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Sample records for gabab agonist baclofen

  1. The effects of acute multiple intraperitoneal injections of the GABAB receptor agonist baclofen on food intake in rats.

    PubMed

    Patel, Sunit M; Ebenezer, Ivor S

    2008-12-28

    This study was undertaken to examine the effects of acute repeated administration of the GABA(B) receptor agonist baclofen on food intake in rats. In Experiment 1, the effects of repeated intraperitoneal (i.p.) injections of the GABA(B) receptor agonist baclofen (1 and 2 mg/kg) at 2 h intervals were investigated on food intake in non-deprived male Wistar rats. Both doses of baclofen significantly increased food intake after the 1st injection (P<0.05), but had no effects on intake following the 2nd and 3rd injections. By contrast, in Experiment 2, diazepam (1 and 2 mg/kg, i.p.) significantly increased food intake (at least, P<0.05) after each of 3 injection separated by 2 h in non-deprived rats. These data show that tolerance occurs to the hyperphagic effects of baclofen with acute multiple injections, and may have important implications for future studies investigating the effects of GABA(B) receptor agonists on food intake and energy homeostasis.

  2. GABAB Receptor Agonist R-Baclofen Reverses Social Deficits and Reduces Repetitive Behavior in Two Mouse Models of Autism

    PubMed Central

    Silverman, J L; Pride, M C; Hayes, J E; Puhger, K R; Butler-Struben, H M; Baker, S; Crawley, J N

    2015-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is diagnosed by two core behavioral criteria, unusual reciprocal social interactions and communication, and stereotyped, repetitive behaviors with restricted interests. Excitatory/inhibitory imbalance is a prominent hypothesis for the etiology of autism. The selective GABAB receptor agonist R-baclofen previously reversed social deficits and reduced repetitive behaviors in a mouse model of Fragile X syndrome, and Arbaclofen improved some clinical symptoms in some Fragile X and ASD patients. To evaluate R-baclofen in a broader range of mouse models of ASD, we tested both the R-baclofen enantiomer and the less potent S-baclofen enantiomer in two inbred strains of mice that display low sociability and/or high repetitive or stereotyped behaviors. R-baclofen treatment reversed social approach deficits in BTBR T+ Itpr3tf/J (BTBR), reduced repetitive self-grooming and high marble burying scores in BTBR, and reduced stereotyped jumping in C58/J (C58), at nonsedating doses. S-baclofen produced minimal effects at the same doses. These findings encourage investigations of R-baclofen in other preclinical model systems. Additional clinical studies may be warranted to further evaluate the hypothesis that the GABAB receptor represents a promising pharmacological target for treating appropriately stratified subsets of individuals with ASD. PMID:25754761

  3. GABAB Receptor Agonist R-Baclofen Reverses Social Deficits and Reduces Repetitive Behavior in Two Mouse Models of Autism.

    PubMed

    Silverman, J L; Pride, M C; Hayes, J E; Puhger, K R; Butler-Struben, H M; Baker, S; Crawley, J N

    2015-08-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is diagnosed by two core behavioral criteria, unusual reciprocal social interactions and communication, and stereotyped, repetitive behaviors with restricted interests. Excitatory/inhibitory imbalance is a prominent hypothesis for the etiology of autism. The selective GABAB receptor agonist R-baclofen previously reversed social deficits and reduced repetitive behaviors in a mouse model of Fragile X syndrome, and Arbaclofen improved some clinical symptoms in some Fragile X and ASD patients. To evaluate R-baclofen in a broader range of mouse models of ASD, we tested both the R-baclofen enantiomer and the less potent S-baclofen enantiomer in two inbred strains of mice that display low sociability and/or high repetitive or stereotyped behaviors. R-baclofen treatment reversed social approach deficits in BTBR T+ Itpr3tf/J (BTBR), reduced repetitive self-grooming and high marble burying scores in BTBR, and reduced stereotyped jumping in C58/J (C58), at nonsedating doses. S-baclofen produced minimal effects at the same doses. These findings encourage investigations of R-baclofen in other preclinical model systems. Additional clinical studies may be warranted to further evaluate the hypothesis that the GABAB receptor represents a promising pharmacological target for treating appropriately stratified subsets of individuals with ASD.

  4. Comparison of the effects of the GABAB receptor positive modulator BHF177 and the GABAB receptor agonist baclofen on anxiety-like behavior, learning, and memory in mice

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xia; Risbrough, Victoria B.; Cates-Gatto, Chelsea; Kaczanowska, Katarzyna; Finn, M. G.; Roberts, Amanda J; Markou, Athina

    2013-01-01

    γ-Aminobutyric acid B (GABAB) receptor activation is a potential therapeutic approach for the treatment of drug addiction, pain, anxiety, and depression. However, full agonists of this receptor induce side-effects, such as sedation, muscle relaxation, tolerance, and cognitive disruption. Positive allosteric modulators (PAMs) of the GABAB receptor may have similar therapeutic effects as agonists with superior side-effect profiles. The present study behaviorally characterized N-([1R,2R,4S]-bicyclo[2.2.1]hept-2-yl)-2-methyl-5-(4-[trifluoromethyl]phenyl)-4-pyrimidinamine (BHF177), a GABAB receptor PAM, in mouse models of anxiety-like behavior, learning and memory. In addition, the effects of BHF177 were compared with the agonist baclofen. Unlike the anxiolytic chlordiazepoxide, baclofen (0.5, 1.5, and 2.5 mg/kg, intraperitoneally) and BHF177 (10, 20, and 40 mg/kg, orally) had no effect on anxiety-like behavior in the elevated plus maze, light/dark box, or the Vogel conflict test. Baclofen increased punished drinking in the Vogel conflict test, however this effect may be attributable to analgesic actions of baclofen. At the highest dose tested (2.5 mg/kg), baclofen-treated mice exhibited sedation-like effects (i.e., reduced locomotor activity) across many of the tests, whereas BHF177-treated mice exhibited no sedation-like effects. BHF177 exhibited pro-convulsion properties only in mice, but not in rats, indicating that this effect may be species-specific. At doses that were not sedative or pro-convulsant, baclofen and BHF177 had no selective effects on fear memory retrieval in contextual and cued fear conditioning or spatial learning and memory in the Barnes maze. These data suggest that BHF177 has little sedative activity, no anxiolytic-like profile, and minimal impairment of learning and memory in mice. PMID:23376712

  5. Bidirectional enantioselective effects of the GABAB receptor agonist baclofen in two mouse models of excessive ethanol consumption

    PubMed Central

    Kasten, Chelsea R.; Blasingame, Shelby N.; Boehm, Stephen L.

    2014-01-01

    The GABAB receptor agonist baclofen has been studied extensively in preclinical models of alcohol use disorders, yet results on its efficacy have been uncertain. Racemic baclofen, which is used clinically, can be broken down into separate enantiomers of the drug. Baclofen has been shown to produce enantioselective effects in behavioral assays including those modeling reflexive and sexual behavior. The current studies sought to characterize the enantioselective effects of baclofen in two separate models of ethanol consumption. The first was a Drinking-in-the-Dark procedure that provides “binge-like” ethanol access to mice by restricting access to a two hour period, three hours into the dark cycle. The second was a two-bottle choice procedure that utilized selectively bred High Alcohol Preferring 1 (HAP1) mice to model chronic ethanol access. HAP1 mice are selectively bred to consume pharmacologically relevant amounts of ethanol in a 24-hour two-bottle choice paradigm. The results showed that baclofen yields enantioselective effects on ethanol intake in both models, and that these effects are bidirectional. Total ethanol intake was decreased by R(+)- baclofen, while total intake was increased by S(-)-baclofen in the binge-like and chronic drinking models. Whereas overall binge-like saccharin intake was significantly reduced by R(+)- baclofen, chronic intake was not significantly altered. S(-)- baclofen did not significantly alter saccharin intake. Neither enantiomer significantly affected locomotion during binge-like reinforcer consumption. Collectively, these results demonstrate that baclofen produces enantioselective effects on ethanol consumption. More importantly, the modulation of consumption is bidirectional. The opposing enantioselective effects may explain some of the variance seen in published baclofen literature. PMID:25557834

  6. Bidirectional enantioselective effects of the GABAB receptor agonist baclofen in two mouse models of excessive ethanol consumption.

    PubMed

    Kasten, Chelsea R; Blasingame, Shelby N; Boehm, Stephen L

    2015-02-01

    The GABAB receptor agonist baclofen has been studied extensively in preclinical models of alcohol-use disorders, yet results on its efficacy have been uncertain. Racemic baclofen, which is used clinically, can be broken down into separate enantiomers of the drug. Baclofen has been shown to produce enantioselective effects in behavioral assays, including those modeling reflexive and sexual behavior. The current studies sought to characterize the enantioselective effects of baclofen in two separate models of ethanol consumption. The first was a Drinking-in-the-Dark procedure that provides "binge-like" ethanol access to mice by restricting access to a 2-h period, 3 h into the dark cycle. The second was a two-bottle choice procedure that utilized selectively bred High Alcohol Preferring 1 (HAP1) mice to model chronic ethanol access. HAP1 mice are selectively bred to consume pharmacologically relevant amounts of ethanol in a 24-h two-bottle choice paradigm. The results showed that baclofen yields enantioselective effects on ethanol intake in both models, and that these effects are bidirectional. Total ethanol intake was decreased by R(+)-baclofen, while total intake was increased by S(-)-baclofen in the binge-like and chronic drinking models. Whereas overall binge-like saccharin intake was significantly reduced by R(+)-baclofen, chronic intake was not significantly altered. S(-)-baclofen did not significantly alter saccharin intake. Neither enantiomer significantly affected locomotion during binge-like reinforcer consumption. Collectively, these results demonstrate that baclofen produces enantioselective effects on ethanol consumption. More importantly, the modulation of consumption is bidirectional. The opposing enantioselective effects may explain some of the variance seen in published baclofen literature. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Separate and combined effects of the GABAB agonist baclofen and Δ9-THC in humans discriminating Δ9-THC

    PubMed Central

    Lile, Joshua A.; Kelly, Thomas H.; Hays, Lon R.

    2012-01-01

    Background Our previous research with the GABA reuptake inhibitor tiagabine suggested the involvement GABA in the interoceptive effects of Δ9-THC. The aim of the present study was to determine the potential involvement of the GABAB receptor subtype by assessing the separate and combined effects of the GABAB-selective agonist baclofen and Δ9-THC using pharmacologically specific drug-discrimination procedures. Methods Eight cannabis users learned to discriminate 30 mg oral Δ9-THC from placebo and then received baclofen (25 and 50 mg), Δ9-THC (5, 15 and 30 mg) and placebo, alone and in combination. Self-report, task performance and physiological measures were also collected. Results Δ9-THC functioned as a discriminative stimulus, produced subjective effects typically associated with cannabinoids (e.g., High, Stoned, Like Drug), elevated heart rate and impaired rate and accuracy on a psychomotor performance task. Baclofen alone (50 mg) substituted for the Δ9-THC discriminative stimulus, and both baclofen doses shifted the discriminative-stimulus effects of Δ9-THC leftward/upward. Similar results were observed on other cannabinoid-sensitive outcomes, although baclofen generally did not engender Δ9-THC-like subjective responses when administered alone. Conclusions These results suggest that the GABAB receptor subtype is involved in the abuse-related effects of Δ9-THC, and that GABAB receptors were responsible, at least in part, for the effects of tiagabine-induced elevated GABA on cannabinoid-related behaviors in our previous study. Future research should test GABAergic compounds selective for other GABA receptor subtypes (i.e., GABAA) to determine the contribution of the different GABA receptors in the effects of Δ9-THC, and by extension cannabis, in humans. PMID:22699093

  8. Effects of acute administration of the GABA(B) receptor agonist baclofen on behavioral flexibility in rats

    PubMed Central

    Beas, B. Sofia; Setlow, Barry; Bizon, Jennifer L.

    2016-01-01

    RATIONALE The ability to adjust response strategies when faced with changes in the environment is critical for normal adaptive behavior. Such behavioral flexibility is compromised by experimental disruption of cortical GABAergic signaling, as well as in conditions such as schizophrenia and normal aging that are characterized by cortical hyperexcitability. The current studies were designed to determine whether stimulation of GABAergic signaling using the GABA(B) receptor agonist baclofen can facilitate behavioral flexibility. METHODS Male Fischer 344 rats were trained in a set-shifting task in which they learned to discriminate between two response levers to obtain a food reward. Correct levers were signaled in accordance with two distinct response rules (Rule 1: correct lever signaled by a cue light; Rule 2: correct lever signaled by its left/right position). The order of rule presentation varied, but they were always presented sequentially, with the trials and errors to reach criterion performance on the second (set shift) rule providing the measure of behavioral flexibility. Experiments determined the effects of the GABA(B) receptor agonist baclofen (i.p., 0, 1.0, 2.5 and 4.0 mg/kg) administered acutely before the shift to the second rule. RESULTS Baclofen enhanced set-shifting performance. Control experiments demonstrated that this enhancement was not simply due to improved discrimination learning, nor was it due to impaired recall of the initial discrimination rule. CONCLUSIONS The results demonstrate that baclofen can facilitate behavioral flexibility, suggesting that GABA(B) receptor agonists may have utility for treating behavioral dysfunction in neuropsychiatric disorders. PMID:27256354

  9. Effects of acute administration of the GABA(B) receptor agonist baclofen on behavioral flexibility in rats.

    PubMed

    Beas, B Sofia; Setlow, Barry; Bizon, Jennifer L

    2016-07-01

    The ability to adjust response strategies when faced with changes in the environment is critical for normal adaptive behavior. Such behavioral flexibility is compromised by experimental disruption of cortical GABAergic signaling, as well as in conditions such as schizophrenia and normal aging that are characterized by cortical hyperexcitability. The current studies were designed to determine whether stimulation of GABAergic signaling using the GABA(B) receptor agonist baclofen can facilitate behavioral flexibility. Male Fischer 344 rats were trained in a set-shifting task in which they learned to discriminate between two response levers to obtain a food reward. Correct levers were signaled in accordance with two distinct response rules (rule 1: correct lever signaled by a cue light; rule 2: correct lever signaled by its left/right position). The order of rule presentation varied, but they were always presented sequentially, with the trials and errors to reach criterion performance on the second (set shift) rule providing the measure of behavioral flexibility. Experiments determined the effects of the GABA(B) receptor agonist baclofen (intraperitoneal, 0, 1.0, 2.5, and 4.0 mg/kg) administered acutely before the shift to the second rule. Baclofen enhanced set-shifting performance. Control experiments demonstrated that this enhancement was not simply due to improved discrimination learning, nor was it due to impaired recall of the initial discrimination rule. The results demonstrate that baclofen can facilitate behavioral flexibility, suggesting that GABA(B) receptor agonists may have utility for treating behavioral dysfunction in neuropsychiatric disorders.

  10. Differential effects of R-isovaline and the GABAB agonist, baclofen, in the guinea pig ileum.

    PubMed

    Fung, Timothy; Asseri, Khalid A; Asiri, Yahya I; Wall, Richard A; Schwarz, Stephan K W; Puil, Ernest; MacLeod, Bernard A

    2016-11-15

    R-isovaline is a non-proteinogenic amino acid which produces analgesia in a range of nociceptive assays. Mediation of this effect by metabotropic receptors for γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and glutamate, demonstrated by previous work, may depend on the type of tissue or receptor system. The objective of this study was to assess the activity of R-isovaline acting at GABA B and group II metabotropic glutamate receptors in guinea pig ileum, which is known to exhibit well-defined responses to GABA B agonists such as baclofen. The effects of bath-applied R-isovaline and RS-baclofen were examined on electrically evoked contractions of guinea pig ileum and during GABA B antagonism by CGP52432. In separate experiments, the group II metabotropic glutamate receptor agonist, LY354740 was applied to determine the functional presence of these receptors. R-isovaline (1-100mM) decreased the amplitude of ileal muscle contractions and increased tension. RS-baclofen reduced contraction amplitude, but decreased tension. CGP52432 did not prevent the effects of R-isovaline on contraction amplitude, but antagonized effects of RS-baclofen on contraction amplitude. The group II metabotropic glutamate receptor agonist, LY354740, produced no detectable effects on evoked contractions. R-isovaline differed significantly from RS-baclofen in its actions in the guinea pig ileum, indicated in particular by the finding that CGP52432 blocked only the effects of RS-baclofen. The ileal tissue did not respond to a group II metabotropic glutamate receptor agonist, previously shown to co-mediate R-isovaline analgesia. These findings raise the possibility of a novel therapeutic target at unknown receptors for R-isovaline-like compounds in the guinea pig ileum. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. The GABAB receptor agonist, baclofen, contributes to three distinct varieties of amnesia in the human brain - A detailed case report.

    PubMed

    Zeman, Adam; Hoefeijzers, Serge; Milton, Fraser; Dewar, Michaela; Carr, Melanie; Streatfield, Claire

    2016-01-01

    We describe a patient in whom long-term, therapeutic infusion of the selective gamma-amino-butyric acid type B (GABAB) receptor agonist, baclofen, into the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) gave rise to three distinct varieties of memory impairment: i) repeated, short periods of severe global amnesia, ii) accelerated long-term forgetting (ALF), evident over intervals of days and iii) a loss of established autobiographical memories. This pattern of impairment has been reported in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE), in particular the subtype of Transient Epileptic Amnesia (TEA). The amnesic episodes and accelerated forgetting remitted on withdrawal of baclofen, while the autobiographical amnesia (AbA) persisted. This exceptional case highlights the occurrence of 'non-standard' forms of human amnesia, reflecting the biological complexity of memory processes. It suggests a role for GABAB signalling in the modulation of human memory over multiple time-scales and hints at its involvement in 'epileptic amnesia'. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Control of transient lower oesophageal sphincter relaxations and reflux by the GABAB agonist baclofen in patients with gastro-oesophageal reflux disease

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Q; Lehmann, A; Rigda, R; Dent, J; Holloway, R H

    2002-01-01

    Background and aims: Transient lower oesophageal sphincter relaxations (TLOSRs) are the major cause of gastro-oesophageal reflux in normal subjects and in most patients with reflux disease. The gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptor type B agonist, baclofen, is a potent inhibitor of TLOSRs in normal subjects. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of baclofen on TLOSRs and postprandial gastro-oesophageal reflux in patients with reflux disease. Methods: In 20 patients with reflux disease, oesophageal motility and pH were measured, with patients in the sitting position, for three hours after a 3000 kJ mixed nutrient meal. On separate days at least one week apart, 40 mg oral baclofen or placebo was given 90 minutes before the meal. Results: Baclofen reduced the rate of TLOSRs by 40% from 15 (13.8–18.3) to 9 (5.8–13.3) per three hours (p<0.0002) and increased basal lower oesophageal sphincter pressure. Baclofen also significantly reduced the rate of reflux episodes by 43% from 7.0 (4.0–12.0) to 4.0 (1.5–9) per three hours (median (interquartile range); p<0.02). However, baclofen had no effect on oesophageal acid exposure (baclofen 4.9% (1.7–12.4) v placebo 5.0% (2.7–15.5)). Conclusions: In patients with reflux disease, the GABAB agonist baclofen significantly inhibits gastro-oesophageal reflux episodes by inhibition of TLOSRs. These findings suggest that GABAB agonists may be useful as therapeutic agents for the management of reflux disease. PMID:11772961

  13. The effects of intraperitoneal administration of the GABA(B) receptor agonist baclofen on food intake in CFLP and C57BL/6 mice.

    PubMed

    Ebenezer, Ivor S; Prabhaker, Monika

    2007-08-13

    The effects of the GABA(B) receptor agonist baclofen were investigated on food intake in non-deprived CFLP and C57BL/6 mice. In Experiment 1, baclofen (1-8 mg /kg) administered i.p. to CFLP mice, produced a dose-related increase in food intake. The 4 and 8 mg/kg doses produced significant increases in cumulative feeding when measure 120 min after administration (at least P < 0.05, in each case). In Experiment 2, baclofen (1-10 mg/kg), administered intraperitoneally (i.p.) to C57BL/6 mice, also produced a dose-related increase in food intake. The 4 mg/kg dose of baclofen significantly increased cumulative food intake at 60 min (P < 0.05), while the 2 and 4 mg/kg doses significantly increased cumulative food intake at 120 min (P < 0.01, in each case). The 10mg/kg dose was without effect. These data show that systemic administration of the GABA(B) agonist baclofen produces an increase in food consumption in two different strains of mice and extend previous observations made in rat to another rodent species.

  14. Effects of the GABA(B) receptor agonist baclofen administered orally on normal food intake and intraperitoneally on fat intake in non-deprived rats.

    PubMed

    Bains, Rasneer S; Ebenezer, Ivor S

    2013-01-05

    It has been previously reported that the GABA(B) receptor agonist baclofen decreases food intake after oral administration and fat intake after intraperitoneal administration. The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of baclofen (1-4 mg/ kg) administered orally (Experiment 1) on food intake in non-deprived rats (n=6) and intraperitoneally (Experiment 2) on fat intake in non-deprived rats (n=8) that were naïve to baclofen (1st set of trials) and in the same group of rats after they were sub-chronically exposed to baclofen (2nd set of trials). The results from Experiment 1 show that baclofen had no effects on food intake during the 1st set of trials, but the 2 and 4 mg/kg doses significantly increased food consumption during the 2nd set of trials. Baclofen produced sedation during the 1st set of trials, but tolerance occurred to this effect and was not apparent during the 2nd set of trials. These observations suggest that the motor effects may have competed with the hyperphagic effects of baclofen during the 1st set of trials. The data from Experiment 2 show that baclofen had no effects on fat intake during either the 1st or 2nd set of trials. The results of the study thus indicate that orally administrated baclofen increases food intake and intraperitoneal administration has no effect on fat intake in non-deprived rats under the conditions used in this study. These findings may have important implications for research on the use of baclofen in studies concerned with ingestive behaviours. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. GABA-B Agonist Baclofen Normalizes Auditory-Evoked Neural Oscillations and Behavioral Deficits in the Fmr1 Knockout Mouse Model of Fragile X Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Featherstone, R.; Naschek, M.; Nam, J.; Du, A.; Wright, S.; Weger, R.; Akuzawa, S.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Fragile X syndrome is a genetic condition resulting from FMR1 gene mutation that leads to intellectual disability, autism-like symptoms, and sensory hypersensitivity. Arbaclofen, a GABA-B agonist, has shown efficacy in some individuals with FXS but has become unavailable after unsuccessful clinical trials, prompting interest in publicly available, racemic baclofen. The present study investigated whether racemic baclofen can remediate abnormalities of neural circuit function, sensory processing, and behavior in Fmr1 knockout mice, a rodent model of fragile X syndrome. Fmr1 knockout mice showed increased baseline and auditory-evoked high-frequency gamma (30–80 Hz) power relative to C57BL/6 controls, as measured by electroencephalography. These deficits were accompanied by decreased T maze spontaneous alternation, decreased social interactions, and increased open field center time, suggestive of diminished working memory, sociability, and anxiety-like behavior, respectively. Abnormal auditory-evoked gamma oscillations, working memory, and anxiety-related behavior were normalized by treatment with baclofen, but impaired sociability was not. Improvements in working memory were evident predominantly in mice whose auditory-evoked gamma oscillations were dampened by baclofen. These findings suggest that racemic baclofen may be useful for targeting sensory and cognitive disturbances in fragile X syndrome. PMID:28451631

  16. The gamma-aminobutyric acid type B (GABAB) receptor agonist baclofen inhibits morphine sensitization by decreasing the dopamine level in rat nucleus accumbens

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Repeated morphine exposure can induce behavioral sensitization. There are evidences have shown that central gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) system is involved in morphine dependence. However, the effect of a GABAB receptor agonist baclofen on morphine-induced behavioral sensitization in rats is unclear. Methods We used morphine-induced behavioral sensitization model in rat to investigate the effects of baclofen on behavioral sensitization. Moreover, dopamine release in the shell of the nucleus accumbens was evaluated using microdialysis assay in vivo. Results The present study demonstrated that morphine challenge (3 mg/kg, s.c.) obviously enhanced the locomotor activity following 4-day consecutive morphine administration and 3-day withdrawal period, which indicated the expression of morphine sensitization. In addition, chronic treatment with baclofen (2.5, 5 mg/kg) significantly inhibited the development of morphine sensitization. It was also found that morphine challenge 3 days after repeated morphine administration produced a significant increase of extracellular dopamine release in nucleus accumbens. Furthermore, chronic treatment with baclofen decreased the dopamine release induced by morphine challenge. Conclusions Our results indicated that gamma-aminobutyric acid system plays an important role in the morphine sensitization in rat and suggested that behavioral sensitization is a promising model to study the mechanism underlying drug abuse. PMID:22559224

  17. The γ-aminobutyric acid type B (GABAB) receptor agonist baclofen inhibits morphine sensitization by decreasing the dopamine level in rat nucleus accumbens.

    PubMed

    Fu, Zhenyu; Yang, Hongfa; Xiao, Yuqiang; Zhao, Gang; Huang, Haiyan

    2012-07-10

    Repeated morphine exposure can induce behavioral sensitization. There are evidences have shown that central gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) system is involved in morphine dependence. However, the effect of a GABAB receptor agonist baclofen on morphine-induced behavioral sensitization in rats is unclear. We used morphine-induced behavioral sensitization model in rat to investigate the effects of baclofen on behavioral sensitization. Moreover, dopamine release in the shell of the nucleus accumbens was evaluated using microdialysis assay in vivo. The present study demonstrated that morphine challenge (3 mg/kg, s.c.) obviously enhanced the locomotor activity following 4-day consecutive morphine administration and 3-day withdrawal period, which indicated the expression of morphine sensitization. In addition, chronic treatment with baclofen (2.5, 5 mg/kg) significantly inhibited the development of morphine sensitization. It was also found that morphine challenge 3 days after repeated morphine administration produced a significant increase of extracellular dopamine release in nucleus accumbens. Furthermore, chronic treatment with baclofen decreased the dopamine release induced by morphine challenge. Our results indicated that gamma-aminobutyric acid system plays an important role in the morphine sensitization in rat and suggested that behavioral sensitization is a promising model to study the mechanism underlying drug abuse.

  18. General, kappa, delta and mu opioid receptor antagonists mediate feeding elicited by the GABA-B agonist baclofen in the ventral tegmental area and nucleus accumbens shell in rats: reciprocal and regional interactions.

    PubMed

    Miner, Patricia; Shimonova, Lyudmila; Khaimov, Arthur; Borukhova, Yaffa; Ilyayeva, Ester; Ranaldi, Robert; Bodnar, Richard J

    2012-03-14

    Food intake is significantly increased following administration of agonists of GABA and opioid receptors into the nucleus accumbens shell (NACs) and ventral tegmental area (VTA). GABA-A or GABA-B receptor antagonist pretreatment within the VTA or NACs differentially affects mu-opioid agonist-induced feeding elicited from the same site. Correspondingly, general or selective opioid receptor antagonist pretreatment within the VTA or NACs differentially affects GABA agonist-induced feeding elicited from the same site. Regional interactions have been evaluated in feeding studies by administering antagonists in one site prior to agonist administration in a second site. Thus, opioid antagonist-opioid agonist and GABA antagonist-GABA agonist feeding interactions have been identified between the VTA and NACs. However, pretreatment with GABA-A or GABA-B receptor antagonists in the VTA failed to affect mu opioid agonist-induced feeding elicited from the NACs, and correspondingly, these antagonists administered in the NACs failed to affect mu opioid-induced feeding elicited from the VTA. To evaluate whether regional and reciprocal VTA and NACs feeding interactions occur for opioid receptor modulation of GABA agonist-mediated feeding, the present study examined whether feeding elicited by the GABA-B agonist, baclofen microinjected into the NACs was dose-dependently blocked by pretreatment with general (naltrexone: NTX), mu (beta-funaltrexamine: BFNA), kappa (nor-binaltorphamine: NBNI) or delta (naltrindole: NTI) opioid antagonists in the VTA, and correspondingly, whether VTA baclofen-induced feeding was dose-dependently blocked by NACs pretreatment with NTX, BFNA, NBNI or NTI in rats. Bilateral pairs of cannulae aimed at the VTA and NACs were stereotaxically implanted in rats, and their food intakes were assessed following vehicle and baclofen (200 ng) in each site. Baclofen produced similar magnitudes of increased food intake following VTA and NACs treatment. Baclofen

  19. Comparison of the effect of the GABAB receptor agonist, baclofen, and the positive allosteric modulator of the GABAB receptor, GS39783, on alcohol self-administration in three different lines of alcohol-preferring rats

    PubMed Central

    Maccioni, Paola; Zaru, Alessandro; Loi, Barbara; Lobina, Carla; Carai, Mauro A.M.; Gessa, Gian Luigi; Capra, Alessandro; Mugnaini, Claudia; Pasquini, Serena; Corelli, Federico; Hyytiä, Petri; Lumeng, Lawrence; Colombo, Giancarlo

    2012-01-01

    Background Administration of the GABAB receptor agonist, baclofen, and positive allosteric modulator (PAM), GS39783, has been repeatedly reported to suppress multiple alcohol-related behaviors, including operant oral alcohol self-administration, in rats. The present study was designed to compare the effect of baclofen and GS39783 on alcohol self-administration in three lines of selectively bred, alcohol-preferring rats: Indiana alcohol-preferring (P), Sardinian alcohol-preferring (sP), and Alko Alcohol (AA). Methods Rats of each line were initially trained to respond on a lever, on a fixed ratio (FR) 4 (FR4) schedule of reinforcement, to orally self-administer alcohol (15%, v/v) in daily 30-min sessions. Once responding reached stable levels, rats were exposed to a sequence of experiments testing baclofen (0, 1, 1.7, and 3 mg/kg; i.p.) and GS39783 (0, 25, 50, and 100 mg/kg; i.g.) on FR4 and progressive ratio (PR) schedules of reinforcement. Finally, to assess the specificity of baclofen and GS39783 action, rats were slightly food-deprived and trained to lever-respond for food pellets. Results The rank of order of the reinforcing and motivational properties of alcohol was: P>sP>AA rats. Under both FR and PR schedules of reinforcement, the rank of order of potency and efficacy of baclofen and GS39783 in suppressing alcohol self-administration was: P>sP>AA rats. Only the highest dose of baclofen reduced lever-responding for food pellets; this effect was common to all three rat lines. Conversely, no dose of GS39783 altered lever-responding for food in any rat line. Conclusions These results suggest that: (a) the strength of the reinforcing and motivational properties of alcohol differ among P, sP, and AA rats; (b) the reinforcing and motivational properties of alcohol in P, sP, and AA rats are differentially sensitive to treatment with baclofen and GS39783; (c) the heterogeneity in sensitivity to baclofen and GS39783 of alcohol self-administration in P, sP, and AA rats

  20. Effect of acute and chronic administration of the GABAB agonist baclofen on 24 hour pH metry and symptoms in control subjects and in patients with gastro-oesophageal reflux disease

    PubMed Central

    Ciccaglione, A F; Marzio, L

    2003-01-01

    Background and aims: The γ-aminobutyric acid (GABAB) agonist baclofen has been shown to reduce reflux episodes during the first three postprandial hours in patients with gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GORD) and in normal controls. The aim of the study was to assess the effect of acute (one day) and chronic (four weeks) administration of baclofen on 24 hour pH metry and symptoms in GORD patients and normal controls. Patients and methods: Acute study: 28 patients with GORD with none or mild oesophagitis at endoscopy and 15 controls underwent oesophageal and gastric 48 hour pH metry in which baclofen or placebo was given for 24 hours in a double blinded manner. Chronic study: 16 GORD patients received baclofen (10 mg four times daily) or placebo for four weeks. Twenty four hour oesophageal pH metry and reflux symptom scores were evaluated before and at the end of treatment. Results: Acute study: the number of reflux episodes and per cent time with pH <4 was significantly lower after baclofen in GORD patients and controls (p<0.003; p<0.0007). Gastric pH increased significantly in GORD patients and controls (p<0.001; p<0.05). Chronic study: four weeks after initial administration of baclofen, the number of reflux episodes and percentage of time with pH <4 significantly decreased in all GORD patients (p<0.003; p<0.02). Symptom scores significantly improved after treatment with baclofen (p<0.0007). Conclusions: The GABAB agonist baclofen reduces 24 hour gastro-oesophageal reflux and increases gastric pH in GORD patients and controls. When given for one month to GORD patients, baclofen reduces oesophageal acid refluxes and significantly improves symptoms. Baclofen may be useful in the therapy of GORD. PMID:12631652

  1. Selective Effects of Baclofen on Use-Dependent Modulation of GABAB Inhibition after Tetraplegia

    PubMed Central

    Barry, Melissa D.; Bunday, Karen L.; Chen, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Baclofen is a GABAB receptor agonist commonly used to relief spasticity related to motor disorders. The effects of baclofen on voluntary motor output are limited and not yet understood. Using noninvasive transcranial magnetic and electrical stimulation techniques, we examined electrophysiological measures probably involving GABAB (long-interval intracortical inhibition and the cortical silent period) and GABAA (short-interval intracortical inhibition) receptors, which are inhibitory effects mediated by subcortical and cortical mechanisms. We demonstrate increased active long-interval intracortical inhibition and prolonged cortical silent period during voluntary activity of an intrinsic finger muscle in humans with chronic incomplete cervical spinal cord injury (SCI) compared with age-matched controls, whereas resting long-interval intracortical inhibition was unchanged. However, long-term (∼6 years) use of baclofen decreased active long-interval intracortical inhibition to similar levels as controls but did not affect the duration of the cortical silent period. We found a correlation between signs of spasticity and long-interval intracortical inhibition in patients with SCI. Short-interval intracortical inhibition was decreased during voluntary contraction compared with rest but there was no effect of SCI or baclofen use. Together, these results demonstrate that baclofen selectively maintains use-dependent modulation of largely subcortical but not cortical GABAB neuronal pathways after human SCI. Thus, cortical GABAB circuits may be less sensitive to baclofen than spinal GABAB circuits. This may contribute to the limited effects of baclofen on voluntary motor output in subjects with motor disorders affected by spasticity. PMID:23904624

  2. Effects of the GABAB Receptor-Positive Modulators CGP7930 and rac-BHFF in Baclofen- and γ-Hydroxybutyrate-Discriminating Pigeons

    PubMed Central

    France, Charles P.; Cheng, Kejun; Rice, Kenner C.

    2012-01-01

    In vivo effects of GABAB receptor-positive modulators suggest them to have therapeutic potential to treat central nervous system disorders such as anxiety and drug abuse. Although these effects are thought to be mediated by positive modulation of GABAB receptors, such modulation has been examined primarily in vitro. This study further examined the in vivo properties of the GABAB receptor-positive modulators 2,6-di-tert-butyl-4-(3-hydroxy-2,2-dimethylpropyl) phenol (CGP7930) and (R,S)-5,7-di-tert-butyl-3-hydroxy-3-trifluoromethyl-3H-benzofuran-2-one (rac-BHFF). In pigeons discriminating baclofen from saline, γ-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) produced 100% baclofen-appropriate responding, and the GABAB antagonist 3-aminopropyl(dimethoxymethyl) phosphinic acid (CGP35348) blocked the effects of both drugs. CGP7930 and rac-BHFF produced at most 41 and 74% baclofen-appropriate responding, respectively, and enhanced the discriminative stimulus effects of baclofen, but not of GHB. In pigeons discriminating GHB from saline, CGP7930 and rac-BHFF produced at most 1 and 49% GHB-appropriate responding, respectively, and enhanced the effects of baclofen, but not of GHB. Enhancement of the discriminative stimulus effects of baclofen by rac-BHFF and CGP7930 is further evidence of their effectiveness as GABAB receptor-positive modulators in vivo. Furthermore, lack of complete substitution of the positive modulators rac-BHFF and CGP7930 for baclofen and GHB suggests that their discriminative stimulus effects differ from those of GABAB receptor agonists. Finally, together with converging evidence that the GABAB receptor populations mediating the effects of baclofen and GHB are not identical, the present findings suggest that these populations differ in their susceptibility to positive modulatory effects. Such differences could allow for more selective therapeutic targeting of the GABAB system. PMID:22319197

  3. Effects of chronic systemic administration of the GABA(B) receptor agonist baclofen on food intake and body weight in rats.

    PubMed

    Patel, Sunit M; Ebenezer, Ivor S

    2010-06-10

    The effects of daily administration of physiological saline of baclofen (1 and 4mg/kg, i.p.) for 27 days were investigated on food intake and body weight in non-deprived rats in Experiment 1. Baclofen (1 and 4mg/kg) significantly increased daily short-term food intake when measured at 30min (F((2,15))=11.011, P<0.01) and 90min (F((2,15))=7.3801, P<0.01) over the 27 day experimental period.. Tolerance did not develop to the short-term hyperphagic effects of baclofen. Baclofen (1mg/kg) had no significant effects on body weight gain of the rats compared with controls. By contrast, baclofen (4mg/kg) significantly (P<0.05) decreased the body weight gain of the animals. In Experiment 2, the effect of daily administration of baclofen (4mg/kg, i.p.) for 24 days was investigated on 24h food intake in rats measured after the first, eight, fifteenth and twenty second injections. The 24h food intake of the animals was not significantly different from those of control rats on any of the measurement days (F((1,14))=1.602, ns). However, the body weight gain of the rats chronically treated with baclofen (4mg/kg) was significantly reduced. (F((1,14))=14.011, P<0.01). The observations that chronic administration of baclofen (4mg/kg) stimulates short-term food intake without affecting long term (24h) feeding, but decreases body weight gain, suggest that baclofen may act through different mechanisms to influence food intake and body weight.

  4. L-baclofen-sensitive GABAB binding sites in the medial vestibular nucleus localized by immunocytochemistry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holstein, G. R.; Martinelli, G. P.; Cohen, B.

    1992-01-01

    L-Baclofen-sensitive GABAB binding sites in the medial vestibular nucleus (MVN) were identified immunocytochemically and visualized ultrastructurally in L-baclofen-preinjected rats and monkeys, using a mouse monoclonal antibody with specificity for the p-chlorophenyl moiety of baclofen. Saline-preinjected animals showed no immunostain. In drug-injected animals, there was evidence for both pre- and postsynaptic GABAergic inhibition in MVN mediated by GABAB receptors. These neural elements could be utilized in control of velocity storage in the vestibulo-ocular reflex.

  5. Behavioral effects of gamma-hydroxybutyrate, its precursor gamma-butyrolactone, and GABA(B) receptor agonists: time course and differential antagonism by the GABA(B) receptor antagonist 3-aminopropyl(diethoxymethyl)phosphinic acid (CGP35348).

    PubMed

    Koek, Wouter; Mercer, Susan L; Coop, Andrew; France, Charles P

    2009-09-01

    Gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) is used therapeutically and recreationally. The mechanism by which GHB produces its therapeutic and recreational effects is not entirely clear, although GABA(B) receptors seem to play an important role. This role could be complex, because there are indications that different GABA(B) receptor mechanisms mediate the effects of GHB and the prototypical GABA(B) receptor agonist baclofen. To further explore possible differences in underlying GABA(B) receptor mechanisms, the present study examined the effects of GHB and baclofen on operant responding and their antagonism by the GABA(B) receptor antagonist 3-aminopropyl(diethoxymethyl)phosphinic acid (CGP35348). Pigeons were trained to peck a key for access to food during response periods that started at different times after the beginning of the session. In these pigeons, GHB, its precursor gamma-butyrolactone (GBL), and the GABA(B) receptor agonists baclofen and 3-aminopropyl(methyl)phosphinic acid hydrochloride (SKF97541) decreased the rate of responding in a dose- and time-dependent manner. CGP35348 shifted the dose-response curve of each agonist to the right, but the magnitude of the shift differed among the agonists. Schild analysis yielded a pA(2) value of CGP35348 to antagonize GHB and GBL [i.e., 3.9 (3.7-4.2)] that was different (P = 0.0011) from the pA(2) value to antagonize baclofen and SKF97541 [i.e., 4.5 (4.4-4.7)]. This finding is further evidence that the GABA(B) receptor mechanisms mediating the effects of GHB and prototypical GABA(B) receptor agonists are not identical. A better understanding of the similarities and differences between these mechanisms, and their involvement in the therapeutic effects of GHB and baclofen, could lead to more effective medications with fewer adverse effects.

  6. Electrophysiological actions of GABAB agonists and antagonists in rat dorso-lateral septal neurones in vitro.

    PubMed

    Bon, C; Galvan, M

    1996-06-01

    1. The actions of GABAB-receptor agonists and antagonists on rat dorso-lateral septal neurones in vitro were recorded with intracellular microelectrodes. 2. In the presence of 1 microM tetrodotoxin to prevent indirect neuronal effects caused by action potential-dependent neurotransmitter release, bath application of baclofen (0.1-30 microM) or SK&F 97541 (0.01-3 microM) evoked concentration-dependent hyperpolarizations which reversed close to the potassium equilibrium potential; the EC50S were 0.55 and 0.05 microM, respectively. No significant desensitization was observed during prolonged agonist exposure (< or = 10 min). 3. Hyperpolarizations induced by baclofen were antagonized in a competitive manner by the following GABAB-receptors antagonists (calculated pA2 values in parentheses): CGP 36742 (4.0), 2-OH saclofen (4.2), CGP 35348 (4.5), CGP 52432 (6.7) and CGP 55845A (8.3). Responses to SK&F 97541 were also antagonized by CGP 55845A (pA2 = 8.4). 4. The amplitude of the late, GABAB receptor-mediated inhibitory postsynaptic potential (i.p.s.p.) was reduced by the GABAB antagonists as follows (means +/- s.e.mean): CGP 55845A (1 microM) 91 +/- 5%, CGP 52432 (1 microM) 64 +/- 5%, CGP 35348 (100 microM) 82 +/- 5%, CGP 36742 (100 microM) 76 +/- 8%, and 2-OH saclofen (100 microM) 68 +/- 3%. 5. It is concluded that neurones in the rat dorso-lateral septal nucleus express conventional GABAB receptors, which are involved in the generation of slow inhibitory postsynaptic potentials. CGP 55845A is the most potent GABAB receptor antagonist described in this brain area.

  7. Pharmacologic Treatment with GABAB Receptor Agonist of Methamphetamine-Induced Cognitive Impairment in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Mizoguchi, Hiroyuki; Yamada, Kiyofumi

    2011-01-01

    Methamphetamine (METH) is a highly addictive drug, and addiction to METH has increased to epidemic proportions worldwide. Chronic use of METH causes psychiatric symptoms, such as hallucinations and delusions, and long-term cognitive deficits, which are indistinguishable from paranoid schizophrenia. The GABA receptor system is known to play a significant role in modulating the dopaminergic neuronal system, which is related to behavioral changes induced by drug abuse. However, few studies have investigated the effects of GABA receptor agonists on cognitive deficits induced by METH. In the present review, we show that baclofen, a GABA receptor agonist, is effective in treating METH-induced impairment of object recognition memory and prepulse inhibition (PPI) of the startle reflex, a measure of sensorimotor gating in mice. Acute and repeated treatment with METH induced a significant impairment of PPI. Furthermore, repeated but not acute treatment of METH resulted in a long-lasting deficit of object recognition memory. Baclofen, a GABAB receptor agonist, dose-dependently ameliorated the METH-induced PPI deficits and object recognition memory impairment in mice. On the other hand, THIP, a GABAA receptor agonist, had no effect on METH-induced cognitive deficits. These results suggest that GABAB receptors may constitute a putative new target in treating cognitive deficits in chronic METH users. PMID:21886573

  8. The effects of chronic intraperitoneal administration of the GABA B receptor agonist baclofen on food intake in rats.

    PubMed

    Patel, Sunit M; Ebenezer, Ivor S

    2008-09-28

    This study was undertaken to examine the effects of repeated administration of the GABA(B) receptor agonist baclofen on food intake in male Wistar rats. In the 1st Experiment, the effects of daily administration of physiological saline and baclofen (2 mg/kg, i.p.) for 27 days were investigated on food intake and body weight in non-deprived rats (n=6 in each group). Baclofen significantly (P<0.05) increased cumulative food intake each day over the treatment period during the 60 min measurement period following administration. Tolerance did not develop to the short-term hyperphagic effect of baclofen over the course of the experiment. In addition, treatment with baclofen did not alter body weight of the animals over the 27 day treatment period when compared with the saline control rats. In the 2nd Experiment, the effects of acute and chronic administration of baclofen (2 mg/kg) were investigated on 24 h food intake in rats. The rats were injected daily for 21 days with either saline (n=6) or baclofen (n=6). Food intake was measured in 30 min time bins for 24 h on treatment Days 1, 12 and 21 following injection. The results showed that while baclofen produced short-term increases in food consumption following injection on treatment Days 1, 12 and 21, the daily (24 h) food intake of the animals was not significantly different from those of control rats. Thus, these data reveal that while chronic administration of baclofen (2 mg/kg) produces short-term increases in feeding without the development of tolerance, daily (24 h) food consumption is not affected. These findings are consistent with the observation that chronic administration of baclofen (2 mg/kg) had no effect on the body weight of these animals.

  9. Anticonvulsant effects of structurally diverse GABA(B) positive allosteric modulators in the DBA/2J audiogenic seizure test: Comparison to baclofen and utility as a pharmacodynamic screening model.

    PubMed

    Brown, Jordan W; Moeller, Achim; Schmidt, Martin; Turner, Sean C; Nimmrich, Volker; Ma, Junli; Rueter, Lynne E; van der Kam, Elizabeth; Zhang, Min

    2016-02-01

    The GABA(B) receptor has been indicated as a promising target for multiple CNS-related disorders. Baclofen, a prototypical orthosteric agonist, is used clinically for the treatment of spastic movement disorders, but is associated with unwanted side-effects, such as sedation and motor impairment. Positive allosteric modulators (PAM), which bind to a topographically-distinct site apart from the orthosteric binding pocket, may provide an improved side-effect profile while maintaining baclofen-like efficacy. GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the CNS, plays an important role in the etiology and treatment of seizure disorders. Baclofen is known to produce anticonvulsant effects in the DBA/2J mouse audiogenic seizure test (AGS), suggesting it may be a suitable assay for assessing pharmacodynamic effects. Little is known about the effects of GABA(B) PAMs, however. The studies presented here sought to investigate the AGS test as a pharmacodynamic (PD) screening model for GABA(B) PAMs by comparing the profile of structurally diverse PAMs to baclofen. GS39783, rac-BHFF, CMPPE, A-1295120 (N-(3-(4-(4-chloro-3-fluorobenzyl)-6-methoxy-3,5-dioxo-4,5-dihydro-1,2,4-triazin-2(3H)-yl)phenyl)acetamide), and A-1474713 (N-(3-(4-(4-chlorobenzyl)-3,5-dioxo-4,5-dihydro-1,2,4-triazin-2(3H)-yl)phenyl)acetamide) all produced robust, dose-dependent anticonvulsant effects; a similar profile was observed with baclofen. Pre-treatment with the GABA(B) antagonist SCH50911 completely blocked the anticonvulsant effects of baclofen and CMPPE in the AGS test, indicating such effects are likely mediated by the GABA(B) receptor. In addition to the standard anticonvulsant endpoint of the AGS test, video tracking software was employed to assess potential drug-induced motor side-effects during the acclimation period of the test. This analysis was sensitive to detecting drug-induced changes in total distance traveled, which was used to establish a therapeutic index (TI = hypoactivity

  10. The novel, peripherally restricted GABAB receptor agonist lesogaberan (AZD3355) inhibits acid reflux and reduces esophageal acid exposure as measured with 24-h pHmetry in dogs.

