availability. Blocking D2 receptors with sulpiride [(S)-5-aminosulfonyl-N-[(1-ethyl-2-pyrrolidinyl)methyl]-2-methoxybenzamidersqb] or depleting dopamine with reserpine inhibited the ACEA-induced stimulation of release. Thus, the D2 dependence of stimulation is consistent with the proposal that D2 receptors reduce G(i/o) proteins available for binding to the CB1 receptor. In summary, CB1 receptor activation has dual effects on GABA release in the globus pallidus. Low concentrations stimulate release through a process that depends on activation of dopamine D2 receptors that may limit G(i/o) protein availability. Higher concentrations of cannabinoid inhibit GABA release through mechanisms that are independent of D2 receptor activation.

  5. Plasmalogen Augmentation Reverses Striatal Dopamine Loss in MPTP Mice.

    PubMed

    Miville-Godbout, Edith; Bourque, Mélanie; Morissette, Marc; Al-Sweidi, Sara; Smith, Tara; Mochizuki, Asuka; Senanayake, Vijitha; Jayasinghe, Dushmanthi; Wang, Li; Goodenowe, Dayan; Di Paolo, Thérèse

    2016-01-01

    Plasmalogens are a class of glycerophospholipids shown to play critical roles in membrane structure and function. Decreased plasmalogens are reported in the brain and blood of Parkinson's disease (PD) patients. The present study investigated the hypothesis that augmenting plasmalogens could protect striatal dopamine neurons that degenerate in response to 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) treatment in mice, a PD model. First, in a pre-treatment experiment male mice were treated for 10 days with the docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)-plasmalogen precursor PPI-1011 (10, 50 and 200 mg/kg). On day 5 mice received MPTP and were killed on day 11. Next, in a post-treatment study, male mice were treated with MPTP and then received daily for 5 days PPI-1011 (5, 10 and 50 mg/kg). MPTP treatment reduced serum plasmalogen levels, striatal contents of dopamine (DA) and its metabolites, serotonin, DA transporter (DAT) and vesicular monoamine transporter 2 (VMAT2). Pre-treatment with PPI-1011 (10 and 50 mg/kg) prevented all MPTP-induced effects. Positive correlations were measured between striatal DA contents and serum plasmalogen levels as well as striatal DAT and VMAT2 specific binding. Post-treatment with PPI-1011 prevented all MPTP-induced effects at 50 mg/kg but not at lower doses. Positive correlations were measured between striatal DA contents and serum plasmalogen levels as well as striatal DAT and VMAT2 specific binding in the post-treatment experiment. PPI-1011 treatment (10 days at 5, 10 and 50 mg/kg) of intact mice left unchanged striatal biogenic amine contents. These data demonstrate that treatment with a plasmalogen precursor is capable of protecting striatal dopamine markers in an animal model of PD. PMID:26959819

  6. Plasmalogen Augmentation Reverses Striatal Dopamine Loss in MPTP Mice

    PubMed Central

    Miville-Godbout, Edith; Bourque, Mélanie; Morissette, Marc; Al-Sweidi, Sara; Smith, Tara; Mochizuki, Asuka; Senanayake, Vijitha; Jayasinghe, Dushmanthi; Wang, Li; Goodenowe, Dayan; Di Paolo, Thérèse

    2016-01-01

    Plasmalogens are a class of glycerophospholipids shown to play critical roles in membrane structure and function. Decreased plasmalogens are reported in the brain and blood of Parkinson’s disease (PD) patients. The present study investigated the hypothesis that augmenting plasmalogens could protect striatal dopamine neurons that degenerate in response to 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) treatment in mice, a PD model. First, in a pre-treatment experiment male mice were treated for 10 days with the docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)-plasmalogen precursor PPI-1011 (10, 50 and 200 mg/kg). On day 5 mice received MPTP and were killed on day 11. Next, in a post-treatment study, male mice were treated with MPTP and then received daily for 5 days PPI-1011 (5, 10 and 50 mg/kg). MPTP treatment reduced serum plasmalogen levels, striatal contents of dopamine (DA) and its metabolites, serotonin, DA transporter (DAT) and vesicular monoamine transporter 2 (VMAT2). Pre-treatment with PPI-1011 (10 and 50 mg/kg) prevented all MPTP-induced effects. Positive correlations were measured between striatal DA contents and serum plasmalogen levels as well as striatal DAT and VMAT2 specific binding. Post-treatment with PPI-1011 prevented all MPTP-induced effects at 50 mg/kg but not at lower doses. Positive correlations were measured between striatal DA contents and serum plasmalogen levels as well as striatal DAT and VMAT2 specific binding in the post-treatment experiment. PPI-1011 treatment (10 days at 5, 10 and 50 mg/kg) of intact mice left unchanged striatal biogenic amine contents. These data demonstrate that treatment with a plasmalogen precursor is capable of protecting striatal dopamine markers in an animal model of PD. PMID:26959819

  7. [Immunohistochemical study of CART-peptide in striato-nigral projections at dopamine loss].

    PubMed

    Romanova, I V; Chesnokova, A Iu; Mikhrina, A L

    2012-08-01

    The increase of CART-peptide optical density was found immunohistochemically in nucleus accumbens neurons and in their terminals in substantia nigra in Wistar rats after 28% reduction of dopaminergic neurons in a substantia nigra (in the model of lactacystin induced proteo some disfunction). At the same time after in vitro incubation of nigro-accumbal brain slice with AMPT (alpha-methyl-paratirosine--dopamine inhibitor) for 4 h the reduction of tyrosine hydroxylase optical density (the enzyme limiting dopamine synthesis) in substantia nigr neurons was found and optical density of CART-peptide in nucleus accumbens and substantia nigra was also revealed. In both experiments data about activation of CARTergic neurons in stria to-nigral projections testifies on participation of CART-peptide in compensatory brain mechanisms at dopamine loss and its role as modulator of dopaminergic brain neurons functional activity.

  8. Dopamine D1–D2 Receptor Heteromer in Dual Phenotype GABA/Glutamate-Coexpressing Striatal Medium Spiny Neurons: Regulation of BDNF, GAD67 and VGLUT1/2

    PubMed Central

    Perreault, Melissa L.; Fan, Theresa; Alijaniaram, Mohammed; O'Dowd, Brian F.; George, Susan R.

    2012-01-01

    In basal ganglia a significant subset of GABAergic medium spiny neurons (MSNs) coexpress D1 and D2 receptors (D1R and D2R) along with the neuropeptides dynorphin (DYN) and enkephalin (ENK). These coexpressing neurons have been recently shown to have a region-specific distribution throughout the mesolimbic and basal ganglia circuits. While the functional relevance of these MSNs remains relatively unexplored, they have been shown to exhibit the unique property of expressing the dopamine D1–D2 receptor heteromer, a novel receptor complex with distinct pharmacology and cell signaling properties. Here we showed that MSNs coexpressing the D1R and D2R also exhibited a dual GABA/glutamate phenotype. Activation of the D1R–D2R heteromer in these neurons resulted in the simultaneous, but differential regulation of proteins involved in GABA and glutamate production or vesicular uptake in the nucleus accumbens (NAc), ventral tegmental area (VTA), caudate putamen and substantia nigra (SN). Additionally, activation of the D1R–D2R heteromer in NAc shell, but not NAc core, differentially altered protein expression in VTA and SN, regions rich in dopamine cell bodies. The identification of a MSN with dual inhibitory and excitatory intrinsic functions provides new insights into the neuroanatomy of the basal ganglia and demonstrates a novel source of glutamate in this circuit. Furthermore, the demonstration of a dopamine receptor complex with the potential to differentially regulate the expression of proteins directly involved in GABAergic inhibitory or glutamatergic excitatory activation in VTA and SN may potentially provide new insights into the regulation of dopamine neuron activity. This could have broad implications in understanding how dysregulation of neurotransmission within basal ganglia contributes to dopamine neuronal dysfunction. PMID:22428025

  9. D1 Dopamine Receptor-Mediated LTP at GABA Synapses Encodes Motivation to Self-Administer Cocaine in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Krawczyk, Michal; Mason, Xenos; DeBacker, Julian; Sharma, Robyn; Normandeau, Catherine P.; Hawken, Emily R.; Di Prospero, Cynthia; Chiang, Cindy; Martinez, Audrey; Jones, Andrea A.; Doudnikoff, Évelyne; Caille, Stephanie; Bézard, Erwan; Georges, François; Dumont, Éric C.

    2014-01-01

    Enhanced motivation to take drugs is a central characteristic of addiction, yet the neural underpinning of this maladaptive behavior is still largely unknown. Here, we report a D1-like dopamine receptor (DRD1)-mediated long-term potentiation of GABAA-IPSCs (D1-LTPGABA) in the oval bed nucleus of the stria terminalis that was positively correlated with motivation to self-administer cocaine in rats. Likewise, in vivo intra-oval bed nucleus of the stria terminalis DRD1 pharmacological blockade reduced lever pressing for cocaine more effectively in rats showing enhanced motivation toward cocaine. D1-LTPGABA resulted from enhanced function and expression of G-protein-independent DRD1 coupled to c-Src tyrosine kinases and required local release of neurotensin. There was no D1-LTPGABA in rats that self-administered sucrose, in those with limited cocaine self-administration experience, or in those that received cocaine passively (yoked). Therefore, our study reveals a novel neurophysiological mechanism contributing to individual motivation to self-administer cocaine, a critical psychobiological element of compulsive drug use and addiction. PMID:23864683

  10. Loss of Dopamine D2 Receptors Increases Parvalbumin-Positive Interneurons in the Anterior Cingulate Cortex

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Disruption to dopamine homeostasis during brain development has been implicated in a variety of neuropsychiatric disorders, including depression and schizophrenia. Inappropriate expression or activity of GABAergic interneurons are common features of many of these disorders. We discovered a persistent upregulation of GAD67+ and parvalbumin+ neurons within the anterior cingulate cortex of dopamine D2 receptor knockout mice, while other GABAergic interneuron markers were unaffected. Interneuron distribution and number were not altered in the striatum or in the dopamine-poor somatosensory cortex. The changes were already present by postnatal day 14, indicating a developmental etiology. D2eGFP BAC transgenic mice demonstrated the presence of D2 receptor expression within a subset of parvalbumin-expressing cortical interneurons, suggesting the possibility of a direct cellular mechanism through which D2 receptor stimulation regulates interneuron differentiation or survival. D2 receptor knockout mice also exhibited decreased depressive-like behavior compared with wild-type controls in the tail suspension test. These data indicate that dopamine signaling modulates interneuron number and emotional behavior and that developmental D2 receptor loss or blockade could reveal a potential mechanism for the prodromal basis of neuropsychiatric disorders. PMID:25393953

  11. Loss of Dopamine Phenotype Among Midbrain Neurons in Lesch–Nyhan Disease

    PubMed Central

    Göttle, Martin; Prudente, Cecilia N.; Fu, Rong; Sutcliffe, Diane; Pang, Hong; Cooper, Deborah; Veledar, Emir; Glass, Jonathan D.; Gearing, Marla; Visser, Jasper E.; Jinnah, H. A.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Lesch–Nyhan disease (LND) is caused by congenital deficiency of the purine recycling enzyme, hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (HGprt). Affected patients have a peculiar neurobehavioral syndrome linked with reductions of dopamine in the basal ganglia. The purpose of the current studies was to determine the anatomical basis for the reduced dopamine in human brain specimens collected at autopsy. Methods Histopathological studies were conducted using autopsy tissue from 5 LND cases and 6 controls. Specific findings were replicated in brain tissue from an HGprt-deficient knockout mouse using immunoblots, and in a cell model of HGprt deficiency by flow-activated cell sorting (FACS). Results Extensive histological studies of the LND brains revealed no signs suggestive of a degenerative process or other consistent abnormalities in any brain region. However, neurons of the substantia nigra from the LND cases showed reduced melanization and reduced immunoreactivity for tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), the rate-limiting enzyme in dopamine synthesis. In the HGprt-deficient mouse model, immunohistochemical stains for TH revealed no obvious loss of midbrain dopamine neurons, but quantitative immunoblots revealed reduced TH expression in the striatum. Finally, 10 independent HGprt-deficient mouse MN9D neuroblastoma lines showed no signs of impaired viability, but FACS revealed significantly reduced TH immunoreactivity compared to the control parent line. Interpretation These results reveal an unusual phenomenon in which the neurochemical phenotype of dopaminergic neurons is not linked with a degenerative process. They suggest an important relationship between purine recycling pathways and the neurochemical integrity of the dopaminergic phenotype. PMID:24891139

  12. Brainstem node for loss of consciousness due to GABA(A) receptor-active anesthetics.

    PubMed

    Minert, Anne; Devor, Marshall

    2016-01-01

    The molecular agents that induce loss of consciousness during anesthesia are classically believed to act by binding to cognate transmembrane receptors widely distributed in the CNS and critically suppressing local processing and network connectivity. However, previous work has shown that microinjection of anesthetics into a localized region of the brainstem mesopontine tegmentum (MPTA) rapidly and reversibly induces anesthesia in the absence of global spread. This implies that functional extinction is determined by neural pathways rather than vascular distribution of the anesthetic agent. But does clinical (systemic-induced) anesthesia employ MPTA-linked circuitry? Here we show that cell-selective lesioning of the MPTA in rats does not, in itself, induce anesthesia or coma. However, it increases the systemic dose of pentobarbital required to induce anesthesia, in a manner proportional to the extent of the lesion. Such lesions also affect emergence, extending the duration of anesthesia. Off-target and sham lesions were ineffective. Combined with the prior microinjection data, we conclude that drug delivery to the MPTA is sufficient to induce loss-of-consciousness and that neurons in this locus are necessary for anesthetic induction at clinically relevant doses. Together, the results support an architecture for anesthesia with the MPTA serving as a key node in an endogenous network of dedicated pathways that switch between wake and unconsciousness. As such, the MPTA might also play a role in syncope, concussion and sleep.

  13. Loss of striatal cannabinoid CB1 receptor function in attention-deficit / hyperactivity disorder mice with point-mutation of the dopamine transporter.

    PubMed

    Castelli, Maura; Federici, Mauro; Rossi, Silvia; De Chiara, Valentina; Napolitano, Francesco; Studer, Valeria; Motta, Caterina; Sacchetti, Lucia; Romano, Rosaria; Musella, Alessandra; Bernardi, Giorgio; Siracusano, Alberto; Gu, Howard H; Mercuri, Nicola B; Usiello, Alessandro; Centonze, Diego

    2011-11-01

    Abnormal dopamine (DA) transmission in the striatum plays a pivotal role in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). As striatal DA signalling modulates the endocannabinoid system (ECS), the present study was aimed at investigating cannabinoid CB1 receptor (CB1R) function in a model of ADHD obtained by triple point-mutation in the dopamine transporter (DAT) gene in mice, making them insensitive to cocaine [DAT cocaine-insensitive (DAT-CI) mice]. DAT-CI mice had a marked hyperactive phenotype, and neurophysiological recordings revealed that the sensitivity of CB1Rs controlling GABA-mediated synaptic currents [CB1Rs((GABA)) ] in the striatum was completely lost. In contrast, CB1Rs modulating glutamate transmission [CB1Rs((Glu)) ], and GABA(B) receptors were not affected in this model of ADHD. In DAT-CI mice, the blockade of CB1R((GABA)) function was complete even after cocaine or environmental manipulations activating the endogenous DA-dependent reward system, which are known to sensitize these receptors in control animals. Conversely, the hedonic property of sucrose was intact in DAT-CI mice, indicating normal sweet perception in these animals. Our results point to CB1Rs as novel molecular players in ADHD, and suggest that therapeutic strategies aimed at interfering with the ECS might prove effective in this disorder. PMID:22034972

  14. Loss of striatal cannabinoid CB1 receptor function in attention-deficit / hyperactivity disorder mice with point-mutation of the dopamine transporter.

    PubMed

    Castelli, Maura; Federici, Mauro; Rossi, Silvia; De Chiara, Valentina; Napolitano, Francesco; Studer, Valeria; Motta, Caterina; Sacchetti, Lucia; Romano, Rosaria; Musella, Alessandra; Bernardi, Giorgio; Siracusano, Alberto; Gu, Howard H; Mercuri, Nicola B; Usiello, Alessandro; Centonze, Diego

    2011-11-01

    Abnormal dopamine (DA) transmission in the striatum plays a pivotal role in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). As striatal DA signalling modulates the endocannabinoid system (ECS), the present study was aimed at investigating cannabinoid CB1 receptor (CB1R) function in a model of ADHD obtained by triple point-mutation in the dopamine transporter (DAT) gene in mice, making them insensitive to cocaine [DAT cocaine-insensitive (DAT-CI) mice]. DAT-CI mice had a marked hyperactive phenotype, and neurophysiological recordings revealed that the sensitivity of CB1Rs controlling GABA-mediated synaptic currents [CB1Rs((GABA)) ] in the striatum was completely lost. In contrast, CB1Rs modulating glutamate transmission [CB1Rs((Glu)) ], and GABA(B) receptors were not affected in this model of ADHD. In DAT-CI mice, the blockade of CB1R((GABA)) function was complete even after cocaine or environmental manipulations activating the endogenous DA-dependent reward system, which are known to sensitize these receptors in control animals. Conversely, the hedonic property of sucrose was intact in DAT-CI mice, indicating normal sweet perception in these animals. Our results point to CB1Rs as novel molecular players in ADHD, and suggest that therapeutic strategies aimed at interfering with the ECS might prove effective in this disorder.

  15. Adult Conditional Knockout of PGC-1α Leads to Loss of Dopamine Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Haisong; Zhang, Shuran; Karuppagounder, Senthilkumar; Xu, Jinchong; Pletnikova, Olga; Troncoso, Juan C.; Pirooznia, Shelia; Andrabi, Shaida A.

    2016-01-01

    Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a chronic progressive neurodegenerative disorder. Recent studies have implicated a role for peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator protein-1α (PGC-1α) in PD and in animal or cellular models of PD. The role of PGC-1α in the function and survival of substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc) dopamine neurons is not clear. Here we find that there are four different PGC-1α isoforms expressed in SH-SY5Y cells, and these four isoforms are expressed across subregions of mouse brain. Adult conditional PGC-1α knock-out mice show a significant loss of dopaminergic neurons that is accompanied by a reduction of dopamine in the striatum. In human PD postmortem tissue from the SNpc, there is a reduction of PGC-1α isoforms and mitochondria markers. Our findings suggest that all four isoforms of PGC-1α are required for the proper expression of mitochondrial proteins in SNpc DA neurons and that PGC-1α is essential for SNpc DA neuronal survival, possibly through the maintenance of mitochondrial function. PMID:27622213

  16. Adult Conditional Knockout of PGC-1α Leads to Loss of Dopamine Neurons.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Haisong; Kang, Sung-Ung; Zhang, Shuran; Karuppagounder, Senthilkumar; Xu, Jinchong; Lee, Yong-Kyu; Kang, Bong-Gu; Lee, Yunjong; Zhang, Jianmin; Pletnikova, Olga; Troncoso, Juan C; Pirooznia, Shelia; Andrabi, Shaida A; Dawson, Valina L; Dawson, Ted M

    2016-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a chronic progressive neurodegenerative disorder. Recent studies have implicated a role for peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator protein-1α (PGC-1α) in PD and in animal or cellular models of PD. The role of PGC-1α in the function and survival of substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc) dopamine neurons is not clear. Here we find that there are four different PGC-1α isoforms expressed in SH-SY5Y cells, and these four isoforms are expressed across subregions of mouse brain. Adult conditional PGC-1α knock-out mice show a significant loss of dopaminergic neurons that is accompanied by a reduction of dopamine in the striatum. In human PD postmortem tissue from the SNpc, there is a reduction of PGC-1α isoforms and mitochondria markers. Our findings suggest that all four isoforms of PGC-1α are required for the proper expression of mitochondrial proteins in SNpc DA neurons and that PGC-1α is essential for SNpc DA neuronal survival, possibly through the maintenance of mitochondrial function. PMID:27622213

  17. Living without DAT: Loss and compensation of the dopamine transporter gene in sauropsids (birds and reptiles).

    PubMed

    Lovell, P V; Kasimi, B; Carleton, J; Velho, T A; Mello, C V

    2015-09-14

    The dopamine transporter (DAT) is a major regulator of synaptic dopamine (DA) availability. It plays key roles in motor control and motor learning, memory formation, and reward-seeking behavior, is a major target of cocaine and methamphetamines, and has been assumed to be conserved among vertebrates. We have found, however, that birds, crocodiles, and lizards lack the DAT gene. We also found that the unprecedented loss of this important gene is compensated for by the expression of the noradrenaline transporter (NAT) gene, and not the serotonin transporter genes, in dopaminergic cells, which explains the peculiar pharmacology of the DA reuptake activity previously noted in bird striatum. This unexpected pattern contrasts with that of ancestral vertebrates (e.g. fish) and mammals, where the NAT gene is selectively expressed in noradrenergic cells. DA circuits in birds/reptiles and mammals thus operate with an analogous reuptake mechanism exerted by different genes, bringing new insights into gene expression regulation in dopaminergic cells and the evolution of a key molecular player in reward and addiction pathways.

  18. Living without DAT: Loss and compensation of the dopamine transporter gene in sauropsids (birds and reptiles)

    PubMed Central

    Lovell, P. V.; Kasimi, B.; Carleton, J.; Velho, T. A.; Mello, C. V.

    2015-01-01

    The dopamine transporter (DAT) is a major regulator of synaptic dopamine (DA) availability. It plays key roles in motor control and motor learning, memory formation, and reward-seeking behavior, is a major target of cocaine and methamphetamines, and has been assumed to be conserved among vertebrates. We have found, however, that birds, crocodiles, and lizards lack the DAT gene. We also found that the unprecedented loss of this important gene is compensated for by the expression of the noradrenaline transporter (NAT) gene, and not the serotonin transporter genes, in dopaminergic cells, which explains the peculiar pharmacology of the DA reuptake activity previously noted in bird striatum. This unexpected pattern contrasts with that of ancestral vertebrates (e.g. fish) and mammals, where the NAT gene is selectively expressed in noradrenergic cells. DA circuits in birds/reptiles and mammals thus operate with an analogous reuptake mechanism exerted by different genes, bringing new insights into gene expression regulation in dopaminergic cells and the evolution of a key molecular player in reward and addiction pathways. PMID:26364979

  19. Adult Conditional Knockout of PGC-1α Leads to Loss of Dopamine Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Haisong; Zhang, Shuran; Karuppagounder, Senthilkumar; Xu, Jinchong; Pletnikova, Olga; Troncoso, Juan C.; Pirooznia, Shelia; Andrabi, Shaida A.

    2016-01-01

    Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a chronic progressive neurodegenerative disorder. Recent studies have implicated a role for peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator protein-1α (PGC-1α) in PD and in animal or cellular models of PD. The role of PGC-1α in the function and survival of substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc) dopamine neurons is not clear. Here we find that there are four different PGC-1α isoforms expressed in SH-SY5Y cells, and these four isoforms are expressed across subregions of mouse brain. Adult conditional PGC-1α knock-out mice show a significant loss of dopaminergic neurons that is accompanied by a reduction of dopamine in the striatum. In human PD postmortem tissue from the SNpc, there is a reduction of PGC-1α isoforms and mitochondria markers. Our findings suggest that all four isoforms of PGC-1α are required for the proper expression of mitochondrial proteins in SNpc DA neurons and that PGC-1α is essential for SNpc DA neuronal survival, possibly through the maintenance of mitochondrial function.

  20. Levels of glutamate, aspartate, GABA, and taurine in different regions of the cerebellum after x-irradiation-induced neuronal loss

    SciTech Connect

    Rea, M.A.; McBride, W.J.; Rohde, B.H.

    1981-01-01

    The levels of glutamate (Glu), aspartate (Asp), gamma-amino-n-butyric acid (GABA), and taurine (Tau) were determined in the cortex, molecular layer, and deep nuclei of cerebella of adult rats exposed to X-irradiation at 12-15 days following birth (to prevent the acquisition of late-forming granule cells; 12-15x group) and 8-15 days following birth (to prevent the acquisition of granule and stellate cells; 8-15x group). Also, the levels of the four amino acids were measured in the crude synaptosomal fraction (P2) isolated from the whole cerebella of the control, 12-15x, and 8-15x groups. The level of Glu was significantly decreased by (1) 6-20% in the cerebellar cortex; (2) 15-20% in the molecular layer; and (3) 25-50% in the P2 fraction of the X-irradiated groups relative to control values. The content of Glu in the deep nuclei was not changed by X-irradiation treatment. Regional levels of Asp were unchanged by X-irradiation, while its level in P2 decreased by 15-30% after treatment. The levels of GABA and Tau in the molecular layer, deep nuclei, or P2 were not changed in the experimental groups. However, there was a 15% increase in the levels of GABA and Tau in the cerebellar cortex of the 8-15x group relative to control values. The data support the proposed role of glutamate as the excitatory transmitter released from the cerebellar granule cells but are inconclusive regarding a transmitter role for either Tau or GABA from cerebellar stellate cells.

  1. Loss of mitochondrial fission depletes axonal mitochondria in midbrain dopamine neurons.

    PubMed

    Berthet, Amandine; Margolis, Elyssa B; Zhang, Jue; Hsieh, Ivy; Zhang, Jiasheng; Hnasko, Thomas S; Ahmad, Jawad; Edwards, Robert H; Sesaki, Hiromi; Huang, Eric J; Nakamura, Ken

    2014-10-22

    Disruptions in mitochondrial dynamics may contribute to the selective degeneration of dopamine (DA) neurons in Parkinson's disease (PD). However, little is known about the normal functions of mitochondrial dynamics in these neurons, especially in axons where degeneration begins, and this makes it difficult to understand the disease process. To study one aspect of mitochondrial dynamics-mitochondrial fission-in mouse DA neurons, we deleted the central fission protein dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1). Drp1 loss rapidly eliminates the DA terminals in the caudate-putamen and causes cell bodies in the midbrain to degenerate and lose α-synuclein. Without Drp1, mitochondrial mass dramatically decreases, especially in axons, where the mitochondrial movement becomes uncoordinated. However, in the ventral tegmental area (VTA), a subset of midbrain DA neurons characterized by small hyperpolarization-activated cation currents (Ih) is spared, despite near complete loss of their axonal mitochondria. Drp1 is thus critical for targeting mitochondria to the nerve terminal, and a disruption in mitochondrial fission can contribute to the preferential death of nigrostriatal DA neurons.

  2. Levels of glutamate, aspartate, GABA, and taurine in different regions of the cerebellum after x-irradiation-induced neuronal loss

    SciTech Connect

    Rea, M.A.; McBride, W.J.; Rohde, B.H.

    1981-01-01

    The levels of glutamate (Glu), aspartate (Asp), gamma-amino-n-butyric acid (GABA), and taurine (Tau) were determined in the cortex, molecular layer, and deep nuclei of cerebella of adult rats exposed to x-irradiation at 12 to 15 days following birth (to prevent the acquisition of late-forming granule cells; 12 to 15x group) and 8 to 15 days following birth (to prevent the acquisition of granule and stellate cells; 8 to 15x group). Also, the levels of the four amino acids were measured in the crude synaptosomal fraction (P2) isolated from the whole cerebella of the control, 12 to 15x, and 8 to 15x groups. The level of Glu was significantly decreased by (1) 6 to 20% in the cerebellar cortex; (2) 15 to 20% in the molecular layer; and (3) 25 to 50% in the P2 fraction of the x-irradiated groups relative to control values. The content of Glu in the deep nuclei was not changed by x-irradiation treatment. Regional levels of Asp were unchanged by x-irradiation, while its level in P2 decreased by 15 to 30% after treatment. The levels of GABA and Tau in the molecular layer, deep nuclei, or P2 were not changed in the experimental groups. However, there was a 15% increase in the levels of GABA and Tau in the cerebellar cortex of the 8 to 15x group relative to control values. The data support the proposed role of glutamate as the excitatory transmitter released from the cerebellar granule cells but are inconclusive regarding a transmitter role for either Tau or GBA from cerebellar stellate cells.

  3. Aldehyde dehydrogenase 1a1 mediates a GABA synthesis pathway in midbrain dopaminergic neurons.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jae-Ick; Ganesan, Subhashree; Luo, Sarah X; Wu, Yu-Wei; Park, Esther; Huang, Eric J; Chen, Lu; Ding, Jun B

    2015-10-01

    Midbrain dopamine neurons are an essential component of the basal ganglia circuitry, playing key roles in the control of fine movement and reward. Recently, it has been demonstrated that γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), the chief inhibitory neurotransmitter, is co-released by dopamine neurons. Here, we show that GABA co-release in dopamine neurons does not use the conventional GABA-synthesizing enzymes, glutamate decarboxylases GAD65 and GAD67. Our experiments reveal an evolutionarily conserved GABA synthesis pathway mediated by aldehyde dehydrogenase 1a1 (ALDH1a1). Moreover, GABA co-release is modulated by ethanol (EtOH) at concentrations seen in blood alcohol after binge drinking, and diminished ALDH1a1 leads to enhanced alcohol consumption and preference. These findings provide insights into the functional role of GABA co-release in midbrain dopamine neurons, which may be essential for reward-based behavior and addiction.

  4. Absence of age-related dopamine transporter loss in current cocaine abusers

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, G.J.; Volkow, N.D.; Fischman, M.

    1997-05-01

    The brain dopamine (DA) system appears to play a crucial role in the reinforcing properties of cocaine. Using PET we had previously shown significant decreases in DA D2 receptors but no changes in DA transporters (DAT) in detoxified cocaine abusers (>1 month after last cocaine use). This study evaluates DAT availability in current cocaine abusers (15 male and 5 female; age = 36.2{+-}5.3 years old) using PET and [C-11]cocaine, as a DAT ligand, and compares it to that in 18 male and 2 female age matched normal controls. Cocaine abusers had a history of abusing 4.2{+-}2.8 gm /week of cocaine for an average of 11.0{+-}4.9 years and their last use of cocaine was 5.4{+-}8 days prior to PET study. DAT availability was obtained using the ratio of the distribution volume in the region of interest (caudate, pulamen) to that in cerebellum which is a function of Bmax./Kd.+1. DAT availability in cocaine abusers did not differ to that in normals (N) (C= 1.78{+-}0.14, N= 1.77{+-}0.13). In addition, there were no differences between the groups in the distribution volume or the Kl (plasma to brain transfer constant) measures for [C-11]cocaine. However, in the normals but not in the abusers striatal DAT availability decreased with age (C: r = -0.07, p = 0.76; N: r = -0.55, p < 0.01). Though this study fails to show group differences in DAT availability between normals and current cocaine abusers it indicates a blunting of the age-related decline in DAT availability in the cocaine abusers. Future studies in older cocaine abusers at different time after detoxification arc required in order to assess if cocaine slows the loss of DAT with age or whether these changes reflect compensation to increased DAT blockade and recover with detoxification.

  5. Relationships among rat ultrasonic vocalizations, behavioral measures of striatal dopamine loss, and striatal tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactivity at acute and chronic time points following unilateral 6-hydroxydopamine-induced dopamine depletion.

    PubMed

    Grant, Laura M; Barnett, David G; Doll, Emerald J; Leverson, Glen; Ciucci, Michelle

    2015-09-15

    Voice deficits in Parkinson disease (PD) emerge early in the disease process, but do not improve with standard treatments targeting dopamine. Experimental work in the rat shows that severe and chronic unilateral nigrostriatal dopamine depletion with 6-OHDA results in decreased intensity, bandwidth, and complexity of ultrasonic vocalizations. However, it is unclear if mild/acute dopamine depletion, paralleling earlier stages of PD, results in vocalization deficits, or to what degree vocalization parameters are correlated with other dopamine-dependent indicators of lesion severity or percent of tyrosine hydroxylase (%TH) loss. Here, we assayed ultrasonic vocalizations, forelimb asymmetry, and apomorphine rotations in rats with a range of unilateral dopamine loss resulting from 6-OHDA or vehicle control infusions to the medial forebrain bundle at acute (72 h) and chronic (4 weeks) time points post-infusion. The %TH loss was evaluated at 4 weeks. At 72 h, forelimb asymmetry and %TH loss were significantly correlated, while at 4 weeks, all measures of lesion severity were significantly correlated with each other. Call complexity was significantly correlated with all measures of lesion severity at 72 h but only with %TH loss at 4 weeks. Bandwidth was correlated with forelimb asymmetry at both time points. Duration was significantly correlated with all dopamine depletion measures at 4 weeks. Notably, not all parameters were affected universally or equally across time. These results suggest that vocalization deficits may be a sensitive index of acute and mild catecholamine loss and further underscores the need to characterize the neural mechanisms underlying vocal deficits in PD.

  6. Dopamine receptor loss of function is not protective of rd1 rod photoreceptors in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Hakenewerth, Angela M.; Gardner, Rachel R.; Martak, Joshua G.; Maggio, Virginia M.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose The retinal degeneration (rd1) mouse undergoes a rapid loss of rod photoreceptors due to a defect in the cGMP-phosphodiesterase gene. We have previously demonstrated that dopamine (DA) antagonists or DA depletion blocks photoreceptor degeneration and that DA is necessary for photoreceptor degeneration in the rd1 mouse retinal organ culture model. Antagonists for either D1- or D2-family DA receptors are protective in rd1 organ cultures. Methods To determine whether photoreceptor survival can be increased in vivo in the rd1 mouse, we used both a pharmacological and a genetic approach. The pharmacological approach involved three techniques to administer 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) in an attempt to deplete DA in postnatal mouse retina in vivo. As a genetic alternative, DA receptor signaling was inactivated by crossbreeding rd1 mice to D1, D2, D4, and D5 knockout mice to create four lines of double mutants. Results Pharmacological DA depletion was incomplete due to the limiting size of the postnatal mouse eye and the lethality of systemic inhibition of DA signaling. In all four lines of double mutants, no increase in rod photoreceptor survival was observed. To determine whether protection of rd1 photoreceptors by inhibition of dopaminergic signaling is a result of conditions specific to the organ culture environment, we grew in vitro retinas from the four lines of double mutant mice for four weeks. Again, no increase in photoreceptor survival was seen. Finally, three triple mutants were generated that lacked two DA receptors (D1/D2; D1/D4; and D2/D4) on a rd1 background. In all three cases, rod photoreceptors were not protected from degeneration. Conclusions The dramatic protection of rd1 rod photoreceptors by inhibition of DA signaling in organ culture has not been reproduced in vivo by either a pharmacological approach, due to technical limitations, or by genetic manipulations. The possible role of compensatory effects during retinal development in DA receptor

  7. Genetic reduction of mitochondrial complex I function does not lead to loss of dopamine neurons in vivo.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyung-Wook; Choi, Won-Seok; Sorscher, Noah; Park, Hyung Joon; Tronche, François; Palmiter, Richard D; Xia, Zhengui

    2015-09-01

    Inhibition of mitochondrial complex I activity is hypothesized to be one of the major mechanisms responsible for dopaminergic neuron death in Parkinson's disease. However, loss of complex I activity by systemic deletion of the Ndufs4 gene, one of the subunits comprising complex I, does not cause dopaminergic neuron death in culture. Here, we generated mice with conditional Ndufs4 knockout in dopaminergic neurons (Ndufs4 conditional knockout mice [cKO]) to examine the effect of complex I inhibition on dopaminergic neuron function and survival during aging and on 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) treatment in vivo. Ndufs4 cKO mice did not show enhanced dopaminergic neuron loss in the substantia nigra pars compacta or dopamine-dependent motor deficits over the 24-month life span. These mice were just as susceptible to MPTP as control mice. However, compared with control mice, Ndufs4 cKO mice exhibited an age-dependent reduction of dopamine in the striatum and increased α-synuclein phosphorylation in dopaminergic neurons of the substantia nigra pars compacta. We also used an inducible Ndufs4 knockout mouse strain (Ndufs4 inducible knockout) in which Ndufs4 is conditionally deleted in all cells in adult to examine the effect of adult onset, complex I inhibition on MPTP sensitivity of dopaminergic neurons. The Ndufs4 inducible knockout mice exhibited similar sensitivity to MPTP as control littermates. These data suggest that mitochondrial complex I inhibition in dopaminergic neurons does contribute to dopamine loss and the development of α-synuclein pathology. However, it is not sufficient to cause cell-autonomous dopaminergic neuron death during the normal life span of mice. Furthermore, mitochondrial complex I inhibition does not underlie MPTP toxicity in vivo in either cell autonomous or nonautonomous manner. These results provide strong evidence that inhibition of mitochondrial complex I activity is not sufficient to cause dopaminergic neuron

  8. Temporal lobe cortical pathology and inhibitory GABA interneuron cell loss are associated with seizures in multiple sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Nicholas, Richard; Magliozzi, Roberta; Campbell, Graham; Mahad, Don; Reynolds, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Background: Seizures are recognised in multiple sclerosis (MS), but their true incidence and the mechanism by which they are associated with MS is unclear. Objective: The objective of this paper is to determine the lifetime frequency of seizures in the United Kingdom MS Tissue Bank (UKMSTB) population and any pathological features associated with seizures. Methods: We evaluated 255 individuals from the UKMSTB. A subset underwent analysis of cortical thickness, grey matter lesion (GML) (type and number) and cortical neuronal numbers (total and GABAergic). Results: A total of 37/255 patients had seizures (14.5% lifetime incidence); in 47% they were associated with concurrent infection. In those with seizures, death and wheelchair use occurred earlier and in 59% seizures developed after 15 years of disease. Seizures were associated with Type 1 GMLs and reduced cortical thickness in the middle temporal gyrus. Localised selective GABAergic interneuron loss in layers IV and VI was related to GMLs but was not explained by the presence of inflammation or by mitochondrial dysfunction within Type I GMLs. Conclusion: We confirm that seizure frequency rises in MS. Type I GMLs in the temporal lobe underlie a loss of inhibitory interneurons in cortical layers IV and VI and these changes could together with concurrent infection enhance susceptibility to seizures. PMID:25921040

  9. Age-related Hearing Loss: GABA, Nicotinic Acetylcholine and NMDA Receptor Expression Changes in Spiral Ganglion Neurons of the Mouse

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Xiaolan; Zhu, Xiaoxia; Ding, Bo; Walton, Joseph P.; Frisina, Robert D.; Su, Jiping

    2014-01-01

    Age-related hearing loss – presbycusis – is the number one communication disorder and most prevalent neurodegenerative condition of our aged population. Although speech understanding in background noise is quite difficult for those with presbycusis, there are currently no biomedical treatments to prevent, delay or reverse this condition. A better understanding of the cochlear mechanisms underlying presbycusis will help lead to future treatments. Objectives of the present study were to investigate gamma-amino butyric acid A (GABAA) receptor subunit α1, nicotinic acetylcholine (nACh) receptor subunit β2, and N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor subunit NR1 mRNA and protein expression changes in spiral ganglion neurons of the CBA/CaJ mouse cochlea, that occur in age-related hearing loss, utilizing quantitative immunohistochemistry and semi-quantitative RT-PCR techniques. We found that auditory brainstem response (ABR) thresholds shifted over 40 dB from 3–48 kHz in old mice compared to young adults. DPOAE thresholds also shifted over 40 dB from 6–49 kHz in old mice, and their amplitudes were significantly decreased or absent in the same frequency range. Spiral ganglion neuron (SGN) density decreased with age in basal, middle and apical turns, and SGN density of the basal turn declined the most. A positive correlation was observed between SGN density and ABR wave 1 amplitude. mRNA and protein expression of GABAAR α1 and AChR β2 decreased with age in SGNs in the old mouse cochlea. mRNA and protein expression of NMDAR NR1 increased with age in SGNs of the old mice. These findings demonstrate that there are functionally-relevant age-related changes of GABAAR, nAChR, NMDAR expression in CBA mouse SGNs reflecting their degeneration, which may be related to functional changes in cochlear synaptic transmission with age, suggesting biological mechanisms for peripheral age-related hearing loss. PMID:24316061

  10. Suppression of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) transaminases induces prominent GABA accumulation, dwarfism and infertility in the tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.).

    PubMed

    Koike, Satoshi; Matsukura, Chiaki; Takayama, Mariko; Asamizu, Erika; Ezura, Hiroshi

    2013-05-01

    Tomatoes accumulate γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) at high levels in the immature fruits. GABA is rapidly converted to succinate during fruit ripening through the activities of GABA transaminase (GABA-T) and succinate semialdehyde dehydrogenase (SSADH). Although three genes encoding GABA-T and both pyruvate- and α-ketoglutarate-dependent GABA-T activities have been detected in tomato fruits, the mechanism underlying the GABA-T-mediated conversion of GABA has not been fully understood. In this work, we conducted loss-of-function analyses utilizing RNA interference (RNAi) transgenic plants with suppressed pyruvate- and glyoxylate-dependent GABA-T gene expression to clarify which GABA-T isoforms are essential for its function. The RNAi plants with suppressed SlGABA-T gene expression, particularly SlGABA-T1, showed severe dwarfism and infertility. SlGABA-T1 expression was inversely associated with GABA levels in the fruit at the red ripe stage. The GABA contents in 35S::SlGABA-T1(RNAi) lines were 1.3-2.0 times and 6.8-9.2 times higher in mature green and red ripe fruits, respectively, than the contents in wild-type fruits. In addition, SlGABA-T1 expression was strongly suppressed in the GABA-accumulating lines. These results indicate that pyruvate- and glyoxylate-dependent GABA-T is the essential isoform for GABA metabolism in tomato plants and that GABA-T1 primarily contributes to GABA reduction in the ripening fruits.

  11. Loss of dopamine D2 receptors in Alzheimer's disease with parkinsonism but not Parkinson's or Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Joyce, J N; Murray, A M; Hurtig, H I; Gottlieb, G L; Trojanowski, J Q

    1998-12-01

    A significant proportion of patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) exhibit extrapyramidal features that are referred to as parkinsonism (AD/Park) to distinguish the clinical and pathological features that differ from Parkinson's disease (PD). Previous results from this laboratory have shown that, although the presynaptic components of the dopamine (DA) system are markedly affected in AD/Park, the pathology is not similar to PD (Murray et al. 1995; Joyce et al. 1997). In the present study, we determined whether the parkinsonian symptoms in AD/Park might also reflect changes in numbers of postsynaptic DA receptors. We analyzed the binding of [125I]epidepride biding to DA D2/D3 receptors and [3H]SCH 23390 to D1 receptors by autoradiography in the striatum of six patients with PD, nine patients with AD, seven patients with AD/Park, and 14 neurologically intact control subjects. D2 receptors were reduced in the caudate and putamen of the AD/Park group (by 42 and 27% of controls, respectively) but not reduced in AD or PD. D1 receptors were elevated by 36% in the putamen of the PD group. Dopamine receptor changes are, therefore, not similar in PD, AD, and AD/Park. The elevation in D1 receptors in PD may contribute to the unwanted side effects of L-dopa treatment. The loss of D2 receptors in AD/Park, not observed in AD lacking overt parkinsonian symptomatology, may contribute to the presence of parkinsonian features and lack of responsiveness to L-dopa. PMID:9803423

  12. Loss of D2 dopamine receptor function modulates cocaine-induced glutamatergic synaptic potentiation in the ventral tegmental area.

    PubMed

    Madhavan, Anuradha; Argilli, Emanuela; Bonci, Antonello; Whistler, Jennifer L

    2013-07-24

    Potentiation of glutamate responses is a critical synaptic response to cocaine exposure in ventral tegmental area (VTA) neurons. However, the mechanism by which cocaine exposure promotes potentiation of NMDA receptors (NMDARs) and subsequently AMPA receptors (AMPARs) is not fully understood. In this study we demonstrate that repeated cocaine treatment causes loss of D2 dopamine receptor functional responses via interaction with lysosome-targeting G-protein-associated sorting protein1 (GASP1). We also show that the absence of D2 downregulation in GASP1-KO mice prevents cocaine-induced potentiation of NMDAR currents, elevation of the AMPA/NMDA ratio, and redistribution of NMDAR and AMPAR subunits to the membrane. As a pharmacological parallel, coadministration of the high-affinity D2 agonist, aripiprazole, reduces not only functional downregulation of D2s in response to cocaine but also potentiation of NMDAR and AMPAR responses in wild-type mice. Together these data suggest that functional loss of D2 receptors is a critical mechanism mediating cocaine-induced glutamate plasticity in VTA neurons.

  13. Loss of D2 Dopamine Receptor Function Modulates Cocaine-Induced Glutamatergic Synaptic Potentiation in the Ventral Tegmental Area

    PubMed Central

    Madhavan, Anuradha; Argilli, Emanuela; Bonci, Antonello

    2013-01-01

    Potentiation of glutamate responses is a critical synaptic response to cocaine exposure in ventral tegmental area (VTA) neurons. However, the mechanism by which cocaine exposure promotes potentiation of NMDA receptors (NMDARs) and subsequently AMPA receptors (AMPARs) is not fully understood. In this study we demonstrate that repeated cocaine treatment causes loss of D2 dopamine receptor functional responses via interaction with lysosome-targeting G-protein-associated sorting protein1 (GASP1). We also show that the absence of D2 downregulation in GASP1-KO mice prevents cocaine-induced potentiation of NMDAR currents, elevation of the AMPA/NMDA ratio, and redistribution of NMDAR and AMPAR subunits to the membrane. As a pharmacological parallel, coadministration of the high-affinity D2 agonist, aripiprazole, reduces not only functional downregulation of D2s in response to cocaine but also potentiation of NMDAR and AMPAR responses in wild-type mice. Together these data suggest that functional loss of D2 receptors is a critical mechanism mediating cocaine-induced glutamate plasticity in VTA neurons. PMID:23884939

  14. Loss of D2 dopamine receptor function modulates cocaine-induced glutamatergic synaptic potentiation in the ventral tegmental area.

    PubMed

    Madhavan, Anuradha; Argilli, Emanuela; Bonci, Antonello; Whistler, Jennifer L

    2013-07-24

    Potentiation of glutamate responses is a critical synaptic response to cocaine exposure in ventral tegmental area (VTA) neurons. However, the mechanism by which cocaine exposure promotes potentiation of NMDA receptors (NMDARs) and subsequently AMPA receptors (AMPARs) is not fully understood. In this study we demonstrate that repeated cocaine treatment causes loss of D2 dopamine receptor functional responses via interaction with lysosome-targeting G-protein-associated sorting protein1 (GASP1). We also show that the absence of D2 downregulation in GASP1-KO mice prevents cocaine-induced potentiation of NMDAR currents, elevation of the AMPA/NMDA ratio, and redistribution of NMDAR and AMPAR subunits to the membrane. As a pharmacological parallel, coadministration of the high-affinity D2 agonist, aripiprazole, reduces not only functional downregulation of D2s in response to cocaine but also potentiation of NMDAR and AMPAR responses in wild-type mice. Together these data suggest that functional loss of D2 receptors is a critical mechanism mediating cocaine-induced glutamate plasticity in VTA neurons. PMID:23884939

  15. Striatal dopamine D2/3 receptor availability increases after long-term bariatric surgery-induced weight loss.

    PubMed

    van der Zwaal, Esther M; de Weijer, Barbara A; van de Giessen, Elsmarieke M; Janssen, Ignace; Berends, Frits J; van de Laar, Arnold; Ackermans, Mariette T; Fliers, Eric; la Fleur, Susanne E; Booij, Jan; Serlie, Mireille J

    2016-07-01

    In several studies reduced striatal dopamine D2/3 receptor (D2/3R) availability was reported in obese subjects compared to lean controls. Whether this is a reversible phenomenon remained uncertain. We previously determined the short-term effect of Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery (RYGB) on striatal D2/3R availability (using [(123)I]IBZM SPECT) in 20 morbidly obese women. Striatal D2/3R availability was lower compared to controls at baseline, and remained unaltered after 6 weeks, despite significant weight loss. To determine whether long-term bariatric surgery-induced weight loss normalizes striatal D2/3R binding, we repeated striatal D2/3R binding measurements at least 2 years after RYGB in 14 subjects of the original cohort. In addition, we assessed long-term changes in body composition, eating behavior and fasting plasma levels of leptin, ghrelin, insulin and glucose. Mean body mass index declined from 46±7kg/m(2) to 32±6kg/m(2), which was accompanied by a significant increase in striatal D2/3R availability (p=0.031). Striatal D2/3R availability remained significantly reduced compared to the age-matched controls (BMI 22±2kg/m(2); p=0.01). Changes in striatal D2/3R availability did not correlate with changes in body weight/fat, insulin sensitivity, ghrelin or leptin levels. Scores on eating behavior questionnaires improved and changes in the General Food Craving Questionnaire-State showed a borderline significant correlation with changes in striatal D2/3R availability. These findings show that striatal D2/3R availability increases after long-term bariatric-surgery induced weight loss, suggesting that reduced D2/3R availability in obesity is a reversible phenomenon. PMID:27184782

  16. Dopamine triggers heterosynaptic plasticity.

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, Masago; Otaka, Mami; Huang, Yanhua H; Neumann, Peter A; Winters, Bradley D; Grace, Anthony A; Schlüter, Oliver M; Dong, Yan

    2013-04-17

    As a classic neuromodulator, dopamine has long been thought to modulate, rather than trigger, synaptic plasticity. In contrast, our present results demonstrate that within the parallel projections of dopaminergic and GABAergic terminals from the ventral tegmental area to the nucleus accumbens core (NAcCo), action-potential-activated release of dopamine heterosynaptically triggers LTD at GABAergic synapses, which is likely mediated by activating presynaptically located dopamine D1 class receptors and expressed by inhibiting presynaptic release of GABA. Moreover, this dopamine-mediated heterosynaptic LTD is abolished after withdrawal from cocaine exposure. These results suggest that action-potential-dependent dopamine release triggers very different cellular consequences from those induced by volume release or pharmacological manipulation. Activation of the ventral tegmental area to NAcCo projections is essential for emotional and motivational responses. This dopamine-mediated LTD allows a flexible output of NAcCo neurons, whereas disruption of this LTD may contribute to the rigid emotional and motivational state observed in addicts during cocaine withdrawal.

  17. Detection of Reduced GABA Synthesis Following Inhibition of GABA Transaminase Using in Vivo Magnetic Resonance Signal of [13C]GABA C1

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jehoon; Johnson, Christopher; Shen, Jun

    2009-01-01

    Previous in vivo magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) studies of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) synthesis have relied on 13C label incorporation into GABA C2 from [1-13C] or [1,6-13C2]glucose. In this study, the [13C]GABA C1 signal at 182.3 ppm in the carboxylic/amide spectral region of localized in vivo 13C spectra was detected. GABA-transaminase of rat brain was inhibited by administration of gabaculine after pre-labeling of GABA C1 and its metabolic precursors with exogenous [2,5-13C2]glucose. A subsequent isotope chase experiment was performed by infusing unlabeled glucose, which revealed a markedly slow change in the labeling of GABA C1 accompanying the blockade of the GABA shunt. This slow labeling of GABA at elevated GABA concentration was attributed to the relatively small intercompartmental GABA-glutamine cycling flux that constitutes the main route of 13C label loss during the isotope chase. Because this study showed that using low RF power broadband stochastic proton decoupling is feasible at very high field strength, it has important implications for the development of carboxylic/amide 13C MRS methods to study brain metabolism and neurotransmission in human subjects at high magnetic fields. PMID:19540876

  18. Dopamine synapse is a neuroligin-2-mediated contact between dopaminergic presynaptic and GABAergic postsynaptic structures.

    PubMed

    Uchigashima, Motokazu; Ohtsuka, Toshihisa; Kobayashi, Kazuto; Watanabe, Masahiko

    2016-04-12

    Midbrain dopamine neurons project densely to the striatum and form so-called dopamine synapses on medium spiny neurons (MSNs), principal neurons in the striatum. Because dopamine receptors are widely expressed away from dopamine synapses, it remains unclear how dopamine synapses are involved in dopaminergic transmission. Here we demonstrate that dopamine synapses are contacts formed between dopaminergic presynaptic and GABAergic postsynaptic structures. The presynaptic structure expressed tyrosine hydroxylase, vesicular monoamine transporter-2, and plasmalemmal dopamine transporter, which are essential for dopamine synthesis, vesicular filling, and recycling, but was below the detection threshold for molecules involving GABA synthesis and vesicular filling or for GABA itself. In contrast, the postsynaptic structure of dopamine synapses expressed GABAergic molecules, including postsynaptic adhesion molecule neuroligin-2, postsynaptic scaffolding molecule gephyrin, and GABAA receptor α1, without any specific clustering of dopamine receptors. Of these, neuroligin-2 promoted presynaptic differentiation in axons of midbrain dopamine neurons and striatal GABAergic neurons in culture. After neuroligin-2 knockdown in the striatum, a significant decrease of dopamine synapses coupled with a reciprocal increase of GABAergic synapses was observed on MSN dendrites. This finding suggests that neuroligin-2 controls striatal synapse formation by giving competitive advantage to heterologous dopamine synapses over conventional GABAergic synapses. Considering that MSN dendrites are preferential targets of dopamine synapses and express high levels of dopamine receptors, dopamine synapse formation may serve to increase the specificity and potency of dopaminergic modulation of striatal outputs by anchoring dopamine release sites to dopamine-sensing targets. PMID:27035941

  19. GABA predicts visual intelligence.

    PubMed

    Cook, Emily; Hammett, Stephen T; Larsson, Jonas

    2016-10-01

    Early psychological researchers proposed a link between intelligence and low-level perceptual performance. It was recently suggested that this link is driven by individual variations in the ability to suppress irrelevant information, evidenced by the observation of strong correlations between perceptual surround suppression and cognitive performance. However, the neural mechanisms underlying such a link remain unclear. A candidate mechanism is neural inhibition by gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), but direct experimental support for GABA-mediated inhibition underlying suppression is inconsistent. Here we report evidence consistent with a global suppressive mechanism involving GABA underlying the link between sensory performance and intelligence. We measured visual cortical GABA concentration, visuo-spatial intelligence and visual surround suppression in a group of healthy adults. Levels of GABA were strongly predictive of both intelligence and surround suppression, with higher levels of intelligence associated with higher levels of GABA and stronger surround suppression. These results indicate that GABA-mediated neural inhibition may be a key factor determining cognitive performance and suggests a physiological mechanism linking surround suppression and intelligence. PMID:27495012

  20. Dopamine synapse is a neuroligin-2–mediated contact between dopaminergic presynaptic and GABAergic postsynaptic structures

    PubMed Central

    Uchigashima, Motokazu; Ohtsuka, Toshihisa; Kobayashi, Kazuto; Watanabe, Masahiko

    2016-01-01

    Midbrain dopamine neurons project densely to the striatum and form so-called dopamine synapses on medium spiny neurons (MSNs), principal neurons in the striatum. Because dopamine receptors are widely expressed away from dopamine synapses, it remains unclear how dopamine synapses are involved in dopaminergic transmission. Here we demonstrate that dopamine synapses are contacts formed between dopaminergic presynaptic and GABAergic postsynaptic structures. The presynaptic structure expressed tyrosine hydroxylase, vesicular monoamine transporter-2, and plasmalemmal dopamine transporter, which are essential for dopamine synthesis, vesicular filling, and recycling, but was below the detection threshold for molecules involving GABA synthesis and vesicular filling or for GABA itself. In contrast, the postsynaptic structure of dopamine synapses expressed GABAergic molecules, including postsynaptic adhesion molecule neuroligin-2, postsynaptic scaffolding molecule gephyrin, and GABAA receptor α1, without any specific clustering of dopamine receptors. Of these, neuroligin-2 promoted presynaptic differentiation in axons of midbrain dopamine neurons and striatal GABAergic neurons in culture. After neuroligin-2 knockdown in the striatum, a significant decrease of dopamine synapses coupled with a reciprocal increase of GABAergic synapses was observed on MSN dendrites. This finding suggests that neuroligin-2 controls striatal synapse formation by giving competitive advantage to heterologous dopamine synapses over conventional GABAergic synapses. Considering that MSN dendrites are preferential targets of dopamine synapses and express high levels of dopamine receptors, dopamine synapse formation may serve to increase the specificity and potency of dopaminergic modulation of striatal outputs by anchoring dopamine release sites to dopamine-sensing targets. PMID:27035941

  1. Arithmetic and local circuitry underlying dopamine prediction errors

    PubMed Central

    Eshel, Neir; Bukwich, Michael; Rao, Vinod; Hemmelder, Vivian; Tian, Ju; Uchida, Naoshige

    2015-01-01

    Dopamine neurons are thought to facilitate learning by comparing actual and expected reward1,2. Despite two decades of investigation, little is known about how this comparison is made. To determine how dopamine neurons calculate prediction error, we combined optogenetic manipulations with extracellular recordings in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) while mice engaged in classical conditioning. By manipulating the temporal expectation of reward, we demonstrate that dopamine neurons perform subtraction, a computation that is ideal for reinforcement learning but rarely observed in the brain. Furthermore, selectively exciting and inhibiting neighbouring GABA neurons in the VTA reveals that these neurons are a source of subtraction: they inhibit dopamine neurons when reward is expected, causally contributing to prediction error calculations. Finally, bilaterally stimulating VTA GABA neurons dramatically reduces anticipatory licking to conditioned odours, consistent with an important role for these neurons in reinforcement learning. Together, our results uncover the arithmetic and local circuitry underlying dopamine prediction errors. PMID:26322583

  2. Arithmetic and local circuitry underlying dopamine prediction errors.

    PubMed

    Eshel, Neir; Bukwich, Michael; Rao, Vinod; Hemmelder, Vivian; Tian, Ju; Uchida, Naoshige

    2015-09-10

    Dopamine neurons are thought to facilitate learning by comparing actual and expected reward. Despite two decades of investigation, little is known about how this comparison is made. To determine how dopamine neurons calculate prediction error, we combined optogenetic manipulations with extracellular recordings in the ventral tegmental area while mice engaged in classical conditioning. Here we demonstrate, by manipulating the temporal expectation of reward, that dopamine neurons perform subtraction, a computation that is ideal for reinforcement learning but rarely observed in the brain. Furthermore, selectively exciting and inhibiting neighbouring GABA (γ-aminobutyric acid) neurons in the ventral tegmental area reveals that these neurons are a source of subtraction: they inhibit dopamine neurons when reward is expected, causally contributing to prediction-error calculations. Finally, bilaterally stimulating ventral tegmental area GABA neurons dramatically reduces anticipatory licking to conditioned odours, consistent with an important role for these neurons in reinforcement learning. Together, our results uncover the arithmetic and local circuitry underlying dopamine prediction errors.

  3. Combinational losses of synucleins reveal their differential requirements for compensating age-dependent alterations in motor behavior and dopamine metabolism.

    PubMed

    Connor-Robson, Natalie; Peters, Owen M; Millership, Steven; Ninkina, Natalia; Buchman, Vladimir L

    2016-10-01

    Synucleins are involved in multiple steps of the neurotransmitter turnover, but the largely normal synaptic function in young adult animals completely lacking synucleins suggests their roles are dispensable for execution of these processes. Instead, they may be utilized for boosting the efficiency of certain molecular mechanisms in presynaptic terminals, with a deficiency of synuclein proteins sensitizing to or exacerbating synaptic malfunction caused by accumulation of mild alterations, which are commonly associated with aging. Although functional redundancy within the family has been reported, it is unclear whether the remaining synucleins can fully compensate for the deficiency of a lost family member or whether some functions are specific for a particular member. We assessed several structural and functional characteristics of the nigrostriatal system of mice lacking members of the synuclein family in every possible combination and demonstrated that stabilization of the striatal dopamine level depends on the presence of α-synuclein and cannot be compensated by other family members, whereas β-synuclein is required for efficient maintenance of animal's balance and coordination in old age. PMID:27614017

  4. Dopamine transporter inhibitory and antiparkinsonian effect of common flowering quince extract.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Gang; Jiang, Zhi-Hua; Zheng, Xiang-Wei; Zang, Shao-Yun; Guo, Li-He

    2008-09-01

    Common flowering quince (FQ) is the fruit of Chaenomeles speciosa (Sweet) Nakai. FQ-containing cocktails have been applied to the treatment of neuralgia, migraine, and depression in traditional Chinese medicine. The present study assessed whether FQ is effective in dopamine transporter (DAT) regulation and antiparkinsonism by utilizing in vitro and in vivo assays, respectively. FQ at concentrations of 1-1000 microg/ml concentration-dependently inhibited dopamine uptake by Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells stably expressing DAT (D8 cells) and by synaptosomes. FQ had a slight inhibitory action on norepinephrine uptake by CHO cells expressing the norepinephrine transporter and no inhibitory effect on gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) uptake by CHO cells expressing GABA transporter-1 or serotonin uptake by the serotonin transporter. A viability assay showed that FQ mitigated 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium-induced toxicity in D8 cells. Furthermore, in behavioral studies, FQ alleviated rotational behavior in 6-hydroxydopamine-treated rats and improved deficits in endurance performance in 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-treated mice. Furthermore, immunohistochemistry revealed that FQ markedly reduced the loss of tyrosine hydroxylase-positive neurons in the substantia nigra in MPTP-treated mice. In summary, FQ is a selective, potent DAT inhibitor and has antiparkinsonian-like effects that are mediated possibly by DAT suppression. FQ has the potential to be further developed for Parkinson's disease treatment.

  5. Verruculogen: a new substance for decreasing of GABA levels in CNS.

    PubMed

    Hotujac, L; Muftić, R H; Filipović, N

    1976-01-01

    In our previous work we examined the mechanism of action of the new tremorogenic substance verruculogen isolated by Cole and coworkers. Examining the effect of various substances with known mechanisms of action on verruculogen-induced tremor, we concluded that this tremor was probably related to decrease of GABA levels in CNS. In order to further define the mechanisms of action of verruculogen, we determined brain GABA levels in animals in which tremor was produced by verruculogen administration. Verruculogen administration produced a decrease in GABA levels in mouse CNS. This finding substantiates our earlier suggestion that verruculogen-induced tremor is mediated by a loss of inhibitory GABA function. PMID:935244

  6. Regulation of GABA and benzodiazepine receptors following neurotoxin-induced striatal and medial forebrain bundle lesions

    SciTech Connect

    Pan, H.S.I.

    1985-01-01

    GABA, a major inhibitory transmitter, is used by many projection neurons of the striatum. To investigate the role of GABA in striatal function, the GABA receptor complex was studied after lesions of the striatum or the nigrostriatal neurons. Quantitative receptor autoradiography using thaw-mounted tissue slices was developed for the study of GABA and benzodiazepine (BDZ) receptors. With the technique established, binding to GABA and BDZ receptors after unilateral striatal kainate lesions was examined. Subsequently, changes in GABA and BDZ receptors were studied following the destruction of dopaminergic nigrostriatal cells by unilateral 6-hydroxydopamine lesion of the medial forebrain bundle. In summary, quantitative receptor autoradiography allowed the detection of GABA and BDZ receptor changes in multiple small areas in each lesioned brain. This technique made it feasible to carry out kinetic saturation, and competition studies using less than 1 mg of tissue. The data suggest that dopamine is functionally inhibitory on striatopallidal neurons but is functionally excitatory on striatoentopeduncular and striatonigral cells which in turn inhibit the thalamus. This quantitative autoradiographic technique can be generalized to study other transmitter receptors and can be combined with 2-deoxyglucose uptake studies.

  7. Exposure to repeated immobilization stress inhibits cocaine-induced increase in dopamine extracellular levels in the rat ventral tegmental area.

    PubMed

    Sotomayor-Zárate, Ramón; Abarca, Jorge; Araya, Katherine A; Renard, Georgina M; Andrés, María E; Gysling, Katia

    2015-11-01

    A higher vulnerability to drug abuse has been observed in human studies of individuals exposed to chronic or persistent stress, as well as in animal models of drug abuse. Here, we explored the effect of repeated immobilization stress on cocaine-induced increase in dopamine extracellular levels in VTA and its regulation by corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) and GABA systems. Cocaine (10mg/Kg i.p.) induced an increase of VTA DA extracellular levels in control rats. However, this effect was not observed in repeated stress rats. Considering the evidence relating stress with CRF, we decided to perfuse CRF and CP-154526 (selective antagonist of CRF1 receptor) in the VTA of control and repeated stress rats, respectively. We observed that perfusion of 20μM CRF inhibited the increase of VTA DA extracellular levels induced by cocaine in control rats. Interestingly, we observed that in the presence of 10μM CP-154526, cocaine induced a significant increase of VTA DA extracellular levels in repeated stress rats. Regarding the role of VTA GABA neurotransmission, cocaine administration induced a significant increase in VTA GABA extracellular levels only in repeated stress rats. Consistently, cocaine was able to increase VTA DA extracellular levels in repeated stress rats when 100μM bicuculline, an antagonist of GABAA receptor, was perfused intra VTA. Thus, both CRF and GABA systems are involved in the lack of response to cocaine in the VTA of repeated stress rats. It is tempting to suggest that the loss of response in VTA dopaminergic neurons to cocaine, after repeated stress, is due to an interaction between CRF and GABA systems. PMID:26318765

  8. Exposure to repeated immobilization stress inhibits cocaine-induced increase in dopamine extracellular levels in the rat ventral tegmental area.

    PubMed

    Sotomayor-Zárate, Ramón; Abarca, Jorge; Araya, Katherine A; Renard, Georgina M; Andrés, María E; Gysling, Katia

    2015-11-01

    A higher vulnerability to drug abuse has been observed in human studies of individuals exposed to chronic or persistent stress, as well as in animal models of drug abuse. Here, we explored the effect of repeated immobilization stress on cocaine-induced increase in dopamine extracellular levels in VTA and its regulation by corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) and GABA systems. Cocaine (10mg/Kg i.p.) induced an increase of VTA DA extracellular levels in control rats. However, this effect was not observed in repeated stress rats. Considering the evidence relating stress with CRF, we decided to perfuse CRF and CP-154526 (selective antagonist of CRF1 receptor) in the VTA of control and repeated stress rats, respectively. We observed that perfusion of 20μM CRF inhibited the increase of VTA DA extracellular levels induced by cocaine in control rats. Interestingly, we observed that in the presence of 10μM CP-154526, cocaine induced a significant increase of VTA DA extracellular levels in repeated stress rats. Regarding the role of VTA GABA neurotransmission, cocaine administration induced a significant increase in VTA GABA extracellular levels only in repeated stress rats. Consistently, cocaine was able to increase VTA DA extracellular levels in repeated stress rats when 100μM bicuculline, an antagonist of GABAA receptor, was perfused intra VTA. Thus, both CRF and GABA systems are involved in the lack of response to cocaine in the VTA of repeated stress rats. It is tempting to suggest that the loss of response in VTA dopaminergic neurons to cocaine, after repeated stress, is due to an interaction between CRF and GABA systems.

  9. Control of cortical neuronal migration by glutamate and GABA

    PubMed Central

    Luhmann, Heiko J.; Fukuda, A.; Kilb, W.

    2015-01-01

    Neuronal migration in the cortex is controlled by the paracrine action of the classical neurotransmitters glutamate and GABA. Glutamate controls radial migration of pyramidal neurons by acting primarily on NMDA receptors and regulates tangential migration of inhibitory interneurons by activating non-NMDA and NMDA receptors. GABA, acting on ionotropic GABAA-rho and GABAA receptors, has a dichotomic action on radially migrating neurons by acting as a GO signal in lower layers and as a STOP signal in upper cortical plate (CP), respectively. Metabotropic GABAB receptors promote radial migration into the CP and tangential migration of interneurons. Besides GABA, the endogenous GABAergic agonist taurine is a relevant agonist controlling radial migration. To a smaller extent glycine receptor activation can also influence radial and tangential migration. Activation of glutamate and GABA receptors causes increases in intracellular Ca2+ transients, which promote neuronal migration by acting on the cytoskeleton. Pharmacological or genetic manipulation of glutamate or GABA receptors during early corticogenesis induce heterotopic cell clusters in upper layers and loss of cortical lamination, i.e., neuronal migration disorders which can be associated with neurological or neuropsychiatric diseases. The pivotal role of NMDA and ionotropic GABA receptors in cortical neuronal migration is of major clinical relevance, since a number of drugs acting on these receptors (e.g., anti-epileptics, anesthetics, alcohol) may disturb the normal migration pattern when present during early corticogenesis. PMID:25688185

  10. Control of cortical neuronal migration by glutamate and GABA.

    PubMed

    Luhmann, Heiko J; Fukuda, A; Kilb, W

    2015-01-01

    Neuronal migration in the cortex is controlled by the paracrine action of the classical neurotransmitters glutamate and GABA. Glutamate controls radial migration of pyramidal neurons by acting primarily on NMDA receptors and regulates tangential migration of inhibitory interneurons by activating non-NMDA and NMDA receptors. GABA, acting on ionotropic GABAA-rho and GABAA receptors, has a dichotomic action on radially migrating neurons by acting as a GO signal in lower layers and as a STOP signal in upper cortical plate (CP), respectively. Metabotropic GABAB receptors promote radial migration into the CP and tangential migration of interneurons. Besides GABA, the endogenous GABAergic agonist taurine is a relevant agonist controlling radial migration. To a smaller extent glycine receptor activation can also influence radial and tangential migration. Activation of glutamate and GABA receptors causes increases in intracellular Ca(2+) transients, which promote neuronal migration by acting on the cytoskeleton. Pharmacological or genetic manipulation of glutamate or GABA receptors during early corticogenesis induce heterotopic cell clusters in upper layers and loss of cortical lamination, i.e., neuronal migration disorders which can be associated with neurological or neuropsychiatric diseases. The pivotal role of NMDA and ionotropic GABA receptors in cortical neuronal migration is of major clinical relevance, since a number of drugs acting on these receptors (e.g., anti-epileptics, anesthetics, alcohol) may disturb the normal migration pattern when present during early corticogenesis.

  11. GABA deficiency in NF1

    PubMed Central

    Patricio, Miguel; Bernardino, Inês; Rebola, José; Abrunhosa, Antero J.; Ferreira, Nuno; Castelo-Branco, Miguel

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To provide a comprehensive investigation of the γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) system in patients with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) that allows understanding the nature of the GABA imbalance in humans at pre- and postsynaptic levels. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, we employed multimodal imaging and spectroscopy measures to investigate GABA type A (GABAA) receptor binding, using [11C]-flumazenil PET, and GABA concentration, using magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS). Fourteen adult patients with NF1 and 13 matched controls were included in the study. MRS was performed in the occipital cortex and in a frontal region centered in the functionally localized frontal eye fields. PET and MRS acquisitions were performed in the same day. Results: Patients with NF1 have reduced concentration of GABA+ in the occipital cortex (p = 0.004) and frontal eye fields (p = 0.026). PET results showed decreased binding of GABAA receptors in patients in the parieto-occipital cortex, midbrain, and thalamus, which are not explained by decreased gray matter levels. Conclusions: Abnormalities in the GABA system in NF1 involve both GABA concentration and GABAA receptor density suggestive of neurodevelopmental synaptopathy with both pre- and postsynaptic involvement. PMID:27473134

  12. ACUPUNCTURE INHIBITS GABA NEURON ACTIVITY IN THE VENTRAL TEGMENTAL AREA AND REDUCES ETHANOL SELF-ADMINISTRATION

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Chae Ha; Yoon, Seong Shoon; Hansen, David M.; Wilcox, Jeffrey D.; Blumell, Bryan R; Park, Jung Jae; Steffensen, Scott C.

    2010-01-01

    Background Withdrawal from chronic ethanol enhances ventral tegmental area (VTA) GABA neuron excitability and reduces mesolimbic dopamine (DA) neurotransmission, which is suppressed by acupuncture at Shenmen (HT7) points (Zhao et al., 2006). The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of HT7 acupuncture on VTA GABA neuron excitability, ethanol inhibition of VTA GABA neuron firing rate, and ethanol self-administration. A role for opioid receptors (ORs) in ethanol and acupuncture effects is also explored. Methods Using electrophysiological methods in mature rats, we evaluated the effects of HT7 stimulation and opioid antagonists on VTA GABA neuron firing rate. Using behavioral paradigms in rats, we evaluated the effects of HT7 stimulation and opioid antagonists on ethanol self-administration using a modification of the sucrose fading procedure. Results HT7 stimulation produced a biphasic modulation of VTA GABA neuron firing rate characterized by transient enhancement followed by inhibition and subsequent recovery in 5 min. HT7 inhibition of VTA GABA neuron firing rate was blocked by systemic administration of the non-selective μ-opioid receptor (MOR) antagonist naloxone. HT7 stimulation significantly reduced ethanol suppression of VTA GABA neuron firing rate, which was also blocked by naloxone. HT7 acupuncture reduced ethanol self-administration without affecting sucrose consumption. Systemic administration of the δ-opioid receptor (DOR) antagonist naltrindole blocked ethanol suppression of VTA GABA neuron firing rate and significantly reduced ethanol self-administration without affecting sucrose consumption. Conclusions These findings suggest that DOR-mediated opioid modulation of VTA GABA neurons may mediate acupuncture’s role in modulating mesolimbic DA release and suppressing the reinforcing effects of ethanol. PMID:20860620

  13. New approaches to the management of schizophrenia: focus on aberrant hippocampal drive of dopamine pathways.

    PubMed

    Perez, Stephanie M; Lodge, Daniel J

    2014-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a disease affecting up to 1% of the population. Current therapies are based on the efficacy of chlorpromazine, discovered over 50 years ago. These drugs block dopamine D2-like receptors and are effective at primarily treating positive symptoms in a subset of patients. Unfortunately, current therapies are far from adequate, and novel treatments require a better understanding of disease pathophysiology. Here we review the dopamine, gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), and glutamate hypotheses of schizophrenia and describe a pathway whereby a loss of inhibitory signaling in ventral regions of the hippocampus actually drives a dopamine hyperfunction. Moreover, we discuss novel therapeutic approaches aimed at attenuating ventral hippocampal activity in a preclinical model of schizophrenia, namely the MAM GD17 rat. Specifically, pharmacological (allosteric modulators of the α5 GABAA receptor), neurosurgical (deep brain stimulation), and cell-based (GABAergic precursor transplants) therapies are discussed. By better understanding the underlying circuit level dysfunctions in schizophrenia, novel treatments can be advanced that may provide better efficacy and a superior side effect profile to conventional antipsychotic medications.

  14. Comparative Mapping of GABA-Immunoreactive Neurons in the Buccal Ganglia of Nudipleura Molluscs.

    PubMed

    Gunaratne, Charuni A; Katz, Paul S

    2016-04-15

    Phylogenetic comparisons of neurotransmitter distribution are important for understanding the ground plan organization of nervous systems. This study describes the γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-immunoreactive (GABA-ir) neurons in the buccal ganglia of six sea slug species (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Euthyneura, Nudipleura). In the nudibranch species, Hermissenda crassicornis, Tritonia diomedea, Tochuina tetraquetra, and Dendronotus iris, the number of GABA-ir neurons was highly consistent. Another nudibranch, Melibe leonina, however, contained approximately half the number of GABA-ir neurons. This may relate to its loss of a radula and its unique feeding behavior. The GABA immunoreactivity in a sister group to the nudibranchs, Pleurobranchaea californica, differed drastically from that of the nudibranchs. Not only did it have significantly more GABA-ir neurons but it also had a unique GABA distribution pattern. Furthermore, unlike the nudibranchs, the Pleurobranchaea GABA distribution was also different from that of other, more distantly related, euopisthobranch and panpulmonate snails and slugs. This suggests that the Pleurobranchaea GABA distribution may be a derived feature, unique to this lineage. The majority of GABA-ir axons and neuropil in the Nudipleura were restricted to the buccal ganglia, commissures, and connectives. However, in Tritonia and Pleurobranchaea, we detected a few GABA-ir fibers in buccal nerves that innervate feeding muscles. Although the specific functions of the GABA-ir neurons in the species in this study are not known, the innervation pattern suggests these neurons may play an integrative or regulatory role in bilaterally coordinated behaviors in the Nudipleura. PMID:26355705

  15. Differential patterns of dopamine transporter loss in the basal ganglia of progressive supranuclear palsy and Parkinson's disease: analysis with [(123)I]IPT single photon emission computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Im, Joo-Hyuk; Chung, Sun J; Kim, Jae-Seung; Lee, Myoung C

    2006-05-15

    We evaluated the patterns of dopamine transporter loss in the striatum of ten controls, twenty patients with Parkinson's disease (PD), and nine with progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) using (123)I-IPT single photon emission tomography (SPECT). Four ROIs in the striatum correspond to the head of caudate nucleus (ROI 1), a transitional region between head of caudate and putamen (ROI 2), anterior putamen (ROI 3), and posterior putamen (ROI 4). A striatal ratio of specific to nondisplaceable uptake (V3'') was calculated normalizing the activity of the ROIs to that of occipital cortex. V3'' values were significantly reduced in all ROIs of PD and PSP patients, compared with controls (p=0.001). V3'' value in ROI 2 was significantly lower in PSP group, compared with PD group (p=0.02). The percent reductions of striatal uptake in ROI 1, ROI 2, ROI 3 and ROI 4 were 56%, 53%, 64% and 78% in PD patients, whereas 75%, 72%, 75% and 77% in PSP patients, respectively. The reduction patterns of uptake were significantly different between PD and PSP groups (p=0.001). In PD patients, the percent reductions of (123)I-IPT uptake were significantly greater in ROI 3 and 4 compared with ROI 1 or 2, whereas those were similar in all ROIs of PSP patients. In addition, PD patients showed a significantly higher posterior putamen/caudate ratio of reduced (123)I-IPT uptake than the anterior putamen/caudate ratio (p=0.005). Our results implicate that (123)I-IPT SPECT is a relatively simple and reliable technique that may be useful in differentiating PD from PSP. PMID:16473371

  16. Activation of GABA(B) receptors inhibits protein kinase B/glycogen synthase kinase 3 signaling.

    PubMed

    Lu, Frances Fangjia; Su, Ping; Liu, Fang; Daskalakis, Zafiris J

    2012-11-28

    Accumulated evidence has suggested that potentiation of cortical GABAergic inhibitory neurotransmission may be a key mechanism in the treatment of schizophrenia. However, the downstream molecular mechanisms related to GABA potentiation remain unexplored. Recent studies have suggested that dopamine D2 receptor antagonists, which are used in the clinical treatment of schizophrenia, modulate protein kinase B (Akt)/glycogen synthase kinase (GSK)-3 signaling. Here we report that activation of GABA(B) receptors significantly inhibits Akt/GSK-3 signaling in a β-arrestin-dependent pathway. Agonist stimulation of GABA(B) receptors enhances the phosphorylation of Akt (Thr-308) and enhances the phosphorylation of GSK-3α (Ser-21)/β (Ser-9) in both HEK-293T cells expressing GABA(B) receptors and rat hippocampal slices. Furthermore, knocking down the expression of β-arrestin2 using siRNA abolishes the GABA(B) receptor-mediated modulation of GSK-3 signaling. Our data may help to identify potentially novel targets through which GABA(B) receptor agents may exert therapeutic effects in the treatment of schizophrenia.