    PubMed

    Brändén, Lena; Fredriksson, Anita; Harring, Emelie; Jensen, Jörgen; Lehmann, Anders

    2010-05-25

    While patients with symptoms of gastroesophageal reflux disease generally respond well to proton pump inhibitors, 20-30% continue to experience troublesome symptoms. In such cases, agents that target transient lower esophageal sphincter (LES) relaxation may be useful as add-on therapy to proton pump inhibitors. The GABAB receptor agonist baclofen inhibits transient LES relaxation but it is not an ideal agent due to central nervous system activity. Lesogaberan (AZD3355) is a peripherally restricted GABAB receptor agonist with limited central nervous system activity that inhibits transient LES relaxation in dogs. In the present study, the comparative effects of lesogaberan (7 micromol/kg) and baclofen (2.8 micromol/kg) on reflux were studied in dogs using 24-h pHmetry. Drugs (or vehicle control) were administered orally prior to the first meal of the day, and the number of reflux episodes (pH<4 for > or = 5 s) and acid exposure time were computed for the 24-h monitoring period. The mean (S.E.M.) number of reflux episodes/24 h was 4.6 (0.4) and 6.4 (0.6) for lesogaberan and baclofen, respectively, versus 10.7 (0.5) for control (P<0.0001 for both). Acid exposure time was 51.2 (4.5) min for control versus 23.6 (3.8) min for lesogaberan (P<0.0001) and 35.4 (6.5) min with baclofen (P=0.05). It is concluded that lesogaberan significantly reduces acid reflux in dogs, with comparable efficacy to baclofen. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Differential Cav2.1 and Cav2.3 channel inhibition by baclofen and α-conotoxin Vc1.1 via GABAB receptor activation

    PubMed Central

    McArthur, Jeffrey R.; Cuny, Hartmut; Clark, Richard J.; Adams, David J.

    2014-01-01

    Neuronal Cav2.1 (P/Q-type), Cav2.2 (N-type), and Cav2.3 (R-type) calcium channels contribute to synaptic transmission and are modulated through G protein–coupled receptor pathways. The analgesic α-conotoxin Vc1.1 acts through γ-aminobutyric acid type B (GABAB) receptors (GABABRs) to inhibit Cav2.2 channels. We investigated GABABR-mediated modulation by Vc1.1, a cyclized form of Vc1.1 (c-Vc1.1), and the GABABR agonist baclofen of human Cav2.1 or Cav2.3 channels heterologously expressed in human embryonic kidney cells. 50 µM baclofen inhibited Cav2.1 and Cav2.3 channel Ba2+ currents by ∼40%, whereas c-Vc1.1 did not affect Cav2.1 but potently inhibited Cav2.3, with a half-maximal inhibitory concentration of ∼300 pM. Depolarizing paired pulses revealed that ∼75% of the baclofen inhibition of Cav2.1 was voltage dependent and could be relieved by strong depolarization. In contrast, baclofen or Vc1.1 inhibition of Cav2.3 channels was solely mediated through voltage-independent pathways that could be disrupted by pertussis toxin, guanosine 5′-[β-thio]diphosphate trilithium salt, or the GABABR antagonist CGP55845. Overexpression of the kinase c-Src significantly increased inhibition of Cav2.3 by c-Vc1.1. Conversely, coexpression of a catalytically inactive double mutant form of c-Src or pretreatment with a phosphorylated pp60c-Src peptide abolished the effect of c-Vc1.1. Site-directed mutational analyses of Cav2.3 demonstrated that tyrosines 1761 and 1765 within exon 37 are critical for inhibition of Cav2.3 by c-Vc1.1 and are involved in baclofen inhibition of these channels. Remarkably, point mutations introducing specific c-Src phosphorylation sites into human Cav2.1 channels conferred c-Vc1.1 sensitivity. Our findings show that Vc1.1 inhibition of Cav2.3, which defines Cav2.3 channels as potential targets for analgesic α-conotoxins, is caused by specific c-Src phosphorylation sites in the C terminus. PMID:24688019

  12. Effects of intraperitoneal administration of the GABA B receptor agonist baclofen on food intake in rats measured under different feeding conditions.

    PubMed

    Ebenezer, Ivor S; Patel, Sunit M

    2011-02-25

    The effects of intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration of the GABA(B) receptor agonist baclofen were assessed in rats under different feeding conditions. In Experiment 1, it was observed that baclofen (1-4 mg/kg) significantly (at least, P<0.05) increased cumulative food intake in non-deprived rats during the 120 min measurement period during the early light phase of the light-dark cycle. By contrast, during the early dark phase of the light-dark cycle in non-deprived rats, the 1mg/kg doses of baclofen significantly increased cumulative feeding at 30, 60 and 120 min (at least P<0.05), the 2mg/kg dose significantly increased feeding at 30 and 60 min (at least P<0.05) and the 4 mg/kg dose had no effects on feeding. In Experiment 2, baclofen (1-4 mg/kg) was found to produce no significant effects on food intake in rats that were food-deprived for 22 h. In Experiment 3, the effects of baclofen were investigated on food intake in 16 h food-deprived rats that had received an oral preload for 2h prior to drug administration. Baclofen (1-4 mg/kg) significantly increased cumulative food consumption (at least, P<0.05) only during the first 30 min after administration in these animals. The results of this study indicate that the effects of baclofen on food intake may be related to the state of hunger or satiety of the animals and the time during the light-dark cycle when the drug is administered. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Different in vitro and in vivo profiles of substituted 3-aminopropylphosphinate and 3-aminopropyl(methyl)phosphinate GABAB receptor agonists as inhibitors of transient lower oesophageal sphincter relaxation

    PubMed Central

    Lehmann, A; Antonsson, M; Aurell-Holmberg, A; Blackshaw, LA; Brändén, L; Elebring, T; Jensen, J; Kärrberg, L; Mattsson, JP; Nilsson, K; Oja, SS; Saransaari, P; von Unge, S

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Gastro-oesophageal reflux is predominantly caused by transient lower oesophageal sphincter relaxation (TLOSR) and GABAB receptor stimulation inhibits TLOSR. Lesogaberan produces fewer CNS side effects than baclofen, which has been attributed to its affinity for the GABA transporter (GAT), the action of which limits stimulation of central GABAB receptors. To understand the structure–activity relationship for analogues of lesogaberan (3-aminopropylphosphinic acids), and corresponding 3-aminopropyl(methyl)phosphinic acids, we have compared representatives of these classes in different in vitro and in vivo models. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH The compounds were characterized in terms of GABAB agonism in vitro. Binding to GATs and cellular uptake was done using rat brain membranes and slices respectively. TLOSR was measured in dogs, and CNS side effects were evaluated as hypothermia in mice and rats. KEY RESULTS 3-Aminopropylphosphinic acids inhibited TLOSR with a superior therapeutic index compared to 3-aminopropyl(methyl)phosphinic acids. This difference was most likely due to differential GAT-mediated uptake into brain cells of the former but not latter. In agreement, 3-aminopropyl(methyl)phosphinic acids were much more potent in producing hypothermia in rats even when administered i.c.v. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS An enhanced therapeutic window for 3-aminopropylphosphinic acids compared with 3-aminopropyl(methyl)phosphinic acids with respect to inhibition of TLOSR was observed and is probably mechanistically linked to neural cell uptake of the former but not latter group of compounds. These findings offer a platform for discovery of new GABAB receptor agonists for the treatment of reflux disease and other conditions where selective peripheral GABAB receptor agonism may afford therapeutic effects. PMID:21950457

  14. GABA-B receptor activation and conflict behavior

    SciTech Connect

    Ketelaars, C.E.J.; Bollen, E.L.; Rigter, H.

    1988-01-01

    Baclofen and oxazepam enhance extinction of conflict behavior in the Geller-Seifter test while baclofen and diazepam release punished behavior in Vogel's conflict test. In order to investigate the possibility that the effect of the selective GABA-B receptor agonist baclofen is mediated indirectly via the GABA-A/benzodiazepine receptor complex, the effect of pretreatment of rats with baclofen on (/sup 3/H)-diazepam binding to washed and unwashed cortical and cerebellar membranes of rats has been studied. Baclofen pretreatment increase Bmax in washed cerebellar membranes when bicuculline was present in the incubation mixture. No effect was seen in cortical membranes. The present results render itmore » unlikely that the effect of baclofen on extinction of conflict behavior and punished drinking is mediated via the GABA-A/benzodiazepine receptor complex. 50 references, 1 figure, 4 tables.« less

  15. Baclofen

    MedlinePlus

    ... you have or have ever had kidney disease, epilepsy, ulcers, a stroke, a rheumatic disease, cerebral palsy, Parkinson's disease, or a psychiatric condition.tell your doctor if you are pregnant, plan to become pregnant, or are breast-feeding. If you become pregnant while taking baclofen, call ...

  16. Reversal of inhibition of putative dopaminergic neurons of the ventral tegmental area: Interaction of GABAB and D2 receptors

    PubMed Central

    Nimitvilai, Sudarat; Arora, Devinder S.; McElvain, Maureen A.; Brodie, Mark S.

    2012-01-01

    Neurons of the ventral tegmental area (VTA) are critical in the rewarding and reinforcing properties of drugs of abuse. Desensitization of VTA neurons to moderate extracellular concentrations of dopamine (DA) is dependent on protein kinase C (PKC) and intracellular calcium levels. This desensitization is called DA inhibition reversal (DIR), as it requires concurrent activation of D2 and D1-like receptors; activation of D2 receptors alone does not result in desensitization. Activation of other G-protein linked receptors can substitute for D1 activation. Like D2 receptors, GABAB receptors in the VTA are coupled to G-protein-linked potassium channels. In the present study, we examined interactions between a GABAB agonist, baclofen, and dopamine agonists, dopamine and quinpirole, to determine whether there was some interaction in the processes of desensitization of GABAB and D2 responses. Long-duration administration of baclofen alone produced reversal of the baclofen-induced inhibition indicative of desensitization, and this desensitization persisted for at least 60 min after baclofen washout. Desensitization to baclofen was dependent on protein kinase C. Dopamine inhibition was reduced for 30 min after baclofen-induced desensitization and conversely, the magnitude of baclofen inhibition was reduced for 30 min by long-duration application of dopamine, but not quinpirole. These results indicate that D2 and GABAB receptors share some protein kinase C-dependent mechanisms of receptor desensitization. PMID:22986166

  17. Permeation and Systemic Absorption of R- and S-Baclofen across the Nasal Mucosa

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hefei; Schmidt, Mark; Murry, Daryl J.; Donovan, Maureen D.

    2012-01-01

    Baclofen, an antispasmodic agent that acts as a GABAB agonist, resembles phenylalanine in structure and has been reported to be a substrate of the large amino acid transporter, LAT-1. The objective of this study was to investigate the absorption of baclofen across the nasal mucosa both in vitro and in vivo. Baclofen transport was measured across excised bovine olfactory and respiratory mucosae to investigate site-specific uptake of baclofen, and the intranasal bioavailability of R- and S- baclofen was determined in rats. Increasing flux with increasing baclofen donor concentration and the absence of polarized transport was observed in vitro and similar distribution profiles were observed for both enantiomers following intranasal administration in rats. The absence of stereospecificity in nasal absorption indicates limited involvement of the amino acid or other transporters in the nasal absorption of baclofen. PMID:21283988

  18. Different in vitro and in vivo profiles of substituted 3-aminopropylphosphinate and 3-aminopropyl(methyl)phosphinate GABA(B) receptor agonists as inhibitors of transient lower oesophageal sphincter relaxation.

    PubMed

    Lehmann, A; Antonsson, M; Aurell-Holmberg, A; Blackshaw, L A; Brändén, L; Elebring, T; Jensen, J; Kärrberg, L; Mattsson, J P; Nilsson, K; Oja, S S; Saransaari, P; von Unge, S

    2012-03-01

    Gastro-oesophageal reflux is predominantly caused by transient lower oesophageal sphincter relaxation (TLOSR) and GABA(B) receptor stimulation inhibits TLOSR. Lesogaberan produces fewer CNS side effects than baclofen, which has been attributed to its affinity for the GABA transporter (GAT), the action of which limits stimulation of central GABA(B) receptors. To understand the structure-activity relationship for analogues of lesogaberan (3-aminopropylphosphinic acids), and corresponding 3-aminopropyl(methyl)phosphinic acids, we have compared representatives of these classes in different in vitro and in vivo models. The compounds were characterized in terms of GABA(B) agonism in vitro. Binding to GATs and cellular uptake was done using rat brain membranes and slices respectively. TLOSR was measured in dogs, and CNS side effects were evaluated as hypothermia in mice and rats. 3-Aminopropylphosphinic acids inhibited TLOSR with a superior therapeutic index compared to 3-aminopropyl(methyl)phosphinic acids. This difference was most likely due to differential GAT-mediated uptake into brain cells of the former but not latter. In agreement, 3-aminopropyl(methyl)phosphinic acids were much more potent in producing hypothermia in rats even when administered i.c.v. An enhanced therapeutic window for 3-aminopropylphosphinic acids compared with 3-aminopropyl(methyl)phosphinic acids with respect to inhibition of TLOSR was observed and is probably mechanistically linked to neural cell uptake of the former but not latter group of compounds. These findings offer a platform for discovery of new GABA(B) receptor agonists for the treatment of reflux disease and other conditions where selective peripheral GABA(B) receptor agonism may afford therapeutic effects. © 2011 The Authors. British Journal of Pharmacology © 2011 The British Pharmacological Society.

  19. Actions of (-)-baclofen on rat dorsal horn neurons.

    PubMed

    Kangrga, I; Jiang, M C; Randić, M

    1991-10-25

    The actions of a gamma-aminobutyric acid B (GABAB) agonist, (-)-baclofen, on the electrophysiological properties of neurons and synaptic transmission in the spinal dorsal horn (laminae I-IV) were examined by using intracellular recordings in spinal cord slice from young rats. In addition, the effects of baclofen on the dorsal root stimulation-evoked outflow of glutamate and aspartate from the spinal dorsal horn were examined by using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with flourimetric detection. Superfusion of baclofen (5 nM to 10 microM) hyperpolarized, in a stereoselective and bicuculline-insensitive manner, the majority (86%) of tested neurons. The hyperpolarization was associated with a decrease in membrane resistance and persisted in a nominally zero-Ca2+, 10 mM Mg(2+)- or a TTX-containing solution. Our findings indicate that the hyperpolarizing effect of baclofen is probably due to an increase in conductance to potassium ions. Baclofen decreased the direct excitability of dorsal horn neurons, enhanced accommodation of spike discharge, and reduced the duration of Ca(2+)-dependent action potentials. Baclofen depressed, or blocked, excitatory postsynaptic potentials evoked by electrical stimulation of the dorsal roots. Spontaneously occurring synaptic potentials were also reversibly depressed by baclofen. Whereas baclofen did not produce any consistent change in the rate of the basal outflow of glutamate and aspartate, the stimulation-evoked release of the amino acids was blocked. The present results suggest that baclofen, by activating GABAB receptors, may modulate spinal afferent processing in the superficial dorsal horn by at least two mechanisms: (1) baclofen depresses excitatory synaptic transmission primarily by a presynaptic mechanism involving a decrease in the release of excitatory amino acids, and (2) at higher concentrations, the hyperpolarization and increased membrane conductance may contribute to the depressant effect of baclofen on

  20. The GABA B agonist baclofen reduces cigarette consumption in a preliminary double-blind placebo-controlled smoking reduction study

    PubMed Central

    Franklin, Teresa R.; Harper, Derek; Kampman, Kyle; Kildea, Susan; Jens, Will; Lynch, Kevin; O’Brien, Charles P.; Childress, Anna Rose

    2009-01-01

    The surge in dopamine in ventral striatal regions in response to drugs of abuse and drug-associated stimuli is a final common pathway of addiction processes. GABA B agonists exert their effects indirectly, by quieting dopaminergic afferents. The ability of the GABA B agonist, baclofen to ameliorate nicotine and drug motivated behavior is established within the animal literature, however its potential to do so in humans is understudied, particularly with respect to its possible utility as a smoking cessation agent. We conducted a nine-week double-blind placebo-controlled pilot trial of baclofen for smoking reduction (N=30/group) in smokers contemplating, but not quite ready to quit. Baclofen was titrated upwards to 20 mg q.i.d. over a period of twelve days. The primary outcome measure was the number of cigarettes smoked per day (CPD). A significant group by time effect of medication was observed. Baclofen was superior to placebo in reducing CPD (β=0.01, t=1.97, p<0.05). The most common side effect reported during baclofen treatment is transient drowsiness, however there were no differences between groups in mild, moderate, or severe sedation. Craving was significantly lowered at end of treatment in all smokers (p<0.02). Retention did not differ between groups. In line with a multitude of preclinical studies examining the effects of baclofen on drug-motivated behavior, baclofen reduced CPD. In agreement with other studies examining craving and drug use, reductions in CPD were accompanied by a reduction in craving, a major motivator underlying continued smoking and relapse. These preliminary results demonstrate provisional evidence of the utility of baclofen to aid in smoking cessation and indicate further investigation. PMID:19398283

  1. The effects of agonists of ionotropic GABA(A) and metabotropic GABA(B) receptors on learning.

    PubMed

    Zyablitseva, Evgeniya A; Kositsyn, Nikolay S; Shul'gina, Galina I

    2009-05-01

    The research described here investigates the role played by inhibitory processes in the discriminations made by the nervous system of humans and animals between familiar and unfamiliar and significant and nonsignificant events. This research compared the effects of two inhibitory mediators of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA): 1) phenibut, a nonselective agonist of ionotropic GABA(A) and metabotropic GABA(B) receptors and 2) gaboxadol a selective agonist of ionotropic GABA(A) receptors on the process of developing active defensive and inhibitory conditioned reflexes in alert non-immobilized rabbits. It was found that phenibut, but not gaboxadol, accelerates the development of defensive reflexes at an early stage of conditioning. Both phenibut and gaboxadol facilitate the development of conditioned inhibition, but the effect of gaboxadol occurs at later stages of conditioning and is less stable than that of phenibut. The earlier and more stable effects of phenibut, as compared to gaboxadol, on storage in memory of the inhibitory significance of a stimulus may occur because GABA(B) receptors play the dominant role in the development of internal inhibition during an early stage of conditioning. On the other hand this may occur because the participation of both GABA(A) and GABA(B) receptors are essential to the process. We discuss the polyfunctionality of GABA receptors as a function of their structure and the positions of the relevant neurons in the brain as this factor can affect regulation of various types of psychological processes.

  2. Differential development of tolerance to the functional and behavioral effects of repeated baclofen treatment in rats

    PubMed Central

    Beveridge, T.J.R.; Smith, H.R.; Porrino, L.J.

    2013-01-01

    Baclofen, a gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)B receptor agonist, has been used clinically to treat muscle spasticity, rigidity and pain. More recently, interest in the use of baclofen as an addiction medicine has grown, with promising preclinical cocaine and amphetamine data and demonstrated clinical benefit from alcohol and nicotine studies. Few preclinical investigations, however, have utilized chronic dosing of baclofen, which is important given that tolerance can occur to many of its effects. Thus the question of whether chronic treatment of baclofen maintains the efficacy of acute doses is imperative. The neural substrates that underlie the effects of baclofen, particularly those after chronic treatment, are also not known. In the present study, therefore, rats were treated with either a) vehicle, b) acute baclofen (5 mg/kg) or c) chronic baclofen (5 mg/kg, t.i.d. for 5 days). The effects of acute and chronic baclofen administration, compared to vehicle, were assessed using locomotor activity and changes in brain glucose metabolism (a measure of functional brain activity). Acute baclofen significantly reduced locomotor activity (horizontal and total distance traveled), while chronic baclofen failed to affect locomotor activity. Acute baclofen resulted in significantly lower rates of local cerebral glucose utilization throughout many areas of the brain, including the prefrontal cortex, caudate putamen, septum and hippocampus. The majority of these functional effects, with the exception of the caudate putamen and septum, were absent in animals chronically treated with baclofen. Despite the tolerance to the locomotor and functional effects of baclofen following repeated treatment, these persistent effects on functional activity in the caudate putamen and septum may provide insights into the way in which baclofen alters the reinforcing effects of abused substances such as cocaine, alcohol, and methamphetamine both in humans and animal models. PMID:23500188

  3. The role of GABAB receptors in human reinforcement learning.

    PubMed

    Ort, Andres; Kometer, Michael; Rohde, Judith; Seifritz, Erich; Vollenweider, Franz X

    2014-10-01

    Behavioral evidence from human studies suggests that the γ-aminobutyric acid type B receptor (GABAB receptor) agonist baclofen modulates reinforcement learning and reduces craving in patients with addiction spectrum disorders. However, in contrast to the well established role of dopamine in reinforcement learning, the mechanisms by which the GABAB receptor influences reinforcement learning in humans remain completely unknown. To further elucidate this issue, a cross-over, double-blind, placebo-controlled study was performed in healthy human subjects (N=15) to test the effects of baclofen (20 and 50mg p.o.) on probabilistic reinforcement learning. Outcomes were the feedback-induced P2 component of the event-related potential, the feedback-related negativity, and the P300 component of the event-related potential. Baclofen produced a reduction of P2 amplitude over the course of the experiment, but did not modulate the feedback-related negativity. Furthermore, there was a trend towards increased learning after baclofen administration relative to placebo over the course of the experiment. The present results extend previous theories of reinforcement learning, which focus on the importance of mesolimbic dopamine signaling, and indicate that stimulation of cortical GABAB receptors in a fronto-parietal network leads to better attentional allocation in reinforcement learning. This observation is a first step in our understanding of how baclofen may improve reinforcement learning in healthy subjects. Further studies with bigger sample sizes are needed to corroborate this conclusion and furthermore, test this effect in patients with addiction spectrum disorder. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. and ECNP. All rights reserved.

  4. GABAB-receptor activation alters the firing pattern of dopamine neurons in the rat substantia nigra.

    PubMed

    Engberg, G; Kling-Petersen, T; Nissbrandt, H

    1993-11-01

    Previous electrophysiological experiments have emphasized the importance of the firing pattern for the functioning of midbrain dopamine (DA) neurons. In this regard, excitatory amino acid receptors appear to constitute an important modulatory control mechanism. In the present study, extracellular recording techniques were used to investigate the significance of GABAB-receptor activation for the firing properties of DA neurons in the substantia nigra (SN) in the rat. Intravenous administration of the GABAB-receptor agonist baclofen (1-16 mg/kg) was associated with a dose-dependent regularization of the firing pattern, concomitant with a reduction in burst firing. At higher doses (16-32 mg/kg), the firing rate of the DA neurons was dose-dependently decreased. Also, microiontophoretic application of baclofen regularized the firing pattern of nigral DA neurons, including a reduction of burst firing. Both the regularization of the firing pattern and inhibition of firing rate produced by systemic baclofen administration was antagonized by the GABAB-receptor antagonist CGP 35348 (200 mg/kg, i.v.). The GABAA-receptor agonist muscimol produced effects on the firing properties of DA neurons that were opposite to those observed following baclofen, i.e., an increase in firing rate accompanied by a decreased regularity. The NMDA receptor antagonist MK 801 (0.4-3.2 mg/kg, i.v.) produced a moderate, dose-dependent increase in the firing rate of the nigral DA neurons as well as a slightly regularized firing pattern. Pretreatment with MK 801 (3.2 mg/kg, i.v., 3-10 min) did neither promote nor prevent the regularization of the firing pattern or inhibition of firing rate on the nigral DA neurons produced by baclofen. The present results clearly show that GABAB-receptors can alter the firing pattern of nigral DA neurons, hereby counterbalancing the previously described ability of glutamate to induce burst firing activity on these neurons.

  5. Peripherally administered baclofen reduced food intake and body weight in db/db as well as diet-induced obese mice.

    PubMed

    Sato, Ikuko; Arima, Hiroshi; Ozaki, Noriyuki; Ozaki, Nobuaki; Watanabe, Minemori; Goto, Motomitsu; Shimizu, Hiroshi; Hayashi, Masayuki; Banno, Ryouichi; Nagasaki, Hiroshi; Oiso, Yutaka

    2007-10-16

    Peripheral administration of baclofen significantly reduced food intake and body weight increase in both diabetic (db/db) and diet-induced obese mice for 5 weeks, whereas it had no significant effects on energy balance in their lean control mice. Despite the decreased body weight, neuropeptide Y expression in the arcuate nucleus was significantly decreased, whereas pro-opiomelanocortin expression was significantly increased by baclofen treatment. These data demonstrate that the inhibitory effects of baclofen on body weight in the obese mice were mediated via the arcuate nucleus at least partially, and suggest that GABA(B) agonists could be a new therapeutic reagent for obesity.

  6. GABAB receptor ligands for the treatment of alcohol use disorder: preclinical and clinical evidence

    PubMed Central

    Agabio, Roberta; Colombo, Giancarlo

    2014-01-01

    The present paper summarizes the preclinical and clinical studies conducted to define the “anti-alcohol” pharmacological profile of the prototypic GABAB receptor agonist, baclofen, and its therapeutic potential for treatment of alcohol use disorder (AUD). Numerous studies have reported baclofen-induced suppression of alcohol drinking (including relapse- and binge-like drinking) and alcohol reinforcing, motivational, stimulating, and rewarding properties in rodents and monkeys. The majority of clinical surveys conducted to date—including case reports, retrospective chart reviews, and randomized placebo-controlled studies—suggest the ability of baclofen to suppress alcohol consumption, craving for alcohol, and alcohol withdrawal symptomatology in alcohol-dependent patients. The recent identification of a positive allosteric modulatory binding site, together with the synthesis of in vivo effective ligands, represents a novel, and likely more favorable, option for pharmacological manipulations of the GABAB receptor. Accordingly, data collected to date suggest that positive allosteric modulators of the GABAB receptor reproduce several “anti-alcohol” effects of baclofen and display a higher therapeutic index (with larger separation—in terms of doses—between “anti-alcohol” effects and sedation). PMID:24936171

  7. Baclofen, a GABABR Agonist, Ameliorates Immune-Complex Mediated Acute Lung Injury by Modulating Pro-Inflammatory Mediators

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Shunying; Merchant, Michael L.; Ritzenthaler, Jeffrey D.; McLeish, Kenneth R.; Lederer, Eleanor D.; Torres-Gonzalez, Edilson; Fraig, Mostafa; Barati, Michelle T.; Lentsch, Alex B.; Roman, Jesse; Klein, Jon B.; Rane, Madhavi J.

    2015-01-01

    Immune-complexes play an important role in the inflammatory diseases of the lung. Neutrophil activation mediates immune-complex (IC) deposition-induced acute lung injury (ALI). Components of gamma amino butyric acid (GABA) signaling, including GABA B receptor 2 (GABABR2), GAD65/67 and the GABA transporter, are present in the lungs and in the neutrophils. However, the role of pulmonary GABABR activation in the context of neutrophil-mediated ALI has not been determined. Thus, the objective of the current study was to determine whether administration of a GABABR agonist, baclofen would ameliorate or exacerbate ALI. We hypothesized that baclofen would regulate IC-induced ALI by preserving pulmonary GABABR expression. Rats were subjected to sham injury or IC-induced ALI and two hours later rats were treated intratracheally with saline or 1 mg/kg baclofen for 2 additional hours and sacrificed. ALI was assessed by vascular leakage, histology, TUNEL, and lung caspase-3 cleavage. ALI increased total protein, tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α and interleukin-1 receptor associated protein (IL-1R AcP), in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF). Moreover, ALI decreased lung GABABR2 expression, increased phospho-p38 MAPK, promoted IκB degradation and increased neutrophil influx in the lung. Administration of baclofen, after initiation of ALI, restored GABABR expression, which was inhibited in the presence of a GABABR antagonist, CGP52432. Baclofen administration activated pulmonary phospho-ERK and inhibited p38 MAPK phosphorylation and IκB degradation. Additionally, baclofen significantly inhibited pro-inflammatory TNF-α and IL-1βAcP release and promoted BAL neutrophil apoptosis. Protective effects of baclofen treatment on ALI were possibly mediated by inhibition of TNF-α- and IL-1β-mediated inflammatory signaling. Interestingly, GABABR2 expression was regulated in the type II pneumocytes in lung tissue sections from lung injured patients, further suggesting a

  8. GABAB receptor modulation of the release of substance P from capsaicin-sensitive neurones in the rat trachea in vitro.

    PubMed Central

    Ray, N. J.; Jones, A. J.; Keen, P.

    1991-01-01

    1. The role of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) as an inhibitory transmitter in the central nervous system is well documented. Recently, GABAA and GABAB receptors have been identified in the peripheral nervous system, notably on primary afferent neurones (PAN). We have utilised a multi-superfusion system to investigate the effect of selective GABA receptor agonists and antagonists on the release of substance P (SP) from the rat trachea in vitro. 2. GABA (1-100 microM) did not affect spontaneous release of SP-like immunoreactivity (LI) but caused dose-related inhibition of calcium-dependent potassium (60 mM)-stimulated SP-LI release. The greatest inhibition of 77.7 +/- 18.8% was observed at 100 microM. 3. The inhibitory effect of GABA was mimicked by the GABAB receptor agonist, (+/-)-baclofen (1-100 microM), but not the GABAA receptor agonist, 3-amino-1-propane-sulphonic acid (3-APS, 1-100 microM). Baclofen (100 microM) had no effect on SP-LI release stimulated by capsaicin (1 microM). 4. The inhibitory effect of baclofen (30 microM) was significantly reduced by prior and concomitant exposure to the GABAB receptor antagonist, phacolofen (100 microM) but not the GABAA receptor antagonist, bicuculline (10 microM). Neither antagonist, alone, affected spontaneous or potassium-stimulated SP-LI release. 5. We conclude that activation of pre-synaptic GABAB receptors on the peripheral termini of PANs in the rat trachea inhibits SP-LI release and suggest that GABAB receptor agonists may be of value in the therapeutic treatment of asthma. PMID:1713105

  9. Intra-accumbens baclofen, but not muscimol, increases second order instrumental responding for food reward in rats.

    PubMed

    Pulman, Kim G T; Somerville, Elizabeth M; Clifton, Peter G

    2012-01-01

    Stimulation of either GABA(A) or GABA(B) receptors within the nucleus accumbens shell strongly enhances food intake in rats. However the effects of subtype-selective stimulation of GABA receptors on instrumental responses for food reward are less well characterized. Here we contrast the effects of the GABA(A) receptor agonist muscimol and GABA(B) receptor agonist baclofen on instrumental responding for food using a second order reinforcement schedule. Bilateral intra-accumbens administration of baclofen (220-440 pmol) stimulated responding but a higher dose (660 pmol) induced stereotyped oral behaviour that interfered with responding. Baclofen (220-660 pmol) also stimulated intake of freely available chow. Muscimol (220-660 pmol) was without effect on responding for food on this schedule but did stimulate intake of freely available chow. Unilateral administration of either baclofen or muscimol (220 pmol) induced similar patterns of c-fos immunoreactivity in several hypothalamic sites but differed in its induction in the central nucleus of the amygdala. We conclude that stimulation of GABA(A) or GABA(B) receptors in the nucleus accumbens shell of rats produces clearly distinguishable effects on operant responding for food.

  10. Synergistic interaction between baclofen administration into the median raphe nucleus and inconsequential visual stimuli on investigatory behavior of rats

    PubMed Central

    Vollrath-Smith, Fiori R.; Shin, Rick

    2011-01-01

    Rationale Noncontingent administration of amphetamine into the ventral striatum or systemic nicotine increases responses rewarded by inconsequential visual stimuli. When these drugs are contingently administered, rats learn to self-administer them. We recently found that rats self-administer the GABAB receptor agonist baclofen into the median (MR) or dorsal (DR) raphe nuclei. Objectives We examined whether noncontingent administration of baclofen into the MR or DR increases rats’ investigatory behavior rewarded by a flash of light. Results Contingent presentations of a flash of light slightly increased lever presses. Whereas noncontingent administration of baclofen into the MR or DR did not reliably increase lever presses in the absence of visual stimulus reward, the same manipulation markedly increased lever presses rewarded by the visual stimulus. Heightened locomotor activity induced by intraperitoneal injections of amphetamine (3 mg/kg) failed to concur with increased lever pressing for the visual stimulus. These results indicate that the observed enhancement of visual stimulus seeking is distinct from an enhancement of general locomotor activity. Visual stimulus seeking decreased when baclofen was co-administered with the GABAB receptor antagonist, SCH 50911, confirming the involvement of local GABAB receptors. Seeking for visual stimulus also abated when baclofen administration was preceded by intraperitoneal injections of the dopamine antagonist, SCH 23390 (0.025 mg/kg), suggesting enhanced visual stimulus seeking depends on intact dopamine signals. Conclusions Baclofen administration into the MR or DR increased investigatory behavior induced by visual stimuli. Stimulation of GABAB receptors in the MR and DR appears to disinhibit the motivational process involving stimulus–approach responses. PMID:21904820

  11. Modulation of resting brain cerebral blood flow by the GABA B agonist, baclofen: A longitudinal perfusion fMRI study

    PubMed Central

    Franklin, Teresa R.; Wang, Ze; Sciortino, Nathan; Harper, Derek; Li, Yin; Hakun, Jonathan; Kildea, Susan; Kampman, Kyle; Ehrman, Ron; Detre, John A.; O’Brien, Charles P.; Childress, Anna Rose

    2011-01-01

    Background Preclinical studies confirm that the GABA B agonist, baclofen blocks dopamine release in the reward-responsive ventral striatum (VS) and medial prefrontal cortex, and consequently, blocks drug motivated behavior. Its mechanism in humans is unknown. Here, we used continuous arterial spin labeled (CASL) perfusion fMRI to examine baclofen’s effects on blood flow in the human brain. Methods Twenty-one subjects (all smokers, 12 females) were randomized to receive either baclofen (80 mg/day; N = 10) or placebo (N = 11). A five minute quantitative perfusion fMRI resting baseline (RB) scan was acquired at two time points; prior to the dosing regimen (Time 1) and on the last day of 21 days of drug administration (Time 2). SPM2 was employed to compare changes in RB from Time 1 to 2. Results Baclofen diminished cerebral blood flow (CBF) in the VS and mOFC and increased it in the lateral OFC, a region involved in suppressing previously rewarded behavior. CBF in bilateral insula was also blunted by baclofen (T values ranged from −11.29 to 15.3 at p = 0.001, 20 contiguous voxels). CBF at Time 2 was unchanged in placebo subjects. There were no differences between groups in side effects or cigarettes smoked per day (at either time point). Conclusions Baclofen’s modulatory actions on regions involved in motivated behavior in humans are reflected in the resting state and provide insight into the underlying mechanism behind its potential to block drug-motivated behavior, in preclinical studies, and its putative effectiveness as an anti-craving/anti-relapse agent in humans. PMID:21333466

  12. Opioid and GABAB receptors differentially couple to an adenylyl cyclase/protein kinase A downstream effector after chronic morphine treatment

    PubMed Central

    Bagley, Elena E.

    2014-01-01

    Opioids are intensely addictive, and cessation of their chronic use is associated with a highly aversive withdrawal syndrome. A cellular hallmark of withdrawal is an opioid sensitive protein kinase A-dependent increase in GABA transporter-1 (GAT-1) currents in periaqueductal gray (PAG) neurons. Elevated GAT-1 activity directly increases GABAergic neuronal excitability and synaptic GABA release, which will enhance GABAergic inhibition of PAG output neurons. This reduced activity of PAG output neurons to several brain regions, including the hypothalamus and medulla, contributes to many of the PAG-mediated signs of opioid withdrawal. The GABAB receptor agonist baclofen reduces some of the PAG mediated signs of opioid withdrawal. Like the opioid receptors the GABAB receptor is a Gi/Go coupled G-protein coupled receptor. This suggests it could be modulating GAT-1 activity in PAG neurons through its inhibition of the adenylyl cyclase/protein kinase A pathway. Opioid modulation of the GAT-1 activity can be detected by changes in the reversal potential of opioid membrane currents. We found that when opioids are reducing the GAT-1 cation conductance and increasing the GIRK conductance the opioid agonist reversal potential is much more negative than Ek. Using this approach for GABAB receptors we show that the GABAB receptor agonist, baclofen, does not couple to inhibition of GAT-1 currents during opioid withdrawal. It is possible this differential signaling of the two Gi/Go coupled G-protein coupled receptors is due to the strong compartmentalization of the GABAB receptor that does not favor signaling to the adenylyl cyclase/protein kinase A/GAT-1 pathway. This highlights the importance of studying the effects of G-protein coupled receptors in native tissue with endogenous G-protein coupled receptors and the full complement of relevant proteins and signaling molecules. This study suggests that baclofen reduces opioid withdrawal symptoms through a non-GAT-1 effector. PMID

  13. Opioid and GABAB receptors differentially couple to an adenylyl cyclase/protein kinase A downstream effector after chronic morphine treatment.

    PubMed

    Bagley, Elena E

    2014-01-01

    Opioids are intensely addictive, and cessation of their chronic use is associated with a highly aversive withdrawal syndrome. A cellular hallmark of withdrawal is an opioid sensitive protein kinase A-dependent increase in GABA transporter-1 (GAT-1) currents in periaqueductal gray (PAG) neurons. Elevated GAT-1 activity directly increases GABAergic neuronal excitability and synaptic GABA release, which will enhance GABAergic inhibition of PAG output neurons. This reduced activity of PAG output neurons to several brain regions, including the hypothalamus and medulla, contributes to many of the PAG-mediated signs of opioid withdrawal. The GABAB receptor agonist baclofen reduces some of the PAG mediated signs of opioid withdrawal. Like the opioid receptors the GABAB receptor is a Gi/Go coupled G-protein coupled receptor. This suggests it could be modulating GAT-1 activity in PAG neurons through its inhibition of the adenylyl cyclase/protein kinase A pathway. Opioid modulation of the GAT-1 activity can be detected by changes in the reversal potential of opioid membrane currents. We found that when opioids are reducing the GAT-1 cation conductance and increasing the GIRK conductance the opioid agonist reversal potential is much more negative than E k . Using this approach for GABAB receptors we show that the GABAB receptor agonist, baclofen, does not couple to inhibition of GAT-1 currents during opioid withdrawal. It is possible this differential signaling of the two Gi/Go coupled G-protein coupled receptors is due to the strong compartmentalization of the GABAB receptor that does not favor signaling to the adenylyl cyclase/protein kinase A/GAT-1 pathway. This highlights the importance of studying the effects of G-protein coupled receptors in native tissue with endogenous G-protein coupled receptors and the full complement of relevant proteins and signaling molecules. This study suggests that baclofen reduces opioid withdrawal symptoms through a non-GAT-1 effector.

  14. Multi-Center Trial of Baclofen for Abstinence Initiation in Severe Cocaine Dependent Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Kahn, Roberta; Biswas, Kousick; Childress, Anna-Rose; Shoptaw, Steve; Fudala, Paul J.; Gorgon, Liza; Montoya, Ivan; Collins, Joseph; McSherry, Frances; Li, Shou-Hua; Chiang, Nora; Alathari, Husam; Watson, Donnie; Liberto, Joseph; Beresford, Thomas; Stock, Christopher; Wallace, Christopher; Gruber, Valerie; Elkashef, Ahmed

    2009-01-01

    Background Cocaine dependence is a major public health problem for which there is no FDA-approved pharmacological treatment. Baclofen is a GABAB receptor agonist that in preclinical and early pilot clinical trials has shown promise for the treatment of cocaine dependence. The purpose of this multi-site, double-blind study, was to compare the safety and efficacy of baclofen (60 mg/day) versus placebo in an 8-week treatment of individuals with severe cocaine dependence. The primary outcome measure was subjects' self-reported cocaine use substantiated by urine benzoylecgonine (BE). Analysis of the data did not show a significant difference between the groups treated with baclofen and placebo. The current results do not support a role for 60mg baclofen in treating cocaine dependence in the population studied. The contrast of this result to earlier, preclinical and human pilot data with baclofen may reflect the trial's focus on severe cocaine-dependent users, and/or the need for a higher baclofen dose. Baclofen's potential as a relapse prevention agent was not tested by the current design, but may be a useful target for future studies. PMID:19414226

  15. Efficacy and Safety of Baclofen for Alcohol Dependence: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Garbutt, James C; Kampov-Polevoy, Alexei B; Gallop, Robert; Kalka-Juhl, Linda; Flannery, Barbara A.

    2010-01-01

    Background Recent clinical trials and case-reports indicate that baclofen, a GABAB agonist, may have efficacy for alcohol dependence. Baclofen has been shown to enhance abstinence, to reduce drinking quantity, to reduce craving, and to reduce anxiety in alcohol dependent individuals in two placebo-controlled trials in Italy. However, the clinical trial data with baclofen is limited. The purpose of the present study was to test the efficacy and tolerability of baclofen in alcohol dependence in the United States. Methods The study was a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized study comparing 30 mg per day of baclofen to placebo over 12 weeks of treatment and utilizing eight sessions of BRENDA, a low-intensity psychosocial intervention. 121 subjects were screened to yield 80 randomized subjects (44 male) with randomization balanced for gender. Percent heavy drinking days was the primary outcome measure with other drinking outcomes, anxiety levels, and craving as secondary outcomes. Tolerability was examined. Results 76% of subjects completed the study. No difference by drug condition was seen in % heavy drinking days where on-average rates were 25.5% (± 23.6%) for placebo and 25.9% (± 23.2%) for baclofen during treatment (t(73)=0.59, p=0.56). Similarly, no differences were seen by drug condition in % days abstinent, time to first drink, or time to relapse to heavy drinking. Baclofen was associated with a significant reduction in state anxiety (F(1,73)=5.39, p=0.02). Baclofen was well tolerated with only two individuals stopping baclofen because of adverse events. There were no serious adverse events. Conclusions Baclofen, a GABAB agonist, represents a possible new pharmacotherapeutic approach to alcohol dependence. Despite encouraging preclinical data and prior positive clinical trials with baclofen in Italy, the current trial did not find evidence that baclofen is superior to placebo in the treatment of alcohol dependence. Additional clinical trial work is

  16. GABA(B) receptors, schizophrenia and sleep dysfunction: a review of the relationship and its potential clinical and therapeutic implications.

    PubMed

    Kantrowitz, Joshua; Citrome, Leslie; Javitt, Daniel

    2009-08-01

    schizophrenia, with minimal investigation of GABA(B) receptor agonists such as baclofen or gamma-hydroxybutyric acid and their effects on sleep architecture, cognition and negative symptoms in patients with schizophrenia. Further study is needed.

  17. Baclofen blocks yohimbine-induced increases in ethanol-reinforced responding in rats.

    PubMed

    Williams, Keith L; Nickel, Melissa M; Bielak, Justin T

    2016-05-01

    Chronic or repeated stress increases alcohol consumption. The GABA-B agonist baclofen decreases alcohol consumption and may be most effective for individuals with comorbid anxiety/stress disorders. The present study sought to determine if baclofen blocks stress-induced increases in ethanol self-administration as modeled by repeated yohimbine injections in rats. Rats were trained to respond for 15% w/v ethanol in operant chambers using a method that applies neither water deprivation nor saccharin/sucrose fading. Following training, the rats received 6 injections of 1.25mg/kg yohimbine were given immediately prior to the operant sessions during a 2-week time period. Subsequently, some rats were pair-matched to receive either 1.25mg/kg yohimbine or saline in the presence of 0.3, 1, and 3mg/kg baclofen prior to sessions. Acquisition of ethanol self-administration was poor. Pretreatment with yohimbine consistently increased responding across repeated injections. Yohimbine's effect on ethanol intake unexpectedly diverged from the effect on responding as the rats failed to consume all reinforcers earned. Smaller doses of baclofen paired with saline injections had no effect on ethanol responding; only 3mg/kg baclofen reduced ethanol self-administration. The smallest baclofen dose of 0.3mg/kg failed to block the yohimbine-induced increase in self-administration. The large baclofen dose of 3mg/kg continued to suppress ethanol self-administration when given with yohimbine. Baclofen 1mg/kg blocked the effect of yohimbine even though it had no effect when given in the absence of yohimbine. Exposure to high ethanol concentrations may induce self-administration only in certain conditions. The dissociation between responding and intake suggests that repeated yohimbine injections may initiate other behavioral or physiological mechanisms that confound its effects as a pharmacological stressor. Furthermore, an optimal baclofen dose range may specifically protect against stress

  18. Acute Interaction of Baclofen in Combination with Alcohol in Heavy Social Drinkers

    PubMed Central

    Evans, Suzette M.; Bisaga, Adam

    2008-01-01

    Background There is growing evidence that GABA-B receptor agonists may be effective in the treatment of alcohol abuse or dependence. The primary goal of this study was to determine the safety of baclofen in combination with alcohol consumption in heavy drinkers. In addition, the effects of baclofen alone, and in combination with alcohol, on subjective effects, cognitive performance effects, as well as alcohol craving, were assessed. Methods Eighteen non-treatment seeking heavy social drinkers (mean of 28 drinks/week) who did not meet criteria for alcohol dependence participated. All individuals were tested using a double-blind double-dummy design with six 2-day inpatient phases. Baclofen (0, 40, and 80 mg) was administered 2.5 hours before alcohol (1.5 g/l body water or approximately 0.75 g/kg) or placebo beverages, given in 4 divided doses every 20 min. Results Baclofen, either alone, or in combination with alcohol, produced only modest increases in heart rate and blood pressure and no adverse effects were reported. Baclofen did not increase positive subjective effects (e.g., Stimulant effects, Drug Liking) but did increase sedation and impair performance. Even though both baclofen and alcohol impaired performance, for the most part performance was not impaired to a greater extent when baclofen was combined with alcohol. Among this population of non-dependent drinkers, baclofen did not alter alcohol craving or alcohol-induced positive subjective effects. Conclusions Baclofen alone has minimal abuse liability in heavy social drinkers and baclofen is relatively well tolerated and safe when given in combination with intoxicating doses of alcohol. PMID:18840257

  19. Failure of gamma-aminobutyrate acid-beta agonist baclofen to improve balance, gait, and postural control after vestibular schwannoma resection.

    PubMed

    De Valck, Claudia F J; Vereeck, Luc; Wuyts, Floris L; Van de Heyning, Paul H

    2009-04-01

    Incomplete postural control often occurs after vestibular schwannoma (VS) surgery. Customized vestibular rehabilitation in man improves and speeds up this process. Animal experiments have shown an improved and faster vestibular compensation after administration of the gamma-aminobutyrate acid (GABA)-beta agonist baclofen. To examine whether medical treatment with baclofen provides an improvement of the compensation process after VS surgery. A time-series study with historical control. Tertiary referral center. Thirteen patients who underwent VS resection were included and compared with a matched group of patients. In addition to an individualized vestibular rehabilitation protocol, the study group received medical treatment with 30 mg baclofen (a GABA-beta agonist) daily during the first 6 weeks after surgery. Clinical gait and balance tests (Romberg maneuver, standing on foam, tandem Romberg, single-leg stance, Timed Up & Go test, tandem gait, Dynamic Gait Index) and Dizziness Handicap Inventory. Follow-up until 24 weeks after surgery. When examining the postoperative test results, the group treated with baclofen did not perform better when compared with the matched (historical control) group. Repeated-measures analysis of variance revealed no significant group effect, but a significant time effect for almost all balance tests during the acute recovery period was found. An interaction effect between time and intervention was seen concerning single-leg stance and Dizziness Handicap Inventory scores for the acute recovery period. Medical therapy with baclofen did not seem to be beneficial in the process of central vestibular compensation.

  20. Effects of intraperitoneal administration of the GABAB receptor positive allosteric modulator 2,6-di tert-butyl-4-(2-hydroxy-2,2-dimethyl-propyl)-phenol (CGP7930) on food intake in non-deprived rats.

    PubMed

    Ebenezer, Ivor S

    2012-09-05

    γ-Aminobutyric acid-(B) (GABA(B)) receptor positive allosteric modulators (PAMs) act on an allosteric site on the GABA(B) receptor to potentiate the effects of GABA and GABA(B) receptor agonists. It has previously been demonstrated that the GABA(B) receptor agonist baclofen increases food intake in non-deprived rats. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the GABA(B) receptor PAM 2,6-di tert-butyl-4-(2-hydroxy-2,2-dimethyl-propyl)-phenol (CGP7930) would (i) increase food intake, and (ii) potentiate the hyperphagic effects of baclofen in rats. In Experiment 1, the effects of intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration of CGP7930 (1, 6 and 12 mg/kg) was investigated on food intake in non-deprived male Wistar rats. The 12 mg/kg dose of CGP7930 significantly increased cumulative food intake 30, 60 and 120 min (P<0.05, in each case) after administration. The 1 and 6 mg/kg doses were without effect. In Experiment 2, the effects of pretreatment with CGP7930 (6 mg/kg; i.p.) 5 min prior to administration of baclofen (2mg/kg, i.p.) was investigated on 30min cumulative food intake in non-deprived male Wistar rats. Baclofen (2mg/kg) significantly increased food intake compared with vehicle treatment (P<0.01). CGP7930 (6 mg/kg) had no effect on feeding. However, pretreatment with CGP7930 (6 mg/kg) significantly potentiated the hyperphagic effects of baclofen (2mg/kg) (P<0.01). These findings show that CGP7930 increases food intake and enhances the hyperphagic effects of baclofen, and are consistent with in vitro studies that suggest that it potentiates the effects of endogenous GABA and GABA(B) receptor agonists by allosteric modulation of the GABA(B) receptor. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. The GABA(B) receptor positive modulator BHF177 attenuated anxiety, but not conditioned fear, in rats.

    PubMed

    Li, Xia; Kaczanowska, Katarzyna; Finn, M G; Markou, Athina; Risbrough, Victoria B

    2015-10-01

    GABAB (γ-aminobutyric acid B) receptors may be a therapeutic target for anxiety disorders. Here we characterized the effects of the GABAB receptor positive allosteric modulator (PAM) BHF177 on conditioned and unconditioned physiological responses to threat in the light-enhanced startle (LES), stress-induced hyperthermia, and fear-potentiated startle (FPS) procedures in rats. The effects of BHF177 on LES were compared with those of the GABAB receptor agonists baclofen and CGP44532, and the positive control buspirone, a 5-HT1A receptor partial agonist with anxiolytic activity in humans. Baclofen (0.4, 0.9 and 1.25 mg/kg) and CGP44532 (0.065, 0.125 and 0.25 mg/kg) administration had significant sedative, but not anxiolytic, activity reflected in overall decrease in the startle response in the LES tests. BHF177 (10, 20 and 40 mg/kg) had no effect on LES, nor did it produce an overall sedative effect. Interesting, however, when rats were grouped by high and low LES responses, BHF177 had anxiolytic-like effects only on LES in high, but not low, LES responding rats. BHF177 also blocked stress-induced hyperthermia, but had no effect on conditioned fear responses in the FPS test. Buspirone (1 and 3 mg/kg) had an anxiolytic-like profile in both LES and FPS tests. These results indicate that BHF177 may specifically attenuate unconditioned anxiety in individuals that exhibit a high anxiety state, and has fewer sedative effects than direct agonists. Thus, BHF177 or other GABAB receptor PAMs may be promising compounds for alleviating increased anxiety seen in various psychiatric disorders with a superior side-effect profile compared to GABAB receptor agonists. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Baclofen for maintenance treatment of opioid dependence: A randomized double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial [ISRCTN32121581

    PubMed Central

    Assadi, Seyed Mohammad; Radgoodarzi, Reza; Ahmadi-Abhari, Seyed Ali

    2003-01-01

    Background Results of preclinical studies suggest that the GABAB receptor agonist baclofen may be useful in treatment of opioid dependence. This study was aimed at assessing the possible efficacy of baclofen for maintenance treatment of opioid dependence. Methods A total of 40 opioid-dependent patients were detoxified and randomly assigned to receive baclofen (60 mg/day) or placebo in a 12-week, double blind, parallel-group trial. Primary outcome measure was retention in treatment. Secondary outcome measures included opioids and alcohol use according to urinalysis and self-report ratings, intensity of opioid craving assessed with a visual analogue scale, opioid withdrawal symptoms as measured by the Short Opiate Withdrawal Scale and depression scores on the Hamilton inventory. Results Treatment retention was significantly higher in the baclofen group. Baclofen also showed a significant superiority over placebo in terms of opiate withdrawal syndrome and depressive symptoms. Non-significant, but generally favorable responses were seen in the baclofen group with other outcome measures including intensity of opioid craving and self-reported opioid and alcohol use. However, no significant difference was seen in the rates of opioid-positive urine tests. Additionally, the drug side effects of the two groups were not significantly different. Conclusion The results support further study of baclofen in the maintenance treatment of opioid dependence. PMID:14624703

  3. GABAB receptor-mediated responses in GABAergic projection neurones of rat nucleus reticularis thalami in vitro.

    PubMed

    Ulrich, D; Huguenard, J R

    1996-06-15

    1. Whole-cell voltage-clamp recordings were obtained from GABAergic neurones of rat nucleus reticularis thalami (NRT) in vitro to assess pre- and postsynaptic GABAB receptor-mediated responses. Presynaptic inhibition of GABA release was studied at terminals on local axon collaterals within NRT as well as on projection fibres in the somatosensory relay nuclei. 2. The GABAB receptor agonist (R)-baclofen (10 microM) reduced monosynaptically evoked GABAA-mediated inhibitory postsynaptic currents (IPSCs) in NRT and somatosensory relay cells to 11 and 12% of control, respectively. 3. Action potential-independent miniature IPSCs (mIPSCs) were observed in both cell types. Mean mIPSC amplitude was 20 pA in both NRT and relay cells at a holding potential of 0 mV. The mean mIPSC frequencies were 0.83 and 2.2 Hz in NRT and relay cells, respectively. Baclofen decreased mIPSP frequency by about half in each cell type without affecting amplitude. 4. Paired-burst inhibition of evoked IPSCs was studied in relay and NRT cells by applying pairs of 100 Hz stimulus bursts separated by 600 ms. The mean ratio of second to first peak IPSC amplitudes was 0.77. 5. In NRT cells baclofen induced a linear postsynaptic conductance increase of 0.82 nS with an associated reversal potential of -121 mV. A small (0.14 nS) GABAB component of the evoked IPSC was detected in only a minority of NRT cells (3 of 18). 6. All pre- and postsynaptic effects of baclofen, as well as PBI, were largely reversed by the specific GABAB receptor antagonist CGP 35348 (0.5 mM). 7. We conclude that activation of GABAB receptors in NRT leads to presynaptic autoinhibition of IPSCs in both NRT and relay cells, and to direct activation of a small linear K+ conductance. In addition our experiments suggest that reciprocal connectivity within NRT can be partially mediated by a small GABAB inhibitory event.

  4. FAT EMULSION COMPOSITION ALTERS INTAKE AND THE EFFECTS OF BACLOFEN

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Y; Wilt, DC; Wojnicki, FHE; Babbs, RK; Coupland, JN; Corwin, RLC

    2011-01-01

    Thickened oil-in-water emulsions are useful model foods in rat studies due to their high acceptance and similarity to foods consumed by humans. Previous work from this laboratory used oil-in-water emulsions thickened with a biopolymer blend containing starch. Intake and effects of baclofen, a GABA-B agonist that decreases fat intake and drug self-administration, were reported, but the contribution of starch was not assessed. In the present study, intake and effects of baclofen were assessed in rats using emulsions prepared with two fat types (32% vegetable shortening, 32% corn oil) and thickened with three biopolymer blends. One biopolymer blend contained starch and the other two did not. Daily 1-h intake of the vegetable shortening emulsion containing starch was significantly greater than the other emulsions. When starch was added to the emulsions originally containing no starch, intake significantly increased. Baclofen generally reduced intake of all emulsions regardless of starch content and stimulated intake of chow. However, effects were more often significant for vegetable shortening emulsions. This report: 1) demonstrates that products used to prepare thickened oil-in-water emulsions have significant effects on rat ingestive behavior, and 2) confirms the ability of baclofen to reduce consumption of fatty foods, while simultaneously stimulating intake of chow. PMID:21855586

  5. Human brain somatostatin release from isolated cortical nerve endings and its modulation through GABAB receptors.

    PubMed Central

    Bonanno, G.; Gemignani, A.; Schmid, G.; Severi, P.; Cavazzani, P.; Raiteri, M.

    1996-01-01

    1. The release of somatostatin-like immunoreactivity (SRIF-LI) in the human brain was studied in synaptosomal preparations from fresh neocortical specimens obtained from patients undergoing neurosurgery to remove deeply sited tumours. 2. The basal outflow of SRIF-LI from superfused synaptosomes was increased about 3 fold during exposure to a depolarizing medium containing 15 mM KCl. The K(+)-evoked overflow of SRIF-LI was almost totally dependent on the presence of Ca2+ in the superfusion medium. 3. The GABAB receptor agonist, (-)-baclofen (0.3 - 100 microM), inhibited the overflow of SRIF-LI in a concentration-dependent manner (EC50 = 1.84 +/- 0.20 microM; maximal effect: about 50%). The novel GABAB receptor ligand, 3-aminopropyl(difluoromethyl)phosphinic acid (CGP 47656) mimicked (-)-baclofen in inhibiting the SRIF-LI overflow (EC50 = 3.06 +/- 0.52 microM; maximal effect: about 50%), whereas the GABAA receptor agonist, muscimol, was ineffective up to 100 microM. 4. The inhibition by 10 microM (-)-baclofen of the K(+)-evoked SRIF-LI overflow was concentration-dependently prevented by two selective GABAB receptor antagonists, 3-amino-propyl (diethoxymethyl)-phosphinic acid (CGP 35348) (IC50 = 24.40 +/- 2.52 microM) and [3-[[(3,4-dichlorophenyl) methyl]amino]propyl] (diethoxymethyl) phosphinic acid (CGP 52432) (IC50 = 0.06 +/- 0.005 microM). 5. The inhibition of SRIF-LI overflow caused by 10 microM CGP 47656 was abolished by 1 microM CGP 52432. 6. When human synaptosomes were labelled with [3H]-GABA and depolarized in superfusion with 15 mM KCl, the inhibition by 10 microM (-)-baclofen of the depolarization-evoked [3H]-GABA overflow was largely prevented by 10 microM CGP 47656 which therefore behaved as an autoreceptor antagonist. 7. In conclusion: (a) the characteristics of SRIF-LI release from synaptosomal preparations of human neocortex are compatible with a neuronal origin; (b) the nerve terminals releasing the neuropeptide possess inhibitory receptors of the

  6. Intra-accumbens baclofen, but not muscimol, mimics the effects of food withdrawal on feeding behaviour.

    PubMed

    Pulman, K G T; Somerville, E M; Clifton, P G

    2010-11-01

    Intra-accumbens stimulation of GABA receptors results in a robust increase in food intake. However the differential consequences of stimulating GABA(A) and GABA(B) receptors in the nucleus accumbens have not been extensively explored with respect to feeding behaviour. Here we compare the effects of the GABA(B) receptor agonist baclofen and GABA(A) receptor agonist muscimol, infused into the nucleus accumbens shell, on food intake and related behavior patterns. Baclofen (110-440 ρmol) dose dependently enhanced intake and delayed the onset of satiety within the test period as did the effects of 4-8h food withdrawal. Muscimol (220-660 ρmol) enhanced intake but also disrupted the sequence of associated behaviours at every dose tested. We conclude that GABA(B) receptors in the nucleus accumbens shell may play a role in relation to feeding motivation whereas GABA(A) receptors may, as previously suggested, have a more restricted role in relation to the motor components of approach to food and ingestion. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Baclofen facilitates the extinction of methamphetamine-induced conditioned place preference in rats

    PubMed Central

    Voigt, Robin M.; Herrold, Amy A.; Napier, T. Celeste

    2011-01-01

    The powerful, long-lasting association between the rewarding effects of a drug and contextual cues associated with drug administration can be studied using conditioned place preference (CPP). The GABAB receptor agonist baclofen facilitates the extinction of morphine-induced CPP in mice. The current study extended this work by determining if baclofen could enhance the extinction of methamphetamine (Meth) CPP. CPP was established using a six day conditioning protocol wherein Meth-pairings were alternated with saline-pairings. Rats were subsequently administered baclofen (2mg/kg i.p. or vehicle) immediately after each daily forced extinction session, which consisted of a saline injection immediately prior to being placed into the previously Meth- or saline-paired chamber. One extinction training cycle, consisted of six once-daily forced extinction sessions, mimicking the alternating procedure established during conditioning, followed by a test for preference (Ext test). CPP persisted for at least four extinction cycles in vehicle-treated rats. In contrast, CPP was inhibited following a single extinction training cycle. These data indicate that Meth-induced CPP was resistant to extinction, but extinction training was rendered effective when the training was combined with baclofen. These findings converge with the prior demonstration of baclofen facilitating the extinction of morphine-induced CPP indicating that GABAB receptor actions are independent of the primary (unconditioned) stimulus (i.e., the opiate or the stimulant) and likely reflect mechanisms engaged by extinction learning processes per se. Thus, baclofen administered in conjunction with extinction training may be of value for addiction therapy regardless of the class of drug being abused. PMID:21463025

  8. GABAB Receptor Positive Modulation Decreases Selective Molecular and Behavioral Effects of Cocaine

    PubMed Central

    Lhuillier, Loic; Mombereau, Cedric; Cryan, John F.; Kaupmann, Klemens

    2006-01-01

    Exposure to cocaine induces selective behavioral and molecular adaptations. In rodents, acute cocaine induces increased locomotor activity whereas prolonged drug exposure results in behavioral locomotor sensitization, which is thought to be a consequence of drug–induced neuroadaptive changes. Recent attention has been given to compounds activating GABAB receptors as potential anti-addictive therapies. In particular the principle of allosteric positive GABAB receptor modulators is very promising in this respect, as positive modulators lack the sedative and muscle relaxant properties of full GABAB receptor agonists such as baclofen. Here we investigated the effects of systemic application of the GABAB receptor positive modulator GS39783 in animals treated with acute and chronic cocaine administration. Both GS39783 and baclofen dose-dependently attenuated acute cocaine-induced hyperlocomotion. Furthermore, both compounds also efficiently blocked cocaine-induced Fos induction in the striatal complex. In chronic studies GS39783 induced a modest attenuation of cocaine-induced locomotor sensitization. Chronic cocaine induces the accumulation of the transcription factor ΔFosB and up regulates cAMP-response-element-binding-protein (CREB) and dopamine-and-cAMP-regulated-phosphoprotein of 32 kd (DARPP-32). GS39783 blocked the induction/activation of DARPP-32 and CREB in the nucleus accumbens and dorsal striatum and partially inhibited ΔFosB accumulation in the dorsal striatum. In summary our data provide evidence that GS39783 attenuates the acute behavioral effects of cocaine exposure in rodents and in addition prevents the induction of selective long-term adaptive changes in dopaminergic signaling pathways. Further investigation of GABAB receptor positive modulation as a novel therapeutic strategy for the treatment of cocaine dependence and possibly other drugs of abuse is therefore warranted. PMID:16710312

  9. Baclofen promotes alcohol abstinence in alcohol dependent cirrhotic patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection

    PubMed Central

    Leggio, L.; Ferrulli, A.; Zambon, A.; Caputo, F.; Kenna, G.A.; Swift, R.M.; Addolorato, G.

    2016-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) and alcoholic liver disease (ALD), either alone or in combination, count for more than two thirds of all liver diseases in the Western world. There is no safe level of drinking in HCV-infected patients and the most effective goal for these patients is total abstinence. Baclofen, a GABAB receptor agonist, represents a promising pharmacotherapy for alcohol dependence (AD). Previously, we performed a randomized clinical trial (RCT), which demonstrated the safety and efficacy of baclofen in patients affected by AD and cirrhosis. The goal of this post-hoc analysis was to explore baclofen's effect in a subgroup of alcohol-dependent HCV-infected cirrhotic patients. Any patient with HCV infection was selected for this analysis. Among the 84 subjects randomized in the main trial, 24 alcohol-dependent cirrhotic patients had a HCV infection; 12 received baclofen 10mg t.i.d. and 12 received placebo for 12-weeks. With respect to the placebo group (3/12, 25.0%), a significantly higher number of patients who achieved and maintained total alcohol abstinence was found in the baclofen group (10/12, 83.3%; p=0.0123). Furthermore, in the baclofen group, compared to placebo, there was a significantly higher increase in albumin values from baseline (p=0.0132) and a trend toward a significant reduction in INR levels from baseline (p=0.0716). In conclusion, baclofen was safe and significantly more effective than placebo in promoting alcohol abstinence, and improving some LFTs (i.e. albumin, INR) in alcohol-dependent HCV-infected cirrhotic patients. Baclofen may represent a clinically relevant alcohol pharmacotherapy for these patients. PMID:22244707

  10. Serum levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor in alcohol-dependent patients receiving high-dose baclofen.

    PubMed

    Geisel, Olga; Hellweg, Rainer; Müller, Christian A

    2016-06-30

    The neurotrophin brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) has been suggested to be involved in the development and maintenance of addictive and other psychiatric disorders. Also, interactions of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-ergic compounds and BDNF have been reported. The objective of this study was to investigate serum levels of BDNF over time in alcohol-dependent patients receiving individually titrated high-dose treatment (30-270mg/d) with the GABA-B receptor agonist baclofen or placebo for up to 20 weeks. Serum levels of BDNF were measured in patients of the baclofen/placebo group at baseline (t0), 2 weeks after reaching individual high-dose of baclofen/placebo treatment (t1) and after termination of study medication (t2) in comparison to carefully matched healthy controls. No significant differences in serum levels of BDNF between the baclofen and the placebo group or healthy controls were found at t0, t1, or at t2. Based on these findings, it seems unlikely that baclofen exerts a direct effect on serum levels of BDNF in alcohol-dependent patients. Future studies are needed to further explore the mechanism of action of baclofen and its possible relationship to BDNF in alcohol use disorders. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Effect of short- and long-term administration of baclofen on spatial learning and memory in rats.

    PubMed

    Holajova, M; Franek, M

    2018-03-16

    Baclofen is the only clinically available metabotropic GABA(B) receptor agonist. In our experiment, we tested the hypothesis that long-term baclofen administration can impair learning and memory in rats. The experiment consisted of three parts. In the first part of the study the drug was administered simultaneously with the beginning of the behavioral tests. In the second and third part of the experiment baclofen was administered daily for 14 days and for one month before the tests. In each part of the experiment, adult rats were randomly divided into four treatment groups. Three groups were given an injection of baclofen at doses of 1 mg/kg, 5 mg/kg, 10 mg/kg, while the fourth group was injected with saline. The injections were given after each session. Spatial learning and memory were tested using the Morris water maze, involving three types of tests: Acquisition, Probe, and Re-acquisition. This work reveals that baclofen did not affect spatial learning at any of the tested doses and regardless of the length of administration. Memory was observed to be affected, but only at the highest dose of baclofen and only temporarily. This conclusion is in line with previously published clinical cases.

  12. Effects of baclofen and naltrexone, alone and in combination, on the consumption of palatable food in male rats.

    PubMed

    Avena, Nicole M; Bocarsly, Miriam E; Murray, Susan; Gold, Mark S

    2014-10-01

    Excess consumption of palatable food has been shown to affect reward-related brain regions, and pharmaceutical treatments for drug addiction may also be effective in treating overeating of such foods. The GABA-B agonist baclofen and opioid antagonist naltrexone have both been used to treat addiction, and have been shown to suppress intake of certain foods. The combination of these drugs has shown to be more effective in reducing alcohol consumption than either drug alone. The present study assessed the effects of naltrexone and baclofen, alone and in combination, on intake of foods comprised of various macronutrients. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were given 12-hr daily access to chow and a fat emulsion, sugar-fat emulsion, or a sugar solution for 21 days. Rats were then administered (intraperitoneal) baclofen-naltrexone combinations (0.1 mg/kg naltrexone and 1.0 mg/kg baclofen, 1.0 mg/kg naltrexone and 1.8 mg/kg baclofen), and naltrexone (0.1, 1.0 mg/kg) and baclofen (1.0, 1.8 mg/kg) alone. The high dose of the baclofen-naltrexone combination reduced palatable food intake in both the fat and sugar-fat groups compared with vehicle, without affecting chow consumption in these groups. Naltrexone showed little significant effects on intake of either palatable food or chow. Baclofen also reduced palatable food intake in the fat and fat-sugar groups, but differences were only noted between the low and high dose. The combination of baclofen and naltrexone may be a useful tool in selectively targeting the consumption of high-fat and sugar- and fat-rich foods. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).

  13. Effect of baclofen on morphine-induced conditioned place preference, extinction, and stress-induced reinstatement in chronically stressed mice.

    PubMed

    Meng, Shanshan; Quan, Wuxing; Qi, Xu; Su, Zhiqiang; Yang, Shanshan

    2014-01-01

    A stress-induced increase in excitability can result from a reduction in inhibitory neurotransmission. Modulation of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)ergic transmission is an effective treatment for drug seeking and relapse. This study investigated whether baclofen, a GABA(B) receptor agonist, had an impact on morphine-induced conditioned place preference (CPP), extinction, and stress-induced relapse in chronically stressed mice. Chronic stress was induced by restraining mice for 2 h for seven consecutive days. We first investigated whether chronic stress influenced morphine-induced CPP, extinction, and stress-induced relapse in the stressed mice. Next, we investigated whether three different doses of baclofen influenced chronic stress as measured by the expression of morphine-induced CPP. We chose the most effective dose for subsequent extinction and reinstatement experiments. Reinstatement of morphine-induced CPP was induced by a 6-min forced swim stress. Locomotor activity was also measured for each test. Chronic stress facilitated the expression of morphine-induced CPP and prolonged extinction time. Forced swim stress primed the reinstatement of morphine-induced CPP in mice. Baclofen treatment affected the impact of chronic stress on different phases of morphine-induced CPP. Our results showed that baclofen antagonized the effects of chronic stress on morphine-induced CPP. These findings suggest the potential clinical utility of GABA(B) receptor-positive modulators as an anti-addiction agent in people suffering from chronic stress.

  14. Intra-nucleus accumbens shell injections of R(+)- and S(-)-baclofen bidirectionally alter binge-like ethanol, but not saccharin, intake in C57Bl/6J mice

    PubMed Central

    Kasten, Chelsea R.; Boehm, Stephen L.

    2014-01-01

    The GABAB agonist baclofen has been widely researched clinically and preclinically as a treatment of alcohol use disorders (AUDs). However, the efficacy of baclofen remains uncertain. The clinically used racemic compound can be separated into separate enantiomers. These enantiomers have produced different profiles in behavioral assays, with the S- compound often being ineffective compared to the R- compound, or the S- compound antagonizing the effects of the R- compound. We have previously demonstrated that the R(+)-baclofen enantiomer decreases binge-like ethanol intake in the Drinking-in-the-Dark (DID) paradigm, whereas the S(-)-baclofen enantiomer increases ethanol intake. One area implicated in drug abuse is the nucleus accumbens shell (NACsh).The current study sought to define the role of the NACsh in the enantioselective effects of baclofen on binge-like ethanol consumption by directly microinjecting each enantiomer into the structure. Following bilateral cannulation of the NACsh, C57Bl/6J mice were given 5 days of access to ethanol or saccharin for 2 hours, 3 hours into the dark cycle. On Day 5 mice were given an injection of aCSF, 0.02 R(+)-, 0.04R(+)-, 0.08 S(-)-, or 0.16 S(-)-baclofen (μg/side dissolved in 200nl of aCSF). It was found that the R(+)-baclofen dose-dependently decreased ethanol consumption, whereas the high S(-)-baclofen dose increased ethanol consumption, compared to the aCSF group. Saccharin consumption was not affected. These results further confirm that GABAB receptors and the NACsh shell are integral in mediating ethanol intake. They also demonstrate that baclofen displays bidirectional, enantioselective effects which are important when considering therapeutic uses of the drug. PMID:25026094

  15. Intra-nucleus accumbens shell injections of R(+)- and S(-)-baclofen bidirectionally alter binge-like ethanol, but not saccharin, intake in C57Bl/6J mice.

    PubMed

    Kasten, Chelsea R; Boehm, Stephen L

    2014-10-01

    The GABAB agonist baclofen has been widely researched clinically and preclinically as a treatment of alcohol use disorders (AUDs). However, the efficacy of baclofen remains uncertain. The clinically used racemic compound can be separated into separate enantiomers. These enantiomers have produced different profiles in behavioral assays, with the S- compound often being ineffective compared to the R- compound, or the S- compound antagonizing the effects of the R- compound. We have previously demonstrated that the R(+)-baclofen enantiomer decreases binge-like ethanol intake in the Drinking-in-the-Dark (DID) paradigm, whereas the S(-)-baclofen enantiomer increases ethanol intake. One area implicated in drug abuse is the nucleus accumbens shell (NACsh).The current study sought to define the role of the NACsh in the enantioselective effects of baclofen on binge-like ethanol consumption by directly microinjecting each enantiomer into the structure. Following bilateral cannulation of the NACsh, C57Bl/6J mice were given 5 days of access to ethanol or saccharin for 2h, 3h into the dark cycle. On Day 5 mice were given an injection of aCSF, 0.02 R(+)-, 0.04R(+)-, 0.08 S(-)-, or 0.16 S(-)-baclofen (μg/side dissolved in 200nl of aCSF). It was found that the R(+)-baclofen dose-dependently decreased ethanol consumption, whereas the high S(-)-baclofen dose increased ethanol consumption, compared to the aCSF group. Saccharin consumption was not affected. These results further confirm that GABAB receptors and the NACsh shell are integral in mediating ethanol intake. They also demonstrate that baclofen displays bidirectional, enantioselective effects which are important when considering therapeutic uses of the drug. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. A human laboratory pilot study with baclofen in alcoholic individuals

    PubMed Central

    Leggio, Lorenzo; Zywiak, William H.; McGeary, John E.; Edwards, Steven; Fricchione, Samuel R.; Shoaff, Jessica R.; Addolorato, Giovanni; Swift, Robert M.; Kenna, George A.

    2015-01-01

    Preclinical and clinical studies show that the GABAB receptor agonist baclofen may represent a pharmacotherapy for alcohol dependence (AD). However, the mechanisms by which baclofen affects drinking are not well characterized; thus this pilot study investigated possible baclofen’s biobehavioral mechanisms. The design was a double-blind controlled randomized human laboratory pilot study. Fourteen non-treatment seeking alcohol-dependent heavy drinking subjects received either baclofen 10 mg t.i.d. or an active placebo (cyproheptadine 2 mg t.i.d., to control for sedation) for a 7-day period. At day 8, participants performed an alcohol cue-reactivity (CR) followed by an alcohol self-administration (ASA). Additionally, we explored possible moderators that might guide future larger studies, i.e. anxiety, family history and onset of alcoholism, and D4 dopamine receptor (DRD4) and 5-HTTLPR polymorphisms. The main results were a significant effect of baclofen for increasing stimulation (p=.001) and sedation (p<.01). Furthermore, when drinking during the ASA and the 2 days before was analyzed as a composite variable, there was a significant effect of baclofen to reduce alcohol consumption (p<.01). As for the exploratory analyses, baclofen’s effects to increase alcohol sedation and to reduce alcohol consumption were limited to those individuals with DRD4 ≥7 repeats (DRD4L). Yet, baclofen’s effects on alcohol consumption were also moderated by 5-HTTLPR LL genotype. In conclusion, baclofen’s ability to reduce alcohol drinking may be related to its effects on the biphasic effects of alcohol, but larger studies are needed to confirm these preliminary findings. PMID:23262301

  17. Anticraving Effect of Baclofen in Alcohol-Dependent Patients.

    PubMed

    Imbert, Bruce; Alvarez, Jean-Claude; Simon, Nicolas

    2015-09-01

    Baclofen is a GABA-B receptor agonist currently used in the treatment of spasticity. In recent years, baclofen has been used to reduce craving, voluntary alcohol intake and withdrawal syndrome of alcoholic patients. To date, there are no data available to estimate the relationship between baclofen exposure and the variation of craving. The first objective of this study was to investigate the variation of craving as a function of exposure, and the second was to explore the possible existence of baclofen responders and nonresponders. Sixty-seven outpatients, 43 men/24 women (weight: 73 kg [42 to 128]; age: 49 years old [29 to 68]) followed in the addictology unit, were studied during 3 months after treatment initiation. Baclofen was administered by oral route. Therapeutic drug monitoring enabled the measurement of plasma concentrations. Craving level was assessed by the Obsessive-Compulsive Drinking Scale (OCDS). A population pharmacokinetic (PK)-pharmacodynamic analysis of the OCDS variation following baclofen administration was performed. Demographic data, biological data, and tobacco consumption were tested for their influence on the parameters. Data were modeled with a 1-compartment model with first-order absorption and elimination. PK analysis confirms the results of our previous study. An Emax model best-described the exposure-OCDS relationship. None of the covariates tested was able to improve the fit or decrease intersubject variability. However, 2 subpopulations were defined for the exposure corresponding to half the maximal effect (BE50). The proportion of patients being classified as responders was 38% (95% confidence interval [CI] 7 to 76), the maximal decrease in OCDS (Emax ) was 72% (95% CI 25 to 85), and the BE50 was 12.6 (95% CI 0.02 to 74.3) or 4,390 (95% CI 20.4 to 31,800) h mg/l for responders and nonresponders, respectively. We defined the relationship between baclofen exposure and craving in patients with alcohol use disorder. Baclofen treatment

  18. Differential Effects of Sodium Oxybate and Baclofen on EEG, Sleep, Neurobehavioral Performance, and Memory

    PubMed Central

    Vienne, Julie; Lecciso, Gianpaolo; Constantinescu, Irina; Schwartz, Sophie; Franken, Paul; Heinzer, Raphaël; Tafti, Mehdi

    2012-01-01

    Study Objectives: Sodium oxybate (SO) is a GABAB agonist used to treat the sleep disorder narcolepsy. SO was shown to increase slow wave sleep (SWS) and EEG delta power (0.75-4.5 Hz), both indexes of NREM sleep (NREMS) intensity and depth, suggesting that SO enhances recuperative function of NREM. We investigated whether SO induces physiological deep sleep. Design: SO was administered before an afternoon nap or before the subsequent experimental night in 13 healthy volunteers. The effects of SO were compared to baclofen (BAC), another GABAB receptor agonist, to assess the role of GABAB receptors in the SO response. Measurements and Results: As expected, a nap significantly decreased sleep need and intensity the subsequent night. Both drugs reversed this nap effect on the subsequent night by decreasing sleep latency and increasing total sleep time, SWS during the first NREMS episode, and EEG delta and theta (0.75-7.25 Hz) power during NREMS. The SO-induced increase in EEG delta and theta power was, however, not specific to NREMS and was also observed during REM sleep (REMS) and wakefulness. Moreover, the high levels of delta power during a nap following SO administration did not affect delta power the following night. SO and BAC taken before the nap did not improve subsequent psychomotor performance and subjective alertness, or memory consolidation. Finally, SO and BAC strongly promoted the appearance of sleep onset REM periods. Conclusions: The SO-induced EEG slow waves seem not to be functionally similar to physiological slow waves. Our findings also suggest a role for GABAB receptors in REMS generation. Citation: Vienne J; Lecciso G; Constantinescu I; Schwartz S; Franken P; Heinzer R; Tafti M. Differential effects of sodium oxybate and baclofen on EEG, sleep, neurobehavioral performance, and memory. SLEEP 2012;35(8):1071–1084. PMID:22851803

  19. High-dose baclofen for the treatment of alcohol dependence (BACLAD study): a randomized, placebo-controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Müller, Christian A; Geisel, Olga; Pelz, Patricia; Higl, Verena; Krüger, Josephine; Stickel, Anna; Beck, Anne; Wernecke, Klaus-Dieter; Hellweg, Rainer; Heinz, Andreas

    2015-08-01

    Previous randomized, placebo-controlled trials (RCTs) assessing the efficacy of the selective γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-B receptor agonist baclofen in the treatment of alcohol dependence have reported divergent results, possibly related to the low to medium dosages of baclofen used in these studies (30-80mg/d). Based on preclinical observations of a dose-dependent effect and positive case reports in alcohol-dependent patients, the present RCT aimed to assess the efficacy and safety of individually titrated high-dose baclofen for the treatment of alcohol dependence. Out of 93 alcohol-dependent patients initially screened, 56 were randomly assigned to a double-blind treatment with individually titrated baclofen or placebo using dosages of 30-270mg/d. The multiple primary outcome measures were (1) total abstinence and (2) cumulative abstinence duration during a 12-week high-dose phase. More patients of the baclofen group maintained total abstinence during the high-dose phase than those receiving placebo (15/22, 68.2% vs. 5/21, 23.8%, p=0.014). Cumulative abstinence duration was significantly higher in patients given baclofen compared to patients of the placebo group (mean 67.8 (SD 30) vs. 51.8 (SD 29.6) days, p=0.047). No drug-related serious adverse events were observed during the trial. Individually titrated high-dose baclofen effectively supported alcohol-dependent patients in maintaining alcohol abstinence and showed a high tolerability, even in the event of relapse. These results provide further evidence for the potential of baclofen, thereby possibly extending the current pharmacological treatment options in alcohol dependence. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. and ECNP. All rights reserved.

  20. Epigenetic regulation of dorsal raphe GABA(B1a) associated with isolation-induced abnormal responses to social stimulation in mice.

    PubMed

    Araki, Ryota; Hiraki, Yosuke; Nishida, Shoji; Kuramoto, Nobuyuki; Matsumoto, Kinzo; Yabe, Takeshi

    2016-02-01

    In isolation-reared mice, social encounter stimulation induces locomotor hyperactivity and activation of the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN), suggesting that dysregulation of dorsal raphe function may be involved in abnormal behaviors. In this study, we examined the involvement of dorsal raphe GABAergic dysregulation in the abnormal behaviors of isolation-reared mice. We also studied an epigenetic mechanism underlying abnormalities of the dorsal raphe GABAergic system. Both mRNA and protein levels of GABA(B1a), a GABA(B) receptor subunit, were increased in the DRN of isolation-reared mice, compared with these levels in group-reared mice. In contrast, mRNA levels for other GABAergic system-related genes (GABA(A) receptor α1, β2 and γ2 subunits, GABA(B) receptor 1b and 2 subunits, and glutamate decarboxylase 67 and 65) were unchanged. Intra-DRN microinjection of 0.06 nmol baclofen (a GABA(B) receptor agonist) exacerbated encounter-induced hyperactivity and aggressive behavior, while microinjection of 0.3 nmol phaclofen (a GABA(B) receptor antagonist) attenuated encounter-induced hyperactivity and aggressive behavior in isolation-reared mice. Furthermore, microinjection of 0.06 nmol baclofen elicited encounter-induced hyperactivity in group-reared mice. Neither baclofen nor phaclofen affected immobility time in the forced swim test and hyperactivity in a novel environment of isolation reared mice. Bisulfite sequence analyses revealed that the DNA methylation level of the CpG island around the transcription start site (TSS) of GABA(B1a) was decreased in the DRN of isolation-reared mice. Chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis showed that histone H3 was hyperacetylated around the TSS of GABA(B1a) in the DRN of isolation-reared mice. These findings indicate that an increase in dorsal raphe GABA(B1a) expression via epigenetic regulation is associated with abnormal responses to social stimulation such as encounter-induced hyperactivity and aggressive behavior in isolation

  1. Spinal GABA-B receptor modulates neutrophil recruitment to the knee joint in zymosan-induced arthritis.

    PubMed

    Bassi, Gabriel S; do C Malvar, David; Cunha, Thiago M; Cunha, Fernando Q; Kanashiro, Alexandre

    2016-08-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated that the central nervous system controls inflammatory responses by activating complex efferent neuroimmune pathways. The present study was designed to evaluate the role that central gamma-aminobutyric acid type B (GABA-B) receptor plays in neutrophil migration in a murine model of zymosan-induced arthritis by using different pharmacological tools. We observed that intrathecal administration of baclofen, a selective GABA-B agonist, exacerbated the inflammatory response in the knee after zymosan administration characterized by an increase in the neutrophil recruitment and knee joint edema, whereas saclofen, a GABA-B antagonist, exerted the opposite effect. Intrathecal pretreatment of the animals with SB203580 (an inhibitor of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase) blocked the pro-inflammatory effect of baclofen. On the other hand, systemic administration of guanethidine, a sympatholytic drug that inhibits catecholamine release, and nadolol, a beta-adrenergic receptor antagonist, reversed the effect of saclofen. Moreover, saclofen suppressed the release of the pro-inflammatory cytokines into the knee joint (ELISA) and pain-related behaviors (open field test). Since the anti-inflammatory effect of saclofen depends on the sympathetic nervous system integrity, we observed that isoproterenol, a beta-adrenergic receptor agonist, mimics the central GABA-B blockade decreasing knee joint neutrophil recruitment. Together, these results demonstrate that the pharmacological manipulation of spinal GABAergic transmission aids control of neutrophil migration to the inflamed joint by modulating the activation of the knee joint-innervating sympathetic terminal fibers through a mechanism dependent on peripheral beta-adrenergic receptors and central components, such as p38 MAPK.

  2. GABAB receptor-mediated frequency-dependent and circadian changes in synaptic plasticity modulate retinal input to the suprachiasmatic nucleus

    PubMed Central

    Moldavan, Mykhaylo G; Allen, Charles N

    2013-01-01

    Light is the most important environmental signal that entrains the circadian clock located in the hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN). The retinohypothalamic tract (RHT) was stimulated to simulate the light intensity-dependent discharges of intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells projecting axons to the hypothalamus. EPSCs were evoked by paired-pulse stimulation or by application of stimulus trains, and recorded from SCN neurons in rat brain slices. Initial release probability (Pr) and synaptic plasticity changes depended on the strength of GABAB receptor (GABABR)-mediated presynaptic inhibition and could be different at the same GABABR agonist concentration. Facilitation caused by frequency-dependent relief of GABABR-mediated inhibition was observed when the initial Pr was decreased to less than 15% of control during strong activation of presynaptic GABAB receptors by (±)baclofen (10 μm), GABA (≥2 mm) or by GABA uptake inhibitor nipecotic acid (≥5 mm). In contrast, short-term synaptic depression appeared during baclofen (10 μm) application when initial Pr was greater than 30% of control. Block of 4-aminopyridine-sensitive K+ currents increased the amplitude and time constant of decay of evoked EPSCs (eEPSCs), and decreased the GABABR-mediated presynaptic inhibition. The GABAB receptor antagonist CGP55845 (3 μm) increased the eEPSCs amplitude 30% throughout the light−dark cycle. During light and dark phases the RHT inputs to 55% and 33% of recorded neurons, respectively, were under GABAB inhibitory control indicating that the tonic inhibition induced by local changes of endogenous GABA concentration contributes to the circadian variation of RHT transmitter release. We conclude that GABABR-mediated presynaptic inhibition decreased with increasing frequency and broadening of presynaptic action potentials, and depended on the sensitivity of RHT terminals to GABABR agonists, and diurnal changes of the extracellular GABA concentration around

  3. Alterations in food intake elicited by GABA and opioid agonists and antagonists administered into the ventral tegmental area region of rats.

    PubMed

    Echo, Joyce A; Lamonte, Nicole; Ackerman, Tsippa F; Bodnar, Richard J

    2002-05-01

    Food intake is significantly increased following administration of mu-selective opioid agonists into the ventral tegmental area (VTA) region acting through multiple local opioid receptor subtypes. Since GABA receptor agonists in the VTA region are capable of eliciting feeding, the present study investigated whether feeding elicited by the mu-selective opioid agonist [D-Ala(2), NMe(4), Gly-ol(5)]-enkephalin (DAMGO) in the VTA region was altered by pretreatment into the same site with equimolar doses of either GABA(A) (bicuculline) or GABA(B) (saclofen) antagonists, and further, whether pretreatment with either general opioid or selective GABA receptor antagonists decreased feeding elicited by GABA(A) (muscimol) or GABA(B) (baclofen) agonists in the VTA region. DAMGO-induced feeding in the VTA region was dose-dependently decreased following pretreatment with either GABA(A) or GABA(B) antagonists in the absence of significant alterations in food intake by the antagonists per se. However, the presence of short-lived seizures following bicuculline in the VTA region suggests that this ingestive effect was caused by nonspecific actions. In contrast, GABA(B) receptors are involved in the full expression of mu-opioid agonist-induced feeding in this region since saclofen failed to elicit either seizure activity or a conditioned taste aversion. Pretreatment with naltrexone in the VTA region reduced intake elicited by baclofen, but not muscimol. Finally, baclofen-induced feeding was significantly reduced by saclofen, but not bicuculline, pretreatment in the VTA region. Therefore, possible coregulation between GABA(B) and opioid receptors in the VTA region, as suggested by immunocytochemical evidence, is supported by these behavioral effects upon ingestion.

  4. Baclofen mediates neuroprotection on hippocampal CA1 pyramidal cells through the regulation of autophagy under chronic cerebral hypoperfusion

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Li; Li, Chang-jun; Lu, Yun; Zong, Xian-gang; Luo, Chao; Sun, Jun; Guo, Lian-jun

    2015-01-01

    GABA receptors play an important role in ischemic brain injury. Studies have indicated that autophagy is closely related to neurodegenerative diseases. However, during chronic cerebral hypoperfusion, the changes of autophagy in the hippocampal CA1 area, the correlation between GABA receptors and autophagy, and their influences on hippocampal neuronal apoptosis have not been well established. Here, we found that chronic cerebral hypoperfusion resulted in rat hippocampal atrophy, neuronal apoptosis, enhancement and redistribution of autophagy, down-regulation of Bcl-2/Bax ratio, elevation of cleaved caspase-3 levels, reduction of surface expression of GABAA receptor α1 subunit and an increase in surface and mitochondrial expression of connexin 43 (CX43) and CX36. Chronic administration of GABAB receptors agonist baclofen significantly alleviated neuronal damage. Meanwhile, baclofen could up-regulate the ratio of Bcl-2/Bax and increase the activation of Akt, GSK-3β and ERK which suppressed cytodestructive autophagy. The study also provided evidence that baclofen could attenuate the decrease in surface expression of GABAA receptor α1 subunit, and down-regulate surface and mitochondrial expression of CX43 and CX36, which might enhance protective autophagy. The current findings suggested that, under chronic cerebral hypoperfusion, the effects of GABAB receptors activation on autophagy regulation could reverse neuronal damage. PMID:26412641

  5. Evidence for involvement of nitric oxide and GABAB receptors in MK-801- stimulated release of glutamate in rat prefrontal cortex

    PubMed Central

    Roenker, Nicole L.; Gudelsky, Gary A.; Ahlbrand, Rebecca; Horn, Paul S.; Richtand, Neil M.

    2012-01-01

    Systemic administration of NMDA receptor antagonists elevates extracellular glutamate within prefrontal cortex. The cognitive and behavioral effects of NMDA receptor blockade have direct relevance to symptoms of schizophrenia, and recent studies demonstrate an important role for nitric oxide and GABAB receptors in mediating the effects of NMDA receptor blockade on these behaviors. We sought to extend those observations by directly measuring the effects of nitric oxide and GABAB receptor mechanisms on MK-801-induced glutamate release in the prefrontal cortex. Systemic MK-801 injection (0.3 mg/kg) to male Sprague-Dawley rats significantly increased extracellular glutamate levels in prefrontal cortex, as determined by microdialysis. This effect was blocked by pretreatment with the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor L-NAME (60 mg/kg). Reverse dialysis of the nitric oxide donor SNAP (0.5 – 5 mM) directly into prefrontal cortex mimicked the effect of systemic MK-801, dose-dependently elevating cortical extracellular glutamate. The effect of MK-801 was also blocked by systemic treatment with the GABAB receptor agonist baclofen (5 mg/kg). In combination, these data suggest increased nitric oxide formation is necessary for NMDA antagonist-induced elevations of extracellular glutamate in the prefrontal cortex. Additionally, the data suggest GABAB receptor activation can modulate the NMDA antagonist-induced increase in cortical glutamate release. PMID:22579658

  6. Neuroendocrine response to GABA-B receptor agonism in alcohol-dependent individuals: Results from a combined outpatient and human laboratory experiment.