  17. GABA(B) receptors in neuroendocrine regulation.

    PubMed

    Lux-Lantos, Victoria A; Bianchi, María S; Catalano, Paolo N; Libertun, Carlos

    2008-09-01

    Gamma-amino butyric acid (GABA), in addition to being a metabolic intermediate and the main inhibitory neurotransmitter in the synaptic cleft, is postulated as a neurohormone, a paracrine signaling molecule, and a trophic factor. It acts through pre- and post-synaptic receptors, named GABA(A) and GABA(C) (ionotropic receptors) and GABA(B) (metabotropic receptor). Here we reviewed the participation of GABA(B) receptors in the regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis, using physiological, biochemical, and pharmacological approaches in rats, as well as in GABA(B1) knock-out mice, that lack functional GABA(B) receptors. Our general conclusion indicates that GABA(B )receptors participate in the regulation of pituitary hormone secretion acting both in the central nervous system and directly on the gland. PRL and gonadotropin axes are affected by GABA(B) receptor activation, as demonstrated in the rat and also in the GABA(B1) knock-out mouse. In addition, hypothalamic and pituitary GABA(B) receptor expression is modulated by steroid hormones. GABA participation in the brain control of pituitary secretion through GABA(B) receptors depends on physiological conditions, being age and sex critical factors.These results indicate that patients receiving GABA(B) agonists/antagonists should be monitored for possible endocrine side effects.

  18. Dopamine evoked inhibition of single cells of the feline putamen and basolateral amygdala.

    PubMed

    Ben-Ari, Y; Kelly, J S

    1976-03-01

    1. In cats under pentobarbitone or halothane anaesthesia, neurones of the putamen and basolateral amygdala were inhibited with a similar time course by iontophoretic applications of dopamine and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), ejected with relatively short (20 sec) low intensity (less than 40 nA) pulses of positive current from five and seven barrelled extracellular micropipettes. The use of a stereotaxically positioned guide tube, sealed to the skull with dental cement, made it possible to obtain stable recording conditions and to correlate the stereotaxic position of the cells with the position of the micro-electrode tracks determined histologically by the post-mortem reconstruction of serial sections. 2. Since in cats anaesthetized with pentobarbitone none of the cells were found to be spontaneously active, the relative potency of dopamine and GABA were compared on glutamate excited cells. Approximately 2-5 times more current was required to release sufficient dopamine to cause just submaximal inhibition, equal in magnitude and duration to that evoked by GABA. 3. In nitrous oxide/halothane anaesthetized cats, approximately one quarter of the cells were spontaneously active. Relative potency studies showed that for dopamine, currents 2-0 and 1-6 times larger than those used for GABA were required to inhibit glutamate excited and spontaneously active cells respectively. 4. When the depth distribution of the cells was compared with the sensitivity of the cells to dopamine and GABA, the most sensitive cells were found to lie within the putamen and the basolateral amygdala. 5. On more than one third of the cells tested, iontophoretic application of the neuroleptic, alpha-flupenthixol of more than 3 or 4 min in duration, greatly reduced or abolished the inhibition of the cells by dopamine without impairing their sensitivity to GABA. 6. In four cats, large I.V. injections of alpha-flupenthixol (10 mg/kg) and the more potent neuroleptic pimozide (1 mg/kg) had no

  19. Genetic Modulation of GABA Levels in the Anterior Cingulate Cortex by GAD1 and COMT

    PubMed Central

    Marenco, Stefano; Savostyanova, Antonina A; van der Veen, Jan Willem; Geramita, Matthew; Stern, Alexa; Barnett, Alan S; Kolachana, Bhaskar; Radulescu, Eugenia; Zhang, Fengyu; Callicott, Joseph H; Straub, Richard E; Shen, Jun; Weinberger, Daniel R

    2010-01-01

    γ-Aminobutyric acid (GABA)-ergic transmission is critical for normal cortical function and is likely abnormal in a variety of neuropsychiatric disorders. We tested the in vivo effects of variations in two genes implicated in GABA function on GABA concentrations in prefrontal cortex of living subjects: glutamic acid decarboxylase 1 (GAD1), which encodes GAD67, and catechol-o-methyltransferase (COMT), which regulates synaptic dopamine in the cortex. We studied six single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in GAD1 previously associated with risk for schizophrenia or cognitive dysfunction and the val158met polymorphism in COMT in 116 healthy volunteers using proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Two of the GAD1 SNPs (rs1978340 (p=0.005) and rs769390 (p=0.004)) showed effects on GABA levels as did COMT val158met (p=0.04). We then tested three SNPs in GAD1 (rs1978340, rs11542313, and rs769390) for interaction with COMT val158met based on previous clinical results. In this model, rs11542313 and COMT val158met showed significant main effects (p=0.001 and 0.003, respectively) and a trend toward a significant interaction (p=0.05). Interestingly, GAD1 risk alleles for schizophrenia were associated with higher GABA/Cre, and Val-Val homozygotes had high GABA/Cre levels when on a GAD1 risk genotype background (N=6). These results support the importance of genetic variation in GAD1 and COMT in regulating prefrontal cortical GABA function. The directionality of the effects, however, is inconsistent with earlier evidence of decreased GABA activity in schizophrenia. PMID:20357758

  20. Gestational changes of GABA levels and GABA binding in the human uterus

    SciTech Connect

    Erdoe, S.L.; Villanyi, P.; Laszlo, A.

    1989-01-01

    The concentrations of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), the activities of L-glutamate decarboxylase and GABA-transaminase, and the nature of the sodium-independent binding of GABA were examined in uterine tissue pieces obtained surgically from pregnant and non-pregnant women. GABA concentrations were reduced, while the activity of GABA-transaminase and the specific binding of (/sup 3/H)GABA significantly increased in specimens from pregnant subjects. These findings suggest some gestation-related functional role for the GABA system in the human uterus.

  1. Effects of NaCl Replacement with Gamma-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) on the Quality Characteristics and Sensorial Properties of Model Meat Products

    PubMed Central

    Chun, Ji-Yeon; Cho, Hyung-Yong; Min, Sang-Gi

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of γ-aminobutylic acid (GABA) on the quality and sensorial properties of both the GABA/NaCl complex and model meat products. GABA/NaCl complex was prepared by spray-drying, and the surface dimensions, morphology, rheology, and saltiness were characterized. For model meat products, pork patties were prepared by replacing NaCl with GABA. For characteristics of the complex, increasing GABA concentration increased the surface dimensions of the complex. However, GABA did not affect the rheological properties of solutions containing the complex. The addition of 2% GABA exhibited significantly higher saltiness than the control (no GABA treatment). In the case of pork patties, sensory testing indicated that the addition of GABA decreased the saltiness intensity. Both the intensity of juiciness and tenderness of patties containing GABA also scored lower than the control, based on the NaCl reduction. These results were consistent with the quality characteristics (cooking loss and texture profile analysis). Nevertheless, overall acceptability of the pork patties showed that up to 1.5%, patties containing GABA did not significantly differ from the control. Consequently, the results indicated that GABA has a potential application in meat products, but also manifested a deterioration of quality by the NaCl reduction, which warrants further exploration. PMID:26761294

  2. The role of dopamine in schizophrenia from a neurobiological and evolutionary perspective: old fashioned, but still in vogue.

    PubMed

    Brisch, Ralf; Saniotis, Arthur; Wolf, Rainer; Bielau, Hendrik; Bernstein, Hans-Gert; Steiner, Johann; Bogerts, Bernhard; Braun, Katharina; Braun, Anna Katharina; Jankowski, Zbigniew; Kumaratilake, Jaliya; Kumaritlake, Jaliya; Henneberg, Maciej; Gos, Tomasz

    2014-01-01

    Dopamine is an inhibitory neurotransmitter involved in the pathology of schizophrenia. The revised dopamine hypothesis states that dopamine abnormalities in the mesolimbic and prefrontal brain regions exist in schizophrenia. However, recent research has indicated that glutamate, GABA, acetylcholine, and serotonin alterations are also involved in the pathology of schizophrenia. This review provides an in-depth analysis of dopamine in animal models of schizophrenia and also focuses on dopamine and cognition. Furthermore, this review provides not only an overview of dopamine receptors and the antipsychotic effects of treatments targeting them but also an outline of dopamine and its interaction with other neurochemical models of schizophrenia. The roles of dopamine in the evolution of the human brain and human mental abilities, which are affected in schizophrenia patients, are also discussed.

  3. The Role of Dopamine in Schizophrenia from a Neurobiological and Evolutionary Perspective: Old Fashioned, but Still in Vogue

    PubMed Central

    Brisch, Ralf; Saniotis, Arthur; Wolf, Rainer; Bielau, Hendrik; Bernstein, Hans-Gert; Steiner, Johann; Bogerts, Bernhard; Braun, Katharina; Jankowski, Zbigniew; Kumaratilake, Jaliya; Henneberg, Maciej; Gos, Tomasz

    2014-01-01

    Dopamine is an inhibitory neurotransmitter involved in the pathology of schizophrenia. The revised dopamine hypothesis states that dopamine abnormalities in the mesolimbic and prefrontal brain regions exist in schizophrenia. However, recent research has indicated that glutamate, GABA, acetylcholine, and serotonin alterations are also involved in the pathology of schizophrenia. This review provides an in-depth analysis of dopamine in animal models of schizophrenia and also focuses on dopamine and cognition. Furthermore, this review provides not only an overview of dopamine receptors and the antipsychotic effects of treatments targeting them but also an outline of dopamine and its interaction with other neurochemical models of schizophrenia. The roles of dopamine in the evolution of the human brain and human mental abilities, which are affected in schizophrenia patients, are also discussed. PMID:24904434

  4. GABA(B) receptors modulate depolarization-stimulated [³H]glutamate release in slices of the pars reticulata of the rat substantia nigra.

    PubMed

    Cortés, Hernán; Paz, Francisco; Erlij, David; Aceves, Jorge; Florán, Benjamín

    2010-12-15

    GABA(B) receptors decrease the release of GABA from the striatal terminals within the pars reticulata of the substantia nigra by opposing the increase in the release caused by dopamine D₁ receptors. The dopamine D₁ receptors also increase the release of glutamate from subthalamic terminals in the pars reticulata. Because GABA(B) receptors decrease the glutamate release from these terminals, we have explored if the effect of GABA(B) receptors also opposed the effect of the dopamine D₁ receptors. The effect of baclofen, a selective GABA(B)-receptor agonist, was tested on the release of [³H]glutamate caused by highly (40 mM) concentrated K(+) solutions in slices of the pars reticulata. Baclofen decreased (the concentration causing 50% inhibition, IC₅₀, was 8.15 μM) the increase in the release of the [³H]glutamate caused by the dopamine D₁ receptors and it also decreased (IC₅₀ was 0.51 μM) this release in the absence of the activation of the dopamine D₁ receptors. The GABA(B) receptors appear then to inhibit glutamate release in two ways; one dependent on the activation of the dopamine D₁ receptors and the other independent of such activation. The protein kinase A-inhibitor H89 blocked the increase in the release of the [³H]glutamate caused by the dopamine D₁ receptors, though it did not block the dopamine D₁ receptor-independent baclofen inhibition of the release. This finding indicates that this inhibition was not via the protein kinase A signal-transduction pathway. N-ethylmaleimide, an alkylating agent that inactivates pertussis toxin-sensitive Gi proteins, eliminated both the dopamine D₁ receptor-dependent and -independent baclofen inhibition, showing that both were mediated by these proteins. The injection of baclofen into the pars reticulata of unanesthetized rats caused contralateral rotation, suggesting a reduced glutamate release from the subthalamic terminals, thereby stopping the inhibition of the premotor thalamic nuclei

  5. The role of dopamine receptors in the neurotoxicity of methamphetamine.

    PubMed

    Ares-Santos, S; Granado, N; Moratalla, R

    2013-05-01

    Methamphetamine is a synthetic drug consumed by millions of users despite its neurotoxic effects in the brain, leading to loss of dopaminergic fibres and cell bodies. Moreover, clinical reports suggest that methamphetamine abusers are predisposed to Parkinson's disease. Therefore, it is important to elucidate the mechanisms involved in methamphetamine-induced neurotoxicity. Dopamine receptors may be a plausible target to prevent this neurotoxicity. Genetic inactivation of dopamine D1 or D2 receptors protects against the loss of dopaminergic fibres in the striatum and loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra. Protection by D1 receptor inactivation is due to blockade of hypothermia, reduced dopamine content and turnover and increased stored vesicular dopamine in D1R(-/-) mice. However, the neuroprotective impact of D2 receptor inactivation is partially dependent on an effect on body temperature, as well as on the blockade of dopamine reuptake by decreased dopamine transporter activity, which results in reduced intracytosolic dopamine levels in D2R(-/-) mice.

  6. The role of the GABA system in amphetamine-type stimulant use disorders

    PubMed Central

    Jiao, Dongliang; liu, Yao; Li, Xiaohong; liu, Jinggen; Zhao, Min

    2015-01-01

    Abuse of amphetamine-type stimulants (ATS) has become a global public health problem. ATS causes severe neurotoxicity, which could lead to addiction and could induce psychotic disorders or cognitive dysfunctions. However, until now, there has been a lack of effective medicines for treating ATS-related problems. Findings from recent studies indicate that in addition to the traditional dopamine-ergic system, the GABA (gamma-aminobutyric acid)-ergic system plays an important role in ATS abuse. However, the exact mechanisms of the GABA-ergic system in amphetamine-type stimulant use disorders are not fully understood. This review discusses the role of the GABA-ergic system in ATS use disorders, including ATS induced psychotic disorders and cognitive dysfunctions. We conclude that the GABA-ergic system are importantly involved in the development of ATS use disorders through multiple pathways, and that therapies or medicines that target specific members of the GABA-ergic system may be novel effective interventions for the treatment of ATS use disorders. PMID:25999814

  7. The potential use of GABA agonists in psychiatric disorders: evidence from studies with progabide in animal models and clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Lloyd, K G; Morselli, P L; Depoortere, H; Fournier, V; Zivkovic, B; Scatton, B; Broekkamp, C; Worms, P; Bartholini, G

    1983-06-01

    Progabide, a new antiepileptic GABA agonist of moderate affinity for GABA receptors, has been studied in a number of psychiatric disorders and the results compared with the action of this drug in animal models. In an animal model for anxiety (the aversive response to periaqueductal grey stimulation in the rat) progabide had a similar action to that of diazepam. However in clinical trials to date the effect of the GABA agonist was inferior to that of benzodiazepines. As progabide diminishes both the nigrostriatal dopamine neuron activity and the effects of striatal dopamine receptor activation, a trial in schizophrenic patients was undertaken. Progabide was devoid of any evident antipsychotic action. However a certain improvement in responsiveness to the environment and in social interactions was noticed in hebephrenic and schizoaffective syndromes. This lack of antipsychotic effect of progabide may be a reflection of the weak activity of GABA agonists on limbic dopamine neurons. In these various clinical trials a definite improvement of affect and mood was noted in those patients receiving progabide. In clinical trials in depressed patients progabide produces a significant reduction in depressive symptoms, an action similar to that of imipramine both for the global clinical rating and the HRSD. This antidepressant activity is reflected by the action of progabide in behavioural models of depression such as olfactory bulbectomy, learned helplessness and the sleep-wake cycle.

  8. GABA release from mouse axonal growth cones

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Xiao-Bing; van den Pol, Anthony N

    2000-01-01

    Using developing hypothalamic neurons from transgenic mice that express high levels of green fluorescent protein in growing axons, and an outside-out patch from mature neuronal membranes that contain neurotransmitter receptors as a sensitive detector, we found that GABA is released by a vesicular mechanism from the growth cones of developing axons prior to synapse formation. A low level of GABA release occurs spontaneously from the growth cone, and this is substantially increased by evoked action potentials. Neurotransmitters such as acetylcholine can enhance protein kinase C (PKC) activity even prior to synapse formation; PKC activation caused a substantial increase in spontaneous GABA release from the growth cone, probably acting at the axon terminal. These data indicate that GABA is secreted from axons during a stage of neuronal development when GABA is excitatory, and that neuromodulators could alter GABA release from the growing axon, potentially enabling other developing neurons of different transmitter phenotype to modulate the early actions of GABA. PMID:10718743

  9. New Pharmacotherapy Targeting Cognitive Dysfunction of Schizophrenia via Modulation of GABA Neuronal Function

    PubMed Central

    Jeon, Won Je; Sumiyoshi, Tomiki; Kurachi, Masayoshi

    2015-01-01

    Schizophrenia is considered a neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative disorder. Cognitive impairment is a core symptom in patients with the illness, and has been suggested a major predictor of functional outcomes. Reduction of parvalbumin (PV)-positive γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) interneurons has been associated with the pathophysiology of schizophrenia, in view of the link between the abnormality of GABA neurons and cognitive impairments of the disease. It is assumed that an imbalance of excitatory and inhibitory (E-I) activity induced by low activity of glutamatergic projections and PV-positive GABA interneurons in the prefrontal cortex resulted in sustained neural firing and gamma oscillation, leading to impaired cognitive function. Therefore, it is important to develop novel pharmacotherapy targeting GABA neurons and their activities. Clinical evidence suggests serotonin (5-HT) 1A receptor agonist improves cognitive disturbances of schizophrenia, consistent with results from preclinical studies, through mechanism that corrects E-I imbalance via the suppression of GABA neural function. On the other hand, T-817MA, a novel neurotrophic agent, ameliorated loss of PV-positive GABA neurons in the medial prefrontal cortex and reduction of gamma-band activity, as well as cognitive dysfunction in animal model of schizophrenia. In conclusion, a pharmacotherapy to alleviate abnormalities in GABA neurons through 5-HT1A agonists and T-817MA is expected to prevent the onset and/or progression of schizophrenia. PMID:26630957

  10. Mice that are resistant to diet-induced weight loss have greater food anticipatory activity and altered melanocortin-3 receptor (MC3R) and dopamine receptor 2 (D2) gene expression.

    PubMed

    Vaanholt, Lobke M; Mitchell, Sharon E; Sinclair, Rachel E; Speakman, John R

    2015-07-01

    Diet-induced weight loss varies considerably between individuals, but the mechanisms driving these individual differences remain largely unknown. Here we investigated whether key neuropeptides involved in the regulation of energy balance or reward systems were differentially expressed in mice that were prone or resistant to caloric restriction (CR) induced weight loss. Mice (n=30 males and n=34 females) were fed 70% of their own baseline ad libitum intake for 25days, after which their brains were collected and expression of various neuropeptides were investigated and compared between the 10 male and 10 female mice that showed the greatest (high weight loss, HWL) or lowest weight loss (LWL) (n=40 in total). HWL mice showed a differential neuropeptide profile to LWL in both sexes, characterised by increased expression of neuropeptide Y (NPY), agouti-related peptide (AgRP), leptin receptor (ObRb), and melanocortin 3 receptor (MC3R) in the arcuate nucleus. No changes in the expression of fat mass and obesity related gene (FTO) or suppressor of cytokine signalling 3 (Socs3) were observed. Levels of dopamine D2 receptor were decreased in the nucleus accumbens in HWL compared to LWL mice. HWL mice showed a stronger increase in food anticipatory activity (FAA) in response to CR than LWL mice. These results indicate that the mice prone to diet-induced weight loss experienced greater hunger, potentially driving their elevated FAA.

  11. Enhancement of GABA release through endogenous activation of axonal GABA(A) receptors in juvenile cerebellum.

    PubMed

    Trigo, Federico F; Chat, Mireille; Marty, Alain

    2007-11-14

    Recent evidence indicates the presence of presynaptic GABA(A) receptors (GABA(A)Rs) in the axon domain of several classes of central neurons, including cerebellar basket and stellate cells. Here, we investigate the possibility that these receptors could be activated in the absence of electrical or chemical stimulation. We find that low concentrations of GABA increase the frequency of miniature GABAergic synaptic currents. Submaximal concentrations of a GABA(A)R blocker, gabazine, decrease both the miniature current frequency and the probability of evoked GABA release. Zolpidem, an agonist of the benzodiazepine binding site, and NO-711 (1-[2-[[(diphenylmethylene)imino]oxy]ethyl]-1,2,5,6-tetrahydro-3-pyridinecarboxylic acid hydrochloride), a blocker of GABA uptake, both increase the frequency of miniature currents. These effects occur up to postnatal day 14, but not later. Immunohistochemistry indicates the presence of alpha1-containing GABA(A)Rs in interneuron presynaptic terminals with a similar age dependence. We conclude that, under resting conditions, axonal GABA(A)Rs are significantly activated, that this activation results in enhanced GABA release, and that it can be augmented by increasing the affinity of GABA(A)Rs or reducing GABA uptake. Our findings suggest the existence of a positive-feedback mechanism involving presynaptic GABA(A)Rs that maintains a high release rate and a high local GABA concentration in the immature cerebellar network.

  12. micro-Opioid receptor endocytosis prevents adaptations in ventral tegmental area GABA transmission induced during naloxone-precipitated morphine withdrawal.

    PubMed

    Madhavan, Anuradha; He, Li; Stuber, Garret D; Bonci, Antonello; Whistler, Jennifer L

    2010-03-01

    Chronic morphine drives adaptations in synaptic transmission thought to underlie opiate dependence. Here we examine the role of micro-opioid receptor (MOR) trafficking in one of these adaptations, specifically, changes in GABA transmission in the ventral tegmental area (VTA). To address this question, we used a knock-in mouse, RMOR (for recycling MOR), in which genetic change in the MOR promotes morphine-induced receptor desensitization and endocytosis in GABA interneurons of the VTA. In wild-type mice (postnatal days 23-28) chronic morphine (10 mg/kg, s.c., twice daily for 5 d), induced a cAMP-dependent increase in the probability of GABA release onto VTA dopamine neurons. The increased GABA release frequency correlated with physical dependence on morphine measured by counting somatic signs of morphine withdrawal, such as, tremors, jumps, rears, wet-dog shakes, and grooming behavior precipitated by subcutaneous administration of naloxone (NLX) (2 mg/kg). This adaptation in GABA release was prevented in RMOR mice given the same morphine treatment, implicating MOR trafficking in this morphine-induced change in plasticity. Importantly, treatment with the cAMP activity inhibitor rp-cAMPS [(R)-adenosine, cyclic 3',5'-(hydrogenphosphorothioate) triethylammonium] (50 ng/0.5 microl), directly to the VTA, attenuated somatic withdrawal signs to systemic morphine produced by intra-VTA NLX (500 ng/0.5 microl), directly tying enhanced cAMP-driven GABA release to naloxone-precipitated morphine withdrawal in the VTA.

  13. Opioid-Induced GABA potentiation after chronic morphine attenuates the rewarding effects of opioids in the ventral tegmental area.

    PubMed

    Madhavan, Anuradha; Bonci, Antonello; Whistler, Jennifer L

    2010-10-20

    GABA transmission in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) is critical for fine tuning the activity of dopamine neurons in response to opioids. However, the precise mechanism by which GABA input shapes opioid reward is poorly understood. We observed a reduction of conditioned place preference for low doses of the opioid [d-Ala2, N-MePhe4, Gly5-ol]-enkephalin (DAMGO) and a switch in the functional effects of μ-opioid receptor modulation of GABA postsynaptic currents in the mouse VTA 1 d after chronic morphine treatment. Specifically, whereas in naive mice DAMGO inhibits GABA postsynaptic currents, GABAergic currents are potentiated by DAMGO after chronic morphine treatment. Importantly, pretreatment with the cAMP signaling inhibitor (R)-adenosine, cyclic 3',5'-(hydrogenphosphorothioate) triethylammonium both restored DAMGO reward and reversed the DAMGO-mediated potentiation, thereby reestablishing the inhibitory effects of opioids on GABA currents. Thus, a paradoxical bidirectionality in μ-receptor-mediated control of GABA transmission following chronic morphine treatment is a critical mechanism that determines the expression of opioid reward in the VTA.

  14. Prenatal cocaine exposure decreases parvalbumin-immunoreactive neurons and GABA-to-projection neuron ratio in the medial prefrontal cortex.

    PubMed

    McCarthy, Deirdre M; Bhide, Pradeep G

    2012-01-01

    Cocaine abuse during pregnancy produces harmful effects not only on the mother but also on the unborn child. The neurotransmitters dopamine and serotonin are known as the principal targets of the action of cocaine in the fetal and postnatal brain. However, recent evidence suggests that cocaine can impair cerebral cortical GABA neuron development and function. We sought to analyze the effects of prenatal cocaine exposure on the number and distribution of GABA and projection neurons (inhibitory interneurons and excitatory output neurons, respectively) in the mouse cerebral cortex. We found that the prenatal cocaine exposure decreased GABA neuron numbers and GABA-to-projection neuron ratio in the medial prefrontal cortex of 60-day-old mice. The neighboring prefrontal cortex did not show significant changes in either of these measures. However, there was a significant increase in projection neuron numbers in the prefrontal cortex but not in the medial prefrontal cortex. Thus, the effects of cocaine on GABA and projection neurons appear to be cortical region specific. The population of parvalbumin-immunoreactive GABA neurons was decreased in the medial prefrontal cortex following the prenatal cocaine exposure. The cocaine exposure also delayed the developmental decline in the volume of the medial prefrontal cortex. Thus, prenatal cocaine exposure produced persisting and region-specific effects on cortical cytoarchitecture and impaired the physiological balance between excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmission. These structural changes may underlie the electrophysiological and behavioral effects of prenatal cocaine exposure observed in animal models and human subjects.

  15. Anion transport and GABA signaling

    PubMed Central

    Hübner, Christian A.; Holthoff, Knut

    2013-01-01

    Whereas activation of GABAA receptors by GABA usually results in a hyperpolarizing influx of chloride into the neuron, the reversed chloride driving force in the immature nervous system results in a depolarizing efflux of chloride. This GABAergic depolarization is deemed to be important for the maturation of the neuronal network. The concept of a developmental GABA switch has mainly been derived from in vitro experiments and reliable in vivo evidence is still missing. As GABAA receptors are permeable for both chloride and bicarbonate, the net effect of GABA also critically depends on the distribution of bicarbonate. Whereas chloride can either mediate depolarizing or hyperpolarizing currents, bicarbonate invariably mediates a depolarizing current under physiological conditions. Intracellular bicarbonate is quickly replenished by cytosolic carbonic anhydrases. Intracellular bicarbonate levels also depend on different bicarbonate transporters expressed by neurons. The expression of these proteins is not only developmentally regulated but also differs between cell types and even subcellular regions. In this review we will summarize current knowledge about the role of some of these transporters for brain development and brain function. PMID:24187533

  16. Quadruplex Integrated DNA (QuID) Nanosensors for Monitoring Dopamine

    PubMed Central

    Morales, Jennifer M.; Skipwith, Christopher G.; Clark, Heather A.

    2015-01-01

    Dopamine is widely innervated throughout the brain and critical for many cognitive and motor functions. Imbalances or loss in dopamine transmission underlie various psychiatric disorders and degenerative diseases. Research involving cellular studies and disease states would benefit from a tool for measuring dopamine transmission. Here we show a Quadruplex Integrated DNA (QuID) nanosensor platform for selective and dynamic detection of dopamine. This nanosensor exploits DNA technology and enzyme recognition systems to optically image dopamine levels. The DNA quadruplex architecture is designed to be compatible in physically constrained environments (110 nm) with high flexibility, homogeneity, and a lower detection limit of 110 µM. PMID:26287196

  17. The Uptake of GABA in Trypanosoma cruzi.

    PubMed

    Galvez Rojas, Robert L; Ahn, Il-Young; Suárez Mantilla, Brian; Sant'Anna, Celso; Pral, Elizabeth Mieko Furusho; Silber, Ariel Mariano

    2015-01-01

    Gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA) is widely known as a neurotransmitter and signal transduction molecule found in vertebrates, plants, and some protozoan organisms. However, the presence of GABA and its role in trypanosomatids is unknown. Here, we report the presence of intracellular GABA and the biochemical characterization of its uptake in Trypanosoma cruzi, the etiological agent of Chagas' disease. Kinetic parameters indicated that GABA is taken up by a single transport system in pathogenic and nonpathogenic forms. Temperature dependence assays showed a profile similar to glutamate transport, but the effect of extracellular cations Na(+) , K(+) , and H(+) on GABA uptake differed, suggesting a different uptake mechanism. In contrast to reports for other amino acid transporters in T. cruzi, GABA uptake was Na(+) dependent and increased with pH, with a maximum activity at pH 8.5. The sensitivity to oligomycin showed that GABA uptake is dependent on ATP synthesis. These data point to a secondary active Na(+) /GABA symporter energized by Na(+) -exporting ATPase. Finally, we show that GABA occurs in the parasite's cytoplasm under normal culture conditions, indicating that it is regularly taken up from the culture medium or synthesized through an still undescribed metabolic pathway.

  18. The Uptake of GABA in Trypanosoma cruzi.

    PubMed

    Galvez Rojas, Robert L; Ahn, Il-Young; Suárez Mantilla, Brian; Sant'Anna, Celso; Pral, Elizabeth Mieko Furusho; Silber, Ariel Mariano

    2015-01-01

    Gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA) is widely known as a neurotransmitter and signal transduction molecule found in vertebrates, plants, and some protozoan organisms. However, the presence of GABA and its role in trypanosomatids is unknown. Here, we report the presence of intracellular GABA and the biochemical characterization of its uptake in Trypanosoma cruzi, the etiological agent of Chagas' disease. Kinetic parameters indicated that GABA is taken up by a single transport system in pathogenic and nonpathogenic forms. Temperature dependence assays showed a profile similar to glutamate transport, but the effect of extracellular cations Na(+) , K(+) , and H(+) on GABA uptake differed, suggesting a different uptake mechanism. In contrast to reports for other amino acid transporters in T. cruzi, GABA uptake was Na(+) dependent and increased with pH, with a maximum activity at pH 8.5. The sensitivity to oligomycin showed that GABA uptake is dependent on ATP synthesis. These data point to a secondary active Na(+) /GABA symporter energized by Na(+) -exporting ATPase. Finally, we show that GABA occurs in the parasite's cytoplasm under normal culture conditions, indicating that it is regularly taken up from the culture medium or synthesized through an still undescribed metabolic pathway. PMID:25851259

  19. Synapsins differentially control dopamine and serotonin release.

    PubMed

    Kile, Brian M; Guillot, Thomas S; Venton, B Jill; Wetsel, William C; Augustine, George J; Wightman, R Mark

    2010-07-21

    Synapsins are a family of synaptic vesicle proteins that are important for neurotransmitter release. Here we have used triple knock-out (TKO) mice lacking all three synapsin genes to determine the roles of synapsins in the release of two monoamine neurotransmitters, dopamine and serotonin. Serotonin release evoked by electrical stimulation was identical in substantia nigra pars reticulata slices prepared from TKO and wild-type mice. In contrast, release of dopamine in response to electrical stimulation was approximately doubled in striatum of TKO mice, both in vivo and in striatal slices, in comparison to wild-type controls. This was due to loss of synapsin III, because deletion of synapsin III alone was sufficient to increase dopamine release. Deletion of synapsins also increased the sensitivity of dopamine release to extracellular calcium ions. Although cocaine did not affect the release of serotonin from nigral tissue, this drug did enhance dopamine release. Cocaine-induced facilitation of dopamine release was a function of external calcium, an effect that was reduced in TKO mice. We conclude that synapsins play different roles in the control of release of dopamine and serotonin, with release of dopamine being negatively regulated by synapsins, specifically synapsin III, while serotonin release appears to be relatively independent of synapsins. These results provide further support for the concept that synapsin function in presynaptic terminals varies according to the neurotransmitter being released. PMID:20660258

  20. Ventral tegmental area GABA projections pause accumbal cholinergic interneurons to enhance associative learning.

    PubMed

    Brown, Matthew T C; Tan, Kelly R; O'Connor, Eoin C; Nikonenko, Irina; Muller, Dominique; Lüscher, Christian

    2012-12-20

    The ventral tegmental area (VTA) and nucleus accumbens (NAc) are essential for learning about environmental stimuli associated with motivationally relevant outcomes. The task of signalling such events, both rewarding and aversive, from the VTA to the NAc has largely been ascribed to dopamine neurons. The VTA also contains GABA (γ-aminobutyric acid)-releasing neurons, which provide local inhibition and also project to the NAc. However, the cellular targets and functional importance of this long-range inhibitory projection have not been ascertained. Here we show that GABA-releasing neurons of the VTA that project to the NAc (VTA GABA projection neurons) inhibit accumbal cholinergic interneurons (CINs) to enhance stimulus-outcome learning. Combining optogenetics with structural imaging and electrophysiology, we found that VTA GABA projection neurons selectively target NAc CINs, forming multiple symmetrical synaptic contacts that generated inhibitory postsynaptic currents. This is remarkable considering that CINs represent a very small population of all accumbal neurons, and provide the primary source of cholinergic tone in the NAc. Brief activation of this projection was sufficient to halt the spontaneous activity of NAc CINs, resembling the pause recorded in animals learning stimulus-outcome associations. Indeed, we found that forcing CINs to pause in behaving mice enhanced discrimination of a motivationally important stimulus that had been associated with an aversive outcome. Our results demonstrate that VTA GABA projection neurons, through their selective targeting of accumbal CINs, provide a novel route through which the VTA communicates saliency to the NAc. VTA GABA projection neurons thus emerge as orchestrators of dopaminergic and cholinergic modulation in the NAc.

  1. Protein kinase C regulates tonic GABA(A) receptor-mediated inhibition in the hippocampus and thalamus.

    PubMed

    Bright, Damian P; Smart, Trevor G

    2013-11-01

    Tonic inhibition mediated by extrasynaptic GABA(A) receptors (GABA(A) Rs) is an important regulator of neuronal excitability. Phosphorylation by protein kinase C (PKC) provides a key mode of regulation for synaptic GABA(A) Rs underlying phasic inhibition; however, less attention has been focused on the plasticity of tonic inhibition and whether this can also be modulated by receptor phosphorylation. To address this issue, we used whole-cell patch clamp recording in acute murine brain slices at both room and physiological temperatures to examine the effects of PKC-mediated phosphorylation on tonic inhibition. Recordings from dentate gyrus granule cells in the hippocampus and dorsal lateral geniculate relay neurons in the thalamus demonstrated that PKC activation caused downregulation of tonic GABA(A) R-mediated inhibition. Conversely, inhibition of PKC resulted in an increase in tonic GABA(A) R activity. These findings were corroborated by experiments on human embryonic kidney 293 cells expressing recombinant α4β2δ GABA(A) Rs, which represent a key extrasynaptic GABA(A) R isoform in the hippocampus and thalamus. Using bath application of low GABA concentrations to mimic activation by ambient neurotransmitter, we demonstrated a similar inhibition of receptor function following PKC activation at physiological temperature. Live cell imaging revealed that this was correlated with a loss of cell surface GABA(A) Rs. The inhibitory effects of PKC activation on α4β2δ GABA(A) R activity appeared to be mediated by direct phosphorylation at a previously identified site on the β2 subunit, serine 410. These results indicate that PKC-mediated phosphorylation can be an important physiological regulator of tonic GABA(A) R-mediated inhibition.

  2. Deletion of GAD67 in dopamine receptor-containing cells causes specific motor deficits

    PubMed Central

    Heusner, Carrie L.; Beutler, Lisa R.; Houser, Carolyn R.; Palmiter, Richard D.

    2009-01-01

    The medium spiny neurons (MSNs), which comprise the direct and indirect output pathways from the striatum, use γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) as their major fact-acting neurotransmitter. We generated mice carrying a conditional allele of the Gad1 gene, which encodes GAD67, one of two enzymes responsible for GABA biosynthesis, and bred them to mice expressing Cre recombinase at the dopamine D1 receptor locus (Drd1a) to selectively reduce GABA synthesis in the direct output pathway from the striatum. We show that these mice are deficient in some types of motor skills, but normal for others, suggesting a differential role for GABA release from D1 receptor-containing neurons. PMID:18615733

  3. GABA localization in the nematode Ascaris

    SciTech Connect

    Guastella, J.

    1988-01-01

    A histochemical approach was used to examine the distribution of GABA-associated neurons in the nematode Ascaris, an organism whose small number of morphologically simple neurons make it an excellent preparation for analyzing neuronal phenotypes. Two GABAergic markers were examined: GABA-like immunoreactivity (GLIR), a marker for endogenous stores of GABA; and ({sup 3}H)-GABA uptake, a marker for GABA uptake sites. Strong GLIR was present in the cell bodies, neurites and commissures of dorsal and ventral inhibitory motorneurons present in this region. Strong GLIR was also present in the cell bodies and processes of the four RME neurons in the nerve ring and in several other ganglionic neurons. Staining was absent in excitatory motorneurons, in ventral cord interneurons and in muscle cells and hypodermis. GABA uptake sites were found in single neural processes in both the ventral and dorsal nerve cords. ({sup 3}H)-GABA labeling was also observed in the other two RME cells and several other cephalic neurons. Four putative cholinergic excitatory motorneurons in the retrovesicular ganglion (RVG) were heavily labeled. Ventral and dorsal nerve cord inhibitory motorneurons did not take up ({sup 3}H)-GABA. Labeling of the ventral cord excitatory motorneuron somata and cell bodies was at or slightly above background. Heavy labeling of muscle cells was also observed.

  4. Structure, function, and plasticity of GABA transporters

    PubMed Central

    Scimemi, Annalisa

    2014-01-01

    GABA transporters belong to a large family of neurotransmitter:sodium symporters. They are widely expressed throughout the brain, with different levels of expression in different brain regions. GABA transporters are present in neurons and in astrocytes and their activity is crucial to regulate the extracellular concentration of GABA under basal conditions and during ongoing synaptic events. Numerous efforts have been devoted to determine the structural and functional properties of GABA transporters. There is also evidence that the expression of GABA transporters on the cell membrane and their lateral mobility can be modulated by different intracellular signaling cascades. The strength of individual synaptic contacts and the activity of entire neuronal networks may be finely tuned by altering the density, distribution and diffusion rate of GABA transporters within the cell membrane. These findings are intriguing because they suggest the existence of complex regulatory systems that control the plasticity of GABAergic transmission in the brain. Here we review the current knowledge on the structural and functional properties of GABA transporters and highlight the molecular mechanisms that alter the expression and mobility of GABA transporters at central synapses. PMID:24987330

  5. VTA Projection Neurons Releasing GABA and Glutamate in the Dentate Gyrus.

    PubMed

    Ntamati, Niels R; Lüscher, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Both dopamine and nondopamine neurons from the ventral tegmental area (VTA) project to a variety of brain regions. Here we examine nondopaminergic neurons in the mouse VTA that send long-range projections to the hippocampus. Using a combination of retrograde tracers, optogenetic tools, and electrophysiological recordings, we show that VTA GABAergic axons make synaptic contacts in the granule cell layer of the dentate gyrus, where we can elicit small postsynaptic currents. Surprisingly, the currents displayed a partial sensitivity to both bicuculline and NBQX, suggesting that these mesohippocampal neurons corelease both GABA and glutamate. Finally, we show that this projection is functional in vivo and its stimulation reduces granule cell-firing rates under anesthesia. Altogether, the present results describe a novel connection between GABA and glutamate coreleasing of cells of the VTA and the dentate gyrus. This connection could be relevant for a variety of functions, including reward-related memory and neurogenesis. PMID:27648470

  6. VTA Projection Neurons Releasing GABA and Glutamate in the Dentate Gyrus

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Both dopamine and nondopamine neurons from the ventral tegmental area (VTA) project to a variety of brain regions. Here we examine nondopaminergic neurons in the mouse VTA that send long-range projections to the hippocampus. Using a combination of retrograde tracers, optogenetic tools, and electrophysiological recordings, we show that VTA GABAergic axons make synaptic contacts in the granule cell layer of the dentate gyrus, where we can elicit small postsynaptic currents. Surprisingly, the currents displayed a partial sensitivity to both bicuculline and NBQX, suggesting that these mesohippocampal neurons corelease both GABA and glutamate. Finally, we show that this projection is functional in vivo and its stimulation reduces granule cell-firing rates under anesthesia. Altogether, the present results describe a novel connection between GABA and glutamate coreleasing of cells of the VTA and the dentate gyrus. This connection could be relevant for a variety of functions, including reward-related memory and neurogenesis. PMID:27648470

  7. VTA Projection Neurons Releasing GABA and Glutamate in the Dentate Gyrus

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Both dopamine and nondopamine neurons from the ventral tegmental area (VTA) project to a variety of brain regions. Here we examine nondopaminergic neurons in the mouse VTA that send long-range projections to the hippocampus. Using a combination of retrograde tracers, optogenetic tools, and electrophysiological recordings, we show that VTA GABAergic axons make synaptic contacts in the granule cell layer of the dentate gyrus, where we can elicit small postsynaptic currents. Surprisingly, the currents displayed a partial sensitivity to both bicuculline and NBQX, suggesting that these mesohippocampal neurons corelease both GABA and glutamate. Finally, we show that this projection is functional in vivo and its stimulation reduces granule cell-firing rates under anesthesia. Altogether, the present results describe a novel connection between GABA and glutamate coreleasing of cells of the VTA and the dentate gyrus. This connection could be relevant for a variety of functions, including reward-related memory and neurogenesis.

  8. Distinct Mechanisms Mediating Methamphetamine-Induced Neuronal Apoptosis and Dopamine Terminal Damage Share the Neuropeptide Substance P in the Striatum of Mice

    PubMed Central

    ZHU, JUDY P.Q.; XU, WENJING; ANGULO, JESUS A.

    2010-01-01

    Methamphetamine (METH) is an addictive psychostimulant that induces damage to the dopamine terminals and the apoptosis of some neurons of the striatum. Our laboratory demonstrated using either a single bolus dose (30 mg/kg) or a binge (10 mg/kg 4× at 2-h intervals) of METH that pharmacological blockade of the substance P receptor (neurokinin-1) attenuates METH-induced damage to both the presynaptic dopamine terminals and the apoptosis of some neurons of the striatum. To determine the phenotype of striatal neuron ablated by METH, we combined TUNEL (Terminal Deoxyncleotidyl Transferase-Mediated dUTP Nick End Labeling) with immunofluorescence for selective markers of projection and interneurons. METH induces the loss of approximately 20% of the projection neurons. The cholinergic and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-parvalbumin interneurons sustain losses of 30% and 50%, respectively. The somatostatin/neuropeptide Y (NPY)/nitric oxide synthase (NOS) interneurons are not impacted by METH. To investigate the mechanism by which substance P mediates METH-induced damage in this part of the brain, we ablated the striatal interneurons that express the neurokinin-1 receptor (NK-1R) with the selective neurotoxin substance P-SAP. Ablation of the NK-1R-expressing interneurons prevented METH-induced apoptosis in the striatum but was without effect on depletion of dopamine terminal markers. We propose that substance P mediates the apoptosis of some striatal neurons via the intrastriatal activation of nitric oxide synthesis. In contrast, substance P may mediate damage of the dopamine terminals via an extrastriatal mechanism involving the substantia nigra and cortical glutamate release. PMID:17105911

  9. Effects of glutamate decarboxylase and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) transporter on the bioconversion of GABA in engineered Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Le Vo, Tam Dinh; Kim, Tae Wan; Hong, Soon Ho

    2012-05-01

    Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is a non-essential amino acid and a precursor of pyrrolidone, a monomer of nylon 4. GABA can be biosynthesized through the decarboxylation of L: -glutamate by glutamate decarboxylase. In this study, the effects of glutamate decarboxylase (gadA, gadB), glutamate/GABA antiporter (gadC) and GABA aminotransferase (gabT) on GABA production were investigated in Escherichia coli. Glutamate decarboxylase was overexpressed alone or with the glutamate/GABA antiporter to enhance GABA synthesis. GABA aminotransferase, which redirects GABA into the TCA cycle, was knock-out mutated. When gadB and gadC were co-overexpressed in the gabT mutant strain, a final GABA concentration of 5.46 g/l was obtained from 10 g/l of monosodium glutamate (MSG), which corresponded to a GABA yield of 89.5%.

  10. The Arabidopsis pop2-1 mutant reveals the involvement of GABA transaminase in salt stress tolerance

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background GABA (γ-aminobutyric acid) is a non protein amino acid that has been reported to accumulate in a number of plant species when subjected to high salinity and many other environmental constraints. However, no experimental data are to date available on the molecular function of GABA and the involvement of its metabolism in salt stress tolerance in higher plants. Here, we investigated the regulation of GABA metabolism in Arabidopsis thaliana at the metabolite, enzymatic activity and gene transcription levels upon NaCl stress. Results We identified the GABA transaminase (GABA-T), the first step of GABA catabolism, as the most responsive to NaCl. We further performed a functional analysis of the corresponding gene POP2 and demonstrated that the previously isolated loss-of-function pop2-1 mutant was oversensitive to ionic stress but not to osmotic stress suggesting a specific role in salt tolerance. NaCl oversensitivity was not associated with overaccumulation of Na+ and Cl- but mutant showed a slight decrease in K+. To bring insights into POP2 function, a promoter-reporter gene strategy was used and showed that POP2 was mainly expressed in roots under control conditions and was induced in primary root apex and aerial parts of plants in response to NaCl. Additionally, GC-MS- and UPLC-based metabolite profiling revealed major changes in roots of pop2-1 mutant upon NaCl stress including accumulation of amino acids and decrease in carbohydrates content. Conclusions GABA metabolism was overall up-regulated in response to NaCl in Arabidopsis. Particularly, GABA-T was found to play a pivotal function and impairment of this step was responsible for a decrease in salt tolerance indicating that GABA catabolism was a determinant of Arabidopsis salt tolerance. GABA-T would act in salt responses in linking N and C metabolisms in roots. PMID:20122158

  11. Impairment of GABA release in the hippocampus at the time of the first spontaneous seizure in the pilocarpine model of temporal lobe epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Soukupová, Marie; Binaschi, Anna; Falcicchia, Chiara; Zucchini, Silvia; Roncon, Paolo; Palma, Eleonora; Magri, Eros; Grandi, Enrico; Simonato, Michele

    2014-07-01

    The alterations in GABA release have not yet been systematically measured along the natural course of temporal lobe epilepsy. In this work, we analyzed GABA extracellular concentrations (using in vivo microdialysis under basal and high K(+)-evoked conditions) and loss of two GABA interneuron populations (parvalbumin and somatostatin neurons) in the ventral hippocampus at different time-points after pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus in the rat, i.e. during development and progression of epilepsy. We found that (i) during the latent period between the epileptogenic insult, status epilepticus, and the first spontaneous seizure, basal GABA outflow was reduced to about one third of control values while the number of parvalbumin-positive cells was reduced by about 50% and that of somatostatin-positive cells by about 25%; nonetheless, high K(+) stimulation increased extracellular GABA in a proportionally greater manner during latency than under control conditions; (ii) at the time of the first spontaneous seizure (i.e., when the diagnosis of epilepsy is made in humans) this increased responsiveness to stimulation disappeared, i.e. there was no longer any compensation for GABA cell loss; (iii) thereafter, this dysfunction remained constant until a late phase of the disease. These data suggest that a GABAergic hyper-responsiveness can compensate for GABA cell loss and protect from occurrence of seizures during latency, whereas impaired extracellular GABA levels can favor the occurrence of spontaneous recurrent seizures and the maintenance of an epileptic state.

  12. Colocalization of serotonin and GABA in retinal neurons of Ichthyophis kohtaoensis (amphibia; Gymnophiona).

    PubMed

    Dünker, N

    1998-01-01

    Ichthyophis kohtaoensis, a member of the limbless Gymnophiona, has a specialized subterranean burrowing mode of life and a predominantly olfactory-guided orientation. The only visually guided behavior seems to be negative phototaxis. As these animals possess extremely small eyes (only 540 microm in diameter in adults), functional investigations of single retinal cells by electrophysiological methods have so far failed. Therefore, the content and distribution of retinal transmitters have been investigated as indications of a functioning sense organ in an animal that is supposed to be blind. Previous immunohistochemical investigation of the retinal transmitter system revealed immunoreactivity for gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), serotonin, dopamine and tyrosine hydroxylase, the rate-limiting enzyme in the catecholamine synthetic pathway. The present studies have been performed in order to determine a possible colocalization of serotonin and GABA in retinal neurons of the caecilian retina. Therefore retinal cryostat sections of various developmental stages have been investigated by the indirect fluorescence method. In single-label preparations, serotonin is localized to cells in the inner nuclear layer and the ganglion cell layer. GABA immunocytochemistry labels a variety of cell types in the inner nuclear layer as well as cell bodies in the ganglion cell layer. In double-label preparations, some of the serotonergic cells are found to express GABA immunoreactivity and some GABAergic neurons also label for serotonin immunocytochemistry. Thus, despite the fact that caecilians mainly rely on olfaction and are believed to have a reduced visual system, their retina exhibits a surprisingly "normal" distribution of neurotransmitters and neuromodulators, also typical of other anamniotes with a well-developed visual system, including the partial colocalization of serotonin and GABA at all developmental stages of I. kohtaoensis. These results indicate that a functional system

  13. Guinea Pig Horizontal Cells Express GABA, the GABA-Synthesizing Enzyme GAD65, and the GABA Vesicular Transporter

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Chenying; Hirano, Arlene A.; Stella, Salvatore L.; Bitzer, Michaela; Brecha, Nicholas C.

    2013-01-01

    γ-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) is likely expressed in horizontal cells of all species, although conflicting physiological findings have led to considerable controversy regarding its role as a transmitter in the outer retina. This study has evaluated key components of the GABA system in the outer retina of guinea pig, an emerging retinal model system. The presence of GABA, its rate-limiting synthetic enzyme glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD65 and GAD67 isoforms), the plasma membrane GABA transporters (GAT-1 and GAT-3), and the vesicular GABA transporter (VGAT) was evaluated by using immunohistochemistry with well-characterized antibodies. The presence of GAD65 mRNA was also evaluated by using laser capture microdissection and reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. Specific GABA, GAD65, and VGAT immunostaining was localized to horizontal cell bodies, as well as to their processes and tips in the outer plexiform layer. Furthermore, immunostaining of retinal whole mounts and acutely dissociated retinas showed GAD65 and VGAT immunoreactivity in both A-type and B-type horizontal cells. However, these cells did not contain GAD67, GAT-1, or GAT-3 immunoreactivity. GAD65 mRNA was detected in horizontal cells, and sequencing of the amplified GAD65 fragment showed approximately 85% identity with other mammalian GAD65 mRNAs. These studies demonstrate the presence of GABA, GAD65, and VGAT in horizontal cells of the guinea pig retina, and support the idea that GABA is synthesized from GAD65, taken up into synaptic vesicles by VGAT, and likely released by a vesicular mechanism from horizontal cells. PMID:20235161

  14. Kinetic studies on the inhibition of GABA-T by gamma-vinyl GABA and taurine.

    PubMed

    Sulaiman, Saba A J; Suliman, Fakhr Eldin O; Barghouthi, Samira

    2003-08-01

    Gamma-aminobutyric acid transaminase (GABA-T, EC 2.6.1.19) is a pyridoxal phosphate (PLP) dependent enzyme that catalyzes the degradation of gamma-aminobutyric acid. The kinetics of this reaction are studied in vitro, both in the absence, and in the presence of two inhibitors: gamma-vinyl GABA (4-aminohex-5-enoic acid), and a natural product, taurine (ethylamine-2-sulfonic acid). A kinetic model that describes the transamination process is proposed. GABA-T from Pseudomonas fluorescens is inhibited by gamma-vinyl GABA and taurine at concentrations of 51.0 and 78.5 mM. Both inhibitors show competitive inhibition behavior when GABA is the substrate and the inhibition constant (Ki) values for gamma-vinyl GABA and taurine were found to be 26 +/- 3 mM and 68 +/- 7 mM respectively. The transamination process of alpha-ketoglutarate was not affected by the presence of gamma-vinyl GABA, whereas, taurine was a noncompetitive inhibitor of GABA-T when alpha-ketoglutarate was the substrate. The inhibition dissociation constant (Kii) for this system was found to be 96 +/- 10 mM. The Michaelis-Menten constant (Km) in the absence of inhibition, was found to be 0.79 +/- 0.11 mM, and 0.47 +/- 0.10 mM for GABA and alpha-ketoglutarate respectively.

  15. GABA and glycine in the developing brain.

    PubMed

    Ito, Susumu

    2016-09-01

    GABA and glycine are major inhibitory neurotransmitters in the CNS and act on receptors coupled to chloride channels. During early developmental periods, both GABA and glycine depolarize membrane potentials due to the relatively high intracellular Cl(-) concentration. Therefore, they can act as excitatory neurotransmitters. GABA and glycine are involved in spontaneous neural network activities in the immature CNS such as giant depolarizing potentials (GDPs) in neonatal hippocampal neurons, which are generated by the synchronous activity of GABAergic interneurons and glutamatergic principal neurons. GDPs and GDP-like activities in the developing brains are thought to be important for the activity-dependent functiogenesis through Ca(2+) influx and/or other intracellular signaling pathways activated by depolarization or stimulation of metabotropic receptors. However, if GABA and glycine do not shift from excitatory to inhibitory neurotransmitters at the birth and in maturation, it may result in neural disorders including autism spectrum disorders. PMID:26951057

  16. Evidence That GABA Mediates Dopaminergic and Serotonergic Pathways Associated with Locomotor Activity in Juvenile Chinook Salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clements, S.; Schreck, C.B.

    2004-01-01

    The authors examined the control of locomotor activity in juvenile salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) by manipulating 3 neurotransmitter systems-gamma-amino-n-butyric acid (GABA), dopamine, and serotonin-as well as the neuropeptide corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH). Intracerebroventricular (ICV) injections of CRH and the GABAAagonist muscimol stimulated locomotor activity. The effect of muscimol was attenuated by administration of a dopamine receptor antagonist, haloperidol. Conversely, the administration of a dopamine uptake inhibitor (4???,4??? -difluoro-3-alpha-[diphenylmethoxy] tropane hydrochloride [DUI]) potentiated the effect of muscimol. They found no evidence that CRH-induced hyperactivity is mediated by dopaminergic systems following concurrent injections of haloperidol or DUI with CRH. Administration of muscimol either had no effect or attenuated the locomotor response to concurrent injections of CRH and fluoxetine, whereas the GABAA antagonist bicuculline methiodide potentiated the effect of CRH and fluoxetine.

  17. The sushi domains of secreted GABA(B1) isoforms selectively impair GABA(B) heteroreceptor function.

    PubMed

    Tiao, Jim Y; Bradaia, Amyaouch; Biermann, Barbara; Kaupmann, Klemens; Metz, Michaela; Haller, Corinne; Rolink, Antonius G; Pless, Elin; Barlow, Paul N; Gassmann, Martin; Bettler, Bernhard

    2008-11-01

    GABA(B) receptors are the G-protein-coupled receptors for gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), the main inhibitory neurotransmitter in the brain. GABA(B) receptors are promising drug targets for a wide spectrum of psychiatric and neurological disorders. Receptor subtypes exhibit no pharmacological differences and are based on the subunit isoforms GABA(B1a) and GABA(B1b). GABA(B1a) differs from GABA(B1b) in its ectodomain by the presence of a pair of conserved protein binding motifs, the sushi domains (SDs). Previous work showed that selectively GABA(B1a) contributes to heteroreceptors at glutamatergic terminals, whereas both GABA(B1a) and GABA(B1b) contribute to autoreceptors at GABAergic terminals or to postsynaptic receptors. Here, we describe GABA(B1j), a secreted GABA(B1) isoform comprising the two SDs. We show that the two SDs, when expressed as a soluble protein, bind to neuronal membranes with low nanomolar affinity. Soluble SD protein, when added at nanomolar concentrations to dissociated hippocampal neurons or to acute hippocampal slices, impairs the inhibitory effect of GABA(B) heteroreceptors on evoked and spontaneous glutamate release. In contrast, soluble SD protein neither impairs the activity of GABA(B) autoreceptors nor impairs the activity of postsynaptic GABA(B) receptors. We propose that soluble SD protein scavenges an extracellular binding partner that retains GABA(B1a)-containing heteroreceptors in proximity of the presynaptic release machinery. Soluble GABA(B1) isoforms like GABA(B1j) may therefore act as dominant-negative inhibitors of heteroreceptors and control the level of GABA(B)-mediated inhibition at glutamatergic terminals. Of importance for drug discovery, our data also demonstrate that it is possible to selectively impair GABA(B) heteroreceptors by targeting their SDs.

  18. Subcellular localization and complements of GABA(A) and GABA(C) receptors on bullfrog retinal bipolar cells.

    PubMed

    Du, J L; Yang, X L

    2000-08-01

    gamma-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptors on retinal bipolar cells (BCs) are highly relevant to spatial and temporal integration of visual signals in the outer and inner retina. In the present work, subcellular localization and complements of GABA(A) and GABA(C) receptors on BCs were investigated by whole cell recordings and local drug application via multi-barreled puff pipettes in the bullfrog retinal slice preparation. Four types of the BCs (types 1-4) were identified morphologically by injection of Lucifer yellow. According to the ramification levels of the axon terminals and the responses of these cells to glutamate (or kainate) applied at their dendrites, types 1 and 2 of BCs were supposed to be OFF type, whereas types 3 and 4 of BCs might be ON type. Bicuculline (BIC), a GABA(A) receptor antagonist, and imidazole-4-acetic acid (I4AA), a GABA(C) receptor antagonist, were used to distinguish GABA receptor-mediated responses. In all BCs tested, not only the axon terminals but also the dendrites showed high GABA sensitivity mediated by both GABA(A) and GABA(C) receptors. Subcellular localization and complements of GABA(A) and GABA(C) receptors at the dendrites and axon terminals were highly related to the dichotomy of OFF and ON BCs. In the case of OFF BCs, GABA(A) receptors were rather evenly distributed at the dendrites and axon terminals, but GABA(C) receptors were predominantly expressed at the axon terminals. Moreover, the relative contribution of GABA(C) receptors to the axon terminals was prevalent over that of GABA(A) receptors, while the situation was reversed at the dendrites. In the case of ON BCs, GABA(A) and GABA(C) receptors both preferred to be expressed at the axon terminals; relative contributions of these two GABA receptor subtypes to both the sites were comparable, while GABA(C) receptors were much less expressed than GABA(A) receptors. GABA(A), but not GABA(C) receptors, were expressed clusteringly at axons of a population of BCs. In a

  19. Dopamine, depression and antidepressants.

    PubMed

    Dailly, Eric; Chenu, Franck; Renard, Caroline E; Bourin, Michel

    2004-12-01

    Abstract The relationship between depression and dopamine deficiency in the mesolimbic pathway has been hypothesized for many years. The experimental studies with animal models of depression and the human studies implicate the role of the dopamine system in depression. Not only do dopaminergic receptor agonists, but also antagonists such as olanzapine exhibit antidepressant effects associated with standard antidepressants in patients with treatment-resistant depression. This paradoxical result suggests that further investigations are necessary to understand the role played by dopamine in depression.

  20. Synaptic GABA release prevents GABA transporter type-1 reversal during excessive network activity

    PubMed Central

    Savtchenko, Leonid; Megalogeni, Maria; Rusakov, Dmitri A.; Walker, Matthew C.; Pavlov, Ivan

    2015-01-01

    GABA transporters control extracellular GABA, which regulates the key aspects of neuronal and network behaviour. A prevailing view is that modest neuronal depolarization results in GABA transporter type-1 (GAT-1) reversal causing non-vesicular GABA release into the extracellular space during intense network activity. This has important implications for GABA uptake-targeting therapies. Here we combined a realistic kinetic model of GAT-1 with experimental measurements of tonic GABAA receptor currents in ex vivo hippocampal slices to examine GAT-1 operation under varying network conditions. Our simulations predict that synaptic GABA release during network activity robustly prevents GAT-1 reversal. We test this in the 0 Mg2+ model of epileptiform discharges using slices from healthy and chronically epileptic rats and find that epileptiform activity is associated with increased synaptic GABA release and is not accompanied by GAT-1 reversal. We conclude that sustained efflux of GABA through GAT-1 is unlikely to occur during physiological or pathological network activity. PMID:25798861

  1. Mutations in the GABA Transporter SLC6A1 Cause Epilepsy with Myoclonic-Atonic Seizures

    PubMed Central

    Carvill, Gemma L.; McMahon, Jacinta M.; Schneider, Amy; Zemel, Matthew; Myers, Candace T.; Saykally, Julia; Nguyen, John; Robbiano, Angela; Zara, Federico; Specchio, Nicola; Mecarelli, Oriano; Smith, Robert L.; Leventer, Richard J.; Møller, Rikke S.; Nikanorova, Marina; Dimova, Petia; Jordanova, Albena; Petrou, Steven; Helbig, Ingo; Striano, Pasquale; Weckhuysen, Sarah; Berkovic, Samuel F.; Scheffer, Ingrid E.; Mefford, Heather C.

    2015-01-01

    GAT-1, encoded by SLC6A1, is one of the major gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) transporters in the brain and is responsible for re-uptake of GABA from the synapse. In this study, targeted resequencing of 644 individuals with epileptic encephalopathies led to the identification of six SLC6A1 mutations in seven individuals, all of whom have epilepsy with myoclonic-atonic seizures (MAE). We describe two truncations and four missense alterations, all of which most likely lead to loss of function of GAT-1 and thus reduced GABA re-uptake from the synapse. These individuals share many of the electrophysiological properties of Gat1-deficient mice, including spontaneous spike-wave discharges. Overall, pathogenic mutations occurred in 6/160 individuals with MAE, accounting for ∼4% of unsolved MAE cases. PMID:25865495

  2. Decoding dopamine signaling.

    PubMed

    Bibb, James A

    2005-07-29

    Dopamine is a key neurotransmitter that is important for many physiological functions including motor control, mood, and the reward pathway. In this issue of Cell, the laboratories of Marc Caron and Li-Huei Tsai identify two very different molecules--beta-arrestin 2 and Par-4, respectively--that unexpectedly are involved in dopamine signaling via the D2 receptor. These two new signaling pathways mediate the actions of dopamine on behavior and facilitate crosstalk between different signaling pathways that are activated by binding of dopamine to the D2 receptor.

  3. Changes in dialysate concentrations of glutamate and GABA in the brain: an index of volume transmission mediated actions?

    PubMed

    Del Arco, A; Segovia, G; Fuxe, K; Mora, F

    2003-04-01

    Brain microdialysis has become a frequently used method to study the extracellular concentrations of neurotransmitters in specific areas of the brain. For years, and this is still the case today, dialysate concentrations and hence extracellular concentrations of neurotransmitters have been interpreted as a direct index of the neuronal release of these specific neurotransmitter systems. Although this seems to be the case for neurotransmitters such as dopamine, serotonin and acetylcholine, the extracellular concentrations of glutamate and GABA do not provide a reliable index of their synaptic exocytotic release. However, many microdialysis studies show changes in extracellular concentrations of glutamate and GABA under specific pharmacological and behavioural stimuli that could be interpreted as a consequence of the activation of specific neurochemical circuits. Despite this, we still do not know the origin and physiological significance of these changes of glutamate and GABA in the extracellular space. Here we propose that the changes in dialysate concentrations of these two neurotransmitters found under specific treatments could be an expression of the activity of the neurone-astrocyte unit in specific circuits of the brain. It is further proposed that dialysate changes of glutamate and GABA could be used as an index of volume transmission mediated actions of these two neurotransmitters in the brain. This hypothesis is based firstly on the assumption that the activity of neurones is functionally linked to the activity of astrocytes, which can release glutamate and GABA to the extracellular space; secondly, on the existence of extrasynaptic glutamate and GABA receptors with functional properties different from those of GABA receptors located at the synapse; and thirdly, on the experimental evidence reporting specific electrophysiological and neurochemical effects of glutamate and GABA when their levels are increased in the extracellular space. According to this

  4. Selective effects of cyclodiene insecticides on dopamine release in mammalian synaptosomes.

    PubMed

    Kirby, Michael L; Barlow, Rebecca L; Bloomquist, Jeffrey R

    2002-06-01

    Cyclodiene insecticides release labeled neurotransmitter in striatal and cortical synaptosome preparations under nondepolarizing conditions, typically showing half-maximal potencies for release in the low micromolar range. This level of potency is similar to those reported for inhibition of 36Cl- influx at the gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)(A) receptor, their consensus target site. A wide variety of other GABA(A) antagonists, including picrotoxinin and bicuculline, did not cause significant dopamine release, which obviated direct involvement of the GABA(A) receptor as a possible site of action. Release assays with different transmitters indicated that striatal dopaminergic terminals are severalfold more sensitive to release than other neurotransmitter types. The selective sensitivity of nigrostriatal dopaminergic nerve terminals to insecticidal organochlorines provides biochemical evidence supporting an epidemiological linkage between exposure to environmental toxicants and Parkinsonism.

  5. Decreased brain dopamine cell numbers in human cocaine users.

    PubMed

    Little, Karley Y; Ramssen, Eric; Welchko, Ryan; Volberg, Vitaly; Roland, Courtney J; Cassin, Bader

    2009-08-15

    Cocaine use diminishes striatal and midbrain dopamine neuronal components in both post-mortem and in vivo human experiments. The diffuse nature of these declines suggests the possibility that cocaine use might cause a loss of dopamine neurons in humans. Previous rodent studies have not detected cocaine-induced dopamine cell damage. The present experiment involved counting midbrain dopamine neurons utilizing both melanin and tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactivity. Well-preserved blocks ranging from +38 mm obex to +45 mm obex were examined in 10 cocaine users and 9 controls. Sections were also examined for signs of acute pathological injury by counting activated macrophages and microglia. Melanized cells at six midbrain levels were significantly reduced in cocaine users by both drug exposures. The estimated total number of melanized dopamine cells in the anterior midbrain was significantly reduced in cocaine users by 16%. Results with tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactivity were less conclusive because of variability in staining. Both activated macrophages and activated microglia were significantly increased among cocaine users. Cocaine exposure may have neurotoxic effects on dopamine neurons in humans. The infiltration of phagocytic cells suggests that the lower number of dopamine cells found in cocaine users was a relatively recent effect. The loss of dopamine cells could contribute to and intensify cocaine dependence, as well as anhedonic and depressive symptoms, in some cocaine users. Further efforts at clarifying the pathophysiological mechanisms involved may help explain treatment refractoriness, and identify targets for therapeutic intervention. PMID:19233481

  6. Friedreich ataxia: failure of GABA-ergic and glycinergic synaptic transmission in the dentate nucleus.

    PubMed

    Koeppen, Arnulf H; Ramirez, R Liane; Becker, Alyssa B; Feustel, Paul J; Mazurkiewicz, Joseph E

    2015-02-01

    Atrophy of large neurons in the dentate nucleus (DN) is an important pathologic correlate of neurologic disability in patients with Friedreich ataxia (FA). Thinning of the DN was quantified in 29 autopsy cases of FA and 2 carriers by measuring the thickness of the gray matter ribbon on stains with anti-glutamic acid decarboxylase, the rate-limiting enzyme in the biosynthesis of γ-amino-butyric acid (GABA). The DN was thinner than normal in all cases of FA, and atrophy correlated inversely with disease duration but not with age at onset or length of the homozygous guanine-adenine-adenine trinucleotide expansions. In 13 of the FA cases, frozen DN tissue was available for assay of frataxin. Dentate nucleus atrophy was more severe when frataxin was very low. Immunohistochemical staining for glutamic acid decarboxylase revealed grumose reaction and preservation of small GABA-ergic neurons in the DN of FA patients. Residual small DN neurons and varicose axons also contained the glycine transporter 2, identifying them as glycinergic. Immunohistochemistry also confirmed severe loss of GABA-A and glycine receptors in the DN with comparable depletion of the receptor-anchoring protein gephyrin. Thus, loss of gephyrin and failure to position GABA-A and glycine receptors correctly may reduce trophic support of large DN neurons and contribute to their atrophy. By contrast, Purkinje cells may escape retrograde atrophy in FA by issuing new axonal sprouts to small surviving DN neurons where they form reparative grumose clusters.

  7. A new dopamine-β-hydroxylase inhibitor

    PubMed Central

    Andén, N. -E.; Fuxe, K.

    1971-01-01

    1. The dopamine-β-hydroxylase inhibitor bis(4-methyl-1-homopiperazinyl-thiocarbonyl) disulphide (FLA-63; 25 mg/kg i.p.) caused within 4 h a 65% loss of noradrenaline throughout the intact rat spinal cord and also cranial to a transection of the cut spinal cord. Caudal to the lesion, there was only an insignificant depletion of 17% indicating the importance of nerve impulses for the disappearance of noradrenaline. 2. Dopamine accumulated in the spinal cord after treatment with FLA-63 although the amounts were not sufficient to replace the missing noradrenaline. Even after treatment with L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA), the catecholamine store was incompletely replenished by dopamine. 3. After a large depletion of the noradrenaline stores, induced by repeated doses of FLA-63 or by reserpine plus FLA-63, the L-DOPA-induced increase in flexor reflex activity of the hind limbs of spinal rats was inhibited much more than after pretreatment with α-methyl-tyrosine or reserpine. FLA-63 blocked the formation of noradrenaline but not of dopamine from L-DOPA. 4. The increase in flexor reflex activity induced by the noradrenaline receptor stimulating agent clonidine was not changed by FLA-63, indicating that the noradrenaline receptor sensitivity was not influenced. 5. After depletion of the noradrenaline stores, the small formation of noradrenaline from L-DOPA may be of greater functional significance for the noradrenaline receptor stimulation than the greater formation of dopamine, but the dopamine formed also has a slight action. With intact noradrenaline stores, displacement of endogenous noradrenaline by newly formed dopamine contributes, at least after monoamine oxidase inhibition, to the increase in the flexor reflex activity caused by L-DOPA. PMID:4339882

  8. Menthol shares general anesthetic activity and sites of action on the GABA(A) receptor with the intravenous agent, propofol.

    PubMed

    Watt, Erin E; Betts, Brooke A; Kotey, Francesca O; Humbert, Danielle J; Griffith, Theanne N; Kelly, Elizabeth W; Veneskey, Kelley C; Gill, Nikhila; Rowan, Kathleen C; Jenkins, Andrew; Hall, Adam C

    2008-08-20

    Menthol and related compounds were investigated for modulation of recombinant human gamma-aminobutyric acid type A (GABA(A), alpha(1)beta(2)gamma(2s)) receptor currents expressed in Xenopus oocytes. Sub-maximal (EC(20)) GABA currents were typically enhanced by co-applications of 3-300 microM (+)-menthol (e.g. by approximately 2-fold at 50 microM) > isopulegol > isomenthol> alpha-terpineol > cyclohexanol. We studied menthol's actions on GABA(A) receptors compared to sedatives (benzodiazepines) and intravenous anesthetics (barbiturates, steroids, etomidate and propofol). Flumazenil (a benzodiazepine antagonist) did not inhibit menthol enhancements while currents directly activated by 50 microM propofol were significantly inhibited (by 26+/-3%) by 50 microM (+)-menthol. GABA(A) receptors containing beta(2) subunits with either a point mutation in a methionine residue to a tryptophan at the 286 position (in transmembrane domain 3, TM-3) or a tyrosine to a tryptophan at the 444 position (TM-4) are insensitive to modulation by propofol. Enhancements of GABA EC(20) currents by menthol were equally abolished in GABA(A) alpha(1)beta(2)(M286W)gamma(2s) and alpha(1)beta(2)(Y444W)gamma(2s) receptors while positive modulations by benzodiazepines, barbiturates and steroids were unaffected. Menthol may therefore exert its actions on GABA(A) receptors via sites distinct from benzodiazepines, steroids and barbiturates, and via sites important for modulation by propofol. Finally, using an in vivo tadpole assay, addition of (+)-menthol resulted in a loss of righting reflex with an EC(50) of 23.5+/-4.7 microM (approximately10-fold less potent anesthesia than propofol). Thus, menthol and analogs share general anesthetic action with propofol, possibly via action at similar sites on the GABA(A) receptor. PMID:18593637

  9. The ventral tegmentum and dopamine: A new wave of diversity.

    PubMed

    Barrot, M

    2014-12-12

    Projection systems arising from the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and the substantia nigra (SN) have a critical role in a broad range of functions, as well as in the etiology, symptoms and treatment of neurological and psychiatric diseases. Mostly studied for its dopamine neurons, the ventral tegmentum is in fact heterogeneous at cellular and functional levels. This special issue of Neuroscience gathered some experts in the field to review the connectivity of the ventral mesencephalic dopaminergic complex, its cellular heterogeneity with attention given to glutamate neurons, the D2 autoreceptor and the cholinergic controls of dopamine activity, the influence of neurotrophins, the controls of bursting activity and the heterogeneity of neuronal activity across traits and states, the pedunculopontine tegmental and the sensory controls of dopamine activity, the sex-dependent diversity, the links between circadian and dopamine systems, the functional antero-posterior heterogeneity of the VTA and the role of its GABA tail (tVTA/rostromedial tegmental nucleus (RMTg)), the functional heterogeneity of the VTA outputs, the place of dopamine in cortico-basal ganglia circuitry, the different roles of the D1 and D2 striatal pathways and the role of dopamine in associative learning and memory. Recent progress also highlights the need for molecular markers of functional subpopulations within the ventral tegmentum, for deeper developmental knowledge of this region, and for a single cell level of connectomic. It also raises the question of inter-individual, sex, strain and species heterogeneity, and conversely the question of data generalization in a context of human pathology models, which warrant comparative studies and translational effort. PMID:25453764

  10. A descending dopamine pathway conserved from basal vertebrates to mammals

    PubMed Central

    Ryczko, Dimitri; Cone, Jackson J.; Alpert, Michael H.; Goetz, Laurent; Auclair, François; Dubé, Catherine; Parent, Martin; Roitman, Mitchell F.; Alford, Simon; Dubuc, Réjean

    2016-01-01

    Dopamine neurons are classically known to modulate locomotion indirectly through ascending projections to the basal ganglia that project down to brainstem locomotor networks. Their loss in Parkinson’s disease is devastating. In lampreys, we recently showed that brainstem networks also receive direct descending dopaminergic inputs that potentiate locomotor output. Here, we provide evidence that this descending dopaminergic pathway is conserved to higher vertebrates, including mammals. In salamanders, dopamine neurons projecting to the striatum or brainstem locomotor networks were partly intermingled. Stimulation of the dopaminergic region evoked dopamine release in brainstem locomotor networks and concurrent reticulospinal activity. In rats, some dopamine neurons projecting to the striatum also innervated the pedunculopontine nucleus, a known locomotor center, and stimulation of the dopaminergic region evoked pedunculopontine dopamine release in vivo. Finally, we found dopaminergic fibers in the human pedunculopontine nucleus. The conservation of a descending dopaminergic pathway across vertebrates warrants re-evaluating dopamine’s role in locomotion. PMID:27071118

  11. Recovery of dopamine transporters with methamphetamine detoxification is not linked to changes in dopamine release

    DOE PAGES

    Volkow, Nora D.; Wang, Gene-Jack; Smith, Lisa; Fowler, Joanna S.; Telang, Frank; Logan, Jean; Tomasi, Dardo

    2015-07-21

    Metamphetamine’s widepread abuse and concerns that it may increase Parkinson’s disease led us to assess if the reported loss of dopamine transporters (DAT) in methamphetamine abusers (MA) reflected damage to dopamine neurons. Using PET with [11C]cocaine to measure DAT, and with [11C]raclopride to measure dopamine release (assessed as changes in specific binding of [11C]raclopride between placebo and methylphenidate), which was used as marker of dopamine neuronal function, we show that MA (n=16), tested during early detoxification, had lower DAT (20-30%) but overall normal DA release in striatum (except for a small decrease in left putamen), when compared to controls (n=15).more » In controls, DAT were positively correlated with DA release (higher DAT associated with larger DA increases), consistent with DAT serving as markers of DA terminals. In contrast, MA showed a trend for a negative correlation (p=0.07) (higher DAT associated with lower DA increases), consistent with reduced DA re-uptake following DAT downregulation. MA who remained abstinent nine-months later (n=9) showed significant increases in DAT (20%) but methylphenidate-induced dopamine increases did not change. In contrast, in controls, DAT did not change when retested 9 months later but methylphenidate-induced dopamine increases in ventral striatum were reduced (p=0.05). Baseline D2/D3 receptors in caudate were lower in MA than in controls and did not change with detoxification, nor did they change in the controls upon retest. The loss of DAT in the MA, which was not associated with a concomitant reduction in dopamine release as would have been expected if DAT loss reflected DA terminal degneration; as well as the recovery of DAT after protracted detoxification, which was not associated with increased dopamine release as would have been expected if DAT increases reflected terminal regeneration, indicate that the loss of DAT in these MA does not reflect degeneration of dopamine terminals.« less

  12. Recovery of dopamine transporters with methamphetamine detoxification is not linked to changes in dopamine release

    SciTech Connect

    Volkow, Nora D.; Wang, Gene-Jack; Smith, Lisa; Fowler, Joanna S.; Telang, Frank; Logan, Jean; Tomasi, Dardo

    2015-07-21

    Metamphetamine’s widepread abuse and concerns that it may increase Parkinson’s disease led us to assess if the reported loss of dopamine transporters (DAT) in methamphetamine abusers (MA) reflected damage to dopamine neurons. Using PET with [11C]cocaine to measure DAT, and with [11C]raclopride to measure dopamine release (assessed as changes in specific binding of [11C]raclopride between placebo and methylphenidate), which was used as marker of dopamine neuronal function, we show that MA (n=16), tested during early detoxification, had lower DAT (20-30%) but overall normal DA release in striatum (except for a small decrease in left putamen), when compared to controls (n=15). In controls, DAT were positively correlated with DA release (higher DAT associated with larger DA increases), consistent with DAT serving as markers of DA terminals. In contrast, MA showed a trend for a negative correlation (p=0.07) (higher DAT associated with lower DA increases), consistent with reduced DA re-uptake following DAT downregulation. MA who remained abstinent nine-months later (n=9) showed significant increases in DAT (20%) but methylphenidate-induced dopamine increases did not change. In contrast, in controls, DAT did not change when retested 9 months later but methylphenidate-induced dopamine increases in ventral striatum were reduced (p=0.05). Baseline D2/D3 receptors in caudate were lower in MA than in controls and did not change with detoxification, nor did they change in the controls upon retest. The loss of DAT in the MA, which was not associated with a concomitant reduction in dopamine release as would have been expected if DAT loss reflected DA terminal degneration; as well as the recovery of DAT after protracted detoxification, which was not associated with increased dopamine release as would have been expected if DAT increases reflected terminal regeneration, indicate that the loss of DAT in these MA does not reflect degeneration of

  13. The transmembrane sodium gradient influences ambient GABA concentration by altering the equilibrium of GABA transporters.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yuanming; Wang, Wengang; Richerson, George B

    2006-11-01

    Tonic inhibition is widely believed to be caused solely by "spillover" of GABA that escapes the synaptic cleft and activates extrasynaptic GABA(A) receptors. However, an exclusively vesicular source is not consistent with the observation that tonic inhibition can still occur after blocking vesicular release. Here, we made patch-clamp recordings from neurons in rat hippocampal cultures and measured the tonic current that was blocked by bicuculline or gabazine. During perforated patch recordings, the tonic GABA current was decreased by the GAT1 antagonist SKF-89976a. Zero calcium solution did not change the amount of tonic current, despite a large reduction in vesicular GABA release. Perturbations that would be expected to alter the transmembrane sodium gradient influenced the tonic current. For example, in zero calcium Ringer, TTX (which can decrease cytosolic [Na(+)]) reduced tonic current, whereas veratridine (which can increase cytosolic [Na(+)]) increased tonic current. Likewise, removal of extracellular sodium led to a large increase in tonic current. The increases in tonic current induced by veratridine and sodium removal were completely blocked by SKF89976a. When these experiments were repeated in hippocampal slices, similar results were obtained except that a GAT1- and GAT3-independent nonvesicular source(s) of GABA was found to contribute to the tonic current. We conclude that multiple sources can contribute to ambient GABA, including spillover and GAT1 reversal. The source of GABA release may be conceptually less important in determining the amount of tonic inhibition than the factors that control the equilibrium of GABA transporters.