    PubMed

    Farokhnia, Mehdi; Sheskier, Mikela B; Lee, Mary R; Le, April N; Singley, Erick; Bouhlal, Sofia; Ton, Timmy; Zhao, Zhen; Leggio, Lorenzo

    2018-04-14

    Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), the main inhibitory neurotransmitter in the nervous system, plays an important role in biobehavioral processes that regulate alcohol seeking, food intake, and stress response. The metabotropic GABA-B receptor has been investigated as a potential therapeutic target for alcohol use disorder, by using orthosteric agonists (e.g., baclofen) and positive allosteric modulators. Whether and how pharmacological manipulation of the GABA-B receptor, in combination with alcohol intake, may affect feeding- and stress-related neuroendocrine pathways remains unknown. In the present randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study, thirty-four alcohol-dependent individuals received baclofen (30 mg/day) or placebo in a naturalistic outpatient setting for one week, and then performed a controlled laboratory experiment which included alcohol cue-reactivity, fixed-dose priming, and self-administration procedures. Blood samples were collected, and the following neuroendocrine markers were measured: ghrelin, leptin, amylin, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), insulin, prolactin, thyroid-stimulating hormone, growth hormone, cortisol, and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH). During the outpatient phase, baclofen significantly increased blood concentrations of acyl-ghrelin (p = 0.01), leptin (p = 0.01), amylin (p = 0.004), and GLP-1 (p = 0.02). Significant drug × time-point interaction effects for amylin (p = 0.001) and insulin (p = 0.03), and trend-level interaction effects for GLP-1 (p = 0.06) and ACTH (p = 0.10) were found during the laboratory experiment. Baclofen, compared to placebo, had no effect on alcohol drinking in this study (p's ≥ 0.05). Together with previous studies, these findings shed light on the role of the GABAergic system and GABA-B receptors in the shared neurobiology of alcohol-, feeding-, and stress-related behaviors. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Effect of GABA receptor agonists or antagonists injected spinally on the blood glucose level in mice.

    PubMed

    Sim, Yun-Beom; Park, Soo-Hyun; Kang, Yu-Jung; Kim, Sung-Su; Kim, Chea-Ha; Kim, Su-Jin; Jung, Jun-Sub; Ryu, Ohk-Hyun; Choi, Moon-Gi; Suh, Hong-Won

    2013-05-01

    The possible roles of gamma-amino butyric acid (GABA) receptors located in the spinal cord for the regulation of the blood glucose level were studied in ICR mice. We found in the present study that intrathecal (i.t.) injection with baclofen (a GABAB receptor agonist; 1-10 μg/5 μl) or bicuculline (a GABAA receptor antagonist; 1-10 μg/5 μl) caused an elevation of the blood glucose level in a dose-dependent manner. The hyperglycemic effect induced by baclofen was more pronounced than that induced by bicuculline. However, muscimol (a GABAA receptor agonist; 1-5 μg/5 μl) or phaclofen (a GABAB receptor antagonist; 5-10 μg/5 μl) administered i.t. did not affect the blood glucose level. Baclofen-induced elevation of the blood glucose was dose-dependently attenuated by phaclofen. Furthermore, i.t. pretreatment with pertussis toxin (PTX; 0.05 or 0.1 μg/5 μl) for 6 days dose-dependently reduced the hyperglycemic effect induced by baclofen. Our results suggest that GABAB receptors located in the spinal cord play important roles for the elevation of the blood glucose level. Spinally located PTX-sensitive G-proteins appear to be involved in hyperglycemic effect induced by baclofen. Furthermore, inactivation of GABAA receptors located in the spinal cord appears to be responsible for tonic up-regulation of the blood glucose level.

  8. Acute cocaine induced deficits in cognitive performance in rhesus macaque monkeys treated with baclofen

    PubMed Central

    Porrino, Linda J.; Hampson, Robert E.; Opris, Ioan; Deadwyler, Samuel A.

    2013-01-01

    Rationale Acute and/or chronic exposure to cocaine can affect cognitive performance, which may influence rate of recovery during treatment. Objective Effects of the GABA-B receptor agonist baclofen were assessed for potency to reverse the negative influence of acute, pre-session, intravenous (IV) injection of cocaine on cognitive performance in Macaca mulatta nonhuman primates. Methods Animals were trained to perform a modified delayed match to sample (DMS) task incorporating two types of trials with varying degrees of cognitive load that had different decision requirements in order to correctly utilize information retained over the delay interval. The effects of cocaine (0.2, 0.4, and 0.6 mg/kg, IV) alone and in combination with baclofen (0.29 and 0.40 mg/kg, IV) were examined with respect to sustained performance levels. Brain metabolic activity during performance of the task was assessed using PET imaged uptake of [18F]-fluorodeoxyglucose. Results Acute cocaine injections produced a dose-dependent decline in DMS performance selective for trials of high cognitive load. The GABA-receptor agonist baclofen, co-administered with cocaine, reversed task performance back to nondrug (saline IV) control levels. Simultaneous assessment of PET-imaged brain metabolic activity in prefrontal cortex (PFC) showed alterations by cocaine compared to PFC metabolic activation in nondrug (saline, IV) control DMS sessions, but like performance, PFC activation was returned to control levels by baclofen (0.40 mg/kg, IV) injected with cocaine. Conclusions The results show that baclofen, administered at a relatively high dose, reversed the cognitive deficits produced by acute cocaine intoxication that may have implications for use in chronic drug exposure. PMID:22836369

  9. Increased efficiency of the GABAA and GABAB receptor–mediated neurotransmission in the Ts65Dn mouse model of Down syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Kleschevnikov, Alexander M.; Belichenko, Pavel V.; Gall, Jessica; George, Lizzy; Nosheny, Rachel; Maloney, Michael T.; Salehi, Ahmad; Mobley, William C.

    2011-01-01

    Cognitive impairment in Down syndrome (DS) involves the hippocampus. In the Ts65Dn mouse model of DS, deficits in hippocampus-dependent learning and synaptic plasticity were linked to enhanced inhibition. However, the mechanistic basis of changes in inhibitory efficiency remains largely unexplored, and efficiency of the GABAergic synaptic neurotransmission has not yet been investigated in direct electrophysiological experiments. To investigate this important feature of neurobiology of DS, we examined synaptic and molecular properties of the GABAergic system in the dentate gyrus (DG) of adult Ts65Dn mice. Both GABAA and GABAB receptor-mediated components of evoked inhibitory postsynaptic currents (IPSCs) were significantly increased in Ts65Dn vs. control (2N) DG granule cells. These changes were unaccompanied by alterations in hippocampal levels of GABAA (α1, α2, α3, α5 and γ2) or GABAB (Gbr1a and Gbr1b) receptor subunits. Immunoreactivity for GAD65, a marker for GABAergic terminals, was also unchanged. In contrast, there was a marked change in functional parameters of GABAergic synapses. Paired stimulations showed reduced paired-pulse ratios of both GABAA and GABAB receptor-mediated IPSC components (IPSC2/IPSC1), suggesting an increase in presynaptic release of GABA. Consistent with increased gene dose, the level of the Kir3.2 subunit of potassium channels, effectors for postsynaptic GABAB receptors, was increased. This change was associated with enhanced postsynaptic GABAB/Kir3.2 signaling following application of the GABAB receptor agonist baclofen. Thus, both GABAA and GABAB receptor-mediated synaptic efficiency is increased in the Ts65Dn DG, thus likely contributing to deficient synaptic plasticity and poor learning in DS. PMID:22062771

  10. A randomized, open-label, standard controlled, parallel group study of efficacy and safety of baclofen, and chlordiazepoxide in uncomplicated alcohol withdrawal syndrome.

    PubMed

    Girish, K; Vikram Reddy, K; Pandit, Lakshmi V; Pundarikaksha, H P; Vijendra, R; Vasundara, K; Manjunatha, R; Nagraj, Moulya; Shruthi, R

    2016-02-01

    Alcohol withdrawal syndrome (AWS) is a distressing condition, generally controlled by benzodiazepines (BZD's). Baclofen, a gamma-aminobutyric acid-B (GABAB) agonist, has also shown promising results in controlling AWS. As there are few studies comparing the efficacy and tolerability of chlordiazepoxide with baclofen, the present study was taken up. The objective of this study was to compare efficacy and tolerability of baclofen with chlordiazepoxide in uncomplicated AWS. Sixty subjects with uncomplicated AWS were randomized into two groups of 30 each, to receive baclofen (30 mg) or chlordiazepoxide (75 mg) in decremented fixed dose regime for 9 days. Clinical efficacy was assessed by Clinical Institute Withdrawal Assessment for Alcohol-Revised Scale (CIWA-Ar) and tolerability by the nature and severity of adverse events. Lorazepam was used as rescue medication. Secondary efficacy parameters were Clinical Global Impression scores, symptom-free days, and subject satisfaction as assessed by visual analog scale. This study was registered with Clinical Trial Registry-India (CTRI/2013/04/003588), also subsequently registered with WHO's ICTRP clinical trial portal. Both baclofen and chlordiazepoxide showed a consistent reduction in the total CIWA-Ar scores. However, chlordiazepoxide showed a faster and a more effective control of anxiety and agitation requiring lesser lorazepam supplementation, and also showed a better subject satisfaction compared to baclofen. Both the drugs showed good tolerability with mild self-limiting adverse events. The present study demonstrates that baclofen is not as good as chlordiazepoxide in the treatment of uncomplicated AWS. However, baclofen might be considered as an alternative. Copyright © 2016 Chang Gung University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Pharmacology of Intracisternal or Intrathecal Glycine, Muscimol, and Baclofen in Strychnine-induced Thermal Hyperalgesia of Mice

    PubMed Central

    Son, Jin Kook; Lim, Eui-Sung; Kim, Yeon-Soo

    2011-01-01

    Glycine and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) are localized and released by the same interneurons in the spinal cord. Although the effects of glycine and GABA on analgesia are well known, little is known about the effect of GABA in strychnine-induced hyperalgesia. To investigate the effect of GABA and the role of the glycine receptor in thermal hyperalgesia, we designed an experiment involving the injection of muscimol (a GABAA receptor agonist), baclofen (a GABAB receptor agonist) or glycine with strychnine (strychnine sensitive glycine receptor antagonist). Glycine, muscimol, or baclofen with strychnine was injected into the cisterna magna or lumbar subarachnoidal spaces of mice. The effects of treatment on strychnine-induced heat hyperalgesia were observed using the pain threshold index via the hot plate test. The dosages of experimental drugs and strychnine we chose had no effects on motor behavior in conscious mice. Intracisternal or intrathecal administration of strychnine produced thermal hyperalgesia in mice. Glycine antagonize the effects of strychnine, whereas, muscimol or baclofen does not. Our results indicate that glycine has anti-thermal hyperalgesic properties in vivo; and GABA receptor agonists may lack the binding abilities of glycine receptor antagonists with their sites in the central nervous system. PMID:22022192

  12. Pharmacology of intracisternal or intrathecal glycine, muscimol, and baclofen in strychnine-induced thermal hyperalgesia of mice.

    PubMed

    Lee, Il Ok; Son, Jin Kook; Lim, Eui-Sung; Kim, Yeon-Soo

    2011-10-01

    Glycine and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) are localized and released by the same interneurons in the spinal cord. Although the effects of glycine and GABA on analgesia are well known, little is known about the effect of GABA in strychnine-induced hyperalgesia. To investigate the effect of GABA and the role of the glycine receptor in thermal hyperalgesia, we designed an experiment involving the injection of muscimol (a GABA(A) receptor agonist), baclofen (a GABA(B) receptor agonist) or glycine with strychnine (strychnine sensitive glycine receptor antagonist). Glycine, muscimol, or baclofen with strychnine was injected into the cisterna magna or lumbar subarachnoidal spaces of mice. The effects of treatment on strychnine-induced heat hyperalgesia were observed using the pain threshold index via the hot plate test. The dosages of experimental drugs and strychnine we chose had no effects on motor behavior in conscious mice. Intracisternal or intrathecal administration of strychnine produced thermal hyperalgesia in mice. Glycine antagonize the effects of strychnine, whereas, muscimol or baclofen does not. Our results indicate that glycine has anti-thermal hyperalgesic properties in vivo; and GABA receptor agonists may lack the binding abilities of glycine receptor antagonists with their sites in the central nervous system.

  13. Anxiety status affects nicotine- and baclofen-induced locomotor activity, anxiety, and single-trial conditioned place preference in male adolescent rats.

    PubMed

    Falco, Adriana M; McDonald, Craig G; Smith, Robert F

    2014-09-01

    Adolescents have an increased vulnerability to nicotine and anxiety may play a role in the development of nicotine abuse. One possible treatment for anxiety disorders and substance abuse is the GABAB agonist, baclofen. The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of anxiety-like behavior on single-trial nicotine conditioned place preference in adolescent rats, and to assess the action of baclofen. Baclofen was shown to have effects on locomotor and anxiety-like behavior in rats divided into high-anxiety and low-anxiety groups. Baclofen decreased locomotor behavior in high-anxiety rats. Baclofen alone failed to produce differences in anxiety-like behavior, but nicotine and baclofen + nicotine administration were anxiolytic. High- and low-anxiety groups also showed differences in single-trial nicotine-induced place preference. Only high-anxiety rats formed place preference to nicotine, while rats in the low-anxiety group formed no conditioned place preference. These results suggest that among adolescents, high-anxiety individuals are more likely to show preference for nicotine than low-anxiety individuals. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Effects of baclofen and raclopride on reinstatement of cocaine self-administration in the rat.

    PubMed

    Froger-Colléaux, Christelle; Castagné, Vincent

    2016-04-15

    At present there is no satisfactory treatment against relapse of drug-seeking behavior. Relapse can be modeled in laboratory animals using reinstatement procedures, whereby previously extinguished self-administration for a drug is reinstated by different factors, such as exposure to cues or drug priming. It is thought that activation of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) B receptor complexes could represent a promising approach to pharmacotherapy for diminishing relapse potential with drugs possessing reinforcing properties. The effects of baclofen (a prototypic GABAB receptor agonist) on cue-induced cocaine reinstatement were evaluated in the rat with or without a priming injection of cocaine. The effects of raclopride (an antagonist of dopamine D2 receptors) were also evaluated. Cue-induced reinstatement under vehicle resulted in a significant increase in the number of presses on the active lever, as compared with extinction lever responding. This effect was accentuated in rats receiving a priming injection of cocaine (cocaine-plus-cue-induced reinstatement). Baclofen, at doses without effects on food-motivated operant behavior (2.5 and 5mg/kg i.p.), dose-dependently decreased the number of active lever presses during cue-induced reinstatement. Baclofen had slightly weaker effects on cocaine-plus-cue-induced reinstatement. Raclopride (0.08 and 0.15 mg/kg s.c.) had similar effects against cue-induced reinstatement although it failed to inhibit cocaine-plus-cue-induced reinstatement at the lower dose. Baclofen dose-dependently and selectively decreased reinstatement of cocaine self-administration. The data obtained provide support for the potential anti-craving efficacy of baclofen in the treatment of cocaine drug-seeking. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Nipping cue reactivity in the bud: baclofen prevents limbic activation elicited by subliminal drug cues.

    PubMed

    Young, Kimberly A; Franklin, Teresa R; Roberts, David C S; Jagannathan, Kanchana; Suh, Jesse J; Wetherill, Reagan R; Wang, Ze; Kampman, Kyle M; O'Brien, Charles P; Childress, Anna Rose

    2014-04-02

    Relapse is a widely recognized and difficult to treat feature of the addictions. Substantial evidence implicates cue-triggered activation of the mesolimbic dopamine system as an important contributing factor. Even drug cues presented outside of conscious awareness (i.e., subliminally) produce robust activation within this circuitry, indicating the sensitivity and vulnerability of the brain to potentially problematic reward signals. Because pharmacological agents that prevent these early cue-induced responses could play an important role in relapse prevention, we examined whether baclofen-a GABAB receptor agonist that reduces mesolimbic dopamine release and conditioned drug responses in laboratory animals-could inhibit mesolimbic activation elicited by subliminal cocaine cues in cocaine-dependent individuals. Twenty cocaine-dependent participants were randomized to receive baclofen (60 mg/d; 20 mg t.i.d.) or placebo. Event-related BOLD fMRI and a backward-masking paradigm were used to examine the effects of baclofen on subliminal cocaine (vs neutral) cues. Sexual and aversive cues were included to examine specificity. We observed that baclofen-treated participants displayed significantly less activation in response to subliminal cocaine (vs neutral) cues, but not sexual or aversive (vs neutral) cues, than placebo-treated participants in a large interconnected bilateral cluster spanning the ventral striatum, ventral pallidum, amygdala, midbrain, and orbitofrontal cortex (voxel threshold p < 0.005; cluster corrected at p < 0.05). These results suggest that baclofen may inhibit the earliest type of drug cue-induced motivational processing-that which occurs outside of awareness-before it evolves into a less manageable state.

  16. Baclofen prevents the elevated plus maze behavior and BDNF expression during naloxone precipitated morphine withdrawal in male and female mice.

    PubMed

    Pedrón, Valeria T; Varani, André P; Balerio, Graciela N

    2016-05-01

    In previous studies we have shown that baclofen, a selective GABAB receptor agonist, prevents the somatic expression and reestablishes the dopamine and μ-opioid receptors levels, modified during naloxone-precipitated morphine withdrawal syndrome in male and female mice. There are no previous reports regarding sex differences in the elevated plus maze (EPM) and the expression of BDNF in morphine-withdrawn mice. The present study analyses the behavioral and biochemical variations during morphine withdrawal in mice of both sexes, and whether these variations are prevented with baclofen. Swiss-Webster albino prepubertal mice received morphine (2 mg/kg, i.p.) twice daily, for 9 consecutive days. On the 10th day, one group of morphine-treated mice received naloxone (opioid receptor antagonist; 6 mg/kg, i.p.) 1 h after the last dose of morphine to precipitate withdrawal. A second group received baclofen (2 mg/kg, i.p.) before naloxone administration. The EPM behavior was measured during 15 min after naloxone injection. The expression of BDNF-positive cells was determined by immunohistochemistry. Withdrawn male mice showed a higher percentage of time spent and number of entries to the open arms compared to withdrawn female mice. Baclofen prevented this behavior in both sexes. BDNF expression decreased in the AcbC, BNST, CeC, and CA3 of the hippocampus while increased in the BLA of morphine withdrawn male. Baclofen pretreatment prevented the BDNF expression observed in morphine withdrawn male mice in all the brain areas studied except in the CeC. Baclofen prevention of the EPM behavior associated to morphine withdrawal could be partially related to changes in BDNF expression. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Src family kinases mediate the inhibition of substance P release in the rat spinal cord by μ-opioid receptors and GABA(B) receptors, but not α2 adrenergic receptors.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Guohua; Chen, Wenling; Marvizón, Juan Carlos G

    2010-09-01

    GABA(B) , μ-opioid and adrenergic α(2) receptors inhibit substance P release from primary afferent terminals in the dorsal horn. Studies in cell expression systems suggest that μ-opioid and GABA(B) receptors inhibit transmitter release from primary afferents by activating Src family kinases (SFKs), which then phosphorylate and inhibit voltage-gated calcium channels. This study investigated whether SFKs mediate the inhibition of substance P release by these three receptors. Substance P release was measured as neurokinin 1 receptor (NK1R) internalization in spinal cord slices and in vivo. In slices, NK1R internalization induced by high-frequency dorsal root stimulation was inhibited by the μ-opioid agonist DAMGO and the GABA(B) agonist baclofen. This inhibition was reversed by the SFK inhibitor PP1. NK1R internalization induced by low-frequency stimulation was also inhibited by DAMGO, but PP1 did not reverse this effect. In vivo, NK1R internalization induced by noxious mechanical stimulation of the hind paw was inhibited by intrathecal DAMGO and baclofen. This inhibition was reversed by intrathecal PP1, but not by the inactive PP1 analog PP3. PP1 produced no effect by itself. The α(2) adrenergic agonists medetomidine and guanfacine produced a small but statistically significant inhibition of NK1R internalization induced by low-frequency dorsal root stimulation. PP1 did not reverse the inhibition by guanfacine. These results show that SFKs mediate the inhibition of substance P release by μ-opioid and GABA(B) receptors, but not by α(2) receptors, which is probably mediated by the binding of G protein βγ subunits to calcium channels. European Journal of Neuroscience © 2010 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and Blackwell Publishing Ltd. No claim to original US government works.

  18. Src family kinases mediate the inhibition of substance P release in the rat spinal cord by μ-opioid receptors and GABAB receptors, but not α2 adrenergic receptors

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Guohua; Chen, Wenling; Marvizón, Juan Carlos G.

    2010-01-01

    GABAB, μ-opioid, and adrenergic α2 receptors inhibit substance P release from primary afferent terminals in the dorsal horn. Studies in cell expression systems suggest that μ-opioid and GABAB receptors inhibit transmitter release from primary afferents by activating Src family kinases (SFKs), which then phosphorylate and inhibit voltage-gated calcium channels. This study investigated whether SFKs mediate the inhibition of substance P release by these three receptors. Substance P release was measured as neurokinin 1 receptor (NK1R) internalization in spinal cord slices and in vivo. In slices, NK1R internalization induced by high frequency dorsal root stimulation was inhibited by the μ-opioid agonist DAMGO and the GABAB agonist baclofen. This inhibition was reversed by the SFK inhibitor PP1. NK1R internalization induced by low frequency stimulation was also inhibited by DAMGO, but PP1 did not reverse this effect. In vivo, NK1R internalization induced by noxious mechanical stimulation of the hind paw was inhibited by intrathecal DAMGO and baclofen. This inhibition was reversed by intrathecal PP1, but not by the inactive PP1 analog PP3. PP1 produced no effect by itself. The α2 adrenergic agonists medetomidine and guanfacine produced a small but statistically significant inhibition of NK1R internalization induced by low frequency dorsal root stimulation. PP1 did not reverse the inhibition by guanfacine. These results show that SFKs mediate the inhibition of substance P release by μ-opioid and GABAB receptors, but not by α2 receptors, which is probably mediated by the binding of G protein βγ subunits to calcium channels. PMID:20726886

  19. Baclofen effects on alcohol seeking, self-administration and extinction of seeking responses in a within-session design in baboons

    PubMed Central

    Duke, Angela N.; Kaminski, Barbara J.; Weerts, Elise M.

    2012-01-01

    Baclofen, a GABAB receptor agonist, is currently under investigation as a potential treatment to prevent relapse to drinking in alcohol dependent persons. In the current study, two groups of baboons were trained under a chained schedule of reinforcement (CSR), with 3 linked components, which were each correlated with different response requirements and cues. Fulfilling the requirement in the 2nd link initiated the 3rd link where either alcohol (n=4) or a preferred non-alcoholic beverage (Tang, n=5) was available for self-administration; failure to complete the response requirement in Link 2 ended the session (no access to alcohol or Tang). Seeking responses in Link 2 were used as indices of the motivational processes thought to be involved in relapse. The effects of baclofen (0.1 – 2.4 mg/kg) were examined under conditions with alcohol or Tang access and under extinction. Under the CSR baclofen (1.8 and 2.4 mg/kg) significantly decreased (p<0.05) alcohol self-administration responses and total g/kg alcohol intake. In contrast, only the highest dose of baclofen (2.4 mg/kg) reduced Tang self-administration and consumption. Under within-session extinction conditions, baclofen (1.8 and 2.4 mg/kg) facilitated extinction of responding for both alcohol and Tang, particularly during the first 10 min of extinction. Baclofen may be effective in reducing craving and alcohol drinking, although the facilitation of extinction and suppression of both alcohol and Tang self-administration by baclofen suggests these effects may be related to a more general suppression of consummatory and conditioned behaviors. PMID:22458648

  20. Effects of GABA(B) receptor agents on cocaine priming, discrete contextual cue and food induced relapses.

    PubMed

    Filip, Małgorzata; Frankowska, Małgorzata

    2007-10-01

    In the present study we investigated the effects of the GABA(B) receptor antagonist (2S)-(+)-5,5-dimethyl-2-morpholineacetic acid (SCH 50911), the agonists baclofen and 3-aminopropyl(methyl)phosphinic acid (SKF 97541), and the allosteric positive modulator 3,5-bis(1,1-dimethylethyl)-4-hydroxy-beta,beta-dimethylbenzenepropanol (CGP 7930) on cocaine seeking behavior. The effects of the above drugs on the reinstatement of responding induced by natural reinforcer (food) were also studied. Male Wistar rats were trained to self-administer either cocaine (0.5 mg/kg/infusion) or food (sweet milk) and responding on the reinforcer-paired lever was extinguished. Reinstatement of responding was induced by a noncontingent presentation of the self-administered reinforcer (10 mg/kg cocaine, i.p.), a discrete contextual cue, or a contingent presentation of food. SCH 50911 (3-10 mg/kg) dose-dependently attenuated responding on the previously cocaine-paired lever during both reinstatement conditions, with slightly greater efficacy at reducing conditioned cue reinstatement. At the same time, it failed to alter reinstatement of food-seeking behavior. Baclofen (1.25-5 mg/kg) and SKF 97541 (0.03-0.3 mg/kg) attenuated cocaine- or food-seeking behavior; the effect of the drug appeared more effective for cocaine-seeking than food-seeking. CGP 7930 (10-30 mg/kg) reduced cocaine seeking without affecting food-induced reinstatement on reward seeking. Our results indicate that tonic activation of GABA(B) receptors is required for cocaine seeking behavior in rats. Moreover, the GABA(B) receptor antagonist SCH 50911 was effective in reducing relapse to cocaine at doses that failed to alter reinstatement of food-seeking behavior (present study), basal locomotor activity, cocaine and food self-administration (Filip et al., submitted for publication), suggesting its selective effects on motivated drug-seeking behavior. The potent inhibitory responses on cocaine seeking behavior were also seen

  1. Activation of postsynaptic GABAB receptors modulates the bursting pattern and synaptic activity of olfactory bulb juxtaglomerular neurons.

    PubMed

    Karpuk, Nikolay; Hayar, Abdallah

    2008-01-01

    Olfactory bulb glomeruli are formed by a network of three major types of neurons collectively called juxtaglomerular (JG) cells, which include external tufted (ET), periglomerular (PG), and short axon (SA) cells. There is solid evidence that gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) released from PG neurons presynaptically inhibits glutamate release from olfactory nerve terminals via activation of GABA(B) receptors (GABA(B)-Rs). However, it is still unclear whether ET cells have GABA(B)-Rs. We have investigated whether ET cells have functional postsynaptic GABA(B)-Rs using extracellular and whole cell recordings in olfactory bulb slices. In the presence of fast synaptic blockers (CNQX, APV, and gabazine), the GABA(B)-R agonist baclofen either completely inhibited the bursting or reduced the bursting frequency and increased the burst duration and the number of spikes/burst in ET cells. In the presence of fast synaptic blockers and tetrodotoxin, baclofen induced an outward current in ET cells, suggesting a direct postsynaptic effect. Baclofen reduced the frequency and amplitude of spontaneous EPSCs in PG and SA cells. In the presence of sodium and potassium channel blockers, baclofen reduced the frequency of miniature EPSCs, which were inhibited by the calcium channel blocker cadmium. All baclofen effects were reversed by application of the GABA(B)-R antagonist CGP55845. We suggest that activation of GABA(B)-Rs directly inhibits ET cell bursting and decreases excitatory dendrodendritic transmission from ET to PG and SA cells. Thus the postsynaptic GABA(B)-Rs on ET cells may play an important role in shaping the activation pattern of the glomeruli during olfactory coding.

  2. The interaction between hippocampal GABA-B and cannabinoid receptors upon spatial change and object novelty discrimination memory function.

    PubMed

    Nasehi, Mohammad; Alaghmandan-Motlagh, Niyousha; Ebrahimi-Ghiri, Mohaddeseh; Nami, Mohammad; Zarrindast, Mohammad-Reza

    2017-10-01

    Previous studies have postulated functional links between GABA and cannabinoid systems in the hippocampus. The aim of the present study was to investigate any possible interaction between these systems in spatial change and object novelty discrimination memory consolidation in the dorsal hippocampus (CA1 region) of NMRI mice. Assessment of the spatial change and object novelty discrimination memory function was carried out in a non-associative task. The experiment comprised mice exposure to an open field containing five objects followed by the examination of their reactivity to object displacement (spatial change) and object substitution (object novelty) after three sessions of habituation. Our results showed that the post-training intraperitoneal administration of the higher dose of ACPA (0.02 mg/kg) impaired both spatial change and novelty discrimination memory functions. Meanwhile, the higher dose of GABA-B receptor agonist, baclofen, impaired the spatial change memory by itself. Moreover, the post-training intra-CA1 microinjection of a subthreshold dose of baclofen increased the ACPA effect on spatial change and novelty discrimination memory at a lower and higher dose, respectively. On the other hand, the lower and higher but not mid-level doses of GABA-B receptor antagonist, phaclofen, could reverse memory deficits induced by ACPA. However, phaclofen at its mid-level dose impaired the novelty discrimination memory and whereas the higher dose impaired the spatial change memory. Based on our findings, GABA-B receptors in the CA1 region appear to modulate the ACPA-induced cannabinoid CB1 signaling upon spatial change and novelty discrimination memory functions.

  3. Nipping Cue Reactivity in the Bud: Baclofen Prevents Limbic Activation Elicited by Subliminal Drug Cues

    PubMed Central

    Young, Kimberly A.; Franklin, Teresa R.; Roberts, David C.S.; Jagannathan, Kanchana; Suh, Jesse J.; Wetherill, Reagan R.; Wang, Ze; Kampman, Kyle M.; O'Brien, Charles P.

    2014-01-01

    Relapse is a widely recognized and difficult to treat feature of the addictions. Substantial evidence implicates cue-triggered activation of the mesolimbic dopamine system as an important contributing factor. Even drug cues presented outside of conscious awareness (i.e., subliminally) produce robust activation within this circuitry, indicating the sensitivity and vulnerability of the brain to potentially problematic reward signals. Because pharmacological agents that prevent these early cue-induced responses could play an important role in relapse prevention, we examined whether baclofen—a GABAB receptor agonist that reduces mesolimbic dopamine release and conditioned drug responses in laboratory animals—could inhibit mesolimbic activation elicited by subliminal cocaine cues in cocaine-dependent individuals. Twenty cocaine-dependent participants were randomized to receive baclofen (60 mg/d; 20 mg t.i.d.) or placebo. Event-related BOLD fMRI and a backward-masking paradigm were used to examine the effects of baclofen on subliminal cocaine (vs neutral) cues. Sexual and aversive cues were included to examine specificity. We observed that baclofen-treated participants displayed significantly less activation in response to subliminal cocaine (vs neutral) cues, but not sexual or aversive (vs neutral) cues, than placebo-treated participants in a large interconnected bilateral cluster spanning the ventral striatum, ventral pallidum, amygdala, midbrain, and orbitofrontal cortex (voxel threshold p < 0.005; cluster corrected at p < 0.05). These results suggest that baclofen may inhibit the earliest type of drug cue-induced motivational processing—that which occurs outside of awareness—before it evolves into a less manageable state. PMID:24695721

  4. Gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) and the mesoaccumbens reward circuit: evidence for GABA(B) receptor-mediated effects.

    PubMed

    Pistis, M; Muntoni, A L; Pillolla, G; Perra, S; Cignarella, G; Melis, M; Gessa, G L

    2005-01-01

    Gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) is a short-chain fatty acid naturally occurring in the mammalian brain, which recently emerged as a major recreational drug of abuse. GHB has multiple neuronal mechanisms including activation of both the GABA(B) receptor, and a distinct GHB-specific receptor. This complex GHB-GABA(B) receptor interaction is probably responsible for the multifaceted pharmacological, behavioral and toxicological profile of GHB. Drugs of abuse exert remarkably similar effects upon reward-related circuits, in particular the mesolimbic dopaminergic system and the nucleus accumbens (NAc). We used single unit recordings in vivo from urethane-anesthetized rats to characterize the effects of GHB on evoked firing in NAc "shell" neurons and on spontaneous activity of antidromically identified dopamine (DA) cells located in the ventral tegmental area. GHB was studied in comparison with the GABA(B) receptor agonist baclofen and antagonist (2S)(+)-5,5-dimethyl-2-morpholineacetic acid (SCH50911). Additionally, we utilized a GHB analog, gamma-(p-methoxybenzil)-gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (NCS-435), devoid of GABA(B) binding properties, but with high affinity for specific GHB binding sites. In common with other drugs of abuse, GHB depressed firing in NAc neurons evoked by the stimulation of the basolateral amygdala. On DA neurons, GHB exerted heterogeneous effects, which were correlated to the baseline firing rate of the cells but led to a moderate stimulation of the DA system. All GHB actions were mediated by GABA(B) receptors, since they were blocked by SCH50911 and were not mimicked by NCS-435. Our study indicates that the electrophysiological profile of GHB is close to typical drugs of abuse: both inhibition of NAc neurons and moderate to strong stimulation of DA transmission are distinctive features of diverse classes of abused drugs. Moreover, it is concluded that addictive and rewarding properties of GHB do not necessarily involve a putative high affinity GHB

  5. The anorexic agents, sibutramine and fenfluramine, depress GABAB-induced inhibitory postsynaptic potentials in rat mesencephalic dopaminergic cells

    PubMed Central

    Ledonne, Ada; Sebastianelli, Luca; Federici, Mauro; Bernardi, Giorgio; Mercuri, Nicola Biagio

    2009-01-01

    Background and purpose Nutrition is the result of a complex interaction among environmental, homeostatic and reward-related processes. Accumulating evidence supports key roles for the dopaminergic neurons of the ventral midbrain in regulating feeding behaviour. For this reason, in the present study, we have investigated the electrophysiological effects of two centrally acting anorexic agents, fenfluramine and sibutramine, on these cells. Experimental approach Rat midbrain slices were used to make intracellular recordings from dopaminergic neurons of the substantia nigra and the ventral tegmental area. Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-mediated synaptic transmission was assessed from the inhibitory postsynaptic potentials (IPSPs) mediated by GABAA and GABAB receptors. Key results Fenfluramine and sibutramine reduced, concentration-dependently, the GABAB IPSPs, without affecting the GABAA-mediated potentials. This effect is presynaptic, as postsynaptic membrane responses induced by application of a GABAB receptor agonist, baclofen, were not affected by the two drugs. Furthermore, the selective 5-hydroxytriptamine 1B (5-HT1B) receptor antagonist, SB216641, blocked the reduction of GABAB IPSPs caused by fenfluramine and sibutramine, indicating that the receptor mediating this effect is 5-HT1B. Conclusions and implications Two anorexic agents, fenfluramine and sibutramine, induced the activation of 5-HT1B receptors located on presynaptic GABAergic terminals, thus reducing the release of GABA. This action can alter the strength of synaptic afferents that modify the activity of dopaminergic neurons, inducing neuronal excitation. Our results reveal an additional mechanism of action for fenfluramine and sibutramine that might contribute to reducing food intake, by influencing the pleasurable and motor aspects of feeding behaviour. PMID:19298257

  6. Functioning of the dimeric GABAB receptor extracellular domain revealed by glycan wedge scanning

    PubMed Central

    Rondard, Philippe; Huang, Siluo; Monnier, Carine; Tu, Haijun; Blanchard, Bertrand; Oueslati, Nadia; Malhaire, Fanny; Li, Ying; Trinquet, Eric; Labesse, Gilles; Pin, Jean-Philippe; Liu, Jianfeng

    2008-01-01

    The G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) activated by the neurotransmitter GABA is made up of two subunits, GABAB1 and GABAB2. GABAB1 binds agonists, whereas GABAB2 is required for trafficking GABAB1 to the cell surface, increasing agonist affinity to GABAB1, and activating associated G proteins. These subunits each comprise two domains, a Venus flytrap domain (VFT) and a heptahelical transmembrane domain (7TM). How agonist binding to the GABAB1 VFT leads to GABAB2 7TM activation remains unknown. Here, we used a glycan wedge scanning approach to investigate how the GABAB VFT dimer controls receptor activity. We first identified the dimerization interface using a bioinformatics approach and then showed that introducing an N-glycan at this interface prevents the association of the two subunits and abolishes all activities of GABAB2, including agonist activation of the G protein. We also identified a second region in the VFT where insertion of an N-glycan does not prevent dimerization, but blocks agonist activation of the receptor. These data provide new insight into the function of this prototypical GPCR and demonstrate that a change in the dimerization interface is required for receptor activation. PMID:18388862

  7. G(o) transduces GABAB-receptor modulation of N-type calcium channels in cultured dorsal root ganglion neurons.

    PubMed

    Menon-Johansson, A S; Berrow, N; Dolphin, A C

    1993-11-01

    High-voltage-activated (HVA) calcium channel currents (IBa) were recorded from acutely replated cultured dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons. IBa was irreversibly inhibited by 56.9 +/- 2.7% by 1 microM omega-conotoxin-GVIA (omega-CTx-GVIA), whereas the 1,4-dihydropyridine antagonist nicardipine was ineffective. The selective gamma-aminobutyric acidB (GABAB) agonist, (-)-baclofen (50 microM), inhibited the HVA IBa by 30.7 +/- 5.4%. Prior application of omega-CTx-GVIA completely occluded inhibition of the HVA IBa by (-)-baclofen, indicating that in this preparation (-)-baclofen inhibits N-type current. To investigate which G protein subtype was involved, cells were replated in the presence of anti-G protein antisera. Under these conditions the antibodies were shown to enter the cells through transient pores created during the replating procedure. Replating DRGs in the presence of anti-G(o) antiserum, raised against the C-terminal decapeptide of the G alpha o subunit, reduced (-)-baclofen inhibition of the HVA IBa, whereas replating DRGs in the presence of the anti-Gi antiserum did not. Using anti-G alpha o antisera (1:2000) and confocal laser microscopy, G alpha o localisation was investigated in both unreplated and replated neurons. G alpha o immunoreactivity was observed at the plasma membrane, neurites, attachment plaques and perinuclear region, and was particularly pronounced at points of cell-to-cell contact. The plasma membrane G alpha o immunoreactivity was completely blocked by preincubation with the immunising G alpha o undecapeptide (1 microgram.ml-1) for 1 h at 37 degrees C. A similar treatment also blocked recognition of G alpha o in brain membranes on immunoblots.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  8. CHRONIC HYPERTENSION ENHANCES PRE-SYNAPTIC INHIBITION BY BACLOFEN IN THE NUCLEUS OF THE SOLITARY TRACT

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Weirong; Mifflin, Steve

    2010-01-01

    The selective γ-aminobutyric acid B-subtype receptor agonist baclofen activates both pre- and post-synaptic receptors in the brain. Microinjection of baclofen into the nucleus of the solitary tract increases arterial pressure, heart rate and sympathetic nerve discharge consistent with inhibition of the arterial baroreflex. The magnitude of these responses is enhanced in hypertension and is associated with increased post-synaptic GABAB receptor function. We tested whether a pre-synaptic mechanism contributes to the enhanced baclofen inhibition in hypertension. Whole-cell recordings of second-order baroreceptor neurons, identified by 4-(4-(dihexadecylamino)styryl)-N-methylpyridinium iodide labeling of aortic nerve, were obtained in brainstem slices from normotensive control and renal-wrap hypertensive rats. After 4 weeks, arterial blood pressure was 162±9 mmHg in hypertensive (n=6) and 107±3 mmHg in control rats (n=6/11, p<0.001). Baclofen reduced the amplitude of excitatory post-synaptic currents evoked by solitary tract stimulation and the EC50 of this inhibition was greater in control (1.5±0.5 µmol/L, n=6) than hypertensive cells (0.6±0.1 µmol/L, n=9, p<0.05). Baclofen (1 µmol/L) elicited greater inhibition on evoked response in hypertensive (58±6%, n=9) than control cells (40±6%, n=8, p<0.05). Another index of pre-synaptic inhibition, the paired-pulse ratio (ratio of second to first evoked response amplitudes at stimulus intervals of 40 ms), was greater in hypertensive (0.60±0.08, n=8) than control cells (0.48±0.06. n=5, p<0.05). The results suggest that in renal-wrap hypertensive rats, baclofen causes an enhanced pre-synaptic inhibition of glutamate release from baroreceptor afferent terminals to second-order neurons in the nucleus of the solitary tract. This enhanced pre-synaptic inhibition could contribute to altered baroreflex function in hypertension. PMID:20038748

  9. Effect of baclofen on the acid pocket at the gastroesophageal junction.

    PubMed

    Scarpellini, E; Boecxstaens, V; Farré, R; Bisschops, R; Dewulf, D; Gasbarrini, A; Pauwels, A; Blondeau, K; Tack, J

    2015-07-01

    Previous studies established that a pocket of highly acidic gastric juice is present postprandially at the gastroesophageal junction in man. The GABA-B agonist baclofen inhibits postprandial reflux events through its effects on the lower esophageal sphincter (LES). The aim of the current study was to investigate whether baclofen would affect the location and the extent of the postprandial acid pocket in healthy volunteers. Twelve healthy volunteers underwent acid pocket studies on two different occasions, at least 1 week apart. LES position was determined preprandially with pull-through manometry. Dual pH electrode and manometry probe stepwise pull-through (1 cm/minute, LES-10 to +5 cm) was performed at 30-minute intervals for 150 minutes, with administration of placebo or baclofen 40 mg after the first and ingestion of a liquid meal after the second pull-through. After placebo, a significant drop in intragastric gastric pH was present at the gastroesophageal junction after the meal, reflecting the acid pocket, and this was associated with a drop in LES pressure. Baclofen did not affect the presence of the acid pocket, but prevented the postprandial drop in LES pressure, and the extent of the acid pocket above the upper margin of the manometrically located LES was significantly decreased by baclofen (1.6 ± 0.7 vs. 0.3 ± 0.4 cm at 60 minutes, 2.2 ± 0.6 vs. 0.2 ± 0.6 at 90 minutes, and 1.5 ± 0.5 vs. 0.7 ± 0.7 cm at 120 minutes, all P < 0.05). Baclofen does not alter the intragastric acid pocket, but limits its extension into the distal esophagus, probably through an increase in postprandial LES pressure. © 2014 International Society for Diseases of the Esophagus.

  10. BACLOFEN, RACLOPRIDE, AND NALTREXONE DIFFERENTIALLY REDUCE SOLID FAT EMULSION INTAKE UNDER LIMITED ACCESS CONDITIONS

    PubMed Central

    RE, Rao; FHE, Wojnicki; J, Coupland; S, Ghosh; RLW, Corwin

    2009-01-01

    Previous work in rats has demonstrated that an Intermittent (Monday, Wednesday, Friday) schedule of access promotes binge-type consumption of 100% vegetable shortening during a 1-hour period of availability. The present study used novel shortening-derived stable solid emulsions of various fat concentrations. These emulsions were the consistency of pudding and did not demonstrate oil and water phase separation previously reported with oil-based liquid emulsions. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were grouped according to schedule of access (Daily or Intermittent) to one of three concentrations (18%, 32%, 56%) of solid fat emulsion. There were no significant Intermittent vs. Daily differences in amount consumed, due to high intakes in all groups. This indicated the acceptability of the emulsions. Baclofen (GABA-B agonist) and raclopride (D2-like antagonist) both significantly reduced emulsion intake in all Daily groups, but only in the 56% fat Intermittent group. Naltrexone (opioid antagonist), in contrast, significantly reduced 32% and 56% fat emulsion intake in the Intermittent, as well as the Daily groups. These results indicate that the fat intake reducing effects of GABAB activation and D2 blockade depend upon fat concentration and schedule of fat access, while the fat intake reducing effects of opioid blockade depend upon fat concentration but not schedule of access. PMID:18353432

  11. Baclofen as add-on to standard psychosocial treatment for alcohol dependence: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial with 1 year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Ponizovsky, Alexander M; Rosca, Paola; Aronovich, Edward; Weizman, Abraham; Grinshpoon, Alexander

    2015-05-01

    Limited clinical trials and case-reports yielded conflicting results regarding the efficacy of baclofen (a GABAB agonist) in the treatment of alcohol dependence. The aim of this study was to test the efficacy and tolerability of baclofen in alcohol dependent patients in Israel. The study was a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized trial comparing 50mg/day of baclofen to placebo over 12 weeks, in addition to a standard psychosocial intervention program, with 26-week and 52-week follow-up observations. The percentages of heavy drinking days and abstinent days were the primary outcome measures, and craving, distress and depression levels; self-efficacy; social support from different sources; and health-related quality of life (HRQL) were secondary outcomes. Tolerability was also examined. Sixty-four patients were randomized; 62% completed the 12-week trial and 37% completed the 52-week follow-up. No between group differences were found in the percentages of heavy drinking and abstinent days. A significant reduction in levels of distress, depression and craving and improved HRQL occurred for both arms, whereas self-efficacy and social support remained unchanged in both groups. No adverse events were observed. Unlike previous positive trials in Italy, and similarly to a negative trial in the USA, we found no evidence of superiority of baclofen over placebo in the treatment of alcohol dependence. However, the high placebo response undermines the validity of this conclusion. Therefore, more placebo-controlled trials are needed to either verify or discard a possible clinical efficacy of baclofen for alcohol dependence. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Chronic baclofen desensitizes GABA(B)-mediated G-protein activation and stimulates phosphorylation of kinases in mesocorticolimbic rat brain.

    PubMed

    Keegan, Bradley M T; Beveridge, Thomas J R; Pezor, Jeffrey J; Xiao, Ruoyu; Sexton, Tammy; Childers, Steven R; Howlett, Allyn C

    2015-08-01

    The GABAB receptor is a therapeutic target for CNS and neuropathic disorders; however, few preclinical studies have explored effects of chronic stimulation. This study evaluated acute and chronic baclofen treatments on GABAB-activated G-proteins and signaling protein phosphorylation as indicators of GABAB signaling capacity. Brain sections from rats acutely administered baclofen (5 mg/kg, i.p.) showed no significant differences from controls in GABAB-stimulated GTPγS binding in any brain region, but displayed significantly greater phosphorylation/activation of focal adhesion kinase (pFAK(Tyr397)) in mesocorticolimbic regions (caudate putamen, cortex, hippocampus, thalamus) and elevated phosphorylated/activated glycogen synthase kinase 3-β (pGSK3β(Tyr216)) in the prefrontal cortex, cerebral cortex, caudate putamen, nucleus accumbens, thalamus, septum, and globus pallidus. In rats administered chronic baclofen (5 mg/kg, t.i.d. for five days), GABAB-stimulated GTPγS binding was significantly diminished in the prefrontal cortex, septum, amygdala, and parabrachial nucleus compared to controls. This effect was specific to GABAB receptors: there was no effect of chronic baclofen treatment on adenosine A1-stimulated GTPγS binding in any region. Chronically-treated rats also exhibited increases in pFAK(Tyr397) and pGSK3β(Tyr216) compared to controls, and displayed wide-spread elevations in phosphorylated dopamine- and cAMP-regulated phosphoprotein-32 (pDARPP-32(Thr34)) compared to acutely-treated or control rats. We postulate that those neuroadaptive effects of GABAB stimulation mediated by G-proteins and their sequelae correlate with tolerance to several of baclofen's effects, whereas sustained signaling via kinase cascades points to cross-talk between GABAB receptors and alternative mechanisms that are resistant to desensitization. Both desensitized and sustained signaling pathways should be considered in the development of pharmacotherapies targeting the GABA

  13. Reversal of disease-related pathologies in the fragile X mouse model by selective activation of GABAB receptors with arbaclofen.

    PubMed

    Henderson, Christina; Wijetunge, Lasani; Kinoshita, Mika Nakamoto; Shumway, Matthew; Hammond, Rebecca S; Postma, Friso R; Brynczka, Christopher; Rush, Roger; Thomas, Alexia; Paylor, Richard; Warren, Stephen T; Vanderklish, Peter W; Kind, Peter C; Carpenter, Randall L; Bear, Mark F; Healy, Aileen M

    2012-09-19

    Fragile X syndrome (FXS), the most common inherited cause of intellectual disability and autism, results from the transcriptional silencing of FMR1 and loss of the mRNA translational repressor protein fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP). Patients with FXS exhibit changes in neuronal dendritic spine morphology, a pathology associated with altered synaptic function. Studies in the mouse model of fragile X have shown that loss of FMRP causes excessive synaptic protein synthesis, which results in synaptic dysfunction and altered spine morphology. We tested whether the pharmacologic activation of the γ-aminobutyric acid type B (GABA(B)) receptor could correct or reverse these phenotypes in Fmr1-knockout mice. Basal protein synthesis, which is elevated in the hippocampus of Fmr1-knockout mice, was corrected by the in vitro application of the selective GABA(B) receptor agonist STX209 (arbaclofen, R-baclofen). STX209 also reduced to wild-type values the elevated AMPA receptor internalization in Fmr1-knockout cultured neurons, a known functional consequence of increased protein synthesis. Acute administration of STX209 in vivo, at doses that modify behavior, decreased mRNA translation in the cortex of Fmr1-knockout mice. Finally, the chronic administration of STX209 in juvenile mice corrected the increased spine density in Fmr1-knockout mice without affecting spine density in wild-type mice. Thus, activation of the GABA(B) receptor with STX209 corrected synaptic abnormalities considered central to fragile X pathophysiology, a finding that suggests that STX209 may be a potentially effective therapy to treat the core symptoms of FXS.

  14. Baclofen ameliorates spatial working memory impairments induced by chronic cerebral hypoperfusion via up-regulation of HCN2 expression in the PFC in rats.

    PubMed

    Luo, Pan; Chen, Cheng; Lu, Yun; Fu, TianLi; Lu, Qing; Xu, Xulin; Li, Changjun; He, Zhi; Guo, Lianjun

    2016-07-15

    Chronic cerebral hypoperfusion (CCH) causes memory deficits and increases the risk of vascular dementia (VD) through several biologically plausible pathways. However, whether CCH causes prefrontal cortex (PFC)-dependent spatial working memory impairments and Baclofen, a GABAB receptor agonist, could ameliorate the impairments is still not clear especially the mechanisms underlying the process. In this study, rats were subjected to permanent bilateral occlusion of the common carotid arteries (two-vessel occlusion, 2VO) to induce CCH. Two weeks later, rats were treated with 25mg/kg Baclofen (intraperitioneal injection, i.p.) for 3 weeks. Spatial working memory was evaluated in a Morris water maze using a modified delayed matching-to-place (DMP) procedure. Western blotting and immunohistochemistry were used to quantify the protein levels and protein localization. Our results showed that 2VO caused striking spatial working memory impairments, accompanied with a decreased HCN2 expression in PFC, but the protein levels of protein gene product 9.5 (PGP9.5, a neuron specific protein), glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), synaptophysin (SYP), brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), parvalbumin (PV) and HCN1 were not distinguishably changed as compared with sham-operated rats. Baclofen treatment significantly improved the spatial working memory impairments caused by 2VO, accompanied with a reversion of 2VO-induced down-regulation of HCN2. Furthermore, there was a co-localization of HCN2 subunits and parvalbumin-positive neurons in PFC. Therefore, HCN2 may target inhibitory interneurons that is implicated in working memory processes, which may be a possible mechanism of the up-regulation of HCN2 by Baclofen treatment that reliefs spatial working memory deficits in rats with CCH. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. The anti-spasticity drug baclofen alleviates collagen-induced arthritis and regulates dendritic cells.

    PubMed

    Huang, Shichao; Mao, Jianxin; Wei, Bin; Pei, Gang

    2015-07-01

    Baclofen is used clinically as a drug that treats spasticity, which is a syndrome characterized by excessive contraction of the muscles and hyperflexia in the central nervous system (CNS), by activating GABA(B) receptors (GABA(B)Rs). Baclofen was recently reported to desensitize chemokine receptors and to suppress inflammation through the activation of GABA(B)Rs. GABA(B)Rs are expressed in various immune cells, but the functions of these receptors in autoimmune diseases remain largely unknown. In this study, we investigated the effects of baclofen in murine collagen-induced arthritis (CIA). Oral administration of baclofen alleviated the clinical development of CIA, with a reduced number of IL-17-producing T helper 17 (T(H)17) cells. In addition, baclofen treatment suppressed dendritic cell (DC)-primed T(H)17 cell differentiation by reducing the production of IL-6 by DCs in vitro. Furthermore, the pharmacological and genetic blockade of GABA(B)Rs in DCs weakened the effects of baclofen, indicating that GABA(B)Rs are the molecular targets of baclofen on DCs. Thus, our findings revealed a potential role for baclofen in the treatment of CIA, as well as a previously unknown signaling pathway that regulates DC function. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. GABA(B) receptor modulation of feedforward inhibition through hippocampal neurogliaform cells.

    PubMed

    Price, Christopher J; Scott, Ricardo; Rusakov, Dmitri A; Capogna, Marco

    2008-07-02

    Feedforward inhibition of neurons is a fundamental component of information flow control in the brain. We studied the roles played by neurogliaform cells (NGFCs) of stratum lacunosum moleculare of the hippocampus in providing feedforward inhibition to CA1 pyramidal cells. We recorded from synaptically coupled pairs of anatomically identified NGFCs and CA1 pyramidal cells and found that, strikingly, a single presynaptic action potential evoked a biphasic unitary IPSC (uIPSC), consisting of two distinct components mediated by GABA(A) and GABA(B) receptors. A GABA(B) receptor-mediated unitary response has not previously been observed in hippocampal excitatory neurons. The decay of the GABA(A) receptor-mediated response was slow (time constant = 50 ms), and was tightly regulated by presynaptic GABA(B) receptors. Surprisingly, the GABA(B) receptor ligands baclofen and (2S)-3-{[(1S)-1-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)ethyl]amino-2-hydroxypropyl}(phenylmethyl)phosphinic acid (CGP55845), while affecting the NGFC-mediated uIPSCs, had no effect on action potential-evoked presynaptic Ca2+ signals monitored in individual axonal boutons of NGFCs with two-photon microscopy. In contrast, baclofen clearly depressed presynaptic Ca2+ transients in non-NGF interneurons. Changes in extracellular Ca2+ concentration that mimicked the effects of baclofen or CGP55845 on uIPSCs significantly altered presynaptic Ca2+ transients. Electrophysiological data suggest that GABA(B) receptors expressed by NGFCs contribute to the dynamic control of the excitatory input to CA1 pyramidal neurons from the temporoammonic path. The NGFC-CA1 pyramidal cell connection therefore provides a unique and subtle mechanism to shape the integration time domain for signals arriving via a major excitatory input to CA1 pyramidal cells.

  17. Inactivation of the maternal fragile X gene results in sensitization of GABAB receptor function in the offspring.

    PubMed

    Zupan, Bojana; Toth, Miklos

    2008-12-01

    Fragile X syndrome is an X-linked disorder caused by the inactivation of the FMR1 gene, with symptoms ranging from impaired cognitive functions to seizures, anxiety, sensory abnormalities, and hyperactivity. Although fragile X syndrome is considered a typical Mendelian disorder, we have recently reported that the environment, specifically the fmr1(+/-) or fmr1(-/-) [H or knockout (KO)] maternal environment, elicits on its own a partial fragile X-like phenotype and can contribute to the overall phenotype of fmr1(-/0) (KO) male offspring. Genetically fmr1(+/0) (WT) males born to H females (H(maternal) > WT(offspring)), similar to KO male offspring born to H and KO mothers (H > KO and KO > KO), exhibit locomotor hyperactivity. These mice also showed reduced D(2) autoreceptor function, indicating a possible diminished feedback inhibition of dopamine (DA) release in the nigrostriatal and mesolimbic systems. The GABAergic system also regulates DA release, in part via presynaptic GABA(B) receptors (Rs) located on midbrain dopaminergic neurons. Here, we show that the locomotor inhibitory effect of the GABA(B)R agonist baclofen [4-amino-3-(4-chlorophenyl)-butanoic acid] is enhanced in all progeny of mutant mothers (H > WT, H > KO, and KO > KO) compared with WT > WT mice, irrespective of their own genotype. However, increased sensitivity to baclofen was selective and limited to the locomotor response because the muscle-relaxant and sedative effects of the drug were not altered by the maternal environment. These data show that GABA(B)R sensitization, traditionally induced pharmacologically, can also be elicited by the fmr1-deficient maternal environment.

  18. Speaking fluently with baclofen?

    PubMed

    Beraha, Esther; Bodewits, Pieter; van den Brink, Wim; Wiers, Reinout

    2017-05-11

    Baclofen is a new and promising pharmacological compound for the treatment of alcohol dependence (AD). Although several randomised trials found a reduction of craving and higher abstinence rates with low and high doses of baclofen, others failed to show positive effects. In this case study, the successful treatment of a patient with AD with daily 120 mg of baclofen is described. In addition to a decrease in alcohol use, we observed the cessation of stuttering during treatment with baclofen, reoccurrence of stuttering following discontinuation, and cessation of stuttering after reinstatement of the treatment. Based on this observation, the direct effects of baclofen on muscle relaxation and anxiety reduction and its indirect effect on dopaminergic inhibition, we believe that baclofen might be a new treatment for stuttering. Further research into the effect of baclofen on stuttering is warranted. © BMJ Publishing Group Ltd (unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  19. Baclofen into the lateral parabrachial nucleus induces hypertonic sodium chloride intake during cell dehydration

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Activation of GABAB receptors with baclofen into the lateral parabrachial nucleus (LPBN) induces ingestion of water and 0.3 M NaCl in fluid replete rats. However, up to now, no study has investigated the effects of baclofen injected alone or combined with GABAB receptor antagonist into the LPBN on water and 0.3 M NaCl intake in rats with increased plasma osmolarity (rats treated with an intragastric load of 2 M NaCl). Male Wistar rats with stainless steel cannulas implanted bilaterally into the LPBN were used. Results In fluid replete rats, baclofen (0.5 nmol/0.2 μl), bilaterally injected into the LPBN, induced ingestion of 0.3 M NaCl (14.3 ± 4.1 vs. saline: 0.2 ± 0.2 ml/210 min) and water (7.1 ± 2.9 vs. saline: 0.6 ± 0.5 ml/210 min). In cell-dehydrated rats, bilateral injections of baclofen (0.5 and 1.0 nmol/0.2 μl) into the LPBN induced an increase of 0.3 M NaCl intake (15.6 ± 5.7 and 21.5 ± 3.5 ml/210 min, respectively, vs. saline: 1.7 ± 0.8 ml/210 min) and an early inhibition of water intake (3.5 ± 1.4 and 6.7 ± 2.1 ml/150 min, respectively, vs. saline: 9.2 ± 1.4 ml/150 min). The pretreatment of the LPBN with 2-hydroxysaclofen (GABAB antagonist, 5 nmol/0.2 μl) potentiated the effect of baclofen on 0.3 M NaCl intake in the first 90 min of test and did not modify the inhibition of water intake induced by baclofen in cell-dehydrated rats. Baclofen injected into the LPBN did not affect blood pressure and heart rate. Conclusions Thus, injection of baclofen into the LPBN in cell-dehydrated rats induced ingestion of 0.3 M NaCl and inhibition of water intake, suggesting that even in a hyperosmotic situation, the blockade of LPBN inhibitory mechanisms with baclofen is enough to drive rats to drink hypertonic NaCl, an effect independent of changes in blood pressure. PMID:23642235

  20. Behavioral characterization of escalated aggression induced by GABAB receptor activation in the dorsal raphé nucleus

    PubMed Central

    Takahashi, Aki; Schilit, Arielle N.; Kim, Jisoo; DeBold, Joseph F.; Koide, Tsuyoshi; Miczek, Klaus A.

    2013-01-01

    Rationale Pharmacological activation of GABAB receptors in the dorsal raphé nucleus (DRN) can escalate territorial aggression in male mice. Objectives We characterized this escalated aggression in terms of its behavioral and environmental determinants. Methods Aggressive behavior of resident male (CFW or ICR mouse) was assessed in confrontations with a group-housed intruder. Either baclofen (0.06 nmol/0.2 μl) or vehicle (saline) was microinjected into the DRN ten minutes before the confrontation. We examined baclofen-heightened aggression in five situations: aggression in a neutral arena and after social instigation (experiment 1), aggression during the light phase of the cycle (experiment 2), aggression without prior fighting experience (experiment 3), aggression toward a female (experiment 4), and aggression after defeat experiences (experiment 5). In addition, we examined the body targets towards which bites are directed and the duration of aggressive bursts after baclofen treatment. Results Regardless of the past social experience, baclofen escalated aggressive behaviors. Even in the neutral arena and after defeat experiences, where aggressive behaviors were inhibited, baclofen significantly increased aggression. Baclofen increased attack bites directed at vulnerable body areas of male intruders but not toward a female and only in the dark. Also, baclofen prolonged the duration of aggressive bursts. Conclusions For baclofen to escalate aggression, specific stimulation (male intruder) and tonic level of serotonin (dark cycle) are required. Once aggressive behavior is triggered, intra-DRN baclofen escalates the level of aggression to abnormal levels and renders it difficult to terminate. Also, baclofen counteracts the effects of novelty or past experiences of defeat. PMID:22395428

  1. Effect of GABA agonists and GABA-A receptor modulators on cocaine- and food-maintained responding and cocaine discrimination in rats.

    PubMed

    Barrett, Andrew C; Negus, S Stevens; Mello, Nancy K; Caine, S Barak

    2005-11-01

    Recent studies indicate that GABAergic ligands modulate abuse-related effects of cocaine. The goal of this study was to evaluate the effects of a mechanistically diverse group of GABAergic ligands on the discriminative stimulus and reinforcing effects of cocaine in rats. One group of rats was trained to discriminate 5.6 mg/kg cocaine from saline in a two-lever, food-reinforced, drug discrimination procedure. In two other groups, responding was maintained by cocaine (0-3.2 mg/kg/injection) or liquid food (0-100%) under a fixed ratio 5 schedule. Six GABA agonists were tested: the GABA-A receptor agonist muscimol, the GABA-B receptor agonist baclofen, the GABA transaminase inhibitor gamma-vinyl-GABA (GVG), and three GABA-A receptor modulators (the barbiturate pentobarbital, the high-efficacy benzodiazepine midazolam, and the low-efficacy benzodiazepine enazenil). When tested alone, none of the compounds substituted fully for the discriminative stimulus effects of cocaine. As acute pretreatments, select doses of midazolam and pentobarbital produced 2.2- to 3.6-fold rightward shifts in the cocaine dose-effect function. In contrast, muscimol, baclofen, GVG, and enazenil failed to alter the discriminative stimulus effects of cocaine. In assays of cocaine- and food-maintained responding, midazolam and pentobarbital decreased cocaine self-administration at doses 9.6- and 3.3-fold lower, respectively, than those that decreased food-maintained responding. In contrast, muscimol, baclofen, and GVG decreased cocaine self-administration at doses that also decreased food-maintained responding. Enazenil failed to alter cocaine self-administration. Together with previous studies, these data suggest that among mechanistically diverse GABA agonists, high-efficacy GABA-A modulators may be the most effective for modifying the abuse-related effects of cocaine.

  2. Severe Central Sleep Apnea Associated With Chronic Baclofen Therapy: A Case Series.

    PubMed

    Olivier, Pierre-Yves; Joyeux-Faure, Marie; Gentina, Thibaut; Launois, Sandrine H; d'Ortho, Marie Pia; Pépin, Jean-Louis; Gagnadoux, Frédéric

    2016-05-01

    Baclofen, a gamma-aminobutyric acid-B agonist with muscle-relaxant properties, is widely used in patients with severe spasticity. In animals, baclofen has been shown to decrease respiratory drive. In humans, however, use of baclofen at the standard dose did not significantly impair sleep-disordered breathing in a susceptible population of snorers. Recently, there has been increasing interest in the role of baclofen for the treatment of alcohol dependence. We describe severe central sleep apnea (CSA) in four patients with none of the conditions commonly associated with CSA who were receiving chronic baclofen therapy for alcohol withdrawal. In one patient, baclofen withdrawal was associated with a complete resolution of CSA. Three patients were treated by adaptive servo-ventilation while continuing their treatment with baclofen. Given the increasing number of patients receiving baclofen for alcohol withdrawal treatment, physicians should be aware that these patients might be affected by severe CSA. Future studies are required to determine the mechanisms, prevalence, and treatment modalities of sleep-disordered breathing associated with baclofen usage. Copyright © 2016 American College of Chest Physicians. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Baclofen has opposite effects on escalation of cocaine self-administration: increased intake in rats selectively bred for high (HiS) saccharin intake and decreased intake in those selected for low (LoS) saccharin intake

    PubMed Central

    Holtz, Nathan A.; Carroll, Marilyn E.

    2011-01-01

    Rats selectively bred for high saccharin intake (HiS) self-administer more cocaine, escalate their cocaine intake during long access, and reinstate cocaine seeking at higher levels than those bred for low saccharin intake (LoS). The present study was conducted to determine if baclofen, an agonist at the GABAb receptor, has differential effects on the escalation of i.v. cocaine intake and reinstatement of cocaine-seeking in HiS and LoS rats. HiS and LoS rats self-administered cocaine during a 2-h daily short-access (ShA) phase for 3 days and then long-access (LgA) sessions for 21 days followed by a second ShA phase. One group of HiS and LoS rats received i.p. injections of 2.5 mg/kg baclofen (HiS+B and LoS+B, respectively), and other groups of HiS and LoS rats received saline (HiS+Sal and LoS+Sal) before each daily session. In a second experiment, HiS and LoS rats self-administered i.v. cocaine during 2-h sessions for 14 days followed by a 21-day extinction period. Baclofen (2.5 mg/kg, i.p.) or saline was administered before saline- or cocaine-primed reinstatement sessions. The HiS+B group escalated their cocaine self-administration and had increased cocaine infusions in the post-LgA ShA phase. The LoS+B group self-administered less cocaine throughout the entire LgA period compared to the LoS+Sal or HiS groups. Baclofen attenuated reinstatement of cocaine seeking in both the HiS and LoS rats with no phenotype differences. Baclofen had opposite effects on cocaine intake in HiS and LoS rats during escalation; HiS increased and LoS decreased intake. These results suggest that treatment effects might vary with individual differences (HiS vs. LoS) and the phase of drug-motivated behavior that is modeled. PMID:21924281

  4. Baclofen Pumps: Uses and Complications.

    PubMed

    Woolf, Seth M; Baum, Carl R

    2017-04-01

    Intrathecal baclofen therapy, given via an implanted pump in the abdominal wall either as a continuous infusion or bolus dosing, has been used for more than 25 years to treat the spasticity and dystonia associated with various brain and spinal cord conditions. Pediatric clinicians occasionally encounter baclofen pumps, and in the pediatric setting, significant morbidity can arise from their use. This article presents the background, mechanism of action, uses, and complications of intrathecal baclofen therapy and discusses various management strategies should complications occur.

  5. Baclofen for alcohol withdrawal.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jia; Wang, Lu-Ning

    2017-08-20

    Baclofen shows potential for rapidly reducing symptoms of severe alcohol withdrawal syndrome (AWS) in people with alcoholism. Treatment with baclofen is easy to manage and rarely produces euphoria or other pleasant effects, or craving for the drug. This is an updated version of the original Cochrane Review published in 2015, Issue 4. To assess the efficacy and safety of baclofen for people with AWS. We updated our searches of the following databases to March 2017: the Cochrane Drugs and Alcohol Group Specialised Register, CENTRAL, PubMed, Embase, and CINAHL. We also searched registers of ongoing trials. We handsearched the references quoted in the identified trials, and sought information from researchers, pharmaceutical companies, and relevant trial authors about unpublished or uncompleted trials. We placed no restrictions on language. We included all randomised controlled clinical trials (RCTs) evaluating baclofen versus placebo or any other treatment for people with AWS. We excluded uncontrolled, non-randomised, or quasi-randomised trials. We included both parallel group and cross-over studies. We used standard methodological procedures expected by Cochrane. We included three RCTs with 141 randomised participants. We did not perform meta-analyses due to the different control interventions. For the comparison of baclofen and placebo (1 study, 31 participants), there was no significant difference in Clinical Institute Withdrawal Assessment of Alcohol Scale, Revised (CIWA-Ar) scores (very low quality evidence). For the comparison of baclofen and diazepam (1 study, 37 participants), there was no significant difference in CIWA-Ar scores (very low quality evidence), adverse events (risk difference (RD) 0.00, 95% confidence interval (CI) -0.10 to 0.10; very low quality evidence), dropouts (RD 0.00, 95% CI -0.10 to 0.10; very low quality evidence), and dropouts due to adverse events (RD 0.00, 95% CI -0.10 to 0.10; very low quality evidence). For the comparison of

  6. Kindling alters entorhinal cortex-hippocampal interaction by increased efficacy of presynaptic GABA(B) autoreceptors in layer III of the entorhinal cortex.

    PubMed

    Gloveli, Tengis; Behr, Joachim; Dugladze, Tamar; Kokaia, Zaal; Kokaia, Merab; Heinemann, Uwe

    2003-08-01

    We studied the effect of kindling, a model of temporal lobe epilepsy, on the frequency-dependent information transfer from the entorhinal cortex to the hippocampus in vitro. In control rats repetitive synaptic activation of layer III projection cells resulted in a frequency dependent depression of the synaptic transfer of action potentials to the hippocampus. One-to-two-days after kindling this effect was strongly reduced. Although no substantial change in synaptic inhibition upon single electrical stimulation was detected in kindled rats, there was a significant depression in the prolonged inhibition following high frequency stimulation. In kindled animals, paired-pulse depression (PPD) of stimulus-evoked IPSCs in layer III neurons was significantly stronger than in control rats. The increase of PPD is most likely caused by an increased presynaptic GABA(B) receptor-mediated autoinhibition. In kindled animals activation of presynaptic GABA(B) receptors by baclofen (10 microM) suppressed monosynaptic IPSCs significantly more than in control rats. In contrast, activation of postsynaptic GABA(B) receptors by baclofen was accompanied by comparable changes of the membrane conductance in both animal groups. Thus, in kindled animals activation of the layer III-CA1 pathway is facilitated by an increased GABA(B) receptor-mediated autoinhibition leading to an enhanced activation of the monosynaptic EC-CA1 pathway.

  7. Potential for Intrathecal Baclofen in Treatment of Essential Tremor.

    PubMed

    Hamad, Mousa; Holland, Ryan; Kamal, Naveed; Luceri, Robert; Mammis, Antonios

    2017-09-01

    Essential tremor (ET) is the most common movement disorder of adults, affecting an estimated 7 million Americans. Symptoms of ET range from slightly noticeable to debilitating, with 1 cohort study finding 15% of patients were forced into early retirement. Additionally, depression has also been correlated with the severity of disability of ET. Treatment options include propranolol and primidone. Current treatment options are not very effective, with more than half (56.3%) of patients discontinuing medications because of no changes in symptoms. Unfortunately, there is a relative void and controversy in the literature explaining ET pathophysiology; however, the gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) hypothesis is the strongest. We conducted a PubMed search on 30 September 2015 with no time constraints using the search terms "essential tremor" and "baclofen," which resulted in a total of 5 articles. Neurohistopathologic studies have demonstrated decreased GABA-A and GABA-B receptors in the cerebellar cortex of ET patients. GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system, is proposed to have an inhibitory effect on pacemaker output activity of the cerebello-thalamo-cortical pathway, with lower receptors resulting in decreased inhibition of baseline tremors. Tariq et al showed delayed onset and intensity of tremor with oral administration of R-baclofen in a mouse model of ET. With a better side-effect profile and success in a physiologically related condition, we propose more clinical trials and research be carried out on intrathecal baclofen as a potential treatment option, especially drug refractory ET, so as to increase the quality of life of this patient population. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Randomized open-label trial of baclofen for relapse prevention in alcohol dependence.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Manushree; Verma, Pankaj; Rastogi, Rajesh; Arora, Sheetal; Elwadhi, Deeksha

    2017-05-01

    Alcohol dependence is a progressive chronic disorder characterized by narrowing of the drinking repertoire, salience of drinking, tolerance and withdrawal phenomenon, compulsion to drink, and frequent relapses. Baclofen has been shown to promote abstinence, to reduce craving, and to reduce anxiety in alcohol-dependent individuals, and it promises to be a useful agent, although clinical data are limited at present. The current study aimed to test the utility of baclofen, a GABA agonist, in improving the relapse rates in alcohol-dependent subjects. A total of 122 alcohol-dependent subjects were randomized into two groups. Groups were administered baclofen (30 mg/day) or benfothiamine (a nutritional supplement) using an open label design. Both groups received brief motivational intervention. Subjects were assessed at 0, 2, 4, 8, and 12 weeks for the primary outcome measures: time to first relapse, heavy drinking days, cumulative abstinence duration, and craving (measured by the Obsessive Compulsive Drinking Scale (OCDS)). Seventy-two participants received baclofen, and 50 received benfothiamine. Participants receiving baclofen remained abstinent for significantly more days than the benfothiamine group (p < 0.05). The percentage of heavy drinking days was significantly lower in the baclofen group (p = 0.001). Craving and anxiety scores (Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale) were also significantly decreased in the baclofen group relative to the control group (p = 0.001). Time to first relapse was similar in both groups. In this open-label trial, alcohol-dependent participants receiving baclofen showed significant improvements in drinking outcomes compared with participants receiving benfothiamine. This study provides further evidence that baclofen is useful for the treatment of alcohol dependence.

  9. [Complications of intrathecal baclofen therapy].

    PubMed

    Paskhin, D L; Dekopov, A V; Tomsky, A A; Isagulyan, E D; Salova, E M

    To analyze complications of intrathecal baclofen therapy and identify high-risk groups. We implanted 52 pumps to spastic patients for chronic intrathecal baclofen infusion. Two groups of patients were distinguished: 23 patients with spinal spasticity (group 1) and 29 patients with cerebral spasticity (group 2). The mean patient age was 37.2±14.6 years in group 1 and 17.3±10.3 years in group 2. Surgery was performed according to a standard procedure. A Medstream (Codman) pump was implanted in 10 cases, and a Synchromed II (Medtronic) pump was implanted in the remaining 42 cases. Complications developed in 12 (23%) patients. We divided complications into 3 groups: baclofen underdose, baclofen overdose, and others. Insufficiency of intrathecal therapy was observed in 7 cases, which was caused by catheter migration (5 cases) and pump dysfunction (2 cases). In one case, baclofen overdose was observed after air travel. Other complications included 4 cases of persistent peri-implant seroma and infectious complications. Groups with a high risk of complications were identified based on an analysis of the results. Patients with severe dystonia of the trunk muscles have an increased risk of spinal catheter migration. Pronounced communicating hydrocephalus is associated with the risk of cerebrospinal fluid leak through a catheter shaft channel. Weakness of the axial musculature can lead to progression of scoliotic deformity. In some cases, chronic intrathecal baclofen therapy can be accompanied by various complications. This technique should be carefully used in patients from high-risk groups.

  10. Intrathecal Baclofen Pump for Spasticity

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    Executive Summary Objective To conduct an evidence-based analysis of the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of intrathecal baclofen for spasticity. The Technology Spasticity is a motor disorder characterized by tight or stiff muscles that may interfere with voluntary muscle movements and is a problem for many patients with multiple sclerosis (MS), spinal cord injury (SCI), cerebral palsy (CP), and acquired brain injury (ABI).(1). Increased tone and spasm reduces mobility and independence, and interferes with activities of daily living, continence and sleep patterns. Spasticity may also be associated with significant pain or discomfort (e.g., due to poor fit in braces, footwear, or wheelchairs), skin breakdown, contractures, sleep disorders and difficulty in transfer. Goals of treatment are to decrease spasticity in order to improve range of motion, facilitate movement, reduce energy expenditure and reduce risk of contractures. Existing treatments include physical therapy, oral medications, injections of phenol or botulinum toxin, or surgical intervention. Baclofen is the oral drug most frequently prescribed for spasticity in cases of SCI and MS.(1) Baclofen is a muscle relaxant and antispasticity drug. In the brain, baclofen delivered orally has some supraspinal activity that may contribute to clinical side effects. The main adverse effects of oral baclofen include sedation, excessive weakness, dizziness, mental confusion, and somnolence.(2) The incidence of adverse effects is reported to range from 10% to 75%.(2) Ochs et al. estimated that approximately 25-30% of SCI and MS patients fail to respond to oral baclofen.(3;4) Adverse effects appear to be dose-related and may be minimized by initiating treatment at a low dose and gradually titrating upwards.(2) Adverse effects usually appear at doses >60 mg/day.(2) The rate of treatment discontinuation due to intolerable adverse effects has generally been reported to range from 4% to 27%.(2) When baclofen is

  11. Baclofen and phaclofen modulate GABA release from slices of rat cerebral cortex and spinal cord but not from retina.

    PubMed Central

    Neal, M. J.; Shah, M. A.

    1989-01-01

    1. The effects of (-)-baclofen, muscimol and phaclofen on endogenous gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) release from rat cortical slices, spinal cord slices and entire retinas were studied. 2. The spontaneous resting release of GABA from the three tissues was 3 to 6 pmol mg-1 wet wt 10 min-1. Depolarization of cortical slices with KCl (50 mM) (high-K) produced an 8 fold increase in GABA release but high-K did not evoke an increased release of GABA from spinal slices or retinas. 3. When rats were injected with gamma-vinyl-GABA (250 mg kg-1 i.p.) (GVG) 18 h before death, the tissue GABA stores were increased 3 to 6 fold and high-K then evoked striking Ca-dependent releases of GABA from all three tissues. Thus, in subsequent experiments, unless otherwise stated, the nervous tissues were taken from GVG-treated rats. 4. (-)-Baclofen (10 microM) significantly reduced the K-evoked release of GABA from cortical and spinal slices but retinal release was not affected, even at a concentration of (+/-)-baclofen of 1 mM. For cortical slices, the IC50 for baclofen was approximately 5.2 microM. The inhibitory effect of baclofen on GABA release from cortical slices also occurred in slices prepared from saline-injected rats, indicating that GVG treatment did not qualitatively affect the results. 5. The inhibitory effect of (-)-baclofen on the K-evoked release of GABA from cortical and spinal slices was antagonised by phaclofen (500 microM), confirming that baclofen was producing its effects by acting at the GABAB-receptor.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2804540

  12. Intrathecal baclofen for treating spasticity in children with cerebral palsy.

    PubMed

    Hasnat, Monika J; Rice, James E

    2015-11-13

    Cerebral palsy is a disorder of movement and posture arising from a non-progressive lesion in the developing brain. Spasticity, a disorder of increased muscle tone, is the most common motor difficulty and is associated with activity limitation to varying degrees in mobility and self care.Oral baclofen, a gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) agonist, has been used in oral form to treat spasticity for some time, but it has a variable effect on spasticity and the dose is limited by the unwanted effect of excessive sedation. Intrathecal baclofen produces higher local concentrations in cerebrospinal fluid at a fraction of the equivalent oral dose and avoids this excessive sedation. To determine whether intrathecal baclofen is an effective treatment for spasticity in children with cerebral palsy. We searched the CENTRAL, MEDLINE, EMBASE and CINAHL databases, handsearched recent conference proceedings, and communicated with researchers in the field and pharmaceutical and drug delivery system companies. We included studies which compared the effect of intrathecal baclofen treatment on spasticity, gross motor function or other areas of function with controls. Two authors selected studies, two authors extracted data and two authors assessed the methodological quality of included studies. Six studies met the inclusion criteria. The data obtained were unsuitable for the conduct of a meta-analysis; we have completed a qualitative summary.All studies were found to have high or unclear risk of bias in some aspects of their methodology.Five of the six studies reported data collected in the randomised controlled phase of the study. A sixth study did not report sufficient results to determine the effect of intrathecal baclofen versus placebo. Of these five studies, four were conducted using lumbar puncture or other short-term means of delivering intrathecal baclofen. One study assessed the effectiveness of implantable intrathecal baclofen pumps over six months.The four short-term studies

  13. mGlu₅-GABAB interplay in animal models of positive, negative and cognitive symptoms of schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Wierońska, Joanna M; Kłeczek, Natalia; Woźniak, Monika; Gruca, Piotr; Łasoń-Tyburkiewicz, Magdalena; Papp, Mariusz; Brański, Piotr; Burnat, Grzegorz; Pilc, Andrzej

    2015-09-01

    Diverse preclinical studies exploiting the modulation of the GABAergic and/or glutamatergic system in brain via metabotropic receptors suggest their potential therapeutic utility. GS39783 and CDPPB, positive allosteric modulators of GABAB and mGlu5 receptors, were previously shown to reverse behavioral phenotypes in animal models to mimic selected (predominantly positive) symptoms of schizophrenia. In the present study we investigated the activity of selected GABAB (GS39783 and CGP7930) and mGlu5 (CDPPB) positive allosteric modulators. We focused mainly on the aspects of their efficacy in the models of negative and cognitive symptoms of schizophrenia. We used modified swim test, social interactions (models of negative symptoms) and novel object recognition (model of cognitive disturbances). The activity of the compounds was also tested in haloperidol-induced catalepsy test. The mutual interaction between GABAB/mGlu5 ligands was investigated as well. In the second part of the study, DHPG-induced PI hydrolysis in the presence of GABAB receptor antagonist (SKF97541), and SKF97541-induced inhibition of cAMP formation in the presence of DHPG, was performed. Both mGlu5 and GABAB receptor modulators effectively reversed MK-801-induced deficits in behavioral models of schizophrenia. Moreover, the concomitant administration of sub-effective doses of CDPPB and GS39783 induced a clear antipsychotic-like effect in all the procedures used, except DOI-induced head twitches. The concomitant administration of group I mGlu and GABAB agonists did not displayed any synergistic effects in vitro. Summing up, an activation of both types of receptor may be a promising mechanism for the development of novel antipsychotic drugs, efficacious toward positive, negative and cognitive symptoms. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Self-induced drug intoxication in baclofen: of the calm hypotonic coma in the status epilepticus.

    PubMed

    Thill, Chloé; Di Constanzo, Laurence; Pessey, François; Aries, Philippe; Montelescaut, Étienne; Sapin, Jeanne; Vaillant, Catherine; Drouillard, Isabelle

    2016-06-01

    Baclofen is an agonist of peripheral and central B gamma-aminobutyric acid receptors, whose activation causes a myorelaxation and a powerfull depression of the central nervous system. Moreover, it has an action against addiction, in reducing craving. Commercialized since 1975 in France, to control muscle spasticity due to medullar affection or multiple sclerosis, it receives a temporary recommendation of use in march 2014, as a last-line adjuvant treatment in alcohol withdrawal. Beyond its therapeutic use, baclofen is involved in many self-induced intoxications. We report the case of a patient who develops, after a massive ingestion of baclofen (supposed dose ingested: 1 200 mg), a hypotonic and calm coma, requiring her admission in our intensive care unit, and then a status epilepticus.

  15. Acute baclofen diminishes resting baseline blood flow to limbic structures: A perfusion fMRI study

    PubMed Central

    Franklin, Teresa R.; Shin, Joshua; Jagannathan, Kanchana; Suh, Jesse J.; Detre, John A.; O’Brien, Charles P.; Childress, Anna Rose

    2012-01-01

    Background Preclinical and clinical evidence show that the GABA B agonist, baclofen is a promising treatment for addictive disorders; however, until recently its mechanism of action in the human brain was unknown. In previous work we utilized a laboratory model that included a medication versus placebo regimen to examine baclofen’s actions on brain circuitry. Perfusion fMRI [measure of cerebral blood flow (CBF)] data acquired ‘at rest’ before and on the last day of the 21-day medication regimen showed that baclofen diminished CBF bilaterally in the VS, insula and medial orbitofrontal cortex (mOFC). In the present study, we hypothesized that a single dose of baclofen would have effects similar to repeated dosing. Methods To test our hypothesis, in a crossover design, CBF data were acquired using pseudo continuous arterial spin labeled (pCASL) perfusion fMRI. Subjects were either un-medicated or were administered a 20 mg dose of baclofen approximately 110 min prior to scanning. Results Acute baclofen diminished mOFC, amygdala, and ventral anterior insula CBF without causing sedation (family-wise error corrected at p = 0.001). Conclusions Results demonstrate that similar to repeated dosing, an acute dose of baclofen blunts the ‘limbic’ substrate that is hyper-responsive to drugs and drug cues. Smokers often manage their craving and can remain abstinent for extended periods after quitting, however the risk of eventual relapse approaches 90%. Given that chronic medication may not be a practical solution to the long-term risk of relapse, acute baclofen may be useful on an ‘as-needed’ basis to block craving during ‘at risk’ situations. PMID:22513380

  16. Paradoxical effect of baclofen on social behavior in the fragile X syndrome mouse model.

    PubMed

    Zeidler, Shimriet; Pop, Andreea S; Jaafar, Israa A; de Boer, Helen; Buijsen, Ronald A M; de Esch, Celine E F; Nieuwenhuizen-Bakker, Ingeborg; Hukema, Renate K; Willemsen, Rob

    2018-06-01

    Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is a common monogenetic cause of intellectual disability, autism spectrum features, and a broad range of other psychiatric and medical problems. FXS is caused by the lack of the fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP), a translational regulator of specific mRNAs at the postsynaptic compartment. The absence of FMRP leads to aberrant synaptic plasticity, which is believed to be caused by an imbalance in excitatory and inhibitory network functioning of the synapse. Evidence from studies in mice demonstrates that GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the brain, and its receptors, is involved in the pathogenesis of FXS. Moreover, several FXS phenotypes, including social behavior deficits, could be corrected in Fmr1 KO mice after acute treatment with GABA B agonists. As FXS would probably require a lifelong treatment, we investigated the effect of chronic treatment with the GABA B agonist baclofen on social behavior in Fmr1 KO mice on two behavioral paradigms for social behavior: the automated tube test and the three-chamber sociability test. Unexpectedly, chronic baclofen treatment resulted in worsening of the FXS phenotypes in these behavior tests. Strikingly, baclofen treatment also affected wild-type animals in both behavioral tests, inducing a phenotype similar to that of untreated Fmr1 KO mice. Altogether, the disappointing results of recent clinical trials with the R-baclofen enantiomer arbaclofen and our current results indicate that baclofen should be reconsidered and further evaluated before its application in targeted treatment for FXS. © 2018 The Authors. Brain and Behavior published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Efficacy and safety of oral baclofen in the management of spasticity: A rationale for intrathecal baclofen.

    PubMed

    Ertzgaard, Per; Campo, Claudia; Calabrese, Alessandra

    2017-03-06

    Oral baclofen has long been a mainstay in the management of spasticity. This review looks at the clinical evidence for the efficacy and safety of oral baclofen in patients with spasticity of any origin or severity, to determine whether there is a rationale for the use of intrathecal baclofen. Results suggest that oral baclofen may be effective in many patients with spasticity, regardless of the underlying disease or severity, and that it is at least comparable with other antispasmodic agents. However, adverse effects, such as muscle weakness, nausea, somnolence and paraesthesia, are common with oral baclofen, affecting between 25% and 75% of patients, and limiting its usefulness. Intrathecal baclofen may be an effective alternative as the drug is delivered directly into the cerebrospinal fluid, thus bypassing the blood-brain barrier and thereby optimizing the efficacy of baclofen while minimizing drug-related side-effects. Intrathecal baclofen is a viable option in patients who experience intolerable side-effects or who fail to respond to the maximum recommended dose of oral baclofen.

  18. Baclofen Toxicity Causing Acute, Reversible Dyskinesia.

    PubMed

    Niehaus, Matthew T; Elliott, Nicole C; Katz, Kenneth D

    2016-12-01

    The following unique case demonstrates an episode of acute dyskinesia secondary to oral baclofen toxicity. We discuss an 80-year-old man with a history of Stage III chronic kidney disease, coronary artery disease, diabetes and stroke who presented to the Emergency Department with new onset of behavioral changes and irregular jerking movements. The patient had been recently prescribed baclofen 10mg twice daily for a back strain he suffered; he subsequently was admitted to the hospital, and his symptoms resolved within 48 hours of admission and discontinuance of baclofen.

  19. Baclofen-induced encephalopathy in overdose - Modeling of the electroencephalographic effect/concentration relationships and contribution of tolerance in the rat.

    PubMed

    Chartier, Magali; Malissin, Isabelle; Tannous, Salma; Labat, Laurence; Risède, Patricia; Mégarbane, Bruno; Chevillard, Lucie

    2018-05-18

    Baclofen, a γ-amino-butyric acid type-B receptor agonist with exponentially increased use at high-dose to facilitate abstinence in chronic alcoholics, is responsible for increasing poisonings. Baclofen overdose may induce severe encephalopathy and electroencephalographic (EEG) abnormalities. Whether prior prolonged baclofen treatment may influence the severity of baclofen-induced encephalopathy in overdose has not been established. We designed a rat study to characterize baclofen-induced encephalopathy, correlate its severity with plasma concentrations and investigate the contribution of tolerance. Baclofen-induced encephalopathy was assessed using continuous EEG and scored based on a ten-grade scale. Following the administration by gavage of 116 mg/kg baclofen, EEG rapidly and steadily impaired resulting in the successive onset of deepening sleep followed by generalized periodic epileptiform discharges and burst-suppressions. Thereafter, encephalopathy progressively recovered following similar phases in reverse. Periodic triphasic sharp waves, non-convulsive status epilepticus and even isoelectric signals were observed at the most critical stages. Prior repeated baclofen administration resulted in reduced severity (peak: grade 7 versus 9; peak effect length: 382 ± 40 versus 123 ± 14 min, P = 0.008) and duration of encephalopathy (18 versus > 24 h, P = 0.0007), supporting the acquisition of tolerance. The relationship between encephalopathy severity and plasma baclofen concentrations fitted a sigmoidal E max model with an anticlockwise hysteresis loop suggesting a hypothetical biophase site of action. The baclofen concentration producing a response equivalent to 50% of E max was significantly reduced (8947 μg/L, ±11.3% versus 12,728 μg/L, ±24.0% [mean, coefficient of variation], P = 0.03) with prior prolonged baclofen administration. In conclusion, baclofen overdose induces early-onset and prolonged marked encephalopathy

  20. Baclofen blocks the acquisition and expression of mitragynine-induced conditioned place preference in rats.

    PubMed

    Yusoff, Nurul H M; Mansor, Sharif M; Müller, Christian P; Hassan, Zurina

    2018-06-01

    Mitragynine is the major alkaloid found in the leaves of M. speciosa Korth (Rubiaceae), a plant that is native to Southeast Asia. This compound has been used, either traditionally or recreationally, due to its psychostimulant and opioid-like effects. Recently, mitragynine has been shown to exert conditioned place preference (CPP), indicating the rewarding and motivational properties of M. speciosa. Here, the involvement of GABA B receptors in mediating mitragynine reward is studied using a CPP paradigm in rats. First, we examined the effects of GABA B receptor agonist baclofen (1.25, 2.5 and 5 mg/kg) on the acquisition of mitragynine (10 mg/kg)-induced CPP. Second, the involvement of GABA B receptors in the expression of mitragynine-induced CPP was tested. We found that the acquisition of mitragynine-induced CPP could be blocked by higher doses (2.5 and 5 mg/kg) of baclofen. Baclofen at a high dose inhibited locomotor activity and caused a CPP. Furthermore, we found that baclofen (2.5 and 5 mg/kg) also blocked the expression of mitragynine-induced CPP. These findings suggest that both, the acquisition and expression of mitragynine's reinforcing properties is controlled by the GABA B receptor. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. R(+)-Baclofen, but Not S(-)-Baclofen, Alters Alcohol Self-Administration in Alcohol-Preferring Rats.

    PubMed

    Lorrai, Irene; Maccioni, Paola; Gessa, Gian Luigi; Colombo, Giancarlo

    2016-01-01

    Racemic baclofen [(±)-baclofen] has repeatedly been reported to suppress several -alcohol-motivated behaviors, including alcohol drinking and alcohol -self-administration, in rats and mice. Recent data suggested that baclofen may have bidirectional, stereospecific effects, with the more active enantiomer, R(+)-baclofen, suppressing alcohol intake and the less active enantiomer, S(-)-baclofen, stimulating alcohol intake in mice. The present study was designed to investigate whether this enantioselectivity of baclofen effects may also extend to the reinforcing properties of alcohol in rats. To this end, selectively bred Sardinian alcohol-preferring (sP) rats were initially trained to lever respond on a fixed ratio 4 (FR4) schedule of reinforcement for alcohol (15%, v/v) in daily 30-min sessions. Once responding had stabilized, rats were tested with vehicle, (±)-baclofen (3 mg/kg), R(+)-baclofen (0.75, 1.5, and 3 mg/kg), and S(-)-baclofen (6, 12, and 24 mg/kg) under the FR4 schedule of reinforcement. Treatment with 3 mg/kg (±)-baclofen reduced the number of lever responses for alcohol and estimated amount of self-administered alcohol by approximately 60% in comparison to vehicle treatment. R(+)-baclofen was approximately twice as active as (±)-baclofen: treatment with 1.5 mg/kg R(+)-baclofen decreased both variables to an extent similar to that of the decreasing effect of 3 mg/kg (±)-baclofen. Conversely, treatment with all doses of S(-)-baclofen failed to affect alcohol self administration. These results (a) confirm that non-sedative doses of (±)-baclofen effectively suppressed the reinforcing properties of alcohol in sP rats and (b) apparently do not extend to operant alcohol self-administration in sP rats the capability of S(-)-baclofen to stimulate alcohol drinking in mice.