  14. Loss of the trpc4 gene is associated with a reduction in cocaine self-administration and reduced spontaneous ventral tegmental area dopamine neuronal activity, without deficits in learning for natural rewards.

    PubMed

    Klipec, William D; Burrow, Kristin R; O'Neill, Casey; Cao, Jun-Li; Lawyer, Chloe R; Ostertag, Eric; Fowler, Melissa; Bachtell, Ryan K; Illig, Kurt R; Cooper, Donald C

    2016-06-01

    Among the canonical transient receptor potential (TRPC) channels, the TRPC4 non-selective cation channel is one of the most abundantly expressed subtypes within mammalian corticolimbic brain regions, but its functional and behavioral role is unknown. To identify a function for TRPC4 channels we compared the performance of rats with a genetic knockout of the trpc4 gene (trpc4 KO) to wild-type (WT) controls on the acquisition of simple and complex learning for natural rewards, and on cocaine self-administration (SA). Despite the abundant distribution of TRPC4 channels through the corticolimbic brain regions, we found trpc4 KO rats exhibited normal learning in Y-maze and complex reversal shift paradigms. However, a deficit was observed in cocaine SA in the trpc4 KO group, which infused significantly less cocaine than WT controls despite displaying normal sucrose SA. Given the important role of ventral tegmental area (VTA) dopamine neurons in cocaine SA, we hypothesized that TRPC4 channels may regulate basal dopamine neuron excitability. Double-immunolabeling showed a selective expression of TRPC4 channels in a subpopulation of putative dopamine neurons in the VTA. Ex vivo recordings of spontaneous VTA dopamine neuronal activity from acute brain slices revealed fewer cells with high-frequency firing rates in trpc4 KO rats compared to WT controls. Since deletion of the trpc4 gene does not impair learning involving natural rewards, but reduces cocaine SA, these data demonstrate a potentially novel role for TRPC4 channels in dopamine systems and may offer a new pharmacological target for more effective treatment of a variety of dopamine disorders. PMID:26988269

  15. Loss of the trpc4 gene is associated with a reduction in cocaine self-administration and reduced spontaneous ventral tegmental area dopamine neuronal activity, without deficits in learning for natural rewards.

    PubMed

    Klipec, William D; Burrow, Kristin R; O'Neill, Casey; Cao, Jun-Li; Lawyer, Chloe R; Ostertag, Eric; Fowler, Melissa; Bachtell, Ryan K; Illig, Kurt R; Cooper, Donald C

    2016-06-01

    Among the canonical transient receptor potential (TRPC) channels, the TRPC4 non-selective cation channel is one of the most abundantly expressed subtypes within mammalian corticolimbic brain regions, but its functional and behavioral role is unknown. To identify a function for TRPC4 channels we compared the performance of rats with a genetic knockout of the trpc4 gene (trpc4 KO) to wild-type (WT) controls on the acquisition of simple and complex learning for natural rewards, and on cocaine self-administration (SA). Despite the abundant distribution of TRPC4 channels through the corticolimbic brain regions, we found trpc4 KO rats exhibited normal learning in Y-maze and complex reversal shift paradigms. However, a deficit was observed in cocaine SA in the trpc4 KO group, which infused significantly less cocaine than WT controls despite displaying normal sucrose SA. Given the important role of ventral tegmental area (VTA) dopamine neurons in cocaine SA, we hypothesized that TRPC4 channels may regulate basal dopamine neuron excitability. Double-immunolabeling showed a selective expression of TRPC4 channels in a subpopulation of putative dopamine neurons in the VTA. Ex vivo recordings of spontaneous VTA dopamine neuronal activity from acute brain slices revealed fewer cells with high-frequency firing rates in trpc4 KO rats compared to WT controls. Since deletion of the trpc4 gene does not impair learning involving natural rewards, but reduces cocaine SA, these data demonstrate a potentially novel role for TRPC4 channels in dopamine systems and may offer a new pharmacological target for more effective treatment of a variety of dopamine disorders.

  16. Nigral neurotensin receptor regulation of nigral glutamate and nigroventral thalamic GABA transmission: a dual-probe microdialysis study in intact conscious rat brain.

    PubMed

    Ferraro, L; Tomasini, M C; Fernandez, M; Bebe, B W; O'Connor, W T; Fuxe, K; Glennon, J C; Tanganelli, S; Antonelli, T

    2001-01-01

    Dual-probe microdialysis in the awake rat was employed to investigate the effects of intranigral perfusion with the tridecapeptide neurotensin on local dialysate glutamate and GABA levels in the substantia nigra pars reticulata and on dialysate GABA levels in the ventral thalamus. Intranigral neurotensin (10-300nM, 60min) dose-dependently increased (+29+/-3% and +46+/-3% vs basal for the 100 and 300nM concentrations, respectively) local dialysate glutamate levels, while the highest 300nM concentration of the peptide exerted a long-lasting and prolonged reduction in both local and ventral thalamic (-20+/-4% and -22+/-2%, respectively) GABA levels. Intranigral perfusion with the inactive neurotensin fragment neurotensin(1-7) (10-300nM, 60min) was without effect. Furthermore, the non-peptide neurotensin receptor antagonist SR 48692 (0.2mg/kg) and tetrodotoxin (1microM) fully counteracted the intranigral neurotensin (300nM)-induced increase in local glutamate. SR 48692 (0.2mg/kg) also counteracted the decreases in nigral and ventral thalamic GABA release induced by the peptide. In addition, intranigral perfusion with the dopamine D(2) receptor antagonist raclopride (1microM) fully antagonized the neurotensin (300nM)-induced decreases in nigral and ventral thalamic GABA levels. The ability of nigral neurotensin receptor activation to differently influence glutamate and GABA levels, whereby it increases nigral glutamate and decreases both nigral and ventral thalamic GABA levels, suggests the involvement of neurotensin receptor in the regulation of basal ganglia output at the level of the nigra.

  17. Muscimol prevents long-lasting potentiation of dorsal horn field potentials in rats with chronic constriction injury exhibiting decreased levels of the GABA transporter GAT-1.

    PubMed

    Miletic, Gordana; Draganic, Pero; Pankratz, Matthew T; Miletic, Vjekoslav

    2003-09-01

    The inhibitory activity of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is considered critical in setting the conditions for synaptic plasticity, and many studies support an important role of GABA in the suppression of nociceptive transmission in the dorsal horn. Consequently, any injury-induced modification of the GABA action has the potential to critically modify spinal synaptic plasticity. We have previously reported that chronic constriction injury of the sciatic nerve was accompanied by long-lasting potentiation of superficial spinal dorsal horn field potentials following high-frequency tetanus. In this study we examined whether the GABA-A receptor agonist muscimol would modify post-tetanic responses in rats with chronic constriction injury. In animals exhibiting maximal thermal hyperalgesia as one sign of neuropathic pain 7 days after loose ligation of the sciatic nerve, spinal application of muscimol (5, 10 or 20 microg) before the high-frequency (50 Hz) tetanus produced a long-lasting depression (rather than potentiation) of spinal dorsal horn field potentials. In separate but related Western immunoblot experiments, we also established that the chronic constriction injury was accompanied by significant decreases in the content of the GABA transporter GAT-1. These data demonstrated that GABA-A receptor agonists may effectively influence the expression of long-lasting synaptic plasticity in the spinal dorsal horn, and that an injury-induced loss in GABA transporter content may have contributed to a depletion of GABA from its terminals within the spinal dorsal horn. These data lent further support to the notion that the loss of GABA inhibition may have important consequences for the development of neuropathic pain. PMID:14499453

  18. Impact of exogenous GABA treatments on endogenous GABA metabolism in anthurium cut flowers in response to postharvest chilling temperature.

    PubMed

    Aghdam, Morteza Soleimani; Naderi, Roohangiz; Jannatizadeh, Abbasali; Babalar, Mesbah; Sarcheshmeh, Mohammad Ali Askari; Faradonbe, Mojtaba Zamani

    2016-09-01

    Anthurium flowers are susceptible to chilling injury, and the optimum storage temperature is 12.5-20 °C. The γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) shunt pathway may alleviate chilling stress in horticultural commodities by providing energy (ATP), reducing molecules (NADH), and minimizing accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). In this experiment, the impact of a preharvest spray treatment with 1 mM GABA and postharvest treatment of 5 mM GABA stem-end dipping on GABA shunt pathway activity of anthurium cut flowers (cv. Sirion) in response to cold storage (4 °C for 21 days) was investigated. GABA treatments resulted in lower glutamate decarboxylase (GAD) and higher GABA transaminase (GABA-T) activities in flowers during cold storage, which was associated with lower GABA content and coincided with higher ATP content. GABA treatments also enhanced accumulation of endogenous glycine betaine (GB) in flowers during cold storage, as well as higher spathe relative water content (RWC). These findings suggest that GABA treatments may alleviate chilling injury of anthurium cut flowers by enhancing GABA shunt pathway activity leading to provide sufficient ATP and promoting endogenous GB accumulation. PMID:27135813

  19. Impact of exogenous GABA treatments on endogenous GABA metabolism in anthurium cut flowers in response to postharvest chilling temperature.

    PubMed

    Aghdam, Morteza Soleimani; Naderi, Roohangiz; Jannatizadeh, Abbasali; Babalar, Mesbah; Sarcheshmeh, Mohammad Ali Askari; Faradonbe, Mojtaba Zamani

    2016-09-01

    Anthurium flowers are susceptible to chilling injury, and the optimum storage temperature is 12.5-20 °C. The γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) shunt pathway may alleviate chilling stress in horticultural commodities by providing energy (ATP), reducing molecules (NADH), and minimizing accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). In this experiment, the impact of a preharvest spray treatment with 1 mM GABA and postharvest treatment of 5 mM GABA stem-end dipping on GABA shunt pathway activity of anthurium cut flowers (cv. Sirion) in response to cold storage (4 °C for 21 days) was investigated. GABA treatments resulted in lower glutamate decarboxylase (GAD) and higher GABA transaminase (GABA-T) activities in flowers during cold storage, which was associated with lower GABA content and coincided with higher ATP content. GABA treatments also enhanced accumulation of endogenous glycine betaine (GB) in flowers during cold storage, as well as higher spathe relative water content (RWC). These findings suggest that GABA treatments may alleviate chilling injury of anthurium cut flowers by enhancing GABA shunt pathway activity leading to provide sufficient ATP and promoting endogenous GB accumulation.

  20. Neuronal gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) type A receptors undergo cognate ligand chaperoning in the endoplasmic reticulum by endogenous GABA

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ping; Eshaq, Randa S.; Meshul, Charles K.; Moore, Cynthia; Hood, Rebecca L.; Leidenheimer, Nancy J.

    2015-01-01

    GABAA receptors mediate fast inhibitory neurotransmission in the brain. Dysfunction of these receptors is associated with various psychiatric/neurological disorders and drugs targeting this receptor are widely used therapeutic agents. Both the efficacy and plasticity of GABAA receptor-mediated neurotransmission depends on the number of surface GABAA receptors. An understudied aspect of receptor cell surface expression is the post-translational regulation of receptor biogenesis within the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). We have previously shown that exogenous GABA can act as a ligand chaperone of recombinant GABAA receptors in the early secretory pathway leading us to now investigate whether endogenous GABA facilitates the biogenesis of GABAA receptors in primary cerebral cortical cultures. In immunofluorescence labeling experiments, we have determined that neurons expressing surface GABAA receptors contain both GABA and its degradative enzyme GABA transaminase (GABA-T). Treatment of neurons with GABA-T inhibitors, a treatment known to increase intracellular GABA levels, decreases the interaction of the receptor with the ER quality control protein calnexin, concomittantly increasing receptor forward-trafficking and plasma membrane insertion. The effect of GABA-T inhibition on the receptor/calnexin interaction is not due to the activation of surface GABAA or GABAB receptors. Consistent with our hypothesis that GABA acts as a cognate ligand chaperone in the ER, immunogold-labeling of rodent brain slices reveals the presence of GABA within the rough ER. The density of this labeling is similar to that present in mitochondria, the organelle in which GABA is degraded. Lastly, the effect of GABA-T inhibition on the receptor/calnexin interaction was prevented by pretreatment with a GABA transporter inhibitor. Together, these data indicate that endogenous GABA acts in the rough ER as a cognate ligand chaperone to facilitate the biogenesis of neuronal GABAA receptors. PMID

  1. Mechanisms for multiple activity modes of VTA dopamine neurons

    PubMed Central

    Oster, Andrew; Faure, Philippe; Gutkin, Boris S.

    2015-01-01

    Midbrain ventral segmental area (VTA) dopaminergic neurons send numerous projections to cortical and sub-cortical areas, and diffusely release dopamine (DA) to their targets. DA neurons display a range of activity modes that vary in frequency and degree of burst firing. Importantly, DA neuronal bursting is associated with a significantly greater degree of DA release than an equivalent tonic activity pattern. Here, we introduce a single compartmental, conductance-based computational model for DA cell activity that captures the behavior of DA neuronal dynamics and examine the multiple factors that underlie DA firing modes: the strength of the SK conductance, the amount of drive, and GABA inhibition. Our results suggest that neurons with low SK conductance fire in a fast firing mode, are correlated with burst firing, and require higher levels of applied current before undergoing depolarization block. We go on to consider the role of GABAergic inhibition on an ensemble of dynamical classes of DA neurons and find that strong GABA inhibition suppresses burst firing. Our studies suggest differences in the distribution of the SK conductance and GABA inhibition levels may indicate subclasses of DA neurons within the VTA. We further identify, that by considering alternate potassium dynamics, the dynamics display burst patterns that terminate via depolarization block, akin to those observed in vivo in VTA DA neurons and in substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc) DA cell preparations under apamin application. In addition, we consider the generation of transient burst firing events that are NMDA-initiated or elicited by a sudden decrease of GABA inhibition, that is, disinhibition. PMID:26283955

  2. GABA shapes the dynamics of bistable perception.

    PubMed

    van Loon, Anouk M; Knapen, Tomas; Scholte, H Steven; St John-Saaltink, Elexa; Donner, Tobias H; Lamme, Victor A F

    2013-05-01

    Sometimes, perception fluctuates spontaneously between two distinct interpretations of a constant sensory input. These bistable perceptual phenomena provide a unique window into the neural mechanisms that create the contents of conscious perception. Models of bistable perception posit that mutual inhibition between stimulus-selective neural populations in visual cortex plays a key role in these spontaneous perceptual fluctuations. However, a direct link between neural inhibition and bistable perception has not yet been established experimentally. Here, we link perceptual dynamics in three distinct bistable visual illusions (binocular rivalry, motion-induced blindness, and structure from motion) to measurements of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) concentrations in human visual cortex (as measured with magnetic resonance spectroscopy) and to pharmacological stimulation of the GABAA receptor by means of lorazepam. As predicted by a model of neural interactions underlying bistability, both higher GABA concentrations in visual cortex and lorazepam administration induced slower perceptual dynamics, as reflected in a reduced number of perceptual switches and a lengthening of percept durations. Thus, we show that GABA, the main inhibitory neurotransmitter, shapes the dynamics of bistable perception. These results pave the way for future studies into the competitive neural interactions across the visual cortical hierarchy that elicit conscious perception. PMID:23602476

  3. Dopamine modulation of rod pathway signaling by suppression of GABAC feedback to rod-driven depolarizing bipolar cells.

    PubMed

    Smith, Benjamin J; Côté, Patrice D; Tremblay, François

    2015-09-01

    Reducing signal gain in the highly sensitive rod pathway prevents saturation as background light levels increase, allowing the dark-adapted retina to encode stimuli over a range of background luminances. Dopamine release is increased during light adaptation and is generally accepted to suppress rod signaling in light-adapted retinas. However, recent research has suggested that dopamine, acting through D1 receptors, could additionally produce a sensitization of the rod pathway in dim light conditions via gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) type C receptors. Here, we evaluated the overall activity of the depolarizing bipolar cell (DBC) population in vivo to ensure the integrity of long-distance network interactions by quantifying the b-wave of the electroretinogram in mice. We showed that dopamine, acting through D1 receptors, reduced the amplitude and sensitivity of rod-driven DBCs during light adaptation by suppressing GABA type A receptor-mediated serial inhibition onto rod DBC GABA type C receptors. Block of D1 receptors did not suppress rod-driven DBC sensitivity when GABAA -mediated serial inhibition was blocked by gabazine, suggesting that the reduction in rod-driven DBC sensitivity in the absence of D1 receptors was due to disinhibition of serial inhibitory GABAergic circuitry rather than a direct facilitatory effect on GABA release onto rod-driven DBC GABA type C receptors. Finally, the large population of GABAergic A17 wide-field amacrine cells known to maintain reciprocal inhibition with rod DBCs could be excluded from the proposed disinhibitory circuit after treatment with 5,7-dihydroxytryptamine. PMID:26080286

  4. EXP-1 is an excitatory GABA-gated cation channel.

    PubMed

    Beg, Asim A; Jorgensen, Erik M

    2003-11-01

    Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) mediates fast inhibitory neurotransmission by activating anion-selective ligand-gated ion channels. Although electrophysiological studies indicate that GABA may activate cation-selective ligand-gated ion channels in some cell types, such a channel has never been characterized at the molecular level. Here we show that GABA mediates enteric muscle contraction in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans via the EXP-1 receptor, a cation-selective ligand-gated ion channel. The EXP-1 protein resembles ionotropic GABA receptor subunits in almost all domains. In the pore-forming domain of EXP-1, however, the residues that confer anion selectivity are exchanged for those that specify cation selectivity. When expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes, EXP-1 forms a GABA receptor that is permeable to cations and not anions. We conclude that some of the excitatory functions assigned to GABA are mediated by cation channels rather than by anion channels.

  5. GABA levels in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex during the viewing of appetitive and disgusting food images.

    PubMed

    Padulo, Caterina; Delli Pizzi, Stefano; Bonanni, Laura; Edden, Richard A E; Ferretti, Antonio; Marzoli, Daniele; Franciotti, Raffaella; Manippa, Valerio; Onofrj, Marco; Sepede, Gianna; Tartaro, Armando; Tommasi, Luca; Puglisi-Allegra, Stefano; Brancucci, Alfredo

    2016-10-01

    Characterizing how the brain appraises the psychological dimensions of reward is one of the central topics of neuroscience. It has become clear that dopamine neurons are implicated in the transmission of both rewarding information and aversive and alerting events through two different neuronal populations involved in encoding the motivational value and the motivational salience of stimuli, respectively. Nonetheless, there is less agreement on the role of the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) and the related neurotransmitter release during the processing of biologically relevant stimuli. To address this issue, we employed magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS), a non-invasive methodology that allows detection of some metabolites in the human brain in vivo, in order to assess the role of the vmPFC in encoding stimulus value rather than stimulus salience. Specifically, we measured gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and, with control purposes, Glx levels in healthy subjects during the observation of appetitive and disgusting food images. We observed a decrease of GABA and no changes in Glx concentration in the vmPFC in both conditions. Furthermore, a comparatively smaller GABA reduction during the observation of appetitive food images than during the observation of disgusting food images was positively correlated with the scores obtained to the body image concerns sub-scale of Body Uneasiness Test (BUT). These results are consistent with the idea that the vmPFC plays a crucial role in processing both rewarding and aversive stimuli, possibly by encoding stimulus salience through glutamatergic and/or noradrenergic projections to deeper mesencephalic and limbic areas. PMID:27436536

  6. Co-activation of VTA DA and GABA neurons mediates nicotine reinforcement.

    PubMed

    Tolu, S; Eddine, R; Marti, F; David, V; Graupner, M; Pons, S; Baudonnat, M; Husson, M; Besson, M; Reperant, C; Zemdegs, J; Pagès, C; Hay, Y A H; Lambolez, B; Caboche, J; Gutkin, B; Gardier, A M; Changeux, J-P; Faure, P; Maskos, U

    2013-03-01

    Smoking is the most important preventable cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide. This nicotine addiction is mediated through the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR), expressed on most neurons, and also many other organs in the body. Even within the ventral tegmental area (VTA), the key brain area responsible for the reinforcing properties of all drugs of abuse, nicotine acts on several different cell types and afferents. Identifying the precise action of nicotine on this microcircuit, in vivo, is important to understand reinforcement, and finally to develop efficient smoking cessation treatments. We used a novel lentiviral system to re-express exclusively high-affinity nAChRs on either dopaminergic (DAergic) or γ-aminobutyric acid-releasing (GABAergic) neurons, or both, in the VTA. Using in vivo electrophysiology, we show that, contrary to widely accepted models, the activation of GABA neurons in the VTA plays a crucial role in the control of nicotine-elicited DAergic activity. Our results demonstrate that both positive and negative motivational values are transmitted through the dopamine (DA) neuron, but that the concerted activity of DA and GABA systems is necessary for the reinforcing actions of nicotine through burst firing of DA neurons. This work identifies the GABAergic interneuron as a potential target for smoking cessation drug development.

  7. The diversity of GABA(A) receptor subunit distribution in the normal and Huntington's disease human brain.

    PubMed

    Waldvogel, H J; Faull, R L M

    2015-01-01

    GABA(A) receptors are assembled into pentameric receptor complexes from a total of 19 different subunits derived from a variety of different subunit classes (α1-6, β1-3, γ1-3, δ, ɛ, θ, and π) which surround a central chloride ion channel. GABA(A) receptor complexes are distributed heterogeneously throughout the brain and spinal cord and are activated by the extensive GABAergic inhibitory system. In this chapter, we describe the heterogeneous distribution of six of the most widely distributed subunits (α1, α2, α3, β2,3, and γ2) throughout the human basal ganglia. This review describes the studies we have carried out on the normal and Huntington's disease human basal ganglia using autoradiographic labeling and immunohistochemistry in the human basal ganglia. GABA(A) receptors are known to react to changing conditions in the brain in neurological disorders, especially in Huntington's disease and display a high degree of plasticity which is thought to compensate for loss of function caused by disease. In Huntington's disease, the variable loss of GABAergic medium spiny striatopallidal projection neurons is associated with a loss of GABA(A) receptor subunits in the striosome and/or the matrix compartments of the striatum. By contrast in the globus pallidus, a loss of the GABAergic striatal projection neurons results in a dramatic upregulation of subunits on the large postsynaptic pallidal neurons; this is thought to be a compensatory plastic mechanism resulting from the loss of striatal GABAergic input. Most interestingly, our studies have revealed that the subventricular zone overlying the caudate nucleus contains a variety of proliferating progenitor stem cells that possess a heterogeneity of GABA(A) receptor subunits which may play a role in human brain repair mechanisms.

  8. [Autoantibodies to glutamate and GABA in opiate addiction].

    PubMed

    Vetrile, L A; Fomina, V G; Nevidimova, T I; Vetlugina, T P; Batukhtina, E I; Savochkina, D N; Zakharova, I A; Davydova, T V

    2015-01-01

    Blood serum from 129 patients with opium addiction at different stages of the disease and 63 donors (control group) was examined for the presence of autoantibodies to the exciting and inhibitory amino acids glutamate and GABA. It was shown enhanced production of autoantibodies to glutamate and GABA. Dependence of the level and frequency of detec- tion of autoantibodies to glutamate and GABA on the stage of the disease was revealed.

  9. [Autoantibodies to glutamate and GABA in opiate addiction].

    PubMed

    Vetrile, L A; Fomina, V G; Nevidimova, T I; Vetlugina, T P; Batukhtina, E I; Savochkina, D N; Zakharova, I A; Davydova, T V

    2015-01-01

    Blood serum from 129 patients with opium addiction at different stages of the disease and 63 donors (control group) was examined for the presence of autoantibodies to the exciting and inhibitory amino acids glutamate and GABA. It was shown enhanced production of autoantibodies to glutamate and GABA. Dependence of the level and frequency of detec- tion of autoantibodies to glutamate and GABA on the stage of the disease was revealed. PMID:26852594

  10. Dopamine modulates excitability of basolateral amygdala neurons in vitro.

    PubMed

    Kröner, Sven; Rosenkranz, J Amiel; Grace, Anthony A; Barrionuevo, German

    2005-03-01

    The amygdala plays a role in affective behaviors, which are modulated by the dopamine (DA) innervation of the basolateral amygdala complex (BLA). Although in vivo studies indicate that activation of DA receptors alters BLA neuronal activity, it is unclear whether DA exerts direct effects on BLA neurons or whether it acts via indirect effects on BLA afferents. Using whole cell patch-clamp recordings in rat brain slices, we investigated the site and mechanisms through which DA regulates the excitability of BLA neurons. Dopamine enhanced the excitability of BLA projection neurons in response to somatic current injections via a postsynaptic effect. Dopamine D1 receptor activation increased excitability and evoked firing, whereas D2 receptor activation increased input resistance. Current- and voltage-clamp experiments in projection neurons showed that D1 receptor activation enhanced excitability by modulating a 4-aminopyridine- and alpha-dendrotoxin-sensitive, slowly inactivating K+ current. Furthermore, DA and D1 receptor activation increased evoked firing in fast-spiking BLA interneurons. Consistent with a postsynaptic modulation of interneuron excitability, DA also increased the frequency of spontaneous inhibitory postsynaptic currents recorded in projection neurons without changing release of GABA. These data demonstrate that DA exerts direct effects on BLA projection neurons and indirect actions via modulation of interneurons that may work in concert to enhance the neuronal response to large, suprathreshold inputs, while suppressing weaker inputs. PMID:15537813

  11. Differential degradation of motor deficits during gradual dopamine depletion with 6-hydroxydopamine in mice.

    PubMed

    Willard, A M; Bouchard, R S; Gittis, A H

    2015-08-20

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a movement disorder whose cardinal motor symptoms arise due to the progressive loss of dopamine. Although this dopamine loss typically progresses slowly over time, currently there are very few animal models that enable incremental dopamine depletion over time within the same animal. This type of gradual dopamine depletion model would be useful in studies aimed at the prodromal phase of PD, when dopamine levels are pathologically low but motor symptoms have not yet presented. Utilizing the highly characterized neurotoxin 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA), we have developed a paradigm to gradually deplete dopamine levels in the striatum over a user-defined time course - spanning weeks to months - in C57BL/6 mice. Dopamine depletions were achieved by administration of five low-dose injections (0.75μg) of 6-OHDA through an implanted intracranial bilateral cannula targeting the medial forebrain bundle. Levels of dopamine within the striatum declined linearly with successive injections, quantified using tyrosine hydroxylase immunostaining and high-performance liquid chromatography. Behavioral testing was carried out at each time point to study the onset and progression of motor impairments as a function of dopamine loss over time. We found that spontaneous locomotion, measured in an open field, was robust until ∼70% of striatal dopamine was lost. Beyond this point, additional dopamine loss caused a sharp decline in motor performance, reaching a final level comparable to that of acutely depleted mice. Similarly, although rearing behavior was more sensitive to dopamine loss and declined linearly as a function of dopamine levels, it eventually declined to levels similar to those seen in acutely depleted mice. In contrast, motor coordination, measured on a vertical pole task, was only moderately impaired in gradually depleted mice, despite severe impairments observed in acutely depleted mice. These results demonstrate the importance of the temporal

  12. GABA/progesterone-induced polyphosphoinositide (PPI) breakdown and its role in the acrosome reaction of guinea pig spermatozoa in vitro.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Y; Mao, L; Shi, Q; Roldan, E R; Chen, W; Yu, S; Zhuang, Y; Xu, S

    2001-08-01

    To investigate whether GABA/progesterone (P(4)) stimulates PPI breakdown and its role in the acrosome reaction (AR), spermatozoa of guinea pig were preincubated in MCM-LCa(2+) for 5.5 h and then labeled with [(32)P]pi for 1 h. Samples were washed through a three-step gradient Percoll, adjusted to 5x10(7) cells/mL and exposed to 2 mmol/L Ca(2+), 5 micromol/L GABA, 10 micromol/L P(4) and other agents. Lipids were separated by t.l.c. and radioactivity in spots determined by scintillation counting. The AR was assessed by phase-contrast microscopy. The results showed that (i) when spermatozoa were treated with GABA,(32)P-label diminished rapidly in phosphatidylinositol 4, 5-bisphosphate (PIP(2)), phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate (PIP), and increased in phosphatidic acid (PA). The loss of label from PPI was almost completed by 10 min. The time-course of the AR was much slower than PPI when spermatozoa reached a maximal response by 15 min; (ii) the pattern of PPI hydrolysis and stimulation of AR was similar for the three agonists tested; their potency followed the order A23187>progesterone> or =GABA; (iii) GABA-induced PIP(2) hydrolysis and rise in PA and the AR were prevented by inclusion of 10 mmol/L neomycin; (iv) the loss of PIP(2) labeling and the increase in PA labeling abolished when spermatozoa were exposed to EGTA or Ca(2+) channel blocker. These results indicate that GABA or P(4)-induced PPI breakdown is an important and essential event in the series of changes to membrane fusion during the AR of guinea pig spermatozoa and this effect is mediated via calcium by activation of phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C. PMID:18726415

  13. Amphetamine paradoxically augments exocytotic dopamine release and phasic dopamine signals.

    PubMed

    Daberkow, D P; Brown, H D; Bunner, K D; Kraniotis, S A; Doellman, M A; Ragozzino, M E; Garris, P A; Roitman, M F

    2013-01-01

    Drugs of abuse hijack brain-reward circuitry during the addiction process by augmenting action potential-dependent phasic dopamine release events associated with learning and goal-directed behavior. One prominent exception to this notion would appear to be amphetamine (AMPH) and related analogs, which are proposed instead to disrupt normal patterns of dopamine neurotransmission by depleting vesicular stores and promoting nonexocytotic dopamine efflux via reverse transport. This mechanism of AMPH action, though, is inconsistent with its therapeutic effects and addictive properties, which are thought to be reliant on phasic dopamine signaling. Here we used fast-scan cyclic voltammetry in freely moving rats to interrogate principal neurochemical responses to AMPH in the striatum and relate these changes to behavior. First, we showed that AMPH dose-dependently enhanced evoked dopamine responses to phasic-like current pulse trains for up to 2 h. Modeling the data revealed that AMPH inhibited dopamine uptake but also unexpectedly potentiated vesicular dopamine release. Second, we found that AMPH increased the amplitude, duration, and frequency of spontaneous dopamine transients, the naturally occurring, nonelectrically evoked, phasic increases in extracellular dopamine. Finally, using an operant sugar reward paradigm, we showed that low-dose AMPH augmented dopamine transients elicited by sugar-predictive cues. However, operant behavior failed at high-dose AMPH, which was due to phasic dopamine hyperactivity and the decoupling of dopamine transients from the reward predictive cue. These findings identify upregulation of exocytotic dopamine release as a key AMPH action in behaving animals and support a unified mechanism of abused drugs to activate phasic dopamine signaling. PMID:23303926

  14. Dopamine and anorexia nervosa.

    PubMed

    Södersten, P; Bergh, C; Leon, M; Zandian, M

    2016-01-01

    We have suggested that reduced food intake increases the risk for anorexia nervosa by engaging mesolimbic dopamine neurons, thereby initially rewarding dieting. Recent fMRI studies have confirmed that dopamine neurons are activated in anorexia nervosa, but it is not clear whether this response is due to the disorder or to its resulting nutritional deficit. When the body senses the shortage of nutrients, it rapidly shifts behavior toward foraging for food as a normal physiological response and the mesolimbic dopamine neurons may be involved in that process. On the other hand, the altered dopamine status of anorexics has been suggested to result from a brain abnormality that underlies their complex emotional disorder. We suggest that the outcomes of the treatments that emerge from that perspective remain poor because they target the mental symptoms that are actually the consequences of the food deprivation that accompanies anorexia. On the other hand, a method that normalizes the disordered eating behavior of anorexics results in much better physiological, behavioral, and emotional outcomes.

  15. Effect of diphenylhydantoin on gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA) and succinate activity in rat Purkinje cells.

    PubMed Central

    Hitchcock, E; Gabra-Sanders, T

    1977-01-01

    A study has been made of the effect of diphenylhydantoin (DPH) upon the levels of gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA) and succinic dehydrogenase in rat Purkinje cells. DPH was administered over 26 days in chronic experiments using controls receiving the same injection vehicle without DPH. Animals in this group received daily 1.25 mg/kg body weight, 12.5 mg/kg body weight, and 50 mg/kg body weight DPH. Acute experiments were carried out over the course of not more than four days, three groups of animals receiving 75 mg/kg body weight, 87.5 mg/kg body weight, and 100 mg/kg body weight DPH. No effect upon succinic dehydrogenase could be demonstrated at any dose level. There was a significant progressive loss of GABA with increasing dosage of DPH. Images PMID:903771

  16. GABA transporter subtype 1 and GABA transporter subtype 3 modulate glutamatergic transmission via activation of presynaptic GABA(B) receptors in the rat globus pallidus.

    PubMed

    Jin, Xiao-Tao; Paré, Jean-Francois; Smith, Yoland

    2012-08-01

    The intra-pallidal application of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) transporter subtype 1 (GAT-1) or GABA transporter subtype 3 (GAT-3) transporter blockers [1-(4,4-diphenyl-3-butenyl)-3-piperidinecarboxylic acid hydrochloride (SKF 89976A) or 1-[2-[tris(4-methoxyphenyl)methoxy]ethyl]-(S)-3-piperidinecarboxylic acid (SNAP 5114)] reduces the activity of pallidal neurons in monkey. This effect could be mediated through the activation of presynaptic GABA(B) heteroreceptors in glutamatergic terminals by GABA spillover following GABA transporter (GAT) blockade. To test this hypothesis, we applied the whole-cell recording technique to study the effects of SKF 89976A and SNAP 5114 on evoked excitatory postsynaptic currents (eEPSCs) in the presence of gabazine, a GABA(A) receptor antagonist, in rat globus pallidus slice preparations. Under the condition of postsynaptic GABA(B) receptor blockade by the intra-cellular application of N-(2,6-dimethylphenylcarbamoylmethyl)-triethylammonium bromide (OX314), bath application of SKF 89976A (10 μM) or SNAP 5114 (10 μM) decreased the amplitude of eEPSCs, without a significant effect on its holding current and whole cell input resistance. The inhibitory effect of GAT blockade on eEPSCs was blocked by (2S)-3-[[(1S)-1-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)ethyl]amino-2-hydroxypropyl](phenylmethyl)phosphinic acid, a GABA(B) receptor antagonist. The paired-pulse ratio of eEPSCs was increased, whereas the frequency, but not the amplitude, of miniature excitatory postsynaptic currents was reduced in the presence of either GAT blocker, demonstrating a presynaptic effect. These results suggest that synaptically released GABA can inhibit glutamatergic transmission through the activation of presynaptic GABA(B) heteroreceptors following GAT-1 or GAT-3 blockade. In conclusion, our findings demonstrate that presynaptic GABA(B) heteroreceptors in putative glutamatergic subthalamic afferents to the globus pallidus are sensitive to increases in extracellular GABA induced

  17. Development of the GABA-ergic signaling system and its role in larval swimming in sea urchin.

    PubMed

    Katow, Hideki; Abe, Kouki; Katow, Tomoko; Zamani, Alemeh; Abe, Hirokazu

    2013-05-01

    The present study aimed to elucidate the development and γ-amino butyric acid (GABA)-ergic regulation of larval swimming in the sea urchin Hemicentrotus pulcherrimus by cloning glutamate decarboxylase (Hp-gad), GABAA receptor (Hp-gabrA) and GABAA receptor-associated protein (Hp-gabarap), and by performing immunohistochemistry. The regulation of larval swimming was increasingly dependent on the GABAergic system, which was active from the 2 days post-fertilization (d.p.f.) pluteus stage onwards. GABA-immunoreactive cells were detected as a subpopulation of secondary mesenchyme cells during gastrulation and eventually constituted the ciliary band and a subpopulation of blastocoelar cells during the pluteus stage. Hp-gad transcription was detected by RT-PCR during the period when Hp-Gad-positive cells were seen as a subpopulation of blastocoelar cells and on the apical side of the ciliary band from the 2 d.p.f. pluteus stage. Consistent with these observations, inhibition of GAD with 3-mercaptopropioninc acid inhibited GABA immunoreactivity and larval swimming dose dependently. Hp-gabrA amplimers were detected weakly in unfertilized eggs and 4 d.p.f. plutei but strongly from fertilized eggs to 2 d.p.f. plutei, and Hp-GabrA, together with GABA, was localized at the ciliary band in association with dopamine receptor D1 from the two-arm pluteus stage. Hp-gabarap transcription and protein expression were detected from the swimming blastula stage. Inhibition of the GABAA receptor by bicuculline inhibited larval swimming dose dependently. Inhibition of larval swimming by either 3-mercaptopropionic acid or bicuculline was more severe in older larvae (17 and 34 d.p.f. plutei) than in younger ones (1 d.p.f. prism larvae). PMID:23307803

  18. A mitochondrial GABA permease connects the GABA shunt and the TCA cycle, and is essential for normal carbon metabolism.

    PubMed

    Michaeli, Simon; Fait, Aaron; Lagor, Kelly; Nunes-Nesi, Adriano; Grillich, Nicole; Yellin, Ayelet; Bar, Dana; Khan, Munziba; Fernie, Alisdair R; Turano, Frank J; Fromm, Hillel

    2011-08-01

    In plants, γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) accumulates in the cytosol in response to a variety of stresses. GABA is transported into mitochondria, where it is catabolized into TCA cycle or other intermediates. Although there is circumstantial evidence for mitochondrial GABA transporters in eukaryotes, none have yet been identified. Described here is an Arabidopsis protein similar in sequence and topology to unicellular GABA transporters. The expression of this protein complements a GABA-transport-deficient yeast mutant. Thus the protein was termed AtGABP to indicate GABA-permease activity. In vivo localization of GABP fused to GFP and immunobloting of subcellular fractions demonstrate its mitochondrial localization. Direct [(3) H]GABA uptake measurements into isolated mitochondria revealed impaired uptake into mitochondria of a gabp mutant compared with wild-type (WT) mitochondria, implicating AtGABP as a major mitochondrial GABA carrier. Measurements of CO(2) release, derived from radiolabeled substrates in whole seedlings and in isolated mitochondria, demonstrate impaired GABA-derived input into the TCA cycle, and a compensatory increase in TCA cycle activity in gabp mutants. Finally, growth abnormalities of gabp mutants under limited carbon availability on artificial media, and in soil under low light intensity, combined with their metabolite profiles, suggest an important role for AtGABP in primary carbon metabolism and plant growth. Thus, AtGABP-mediated transport of GABA from the cytosol into mitochondria is important to ensure proper GABA-mediated respiration and carbon metabolism. This function is particularly essential for plant growth under conditions of limited carbon.

  19. A new role for GABA: inhibition of tumor cell migration.

    PubMed

    Ortega, Arturo

    2003-04-01

    GABA, the main inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, participates outside the CNS in diverse functions such as platelet aggregation and the acrosomal reaction in spermatozoa. A recent study now demonstrates that GABA inhibits the migration of colon carcinoma cells, paving the way to the development of specific pharmacological agents that delay or inhibit invasion and metastasis of various cancer types.

  20. Methamphetamine-induced enhancement of hippocampal long-term potentiation is modulated by NMDA and GABA receptors in the shell-accumbens.

    PubMed

    Heysieattalab, Soomaayeh; Naghdi, Nasser; Hosseinmardi, Narges; Zarrindast, Mohammad-Reza; Haghparast, Abbas; Khoshbouei, Habibeh

    2016-08-01

    Addictive drugs modulate synaptic transmission in the meso-corticolimbic system by hijacking normal adaptive forms of experience-dependent synaptic plasticity. Psychostimulants such as METH have been shown to affect hippocampal synaptic plasticity, albeit with a less understood synaptic mechanism. METH is one of the most addictive drugs that elicit long-term alterations in the synaptic plasticity in brain areas involved in reinforcement learning and reward processing. Dopamine transporter (DAT) is one of the main targets of METH. As a substrate for DAT, METH decreases dopamine uptake and increases dopamine efflux via the transporter in the target brain regions such as nucleus accumbens (NAc) and hippocampus. Due to cross talk between NAc and hippocampus, stimulation of NAc has been shown to alter hippocampal plasticity. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that manipulation of glutamatergic and GABA-ergic systems in the shell-NAc modulates METH-induced enhancement of long term potentiation (LTP) in the hippocampus. Rats treated with METH (four injections of 5 mg/kg) exhibited enhanced LTP as compared to saline-treated animals. Intra-NAc infusion of muscimol (GABA receptor agonist) decreased METH-induced enhancement of dentate gyrus (DG)-LTP, while infusion of AP5 (NMDA receptor antagonist) prevented METH-induced enhancement of LTP. These data support the interpretation that reducing NAc activity can ameliorate METH-induced hippocampal LTP through a hippocampus-NAc-VTA circuit loop. Synapse 70:325-335, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27029021

  1. Subsecond dopamine fluctuations in human striatum encode superposed error signals about actual and counterfactual reward.

    PubMed

    Kishida, Kenneth T; Saez, Ignacio; Lohrenz, Terry; Witcher, Mark R; Laxton, Adrian W; Tatter, Stephen B; White, Jason P; Ellis, Thomas L; Phillips, Paul E M; Montague, P Read

    2016-01-01

    In the mammalian brain, dopamine is a critical neuromodulator whose actions underlie learning, decision-making, and behavioral control. Degeneration of dopamine neurons causes Parkinson's disease, whereas dysregulation of dopamine signaling is believed to contribute to psychiatric conditions such as schizophrenia, addiction, and depression. Experiments in animal models suggest the hypothesis that dopamine release in human striatum encodes reward prediction errors (RPEs) (the difference between actual and expected outcomes) during ongoing decision-making. Blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) imaging experiments in humans support the idea that RPEs are tracked in the striatum; however, BOLD measurements cannot be used to infer the action of any one specific neurotransmitter. We monitored dopamine levels with subsecond temporal resolution in humans (n = 17) with Parkinson's disease while they executed a sequential decision-making task. Participants placed bets and experienced monetary gains or losses. Dopamine fluctuations in the striatum fail to encode RPEs, as anticipated by a large body of work in model organisms. Instead, subsecond dopamine fluctuations encode an integration of RPEs with counterfactual prediction errors, the latter defined by how much better or worse the experienced outcome could have been. How dopamine fluctuations combine the actual and counterfactual is unknown. One possibility is that this process is the normal behavior of reward processing dopamine neurons, which previously had not been tested by experiments in animal models. Alternatively, this superposition of error terms may result from an additional yet-to-be-identified subclass of dopamine neurons. PMID:26598677

  2. The impact of a parkinsonian lesion on dynamic striatal dopamine transmission depends on nicotinic receptor activation

    PubMed Central

    Jennings, Katie A.; Platt, Nicola J.; Cragg, Stephanie J.

    2015-01-01

    Dopamine function is disturbed in Parkinson's disease (PD), but whether and how release of dopamine from surviving neurons is altered has long been debated. Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) on dopamine axons powerfully govern dopamine release and could be critical contributing factors. We revisited whether fundamental properties of dopamine transmission are changed in a parkinsonian brain and tested the potentially profound masking effects of nAChRs. Using real-time detection of dopamine in mouse striatum after a partial 6-hydroxydopamine lesion and under nAChR inhibition, we reveal that dopamine signals show diminished sensitivity to presynaptic activity. This effect manifested as diminished contrast between DA release evoked by the lowest versus highest frequencies. This reduced activity-dependence was underpinned by loss of short-term facilitation of dopamine release, consistent with an increase in release probability (Pr). With nAChRs active, the reduced activity-dependence of dopamine release after a parkinsonian lesion was masked. Consequently, moment-by-moment variation in activity of nAChRs may lead to dynamic co-variation in dopamine signal impairments in PD. PMID:26117304

  3. Subsecond dopamine fluctuations in human striatum encode superposed error signals about actual and counterfactual reward

    PubMed Central

    Kishida, Kenneth T.; Saez, Ignacio; Lohrenz, Terry; Witcher, Mark R.; Laxton, Adrian W.; Tatter, Stephen B.; White, Jason P.; Ellis, Thomas L.; Phillips, Paul E. M.; Montague, P. Read

    2016-01-01

    In the mammalian brain, dopamine is a critical neuromodulator whose actions underlie learning, decision-making, and behavioral control. Degeneration of dopamine neurons causes Parkinson’s disease, whereas dysregulation of dopamine signaling is believed to contribute to psychiatric conditions such as schizophrenia, addiction, and depression. Experiments in animal models suggest the hypothesis that dopamine release in human striatum encodes reward prediction errors (RPEs) (the difference between actual and expected outcomes) during ongoing decision-making. Blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) imaging experiments in humans support the idea that RPEs are tracked in the striatum; however, BOLD measurements cannot be used to infer the action of any one specific neurotransmitter. We monitored dopamine levels with subsecond temporal resolution in humans (n = 17) with Parkinson’s disease while they executed a sequential decision-making task. Participants placed bets and experienced monetary gains or losses. Dopamine fluctuations in the striatum fail to encode RPEs, as anticipated by a large body of work in model organisms. Instead, subsecond dopamine fluctuations encode an integration of RPEs with counterfactual prediction errors, the latter defined by how much better or worse the experienced outcome could have been. How dopamine fluctuations combine the actual and counterfactual is unknown. One possibility is that this process is the normal behavior of reward processing dopamine neurons, which previously had not been tested by experiments in animal models. Alternatively, this superposition of error terms may result from an additional yet-to-be-identified subclass of dopamine neurons. PMID:26598677

  4. Cloning and expression of a rat brain GABA transporter

    SciTech Connect

    Guastella, J.; Czyzyk, L.; Davidson, N.; Lester, H.A. ); Nelson, N.; Nelson, H.; Miedel, M.C. ); Keynan, S.; Kanner, B.I. )

    1990-09-14

    A complementary DNA clone (designated GAT-1) encoding a transporter for the neurotransmitter {gamma}-aminobutyric acid (GABA) has been isolated from rat brain, and its functional properties have been examined in Xenopus oocytes. Oocytes injected with GAT-1 synthetic messenger RNA accumulated ({sup 3}H)GABA to levels above control values. The transporter encoded by GAT-1 has a high affinity for GABA, is sodium- and chloride-dependent, and is pharmacologically similar to neuronal GABA transporters. The GAT-1 protein shares antigenic determinants with a native rat brain GABA transporter. The nucleotide sequence of GAT-1 predicts a protein of 599 amino acids with a molecular weight of 67 kilodaltons. Hydropathy analysis of the deduced protein suggests multiple transmembrane regions, a feature shared by several cloned transporters; however, database searches indicate that GAT-1 is not homologous to any previously identified proteins. Therefore, GAT-1 appears to be a member of a previously uncharacterized family of transport molecules.

  5. Laser photolysis of DPNI-GABA, a tool for investigating the properties and distribution of GABA receptors and for silencing neurons in situ.

    PubMed

    Trigo, Federico F; Papageorgiou, George; Corrie, John E T; Ogden, David

    2009-07-30

    Laser photolysis to release GABA at precisely defined times and locations permits investigation of the distribution of functional GABA(A) receptors in neuronal compartments, the activation kinetics and pharmacology of GABA(A) receptors in situ, and the role of individual neurons in neural circuits by selective silencing with low GABA concentrations. We describe the experimental evaluation and applications of a new nitroindoline-caged GABA, DPNI-GABA, modified to minimize the pharmacological interference commonly found with caged GABA reagents, but retaining the advantages of nitroindoline cages. Unlike the 5-methoxycarbonylmethyl-7-nitroindolinyl-GABA tested previously, DPNI-GABA inhibited GABA(A) receptors with much lower affinity, reducing peak GABA-evoked responses with an IC(50) of approximately 0.5 mM. Most importantly, the kinetics of receptor activation, determined as 10-90% rise-times, were comparable to synaptic events and were little affected by DPNI-GABA present at 1mM concentration, permitting photolysis of DPNI-GABA to mimic synaptic activation of GABA(A) receptors. With a laser spot of 1 microm applied to cerebellar molecular layer interneurons, the spatial resolution of uncaging DPNI-GABA in dendrites was estimated as 2 microm laterally and 7.5 microm focally. Finally, at low DPNI-GABA concentration, photorelease restricted to the area of the soma suppressed spiking in single Purkinje neurons or molecular layer interneurons for periods controlled by the flash intensity and duration. DPNI-GABA has properties better adapted for fast kinetic studies with laser photolysis at GABA(A) receptors than previously reported caged GABA reagents, and can be used in experiments where spatial resolution is determined by the dimensions of the laser light spot.

  6. Study of GABA in Healthy Volunteers: Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics

    PubMed Central

    Li, Junfeng; Zhang, Zhaoyun; Liu, Xiaoxia; Wang, Yi; Mao, Fei; Mao, Junjun; Lu, Xiaolan; Jiang, Dongdong; Wan, Yun; Lv, Jia-Ying; Cao, Guoying; Zhang, Jing; Zhao, Naiqing; Atkinson, Mark; Greiner, Dale L.; Prud'homme, Gerald J.; Jiao, Zheng; Li, Yiming; Wang, Qinghua

    2015-01-01

    Preclinical studies show that GABA exerts anti-diabetic effects in rodent models of type 1 diabetes. Because little is known about its absorption and effects in humans, we investigated the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of GABA in healthy volunteers. Twelve subjects were subjected to an open-labeled, three-period trial involving sequential oral administration of placebo, 2 g GABA once, and 2 g GABA three times/day for 7 days, with a 7-day washout between each period. GABA was rapidly absorbed (Tmax: 0.5 ~ 1 h) with the half-life (t1/2) of 5 h. No accumulation was observed after repeated oral GABA administration for 7 days. Remarkably, GABA significantly increased circulating insulin levels in the subjects under either fasting (1.6-fold, single dose; 2.0-fold, repeated dose; p < 0.01) or fed conditions (1.4-fold, single dose; 1.6-fold, repeated dose; p < 0.01). GABA also increased glucagon levels only under fasting conditions (1.3-fold, single dose, p < 0.05; 1.5-fold, repeated dose, p < 0.01). However, there were no significant differences in the insulin-to-glucagon ratio and no significant change in glucose levels in these healthy subjects during the study period. Importantly, GABA significantly decreased glycated albumin levels in the repeated dosing period. Subjects with repeated dosing showed an elevated incidence of minor adverse events in comparison to placebo or the single dosing period, most notably transient discomforts such as dizziness and sore throat. However, there were no serious adverse events observed throughout the study. Our data show that GABA is rapidly absorbed and tolerated in human beings; its endocrine effects, exemplified by increasing islet hormonal secretion, suggest potential therapeutic benefits for diabetes. PMID:26617516

  7. Engagement of the GABA to KCC2 signaling pathway contributes to the analgesic effects of A3AR agonists in neuropathic pain.

    PubMed

    Ford, Amanda; Castonguay, Annie; Cottet, Martin; Little, Joshua W; Chen, Zhoumou; Symons-Liguori, Ashley M; Doyle, Timothy; Egan, Terrance M; Vanderah, Todd W; De Konnick, Yves; Tosh, Dilip K; Jacobson, Kenneth A; Salvemini, Daniela

    2015-04-15

    More than 1.5 billion people worldwide suffer from chronic pain, yet current treatment strategies often lack efficacy or have deleterious side effects in patients. Adenosine is an inhibitory neuromodulator that was previously thought to mediate antinociception through the A1 and A2A receptor subtypes. We have since demonstrated that A3AR agonists have potent analgesic actions in preclinical rodent models of neuropathic pain and that A3AR analgesia is independent of adenosine A1 or A2A unwanted effects. Herein, we explored the contribution of the GABA inhibitory system to A3AR-mediated analgesia using well-characterized mouse and rat models of chronic constriction injury (CCI)-induced neuropathic pain. The deregulation of GABA signaling in pathophysiological pain states is well established: GABA signaling can be hampered by a reduction in extracellular GABA synthesis by GAD65 and enhanced extracellular GABA reuptake via the GABA transporter, GAT-1. In neuropathic pain, GABAAR-mediated signaling can be further disrupted by the loss of the KCC2 chloride anion gradient. Here, we demonstrate that A3AR agonists (IB-MECA and MRS5698) reverse neuropathic pain via a spinal mechanism of action that modulates GABA activity. Spinal administration of the GABAA antagonist, bicuculline, disrupted A3AR-mediated analgesia. Furthermore, A3AR-mediated analgesia was associated with reductions in CCI-related GAD65 and GAT-1 serine dephosphorylation as well as an enhancement of KCC2 serine phosphorylation and activity. Our results suggest that A3AR-mediated reversal of neuropathic pain increases modulation of GABA inhibitory neurotransmission both directly and indirectly through protection of KCC2 function, underscoring the unique utility of A3AR agonists in chronic pain. PMID:25878279

  8. Updating dopamine reward signals.

    PubMed

    Schultz, Wolfram

    2013-04-01

    Recent work has advanced our knowledge of phasic dopamine reward prediction error signals. The error signal is bidirectional, reflects well the higher order prediction error described by temporal difference learning models, is compatible with model-free and model-based reinforcement learning, reports the subjective rather than physical reward value during temporal discounting and reflects subjective stimulus perception rather than physical stimulus aspects. Dopamine activations are primarily driven by reward, and to some extent risk, whereas punishment and salience have only limited activating effects when appropriate controls are respected. The signal is homogeneous in terms of time course but heterogeneous in many other aspects. It is essential for synaptic plasticity and a range of behavioural learning situations.

  9. Growth of dopamine crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patil, Vidya; Patki, Mugdha

    2016-05-01

    Many nonlinear optical (NLO) crystals have been identified as potential candidates in optical and electro-optical devices. Use of NLO organic crystals is expected in photonic applications. Hence organic nonlinear optical materials have been intensely investigated due to their potentially high nonlinearities, and rapid response in electro-optic effect compared to inorganic NLO materials. There are many methods to grow organic crystals such as vapor growth method, melt growth method and solution growth method. Out of these methods, solution growth method is useful in providing constraint free crystal. Single crystals of Dopamine have been grown by evaporating the solvents from aqueous solution. Crystals obtained were of the size of orders of mm. The crystal structure of dopamine was determined using XRD technique. Images of crystals were obtained using FEG SEM Quanta Series under high vacuum and low KV.

  10. Dysfunction in GABA signalling mediates autism-like stereotypies and Rett syndrome phenotypes.

    PubMed

    Chao, Hsiao-Tuan; Chen, Hongmei; Samaco, Rodney C; Xue, Mingshan; Chahrour, Maria; Yoo, Jong; Neul, Jeffrey L; Gong, Shiaoching; Lu, Hui-Chen; Heintz, Nathaniel; Ekker, Marc; Rubenstein, John L R; Noebels, Jeffrey L; Rosenmund, Christian; Zoghbi, Huda Y

    2010-11-11

    Mutations in the X-linked MECP2 gene, which encodes the transcriptional regulator methyl-CpG-binding protein 2 (MeCP2), cause Rett syndrome and several neurodevelopmental disorders including cognitive disorders, autism, juvenile-onset schizophrenia and encephalopathy with early lethality. Rett syndrome is characterized by apparently normal early development followed by regression, motor abnormalities, seizures and features of autism, especially stereotyped behaviours. The mechanisms mediating these features are poorly understood. Here we show that mice lacking Mecp2 from GABA (γ-aminobutyric acid)-releasing neurons recapitulate numerous Rett syndrome and autistic features, including repetitive behaviours. Loss of MeCP2 from a subset of forebrain GABAergic neurons also recapitulates many features of Rett syndrome. MeCP2-deficient GABAergic neurons show reduced inhibitory quantal size, consistent with a presynaptic reduction in glutamic acid decarboxylase 1 (Gad1) and glutamic acid decarboxylase 2 (Gad2) levels, and GABA immunoreactivity. These data demonstrate that MeCP2 is critical for normal function of GABA-releasing neurons and that subtle dysfunction of GABAergic neurons contributes to numerous neuropsychiatric phenotypes. PMID:21068835

  11. New inducible genetic method reveals critical roles of GABA in the control of feeding and metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Fantao; Han, Yong; Srisai, Dollada; Belakhov, Valery; Farias, Monica; Xu, Yong; Palmiter, Richard D.; Baasov, Timor; Wu, Qi

    2016-01-01

    Currently available inducible Cre/loxP systems, despite their considerable utility in gene manipulation, have pitfalls in certain scenarios, such as unsatisfactory recombination rates and deleterious effects on physiology and behavior. To overcome these limitations, we designed a new, inducible gene-targeting system by introducing an in-frame nonsense mutation into the coding sequence of Cre recombinase (nsCre). Mutant mRNAs transcribed from nsCre transgene can be efficiently translated into full-length, functional Cre recombinase in the presence of nonsense suppressors such as aminoglycosides. In a proof-of-concept model, GABA signaling from hypothalamic neurons expressing agouti-related peptide (AgRP) was genetically inactivated within 4 d after treatment with a synthetic aminoglycoside. Disruption of GABA synthesis in AgRP neurons in young adult mice led to a dramatic loss of body weight due to reduced food intake and elevated energy expenditure; they also manifested glucose intolerance. In contrast, older mice with genetic inactivation of GABA signaling by AgRP neurons had only transient reduction of feeding and body weight; their energy expenditure and glucose tolerance were unaffected. These results indicate that GABAergic signaling from AgRP neurons plays a key role in the control of feeding and metabolism through an age-dependent mechanism. This new genetic technique will augment current tools used to elucidate mechanisms underlying many physiological and neurological processes. PMID:26976589

  12. Dysfunction in GABA signalling mediates autism-like stereotypies and Rett syndrome phenotypes.

    PubMed

    Chao, Hsiao-Tuan; Chen, Hongmei; Samaco, Rodney C; Xue, Mingshan; Chahrour, Maria; Yoo, Jong; Neul, Jeffrey L; Gong, Shiaoching; Lu, Hui-Chen; Heintz, Nathaniel; Ekker, Marc; Rubenstein, John L R; Noebels, Jeffrey L; Rosenmund, Christian; Zoghbi, Huda Y

    2010-11-11

    Mutations in the X-linked MECP2 gene, which encodes the transcriptional regulator methyl-CpG-binding protein 2 (MeCP2), cause Rett syndrome and several neurodevelopmental disorders including cognitive disorders, autism, juvenile-onset schizophrenia and encephalopathy with early lethality. Rett syndrome is characterized by apparently normal early development followed by regression, motor abnormalities, seizures and features of autism, especially stereotyped behaviours. The mechanisms mediating these features are poorly understood. Here we show that mice lacking Mecp2 from GABA (γ-aminobutyric acid)-releasing neurons recapitulate numerous Rett syndrome and autistic features, including repetitive behaviours. Loss of MeCP2 from a subset of forebrain GABAergic neurons also recapitulates many features of Rett syndrome. MeCP2-deficient GABAergic neurons show reduced inhibitory quantal size, consistent with a presynaptic reduction in glutamic acid decarboxylase 1 (Gad1) and glutamic acid decarboxylase 2 (Gad2) levels, and GABA immunoreactivity. These data demonstrate that MeCP2 is critical for normal function of GABA-releasing neurons and that subtle dysfunction of GABAergic neurons contributes to numerous neuropsychiatric phenotypes.

  13. Could Dopamine Agonists Aid in Drug Development for Anorexia Nervosa?

    PubMed Central

    Frank, Guido K. W.

    2014-01-01

    Anorexia nervosa is a severe psychiatric disorder most commonly starting during the teenage-years and associated with food refusal and low body weight. Typically there is a loss of menses, intense fear of gaining weight, and an often delusional quality of altered body perception. Anorexia nervosa is also associated with a pattern of high cognitive rigidity, which may contribute to treatment resistance and relapse. The complex interplay of state and trait biological, psychological, and social factors has complicated identifying neurobiological mechanisms that contribute to the illness. The dopamine D1 and D2 neurotransmitter receptors are involved in motivational aspects of food approach, fear extinction, and cognitive flexibility. They could therefore be important targets to improve core and associated behaviors in anorexia nervosa. Treatment with dopamine antagonists has shown little benefit, and it is possible that antagonists over time increase an already hypersensitive dopamine pathway activity in anorexia nervosa. On the contrary, application of dopamine receptor agonists could reduce circuit responsiveness, facilitate fear extinction, and improve cognitive flexibility in anorexia nervosa, as they may be particularly effective during underweight and low gonadal hormone states. This article provides evidence that the dopamine receptor system could be a key factor in the pathophysiology of anorexia nervosa and dopamine agonists could be helpful in reducing core symptoms of the disorder. This review is a theoretical approach that primarily focuses on dopamine receptor function as this system has been mechanistically better described than other neurotransmitters that are altered in anorexia nervosa. However, those proposed dopamine mechanisms in anorexia nervosa also warrant further study with respect to their interaction with other neurotransmitter systems, such as serotonin pathways. PMID:25988121

  14. [Pharmacological influences on the brain level and transport of GABA. II) Effect of various psychoactive drugs on brain level and uptake of GABA].

    PubMed

    Gabana, M A; Varotto, M; Saladini, M; Zanchin, G; Battistin, L

    1981-04-30

    The effects of some psychoactive drugs on the level and uptake of GABA in the mouse brain was studied using well standardized procedures, mainely the silica-gel cromatography for determining the GABA content and the brain slices for measuring GABA uptake. It was found that levomepromazine, sulpiride, haloperidol and amytryptiline were without effects on the cerebral level of GABA; it was also found that these drugs do not influence the rates of uptake of GABA by mouse brain slices. Such results do indicate that the psychoactive drugs studied are without effects on the level and uptake of GABA in the brain.

  15. GABA[subscript A] Receptor Downregulation in Brains of Subjects with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fatemi, S. Hossein; Reutiman, Teri J.; Folsom, Timothy D.; Thuras, Paul D.

    2009-01-01

    Gamma-aminobutyric acid A (GABA[subscript A]) receptors are ligand-gated ion channels responsible for mediation of fast inhibitory action of GABA in the brain. Preliminary reports have demonstrated altered expression of GABA receptors in the brains of subjects with autism suggesting GABA/glutamate system dysregulation. We investigated the…

  16. Corelease of acetylcholine and GABA from cholinergic forebrain neurons

    PubMed Central

    Saunders, Arpiar; Granger, Adam J; Sabatini, Bernardo L

    2015-01-01

    Neurotransmitter corelease is emerging as a common theme of central neuromodulatory systems. Though corelease of glutamate or GABA with acetylcholine has been reported within the cholinergic system, the full extent is unknown. To explore synaptic signaling of cholinergic forebrain neurons, we activated choline acetyltransferase expressing neurons using channelrhodopsin while recording post-synaptic currents (PSCs) in layer 1 interneurons. Surprisingly, we observed PSCs mediated by GABAA receptors in addition to nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. Based on PSC latency and pharmacological sensitivity, our results suggest monosynaptic release of both GABA and ACh. Anatomical analysis showed that forebrain cholinergic neurons express the GABA synthetic enzyme Gad2 and the vesicular GABA transporter (Slc32a1). We confirmed the direct release of GABA by knocking out Slc32a1 from cholinergic neurons. Our results identify GABA as an overlooked fast neurotransmitter utilized throughout the forebrain cholinergic system. GABA/ACh corelease may have major implications for modulation of cortical function by cholinergic neurons. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.06412.001 PMID:25723967

  17. Conserved site for neurosteroid modulation of GABA A receptors.

    PubMed

    Hosie, Alastair M; Clarke, Laura; da Silva, Helena; Smart, Trevor G

    2009-01-01

    This study addresses whether the potentiation site for neurosteroids on GABA(A) receptors is conserved amongst different GABA(A) receptor isoforms. The neurosteroid potentiation site was previously identified in the alpha1beta2gamma2S receptor by mutation of Q241 to methionine or leucine, which reduced the potentiation of GABA currents by the naturally occurring neurosteroids, allopregnanolone or tetrahydrodeoxycorticosterone (THDOC). By using heterologous expression of GABA(A) receptors in HEK cells, in combination with whole-cell patch clamp recording methods, a relatively consistent potentiation by allopregnanolone of GABA-activated currents was evident for receptors composed of one alpha subunit isoform (alpha2-5) assembled with beta3 and gamma2S subunits. Using mutant alphabetagamma receptors, the neurosteroid potentiation was universally dependent on the conserved glutamine residue in M1 of the respective alpha subunit. Studying wild-type and mutant receptors composed of alpha4beta3delta subunits revealed that the delta subunit is unlikely to contribute to the neurosteroid potentiation binding site and probably affects the efficacy of potentiation. Thus, in keeping with the ability of neurosteroids to potentiate GABA currents via a broad variety of GABA(A) receptor isoforms in neurons, the potentiation site is structurally highly conserved on this important neurotransmitter receptor family.

  18. Histamine H(3) receptor-mediated inhibition of depolarization-induced, dopamine D(1) receptor-dependent release of [(3)H]-gamma-aminobutryic acid from rat striatal slices.

    PubMed

    Arias-Montaño, J A; Floran, B; Garcia, M; Aceves, J; Young, J M

    2001-05-01

    1. A study was made of the regulation of [(3)H]-gamma-aminobutyric acid ([(3)H]-GABA) release from slices of rat striatum by endogenous dopamine and exogenous histamine and a histamine H(3)-agonist. Depolarization-induced release of [(3)H]-GABA was Ca(2+)-dependent and was increased in the presence of the dopamine D(2) receptor family antagonist, sulpiride (10 microM). The sulpiride-potentiated release of [(3)H]-GABA was strongly inhibited by the dopamine D(1) receptor family antagonist, SCH 23390 (1 microM). Neither antagonist altered basal release. 2. The 15 mM K(+)-induced release of [(3)H]-GABA in the presence of sulpiride was inhibited by 100 microM histamine (mean inhibition 78+/-3%) and by the histamine H(3) receptor-selective agonist, immepip, 1 microM (mean inhibition 81+/-5%). The IC(50) values for histamine and immepip were 1.3+/-0.2 microM and 16+/-2 nM, respectively. The inhibitory effects of histamine and immepip were reversed by the H(3) receptor antagonist, thioperamide, 1 microM. 3. The inhibition of 15 mM K(+)-induced [(3)H]-GABA release by immepip was reversed by the H(3) receptor antagonist, clobenpropit, K(d) 0.11+/-0.04 nM. Clobenpropit alone had no effect on basal or stimulated release of [(3)H]-GABA. 4. Elevated K(+) caused little release of [(3)H]-GABA from striatal slices from reserpinized rats, unless the D(1) partial agonist, R(+)-SKF 38393, 1 microM, was also present. The stimulated release in the presence of SKF 38393 was reduced by 1 microM immepip to the level obtained in the absence of SKF 38393. 5. These observations demonstrate that histamine H(3) receptor activation strongly inhibits the dopamine D(1) receptor-dependent release of [(3)H]-GABA from rat striatum; primarily through an interaction at the terminals of GABA neurones.

  19. An Electrostatic Funnel in the GABA-Binding Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Lightstone, Felice C.

    2016-01-01

    The γ-aminobutyric acid type A receptor (GABAA-R) is a major inhibitory neuroreceptor that is activated by the binding of GABA. The structure of the GABAA-R is well characterized, and many of the binding site residues have been identified. However, most of these residues are obscured behind the C-loop that acts as a cover to the binding site. Thus, the mechanism by which the GABA molecule recognizes the binding site, and the pathway it takes to enter the binding site are both unclear. Through the completion and detailed analysis of 100 short, unbiased, independent molecular dynamics simulations, we have investigated this phenomenon of GABA entering the binding site. In each system, GABA was placed quasi-randomly near the binding site of a GABAA-R homology model, and atomistic simulations were carried out to observe the behavior of the GABA molecules. GABA fully entered the binding site in 19 of the 100 simulations. The pathway taken by these molecules was consistent and non-random; the GABA molecules approach the binding site from below, before passing up behind the C-loop and into the binding site. This binding pathway is driven by long-range electrostatic interactions, whereby the electrostatic field acts as a ‘funnel’ that sweeps the GABA molecules towards the binding site, at which point more specific atomic interactions take over. These findings define a nuanced mechanism whereby the GABAA-R uses the general zwitterionic features of the GABA molecule to identify a potential ligand some 2 nm away from the binding site. PMID:27119953

  20. A Gut Feeling about GABA: Focus on GABAB Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Hyland, Niall P.; Cryan, John F.

    2010-01-01

    γ-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) is the main inhibitory neurotransmitter in the body and hence GABA-mediated neurotransmission regulates many physiological functions, including those in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. GABA is located throughout the GI tract and is found in enteric nerves as well as in endocrine-like cells, implicating GABA as both a neurotransmitter and an endocrine mediator influencing GI function. GABA mediates its effects via GABA receptors which are either ionotropic GABAA or metabotropic GABAB. The latter which respond to the agonist baclofen have been least characterized, however accumulating data suggest that they play a key role in GI function in health and disease. Like GABA, GABAB receptors have been detected throughout the gut of several species in the enteric nervous system, muscle, epithelial layers as well as on endocrine-like cells. Such widespread distribution of this metabotropic GABA receptor is consistent with its significant modulatory role over intestinal motility, gastric emptying, gastric acid secretion, transient lower esophageal sphincter relaxation and visceral sensation of painful colonic stimuli. More intriguing findings, the mechanisms underlying which have yet to be determined, suggest GABAB receptors inhibit GI carcinogenesis and tumor growth. Therefore, the diversity of GI functions regulated by GABAB receptors makes it a potentially useful target in the treatment of several GI disorders. In light of the development of novel compounds such as peripherally acting GABAB receptor agonists, positive allosteric modulators of the GABAB receptor and GABA producing enteric bacteria, we review and summarize current knowledge on the function of GABAB receptors within the GI tract. PMID:21833169

  1. An Electrostatic Funnel in the GABA-Binding Pathway.

    PubMed

    Carpenter, Timothy S; Lightstone, Felice C

    2016-04-01

    The γ-aminobutyric acid type A receptor (GABAA-R) is a major inhibitory neuroreceptor that is activated by the binding of GABA. The structure of the GABAA-R is well characterized, and many of the binding site residues have been identified. However, most of these residues are obscured behind the C-loop that acts as a cover to the binding site. Thus, the mechanism by which the GABA molecule recognizes the binding site, and the pathway it takes to enter the binding site are both unclear. Through the completion and detailed analysis of 100 short, unbiased, independent molecular dynamics simulations, we have investigated this phenomenon of GABA entering the binding site. In each system, GABA was placed quasi-randomly near the binding site of a GABAA-R homology model, and atomistic simulations were carried out to observe the behavior of the GABA molecules. GABA fully entered the binding site in 19 of the 100 simulations. The pathway taken by these molecules was consistent and non-random; the GABA molecules approach the binding site from below, before passing up behind the C-loop and into the binding site. This binding pathway is driven by long-range electrostatic interactions, whereby the electrostatic field acts as a 'funnel' that sweeps the GABA molecules towards the binding site, at which point more specific atomic interactions take over. These findings define a nuanced mechanism whereby the GABAA-R uses the general zwitterionic features of the GABA molecule to identify a potential ligand some 2 nm away from the binding site. PMID:27119953

  2. Diacylglycerol lipase disinhibits VTA dopamine neurons during chronic nicotine exposure.

    PubMed

    Buczynski, Matthew W; Herman, Melissa A; Hsu, Ku-Lung; Natividad, Luis A; Irimia, Cristina; Polis, Ilham Y; Pugh, Holly; Chang, Jae Won; Niphakis, Micah J; Cravatt, Benjamin F; Roberto, Marisa; Parsons, Loren H

    2016-01-26

    Chronic nicotine exposure (CNE) alters synaptic transmission in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) in a manner that enhances dopaminergic signaling and promotes nicotine use. The present experiments identify a correlation between enhanced production of the endogenous cannabinoid 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) and diminished release of the inhibitory neurotransmitter GABA in the VTA following CNE. To study the functional role of on-demand 2-AG signaling in GABAergic synapses, we used 1,2,3-triazole urea compounds to selectively inhibit 2-AG biosynthesis by diacylglycerol lipase (DAGL). The potency and selectivity of these inhibitors were established in rats in vitro (rat brain proteome), ex vivo (brain slices), and in vivo (intracerebroventricular administration) using activity-based protein profiling and targeted metabolomics analyses. Inhibition of DAGL (2-AG biosynthesis) rescues nicotine-induced VTA GABA signaling following CNE. Conversely, enhancement of 2-AG signaling in naïve rats by inhibiting 2-AG degradation recapitulates the loss of nicotine-induced GABA signaling evident following CNE. DAGL inhibition reduces nicotine self-administration without disrupting operant responding for a nondrug reinforcer or motor activity. Collectively, these findings provide a detailed characterization of selective inhibitors of rat brain DAGL and demonstrate that excessive 2-AG signaling contributes to a loss of inhibitory GABAergic constraint of VTA excitability following CNE.

  3. Differential behavioral reinforcement effects of dopamine receptor agonists in the rat with bilateral lesion of the posterior ventral tegmental area.