  2. Intrathecal baclofen withdrawal: A rare cause of reversible cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Awuor, Stephen O; Kitei, Paul M; Nawaz, Yassir; Ahnert, Amy M

    2016-03-01

    Baclofen is commonly used to treat spasticity of central etiology. Unfortunately, a potentially lethal withdrawal syndrome can complicate its use. This is especially true when the drug is administered intrathecally. There are very few cases of baclofen withdrawal leading to reversible cardiomyopathy described in the literature. The authors present a patient with a history of chronic intrathecal baclofen use who, in the setting of acute baclofen withdrawal, develops laboratory, electrocardiogram, and echocardiogram abnormalities consistent with cardiomyopathy. Upon reinstitution of intrathecal baclofen, the cardiomyopathy and associated abnormalities quickly resolve. Although rare, it is crucial to be aware of this reversible cardiomyopathy to ensure its prompt diagnosis and treatment.

  3. Intrathecal Baclofen Therapy: Benefits and Complications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zdolsek, Helena Aniansson; Olesch, Christine; Antolovich, Giuliana; Reddihough, Dinah

    2011-01-01

    Background: Spasticity and dystonia in children with cerebral palsy has been treated with intrathecal baclofen therapy (ITB) at the Royal Children's Hospital, Melbourne, Australia (RCH) since 1999. Methods: The records of children having received or still receiving ITB during the period September 1999 until August 2005 were studied to evaluate…

  4. Baclofen Solution for Low-Volume Therapeutic Delivery.

    PubMed

    Meythaler, Jay M; Peduzzi, Jean D

    2017-06-01

    Baclofen is a zwitterion molecule where increased ions in the excipient increase the solubility. We developed baclofen in a stable solution similar to cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) without bicarbonate and proteins to improve the solubility of the baclofen and to reduce the potential toxicity to the central nervous system (CNS) and subarachnoid space. The objective is to develop a solution of baclofen wherein baclofen is solubilized in a multivalent physiological ion solution such as artificial cerebrospinal fluid (aCSF) at a concentration from 2 mg/cc to 10 mg/cc. First, to determine the solubility of Baclofen in aCSF, solubility was determined at six different pH levels at 37°C, by the addition of aCSF to a known amount of Baclofen. The final concentrations were confirmed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis. Second, the stability of Baclofen at 4 mg/cc investigated in a test manufacturing batch utilizing standard methods of production of 1500 20 cc vials inverted for 18 months at 25°C at 60% humidity. The stability and purity of the baclofen was verified at 18 months by HPLC analysis. Baclofen was initially soluble between pH of 6-8 above 7 mg/cc but fell back to 6.3-5.8 mg/cc level with time. Baclofen produced in vials with inversion were noted to be stable at 4 mg/cc at 18 months with less than 2% breakdown of the baclofen in solution. Baclofen is much more soluble in artificial CSF than normal saline. The artificial CSF may also be less toxic to the subarachnoid space than saline. © 2016 International Neuromodulation Society.

  5. Effect of intrathecal baclofen on evoked pain perception: an evoked potentials and quantitative thermal testing study.

    PubMed

    Kumru, H; Kofler, M; Flores, M C; Portell, E; Robles, V; Leon, N; Vidal, J

    2013-08-01

    Somatic antinociceptive effects of baclofen have been demonstrated in animal models. We hypothesized that if enhanced thermal or pain sensitivity is produced by loss of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-ergic tone in the central nervous system, spinal administration of GABA agonists might be predicted to be effective in thermal and/or pain perception changes and pain-related evoked potentials in candidates for intrathecal baclofen (ITB) treatment. Eleven patients with severe spinal cord injury (SCI) who suffered from severe spasticity were evaluated during a 50-μg ITB bolus test. Warm and heat pain thresholds, evoked heat pain perception, and contact heat-evoked potentials (CHEPs) were determined above SCI level from the right and left sides. Nine age- and gender-matched healthy volunteers undergoing repeat testing without any placebo injection served as control group. In patients, heat pain perception threshold increased, and evoked pain perception and amplitude of CHEPs decreased significantly after ITB bolus application in comparison with baseline (p < 0.005), with no change in warm perception threshold. In controls, no significant changes were observed in repeat testing over time. Our findings indicate that ITB modulates heat pain perception threshold, evoked heat pain perception and heat pain-related evoked potentials without inducing warm perception threshold changes in SCI patients. This phenomenon should be taken into account in the clinical evaluation and management of pain in patients receiving baclofen. © 2012 European Federation of International Association for the Study of Pain Chapters.

  6. Baclofen for alcohol dependence: Relationships between baclofen and alcohol dosing and the occurrence of major sedation.

    PubMed

    Rolland, Benjamin; Labreuche, Julien; Duhamel, Alain; Deheul, Sylvie; Gautier, Sophie; Auffret, Marine; Pignon, Baptiste; Valin, Thomas; Bordet, Régis; Cottencin, Olivier

    2015-10-01

    High-dose baclofen, i.e., 300 mg/d or more, has recently emerged as a strategy for treating alcohol dependence. The impact that the co-exposure of large amounts of alcohol and baclofen has on sedation is unclear. In a prospective cohort of 253 subjects with alcohol dependence, we collected daily alcohol and baclofen doses across the first year of baclofen treatment and the monthly maximum subjective sedation experienced by each patient (0-10 visual analog scale). For each patient-month, we determined the average weekly alcohol consumption (AWAC; standard-drinks/week) and the maximum daily dose of baclofen (DDB; mg/d). The occurrence of an episode of major sedation (EMS) during a patient-month was defined as a sedation score ≥7. The relationship between the EMS occurrence and the concurrent AWAC and DDB was investigated using a generalized estimating equation model. In total, 1528 patient-months were compiled (70 with an EMS). Univariate analyses demonstrated that the rate of patient-month to EMS increased gradually with AWAC (p<0.001), from 0.9% for AWAC=0 to 9.4% for AWAC >35. There was also a significant gradual risk for EMS associated with DDB (<0.001). Multivariate analysis demonstrated a significant interaction between DDB and AWAC on EMS risk (p=0.047). Each 20mg/d increase in DDB was associated with an OR of EMS in AWAC >35 of 1.22 (95%CI, 1.08-1.38) versus 1.11 (95%CI, 0.96-1.29) in AWAC=1-35, and 0.95 (95%CI, 0.76-1.19) in AWAC=0. The level of sedation observed in patients using baclofen for alcohol dependence appears to directly depend on the immediate doses of both the baclofen and the alcohol. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. and ECNP. All rights reserved.

  7. Unintentional baclofen intoxication in the management of alcohol use disorder.

    PubMed

    Reichmuth, Philipp; Blanc, Anne-Laure; Tagan, Damien

    2015-09-22

    In recent years, there has been a growing interest in using baclofen for the management of alcohol use disorder. This off-label indication usually involves high doses of the medication. We report a case of severe baclofen overdose in a 66-year-old man. The patient was found severely agitated, and he presented with delirium and auditory hallucinations. At hospital admission, his daily dose was 180 mg baclofen. He was admitted to the intensive care unit for sedation and supportive care. When sedation was withdrawn, the patient presented with a normal neurological status. In this clinical context, baclofen intoxication was suspected. This was confirmed by measuring blood baclofen levels. This intoxication was probably mediated by a combination of risk factors including a high daily dose of baclofen and acute renal failure, conducive to drug accumulation. 2015 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  8. Baclofen and naltrexone effects on alcohol self-administration: Comparison of treatment initiated during abstinence or ongoing alcohol access in baboons.

    PubMed

    Holtyn, August F; Kaminski, Barbara J; Weerts, Elise M

    2017-10-01

    Baclofen, a GABA B receptor agonist, is under investigation as a pharmacotherapy for alcohol use disorder. Treatment with a pharmacotherapeutic can be initiated during alcohol abstinence or active drinking, which may influence treatment outcomes. This study examined whether baclofen treatment initiated and maintained during alcohol abstinence would reduce alcohol seeking and self-administration upon return to alcohol access, and whether effects differed from treatment initiated and maintained during ongoing alcohol access. Naltrexone was tested under similar conditions for comparison. Five baboons self-administered alcohol under a three-component chained schedule of reinforcement that modeled periods of anticipation (Component 1), seeking (Component 2), and consumption (Component 3). Alcohol was only available in Component 3. In Experiment 1, baclofen (0.1-1.8mg/kg) or naltrexone (1.0-5.6mg/kg) was administered daily beginning on the first day of a 5-day abstinence period and treatment was continued for 5days of alcohol access. In Experiment 2, selected doses of both drugs were administered during ongoing alcohol access. When treatment was initiated during alcohol abstinence, baclofen and naltrexone did not significantly reduce total alcohol intake (g/kg) or alcohol seeking. In comparison, when treatment was initiated during ongoing alcohol access, both baclofen (1.8mg/kg) and naltrexone (3.2 and 5.6mg/kg) significantly reduced total alcohol intake (g/kg). Naltrexone (5.6mg/kg), but not baclofen, significantly reduced alcohol seeking. Initiation of baclofen treatment (or other alcohol use disorder treatments) during abstinence or active drinking may be an important factor in influencing efficacy and appropriate dose selection. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Baclofen effects on alcohol seeking, self-administration and extinction of seeking responses in a within-session design in baboons.

    PubMed

    Duke, Angela N; Kaminski, Barbara J; Weerts, Elise M

    2014-01-01

    Baclofen, a gamma-aminobutyric acidB receptor agonist, is currently under investigation as a potential treatment to prevent relapse to drinking in alcohol-dependent persons. In the current study, two groups of baboons were trained under a chained schedule of reinforcement (CSR), with three linked components, which were each correlated with different response requirements and cues. Fulfilling the requirement in the second link initiated the third link where either alcohol (n = 4) or a preferred non-alcoholic beverage (Tang, n = 5) was available for self-administration; failure to complete the response requirement in Link 2 ended the session (no access to alcohol or Tang). Seeking responses in Link 2 were used as indices of the motivational processes thought to be involved in relapse. The effects of baclofen (0.1-2.4 mg/kg) were examined under conditions with alcohol or Tang access and under extinction. Under the CSR, baclofen (1.8 and 2.4 mg/kg) significantly decreased (P < 0.05) alcohol self-administration responses and total g/kg alcohol intake. In contrast, only the highest dose of baclofen (2.4 mg/kg) reduced Tang self-administration and consumption. Under within-session extinction conditions, baclofen (1.8 and 2.4 mg/kg) facilitated extinction of responding for both alcohol and Tang, particularly during the first 10 minutes of extinction. Baclofen may be effective in reducing craving and alcohol drinking, although the facilitation of extinction and suppression of both alcohol and Tang self-administration by baclofen suggests these effects may be related to a more general suppression of consummatory and conditioned behaviors. © 2012 The Authors, Addiction Biology © 2012 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  10. Baclofen in the management of cannabis dependence syndrome.

    PubMed

    Imbert, Bruce; Labrune, Nathalie; Lancon, Christophe; Simon, Nicolas

    2014-02-01

    Cannabis is the most commonly used illicit drug in the world. However, only few studies have shown the efficacy of pharmacologic agents in targeting cannabis withdrawal symptoms or reducing the reinforcing effects of cannabis. Baclofen has been shown to reduce cannabis withdrawal symptoms and the subjective effects of cannabis. We think that the clinical utility of baclofen for cannabis dependence is a reasonable approach. A case report using baclofen is presented and provides preliminary support for the use of baclofen in the management of cannabis dependence.

  11. Baclofen suppresses binge eating of pure fat but not a sugar-rich or sweet-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Berner, Laura A; Bocarsly, Miriam E; Hoebel, Bartley G; Avena, Nicole M

    2009-10-01

    Baclofen is a γ-aminobutyric acid-B agonist that is known to reduce the intake of some drugs of abuse. Binge eating of sugar or fat has been shown to have behavioral and neurochemical similarities to drug abuse, and may be special cases suggestive of natural addiction. To determine whether a treatment for drug abuse would have an effect on binge eating, and if so, which type of food intake might be affected, this study compared the effects of baclofen on binge eating sucrose, fat, and a sweet-fat combination. Rats were maintained for 21 days on a schedule of 12-h daily access to (i) a 10% sucrose solution, (ii) vegetable fat, or (iii) a commercially available sweet-fat chow. A fourth group had only 2-h daily access to vegetable fat. All four experimental groups, plus a control group, had ad libitum access to water and standard rodent chow. Food intake was then measured after intraperitoneal administration of baclofen (0, 0.6, 1.0, or 1.8 mg/kg). Results showed that although there was no effect of drug on standard chow intake of rats in any group, baclofen stimulated binge eating of sweet-fat food, suppressed binge eating of pure fat (vegetable shortening) in the group with 2-h access, and had no effect on sucrose binges. These results support earlier findings of a suppressive effect of baclofen on binge eating of fat and introduce a new finding that the drug differentially affects binge eating of sucrose and a sugar-fat combination.

  12. A nationwide register-based survey of baclofen toxicity.

    PubMed

    Kiel, Louise Bendix; Hoegberg, Lotte Christine Groth; Jansen, Tejs; Petersen, John Asger; Dalhoff, Kim Peder

    2015-05-01

    To study the use and misuse (poisonings) of baclofen in the time period of 2007-2012 and to evaluate the severity and clinical symptoms of poisonings including ingested baclofen. The National Patient Register (NPR) was searched for admissions due to baclofen poisonings from 2007 to 2012. The search was conducted with ICD-10 codes for poisoning, self-harm and suicide, and coupled with the baclofen ATC code. All enquiries about baclofen to the Danish Poison Information Centre (DPIC) in the same period were evaluated. Demographic and clinical data were extracted, and the poisonings were classified according to the Poison Severity Score. The number of baclofen poisonings did not increase from 2007 to 2012. Thirty-eight admissions with baclofen poisoning were registered at the NPR; however, only one-third of the reviewed DPIC cases were registered at the NPR with the correct coding. In the group of severely poisoned patients (PSS 3), three patients had only ingested baclofen (mean 2000 mg; SD 500 mg) and eight patients had ingested baclofen together with alcohol or psychotropic drugs (mean 900 mg; SD 641 mg). All patients presented with deep coma and respiratory depression. Additionally, seizures and cardiovascular events (mild hypo- or hypertension and bradycardia) occurred. There is a substantial degree of underreporting of baclofen poisonings in Denmark. Symptoms of baclofen poisoning progress very fast, and toxicity was observed even with doses as low as 150 mg. We therefore recommend that observation and treatment of these patients should be carried out in an intermediate- or intensive care unit. The most important treatment is the maintenance of a protected airway and respiration. © 2014 Nordic Association for the Publication of BCPT (former Nordic Pharmacological Society).

  13. Hippocampal GABAB(1a) Receptors Constrain Generalized Contextual Fear

    PubMed Central

    Lynch, Joseph F; Winiecki, Patrick; Gilman, T Lee; Adkins, Jordan M; Jasnow, Aaron M

    2017-01-01

    Many anxiety disorders are characterized by generalization of fear responses to neutral or ambiguous stimuli. Therefore, a comprehensive understanding of the mechanisms contributing to generalized fear is essential for formulating successful treatments for anxiety disorders. Previous research shows that GABA-mediated presynaptic inhibition has a critical role in cued fear generalization, as animals with genetically deleted presynaptic GABAB(1a) receptors cannot discriminate between CS+ and CS− tones. Work from our laboratory has further identified that GABAB(1a) receptors are necessary for maintaining contextual memory precision, thereby constraining generalized contextual fear. We previously found that GABAB(1a) KO mice show generalized fear to a neutral context 24 h after training, but not 2 h after training. A similar pattern was observed with object location and recognition, suggesting that this receptor subtype affects consolidation and/or retrieval of precise contextual and spatial memories. Here we sought to specifically examine the involvement of GABAB(1a) receptors in consolidation or retrieval of a precise fear memory. To do so, we infused a selective GABAB(1a) receptor antagonist, CGP 36216, intracerebroventricularly (ICV), or locally into the dorsal hippocampus, ventral hippocampus, or anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), during consolidation and retrieval of context fear training. Blockade of GABAB(1a) receptors through ICV, dorsal hippocampal, or ventral hippocampal infusions ‘after' training (consolidation) resulted in fear generalization to the neutral context when mice were tested 24, but not 6 h after training. Post-training infusions of CGP into the ACC, however, did not promote generalized fear. In addition, ICV, dorsal hippocampal, ventral hippocampal, or ACC infusions immediately ‘before' testing (retrieval) did not result in context fear generalization. These data suggest that GABA-mediated presynaptic inhibition is not critical for

  14. Iatrogenic Baclofen Neurotoxicity in ESRD: Recognition and Management

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, John K.; Westphal, Scott; Sparks, Matthew A.

    2016-01-01

    Baclofen is an oral derivative of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) used to treat muscular spasticity from disorders of the central nervous system. However, it is also being used for a variety of other conditions such as musculoskeletal pain, myoclonus, and alcohol withdrawal. The elimination of baclofen is heavily dependent on intact renal function, and the contraindication for use in patients with insufficient renal function is not well recognized by healthcare providers. Here, the authors report a series of mild to severe cases of baclofen intoxication in patients with end-stage renal disease. In all cases, baclofen was initiated by either inpatient or outpatient healthcare providers and the patients generally presented with altered mentation, somnolence, and/or respiratory depression. All patients were treated with aggressive hemodialysis and made a full recovery. This paper will briefly review the literature regarding baclofen intoxication, safety of baclofen use in renal disease, and efficacy of extra-corporeal therapy in the treatment of baclofen intoxication. PMID:26096760

  15. Iatrogenic Baclofen Neurotoxicity in ESRD: Recognition and Management.

    PubMed

    Roberts, John K; Westphal, Scott; Sparks, Matthew A

    2015-01-01

    Baclofen is an oral derivative of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) used to treat muscular spasticity from disorders of the central nervous system. However, it is also being used for a variety of other conditions such as musculoskeletal pain, myoclonus, and alcohol withdrawal. The elimination of baclofen is heavily dependent on intact renal function, and the contraindication for use in patients with insufficient renal function is not well recognized by healthcare providers. Here, the authors report a series of mild to severe cases of baclofen intoxication in patients with end-stage renal disease. In all cases, baclofen was initiated by either inpatient or outpatient healthcare providers and the patients generally presented with altered mentation, somnolence, and/or respiratory depression. All patients were treated with aggressive hemodialysis and made a full recovery. This paper will briefly review the literature regarding baclofen intoxication, safety of baclofen use in renal disease, and efficacy of extracorporeal therapy in the treatment of baclofen intoxication. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. GABAB-ergic motor cortex dysfunction in SSADH deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Leonardo G.; Pearl, Phillip L.; Fritsch, Brita; Jung, Nikolai H.; Dustin, Irene; Theodore, William H.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase (SSADH) deficiency is a rare autosomal recessive disorder of GABA degradation leading to elevations in brain GABA and γ-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB). The effect of chronically elevated GABA and GHB on cortical excitability is unknown. We hypothesized that use-dependent downregulation of GABA receptor expression would promote cortical disinhibition rather than inhibition, predominantly via presynaptic GABAergic mechanisms. Methods: We quantified the magnitude of excitation and inhibition in primary motor cortex (M1) in patients with SSADH deficiency, their parents (obligate heterozygotes), age-matched healthy young controls, and healthy adults using single and paired pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). Results: Long interval intracortical inhibition was significantly reduced and the cortical silent period was significantly shortened in patients with SSADH deficiency compared to heterozygous parents and control groups. Conclusions: Since long interval intracortical inhibition and cortical silent period are thought to reflect GABAB receptor–mediated inhibitory circuits, our results point to a particularly GABAB-ergic motor cortex dysfunction in patients with SSADH deficiency. This human phenotype is consistent with the proposed mechanism of use-dependent downregulation of postsynaptic GABAB receptors in SSADH deficiency animal models. Additionally, the results suggest autoinhibition of GABAergic neurons. This first demonstration of altered GABAB-ergic function in patients with SSADH deficiency may help to explain clinical features of the disease, and suggest pathophysiologic mechanisms in other neurotransmitter-related disorders. Neurology® 2012;79:47–54 PMID:22722631

  17. Activation of Phosphoinositide Metabolism by Cholinergic Agents.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-12-16

    acid significantly inhibited NE-induced [3H]IP1 production in slices that had been prelabelled with [3H]inositol and baclofen , a specific GABAB...agonist, was as effective as GABA in enhancing the response to NE (Figure 15). Neither GABA nor baclofen significantly blocked the inhibitory effect of...quisqualate, but baclofen reduced the inhibitory effect of arachidonic acid. Effects of NMDA receptor antagonists on phosphoinositide hydrolysis MK-801 is

  18. Ethanol and Mesolimbic Serotonin/Dopamine Interactions Via 5-HT1B Receptors

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-03-01

    baclofen , a GABAB receptor agonist, into the VTA probe and the response of extracellular DA in the ipsilateral NACC was determined. A significant...decrease (50% deduction) in extracellular DA in the ipsilateral NACC after perfusion with baclofen was considered an appropriate implantation of the...the VTA with baclofen were included in data analyses. Approximately 70% of the animals that had undergone surgery had both probes correctly implanted

  19. Muscarinic Cholinergic Modulation of Long-Lasting Synaptic Plasticity in the Rat Dentate Gyrus

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-12-14

    ability to block GABAB-mediated responses, which are PTx-sensitive. The effects of the GABAg receptor agonist baclofen on evoked responses were analyzed...both in slices previously exposed to 10/iM muscarine (n=4), and nonexposed slices (n=2). The disinhibitory effects of baclofen usually seen in...20 min washout of muscarine always preceeded the baclofen exposure, to allow for washout of muscarine. There were no differences in the responses to

  20. The safety and efficacy of baclofen to reduce alcohol use in veterans with chronic hepatitis C: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Hauser, Peter; Fuller, Bret; Ho, Samuel B; Thuras, Paul; Kern, Shira; Dieperink, Eric

    2017-07-01

    Alcohol use disorders (AUDs) are common among people with chronic hepatitis C (HCV) and accelerate the development of fibrosis and cirrhosis caused by HCV. Baclofen, a gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) beta-receptor agonist, differs from medications for AUDs currently approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA), as it is metabolized primarily through the kidneys. The primary outcome of this study was to compare baclofen with a placebo in the percentage of days abstinent from alcohol. A double-blind, placebo-controlled randomized trial. Hepatology clinics in four separate US Veteran Affairs Medical Centers in the United States. One hundred and eighty Veteran men and women older than 18 years with chronic HCV, a comorbid AUD and current alcohol use. Oral baclofen was given at dosages of 0 (placebo) or 30 mg/day over 12 weeks with concomitant manual-guided counseling. The primary measurement was percentage of days abstinent during the 12-week study period between the baclofen and placebo groups [measured by time-line follow-back (TLFB)]. Secondary measurements were the percentage of Veterans who achieved complete abstinence, the percentage of Veterans who achieved no heavy drinking between weeks 4 and 12 of the study, alcohol craving, anxiety, depression and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Primary outcome: compared with placebo, baclofen did not improve the percentage of days abstinent. For all subjects there were significant reductions from baseline to 12 weeks in percentage of days abstinent from 37.0% [standard error (SE) = 2.7] to 68.6% (SE = 2.8, F (1151.1)  = 66.1, P < 0.001). However, there was no statistically significant difference between groups for change in percentage of days abstinent over the 12-week study period [absolute difference 1.3% (-9.1 to 1.7%), F (1152.6)  = 0.005, P = 0.95]. Of subjects who completed the first 4 weeks of the study, 8.9% (15 of 168) achieved complete abstinence; 10.1% (nine of 89) in

  1. Identifying the role of pre-and postsynaptic GABAB receptors in behavior

    PubMed Central

    Kasten, Chelsea R.; Boehm, Stephen L.

    2015-01-01

    Although many reviews exist characterizing the molecular differences of GABAB receptor isoforms, there is no current review of the in vivo effects of these isoforms. The current review focuses on whether the GABAB1a and GABAB1b isoforms contribute differentially to behaviors in isoform knockout mice. The roles of these receptors have primarily been characterized in cognitive, anxiety, and depressive phenotypes. Currently, the field supports a role of GABAB1a in memory maintenance and protection against an anhedonic phenotype, whereas GABAB1b appears to be involved in memory formation and a susceptibility to developing an anhedonic phenotype. Although GABAB receptors have been strongly implicated in drug abuse phenotypes, no isoform-specific work has been done in this field. Future directions include developing site-specific isoform knockdown to identify the role of different brain regions in behavior, as well as identifying how these isoforms are involved in development of behavioral phenotypes. PMID:26283074

  2. Selected clinical aspects of acute intoxication with baclofen.

    PubMed

    Sein Anand, Jacek; Chodorowski, Zygmunt; Burda, Piotr

    2005-01-01

    Baclofen is a lipophilic analogue of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), an inhibitory neurotransmitter in central nervous system. The aim of the study was to evaluate some clinical aspects of acute intoxication with baclofen. Fifty two patients (37 females and 15 males) aged from 14 to 58 (mean 30.6 +/- 13.7) years were analyzed. Patients were admitted to the Clinic of Internal Diseases and Acute Poisonings Medical University of Gdańsk and the Centre of Acute Poisonings of Praski Hospital in Warszawa during the years 1996-2004 because of suicidal intoxication with baclofen. The doses of baclofen varied from 100 to 1500 (mean 444.8 +/- 317.8) mg. There were twenty eight patients (53.8%) in deep coma (III and IV grade of Matthew scale). Acute respiratory failure which required mechanical ventilation was observed in 18 cases (34.6%). Cardiac abnormalities included bradycardia (36.5%), hypertension (32.7%) and hypotension (3.8%). Toxic psychoses were observed in 6 cases (11.5%). The dosage of baclofen in patients with acute respiratory failure (ARF) was significantly higher than in patients without ARF. Treatment of patients with acute baclofen intoxication should take place in hospitals appropriately equipped which can provide artificial respiration.

  3. Prolonged, severe intrathecal baclofen withdrawal syndrome: a case report.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Colby R; Gooch, Judith L; Such-Neibar, Teresa

    2007-11-01

    Intrathecal baclofen (ITB) withdrawal is a well-recognized complication when drug delivery is disrupted for any reason. ITB withdrawal varies widely in its severity and poses the very real possibility of death if not promptly managed. Cases of withdrawal lasting greater than 1 or 2 weeks, however, are sparse. We report the case of an 11-year-old girl with spastic quadriplegic cerebral palsy who developed an infected pump and subsequent meningitis, prompting the removal of her pump and catheter. She subsequently developed a severe, prolonged baclofen withdrawal syndrome marked by increased spasticity, agitation, hypertension, and tachycardia that lasted nearly 2 months, requiring intensive care and continuous intravenous sedation with benzodiazepines and opiates. Her pump was eventually replaced on hospital day 56 and within 24 hours her symptoms dramatically improved. She was eventually weaned off sedating medications and returned to baseline functional status. Typical management of baclofen withdrawal is reviewed. To date, the literature has not discussed the potential role for opiates in managing baclofen withdrawal, yet a growing body of literature is examining the interplay between opiates and gamma-aminobutyric acid B pathways. A potential role for opiates in managing severe baclofen withdrawal is proposed.

  4. Changes in body composition after spasticity treatment with intrathecal baclofen.

    PubMed

    Skogberg, Olle; Samuelsson, Kersti; Ertzgaard, Per; Levi, Richard

    2017-01-19

    To assess changes in body composition, body weight and resting metabolic rate in patients who received intrathecal baclofen therapy for spasticity. Prospective, longitudinal, quasi-experimental, with a pre/post design. Twelve patients with spasticity, fulfilling study criteria, and due for pump implantation for intrathecal baclofen therapy, completed the study. Data were obtained before, 6 months and 12 months after commencement of intrathecal baclofen therapy as regards body composition (by skinfold calliper), body weight, and resting metabolic rate (by resting oxygen consumption). Spasticity was assessed according to the Modified Ashworth Scale (MAS) and Penn Spasm Frequency Scale (PSFS). A reduction in spasticity according to MAS occurred. Mean fat body mass increased and mean lean body mass decreased. Mean body weight showed a non-significant increase and resting metabolic rate a non-significant decrease. This explorative study indicates that unfavourable changes in body composition might occur after intrathecal baclofen therapy. Since obesity and increased fat body mass contribute to an increased cardiovascular risk, these findings may indicate a need for initiation of countermeasures, e.g. increased physical activity and/or dietary measures, in conjunction with intrathecal baclofen therapy. Further studies, including larger study samples and control groups, are needed to corroborate these findings.

  5. [Aggression and restlessness following baclofen overdose: the narrow line between intoxication and withdrawal symptoms].

    PubMed

    de Witte, L D; Dekker, D; Veraart, J; Kromkamp, M; Kaasjager, K; Vinkers, C H

    2016-01-01

    Baclofen is increasingly prescribed for alcohol dependency. Subsequently, the risk of self-intoxication with this medicinal product is increasing. A 23-year-old man with a history of alcohol dependence was admitted to our hospital after self-intoxication with 2700 mg baclofen and 330 mg mirtazapine. Respiratory insufficiency as a result of the baclofen intoxication required intubation and admission to the ICU. During the first day, despite the use of sedatives, the patient became intermittently agitated and aggressive. In the following days, he developed severe delirium, probably due to baclofen withdrawal. The reintroduction of baclofen quickly resolved these symptoms. In the case of baclofen, in practice it is difficult to differentiate between intoxication and withdrawal. To prevent potentially severe withdrawal symptoms, we recommend reintroduction of baclofen when the first signs of restlessness and agitation arise following intoxication.

  6. Cockroach GABAB receptor subtypes: molecular characterization, pharmacological properties and tissue distribution.

    PubMed

    Blankenburg, S; Balfanz, S; Hayashi, Y; Shigenobu, S; Miura, T; Baumann, O; Baumann, A; Blenau, W

    2015-01-01

    γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is the predominant inhibitory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system (CNS). Its effects are mediated by either ionotropic GABAA receptors or metabotropic GABAB receptors. GABAB receptors regulate, via Gi/o G-proteins, ion channels, and adenylyl cyclases. In humans, GABAB receptor subtypes are involved in the etiology of neurologic and psychiatric disorders. In arthropods, however, these members of the G-protein-coupled receptor family are only inadequately characterized. Interestingly, physiological data have revealed important functions of GABAB receptors in the American cockroach, Periplaneta americana. We have cloned cDNAs coding for putative GABAB receptor subtypes 1 and 2 of P. americana (PeaGB1 and PeaGB2). When both receptor proteins are co-expressed in mammalian cells, activation of the receptor heteromer with GABA leads to a dose-dependent decrease in cAMP production. The pharmacological profile differs from that of mammalian and Drosophila GABAB receptors. Western blot analyses with polyclonal antibodies have revealed the expression of PeaGB1 and PeaGB2 in the CNS of the American cockroach. In addition to the widespread distribution in the brain, PeaGB1 is expressed in salivary glands and male accessory glands. Notably, PeaGB1-like immunoreactivity has been detected in the GABAergic salivary neuron 2, suggesting that GABAB receptors act as autoreceptors in this neuron. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Review of Intrathecal Baclofen Therapy for Spastic and Rigidity Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Obringer, S. John; Coffey, Kenneth M.

    2002-01-01

    Intrathecal baclofen therapy, a treatment for cerebral palsy and other spastic and rigidity disorders, is showing promise as an effective intervention. This article synthesizes both the medical and rehabilitation conceptual literature to update educators and related service providers as to the efficacy of this intervention. Implications for…

  8. Intrathecal Baclofen Dosing Regimens: A Retrospective Chart Review.

    PubMed

    Clearfield, Jacob S; Nelson, Mary Elizabeth S; McGuire, John; Rein, Lisa E; Tarima, Sergey

    2016-08-01

    To examine dosing patterns in patients receiving baclofen via intrathecal baclofen pumps to assess for common patterns by diagnosis, ambulation ability, and affected limbs distribution. This trial study included 25 patients with baclofen pumps selected from the 356 patients enrolled in our center's baclofen pump program. Selection was done by splitting all patients into diagnostic categories of stroke, multiple sclerosis, traumatic/anoxic brain injury, cerebral palsy, and spinal cord injury, and then, five patients were randomly selected from each diagnosis.A systematic chart review was then conducted for each patient from Jan 1, 2008, through September 16, 2013, to look at factors including mean daily dose at end of study, and among those implanted during the study mean initial stable dose and time to initial stable dose. Analysis of mean daily dose across diagnoses found significant differences, with brain injury, cerebral palsy, and spinal cord injury patients having higher doses while multiple sclerosis and stroke patients required lower doses. Nonambulatory patients strongly trended to have higher daily doses than ambulatory patients. Similar trends of mean initial stable dose being higher in a similar pattern as that of end mean daily dose were seen according to diagnoses and ambulatory status, although statistical significance could not be achieved with the small sample size. Significant differences in dosing were found between diagnoses and trended to differ by ambulatory status at the end of the study, and similar trends could be observed in achieving initial stable dose. © 2015 International Neuromodulation Society.

  9. Correlation between the single, high dose of ingested baclofen and clinical symptoms.

    PubMed

    Anand, Jacek Sein; Zając, Maciej; Waldman, Wojciech; Wojtyła, Andrzej; Biliński, Przemysław; Jaworska-Łuczak, Barbara

    2017-12-23

    Baclofen is a drug used mainly to treat muscle spasticity. Its overdose can lead to life-threatening clinical symptoms, including acute respiratory failure requiring mechanical ventilation. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of selected clinical symptoms associated with baclofen poisoning comparing to an ingested dose. 60 cases of oral baclofen poisoning were analyzed. Gender, age distribution, and correlation between the dose of ingested baclofen were studied, as well as and following clinical parameters: degree of altered consciousness, heart rate, blood pressure, presence of acute respiratory failure, duration of mechanical ventilation, and presence of psychotic symptoms. The study found statistically significant correlations between dosage of ingested baclofen and presence of acute respiratory failure, as well as duration of mechanical ventilation. No statistically significant correlations were found between the dose of ingested baclofen and presence of hypertension, bradycardia, acute psychotic symptoms, or level of consciousness disturbance. However, it was found that patients who suffered from hypertension, bradycardia, and altered mental status ingested a larger dose of baclofen. There is a statistically significant correlation between the dose of ingested baclofen and the presence of acute respiratory failure, and duration of mechanical ventilation. Patients who have taken a single dose of baclofen of 200 mg, or higher, should be managed in centres able to provide continuous monitoring of life functions. Those with a higher level of a single dose of baclofen ingestion (>500 mg), should be hospitalized in a Toxicology Unit or Intensive Care Unit able to provide airway support and mechanical ventilation.

  10. Baclofen or nNOS inhibitor affect molecular and behavioral alterations evoked by traumatic spinal cord injury in rat spinal cord.

    PubMed

    Kisucká, Alexandra; Hricová, Ľudmila; Pavel, Jaroslav; Strosznajder, Joanna B; Chalimoniuk, Malgorzata; Langfort, Jozef; Gálik, Ján; Maršala, Martin; Radoňak, Jozef; Lukáčová, Nadežda

    2015-06-01

    The loss of descending control after spinal cord injury (SCI) and incessant stimulation of Ia monosynaptic pathway, carrying proprioceptive impulses from the muscles and tendons into the spinal cord, evoke exaggerated α-motoneuron activity leading to increased reflex response. Previous results from our laboratory have shown that Ia monosynaptic pathway is nitrergic. The aim of this study was to find out whether nitric oxide produced by neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) plays a role in setting the excitability of α-motoneurons after thoracic spinal cord transection. We tested the hypothesis that the inhibition of nNOS in α-motoneurons after SCI could have a neuroprotective effect on reflex response. Rats underwent spinal cord transection at Th10 level followed by 7, 10, and 14 days of survival. The animals were treated with Baclofen (a gamma aminobutyric acid B receptor agonist, 3 μg/two times per day/intrathecally) applied for 3 days from the seventh day after transection; N-nitro-l-arginine (NNLA) (nNOS blocator) applied for the first 3 days after injury (20 mg/kg per day, intramuscularly); NNLA and Baclofen; or NNLA (60 mg/kg/day, single dose) applied on the 10th day after transection. We detected the changes in the level of nNOS protein, nNOS messenger RNA, and nNOS immunoreactivity. To investigate the reflex response to heat-induced stimulus, tail-flick test was monitored in treated animals up to 16 days after SCI. Our data indicate that Baclofen therapy is more effective than the combined treatment with NNLA and Baclofen therapy. The single dose of NNLA (60 mg/kg) applied on the 10th day after SCI or Baclofen therapy reduced nNOS expression in α-motoneurons and suppressed symptoms of increased reflex activity. The results clearly show that increased nNOS expression in α-motoneurons after SCI may be pharmacologically modifiable with Baclofen or bolus dose of nNOS blocker. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. Can baclofen change alcohol-related cognitive biases and what is the role of anxiety herein?

    PubMed

    Beraha, Esther M; Salemink, Elske; Krediet, Erwin; Wiers, Reinout W

    2018-06-01

    Baclofen has shown promise in the treatment of alcohol dependence. However, its precise (neuro-) psychological working mechanism is still under debate. This study aimed to get a better understanding of baclofen's working mechanism by examining the effect of baclofen on cognitive biases. It was hypothesized that baclofen, compared to placebo, would lead to weaker cognitive biases. Furthermore, given a suggested anxiolytic effect of baclofen, we expected that anxiety would moderate this effect. From a larger randomized clinical trial (RCT) with 151 participants, a subset of 143 detoxified alcohol-dependent patients, either taking baclofen or placebo, was examined. Attentional bias for alcohol (500 and 1500 ms), alcohol approach tendencies, implicit alcohol-relaxation associations and trait anxiety were assessed before the administration of baclofen or placebo. Four weeks later, 94 patients were still abstinent (53 in the baclofen and 41 in the placebo condition) and cognitive biases were assessed again. At baseline, patients showed a vigilance-avoidance pattern for the attentional bias (at 500 and 1500 ms, respectively) and alcohol-negative associations. After 4 weeks, an indication for an attentional bias away from alcohol at 500 ms was found only in the baclofen group; however, cognitive biases did not differ significantly between treatment groups. No moderating role of anxiety on cognitive biases was found. Baclofen did not lead to a differential change in cognitive biases compared with placebo, and trait anxiety levels did not moderate this. A better understanding of the working mechanism of baclofen and predictors of treatment success would allow prescribing of baclofen in a more targeted manner.

  12. Central inhibition of initiation of swallowing by systemic administration of diazepam and baclofen in anaesthetized rats.

    PubMed

    Tsujimura, Takanori; Sakai, Shogo; Suzuki, Taku; Ujihara, Izumi; Tsuji, Kojun; Magara, Jin; Canning, Brendan J; Inoue, Makoto

    2017-05-01

    Dysphagia is caused not only by neurological and/or structural damage but also by medication. We hypothesized memantine, dextromethorphan, diazepam, and baclofen, all commonly used drugs with central sites of action, may regulate swallowing function. Swallows were evoked by upper airway (UA)/pharyngeal distension, punctate mechanical stimulation using a von Frey filament, capsaicin or distilled water (DW) applied topically to the vocal folds, and electrical stimulation of a superior laryngeal nerve (SLN) in anesthetized rats and were documented by recording electromyographic activation of the suprahyoid and thyrohyoid muscles and by visualizing laryngeal elevation. The effects of intraperitoneal or topical administration of each drug on swallowing function were studied. Systemic administration of diazepam and baclofen, but not memantine or dextromethorphan, inhibited swallowing evoked by mechanical, chemical, and electrical stimulation. Both benzodiazepines and GABA A receptor antagonists diminished the inhibitory effects of diazepam, whereas a GABA B receptor antagonist diminished the effects of baclofen. Topically applied diazepam or baclofen had no effect on swallowing. These data indicate that diazepam and baclofen act centrally to inhibit swallowing in anesthetized rats. NEW & NOTEWORTHY Systemic administration of diazepam and baclofen, but not memantine or dextromethorphan, inhibited swallowing evoked by mechanical, chemical, and electrical stimulation. Both benzodiazepines and GABA A receptor antagonists diminished the inhibitory effects of diazepam, whereas a GABA B receptor antagonist diminished the effects of baclofen. Topical applied diazepam or baclofen was without effect on swallowing. Diazepam and baclofen act centrally to inhibit swallowing in anesthetized rats. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  13. An Unreported Cause of Intrathecal Baclofen Withdrawal Symptoms in a Woman With Spastic Cerebral Palsy Who Received Intrathecal Gablofen.

    PubMed

    Duraski, Sylvia A; Sayyad, Anjum

    2018-04-01

    This article details an unreported potential cause of withdrawal symptoms in a patient with cerebral palsy who experienced intrathecal baclofen withdrawal shortly after placement of a baclofen pump with subsequent refill with Gablofen. Initial implantation of the baclofen pump with Lioresal occurred after a successful hospital trial of intrathecal injection via lumbar puncture. However, later, the patient did experience signs and symptoms of baclofen withdrawal after a pump refill was performed with Gablofen.

  14. Best Practices for Intrathecal Baclofen Therapy: Patient Selection.

    PubMed

    Saulino, Michael; Ivanhoe, Cindy B; McGuire, John R; Ridley, Barbara; Shilt, Jeffrey S; Boster, Aaron L

    2016-08-01

    When spasticity interferes with comfort, function, activities of daily living, mobility, positioning, or caregiver assistance, patients should be considered for intrathecal baclofen (ITB) therapy. An expert panel consulted on best practices. ITB can be considered for problematic spasticity involving muscles/muscle groups during all phases of diseases, including progressive neurologic diseases. ITB alone or with other treatments should not be exclusively reserved for individuals who have failed other approaches. ITB combined with rehabilitation can be effective in certain ambulatory patients. ITB is also highly effective in managing spasticity in children, who may suffer limb deformity, joint dislocation, and poor motor function from spasticity and muscle tightness on the growing musculoskeletal system. Spasticity management often allows individuals to achieve higher function. When cognition is impaired, ITB controls spasticity without the cognitive side effects of some oral medications. Goal setting addresses expectations and treatment in the framework of pathology, impairment, and disability. ITB is contraindicated in patients with hypersensitivity to baclofen, which is rare, or active infection. Some patients with an adverse reaction to oral baclofen may be mistakenly classified as having an allergic reaction and may benefit from ITB. Relative contraindications include unrealistic goals, unmanageable mental health issues, psychosocial factors affecting compliance, and financial burden. Vascular shunting for hydrocephalus is not a contraindication, but concurrent use may affect cerebrospinal fluid flow. Seizures or prior abdominal or pelvic surgery should be discussed before proceeding to an ITB screening test. ITB should be considered when spasticity interferes with comfort or function. © 2016 International Neuromodulation Society.

  15. Enantioresolution of (RS)-baclofen by liquid chromatography: A review.

    PubMed

    Batra, Sonika; Bhushan, Ravi

    2017-01-01

    Baclofen is a commonly used racemic drug and has a simple chemical structure in terms of the presence of only one stereogenic center. Since the desirable pharmacological effect is in only one enantiomer, several possibilities exist for the other enantiomer for evaluation of the disposition of the racemic mixture of the drug. This calls for the development of enantioselective analytical methodology. This review summarizes and evaluates different methods of enantioseparation of (RS)-baclofen using both direct and indirect approaches, application of certain chiral reagents and chiral stationary phases (though very expensive). Methods of separation of diastereomers of (RS)-baclofen prepared with different chiral derivatizing reagents (under microwave irradiation at ease and in less time) on reversed-phase achiral columns or via a ligand exchange approach providing high-sensitivity detection by the relatively less expensive methods of TLC and HPLC are discussed. The methods may be helpful for determination of enantiomers in biological samples and in pharmaceutical formulations for control of enantiomeric purity and can be practiced both in analytical laboratories and industry for routine analysis and R&D activities. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Gi-Coupled γ-Aminobutyric Acid–B Receptors Cross-Regulate Phospholipase C and Calcium in Airway Smooth Muscle

    PubMed Central

    Mizuta, Kentaro; Mizuta, Fumiko; Xu, Dingbang; Masaki, Eiji; Panettieri, Reynold A.

    2011-01-01

    γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the mammalian central nervous system, and exerts its actions via both ionotropic (GABAA) and metabotropic (GABAB) receptors. Although the functional expression of GABAB receptors coupled to the Gi protein was reported for airway smooth muscle, the role of GABAB receptors in airway responsiveness remains unclear. We investigated whether Gi-coupled GABAB receptors cross-regulate phospholipase C (PLC), an enzyme classically regulated by Gq-coupled receptors in human airway smooth muscle cells. Both the GABAB-selective agonist baclofen and the endogenous ligand GABA significantly increased the synthesis of inositol phosphate, whereas GABAA receptor agonists, muscimol, and 4,5,6,7-tetrahydroisoxazolo[5,4-c]pyridin-3-ol exerted no effect. The baclofen-induced synthesis of inositol phosphate and transient increases in [Ca2+]i were blocked by CGP35348 and CGP55845 (selective GABAB antagonists), pertussis toxin (PTX, which inactivates the Gi protein), gallein (a Gβγ signaling inhibitor), U73122 (an inhibitor of PLC-β), and xestospongin C, an inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate receptor blocker. Baclofen also potentiated the bradykinin-induced synthesis of inositol phosphate and transient increases in [Ca2+]i, which were blocked by CGP35348 or PTX. Moreover, baclofen potentiated the substance P–induced contraction of airway smooth muscle in isolated guinea pig tracheal rings. In conclusion, the stimulation of GABAB receptors in human airway smooth muscle cells rapidly mobilizes intracellular Ca2+ stores by the synthesis of inositol phosphate via the activation of PLC-β, which is stimulated by Gβγ protein liberated from Gi proteins coupled to GABAB receptors. Furthermore, crosstalk between GABAB receptors and Gq-coupled receptors potentiates the synthesis of inositol phosphate, transient increases in [Ca2+]i, and smooth muscle contraction through Gi proteins. PMID:21719794

  17. Metabotropic GABAB receptors mediate GABA inhibition of acetylcholine release in the rat neuromuscular junction.

    PubMed

    Malomouzh, Artem I; Petrov, Konstantin A; Nurullin, Leniz F; Nikolsky, Evgeny E

    2015-12-01

    Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is an amino acid which acts as a neurotransmitter in the central nervous system. Here, we studied the effects of GABA on non-quantal, spontaneous, and evoked quantal acetylcholine (ACh) release from motor nerve endings. We found that while the application of 10 μM of GABA had no effect on spontaneous quantal ACh release, as detected by the frequency of miniature endplate potentials, GABA reduced the non-quantal ACh release by 57%, as determined by the H-effect value. Finally, the evoked quantal ACh release, estimated by calculating the quantal content of full-sized endplate potentials (EPPs), was reduced by 34%. GABA's inhibitory effect remained unchanged after pre-incubation with picrotoxin, an ionotropic GABAA receptor blocker, but was attenuated following application of the GABAB receptor blocker CGP 55845, which itself had no effect on ACh release. An inhibitor of phospholipase C, U73122, completely prevented the GABA-induced decrease in ACh release. Immunofluorescence demonstrated the presence of both subunits of the GABAB receptor (GABAB R1 and GABAB R2) in the neuromuscular junction. These findings suggest that metabotropic GABAB receptors are expressed in the mammalian neuromuscular synapse and their activation results in a phospholipase C-mediated reduction in the intensity of non-quantal and evoked quantal ACh release. We investigated the effect of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) on neuromuscular transmission. GABA reduced the non-quantal and evoked quantal release of acetylcholine. These effects are mediated by GABAB receptors and are implemented via phospholipase C (PLC) activation. Our findings suggest that in the mammalian neuromuscular synapse, metabotropic GABAB receptors are expressed and their activation results in a reduction in the intensity of acetylcholine release. © 2015 International Society for Neurochemistry.

  18. A preliminary double-blind, placebo-controlled randomized study of baclofen effects in alcoholic smokers

    PubMed Central

    Zywiak, William H.; Edwards, Steven M.; Tidey, Jennifer W.; Swift, Robert M.; Kenna, George A.

    2014-01-01

    Rationale There is presently no approved single treatment for dual alcohol and nicotine dependencies. Objective This pilot study investigated baclofen effects in alcoholic smokers. Methods This was a preliminary double-blind placebo-controlled randomized clinical study with 30 alcoholic smokers randomized to baclofen at 80 mg/day or placebo. A subgroup (n=18) participated in an alcohol cue-reactivity experiment. Results Baclofen, compared with placebo, significantly decreased the percent days of abstinence from alcohol-tobacco co-use (p=0.004). Alcohol dependence severity moderated baclofen effects, with the higher severity group having the greater baclofen response (p<0.001). Although the percent days of alcohol-tobacco co-use declined in both groups, this decline was greater after placebo than baclofen (p<0.001). Secondary analyses on alcohol or tobacco use alone suggested that the increase in percent days of co-abstinence was driven by the medication differences on heavy drinking days and on percent days smoking. In the cue-reactivity substudy, baclofen slightly decreased alcohol urge (p=0.058) and significantly reduced salivation (p=0.001), but these effects were not related to cue type. Conclusions This study provides preliminary evidence suggesting a possible role of baclofen in the treatment of alcoholic smokers. However, the mixed results and the small sample require larger confirmatory studies. PMID:24973894

  19. Baclofen and Alcohol-Dependent Patients: A Real Risk of Severe Self-Poisoning.

    PubMed

    Boels, David; Victorri-Vigneau, Caroline; Grall-Bronnec, Marie; Touré, Ali; Garnier, Anais; Turcant, Alain; Le Roux, Gaël

    2017-10-01

    Baclofen is often prescribed in high doses to fight cravings experienced by alcohol-dependent patients. Such an increase in the availability of baclofen is concerning. This study aimed to determine the change in number and profile of self-poisoning with baclofen over time, as baclofen has become increasingly popular, in order to describe the severity of self-poisoning with baclofen and to focus on co-existing alcohol use disorders, and psychiatric illnesses determine predictors of severity. This was a retrospective study of self-poisoning with baclofen as reported by the western France Poison Control Center (PCC), which represents a population of more than 12 million people from January 2008 to March 2014. One hundred and eleven cases of self-poisoning with baclofen were reported to the western France PCC (62 males and 49 females; average age 39 ± 12). Poisoning severities were as follows: 'null' (nine cases), 'minor' (37 cases), 'moderate' (19 cases) and 'high' (46 cases, including four deaths). The most frequently reported symptoms were neurological (45%) and cardiovascular (27%). The severity was significantly associated with psychiatric disorders (OR = 2.9; p = 0.03). Baclofen, prescribed in high doses, may lead to severe poisoning, particularly in patients with psychiatric illnesses. Authorities should put forward a new policy for prescribing the drug as a treatment for alcohol dependence. © 2017 Nordic Association for the Publication of BCPT (former Nordic Pharmacological Society).

  20. Differential effects of sodium oxybate and baclofen on EEG, sleep, neurobehavioral performance, and memory.

    PubMed

    Vienne, Julie; Lecciso, Gianpaolo; Constantinescu, Irina; Schwartz, Sophie; Franken, Paul; Heinzer, Raphaël; Tafti, Mehdi

    2012-08-01

    Sodium oxybate (SO) is a GABAβ agonist used to treat the sleep disorder narcolepsy. SO was shown to increase slow wave sleep (SWS) and EEG delta power (0.75-4.5 Hz), both indexes of NREM sleep (NREMS) intensity and depth, suggesting that SO enhances recuperative function of NREM. We investigated whether SO induces physiological deep sleep. SO was administered before an afternoon nap or before the subsequent experimental night in 13 healthy volunteers. The effects of SO were compared to baclofen (BAC), another GABAβ receptor agonist, to assess the role of GABAβ receptors in the SO response. As expected, a nap significantly decreased sleep need and intensity the subsequent night. Both drugs reversed this nap effect on the subsequent night by decreasing sleep latency and increasing total sleep time, SWS during the first NREMS episode, and EEG delta and theta (0.75-7.25 Hz) power during NREMS. The SO-induced increase in EEG delta and theta power was, however, not specific to NREMS and was also observed during REM sleep (REMS) and wakefulness. Moreover, the high levels of delta power during a nap following SO administration did not affect delta power the following night. SO and BAC taken before the nap did not improve subsequent psychomotor performance and subjective alertness, or memory consolidation. Finally, SO and BAC strongly promoted the appearance of sleep onset REM periods. The SO-induced EEG slow waves seem not to be functionally similar to physiological slow waves. Our findings also suggest a role for GABAβ receptors in REMS generation.

  1. Baclofen-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles: preparation, electrophysiological assessment of efficacy, pharmacokinetic and tissue distribution in rats after intraperitoneal administration.

    PubMed

    Priano, Lorenzo; Zara, Gian Paolo; El-Assawy, Nadia; Cattaldo, Stefania; Muntoni, Elisabetta; Milano, Eva; Serpe, Loredana; Musicanti, Claudia; Pérot, Chantal; Gasco, Maria Rosa; Miscio, Giacinta; Mauro, Alessandro

    2011-09-01

    Intrathecal baclofen administration is the reference treatment for spasticity of spinal or cerebral origin, but the risk of infection or catheter dysfunctions are important limits. To explore the possibility of alternative administration routes, we studied a new preparation comprising solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN) incorporating baclofen (baclofen-SLN). We used SLN because they are able to give a sustained release and to target the CNS. Wistar rats were injected intraperitoneally with baclofen-SLN or baclofen solution (baclofen-sol group) at increasing dosages. At different times up to 4 h, efficacy was tested by the H-reflex and two scales evaluating sedation and motor symptoms due to spinal lesions. Rats were killed and baclofen concentration determined in blood and tissues. Physiological solution or unloaded SLN was used as controls. After baclofen-SLN injection, the effect, consisting in a greater and earlier reduction of the H/M ratio than baclofen-sol group and controls, was statistically significant from a dose of 5 mg/kg and was inversely correlated with dose. Clinical effect of baclofen-SLN on both the behavioral scales was greater than that of baclofen-sol and lasted until 4th hour. Compared with baclofen-sol, baclofen-SLN produced significantly higher drug concentrations in plasma from 2nd hour until 4th hour with a linear decrement and in the brain at all times. In conclusion, our study demonstrated the efficacy of a novel formulation of baclofen, which exploits the advantages of SLN preparations. However, for clinical purposes, high baclofen concentrations in brain tissue and sedation may be unwanted effects, requiring further studies and optimization of dosages. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Population Pharmacokinetics of Oral Baclofen in Pediatric Patients with Cerebral Palsy

    PubMed Central

    He, Yang; Brunstrom-Hernandez, Janice E.; Thio, Liu Lin; Lackey, Shellie; Gaebler-Spira, Deborah; Kuroda, Maxine M.; Stashinko, Elaine; Hoon, Alexander H.; Vargus-Adams, Jilda; Stevenson, Richard D.; Lowenhaupt, Stephanie; McLaughlin, John F.; Christensen, Ana; Dosa, Nienke P.; Butler, Maureen; Schwabe, Aloysia; Lopez, Christina; Roge, Desiree; Kennedy, Diane; Tilton, Ann; Krach, Linda E.; Lewandowski, Andrew; Dai, Hongying; Gaedigk, Andrea; Leeder, J. Steven; Jusko, William J.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To characterize the population pharmacokinetics (PK) of oral baclofen and assess impact of patient-specific covariates in children with cerebral palsy (CP) in order to support its clinical use. Subjects design Children (2-17 years of age) with CP received a dose of titrated oral baclofen from 2.5 mg 3 times a day to a maximum tolerated dose of up to 20 mg 4 times a day. PK sampling followed titration of 10-12 weeks. Serial R- and S-baclofen plasma concentrations were measured for up to 16 hours in 49 subjects. Population PK modeling was performed using NONMEM 7.1 (ICON PLC; Ellicott City, Maryland). Results R- and S-baclofen showed identical concentration-time profiles. Both baclofen enantiomers exhibited linear and dose/kg-proportional PK, and no sex differences were observed. Average baclofen terminal half-life was 4.5 hours. A 2-compartment PK model with linear elimination and transit absorption steps adequately described concentration-time profiles of both baclofen enantiomers. The mean population estimate of apparent clearance/F was 0.273 L/h/kg with 33.4% inter-individual variability (IIV), and the apparent volume of distribution (Vss/F) was 1.16 L/kg with 43.9% IIV. Delayed absorption was expressed by a mean transit time of 0.389 hours with 83.7% IIV. Body weight, a possible genetic factor, and age were determinants of apparent clearance in these children. Conclusion The PK of oral baclofen exhibited dose-proportionality and were adequately described by a 2-compartment model. Our population PK findings suggest that baclofen dosage can be based on body weight (2 mg/kg per day) and the current baclofen dose escalation strategy is appropriate in the treatment of children with CP older than 2 years of age. PMID:24607242

  3. Unusual placement of intrathecal baclofen pumps: report of two cases.

    PubMed

    Devine, Oliver; Harborne, Andrew; Lo, William B; Weinberg, Daniel; Ciras, Mahesh; Price, Rupert

    2016-01-01

    Intrathecal baclofen delivery via implantable pump represents an important modality for symptomatic relief in patients with chronic spasticity. Pumps are routinely implanted subcutaneously in the anterior abdominal wall. We describe two unusual cases where skin-related complications necessitated revision surgery in order to relocate the pump to alternative sites. The first patient was an international power canoeist, whose strenuous exercise programme interfered with his pump's original siting. The second patient was a cachectic university student with a history of cerebral palsy, who maintained low body mass despite attempted weight gain. The relocation of these two intrathecal devices to the medial compartment of the right thigh and right iliac fossa, respectively, is described.

  4. Baclofen for the Treatment of Alcohol Dependence and Possible Role of Comorbid Anxiety

    PubMed Central

    Morley, K.C.; Baillie, A.; Leung, S.; Addolorato, G.; Leggio, L.; Haber, P.S.

    2014-01-01

    Aim: To conduct a double-blind, placebo-controlled randomized clinical trial of baclofen in the treatment of alcohol dependence. Methods: Out of 69 participants consecutively screened, 42 alcohol-dependent patients were randomized to receive placebo, baclofen 30 mg/day or baclofen 60 mg/day for 12 weeks. All subjects were offered BRENDA, a structured psychosocial therapy for alcohol dependence that seeks to improve motivation for change, enhance strategies to prevent relapse and encourage compliance with treatment. Results: Intention-to-treat analyses revealed that alcohol consumption (heavy drinking days, drinks per drinking day) significantly reduced across all three groups during the treatment period. There were no statistically significant advantages to treatment on time to first heavy drinking day (relapse) (P = 0.08), nor time to first drink (lapse) (P = 0.18). A post hoc analysis stratifying according to whether there had been a comorbid anxiety disorder, revealed a beneficial effect of baclofen 30 mg/day versus placebo on time to lapse and relapse (P < 0.05). There was also a beneficial effect for baclofen 60 mg/day relative to placebo on time to relapse in this comorbid group (P < 0.05). Both doses of baclofen were well tolerated. There were no serious adverse events. Conclusions: In spite of the small sample for a 3-arm clinical trial, this study suggests a specific role of baclofen in alcohol-dependent individuals with comorbid anxiety. Replication in larger, fully-powered studies is required. PMID:25246489

  5. Epidural Baclofen for the Management of Postoperative Pain in Children With Cerebral Palsy.

    PubMed

    Nemeth, Blaise A; Montero, Robert J; Halanski, Matthew A; Noonan, Kenneth J

    2015-09-01

    Children with cerebral palsy undergoing soft tissue and bony procedures often experience pain and spasticity postoperatively. Differentiation of pain from spasticity complicates management, so controlling spasticity with a continuous infusion of baclofen, an antispasmodic, through an already present indwelling epidural catheter holds interest. A retrospective chart review was performed of patients with cerebral palsy undergoing single event, multilevel lower extremity surgery at a single institution who received epidural analgesia with or without continuous baclofen infusion. Primary outcomes included need for supplemental narcotic analgesics and benzodiazepines postoperatively. Duration of hospitalization, pain scores, and complications were also evaluated. Forty-four patients were identified, ranging in age from 3 to 17 years, 19 of whom received epidural baclofen. No differences were found in use of supplemental narcotic analgesia, benzodiazepines, or duration of hospitalization. Differences in pain scores were not statistically significant (0.82±0.95 for baclofen vs. 1.48±0.99 for controls) (P=0.391). Mean arterial pressure was lower in patients receiving baclofen (P=0.004). No potential side effects attributable to baclofen were noted. Continuous epidural baclofen infusion seems unlikely to alter the pain-spasm cycle experienced by patients with cerebral palsy following orthopaedic surgery to a clinically significant degree. More effective, and cost-effective, measures at assessing and controlling pain and muscle spasm should be explored to benefit cerebral palsy patients postoperatively. Level III-therapeutic study.

  6. GABAB-mediated rescue of altered excitatory-inhibitory balance, gamma synchrony and behavioral deficits following constitutive NMDAR-hypofunction.

    PubMed

    Gandal, M J; Sisti, J; Klook, K; Ortinski, P I; Leitman, V; Liang, Y; Thieu, T; Anderson, R; Pierce, R C; Jonak, G; Gur, R E; Carlson, G; Siegel, S J

    2012-07-17

    Reduced N-methyl-D-aspartate-receptor (NMDAR) signaling has been associated with schizophrenia, autism and intellectual disability. NMDAR-hypofunction is thought to contribute to social, cognitive and gamma (30-80 Hz) oscillatory abnormalities, phenotypes common to these disorders. However, circuit-level mechanisms underlying such deficits remain unclear. This study investigated the relationship between gamma synchrony, excitatory-inhibitory (E/I) signaling, and behavioral phenotypes in NMDA-NR1(neo-/-) mice, which have constitutively reduced expression of the obligate NR1 subunit to model disrupted developmental NMDAR function. Constitutive NMDAR-hypofunction caused a loss of E/I balance, with an increase in intrinsic pyramidal cell excitability and a selective disruption of parvalbumin-expressing interneurons. Disrupted E/I coupling was associated with deficits in auditory-evoked gamma signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). Gamma-band abnormalities predicted deficits in spatial working memory and social preference, linking cellular changes in E/I signaling to target behaviors. The GABA(B)-receptor agonist baclofen improved E/I balance, gamma-SNR and broadly reversed behavioral deficits. These data demonstrate a clinically relevant, highly translatable neural-activity-based biomarker for preclinical screening and therapeutic development across a broad range of disorders that share common endophenotypes and disrupted NMDA-receptor signaling.

  7. Structural characterization and Hirshfeld surface analysis of racemic baclofen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maniukiewicz, Waldemar; Oracz, Monika; Sieroń, Lesław

    2016-11-01

    The crystal structure of baclofen, (R,S) [4-amino-3-(4-chlorophenyl)butanoic acid], (C10H12ClNO2, Mr = 213.66) has been determined by single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. The title compound crystallizes in the orthorhombic space group Pbca (No. 61) with a = 9.2704(5), b = 7.0397(4), c = 30.4015(15) Å, V = 1984.0(2) Å3 and Z = 8. The molecules exist as zwitterions, adopting a gauche conformation with respect to the Cαsbnd Cβ bond, and held in a cross-linked chain arrangement by strong Nsbnd H⋯O hydrogen bonds and Csbnd Cl⋯π interactions. The electrostatic molecular potential as well as the intermolecular interactions of the title compound were analyzed by the Hirshfeld surfaces. The FT-IR spectrum is also reported. The DTA, TG and DTG results indicate that baclofen is stable up to 205 °C.

  8. Ethanol and Mesolimbic Serotonin/Dopamine Interactions via 5-HT-1B Receptors

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-03-01

    finished with After completion of the dialysis, the animals were given infusion of 50 [tM of baclofen , a GABAB receptor agonist, an intracardiac...in the quickly, and 40-[tm-thick coronal sections were cut on a ipsilateral NACC after perfusion with baclofen was consid- freezing microtome, stained...triethylamine, 11.5% and appropriate accumbal DA responses to perfusion of the acetonitrile and 11.5% methanol (pH 5.6 with H3 PO4 ), VTA with baclofen were

  9. Baclofen-induced reductions in optional food intake depend upon food composition.

    PubMed

    Wojnicki, F H E; Charny, G; Corwin, R L W

    2013-05-01

    Baclofen reduces intake of some foods but stimulates intake or has no effect on others. The reasons for these differences are not known. The present study examined effects of baclofen when composition, energy density, preference, presentation and intake of optional foods varied. Semi-solid fat emulsions and sucrose products were presented for brief periods to non-food-deprived rats. In Experiment 1, fat and sucrose composition were varied while controlling energy density. In Experiment 2A, schedule of access and the number of optional foods were varied. In Experiment 2B, the biopolymer (thickener) was examined. Baclofen reduced intake of fat and/or sugar options with different energy densities (1.28-9kcal/g), when presented daily or intermittently, and when intakes were relatively high or low. However, the efficacy of baclofen was affected by the biopolymer used to thicken the options: baclofen had no effect when options were thickened with one biopolymer (3173), but reduced intake when options were thickened with another biopolymer (515). Baclofen failed to reduce intake of a concentrated sugar option (64% sucrose), regardless of biopolymer. Based upon these results, caution is urged when interpreting results obtained with products using different thickening agents. Systematic research is needed when designing products used in rat models of food intake. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Baclofen Toxicity in a Patient with Hemodialysis-Dependent End-Stage Renal Disease.

    PubMed

    Porter, Lauren M; Merrick, Stephanie S; Katz, Kenneth D

    2017-04-01

    Oral baclofen toxicity is extremely rare, but can affect patients with renal disease due to the drug's predominant renal clearance of approximately 69-85%. Patients with severely impaired renal function typically develop symptoms soon after initiating baclofen therapy, even at relatively low doses. A 69-year-old woman with a history of hemodialysis-dependent end-stage renal disease presented to the Emergency Department with encephalopathy, ataxia, and dystonia after the addition of a recent baclofen prescription for back pain (10 mg twice daily). She had been taking baclofen as prescribed for approximately 1 week when, the day prior to admission, she had increased her dose to a total of 40 mg. Diagnostic studies demonstrated the patient had chronic, end-stage renal disease and a supratherapeutic concentration of baclofen. Signs and symptoms resolved with hemodialysis. WHY SHOULD AN EMERGENCY PHYSICIAN BE AWARE OF THIS?: It is of critical importance for emergency physicians to appreciate impaired baclofen clearance in those with underlying renal disease to obviate the potential for significant drug toxicity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Baclofen pump catheter leakage after migration of the abdominal catheter in a pediatric patient with spasticity.

    PubMed

    Dastgir, Amer; Ranalli, Nathan J; MacGregor, Theresa L; Aldana, Philipp R

    2015-09-01

    The authors report an unusual case of intrathecal baclofen withdrawal due to the perforation and subsequent leakage of a baclofen pump catheter in a patient with spastic cerebral palsy. A 15-year-old boy underwent an uncomplicated placement of an intrathecal baclofen pump for the treatment of spasticity due to cerebral palsy. After excellent control of symptoms for 3 years, the patient presented to the emergency department with increasing tremors following a refill of his baclofen pump. Initial evaluation consisted of radiographs of the pump and catheter, which appeared normal, and a successful aspiration of CSF from the pump's side port. A CT dye study revealed a portion of the catheter directly overlying the refill port and extravasation of radiopaque dye into the subfascial pocket anterior to the pump. During subsequent revision surgery, a small puncture hole in the catheter was seen to be leaking the drug. The likely cause of the puncture was an inadvertent perforation of the catheter by a needle during the refilling of the pump. This case report highlights a unique complication in a patient with an intrathecal baclofen pump. Physicians caring for these patients should be aware of this rare yet potential complication in patients presenting with baclofen withdrawal symptoms.

  12. BACLOFEN-INDUCED REDUCTIONS IN OPTIONAL FOOD INTAKE DEPEND UPON FOOD COMPOSITION

    PubMed Central

    Wojnicki, F.H.E.; Charny, G.; Corwin, R.L.W

    2013-01-01

    Baclofen reduces intake of some foods but stimulates intake or has no effect on others. The reasons for these differences are not known. The present study examined effects of baclofen when composition, energy density, preference, presentation and intake of optional foods varied. Semi-solid fat emulsions and sucrose products were presented for brief periods to non-food-deprived rats. In Experiment 1, fat and sucrose composition were varied while controlling energy density. In Experiment 2A, schedule of access and the number of optional foods were varied. In Experiment 2B, the biopolymer (thickener) was examined. Baclofen reduced intake of fat and/or sugar options with different energy densities (1.28-9 kcal/g), when presented daily or intermittently, and when intakes were relatively high or low. However, the efficacy of baclofen was affected by the biopolymer used to thicken the options: baclofen had no effect when options were thickened with one biopolymer (3173), but reduced intake when options were thickened with another biopolymer (515). Baclofen failed to reduce intake of a concentrated sugar option (64% sucrose), regardless of biopolymer. Based upon these results, caution is urged when interpreting results obtained with products using different thickening agents. Systematic research is needed when designing products used in rat models of food intake. PMID:23321345

  13. A pilot study assessing pharmacokinetics and tolerability of oral and intravenous baclofen in healthy adult volunteers.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Suresh K; Kriel, Robert L; Cloyd, James C; Coles, Lisa D; Scherkenbach, Lisa A; Tobin, Michael H; Krach, Linda E

    2015-01-01

    Our objective was to characterize baclofen pharmacokinetics and safety given orally and intravenously. Twelve healthy subjects were enrolled in a randomized, open-label, crossover study and received single doses of baclofen: 3 or 5 mg given intravenously and 5 or 10 mg taken orally with a 48-hour washout. Blood samples for baclofen analysis were collected pre-dose and at regular intervals up to 24 hours post-dose. Clinical response was assessed by sedation scores, ataxia, and nystagmus. Mean absolute bioavailability of oral baclofen was 74%. Dose-adjusted areas under the curve between the oral and intravenous arms were statistically different (P = .0024), whereas area under the curve variability was similar (coefficient of variation: 18%-24%). Adverse effects were mild in severity and not related to either dose or route of administration. Three- and 5-mg intravenous doses of baclofen were well tolerated. Seventy-four percent oral bioavailability indicates that smaller doses of intravenous baclofen are needed to attain comparable total drug exposures. © The Author(s) 2014.

  14. Baclofen dosage after traumatic spinal cord injury: a multi-decade retrospective analysis.

    PubMed

    Veerakumar, Ashan; Cheng, Jennifer J; Sunshine, Abraham; Ye, Xiaobu; Zorowitz, Richard D; Anderson, William S

    2015-02-01

    To perform an analysis of oral baclofen dosage in patients with traumatic spinal cord injuries over time and to ascertain the clinical determinants of long-term baclofen dosage trends. Retrospective cohort study of patient records from the PM&R units at the Johns Hopkins Bayview Medical Center and the Johns Hopkins Hospital. A total of 115 PM&R patients suffering spinal cord injury due to trauma leading to either complete or incomplete paralysis. The modes of injury included were motor vehicle accidents (MVA) (n=39), gunshot wounds (GSW) (n=55), falls (n=17), diving (n=2), workplace (n=1) and swimming (n=1) accidents. The location of injury in the spinal cord was categorized into either cervical (n=52), thoracic (n=59), lumbar (n=2), or unspecified (n=2). From time of injury, an aggregate of all dosage assignments for each patient demonstrated a significant yearly increase in baclofen dosage (1.26 mg/year, p<0.01). Baclofen dosage for MVA cases were seen to rise at 4.99 mg/year (p<0.0001). Kaplan-Meier analysis revealed that GSW patients received their first baclofen dosage earlier than MVA patients (log-rank p<0.05, unadjusted). We observed a marginal increase in baclofen dosage over nearly 25 years in a single provider's patient database and observed different timings of first dose between two causes of traumatic SCI. These results provide an estimate of baclofen dosage trends over time after spinal cord injury and may be useful for patient counseling or as a method to assess costs of providing SCI patient care. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Clinical and urodynamic effects of baclofen in women with functional bladder outlet obstruction: Preliminary report.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chi-Hau; Hsiao, Sheng-Mou; Chang, Ting-Chen; Wu, Wen-Yih; Lin, Ho-Hsiung

    2016-05-01

    To investigate the efficacy and urodynamic effects of baclofen in women with functional bladder outlet obstruction. Between January 2011 and December 2012, women who underwent baclofen treatment for functional bladder outlet obstruction, defined as <15 mL/s maximum flow rate and >20 cmH2 O detrusor pressure at maximum flow rate, but without significant anatomic causes, were retrospectively reviewed. Urodynamic variables at baseline and after 12 weeks of treatment were compared. Twenty women with functional bladder outlet obstruction underwent 12 weeks of baclofen treatment (oral baclofen 5 mg, three times daily). All patients reported improvement in voiding dysfunction symptoms after treatment, and no significant adverse effects were found on review of medical records. All patients underwent urodynamic studies after 12 weeks' treatment. Voided volume, voiding efficiency and maximum flow rate at voiding cystometry were significantly improved (mean, 273 vs. 368 mL, P = 0.002; 62.8% vs. 73.6%, P <0.001, and 10.3 vs. 11.6 mL/s, P = 0.046; respectively). Moreover, baclofen did not affect continence function, as indicated by non-significant changes in the parameters of urethral pressure profiles. Oral baclofen can improve symptoms of voiding dysfunction, voided volume, voiding efficiency and maximum flow rate in women with functional bladder outlet obstruction. None of the patients experienced intolerable side-effects. Thus, oral baclofen may be used as an initial treatment for women with symptoms of voiding dysfunction. © 2016 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  16. Quantitative pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic modelling of baclofen-mediated cardiovascular effects using BP and heart rate in rats.

    PubMed

    Kamendi, Harriet; Barthlow, Herbert; Lengel, David; Beaudoin, Marie-Eve; Snow, Debra; Mettetal, Jerome T; Bialecki, Russell A

    2016-10-01

    While the molecular pathways of baclofen toxicity are understood, the relationships between baclofen-mediated perturbation of individual target organs and systems involved in cardiovascular regulation are not clear. Our aim was to use an integrative approach to measure multiple cardiovascular-relevant parameters [CV: mean arterial pressure (MAP), systolic BP, diastolic BP, pulse pressure, heart rate (HR); CNS: EEG; renal: chemistries and biomarkers of injury] in tandem with the pharmacokinetic properties of baclofen to better elucidate the site(s) of baclofen activity. Han-Wistar rats were administered vehicle or ascending doses of baclofen (3, 10 and 30 mg·kg(-1) , p.o.) at 4 h intervals and baclofen-mediated changes in parameters recorded. A pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic model was then built by implementing an existing mathematical model of BP in rats. Final model fits resulted in reasonable parameter estimates and showed that the drug acts on multiple homeostatic processes. In addition, the models testing a single effect on HR, total peripheral resistance or stroke volume alone did not describe the data. A final population model was constructed describing the magnitude and direction of the changes in MAP and HR. The systems pharmacology model developed fits baclofen-mediated changes in MAP and HR well. The findings correlate with known mechanisms of baclofen pharmacology and suggest that similar models using limited parameter sets may be useful to predict the cardiovascular effects of other pharmacologically active substances. © 2016 The British Pharmacological Society.

  17. Consciousness recovery induced by intrathecal baclofen administration after subarachnoid hemorrhage -two case reports-.

    PubMed

    Oyama, Hirofumi; Kito, Akira; Maki, Hideki; Hattori, Kenichi; Tanahashi, Kuniaki

    2010-01-01

    Two patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage recovered consciousness after intrathecal baclofen administration using an implanted intrathecal baclofen pump delivering 50 microg per day using a simple infusion mode. Intrathecal baclofen resulted in significant reduction of spasticity 3 months after the implantation. Case 1 was reduced to a completely bedridden state with spasticity and could slightly move her fingers following commands. However, the patient could eat food and wash her face with minimal assistance at 3 months after the implantation, and could stand up in the parallel bars with assistance and speak several words at 8 months. Case 2 was in a completely bedridden state at 10 months after onset and could neither drink water nor follow instructions. However, the patient became oriented and could eat by herself within 3 to 4 weeks of implantation. She could walk with a cane and use the stairs with minimal assistance at 2 and 3 months after implantation. The patient could speak fluently within 6 months of implantation. Flatulence and dysuria happened during the screening test, but these symptoms were not repeated after implantation of a pump-catheter-system and continuous intrathecal baclofen infusion. Continuous intrathecal baclofen infusion caused both improvement in muscle tone and spasms and consciousness recovery from the vegetative state. This therapy is a strong candidate treatment for patients with spasticity and consciousness disturbance.

  18. Profound Bradycardia After Intrathecal Baclofen Injection in a Patient With Hydranencephaly.

    PubMed

    Sechrist, Catherine; Kinsman, Stephen; Cain, Nicole

    2015-12-01

    Intrathecal baclofen is often used to treat medically intractable spasticity of cerebral or spinal origin. Complications are rare but close monitoring is routinely performed with intrathecal test doses and before pump implantation. We describe a 6 year-old girl with hydranencephaly who underwent an intrathecal baclofen test dose and developed severe bradycardia. A 6 year-old girl with hydranencephaly, quadriplegic cerebral palsy, and severe spasticiityn was a candidate for an intrathecal baclofen pump. She underwent an intrathecal baclofen test dose and within 4 hours developed a heart rate between 30-40 beats per minute and mild hypotension without neurological side effects. Vital signs subsequently normalized, and she was discharged home within 48 hours of admission. Although neurological side effects such as drowsiness and weakness are commonly associated with intrathecal baclofen test doses, attention should also be focused on possible hemodynamic complications including significant bradycardia, especially in vulnerable patients such as those with possible or known hypothalamic dysfunction. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. [Usefulness of Bolus Administration Using the FLEX Mode(Bolus Infusion Mode)for Baclofen Tolerance].

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Kazunori

    2017-02-01

    Intrathecal baclofen(ITB)is used to treat intractable spasticity of various etiologies and can provide better control of spasticity through the adjustment of the dose administered through the pump. However, in patients who develop tolerance to baclofen with the standard simple continuous mode, a sharp increase in dose becomes necessary, and spasticity can become harder to control. We investigated whether switching from the simple continuous mode to the bolus infusion mode was effective in controlling spasticity in patients with baclofen tolerance. We reported four patients undergoing ITB therapy at our facility who were considered to have developed baclofen tolerance. We observed the number of bolus infusions and total dose suitable for maintaining spasticity control after switching from the simple continuous mode to the bolus infusion mode. After switching to the bolus infusion mode, the total dose could be reduced in the short term; however, in the long term, the frequency of bolus infusions had to be increased to maintain spasticity control. Two years after changing to bolus infusion six times a day, the total dose was higher than that in the simple continuous mode for two of the four patients, and was the same level in the other two patients. Our four cases suggest that bolus infusion is effective in patients with baclofen tolerance during ITB therapy. Therefore, the conditions of bolus infusion should be further investigated.

  20. GABAB receptor cell surface export is controlled by an endoplasmic reticulum gatekeeper

    PubMed Central

    Doly, Stéphane; Shirvani, Hamasseh; Gäta, Gabriel; Meye, Frank; Emerit, Michel-Boris; Enslen, Hervé; Achour, Lamia; Pardo-Lopez, Liliana; Kwon, Yang Seung; Armand, Vincent; Gardette, Robert; Giros, Bruno; Gassmann, Martin; Bettler, Bernhard; Mameli, Manuel; Darmon, Michèle; Marullo, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    Summary Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) release and cell surface export of many G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), are tightly regulated. For GABAB receptors of GABA, the major mammalian inhibitory neurotransmitter, the ligand-binding GB1 subunit is maintained in the ER by unknown mechanisms in the absence of hetero-dimerization with the GB2 subunit. We report that GB1 retention is regulated by a specific gatekeeper, PRAF2. This ER resident transmembrane protein binds to GB1, preventing its progression in the biosynthetic pathway. GB1 release occurs upon competitive displacement from PRAF2 by GB2. PRAF2 concentration, relative to that of GB1 and GB2, tightly controls cell surface receptor density and controls GABAB function in neurons. Experimental perturbation of PRAF2 levels in vivo caused marked hyperactivity disorders in mice. These data reveal an unanticipated major impact of specific ER gate-keepers on GPCR function and identify PRAF2 as a new molecular target with therapeutic potential for psychiatric and neurological diseases involving GABAB function. PMID:26033241

  1. Deficits in cognition and synaptic plasticity in a mouse model of Down syndrome ameliorated by GABAB receptor antagonists

    PubMed Central

    Kleschevnikov, A.M.; Belichenko, P.V.; Faizi, M.; Jacobs, L.F.; Htun, K.; Shamloo, M.; Mobley, W.C.

    2012-01-01

    Cognitive impairment in Down syndrome (DS) is characterized by deficient learning and memory. Mouse genetic models of DS exhibit impaired cognition in hippocampally mediated behavioral tasks and reduced synaptic plasticity of hippocampal pathways. Enhanced efficiency of GABAergic neurotransmission was implicated in those changes. We have recently shown that signaling through postsynaptic GABAB receptors is significantly increased in the dentate gyrus (DG) of Ts65Dn mice, a genetic model of DS. Here we examined a role for GABAB receptors in cognitive deficits in DS by defining the effect of selective GABAB receptor antagonists on behavior and synaptic plasticity of adult Ts65Dn mice. Treatment with the GABAB receptor antagonist CGP55845 restored memory of Ts65Dn mice in the novel place recognition, novel object recognition and contextual fear conditioning tasks, but did not affect locomotion and performance in T-maze. The treatment increased hippocampal levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), equally in 2N and Ts65Dn mice. In hippocampal slices, treatment with the GABAB receptor antagonists CGP55845 or CGP52432 enhanced long-term potentiation (LTP) in the Ts65Dn DG. The enhancement of LTP was accompanied by an increase in the NMDA receptor-mediated component of the tetanus-evoked responses. These findings are evidence for a contribution of GABAB receptors to changes in hippocampal-based cognition in the Ts65Dn mouse. The ability to rescue cognitive performance through treatment with selective GABAB receptor antagonists motivates studies to further explore the therapeutic potential of these compounds in people with DS. PMID:22764230

  2. Biobehavioral effects of baclofen in anxious alcohol-dependent individuals: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, laboratory study

    PubMed Central

    Farokhnia, M; Schwandt, M L; Lee, M R; Bollinger, J W; Farinelli, L A; Amodio, J P; Sewell, L; Lionetti, T A; Spero, D E; Leggio, L

    2017-01-01

    Baclofen has been suggested as a potential pharmacotherapy for alcohol use disorder, but the clinical data are conflicting. Here we investigated the biobehavioral effects of baclofen in a sample of anxious alcohol-dependent individuals. This was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, human laboratory study in non-treatment seeking alcohol-dependent individuals with high trait anxiety (N=34). Participants received baclofen (30 mg per day) or placebo for at least 8 days, then performed an experimental session consisting of alcohol cue-reactivity followed by alcohol administration procedure (alcohol priming, then alcohol self-administration). Total amount of alcohol self-administered was the primary outcome; alcohol craving, subjective/physiological responses and mood/anxiety symptoms were also evaluated. There was no significant medication effect on the total amount of alcohol consumed during the alcohol self-administration (P=0.76). Baclofen blunted the positive association between maximum breath alcohol concentration during priming and the amount of alcohol consumption (significant interaction, P=0.03). Ratings of feeling intoxicated were significantly higher in the baclofen group after consuming the priming drink (P=0.006). During the self-administration session, baclofen significantly increased ratings of feeling high (P=0.01) and intoxicated (P=0.01). A significant reduction in heart rate (P<0.001) and a trend-level increase in diastolic blood pressure (P=0.06) were also detected in the baclofen group during the alcohol laboratory session. In conclusion, baclofen was shown to affect subjective and physiological responses to alcohol drinking in anxious alcohol-dependent individuals. These results do not support an anti-craving or anti-reinforcing effect of baclofen, but rather suggest that baclofen may act as a substitution medication for alcohol use disorder. PMID:28440812

  3. Biobehavioral effects of baclofen in anxious alcohol-dependent individuals: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, laboratory study.

    PubMed

    Farokhnia, M; Schwandt, M L; Lee, M R; Bollinger, J W; Farinelli, L A; Amodio, J P; Sewell, L; Lionetti, T A; Spero, D E; Leggio, L

    2017-04-25

    Baclofen has been suggested as a potential pharmacotherapy for alcohol use disorder, but the clinical data are conflicting. Here we investigated the biobehavioral effects of baclofen in a sample of anxious alcohol-dependent individuals. This was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, human laboratory study in non-treatment seeking alcohol-dependent individuals with high trait anxiety (N=34). Participants received baclofen (30 mg per day) or placebo for at least 8 days, then performed an experimental session consisting of alcohol cue-reactivity followed by alcohol administration procedure (alcohol priming, then alcohol self-administration). Total amount of alcohol self-administered was the primary outcome; alcohol craving, subjective/physiological responses and mood/anxiety symptoms were also evaluated. There was no significant medication effect on the total amount of alcohol consumed during the alcohol self-administration (P=0.76). Baclofen blunted the positive association between maximum breath alcohol concentration during priming and the amount of alcohol consumption (significant interaction, P=0.03). Ratings of feeling intoxicated were significantly higher in the baclofen group after consuming the priming drink (P=0.006). During the self-administration session, baclofen significantly increased ratings of feeling high (P=0.01) and intoxicated (P=0.01). A significant reduction in heart rate (P<0.001) and a trend-level increase in diastolic blood pressure (P=0.06) were also detected in the baclofen group during the alcohol laboratory session. In conclusion, baclofen was shown to affect subjective and physiological responses to alcohol drinking in anxious alcohol-dependent individuals. These results do not support an anti-craving or anti-reinforcing effect of baclofen, but rather suggest that baclofen may act as a substitution medication for alcohol use disorder.

  4. Intrathecal Baclofen Therapy for the Treatment of Spasticity in Sjögren-Larsson Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Hidalgo, Eveline Teresa; Orillac, Cordelia; Hersh, Andrew; Harter, David H; Rizzo, William B; Weiner, Howard L

    2017-01-01

    Intrathecal baclofen therapy is widely accepted as a treatment option for patients with severe spasticity. The current treatment of spasticity in patients with Sjögren-Larsson syndrome is largely symptomatic, given that no effective causal therapy treatments are available. We report the outcome of 2 patients with Sjögren-Larsson syndrome who had pump implantation for intrathecal baclofen. We observed a positive response, with a decrease of spasticity, reflecting in the Modified Ashworth Scale, and parents and caregivers observed a functional improvement in both patients. One patient experienced skin irritation 15 months after surgery, necessitating pump repositioning. No infection occurred. Our report shows that intrathecal baclofen therapy can have a positive therapeutic effect on spasticity in patients with Sjögren-Larsson syndrome, and therefore may be a promising addition to current treatments.

  5. [Temporary recommendation for use on off-label baclofen: viewpoint of Prescribers of the CAMTEA system].

    PubMed

    Rolland, Benjamin; Deheul, Sylvie; Danel, Thierry; Bence, Camille; Blanquart, Marie-Christine; Bonord, Alexandre; Semal, Robin; Briand, Thierry; Sochala, Michel; Dubocage, Christelle; Dupriez, François; Duquesne, Damien; Gibour, Bernard; Loosfeld, Xavier; Henebelle, Dorothée; Henon, Michael; Vernalde, Elodie; Matton, Christian; Bacquet, Jean-Eudes; Molmy, Lucie; Sarasy, François; Simioni, Nicolas; Richez, Cécile; Gentil-Spinosi, Laure; Vosgien, Véronique; Yguel, Jacques; Ledent, Thierry; Auffret, Marine; Wilquin, Maroussia; Ziolkowski, Danièle; Sochala, Michel; Gautier, Sophie; Bordet, Régis; Cottencin, Olivier

    2015-01-01

    The use of high dose baclofen for alcohol-dependence emerged in France from 2008 based on empirical findings, and is still off-label. However, due to the rapid increase in this prescribing practice, the French health authorities have decided to frame it using an extraordinary regulatory measure named "temporary recommendation for use" (TRU). Baclofen prescribers from CAMTEA, a regional team-based off-label system for supervising baclofen prescribing, which was developed much prior to the TRU, discuss herein the pros and cons of this measure and the applicability of its different aspects in the daily clinical practice. © 2014 Société Française de Pharmacologie et de Thérapeutique.

  6. GABAergic control of food intake in the meat-type chickens.

    PubMed

    Jonaidi, H; Babapour, V; Denbow, D M

    2002-08-01

    This study examined the effects of intracerebroventricular injections of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) agonists on short-term food intake in meat-type cockerels. In Experiment 1, birds were injected with various doses of muscimol, a GABA(A) agonist. In Experiment 2, the birds received bicuculline, a GABA(A) antagonist, prior to injection of muscimol. In Experiment 3, the effect of varying doses of baclofen, a GABA(B) agonist, on food intake was determined. The intracerebroventricular injection of muscimol caused a dose-dependent increase in food intake. This effect was significantly attenuated by pretreatment with bicuculline. Food intake was not affected by the intracerebroventricular injection of baclofen. These results suggest that GABA acts within the brain of broilers at a GABA(A), but not GABA(B), receptor to increase voluntary food intake.

  7. Effects of GABAB receptors in the insula on recognition memory observed with intellicage.

    PubMed

    Wu, Nan; Wang, Feng; Jin, Zhe; Zhang, Zhen; Wang, Lian-Kun; Zhang, Chun; Sun, Tao

    2017-04-17

    Insular function has gradually become a topic of intense study in cognitive research. Recognition memory is a commonly studied type of memory in memory research. GABA B R has been shown to be closely related to memory formation. In the present study, we used intellicage, which is a new intelligent behavioural test system, and a bilateral drug microinjection technique to inject into the bilateral insula, to examine the relationship between GABA B R and recognition memory. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into control, Sham, Nacl, baclofen and CGP35348 groups. Different testing procedures were employed using intellicage to detect changes in rat recognition memory. The expression of GABA B R (GB1, GB2) in the insula of rats was determined by immunofluorescence and western blotting at the protein level. In addition, the expression of GABA B R (GB 1 , GB 2 ) was detected by RT-PCR at the mRNA level. The results of the intellicage test showed that recognition memory was impaired in terms of position learning, punitive learning and punitive reversal learning by using baclofen and CGP35348. In position reversal learning, no significant differences were found in terms of cognitive memory ability between the control groups and the CGP and baclofen groups. Immunofluorescence data showed GABA B R (GB1, GB2) expression in the insula, while data from RT-PCR and western blot analysis demonstrated that the relative expression of GB1 and GB2 was significantly increased in the baclofen group compared with the control groups. In the CGP35348 group, the expression of GB1 and GB2 was significantly decreased, but there was no significant difference in GB1 or GB2 expression in the control groups. GABA B R expression in the insula plays an important role in the formation of recognition memory in rats.

  8. A functional assay to measure postsynaptic gamma-aminobutyric acidB responses in cultured spinal cord neurons: Heterologous regulation of the same K+ channel

    SciTech Connect

    Kamatchi, G.L.; Ticku, M.K.