    PubMed

    Ouachikh, Omar; Dieb, Wisam; Durif, Franck; Hafidi, Aziz

    2013-09-01

    Dopamine dysregulation syndrome in Parkinson's disease has been attributed to dopamine replacement therapies and/or a lesion of the dopaminergic system. The dopaminergic neuronal loss targets the substantia nigra and the ventral tegmental area (VTA). We hypothesize that dopamine replacement therapy is responsible for the potential reinforcement effect in Parkinson's disease by acting on the neuronal reward circuitry. Therefore this study was designed to explore the potential motivational effect of dopamine replacement therapy in bilateral VTA-lesioned animals. The posterior (p)VTA, which project to the nucleus accumbens (NAc) constitutes the major dopamine neuronal circuitry implicated in addictive disorders. Using the conditioned place preference (CPP) behavioral paradigm, we investigated the motivational effects of dopamine receptor agonists, and cocaine in rat with a 6-OHDA bilateral lesion of the pVTA. Amongst the dopamine receptor agonists used in this study only the D2R and D3R agonists (bromocriptine, PD128907 and pramipexole), induced a significant CPP in pVTA-lesioned animals. Dopamine receptor agonists did not induce behavioral sensitization in sham animals. Moreover, confocal D2R immunostaining analysis showed a significant increase in the number of D2R per cell body in the NAc shell of pVTA lesioned rats compared to sham. This result correlated, for the first time, the dopamine receptor agonists effect with DR2 overexpression in the NAc shell of pVTA-lesioned rats. In addition, cocaine, which is known to increase dopamine release, induced behavioral sensitization in sham group but not in dopamine deprived group. Thus, the later result highlighted the importance of pVTA-NAc dopaminergic pathway in positive reinforcements. Altogether these data suggested that the implication of the dopamine replacement therapy in the appearance of dopamine dysregulation syndrome in Parkinson's disease is probably due to both neuronal degeneration in the posterior VTA and

  4. Morphine disinhibits glutamatergic input to VTA dopamine neurons and promotes dopamine neuron excitation.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ming; Zhao, Yanfang; Yang, Hualan; Luan, Wenjie; Song, Jiaojiao; Cui, Dongyang; Dong, Yi; Lai, Bin; Ma, Lan; Zheng, Ping

    2015-07-24

    One reported mechanism for morphine activation of dopamine (DA) neurons of the ventral tegmental area (VTA) is the disinhibition model of VTA-DA neurons. Morphine inhibits GABA inhibitory neurons, which shifts the balance between inhibitory and excitatory input to VTA-DA neurons in favor of excitation and then leads to VTA-DA neuron excitation. However, it is not known whether morphine has an additional strengthening effect on excitatory input. Our results suggest that glutamatergic input to VTA-DA neurons is inhibited by GABAergic interneurons via GABAB receptors and that morphine promotes presynaptic glutamate release by removing this inhibition. We also studied the contribution of the morphine-induced disinhibitory effect on the presynaptic glutamate release to the overall excitatory effect of morphine on VTA-DA neurons and related behavior. Our results suggest that the disinhibitory action of morphine on presynaptic glutamate release might be the main mechanism for morphine-induced increase in VTA-DA neuron firing and related behaviors.

  5. How and why does tomato accumulate a large amount of GABA in the fruit?

    PubMed Central

    Takayama, Mariko; Ezura, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) has received much attention as a health-promoting functional compound, and several GABA-enriched foods have been commercialized. In higher plants, GABA is primarily metabolized via a short pathway called the GABA shunt. The GABA shunt bypasses two steps (the oxidation of α-ketoglutarate to succinate) of the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle via reactions catalyzed by three enzymes: glutamate decarboxylase, GABA transaminase, and succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase. The GABA shunt plays a major role in primary carbon and nitrogen metabolism and is an integral part of the TCA cycle under stress and non-stress conditions. Tomato is one of the major crops that accumulate a relatively high level of GABA in its fruits. The GABA levels in tomato fruits dramatically change during fruit development; the GABA levels increase from flowering to the mature green stage and then rapidly decrease during the ripening stage. Although GABA constitutes up to 50% of the free amino acids at the mature green stage, the molecular mechanism of GABA accumulation and the physiological function of GABA during tomato fruit development remain unclear. In this review, we summarize recent studies of GABA accumulation in tomato fruits and discuss the potential biological roles of GABA in tomato fruit development. PMID:26322056

  6. Metabotropic GABA signalling modulates longevity in C. elegans

    PubMed Central

    Chun, Lei; Gong, Jianke; Yuan, Fengling; Zhang, Bi; Liu, Hongkang; Zheng, Tianlin; Yu, Teng; Xu, X. Z. Shawn; Liu, Jianfeng

    2015-01-01

    The nervous system plays an important but poorly understood role in modulating longevity. GABA, a prominent inhibitory neurotransmitter, is best known to regulate nervous system function and behaviour in diverse organisms. Whether GABA signalling affects aging, however, has not been explored. Here we examined mutants lacking each of the major neurotransmitters in C. elegans, and find that deficiency in GABA signalling extends lifespan. This pro-longevity effect is mediated by the metabotropic GABAB receptor GBB-1, but not ionotropic GABAA receptors. GBB-1 regulates lifespan through G protein-PLCβ signalling, which transmits longevity signals to the transcription factor DAF-16/FOXO, a key regulator of lifespan. Mammalian GABAB receptors can functionally substitute for GBB-1 in lifespan control in C. elegans. Our results uncover a new role of GABA signalling in lifespan regulation in C. elegans, raising the possibility that a similar process may occur in other organisms. PMID:26537867

  7. [GABA-Receptors in Modulation of Fear Memory Extinction].

    PubMed

    Dubrovina, N I

    2016-01-01

    GABA is the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system determining the efficacy of neuronal interaction. GABA-receptors play a key role in different aspects of fear memory--acquisition and consolidation, retention, reconsolidation and extinction. Extinction is an important behavioural phenomenon which allows organism to adapt its behavior to a changing environment. Extinction of fear memory is a form of new inhibitory learning which interferes with expression of the initial acquired fear conditioning. Resistance to extinction is symptom of depression and posttraumatic stress disorder. The aim of the present review was to summarize own and literary data about GABAergic modulation of fear extinction and pharmacological correction of extinction impairment at influences on GABA(A)- and GABA(B)- receptors. PMID:27538279

  8. Addiction: Beyond dopamine reward circuitry

    SciTech Connect

    Volkow, N.D.; Wang, G.; Volkow, N.D.; Wang, G.-J.; Fowler, J.S.; Tomasi, D.; Telang, F.

    2011-09-13

    Dopamine (DA) is considered crucial for the rewarding effects of drugs of abuse, but its role in addiction is much less clear. This review focuses on studies that used PET to characterize the brain DA system in addicted subjects. These studies have corroborated in humans the relevance of drug-induced fast DA increases in striatum [including nucleus accumbens (NAc)] in their rewarding effects but have unexpectedly shown that in addicted subjects, drug-induced DA increases (as well as their subjective reinforcing effects) are markedly blunted compared with controls. In contrast, addicted subjects show significant DA increases in striatum in response to drug-conditioned cues that are associated with self-reports of drug craving and appear to be of a greater magnitude than the DA responses to the drug. We postulate that the discrepancy between the expectation for the drug effects (conditioned responses) and the blunted pharmacological effects maintains drug taking in an attempt to achieve the expected reward. Also, whether tested during early or protracted withdrawal, addicted subjects show lower levels of D2 receptors in striatum (including NAc), which are associated with decreases in baseline activity in frontal brain regions implicated in salience attribution (orbitofrontal cortex) and inhibitory control (anterior cingulate gyrus), whose disruption results in compulsivity and impulsivity. These results point to an imbalance between dopaminergic circuits that underlie reward and conditioning and those that underlie executive function (emotional control and decision making), which we postulate contributes to the compulsive drug use and loss of control in addiction.

  9. Biochemical and electrophysiological characteristics of mammalian GABA receptors.

    PubMed

    Enna, S J; Gallagher, J P

    1983-01-01

    The concept that GABA is a neurotransmitter in the mammalian CNS is supported by both electrophysiological and biochemical data. Whereas the electrophysiological studies are essential for demonstrating a specific functional response to GABA, the biochemical approach is useful for characterizing the molecular properties of this site. As a result of these studies the concept of the GABA receptor has progressed from a simple model of a single recognition site associated with a chloride channel to a more complex structure having a variety of interacting components. Thus, both electrophysiological and biochemical data support the existence of at least two pharmacologically distinct types of GABA receptors, based on the sensitivity to bicuculline. Also, anatomically, there appear to be two different types of receptors, those located postsynaptically on the soma or dendrites of a neighboring cell and those found presynaptically on GABAergic and other neurotransmitter terminals. From biochemical studies it appears that the GABA receptor may be composed of at least three distinct interacting components. One of these, the recognition site, may exist in two conformations, with one preferring agonists and the other having a higher affinity for antagonists. Ion channels may be considered a second component, with some of these regulating the passage of chloride ion, whereas others may be associated with calcium transport. The third major element of GABA receptors appears to be a benzodiazepine recognition site, although only a certain population of GABA receptors may be endowed with this property. In addition to these, the GABA receptor complex appears to contain substances that modulate the recognition site by influencing the availability of higher affinity binding proteins. It would appear therefore that changes affecting any one of these constituents can influence the characteristics of the others. While increasing the complexity of the system, this arrangement makes for a

  10. Parkinson's Disease and Neurodegeneration: GABA-Collapse Hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Błaszczyk, Janusz W

    2016-01-01

    Neurodegenerative diseases constitute a heterogeneous group of age-related disorders that are characterized by a slow but irreversible deterioration of brain functions. Evidence accumulated over more than two decades has implicated calcium-related homeostatic mechanisms, giving rise to the Ca(2+) hypothesis of brain aging and, ultimately, cell death. Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is the main inhibitory neurotransmitter within the central (CNS), peripheral and enteric nervous systems. It appears to be involved in a wide variety of physiological functions within and outside the nervous system, that are maintained through a complex interaction between GABA and calcium-dependent neurotransmission and cellular metabolic functions. Within CNS the Ca(2+)/GABA mechanism stabilizes neuronal activity both at cellular and systemic levels. Decline in the Ca(2+)/GABA control initiates several cascading processes leading to both weakened protective barriers (in particular the blood-brain barrier) and accumulations of intracellular deposits of calcium and Lewy bodies. Linking such a vital mechanism of synaptic transmission with metabolism (both at cellular and tissue level) by means of a common reciprocal Ca(2+)/GABA inhibition results in a fragile balance, which is prone to destabilization and auto-destruction. The GABA decline etiology proposed here appears to apply to all human neurodegenerative processes initiated by abnormal intracellular calcium levels. Therefore, the original description of Parkinson's disease (PD) as due to the selective damage of dopaminergic neurons in the mesencephalon should be updated into the concept of a severe multisystemic neurodegenerative disorder of the nervous system, whose clinical symptoms reflect the localization and progression of the most advanced GABA pathology. A future and more complete therapeutic approach to PD should be aimed first at slowing (or stopping) the progression of Ca(2+)/GABA functional decline. PMID:27375426

  11. Parkinson's Disease and Neurodegeneration: GABA-Collapse Hypothesis

    PubMed Central

    Błaszczyk, Janusz W.

    2016-01-01

    Neurodegenerative diseases constitute a heterogeneous group of age-related disorders that are characterized by a slow but irreversible deterioration of brain functions. Evidence accumulated over more than two decades has implicated calcium-related homeostatic mechanisms, giving rise to the Ca2+ hypothesis of brain aging and, ultimately, cell death. Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is the main inhibitory neurotransmitter within the central (CNS), peripheral and enteric nervous systems. It appears to be involved in a wide variety of physiological functions within and outside the nervous system, that are maintained through a complex interaction between GABA and calcium-dependent neurotransmission and cellular metabolic functions. Within CNS the Ca2+/GABA mechanism stabilizes neuronal activity both at cellular and systemic levels. Decline in the Ca2+/GABA control initiates several cascading processes leading to both weakened protective barriers (in particular the blood-brain barrier) and accumulations of intracellular deposits of calcium and Lewy bodies. Linking such a vital mechanism of synaptic transmission with metabolism (both at cellular and tissue level) by means of a common reciprocal Ca2+/GABA inhibition results in a fragile balance, which is prone to destabilization and auto-destruction. The GABA decline etiology proposed here appears to apply to all human neurodegenerative processes initiated by abnormal intracellular calcium levels. Therefore, the original description of Parkinson's disease (PD) as due to the selective damage of dopaminergic neurons in the mesencephalon should be updated into the concept of a severe multisystemic neurodegenerative disorder of the nervous system, whose clinical symptoms reflect the localization and progression of the most advanced GABA pathology. A future and more complete therapeutic approach to PD should be aimed first at slowing (or stopping) the progression of Ca2+/GABA functional decline. PMID:27375426

  12. GABA Signaling and Neuroactive Steroids in Adrenal Medullary Chromaffin Cells

    PubMed Central

    Harada, Keita; Matsuoka, Hidetada; Fujihara, Hiroaki; Ueta, Yoichi; Yanagawa, Yuchio; Inoue, Masumi

    2016-01-01

    Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is produced not only in the brain, but also in endocrine cells by the two isoforms of glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD), GAD65 and GAD67. In rat adrenal medullary chromaffin cells only GAD67 is expressed, and GABA is stored in large dense core vesicles (LDCVs), but not synaptic-like microvesicles (SLMVs). The α3β2/3γ2 complex represents the majority of GABAA receptors expressed in rat and guinea pig chromaffin cells, whereas PC12 cells, an immortalized rat chromaffin cell line, express the α1 subunit as well as the α3. The expression of α3, but not α1, in PC12 cells is enhanced by glucocorticoid activity, which may be mediated by both the mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) and the glucocorticoid receptor (GR). GABA has two actions mediated by GABAA receptors in chromaffin cells: it induces catecholamine secretion by itself and produces an inhibition of synaptically evoked secretion by a shunt effect. Allopregnanolone, a neuroactive steroid which is secreted from the adrenal cortex, produces a marked facilitation of GABAA receptor channel activity. Since there are no GABAergic nerve fibers in the adrenal medulla, GABA may function as a para/autocrine factor in the chromaffin cells. This function of GABA may be facilitated by expression of the immature isoforms of GAD and GABAA receptors and the lack of expression of plasma membrane GABA transporters (GATs). In this review, we will consider how the para/autocrine function of GABA is achieved, focusing on the structural and molecular mechanisms for GABA signaling. PMID:27147972

  13. GABA withdrawal syndrome: a model of the epilepsia partialis continua.

    PubMed

    Kunimoto, M; Tanaka, T; Fukuda, H; Yonemasu, Y; Naquet, R

    1990-06-01

    After the chronic infusion of GABA into the cortex of baboon Papio Papio, a sudden stop of the infusion provoked cortical epileptic discharges around the infused area. And the baboon exhibited partial epilepsy for about 3 days. The result suggested that GABA withdrawal syndrome should be a good model not only to understand the mechanism of epilepsia partialis continua but also partial epilepsy with a circumscribed cortical focus.

  14. Effect of paraoxon on muscarinic, dopamine and. gamma. -aminobutyric acid receptors of brain and sensitivity to muscarinic antagonists

    SciTech Connect

    Fernando, J.C.R.; Hoskins, B.; Ho, I.K.

    1986-03-05

    Several acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitors decrease muscarinic cholinergic (mACh) receptors in the brain, alteration of dopamine (DA) and ..gamma..-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptors after AChE inhibition was also reported. In view of the important interactions among DA, GABA and ACh systems, whether this is a common effect of AChE inhibitors should be established. They report the effect of the AChE inhibitor, paraoxon, on DA, GABA and mACh receptors in the rat. The binding of /sup 3/H-QNB (for mACh), /sup 3/H-spiperone (for DA) and /sup 3/H-muscimol (for GABA) to striatal and hippocampal membranes was analyzed. Also, behavioral sensitivity to atropine was studied. Twenty-four hr after a single dose (0.75 mg/kg, s.c.) of paraoxon, the density of mACh receptors in the striatum was decreased but, at 3 days, no change was seen. In the hippocampus, the mACh receptors were not affected. Repeated treatment with paraoxon (0.3 mg/kg, 48 hourly) for 2 weeks reduced the mACh receptor density in both regions. Neither single nor repeated paraoxon treatment had an effect on DA or GABA receptors. After single or repeated dosing with paraoxon, myoclonus induced by atropine (10 mg/kg, i.p.) was enhanced. The results show rapid downregulation of mACh receptors by paraoxon. DA or GABA, however, appear not to be affected under these treatment regimens.

  15. GABA-independent GABAA Receptor Openings Maintain Tonic Currents

    PubMed Central

    Wlodarczyk, Agnieszka I.; Sylantyev, Sergiy; Herd, Murray B.; Kersanté, Flavie; Lambert, Jeremy J.; Rusakov, Dmitri A.; Linthorst, Astrid C.E.; Semyanov, Alexey; Belelli, Delia; Pavlov, Ivan; Walker, Matthew C.

    2013-01-01

    Activation of GABAA receptors (GABAARs) produces two forms of inhibition: ‘phasic’ inhibition generated by the rapid, transient activation of synaptic GABAARs by presynaptic GABA release, and tonic inhibition generated by the persistent activation of peri- or extrasynaptic GABAARs which can detect extracellular GABA. Such tonic GABAAR-mediated currents are particularly evident in dentate granule cells in which they play a major role in regulating cell excitability. Here we show that in rat dentate granule cells in ex-vivo hippocampal slices, tonic currents are predominantly generated by GABA-independent GABAA receptor openings. This tonic GABAAR conductance is resistant to the competitive GABAAR antagonist SR95531, which at high concentrations acts as a partial agonist, but can be blocked by an open channel blocker picrotoxin. When slices are perfused with 200 nM GABA, a concentration that is comparable to cerebrospinal fluid concentrations but is twice that measured by us in the hippocampus in vivo using zero-net-flux microdialysis, negligible GABA is detected by dentate granule cells. Spontaneously opening GABAARs, therefore, maintain dentate granule cell tonic currents in the face of low extracellular GABA concentrations. PMID:23447601

  16. Regionally Specific Human GABA Concentration Correlates with Tactile Discrimination Thresholds

    PubMed Central

    Puts, Nicolaas A. J.; Edden, Richard A. E.; Evans, C. John; McGlone, Francis; McGonigle, David J.

    2012-01-01

    The neural mechanisms underlying variability in human sensory perception remain incompletely understood. In particular, few studies have attempted to investigate the relationship between in vivo measurements of neurochemistry and individuals’ behavioral performance. Our previous work found a relationship between GABA concentration in the visual cortex and orientation discrimination thresholds (Edden et al., 2009). In the present study, we used magnetic resonance spectroscopy of GABA and psychophysical testing of vibrotactile frequency thresholds to investigate whether individual differences in tactile frequency discrimination performance are correlated with GABA concentration in sensorimotor cortex. Behaviorally, individuals showed a wide range of discrimination thresholds ranging from 3 to 7.6 Hz around the 25 Hz standard. These frequency discrimination thresholds were significantly correlated with GABA concentration (r = −0.58; p < 0.05) in individuals’ sensorimotor cortex, but not with GABA concentration in an occipital control region (r = −0.04). These results demonstrate a link between GABA concentration and frequency discrimination in vivo, and support the hypothesis that GABAergic mechanisms have an important role to play in sensory discrimination. PMID:22090482

  17. Co-Localization of GABA Shunt Enzymes for the Efficient Production of Gamma-Aminobutyric Acid via GABA Shunt Pathway in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Pham, Van Dung; Somasundaram, Sivachandiran; Park, Si Jae; Lee, Seung Hwan; Hong, Soon Ho

    2016-04-28

    Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is a non-protein amino acid, which is an important inhibitor of neurotransmission in the human brain. GABA is also used as the precursor of biopolymer Nylon-4 production. In this study, the carbon flux from the tricarboxylic acid cycle was directed to the GABA shunt pathway for the production of GABA from glucose. The GABA shunt enzymes succinate-semialdehyde dehydrogenase (GabD) and GABA aminotransferase (GabT) were co-localized along with the GABA transporter (GadC) by using a synthetic scaffold complex. The co-localized enzyme scaffold complex produced 0.71 g/l of GABA from 10 g/l of glucose. Inactivation of competing metabolic pathways in mutant E. coli strains XBM1 and XBM6 increased GABA production 13% to reach 0.80 g/l GABA by the enzymes co-localized and expressed in the mutant strains. The recombinant E. coli system developed in this study demonstrated the possibility of the pathway of the GABA shunt as a novel GABA production pathway.

  18. Increased dopamine tone during meditation-induced change of consciousness.

    PubMed

    Kjaer, Troels W; Bertelsen, Camilla; Piccini, Paola; Brooks, David; Alving, Jørgen; Lou, Hans C

    2002-04-01

    This is the first in vivo demonstration of an association between endogenous neurotransmitter release and conscious experience. Using 11C-raclopride PET we demonstrated increased endogenous dopamine release in the ventral striatum during Yoga Nidra meditation. Yoga Nidra is characterized by a depressed level of desire for action, associated with decreased blood flow in prefrontal, cerebellar and subcortical regions, structures thought to be organized in open loops subserving executive control. In the striatum, dopamine modulates excitatory glutamatergic synapses of the projections from the frontal cortex to striatal neurons, which in turn project back to the frontal cortex via the pallidum and ventral thalamus. The present study was designed to investigate whether endogenous dopamine release increases during loss of executive control in meditation. Participants underwent two 11C-raclopride PET scans: one while attending to speech with eyes closed, and one during active meditation. The tracer competes with endogenous dopamine for access to dopamine D2 receptors predominantly found in the basal ganglia. During meditation, 11C-raclopride binding in ventral striatum decreased by 7.9%. This corresponds to a 65% increase in endogenous dopamine release. The reduced raclopride binding correlated significantly with a concomitant increase in EEG theta activity, a characteristic feature of meditation. All participants reported a decreased desire for action during meditation, along with heightened sensory imagery. The level of gratification and the depth of relaxation did not differ between the attention and meditation conditions. Here we show increased striatal dopamine release during meditation associated with the experience of reduced readiness for action. It is suggested that being in the conscious state of meditation causes a suppression of cortico-striatal glutamatergic transmission. To our knowledge this is the first time in vivo evidence has been provided for

  19. Readministration of adenoviral gene delivery to dopamine neurons.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, Sarah C; McMenamin, Margaret M; Charlton, Harry M; Goodman, James; Lantos, Tibor; Simpson, Christine; Wood, Matthew J A

    2007-10-01

    An approach currently being explored as treatment for Parkinson's disease is gene therapy. An important question concerns the duration of transgene expression in dopamine neurons and the issues of vector persistence, neuronal damage and the feasibility of readministering vector to the same neuronal population. We show, using an adenoviral vector expressing the LacZ reporter gene, that transgene expression declined over time but with minimal loss of dopamine neurons or vector DNA. Readministration of vector resulted in low levels of transgene delivery to the neurons. Moreover, the neurons to which vector had already been delivered were unable to transport the retrograde tracer fluorogold. Our findings indicate that transgene expression declined in dopamine neurons despite the persistence of virus, and the capacity to readminister vector to these neurons was limited. PMID:17885611

  20. Molecular analysis of the A322D mutation in the GABA receptor alpha-subunit causing juvenile myoclonic epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Krampfl, Klaus; Maljevic, Snezana; Cossette, Patrick; Ziegler, Elke; Rouleau, Guy A; Lerche, Holger; Bufler, Johannes

    2005-07-01

    Juvenile myoclonic epilepsy (JME) belongs to the most common forms of hereditary epilepsy, the idiopathic generalized epilepsies. Although the mode of inheritance is usually complex, mutations in single genes have been shown to cause the disease in some families with autosomal dominant inheritance. The first mutation in a multigeneration JME family has been recently found in the alpha1-subunit of the GABAA receptor (GABRA1), predicting the single amino acid substitution A322D. We further characterized the functional consequences of this mutation by coexpressing alpha1-, beta2- and gamma2-subunits in human embryonic kidney (HEK293) cells. By using an ultrafast application system, mutant receptors have shown reduced macroscopic current amplitudes at saturating GABA concentrations and a highly reduced affinity to GABA compared to the wild-type (WT). Dose-response curves for current amplitudes, activation kinetics, and GABA-dependent desensitization parameters showed a parallel shift towards 30- to 40-fold higher GABA concentrations. Both deactivation and resensitization kinetics were considerably accelerated in mutant channels. In addition, mutant receptors labelled with enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) were not integrated in the cell membrane, in contrast to WT receptors. Therefore, the A322D mutation leads to a severe loss-of-function of the human GABAA receptor by several mechanisms, including reduced surface expression, reduced GABA-sensitivity, and accelerated deactivation. These molecular defects could decrease and shorten the resulting inhibitory postsynaptic currents (IPSCs) in vivo, which can induce a hyperexcitability of the postsynaptic membrane and explain the occurrence of epileptic seizures.

  1. A functional role for both γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) transporter-1 and GABA transporter-3 in the modulation of extracellular GABA and GABAergic tonic conductances in the rat hippocampus

    PubMed Central

    Kersanté, Flavie; Rowley, Samuel C S; Pavlov, Ivan; Gutièrrez-Mecinas, María; Semyanov, Alexey; Reul, Johannes M H M; Walker, Matthew C; Linthorst, Astrid C E

    2013-01-01

    Tonic γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)A receptor-mediated signalling controls neuronal network excitability in the hippocampus. Although the extracellular concentration of GABA (e[GABA]) is critical in determining tonic conductances, knowledge on how e[GABA] is regulated by different GABA transporters (GATs) in vivo is limited. Therefore, we studied the role of GATs in the regulation of hippocampal e[GABA] using in vivo microdialysis in freely moving rats. Here we show that GAT-1, which is predominantly presynaptically located, is the major GABA transporter under baseline, quiescent conditions. Furthermore, a significant contribution of GAT-3 in regulating e[GABA] was revealed by administration of the GAT-3 inhibitor SNAP-5114 during simultaneous blockade of GAT-1 by NNC-711. Thus, the GABA transporting activity of GAT-3 (the expression of which is confined to astrocytes) is apparent under conditions in which GAT-1 is blocked. However, sustained neuronal activation by K+-induced depolarization caused a profound spillover of GABA into the extrasynaptic space and this increase in e[GABA] was significantly potentiated by sole blockade of GAT-3 (i.e. even when uptake of GAT-1 is intact). Furthermore, experiments using tetrodotoxin to block action potentials revealed that GAT-3 regulates extrasynaptic GABA levels from action potential-independent sources when GAT-1 is blocked. Importantly, changes in e[GABA] resulting from both GAT-1 and GAT-3 inhibition directly precipitate changes in tonic conductances in dentate granule cells as measured by whole-cell patch-clamp recording. Thus, astrocytic GAT-3 contributes to the regulation of e[GABA] in the hippocampus in vivo and may play an important role in controlling the excitability of hippocampal cells when network activity is increased. PMID:23381899

  2. Distribution of 3H-GABA uptake sites in the nematode Ascaris

    SciTech Connect

    Guastella, J.; Stretton, A.O. )

    1991-05-22

    The distribution of uptake sites for the inhibitory neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in the nematode Ascaris suum was examined by autoradiography of 3H-GABA uptake. Single neural processes in both the ventral and dorsal nerve cords were labeled with 3H-GABA. Serial section analysis identified the cells of origin of these processes as the RMEV-like and RMED-like neurons. These cells belong to a set of four neurons in the nerve ring, all of which are labeled by 3H-GABA. 3H-GABA labeling of at least two other sets of cephalic neurons was seen. One of these pairs consists of medium-sized lateral ganglia neurons, located at the level of the amphid commissure bundle. A second pair is located in the lateral ganglia at the level of the deirid commissure bundle. The position and size of these lateral ganglia cells suggest that they are the GABA-immunoreactive lateral ganglia cells frequently seen in whole-mount immunocytochemical preparations. Four neuronal cell bodies located in the retrovesicular ganglion were also labeled with 3H-GABA. These cells, which are probably cholinergic excitatory motor neurons, do not contain detectable GABA-like immunoreactivity. Heavy labeling of muscle cells was also observed. The ventral and dorsal nerve cord inhibitory motor neurons, which are known to contain GABA-like immunoreactivity, were not labeled above background with 3H-GABA. Together with the experiments reported previously, these results define three classes of GABA-associated neurons in Ascaris: (1) neurons that contain endogenous GABA and possess a GABA uptake system; (2) neurons that contain endogenous GABA, but that either lack a GABA uptake system or possess a GABA uptake system of low activity; (3) neurons that possess a GABA uptake system, but that lack endogenous GABA.

  3. Pre-synaptic BK channels selectively control glutamate versus GABA release from cortical and hippocampal nerve terminals.

    PubMed

    Martire, Maria; Barrese, Vincenzo; D'Amico, Monia; Iannotti, Fabio Arturo; Pizzarelli, Rocco; Samengo, Irene; Viggiano, Davide; Ruth, Peter; Cherubini, Enrico; Taglialatela, Maurizio

    2010-10-01

    In the present study, by means of genetic, biochemical, morphological, and electrophysiological approaches, the role of large-conductance voltage- and Ca(2+)-dependent K(+) channels (BK channels) in the release of excitatory and non-excitatory neurotransmitters at hippocampal and non-hippocampal sites has been investigated. The results obtained show that the pharmacological modulation of pre-synaptic BK channels selectively regulates [(3)H]D-aspartate release from cortical and hippocampal rat synaptosomes, but it fails to influence the release of excitatory neurotransmitters from cerebellar nerve endings or that of [(3)H]GABA, [(3)H]Noradrenaline, or [(3)H]Dopamine from any of the brain regions investigated. Confocal immunofluorescence experiments in hippocampal or cerebrocortical nerve terminals revealed that the main pore-forming BK α subunit was more abundantly expressed in glutamatergic (vGLUT1(+)) versus GABAergic (GAD(65-67)(+)) nerve terminals. Double patch recordings in monosynaptically connected hippocampal neurons in culture confirmed a preferential control exerted by BK channels on glutamate over GABA release. Altogether, the present results highlight a high degree of specificity in the regulation of the release of various neurotransmitters from distinct brain regions by BK channels, supporting the concept that BK channel modulators can be used to selectively limit excessive excitatory amino acid release, a major pathogenetic mechanism in several neuropsychiatric disorders.

  4. Direct protein-protein coupling enables cross-talk between dopamine D5 and gamma-aminobutyric acid A receptors.

    PubMed

    Liu, F; Wan, Q; Pristupa, Z B; Yu, X M; Wang, Y T; Niznik, H B

    2000-01-20

    GABA(A) (gamma-aminobutyric-acid A) and dopamine D1 and D5 receptors represent two structurally and functionally divergent families of neurotransmitter receptors. The former comprises a class of multi-subunit ligand-gated channels mediating fast interneuronal synaptic transmission, whereas the latter belongs to the seven-transmembrane-domain single-polypeptide receptor superfamily that exerts its biological effects, including the modulation of GABA(A) receptor function, through the activation of second-messenger signalling cascades by G proteins. Here we show that GABA(A)-ligand-gated channels complex selectively with D5 receptors through the direct binding of the D5 carboxy-terminal domain with the second intracellular loop of the GABA(A) gamma2(short) receptor subunit. This physical association enables mutually inhibitory functional interactions between these receptor systems. The data highlight a previously unknown signal transduction mechanism whereby subtype-selective G-protein-coupled receptors dynamically regulate synaptic strength independently of classically defined second-messenger systems, and provide a heuristic framework in which to view these receptor systems in the maintenance of psychomotor disease states.

  5. Altered GABA Signaling in Early Life Epilepsies

    PubMed Central

    Briggs, Stephen W.; Galanopoulou, Aristea S.

    2011-01-01

    The incidence of seizures is particularly high in the early ages of life. The immaturity of inhibitory systems, such as GABA, during normal brain development and its further dysregulation under pathological conditions that predispose to seizures have been speculated to play a major role in facilitating seizures. Seizures can further impair or disrupt GABAA signaling by reshuffling the subunit composition of its receptors or causing aberrant reappearance of depolarizing or hyperpolarizing GABAA receptor currents. Such effects may not result in epileptogenesis as frequently as they do in adults. Given the central role of GABAA signaling in brain function and development, perturbation of its physiological role may interfere with neuronal morphology, differentiation, and connectivity, manifesting as cognitive or neurodevelopmental deficits. The current GABAergic antiepileptic drugs, while often effective for adults, are not always capable of stopping seizures and preventing their sequelae in neonates. Recent studies have explored the therapeutic potential of chloride cotransporter inhibitors, such as bumetanide, as adjunctive therapies of neonatal seizures. However, more needs to be known so as to develop therapies capable of stopping seizures while preserving the age- and sex-appropriate development of the brain. PMID:21826277

  6. Adult neurogenesis restores dopaminergic neuronal loss in the olfactory bulb.

    PubMed

    Lazarini, Françoise; Gabellec, Marie-Madeleine; Moigneu, Carine; de Chaumont, Fabrice; Olivo-Marin, Jean-Christophe; Lledo, Pierre-Marie

    2014-10-22

    Subventricular zone (SVZ) neurogenesis continuously provides new GABA- and dopamine (DA)-containing interneurons for the olfactory bulb (OB) in most adult mammals. DAergic interneurons are located in the glomerular layer (GL) where they participate in the processing of sensory inputs. To examine whether adult neurogenesis might contribute to regeneration after circuit injury in mice, we induce DAergic neuronal loss by injecting 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) in the dorsal GL or in the right substantia nigra pars compacta. We found that a 6-OHDA treatment of the OB produces olfactory deficits and local inflammation and partially decreases the number of neurons expressing the enzyme tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) near the injected site. Blockade of inflammation by minocycline treatment immediately after the 6-OHDA administration rescued neither TH(+) interneuron number nor the olfactory deficits, suggesting that the olfactory impairments are most likely linked to TH(+) cell death and not to microglial activation. TH(+) interneuron number was restored 1 month later. This rescue resulted at least in part from enhanced recruitment of immature neurons targeting the lesioned GL area. Seven days after 6-OHDA lesion in the OB, we found that the integration of lentivirus-labeled adult-born neurons was biased: newly formed neurons were preferentially incorporated into glomerular circuits of the lesioned area. Behavioral rehabilitation occurs 2 months after lesion. This study establishes a new model into which loss of DAergic cells could be compensated by recruiting newly formed neurons. We propose that adult neurogenesis not only replenishes the population of DAergic bulbar neurons but that it also restores olfactory sensory processing. PMID:25339754

  7. Potentiation of the ionotropic GABA receptor response by whiskey fragrance.

    PubMed

    Hossain, Sheikh Julfikar; Aoshima, Hitoshi; Koda, Hirofumi; Kiso, Yoshinobu

    2002-11-01

    It is well-known that the target of most mood-defining compounds is an ionotropic gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor (GABA(A) receptor). The potentiation of the response of these inhibitory neurotransmitter receptors induces anxiolytic, sedative, and anesthetic activity in the human brain. To study the effects of whiskey fragrance on the GABA(A) receptor-mediated response, GABA(A) receptors were expressed in Xenopus oocyte by injecting rat whole brain mRNA or cRNA prepared from the cloned cDNA for the alpha(1) and beta(1) subunits of the bovine receptors. Most whiskey components such as phenol, ethoxy, and lactone derivatives potentiated the electrical responses of GABA(A) receptors, especially ethyl phenylpropanoate (EPP), which strongly potentiated the response. When this compound was applied to mice through respiration, the convulsions induced by pentetrazole were delayed, suggesting that EPP was absorbed by the brain, where it could potentiate the GABA(A) receptor responses. The extract of other alcoholic drinks such as wine, sake, brandy, and shochu also potentiated the responses to varying degrees. Although these fragrant components are present in alcoholic drinks at low concentrations (extremely small quantities compared with ethanol), they may also modulate the mood or consciousness of the human through the potentiation of the GABA(A) receptor response after absorption into the brain, because these hydrophobic fragrant compounds are easily absorbed into the brain through the blood-brain barrier and are several thousands times as potent as ethanol in the potentiation of the GABA(A) receptor-mediated response.

  8. Potentiation of the ionotropic GABA receptor response by whiskey fragrance.

    PubMed

    Hossain, Sheikh Julfikar; Aoshima, Hitoshi; Koda, Hirofumi; Kiso, Yoshinobu

    2002-11-01

    It is well-known that the target of most mood-defining compounds is an ionotropic gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor (GABA(A) receptor). The potentiation of the response of these inhibitory neurotransmitter receptors induces anxiolytic, sedative, and anesthetic activity in the human brain. To study the effects of whiskey fragrance on the GABA(A) receptor-mediated response, GABA(A) receptors were expressed in Xenopus oocyte by injecting rat whole brain mRNA or cRNA prepared from the cloned cDNA for the alpha(1) and beta(1) subunits of the bovine receptors. Most whiskey components such as phenol, ethoxy, and lactone derivatives potentiated the electrical responses of GABA(A) receptors, especially ethyl phenylpropanoate (EPP), which strongly potentiated the response. When this compound was applied to mice through respiration, the convulsions induced by pentetrazole were delayed, suggesting that EPP was absorbed by the brain, where it could potentiate the GABA(A) receptor responses. The extract of other alcoholic drinks such as wine, sake, brandy, and shochu also potentiated the responses to varying degrees. Although these fragrant components are present in alcoholic drinks at low concentrations (extremely small quantities compared with ethanol), they may also modulate the mood or consciousness of the human through the potentiation of the GABA(A) receptor response after absorption into the brain, because these hydrophobic fragrant compounds are easily absorbed into the brain through the blood-brain barrier and are several thousands times as potent as ethanol in the potentiation of the GABA(A) receptor-mediated response. PMID:12405783

  9. Dopamine reward prediction error coding.

    PubMed

    Schultz, Wolfram

    2016-03-01

    Reward prediction errors consist of the differences between received and predicted rewards. They are crucial for basic forms of learning about rewards and make us strive for more rewards-an evolutionary beneficial trait. Most dopamine neurons in the midbrain of humans, monkeys, and rodents signal a reward prediction error; they are activated by more reward than predicted (positive prediction error), remain at baseline activity for fully predicted rewards, and show depressed activity with less reward than predicted (negative prediction error). The dopamine signal increases nonlinearly with reward value and codes formal economic utility. Drugs of addiction generate, hijack, and amplify the dopamine reward signal and induce exaggerated, uncontrolled dopamine effects on neuronal plasticity. The striatum, amygdala, and frontal cortex also show reward prediction error coding, but only in subpopulations of neurons. Thus, the important concept of reward prediction errors is implemented in neuronal hardware.

  10. Dopamine reward prediction error coding

    PubMed Central

    Schultz, Wolfram

    2016-01-01

    Reward prediction errors consist of the differences between received and predicted rewards. They are crucial for basic forms of learning about rewards and make us strive for more rewards—an evolutionary beneficial trait. Most dopamine neurons in the midbrain of humans, monkeys, and rodents signal a reward prediction error; they are activated by more reward than predicted (positive prediction error), remain at baseline activity for fully predicted rewards, and show depressed activity with less reward than predicted (negative prediction error). The dopamine signal increases nonlinearly with reward value and codes formal economic utility. Drugs of addiction generate, hijack, and amplify the dopamine reward signal and induce exaggerated, uncontrolled dopamine effects on neuronal plasticity. The striatum, amygdala, and frontal cortex also show reward prediction error coding, but only in subpopulations of neurons. Thus, the important concept of reward prediction errors is implemented in neuronal hardware. PMID:27069377

  11. Metformin Prevents Nigrostriatal Dopamine Degeneration Independent of AMPK Activation in Dopamine Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Bayliss, Jacqueline A.; Lemus, Moyra B.; Santos, Vanessa V.; Deo, Minh; Davies, Jeffrey S.; Kemp, Bruce E.; Elsworth, John D.

    2016-01-01

    Metformin is a widely prescribed drug used to treat type-2 diabetes, although recent studies show it has wide ranging effects to treat other diseases. Animal and retrospective human studies indicate that Metformin treatment is neuroprotective in Parkinson’s Disease (PD), although the neuroprotective mechanism is unknown, numerous studies suggest the beneficial effects on glucose homeostasis may be through AMPK activation. In this study we tested whether or not AMPK activation in dopamine neurons was required for the neuroprotective effects of Metformin in PD. We generated transgenic mice in which AMPK activity in dopamine neurons was ablated by removing AMPK beta 1 and beta 2 subunits from dopamine transporter expressing neurons. These AMPK WT and KO mice were then chronically exposed to Metformin in the drinking water then exposed to MPTP, the mouse model of PD. Chronic Metformin treatment significantly attenuated the MPTP-induced loss of Tyrosine Hydroxylase (TH) neuronal number and volume and TH protein concentration in the nigrostriatal pathway. Additionally, Metformin treatment prevented the MPTP-induced elevation of the DOPAC:DA ratio regardless of genotype. Metformin also prevented MPTP induced gliosis in the Substantia Nigra. These neuroprotective actions were independent of genotype and occurred in both AMPK WT and AMPK KO mice. Overall, our studies suggest that Metformin’s neuroprotective effects are not due to AMPK activation in dopaminergic neurons and that more research is required to determine how metformin acts to restrict the development of PD. PMID:27467571

  12. Dopamine, affordance and active inference.

    PubMed

    Friston, Karl J; Shiner, Tamara; FitzGerald, Thomas; Galea, Joseph M; Adams, Rick; Brown, Harriet; Dolan, Raymond J; Moran, Rosalyn; Stephan, Klaas Enno; Bestmann, Sven

    2012-01-01

    The role of dopamine in behaviour and decision-making is often cast in terms of reinforcement learning and optimal decision theory. Here, we present an alternative view that frames the physiology of dopamine in terms of Bayes-optimal behaviour. In this account, dopamine controls the precision or salience of (external or internal) cues that engender action. In other words, dopamine balances bottom-up sensory information and top-down prior beliefs when making hierarchical inferences (predictions) about cues that have affordance. In this paper, we focus on the consequences of changing tonic levels of dopamine firing using simulations of cued sequential movements. Crucially, the predictions driving movements are based upon a hierarchical generative model that infers the context in which movements are made. This means that we can confuse agents by changing the context (order) in which cues are presented. These simulations provide a (Bayes-optimal) model of contextual uncertainty and set switching that can be quantified in terms of behavioural and electrophysiological responses. Furthermore, one can simulate dopaminergic lesions (by changing the precision of prediction errors) to produce pathological behaviours that are reminiscent of those seen in neurological disorders such as Parkinson's disease. We use these simulations to demonstrate how a single functional role for dopamine at the synaptic level can manifest in different ways at the behavioural level.

  13. Mesolimbic dopamine signals the value of work.

    PubMed

    Hamid, Arif A; Pettibone, Jeffrey R; Mabrouk, Omar S; Hetrick, Vaughn L; Schmidt, Robert; Vander Weele, Caitlin M; Kennedy, Robert T; Aragona, Brandon J; Berke, Joshua D

    2016-01-01

    Dopamine cell firing can encode errors in reward prediction, providing a learning signal to guide future behavior. Yet dopamine is also a key modulator of motivation, invigorating current behavior. Existing theories propose that fast (phasic) dopamine fluctuations support learning, whereas much slower (tonic) dopamine changes are involved in motivation. We examined dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens across multiple time scales, using complementary microdialysis and voltammetric methods during adaptive decision-making. We found that minute-by-minute dopamine levels covaried with reward rate and motivational vigor. Second-by-second dopamine release encoded an estimate of temporally discounted future reward (a value function). Changing dopamine immediately altered willingness to work and reinforced preceding action choices by encoding temporal-difference reward prediction errors. Our results indicate that dopamine conveys a single, rapidly evolving decision variable, the available reward for investment of effort, which is employed for both learning and motivational functions.

  14. Production of gaba (γ – Aminobutyric acid) by microorganisms: a review

    PubMed Central

    Dhakal, Radhika; Bajpai, Vivek K.; Baek, Kwang-Hyun

    2012-01-01

    GABA (γ-aminobutyric acid) is a four carbon non-protein amino acid that is widely distributed in plants, animals and microorganisms. As a metabolic product of plants and microorganisms produced by the decarboxylation of glutamic acid, GABA functions as an inhibitory neurotransmitter in the brain that directly affects the personality and the stress management. A wide range of traditional foods produced by microbial fermentation contain GABA, in which GABA is safe and eco-friendly, and also has the possibility of providing new health-benefited products enriched with GABA. Synthesis of GABA is catalyzed by glutamate decarboxylase, therefore, the optimal fermentation condition is mainly based on the biochemical properties of the enzyme. Major GABA producing microorganisms are lactic acid bacteria (LAB), which make food spoilage pathogens unable to grow and act as probiotics in the gastrointestinal tract. The major factors affecting the production of GABA by microbial fermentation are temperature, pH, fermentation time and different media additives, therefore, these factors are summarized to provide the most up-dated information for effective GABA synthesis. There has been a huge accumulation of knowledge on GABA application for human health accompanying with a demand on natural GABA supply. Only the GABA production by microorganisms can fulfill the demand with GABA-enriched health beneficial foods. PMID:24031948

  15. Actions of insecticides on the insect GABA receptor complex

    SciTech Connect

    Bermudez, I.; Hawkins, C.A.; Taylor, A.M.; Beadle, D.J. )

    1991-01-01

    The actions of insecticides on the insect gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptor were investigated using (35S)t-butylbicyclophosphorothionate (( 35S)TBPS) binding and voltage-clamp techniques. Specific binding of (35S)TBPS to a membrane homogenate derived from the brain of Locusta migratoria locusts is characterised by a Kd value of 79.3 {plus minus} 2.9 nM and a Bmax value of 1770 {plus minus} 40 fmol/mg protein. (35S)TBPS binding is inhibited by mM concentrations of barbiturates and benzodiazepines. In contrast dieldrin, ivermectin, lindane, picrotoxin and TBPS are inhibitors of (35S)TBPS binding at the nanomolar range. Bicuculline, baclofen and pyrethroid insecticides have no effect on (35S)TBPS binding. These results are similar to those obtained in electrophysiological studies of the current elicited by GABA in both Locusta and Periplaneta americana central neurones. Noise analysis of the effects of lindane, TBPS, dieldrin and picrotoxin on the cockroach GABA responses reveals that these compounds decrease the variance of the GABA-induced current but have no effect on its mean open time. All these compounds, with the exception of dieldrin, significantly decrease the conductance of GABA-evoked single current.

  16. Dopamine denervation does not alter in vivo /sup 3/H-spiperone binding in rat striatum: implications for external imaging of dopamine receptors in Parkinson's disease

    SciTech Connect

    Bennett, J.P. Jr.; Wooten, G.F.

    1986-04-01

    Striatal particulate preparations, both from rats with lesion-induced striatal dopamine (DA) loss and from some striatal dopamine (DA) loss and from some patients with Parkinson's disease, exhibit increased /sup 3/H-neuroleptic binding, which is interpreted to be the mechanism of denervation-induced behavioral supersensitivity to dopaminergic compounds. After intravenous /sup 3/H-spiperone (/sup 3/H-SP) administration to rats with unilateral nigral lesions, we found no differences in accumulation of total or particulate-bound /sup 3/H-SP in dopamine-denervated compared with intact striata. /sup 3/H-SP in vivo binds to less than 10% of striatal sites labeled by /sup 3/H-SP incubated with striatal particulate preparations in vitro. Quantitative autoradiography of /sup 3/H-SP binding to striatal sections in vitro also failed to reveal any effects of dopamine denervation. /sup 3/H-SP bound to striatal sites in vivo dissociates more slowly than that bound to striatal particulate preparations labeled in vitro. Striatal binding properties of /sup 3/H-SP administered in vivo are quite different from the same kinetic binding parameters estimated in vitro using crude membrane preparations of striatum. In addition, striatal binding of in vivo-administered 3H-SP is not affected by prior lesion of the substantia nigra, which results in profound ipsilateral striatal dopamine depletion. Thus, behavioral supersensitivity to dopaminergic compounds may not be associated with altered striatal binding properties for dopamine receptor ligands in vivo.

  17. Leptin signaling in GABA neurons, but not glutamate neurons, is required for reproductive function.

    PubMed

    Zuure, Wieteke A; Roberts, Amy L; Quennell, Janette H; Anderson, Greg M

    2013-11-01

    The adipocyte-derived hormone leptin acts in the brain to modulate the central driver of fertility: the gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) neuronal system. This effect is indirect, as GnRH neurons do not express leptin receptors (LEPRs). Here we test whether GABAergic or glutamatergic neurons provide the intermediate pathway between the site of leptin action and the GnRH neurons. Leptin receptors were deleted from GABA and glutamate neurons using Cre-Lox transgenics, and the downstream effects on puberty onset and reproduction were examined. Both mouse lines displayed the expected increase in body weight and region-specific loss of leptin signaling in the hypothalamus. The GABA neuron-specific LEPR knock-out females and males showed significantly delayed puberty onset. Adult fertility observations revealed that these knock-out animals have decreased fecundity. In contrast, glutamate neuron-specific LEPR knock-out mice displayed normal fertility. Assessment of the estrogenic hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis regulation in females showed that leptin action on GABA neurons is not necessary for estradiol-mediated suppression of tonic luteinizing hormone secretion (an indirect measure of GnRH neuron activity) but is required for regulation of a full preovulatory-like luteinizing hormone surge. In conclusion, leptin signaling in GABAergic (but not glutamatergic neurons) plays a critical role in the timing of puberty onset and is involved in fertility regulation throughout adulthood in both sexes. These results form an important step in explaining the role of central leptin signaling in the reproductive system. Limiting the leptin-to-GnRH mediators to GABAergic cells will enable future research to focus on a few specific types of neurons.

  18. Inhibition of the kinase WNK1/HSN2 ameliorates neuropathic pain by restoring GABA inhibition.

    PubMed

    Kahle, Kristopher T; Schmouth, Jean-François; Lavastre, Valérie; Latremoliere, Alban; Zhang, Jinwei; Andrews, Nick; Omura, Takao; Laganière, Janet; Rochefort, Daniel; Hince, Pascale; Castonguay, Geneviève; Gaudet, Rébecca; Mapplebeck, Josiane C S; Sotocinal, Susana G; Duan, JingJing; Ward, Catherine; Khanna, Arjun R; Mogil, Jeffrey S; Dion, Patrick A; Woolf, Clifford J; Inquimbert, Perrine; Rouleau, Guy A

    2016-03-29

    HSN2is a nervous system predominant exon of the gene encoding the kinase WNK1 and is mutated in an autosomal recessive, inherited form of congenital pain insensitivity. The HSN2-containing splice variant is referred to as WNK1/HSN2. We created a knockout mouse specifically lacking theHsn2exon ofWnk1 Although these mice had normal spinal neuron and peripheral sensory neuron morphology and distribution, the mice were less susceptible to hypersensitivity to cold and mechanical stimuli after peripheral nerve injury. In contrast, thermal and mechanical nociceptive responses were similar to control mice in an inflammation-induced pain model. In the nerve injury model of neuropathic pain, WNK1/HSN2 contributed to a maladaptive decrease in the activity of the K(+)-Cl(-)cotransporter KCC2 by increasing its inhibitory phosphorylation at Thr(906)and Thr(1007), resulting in an associated loss of GABA (γ-aminobutyric acid)-mediated inhibition of spinal pain-transmitting nerves. Electrophysiological analysis showed that WNK1/HSN2 shifted the concentration of Cl(-)such that GABA signaling resulted in a less hyperpolarized state (increased neuronal activity) rather than a more hyperpolarized state (decreased neuronal activity) in mouse spinal nerves. Pharmacologically antagonizing WNK activity reduced cold allodynia and mechanical hyperalgesia, decreased KCC2 Thr(906)and Thr(1007)phosphorylation, and restored GABA-mediated inhibition (hyperpolarization) of injured spinal cord lamina II neurons. These data provide mechanistic insight into, and a compelling therapeutic target for treating, neuropathic pain after nerve injury. PMID:27025876

  19. GABA depolarizes immature neurons and inhibits network activity in the neonatal neocortex in vivo.

    PubMed

    Kirmse, Knut; Kummer, Michael; Kovalchuk, Yury; Witte, Otto W; Garaschuk, Olga; Holthoff, Knut

    2015-01-01

    A large body of evidence from in vitro studies suggests that GABA is depolarizing during early postnatal development. However, the mode of GABA action in the intact developing brain is unknown. Here we examine the in vivo effects of GABA in cells of the upper cortical plate using a combination of electrophysiological and Ca(2+)-imaging techniques. We report that at postnatal days (P) 3-4, GABA depolarizes the majority of immature neurons in the occipital cortex of anaesthetized mice. At the same time, GABA does not efficiently activate voltage-gated Ca(2+) channels and fails to induce action potential firing. Blocking GABA(A) receptors disinhibits spontaneous network activity, whereas allosteric activation of GABA(A) receptors has the opposite effect. In summary, our data provide evidence that in vivo GABA acts as a depolarizing neurotransmitter imposing an inhibitory control on network activity in the neonatal (P3-4) neocortex. PMID:26177896

  20. Dopamine uptake and cocaine binding mechanisms: the involvement of charged amino acids from the transmembrane domains of the human dopamine transporter.

    PubMed

    Dar, Dalit E; Metzger, Thomas G; Vandenbergh, David J; Uhl, George R

    2006-05-24

    The wild type human dopamine transporter (DAT) and five DAT mutants were transfected into COS-7 cells and their ability to uptake dopamine or to bind cocaine was examine three days later. In each mutant, a single charged amino acid, located in areas that initial hydrophobic analysis had indicated were DAT transmembrane domains was substituted by alanine. Mutants used in this study were lysines 257 and 525 (termed K257A and K525A), arginines 283 and 521 (termed R283A and R521A), and glutamate 491 (termed E491A). Dopamine affinity was significantly enhanced in the K257A and R283A mutants, and the IC(50) for displacement of the radioactive cocaine analog 2 beta-carbomethoxy-3 beta-(4-fluorophenyl)tropane (CFT) by cocaine was significantly elevated in the E491A mutant. All mutants displayed a reduction or complete loss of the maximal velocity (V(m)) of dopamine transport. PMID:16674939

  1. Pyrethroid pesticide-induced alterations in dopamine transporter function

    PubMed Central

    Elwan, Mohamed A.; Richardson, Jason R.; Guillot, Thomas S.; Caudle, W. Michael; Miller, Gary W.

    2016-01-01

    Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease affecting the nigrostriatal dopaminergic pathway. Several epidemiological studies have demonstrated an association between pesticide exposure and the incidence of PD. Studies from our laboratory and others have demonstrated that certain pesticides increase levels of the dopamine transporter (DAT), an integral component of dopaminergic neurotransmission and a gateway for dopaminergic neurotoxins. Here, we report that repeated exposure (3 injections over 2 weeks) of mice to two commonly used pyrethroid pesticides, deltamethrin (3 mg/kg) and permethrin (0.8 mg/kg), increases DAT-mediated dopamine uptake by 31 and 28%, respectively. Using cells stably expressing DAT, we determined that exposure (10 min) to deltamethrin and permethrin (1 nM–100 μM) had no effect on DAT-mediated dopamine uptake. Extending exposures to both pesticides for 30 min (10 μM) or 24 h (1, 5, and 10 μM) resulted in significant decrease in dopamine uptake. This reduction was not the result of competitive inhibition, loss of DAT protein, or cytotoxicity. However, there was an increase in DNA fragmentation, an index of apoptosis, in cells exhibiting reduced uptake at 30 min and 24 h. These data suggest that up-regulation of DAT by in vivo pyrethroid exposure is an indirect effect and that longer-term exposure of cells results in apoptosis. Since DAT can greatly affect the vulnerability of dopamine neurons to neurotoxicants, up-regulation of DAT by deltamethrin and permethrin may increase the susceptibility of dopamine neurons to toxic insult, which may provide insight into the association between pesticide exposure and PD. PMID:16005927

  2. Pyrethroid pesticide-induced alterations in dopamine transporter function

    SciTech Connect

    Elwan, Mohamed A.; Richardson, Jason R.; Guillot, Thomas S.; Caudle, W. Michael; Miller, Gary W. . E-mail: gary.miller@emory.edu

    2006-03-15

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease affecting the nigrostriatal dopaminergic pathway. Several epidemiological studies have demonstrated an association between pesticide exposure and the incidence of PD. Studies from our laboratory and others have demonstrated that certain pesticides increase levels of the dopamine transporter (DAT), an integral component of dopaminergic neurotransmission and a gateway for dopaminergic neurotoxins. Here, we report that repeated exposure (3 injections over 2 weeks) of mice to two commonly used pyrethroid pesticides, deltamethrin (3 mg/kg) and permethrin (0.8 mg/kg), increases DAT-mediated dopamine uptake by 31 and 28%, respectively. Using cells stably expressing DAT, we determined that exposure (10 min) to deltamethrin and permethrin (1 nM-100 {mu}M) had no effect on DAT-mediated dopamine uptake. Extending exposures to both pesticides for 30 min (10 {mu}M) or 24 h (1, 5, and 10 {mu}M) resulted in significant decrease in dopamine uptake. This reduction was not the result of competitive inhibition, loss of DAT protein, or cytotoxicity. However, there was an increase in DNA fragmentation, an index of apoptosis, in cells exhibiting reduced uptake at 30 min and 24 h. These data suggest that up-regulation of DAT by in vivo pyrethroid exposure is an indirect effect and that longer-term exposure of cells results in apoptosis. Since DAT can greatly affect the vulnerability of dopamine neurons to neurotoxicants, up-regulation of DAT by deltamethrin and permethrin may increase the susceptibility of dopamine neurons to toxic insult, which may provide insight into the association between pesticide exposure and PD.

  3. Regulation of Local Ambient GABA Levels via Transporter-Mediated GABA Import and Export for Subliminal Learning.

    PubMed

    Hoshino, Osamu

    2015-06-01

    Perception of supraliminal stimuli might in general be reflected in bursts of action potentials (spikes), and their memory traces could be formed through spike-timing-dependent plasticity (STDP). Memory traces for subliminal stimuli might be formed in a different manner, because subliminal stimulation evokes a fraction (but not a burst) of spikes. Simulations of a cortical neural network model showed that a subliminal stimulus that was too brief (10 msec) to perceive transiently (more than about 500 msec) depolarized stimulus-relevant principal cells and hyperpolarized stimulus-irrelevant principal cells in a subthreshold manner. This led to a small increase or decrease in ongoing-spontaneous spiking activity frequency (less than 1 Hz). Synaptic modification based on STDP during this period effectively enhanced relevant synaptic weights, by which subliminal learning was improved. GABA transporters on GABAergic interneurons modulated local levels of ambient GABA. Ambient GABA molecules acted on extrasynaptic receptors, provided principal cells with tonic inhibitory currents, and contributed to achieving the subthreshold neuronal state. We suggest that ongoing-spontaneous synaptic alteration through STDP following subliminal stimulation may be a possible neuronal mechanism for leaving its memory trace in cortical circuitry. Regulation of local ambient GABA levels by transporter-mediated GABA import and export may be crucial for subliminal learning. PMID:25774546

  4. Microperfusion of 3-MPA into the brain augments GABA

    PubMed Central

    Mayer, Andrew P.; Osorio, Ivan; Lunte, Craig E.

    2014-01-01

    In vivo effects of microperfusion of a GABA synthesis inhibitor (3-MPA) into the striatum and hippocampus on amino acid concentrations and electrical neuronal activity were investigated. Paradoxical elevations in GABA in the striatum (5-fold in anesthetized and 50-fold in awake rats) and hippocampus (2-fold in anesthetized and 15-fold in awake rats) were documented under steady-state concentrations of 3-MPA along with expected increases in glutamate (a 15-fold increase and a 250-fold increase in the striatum of anesthetized and awake rats, respectively; a 7-fold increase and a 25-fold increase in the hippocampus of anesthetized and awake rats, respectively). There was no clear epileptiform or seizure activity. Explanations for the paradoxical increase in GABA are offered, and emphasis is placed on the dependency of disinhibition on the model in which its effects are studied as well as on the prevailing level of activation of the probed network. PMID:24094842

  5. Intracellular calcium ions decrease the affinity of the GABA receptor.

    PubMed

    Inoue, M; Oomura, Y; Yakushiji, T; Akaike, N

    Intracellular free Ca2+ [( Ca2+]i) plays a crucial role in the transduction of extracellular signals. It has been implicated in the modulation of light sensitivity in Limulus photoreceptors and in the efficacy of synaptic transmission; calcium ion fluxes are also involved in the postsynaptic facilitation of nicotinic transmission seen in sympathetic ganglia, and in activation of the acetylcholine (ACh) receptor. [Ca2+]i is also a second messenger for many biologically active substances. We recorded neuronal activities of sensory neurones from the bullfrog (Rana catesbiana), using the suction pipette method and a 'concentration clamp' technique to apply gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) to the cell. We report the first evidence that [Ca2+]i suppresses the GABA-activated Cl- conductance, by decreasing the apparent affinity of the GABA receptor. PMID:2431316

  6. GABA-B receptor activation and conflict behavior

    SciTech Connect

    Ketelaars, C.E.J.; Bollen, E.L.; Rigter, H.; Bruinvels, J.

    1988-01-01

    Baclofen and oxazepam enhance extinction of conflict behavior in the Geller-Seifter test while baclofen and diazepam release punished behavior in Vogel's conflict test. In order to investigate the possibility that the effect of the selective GABA-B receptor agonist baclofen is mediated indirectly via the GABA-A/benzodiazepine receptor complex, the effect of pretreatment of rats with baclofen on (/sup 3/H)-diazepam binding to washed and unwashed cortical and cerebellar membranes of rats has been studied. Baclofen pretreatment increase Bmax in washed cerebellar membranes when bicuculline was present in the incubation mixture. No effect was seen in cortical membranes. The present results render it unlikely that the effect of baclofen on extinction of conflict behavior and punished drinking is mediated via the GABA-A/benzodiazepine receptor complex. 50 references, 1 figure, 4 tables.

  7. Alcohol effects on synaptic transmission in periaqueductal gray dopamine neurons

    PubMed Central

    Li, Chia; McCall, Nora M.; Lopez, Alberto J.; Kash, Thomas L.

    2014-01-01

    The role of dopamine (DA) signaling in regulating the rewarding properties of drugs, including alcohol, has been widely studied. The majority of these studies, however, have focused on the DA neurons located in the ventral tegmental area (VTA), and their projections to the nucleus accumbens. DA neurons within the ventral periaqueductal gray (vPAG) have been shown to regulate reward but little is known about the functional properties of these neurons, or how they are modified by drugs of abuse. This lack of knowledge is likely due to the highly heterogeneous cell composition of the vPAG, with both γ-amino-butyric acid (GABA) and glutamate neurons present in addition to DA neurons. In this study, we performed whole-cell recordings in a TH–eGFP transgenic mouse line to evaluate the properties of vPAG-DA neurons. Following this initial characterization, we examined how both acute and chronic alcohol exposure modify synaptic transmission onto vPAG-DA neurons. We found minimal effects of acute alcohol exposure on GABA transmission, but a robust enhancement of glutamatergic synaptic transmission in vPAG-DA. Consistent with this effect on excitatory transmission, we also found that alcohol caused an increase in firing rate. These data were in contrast to the effects of chronic intermittent alcohol exposure, which had no significant impact on either inhibitory or excitatory synaptic transmission on the vPAG-DA neurons. These data add to a growing body of literature that points to alcohol having both region-dependent and cell-type dependent effects on function. PMID:23597415

  8. Dopamine Receptors and Neurodegeneration

    PubMed Central

    Rangel-Barajas, Claudia; Coronel, Israel; Florán, Benjamín

    2015-01-01

    Dopamine (DA) is one of the major neurotransmitters and participates in a number of functions such as motor coordination, emotions, memory, reward mechanism, neuroendocrine regulation etc. DA exerts its effects through five DA receptors that are subdivided in 2 families: D1-like DA receptors (D1 and D5) and the D2-like (D2, D3 and D4). All DA receptors are widely expressed in the central nervous system (CNS) and play an important role in not only in physiological conditions but also pathological scenarios. Abnormalities in the DAergic system and its receptors in the basal ganglia structures are the basis Parkinson’s disease (PD), however DA also participates in other neurodegenerative disorders such as Huntington disease (HD) and multiple sclerosis (MS). Under pathological conditions reorganization of DAergic system has been observed and most of the times, those changes occur as a mechanism of compensation, but in some cases contributes to worsening the alterations. Here we review the changes that occur on DA transmission and DA receptors (DARs) at both levels expression and signals transduction pathways as a result of neurotoxicity, inflammation and in neurodegenerative processes. The better understanding of the role of DA receptors in neuropathological conditions is crucial for development of novel therapeutic approaches to treat alterations related to neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:26425390

  9. GABA excitation in mouse hilar neuropeptide Y neurons

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Li-Ying; van den Pol, Anthony N

    2007-01-01

    Neuropeptide Y-containing interneurons in the dentate hilar area play an important role in inhibiting the activity of hippocampal circuitry. Hilar cells are often among the first lost in hippocampal epilepsy. As many types of neurons are found in the hilus, we used a new transgenic mouse expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP) in a subset of neurons that colocalized neuropeptide Y (NPY), somatostatin (SST), and GABA for whole-cell, perforated, and cell-attached recording in 240 neurons. As these neurons have not previously been identifiable in live slices, they have not been the focus of physiological analysis. Hilar NPY neurons showed modest spike frequency adaptation, a large 15.6 ± 1.0 mV afterhyperpolarization, a mean input resistance of 335 ± 26 mΩ, and were capable of fast-firing. Muscimol-mediated excitatory actions were found in a nominally Ca2+-free/high-Mg2+ bath solution using cell-attached recording. GABAA receptor antagonists inhibited half the recorded neurons and blocked burst firing. Gramicidin perforated-patch recording revealed a GABA reversal potential positive to both the resting membrane potential and spike threshold. Together, these data suggest GABA is excitatory to many NPY cells. NPY and SST consistently hyperpolarized and reduced spike frequency in these neurons. No hyperpolarization of NPY on membrane potential was detected in the presence of tetrodotoxin, AP5, CNQX and bicuculline, supporting an indirect effect. Under similar conditions, SST hyperpolarized the cells, suggesting a direct postsynaptic action. Depolarizing actions of GABA and GABA-dependent burst-firing may synchronize a rapid release of GABA, NPY, and SST, leading to pre- and postsynaptic inhibition of excitatory hippocampal circuits. PMID:17204505

  10. Ion binding and permeation at the GABA transporter GAT1.

    PubMed

    Mager, S; Kleinberger-Doron, N; Keshet, G I; Davidson, N; Kanner, B I; Lester, H A

    1996-09-01

    This study addresses the binding of ions and the permeation of substrates during function of the GABA transporter GAT1. GAT1 was expressed in Xenopus oocytes and studied electrophysiologically as well as with [3H]GABA flux; GAT1 was also expressed in mammalian cells and studied with [3H]GABA and [3H]tiagabine binding. Voltage jumps, Na+ and Cl- concentration jumps, and exposure to high-affinity blockers (NO-05-711 and SKF-100330A) all produce capacitive charge movements. Occlusive interactions among these three types of perturbations show that they all measure the same population of charges. The concentration dependences of the charge movements reveal (1) that two Na+ ions interact with the transporter even in the absence of GABA, and (2) that Cl- facilitates the binding of Na+. Comparison between the charge movements and the transport-associated current shows that this initial Na(+)-transporter interaction limits the overall transport rate when [GABA] is saturating. However, two classes of manipulation--treatment with high-affinity uptake blockers and the W68L mutation-"lock" Na+ onto the transporter by slowing or preventing the subsequent events that release the substrates to the intracellular medium. The Na+ substitutes Li+ and Cs+ do not support charge movements, but they can permeate the transporter in an uncoupled manner. Our results (1) support the hypothesis that efficient removal of synaptic transmitter by the GABA transporter GAT1 depends on the previous binding of Na+ and Cl-, and (2) indicate the important role of the conserved putative transmembrane domain 1 in interactions with the permeant substrates. PMID:8757253

  11. Attenuation of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) transaminase activity contributes to GABA increase in the cerebral cortex of mice exposed to β-cypermethrin.

    PubMed

    Han, Y; Cao, D; Li, X; Zhang, R; Yu, F; Ren, Y; An, L

    2014-03-01

    The current study investigated the γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) levels and GABA metabolic enzymes (GABA transaminase (GABA(T)) and glutamate decarboxylase (GAD)) activities at 2 and 4 h after treatment, using a high-performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detectors and colorimetric assay, in the cerebral cortex of mice treated with 20, 40 or 80 mg/kg β-cypermethrin by a single oral gavage, with corn oil as vehicle control. In addition, GABA protein (4 h after treatment), GABA(T) protein (2 h after treatment) and GABA receptors messenger RNA (mRNA) expression were detected by immunohistochemistry, Western blot and real-time quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction, respectively. β-Cypermethrin (80 mg/kg) significantly increased GABA levels in the cerebral cortex of mice, at both 2 and 4 h after treatment, compared with the control. Also, GABA immunohistochemistry results suggested that the number of positive granules was increased in the cerebral cortex of mice 4 h after exposure to 80 mg/kg β-cypermethrin when compared with the control. Furthermore, the results also showed that GABA(T) activity detected was significantly decreased in the cerebral cortex of mice 2 h after β-cypermethrin administration (40 or 80 mg/kg). No significant changes were found in GAD activity, or the expression of GABA(T) protein and GABAB receptors mRNA, in the cerebral cortex of mice, except that 80 mg/kg β-cypermethrin caused a significant decrease, compared with the vehicle control, in GABAA receptors mRNA expression 4 h after administration. These results suggested that attenuated GABA(T) activity induced by β-cypermethrin contributed to increased GABA levels in the mouse brain. The downregulated GABAA receptors mRNA expression is most likely a downstream event.

  12. GABA uptake in astrocytes in primary cultures: coupling with two sodium ions.

    PubMed

    Larsson, O M; Hertz, L; Schousboe, A

    1980-01-01

    The influence of sodium ions on GABA uptake into astrocytes in primary cultures has been investigated performing kinetic analysis of GABA uptake at different sodium concentrations in the range 16 to 151 mM. These investigations reveal that sodium affects both the Km and the Vmax of the saturable component of the astroglial GABA uptake. Uptake rates as a function of the sodium concentration at high GABA concentrations (greater than or equal to 50 microM) were clearly sigmoid whereas at lower GABA concentrations this sigmoid shape was not obvious. Accordingly, Hill plots of the sodium dependency at high GABA concentrations exhibited straight lines with slopes of 2.0 to 2.5, suggesting that the coupling ratio between sodium and GABA is at least two. Corresponding Hill plots at lower GABA concentrations exhibited slopes of 1.6 to 1.8. Moreover, plots of 1/v versus 1/Na2 gave better fits to straight lines than plots of 1/v versus 1/Na which were curvilinear upward. Again, this curvilinearity was more pronounced at high GABA concentrations that at low GABA concentrations. From these results it is concluded that GABA uptake into astrocytes in primary cultures requires the binding of at least two sodium ions per GABA molecule transported.

  13. Systematic analysis of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) metabolism and function in the social amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yuantai; Janetopoulos, Chris

    2013-05-24

    While GABA has been suggested to regulate spore encapsulation in the social amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum, the metabolic profile and other potential functions of GABA during development remain unclear. In this study, we investigated the homeostasis of GABA metabolism by disrupting genes related to GABA metabolism and signaling. Extracellular levels of GABA are tightly regulated during early development, and GABA is generated by the glutamate decarboxylase, GadB, during growth and in early development. However, overexpression of the prespore-specific homologue, GadA, in the presence of GadB reduces production of extracellular GABA. Perturbation of extracellular GABA levels delays the process of aggregation. Cytosolic GABA is degraded by the GABA transaminase, GabT, in the mitochondria. Disruption of a putative vesicular GABA transporter (vGAT) homologue DdvGAT reduces secreted GABA. We identified the GABAB receptor-like family member GrlB as the major GABA receptor during early development, and either disruption or overexpression of GrlB delays aggregation. This delay is likely the result of an abolished pre-starvation response and late expression of several "early" developmental genes. Distinct genes are employed for GABA generation during sporulation. During sporulation, GadA alone is required for generating GABA and DdvGAT is likely responsible for GABA secretion. GrlE but not GrlB is the GABA receptor during late development.

  14. Dopamine regulates body size in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Nagashima, Takashi; Oami, Eitaro; Kutsuna, Natsumaro; Ishiura, Shoichi; Suo, Satoshi

    2016-04-01

    The nervous system plays a critical role in the regulation of animal body sizes. In Caenorhabditis elegans, an amine neurotransmitter, dopamine, is required for the tactile perception of food and food-dependent behavioral changes, while its role in development is unknown. In this study, we show that dopamine negatively regulates body size through a D2-like dopamine receptor, DOP-3, in C. elegans. Dopamine alters body size without affecting food intake or developmental rate. We also found that dopamine promotes egg-laying, although the regulation of body size by dopamine was not solely caused by this effect. Furthermore, dopamine negatively regulates body size through the suppression of signaling by octopamine and Gq-coupled octopamine receptors, SER-3 and SER-6. Our results demonstrate that dopamine and octopamine regulate the body size of C. elegans and suggest a potential role for perception in addition to ingestion of food for growth. PMID:26921458

  15. Dopamine, reward learning, and active inference

    PubMed Central

    FitzGerald, Thomas H. B.; Dolan, Raymond J.; Friston, Karl

    2015-01-01

    Temporal difference learning models propose phasic dopamine signaling encodes reward prediction errors that drive learning. This is supported by studies where optogenetic stimulation of dopamine neurons can stand in lieu of actual reward. Nevertheless, a large body of data also shows that dopamine is not necessary for learning, and that dopamine depletion primarily affects task performance. We offer a resolution to this paradox based on an hypothesis that dopamine encodes the precision of beliefs about alternative actions, and thus controls the outcome-sensitivity of behavior. We extend an active inference scheme for solving Markov decision processes to include learning, and show that simulated dopamine dynamics strongly resemble those actually observed during instrumental conditioning. Furthermore, simulated dopamine depletion impairs performance but spares learning, while simulated excitation of dopamine neurons drives reward learning, through aberrant inference about outcome states. Our formal approach provides a novel and parsimonious reconciliation of apparently divergent experimental findings. PMID:26581305

  16. Dopamine regulates body size in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Nagashima, Takashi; Oami, Eitaro; Kutsuna, Natsumaro; Ishiura, Shoichi; Suo, Satoshi

    2016-04-01

    The nervous system plays a critical role in the regulation of animal body sizes. In Caenorhabditis elegans, an amine neurotransmitter, dopamine, is required for the tactile perception of food and food-dependent behavioral changes, while its role in development is unknown. In this study, we show that dopamine negatively regulates body size through a D2-like dopamine receptor, DOP-3, in C. elegans. Dopamine alters body size without affecting food intake or developmental rate. We also found that dopamine promotes egg-laying, although the regulation of body size by dopamine was not solely caused by this effect. Furthermore, dopamine negatively regulates body size through the suppression of signaling by octopamine and Gq-coupled octopamine receptors, SER-3 and SER-6. Our results demonstrate that dopamine and octopamine regulate the body size of C. elegans and suggest a potential role for perception in addition to ingestion of food for growth.

  17. Combinational Spinal GAD65 Gene Delivery and Systemic GABA-Mimetic Treatment for Modulation of Spasticity

    PubMed Central

    Kakinohana, Osamu; Hefferan, Michael P.; Miyanohara, Atsushi; Nejime, Tetsuya; Marsala, Silvia; Juhas, Stefan; Juhasova, Jana; Motlik, Jan; Kucharova, Karolina; Strnadel, Jan; Platoshyn, Oleksandr; Lazar, Peter; Galik, Jan; Vinay, Laurent; Marsala, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Background Loss of GABA-mediated pre-synaptic inhibition after spinal injury plays a key role in the progressive increase in spinal reflexes and the appearance of spasticity. Clinical studies show that the use of baclofen (GABAB receptor agonist), while effective in modulating spasticity is associated with major side effects such as general sedation and progressive tolerance development. The goal of the present study was to assess if a combined therapy composed of spinal segment-specific upregulation of GAD65 (glutamate decarboxylase) gene once combined with systemic treatment with tiagabine (GABA uptake inhibitor) will lead to an antispasticity effect and whether such an effect will only be present in GAD65 gene over-expressing spinal segments. Methods/Principal Findings Adult Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were exposed to transient spinal ischemia (10 min) to induce muscle spasticity. Animals then received lumbar injection of HIV1-CMV-GAD65 lentivirus (LVs) targeting ventral α-motoneuronal pools. At 2–3 weeks after lentivirus delivery animals were treated systemically with tiagabine (4, 10, 20 or 40 mg/kg or vehicle) and the degree of spasticity response measured. In a separate experiment the expression of GAD65 gene after spinal parenchymal delivery of GAD65-lentivirus in naive minipigs was studied. Spastic SD rats receiving spinal injections of the GAD65 gene and treated with systemic tiagabine showed potent and tiagabine-dose-dependent alleviation of spasticity. Neither treatment alone (i.e., GAD65-LVs injection only or tiagabine treatment only) had any significant antispasticity effect nor had any detectable side effect. Measured antispasticity effect correlated with increase in spinal parenchymal GABA synthesis and was restricted to spinal segments overexpressing GAD65 gene. Conclusions/Significance These data show that treatment with orally bioavailable GABA-mimetic drugs if combined with spinal-segment-specific GAD65 gene overexpression can represent a novel

  18. Estimation of ambient GABA levels in layer I of the mouse neonatal cortex in brain slices.

    PubMed

    Dvorzhak, Anton; Myakhar, Olga; Unichenko, Petr; Kirmse, Knut; Kirischuk, Sergei

    2010-07-01

    GABAergic synapses on Cajal-Retzius neurons in layer I of the murine neocortex experience GABA(B) receptor (GABA(B)R)-mediated tonic inhibition. Extracellular GABA concentration ([GABA](o)) that determines the strength of GABA(B)R-mediated inhibition is controlled by GABA transporters (GATs). In this study, we hypothesized that the strength of presynaptic GABA(B)R activation reflects [GABA](o) in the vicinity of synaptic contacts. Slices obtained from two age groups were used, namely postnatal days (P)2-3 and P5-7. GABAergic postsynaptic currents (IPSCs) were recorded using the whole-cell patch-clamp technique. Minimal electrical stimulation in layer I was applied to elicit evoked IPSCs (eIPSCs) using a paired-pulse protocol. Three parameters were selected for comparison: the mean eIPSC amplitude, paired-pulse ratio, and failure rate. When GAT-1 and GAT-2/3 were blocked by NO-711 (10 microM) and SNAP-5114 (40 microM), respectively, no tonic GABA(B)R-mediated inhibition was observed. In order to restore the control levels of GABA(B)R-mediated inhibition, 250 and 125 nm exogenous GABA was required at P2-3 and P5-7, respectively. Addition of 3-mercaptopropionic acid, a glutamate decarboxylase inhibitor, did not significantly change the obtained values arguing against the suggestion that a mechanism different from GATs contributes to [GABA](o) control. We conclude that juxtasynaptic [GABA](o) is higher (about 250 nM) at P2-3 than at P5-7 (about 125 nM). As both radial cell migration and corticogenesis in general are strongly dependent on [GABA](o) and the formation of the last layer 2/3 is finished by P4 in rodents, the observed [GABA](o) reduction in layer I might reflect this crucial event in the cortical development. PMID:20421290

  19. Determination of dopamine in pharmaceutical formulation using enhanced luminescence from europium complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wabaidur, Saikh Mohammad; ALOthman, Zeid Abdullah; Naushad, Mu.

    Biologically important compound dopamine plays an important role in the central and peripheral nervous systems. Insufficient dopamine level due to the loss of dopamine producing cells may lead to disease called Schizophrenia and Parkinson's disease. Hence, a simple and fast detection of dopamine is necessary to study in the fields of neurophysiology and clinical medicine. An enhanced fluorimetric determination of dopamine in the presence of ascorbic acid is achieved using photoluminescence of europium complex, Eu(III)-dipicolinic acid. In order to obtain better responses, several operational parameters have been investigated. Under the optimum conditions, the method showed good stability and reproducibility. The application of this method for the determination of dopamine neurotransmitters was satisfactory. Linear response was found down to 3.0 × 10-7 M with limit of detection 1.0 × 10-8 M. The relative standard deviation was found to be 3.33% from 20 independent measurements for 1.0 × 10-5 M of dopamine.

  20. Synthesis and proton NMR spectroscopy of intra-vesicular gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA).

    PubMed

    Wang, Luke Y-J; Tong, Rong; Kohane, Daniel S

    2013-01-01

    We report the synthesis of vesicles containing gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), and their proton nuclear magnetic resonance ((1)H NMR) spectra. These vesicles were constructed to more closely mimic the intracellular environment wherein GABA exists. For this study, these GABA-containing vesicles were examined under (1)H NMR as a potential platform for future studies on the differences between aqueous phantoms, ex vivo brain extracts, and in vivo magnetic resonance spectroscopy results. We found that intra-vesicular GABA faithfully yielded the chemical shifts and J-coupling constants of free aqueous GABA, alongside the chemical shift signals of the vesicle wall.

  1. Role of proline and GABA in sexual reproduction of angiosperms.

    PubMed

    Biancucci, Marco; Mattioli, Roberto; Forlani, Giuseppe; Funck, Dietmar; Costantino, Paolo; Trovato, Maurizio

    2015-01-01

    Two glutamate derivatives, proline and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), appear to play pivotal roles in different aspects of sexual reproduction in angiosperms, although their precise function in plant reproduction and the molecular basis of their action are not yet fully understood. Proline and GABA have long been regarded as pivotal amino acids in pollen vitality and fertility. Proline may constitute up to 70% of the free amino acid pool in pollen grains and it has been recently shown that Arabidopsis mutants affected in the first and rate-limiting step in proline synthesis produce aberrant and infertile pollen grains, indicating that proline synthesis is required for pollen development and fertility. Concerning GABA, a large body of evidence points to this glutamate derivative as a key determinant of post-pollination fertilization. Intriguingly, proline has also been associated with pollination, another aspect of sexual reproduction, since honeybees were reported to show a strong preference for proline-enriched nectars. In this review, we survey current knowledge on the roles of proline and GABA in plant fertility, and discuss future perspectives potentially capable to improve our understanding on the functions of these amino acids in pollen development, pollination, and pollen tube guidance.

  2. GABA inhibition of luminescence from lantern shark (Etmopterus spinax) photophores.

    PubMed

    Claes, Julien M; Krönström, Jenny; Holmgren, Susanne; Mallefet, Jérôme

    2011-03-01

    Photogenic organs (photophores) of the velvet belly lantern shark (Etmopterus spinax) are under hormonal control, since melatonin (MT) and prolactin (PRL) trigger luminescence while α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (α-MSH) prevents this light to be emitted. A recent study supported, however, the presence of numerous nerve fibres in the photogenic tissue of this shark. Immunohistochemical and pharmacological results collected in this work support these nerve fibres to be inhibitory GABAergic nerves since (i) GABA immunoreactivity was detected inside the photogenic tissue, where previous labelling detected the nerve fibre structures and (ii) GABA was able to inhibit MT and PRL-induced luminescence, which was on the other hand increased by the GABA(A) antagonist bicuculline (BICU). In addition, we also demonstrated that BICU can induce light per se by provoking pigment retraction in the pigmented cells composing the iris-like structure of the photophore, attaining, however, only about 10% of hormonally induced luminescence intensity at 10(-3)mol L(-1). This strongly supports that a GABA inhibitory tonus controls photophore "aperture" in the photogenic tissue of E. spinax but also that MT and PRL have more than one target cell type in the photophores.

  3. Role of proline and GABA in sexual reproduction of angiosperms

    PubMed Central

    Biancucci, Marco; Mattioli, Roberto; Forlani, Giuseppe; Funck, Dietmar; Costantino, Paolo; Trovato, Maurizio

    2015-01-01

    Two glutamate derivatives, proline and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), appear to play pivotal roles in different aspects of sexual reproduction in angiosperms, although their precise function in plant reproduction and the molecular basis of their action are not yet fully understood. Proline and GABA have long been regarded as pivotal amino acids in pollen vitality and fertility. Proline may constitute up to 70% of the free amino acid pool in pollen grains and it has been recently shown that Arabidopsis mutants affected in the first and rate-limiting step in proline synthesis produce aberrant and infertile pollen grains, indicating that proline synthesis is required for pollen development and fertility. Concerning GABA, a large body of evidence points to this glutamate derivative as a key determinant of post-pollination fertilization. Intriguingly, proline has also been associated with pollination, another aspect of sexual reproduction, since honeybees were reported to show a strong preference for proline-enriched nectars. In this review, we survey current knowledge on the roles of proline and GABA in plant fertility, and discuss future perspectives potentially capable to improve our understanding on the functions of these amino acids in pollen development, pollination, and pollen tube guidance. PMID:26388884

  4. Vesicular GABA transporter (VGAT) transports β-alanine.

    PubMed

    Juge, Narinobu; Omote, Hiroshi; Moriyama, Yoshinori

    2013-11-01

    Vesicular GABA transporter (VGAT) is expressed in GABAergic and glycinergic neurons, and is responsible for vesicular storage and subsequent exocytosis of these inhibitory amino acids. In this study, we show that VGAT recognizes β-alanine as a substrate. Proteoliposomes containing purified VGAT transport β-alanine using Δψ but not ΔpH as a driving force. The Δψ-driven β-alanine uptake requires Cl(-). VGAT also facilitates Cl(-) uptake in the presence of β-alanine. A previously described VGAT mutant (Glu213Ala) that disrupts GABA and glycine transport similarly abrogates β-alanine uptake. These findings indicated that VGAT transports β-alanine through a mechanism similar to those for GABA and glycine, and functions as a vesicular β-alanine transporter. Vesicular GABA transporter (VGAT) is expressed in GABAergic and glycinergic neurons, and is responsible for vesicular storage and subsequent exocytosis of these inhibitory amino acids. In the present study, we showed that proteoliposomes containing purified VGAT transport β-alanine using Δψ as a driving force. VGAT also facilitates Cl(-) uptake. Our findings indicated that VGAT functions as a vesicular β-alanine transporter.

  5. Action of tremorgenic mycotoxins on GABA/sub A/ receptor

    SciTech Connect

    Gant, D.B.; Cole, R.J.; Valdes, J.J.; Eldefrawi, M.E.; Eldefrawi, A.T.

    1987-11-09

    The effects of four tremorgenic and one nontremorgenic mycotoxins were studied on ..gamma..-aminobutyric acid (GABA/sub A/) receptor binding and function in rat brain and on binding of a voltage-operated Cl/sup -/ channel in Torpedo electric organ. None of the mycotoxins had significant effect on (/sup 3/H)muscimol or (/sup 3/H)flunitrazepam binding to the GAMA/sup A/ receptor. However, only the four tremorgenic mycotoxins inhibited GABA-induced /sup 36/Cl/sup -/ influx and (/sup 35/S)t-butylbicyclophosphorothionate ((/sup 35/S)TBPS) binding in rate brain membranes, while the nontremorgenic verruculotoxin had no effect. Inhibition of (/sup 35/S)TBPS binding by paspalinine was non-competitive. This suggests that tremorgenic mycotoxins inhibit GABA/sub A/ receptor function by binding close to the receptor's Cl/sup -/ channel. On the voltage-operated Cl/sup -/ channel, only high concentrations of verruculogen and verruculotoxin caused significant inhibition of the channel's binding of (/sup 35/S)TBPS. The data suggest that the tremorgenic action of these mycotoxins may be due in part to their inhibition of GABA/sub A/ receptor function. 21 references, 4 figures, 2 tables.

  6. Single rodent mesohabenular axons release glutamate and GABA

    PubMed Central

    Root, David H.; Mejias-Aponte, Carlos; Zhang, Shiliang; Wang, Huiling; Hoffman, Alexander F.; Lupica, Carl R.; Morales, Marisela

    2016-01-01

    The lateral habenula (LHb) is involved in reward, aversion, addiction, and depression, through descending interactions with several brain structures, including the ventral tegmental area (VTA). VTA provides reciprocal inputs to LHb, but their actions are unclear. Here we show that the majority of rat and mouse VTA neurons innervating LHb co-express markers for both glutamate-signaling (vesicular glutamate transporter 2, VGluT2) and GABA-signaling (glutamate decarboxylase, GAD; and vesicular GABA transporter, VGaT). A single axon from these mesohabenular neurons co-expresses VGluT2-protein and VGaT-protein, and surprisingly establishes symmetric and asymmetric synapses on LHb neurons. In LHb slices, light activation of mesohabenular fibers expressing channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2) driven by VGluT2 or VGaT promoters elicits release of both glutamate and GABA onto single LHb neurons. In vivo light-activation of mesohabenular terminals inhibits or excites LHb neurons. Our findings reveal an unanticipated type of VTA neuron that co-transmits glutamate and GABA, and provides the majority of mesohabenular inputs. PMID:25242304

  7. Arabidopsis aldehyde dehydrogenase 10 family members confer salt tolerance through putrescine-derived 4-aminobutyrate (GABA) production

    PubMed Central

    Zarei, Adel; Trobacher, Christopher P.; Shelp, Barry J.

    2016-01-01

    Polyamines represent a potential source of 4-aminobutyrate (GABA) in plants exposed to abiotic stress. Terminal catabolism of putrescine in Arabidopsis thaliana involves amine oxidase and the production of 4-aminobutanal, which is a substrate for NAD+-dependent aminoaldehyde dehydrogenase (AMADH). Here, two AMADH homologs were chosen (AtALDH10A8 and AtALDH10A9) as candidates for encoding 4-aminobutanal dehydrogenase activity for GABA synthesis. The two genes were cloned and soluble recombinant proteins were produced in Escherichia coli. The pH optima for activity and catalytic efficiency of recombinant AtALDH10A8 with 3-aminopropanal as substrate was 10.5 and 8.5, respectively, whereas the optima for AtALDH10A9 were approximately 9.5. Maximal activity and catalytic efficiency were obtained with NAD+ and 3-aminopropanal, followed by 4-aminobutanal; negligible activity was obtained with betaine aldehyde. NAD+ reduction was accompanied by the production of GABA and β-alanine, respectively, with 4-aminobutanal and 3-aminopropanal as substrates. Transient co-expression systems using Arabidopsis cell suspension protoplasts or onion epidermal cells and several organelle markers revealed that AtALDH10A9 was peroxisomal, but AtALDH10A8 was cytosolic, although the N-terminal 140 amino acid sequence of AtALDH10A8 localized to the plastid. Root growth of single loss-of-function mutants was more sensitive to salinity than wild-type plants, and this was accompanied by reduced GABA accumulation. PMID:27725774

  8. A Fluorescence-Coupled Assay for Gamma Aminobutyric Acid (GABA) Reveals Metabolic Stress-Induced Modulation of GABA Content in Neuroendocrine Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ippolito, Joseph E.; Piwnica-Worms, David

    2014-01-01

    Pathways involved in the synthesis of the neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) have been implicated in the pathogenesis of high grade neuroendocrine (NE) neoplasms as well as neoplasms from a non-NE lineage. Using The Cancer Genome Atlas, overexpression of the GABA synthetic enzyme, glutamate decarboxylase 1 (GAD1), was found to be associated with decreased disease free-survival in prostate adenocarcinoma and decreased overall survival in clear cell renal cell carcinomas. Furthermore, GAD1 was found to be expressed in castrate-resistant prostate cancer cell lines, but not androgen-responsive cell lines. Using a novel fluorescence-coupled enzymatic microplate assay for GABA mediated through reduction of resazurin in a prostate neuroendocrine carcinoma (PNEC) cell line, acid microenvironment-induced stress increased GABA levels while alkaline microenvironment-induced stress decreased GABA through modulation of GAD1 and glutamine synthetase (GLUL) activities. Moreover, glutamine but not glucose deprivation decreased GABA through modulation of GLUL. Consistent with evidence in prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms that GABA synthesis mediated through GAD1 may play a crucial role in surviving stress, GABA may be an important mediator of stress survival in neoplasms. These findings identify GABA synthesis and metabolism as a potentially important pathway for regulating cancer cell stress response as well as a potential target for therapeutic strategies. PMID:24551133

  9. A fluorescence-coupled assay for gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA) reveals metabolic stress-induced modulation of GABA content in neuroendocrine cancer.

    PubMed

    Ippolito, Joseph E; Piwnica-Worms, David

    2014-01-01

    Pathways involved in the synthesis of the neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) have been implicated in the pathogenesis of high grade neuroendocrine (NE) neoplasms as well as neoplasms from a non-NE lineage. Using The Cancer Genome Atlas, overexpression of the GABA synthetic enzyme, glutamate decarboxylase 1 (GAD1), was found to be associated with decreased disease free-survival in prostate adenocarcinoma and decreased overall survival in clear cell renal cell carcinomas. Furthermore, GAD1 was found to be expressed in castrate-resistant prostate cancer cell lines, but not androgen-responsive cell lines. Using a novel fluorescence-coupled enzymatic microplate assay for GABA mediated through reduction of resazurin in a prostate neuroendocrine carcinoma (PNEC) cell line, acid microenvironment-induced stress increased GABA levels while alkaline microenvironment-induced stress decreased GABA through modulation of GAD1 and glutamine synthetase (GLUL) activities. Moreover, glutamine but not glucose deprivation decreased GABA through modulation of GLUL. Consistent with evidence in prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms that GABA synthesis mediated through GAD1 may play a crucial role in surviving stress, GABA may be an important mediator of stress survival in neoplasms. These findings identify GABA synthesis and metabolism as a potentially important pathway for regulating cancer cell stress response as well as a potential target for therapeutic strategies.

  10. Functioning of the dimeric GABA(B) receptor extracellular domain revealed by glycan wedge scanning.

    PubMed

    Rondard, Philippe; Huang, Siluo; Monnier, Carine; Tu, Haijun; Blanchard, Bertrand; Oueslati, Nadia; Malhaire, Fanny; Li, Ying; Trinquet, Eric; Labesse, Gilles; Pin, Jean-Philippe; Liu, Jianfeng

    2008-05-01

    The G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) activated by the neurotransmitter GABA is made up of two subunits, GABA(B1) and GABA(B2). GABA(B1) binds agonists, whereas GABA(B2) is required for trafficking GABA(B1) to the cell surface, increasing agonist affinity to GABA(B1), and activating associated G proteins. These subunits each comprise two domains, a Venus flytrap domain (VFT) and a heptahelical transmembrane domain (7TM). How agonist binding to the GABA(B1) VFT leads to GABA(B2) 7TM activation remains unknown. Here, we used a glycan wedge scanning approach to investigate how the GABA(B) VFT dimer controls receptor activity. We first identified the dimerization interface using a bioinformatics approach and then showed that introducing an N-glycan at this interface prevents the association of the two subunits and abolishes all activities of GABA(B2), including agonist activation of the G protein. We also identified a second region in the VFT where insertion of an N-glycan does not prevent dimerization, but blocks agonist activation of the receptor. These data provide new insight into the function of this prototypical GPCR and demonstrate that a change in the dimerization interface is required for receptor activation.

  11. Stable expression of the vesicular GABA transporter following photothrombotic infarct in rat brain.

    PubMed

    Frahm, C; Siegel, G; Grass, S; Witte, O W

    2006-07-01

    Before exocytotic release of the inhibitory neurotransmitter GABA, this amino acid has to be stored in synaptic vesicles. Accumulation of GABA in vesicles is achieved by a specific membrane-integrated transporter termed vesicular GABA transporter. This vesicular protein is mainly located at presynaptic terminals of GABAergic interneurons. In the present study we investigated the effects of focal ischemia on the expression of the vesicular GABA transporter. Vesicular GABA transporter mRNA and protein expression was examined after photothrombosis in different cortical and hippocampal brain regions of Wistar rats. In situ hybridization and quantitative real-time RT-PCR were performed to analyze vesicular GABA transporter mRNA. Both vesicular GABA transporter mRNA-stained perikarya and mRNA expression levels remained unaffected. Vesicular GABA transporter protein-containing synaptic terminals and somata were visualized by immunohistochemistry. The pattern of vesicular GABA transporter immunoreactivity as well as the protein expression level revealed by semiquantitative image analysis and by Western blot remained stable after stroke. The steady expression of vesicular GABA transporter mRNA and protein after photothrombosis indicates that the exocytotic release mechanism of GABA is not affected by ischemia.

  12. The endogenous GABA bioactivity of camel, bovine, goat and human milks.

    PubMed

    Limon, Agenor; Gallegos-Perez, Jose-Luis; Reyes-Ruiz, Jorge M; Aljohi, Mohammad A; Alshanqeeti, Ali S; Miledi, Ricardo

    2014-02-15

    GABA orally administered has several beneficial effects on health, including the regulation of hyperglycaemic states in humans. Those effects are similar to the effects reported for camel milk (CMk); however, it is not known whether compounds with GABAergic activity are present in milk from camels or other species. We determined CMk free-GABA concentration by LS/MS and its bioactivity on human GABA receptors. We found that camel and goat milks have significantly more bioavailable GABA than cow and human milks and are able to activate GABAρ receptors. The relationship between GABA and taurine concentrations suggests that whole camel milk may be more efficient to activate GABAρ1 receptors than goat milk. Because GABAρ receptors are normally found in enteroendocrine cells in the lumen of the digestive tract, these results suggest that GABA in camel and goat milk may participate in GABA-modulated functions of enteroendocrine cells in the GI lumen.

  13. GAD67-mediated GABA synthesis and signaling regulate inhibitory synaptic innervation in the visual cortex.

    PubMed

    Chattopadhyaya, Bidisha; Di Cristo, Graziella; Wu, Cai Zhi; Knott, Graham; Kuhlman, Sandra; Fu, Yu; Palmiter, Richard D; Huang, Z Josh

    2007-06-21

    The development of GABAergic inhibitory circuits is shaped by neural activity, but the underlying mechanisms are unclear. Here, we demonstrate a novel function of GABA in regulating GABAergic innervation in the adolescent brain, when GABA is mainly known as an inhibitory transmitter. Conditional knockdown of the rate-limiting synthetic enzyme GAD67 in basket interneurons in adolescent visual cortex resulted in cell autonomous deficits in axon branching, perisomatic synapse formation around pyramidal neurons, and complexity of the innervation fields; the same manipulation had little influence on the subsequent maintenance of perisomatic synapses. These effects of GABA deficiency were rescued by suppressing GABA reuptake and by GABA receptor agonists. Germline knockdown of GAD67 but not GAD65 showed similar deficits, suggesting a specific role of GAD67 in the maturation of perisomatic innervation. Since intracellular GABA levels are modulated by neuronal activity, our results implicate GAD67-mediated GABA synthesis in activity-dependent regulation of inhibitory innervation patterns.

  14. Different transporter systems regulate extracellular GABA from vesicular and non-vesicular sources

    PubMed Central

    Song, Inseon; Volynski, Kirill; Brenner, Tanja; Ushkaryov, Yuri; Walker, Matthew; Semyanov, Alexey

    2013-01-01

    Tonic GABA type A (GABAA) conductance is a key factor regulating neuronal excitability and computation in neuronal networks. The magnitude of the tonic GABAA conductance depends on the concentration of ambient GABA originating from vesicular and non-vesicular sources and is tightly regulated by GABA uptake. Here we show that the transport system regulating ambient GABA responsible for tonic GABAA conductances in hippocampal CA1 interneurons depends on its source. In mice, GABA from vesicular sources is regulated by mouse GABA transporter 1 (mGAT1), while that from non-vesicular sources by mouse GABA transporters 3/4 (mGAT3/4). This finding suggests that the two transporter systems do not just provide backup for each other, but regulate distinct signaling pathways. This allows individual tuning of the two signaling systems and indicates that drugs designed to act at specific transporters will have distinct therapeutic actions. PMID:23494150

  15. Are presynaptic GABA-Cρ2 receptors involved in anti-nociception?

    PubMed

    Tadavarty, R; Hwang, J; Rajput, P S; Soja, P J; Kumar, U; Sastry, B R

    2015-10-01

    We investigated the anti-nociceptive effects of GABA-C receptors in the central nervous system. Intracisternal injection of CACA, a GABA-C receptor agonist or isoguvacine, a GABA-A receptor agonist, significantly increased the tail-withdrawal latency. TPMPA, a GABA-C receptor antagonist blocked the effects of CACA but not isoguvacine indicating that GABA-C receptors are involved in regulating pain. Further, double-labelled immunofluorescence studies revealed that GABA-Cρ2 receptors are expressed presynaptically in the spinal dorsal horn, especially, substantia gelatinosa, a region that has been previously implicated in analgesia by regulating nociceptive inflow. These data provide a provenance for future work looking at presynaptic spinal GABA-C receptors in the control of nociception.

  16. Prefrontal Cortical GABA Modulation of Spatial Reference and Working Memory

    PubMed Central

    Auger, Meagan L.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Dysfunction in prefrontal cortex (PFC) GABA transmission has been proposed to contribute to cognitive dysfunction in schizophrenia, yet how this system regulates different cognitive and mnemonic functions remains unclear. Methods: We assessed the effects of pharmacological reduction of GABAA signaling in the medial PFC of rats on spatial reference/working memory using different versions of the radial-arm maze task. We used a massed-trials procedure to probe how PFC GABA regulates susceptibility to proactive interference. Male rats were well-trained to retrieve food from the same 4 arms of an 8-arm maze, receiving 5 trials/day (1–2min intervals). Results: Infusions of the GABAA receptor antagonist bicuculline (12.5–50ng) markedly increased working and reference memory errors and response latencies. Similar treatments also impaired short-term memory on an 8-baited arm task. These effects did not appear to be due to increased susceptibility to proactive interference. In contrast, PFC inactivation via infusion of GABA agonists baclofen/muscimol did not affect reference/working memory. In comparison to the pronounced effects on the 8-arm maze tasks, PFC GABAA antagonism only causes a slight and transient decrease in accuracy on a 2-arm spatial discrimination. Conclusions: These findings demonstrate that prefrontal GABA hypofunction severely disrupts spatial reference and short-term memory and that disinhibition of the PFC can, in some instances, perturb memory processes not normally dependent on the frontal lobes. Moreover, these impairments closely resemble those observed in schizophrenic patients, suggesting that perturbation in PFC GABA signaling may contribute to these types of cognitive deficits associated with the disorder. PMID:25552433

  17. The role of dopamine in risk taking: a specific look at Parkinson’s disease and gambling

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Crystal A.; Dagher, Alain

    2014-01-01

    An influential model suggests that dopamine signals the difference between predicted and experienced reward. In this way, dopamine can act as a learning signal that can shape behaviors to maximize rewards and avoid punishments. Dopamine is also thought to invigorate reward seeking behavior. Loss of dopamine signaling is the major abnormality in Parkinson’s disease. Dopamine agonists have been implicated in the occurrence of impulse control disorders in Parkinson’s disease patients, the most common being pathological gambling, compulsive sexual behavior, and compulsive buying. Recently, a number of functional imaging studies investigating impulse control disorders in Parkinson’s disease have been published. Here we review this literature, and attempt to place it within a decision-making framework in which potential gains and losses are evaluated to arrive at optimum choices. We also provide a hypothetical but still incomplete model on the effect of dopamine agonist treatment on these value and risk assessments. Two of the main brain structures thought to be involved in computing aspects of reward and loss are the ventral striatum (VStr) and the insula, both dopamine projection sites. Both structures are consistently implicated in functional brain imaging studies of pathological gambling in Parkinson’s disease. PMID:24910600

  18. Evidence for a Revised Ion/Substrate Coupling Stoichiometry of GABA Transporters.

    PubMed

    Willford, Samantha L; Anderson, Cynthia M; Spencer, Shelly R; Eskandari, Sepehr

    2015-08-01

    Plasma membrane γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) transporters (GATs) are electrogenic transport proteins that couple the cotranslocation of Na(+), Cl(-), and GABA across the plasma membrane of neurons and glia. A fundamental property of the transporter that determines its ability to concentrate GABA in cells and, hence, regulate synaptic and extra-synaptic GABA concentrations, is the ion/substrate coupling stoichiometry. Here, we scrutinized the currently accepted 2 Na(+):1 Cl(-):1 GABA stoichiometry because it is inconsistent with the measured net charge translocated per co-substrate (Na(+), Cl(-), and GABA). We expressed GAT1 and GAT3 in Xenopus laevis oocytes and utilized thermodynamic and uptake under voltage-clamp measurements to determine the stoichiometry of the GABA transporters. Voltage-clamped GAT1-expressing oocytes were internally loaded with GABA, and the reversal potential (V rev) of the transporter-mediated current was recorded at different external concentrations of Na(+), Cl(-), or GABA. The shifts in V rev for a tenfold change in the external Na(+), Cl(-), and GABA concentration were 84 ± 4, 30 ± 1, and 29 ± 1 mV, respectively. To determine the net charge translocated per Na(+), Cl(-), and GABA, we measured substrate fluxes under voltage clamp in cells expressing GAT1 or GAT3. Charge flux to substrate flux ratios were 0.7 ± 0.1 charge/Na(+), 2.0 ± 0.2 charges/Cl(-), and 2.1 ± 0.1 charges/GABA. Altogether, our results strongly suggest a 3 Na(+):1 Cl(-):1 GABA coupling stoichiometry for the GABA transporters. The revised stoichiometry has important implications for understanding the contribution of GATs to GABAergic signaling in health and disease.

  19. Psychostimulants affect dopamine transmission through both dopamine transporter-dependent and independent mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    dela Peña, Ike; Gevorkiana, Ruzanna; Shi, Wei-Xing

    2015-01-01

    The precise mechanisms by which cocaine and amphetamine-like psychostimulants exert their reinforcing effects are not yet fully defined. It is widely believed, however, that these drugs produce their effects by enhancing dopamine neurotransmission in the brain, especially in limbic areas such as the nucleus accumbens, by inducing dopamine transporter-mediated reverse transport and/or blocking dopamine reuptake though the dopamine transporter. Here, we present the evidence that aside from dopamine transporter, non-dopamine transporter-mediated mechanisms also participate in psychostimulant-induced dopamine release and contribute to the behavioral effects of these drugs, such as locomotor activation and reward. Accordingly, psychostimulants could increase norepinephrine release in the prefrontal cortex, the latter then alters the firing pattern of dopamine neurons resulting in changes in action potential-dependent dopamine release. These alterations would further affect the temporal pattern of dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens, thereby modifying information processing in that area. Hence, a synaptic input to a nucleus accumbens neuron may be enhanced or inhibited by dopamine depending on its temporal relationship to dopamine release. Specific temporal patterns of dopamine release may also be required for certain forms of synaptic plasticity in the nucleus accumbens. Together, these effects induced by psychostimulants, mediated through a non-dopamine transporter-mediated mechanism involving norepinephrine and the prefrontal cortex, may also contribute importantly to the reinforcing properties of these drugs. PMID:26209364

  20. Psychostimulants affect dopamine transmission through both dopamine transporter-dependent and independent mechanisms.

    PubMed

    dela Peña, Ike; Gevorkiana, Ruzanna; Shi, Wei-Xing

    2015-10-01

    The precise mechanisms by which cocaine and amphetamine-like psychostimulants exert their reinforcing effects are not yet fully defined. It is widely believed, however, that these drugs produce their effects by enhancing dopamine neurotransmission in the brain, especially in limbic areas such as the nucleus accumbens, by inducing dopamine transporter-mediated reverse transport and/or blocking dopamine reuptake though the dopamine transporter. Here, we present the evidence that aside from dopamine transporter, non-dopamine transporter-mediated mechanisms also participate in psychostimulant-induced dopamine release and contribute to the behavioral effects of these drugs, such as locomotor activation and reward. Accordingly, psychostimulants could increase norepinephrine release in the prefrontal cortex, the latter then alters the firing pattern of dopamine neurons resulting in changes in action potential-dependent dopamine release. These alterations would further affect the temporal pattern of dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens, thereby modifying information processing in that area. Hence, a synaptic input to a nucleus accumbens neuron may be enhanced or inhibited by dopamine depending on its temporal relationship to dopamine release. Specific temporal patterns of dopamine release may also be required for certain forms of synaptic plasticity in the nucleus accumbens. Together, these effects induced by psychostimulants, mediated through a non-dopamine transporter-mediated mechanism involving norepinephrine and the prefrontal cortex, may also contribute importantly to the reinforcing properties of these drugs. PMID:26209364

  1. Physiological bases of the K+ and the glutamate/GABA hypotheses of epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    DiNuzzo, Mauro; Mangia, Silvia; Maraviglia, Bruno; Giove, Federico

    2016-01-01

    Epilepsy is a heterogeneous family of neurological disorders that manifest as seizures, i.e. the hypersynchronous activity of large population of neurons. About 30% of epileptic patients do not respond to currently available antiepileptic drugs. Decades of intense research have elucidated the involvement of a number of possible signaling pathways, however, at present we do not have a fundamental understanding of epileptogenesis. In this paper, we review the literature on epilepsy under a wide-angle perspective, a mandatory choice that responds to the recurrent and unanswered question about what is epiphenomenal and what is causal to the disease. While focusing on the involvement of K+ and glutamate/GABA in determining neuronal hyperexcitability, emphasis is given to astrocytic contribution to epileptogenesis, and especially to loss-of-function of astrocytic glutamine synthetase following reactive astrogliosis, a hallmark of epileptic syndromes. We finally introduce the potential involvement of abnormal glycogen synthesis induced by excess glutamate in increasing susceptibility to seizures. PMID:24818957

  2. Dopamine dysfunction in borderline personality disorder: a hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Friedel, Robert O

    2004-06-01

    Research on the biological basis of borderline personality disorder (BPD) has focused primarily on the serotonin model of impulsive aggression. However, there is evidence that dopamine (DA) dysfunction may also be associated with BPD. Pertinent research and review articles, identified by Medline searches of relevant topics, books, references from bibliographies, and conference proceedings from 1975 to 2003, were reviewed. Evidence of DA dysfunction in BPD derives from the efficacy of traditional and atypical antipsychotic agents in BPD, and from provocative challenges with amphetamine and methylphenidate of subjects with the disorder. In addition, human and animal studies indicate that DA activity plays an important role in emotion information processing, impulse control, and cognition. The results of this review suggest that DA dysfunction is associated with three dimensions of BPD, that is, emotional dysregulation, impulsivity, and cognitive-perceptual impairment. The main limitation of this hypothesis is that the evidence reviewed is circumstantial. There is no study that directly demonstrates DA dysfunction in BPD. In addition, the therapeutic effects of antipsychotic agents observed in BPD may be mediated by non-DA mechanisms of action. If the stated hypothesis is correct, DA dysfunction in BPD may result from genetic, developmental, or environmental factors directly affecting specific DA pathways. Alternatively, DA dysfunction in BPD may be a compensatory response to alterations in the primary neural systems that control emotion, impulse control, and cognition, and that are mediated by the brain's main neurotransmitters, glutamate, and GABA, or in one or more other neuromodulatory pathways such as serotonin, acetylcholine, and norepinephrine.

  3. Dual action of isoflurane on the gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-mediated currents through recombinant alpha(1)beta(2)gamma(2L)-GABA(A)-receptor channels.

    PubMed

    Neumahr, S; Hapfelmeier, G; Scheller, M; Schneck, H; Franke, C; Kochs, E

    2000-05-01

    Isoflurane (ISO) increased the agonist-induced chloride flux through the gamma-aminobutyric acid A receptor (GABA(A)R). This may reflect an anesthetic-induced increase in the apparent agonist affinity. A dual effect of anesthetics was postulated for both the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) and the GABA(A)R. We tested the hypothesis that, in addition to a blocking effect, ISO increases gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-gated currents through recombinant GABA(A)R channels. HEK293 cells were transfected with rat cDNA for alpha(1),beta(2),gamma(2L) subunits. Currents elicited by 1 mM or 0. 01 mM GABA, respectively, alone, or with increasing concentrations of ISO, were recorded by using standard patch clamp techniques. ISO reduced the peak current elicited by 1 mM GABA. Currents induced by 0.01 mM GABA were potentiated by small ISO (twofold at 0.5 mM ISO) and inhibited by larger concentrations. Withdrawal of ISO and GABA induced rebound currents, suggesting an open-channel block by ISO. These currents increased with increasing concentrations of ISO. At large concentrations of ISO, the inhibitory effect predominated and was caused by, at least partly, an open-channel block. At small concentrations of ISO, potentiation of the GABA-gated currents was more prominent. This dual action of ISO indicates different binding sites at the GABA(A)R. The balance between potentiation and block depends on the concentrations of both ISO and GABA.

  4. Long-lasting auditory gating deficit accompanied by GABA(B) receptor dysfunction in the hippocampus after early-life limbic seizures in rats.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Min-Lan; Crutchley, Melanie; Boyce, Richard; Ma, Jingyi; Boon, Francis; Cain, D Peter; Leung, L Stan

    2012-06-25

    In a previous study, we reported a rat model of early-life limbic seizures which resulted in a loss of GABA(B) receptor inhibition in the hippocampus. Since gating of auditory evoked potentials in the hippocampus (auditory gating) requires GABA(B) receptors and spatial behaviors depend on the hippocampus, we hypothesize that rats with early-life limbic seizures manifest deficits of auditory gating and spatial behaviors. Seizure rats were given a single injection of GABA(B) receptor antagonist CGP56999A (1-1.2 mg/kg i.p.) on postnatal day (PND) 15, which induced multiple limbic seizures in 8h; control rats were given saline injection. When tested at 3-9 weeks after seizure/control treatment, seizure as compared to control rats showed no difference in finding a hidden platform in the water maze, but were deficient in learning and maintaining consecutive criterion performance in the 8-arm radial arm maze. Auditory gating, as measured by paired-click (conditioning followed by test click) average auditory evoked potentials in the hippocampus, revealed a significant difference between seizure rats and controls. Seizure as compared to control rats showed an increased ratio of the test to conditioning click response as adolescents (50 days old) or adults (70 days old). Heterosynaptic electric paired-pulse depression of hippocampal population excitatory postsynaptic potential in freely moving rats, a measure of hippocampal GABA(B)-receptor mediated inhibition, was decreased in seizure as compared to control rats. Seizure as compared to control rats showed increased locomotor activity in a novel open field for the first 10 min, and decreased activity at 15-60 min. However, auditory prepulse inhibition, a measure of sensorimotor gating, revealed no difference between seizure and control rats. In conclusion, early-life limbic seizures induced a long-lasting deficit in auditory gating, likely caused by GABA(B) receptor-mediated inhibition loss in the hippocampus. Auditory

  5. Long-lasting auditory gating deficit accompanied by GABA(B) receptor dysfunction in the hippocampus after early-life limbic seizures in rats.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Min-Lan; Crutchley, Melanie; Boyce, Richard; Ma, Jingyi; Boon, Francis; Cain, D Peter; Leung, L Stan

    2012-06-25

    In a previous study, we reported a rat model of early-life limbic seizures which resulted in a loss of GABA(B) receptor inhibition in the hippocampus. Since gating of auditory evoked potentials in the hippocampus (auditory gating) requires GABA(B) receptors and spatial behaviors depend on the hippocampus, we hypothesize that rats with early-life limbic seizures manifest deficits of auditory gating and spatial behaviors. Seizure rats were given a single injection of GABA(B) receptor antagonist CGP56999A (1-1.2 mg/kg i.p.) on postnatal day (PND) 15, which induced multiple limbic seizures in 8h; control rats were given saline injection. When tested at 3-9 weeks after seizure/control treatment, seizure as compared to control rats showed no difference in finding a hidden platform in the water maze, but were deficient in learning and maintaining consecutive criterion performance in the 8-arm radial arm maze. Auditory gating, as measured by paired-click (conditioning followed by test click) average auditory evoked potentials in the hippocampus, revealed a significant difference between seizure rats and controls. Seizure as compared to control rats showed an increased ratio of the test to conditioning click response as adolescents (50 days old) or adults (70 days old). Heterosynaptic electric paired-pulse depression of hippocampal population excitatory postsynaptic potential in freely moving rats, a measure of hippocampal GABA(B)-receptor mediated inhibition, was decreased in seizure as compared to control rats. Seizure as compared to control rats showed increased locomotor activity in a novel open field for the first 10 min, and decreased activity at 15-60 min. However, auditory prepulse inhibition, a measure of sensorimotor gating, revealed no difference between seizure and control rats. In conclusion, early-life limbic seizures induced a long-lasting deficit in auditory gating, likely caused by GABA(B) receptor-mediated inhibition loss in the hippocampus. Auditory

  6. The Transfection of BDNF to Dopamine Neurons Potentiates the Effect of Dopamine D3 Receptor Agonist Recovering the Striatal Innervation, Dendritic Spines and Motor Behavior in an Aged Rat Model of Parkinson’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Razgado-Hernandez, Luis F.; Espadas-Alvarez, Armando J.; Reyna-Velazquez, Patricia; Sierra-Sanchez, Arturo; Anaya-Martinez, Veronica; Jimenez-Estrada, Ismael; Bannon, Michael J.; Martinez-Fong, Daniel; Aceves-Ruiz, Jorge

    2015-01-01

    The progressive degeneration of the dopamine neurons of the pars compacta of substantia nigra and the consequent loss of the dopamine innervation of the striatum leads to the impairment of motor behavior in Parkinson’s disease. Accordingly, an efficient therapy of the disease should protect and regenerate the dopamine neurons of the substantia nigra and the dopamine innervation of the striatum. Nigral neurons express Brain Derived Neurotropic Factor (BDNF) and dopamine D3 receptors, both of which protect the dopamine neurons. The chronic activation of dopamine D3 receptors by their agonists, in addition, restores, in part, the dopamine innervation of the striatum. Here we explored whether the over-expression of BDNF by dopamine neurons potentiates the effect of the activation of D3 receptors restoring nigrostriatal innervation. Twelve-month old Wistar rats were unilaterally injected with 6-hydroxydopamine into the striatum. Five months later, rats were treated with the D3 agonist 7-hydroxy-N,N-di-n-propy1-2-aminotetralin (7-OH-DPAT) administered i.p. during 4½ months via osmotic pumps and the BDNF gene transfection into nigral cells using the neurotensin-polyplex nanovector (a non-viral transfection) that selectively transfect the dopamine neurons via the high-affinity neurotensin receptor expressed by these neurons. Two months after the withdrawal of 7-OH-DPAT when rats were aged (24 months old), immunohistochemistry assays were made. The over-expression of BDNF in rats receiving the D3 agonist normalized gait and motor coordination; in addition, it eliminated the muscle rigidity produced by the loss of dopamine. The recovery of motor behavior was associated with the recovery of the nigral neurons, the dopamine innervation of the striatum and of the number of dendritic spines of the striatal neurons. Thus, the over-expression of BDNF in dopamine neurons associated with the chronic activation of the D3 receptors appears to be a promising strategy for restoring

  7. Endogenous GABA levels in the pontine reticular formation are greater during wakefulness than during REM sleep

    PubMed Central

    Vanini, Giancarlo; Wathen, Bradley L.; Lydic, Ralph; Baghdoyan, Helen A.

    2011-01-01

    Studies using drugs that increase or decrease GABAergic transmission suggest that GABA in the pontine reticular formation (PRF) promotes wakefulness and inhibits rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. Cholinergic transmission in the PRF promotes REM sleep, and levels of endogenous acetylcholine (ACh) in the PRF are significantly greater during REM sleep than during wakefulness or non-REM (NREM) sleep. No previous studies have determined whether levels of endogenous GABA in the PRF vary as a function of sleep and wakefulness. This study tested the hypothesis that GABA levels in cat PRF are greatest during wakefulness and lowest during REM sleep. Extracellular GABA levels were measured during wakefulness, NREM sleep, REM sleep, and the REM sleep-like state (REMNeo) caused by microinjecting neostigmine into the PRF. GABA levels varied significantly as a function of sleep and wakefulness, and decreased significantly below waking levels during REM sleep (−42%) and REMNeo (−63%). The decrease in GABA levels during NREM sleep (22% below waking levels) was not statistically significant. Compared to NREM sleep, GABA levels decreased significantly during REM sleep (−27%) and REMNeo (−52%). Comparisons of REM sleep and REMNeo revealed no differences in GABA levels or cortical EEG power. GABA levels did not vary significantly as a function of dialysis site within the PRF. The inverse relationship between changes in PRF levels of GABA and ACh during REM sleep indicates that low GABAergic tone combined with high cholinergic tone in the PRF contributes to the generation of REM sleep. PMID:21325533

  8. Identification and selective inhibition of the channel mode of the neuronal GABA transporter 1.

    PubMed

    Krause, Stephan; Schwarz, Wolfgang

    2005-12-01

    The function of GAT1, the transporter for the inhibitory neurotransmitter GABA, is characterized by expression in Xenopus laevis oocytes and measurements of GABA-induced uptake of [3H]GABA, 22Na+, and 36Cl-, and GABA-evoked currents under voltage-clamp conditions. N-[4,4-Diphenyl-3-butenyl]-nipecotic acid (SKF-89976-A), a specific inhibitor of GAT1, is used in our system as a pharmacological tool. The GABA-evoked current can be decomposed into a transport current, which is coupled to the GABA uptake, and a transmitter-gated current, which is uncoupled from the GABA uptake. The transport current results from a fixed stoichiometry of 1 GABA/2 Na+/1 Cl- transported during each cycle, as determined by radioactive tracer flux measurements. The transmitter-gated current is mediated by an Na+-conductance pathway. As a competitive inhibitor for GABA uptake, SKF-89976-A can separate the two current components. The GABA uptake is blocked with a K(I) value of approximately 7 microM, whereas the uncoupled transmitter-gated current is inhibited with a K(I) value of approximately 0.03 microM. Thus, the results of this study not only identify the transport mode and the channel mode of GAT1 but also raise the possibility of separating these components in a physiological environment.

  9. The relationship between fearfulness, GABA+, and fear-related BOLD responses in the insula.

    PubMed

    Lipp, Ilona; Evans, C John; Lewis, Caroline; Murphy, Kevin; Wise, Richard G; Caseras, Xavier

    2015-01-01

    The inhibitory neurotransmitter GABA plays a crucial role in anxiety and fear, but its relationship to brain activation during fear reactions is not clear. Previous studies suggest that GABA agonists lead to an attenuation of emotion-processing related BOLD signals in the insula. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between GABA concentration and fear-related BOLD responses in this region. In 44 female participants with different levels of fearfulness, GABA concentration in the left insula was measured using a GABA+ MRS acquisition during rest; additionally, BOLD signals were obtained during performance of a fear provocation paradigm. Fearfulness was not associated with GABA+ in the left insula, but could predict fear-related BOLD responses in a cluster in the left anterior insula. The BOLD signal change in this cluster did not correlate with GABA+ concentration. However, we found a significant positive correlation between GABA+ concentration and fear-related BOLD responses in a different cluster that included parts of the left insula, amygdala and putamen. Our findings indicate that low insular GABA concentration is not a predisposition for fearfulness, and that several factors influence whether a correlation between GABA and BOLD can be found.

  10. Localization of glycine, GABA and neuropeptide containing neurons in tiger salamander retina

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, C.Y.

    1988-01-01

    Putative glycinergic and GABAergic neurons in the salamander retina were localized by a parallel analysis of high affinity {sup 3}H-glycine uptake and glycine-like immunoreactivity (Gly-IR) and a comparative analysis of high affinity {sup 3}H-GABA uptake, GABA, like immunoreactivity (GABA-IR), and glutamate decarboxylase immunoreactivity (GAD-IR) at the light microscopic level. Good correspondence of labeling of {sup 3}H-glycine uptake and Gly-IR as well as that of {sup 3}H-GABA uptake and GABA-IR were observed. In addition, GAD immunoreactive neurons contained GABA-IR as well. Extensive colocalization of {sup 3}H-glycine uptake and Gly-IR and that of {sup 3}H-GABA uptake, GABA-IR and perhaps GAD-IR were indicated by the similarities in the distribution, morphology and labeling frequency of neurons and lamination in the inner plexiform layer (IPL). However, the Gly-IR and the GABA-IR probes appeared to be more sensitive and can thus be a reliable marker for glycine and GABA containing neurons respectively.

  11. Glutamate, GABA, and glutamine are synchronously upregulated in the mouse lateral septum during the postpartum period

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Changjiu; Gammie, Stephen C.

    2014-01-01

    Dramatic structural and functional remodeling occurs in the postpartum brain for the establishment of maternal care, which is essential for the growth and development of young offspring. Glutamate and GABA signaling are critically important in modulating multiple behavioral performances. Large scale signaling changes occur in the postpartum brain, but it is still not clear to what extent the neurotransmitters glutamate and GABA change and whether the ratio of glutamate/GABA remains balanced. In this study, we examined the glutamate/GABA-glutamine cycle in the lateral septum (LS) of postpartum female mice. In postpartum females (relative to virgins), tissue levels of glutamate and GABA were elevated in LS and increased mRNA was found for the respective enzymes producing glutamate and GABA, glutaminase (Gls) and glutamate decarboxylase 1 and 2 (Gad1 and Gad2). The common precursor, glutamine, was elevated as was the enzyme that produces it, glutamate-ammonia ligase (Glul). Additionally, glutamate, GABA, and glutamine were positively correlated and the glutamate/GABA ratio was almost identical in the postpartum and virgin females. Collectively, these findings indicate that glutamate and GABA signaling are increased and that the ratio of glutamate/GABA is well balanced in the maternal LS. The postpartum brain may provide a useful model system for understanding how glutamate and GABA are linked despite large signaling changes. Given that some mental health disorders, including depression and schizophrenia display dysregulated glutamate/GABA ratio, and there is increased vulnerability to mental disorders in mothers, it is possible that these postpartum disorders emerge when glutamate and GABA changes are not properly coordinated. PMID:25451092

  12. Glutamate, GABA, and glutamine are synchronously upregulated in the mouse lateral septum during the postpartum period.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Changjiu; Gammie, Stephen C

    2014-12-01

    Dramatic structural and functional remodeling occurs in the postpartum brain for the establishment of maternal care, which is essential for the growth and development of young offspring. Glutamate and GABA signaling are critically important in modulating multiple behavioral performances. Large scale signaling changes occur in the postpartum brain, but it is still not clear to what extent the neurotransmitters glutamate and GABA change and whether the ratio of glutamate/GABA remains balanced. In this study, we examined the glutamate/GABA-glutamine cycle in the lateral septum (LS) of postpartum female mice. In postpartum females (relative to virgins), tissue levels of glutamate and GABA were elevated in LS and increased mRNA was found for the respective enzymes producing glutamate and GABA, glutaminase (Gls) and glutamate decarboxylase 1 and 2 (Gad1 and Gad2). The common precursor, glutamine, was elevated as was the enzyme that produces it, glutamate-ammonia ligase (Glul). Additionally, glutamate, GABA, and glutamine were positively correlated and the glutamate/GABA ratio was almost identical in the postpartum and virgin females. Collectively, these findings indicate that glutamate and GABA signaling are increased and that the ratio of glutamate/GABA is well balanced in the maternal LS. The postpartum brain may provide a useful model system for understanding how glutamate and GABA are linked despite large signaling changes. Given that some mental health disorders, including depression and schizophrenia display dysregulated glutamate/GABA ratio, and there is increased vulnerability to mental disorders in mothers, it is possible that these postpartum disorders emerge when glutamate and GABA changes are not properly coordinated.

  13. Increased brain dopamine and dopamine receptors in schizophrenia

    SciTech Connect

    Mackay, A.V.; Iversen, L.L.; Rossor, M.; Spokes, E.; Bird, E.; Arregui, A.; Creese, I.; Synder, S.H.

    1982-09-01

    In postmortem samples of caudate nucleus and nucleus accumbens from 48 schizophrenic patients, there were significant increases in both the maximum number of binding sites (Bmax) and the apparent dissociation constant (KD) for tritiated spiperone. The increase in apparent KD probably reflects the presence of residual neuroleptic drugs, but changes in Bmax for tritiated spiperone reflect genuine changes in receptor numbers. The increases in receptors were seen only in patients in whom neuroleptic medication had been maintained until the time of death, indicating that they may be entirely iatrogenic. Dopamine measurements for a larger series of schizophrenic and control cases (n greater than 60) show significantly increased concentrations in both the nucleus accumbens and caudate nucleus. The changes in dopamine were not obviously related to neuroleptic medication and, unlike the receptor changes, were most severe in younger patients.

  14. Developmental and target-dependent regulation of vesicular glutamate transporter expression by dopamine neurons.

    PubMed

    Mendez, Jose Alfredo; Bourque, Marie-Josée; Dal Bo, Gregory; Bourdeau, Mathieu L; Danik, Marc; Williams, Sylvain; Lacaille, Jean-Claude; Trudeau, Louis-Eric

    2008-06-18

    Mesencephalic dopamine (DA) neurons have been suggested to use glutamate as a cotransmitter. Here, we suggest a mechanism for this form of cotransmission by showing that a subset of DA neurons both in vitro and in vivo expresses vesicular glutamate transporter 2 (VGluT2). Expression of VGluT2 decreases with age. Moreover, when DA neurons are grown in isolation using a microculture system, there is a marked upregulation of VGluT2 expression. We provide evidence that expression of this transporter is normally repressed through a contact-dependent interaction with GABA and other DA neurons, thus providing a partial explanation for the highly restricted expression of VGluT2 in DA neurons in vivo. Our results demonstrate that the neurotransmitter phenotype of DA neurons is both developmentally and dynamically regulated. These findings may have implications for a better understanding of the fast synaptic action of DA neurons as well as basal ganglia circuitry. PMID:18562601

  15. Ionotropic GABA and Glutamate Receptor Mutations and Human Neurologic Diseases.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Hongjie; Low, Chian-Ming; Moody, Olivia A; Jenkins, Andrew; Traynelis, Stephen F

    2015-07-01

    The advent of whole exome/genome sequencing and the technology-driven reduction in the cost of next-generation sequencing as well as the introduction of diagnostic-targeted sequencing chips have resulted in an unprecedented volume of data directly linking patient genomic variability to disorders of the brain. This information has the potential to transform our understanding of neurologic disorders by improving diagnoses, illuminating the molecular heterogeneity underlying diseases, and identifying new targets for therapeutic treatment. There is a strong history of mutations in GABA receptor genes being involved in neurologic diseases, particularly the epilepsies. In addition, a substantial number of variants and mutations have been found in GABA receptor genes in patients with autism, schizophrenia, and addiction, suggesting potential links between the GABA receptors and these conditions. A new and unexpected outcome from sequencing efforts has been the surprising number of mutations found in glutamate receptor subunits, with the GRIN2A gene encoding the GluN2A N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor subunit being most often affected. These mutations are associated with multiple neurologic conditions, for which seizure disorders comprise the largest group. The GluN2A subunit appears to be a locus for epilepsy, which holds important therapeutic implications. Virtually all α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptor mutations, most of which occur within GRIA3, are from patients with intellectual disabilities, suggesting a link to this condition. Similarly, the most common phenotype for kainate receptor variants is intellectual disability. Herein, we summarize the current understanding of disease-associated mutations in ionotropic GABA and glutamate receptor families, and discuss implications regarding the identification of human mutations and treatment of neurologic diseases. PMID:25904555

  16. Ionotropic GABA and Glutamate Receptor Mutations and Human Neurologic Diseases.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Hongjie; Low, Chian-Ming; Moody, Olivia A; Jenkins, Andrew; Traynelis, Stephen F

    2015-07-01

    The advent of whole exome/genome sequencing and the technology-driven reduction in the cost of next-generation sequencing as well as the introduction of diagnostic-targeted sequencing chips have resulted in an unprecedented volume of data directly linking patient genomic variability to disorders of the brain. This information has the potential to transform our understanding of neurologic disorders by improving diagnoses, illuminating the molecular heterogeneity underlying diseases, and identifying new targets for therapeutic treatment. There is a strong history of mutations in GABA receptor genes being involved in neurologic diseases, particularly the epilepsies. In addition, a substantial number of variants and mutations have been found in GABA receptor genes in patients with autism, schizophrenia, and addiction, suggesting potential links between the GABA receptors and these conditions. A new and unexpected outcome from sequencing efforts has been the surprising number of mutations found in glutamate receptor subunits, with the GRIN2A gene encoding the GluN2A N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor subunit being most often affected. These mutations are associated with multiple neurologic conditions, for which seizure disorders comprise the largest group. The GluN2A subunit appears to be a locus for epilepsy, which holds important therapeutic implications. Virtually all α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptor mutations, most of which occur within GRIA3, are from patients with intellectual disabilities, suggesting a link to this condition. Similarly, the most common phenotype for kainate receptor variants is intellectual disability. Herein, we summarize the current understanding of disease-associated mutations in ionotropic GABA and glutamate receptor families, and discuss implications regarding the identification of human mutations and treatment of neurologic diseases.

  17. Ionotropic GABA and Glutamate Receptor Mutations and Human Neurologic Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Hongjie; Low, Chian-Ming; Moody, Olivia A.; Jenkins, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    The advent of whole exome/genome sequencing and the technology-driven reduction in the cost of next-generation sequencing as well as the introduction of diagnostic-targeted sequencing chips have resulted in an unprecedented volume of data directly linking patient genomic variability to disorders of the brain. This information has the potential to transform our understanding of neurologic disorders by improving diagnoses, illuminating the molecular heterogeneity underlying diseases, and identifying new targets for therapeutic treatment. There is a strong history of mutations in GABA receptor genes being involved in neurologic diseases, particularly the epilepsies. In addition, a substantial number of variants and mutations have been found in GABA receptor genes in patients with autism, schizophrenia, and addiction, suggesting potential links between the GABA receptors and these conditions. A new and unexpected outcome from sequencing efforts has been the surprising number of mutations found in glutamate receptor subunits, with the GRIN2A gene encoding the GluN2A N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor subunit being most often affected. These mutations are associated with multiple neurologic conditions, for which seizure disorders comprise the largest group. The GluN2A subunit appears to be a locus for epilepsy, which holds important therapeutic implications. Virtually all α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptor mutations, most of which occur within GRIA3, are from patients with intellectual disabilities, suggesting a link to this condition. Similarly, the most common phenotype for kainate receptor variants is intellectual disability. Herein, we summarize the current understanding of disease-associated mutations in ionotropic GABA and glutamate receptor families, and discuss implications regarding the identification of human mutations and treatment of neurologic diseases. PMID:25904555

  18. [Influence of exogenous gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) on GABA metabolism and amino acid contents in roots of melon seedling under hypoxia stress].

    PubMed

    Wang, Chun-Yan; Li, Jing-Rui; Xia, Qing-Ping; Wu, Xiao-Lei; Gao, Hong-Bo

    2014-07-01

    This paper investigated the influence of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) on GABA metabolism and amino acid content under hypoxia stress by accurately controlling the level of dissolved oxygen in hydroponics, using the roots of melon 'Xiyu 1' seedlings as the test material. The results showed that compared with the control, the growth of roots was inhibited seriously under hypoxia stress. Meanwhile, the hypoxia-treated roots had significantly higher activities of glutamate decarboxylase (GAD), glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH), glutamate synthase (GOGAT), glutamine synthetase (GS), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) as well as the contents of GABA, pyruvic acid, alanine (Ala) and aspartic acid (Asp). But the contents of glutamic acid (Glu) and alpha-keto glutaric acid in roots under hypoxia stress was obviously lower than those of the control. Exogenous treatment with GABA alleviated the inhibition effect of hypoxia stress on root growth, which was accompanied by an increase in the contents of endogenous GABA, Glu, alpha-keto glutaric acid and Asp. Furthermore, under hypoxia stress, the activities of GAD, GDH, GOGAT, GS, ALT, AST as well as the contents of pyruvic acid and Ala significantly decreased in roots treated with GABA. However, adding GABA and viny-gamma-aminobutyric acid (VGB) reduced the alleviation effect of GABA on melon seedlings under hypoxia stress. The results suggested that absorption of GABA by roots could alleviate the injury of hypoxia stress to melon seedlings. This meant that GABA treatment allows the normal physiological metabolism under hypoxia by inhibiting the GAD activity through feedback and maintaining higher Glu content as well as the bal- ance of carbon and nitrogen.

  19. Enhanced behavioral sensitivity to the competitive GABA agonist, gaboxadol, in transgenic mice over-expressing hippocampal extrasynaptic alpha6beta GABA(A) receptors.

    PubMed

    Saarelainen, Kati S; Ranna, Martin; Rabe, Holger; Sinkkonen, Saku T; Möykkynen, Tommi; Uusi-Oukari, Mikko; Linden, Anni-Maija; Lüddens, Hartmut; Korpi, Esa R

    2008-04-01

    The behavioral and functional significance of the extrasynaptic inhibitory GABA(A) receptors in the brain is still poorly known. We used a transgenic mouse line expressing the GABA(A) receptor alpha6 subunit gene in the forebrain under the Thy-1.2 promoter (Thy1alpha6) mice ectopically expressing alpha6 subunits especially in the hippocampus to study how extrasynaptically enriched alphabeta(gamma2)-type receptors alter animal behavior and receptor responses. In these mice extrasynaptic alpha6beta receptors make up about 10% of the hippocampal GABA(A) receptors resulting in imbalance between synaptic and extrasynaptic inhibition. The synthetic GABA-site competitive agonist gaboxadol (4,5,6,7-tetrahydroisoxazolo[5,4-c]pyridin-3-ol; 3 mg/kg) induced remarkable anxiolytic-like response in the light : dark exploration and elevated plus-maze tests in Thy1alpha6 mice, while being almost inactive in wild-type mice. The transgenic mice also lost quicker and for longer time their righting reflex after 25 mg/kg gaboxadol than wild-type mice. In hippocampal sections of Thy1alpha6 mice, the alpha6beta receptors could be visualized autoradiographically by interactions between gaboxadol and GABA via [(35)S]TBPS binding to the GABA(A) receptor ionophore. Gaboxadol inhibition of the binding could be partially prevented by GABA. Electrophysiology of recombinant GABA(A) receptors revealed that GABA was a partial agonist at alpha6beta3 and alpha6beta3delta receptors, but a full agonist at alpha6beta3gamma2 receptors when compared with gaboxadol. The results suggest strong behavioral effects via selective pharmacological activation of enriched extrasynaptic alphabeta GABA(A) receptors, and the mouse model represents an example of the functional consequences of altered balance between extrasynaptic and synaptic inhibition.

  20. [Influence of exogenous gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) on GABA metabolism and amino acid contents in roots of melon seedling under hypoxia stress].

    PubMed

    Wang, Chun-Yan; Li, Jing-Rui; Xia, Qing-Ping; Wu, Xiao-Lei; Gao, Hong-Bo

    2014-07-01

    This paper investigated the influence of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) on GABA metabolism and amino acid content under hypoxia stress by accurately controlling the level of dissolved oxygen in hydroponics, using the roots of melon 'Xiyu 1' seedlings as the test material. The results showed that compared with the control, the growth of roots was inhibited seriously under hypoxia stress. Meanwhile, the hypoxia-treated roots had significantly higher activities of glutamate decarboxylase (GAD), glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH), glutamate synthase (GOGAT), glutamine synthetase (GS), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) as well as the contents of GABA, pyruvic acid, alanine (Ala) and aspartic acid (Asp). But the contents of glutamic acid (Glu) and alpha-keto glutaric acid in roots under hypoxia stress was obviously lower than those of the control. Exogenous treatment with GABA alleviated the inhibition effect of hypoxia stress on root growth, which was accompanied by an increase in the contents of endogenous GABA, Glu, alpha-keto glutaric acid and Asp. Furthermore, under hypoxia stress, the activities of GAD, GDH, GOGAT, GS, ALT, AST as well as the contents of pyruvic acid and Ala significantly decreased in roots treated with GABA. However, adding GABA and viny-gamma-aminobutyric acid (VGB) reduced the alleviation effect of GABA on melon seedlings under hypoxia stress. The results suggested that absorption of GABA by roots could alleviate the injury of hypoxia stress to melon seedlings. This meant that GABA treatment allows the normal physiological metabolism under hypoxia by inhibiting the GAD activity through feedback and maintaining higher Glu content as well as the bal- ance of carbon and nitrogen. PMID:25345052

  1. Modulation of GABA release from the thalamic reticular nucleus by cocaine and caffeine: role of serotonin receptors.

    PubMed

    Goitia, Belén; Rivero-Echeto, María Celeste; Weisstaub, Noelia V; Gingrich, Jay A; Garcia-Rill, Edgar; Bisagno, Verónica; Urbano, Francisco J

    2016-02-01

    Serotonin receptors are targets of drug therapies for a variety of neuropsychiatric and neurodegenerative disorders. Cocaine inhibits the re-uptake of serotonin (5-HT), dopamine, and noradrenaline, whereas caffeine blocks adenosine receptors and opens ryanodine receptors in the endoplasmic reticulum. We studied how 5-HT and adenosine affected spontaneous GABAergic transmission from thalamic reticular nucleus. We combined whole-cell patch clamp recordings of miniature inhibitory post-synaptic currents (mIPSCs) in ventrobasal thalamic neurons during local (puff) application of 5-HT in wild type (WT) or knockout mice lacking 5-HT2A receptors (5-HT2A -/-). Inhibition of mIPSCs frequency by low (10 μM) and high (100 μM) 5-HT concentrations was observed in ventrobasal neurons from 5-HT2A -/- mice. In WT mice, only 100 μM 5-HT significantly reduced mIPSCs frequency. In 5-HT2A -/- mice, NAN-190, a specific 5-HT1A antagonist, prevented the 100 μM 5-HT inhibition while blocking H-currents that prolonged inhibition during post-puff periods. The inhibitory effects of 100 μM 5-HT were enhanced in cocaine binge-treated 5-HT2A -/- mice. Caffeine binge treatment did not affect 5-HT-mediated inhibition. Our findings suggest that both 5-HT1A and 5-HT2A receptors are present in pre-synaptic thalamic reticular nucleus terminals. Serotonergic-mediated inhibition of GABA release could underlie aberrant thalamocortical physiology described after repetitive consumption of cocaine. Our findings suggest that both 5-HT1A , 5-HT2A and A1 receptors are present in pre-synaptic TRN terminals. 5-HT1A and A1 receptors would down-regulate adenylate cyclase, whereas 5-HT1A would also increase the probability of the opening of G-protein-activated inwardly rectifying K(+) channels (GIRK). Sustained opening of GIRK channels would hyperpolarize pre-synaptic terminals activating H-currents, resulting in less GABA release. 5-HT2A -would activate PLC and IP3 , increasing intracellular [Ca(2+) ] and

  2. Wakefulness Is Governed by GABA and Histamine Cotransmission

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Xiao; Ye, Zhiwen; Houston, Catriona M.; Zecharia, Anna Y.; Ma, Ying; Zhang, Zhe; Uygun, David S.; Parker, Susan; Vyssotski, Alexei L.; Yustos, Raquel; Franks, Nicholas P.; Brickley, Stephen G.; Wisden, William

    2015-01-01

    Summary Histaminergic neurons in the tuberomammilary nucleus (TMN) of the hypothalamus form a widely projecting, wake-active network that sustains arousal. Yet most histaminergic neurons contain GABA. Selective siRNA knockdown of the vesicular GABA transporter (vgat, SLC32A1) in histaminergic neurons produced hyperactive mice with an exceptional amount of sustained wakefulness. Ablation of the vgat gene throughout the TMN further sharpened this phenotype. Optogenetic stimulation in the caudate-putamen and neocortex of “histaminergic” axonal projections from the TMN evoked tonic (extrasynaptic) GABAA receptor Cl− currents onto medium spiny neurons and pyramidal neurons. These currents were abolished following vgat gene removal from the TMN area. Thus wake-active histaminergic neurons generate a paracrine GABAergic signal that serves to provide a brake on overactivation from histamine, but could also increase the precision of neocortical processing. The long range of histamine-GABA axonal projections suggests that extrasynaptic inhibition will be coordinated over large neocortical and striatal areas. PMID:26094607

  3. GABA receptor subunit composition relative to insecticide potency and selectivity.

    PubMed

    Ratra, G S; Casida, J E

    2001-07-01

    Three observations on the 4-[(3)H]propyl-4'-ethynylbicycloorthobenzoate ([(3)H]EBOB) binding site in the gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptor indicate the specific target for insecticide action in human brain and a possible mechanism for selectivity. First, from published data, alpha-endosulfan, lindane and fipronil compete for the [(3)H]EBOB binding site with affinities of 0.3--7 nM in both human recombinant homooligomeric beta 3 receptors and housefly head membranes. Second, from structure-activity studies, including new data, GABAergic insecticide binding potency on the pentameric receptor formed from the beta 3 subunit correlates well with that on the housefly receptor (r=0.88, n=20). This conserved inhibitor specificity is consistent with known sequence homologies in the housefly GABA receptor and the human GABA(A) receptor beta 3 subunit. Third, as mostly new findings, various combinations of alpha 1, alpha 6, and gamma 2 subunits coexpressed with a beta 1 or beta 3 subunit confer differential insecticide binding sensitivity, particularly to fipronil, indicating that subunit composition is a major factor in insecticide selectivity.

  4. Dopamine and aging: intersecting facets.

    PubMed

    Rollo, C David

    2009-04-01

    Aging encompasses life itself so understanding requires frameworks that forge unity amidst complexity. The free radical theory of aging is one example. The original focus on damage was augmented recently by appreciation that reactive oxygen and nitrogen species are essential to normal signaling and cell function. This paradigm is currently undergoing an explosive expansion fueled by the discovery that regulatory organization is a merry-go-round of redox cycling seamlessly fused to endogenous clocks. This might best be described as an "Electroplasmic Cycle." This is certainly applicable to dopaminergic neurons with their exceptional metabolic, electrical and rhythmic properties. Here I review normal aging of dopamine systems to highlight them as a valuable model. I then examine the possible integration of free radical and ion channel theories of aging. Finally, I incorporate clocks and explore the multifaceted implications of electroplasmic cycles with special emphasis on dopamine.

  5. Dopamine, uncertainty and TD learning

    PubMed Central

    Niv, Yael; Duff, Michael O; Dayan, Peter

    2005-01-01

    Substantial evidence suggests that the phasic activities of dopaminergic neurons in the primate midbrain represent a temporal difference (TD) error in predictions of future reward, with increases above and decreases below baseline consequent on positive and negative prediction errors, respectively. However, dopamine cells have very low baseline activity, which implies that the representation of these two sorts of error is asymmetric. We explore the implications of this seemingly innocuous asymmetry for the interpretation of dopaminergic firing patterns in experiments with probabilistic rewards which bring about persistent prediction errors. In particular, we show that when averaging the non-stationary prediction errors across trials, a ramping in the activity of the dopamine neurons should be apparent, whose magnitude is dependent on the learning rate. This exact phenomenon was observed in a recent experiment, though being interpreted there in antipodal terms as a within-trial encoding of uncertainty. PMID:15953384

  6. Relative efficacies of 1,4-diazepines on GABA-stimulated chloride influx in rat brain vesicles

    SciTech Connect

    Ikeda, Masaaki; Weber, K.H.; Bechtel, W.D.; Malatynska, E.; Yamamura, H.I.

    1989-01-01

    The effects of 1,4-diazepines with two annelated heterocycles (brotizolam (WE 941), ciclotizolam (WE 973) and WE 1008) on gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-stimulated chloride influx into rat brain membrane vesicles were examined. Brotizolam enhanced GABA-stimulated /sup 36/Cl/sup /minus// influx, while ciclotizolam and WE 1008 showed only a small enhancement of GABA-stimulated /sup 36/Cl/sup /minus// uptake. Brotizolam resulted in a left shift of the GABA dose response curve at lower concentrations of GABA, while at higher concentrations of GABA, brotizolam caused a reduction of the maximal response. The enhancement of GABA-stimulated /sup 36/Cl/sup /minus// uptake by brotizolam was antagonized by Ro 15-1788. At higher concentration of GABA (300 /mu/M), brotizolam inhibited GABA-stimulated /sup 36/Cl/sup /minus// uptake in a dose dependent manner and Ro 15-1788 failed to antagonize this effect.

  7. Nonvesicular inhibitory neurotransmission via reversal of the GABA transporter GAT-1.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yuanming; Wang, Wengang; Díez-Sampedro, Ana; Richerson, George B

    2007-12-01

    GABA transporters play an important but poorly understood role in neuronal inhibition. They can reverse, but this is widely thought to occur only under pathological conditions. Here we use a heterologous expression system to show that the reversal potential of GAT-1 under physiologically relevant conditions is near the normal resting potential of neurons and that reversal can occur rapidly enough to release GABA during simulated action potentials. We then use paired recordings from cultured hippocampal neurons and show that GABAergic transmission is not prevented by four methods widely used to block vesicular release. This nonvesicular neurotransmission was potently blocked by GAT-1 antagonists and was enhanced by agents that increase cytosolic [GABA] or [Na(+)] (which would increase GAT-1 reversal). We conclude that GAT-1 regulates tonic inhibition by clamping ambient [GABA] at a level high enough to activate high-affinity GABA(A) receptors and that transporter-mediated GABA release can contribute to phasic inhibition.

  8. Early depolarizing GABA controls critical period plasticity in the rat visual cortex

    PubMed Central

    Deidda, Gabriele; Allegra, Manuela; Cerri, Chiara; Naskar, Shovan; Bony, Guillaume; Zunino, Giulia; Bozzi, Yuri; Caleo, Matteo; Cancedda, Laura

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Hyperpolarizing and inhibitory GABA regulates “critical periods” for plasticity in sensory cortices. Here, we examine the role of early, depolarizing GABA in controlling plasticity mechanisms. We report that brief interference with depolarizing GABA during early development prolonged critical period plasticity in visual cortical circuits, without affecting overall development of the visual system. The effects on plasticity were accompanied by dampened inhibitory neurotransmission, down-regulation of BDNF expression, and reduced density of extracellular matrix-perineuronal nets. Early interference with depolarizing GABA decreased perinatal BDNF signaling, and pharmacological increase of BDNF signaling during GABA interference rescued the effects on plasticity and its regulators later in life. We conclude that depolarizing GABA exerts a long-lasting, selective modulation of plasticity of cortical circuits by a strong crosstalk with BDNF. PMID:25485756

  9. Depression of Serotonin Synaptic Transmission by the Dopamine Precursor L-DOPA.

    PubMed

    Gantz, Stephanie C; Levitt, Erica S; Llamosas, Nerea; Neve, Kim A; Williams, John T

    2015-08-11

    Imbalance between the dopamine and serotonin (5-HT) neurotransmitter systems has been implicated in the comorbidity of Parkinson's disease (PD) and psychiatric disorders. L-DOPA, the leading treatment of PD, facilitates the production and release of dopamine. This study assessed the action of L-DOPA on monoamine synaptic transmission in mouse brain slices. Application of L-DOPA augmented the D2-receptor-mediated inhibitory postsynaptic current (IPSC) in dopamine neurons of the substantia nigra. This augmentation was largely due to dopamine release from 5-HT terminals. Selective optogenetic stimulation of 5-HT terminals evoked dopamine release, producing D2-receptor-mediated IPSCs following treatment with L-DOPA. In the dorsal raphe, L-DOPA produced a long-lasting depression of the 5-HT1A-receptor-mediated IPSC in 5-HT neurons. When D2 receptors were expressed in the dorsal raphe, application of L-DOPA resulted in a D2-receptor-mediated IPSC. Thus, treatment with L-DOPA caused ectopic dopamine release from 5-HT terminals and a loss of 5-HT-mediated synaptic transmission. PMID:26235617

  10. Analogues of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and trans-4-aminocrotonic acid (TACA) substituted in the 2 position as GABAC receptor antagonists.

    PubMed

    Chebib, M; Vandenberg, R J; Johnston, G A

    1997-12-01

    1. gamma-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) and trans-4-aminocrotonic acid (TACA) have been shown to activate GABAC receptors. In this study, a range of C2, C3, C4 and N-substituted GABA and TACA analogues were examined for activity at GABAC receptors. 2. The effects of these compounds were examined by use of electrophysiological recording from Xenopus oocytes expressing the human rho 1 subunit of GABAC receptors with the two-electrode voltage-clamp method. 3. trans-4-Amino-2-fluorobut-2-enoic acid was found to be a potent agonist (KD = 2.43 microM). In contrast, trans-4-amino-2-methylbut-2-enoic acid was found to be a moderately potent antagonist (IC50 = 31.0 microM and KB = 45.5 microM). These observations highlight the possibility that subtle structural substitutions may change an agonist into an antagonist. 4. 4-Amino-2-methylbutanoic acid (KD = 189 microM), 4-amino-2-methylenebutanoic acid (KD = 182 microM) and 4-amino-2-chlorobutanoic acid (KD = 285 microM) were weak partial agonists. The intrinsic activities of these compounds were 12.1%, 4.4% and 5.2% of the maximal response of GABA, respectively. These compounds more effectively blocked the effects of the agonist, GABA, giving rise to KB values of 53 microM and 101 microM, respectively. 5. The sulphinic acid analogue of GABA, homohypotaurine, was found to be a potent partial agonist (KD = 4.59 microM, intrinsic activity 69%). 6. It was concluded that substitution of a methyl or a halo group in the C2 position of GABA or TACA is tolerated at GABAC receptors. However, there was dramatic loss of activity when these groups were substituted at the C3, C4 and nitrogen positions of GABA and TACA. 7. Molecular modelling studies on a range of active and inactive compounds indicated that the agonist/competitive antagonist binding site of the GABAC receptor may be smaller than that of the GABAA and GABAB receptors. It is suggested that only compounds that can attain relatively flat conformations may bind to the GABAC receptor

  11. Multiple mechanisms of picrotoxin block of GABA-induced currents in rat hippocampal neurons.

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, K W; Covey, D F; Rothman, S M

    1993-01-01

    1. We have examined the effect of picrotoxin on GABA-induced currents in dissociated rat hippocampal neurons. In addition, we used the putative picrotoxin receptor antagonist, alpha-isopropyl-alpha-methyl-gamma-butyrolactone (alpha IMGBL), and the picrotoxin agonist, beta-ethyl-beta-methyl-gamma-butyrolactone (beta EMGBL) to explore the mechanisms of picrotoxin's interaction with the GABA-Cl- receptor-ionophore complex. 2. The picrotoxin block of GABA current was use dependent, suggesting that the site of picrotoxin block is exposed by the conformational change initiated by GABA binding to the receptor. 3. The alkyl-substituted butyrolactone antagonist, alpha IMGBL, selectively blocked the use-dependent mechanism of picrotoxin effect. After the apparent complete inhibition of the use-dependent effect, there was a residual picrotoxin effect that was independent of the time or concentration of GABA application. This indicates that the picrotoxin block of the GABA current is mediated by two different mechanisms. alpha IMGBL influences just one of these mechanisms. 4. The picrotoxin receptor agonist, beta EMGBL, exclusively blocked the GABA current in a use-dependent manner. Consistent with a use-dependent mechanism, the rate of onset of block increased with GABA concentration. Surprisingly, the fraction of GABA current block decreased with increasing GABA concentration. 5. These results suggest that the relationship of picrotoxin and gamma-butyrolactones with the GABA-Cl- receptor-ionophore is quite complex. They are consistent with at least two possible models of agonist-antagonist interactions. Both cases require different antagonist affinities for the various kinetic states of the GABA-Cl- receptor-ionophore. However, there is no need to require that either picrotoxin or beta EMGBL acts as an open channel blocker. PMID:8229811

  12. Dopamine receptors – IUPHAR Review 13

    PubMed Central

    Beaulieu, Jean-Martin; Espinoza, Stefano; Gainetdinov, Raul R

    2015-01-01

    The variety of physiological functions controlled by dopamine in the brain and periphery is mediated by the D1, D2, D3, D4 and D5 dopamine GPCRs. Drugs acting on dopamine receptors are significant tools for the management of several neuropsychiatric disorders including schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, depression and Parkinson's disease. Recent investigations of dopamine receptor signalling have shown that dopamine receptors, apart from their canonical action on cAMP-mediated signalling, can regulate a myriad of cellular responses to fine-tune the expression of dopamine-associated behaviours and functions. Such signalling mechanisms may involve alternate G protein coupling or non-G protein mechanisms involving ion channels, receptor tyrosine kinases or proteins such as β-arrestins that are classically involved in GPCR desensitization. Another level of complexity is the growing appreciation of the physiological roles played by dopamine receptor heteromers. Applications of new in vivo techniques have significantly furthered the understanding of the physiological functions played by dopamine receptors. Here we provide an update of the current knowledge regarding the complex biology, signalling, physiology and pharmacology of dopamine receptors. PMID:25671228

  13. Mesolimbic Dopamine Signals the Value of Work

    PubMed Central

    Hamid, Arif A.; Pettibone, Jeffrey R.; Mabrouk, Omar S.; Hetrick, Vaughn L.; Schmidt, Robert; Vander Weele, Caitlin M.; Kennedy, Robert T.; Aragona, Brandon J.; Berke, Joshua D.

    2015-01-01

    Dopamine cell firing can encode errors in reward prediction, providing a learning signal to guide future behavior. Yet dopamine is also a key modulator of motivation, invigorating current behavior. Existing theories propose that fast (“phasic”) dopamine fluctuations support learning, while much slower (“tonic”) dopamine changes are involved in motivation. We examined dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens across multiple time scales, using complementary microdialysis and voltammetric methods during adaptive decision-making. We first show that minute-by-minute dopamine levels covary with reward rate and motivational vigor. We then show that second-by-second dopamine release encodes an estimate of temporally-discounted future reward (a value function). We demonstrate that changing dopamine immediately alters willingness to work, and reinforces preceding action choices by encoding temporal-difference reward prediction errors. Our results indicate that dopamine conveys a single, rapidly-evolving decision variable, the available reward for investment of effort, that is employed for both learning and motivational functions. PMID:26595651

  14. Transmembrane segment five serines of the D4 dopamine receptor uniquely influence the interactions of dopamine, norepinephrine, and Ro10-4548.

    PubMed

    Cummings, David F; Ericksen, Spencer S; Goetz, Angela; Schetz, John A

    2010-06-01

    Conserved serines of transmembrane segment (TM) five (TM5) are critical for the interactions of endogenous catecholamines with alpha(1)- and alpha(2)-adrenergic, beta(2)-adrenergic, and D1, D2, and D3 dopamine receptors. The unique high-affinity interaction of the D4 dopamine receptor subtype with both norepinephrine and dopamine, and the fact that TM5 serine interactions have never been studied for this receptor subtype, led us to investigate the interactions of ligands with D4 receptor TM5 serines. Serine-to-alanine mutations at positions 5.42 and 5.46 drastically decreased affinities of dopamine and norepinephrine for the D4 receptor. The D4-S5.43A receptor mutant had substantially reduced affinity for norepinephrine, but a modest loss of affinity for dopamine. In functional assays of cAMP accumulation, norephinephrine was unable to activate any of the mutant receptors, even though the agonist quinpirole displayed wild-type functional properties for all of them. Dopamine was unable to activate the S5.46A mutant and had reduced potency for the S5.43A mutant and reduced potency and efficacy for the S5.42A mutant. In contrast, Ro10-4548 [RAC-2'-2-hydroxy-3-4-(4-hydroxy-2-methoxyphenyl)-1-piperazinyl-propoxy-acetanilide], a catechol-like antagonist of the wild-type receptor unexpectedly functions as an agonist of the S5.43A mutant. Other noncatechol ligands had similar properties for mutant and wild-type receptors. This is the first example of a dopamine receptor point mutation selectively changing the receptor's interaction with a specific antagonist to that of an agonist, and together with other data, provides evidence, supported by molecular modeling, that catecholamine-type agonism is induced by different ligand-specific configurations of intermolecular H-bonds with the TM5 conserved serines. PMID:20215412

  15. Enhanced phasic GABA inhibition during the repair phase of stroke: a novel therapeutic target

    PubMed Central

    Paz, Jeanne T.; Wang, Eric Hou Jen; Badgely, Corrine; Olson, Andrew; Micheva, Kristina D.; Wang, Gordon; Lemmens, Robin; Tran, Kevin V.; Nishiyama, Yasuhiro; Liang, Xibin; Hamilton, Scott A.; O’Rourke, Nancy; Smith, Stephen J.; Huguenard, John R.; Bliss, Tonya M.

    2016-01-01

    Ischaemic stroke is the leading cause of severe long-term disability yet lacks drug therapies that promote the repair phase of recovery. This repair phase of stroke occurs days to months after stroke onset and involves brain remapping and plasticity within the peri-infarct zone. Elucidating mechanisms that promote this plasticity is critical for the development of new therapeutics with a broad treatment window. Inhibiting tonic (extrasynaptic) GABA signalling during the repair phase was reported to enhance functional recovery in mice suggesting that GABA plays an important function in modulating brain repair. While tonic GABA appears to suppress brain repair after stroke, less is known about the role of phasic (synaptic) GABA during the repair phase. We observed an increase in postsynaptic phasic GABA signalling in mice within the peri-infarct cortex specific to layer 5; we found increased numbers of α1 receptor subunit-containing GABAergic synapses detected using array tomography, and an associated increased efficacy of spontaneous and miniature inhibitory postsynaptic currents in pyramidal neurons. Furthermore, we demonstrate that enhancing phasic GABA signalling using zolpidem, a Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved GABA-positive allosteric modulator, during the repair phase improved behavioural recovery. These data identify potentiation of phasic GABA signalling as a novel therapeutic strategy, indicate zolpidem’s potential to improve recovery, and underscore the necessity to distinguish the role of tonic and phasic GABA signalling in stroke recovery. PMID:26685158

  16. Thioperamide, a histamine H3 receptor antagonist, increases GABA release from the rat hypothalamus.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Y; Mochizuki, T; Okakura-Mochizuki, K; Uno, A; Yamatodani, A

    1997-06-01

    Using a microdialysis method and a new high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-fluorometric method for the detection of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), we investigated the effect of thioperamide, an H3 receptor antagonist, on the GABA content in the dialysate from the anterior hypothalamic area of rats anesthetized with urethane. The addition of thioperamide to the perfusion fluid increased the release of GABA and histamine. Depleting neuronal histamine with alpha-fluoromethylhistidine, a specific inhibitor of histidine decarboxylase, and the administration of immepip, an H3 agonist, had no effect on basal- and thioperamide-induced GABA release. In addition, an infusion of clobenpropit, the most specific H3 receptor antagonist available, did not alter the basal release of GABA. On the other hand, histamine release was decreased by immepip and increased by thioperamide and clobenpropit. Removing Ca2+ from the perfusion fluid did not alter the effect of thioperamide on the GABA release, whereas that on histamine release was abrogated. These results suggest that the effect of thioperamide on GABA release is not mediated by histamine H3 receptors and that thioperamide acts on the transporter to cause an efflux of GABA from neurons and/or glia. Thioperamide is a popular H3 receptor antagonist which has been used applied to many studies. However, results using this compound should be interpreted in consideration of its effects on GABA release.

  17. Distinct roles for GABA across multiple timescales in mammalian circadian timekeeping

    PubMed Central

    DeWoskin, Daniel; Myung, Jihwan; Belle, Mino D. C.; Piggins, Hugh D.; Takumi, Toru; Forger, Daniel B.

    2015-01-01

    The suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN), the central circadian pacemakers in mammals, comprise a multiscale neuronal system that times daily events. We use recent advances in graphics processing unit computing to generate a multiscale model for the SCN that resolves cellular electrical activity down to the timescale of individual action potentials and the intracellular molecular events that generate circadian rhythms. We use the model to study the role of the neurotransmitter GABA in synchronizing circadian rhythms among individual SCN neurons, a topic of much debate in the circadian community. The model predicts that GABA signaling has two components: phasic (fast) and tonic (slow). Phasic GABA postsynaptic currents are released after action potentials, and can both increase or decrease firing rate, depending on their timing in the interspike interval, a modeling hypothesis we experimentally validate; this allows flexibility in the timing of circadian output signals. Phasic GABA, however, does not significantly affect molecular timekeeping. The tonic GABA signal is released when cells become very excited and depolarized; it changes the excitability of neurons in the network, can shift molecular rhythms, and affects SCN synchrony. We measure which neurons are excited or inhibited by GABA across the day and find GABA-excited neurons are synchronized by—and GABA-inhibited neurons repelled from—this tonic GABA signal, which modulates the synchrony in the SCN provided by other signaling molecules. Our mathematical model also provides an important tool for circadian research, and a model computational system for the many multiscale projects currently studying brain function. PMID:26130805

  18. Profound desensitization by ambient GABA limits activation of δ-containing GABAA receptors during spillover.

    PubMed

    Bright, Damian P; Renzi, Massimiliano; Bartram, Julian; McGee, Thomas P; MacKenzie, Georgina; Hosie, Alastair M; Farrant, Mark; Brickley, Stephen G

    2011-01-12

    High-affinity extrasynaptic GABA(A) receptors (GABA(A)Rs) are a prominent feature of cerebellar granule neurons and thalamic relay neurons. In both cell types, the presence of synaptic glomeruli would be expected to promote activation of these GABA(A)Rs, contributing to phasic spillover-mediated currents and tonic inhibition. However, the precise role of different receptor subtypes in these two phenomena is unclear. To address this question, we made recordings from neurons in acute brain slices from mice, and from tsA201 cells expressing recombinant GABA(A)Rs. We found that δ subunit-containing GABA(A)Rs of both cerebellar granule neurons and thalamic relay neurons of the lateral geniculate nucleus contributed to tonic conductance caused by ambient GABA but not to spillover-mediated currents. In the presence of a low "ambient" GABA concentration, recombinant "extrasynaptic" δ subunit-containing GABA(A)Rs exhibited profound desensitization, rendering them insensitive to brief synaptic- or spillover-like GABA transients. Together, our results demonstrate that phasic spillover and tonic inhibition reflect the activation of distinct receptor populations.

  19. Edited Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy Detects an Age-Related Decline in Nonhuman Primate Brain GABA Levels

    PubMed Central

    Killiany, Ronald J.

    2016-01-01

    Recent research had shown a correlation between aging and decreasing Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), the primary inhibitory neurotransmitter in the brain. However, how GABA level varies with age in the medial portion of the brain has not yet been studied. The purpose of this study was to investigate the GABA level variation with age focusing on the posterior cingulate cortex, which is the “core hub” of the default mode network. In this study, 14 monkeys between 4 and 21 years were recruited, and MEGA-PRESS MRS was performed to measure GABA levels, in order to explore a potential link between aging and GABA. Our results showed that a correlation between age and GABA+/Creatine ratio was at the edge of significance (r = −0.523, p = 0.081). There was also a near-significant trend between gray matter/white matter ratio and the GABA+/Creatine ratio (r = −0.518, p = 0.0848). Meanwhile, the correlation between age and grey matter showed no significance (r = −0.028, p = 0.93). Therefore, age and gray matter/white matter ratio account for different part of R-squared (adjusted R-squared = 0.5187) as independent variables for predicting GABA levels. Adjusted R-squared is about 0.5 for two independent variables. These findings suggest that there is internal neurochemical variation of GABA levels in the nonhuman primates associated with normal aging and structural brain decline.

  20. Neuronal transmembrane chloride electrochemical gradient: a key player in GABA A receptor activation physiological effect.

    PubMed

    Cupello, A

    2003-06-01

    It has long been accepted that GABA is the main inhibitory neurotransmitter in the mammalian brain, acting via GABA(A) or GABA(B) receptors. However, new evidences have shown that it may work as an excitatory transmitter, especially in the brain of newly-born animals and acting via GABA(A) receptors. The difference in the end results of GABA(A) receptors activation in the two cases is not due to the receptor associated channels, which in both cases are chloride channels. The different physiological effect in the two cases is due to different electrochemical gradients for chloride. When GABA acting via GABA(A) receptors is inhibitory, either there is no transmembrane electrochemical gradient for chloride or there is one forcing such negative ions into the nerve cell, once chloride channels are open. Viceversa, GABA is excitatory when the electrochemical gradient is such to make chloride ions flow outside the cell, upon opening of the GABA activated chloride channels.In this review this concept is discussed in details and evidence in the scientific literature for the existence of different types of chloride pumps (either internalizing or extruding chloride) is compiled.

  1. Neurotransmitters as food supplements: the effects of GABA on brain and behavior

    PubMed Central

    Boonstra, Evert; de Kleijn, Roy; Colzato, Lorenza S.; Alkemade, Anneke; Forstmann, Birte U.; Nieuwenhuis, Sander

    2015-01-01

    Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is the main inhibitory neurotransmitter in the human cortex. The food supplement version of GABA is widely available online. Although many consumers claim that they experience benefits from the use of these products, it is unclear whether these supplements confer benefits beyond a placebo effect. Currently, the mechanism of action behind these products is unknown. It has long been thought that GABA is unable to cross the blood–brain barrier (BBB), but the studies that have assessed this issue are often contradictory and range widely in their employed methods. Accordingly, future research needs to establish the effects of oral GABA administration on GABA levels in the human brain, for example using magnetic resonance spectroscopy. There is some evidence in favor of a calming effect of GABA food supplements, but most of this evidence was reported by researchers with a potential conflict of interest. We suggest that any veridical effects of GABA food supplements on brain and cognition might be exerted through BBB passage or, more indirectly, via an effect on the enteric nervous system. We conclude that the mechanism of action of GABA food supplements is far from clear, and that further work is needed to establish the behavioral effects of GABA. PMID:26500584

  2. A study on quality components and sleep-promoting effects of GABA black tea.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Wenfang; Li, Yun; Ma, William; Ge, Yazhong; Huang, Yahui

    2015-10-01

    The aims of this study were to analyze the changes in quality components of gamma (γ)-aminobutyric acid (GABA) black tea during processing, and to investigate the effect of three dosages of GABA black tea on sleep improvement. The results showed that the GABA content was increased significantly up to 2.70 mg g(-1) after vacuum anaerobic and aerobic treatment. In addition, the content of GABA after drying reached 2.34 mg g(-1), which achieved the standard of GABA tea. During the entire processing of GABA black tea, the contents of tea polyphenols, caffeine and total catechins displayed a gradually descending trend, while the contents of free amino acids and GABA were firstly increased, and then reduced. The GABA black tea had significant effects on prolonging the sleeping time with sodium pentobarbital (P < 0.05) and significantly enhancing the sleeping rate induced by sodium pentobarbital at a sub-threshold dose (P < 0.05). But its effect on shortening the sleeping latency period induced by sodium barbital was not significant (P > 0.05). It had no effect on directly inducing sleep and the mouse body weight. The extract of GABA black tea improved the sleeping quality of mice to extend with an optimal effect being found in the high dose-treated mice. PMID:26290415

  3. Differential effects of petit mal anticonvulsants and convulsants on thalamic neurones: GABA current blockade.

    PubMed Central

    Coulter, D. A.; Huguenard, J. R.; Prince, D. A.

    1990-01-01

    1. Currents evoked by applications of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) to acutely dissociated thalamic neurones were analysed by voltage-clamp techniques, and the effects of the anticonvulsant succinimides ethosuximide (ES) and alpha-methyl-alpha-phenylsuccinimide (MPS) and the convulsants tetramethylsuccinimide (TMS), picrotoxin, pentylenetetrazol (PTZ), and bicuculline methiodide were assessed. 2. TMS (1 microM-10 microM) reduced responses to iontophoretically applied GABA, as did picrotoxin (0.1-100 microM), PTZ (1-100 mM) and bicuculline (1-100 microM). 3. ES, in high concentrations (1-10 mM), reduced GABA responses to a lesser extent, and also occluded the reductions in GABA-evoked currents produced by TMS, picrotoxin, and PTZ. ES did not occlude the effects of bicuculline on GABA responses. Therefore, we propose that ES acts as a partial agonist at the picrotoxin GABA-blocking receptor. 4. MPS had no effect on GABA responses (at a concentration of 1 mM), and, like ES, occluded the GABA-blocking actions of TMS, apparently acting as a full antagonist. 5. The anticonvulsant actions of ES and MPS against TMS and PTZ-induced seizures may thus involve two independent mechanisms: (1) the occlusion of TMS and PTZ GABA-blocking effects; and (2) the previously described specific effect of ES and MPS on low-threshold calcium current of thalamic neurones. The latter cellular mechanism may be more closely related to petit mal anticonvulsant activity. PMID:2119843

  4. The Impact of Frequency Drift on GABA-Edited MR Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Ashley D; Glaubitz, Benjamin; Near, Jamie; Evans, C John; Puts, Nicolaas A J; Schmidt-Wilcke, Tobias; Tegenthoff, Martin; Barker, Peter B; Edden, Richard A E

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the quantitative impact of frequency drift on GABA+-edited MRS of the human brain at 3T. Methods Three sequential GABA+-edited MEGA-PRESS acquisitions were acquired in fifteen sessions; in ten of these, MRS was preceded by fMRI to induce frequency drift, which was estimated from the creatine resonance at 3.0 ppm. Simulations were performed to examine the effects of frequency drift on the editing efficiency of GABA and co-edited macromolecules (MM) and of subtraction artifacts on GABA+ quantification. The efficacy of post-processing frequency correction was also investigated. Results Gradient-induced frequency drifts affect GABA+ quantification for at least 30 minutes after imaging. Average frequency drift was low in control sessions and as high as -2 Hz/min after fMRI. Uncorrected frequency drift has an approximately linear effect on GABA+ measurements with a -10 Hz drift resulting in a 16% decrease in GABA+, primarily due to subtraction artifacts. Conclusion Imaging acquisitions with high gradient duty cycles can impact subsequent GABA+ measurements. Post-processing can address subtraction artifacts, but not changes in editing efficiency or GABA:MM signal ratios, therefore protocol design should avoid intensive gradient sequences prior to edited MRS. PMID:24407931

  5. Extent of colocalization of serotonin and GABA in neurons of the ventral medulla oblongata in rat.

    PubMed

    Millhorn, D E; Hökfelt, T; Seroogy, K; Verhofstad, A A

    1988-09-27

    The colocalization of serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT) and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in the ventral aspect of the rat medulla oblongata was studied using antibodies directed against 5-HT and GABA. Although 5-HT- and GABA-immunoreactive cell bodies were observed over the entire rostral-caudal extent of the ventral medulla, the colocalization of these two classical neurotransmitters in single cells was, for the most part, limited to a region that corresponds anatomically to nucleus raphe magnus/nucleus paragigantocellularis. Schematic drawings showing the distribution of 5-HT/GABA cell bodies in the ventral medulla are provided. PMID:3066433

  6. GABA promotes human β-cell proliferation and modulates glucose homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Purwana, Indri; Zheng, Juan; Li, Xiaoming; Deurloo, Marielle; Son, Dong Ok; Zhang, Zhaoyun; Liang, Christie; Shen, Eddie; Tadkase, Akshaya; Feng, Zhong-Ping; Li, Yiming; Hasilo, Craig; Paraskevas, Steven; Bortell, Rita; Greiner, Dale L; Atkinson, Mark; Prud'homme, Gerald J; Wang, Qinghua

    2014-12-01

    γ-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) exerts protective and regenerative effects on mouse islet β-cells. However, in humans it is unknown whether it can increase β-cell mass and improve glucose homeostasis. To address this question, we transplanted a suboptimal mass of human islets into immunodeficient NOD-scid-γ mice with streptozotocin-induced diabetes. GABA treatment increased grafted β-cell proliferation, while decreasing apoptosis, leading to enhanced β-cell mass. This was associated with increased circulating human insulin and reduced glucagon levels. Importantly, GABA administration lowered blood glucose levels and improved glucose excursion rates. We investigated GABA receptor expression and signaling mechanisms. In human islets, GABA activated a calcium-dependent signaling pathway through both GABA A receptor and GABA B receptor. This activated the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-Akt and CREB-IRS-2 signaling pathways that convey GABA signals responsible for β-cell proliferation and survival. Our findings suggest that GABA regulates human β-cell mass and may be beneficial for the treatment of diabetes or improvement of islet transplantation.

  7. Unique insecticide specificity of human homomeric rho 1 GABA(C) receptor.

    PubMed

    Ratra, Gurpreet S; Erkkila, Brian E; Weiss, David S; Casida, John E

    2002-03-24

    Several convulsants and major insecticides block the gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-gated chloride channel in brain on binding to the GABA(A) receptor. The GABA(C) receptor, important in retina and present in brain, is also coupled to a chloride channel and is therefore a potential target for toxicant action examined here in radioligand binding and electrophysiological experiments. Human homomeric rho 1 GABA(C) receptor expressed in human embryonic kidney cells (HEK293) undergoes specific and saturable high-affinity binding of 4-n-[3H]propyl-4' -ethynylbicycloorthobenzoate ([3H]EBOB) using a cyano analog (CNBOB) to determine non-specific binding. This GABA(C) rho 1 receptor is very sensitive to CNBOB and lindane relative to alpha-endosulfan, tert-butylbicyclophosphorothionate, picrotoxinin and fipronil (IC(50) values of 23, 91, 800, 1080, 4000 and >10000 nM, respectively, in displacing [3H]EBOB). A similar potency sequence (except for picrotoxinin) is observed for inhibition of GABA-induced currents of rho 1 receptor expressed in Xenopus oocytes. The present study does not consider rho 2 homomeric and rho 1 rho 2 heteromeric GABA(C) receptors which are known to be more sensitive than rho 1 to picrotoxinin. The inhibitor sensitivity and specificity of this rho 1 GABA(C) receptor differ greatly from those of human homomeric beta 3 and native GABA(A) receptors.

  8. Edited Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy Detects an Age-Related Decline in Nonhuman Primate Brain GABA Levels

    PubMed Central

    Killiany, Ronald J.

    2016-01-01

    Recent research had shown a correlation between aging and decreasing Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), the primary inhibitory neurotransmitter in the brain. However, how GABA level varies with age in the medial portion of the brain has not yet been studied. The purpose of this study was to investigate the GABA level variation with age focusing on the posterior cingulate cortex, which is the “core hub” of the default mode network. In this study, 14 monkeys between 4 and 21 years were recruited, and MEGA-PRESS MRS was performed to measure GABA levels, in order to explore a potential link between aging and GABA. Our results showed that a correlation between age and GABA+/Creatine ratio was at the edge of significance (r = −0.523, p = 0.081). There was also a near-significant trend between gray matter/white matter ratio and the GABA+/Creatine ratio (r = −0.518, p = 0.0848). Meanwhile, the correlation between age and grey matter showed no significance (r = −0.028, p = 0.93). Therefore, age and gray matter/white matter ratio account for different part of R-squared (adjusted R-squared = 0.5187) as independent variables for predicting GABA levels. Adjusted R-squared is about 0.5 for two independent variables. These findings suggest that there is internal neurochemical variation of GABA levels in the nonhuman primates associated with normal aging and structural brain decline. PMID:27660760

  9. A study on quality components and sleep-promoting effects of GABA black tea.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Wenfang; Li, Yun; Ma, William; Ge, Yazhong; Huang, Yahui

    2015-10-01

    The aims of this study were to analyze the changes in quality components of gamma (γ)-aminobutyric acid (GABA) black tea during processing, and to investigate the effect of three dosages of GABA black tea on sleep improvement. The results showed that the GABA content was increased significantly up to 2.70 mg g(-1) after vacuum anaerobic and aerobic treatment. In addition, the content of GABA after drying reached 2.34 mg g(-1), which achieved the standard of GABA tea. During the entire processing of GABA black tea, the contents of tea polyphenols, caffeine and total catechins displayed a gradually descending trend, while the contents of free amino acids and GABA were firstly increased, and then reduced. The GABA black tea had significant effects on prolonging the sleeping time with sodium pentobarbital (P < 0.05) and significantly enhancing the sleeping rate induced by sodium pentobarbital at a sub-threshold dose (P < 0.05). But its effect on shortening the sleeping latency period induced by sodium barbital was not significant (P > 0.05). It had no effect on directly inducing sleep and the mouse body weight. The extract of GABA black tea improved the sleeping quality of mice to extend with an optimal effect being found in the high dose-treated mice.

  10. Rapid substrate-induced charge movements of the GABA transporter GAT1.

    PubMed

    Bicho, Ana; Grewer, Christof

    2005-07-01

    The GABA transporter GAT1 removes the neurotransmitter GABA from the synaptic cleft by coupling of GABA uptake to the co-transport of two sodium ions and one chloride ion. The aim of this work was to investigate the individual reaction steps of GAT1 after a GABA concentration jump. GAT1 was transiently expressed in HEK293 cells and its pre-steady-state kinetics were studied by combining the patch-clamp technique with the laser-pulse photolysis of caged GABA, which allowed us to generate GABA concentration jumps within <100 micros. Recordings of transport currents generated by GAT1, both in forward and exchange transport modes, showed multiple charge movements that can be separated along the time axis. The individual reactions associated with these charge movements differ from the well-characterized electrogenic "sodium-occlusion" reaction by GAT1. One of the observed electrogenic reactions is shown to be associated with the GABA-translocating half-cycle of the transporter, in contradiction to previous studies that showed no charge movements associated with these reactions. Interestingly, reactions of the GABA-bound transporter were not affected by the absence of extracellular chloride, suggesting that Cl- may not be co-translocated with GABA. Based on the results, a new alternating access sequential-binding model is proposed for GAT1's transport cycle that describes the results presented here and those by others. PMID:15849242

  11. Gestational lead exposure selectively decreases retinal dopamine amacrine cells and dopamine content in adult mice

    SciTech Connect

    Fox, Donald A.; Hamilton, W. Ryan; Johnson, Jerry E.; Xiao, Weimin; Chaney, Shawntay; Mukherjee, Shradha; Miller, Diane B.; O'Callaghan, James P.

    2011-11-15

    Gestational lead exposure (GLE) produces supernormal scotopic electroretinograms (ERG) in children, monkeys and rats, and a novel retinal phenotype characterized by an increased number of rod photoreceptors and bipolar cells in adult mice and rats. Since the loss of dopaminergic amacrine cells (DA ACs) in GLE monkeys and rats contributes to supernormal ERGs, the retinal DA system was analyzed in mice following GLE. C57BL/6 female mice were exposed to low (27 ppm), moderate (55 ppm) or high (109 ppm) lead throughout gestation and until postnatal day 10 (PN10). Blood [Pb] in control, low-, moderate- and high-dose GLE was {<=} 1, {<=} 10, {approx} 25 and {approx} 40 {mu}g/dL, respectively, on PN10 and by PN30 all were {<=} 1 {mu}g/dL. At PN60, confocal-stereology studies used vertical sections and wholemounts to characterize tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) expression and the number of DA and other ACs. GLE dose-dependently and selectively decreased the number of TH-immunoreactive (IR) DA ACs and their synaptic plexus without affecting GABAergic, glycinergic or cholinergic ACs. Immunoblots and confocal revealed dose-dependent decreases in retinal TH protein expression and content, although monoamine oxidase-A protein and gene expression were unchanged. High-pressure liquid chromatography showed that GLE dose-dependently decreased retinal DA content, its metabolites and DA utilization/release. The mechanism of DA selective vulnerability is unknown. However, a GLE-induced loss/dysfunction of DA ACs during development could increase the number of rods and bipolar cells since DA helps regulate neuronal proliferation, whereas during adulthood it could produce ERG supernormality as well as altered circadian rhythms, dark/light adaptation and spatial contrast sensitivity. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Peak [BPb] in control, low-, moderate- and high-dose newborn mice with gestational lead exposure: {<=} 1, {<=} 10, 25 and 40 {mu}g/dL Black

  12. Dopamine release by Ulvaria obscura (Chlorophyta): environmental triggers and impacts on photosynthesis, growth, and survival of the releaser.

    PubMed

    Van Alstyne, Kathryn L; Anderson, Katie J; van Hees, Daniel H; Gifford, Sue-Ann

    2013-08-01

    In the NE Pacific, Ulvaria obscura is a common component of "green tide" blooms. It is also the only alga known to produce dopamine, which is released into seawater on sunny days when Ulvaria is emersed and then rehydrated. To better understand the mechanisms associated with dopamine release, we experimentally determined whether light quantity and quality, desiccation, temperature, exudates from conspecifics, and dissolved dopamine caused dopamine release. We also examined the effects of desiccation on Ulvaria's ability to photosynthesize, grow, and survive. Desiccation was the only factor that caused significant amounts of dopamine to be lost from U. obscura tissues. The loss of water from Ulvaria tissues was strongly and positively correlated with the loss of dopamine after rehydration. Only 56% of desiccated algae survived for 1 week, compared to 100% of undesiccated control algae. Desiccated algae lost 77% of their pigmented surface area and grew only 15% as much as undesiccated algae, which remained fully pigmented. The oxygen saturation of water containing Ulvaria that was desiccated and then rehydrated was significantly lower than that of seawater containing undesiccated algae. Thus, desiccation, which is coupled with dopamine release, is associated with the deterioration and death of some, but not all, tissues in Ulvaria. Although dopamine released into seawater can reduce the survival or growth of potential competitors, its release is associated with significant physiological stress and tissue mortality. However, the survival and continued growth of some Ulvaria tissues indicates that a net fitness benefit to release dopamine following desiccation cannot be ruled out.

  13. Decreased striatal dopamine transporter binding in vivo in chronic schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Laakso, A; Bergman, J; Haaparanta, M; Vilkman, H; Solin, O; Syvälahti, E; Hietala, J

    2001-10-01

    We have previously reported that average striatal dopamine transporter (DAT) binding in vivo is unaltered in neuroleptic-naive first-episode schizophrenic patients [Laakso et al., Am. J. Psychiatry 157 (2000) 269]. However, as it has been suggested that some of the brain changes in schizophrenia may vary depending on the illness phase, we studied DAT density in eight stable, medicated chronic schizophrenic patients and eight matched controls using positron emission tomography and [18F]CFT, a marker of dopamine nerve terminals. [18F]CFT binding potentials were significantly lower in chronic schizophrenic patients than in controls, both in the caudate and the putamen (-9 to -16%). Together with the finding of unchanged average striatal DAT levels in first-episode patients and relative insensitivity of striatal [18F]CFT binding to endogenous dopamine and neuroleptic drugs, the result is in line with a relative loss of striatal dopaminergic nerve terminals and/or decreased expression of DAT in a subset of chronic schizophrenic patients.

  14. GABA-cAMP response element-binding protein signaling regulates maturation and survival of newly generated neurons in the adult hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Jagasia, Ravi; Steib, Kathrin; Englberger, Elisabeth; Herold, Sabine; Faus-Kessler, Theresa; Saxe, Michael; Gage, Fred H; Song, Hongjun; Lie, D Chichung

    2009-06-24

    Survival and integration of new neurons in the hippocampal circuit are rate-limiting steps in adult hippocampal neurogenesis. Neuronal network activity is a major regulator of these processes, yet little is known about the respective downstream signaling pathways. Here, we investigate the role of cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) signaling in adult hippocampal neurogenesis. CREB is activated in new granule neurons during a distinct developmental period. Loss of CREB function in a cell-autonomous manner impairs dendritic development, decreases the expression of the neurogenic transcription factor NeuroD and of the neuronal microtubule-associated protein, doublecortin (DCX), and compromises the survival of newborn neurons. In addition, GABA-mediated excitation regulates CREB activation at early developmental stages. Importantly, developmental defects after loss of GABA-mediated excitation can be compensated by enhanced CREB signaling. These results indicate that CREB signaling is a central pathway in adult hippocampal neurogenesis, regulating the development and survival of new hippocampal neurons downstream of GABA-mediated excitation.

  15. Neocortical GABA release at high intracellular sodium and low extracellular calcium: an anti-seizure mechanism.

    PubMed

    Rassner, Michael P; Moser, Andreas; Follo, Marie; Joseph, Kevin; van Velthoven-Wurster, Vera; Feuerstein, Thomas J

    2016-04-01

    In epilepsy, the GABA and glutamate balance may be disrupted and a transient decrease in extracellular calcium occurs before and during a seizure. Flow Cytometry based fluorescence activated particle sorting experiments quantified synaptosomes from human neocortical tissue, from both epileptic and non-epileptic patients (27.7% vs. 36.9% GABAergic synaptosomes, respectively). Transporter-mediated release of GABA in human and rat neocortical synaptosomes was measured using the superfusion technique for the measurement of endogenous GABA. GABA release was evoked by either a sodium channel activator or a sodium/potassium-ATPase inhibitor when exocytosis was possible or prevented, and when the sodium/calcium exchanger was active or inhibited. The transporter-mediated release of GABA is because of elevated intracellular sodium. A reduction in the extracellular calcium increased this release (in both non-epileptic and epileptic, except Rasmussen encephalitis, synaptosomes). The inverse was seen during calcium doubling. In humans, GABA release was not affected by exocytosis inhibition, that is, it was solely transporter-mediated. However, in rat synaptosomes, an increase in GABA release at zero calcium was only exhibited when the exocytosis was prevented. The absence of calcium amplified the sodium/calcium exchanger activity, leading to elevated intracellular sodium, which, together with the stimulation-evoked intracellular sodium increment, enhanced GABA transporter reversal. Sodium/calcium exchange inhibitors diminished GABA release. Thus, an important seizure-induced extracellular calcium reduction might trigger a transporter- and sodium/calcium exchanger-related anti-seizure mechanism by augmenting transporter-mediated GABA release, a mechanism absent in rats. Uniquely, the additional increase in GABA release because of calcium-withdrawal dwindled during the course of illness in Rasmussen encephalitis. Seizures cause high Na(+) influx through action potentials. A

  16. Enhanced neurosteroid potentiation of ternary GABA(A) receptors containing the delta subunit.

    PubMed

    Wohlfarth, Kai M; Bianchi, Matt T; Macdonald, Robert L

    2002-03-01

    Attenuated behavioral sensitivity to neurosteroids has been reported for mice deficient in the GABA(A) receptor delta subunit. We therefore investigated potential subunit-specific neurosteroid pharmacology of the following GABA(A) receptor isoforms in a transient expression system: alpha1beta3gamma2L, alpha1beta3delta, alpha6beta3gamma2L, and alpha6beta3delta. Potentiation of submaximal GABA(A) receptor currents by the neurosteroid tetrahydrodeoxycorticosterone (THDOC) was greatest for the alpha1beta3delta isoform. Whole-cell GABA concentration--response curves performed with and without low concentrations (30 nm) of THDOC revealed enhanced peak GABA(A) receptor currents for isoforms tested without affecting the GABA EC50. Alpha1beta3delta currents were enhanced the most (>150%), whereas the other isoform currents were enhanced 15-50%. At a higher concentration (1 microm), THDOC decreased peak alpha1beta3gamma2L receptor current amplitude evoked by GABA (1 mm) concentration jumps and prolonged deactivation but had little effect on the rate or extent of apparent desensitization. Thus the polarity of THDOC modulation depended on GABA concentration for alpha1beta3gamma2L GABA(A) receptors. However, the same protocol applied to alpha1beta3delta receptors resulted in peak current enhancement by THDOC of >800% and prolonged deactivation. Interestingly, THDOC induced pronounced desensitization in the minimally desensitizing alpha1beta3delta receptors. Single channel recordings obtained from alpha1beta3delta receptors indicated that THDOC increased the channel opening duration, including the introduction of an additional longer duration open state. Our results suggest that the GABA(A) receptor delta subunit confers increased sensitivity to neurosteroid modulation and that the intrinsic gating and desensitization kinetics of alpha1beta3delta GABA(A) receptors are altered by THDOC.

  17. Dopamine: burning the candle at both ends.

    PubMed

    Pearson, John M; Platt, Michael L

    2013-09-01

    Dopamine neurons are well known for signaling reward-prediction errors. In this issue, Matsumoto and Takada (2013) show that some dopamine neurons also signal salient events during progression through a visual search task requiring working memory and sustained attention. PMID:24011998

  18. Molecular Mechanism of Dopamine Transport by Human Dopamine Transporter.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Mary Hongying; Bahar, Ivet

    2015-11-01

    Dopamine transporters (DATs) control neurotransmitter dopamine (DA) homeostasis by reuptake of excess DA, assisted by sodium and chloride ions. The recent resolution of DAT structure (dDAT) from Drosophila permits us for the first time to directly view the sequence of events involved in DA reuptake in human DAT (hDAT) using homology modeling and full-atomic microseconds accelerated simulations. Major observations are spontaneous closure of extracellular gates prompted by DA binding; stabilization of a holo-occluded intermediate; disruption of N82-N353 hydrogen bond and exposure to intracellular (IC) water triggered by Na2 dislocation; redistribution of a network of salt bridges at the IC surface in the inward-facing state; concerted tilting of IC-exposed helices to enable the release of Na(+) and Cl(-) ions; and DA release after protonation of D79. The observed time-resolved interactions confirm the conserved dynamics of LeuT-fold family, while providing insights into the mechanistic role of specific residues in hDAT.

  19. Hearing Loss

    MedlinePlus

    ... version of this page please turn Javascript on. Hearing Loss What is Hearing Loss? Hearing loss is a common problem caused by ... sec Click to watch this video Types of Hearing Loss Hearing loss comes in many forms. It can ...

  20. Neonatal Nicotine Exposure Increases Excitatory Synaptic Transmission and Attenuates Nicotine-stimulated GABA release in the Adult Rat Hippocampus

    PubMed Central

    Damborsky, Joanne C.; Griffith, William H.; Winzer-Serhan, Ursula H.

    2014-01-01

    Developmental exposure to nicotine has been linked to long-lasting changes in synaptic transmission which may contribute to behavioral abnormalities seen in offspring of women who smoke during pregnancy. Here, we examined the long-lasting effects of developmental nicotine exposure on glutamatergic and GABAergic neurotransmission, and on acute nicotine-induced glutamate and GABA release in the adult hippocampus, a structure important in cognitive and emotional behaviors. We utilized a chronic neonatal nicotine treatment model to administer nicotine (6 mg/kg/day) to rat pups from postnatal day (P) 1–7, a period that falls developmentally into the third human trimester. Using whole-cell voltage clamp recordings from CA1 pyramidal neurons in hippocampal slices, we measured excitatory and inhibitory postsynaptic currents in neonatally control- and nicotine-treated young adult males. Neonatal nicotine exposure significantly increased AMPA receptor-mediated spontaneous and evoked excitatory signaling, with no change in glutamate release probability in adults. Conversely, there was no increase in spontaneous GABAergic neurotransmission in nicotine-males. Chronic neonatal nicotine treatment had no effect on acute nicotine-stimulated glutamate release in adults, but acute nicotine-stimulated GABA release was significantly attenuated. Thus, neonatal nicotine exposure results in a persistent net increase in excitation and a concurrent loss of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR)-mediated regulation of presynaptic GABA but not glutamate release, which would exacerbate excitation following endogenous or exogenous nAChR activation. Our data underscore an important role for nAChRs in hippocampal excitatory synapse development, and suggest selective long-term changes at specific presynaptic nAChRs which together could explain some of the behavioral abnormalities associated with maternal smoking. PMID:24950455

  1. Cleavage of the vesicular GABA transporter under excitotoxic conditions is followed by accumulation of the truncated transporter in nonsynaptic sites.

    PubMed

    Gomes, João R; Lobo, Andrea C; Melo, Carlos V; Inácio, Ana R; Takano, Jiro; Iwata, Nobuhisa; Saido, Takaomi C; de Almeida, Luís P; Wieloch, Tadeusz; Duarte, Carlos B

    2011-03-23

    GABA is the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the CNS and changes in GABAergic neurotransmission affect the overall activity of neuronal networks. The uptake of GABA into synaptic vesicles is mediated by the vesicular GABA transporter (VGAT), and changes in the expression of the transporter directly regulate neurotransmitter release. In this work we investigated the changes in VGAT protein levels during ischemia and in excitotoxic conditions, which may affect the demise process. We found that VGAT is cleaved by calpains following excitotoxic stimulation of hippocampal neurons with glutamate, giving rise to a stable truncated cleavage product (tVGAT). VGAT cleavage was also observed after transient middle cerebral artery occlusion in mice, a cerebral ischemia model, and following intrahippocampal injection of kainate, but no effect was observed in transgenic mice overexpressing calpastatin, a calpain inhibitor. Incubation of isolated cerebrocortical synaptic vesicles with recombinant calpain also induced the cleavage of VGAT and formation of stable tVGAT. Immunoblot experiments using antibodies targeting different regions of VGAT and N-terminal sequencing analysis showed that calpain cleaves the transporter in the N-terminal region, at amino acids 52 and 60. Immunocytochemistry of GABAergic striatal neurons expressing GFP fusion proteins with the full-length VGAT or tVGAT showed that cleavage of the transporter induces a loss of synaptic delivery, leading to a homogeneous distribution of the protein along neurites. Our results show that excitotoxicity downregulates full-length VGAT, with a concomitant generation of tVGAT, which is likely to affect GABAergic neurotransmission and may influence cell death during ischemia.

  2. The Free Energy Landscape of GABA Binding to a Pentameric Ligand-Gated Ion Channel and Its Disruption by Mutations.

    PubMed

    Comitani, Federico; Limongelli, Vittorio; Molteni, Carla

    2016-07-12

    Pentameric ligand-gated ion channels (pLGICs) of the Cys-loop superfamily are important neuroreceptors that mediate fast synaptic transmission. They are activated by the binding of a neurotransmitter, but the details of this process are still not fully understood. As a prototypical pLGIC, here we choose the insect resistance to dieldrin (RDL) receptor involved in resistance to insecticides and investigate the binding of the neurotransmitter GABA to its extracellular domain at the atomistic level. We achieve this by means of μ-sec funnel-metadynamics simulations, which efficiently enhance the sampling of bound and unbound states by using a funnel-shaped restraining potential to limit the exploration in the solvent. We reveal the sequence of events in the binding process from the capture of GABA from the solvent to its pinning between the charged residues Arg111 and Glu204 in the binding pocket. We characterize the associated free energy landscapes in the wild-type RDL receptor and in two mutant forms, where the key residues Arg111 and Glu204 are mutated to Ala. Experimentally these mutations produce nonfunctional channels, which is reflected in the reduced ligand binding affinities due to the loss of essential interactions. We also analyze the dynamical behavior of the crucial loop C, whose opening allows the access of GABA to the binding site and closure locks the ligand into the protein. The RDL receptor shares structural and functional features with other pLGICs; hence, our work outlines a valuable protocol to study the binding of ligands to pLGICs beyond conventional docking and molecular dynamics techniques. PMID:27228114

  3. Glutamate and GABA in Vestibulo-Sympathetic Pathway Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Holstein, Gay R.; Friedrich, Victor L. Jr.; Martinelli, Giorgio P.

    2016-01-01

    The vestibulo-sympathetic reflex (VSR) actively modulates blood pressure during changes in posture. This reflex allows humans to stand up and quadrupeds to rear or climb without a precipitous decline in cerebral perfusion. The VSR pathway conveys signals from the vestibular end organs to the caudal vestibular nuclei. These cells, in turn, project to pre-sympathetic neurons in the rostral and caudal ventrolateral medulla (RVLM and CVLM, respectively). The present study assessed glutamate- and GABA-related immunofluorescence associated with central vestibular neurons of the VSR pathway in rats. Retrograde FluoroGold tract tracing was used to label vestibular neurons with projections to RVLM or CVLM, and sinusoidal galvanic vestibular stimulation (GVS) was employed to activate these pathways. Central vestibular neurons of the VSR were identified by co-localization of FluoroGold and cFos protein, which accumulates in some vestibular neurons following galvanic stimulation. Triple-label immunofluorescence was used to co-localize glutamate- or GABA- labeling in the identified VSR pathway neurons. Most activated projection neurons displayed intense glutamate immunofluorescence, suggestive of glutamatergic neurotransmission. To support this, anterograde tracer was injected into the caudal vestibular nuclei. Vestibular axons and terminals in RVLM and CVLM co-localized the anterograde tracer and vesicular glutamate transporter-2 signals. Other retrogradely-labeled cFos-positive neurons displayed intense GABA immunofluorescence. VSR pathway neurons of both phenotypes were present in the caudal medial and spinal vestibular nuclei, and projected to both RVLM and CVLM. As a group, however, triple-labeled vestibular cells with intense glutamate immunofluorescence were located more rostrally in the vestibular nuclei than the GABAergic neurons. Only the GABAergic VSR pathway neurons showed a target preference, projecting predominantly to CVLM. These data provide the first

  4. Glutamate and GABA in Vestibulo-Sympathetic Pathway Neurons.

    PubMed

    Holstein, Gay R; Friedrich, Victor L; Martinelli, Giorgio P

    2016-01-01

    The vestibulo-sympathetic reflex (VSR) actively modulates blood pressure during changes in posture. This reflex allows humans to stand up and quadrupeds to rear or climb without a precipitous decline in cerebral perfusion. The VSR pathway conveys signals from the vestibular end organs to the caudal vestibular nuclei. These cells, in turn, project to pre-sympathetic neurons in the rostral and caudal ventrolateral medulla (RVLM and CVLM, respectively). The present study assessed glutamate- and GABA-related immunofluorescence associated with central vestibular neurons of the VSR pathway in rats. Retrograde FluoroGold tract tracing was used to label vestibular neurons with projections to RVLM or CVLM, and sinusoidal galvanic vestibular stimulation (GVS) was employed to activate these pathways. Central vestibular neurons of the VSR were identified by co-localization of FluoroGold and cFos protein, which accumulates in some vestibular neurons following galvanic stimulation. Triple-label immunofluorescence was used to co-localize glutamate- or GABA- labeling in the identified VSR pathway neurons. Most activated projection neurons displayed intense glutamate immunofluorescence, suggestive of glutamatergic neurotransmission. To support this, anterograde tracer was injected into the caudal vestibular nuclei. Vestibular axons and terminals in RVLM and CVLM co-localized the anterograde tracer and vesicular glutamate transporter-2 signals. Other retrogradely-labeled cFos-positive neurons displayed intense GABA immunofluorescence. VSR pathway neurons of both phenotypes were present in the caudal medial and spinal vestibular nuclei, and projected to both RVLM and CVLM. As a group, however, triple-labeled vestibular cells with intense glutamate immunofluorescence were located more rostrally in the vestibular nuclei than the GABAergic neurons. Only the GABAergic VSR pathway neurons showed a target preference, projecting predominantly to CVLM. These data provide the first

  5. THE MYSTERIOUS MOTIVATIONAL FUNCTIONS OF MESOLIMBIC DOPAMINE

    PubMed Central

    Salamone, John D.; Correa, Mercè

    2012-01-01

    Summary Nucleus accumbens dopamine is known to play a role in motivational processes, and dysfunctions of mesolimbic dopamine may contribute to motivational symptoms of depression and other disorders, as well as features of substance abuse. Although it has become traditional to label dopamine neurons as “reward” neurons, this is an over-generalization, and it is important to distinguish between aspects of motivation that are differentially affected by dopaminergic manipulations. For example, accumbens dopamine does not mediate primary food motivation or appetite, but is involved in appetitive and aversive motivational processes including behavioral activation, exertion of effort, approach behavior, sustained task engagement, Pavlovian processes and instrumental learning. In this review, we discuss the complex roles of dopamine in behavioral functions related to motivation. PMID:23141060

  6. Diversity of Transgenic Mouse Models for Selective Targeting of Midbrain Dopamine Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Lammel, Stephan; Steinberg, Elizabeth E.; Földy, Csaba; Wall, Nicholas R.; Beier, Kevin; Luo, Liqun; Malenka, Robert C.

    2015-01-01

    Ventral tegmental area (VTA) dopamine (DA) neurons have been implicated in reward, aversion, salience, cognition, and several neuropsychiatric disorders. Optogenetic approaches involving transgenic Cre-driver mouse lines provide powerful tools for dissecting DA-specific functions. However, the emerging complexity of VTA circuits requires Cre-driver mouse lines that restrict transgene expression to a precisely defined cell population. Because of recent work reporting that VTA DA neurons projecting to the lateral habenula release GABA, but not DA, we performed an extensive anatomical, molecular, and functional characterization of prominent DA transgenic mouse driver lines. We find that transgenes under control of the tyrosine hydroxylase, but not the dopamine transporter, promoter exhibit dramatic non-DA cell-specific expression patterns within and around VTA nuclei. Our results demonstrate how Cre expression in unintentionally targeted cells in transgenic mouse lines can confound the interpretation of supposedly cell-type-specific experiments. This Matters Arising paper is in response to Stamatakis et al. (2013), published in Neuron. See also the Matters Arising Response paper by Stuber et al. (2015), published concurrently with this Matters Arising in Neuron. PMID:25611513

  7. Preferential decrease in dopamine utilization in prefrontal cortex by zopiclone, diazepam and zolpidem in unstressed rats.

    PubMed

    Boireau, A; Dubedat, P; Laduron, P M; Doble, A; Blanchard, J C

    1990-08-01

    This study has compared the effects of a cyclopyrrolone, zopiclone, a benzodiazepine, diazepam, and an imidazopyridine, zolpidem, on dopamine (DA) and DOPAC levels, and DA utilization (DOPAC/DA ratio) in rat striatum and prefrontal cortex. The endogenous levels of DA were significantly increased by both zopiclone (2.5, 10 and 40 mg kg-1 p.o.) and diazepam (10 and 40 mg kg-1 p.o.) in the prefrontal cortex, whereas striatal DA content was significantly increased only with the highest dose of diazepam (40 mg kg-1 p.o.). Diazepam (10 and 40 mg kg-1 p.o.) decreased cortical level of DOPAC more markedly than striatal levels, whereas zopiclone (40 mg kg-1 p.o.) only slightly decreased striatal DOPAC levels. Zopiclone and diazepam dose-dependently decreased DA utilization, an effect which was more marked in prefrontal cortex than in striatum. This result was confirmed with zolpidem, another benzodiazepine ligand. Zopiclone was most potent at decreasing DA utilization at the cortical level. The diazepam-induced decreases in DA metabolism and utilization were antagonized by Ro 15-1788, suggesting that the effects seen were mediated by specific benzodiazepine receptors. Thus, our results clearly show that ligands acting on the benzodiazepine receptor GABA receptor chloride ionophore complex can decrease the utilization of dopamine in unstressed rats. The preferential decrease in cortical DA utilization induced by benzodiazepine ligands may be compared to the well-known activation by stress of the mesocortical DAergic system. PMID:1981584

  8. Glutamate and GABA imbalance following traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Guerriero, Réjean M; Giza, Christopher C; Rotenberg, Alexander

    2015-05-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) leads to multiple short- and long-term changes in neuronal circuits that ultimately conclude with an imbalance of cortical excitation and inhibition. Changes in neurotransmitter concentrations, receptor populations, and specific cell survival are important contributing factors. Many of these changes occur gradually, which may explain the vulnerability of the brain to multiple mild impacts, alterations in neuroplasticity, and delays in the presentation of posttraumatic epilepsy. In this review, we provide an overview of normal glutamate and GABA homeostasis and describe acute, subacute, and chronic changes that follow injury. We conclude by highlighting opportunities for therapeutic interventions in this paradigm. PMID:25796572

  9. Glutamate and GABA imbalance following traumatic brain injury

    PubMed Central

    Guerriero, Réjean M.; Giza, Christopher C.; Rotenberg, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) leads to multiple short and long term changes in neuronal circuits that ultimately conclude with an imbalance of cortical excitation and inhibition. Changes in neurotransmitter concentrations, receptor populations and specific cell survival are important contributing factors. Many of these changes occur gradually, which may explain the vulnerability of the brain to multiple mild impacts, alterations in neuroplasticity, and delays in the presentation of post-traumatic epilepsy. In this review we provide an overview of normal glutamate and GABA homeostasis, and describe acute, subacute and chronic changes that follow injury. We conclude by highlighting opportunities for therapeutic interventions in this paradigm. PMID:25796572

  10. Temperature dependence and GABA modulation of (TH)triazolam binding in the rat brain

    SciTech Connect

    Earle, M.E.; Concas, A.; Wamsley, J.K.; Yamamura, H.I.

    1987-07-27

    The hypnotic triazolam (TZ), a triazolobenzodiazepine displays a short physiological half life and has been used for the treatment of insomnia related to anxiety states. The authors major objectives were the direct measurement of the temperature dependence and the gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) effect of (TH)TZ binding in the rat brain. Saturation studies showed a shift to lower affinity with increasing temperatures (K/sub d/ = 0.27 +/- 08 nM at 0C; K/sub d/ = 1.96 +/- 0.85 nM at 37C) while the B/sub max/ values remained unchanged (1220 +/- 176 fmoles/mg protein at 0C and 1160 +/- 383 fmoles/mg protein at 37C). Saturation studies of (TH)TZ binding in the presence or absence of GABA (100 M) showed a GABA-shift. At 0C the K/sub d/ values were (K/sub d/ = 0.24 +/- 0.03 nM/-GABA; K/sub d/ = 0.16 +/- 0.04/+GABA) and at 37C the K/sub d/ values were (K/sub d/ = 1.84 +/- 0.44 nM/-GABA; K/sub d/ = 0.95 +/- 0.29 nM/+GABA). In contrast to reported literature, the authors findings show that TZ interacts with benzodiazepine receptors with a temperature dependence and GABA-shift consistent with predicted behavior for benzodiazepine agonists. 20 references, 3 tables.

  11. Segregation of Acetylcholine and GABA in the Rat Superior Cervical Ganglia: Functional Correlation

    PubMed Central

    Elinos, Diana; Rodríguez, Raúl; Martínez, Luis Andres; Zetina, María Elena; Cifuentes, Fredy; Morales, Miguel Angel

    2016-01-01

    Sympathetic neurons have the capability to segregate their neurotransmitters (NTs) and co-transmitters to separate varicosities of single axons; furthermore, in culture, these neurons can even segregate classical transmitters. In vivo sympathetic neurons employ acetylcholine (ACh) and other classical NTs such as gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA). Herein, we explore whether these neurons in vivo segregate these classical NTs in the superior cervical ganglia of the rat. We determined the topographical distribution of GABAergic varicosities, somatic GABAA receptor, as well as the regional distribution of the segregation of ACh and GABA. We evaluated possible regional differences in efficacy of ganglionic synaptic transmission, in the sensitivity of GABAA receptor to GABA and to the competitive antagonist picrotoxin (PTX). We found that sympathetic preganglionic neurons in vivo do segregate ACh and GABA. GABAergic varicosities and GABAA receptor expression showed a rostro-caudal gradient along ganglia; in contrast, segregation exhibited a caudo-rostral gradient. These uneven regional distributions in expression of GABA, GABAA receptors, and level of segregation correlate with stronger synaptic transmission found in the caudal region. Accordingly, GABAA receptors of rostral region showed larger sensitivity to GABA and PTX. These results suggest the presence of different types of GABAA receptors in each region that result in a different regional levels of endogenous GABA inhibition. Finally, we discuss a possible correlation of these different levels of GABA modulation and the function of the target organs innervated by rostral and caudal ganglionic neurons. PMID:27092054

  12. Oxytocin regulates neurosteroid modulation of GABA(A) receptors in supraoptic nucleus around parturition.

    PubMed

    Koksma, Jan-Jurjen; van Kesteren, Ronald E; Rosahl, Thomas W; Zwart, Ruud; Smit, August B; Lüddens, Hartmut; Brussaard, Arjen B

    2003-02-01

    In this study, we investigate how neurosteroid sensitivity of GABA(A) receptors (GABA(A)Rs) is regulated. We examined this issue in neurons of the supraoptic nucleus (SON) of the rat and found that, during parturition, the GABA(A)Rs become insensitive to the neurosteroid allopregnanolone attributable to a shift in the balance between the activities of endogenous Ser/Thr phosphatase and PKC. In particular, a constitutive endogenous tone of oxytocin within the SON after parturition suppressed neurosteroid sensitivity of GABA(A)Rs via activation of PKC. Vice versa before parturition, during late pregnancy, application of exogenous oxytocin brings the GABA(A)Rs from a neurosteroid-sensitive mode toward a condition in which the receptors are not sensitive. This indicates that there may be an inverse causal relationship between the extent to which the GABA(A)R or one of its interacting proteins is phosphorylated and the neurosteroid sensitivity of the GABA(A)R. Neurosteroid sensitivity was not affected by changes in subunit composition of GABA(A)Rs known to occur concurrently in these cells.

  13. Immature Responses to GABA in Fragile X Neurons Derived from Human Embryonic Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Telias, Michael; Segal, Menahem; Ben-Yosef, Dalit

    2016-01-01

    Fragile X Syndrome (FXS) is the most common form of inherited cognitive disability. However, functional deficiencies in FX neurons have been described so far almost exclusively in animal models. In a recent study we found several functional deficits in FX neurons differentiated in-vitro from human embryonic stem cells (hESCs), including their inability to fire repetitive action potentials, and their lack of synaptic activity. Here, we investigated the responses of such neurons to pulse application of the neurotransmitter GABA. We found two distinct types of responses to GABA and sensitivity to the GABA-A receptor antagonist bicuculline; type 1 (mature) characterized by non-desensitized responses to GABA as well as a high sensitivity to bicuculline, and type 2 (immature) which are desensitized to GABA and insensitive to bicuculline. Type 1 responses were age-dependent and dominant in mature WT neurons. In contrast, FX neurons expressed primarily type 2 phenotype. Expression analysis of GABA-A receptor subunits demonstrated that this bias in human FX neurons was associated with a significant alteration in the expression pattern of the GABA-A receptor subunits α2 and β2. Our results indicate that FMRP may play a role in the development of the GABAergic synapse during neurogenesis. This is the first demonstration of the lack of a mature response to GABA in human FX neurons and may explain the inappropriate synaptic functions in FXS. PMID:27242433

  14. Mutation of the Drosophila vesicular GABA transporter disrupts visual figure detection

    PubMed Central

    Fei, Hao; Chow, Dawnis M.; Chen, Audrey; Romero-Calderón, Rafael; Ong, Wei S.; Ackerson, Larry C.; Maidment, Nigel T.; Simpson, Julie H.; Frye, Mark A.; Krantz, David E.

    2010-01-01

    The role of gamma amino butyric acid (GABA) release and inhibitory neurotransmission in regulating most behaviors remains unclear. The vesicular GABA transporter (VGAT) is required for the storage of GABA in synaptic vesicles and provides a potentially useful probe for inhibitory circuits. However, specific pharmacologic agents for VGAT are not available, and VGAT knockout mice are embryonically lethal, thus precluding behavioral studies. We have identified the Drosophila ortholog of the vesicular GABA transporter gene (which we refer to as dVGAT), immunocytologically mapped dVGAT protein expression in the larva and adult and characterized a dVGATminos mutant allele. dVGAT is embryonically lethal and we do not detect residual dVGAT expression, suggesting that it is either a strong hypomorph or a null. To investigate the function of VGAT and GABA signaling in adult visual flight behavior, we have selectively rescued the dVGAT mutant during development. We show that reduced GABA release does not compromise the active optomotor control of wide-field pattern motion. Conversely, reduced dVGAT expression disrupts normal object tracking and figure–ground discrimination. These results demonstrate that visual behaviors are segregated by the level of GABA signaling in flies, and more generally establish dVGAT as a model to study the contribution of GABA release to other complex behaviors. PMID:20435823

  15. Effect of GABA, a bacterial metabolite, on Pseudomonas fluorescens surface properties and cytotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Dagorn, Audrey; Chapalain, Annelise; Mijouin, Lily; Hillion, Mélanie; Duclairoir-Poc, Cécile; Chevalier, Sylvie; Taupin, Laure; Orange, Nicole; Feuilloley, Marc G J

    2013-01-01

    Different bacterial species and, particularly Pseudomonas fluorescens, can produce gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and express GABA-binding proteins. In this study, we investigated the effect of GABA on the virulence and biofilm formation activity of different strains of P. fluorescens. Exposure of a psychotropic strain of P. fluorescens (MF37) to GABA (10-5 M) increased its necrotic-like activity on eukaryotic (glial) cells, but reduced its apoptotic effect. Conversely, muscimol and bicuculline, the selective agonist and antagonist of eukaryote GABAA receptors, respectively, were ineffective. P. fluorescens MF37 did not produce biosurfactants, and its caseinase, esterase, amylase, hemolytic activity or pyoverdine productions were unchanged. In contrast, the effect of GABA was associated to rearrangements of the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) structure, particularly in the lipid A region. The surface hydrophobicity of MF37 was marginally modified, and GABA reduced its biofilm formation activity on PVC, but not on glass, although the initial adhesion was increased. Five other P. fluorescens strains were studied, and only one, MFP05, a strain isolated from human skin, showed structural differences of biofilm maturation after exposure to GABA. These results reveal that GABA can regulate the LPS structure and cytotoxicity of P. fluorescens, but that this property is specific to some strains. PMID:23743829

  16. [Effect of retroauricular galvanic stimulation on the central vestibular system--immunohistochemical evaluation of GABA].

    PubMed

    Okami, K; Sekitani, T

    1990-03-01

    The changes of the neurotransmitter (GABA) distribution in the brain stem of the rats by retroauricular galvanic stimulation were investigated using immunohistochemical method. Twenty-one rats were divided into two groups: the control group which received no galvanic stimulation, and the galvanically stimulated group which received anodal galvanic stimulation (unipolar monoauricular, 5 mA in intensity, 500 msec of duration, 1 Hz in frequency) for 30 minutes. The specimens obtained as usual strict procedure for histological investigation were stained immunohistochemically using antisera against GABA. The results were as follows: 1. In the control group, GABA-like immunoreactivity was observed in all four main vestibular nuclei. In the superior, medial, and descending vestibular nuclei GABA-like immunoreactivity was found in the small cells and the terminals. Giant cells in the lateral vestibular nucleus were surrounded by GABA immunoreactive terminals. 2. In the galvanically stimulated group GABA-like immunoreactivity showed recognizable laterality in the lateral vestibular nucleus where GABA-like immunoreactivity surrounding giant cells showed more intensive on the side ipsilateral to the stimulation compared with the opposite side. On the other hand GABA-like immunoreactivity showed no laterality in the superior, medial, and descending vestibular nuclei. 3. It can be concluded that the retroauricular galvanic stimulation cause some changes in the inhibitory activity of the lateral vestibulo-spinal tract and of the spinal motor neuron.

  17. Phasic, Nonsynaptic GABA-A Receptor-Mediated Inhibition Entrains Thalamocortical Oscillations

    PubMed Central

    Rovó, Zita; Mátyás, Ferenc; Barthó, Péter; Slézia, Andrea; Lecci, Sandro; Pellegrini, Chiara; Astori, Simone; Dávid, Csaba; Hangya, Balázs

    2014-01-01

    GABA-A receptors (GABA-ARs) are typically expressed at synaptic or nonsynaptic sites mediating phasic and tonic inhibition, respectively. These two forms of inhibition conjointly control various network oscillations. To disentangle their roles in thalamocortical rhythms, we focally deleted synaptic, γ2 subunit-containing GABA-ARs in the thalamus using viral intervention in mice. After successful removal of γ2 subunit clusters, spontaneous and evoked GABAergic synaptic currents disappeared in thalamocortical cells when the presynaptic, reticular thalamic (nRT) neurons fired in tonic mode. However, when nRT cells fired in burst mode, slow phasic GABA-AR-mediated events persisted, indicating a dynamic, burst-specific recruitment of nonsynaptic GABA-ARs. In vivo, removal of synaptic GABA-ARs reduced the firing of individual thalamocortical cells but did not abolish slow oscillations or sleep spindles. We conclude that nonsynaptic GABA-ARs are recruited in a phasic manner specifically during burst firing of nRT cells and provide sufficient GABA-AR activation to control major thalamocortical oscillations. PMID:24849349

  18. Does extracellular calcium determine what pool of GABA is the target for alpha-latrotoxin?

    PubMed

    Storchak, L G; Linetska, M V; Himmelreich, N H

    2002-04-01

    Presynaptic neurotoxin alpha-latrotoxin, from the venom of Latrodectus mactans tredecimguttatus, causes massive [(3)H]GABA release from rat brain synaptosomes, irrespective of calcium presence in the extracellular medium. Whether the binding of alpha-latrotoxin to Ca(2+)-dependent (neurexin 1 alpha) or to Ca(2+)-independent (latrophilin) receptor triggers [(3)H]GABA release by the same mechanisms or different ones, inducing either exocytotic process or outflow by mobile membrane GABA transporter, is unknown. We examined alpha-latrotoxin-evoked [(3)H]GABA release from synaptosomes which cytosolic [(3)H]GABA pool was depleted either by applying competitive inhibitors of the GABA transporter, nipecotic acid and 2,4-diaminobutyric acid, or by permeation with digitonin. We also compared the effect of the GABA transporter inhibitors on depolarisation-evoked and alpha-latrotoxin-evoked [(3)H]GABA release using as depolarising agents 4-aminopyridine and high KCl in the Ca(2+)-containing and in Ca(2+)-free medium, respectively. Incubation of synaptosomes with nipecotic acid induced the essential acceleration of unstimulated [(3)H]GABA release and deep inhibition of high KCl-evoked Ca(2+)-independent [(3)H]GABA release. In contrast, at the similar conditions the effect of alpha-latrotoxin was greatly augmented with respect to the control response. Another way to assay what GABA pool was involved in alpha-latrotoxin-induced release lays in an analysis of the effects of depolarisation and alpha-latrotoxin in consecutive order. The preliminary 4-aminopyridine-stimulated [(3)H]GABA release attenuated the toxin effect. But when depolarisation occurred in Ca(2+)-free medium, no influence on alpha-latrotoxin effect was revealed. Employing digitonin-permeated synaptosomes, we have shown that alpha-latrotoxin could stimulate [3H]GABA release in the medium with 1mM EGTA, this effect of the toxin was blocked by concanavalin A and was ATP-dependent. The latter suggests that alpha

  19. Elevated levels of GABA+ in migraine detected using (1) H-MRS.

    PubMed

    Aguila, Maria-Eliza R; Lagopoulos, Jim; Leaver, Andrew M; Rebbeck, Trudy; Hübscher, Markus; Brennan, Patrick C; Refshauge, Kathryn M

    2015-07-01

    γ-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) has been implicated in several pain conditions, yet no study has systematically evaluated GABA levels in migraine using (1) H-MRS. The accurate detection, separation and quantification of GABA in individuals with migraine could elucidate the role of this neurotransmitter in migraine pathophysiology. Such information may eventually be useful in the diagnosis and development of more effective treatments for migraine. The aims of this study were therefore to compare the concentration of GABA+ in individuals with migraine with that in asymptomatic individuals, and to determine the diagnostic potential of GABA+ in the classification of those with or without migraine. In this case-control study, GABA+ levels in the brain were determined in 19 participants with migraine and 19 matched controls by (1) H-MRS using Mescher-Garwood point-resolved spectroscopy (MEGA-PRESS) sequence. The diagnostic accuracy of GABA+ for the detection of migraine and the optimal cut-off value were determined by receiver operating characteristic analysis. GABA+ levels were significantly higher (p = 0.002) in those with migraine [median, 1.41 institutional units (IU); interquartile range, 1.31-1.50 IU] than in controls (median, 1.18 IU; interquartile range, 1.12-1.35 IU). The GABA+ concentration appears to have good accuracy for the classification of individuals with or without migraine [area under the curve (95% confidence interval), 0.837 (0.71-0.96); p < 0.001]. The optimal GABA+ cut-off value for migraine was 1.30 IU, with a sensitivity of 84.2%, specificity of 68.4% and positive likelihood ratio of +2.67. The outcomes of this study suggest altered GABA metabolism in migraine. These results add to the scarce evidence on the putative role of GABA in migraine and provide a basis to further explore the causal relationship between GABA+ and the pathophysiology of migraine. This study also demonstrates that GABA+ concentration has good diagnostic accuracy for migraine

  20. Polypharmacology of dopamine receptor ligands.

    PubMed

    Butini, S; Nikolic, K; Kassel, S; Brückmann, H; Filipic, S; Agbaba, D; Gemma, S; Brogi, S; Brindisi, M; Campiani, G; Stark, H

    2016-07-01

    Most neurological diseases have a multifactorial nature and the number of molecular mechanisms discovered as underpinning these diseases is continuously evolving. The old concept of developing selective agents for a single target does not fit with the medical need of most neurological diseases. The development of designed multiple ligands holds great promises and appears as the next step in drug development for the treatment of these multifactorial diseases. Dopamine and its five receptor subtypes are intimately involved in numerous neurological disorders. Dopamine receptor ligands display a high degree of cross interactions with many other targets including G-protein coupled receptors, transporters, enzymes and ion channels. For brain disorders like Parkinsońs disease, schizophrenia and depression the dopaminergic system, being intertwined with many other signaling systems, plays a key role in pathogenesis and therapy. The concept of designed multiple ligands and polypharmacology, which perfectly meets the therapeutic needs for these brain disorders, is herein discussed as a general ligand-based concept while focusing on dopaminergic agents and receptor subtypes in particular. PMID:27234980

  1. GABA/glutamate co-release controls habenula output and is modified by antidepressant treatment

    PubMed Central

    Shabel, Steven J.; Proulx, Christophe D.; Piriz, Joaquin; Malinow, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    The lateral habenula (LHb), a key regulator of monoaminergic brain regions, is activated by negatively-valenced events. Its hyperactivity is associated with depression. While enhanced excitatory input to the LHb has been linked to depression, little is known about inhibitory transmission. We discovered that GABA is co-released with its functional opponent, glutamate, from long-range basal ganglia inputs (which signal negative events) to limit LHb activity in rodents. At this synapse, the balance of GABA/glutamate signaling is shifted towards reduced GABA in a model of depression and increased GABA by antidepressant treatment. GABA and glutamate co-release therefore controls LHb activity, and regulation of this remarkable form of transmission may be important for determining the impact of negative life events on mood and behavior. PMID:25237099

  2. Actions of picrotoxinin analogues on an expressed, homo-oligomeric GABA receptor of Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Shirai, Y; Hosie, A M; Buckingham, S D; Holyoke, C W; Baylis, H A; Sattelle, D B

    1995-04-01

    The actions of picrotoxinin and four of its analogues were tested on a Drosophila melanogaster homo-oligomeric GABA (gamma-aminobutyric acid) receptor formed when RDL (resistance to dieldrin) subunits were expressed in Xenopus oocytes. In agreement with previously reported studies on native insect GABA receptors and native expressed vertebrate GABA receptors, acetylation of the bridgehead hydroxyl group (picrotoxinin acetate) greatly reduced the activity of the molecule, but surprisingly, substitution with flourine at the same position also reduced the activity. Conversion of the terminal isopropenyl group to an acetyl (alpha-picrotoxinone) or hydration of the double bond (picrotin) also reduced activity, in agreement with findings for native insect and mammalian receptors. The present results suggest that interactions of convulsants with homo-oligomeric and multimeric GABA receptors are qualitatively similar. Thus, the RDL homo-oligomer exhibits a pharmacological profile for picrotoxinin analogues resembling that of native GABA receptors. PMID:7603613

  3. GABA production by glutamic acid decarboxylase is regulated by a dynamic catalytic loop.

    PubMed

    Fenalti, Gustavo; Law, Ruby H P; Buckle, Ashley M; Langendorf, Christopher; Tuck, Kellie; Rosado, Carlos J; Faux, Noel G; Mahmood, Khalid; Hampe, Christiane S; Banga, J Paul; Wilce, Matthew; Schmidberger, Jason; Rossjohn, Jamie; El-Kabbani, Ossama; Pike, Robert N; Smith, A Ian; Mackay, Ian R; Rowley, Merrill J; Whisstock, James C

    2007-04-01

    Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is synthesized by two isoforms of the pyridoxal 5'-phosphate-dependent enzyme glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD65 and GAD67). GAD67 is constitutively active and is responsible for basal GABA production. In contrast, GAD65, an autoantigen in type I diabetes, is transiently activated in response to the demand for extra GABA in neurotransmission, and cycles between an active holo form and an inactive apo form. We have determined the crystal structures of N-terminal truncations of both GAD isoforms. The structure of GAD67 shows a tethered loop covering the active site, providing a catalytic environment that sustains GABA production. In contrast, the same catalytic loop is inherently mobile in GAD65. Kinetic studies suggest that mobility in the catalytic loop promotes a side reaction that results in cofactor release and GAD65 autoinactivation. These data reveal the molecular basis for regulation of GABA homeostasis.

  4. Acute Immobilization Stress Modulate GABA Release from Rat Olfactory Bulb: Involvement of Endocannabinoids—Cannabinoids and Acute Stress Modulate GABA Release

    PubMed Central

    Delgado, Alejandra; Jaffé, Erica H.

    2011-01-01

    We studied the effects of cannabinoids and acute immobilization stress on the regulation of GABA release in the olfactory bulb. Glutamate-stimulated 3H-GABA release was measured in superfused slices. We report that cannabinoids as WIN55, 212-2, methanandamide, and 2-arachidonoylglycerol were able to inhibit glutamate- and KCl-stimulated 3H-GABA release. This effect was blocked by the CB1 antagonist AM281. On the other hand, acute stress was able per se to increase endocannabinoid activity. This effect was evident since the inhibition of stimulated GABA release by acute stress was reversed with AM281 and tetrahydrolipstatin. Inhibition of the endocannabinoid transport or its catabolism showed reduction of GABA release, antagonized by AM281 in control and stressed animals. These results point to endocannabinoids as inhibitory modulators of GABA release in the olfactory bulb acting through an autocrine mechanism. Apparently, stress increases the endocannabinoid system, modulating GABAergic synaptic function in a primary sensory organ. PMID:21785597

  5. Cloning of the. gamma. -aminobutyric acid (GABA). rho. sub 1 cDNA: A GABA receptor subunit highly expressed in the retina

    SciTech Connect

    Cutting, G.R.; Lu, Luo; Kasch, L.M.; Montrose-Rafizadeh, C.; Antonarakis, S.E.; Guggino, W.B.; Kazazian, H.H. Jr. ); O'Hara, B.F.; Donovan, D.M.; Shimada, Shoichi ); Uhl, G.R. Johns Hopkins Univ. School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD )

    1991-04-01

    Type A {gamma}-aminobutyric acid (GABA{sub A}) receptors are a family of ligand-gated chloride channels that are the major inhibitory neurotransmitter receptors in the nervous system. Molecular cloning has revealed diversity in the subunits that compose this heterooligomeric receptor, but each previously elucidated subunit displays amino acid similarity in conserved structural elements. The authors have used these highly conserved regions to identify additional members of this family by using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). One PCR product was used to isolate a full-length cDNA from a human retina cDNA library. The mature protein predicted from this cDNA sequence is 458 amino acids long and displays between 30 and 38% amino acid similarity to the previously identified GABA{sub A} subunits. This gene is expressed primarily in the retina but transcripts are also detected in the brain, lung, and thymus. Injection of Xenopus oocytes with RNA transcribed in vitro produces a GABA-responsive chloride conductance and expression of the cDNA in COS cells yields GABA-displaceable muscimol binding. These features are consistent with our identification of a GABA subunit, GABA {rho}{sub 1}, with prominent retinal expression that increases the diversity and tissue specificity of this ligand-gated ion-channel receptor family.

  6. Relating MEG measured motor cortical oscillations to resting γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) concentration.

    PubMed

    Gaetz, W; Edgar, J C; Wang, D J; Roberts, T P L

    2011-03-15

    The human motor cortex exhibits characteristic beta (15-30 Hz) and gamma oscillations (60-90 Hz), typically observed in the context of transient finger movement tasks. The functional significance of these oscillations, such as post-movement beta rebound (PMBR) and movement-related gamma synchrony (MRGS) remains unclear. Considerable animal and human non-invasive studies, however, suggest that the networks supporting these motor cortex oscillations depend critically on the inhibitory neurotransmitter γ-Aminobutyric acid (GABA). Despite such speculation, a direct relation between MEG measured motor cortex oscillatory power and frequency with resting GABA concentrations has not been demonstrated. In the present study, motor cortical responses were measured from 9 healthy adults while they performed a cued button-press task using their right index finger. In each participant, PMBR and MRGS measures were obtained from time-frequency plots obtained from primary motor (MI) sources, localized using beamformer differential source localization. For each participant, complimentary magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) GABA measures aligned to the motor hand knob of the left central sulcus were also obtained. GABA concentration was estimated as the ratio of the motor cortex GABA integral to a cortical reference NAA resonance at 2 ppm. A significant linear relation was observed between MI GABA concentration and MRGS frequency (R(2)=0.46, p<0.05), with no association observed between GABA concentration and MRGS power. Conversely, a significant linear relation was observed between MI GABA concentration and PMBR power (R(2)=0.34, p<0.05), with no relation observed for GABA concentration and PMBR frequency. Finally, a significant negative linear relation between the participant's age and MI gamma frequency was observed, such that older participants had a lower gamma frequency (R(2)=0.40, p<0.05). Present findings support a role for GABA in the generation and modulation of

  7. GABA System in Schizophrenia and Mood Disorders: A Mini Review on Third-Generation Imaging Studies

    PubMed Central

    Chiapponi, Chiara; Piras, Federica; Piras, Fabrizio; Caltagirone, Carlo; Spalletta, Gianfranco

    2016-01-01

    Third-generation neuroimaging research has been enriched by advances in magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) measuring the concentration of important neurotrasmitters, such as the inhibitory amino acid GABA. Here, we performed a systematic mini-review on brain MRS studies measuring GABA concentration in patients affected by schizophrenia (SZ), bipolar disorder (BD), and major depressive disorder (MDD). We wondered whether multimodal investigations could overcome intrinsic technical limits of MRS giving a broader view of mental disorders pathogenesis. In SZ, unimodal studies gave mixed results, as increased, decreased, or unaltered GABA levels were reported depending on region, disease phase, and treatment. Conversely, multimodal results showed reduced level of glutamate, but not of GABA, in patients mirrored by in vitro biochemical findings revealing hippocampal reduction in glutamate signaling in SZ, and no deficits in GABA synthesis. Moreover, a mouse model confirmed the unique pathological characteristic of glutamate function in SZ. Unimodal studies in BD revealed again, inconsistent results, while no multimodal investigations including MRS on GABA exist. In MDD, unimodal studies could not differentiate patients from controls nor characterize high-risk subjects and remitted patients. However, a multimodal study combining functional magnetic resonance imaging and MRS revealed that cingulate cortex activity is related to glutamate, N-acetylaspartate levels and anhedonia in patients, and to GABA concentration in healthy subjects, improving the distinction between MDD and physiology. Overall, our results show that unimodal studies do not indicate GABA as a biomarker for the psychiatric disorders considered. Conversely, multimodal studies can widen the understanding of the link between psychopathology, genetics, neuroanatomy, and functional–biochemical brain activity in mental disorders. Although scarce, multimodal approaches seem promising for moving from GABA

  8. GABA System in Schizophrenia and Mood Disorders: A Mini Review on Third-Generation Imaging Studies.

    PubMed

    Chiapponi, Chiara; Piras, Federica; Piras, Fabrizio; Caltagirone, Carlo; Spalletta, Gianfranco

    2016-01-01

    Third-generation neuroimaging research has been enriched by advances in magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) measuring the concentration of important neurotrasmitters, such as the inhibitory amino acid GABA. Here, we performed a systematic mini-review on brain MRS studies measuring GABA concentration in patients affected by schizophrenia (SZ), bipolar disorder (BD), and major depressive disorder (MDD). We wondered whether multimodal investigations could overcome intrinsic technical limits of MRS giving a broader view of mental disorders pathogenesis. In SZ, unimodal studies gave mixed results, as increased, decreased, or unaltered GABA levels were reported depending on region, disease phase, and treatment. Conversely, multimodal results showed reduced level of glutamate, but not of GABA, in patients mirrored by in vitro biochemical findings revealing hippocampal reduction in glutamate signaling in SZ, and no deficits in GABA synthesis. Moreover, a mouse model confirmed the unique pathological characteristic of glutamate function in SZ. Unimodal studies in BD revealed again, inconsistent results, while no multimodal investigations including MRS on GABA exist. In MDD, unimodal studies could not differentiate patients from controls nor characterize high-risk subjects and remitted patients. However, a multimodal study combining functional magnetic resonance imaging and MRS revealed that cingulate cortex activity is related to glutamate, N-acetylaspartate levels and anhedonia in patients, and to GABA concentration in healthy subjects, improving the distinction between MDD and physiology. Overall, our results show that unimodal studies do not indicate GABA as a biomarker for the psychiatric disorders considered. Conversely, multimodal studies can widen the understanding of the link between psychopathology, genetics, neuroanatomy, and functional-biochemical brain activity in mental disorders. Although scarce, multimodal approaches seem promising for moving from GABA MRS

  9. Comparative density of CCK- and PV-GABA cells within the cortex and hippocampus

    PubMed Central

    Whissell, Paul D.; Cajanding, Janine D.; Fogel, Nicole; Kim, Jun Chul

    2015-01-01

    Cholecystokinin (CCK)- and parvalbumin (PV)-expressing neurons constitute the two major populations of perisomatic GABAergic neurons in the cortex and the hippocampus. As CCK- and PV-GABA neurons differ in an array of morphological, biochemical and electrophysiological features, it has been proposed that they form distinct inhibitory ensembles which differentially contribute to network oscillations and behavior. However, the relationship and balance between CCK- and PV-GABA neurons in the inhibitory networks of the brain is currently unclear as the distribution of these cells has never been compared on a large scale. Here, we systemically investigated the distribution of CCK- and PV-GABA cells across a wide number of discrete forebrain regions using an intersectional genetic approach. Our analysis revealed several novel trends in the distribution of these cells. While PV-GABA cells were more abundant overall, CCK-GABA cells outnumbered PV-GABA cells in several subregions of the hippocampus, medial prefrontal cortex and ventrolateral temporal cortex. Interestingly, CCK-GABA cells were relatively more abundant in secondary/association areas of the cortex (V2, S2, M2, and AudD/AudV) than they were in corresponding primary areas (V1, S1, M1, and Aud1). The reverse trend was observed for PV-GABA cells. Our findings suggest that the balance between CCK- and PV-GABA cells in a given cortical region is related to the type of processing that area performs; inhibitory networks in the secondary cortex tend to favor the inclusion of CCK-GABA cells more than networks in the primary cortex. The intersectional genetic labeling approach employed in the current study expands upon the ability to study molecularly defined subsets of GABAergic neurons. This technique can be applied to the investigation of neuropathologies which involve disruptions to the GABAergic system, including schizophrenia, stress, maternal immune activation and autism. PMID:26441554

  10. Presynaptic Control of Corticostriatal Synapses by Endogenous GABA

    PubMed Central

    Logie, Christopher; Bagetta, Vincenza

    2013-01-01

    Corticostriatal terminals have presynaptic GABAB receptors that limit glutamate release, but how these receptors are activated by endogenous GABA released by different types of striatal neurons is still unknown. To address this issue, we used single and paired whole-cell recordings combined with stimulation of corticostriatal fibers in rats and mice. In the presence of opioid, GABAA, and NK1 receptor antagonists, antidromic stimulation of a population of striatal projection neurons caused suppression of subsequently evoked EPSPs in projection neurons. These effects were larger at intervals of 500 ms than 1 or 2 s, and were fully blocked by the selective GABAB receptor antagonist CGP 52432. Bursts of spikes in individual projection neurons were not able to inhibit evoked EPSPs. Similarly, spikes in fast spiking interneurons and low-threshold spike interneurons failed to elicit detectable effects mediated by GABAB receptors. Conversely, spikes in individual neurogliaform interneurons suppressed evoked EPSPs, and these effects were blocked by CGP 52432. These results provide the first demonstration of how GABAB receptors are activated by endogenous GABA released by striatal neuronal types. PMID:24068811

  11. Zolpidem modulates GABA(A) receptor function in subthalamic nucleus.

    PubMed

    Chen, Lei; Xie, Jun-Xia; Fung, Kam-Shuen; Yung, Wing-Ho

    2007-05-01

    The subthalamic nucleus occupies a position in the indirect pathway of basal ganglia circuit, which plays an important role in the movement regulation. Zolpidem is an imidazopyridine agonist with a high affinity on the benzodiazepine site of GABA(A) receptors containing alpha 1 subunit. Recently, zolpidem has been reported to be useful in treating subgroups of parkinsonian patients. A high density of zolpidem binding sites has been shown in rat subthalamic nucleus. To further investigate the modulation of zolpidem on GABA(A) receptor-mediated inhibitory synaptic current in subthalamic nucleus, whole-cell patch clamp recordings were used in the present study. Zolpidem at 100nM significantly prolonged the decay time and rise time of miniature inhibitory postsynaptic currents, with no effect on the amplitude and frequency. The benzodiazepine antagonist flumazenil could completely block the potentiation induced by zolpidem, confirming the specificity on the benzodiazepine site. At a high concentration of 1 microM, zolpidem significantly increased the decay time, rise time, amplitude and frequency of miniature inhibitory postsynaptic currents. In the behaving rats, unilateral microinjection of zolpidem into subthalamic nucleus induced a significant contralateral rotation. The present findings on the effect of zolpidem in subthalamic nucleus provide a rationale for further investigations into its potential in the treatment of Parkinson's disease. PMID:17337310

  12. Identification and functional characterization of a dual GABA/taurine transporter in the bullfrog retinal pigment epithelium

    PubMed Central

    1995-01-01

    Intracellular microelectrodes, fluorescence imaging, and radiotracer flux techniques were used to investigate the physiological response of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) to the major retinal inhibitory neurotransmitter, gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA). GABA is released tonically in the dark by amphibian horizontal cells, but is not taken up by the nearby Muller cells. Addition of GABA to the apical bath produced voltage responses in the bullfrog RPE that were not blocked nor mimicked by any of the major GABA-receptor antagonists or agonists. Nipecotic acid, a substrate for GABA transport, inhibited the voltage effects of GABA. GABA and nipecotic acid also inhibited the voltage effects of taurine, suggesting that the previously characterized beta- alanine sensitive taurine carrier also takes up GABA. The voltage responses of GABA, taurine, nipecotic acid, and beta-alanine all showed first-order saturable kinetics with the following Km's: GABA (Km = 160 microM), beta-alanine (Km = 250 microM), nipecotic acid (Km = 420 microM), and taurine (Km = 850 microM). This low affinity GABA transporter is dependent on external Na, partially dependent on external Cl, and is stimulated in low [K]o, which approximates subretinal space [K]o during light onset. Apical GABA also produced a significant conductance increase at the basolateral membrane. These GABA-induced conductance changes were blocked by basal Ba2+, suggesting that GABA decreased basolateral membrane K conductance. In addition, the apical membrane Na/K ATPase was stimulated in the presence of GABA. A model for the interaction between the GABA transporter, the Na/K ATPase, and the basolateral membrane K conductance accounts for the electrical effects of GABA. Net apical-to-basal flux of [3H]-GABA was also observed in radioactive flux experiments. The present study shows that a high capacity GABA uptake mechanism with unique pharmacological properties is located at the RPE apical membrane and could play an

  13. Dopamine D2 Receptor-Mediated Regulation of Pancreatic β Cell Mass.

    PubMed

    Sakano, Daisuke; Choi, Sungik; Kataoka, Masateru; Shiraki, Nobuaki; Uesugi, Motonari; Kume, Kazuhiko; Kume, Shoen

    2016-07-12

    Understanding the molecular mechanisms that regulate β cell mass and proliferation is important for the treatment of diabetes. Here, we identified domperidone (DPD), a dopamine D2 receptor (DRD2) antagonist that enhances β cell mass. Over time, islet β cell loss occurs in dissociation cultures, and this was inhibited by DPD. DPD increased proliferation and decreased apoptosis of β cells through increasing intracellular cAMP. DPD prevented β cell dedifferentiation, which together highly contributed to the increased β cell mass. DRD2 knockdown phenocopied the effects of domperidone and increased the number of β cells. Drd2 overexpression sensitized the dopamine responsiveness of β cells and increased apoptosis. Further analysis revealed that the adenosine agonist 5'-N-ethylcarboxamidoadenosine, a previously identified promoter of β cell proliferation, acted with DPD to increase the number of β cells. In humans, dopamine also modulates β cell mass through DRD2 and exerts an inhibitory effect on adenosine signaling. PMID:27373926

  14. Mapping Dopamine Function in Primates Using Pharmacologic Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Sanchez-Pernaute, Rosario; Brownell, Anna-Liisa; Chen, Yin-Ching Iris; Isacson, Ole

    2008-01-01

    Dopamine (DA) receptors play a central role in such diverse pathologies as Parkinson's disease, schizophrenia, and drug abuse. We used an amphetamine challenge combined with pharmacologic magnetic resonance imaging (phMRI) to map DA-associated circuitry in nonhuman primates with high sensitivity and spatial resolution. Seven control cynomolgous monkeys and 10 MPTP (1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine)-treated parkinsonian primates were studied longitudinally using both positron emission tomography (PET) and phMRI. Amphetamine challenge (2.5 mg/kg, i.v.) in control monkeys increased relative cerebral blood volume (rCBV) in a number of brain regions not described previously, such as parafascicular thalamus, precentral gyrus, and dentate nucleus of the cerebellum. With the high spatial resolution, we were also able to readily identify changes in rCBV in the anterior cingulate, substantia nigra, ventral tegmental area, caudate (tail and head), putamen, and nucleus accumbens. Amphetamine induced decreases in rCBV in occipital and posterior parietal cortices. Parkinsonian primates had a prominent loss of response to amphetamine, with relative sparing of the nucleus accumbens and parafascicular thalamus. There was a significant correlation between rCBV loss in the substantia nigra and both PET imaging of dopamine transporters and behavioral measures. Monkeys with partial lesions as defined by 2β-carbomethoxy-3β-(4-fluorophenyl) tropane binding to dopamine transporters showed recruitment of premotor and motor cortex after amphetamine stimulus similar to what has been noted in Parkinson's patients during motor tasks. These data indicate that phMRI is a powerful tool for assessment of dynamic changes associated with normal and dysfunctional DA brain circuitry in primates. PMID:15509742

  15. Does the dopamine hypothesis explain schizophrenia?

    PubMed

    Lau, Chi-Ieong; Wang, Han-Cheng; Hsu, Jung-Lung; Liu, Mu-En

    2013-01-01

    The dopamine hypothesis has been the cornerstone in the research and clinical practice of schizophrenia. With the initial emphasis on the role of excessive dopamine, the hypothesis has evolved to a concept of combining prefrontal hypodopaminergia and striatal hyperdopaminergia, and subsequently to the present aberrant salience hypothesis. This article provides a brief overview of the development and evidence of the dopamine hypothesis. It will argue that the current model of aberrant salience explains psychosis in schizophrenia and provides a plausible linkage between the pharmacological and cognitive aspects of the disease. Despite the privileged role of dopamine hypothesis in psychosis, its pathophysiological rather than etiological basis, its limitations in defining symptoms other than psychosis, as well as the evidence of other neurotransmitters such as glutamate and adenosine, prompt us to a wider perspective of the disease. Finally, dopamine does explain the pathophysiology of schizophrenia, but not necessarily the cause per se. Rather, dopamine acts as the common final pathway of a wide variety of predisposing factors, either environmental, genetic, or both, that lead to the disease. Other neurotransmitters, such as glutamate and adenosine, may also collaborate with dopamine to give rise to the entire picture of schizophrenia. PMID:23843581

  16. Dopamine receptor partial agonists and addiction.

    PubMed

    Moreira, Fabricio A; Dalley, Jeffrey W

    2015-04-01

    Many drugs abused by humans acutely facilitate, either directly or indirectly, dopamine neurotransmission in the mesolimbic pathway. As a consequence dopamine receptor agonists and antagonists have been widely investigated as putative pharmacological therapies for addiction. This general strategy, however, has had only limited success due in part to poor treatment adherence and efficacy and the significant adverse effects of dopaminergic medications. In this perspective, we discuss the potential therapeutic use of dopamine receptor partial agonists in addiction, developed initially as antipsychotic agents. Recent research indicates that the dopamine D2 receptor partial agonists, such as aripiprazole, also shows useful ancillary efficacy in several animal models of psychostimulant and opioid addiction. Notably, these findings suggest that unlike full dopamine receptor agonists and antagonists these compounds have low abuse liability and are generally well tolerated. Indeed, partial dopamine agonists attenuate the rewarding properties of opioids without interfering with their analgesic effects. Herein we discuss the utility and potential of dopamine receptor partial agonists as treatments for both stimulant and non-stimulant drug addiction.

  17. Dopamine receptors in human gastrointestinal mucosa

    SciTech Connect

    Hernandez, D.E.; Mason, G.A.; Walker, C.H.; Valenzuela, J.E.

    1987-12-21

    Dopamine is a putative enteric neurotransmitter that has been implicated in exocrine secretory and motility functions of the gastrointestinal tract of several mammalian species including man. This study was designed to determine the presence of dopamine binding sites in human gastric and duodenal mucosa and to describe certain biochemical characteristics of these enteric receptor sites. The binding assay was performed in triplicate with tissue homogenates obtained from healthy volunteers of both sexes using /sup 3/H-dopamine as a ligand. The extent of nonspecific binding was determined in the presence of a 100-fold excess of unlabeled dopamine. Scatchard analysis performed with increasing concentrations of /sup 3/H-dopamine (20-500 nM) revealed a single class of saturable dopamine binding sites in gastric and duodenal mucosa. The results of this report demonstrate the presence of specific dopamine receptors in human gastric and duodenal mucosa. These biochemical data suggest that molecular abnormalities of these receptor sites may be operative in the pathogenesis of important gastrointestinal disorders. 33 references, 2 figures.

  18. Autoradiographic localization of mu and delta opioid receptors in the mesocorticolimbic dopamine system

    SciTech Connect

    Dilts, R.P. Jr.

    1989-01-01

    In vitro autoradiographic techniques were coupled with selective chemical lesions of the A10 dopamine cells and intrinsic perikarya of the region to delineate the anatomical localization of mu and delta opioid receptors, as well as, neurotensin receptors. Mu opioid receptors were labeled with {sup 125}I-DAGO. Delta receptors were labeled with {sup 125}I-DPDPE. Neurotensin receptors were labeled with {sup 125}I-NT3. Unilateral lesions of the dopamine perikarya were produced by injections of 6-OHDA administered in the ventral mesencephalon. Unilateral lesions of intrinsic perikarya were induced by injections of quinolinic acid in to the A10 dopamine cell region. Unilateral lesions produced with 6-OHDA resulted in the loss of neurotensin receptors in the A10 region and within the terminal fields. Mu opioid receptors were unaffected by this treatment, but delta opioid receptors increased in the contralateral striatum and nucleus accumbens following 6-OHDA administration. Quinolinic acid produced a reduction of mu opioid receptors within the A10 region with a concomitant reduction in neurotensin receptors in both the cell body region and terminal fields. These results are consistent with a variety of biochemical and behavioral data which suggest the indirect modulation of dopamine transmission by the opioids. In contrast these results strongly indicate a direct modulation of the mesolimbic dopamine system by neurotensin.

  19. Dopamine D2 Modulation of Sign and Goal Tracking in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Lopez, Juan Carlos; Karlsson, Rose-Marie; O'Donnell, Patricio

    2015-01-01

    In Pavlovian conditioning, sign- and goal-tracking behaviors represent different approaches towards the conditioned stimulus. These behavioral patterns have been associated with predictive or incentive properties of the conditioned stimulus, with a crucial involvement of the mesolimbic dopamine system. As it is possible that sign tracking behavior is more sensitive to dopamine modulation, we evaluated the dopamine-dependence of sign- and goal-tracking behavior. We assessed responses to both a D2 agonist and an antagonist, and tested performance in a behavioral paradigm known to activate dopamine projections and in an animal model that affects mesolimbic and mesocortical function. Sign trackers displayed a greater sensitivity to a D2 agonist and smaller prepulse inhibition of the acoustic startle response than goal trackers, suggesting a reduced inhibitory ability. In addition, a neonatal ventral hippocampal lesion resulted in the loss of incentive salience of cues in sign trackers. Overall, these data indicate that sign-tracking behavior is more heavily controlled by dopamine than goal tracking. PMID:25759299

  20. Dopamine D2 Modulation of Sign and Goal Tracking in Rats.

    PubMed

    Lopez, Juan Carlos; Karlsson, Rose-Marie; O'Donnell, Patricio

    2015-08-01

    In Pavlovian conditioning, sign- and goal-tracking behaviors represent different approaches towards the conditioned stimulus. These behavioral patterns have been associated with predictive or incentive properties of the conditioned stimulus, with a crucial involvement of the mesolimbic dopamine system. As it is possible that sign tracking behavior is more sensitive to dopamine modulation, we evaluated the dopamine-dependence of sign- and goal-tracking behavior. We assessed responses to both a D2 agonist and an antagonist, and tested performance in a behavioral paradigm known to activate dopamine projections and in an animal model that affects mesolimbic and mesocortical function. Sign trackers displayed a greater sensitivity to a D2 agonist and smaller prepulse inhibition of the acoustic startle response than goal trackers, suggesting a reduced inhibitory ability. In addition, a neonatal ventral hippocampal lesion resulted in the loss of incentive salience of cues in sign trackers. Overall, these data indicate that sign-tracking behavior is more heavily controlled by dopamine than goal tracking. PMID:25759299

  1. Predictive reward signal of dopamine neurons.

    PubMed

    Schultz, W

    1998-07-01

    The effects of lesions, receptor blocking, electrical self-stimulation, and drugs of abuse suggest that midbrain dopamine systems are involved in processing reward information and learning approach behavior. Most dopamine neurons show phasic activations after primary liquid and food rewards and conditioned, reward-predicting visual and auditory stimuli. They show biphasic, activation-depression responses after stimuli that resemble reward-predicting stimuli or are novel or particularly salient. However, only few phasic activations follow aversive stimuli. Thus dopamine neurons label environmental stimuli with appetitive value, predict and detect rewards and signal alerting and motivating events. By failing to discriminate between different rewards, dopamine neurons appear to emit an alerting message about the surprising presence or absence of rewards. All responses to rewards and reward-predicting stimuli depend on event predictability. Dopamine neurons are activated by rewarding events that are better than predicted, remain uninfluenced by events that are as good as predicted, and are depressed by events that are worse than predicted. By signaling rewards according to a prediction error, dopamine responses have the formal characteristics of a teaching signal postulated by reinforcement learning theories. Dopamine responses transfer during learning from primary rewards to reward-predicting stimuli. This may contribute to neuronal mechanisms underlying the retrograde action of rewards, one of the main puzzles in reinforcement learning. The impulse response releases a short pulse of dopamine onto many dendrites, thus broadcasting a rather global reinforcement signal to postsynaptic neurons. This signal may improve approach behavior by providing advance reward information before the behavior occurs, and may contribute to learning by modifying synaptic transmission. The dopamine reward signal is supplemented by activity in neurons in striatum, frontal cortex, and

  2. Human dopamine receptor and its uses

    DOEpatents

    Civelli, Olivier; Van Tol, Hubert Henri-Marie

    1999-01-01

    The present invention is directed toward the isolation, characterization and pharmacological use of the human D4 dopamine receptor. The nucleotide sequence of the gene corresponding to this receptor and alleleic variant thereof are provided by the invention. The invention also includes recombinant eukaryotic expression constructs capable of expressing the human D4 dopamine receptor in cultures of transformed eukaryotic cells. The invention provides cultures of transformed eukaryotic cells which synthesize the human D4 dopamine receptor, and methods for characterizing novel psychotropic compounds using such cultures.

  3. Differential effects of GABA in modulating nociceptive vs. non-nociceptive synapses.

    PubMed

    Wang, Y; Summers, T; Peterson, W; Miiller, E; Burrell, B D

    2015-07-01

    GABA (γ-amino-butyric acid) -mediated signaling is normally associated with synaptic inhibition due to ionotropic GABA receptors that gate an inward Cl(-) current, hyperpolarizing the membrane potential. However, there are also situations where ionotropic GABA receptors trigger a Cl(-) efflux that results in depolarization. The well-characterized central nervous system of the medicinal leech was used to study the functional significance of opposing effects of GABA at the synaptic circuit level. Specifically, we focused on synapses made by the nociceptive N cell and the non-nociceptive P (pressure) cell that converge onto a common postsynaptic target. It is already known that GABA hyperpolarizes the P cell, but depolarizes the N cell and that inhibition of ionotropic GABA receptors by bicuculline (BIC) has opposing effects on the synapses made by these two inputs; enhancing P cell synaptic transmission, but depressing N cell synapses. The goal of the present study was to determine whether the opposing effects of GABA were due to differences in Cl(-) homeostasis between the two presynaptic neurons. VU 0240551 (VU), an inhibitor of the Cl(-) exporter K-Cl co-transporter isoform 2 (KCC2), attenuated GABA-mediated hyperpolarization of the non-nociceptive afferent while bumetanide (BUM), an inhibitor of the Cl(-) importer Na-K-Cl co-transporter isoform 1 (NKCC1), reduced GABA-mediated depolarization of the nociceptive neuron. VU treatment also enhanced P cell synaptic signaling, similar to the previously observed effects of BIC and consistent with the idea that GABA inhibits synaptic signaling at the presynaptic level. BUM treatment depressed N cell synapses, again similar to what is observed following BIC treatment and suggests that GABA has an excitatory effect on these synapses. The opposing effects of GABA could also be observed at the behavioral level with BIC and VU increasing responsiveness to non-nociceptive stimulation while BIC and BUM decreased responsiveness

  4. GABA, β-alanine and glycine in the digestive juice of privet-specialist insects: convergent adaptive traits against plant iridoids.

    PubMed

    Konno, Kotaro; Hirayama, Chikara; Yasui, Hiroe; Okada, Sachiko; Sugimura, Masahiro; Yukuhiro, Fumiko; Tamura, Yasumori; Hattori, Makoto; Shinbo, Hiroshi; Nakamura, Masatoshi

    2010-09-01

    The privet tree, Ligustrum obtusifolium (Oleaceae), defends its leaves against insects with a strong lysine-decreasing activity that make proteins non-nutritive. This is caused by oleuropein, an iridoid glycoside. We previously found that some privet-specialist caterpillars adapt by secreting glycine in the digestive juice as a neutralizer that prevents the loss of lysine. Here, we extended the survey into 42 lepidopteran and hymenopteran species. The average concentration of glycine in digestive juice for 11 privet-feeding species (40.396 mM) was higher than that for 32 non-privet-feeding species (2.198 mM). The glycine concentrations exceeded 10 mM in 7 out of 11 privet-feeding species. In Macrophya timida (Hymenoptera), it reached 164.8 mM. Three out of the four remaining privet-feeding species had other amino acids instead. Larvae of a privet-specialist butterfly, Artopoetes pryeri (Lycaenidae), had a high concentration (60.812 mM) of GABA. In two other specialists, β-alanine was found. GABA, β-alanine, and glycine as well as alanine, amines, and ammonium ion inhibited the lysine decrease, indicating that amino residues are responsible for the inhibition. However, the three amino acids found in the specialists were far more effective (20 mM showed 80% inhibition) than the rest (>140 mM was required for 80% inhibition). Our results show a clear and rare case of the apparent convergent evolution of herbivores' molecular adaptations of feeding on a plant with a chemical defense in a manner that minimizes the cost of adaptation. The novel role of GABA in plant-herbivore interactions shown here is probably the first reported non-neuronal role of animal-derived GABA.

  5. Etomidate, propofol and the neurosteroid THDOC increase the GABA efficacy of recombinant alpha4beta3delta and alpha4beta3 GABA A receptors expressed in HEK cells.

    PubMed

    Meera, Pratap; Olsen, Richard W; Otis, Thomas S; Wallner, Martin

    2009-01-01

    General anesthetics, once thought to exert their effects through non-specific membrane effects, have highly specific ion channel targets that can silence neuronal populations in the nervous system, thereby causing unconsciousness and immobility, characteristic of general anesthesia. Inhibitory GABA(A) receptors (GABA(A)Rs), particularly highly GABA-sensitive extrasynaptic receptor subtypes that give rise to sustained inhibitory currents, are uniquely sensitive to GABA(A)R-active anesthetics. A prominent population of extrasynaptic GABA(A)Rs is made up of alpha4, beta2 or beta3, and delta subunits. Considering the demonstrated importance of GABA receptor beta3 subunits for in vivo anesthetic effects of etomidate and propofol, we decided to investigate the effects of GABA anesthetics on "extrasynaptic" alpha4beta3delta and also binary alpha4beta3 receptors expressed in human embryonic kidney (HEK) cells. Consistent with previous work on similar receptor subtypes we show that maximal GABA currents through "extrasynaptic" alpha4beta3delta receptors, receptors defined by sensitivity to EtOH (30mM) and the beta-carboline beta-CCE (1microM), are enhanced by the GABA(A)R-active anesthetics etomidate, propofol, and the neurosteroid anesthetic THDOC. Furthermore, we show that receptors formed by alpha4beta3 subunits alone also show high GABA sensitivity and that saturating GABA responses of alpha4beta3 receptors are increased to the same extent by etomidate, propofol, and THDOC as are alpha4beta3delta receptors. Therefore, both alpha4beta3 and alpha4beta3delta receptors show low GABA efficacy, and GABA is also a partial agonist on certain binary alphabeta receptor subtypes. Increasing GABA efficacy on alpha4/6beta3delta and alpha4beta3 receptors is likely to make an important contribution to the anesthetic effects of etomidate, propofol and the neurosteroid THDOC.

  6. GABA signalling modulates plant growth by directly regulating the activity of plant-specific anion transporters

    PubMed Central

    Ramesh, Sunita A.; Tyerman, Stephen D.; Xu, Bo; Bose, Jayakumar; Kaur, Satwinder; Conn, Vanessa; Domingos, Patricia; Ullah, Sana; Wege, Stefanie; Shabala, Sergey; Feijó, José A.; Ryan, Peter R.; Gillham, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    The non-protein amino acid, gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) rapidly accumulates in plant tissues in response to biotic and abiotic stress, and regulates plant growth. Until now it was not known whether GABA exerts its effects in plants through the regulation of carbon metabolism or via an unidentified signalling pathway. Here, we demonstrate that anion flux through plant aluminium-activated malate transporter (ALMT) proteins is activated by anions and negatively regulated by GABA. Site-directed mutagenesis of selected amino acids within ALMT proteins abolishes GABA efficacy but does not alter other transport properties. GABA modulation of ALMT activity results in altered root growth and altered root tolerance to alkaline pH, acid pH and aluminium ions. We propose that GABA exerts its multiple physiological effects in plants via ALMT, including the regulation of pollen tube and root growth, and that GABA can finally be considered a legitimate signalling molecule in both the plant and animal kingdoms. PMID:26219411

  7. A tonoplast Glu/Asp/GABA exchanger that affects tomato fruit amino acid composition.

    PubMed

    Snowden, Christopher J; Thomas, Benjamin; Baxter, Charles J; Smith, J Andrew C; Sweetlove, Lee J

    2015-03-01

    Vacuolar accumulation of acidic metabolites is an important aspect of tomato fruit flavour and nutritional quality. The amino acids Asp and Glu accumulate to high concentrations during ripening, while γ-aminobutyrate (GABA) shows an approximately stoichiometric decline. Given that GABA can be catabolised to form Glu and subsequently Asp, and the requirement for the fruit to maintain osmotic homeostasis during ripening, we hypothesised the existence of a tonoplast transporter that exports GABA from the vacuole in exchange for import of either Asp or Glu. We show here that the tomato vacuolar membrane possesses such a transport property: transport of Glu across isolated tonoplast vesicle membranes was trans-stimulated in counterexchange mode by GABA, Glu and Asp. We identified SlCAT9 as a candidate protein for this exchanger using quantitative proteomics of a tonoplast-enriched membrane fraction. Transient expression of a SlCAT9-YFP fusion in tobacco confirmed a tonoplast localisation. The function of the protein was examined by overexpression of SlCAT9 in transgenic tomato plants. Tonoplast vesicles isolated from transgenic plants showed higher rates of Glu and GABA transport than wild-type (WT) only when assayed in counterexchange mode with Glu, Asp, or GABA. Moreover, there were substantial increases in the content of all three cognate amino acids in ripe fruit from the transgenic plants. We conclude that SlCAT9 is a tonoplast Glu/Asp/GABA exchanger that strongly influences the accumulation of these amino acids during fruit development.

  8. Contents of Neo-flavored Tea (GABA Kintaro) Containing γ-Aminobutyric Acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiraki, Yoshiya

    The contents of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), catechins, theaflavins, caffeine and pheophorbide-a in neo-flavored tea (GABA Kintaro tea) were analyzed. 1)The amounts of GABA were increased over 1.5mg/g by means of infrared ray irradiation with agitation treatment. 2)There was a tendency for the amount of catechins to be decreased by this treatment, whereas the amount of theaflavins tended to increase with the same treatment. The composition of these contents in this GABA Kintaro tea was almost the same as that of black tea. 3)There was a tendency for the amount of caffeine to be decreased by this treatment. 4)There was a tendency for the amount of pheophorbide-a to be increased by this treatment. 5)The result of this study showed that the amounts of GABA and theaflavins in this GABA Kintaro tea were higher than ordinary green tea but contained few catechins.It became clear that the amount of pheophorbide-a in this GABA Kintaro tea was less than the standard value established in processed chlorella.

  9. Regulation of (/sup 3/H)GABA release from strips of guinea pig urinary bladder

    SciTech Connect

    Shirakawa, J.; Taniyama, K.; Iwai, S.; Tanaka, C.

    1988-12-01

    The presence of receptors that regulate the release of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) was studied in strips of the guinea pig urinary bladder. GABA (10(-8)-10(-5) M) and muscimol (10(-8)-10(-5) M), but not baclofen (10(-5) M), reduced the Ca2+-dependent, tetrodotoxin-resistant release of (/sup 3/H)GABA evoked by high K+ from the urinary bladder strips preloaded with (/sup 3/H)GABA. The inhibitory effect of muscimol was antagonized by bicuculline and potentiated by diazepam, clonazepam, and pentobarbital sodium. The potentiating effect of clonazepam was antagonized by Ro 15-1788. Acetylcholine (ACh) inhibited the high K+-evoked release of (/sup 3/H)GABA. The inhibitory effect of ACh was antagonized by atropine sulfate and pirenzepine but not by hexamethonium. Norepinephrine (NE) inhibited the evoked release of (/sup 3/H)GABA. The inhibitory effect of NE was mimicked by clonidine, but not by phenylephrine, and was antagonized by yohimbine but not by prazosin. These results provide evidence that the release of GABA from strips of guinea pig urinary bladder is regulated via the bicuculline-sensitive GABAA receptor, M1-muscarinic, and alpha 2-adrenergic receptors.

  10. Modulation of GABA-stimulated chloride influx into membrane vesicles from rat cerebral cortex by triazolobenzodiazepines

    SciTech Connect

    Obata, T.; Yamamura, H.I.

    1988-01-01

    The effects of triazolobenzodiazepines of GABA-stimulated /sup 36/Cl/sup -/ uptake by membrane vesicles from rat cerebral cortex were examined. Triazolam and alprazolam showed a significant enhancement of GABA-stimulated /sup 36/Cl/sup -/ uptake at 0.01-10 uM. On the other hand, adinazolam showed a small enhancement at 0.1-1 uM followed by a significant inhibition of GABA-stimulated /sup 36/Cl/sup -/ uptake at 100 uM. The enhancement of GABA-stimulated /sup 36/Cl/sup -/ uptake by 1 uM alprazolam was antagonized by Ro15-1788, a benzodiazepine antagonist, but the inhibition of this response by 30 uM adinazolam was not antagonized by Ro15-1788. These results indicate that triazolobenzodiazepines enhanced GABA-stimulated /sup 36/Cl/sup -/ uptake through benzodiazepine receptors. High concentrations of adinazolam inhibit GABA-stimulated /sup 36/Cl/sup -/ uptake which may be due to the direct blockade of GABA-gated chloride channel. 23 references, 4 figures.

  11. Imbalance between Glutamate and GABA in Fmr1 Knockout Astrocytes Influences Neuronal Development

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lu; Wang, Yan; Zhou, Shimeng; Yang, Liukun; Shi, Qixin; Li, Yujiao; Zhang, Kun; Yang, Le; Zhao, Minggao; Yang, Qi

    2016-01-01

    Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is a form of inherited mental retardation that results from the absence of the fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP), the product of the Fmr1 gene. Numerous studies have shown that FMRP expression in astrocytes is important in the development of FXS. Although astrocytes affect neuronal dendrite development in Fmr1 knockout (KO) mice, the factors released by astrocytes are still unclear. We cultured wild type (WT) cortical neurons in astrocyte-conditioned medium (ACM) from WT or Fmr1 KO mice. Immunocytochemistry and Western blotting were performed to detect the dendritic growth of both WT and KO neurons. We determined glutamate and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) levels using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The total neuronal dendritic length was reduced when cultured in the Fmr1 KO ACM. This neurotoxicity was triggered by an imbalanced release of glutamate and GABA from Fmr1 KO astrocytes. We found increased glutaminase and GABA transaminase (GABA-T) expression and decreased monoamine oxidase B expression in Fmr1 KO astrocytes. The elevated levels of glutamate contributed to oxidative stress in the cultured neurons. Vigabatrin (VGB), a GABA-T inhibitor, reversed the changes caused by glutamate and GABA release in Fmr1 KO astrocytes and the abnormal behaviors in Fmr1 KO mice. Our results indicate that the imbalance in the astrocytic glutamate and GABA release may be involved in the neuropathology and the underlying symptoms of FXS, and provides a therapeutic target for treatment. PMID:27517961

  12. [Ammonia and GABA-ergic neurotransmission in pathogenesis of hepatic encephalopathy].

    PubMed

    Helewski, Krzysztof; Kowalczyk-Ziomek, Grazyna; Konecki, Janusz

    2003-01-01

    Pathogenesis of hepatic encephalopathy has not been fully revealed and there are many factors which may affect its development. Ammonia and changes in GABA-ergic neurotransmission seem to be the most essential of these factors. Hepatic encephalopathy is frequently, though not always, accompanied by elevated blood ammonia level. Due to the changes in permeability of blood-brain barrier the ammonia level in the brain also increases which results in both stimulating and inhibitory neurotransmission disturbances. Ammonia also affects abnormal interaction of metabolic neurones and astrocytes as well as glutamine-serotonin balance. Another essential factor affecting hepatic encephalopathy development are disturbances in GABA-ergic neurotransmission connected with GABAA receptor complex. When the liver is damaged GABA-ergic neurotransmission increases due to a higher GABA level, natural benzodiazepine receptor agonists as well as neurosteroids synthesised in astrocytes. Many studies point to the fact that ammonia and GABA-ergic neurotransmission disturbances interrelate with each other. There is a concept saying that both these factors cause hepatic encephalopathy. Ammonia may indirectly increase GABA-ergic neurotransmission and also inhibit the function of the central nervous system by synergistic activity with benzodiazepine receptor ligands. So far it is not known whether GABA-ergic neurotransmission is affected by ammonia only or by other factors as well. PMID:15058165

  13. Amiloride and GMQ Allosteric Modulation of the GABA-A ρ1 Receptor: Influences of the Intersubunit Site.

    PubMed

    Snell, Heather D; Gonzales, Eric B

    2015-06-01

    Amiloride, a diuretic used in the treatment of hypertension and congestive heart failure, and 2-guanidine-4-methylquinazoline (GMQ) are guanidine compounds that modulate acid-sensing ion channels. Both compounds have demonstrated affinity for a variety of membrane proteins, including members of the Cys-loop family of ligand-gated ion channels, such as the heteromeric GABA-A αβγ receptors. The actions of these guanidine compounds on the homomeric GABA-A ρ1 receptor remains unclear, especially in light of how many GABA-A αβγ receptor modulators have different effects in the GABA-A ρ1 receptors. We sought to characterize the influence of amiloride and GMQ on the human GABA-A ρ1 receptors using whole-cell patch-clamp electrophysiology. The diuretic amiloride potentiated the human GABA-A ρ1 GABA-mediated current, whereas GMQ antagonized the receptor. Furthermore, a GABA-A second transmembrane domain site, the intersubunit site, responsible for allosteric modulation in the heteromeric GABA-A receptors mediated amiloride's positive allosteric actions. In contrast, the mutation did not remove GMQ antagonism but only changed the guanidine compound's potency within the human GABA-A ρ1 receptor. Through modeling and introduction of point mutations, we propose that the GABA-A ρ1 intersubunit site plays a role in mediating the allosteric effects of amiloride and GMQ.

  14. Amiloride and GMQ Allosteric Modulation of the GABA-A ρ1 Receptor: Influences of the Intersubunit Site

    PubMed Central

    Snell, Heather D.

    2015-01-01

    Amiloride, a diuretic used in the treatment of hypertension and congestive heart failure, and 2-guanidine-4-methylquinazoline (GMQ) are guanidine compounds that modulate acid-sensing ion channels. Both compounds have demonstrated affinity for a variety of membrane proteins, including members of the Cys-loop family of ligand-gated ion channels, such as the heteromeric GABA-A αβγ receptors. The actions of these guanidine compounds on the homomeric GABA-A ρ1 receptor remains unclear, especially in light of how many GABA-A αβγ receptor modulators have different effects in the GABA-A ρ1 receptors. We sought to characterize the influence of amiloride and GMQ on the human GABA-A ρ1 receptors using whole-cell patch-clamp electrophysiology. The diuretic amiloride potentiated the human GABA-A ρ1 GABA-mediated current, whereas GMQ antagonized the receptor. Furthermore, a GABA-A second transmembrane domain site, the intersubunit site, responsible for allosteric modulation in the heteromeric GABA-A receptors mediated amiloride’s positive allosteric actions. In contrast, the mutation did not remove GMQ antagonism but only changed the guanidine compound’s potency within the human GABA-A ρ1 receptor. Through modeling and introduction of point mutations, we propose that the GABA-A ρ1 intersubunit site plays a role in mediating the allosteric effects of amiloride and GMQ. PMID:25829529

  15. Biphasic GABA-A receptor-mediated effect on the spontaneous activity of the circular layer in cat terminal ileum.

    PubMed

    Pencheva, N; Radomirov, R

    1993-07-01

    1. The GABA and GABA-A receptor agonist muscimol changed the spontaneous mechanical activity of a circular layer isolated from cat terminal ileum, while the selective GABA-B receptor agonist (+/-)baclofen had no effect. 2. GABA at doses ranging from 1 microM to 2 mM elicited concentration-dependent biphasic responses which consisted of a relaxation followed by contraction, with a tonic and a phasic component. The EC50 values, calculated at 95% confidence limits (CL), were 94.9 microM (83.5-109.8 microM) and 66.0 microM (51.2-75.5 microM) for the relaxation and contractile phases, respectively. 3. The GABA-induced biphasic responses were sensitive to bicuculline and picrotoxinin and were entirely mimicked by muscimol. Bicuculline competitively antagonized the effects of GABA and gave closely similar pA2 values for both phases of these responses--inhibitory and stimulatory. Cross-desensitization occurred only between GABA and muscimol and not between (+/-)baclofen and GABA, or (+/-)baclofen and muscimol. 4. Both bicuculline-sensitive phases evoked by GABA and muscimol were abolished by tetrodotoxin or atropine, but were unaffected by guanethidine or naloxone. 5. The present results suggested that the biphasic GABA effect on the mechanical activity of the circular layer in cat terminal ileum was mediated by prejunctional GABA-A receptors, most probably through an action on the cholinergic pathway.

  16. Production of gamma-aminobutyric acid in black raspberry juice during fermentation by Lactobacillus brevis GABA100.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ja Young; Lee, Moo Young; Ji, Geun Eog; Lee, Yeon Sook; Hwang, Keum Taek

    2009-03-15

    Black raspberry juice was fermented to produce gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) using lactic acid bacteria (Lactobacillus brevis GABA 100) at different temperatures (25, 30, or 37 degrees C) and pHs (3.5, 4, 4.5, 5, 5.5, or 6) for 15 days. Concentrations of GABA in the juices were determined during fermentation using HPLC. GABA was produced continuously even if the viable bacterial counts markedly decreased. The fermentation at 30 degrees C generally showed higher production of GABA in the juices than those at 25 and 37 degrees C. The GABA in the juices fermented at 30 degrees C reached the maximum levels on the 12th day. The juices fermented at lower pH and lower temperature showed a lower degradation of monomeric anthocyanins. The results suggest that black raspberry juice can be GABA enriched using lactic acid bacteria.

  17. Nucleus accumbens GABAergic inhibition generates intense eating and fear that resists environmental retuning and needs no local dopamine.

    PubMed

    Richard, Jocelyn M; Plawecki, Andrea M; Berridge, Kent C

    2013-06-01

    Intense fearful behavior and/or intense appetitive eating behavior can be generated by localized amino acid inhibitions along a rostrocaudal anatomical gradient within medial shell of nucleus accumbens of the rat. This can be produced by microinjections in medial shell of either the γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)A agonist muscimol (mimicking intrinsic GABAergic inputs) or the AMPA (α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-propionic acid) antagonist DNQX (6,7-dinitroquinoxaline-2,3-dione), disrupting corticolimbic glutamate inputs). At rostral sites in medial shell, each drug robustly stimulates appetitive eating and food intake, whereas at more caudal sites the same drugs instead produce increasingly fearful behaviors such as escape, distress vocalizations and defensive treading (an antipredator behavior rodents emit to snakes and scorpions). Previously we showed that intense motivated behaviors generated by glutamate blockade require local endogenous dopamine and can be modulated in valence by environmental ambience. Here we investigated whether GABAergic generation of intense appetitive and fearful motivations similarly depends on local dopamine signals, and whether the valence of motivations generated by GABAergic inhibition can also be retuned by changes in environmental ambience. We report that the answer to both questions is 'no'. Eating and fear generated by GABAergic inhibition of accumbens shell does not need endogenous dopamine. Also, the appetitive/fearful valence generated by GABAergic muscimol microinjections resists environmental retuning and is determined almost purely by rostrocaudal anatomical placement. These results suggest that nucleus accumbens GABAergic release of fear and eating are relatively independent of modulatory dopamine signals, and more anatomically pre-determined in valence balance than release of the same intense behaviors by glutamate disruptions.

  18. Involvement of the Cannabinoid CB1 Receptor in Modulation of Dopamine Output in the Prefrontal Cortex Associated with Food Restriction in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Biggio, Francesca; Utzeri, Cinzia; Lallai, Valeria; Licheri, Valentina; Lutzu, Stefano; Mostallino, Maria Cristina; Secci, Pietro Paolo; Biggio, Giovanni; Sanna, Enrico

    2014-01-01

    Increase in dopamine output on corticolimbic structures, such as medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and nucleus accumbens, has been related to reward effects associated with palatable food or food presentation after a fasting period. The endocannabinoid system regulates feeding behavior through a modulatory action on different neurotransmitter systems, including the dopaminergic system. To elucidate the involvement of type 1 cannabinoid receptors in the regulation of dopamine output in the mPFC associated with feeding in hungry rats, we restricted the food availability to a 2-h period daily for 3 weeks. In food-restricted rats the extracellular dopamine concentration in the mPFC increased starting 80 min before food presentation and returned to baseline after food removal. These changes were attenuated in animals treated with the CB1 receptor antagonist SR141716. To better understand how food restriction can change the response of mesocortical dopaminergic neurons, we studied several components of the neuronal circuit that regulates dopamine output in the mPFC. Patch-clamp experiments revealed that the inhibitory effect of the CB1 receptor agonist WIN 55,212-2 on GABAergic sIPSC frequency was diminished in mPFC neurons of FR compared to fed ad libitum rats. The basal sIPSC frequency resulted reduced in mPFC neurons of food-restricted rats, suggestive of an altered regulation of presynaptic GABA release; these changes were accompanied by an enhanced excitability of mPFC and ventral tegmental area neurons. Finally, type 1 cannabinoid receptor expression in the mPFC was reduced in food-restricted rats. Together, our data support an involvement of the endocannabinoid system in regulation of dopamine release in the mPFC through changes in GABA inhibitory synapses and suggest that the emphasized feeding-associated increase in dopamine output in the mPFC of food-restricted rats might be correlated with an altered expression and function of type 1 cannabinoid receptor in this

  19. Involvement of the cannabinoid CB1 receptor in modulation of dopamine output in the prefrontal cortex associated with food restriction in rats.

    PubMed

    Dazzi, Laura; Talani, Giuseppe; Biggio, Francesca; Utzeri, Cinzia; Lallai, Valeria; Licheri, Valentina; Lutzu, Stefano; Mostallino, Maria Cristina; Secci, Pietro Paolo; Biggio, Giovanni; Sanna, Enrico

    2014-01-01

    Increase in dopamine output on corticolimbic structures, such as medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and nucleus accumbens, has been related to reward effects associated with palatable food or food presentation after a fasting period. The endocannabinoid system regulates feeding behavior through a modulatory action on different neurotransmitter systems, including the dopaminergic system. To elucidate the involvement of type 1 cannabinoid receptors in the regulation of dopamine output in the mPFC associated with feeding in hungry rats, we restricted the food availability to a 2-h period daily for 3 weeks. In food-restricted rats the extracellular dopamine concentration in the mPFC increased starting 80 min before food presentation and returned to baseline after food removal. These changes were attenuated in animals treated with the CB1 receptor antagonist SR141716. To better understand how food restriction can change the response of mesocortical dopaminergic neurons, we studied several components of the neuronal circuit that regulates dopamine output in the mPFC. Patch-clamp experiments revealed that the inhibitory effect of the CB1 receptor agonist WIN 55,212-2 on GABAergic sIPSC frequency was diminished in mPFC neurons of FR compared to fed ad libitum rats. The basal sIPSC frequency resulted reduced in mPFC neurons of food-restricted rats, suggestive of an altered regulation of presynaptic GABA release; these changes were accompanied by an enhanced excitability of mPFC and ventral tegmental area neurons. Finally, type 1 cannabinoid receptor expression in the mPFC was reduced in food-restricted rats. Together, our data support an involvement of the endocannabinoid system in regulation of dopamine release in the mPFC through changes in GABA inhibitory synapses and suggest that the emphasized feeding-associated increase in dopamine output in the mPFC of food-restricted rats might be correlated with an altered expression and function of type 1 cannabinoid receptor in this

  20. Interrelation of resting state functional connectivity, striatal GABA levels, and cognitive control processes.

    PubMed

    Haag, Lauren; Quetscher, Clara; Dharmadhikari, Shalmali; Dydak, Ulrike; Schmidt-Wilcke, Tobias; Beste, Christian

    2015-11-01

    Important issues for cognitive control are response selection processes, known to depend on fronto-striatal networks with recent evidence suggesting that striatal gamma-amino butyric acid (GABA) levels play an important role. Regional GABA concentrations have also been shown to modulate intrinsic connectivity, e.g. of the default mode network. However, the interrelation between striatal GABA levels, basal ganglia network (BGN) connectivity, and performance in cognitive control is elusive. In the current study, we measure striatal GABA levels using magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) and resting state parameters using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Resting state parameters include activity within the BGN, as determined by the low frequency power (LFP) within the network, and the functional connectivity between the BGN and somatomotor network (SMN). Specifically, we examine the interrelation between GABA, resting state parameters, and performance (i.e., accuracy) in conflict monitoring using a Simon task. Response control was affected by striatal GABA+ levels and activity within the BGN, especially when response selection was complicated by altered stimulus-response mappings. The data suggest that there are two mechanisms supporting response selection accuracy. One is related to resting state activity within the BGN and modulated by striatal GABA+ levels. The other is related to decreased cortico-striatal network connectivity, unrelated to the GABAergic system. The inclusion of all three factors (i.e., striatal GABA+ levels, activity within the BGN, and BGN-SMN network connectivity) explained a considerable amount of variance in task accuracy. Striatal neurobiochemical (GABA+) and parameters of the resting state BGN represent important modulators of response control. PMID:26354091

  1. Significance of GABA(A) receptor heterogeneity: clues from developing neurons.

    PubMed

    Fritschy, Jean-Marc

    2015-01-01

    Briefly after the landmark discovery by Hanns Möhler that GABA(A) receptors (GABA(A)R) are the site of action of benzodiazepine site ligands, their distribution in the rodent CNS during development was mapped by autoradiography, demonstrating early and widespread expression of GABA(A)R in the brain and spinal cord. Ten years later, the first studies using subunit-specific antibodies revealed unsuspected heterogeneity in the subunit composition of GABA(A)R in developing brain, with striking regional specificity and rapid changes in expression and subcellular localization correlating with the maturation of neuronal circuits. These data contributed to the wealth of evidence that GABAergic neurotransmission, acting both synaptically and extrasynaptically, modulates major steps of neuronal development (proliferation, migration, differentiation, and circuit formation). In immature neurons, GABA(A)R activation leads to neuronal depolarization and activation of Ca(2+) signals, which mediate many of the developmental effects of GABA. Therefore, GABA(A)R heterogeneity might be essential to fine-tune GABA actions in the dynamics of CNS maturation. Furthermore, since a disturbance of GABAergic function during ontogeny can potentially affect many aspects of CNS maturation and contribute to the etiology of major brain disorders, GABA(A)R heterogeneity provides a substrate for the development of a tailored pharmacology targeting specific receptor subtypes. This chapter provides a brief overview of these issues with a special focus on the seminal contributions of Hanns Möhler to the emergence of these concepts of fundamental relevance in today's neuroscience research and pharmacological developments. PMID:25637436

  2. Aging of whiskey increases the potentiation of GABA(A) receptor response.

    PubMed

    Koda, Hirofumi; Hossain, Sheikh Julfikar; Kiso, Yoshinobu; Aoshima, Hitoshi

    2003-08-27

    It is known that the target of most mood-defining compounds such as ethanol is an ionotropic gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor (GABA(A) receptor). The potentiation of the response of these inhibitory neurotransmitter receptors induces anxiolytic, sedative, and anesthetic activities in the human brain. Because both extracts of whiskey by pentane and fragrant components in whiskey potentiate the GABA(A) receptor-mediated response, GABA(A) receptors were expressed in Xenopus oocyte by injecting cRNAs prepared from the cloned cDNA for the alpha(1) and beta(1) subunits of the bovine receptors in order to study the effects of whiskey itself on the GABA(A) receptor-mediated response. Whiskey itself also potentiated the electrical responses of GABA(A) receptors generally more than ethanol at the same concentration as that of the whiskey. The potentiation of the GABA(A) receptor-mediated response increased with the aging period of the whiskey. Inhalation of whiskey to mice increased the sleeping time induced by pentobarbital more than that of the same concentration of ethanol as the whiskey. These results suggest that not only ethanol but also minor components in whiskey play an important role in the potentiation of GABA(A) receptor-mediated response and possibly the sedative effect of whiskey. Although the minor components are present in extremely small quantities compared with ethanol in alcoholic beverages, they may modulate the mood or consciousness of humans through the potentiation of the GABA(A) receptor response after absorption into the brain, because these hydrophobic compounds are easily absorbed into the brain across the blood-brain barrier and are several thousands times as potent as ethanol in the potentiation of the GABA(A) receptor-mediated response.

  3. Microtransplantation of cellular membranes from squid stellate ganglion reveals ionotropic GABA receptors.

    PubMed

    Conti, Luca; Limon, Agenor; Palma, Eleonora; Miledi, Ricardo

    2013-02-01

    The squid has been the most studied cephalopod, and it has served as a very useful model for investigating the events associated with nerve impulse generation and synaptic transmission. While the physiology of squid giant axons has been extensively studied, very little is known about the distribution and function of the neurotransmitters and receptors that mediate inhibitory transmission at the synapses. In this study we investigated whether γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) activates neurotransmitter receptors in stellate ganglia membranes. To overcome the low abundance of GABA-like mRNAs in invertebrates and the low expression of GABA in cephalopods, we used a two-electrode voltage clamp technique to determine if Xenopus laevis oocytes injected with cell membranes from squid stellate ganglia responded to GABA. Using this method, membrane patches containing proteins and ion channels from the squid's stellate ganglion were incorporated into the surface of oocytes. We demonstrated that GABA activates membrane receptors in cellular membranes isolated from squid stellate ganglia. Using the same approach, we were able to record native glutamate-evoked currents. The squid's GABA receptors showed an EC(50) of 98 μmol l(-1) to GABA and were inhibited by zinc (IC(50) = 356 μmol l(-1)). Interestingly, GABA receptors from the squid were only partially blocked by bicuculline. These results indicate that the microtransplantation of native cell membranes is useful to identify and characterize scarce membrane proteins. Moreover, our data also support the role of GABA as an ionotropic neurotransmitter in cephalopods, acting through chloride-permeable membrane receptors.

  4. GABA metabolism pathway genes, UGA1 and GAD1, regulate replicative lifespan in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Kamei, Yuka; Tamura, Takayuki; Yoshida, Ryo; Ohta, Shinji; Fukusaki, Eiichiro; Mukai, Yukio

    2011-04-01

    Many of the genes involved in aging have been identified in organisms ranging from yeast to human. Our previous study showed that deletion of the UGA3 gene-which encodes a zinc-finger transcription factor necessary for γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-dependent induction of the UGA1 (GABA aminotransferase), UGA2 (succinate semialdehyde dehydrogenase), and UGA4 (GABA permease) genes-extends replicative lifespan in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Here, we found that deletion of UGA1 lengthened the lifespan, as did deletion of UGA3; in contrast, strains with UGA2 or UGA4 deletions exhibited no lifespan extension. The Δuga1 strain cannot deaminate GABA to succinate semialdehyde. Deletion of GAD1, which encodes the glutamate decarboxylase that converts glutamate into GABA, also increased lifespan. Therefore, two genes in the GABA metabolism pathway, UGA1 and GAD1, were identified as aging genes. Unexpectedly, intracellular GABA levels in mutant cells (except for Δuga2 cells) did not differ from those in wild-type cells. Addition of GABA to culture media, which induces transcription of the UGA structural genes, had no effect on replicative lifespan of wild-type cells. Multivariate analysis of (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance spectra for the whole-cell metabolite levels demonstrated a separation between long-lived and normal-lived strains. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of identified metabolites showed that levels of tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates positively correlated with lifespan extension. These results strongly suggest reduced activity of the GABA-metabolizing enzymes extends lifespan by shifting carbon metabolism toward respiration, as calorie restriction does.

  5. Identification of a lithium interaction site in the gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) transporter GAT-1.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yonggang; Zomot, Elia; Kanner, Baruch I

    2006-08-01

    The sodium- and chloride-dependent electrogenic gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) transporter GAT-1, which transports two sodium ions together with GABA, is essential for synaptic transmission by this neurotransmitter. Although lithium by itself does not support GABA transport, it has been proposed that lithium can replace sodium at one of the binding sites but not at the other. To identify putative lithium selectivity determinants, we have mutated the five GAT-1 residues corresponding to those whose side chains participate in the sodium binding sites Na1 and Na2 of the bacterial leucine-transporting homologue LeuT(Aa). In GAT-1 and in most other neurotransmitter transporter family members, four of these residues are conserved, but aspartate 395 replaces the Na2 residue threonine 354. At varying extracellular sodium, lithium stimulated sodium-dependent transport currents as well as [3H]GABA uptake in wild type GAT-1. The extent of this stimulation was dependent on the GABA concentration. In mutants in which aspartate 395 was replaced by threonine or serine, the stimulation of transport by lithium was abolished. Moreover, these mutants were unable to mediate the lithium leak currents. This phenotype was not observed in mutants at the four other positions, although their transport properties were severely impacted. Thus at saturating GABA, the site corresponding to Na2 behaves as a low affinity sodium binding site where lithium can replace sodium. We propose that GABA participates in the other sodium binding site, just like leucine does in the Na1 site, and that at limiting GABA, this site determines the apparent sodium affinity of GABA transport.

  6. Molecular and pharmacological properties of GABA-rho subunits from white perch retina.

    PubMed

    Qian, H; Dowling, J E; Ripps, H

    1998-11-01

    Five gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-rho subunits were cloned from a white perch retinal cDNA library and expressed in Xenopus oocytes. The deduced amino acid sequences indicated that all are highly homologous to the GABA-rho subunits cloned from mammalian retinas; two clones (perch-rho 1A and perch-rho 1B) were in the rho 1 family, two (perch-rho 2A and perch-rho 2B) were in the rho 2 family, and one clone has been tentatively identified as a perch-rho 3 subunit. When expressed in Xenopus oocytes, all but one of the subunits (rho 3) formed functional homooligomeric receptors. However, the receptors expressed by each of the GABA-rho subunits displayed unique response properties that distinguished one from the other. For example, receptors formed by perch-rho 1B subunits were more sensitive to GABA than the receptors formed by other GABA-rho subunits, the dose-response curves for the various receptors revealed different Hill coefficients, and there were differences in the kinetics of the GABA-induced currents. In addition, the GABA-mediated current-voltage curve for rho 2 receptors was approximately linear, whereas the responses from rho 1 receptors showed outward rectification. A further division in the properties of the GABA-rho subunits was revealed in their responses to imidazole-4-acetic acid (I4AA); the drug behaved as an antagonist on A-type rho receptors and a partial agonist on the B-type rho receptors. These results suggest that there is a large diversity of GABAC receptors in the vertebrate retina, probably formed by homooligomeric and heterooligomeric combinations of GABA rho subunits, that exhibit different functional properties. PMID:9805275

  7. Interaction between cyclodextrin and neuronal membrane results in modulation of GABA(A) receptor conformational transitions.

    PubMed

    Pytel, Maria; Mercik, Katarzyna; Mozrzymas, Jerzy W

    2006-06-01

    Cyclodextrins (CDs) are nanostructures widely applied in biotechnology and chemistry. Owing to partially hydrophobic character, CDs interact with biological membranes. While the mechanisms of CDs interactions with lipids were widely studied, their effects on proteins are less understood. In the present study we investigated the effects of beta cyclodextrin (betaCD) on GABA(A) receptor (GABA(A)R) gating. To reliably resolve the kinetics of conformational transitions, currents were elicited by ultrafast gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) applications to outside-out patches from rat cultured hippocampal neurons. betaCD increased the amplitude of responses to saturating GABA concentration ([GABA]) in a dose-dependent manner and this effect was accompanied by profound alterations in the current kinetics. Current deactivation was slowed down by betaCD but this effect was biphasic with a maximum at around 0.5 mM betaCD. While the fast deactivation time constant was monotonically slowed down within considered betaCD concentration range, the slow component first increased and then, at millimolar betaCD concentration, decreased. The rate and extent of desensitization was decreased by betaCD in a dose-dependent manner. The analysis of current responses to nonsaturating [GABA] indicated that betaCD affected the GABA(A)R agonist binding site by slowing down the unbinding rate. Modulation of GABA(A)R desensitization and binding showed different concentration-dependence suggesting different modualtory sites with higher affinity of the latter one. All the betaCD effects were fully reversible indicating that cholesterol uptake into betaCD was not the primary mechanism. We conclude that betaCD is a strong modulator of GABA(A)R conformational transitions.

  8. Membrane voltage modulates the GABA(A) receptor gating in cultured rat hippocampal neurons.

    PubMed

    Pytel, Maria; Mercik, Katarzyna; Mozrzymas, Jerzy W

    2006-02-01

    The kinetics of GABAergic currents in neurons is known to be modulated by the membrane voltage but the underlying mechanisms have not been fully explored. In particular, the impact of membrane potential on the GABA(A) receptor gating has not been elucidated. In the present study, the effect of membrane voltage on current responses elicited by ultrafast GABA applications was studied in cultured hippocampal neurons. The current to voltage relationship (I-V) for responses to saturating [GABA] (10 mM) showed an inward rectification (slope conductance at positive voltages was 0.62 +/- 0.05 of that at negative potentials). On the contrary, I-V for currents evoked by low [GABA] (1 microM) showed an outward rectification. The onset of currents elicited by saturating [GABA] was significantly accelerated at positive potentials. Analysis of currents evoked by prolonged applications of saturating [GABA] revealed that positive voltages significantly increased the rate and extent of desensitization. The onsets of current responses to non-saturating [GABA] were significantly accelerated at positive voltages indicating an enhancement of the binding rate. However, at low [GABA] at which the onset rate is expected to approach an asymptote set by opening/closing and unbinding rates, no significant modification of current onset by voltage was observed. Quantitative analysis based on model simulations indicated that the major effect of membrane depolarization was to increase the rates of binding, desensitization and of opening as well as to slightly reduce the rate of exit from desensitization. In conclusion, we provide evidence that membrane voltage affects the GABA(A) receptor microscopic gating.

  9. Aging of whiskey increases the potentiation of GABA(A) receptor response.

    PubMed

    Koda, Hirofumi; Hossain, Sheikh Julfikar; Kiso, Yoshinobu; Aoshima, Hitoshi

    2003-08-27

    It is known that the target of most mood-defining compounds such as ethanol is an ionotropic gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor (GABA(A) receptor). The potentiation of the response of these inhibitory neurotransmitter receptors induces anxiolytic, sedative, and anesthetic activities in the human brain. Because both extracts of whiskey by pentane and fragrant components in whiskey potentiate the GABA(A) receptor-mediated response, GABA(A) receptors were expressed in Xenopus oocyte by injecting cRNAs prepared from the cloned cDNA for the alpha(1) and beta(1) subunits of the bovine receptors in order to study the effects of whiskey itself on the GABA(A) receptor-mediated response. Whiskey itself also potentiated the electrical responses of GABA(A) receptors generally more than ethanol at the same concentration as that of the whiskey. The potentiation of the GABA(A) receptor-mediated response increased with the aging period of the whiskey. Inhalation of whiskey to mice increased the sleeping time induced by pentobarbital more than that of the same concentration of ethanol as the whiskey. These results suggest that not only ethanol but also minor components in whiskey play an important role in the potentiation of GABA(A) receptor-mediated response and possibly the sedative effect of whiskey. Although the minor components are present in extremely small quantities compared with ethanol in alcoholic beverages, they may modulate the mood or consciousness of humans through the potentiation of the GABA(A) receptor response after absorption into the brain, because these hydrophobic compounds are easily absorbed into the brain across the blood-brain barrier and are several thousands times as potent as ethanol in the potentiation of the GABA(A) receptor-mediated response. PMID:12926865

  10. Increased GABA Levels in Medial Prefrontal Cortex of Young Adults with Narcolepsy

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Seog Ju; Lyoo, In Kyoon; Lee, Yujin S.; Sung, Young Hoon; Kim, Hengjun J.; Kim, Jihyun H.; Kim, Kye Hyun; Jeong, Do-Un

    2008-01-01

    Study Objectives: To explore absolute concentrations of brain metabolites including gamma amino-butyric acid (GABA) in the medial prefrontal cortex and basal ganglia of young adults with narcolepsy. Design: Proton magnetic resonance (MR) spectroscopy centered on the medial prefrontal cortex and the basal ganglia was acquired. The absolute concentrations of brain metabolites including GABA and glutamate were assessed and compared between narcoleptic patients and healthy comparison subjects. Setting: Sleep and Chronobiology Center at Seoul National University Hospital; A high strength 3.0 Tesla MR scanner in the Department of Radiology at Seoul National University Hospital. Patients or Participants: Seventeen young adults with a sole diagnosis of HLA DQB1 0602 positive narcolepsy with cataplexy (25.1 ± 4.6 years old) and 17 healthy comparison subjects (26.8 ± 4.8 years old). Interventions: N/A. Measurements and Results: Relative to comparison subjects, narcoleptic patients had higher GABA concentration in the medial prefrontal cortex (t = 4.10, P <0.001). Narcoleptic patients with nocturnal sleep disturbance had higher GABA concentration in the medial prefrontal cortex than those without nocturnal sleep disturbance (t = 2.45, P= 0.03), but had lower GABA concentration than comparison subjects (t = 2.30, P = 0.03). Conclusions: The current study reports that young adults with narcolepsy had a higher GABA concentration in the medial prefrontal cortex, which was more prominent in patients without nocturnal sleep disturbance. Our findings suggest that the medial prefrontal GABA level may be increased in narcolepsy, and the increased medial prefrontal GABA might be a compensatory mechanism to reduce nocturnal sleep disturbances in narcolepsy. Citation: Kim SJ; Lyoo IK; Lee YS; Sung YH; Kim HJ; Kim JH; Kim KH; Jeong DU. Increased GABA levels in medial prefrontal cortex of young adults with narcolepsy. SLEEP 2008;31(3):342-347. PMID:18363310

  11. Glutamate neurons within the midbrain dopamine regions.

    PubMed

    Morales, M; Root, D H

    2014-12-12

    Midbrain dopamine systems play important roles in Parkinson's disease, schizophrenia, addiction, and depression. The participation of midbrain dopamine systems in diverse clinical contexts suggests these systems are highly complex. Midbrain dopamine regions contain at least three neuronal phenotypes: dopaminergic, GABAergic, and glutamatergic. Here, we review the locations, subtypes, and functions of glutamatergic neurons within midbrain dopamine regions. Vesicular glutamate transporter 2 (VGluT2) mRNA-expressing neurons are observed within each midbrain dopamine system. Within rat retrorubral field (RRF), large populations of VGluT2 neurons are observed throughout its anteroposterior extent. Within rat substantia nigra pars compacta (SNC), VGluT2 neurons are observed centrally and caudally, and are most dense within the laterodorsal subdivision. RRF and SNC rat VGluT2 neurons lack tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), making them an entirely distinct population of neurons from dopaminergic neurons. The rat ventral tegmental area (VTA) contains the most heterogeneous populations of VGluT2 neurons. VGluT2 neurons are found in each VTA subnucleus but are most dense within the anterior midline subnuclei. Some subpopulations of rat VGluT2 neurons co-express TH or glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD), but most of the VGluT2 neurons lack TH or GAD. Different subsets of rat VGluT2-TH neurons exist based on the presence or absence of vesicular monoamine transporter 2, dopamine transporter, or D2 dopamine receptor. Thus, the capacity by which VGluT2-TH neurons may release dopamine will differ based on their capacity to accumulate vesicular dopamine, uptake extracellular dopamine, or be autoregulated by dopamine. Rat VTA VGluT2 neurons exhibit intrinsic VTA projections and extrinsic projections to the accumbens and to the prefrontal cortex. Mouse VTA VGluT2 neurons project to accumbens shell, prefrontal cortex, ventral pallidum, amygdala, and lateral habenula. Given their molecular

  12. Central PGE2 exhibits anxiolytic-like activity via EP1 and EP4 receptors in a manner dependent on serotonin 5-HT1A, dopamine D1 and GABAA receptors.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Chihiro; Miyamoto, Chihiro; Furuyashiki, Tomoyuki; Narumiya, Shuh; Ohinata, Kousaku

    2011-07-21

    We found that centrally administered prostaglandin (PG) E(2) exhibited anxiolytic-like activity in the elevated plus-maze and open field test in mice. Agonists selective for EP(1) and EP(4) receptors, among four receptor subtypes for PGE(2), mimicked the anxiolytic-like activity of PGE(2). The anxiolytic-like activity of PGE(2) was blocked by an EP(1) or EP(4) antagonist, as well as in EP(4) but not EP(1) knockout mice. Central activation of either EP(1) or EP(4) receptors resulted in anxiolytic-like activity. The PGE(2)-induced anxiolytic-like activity was inhibited by antagonists for serotonin 5-HT(1A), dopamine D(1) and GABA(A) receptors. Taken together, PGE(2) exhibits anxiolytic-like activity via EP(1) and EP(4) receptors, with downstream involvement of 5-HT(1A), D(1) and GABA(A) receptor systems.

  13. Cytoskeletal rearrangement and Src and PI-3K-dependent Akt activation control GABA(B)R-mediated chemotaxis.

    PubMed

    Barati, Michelle T; Lukenbill, Janice; Wu, Rui; Rane, Madhavi J; Klein, Jon B

    2015-06-01

    The γ-amino butyric acid (GABA) type B receptors (GABA(B)R) function as chemoattractant receptors in response to GABA(B)R agonists in human neutrophils. The goal of this study was to define signaling mechanisms regulating GABA(B)R-mediated chemotaxis and cytoskeletal rearrangement. In a proteomic study we identified serine/threonine kinase Akt, tyrosine kinases Src and Pyk2, microtubule regulator kinesin and microtubule affinity-regulating kinase (MARK) co-immunoprecipitating with GABA(B)R. To define the contributions of these candidate signaling events in GABA(B)R-mediated chemotaxis, we used rat basophilic leukemic cells (RBL-2H3 cells) stably transfected with human GABA(B1b) and GABA(B2) receptors. The GABA(B)R agonist baclofen induced Akt phosphorylation and chemotaxis by binding to its specific GABA(B)R since pretreatment of cells with CGP52432, a GABA(B)R antagonist, blocked such effects. Moreover, baclofen induced Akt phosphorylation was shown to be dependent upon PI-3K and Src kinases. Baclofen failed to stimulate actin polymerization in suspended RBL cells unless exposed to a baclofen gradient. However, baclofen stimulated both actin and tubulin polymerization in adherent RBL-GABA(B)R cells. Blockade of actin and tubulin polymerization by treatment of cells with cytochalasin D or nocodazole respectively, abolished baclofen-mediated chemotaxis. Furthermore, baclofen stimulated Pyk2 and STAT3 phosphorylation, both known regulators of cell migration. In conclusion, GABA(B)R stimulation promotes chemotaxis in RBL cells which is dependent on signaling via PI3-K/Akt, Src kinases and on rearrangement of both microtubules and actin cytoskeleton. These data define mechanisms of GABA(B)R-mediated chemotaxis which may potentially be used to therapeutically regulate cellular response to injury and disease.

  14. Dorsomedial hypothalamic GABA regulates anxiety in the social interaction test.

    PubMed

    Shekhar, A; Katner, J S

    1995-02-01

    Blockade of GABAA function in the region of the dorsomedial hypothalamus (DMH) of rats is known to elicit a constellation of physiologic responses including increases in heart rate (HR), mean arterial blood pressure (BP), respiratory rate, and plasma catecholamine levels, as well as behavioral responses such as increases in locomotor activity and anxiogenic-like effects as measured in a conflict test and the elevated plus-maze test. The aim of the present study was to test the effects of microinjecting GABAA antagonists bicuculline methiodide (BMI) and picrotoxin, as well as the GABAA agonist muscimol, into the DMH of rats placed in the social interaction (SI) test. Muscimol decreased HR and BP but increased SI, whereas the GABA antagonists increased HR and BP but decreased SI time. Blocking the HR changes elicited by GABAergic drugs injected into the DMH with systemic injections of atenolol and atropine methylbromide did not block their effects on SI.

  15. Development of imidazole alkanoic acids as mGAT3 selective GABA uptake inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Hack, Silke; Wörlein, Babette; Höfner, Georg; Pabel, Jörg; Wanner, Klaus T

    2011-05-01

    A new series of potential GABA uptake inhibitors starting from of 1H-imidazol-4-ylacetic acid with the carboxylic acid side chain originating from different positions and varying in length have been synthesized and tested for the inhibitory potency at the four GABA uptake transporters mGAT1-4 stably expressed in HEK cells. Further two bicyclic compounds with a rigidified carboxylic acid side chain were included in this study. The results of the biological tests indicated that most ω-imidazole alkanoic and alkenoic acid derivatives exhibit the highest potencies as GABA uptake inhibitors at mGAT3.

  16. Antidepressants and seizure-interactions at the GABA-receptor chloride-ionophore complex

    SciTech Connect

    Malatynska, E.; Knapp, R.J.; Ikeda, M.; Yamamura, H.I.

    1988-01-01

    Convulsive seizures are a potential side effect of antidepressant drug treatment and can be produced by all classes of antidepressants. It is also know that some convulsant and anticonvulsant drug actions are mediated by the GABA-receptor chloride-ionophore complex. Drugs acting at this complex appear to induce convulsions by inhibiting chloride conductance through the associated chloride channel. Using the method of GABA-stimulated /sup 36/Cl-uptake by rat cerebral cortical vesicles, we show that some antidepressant drugs can inhibit the GABA-receptor chloride uptake, and that the degree of chloride channel inhibition by these drugs correlates with the frequency of convulsive seizures induced by them.

  17. GABA metabolism pathway genes, UGA1 and GAD1, regulate replicative lifespan in Saccharomycescerevisiae

    SciTech Connect

    Kamei, Yuka; Tamura, Takayuki; Yoshida, Ryo; Ohta, Shinji; Fukusaki, Eiichiro; Mukai, Yukio

    2011-04-01

    Highlights: {yields}We demonstrate that two genes in the yeast GABA metabolism pathway affect aging. {yields} Deletion of the UGA1 or GAD1 genes extends replicative lifespan. {yields} Addition of GABA to wild-type cultures has no effect on lifespan. {yields} Intracellular GABA levels do not differ in longevity mutants and wild-type cells. {yields} Levels of tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates positively correlate with lifespan. -- Abstract: Many of the genes involved in aging have been identified in organisms ranging from yeast to human. Our previous study showed that deletion of the UGA3 gene-which encodes a zinc-finger transcription factor necessary for {gamma}-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-dependent induction of the UGA1 (GABA aminotransferase), UGA2 (succinate semialdehyde dehydrogenase), and UGA4 (GABA permease) genes-extends replicative lifespan in the budding yeast Saccharomycescerevisiae. Here, we found that deletion of UGA1 lengthened the lifespan, as did deletion of UGA3; in contrast, strains with UGA2 or UGA4 deletions exhibited no lifespan extension. The {Delta}uga1 strain cannot deaminate GABA to succinate semialdehyde. Deletion of GAD1, which encodes the glutamate decarboxylase that converts glutamate into GABA, also increased lifespan. Therefore, two genes in the GABA metabolism pathway, UGA1 and GAD1, were identified as aging genes. Unexpectedly, intracellular GABA levels in mutant cells (except for {Delta}uga2 cells) did not differ from those in wild-type cells. Addition of GABA to culture media, which induces transcription of the UGA structural genes, had no effect on replicative lifespan of wild-type cells. Multivariate analysis of {sup 1}H nuclear magnetic resonance spectra for the whole-cell metabolite levels demonstrated a separation between long-lived and normal-lived strains. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of identified metabolites showed that levels of tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates positively correlated with lifespan

  18. GABA-induced uncoupling of GABA/benzodiazepine site interactions is mediated by increased GABAA receptor internalization and associated with a change in subunit composition.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez, M L; Ferreri, M C; Gravielle, M C

    2014-01-17

    Persistent activation of GABAA receptors triggers compensatory changes in receptor function that are relevant to physiological, pathological and pharmacological conditions. Chronic treatment of cultured neurons with GABA for 48h has been shown to produce a down-regulation of receptor number and an uncoupling of GABA/benzodiazepine site interactions with a half-time of 24-25h. Down-regulation is the result of a transcriptional repression of GABAA receptor subunit genes and depends on activation of L-type voltage-gated calcium channels. The mechanism of this uncoupling is currently unknown. We have previously demonstrated that a single brief exposure of rat primary neocortical cultures to GABA for 5-10min (t½=3min) initiates a process that results in uncoupling hours later (t½=12h) without a change in receptor number. Uncoupling is contingent upon GABAA receptor activation and independent of voltage-gated calcium influx. This process is accompanied by a selective decrease in subunit mRNA levels. Here, we report that the brief GABA exposure induces a decrease in the percentage of α3-containing receptors, a receptor subtype that exhibits a high degree of coupling between GABA and benzodiazepine binding sites. Initiation of GABA-induced uncoupling is prevented by co-incubation of GABA with high concentrations of sucrose suggesting that it is dependent on a receptor internalization step. Moreover, results from immunocytochemical and biochemical experiments indicate that GABA exposure causes an increase in GABAA receptor endocytosis. Together, these data suggest that the uncoupling mechanism involves an initial increase in receptor internalization followed by activation of a signaling cascade that leads to selective changes in receptor subunit levels. These changes might result in the assembly of receptors with altered subunit compositions that display a lower degree of coupling between GABA and benzodiazepine sites. Uncoupling might represent a homeostatic mechanism

  19. Proton sensitivity of the GABA(A) receptor is associated with the receptor subunit composition.

    PubMed Central

    Krishek, B J; Amato, A; Connolly, C N; Moss, S J; Smart, T G

    1996-01-01

    1. Modulation of GABA(A) receptors by external H(+) was examined in cultured rat sympathetic neurones, and in Xenopus laevis oocytes and human embryonic kidney (HEK) cells expressing recombinant GABA(A) receptors composed of combinations of alpha 1, beta 1, beta 2, gamma 2S and delta subunits. 2. Changing the external pH from 7.4 reduced GABA-activated currents in sympathetic neurones. pH titration of the GABA-induced current was fitted with a pH model which predicted that H(+) interact with two sites (PK(a) values of 6.4 and 7.2). 3. For alpha 1 beta 1 GABA(A) receptors, low external pH (< 7.4) enhanced responses to GABA. pH titration predicted the existence of two sites with PK(a) values of 6.6 and 7.5. The GABA concentration-response curve was shifted to the left by low pH and non-competitively inhibited at high pH (> 7.4). 4. alpha 1 beta 1 gamma 2S receptor constructs were not affected by external pH, whereas exchanging the beta 1 subunit for beta 2 conferred a sensitivity to pH, with predicted PK(a) values of 5.16 and 9.44. 5. Low pH enhanced the responses to GABA on alpha 1 beta 1 delta subunits, whilst high pH caused an inhibition (PK(a) values of 6.6 and 9.9). The GABA concentration-response curves were enhanced (pH 5.4) or reduced (pH 9.4) with no changes in the GABA EC(50). 6. Immunoprecipitation with subunit and epitope-specific antisera to alpha 1, beta 1 and delta subunits demonstrated that these subunits could co-assemble in cell membranes. 7. Expression of alpha 1 beta 1 gamma 2S delta constructs resulted in a 'bell-shaped' pH titration relationship. Increasing or decreasing external pH inhibited the responses to GABA. 8. The pH sensitivity of recombinant GABA(A) receptors expressed in HEK cells was generally in accordance with data accrued from Xenopus oocytes. However, rapid application of GABA to alpha 1 beta 1 constructs at high pH (> 7.4) caused an increased peak and reduced steady-state current, with a correspondingly increased rate of

  20. GABA and GAD expression in the X-organ sinus gland system of the Procambarus clarkii crayfish: inhibition mediated by GABA between X-organ neurons.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Polanco, Paola; Garduño, Julieta; Cebada, Jorge; Zarco, Natanael; Segovia, José; Lamas, Mónica; García, Ubaldo

    2011-09-01

    In crustaceans, the X-organ-sinus gland (XO-SG) neurosecretory system is formed of distinct populations of neurons that produce two families of neuropeptides: crustacean hyperglycemic hormone and adipokinetic hormone/red pigment-concentrating hormone. On the basis of electrophysiological evidence, it has been proposed that γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) regulates both electrical and secretory activity of the XO-SG system. In this work we observed that depolarizing current pulses to neurons located in the external rim of the X-organ induced repetitive firing that suppressed the spontaneous firing of previously active X-organ neurons. Picrotoxin reversibly blocked this inhibitory effect suggesting that the GABA released from the stimulated neuron inhibited neighboring cells. Immunoperoxidase in X-organ serial sections showed co-localization of GABA and glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) including the aforementioned neurons. Immunofluorescence in whole mount preparations showed that two subpopulations of crustacean hyperglycemic hormone-containing neurons colocalized with GABA. The expression of GAD mRNA was determined in crayfish tissue and X-organ single cells by RT-PCR. Bioinformatics analysis shows, within the amplified region, 90.4% consensus and 41.9% identity at the amino acid level compared with Drosophila melanogaster and Caenorhabditis elegans. We suggest that crustacean hyperglycemic hormone-GABA-containing neurons can regulate the excitability of other X-organ neurons that produce different neurohormones. PMID:21626307

  1. LRRK2 overexpression alters glutamatergic presynaptic plasticity, striatal dopamine tone, postsynaptic signal transduction, motor activity and memory.

    PubMed

    Beccano-Kelly, Dayne A; Volta, Mattia; Munsie, Lise N; Paschall, Sarah A; Tatarnikov, Igor; Co, Kimberley; Chou, Patrick; Cao, Li-Ping; Bergeron, Sabrina; Mitchell, Emma; Han, Heather; Melrose, Heather L; Tapia, Lucia; Raymond, Lynn A; Farrer, Matthew J; Milnerwood, Austen J

    2015-03-01

    Mutations in leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (Lrrk2) are the most common genetic cause of Parkinson's disease (PD), a neurodegenerative disorder affecting 1-2% of those >65 years old. The neurophysiology of LRRK2 remains largely elusive, although protein loss suggests a role in glutamatergic synapse transmission and overexpression studies show altered dopamine release in aged mice. We show that glutamate transmission is unaltered onto striatal projection neurons (SPNs) of adult LRRK2 knockout mice and that adult animals exhibit no detectable cognitive or motor deficits. Basal synaptic transmission is also unaltered in SPNs of LRRK2 overexpressing mice, but they do exhibit clear alterations to D2-receptor-mediated short-term synaptic plasticity, behavioral hypoactivity and impaired recognition memory. These phenomena are associated with decreased striatal dopamine tone and abnormal dopamine- and cAMP-regulated phosphoprotein 32 kDa signal integration. The data suggest that LRRK2 acts at the nexus of dopamine and glutamate signaling in the adult striatum, where it regulates dopamine levels, presynaptic glutamate release via D2-dependent synaptic plasticity and dopamine-receptor signal transduction. PMID:25343991

  2. LRRK2 overexpression alters glutamatergic presynaptic plasticity, striatal dopamine tone, postsynaptic signal transduction, motor activity and memory.

    PubMed

    Beccano-Kelly, Dayne A; Volta, Mattia; Munsie, Lise N; Paschall, Sarah A; Tatarnikov, Igor; Co, Kimberley; Chou, Patrick; Cao, Li-Ping; Bergeron, Sabrina; Mitchell, Emma; Han, Heather; Melrose, Heather L; Tapia, Lucia; Raymond, Lynn A; Farrer, Matthew J; Milnerwood, Austen J

    2015-03-01

    Mutations in leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (Lrrk2) are the most common genetic cause of Parkinson's disease (PD), a neurodegenerative disorder affecting 1-2% of those >65 years old. The neurophysiology of LRRK2 remains largely elusive, although protein loss suggests a role in glutamatergic synapse transmission and overexpression studies show altered dopamine release in aged mice. We show that glutamate transmission is unaltered onto striatal projection neurons (SPNs) of adult LRRK2 knockout mice and that adult animals exhibit no detectable cognitive or motor deficits. Basal synaptic transmission is also unaltered in SPNs of LRRK2 overexpressing mice, but they do exhibit clear alterations to D2-receptor-mediated short-term synaptic plasticity, behavioral hypoactivity and impaired recognition memory. These phenomena are associated with decreased striatal dopamine tone and abnormal dopamine- and cAMP-regulated phosphoprotein 32 kDa signal integration. The data suggest that LRRK2 acts at the nexus of dopamine and glutamate signaling in the adult striatum, where it regulates dopamine levels, presynaptic glutamate release via D2-dependent synaptic plasticity and dopamine-receptor signal transduction.

  3. Contribution of vesicular and cytosolic dopamine to the increased striatal dopamine efflux elicited by intrastriatal injection of SKF38393.

    PubMed

    Saigusa, Tadashi; Aono, Yuri; Sekino, Reiko; Uchida, Takuya; Takada, Koji; Oi, Yoshiyuki; Koshikawa, Noriaki; Cools, Alexander R

    2009-12-10

    Like dexamphetamine, SKF38393 induces an increase in striatal dopamine efflux which is insensitive for tetrodotoxin, Ca(2+) independent and prevented by a dopamine transporter inhibitor. The dexamphetamine-induced striatal dopamine efflux originates from both the reserpine-sensitive vesicular dopamine pool and the alpha-methyl-para-tyrosine-sensitive cytosolic dopamine pool. Given the similarities between dexamphetamine and SKF38393, we hypothesized that both types of pool also contribute to the striatally applied SKF38393-induced dopamine efflux. Using in vivo microdialysis technique, we analysed the contribution of these pools to the SKF38393-induced striatal dopamine efflux in freely moving rats. The increase of dopamine efflux induced by 1.5 microg SKF38393 was largely prevented by either reserpine (5mg/kg i.p., given 24h earlier) or alpha-methyl-para-tyrosine (250 mg/kg i.p., given 2h earlier), showing that both the vesicular dopamine pool and the cytosolic dopamine pool contribute to the SKF38393-induced increase in striatal dopamine efflux. The sum of the amounts of dopamine that was sensitive to either reserpine or alpha-methyl-para-tyrosine, was greater than 100%, namely 137.6% of the basal dopamine level and 143.9% of the SKF38393-induced dopamine level, suggesting that striatally applied SKF38393 promotes the redistribution of dopamine from vesicles to the cytosol, and vice versa. The finding that the combined treatment of reserpine and alpha-methyl-para-tyrosine only inhibited the SKF38393-induced striatal dopamine efflux till 86.0% of the control, is ascribed to the notion that SKF38393 can also inhibit the re-uptake of dopamine. The latter conclusion has far-reaching consequences for studies in which the effects of SKF38393 are simply ascribed to its dopamine D1 receptor stimulation capacity.

  4. Fabrication of the Optical Fiber GABA Sensor Based on the NADP+ -Functionalized Quantum Dots.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Fei; Yoo, Jeongha; Kim, Jongsung

    2016-02-01

    A novel quantum dots (QDs)-based optical fiber biosensor has been developed to detect gamma-amino butyric acid (GABA) directly, via QD fluorescence quenching and recovery. QDs were immobilized on the surface of an optical-fiber through the EDC/Sulfo-NHS coupling reaction. The QDs were functionalized by 3-aminophenyl boronic acid and then by NADP+. The fluorescence of the NADP+ -functionalized QDs was quenched by electron transfer from QDs to NADP+. However, by the metabolic conversion of GABA to succinic acid by GABase, NADP+ was reduced to NADPH, which hindered the electron transfer. As a result, the fluorescence of the QDs could recover. The recovery rate of the fluorescence intensity of QDs depended on the concentration of GABA. This shows the possibility of detection of low concentrations of GABA via measurement of the fluorescence intensity.

  5. CGP 36216 is a selective antagonist at GABA(B) presynaptic receptors in rat brain.

    PubMed

    Ong, J; Bexis, S; Marino, V; Parker, D A; Kerr, D I; Froestl, W

    2001-03-01

    In rat neocortical preparations maintained in Mg(2+)-free Krebs medium, baclofen depressed the frequency of spontaneous discharges in a concentration-dependent manner (EC(50) = 6 microM), sensitive to (3-aminopropyl)ethylphosphinic acid (CGP 36216) (100, 300 and 500 microM) (pA(2) = 3.9 +/- 0.1). By contrast, CGP 36216, up to 1 mM, was ineffective in antagonising baclofen-induced hyperpolarisations, mediated through gamma-aminobutyric acid(B) (GABA(B)) postsynaptic receptors. In electrically stimulated brain slices preloaded with [3H]GABA, CGP 36216 increased [3H]GABA release (IC(50) = 43 microM), which was reversed by baclofen (20 microM). While CGP 36216 is ineffective at GABA(B) postsynaptic receptors, it is appreciably more active at presynaptic receptors.

  6. Depolarizing effect of GABA in horizontal cells of the rabbit retina.

    PubMed

    Varela, Carolina; Rivera, Luis; Blanco, Román; De la Villa, Pedro

    2005-11-01

    Gamma-amino butyric acid (GABA) has been characterized as an inhibitory neurotransmitter acting through chloride mediated channels in the adult nervous system. Using gramicidin-perforated patch clamp recordings from horizontal cells dissociated from the retinas of adult rabbits, we found that GABA is able to induce cell depolarization. Ionic currents induced by GABA in dissociated horizontal cells showed a reversal potential close to -30 mV. This value is more positive than the resting potential of these cells (ca. -70 mV). Therefore, according to the Nernst equation, the intracellular chloride concentration in horizontal cells was estimated to be of 44 mM. The depolarizing effect of GABA at the dendrites of horizontal cells may serve to shape the center-surround organization of the receptive fields in retinal cells, thereby securing the shape discrimination of visual input.

  7. Fabrication of the Optical Fiber GABA Sensor Based on the NADP+ -Functionalized Quantum Dots.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Fei; Yoo, Jeongha; Kim, Jongsung

    2016-02-01

    A novel quantum dots (QDs)-based optical fiber biosensor has been developed to detect gamma-amino butyric acid (GABA) directly, via QD fluorescence quenching and recovery. QDs were immobilized on the surface of an optical-fiber through the EDC/Sulfo-NHS coupling reaction. The QDs were functionalized by 3-aminophenyl boronic acid and then by NADP+. The fluorescence of the NADP+ -functionalized QDs was quenched by electron transfer from QDs to NADP+. However, by the metabolic conversion of GABA to succinic acid by GABase, NADP+ was reduced to NADPH, which hindered the electron transfer. As a result, the fluorescence of the QDs could recover. The recovery rate of the fluorescence intensity of QDs depended on the concentration of GABA. This shows the possibility of detection of low concentrations of GABA via measurement of the fluorescence intensity. PMID:27433599

  8. The blockade of GABA mediated responses in the frog spinal cord by ammonium ions and furosemide.

    PubMed Central

    Nicoll, R A

    1978-01-01

    1. A variety of compounds which are known to block chloride transport in a variety of systems have been examined for their effects on amino acid and synaptic responses in the frog spinal cord in vitro. 2. A number of monocarboxylic aromatic acids, copper sulphate, and acetazolamide had no effect on any of the responses. 3. Ammonium ions blocked the motoneurone hyperpolarizing responses to all the neutral amino acids. In addition it selectively blocked dorsal root potentials and the action of GABA and beta-alanine on primary afferents. 5. Intracellular recording from dorsal root ganglion cells demonstrated that furosemide had little effect on the reversal potential for the GABA response. These results suggest that furosemide acts primarily by blocking the conductance increase elicited by GABA. 6. The results with furosemide provide indirect evidence that chloride ions are involved in generating the GABA depolarizations of primary afferent terminals and dorsal root potentials. PMID:722571

  9. GABA-shunt enzymes activity in GH3 cells with reduced level of PMCA2 or PMCA3 isoform

    SciTech Connect

    Kowalski, Antoni

    2011-08-12

    Highlights: {yields} Suppression of PMCA2 or PMCA3 slows down proliferation of GH3 cells. {yields} PMCA2 suppression lowers the activity of GABA-shunt enzymes. {yields} PMCA3 suppression increases the expression of glutamate decarboxylase 65. {yields} PMCA2 and PMCA3 function appears to be linked to regulation of GABA metabolism. -- Abstract: GABA ({gamma}-aminobutyric acid) is important neurotransmitter and regulator of endocrine functions. Its metabolism involves three enzymes: glutamate decarboxylase (GAD65 and GAD67), GABA aminotransferase (GABA-T) and succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase (SSADH). As many cellular processes GABA turnover can depend on calcium homeostasis, which is maintained by plasma membrane calcium ATPases (PMCAs). In excitable cells PMCA2 and PMCA3 isoforms are particularly important. In this study we focused on GABA-metabolizing enzymes expression and activity in rat anterior pituitary GH3 cells with suppressed expression of PMCA2 or PMCA3. We observed that PMCA3-reduced cells have increased GAD65 expression. Suppression of PMCA2 caused a decrease in total GAD and GABA-T activity. These results indicate that PMCA2 and PMCA3 presence may be an important regulatory factor in GABA metabolism. Results suggest that PMCA2 and PMCA3 function is rather related to regulation of GABA synthesis and degradation than supplying cells with metabolites, which can be potentially energetic source.

  10. Role of medullary GABA signal transduction on parasympathetic reflex vasodilatation in the lower lip.

    PubMed

    Kawakami, So; Izumi, Hiroshi; Masaki, Eiji; Kuchiiwa, Satoshi; Mizuta, Kentaro

    2012-02-01

    In the orofacial area, noxious stimulation of the orofacial structure in the trigeminal region evokes parasympathetic reflex vasodilatation, which occurs via the trigeminal spinal nucleus (Vsp) and the inferior/superior salivatory nucleus (ISN/SSN). However, the neurotransmitter involved in the inhibitory synaptic inputs within these nuclei has never been described. This parasympathetic reflex vasodilatation is suppressed by GABAergic action of volatile anesthetics, such as isoflurane, sevoflurane, and halothane, suggesting that medullary GABAergic mechanism exerts its inhibitory effect on the parasympathetic reflex via an activation of GABA receptors. The aim of the present study was to determine the role of GABA(A) and GABA(B) receptors in the Vsp and the ISN in regulating the lingual nerve (LN)-evoked parasympathetic reflex vasodilatation in the lower lip. Under urethane anesthesia (1g/kg), change in lower lip blood flow elicited by electrical stimulation of the LN was recorded in cervically vago-sympathectomized rats. Microinjection of GABA (10 μM; 0.3 μl/site) into the Vsp or the ISN significantly and reversibly attenuated the LN-evoked parasympathetic reflex vasodilatation. Microinjection of the GABA(A) receptor-selective agonist muscimol (100 μM; 0.3 μl/site) or the GABA(B) receptor-selective agonist baclofen (100 μM; 0.3 μl/site) into the Vsp or the ISN significantly and irreversibly reduced this reflex vasodilatation, and these effects were attenuated by pretreatment with microinjection of each receptor-selective antagonists [GABA(A) receptor selective antagonist bicuculline methiodide (1mM; 0.3 μl/site) or GABA(B) receptor selective antagonist CGP-35348 (1mM; 0.3 μl/site)] into the Vsp or the ISN. Microinjection of these antagonists alone into the Vsp or the ISN had no significant effect on this reflex vasodilatation. In addition, microinjection (0.3 μl/site) of the mixture of muscimol (100 μM) and baclofen (100 μM) into the Vsp or the ISN also

  11. Gramicidin-perforated patch revealed depolarizing effect of GABA in cultured frog melanotrophs

    PubMed Central

    Le Foll, Frank; Castel, Hélène; Soriani, Olivier; Vaudry, Hubert; Cazin, Lionel

    1998-01-01

    In frog pituitary melanotrophs, GABA induces a transient stimulation followed by prolonged inhibition of hormone secretion. This biphasic effect is inconsistent with the elevation of cytosolic calcium and the inhibition of electrical activity also provoked by GABA in single melanotrophs. In the present study, standard patch-clamp configurations and gramicidin-perforated patches were used to investigate the physiological GABAA receptor-mediated response and intracellular chloride concentration ([Cl−]i) in cultured frog melanotrophs. In the gramicidin-perforated patch configuration, 1 μM GABA caused a depolarization associated with an action potential discharge and a slight fall of membrane resistance. In contrast, at a higher concentration (10 μm) GABA elicited a depolarization accompanied by a transient volley of action potentials, followed by a sustained inhibitory plateau and a marked fall of membrane resistance. Isoguvacine mimicked the GABA-evoked responses, indicating a mediation by GABAA receptors. In gramicidin-perforated cells, the depolarizing excitatory effect of 1 μm GABA was converted into a depolarizing inhibitory action when 0.4 μm allopregnanolone was added to the bath solution. After gaining the whole-cell configuration, the amplitude and/or direction of the GABA-evoked current (IGABA) rapidly changed before stabilizing. After stabilization, the reversal potential of IGABA followed the values predicted by the Nernst equation for chloride ions when [Cl−]i was varied. In gramicidin-perforated cells, the steady-state I–V relationships of 10 μm GABA- or isoguvacine-evoked currents yielded reversal potentials of −37.5 ± 1.6 (n= 17) and −38.6 ± 2.0 mV (n= 8), respectively. These values were close to those obtained by using a voltage-ramp protocol in the presence of Na+, K+ and Ca2+ channel blockers. The current evoked by 1 μm GABA also reversed at these potentials. We conclude that, in frog pituitary melanotrophs, chloride is the

  12. Dopamine, Behavioral Economics, and Effort

    PubMed Central

    Salamone, John D.; Correa, Merce; Farrar, Andrew M.; Nunes, Eric J.; Pardo, Marta

    2009-01-01

    There are numerous problems with the hypothesis that brain dopamine (DA) systems, particularly in the nucleus accumbens, directly mediate the rewarding or primary motivational characteristics of natural stimuli such as food. Research and theory related to the functions of mesolimbic DA are undergoing a substantial conceptual restructuring, with the traditional emphasis on hedonia and primary reward yielding to other concepts and lines of inquiry. The present review is focused upon the involvement of nucleus accumbens DA in behavioral activation and effort-related processes. Viewed from the framework of behavioral economics, the effects of accumbens DA depletions and antagonism on food-reinforced behavior are highly dependent upon the work requirements of the instrumental task, and DA depleted rats are more sensitive to increases in response costs (i.e., ratio requirements). Moreover, interference with accumbens DA transmission exerts a powerful influence over effort-related choice behavior. Rats with accumbens DA depletions or antagonism reallocate their instrumental behavior away from food-reinforced tasks that have high response requirements, and instead these rats select a less-effortful type of food-seeking behavior. Nucleus accumbens DA and adenosine interact in the regulation of effort-related functions, and other brain structures (anterior cingulate cortex, amygdala, ventral pallidum) also are involved. Studies of the brain systems regulating effort-based processes may have implications for understanding drug abuse, as well as energy-related disorders such as psychomotor slowing, fatigue or anergia in depression and other neurological disorders. PMID:19826615

  13. Dopamine, behavioral economics, and effort.

    PubMed

    Salamone, John D; Correa, Merce; Farrar, Andrew M; Nunes, Eric J; Pardo, Marta

    2009-01-01

    There are numerous problems with the hypothesis that brain dopamine (DA) systems, particularly in the nucleus accumbens, directly mediate the rewarding or primary motivational characteristics of natural stimuli such as food. Research and theory related to the functions of mesolimbic DA are undergoing a substantial conceptual restructuring, with the traditional emphasis on hedonia and primary reward yielding to other concepts and lines of inquiry. The present review is focused upon the involvement of nucleus accumbens DA in behavioral activation and effort-related processes. Viewed from the framework of behavioral economics, the effects of accumbens DA depletions and antagonism on food-reinforced behavior are highly dependent upon the work requirements of the instrumental task, and DA depleted rats are more sensitive to increases in response costs (i.e., ratio requirements). Moreover, interference with accumbens DA transmission exerts a powerful influence over effort-related choice behavior. Rats with accumbens DA depletions or antagonism reallocate their instrumental behavior away from food-reinforced tasks that have high response requirements, and instead these rats select a less-effortful type of food-seeking behavior. Nucleus accumbens DA and adenosine interact in the regulation of effort-related functions, and other brain structures (anterior cingulate cortex, amygdala, ventral pallidum) also are involved. Studies of the brain systems regulating effort-based processes may have implications for understanding drug abuse, as well as energy-related disorders such as psychomotor slowing, fatigue or anergia in depression and other neurological disorders. PMID:19826615

  14. Dopamine, behavioral economics, and effort.

    PubMed

    Salamone, John D; Correa, Merce; Farrar, Andrew M; Nunes, Eric J; Pardo, Marta

    2009-01-01

    There are numerous problems with the hypothesis that brain dopamine (DA) systems, particularly in the nucleus accumbens, directly mediate the rewarding or primary motivational characteristics of natural stimuli such as food. Research and theory related to the functions of mesolimbic DA are undergoing a substantial conceptual restructuring, with the traditional emphasis on hedonia and primary reward yielding to other concepts and lines of inquiry. The present review is focused upon the involvement of nucleus accumbens DA in behavioral activation and effort-related processes. Viewed from the framework of behavioral economics, the effects of accumbens DA depletions and antagonism on food-reinforced behavior are highly dependent upon the work requirements of the instrumental task, and DA depleted rats are more sensitive to increases in response costs (i.e., ratio requirements). Moreover, interference with accumbens DA transmission exerts a powerful influence over effort-related choice behavior. Rats with accumbens DA depletions or antagonism reallocate their instrumental behavior away from food-reinforced tasks that have high response requirements, and instead these rats select a less-effortful type of food-seeking behavior. Nucleus accumbens DA and adenosine interact in the regulation of effort-related functions, and other brain structures (anterior cingulate cortex, amygdala, ventral pallidum) also are involved. Studies of the brain systems regulating effort-based processes may have implications for understanding drug abuse, as well as energy-related disorders such as psychomotor slowing, fatigue or anergia in depression and other neurological disorders.

  15. Immunomodulatory Effects Mediated by Dopamine

    PubMed Central

    Alvarez-Herrera, Samantha; Pérez-Sánchez, Gilberto; Becerril-Villanueva, Enrique; Cruz-Fuentes, Carlos; Flores-Gutierrez, Enrique Octavio; Quintero-Fabián, Saray

    2016-01-01

    Dopamine (DA), a neurotransmitter in the central nervous system (CNS), has modulatory functions at the systemic level. The peripheral and central nervous systems have independent dopaminergic system (DAS) that share mechanisms and molecular machinery. In the past century, experimental evidence has accumulated on the proteins knowledge that is involved in the synthesis, reuptake, and transportation of DA in leukocytes and the differential expression of the D1-like (D1R and D5R) and D2-like receptors (D2R, D3R, and D4R). The expression of these components depends on the state of cellular activation and the concentration and time of exposure to DA. Receptors that are expressed in leukocytes are linked to signaling pathways that are mediated by changes in cAMP concentration, which in turn triggers changes in phenotype and cellular function. According to the leukocyte lineage, the effects of DA are associated with such processes as respiratory burst, cytokine and antibody secretion, chemotaxis, apoptosis, and cytotoxicity. In clinical conditions such as schizophrenia, Parkinson disease, Tourette syndrome, and multiple sclerosis (MS), there are evident alterations during immune responses in leukocytes, in which changes in DA receptor density have been observed. Several groups have proposed that these findings are useful in establishing clinical status and clinical markers. PMID:27795960

  16. Overexpression of GRK6 rescues L-DOPA-induced signaling abnormalities in the dopamine-depleted striatum of hemiparkinsonian rats

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, M. Rafiuddin; Bychkov, Evgeny; Kook, Seunghyi; Zurkovsky, Lilia; Dalby, Kevin N.; Gurevich, Eugenia V.

    2015-01-01

    L-DOPA therapy in Parkinson’s disease often results in side effects such as L-DOPA-induced dyskinesia (LID). Our previous studies demonstrated that defective desensitization of dopamine receptors caused by decreased expression of G protein-coupled receptor kinases (GRKs) plays a role. Overexpression of GRK6, the isoform regulating dopamine receptors, in parkinsonian rats and monkeys alleviated LID and reduced LID-associated changes in gene expression. Here we show that 2-fold lentivirus-mediated overexpression of GRK6 in the dopamine-depleted striatum in rats unilaterally lesioned with 6-hydroxydopamine ameliorated supersensitive ERK response to L-DOPA challenge caused by loss of dopamine. A somewhat stronger effect of GRK6 was observed in drug-naïve than in chronically L-DOPA-treated animals. GRK6 reduced the responsiveness of p38 MAP kinase to L-DOPA challenge rendered supersensitive by dopamine depletion. The JNK MAP kinase was unaffected by loss of dopamine, chronic or acute L-DOPA, or GRK6. Overexpressed GRK6 suppressed enhanced activity of Akt in the lesioned striatum by reducing elevated phosphorylation at its major activating residue Thr308. Finally, GRK6 reduced accumulation of ΔFosB in the lesioned striatum, the effect that paralleled a decrease in locomotor sensitization to L-DOPA in GRK6-expressing rats. The results suggest that elevated GRK6 facilitate desensitization of DA receptors, thereby normalizing of the activity of multiple signaling pathways implicated in LID. Thus, improving the regulation of dopamine receptor function via the desensitization mechanism could be an effective way of managing LID. PMID:25687550

  17. Modulation of GABA receptors expressed in Xenopus oocytes by 13-L-hydroxylinoleic acid and food additives.

    PubMed

    Aoshima, H; Tenpaku, Y

    1997-12-01

    To study the effects of 13-L-hydroxylinoleic acid (LOH) and food additives on gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptors, ionotropic GABA receptors were expressed in Xenopus oocytes by injecting mRNAs prepared from rat whole brain. LOH, which was prepared by reduction of 13-L-hydroperoxylinoleic acid (LOOH), inhibited the response of GABA receptors in the presence of high concentrations of GABA. LOH also inhibited nicotinic acetylcholine, glycine, and kainate receptors, while it had little effect on NMDA receptors expressed in Xenopus oocytes. However, LOH potentiated the response of GABA receptors as well as LOOH in the presence of low concentrations of GABA, possibly increasing the affinity of GABA for the receptors, while linoleic acid did not. Since some modification of the compounds seemed to change their effects on GABA receptors, the responses of GABA receptors elicited by 10 microM GABA were measured in the presence of compounds with various kinds of functional groups or the structural isomers of pentanol. Potentiation of GABA receptors depended strongly on the species of functional groups and also depended on the structure of the isomers. Then effects of various kinds of food additives on GABA receptors were also examined; perfumes such as alcohols or esters potentiated the responses strongly, while hexylamine, nicotinamide, or caffeine inhibited the responses, mainly in a competitive manner, and vanillin inhibited the responses noncompetitively. These results suggest the possibility that production of LOOH and LOH, or intake of much of some food additives, modulates the neural transmission in the brain, especially through ionotropic GABA receptors and changes the frame of the human mind, as alcohol or tobacco does.

  18. Auto-modulation of neuroactive steroids on GABA A receptors: a novel pharmacological effect.

    PubMed

    Wegner, Florian; Rassler, Cornelia; Allgaier, Clemens; Strecker, Karl; Wohlfarth, Kai

    2007-02-01

    GABA(A) receptor function is modulated by various important drugs including neuroactive steroids that act on allosteric modulatory sites and can directly activate GABA(A) receptor channels at high concentrations. We used whole cell patch-clamp recordings and rapid applications of the neuroactive steroid alphaxalone to investigate repetitive steroid effects. Alphaxalone potentiation of submaximal GABA-evoked currents was enhanced significantly by repetitive coapplications at all investigated recombinant isoforms (alpha1beta3delta, alpha1beta3gamma2L, alpha6beta3delta, alpha6beta3gamma2L) and at GABA(A) receptors of differentiated human NT2 neurons. A similar increase of current amplitudes was induced by repetitive applications of a high steroid concentration without GABA. We refer to these reversible effects as auto-modulation because repeated interactions of steroids enhanced their own pharmacological impact at the receptor sites in a time and concentration dependent manner without affecting GABA controls. Pronounced auto-modulatory actions were also measured using the neurosteroid 5alpha-THDOC in contrast to indiplon, THIP, and pentobarbital indicating a steroid specificity. Protein kinase A inhibition significantly reduced alphaxalone auto-modulation at alpha1beta3gamma2L, alpha6beta3gamma2L, and alpha6beta3delta subtypes while it enhanced potentiation at alpha1beta3delta isoforms suggesting a crucial influence of receptor subunit composition and phosphorylation for steroid actions. Especially at extrasynaptic GABA(A) receptor sites containing the delta subunit steroid auto-modulation may have a critical role in enhancing potentiation of GABA-induced currents.

  19. GABA distribution in the central vestibular system after retroauricular galvanic stimulation. An immunohistochemical study.

    PubMed

    Okami, K; Sekitani, T; Ogata, M; Matsuda, Y; Ogata, Y; Kanaya, K; Tahara, T

    1991-01-01

    The changes of the neurotransmitter (GABA) distribution in the brain stem of rats by retroauricular galvanic stimulation were investigated using the immunohistochemical method. In the lateral vestibular nucleus GABA-like immunoreactivity was more intensive on the side ipsilateral to the anodal stimulation than on the other side. It is concluded that retroauricular galvanic stimulation causes some changes in the inhibitory activity of the lateral vestibulo-spinal tract and of the spinal motor neuron.

  20. Prefrontal Cortical GABA Abnormalities Are Associated With Reduced Hippocampal Volume In Major Depressive Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Abdallah, Chadi G.; Jackowski, Andrea; Sato, João R.; Mao, Xiangling; Kang, Guoxin; Cheema, Raminder; Coplan, Jeremy D.; Mathew, Sanjay J.; Shungu, Dikoma C.

    2015-01-01

    Hippocampal volume reduction has been related to treatment-resistant depression (TRD) and is hypothesized to reflect impaired amino-acid neurotransmission. To better understand the role of amino acid neurotransmission in hippocampal volume deficits, and subsequent resistance to treatment, this study investigated the relationship between hippocampal volumes and GABA levels in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), previously associated with TRD. Thirty-three medication-free major depressive disorder (MDD; 14 TRD and 19 non-TRD) and 26 healthy controls (HC) subjects were studied. Participants underwent high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to estimate hippocampal volume and proton MR spectroscopy (1H MRS) to measure ACC GABA levels. MDD patients, with known ACC GABA levels, were divided into two groups: MDD Low GABA and MDD High GABA. We found a significant reduction in hippocampal volume in the MDD Low GABA group compared to MDD High GABA (p < 0.001) and HC (p = 0.01). The relationship between hippocampal volume and cortical GABA was population (i.e. MDD group) and region specific (i.e. prefrontal cortex). Comparing TRD, non-TRD and HC groups, there was a main effect of group on hippocampal volume (p = 0.04), which post hoc analysis revealed as smaller hippocampal volume in TRD subjects than in non-TRD (p = 0.05) and HC groups (p = 0.03). No hippocampal volume differences between non-TRD and HC groups. The data provides insight into the role of prefrontal neurochemical deficits in the limbic structural abnormalities observed in MDD. In addition, it replicates the relationship between TRD and smaller hippocampal volumes. PMID:25983019

  1. GABA Production in Lactococcus lactis Is Enhanced by Arginine and Co-addition of Malate.

    PubMed

    Laroute, Valérie; Yasaro, Chonthicha; Narin, Waranya; Mazzoli, Roberto; Pessione, Enrica; Cocaign-Bousquet, Muriel; Loubière, Pascal

    2016-01-01

    Lactococcus lactis NCDO 2118 was previously selected for its ability to decarboxylate glutamate to γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), an interesting nutritional supplement able to improve mood and relaxation. Amino acid decarboxylation is generally considered as among the biochemical systems allowing lactic acid bacteria to counteracting acidic stress and obtaining metabolic energy. These strategies also include arginine deiminase pathway and malolactic fermentation but little is known about their possible interactions of with GABA production. In the present study, the effects of glutamate, arginine, and malate (i.e., the substrates of these acid-resistance pathways) on L. lactis NCDO 2118 growth and GABA production performances were analyzed. Both malate and arginine supplementation resulted in an efficient reduction of acidity and improvement of bacterial biomass compared to glutamate supplementation. Glutamate decarboxylation was limited to narrow environmental conditions (pH < 5.1) and physiological state (stationary phase). However, some conditions were able to improve GABA production or activate glutamate decarboxylation system even outside of this compass. Arginine clearly stimulated glutamate decarboxylation: the highest GABA production (8.6 mM) was observed in cultures supplemented with both arginine and glutamate. The simultaneous addition of arginine, malate, and glutamate enabled earlier GABA production (i.e., during exponential growth) at relatively high pH (6.5). As far as we know, no previous study has reported GABA production in such conditions. Although further studies are needed to understand the molecular basis of these phenomena, these results represent important keys suitable of application in GABA production processes. PMID:27458444

  2. Prefrontal cortical GABA abnormalities are associated with reduced hippocampal volume in major depressive disorder.

    PubMed

    Abdallah, Chadi G; Jackowski, Andrea; Sato, João R; Mao, Xiangling; Kang, Guoxin; Cheema, Raminder; Coplan, Jeremy D; Mathew, Sanjay J; Shungu, Dikoma C

    2015-08-01

    Hippocampal volume reduction has been related to treatment-resistant depression (TRD) and is hypothesized to reflect impaired amino-acid neurotransmission. To better understand the role of amino acid neurotransmission in hippocampal volume deficits, and subsequent resistance to treatment, this study investigated the relationship between hippocampal volumes and GABA levels in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), previously associated with TRD. Thirty-three medication-free major depressive disorder (MDD; 14 TRD and 19 non-TRD) and 26 healthy controls (HC) subjects were studied. Participants underwent high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to estimate hippocampal volume and proton MR spectroscopy ((1)H MRS) to measure ACC GABA levels. MDD patients, with known ACC GABA levels, were divided into two groups: MDD Low GABA and MDD High GABA. We found a significant reduction in hippocampal volume in the MDD Low GABA group compared to MDD High GABA (p<0.001) and HC (p=0.01). The relationship between hippocampal volume and cortical GABA was population (i.e. MDD group) and region specific (i.e. prefrontal cortex). Comparing TRD, non-TRD and HC groups, there was a main effect of group on hippocampal volume (p=0.04), which post hoc analysis revealed as smaller hippocampal volume in TRD subjects than in non-TRD (p=0.05) and HC groups (p=0.03). No hippocampal volume differences between non-TRD and HC groups. The data provides insight into the role of prefrontal neurochemical deficits in the limbic structural abnormalities observed in MDD. In addition, it replicates the relationship between TRD and smaller hippocampal volumes.

  3. Glutamate and GABA activate different receptors and Cl(-) conductances in crab peptide-secretory neurons.

    PubMed

    Duan, S; Cooke, I M

    2000-01-01

    Responses to rapid application of glutamic acid (Glu) and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), 0.01-3 mM, were recorded by whole-cell patch clamp of cultured crab (Cardisoma carnifex) X-organ neurons. Responses peaked within 200 ms. Both Glu and GABA currents had reversal potentials that followed the Nernst Cl(-) potential when [Cl(-)](i) was varied. A Boltzmann fit to the normalized, averaged dose-response curve for Glu indicated an EC(50) of 0.15 mM and a Hill coefficient of 1.05. Rapid (t(1/2) approximately 1 s) desensitization occurred during Glu but not GABA application that required >2 min for recovery. Desensitization was unaffected by concanavalin A or cyclothiazide. N-methyl-D-aspartate, alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid, quisqualate, and kainate (to 1 mM) were ineffective, nor were Glu responses influenced by glycine (1 microM) or Mg(2+) (0-26 mM). Glu effects were imitated by ibotenic acid (0.1 mM). The following support the conclusion that Glu and GABA act on different receptors: 1) responses sum; 2) desensitization to Glu or ibotenic acid did not diminish GABA responses; 3) the Cl(-)-channel blockers picrotoxin and niflumic acid (0.5 mM) inhibited Glu responses by approximately 90 and 80% but GABA responses by approximately 50 and 20%; and 4) polyvinylpyrrolydone-25 (2 mM in normal crab saline) eliminated Glu responses but left GABA responses unaltered. Thus crab secretory neurons have separate receptors responsive to Glu and to GABA, both probably ionotropic, and mediating Cl(-) conductance increases. In its responses and pharmacology, this crustacean Glu receptor resembles Cl(-)-permeable Glu receptors previously described in invertebrates and differs from cation-permeable Glu receptors of vertebrates and invertebrates.

  4. GABA Production in Lactococcus lactis Is Enhanced by Arginine and Co-addition of Malate

    PubMed Central

    Laroute, Valérie; Yasaro, Chonthicha; Narin, Waranya; Mazzoli, Roberto; Pessione, Enrica; Cocaign-Bousquet, Muriel; Loubière, Pascal

    2016-01-01

    Lactococcus lactis NCDO 2118 was previously selected for its ability to decarboxylate glutamate to γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), an interesting nutritional supplement able to improve mood and relaxation. Amino acid decarboxylation is generally considered as among the biochemical systems allowing lactic acid bacteria to counteracting acidic stress and obtaining metabolic energy. These strategies also include arginine deiminase pathway and malolactic fermentation but little is known about their possible interactions of with GABA production. In the present study, the effects of glutamate, arginine, and malate (i.e., the substrates of these acid-resistance pathways) on L. lactis NCDO 2118 growth and GABA production performances were analyzed. Both malate and arginine supplementation resulted in an efficient reduction of acidity and improvement of bacterial biomass compared to glutamate supplementation. Glutamate decarboxylation was limited to narrow environmental conditions (pH < 5.1) and physiological state (stationary phase). However, some conditions were able to improve GABA production or activate glutamate decarboxylation system even outside of this compass. Arginine clearly stimulated glutamate decarboxylation: the highest GABA production (8.6 mM) was observed in cultures supplemented with both arginine and glutamate. The simultaneous addition of arginine, malate, and glutamate enabled earlier GABA production (i.e., during exponential growth) at relatively high pH (6.5). As far as we know, no previous study has reported GABA production in such conditions. Although further studies are needed to understand the molecular basis of these phenomena, these results represent important keys suitable of application in GABA production processes. PMID:27458444

  5. Genetic disruption of dopamine production results in pituitary adenomas and severe prolactinemia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dopamine release from tuberoinfundibular dopamine neurons into the median eminence activates dopamine-D2 receptors in the pituitary gland where it inhibits lactotroph function. We have previously described genetic dopamine-deficient mouse models which lack the ability to synthesize dopamine. Because...

  6. Effect of THIP and SL 76002, two clinically experimented GABA-mimetic compounds, on anterior pituitary GABA receptors and prolactin secretion in the rat

    SciTech Connect

    Apud, J.A.; Masotto, C.; Racagni, G.

    1987-03-02

    In the present study, the ability of three direct GABA agonists, muscimol, THIP and SL 76002 to displace /sup 3/H-GABA binding from anterior pituitary and medio-basal hypothalamus membranes was evaluated. Further, the effect of both THIP and SL 76002 on baseline prolactin levels or after stimulation of hormone release with haloperidol has been also studied. Either muscimol, THIP or SL 76002 have shown to posses 7-, 7- and 3-fold higher affinity, respectively, for the central nervous system than for the anterior pituitary /sup 3/H-GABA binding sites. Moreover, THIP and SL 76002 have demonstrated to be respectively, 25- and 1000- fold less potent than muscimol in inhibiting /sup 3/H- GABA binding at the level of the anterior pituitary and about 25- and 2700-fold less potent at the level of the medio-basal hypothalamus. Under basal conditions, either THIP or SL 76002 were ineffective to reduce prolactin release. However, after stimulation of prolactin secretion through blockade of the dopaminergic neurotransmission with haloperidol (0.1 mg/kg), both THIP (10 mg/kg) and SL 76002 (200 mg/kg) significantly counteracted the neuroleptic-induced prolactin rise with a potency which is in line with their ability to inhibit /sup 3/H-GABA binding in the anterior pituitary. The present results indicate that both compounds inhibit prolactin release under specific experimental situations probably through a GABAergic mechanism. In view of the endocrine effects of these GABA-mimetic compounds, the possibility arises for an application of these type of drugs in clinical neuroendocrinology. 35 references, 3 figures, 2 tables.

  7. A tight coupling between β₂Y97 and β₂F200 of the GABA(A) receptor mediates GABA binding.

    PubMed

    Tran, Phu N; Laha, Kurt T; Wagner, David A

    2011-10-01

    The GABA(A) receptor is an oligopentameric chloride channel that is activated via conformation changes induced upon the binding of the endogenous ligand, GABA, to the extracellular inter-subunit interfaces. Although dozens of amino acid residues at the α/β interface have been implicated in ligand binding, the structural elements that mediate ligand binding and receptor activation are not yet fully described. In this study, double-mutant cycle analysis was employed to test for possible interactions between several arginines (α₁R67, α₁R120, α₁R132, and β₂R207) and two aromatic residues (β₂Y97 and β₂F200) that are present in the ligand-binding pocket and are known to influence GABA affinity. Our results show that neither α₁R67 nor α₁R120 is functionally coupled to either of the aromatics, whereas a moderate coupling exists between α₁R132 and both aromatic residues. Significant functional coupling between β₂R207 and both β₂Y97 and β₂F200 was found. Furthermore, we identified an even stronger coupling between the two aromatics, β₂Y97 and β₂F200, and for the first time provided direct evidence for the involvement of β₂Y97 and β₂F200 in GABA binding. As these residues are tightly linked, and mutation of either has similar, severe effects on GABA binding and receptor kinetics, we believe they form a single functional unit that may directly coordinate GABA.

  8. Long-term but not short-term blockade of dopamine release in Drosophila impairs orientation during flight in a visual attention paradigm.

    PubMed

    Ye, Yizhou; Xi, Wang; Peng, Yueqing; Wang, Yizheng; Guo, Aike

    2004-08-01

    Dopamine is a major neuromodulator in both vertebrates and invertebrates and has profound effects on many physiological processes, including the regulation of attention. Most studies of the functions of dopamine use models with long-term blockade of dopamine release and few effects of transient blockade have yet been reported. The goal of the present study was to determine the role of dopamine in attention-like behavior in Drosophila by taking advantage of the fly's orientation behavior during flight. The examination of several different transgenic flies in a single-target visual attention paradigm showed that flies lost their orientation ability if dopamine release was blocked from the beginning of the development of dopaminergic neurons. This is similar to the attention loss in mammals. However, if the blockade of dopamine release was induced during the experimental procedure, flies performed normally. Statistical analysis of the behavioral assessment showed a significant difference between long-term and transient blockade. Using the RNA interference approach, we generated flies with down-regulated J-domain protein, which is a potential cochaperone in synaptic vesicle release, to make an alternative form of long-term dopamine-blockade mutant. Behavioral assays revealed that flies with permanent J-domain protein down-regulation specifically in dopaminergic neurons have an attention defect similar to that induced by long-term blockade of dopamine release. Furthermore, dopamine depletion beginning at eclosion also caused an attention deficit. Our results indicate that prolonged but not transient blockade of dopamine release impairs visual attention-like behavior in Drosophila.

  9. Putamen–midbrain functional connectivity is related to striatal dopamine transporter availability in patients with Lewy body diseases

    PubMed Central

    Rieckmann, A.; Gomperts, S.N.; Johnson, K.A.; Growdon, J.H.; Van Dijk, K.R.A.

    2015-01-01

    Prior work has shown that functional connectivity between the midbrain and putamen is altered in patients with impairments in the dopamine system. This study examines whether individual differences in midbrain–striatal connectivity are proportional to the integrity of the dopamine system in patients with nigrostriatal dopamine loss (Parkinson's disease and dementia with Lewy bodies). We assessed functional connectivity of the putamen during resting state fMRI and dopamine transporter (DAT) availability in the striatum using 11C-Altropane PET in twenty patients. In line with the hypothesis that functional connectivity between the midbrain and the putamen reflects the integrity of the dopaminergic neurotransmitter system, putamen–midbrain functional connectivity was significantly correlated with striatal DAT availability even after stringent control for effects of head motion. DAT availability did not relate to functional connectivity between the caudate and thalamus/prefrontal areas. As such, resting state functional connectivity in the midbrain–striatal pathway may provide a useful indicator of underlying pathology in patients with nigrostriatal dopamine loss. PMID:26137443

  10. Putamen-midbrain functional connectivity is related to striatal dopamine transporter availability in patients with Lewy body diseases.

    PubMed

    Rieckmann, A; Gomperts, S N; Johnson, K A; Growdon, J H; Van Dijk, K R A

    2015-01-01

    Prior work has shown that functional connectivity between the midbrain and putamen is altered in patients with impairments in the dopamine system. This study examines whether individual differences in midbrain-striatal connectivity are proportional to the integrity of the dopamine system in patients with nigrostriatal dopamine loss (Parkinson's disease and dementia with Lewy bodies). We assessed functional connectivity of the putamen during resting state fMRI and dopamine transporter (DAT) availability in the striatum using 11C-Altropane PET in twenty patients. In line with the hypothesis that functional connectivity between the midbrain and the putamen reflects the integrity of the dopaminergic neurotransmitter system, putamen-midbrain functional connectivity was significantly correlated with striatal DAT availability even after stringent control for effects of head motion. DAT availability did not relate to functional connectivity between the caudate and thalamus/prefrontal areas. As such, resting state functional connectivity in the midbrain-striatal pathway may provide a useful indicator of underlying pathology in patients with nigrostriatal dopamine loss.

  11. Dopamine down-regulation of protein L-isoaspartyl methyltransferase is dependent on reactive oxygen species in SH-SY5Y cells.

    PubMed

    Ouazia, D; Levros, L-C; Rassart, E; Desrosiers, R R

    2014-05-16

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a chronic and progressive neurological disorder that is characterized by the loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra. Dopamine, via the oxidative stress that it generates in the cytosol, could contribute to the selective loss of neurons observed in PD. Protein L-isoaspartyl methyltransferase (PIMT) is an enzyme that repairs L-isoaspartyl-containing proteins and possesses anti-apoptotic properties. PIMT expression has been shown to decrease with age. Together, these observations prompted us to investigate whether dopamine can regulate PIMT expression in SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells. Here, we report that dopamine down-regulated PIMT at both gene and protein levels. The same inhibition of PIMT protein level was caused by the electron transport chain inhibitor, rotenone, which was accompanied, in both cases, by an increase in cell death and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. In fact, pre-treatment with the antioxidant N-acetyl cysteine blocked PIMT dopamine-associated down-regulation. PCMT1 promoter mapping experiments allowed the identification of two regions that showed different sensitivity to DA action. A first region localized between 61 and 94bp upstream of transcription start site was very sensitive to dopamine inhibition while a second region between 41 and 61bp appeared more resistant to dopamine inhibitory effect. The inhibition of PCMT1 promoter activity was mediated by dopamine-induced ROS since it was prevented by the hydroxyl radical scavenger N,N'-dimethylthiourea. Conversely, H2O2 inhibited in a dose-dependent manner the transcriptional activity of PCMT1 promoter. Therefore, our findings identified new molecular mechanisms, cytosolic dopamine and its resulting ROS, as inhibitors of PIMT expression. This suggests that ROS generated from cytosolic dopamine could reduce both the PCMT1 gene promoter activity and the PIMT protein level thus decreasing its capacity to repair proteins involved in apoptosis and

  12. The Arabidopsis her1 mutant implicates GABA in E-2-hexenal responsiveness.

    PubMed

    Mirabella, Rossana; Rauwerda, Han; Struys, Eduard A; Jakobs, Cornelis; Triantaphylidès, Christian; Haring, Michel A; Schuurink, Robert C

    2008-01-01

    When wounded or attacked by herbivores or pathogens, plants produce a blend of six-carbon alcohols, aldehydes and esters, known as C6-volatiles. Undamaged plants, when exposed to C6-volatiles, respond by inducing defense-related genes and secondary metabolites, suggesting that C6-volatiles can act as signaling molecules regulating plant defense responses. However, to date, the molecular mechanisms by which plants perceive and respond to these volatiles are unknown. To elucidate such mechanisms, we decided to isolate Arabidopsis thaliana mutants in which responses to C6-volatiles were altered. We observed that treatment of Arabidopsis seedlings with the C6-volatile E-2-hexenal inhibits root elongation. Among C6-volatiles this response is specific to E-2-hexenal, and is not dependent on ethylene, jasmonic and salicylic acid. Using this bioassay, we isolated 18 E-2-hexenal-response (her) mutants that showed sustained root growth after E-2-hexenal treatment. Here, we focused on the molecular characterization of one of these mutants, her1. Microarray and map-based cloning revealed that her1 encodes a gamma-amino butyric acid transaminase (GABA-TP), an enzyme that degrades GABA. As a consequence of the mutation, her1 plants accumulate high GABA levels in all their organs. Based on the observation that E-2-hexenal treatment induces GABA accumulation, and that high GABA levels confer resistance to E-2-hexenal, we propose a role for GABA in mediating E-2-hexenal responses.

  13. The root-specific glutamate decarboxylase (GAD1) is essential for sustaining GABA levels in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Bouché, Nicolas; Fait, Aaron; Zik, Moriyah; Fromm, Hillel

    2004-05-01

    In plants, as in most eukaryotes, glutamate decarboxylase catalyses the synthesis of GABA. The Arabidopsis genome contains five glutamate decarboxylase genes and one of these genes (glutamate decarboxylase1; i.e. GAD1 ) is expressed specifically in roots. By isolating and analyzing three gad1 T-DNA insertion alleles, derived from two ecotypes, we investigated the potential role of GAD1 in GABA production. We also analyzed a promoter region of the GAD1 gene and show that it confers root-specific expression when fused to reporter genes. Phenotypic analysis of the gad1 insertion mutants revealed that GABA levels in roots were drastically reduced compared with those in the wild type. The roots of the wild type contained about sevenfold more GABA than roots of the mutants. Disruption of the GAD1 gene also prevented the accumulation of GABA in roots in response to heat stress. Our results show that the root-specific calcium/calmodulin-regulated GAD1 plays a major role in GABA synthesis in plants under normal growth conditions and in response to stress.

  14. Correlation between the enhancement of flunitrazepam binding by GABA and seizure susceptibility in mice

    SciTech Connect

    Marley, R.J.; Wehner, J.M.

    1987-06-08

    Various populations of mice exhibit differential sensitivity to seizure-inducing agents. The relationship of seizure susceptibility to alterations in the GABA receptor complex was investigated in six different populations of mice consisting of four inbred strains (C57BL, DBA, C3H, and BALB) and two selected lines (long sleep and short sleep). Seizure activity was induced by intraperitoneal administration of the GAD inhibitor, 3-mercaptopropionic acid, and latencies to seizure onset and tonus were measured. In naive mice of the same populations, GABA enhancement of TH-flunitrazepam binding was measured in extensively washed whole brain membranes at several GABA concentrations. Both differential seizure sensitivity to 3-mercaptopropionic acid and differential enhancement of TH-flunitrazepam binding by GABA were observed in these six populations of mice. Correlational analyses indicated a positive correlation between the degree of GABA enhancement of TH-flunitrazepam binding and resistance to the seizure-inducing properties of 3-mercaptopropionic acid. These data suggest that genetic differences in sensitivity to seizure-inducing agents that disrupt the GABAergic system may be related to differences in coupling between the various receptors associated with the GABA receptor complex.

  15. GABA regulates synaptic integration of newly generated neurons in the adult brain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ge, Shaoyu; Goh, Eyleen L. K.; Sailor, Kurt A.; Kitabatake, Yasuji; Ming, Guo-Li; Song, Hongjun

    2006-02-01

    Adult neurogenesis, the birth and integration of new neurons from adult neural stem cells, is a striking form of structural plasticity and highlights the regenerative capacity of the adult mammalian brain. Accumulating evidence suggests that neuronal activity regulates adult neurogenesis and that new neurons contribute to specific brain functions. The mechanism that regulates the integration of newly generated neurons into the pre-existing functional circuitry in the adult brain is unknown. Here we show that newborn granule cells in the dentate gyrus of the adult hippocampus are tonically activated by ambient GABA (γ-aminobutyric acid) before being sequentially innervated by GABA- and glutamate-mediated synaptic inputs. GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the adult brain, initially exerts an excitatory action on newborn neurons owing to their high cytoplasmic chloride ion content. Conversion of GABA-induced depolarization (excitation) into hyperpolarization (inhibition) in newborn neurons leads to marked defects in their synapse formation and dendritic development in vivo. Our study identifies an essential role for GABA in the synaptic integration of newly generated neurons in the adult brain, and suggests an unexpected mechanism for activity-dependent regulation of adult neurogenesis, in which newborn neurons may sense neuronal network activity through tonic and phasic GABA activation.

  16. Comparison of taurine, GABA, Glu, and Asp as scavengers of malondialdehyde in vitro and in vivo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Yan; Wang, Wei; Yu, Pingfeng; Xi, Zhijiang; Xu, Lijian; Li, Xiaolong; He, Nongyue

    2013-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine if amino acid neurotransmitters such as gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), taurine, glutamate (Glu), and aspartate (Asp) can scavenge activated carbonyl toxicants. In vitro, direct reaction between malondialdehyde (MDA) and amino acids was researched using different analytical methods. The results indicated that scavenging activated carbonyl function of taurine and GABA is very strong and that of Glu and Asp is very weak in pathophysiological situations. The results provided perspective into the reaction mechanism of taurine and GABA as targets of activated carbonyl such as MDA in protecting nerve terminals. In vivo, we studied the effect of taurine and GABA as antioxidants by detecting MDA concentration and superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activities. It was shown that MDA concentration was decreased significantly, and the activities of SOD and GSH-Px were increased significantly in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus of acute epileptic state rats, after the administration of taurine and GABA. The results indicated that the peripherally administered taurine and GABA can scavenge free radicals and protect the tissue against activated carbonyl in vivo and in vitro.

  17. Hyperpolarization-independent maturation and refinement of GABA/glycinergic connections in the auditory brain stem.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hanmi; Bach, Eva; Noh, Jihyun; Delpire, Eric; Kandler, Karl

    2016-03-01

    During development GABA and glycine synapses are initially excitatory before they gradually become inhibitory. This transition is due to a developmental increase in the activity of neuronal potassium-chloride cotransporter 2 (KCC2), which shifts the chloride equilibrium potential (ECl) to values more negative than the resting membrane potential. While the role of early GABA and glycine depolarizations in neuronal development has become increasingly clear, the role of the transition to hyperpolarization in synapse maturation and circuit refinement has remained an open question. Here we investigated this question by examining the maturation and developmental refinement of GABA/glycinergic and glutamatergic synapses in the lateral superior olive (LSO), a binaural auditory brain stem nucleus, in KCC2-knockdown mice, in which GABA and glycine remain depolarizing. We found that many key events in the development of synaptic inputs to the LSO, such as changes in neurotransmitter phenotype, strengthening and elimination of GABA/glycinergic connection, and maturation of glutamatergic synapses, occur undisturbed in KCC2-knockdown mice compared with wild-type mice. These results indicate that maturation of inhibitory and excitatory synapses in the LSO is independent of the GABA and glycine depolarization-to-hyperpolarization transition. PMID:26655825

  18. Utilization of barley or wheat bran to bioconvert glutamate to γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA).

    PubMed

    Jin, Wen-Jie; Kim, Min-Ju; Kim, Keun-Sung

    2013-09-01

    This study deals with the utilization of agro-industrial wastes created by barley and wheat bran in the production of a value-added product, γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA). The simple and eco-friendly reaction requires no pretreatment or microbial fermentation steps but uses barley or wheat bran as an enzyme source, glutamate as a substrate, and pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP) as a cofactor. The optimal reaction conditions were determined on the basis of the temperatures and times used for the decarboxylation reactions and the initial concentrations of barley or wheat bran, glutamate, and PLP. The optimal reactions produced 9.2 mM of GABA from 10 mM glutamate, yielding a 92% GABA conversion rate, when barley bran was used and 6.0 mM of GABA from 10 mM glutamate, yielding a 60% GABA conversion rate, when wheat bran was used. The results imply that barley bran is more efficient than wheat bran in the production of GABA.

  19. γ-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) homeostasis regulates pollen germination and polarized growth in Picea wilsonii.

    PubMed

    Ling, Yu; Chen, Tong; Jing, Yanping; Fan, Lusheng; Wan, Yinglang; Lin, Jinxing

    2013-11-01

    γ-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) is a four-carbon non-protein amino acid found in a wide range of organisms. Recently, GABA accumulation has been shown to play a role in the stress response and cell growth in angiosperms. However, the effect of GABA deficiency on pollen tube development remains unclear. Here, we demonstrated that specific concentrations of exogenous GABA stimulated pollen tube growth in Picea wilsonii, while an overdose suppressed pollen tube elongation. The germination percentage of pollen grains and morphological variations in pollen tubes responded in a dose-dependent manner to treatment with 3-mercaptopropionic acid (3-MP), a glutamate decarboxylase inhibitor, while the inhibitory effects could be recovered in calcium-containing medium supplemented with GABA. Using immunofluorescence labeling, we found that the actin cables were disorganized in 3-MP treated cells, followed by the transition of endo/exocytosis activating sites from the apex to the whole tube shank. In addition, variations in the deposition of cell wall components were detected upon labeling with JIM5, JIM7, and aniline blue. Our results demonstrated that calcium-dependent GABA signaling regulates pollen germination and polarized tube growth in P. wilsonii by affecting actin filament patterns, vesicle trafficking, and the configuration and distribution of cell wall components.

  20. Inhibitory interaction between P2X4 and GABA(C) rho1 receptors.

    PubMed

    Xia, Rong; Mei, Zhu-Zhong; Milligan, Carol; Jiang, Lin-Hua

    2008-10-10

    Reciprocal functional inhibition between P2X and GABA(A/C) receptors represents a novel mechanism fine-tuning neuronal excitability. However, the participating receptors and underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. P2X(4) receptor is widely found in neurons that express GABA(C) rho1 receptor. Thus, we co-expressed P2X(4) and rho1 receptors in HEK293 cells and, using patch-clamp recording, examined whether they have mutual functional inhibition. Currents evoked by simultaneous application of ATP and GABA (I(ATP+GABA)) were significantly smaller compared to the addition of I(ATP) and I(GABA). Furthermore, I(ATP) were strongly suppressed during rho1 receptor activation. Similarly, I(GABA) were greatly attenuated during P2X(4) receptor activation. Such mutual inhibition was absent in cells only expressing P2X(4) or rho1 receptor. Taken together, these functional data support negative cross-talk between P2X(4) and rho1 receptors.

  1. Sleep-promoting effects of the GABA/5-HTP mixture in vertebrate models.

    PubMed

    Hong, Ki-Bae; Park, Yooheon; Suh, Hyung Joo

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the sleep-promoting effect of combined γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP) on sleep quality and quantity in vertebrate models. Pentobarbital-induced sleep test and electroencephalogram (EEG) analysis were applied to investigate sleep latency, duration, total sleeping time and sleep quality of two amino acids and GABA/5-HTP mixture. In addition, real-time PCR and HPLC analysis were applied to analyze the signaling pathway. The GABA/5-HTP mixture significantly regulated the sleep latency, duration (p<0.005), and also increased the sleep quality than single administration of the amino acids (p<0.000). Long-term administration increased the transcript levels of GABAA receptor (1.37-fold, p<0.000) and also increased the GABA content compared with the control group 12h after administration (1.43-fold, p<0.000). Our available evidence suggests that the GABA/5-HTP mixture modulates both GABAergic and serotonergic signaling. Moreover, the sleep architecture can be controlled by the regulation of GABAA receptor and GABA content with 5-HTP. PMID:27150227

  2. Acupuncture improves locomotor function by enhancing GABA receptor expression in transient focal cerebral ischemia rats.

    PubMed

    Xu, Qian; Yang, Jing-Wen; Cao, Yan; Zhang, Li-Wen; Zeng, Xiang-Hong; Li, Fang; Du, Si-Qi; Wang, Lin-Peng; Liu, Cun-Zhi

    2015-02-19

    Stroke is the major cause of long-term disability among adults. Recent studies have found that GABAergic inhibitory neurotransmission plays a vital role in ameliorate locomotor damage after ischemic injury. Acupuncture has been widely used to improve locomotor function. However, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. The present study is designed to investigate whether GABA and GABA receptors are involved in the mechanism underlying acupuncture treatment in rats with middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). One week after acupuncture at JiaJi acupoint, the locomotor function and infarct volumes were tested. Then level of GABA and the expressions of GABAAγ2 and GABABR2 were assessed by high-performance liquid chromatography, immunofluorescence and immunohistochemistry, respectively. Compared with normal group, GABAAγ2 and GABABR2 expressions were decreased in striatum and spinal cord of the MCAO group. After acupuncture, the expressions of the two receptors were increased, but levels of GABA and trafficking protein, kinesin binding 1 (TRAK1), which plays a role in the intracellular transport of GABA receptors, were unchanged. The present study suggests that acupuncture could reverse locomotor function by modulating the expressions of GABA receptors in MCAO rats. PMID:25556683

  3. Effects of traditionally used anxiolytic botanicals on enzymes of the gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) system.

    PubMed

    Awad, R; Levac, D; Cybulska, P; Merali, Z; Trudeau, V L; Arnason, J T

    2007-09-01

    In Canada, the use of botanical natural health products (NHPs) for anxiety disorders is on the rise, and a critical evaluation of their safety and efficacy is required. The purpose of this study was to determine whether commercially available botanicals directly affect the primary brain enzymes responsible for gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) metabolism. Anxiolytic plants may interact with either glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) or GABA transaminase (GABA-T) and ultimately influence brain GABA levels and neurotransmission. Two in vitro rat brain homogenate assays were developed to determine the inhibitory concentrations (IC50) of aqueous and ethanolic plant extracts. Approximately 70% of all extracts that were tested showed little or no inhibitory effect (IC50 values greater than 1 mg/mL) and are therefore unlikely to affect GABA metabolism as tested. The aqueous extract of Melissa officinalis (lemon balm) exhibited the greatest inhibition of GABA-T activity (IC50 = 0.35 mg/mL). Extracts from Centella asiatica (gotu kola) and Valeriana officinalis (valerian) stimulated GAD activity by over 40% at a dose of 1 mg/mL. On the other hand, both Matricaria recutita (German chamomile) and Humulus lupulus (hops) showed significant inhibition of GAD activity (0.11-0.65 mg/mL). Several of these species may therefore warrant further pharmacological investigation. The relation between enzyme activity and possible in vivo mode of action is discussed. PMID:18066140

  4. GABA abnormalities in schizophrenia: A methodological review of in vivo studies

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Stephan F.; Tso, Ivy F.

    2014-01-01

    Abnormalities of GABAergic interneurons are some of the most consistent findings from post-mortem studies of schizophrenia. However, linking these molecular deficits with in vivo observations in patients – a critical goal in order to evaluate interventions that would target GABAergic deficits – presents a challenge. Explanatory models have been developed based on animal work and the emerging experimental literature in schizophrenia patients. This literature includes: neuroimaging ligands to GABA receptors, magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) of GABA concentration, transcranial magnetic stimulation of cortical inhibitory circuits and pharmacologic probes of GABA receptors to dynamically challenge the GABA system, usually in combination with neuroimaging studies. Pharmacologic challenges have elicited behavioral changes, and preliminary studies of therapeutic GABAergic interventions have been conducted. This article critically reviews the evidence for GABAergic dysfunction from each of these areas. These methods remain indirect measures of GABAergic function, and a broad array of dysfunction is linked with the putative GABAergic measures, including positive symptoms, cognition, emotion, motor processing and sensory processing, covering diverse brain areas. Measures of receptor binding have not shown replicable group differences in binding, and MRS assays of GABA concentration have yielded equivocal evidence of large-scale alteration in GABA concentration. Overall, the experimental base remains sparse, and much remains to be learned about the role of GABAergic interneurons in healthy brains. Challenges with pharmacologic and functional probes show promise, and may yet enable a better characterization of GABAergic deficits in schizophrenia. PMID:25458856

  5. Novel dose-dependent alterations in excitatory GABA during embryonic development associated with lead (Pb) neurotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    Wirbisky, Sara E.; Weber, Gregory J.; Lee, Jang-Won; Cannon, Jason R.; Freeman, Jennifer L.

    2014-01-01

    Lead (Pb) is a heavy metal that is toxic to numerous physiological processes. Its use in industrial applications is widespread and results in an increased risk of human environmental exposure. The central nervous system (CNS) is most sensitive to Pb exposure during early development due to rapid cell proliferation and migration, axonal growth, and synaptogenesis. One of the key components of CNS development is the Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)ergic system. GABA is the primary inhibitory neurotransmitter in the adult brain. However, during development GABA acts as an excitatory neurotrophic factor which contributes to these cellular processes. Multiple studies report effects of Pb on GABA in the mature brain; however, little is known regarding the adverse effects of Pb exposure on the GABAergic system during embryonic development. To characterize the effects of Pb on the GABAergic system during development, zebrafish embryos were exposed to 10, 50, or 100 ppb Pb or a control treatment. Tissue up-take, gross morphological alterations, gene expression, and neurotransmitter levels were analyzed. Analysis revealed that alterations in gene expression throughout the GABAergic system and GABA levels were dose and developmental time point specific. These data provide a framework for further analysis of the effects of Pb on the GABAergic system during the excitatory phase and as GABA transitions to an inhibitory neurotransmitter during development. PMID:24875535

  6. Resting GABA and glutamate concentrations do not predict visual gamma frequency or amplitude

    PubMed Central

    Cousijn, Helena; Haegens, Saskia; Wallis, George; Near, Jamie; Stokes, Mark G.; Harrison, Paul J.; Nobre, Anna C.

    2014-01-01

    Gamma band oscillations arise in neuronal networks of interconnected GABAergic interneurons and excitatory pyramidal cells. A previous study found a correlation between visual gamma peak frequency, as measured with magnetoencephalography, and resting GABA levels, as measured with magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS), in 12 healthy volunteers. If true, this would allow studies in clinical populations testing modulation of this relationship, but this finding has not been replicated. We addressed this important question by measuring gamma oscillations and GABA, as well as glutamate, in 50 healthy volunteers. Visual gamma activity was evoked using an established gratings paradigm, and we applied a beamformer spatial filtering technique to extract source-reconstructed gamma peak frequency and amplitude from the occipital lobe. We determined gamma peak frequency and amplitude from the location with maximal activation and from the location of the MRS voxel to assess the relationship of GABA with gamma. Gamma peak frequency was estimated from the highest value of the raw spectra and by a Gaussian fit to the spectra. MRS data were acquired from occipital cortex. We did not replicate the previously found correlation between gamma peak frequency and GABA concentration. Calculation of a Bayes factor provided strong evidence in favor of the null hypothesis. We also did not find a correlation between gamma activity and glutamate or between gamma and the ratio of GABA/glutamate. Our results suggest that cortical gamma oscillations do not have a consistent, demonstrable relationship to excitatory/inhibitory network activity as proxied by MRS measurements of GABA and glutamate. PMID:24927588

  7. Tolerance to allopregnanolone with focus on the GABA-A receptor

    PubMed Central

    Turkmen, Sahruh; Backstrom, Torbjorn; Wahlstrom, Goran; Andreen, Lotta; Johansson, Inga-Maj

    2011-01-01

    Many studies have suggested a relationship between stress, sex steroids, and negative mental and mood changes in humans. The progesterone metabolite allopregnanolone is a potent endogenous ligand of the γ-amino butyric acid –A (GABA-A) receptor, and the most discussed neuroactive steroid. Variations in the levels of neuroactive steroids that influence the activity of the GABA-A receptor cause a vulnerability to mental and emotional pathology. There are physiological conditions in which allopregnanolone production increases acutely (e.g. stress) or chronically (e.g. menstrual cycle, pregnancy), thus exposing the GABA-A receptor to high and continuous allopregnanolone concentrations. In such conditions, tolerance to allopregnanolone may develop. We have shown that both acute and chronic tolerances can develop to the effects of allopregnanolone. Following the development of acute allopregnanolone tolerance, there is a decrease in the abundance of the GABA-A receptor α4 subunit and the expression of the α4 subunit mRNA in the ventral-posteriomedial nucleus of the thalamus. Little is known about the mechanism behind allopregnanolone tolerance and its effects on assembly of the GABA-A receptor composition. The exact mechanism of the allopregnanolone tolerance phenomena remains unclear. The purpose of this review is to summarize certain aspects of current knowledge concerning allopregnanolone tolerance and changes in the GABA-A receptors. PMID:20883478

  8. Resting GABA and glutamate concentrations do not predict visual gamma frequency or amplitude.

    PubMed

    Cousijn, Helena; Haegens, Saskia; Wallis, George; Near, Jamie; Stokes, Mark G; Harrison, Paul J; Nobre, Anna C

    2014-06-24

    Gamma band oscillations arise in neuronal networks of interconnected GABAergic interneurons and excitatory pyramidal cells. A previous study found a correlation between visual gamma peak frequency, as measured with magnetoencephalography, and resting GABA levels, as measured with magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS), in 12 healthy volunteers. If true, this would allow studies in clinical populations testing modulation of this relationship, but this finding has not been replicated. We addressed this important question by measuring gamma oscillations and GABA, as well as glutamate, in 50 healthy volunteers. Visual gamma activity was evoked using an established gratings paradigm, and we applied a beamformer spatial filtering technique to extract source-reconstructed gamma peak frequency and amplitude from the occipital lobe. We determined gamma peak frequency and amplitude from the location with maximal activation and from the location of the MRS voxel to assess the relationship of GABA with gamma. Gamma peak frequency was estimated from the highest value of the raw spectra and by a Gaussian fit to the spectra. MRS data were acquired from occipital cortex. We did not replicate the previously found correlation between gamma peak frequency and GABA concentration. Calculation of a Bayes factor provided strong evidence in favor of the null hypothesis. We also did not find a correlation between gamma activity and glutamate or between gamma and the ratio of GABA/glutamate. Our results suggest that cortical gamma oscillations do not have a consistent, demonstrable relationship to excitatory/inhibitory network activity as proxied by MRS measurements of GABA and glutamate. PMID:24927588

  9. Influence of GABA and GABA-producing Lactobacillus brevis DPC 6108 on the development of diabetes in a streptozotocin rat model.

    PubMed

    Marques, T M; Patterson, E; Wall, R; O'Sullivan, O; Fitzgerald, G F; Cotter, P D; Dinan, T G; Cryan, J F; Ross, R P; Stanton, C

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate if dietary administration of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-producing Lactobacillus brevis DPC 6108 and pure GABA exert protective effects against the development of diabetes in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic Sprague Dawley rats. In a first experiment, healthy rats were divided in 3 groups (n=10/group) receiving placebo, 2.6 mg/kg body weight (bw) pure GABA or L. brevis DPC 6108 (~10(9)microorganisms). In a second experiment, rats (n=15/group) were randomised to five groups and four of these received an injection of STZ to induce type 1 diabetes. Diabetic and non-diabetic controls received placebo [4% (w/v) yeast extract in dH2O], while the other three diabetic groups received one of the following dietary supplements: 2.6 mg/kg bw GABA (low GABA), 200 mg/kg bw GABA (high GABA) or ~10(9) L. brevis DPC 6108. L. brevis DPC 6108 supplementation was associated with increased serum insulin levels (P<0.05), but did not alter other metabolic markers in healthy rats. Diabetes induced by STZ injection decreased body weight (P<0.05), increased intestinal length (P<0.05) and stimulated water and food intake. Insulin was decreased (P<0.05), whereas glucose was increased (P<0.001) in all diabetic groups, compared with non-diabetic controls. A decrease (P<0.01) in glucose levels was observed in diabetic rats receiving L. brevis DPC 6108, compared with diabetic-controls. Both the composition and diversity of the intestinal microbiota were affected by diabetes. Microbial diversity in diabetic rats supplemented with low GABA was not reduced (P>0.05), compared with non-diabetic controls while all other diabetic groups displayed reduced diversity (P<0.05). L. brevis DPC 6108 attenuated hyperglycaemia induced by diabetes but additional studies are needed to understand the mechanisms involved in this reduction. PMID:27013462

  10. Assessing the Role of Dopamine in Limb and Cranial-Oromotor Control in a Rat Model of Parkinson's Disease

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kane, Jacqueline R.; Ciucci, Michelle R.; Jacobs, Amber N.; Tews, Nathan; Russell, John A.; Ahrens, Allison M.; Ma, Sean T.; Britt, Joshua M.; Cormack, Lawrence K.; Schallert, Timothy

    2011-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder primarily characterized by sensorimotor dysfunction. The neuropathology of PD includes a loss of dopamine (DA) neurons of the nigrostriatal pathway. Classic signs of the disease include rigidity, bradykinesia, and postural instability. However, as many as 90% of patients also experience…

  11. Genetic manipulation of the γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) shunt in rice: overexpression of truncated glutamate decarboxylase (GAD2) and knockdown of