    1991-02-01

    The stimulation of postsynaptic gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)B receptors leads to slow inhibitory postsynaptic potentials due to the influx of K(+)-ions. This was studied biochemically, in vitro in mammalian cultured spinal cord neurons by using 86Rb as a substitute for K+. (-)-Baclofen, a GABAB receptor agonist, produced a concentration-dependent increase in the 86Rb-influx. This effect was stereospecific and blocked by GABAB receptor antagonists like CGP 35 348 (3-aminopropyl-diethoxymethyl-phosphonic acid) and phaclofen. Apart from the GABAB receptors, both adenosine via adenosine1 receptors and 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) via 5-HT1 alpha agonists also increased the 86Rb-influx. These agonists failed to show any additivity between themmore » when they were combined in their maximal concentration. In addition, their effect was antagonized specifically by their respective antagonists without influencing the others. These findings suggest the presence of GABAB, adenosine1 and 5-HT1 alpha receptors in the cultured spinal cord neurons, which exhibit a heterologous regulation of the same K(+)-channel. The effect of these agonists were antagonized by phorbol 12,13-didecanoate, an activator of protein kinase C, and pretreatment with pertussis toxin. This suggests that these agonists by acting on their own receptors converge on the same K(+)-channel through the Gi/Go proteins. In summary, we have developed a biochemical functional assay for studying and characterizing GABAB synaptic pharmacology in vitro, using spinal cord neurons.« less

  9. Intrathecal baclofen treatment in dystonic cerebral palsy: a randomized clinical trial: the IDYS trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Dystonic cerebral palsy is primarily caused by damage to the basal ganglia and central cortex. The daily care of these patients can be difficult due to dystonic movements. Intrathecal baclofen treatment is a potential treatment option for dystonia and has become common practice. Despite this widespread adoption, high quality evidence on the effects of intrathecal baclofen treatment on daily activities is lacking and prospective data are needed to judge the usefulness and indications for dystonic cerebral palsy. The primary aim of this study is to provide level one clinical evidence for the effects of intrathecal baclofen treatment on the level of activities and participation in dystonic cerebral palsy patients. Furthermore, we hope to identify clinical characteristics that will predict a beneficial effect of intrathecal baclofen in an individual patient. Methods/Design A double blind placebo-controlled multi-center randomized clinical trial will be performed in 30 children with dystonic cerebral palsy. Patients aged between 4 and 25 years old with a confirmed diagnosis of dystonic cerebral palsy, Gross Motor Functioning Classification System level IV or V, with lesions in the cerebral white matter, basal ganglia or central cortex and who are eligible for intrathecal baclofen treatment will be included. Group A will receive three months of continuous intrathecal baclofen treatment and group B will receive three months of placebo treatment, both via an implanted pump. After this three month period, all patients will receive intrathecal baclofen treatment, with a follow-up after nine months. The primary outcome measurement will be the effect on activities of and participation in daily life measured by Goal Attainment Scaling. Secondary outcome measurements on the level of body functions include dystonia, spasticity, pain, comfort and sleep-related breathing disorders. Side effects will be monitored and we will study whether patient characteristics

  10. Effect of baclofen on gastric acid pocket in subjects with gastroesophageal reflux disease symptoms.

    PubMed

    Scarpellini, E; Boecxstaens, V; Broers, C; Vos, R; Pauwels, A; Tack, J

    2016-11-01

    Postprandial gastroesophageal reflux (PGER) in the distal esophagus (DE) is associated with a gastric juice 'acid pocket' (AP). Baclofen reduces AP extension into the DE in healthy volunteers, in part through increased lower esophageal sphincter (LES) pressure. We aimed to verify whether baclofen also affects postprandial AP location and extent in gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) patients. Thirteen treatment-naive heartburn-prevalent GERD patients underwent two AP studies, after pretreatment with baclofen 40 mg or placebo 30 minutes preprandially. We performed pH-probe stepwise pull-throughs (PT) (1 cm/min, LES -10 to +5 cm) before and every 30 minutes from 30 minutes before up to 150 minutes after a test meal. After the meal, both after placebo and baclofen, gastric pH significantly dropped at 30, 60, 90 minutes postprandially (P: nadir pHs of 3.9 ± 0.6, 2.3 ± 0.6, 2.1 ± 0.4; B: nadir pHs of 2.5 ± 0.4, 2.8 ± 0.4, 2.5 ± 0.3; all P < 0.05). After placebo, LES pressure decreased at 60, 90 and 120 minutes postprandially (32.7 ± 6.1 vs. 24.5 ± 3.1, 27.3 ± 5.9, 27.3 ± 6.0 mmHg; analysis of variance [ANOVA], P = 0.037), but this was prevented by baclofen (25.4 ± 3.4 vs. 29.4 ± 2, 32.2 ± 1.4, 35.5 ± 1.7 mmHg, ANOVA, P = not significant (NS)). Baclofen did not significantly decrease the postprandial AP extent above the LES but prevented the postprandial increase in transient lower esophageal sphincter relaxations (TLESRs) (preprandial vs. postprandial, placebo: 1.1 ± 0.3 vs. 3.7 ± 0.7, P < 0.05; baclofen: 1.4 ± 0.4 vs. 2 ± 0.5, P = NS). In GERD patients, baclofen significantly increases postprandial LES pressure, prevents the increase TLESRs but, unlike in healthy volunteers, does not affect AP extension into the DE. © 2015 International Society for Diseases of the Esophagus.

  11. Opiate-induced motor stimulation is regulated by gamma-aminobutyric acid type B receptors found in the ventral tegmental area in mice.

    PubMed

    Leite-Morris, Kimberly A; Fukudome, Eugene Y; Kaplan, Gary B

    2002-01-14

    Recent studies suggest that gamma-aminobutyric acid type B (GABA(B)) receptors located on dopaminergic cells in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) regulate mesolimbic dopaminergic (A10) activity. In the current study, we identified GABA(B) receptor subtypes in the area of the VTA and examined their role in modulating acute opiate actions. We studied the effects of intra-VTA infusions of the selective GABA(B) agonist baclofen on morphine-induced locomotor stimulation and A10 neuronal activation. Drug treatments were followed by ambulatory activity monitoring for 180 min. Intra-VTA baclofen treatment produced a 70% inhibition of morphine-stimulated locomotor activity. Furthermore, functional activation of A10 neurons was assessed by immunohistochemical staining of c-Fos in the nucleus accumbens (NAc), where A10 neurons terminate. We found that morphine treatment increased the levels of Fos-positive nuclei in the NAc, while intra-VTA baclofen treatment reversed morphine's effects. Finally, GABA(B) receptor subtypes and isoforms were identified in the ventromedial mesencephalon using immunoblotting. We demonstrated the presence of GABA(B)R1a (130 kDa), GABA(B)R1b (100 kDa), and GABA(B)R2 (120 kDa) receptor subtypes in this region. These results suggest that GABA(B) receptor isoforms are found in the VTA and their activation results in the blockade of behavioral effects of opiates via inhibition of dopaminergic neurotransmission.

  12. β2 Agonists.

    PubMed

    Billington, Charlotte K; Penn, Raymond B; Hall, Ian P

    2017-01-01

    History suggests β agonists, the cognate ligand of the β 2 adrenoceptor, have been used as bronchodilators for around 5,000 years, and β agonists remain today the frontline treatment for asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The β agonists used clinically today are the products of significant expenditure and over 100 year's intensive research aimed at minimizing side effects and enhancing therapeutic usefulness. The respiratory physician now has a therapeutic toolbox of long acting β agonists to prophylactically manage bronchoconstriction, and short acting β agonists to relieve acute exacerbations. Despite constituting the cornerstone of asthma and COPD therapy, these drugs are not perfect; significant safety issues have led to a black box warning advising that long acting β agonists should not be used alone in patients with asthma. In addition there are a significant proportion of patients whose asthma remains uncontrolled. In this chapter we discuss the evolution of β agonist use and how the understanding of β agonist actions on their principal target tissue, airway smooth muscle, has led to greater understanding of how these drugs can be further modified and improved in the future. Research into the genetics of the β 2 adrenoceptor will also be discussed, as will the implications of individual DNA profiles on the clinical outcomes of β agonist use (pharmacogenetics). Finally we comment on what the future may hold for the use of β agonists in respiratory disease.

  13. Eleven years' experience with Intrathecal Baclofen - Complications, risk factors.

    PubMed

    Pucks-Faes, Elke; Hitzenberger, Gabriel; Matzak, Heinrich; Fava, Elena; Verrienti, Giulio; Laimer, Ilse; Fritz, Josef; Saltuari, Leopold

    2018-05-01

    Treatment with intrathecal baclofen (ITB) is commonly used in patients with severe spasticity. However, complications may occur after implantation of the ITB-device, albeit mainly procedure- and device-related problems. The aim of the study was to assess surgical- as well as catheter- and pump-related complications and define their risk factors. We retrospectively evaluated all patients with an implanted ITB-device who were treated at the Department of Neurology, Hochzirl Hospital, Zirl, Austria, between 2006 and 2016. Twenty-nine of 116 (25%) patients experienced 32 complications: 5 procedure- and 27 device-related (4 pump- and 23 catheter-associated) problems occurred. Risk factors for sustaining any complication were a spinal localization of lesion (odds ratio [OR] OR 2.71, p  = .021), other catheter types than an Ascenda ® catheter (OR 3.87, p  = .041), a lower modified Rankin Scale (median 4 vs. 5; OR 2.86, p  = .015) and a higher Barthel Index (median 53 vs. 0; OR 2.84, p  = .006). The median time from the last ITB-related surgery to the first complication was 18 (IQR 1-57) months. Overall, 47% complications occurred within the first year after any surgical procedure regarding the ITB-device, thereof 25% within the first month. Procedure- and device-related complications are frequent after implantation of an ITB-device with catheter-associated complications as the most frequently encountered problems. Patients with a spinal origin of spasticity, a lower modified Rankin Scale and a higher Barthel Index have a higher risk to sustain a complication.

  14. Characteristics of Patients with Alcohol Dependence Seeking Baclofen Treatment in France: A Two-Centre Comparative Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Simioni, Nicolas; Preda, Cristian; Deken, Valérie; Bence, Camille; Cottencin, Olivier; Rolland, Benjamin

    2016-11-01

    To characterize the profile of patients seeking baclofen treatment for alcohol dependence in France. We compared retrospectively baclofen seekers and baclofen non-seekers within a cohort of consecutive outpatients with alcohol dependence who attended a first appointment for alcohol treatment at two French addiction centres between September 2012 and March 2014. We documented socio-demographic characteristics; comorbid psychiatric, addiction, alcohol dependence features; patients' initial drinking goal, and referral status; and treatment retention at 6 and 12 months. Of the 289 patients identified, 107 were baclofen seekers and 182 were baclofen non-seekers. The only parameters significantly associated with baclofen seekers in multivariate analyses were a greater baseline alcohol consumption (β = 15.4, 95% CI: 0.18-30.65, P = 0.05), a controlled-drinking initial goal (OR = 14.9, 95% CI: 7.7-29, P < 0.0001) and self-referral (OR = 6.6, 95% CI: 3.7-12, P < 0.0001), baclofen seekers being eight times more likely to be self-referred and treatment-naïve (OR = 8.8, 95% CI: 4.1-18.9, P < 0.0001). Baclofen seekers were more likely to be retained in treatment at 6 months (OR = 3.5, 95% CI: 1.8-6.7, P < 0.0001) and 12 months (OR = 1.9, 95% CI: 1.1-3.2, P = 0.019). In France, the perspective of controlled drinking offered by baclofen treatment may have attracted more self-referred patients, including those without previous alcohol treatment, to attend treatment, than the usual treatment options. These findings raise the question as to whether future public health strategies on alcohol should more prominently promote some aspects of alcohol treatment, such as patient's preference and treatment options, in order to reduce the treatment gap in alcohol dependence. © The Author 2016. Medical Council on Alcohol and Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.

  15. The effects of intraperitoneal and intracerebroventricular administration of the GABAB receptor antagonist CGP 35348 on food intake in rats.

    PubMed

    Patel, Sunit M; Ebenezer, Ivor S

    2004-10-25

    In order to test the hypothesis that endogenous gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), acting at central GABAB receptors, plays a physiological role in the control of feeding behaviour, it was reasoned that blocking these receptors with a centrally active GABAB receptor antagonist should reduce food intake in hungry rats. In the present study, experiments were carried out to test this possibility using the GABAB receptor antagonist 3-aminopropyl-diethoxy-methyl-phosphinic acid (CGP 35348), which is water-soluble and can penetrate the blood-brain barrier from the systemic circulation. CGP 35348 (50 and 100 mg/kg, i.p.) had no effect on food intake in 22-h fasted rats, but a higher dose (i.e. 500 mg/kg., i.p.) significantly reduced cumulative food consumption. These findings are consistent with previous observations that high systemic doses of CGP 35348 are needed to block central GABAB receptors. However, to eliminate the possibility that the 500 mg/kg dose of CGP 35348 decreased food intake by a peripheral, rather than a central mode of action, further experiments were undertaken where the drug was given directly into the brain by the intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) route. I.c.v. administration of CGP 35348 (5 and 10 microg) significantly decreased cumulative food intake food intake in rats that had been fasted for 22 h. By contrast, i.c.v. administration of CGP 35348 (10 microg) had no effect on water intake in 16-h water-deprived rats. The results indicate that CGP 35348 reduces food consumption in hungry rats by blocking central GABAB receptors in a behaviourally specific manner. These findings suggest that endogenous GABA acting at central GABAB receptors plays a physiological role in the regulation of feeding behaviour.

  16. Baclofen reversed thermal place preference in rats with chronic constriction injury.

    PubMed

    Salte, K; Lea, G; Franek, M; Vaculin, S

    2016-06-20

    Chronic constriction injury to the sciatic nerve was used as an animal model of neuropathic pain. Instead of frequently used reflex-based tests we used an operant thermal place preference test to evaluate signs of neuropathic pain and the effect of baclofen administration in rats with neuropathy. Chronic constriction injury was induced by four loose ligations of the sciatic nerve. Thermal place preference (45 °C vs. 22 °C and 45 °C vs. 11 °C) was measured after the ligation and after the administration of baclofen in sham and experimental rats. Rats with the chronic constriction injury spent significantly less time on the colder plate compared to sham operated animals at the combination 45 °C vs. 11 °C. After administration of baclofen (10 mg/kg s.c.), the aversion to the colder plate in rats with chronic constriction injury disappeared. At the combination 45 °C vs. 22 °C, no difference in time spent on colder and/or warmer plate was found between sham and experimental animals. These findings show the importance of cold allodynia evaluation in rats with chronic constriction injury and the effectiveness of baclofen in this neuropathic pain model.

  17. Gambling disorder: a side effect of an off-label prescription of baclofen-literature review.

    PubMed

    Guillou-Landreat, Morgane; Victorri Vigneau, Caroline; Gerardin, Marie

    2017-01-10

    The use of high-dose baclofen emerged in 2008 in the treatment of alcohol-use disorders. Its prescription is still off-label in France, but recent trials have suggested the interest of using high doses for alcohol dependence, so we have to deal with an increase in its use. However, we still have few data about the adverse effects of a high-dose baclofen prescription, especially in complex addictive disorders. We present a case of a 32-year-old man who sought treatment for gambling disorders (GDs). He had complex addictive disorders, including alcohol-use disorders and GDs. He developed a severe GD, after treatment with a high dose of baclofen. The maximum dose was 160 mg/day, prescribed for his alcohol-use disorders. According to the Naranjo algorithm, the score was +7, it enabled to conclude that problem of gambling was probably imputable to baclofen. We discuss this case with reference to literature. 2017 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  18. Management of acute overdose or withdrawal state in intrathecal baclofen therapy.

    PubMed

    Watve, S V; Sivan, M; Raza, W A; Jamil, F F

    2012-02-01

    Individuals who are treated with intrathecal Baclofen (ITB) pump delivery system for intractable spasticity can suffer from severe morbidity as a result of acute overdose or withdrawal of ITB, which can also be life threatening. Current literature has a number of single case studies with different approaches to the management in such states. The aim of this article is to consolidate available evidence and develop treatment pathways for acute ITB overdose and withdrawal states. We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL and the Cochrane Library databases using the keywords 'intrathecal', 'baclofen', 'withdrawal', 'overdose' to identify studies (published up to December 2010) that focused on presentation or treatment of acute overdose and withdrawal state in ITB therapy. Only original articles in English involving adult population were included. Initial search revealed 130 articles. After reading the abstract, 13 studies on ITB overdose and 23 studies on ITB withdrawal were deemed suitable for inclusion. All studies were either single-case studies or case series. Acute ITB overdose is managed with immediate cessation of baclofen delivery through the system, reducing the baclofen load by cerebrospinal fluid aspiration and by providing supportive treatment in an intensive care setting. There is no specific antidote for reversing overdose symptoms. Acute ITB withdrawal is managed by restoring the delivery of ITB, providing supportive care in an intensive care setting and using drugs like low dose propofol or benzodiazepines in selected cases. Early involvement of ITB physicians is strongly recommended.

  19. Baclofen as relapse prevention in the treatment of gamma-hydroxybutyrate dependence: a case series.

    PubMed

    Kamal, Rama M; Loonen, Anton J M; Dijkstra, Boukje A G; De Jong, Cornelis A J

    2015-06-01

    In the last decade, gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) abuse and dependence have increased. It has been reported that GHB dependence has a high rate of relapse, serious complications of intoxication, and a potentially life-threatening withdrawal syndrome. Nevertheless, in clinical practice, there is no known medical treatment to support GHB relapse prevention. We describe a case series of patients who were supported through an off-label treatment with baclofen to avoid a relapse into GHB abuse, for a period of 12 weeks. Nine of 11 patients did not relapse while taking a dose ranging from 30 to 60 mg per day, one patient relapsed after 5 weeks, and one stopped after 7 weeks. Baclofen was well tolerated; patients reported mild side effects such as fatigue, nausea, dry mouth, excessive sweating, and depressive feelings. Although systematic evidence is still lacking, our practice-based experience suggests that treatment with baclofen to assist abstinence might be effective in patients with GHB dependence. Further systematic controlled studies are necessary to establish the exact efficacy and safety of baclofen as relapse prevention for GHB-dependent patients.

  20. Formulation and evaluation of gastroretentive microballoons containing baclofen for a floating oral controlled drug delivery system.

    PubMed

    Dube, T S; Ranpise, N S; Ranade, A N

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to fabricate and evaluate a multiparticulate oral gastroretentive dosage form of baclofen characterized by a central large cavity (hollow core) promoting unmitigated floatation with practical applications to alleviate the signs and symptoms of spasticity and muscular rigidity. Solvent diffusion and evaporation procedure were applied to prepare floating microspheres with a central large cavity using various combinations of ethylcellulose (release retardant) and HPMC K4M (release modifier) dissolved in a mixture of dichloromethane and methanol (2:1). The obtained microspheres (700-1000 µm) exhibit excellent floating ability (86 ± 2.00%) and release characteristics with entrapment efficiency of 95.2 ± 0.32%. Microspheres fabricated with ethylcellulose to HPMC K4M in the ratio 8.5:1.5 released 98.67% of the entrapped drug in 12 h. Muscle relaxation caused by baclofen microspheres impairs the rotarod performance for more than 12 h. Abdominal X-ray images showed that the gastroretention period of the floating barium sulfate- labeled microspheres was no less than 10 h. The buoyant baclofen microspheres provide a promising gastroretentive drug delivery system to deliver baclofen in spastic patients with a sustained release rate.

  1. Baclofen add-on to citalopram in treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder.

    PubMed

    Manteghi, Ali Akhoundpour; Hebrani, Paria; Mortezania, Mohammad; Haghighi, Mehri Baghban; Javanbakht, Arash

    2014-04-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a chronic disabling illness, resulting from exposure to extreme traumatic event. Although different pharmacologic agents are suggested for treatment of PTSD, none have been completely effective in eliminating symptoms. The purpose of this study was to assess the use of baclofen as an add-on to citalopram in treatment of PTSD. In this double-blind clinical trial, 40 Iranian combat veterans with PTSD were randomly assigned to 2 groups. The first group received a combination treatment of 20 to 60 mg/d citalopram and 40 mg/d baclofen, and the second group received 20 to 60 mg/d citalopram plus placebo. Symptom severity was assessed by Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale at the beginning of the study and after 2, 4, 6, and 8 weeks. Global Assessment of Functioning and Hamilton Rating Scale for Anxiety and Depression were also used at the same periods. Data were analyzed with independent t test and paired t test using SPSS software version 13 (IBM, Armonk, NY). Twenty-three male patients (baclofen group, 13 patients; placebo group, 10 patients) completed the study. Dropout from the treatment was not caused by adverse effects of the new medications in any of the subjects. Baclofen group showed significantly larger improvement in Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale total (P = 0.040), hyperarousal (P = 0.020), and avoidance (0.020) scores, Global Assessment of Functioning score (0.001), depression (P = 0.000), and anxiety (P = 0.000) after 8 weeks of treatment. No intergroup difference was found in improvement of reexperience symptoms (P = 0.740). Baclofen showed to be an effective add-on to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors in treatment of PTSD for better symptom recovery and functional improvement.

  2. Treatment of severe tetanus with intrathecal baclofen via implantable infusion device: a case report.

    PubMed

    Dapul, Geraldine; Patel, Pritesh; Pannu, Tejpaul; Meythaler, Jay

    2014-12-01

    Severe tetanus remains a serious issue in less developed countries, leading to prolonged hospitalization due to prolonged neuromuscular contraction of muscles. We present a case of severe tetanus in the United States that was successfully managed with intrathecal baclofen. A 42-year-old male without tetanus vaccination history presented to the emergency department with intractable jaw pain and worsening diffuse muscle contractures due to severe generalized tetanus requiring prolonged paralysis and ventilator support. After 14 days of continuous neuromuscular treatment with benzodiazepines, vecuronium, propofol, and magnesium sulfate, a baclofen pump trial was performed 14 days post-admission as an alternative to prolonged neuromuscular blockade. After demonstrable improvement in spasms and paroxysmal contractures due to intrathecal baclofen (ITB), a baclofen pump was implanted on hospital day 17. The catheter was threaded to T4 for maximal effect of intrathecal baclofen on the upper and lower extremities at an initial rate of 100 μg/day. ITB was titrated upward, the vecuronium was slowly weaned, and the patient was weaned off a ventilator by day 14 of ITB treatment. At an ITB dose of 450 μg/day, propofol was discontinued. ITB was continued over the next four weeks and eventually weaned over the next two weeks. The ITB pump was removed eight weeks after placement, and the patient was successfully discharged to home. Due to prolonged muscle weakness associated with long-term use of paralytic agents and sedation, early ITB trial and pump placement should be considered as an alternative in the treatment of severe tetanus to shorten length of stay and improve the functional outcome of the patient. © 2014 International Neuromodulation Society.

  3. Effectiveness of Oral Baclofen in the Treatment of Spasticity in Children and Adolescents With Cerebral Palsy.

    PubMed

    Navarrete-Opazo, Angela A; Gonzalez, Waleska; Nahuelhual, Paula

    2016-04-01

    To systematically review the effectiveness of oral baclofen versus placebo or other antispastic oral medications in terms of body function, level of activity, and quality of life in children and adolescents with spastic cerebral palsy who are younger than 18 years. Cochrane Library, Health Science Databases, DARE, LILACS, Embase, MEDLINE, OTseeker, PEDro, PsycINFO, SpeechBITE, ScienceDirect, Scopus, Trip, ClinicalTrials.gov, Google Scholar, OpenGrey, and manual search. Randomized or not randomized controlled trials and cohort studies comparing the effect of any dosage of oral baclofen with that of no treatment, placebo, or another antispastic medication in children and adolescents with spastic cerebral palsy were selected. Following the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions guidelines, 2 reviewers independently searched articles in databases from their inceptions until October 2014. Six randomized controlled trials involving a total of 130 patients were selected. Studies show a great variability in motor classification, dosage of baclofen, and outcome measures. There is conflicting evidence on the effectiveness of oral baclofen in reducing muscle tone or improving motor function or the level of activity. The overall methodological quality of the studies was low. The main qualitative limitations of the studies correspond to serious risk of bias, inconsistency of results, unpowered sample size, and publication bias. There are insufficient data to support or refute the use of oral baclofen for reducing spasticity or improving motor function in children and adolescents with spastic cerebral palsy. Copyright © 2016 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Study of High-Dose Baclofen in Alcohol-Dependent Patients-The ALPADIR Study.

    PubMed

    Reynaud, Michel; Aubin, Henri-Jean; Trinquet, Francoise; Zakine, Benjamin; Dano, Corinne; Dematteis, Maurice; Trojak, Benoit; Paille, Francois; Detilleux, Michel

    2017-07-01

    Alcohol dependence is a major public health issue with a need for new pharmacological treatments. The ALPADIR study assessed the efficacy and safety of baclofen at the target dose of 180 mg/day for the maintenance of abstinence and the reduction in alcohol consumption in alcohol-dependent patients. Three hundred and twenty adult patients (158 baclofen and 162 placebo) were randomized after alcohol detoxification. After a 7-week titration, the maintenance dose was provided for 17 weeks, then progressively decreased over 2 weeks before stopping. The percentage of abstinent patients during 20 consecutive weeks (primary endpoint) was low (baclofen: 11.9%; placebo: 10.5%) and not significantly different between groups (OR 1.20; 95%CI: 0.58 to 2.50; P = 0.618). A reduction in alcohol consumption was observed from month 1 in both groups, but the difference of 10.9 g/day at month 6 between groups, in favour of baclofen, was not statistically significant (P = 0.095). In a subgroup of patients with high drinking risk level at baseline, the reduction was greater with a difference at month 6 of 15.6 g/day between groups in favour of baclofen (P = 0.089). The craving assessed with Obsessive-Compulsive Drinking Scale significantly decreased in the baclofen group (P = 0.017). No major safety concern was observed. This study did not demonstrate the superiority of baclofen in the maintenance of abstinence at the target dose of 180 mg/day. A tendency towards a reduction in alcohol consumption and a significantly decreased craving were observed in favour of baclofen. Baclofen was assessed versus placebo for maintenance of abstinence and reduction in alcohol consumption in alcohol-dependent patients. This study did not demonstrate the superiority of baclofen in the maintenance of abstinence. A tendency towards a reduction in alcohol consumption and a significantly decreased craving were observed in favour of baclofen. © The Author 2017. Medical Council on Alcohol and Oxford

  5. Tolerability of High-dose Baclofen in the Treatment of Patients with Alcohol Disorders: A Retrospective Study.

    PubMed

    Rigal, Laurent; Legay Hoang, Léa; Alexandre-Dubroeucq, Constance; Pinot, Juliette; Le Jeunne, Claire; Jaury, Philippe

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the tolerability of high-dose baclofen taken by patients with alcohol disorders during their first year of treatment. The medical records of all patients prescribed baclofen by one general practitioner were examined and all patients who could be contacted were retrospectively interviewed about adverse effects. Of the 146 eligible patients, 116 (79%) could be interviewed. Ninety (78%) reported at least one adverse effect (mean number per patient: 2.8 ± 2.7). The mean dosage of baclofen at the onset of the first adverse effect was 83 ± 57 mg/day. The most frequent group of adverse effects involved disruption of the wake-sleep cycle and affected 73 patients (63%). Persistent adverse effects occurred in 62 patients (53%). Eight patients (7%) had adverse effects that led them to stop taking baclofen. Their dosages were <90 mg/day at that time. Alertness disorders and depression were the adverse effects that most frequently led to stopping baclofen. Bouts of somnolence and hypomanic episodes were the most potentially dangerous adverse effects. Women reported significantly more adverse effects than men. High-dose baclofen exposes patients with alcohol disorders to many adverse effects. Generally persistent, some adverse effects appear at low doses and may be dangerous. © The Author 2015. Medical Council on Alcohol and Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.

  6. Effects of severe spasticity treatment with intrathecal Baclofen in multiple sclerosis patients: Long term follow-up.

    PubMed

    Stampacchia, Giulia; Gerini, Adriana; Mazzoleni, Stefano

    2016-04-06

    Intrathecal Baclofen is available to treat severe generalized spasticity in Multiple Sclerosis (MS) unresponsive to oral drug delivery. The aims of this study were to investigate the effects and the drug dosage of intrathecal Baclofen in a selected population of MS patients, affected by severe spasticity at long term follow-up. A prospective cohort study of 14 MS patients is presented. Spasticity and pain were periodically assessed and the Baclofen dosage was adjusted. The initial Baclofen dosage was 136.2 ± 109.3 μg, then it was increased at 12 months to 228.6 ± 179.2 μg (p < 0.05). The subsequent dose adjustments did not result in significant changes up to 76 months. Spasticity on the lower limbs decreased significantly from pre-implantation assessment (median: 3.5, IQR: 3.0-4.0) to 12 months evaluation (median: 0.5, IQR: 0.0-2.0) (p < 0.001); no further decrease was observed after 24 months (median: 0.5, IQR: 0.0-1.5); when pain was present, it decreased. Some effects on cerebellar symptoms were observed. Botulinum toxin injections were used with intrathecal Baclofen therapy. A reduced spasticity and pain was observed after the intrathecal Baclofen infusion for at least 76 months. To obtain these results a dosage adjustment was needed only in the first year after the implantation.

  7. Baclofen novel gastroretentive extended release gellan gum superporous hydrogel hybrid system: in vitro and in vivo evaluation.

    PubMed

    El-Said, Ibrahim A; Aboelwafa, Ahmed A; Khalil, Rawia M; ElGazayerly, Omaima N

    2016-01-01

    Baclofen is a centrally acting skeletal muscle relaxant with a short elimination half-life, which results in frequent daily dosing and subsequent poor patient compliance. The narrow absorption window of baclofen in the upper gastrointestinal tract limits its formulation as extended release dosage forms. In this study, baclofen extended release superporous hydrogel (SPH) systems, including conventional SPH, SPH composite and SPH hybrid (SPHH), were prepared aiming to increase the residence of baclofen at its absorption window. The applicability of different polymers, namely, gellan gum, guar gum, polyvinyl alcohol and gelatin, was investigated in preparation of SPHH systems. The prepared SPH systems were evaluated regarding weight and volume swelling ratio, porosity, mechanical properties, incorporation efficiency, degree of erosion and drug release. In vivo assessment was performed in dogs to evaluate gastric residence time by X-ray studies. In addition, the oral bioavailability of baclofen relative to commercially available Lioresal® immediate release tablets was also investigated. The novel baclofen gellan SPHH cross linked with calcium chloride was characterized by optimum mechanical properties, acceptable swelling properties as well as extended drug release. It also exhibited a prolonged plasma profile when compared to twice daily administered Lioresal®.

  8. Self-poisoning with baclofen in alcohol-dependent patients: national reports to French Poison Control Centers, 2008-2013.

    PubMed

    Pelissier, Fanny; de Haro, Luc; Cardona, Florence; Picot, Cyndie; Puskarczyk, Emmanuel; Sapori, Jean-Marc; Tournoud, Christine; Franchitto, Nicolas

    2017-04-01

    Alcohol use disorders are frequently associated with self-intoxication in attempted suicide. In France since 2008, the off-label use of baclofen for treatment of alcohol dependence has greatly increased, leading to temporary regulation of use of the drug. At the request of the national authorities, the French Poison Control Centers carried out a retrospective survey to give an overview of baclofen exposure in this population. A retrospective study was carried out from January 2008 to December 2013, focusing on baclofen exposures in alcohol-dependent patients managed by the nine national French Poison Control Centers. 294 observations of baclofen exposures in alcohol-dependent patients were identified in our database. Of these, 220 were suicide attempts by self-poisoning and 74 were unintentional. The mean age of patients was 41.7 years, with a sex-ratio of 1.6. Patients attempting suicide with baclofen were younger than those with unintentional exposures, and 43.6% of them were women (vs 22.9%, p < 0.01). The mean supposed ingested dose was higher (480.7 mg) in patients who attempted suicide (vs 192.5 mg, p < 0.0001). 21.8% of intentional exposures involved baclofen alone. Psychiatric comorbidity (50.4%) was more frequent in the group of self-poisoning (p < 0.001). 132 patients were coded as severely exposed (60.0%). Nine victims died, but the causal link between self-poisoning with baclofen and fatal outcome should be interpreted with particular caution. Baclofen self-poisoning by alcohol-dependent patients is a serious concern for the French health authorities. Our results are similar to those previously published, suggesting that most patients with baclofen overdose should be admitted to an intermediate or intensive care unit as the clinical course requires close monitoring. Because suicidal ideation and suicide attempts are more prevalent in people with substance use disorders than in the general population, and because of the lack of

  9. Detection of compatibility between baclofen and excipients with aid of infrared spectroscopy and chemometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rojek, Barbara; Wesolowski, Marek; Suchacz, Bogdan

    2013-12-01

    In the paper infrared (IR) spectroscopy and multivariate exploration techniques: principal component analysis (PCA) and cluster analysis (CA) were applied as supportive methods for the detection of physicochemical incompatibilities between baclofen and excipients. In the course of research, the most useful rotational strategy in PCA proved to be varimax normalized, while in CA Ward's hierarchical agglomeration with Euclidean distance measure enabled to yield the most interpretable results. Chemometrical calculations confirmed the suitability of PCA and CA as the auxiliary methods for interpretation of infrared spectra in order to recognize whether compatibilities or incompatibilities between active substance and excipients occur. On the basis of IR spectra and the results of PCA and CA it was possible to demonstrate that the presence of lactose, β-cyclodextrin and meglumine in binary mixtures produce interactions with baclofen. The results were verified using differential scanning calorimetry, differential thermal analysis, thermogravimetry/differential thermogravimetry and X-ray powder diffraction analyses.

  10. A pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic model for intrathecal baclofen in patients with severe spasticity.

    PubMed

    Heetla, H W; Proost, J H; Molmans, B H; Staal, M J; van Laar, T

    2016-01-01

    Intrathecal baclofen (ITB) has proven to be an effective and safe treatment for severe spasticity. However, although ITB is used extensively, clinical decisions are based on very scarce pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic (PKPD) data. The aim of this study was to measure baclofen CSF concentrations and clinical effects after administration of various ITB boluses in patients with spasticity and to create a PKPD model for ITB. Twelve patients with severe spasticity received four different bolus doses of ITB (0, 25, 50, 75 μg and an optional dose of 100 μg), administered via a catheter with the tip at thoracic level (Th) 10. After each bolus, 10 CSF samples were taken at fixed time intervals, using a catheter with the tip located at Th12. Clinical effect was assessed by measuring spasticity with the Modified Ashworth Scale (MAS). These data were used to develop a PKPD model. All patients achieved an adequate spasmolytic effect with ITB doses varying from 50 to 100 μg. No serious side effects were observed. CSF baclofen concentrations, as well as the clinical effects, correlated significantly with ITB doses. The PK model predicted a steep spinal concentration gradient of ITB along the spinal axis. The clinical effect could be predicted using a delayed-effect model. ITB is an effective and safe therapy with, however, a steep concentration gradient along the spinal axis. This means that the administered baclofen is staying mainly around the catheter tip, which stresses the importance to position the ITB catheter tip closely to the targeted spinal level. © 2015 The British Pharmacological Society.

  11. The dose-effect relationship of baclofen in alcohol dependence: A 1-year cohort study.

    PubMed

    Pignon, Baptiste; Labreuche, Julien; Auffret, Marine; Gautier, Sophie; Deheul, Sylvie; Simioni, Nicolas; Cottencin, Olivier; Bordet, Régis; Duhamel, Alain; Rolland, Benjamin

    2017-07-01

    Our aim is to study the relationship between dose of baclofen and effectiveness in alcohol dependence. Two hundred two patients with alcohol dependence, who received baclofen treatment for drinking reduction, were followed up for 1 year. For each patient-month of treatment, the maximum daily dose of baclofen (DDB) and average weekly alcohol consumption (AWAC) were calculated. We defined a favorable drinking outcome as an AWAC under 200 g/w for at least 2 consecutive months. We divided the DDB of each patient-month into 3 categories (low dose: <90 mg/d, medium dose: 90-150 mg/d, and high dose: >150 mg/d) and investigated the relationship between reaching a favorable outcome and the concurrent DDB category in a time-varying Cox regression analysis. Hazard ratios (HRs) were adjusted based on age, sex, and initial AWAC. One hundred forty subjects were followed during at least 1 month. Of these patients, 58 (41%) had a favorable drinking outcome. In comparison to low dose, medium dose was associated with a decreased rate of favorable drinking outcome (HR = 0.42; 95% CI [0.20, 0.88]), whereas no difference was found with high dose (HR = 1.31; 95% CI [0.65, 2.64]). The relationship between dose of baclofen and favorable drinking outcome was U-shaped, that is, was increased at low and high doses compared to medium doses. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Interactive effects of AM251 and baclofen on synaptic plasticity in the rat dentate gyrus.

    PubMed

    Nazari, Masoumeh; Komaki, Alireza; Salehi, Iraj; Sarihi, Abdolrahman; Shahidi, Siamak; Komaki, Hamidreza; Ganji, Ahmad

    2016-11-15

    Long-term potentiation (LTP), a form of synaptic plasticity, is considered to be a critical cellular mechanism that underlies learning and memory. Cannabinoid CB 1 and metabotropic GABA B receptors display similar pharmacological effects and co-localize in certain brain regions. In this study, we examined the effects of co-administration of the CB 1 and GABA B antagonists AM251 and baclofen, respectively, on LTP induction in the rat dentate gyrus (DG). Male Wistar rats were anesthetized with urethane. A stimulating electrode was placed in the lateral perforant path (PP), and a bipolar recording electrode was inserted into the DG until maximal field excitatory postsynaptic potentials (fEPSPs) were observed. LTP was induced in the hippocampal area by high-frequency stimulation (HFS) of the PP. fEPSPs and population spikes (PS) were recorded at 5, 30, and 60min after HFS in order to measure changes in the synaptic responses of DG neurons. Our results showed that HFS coupled with administration of AM251 and baclofen increased both PS amplitude and fEPSP slope. Furthermore, co-administration of AM251 and baclofen elicited greater increases in PS amplitude and fEPSP slope. The results of the present study suggest that CB 1 receptor activation in the hippocampus mainly modifies synapses onto GABAergic interneurons located in the DG. Our results further suggest that, when AM251 and baclofen are administered simultaneously, AM251 can alter GABA release and thereby augment LTP through GABA B receptors. These results suggest that functional crosstalk between cannabinoid and GABA receptors regulates hippocampal synaptic plasticity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Embryonic GABA(B) receptor blockade alters cell migration, adult hypothalamic structure, and anxiety- and depression-like behaviors sex specifically in mice.

    PubMed

    Stratton, Matthew S; Staros, Michelle; Budefeld, Tomaz; Searcy, Brian T; Nash, Connor; Eitel, Chad; Carbone, David; Handa, Robert J; Majdic, Gregor; Tobet, Stuart A

    2014-01-01

    Neurons of the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN) regulate the hypothalamic- pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and the autonomic nervous system. Females lacking functional GABA(B) receptors because of a genetic disruption of the R1 subunit have altered cellular characteristics in and around the PVN at birth. The genetic disruption precluded appropriate assessments of physiology or behavior in adulthood. The current study was conducted to test the long term impact of a temporally restricting pharmacological blockade of the GABA(B) receptor to a 7-day critical period (E11-E17) during embryonic development. Experiments tested the role of GABA(B) receptor signaling in fetal development of the PVN and later adult capacities for adult stress related behaviors and physiology. In organotypic slices containing fetal PVN, there was a female specific, 52% increase in cell movement speeds with GABA(B) receptor antagonist treatment that was consistent with a sex-dependent lateral displacement of cells in vivo following 7 days of fetal exposure to GABA(B) receptor antagonist. Anxiety-like and depression-like behaviors, open-field activity, and HPA mediated responses to restraint stress were measured in adult offspring of mothers treated with GABA(B) receptor antagonist. Embryonic exposure to GABA(B) receptor antagonist resulted in reduced HPA axis activation following restraint stress and reduced depression-like behaviors. There was also increased anxiety-like behavior selectively in females and hyperactivity in males. A sex dependent response to disruptions of GABA(B) receptor signaling was identified for PVN formation and key aspects of physiology and behavior. These changes correspond to sex specific prevalence in similar human disorders, namely anxiety disorders and hyperactivity.

  14. Intrathecal Baclofen Therapy in a Child With Severe Scoliosis: Report of 2 Cases.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Natsu; Ogiwara, Hideki

    2016-08-01

    Scoliosis is commonly found in children with cerebral palsy. Many patients with cerebral palsy and scoliosis undergo intrathecal baclofen (ITB) pump placement. The authors report 2 cases with cerebral palsy and severe scoliosis treated with intrathecal baclofen. The case of a 7-year-old boy with shunted hydrocephalus required surgical revision of the intrathecal catheter, while the other patient without shunt did not require revision. In the patient with shunted hydrocephalus, after the initial placement of baclofen pump and catheter at Th3 level, spasticity of lower extremities did not improve. The Indium(111) diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (In(111) DTPA) scintigraphy with injection of In(111) DTPA through the pump did not demonstrate distribution of the tracer to the lumbosacral area. Conversely, by direct injection of In(111) DTPA through lumbar puncture, the tracer distributed in the whole spinal canal. Replacement of the tip of the catheter caudal to the curve of the scoliosis improved the symptom. The authors suggest that, in patients with severe scoliosis and shunted hydrocephalus, it may be necessary to place the tip of the catheter caudal to the curve of the scoliosis for correction of spasticity of lower extremities. © 2016 International Neuromodulation Society.

  15. Radiation protective effects of baclofen predicted by a computational drug repurposing strategy.

    PubMed

    Ren, Lei; Xie, Dafei; Li, Peng; Qu, Xinyan; Zhang, Xiujuan; Xing, Yaling; Zhou, Pingkun; Bo, Xiaochen; Zhou, Zhe; Wang, Shengqi

    2016-11-01

    Exposure to ionizing radiation causes damage to living tissues; however, only a small number of agents have been approved for use in radiation injuries. Radioprotector is the primary countermeasure to radiation injury and none radioprotector has indeed reached the drug development stage. Repurposing the long list of approved, non-radioprotective drugs is an attractive strategy to find new radioprotective agents. Here, we applied a computational approach to discover new radioprotectors in silico by comparing publicly available gene expression data of ionizing radiation-treated samples from the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database with gene expression signatures of more than 1309 small-molecule compounds from the Connectivity Map (cmap) dataset. Among the best compounds predicted to be therapeutic for ionizing radiation damage by this approach were some previously reported radioprotectors and baclofen (P<0.01), a chemical that was not previously used as radioprotector. Validation using a cell-based model and a rodent in vivo model demonstrated that treatment with baclofen reduced radiation-induced cytotoxicity in vitro (P<0.01), attenuated bone marrow damage and increased survival in vivo (P<0.05). These findings suggest that baclofen might serve as a radioprotector. The drug repurposing strategy by connecting the GEO data and cmap can be used to identify known drugs as potential radioprotective agents. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Efficacy and safety of high-dose baclofen for the treatment of alcohol dependence: A multicentre, randomised, double-blind controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Beraha, Esther M; Salemink, Elske; Goudriaan, Anna E; Bakker, Abraham; de Jong, David; Smits, Natasha; Zwart, Jan Willem; Geest, Dick van; Bodewits, Pieter; Schiphof, Tom; Defourny, Harma; van Tricht, Mirjam; van den Brink, Wim; Wiers, Reinout W

    2016-12-01

    Previous randomised placebo-controlled trials with low-to-medium doses of baclofen (30-60mg) showed inconsistent results, but case studies suggested a dose-response effect and positive outcomes in patients on high doses of baclofen (up to 270mg). Its prescription was temporary permitted for the treatment of alcohol dependence (AD) in France, and baclofen is now widely prescribed. Recently, a small RCT found a strong effect of a mean dose of 180mg baclofen. In the present study the efficacy and safety of high doses of baclofen was examined in a multicentre, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. 151 patients were randomly assigned to either six weeks titration and ten weeks high-dose baclofen (N=58; up to 150mg), low-dose baclofen (N=31; 30mg), or placebo (N=62). The primary outcome measure was time to first relapse. Nine of the 58 patients (15.5%) in the high-dose group reached 150mg and the mean baclofen dose in this group was 93.6mg (SD=40.3). No differences between the survival distributions for the three groups were found in the time to first relapse during the ten-weeks high-dose phase (χ 2 =0.41; p=0.813) or the 16-weeks complete medication period (χ 2 =0.04; p=0.982). There were frequent dose-related adverse events in terms of fatigue, sleepiness, and dry mouth. One medication related serious adverse event occurred in the high-dose baclofen group. Neither low nor high doses of baclofen were effective in the treatment of AD. Adverse events were frequent, although generally mild and transient. Therefore, large-scale prescription of baclofen for the treatment of AD seems premature and should be reconsidered. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. and ECNP. All rights reserved.

  17. Randomized placebo-controlled study of baclofen in the treatment of muscle cramps in patients with liver cirrhosis.

    PubMed

    Elfert, Asem A; Abo Ali, Lobna; Soliman, Samah; Zakaria, Sherin; Shehab El-Din, Ibrahim; Elkhalawany, Walaa; Abd-Elsalam, Sherief

    2016-11-01

    Muscle cramps adversely influence the quality of life of patients with liver cirrhosis. Indeed, to date, a well-established therapy for this complication is still lacking. This is the first randomized placebo-controlled trial of baclofen in the treatment of muscle cramps in patients with liver cirrhosis. A total of 100 patients with liver cirrhosis and muscle cramps signed an informed consent to participate in this study. They were recruited from the Department of Tropical Medicine-Tanta University Hospital. They were randomized to receive either baclofen or placebo for 3 months. Patients were followed monthly and 1 month after withdrawal. At each visit, the clinicoepidemiological data were recorded, the muscle cramp questionnaire was filled, and any drug-related side effects were reported. In the baclofen group, the frequency of muscle cramps decreased significantly after 1 and 3 months of treatment (P<0.005), with a significant relapse after withdrawal (P<0.001). Patients receiving baclofen showed a significant decrease in the severity and duration of muscle cramps (P<0.001). After 3 months of baclofen therapy at a dose of 30 mg/day, muscle cramps disappeared completely in 72%, reduced in 20%, and led to no change in 8% of patients. No significant changes in the frequency, severity, and duration of muscle cramps were noted in the placebo group. There were few but nonsignificant side effects in the baclofen group compared with the placebo group. Baclofen was well tolerated, safe, and effective in the treatment of muscle cramps in patients with liver cirrhosis.

  18. Comparative study of therapeutic response to baclofen vs tolperisone in spasticity.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Saurabh; Patel, Tejas; Shah, Nehal; Patel, Bhoomika M

    2017-03-01

    Spasticity from the upper motor neuron syndrome can result from a variety of conditions affecting the cortex or spinal cord. Some of the more common conditions associated with spasticity include spinal cord injury, cerebral palsy, and post-stroke syndrome. In this study we compared the efficacy and safety of baclofen vs tolperisone in spasticity. One hundred fifty patients with cerebral palsy or post stroke or spinal cord injury associated spasticity were enrolled in present study. Group I comprised of Seventy-five patients receiving baclofen and group II comprised of 75 patients receiving tolperisone. For efficacy measurement 4 evaluation methods were used, 1) Modified Ashworth Scale for muscle tone, 2) Medical research council scale for muscle strength and 3) Barthel Index for functional outcome 4) Coefficient of efficacy. In efficacy evaluation, both groups showed significant improvement in muscle tone, muscle strength and functional outcome at week 6 (Group I, 1.55±0.053, 2.79+0.032, 59.31±1.32; Group II, 1.57±0.053, 3.04±0.032, 73±1.32 respectively). In between the group analysis, there was no significant difference in muscle tone improvement in both the groups after 6 weeks (Group I, 1.055±0.053 vs Group II, 1.57±0.053, p>0.05). Group II showed non-significant but greater improvement in muscle strength (Week 6; Group I, 2.79±0.032 vs Group II, 3.04±0.032, p>0.07). Improvement in functional outcomes was greater in group II as compared to group I (Group I, 59.31±1.32 vs Group II, 73±1.32, p<0.05). Overall efficacy coefficient was greater for group II (3.6) as compared to group I (2.3). Baclofen showed more side effects compared to tolperisone in, asthenia being the most frequent. Tolperisone offers greater improvement in activities of daily living compared to baclofen. Tolperisone is more tolerable drug as compared to baclofen. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. Liquid chromatography high resolution mass spectrometry for the determination of baclofen and its metabolites in plasma: Application to therapeutic drug monitoring.

    PubMed

    Labat, Laurence; Goncalves, Antonio; Marques, Ana Rita; Duretz, Bénédicte; Granger, Bernard; Declèves, Xavier

    2017-08-01

    Baclofen is used to manage alcohol dependence. This study describes a simple method using liquid chromatography coupled to high-resolution mass spectrometry (LC-HR-MS) developed in plasma samples. This method was optimized to allow quantification of baclofen and determination of metabolic ratio of its metabolites, an oxidative deaminated metabolite of baclofen (M1) and its glucuronide form (M2). The LC-HR-MS method on Exactive® apparatus is a newly developed method with all the advantages of high resolution in full-scan mode for the quantification of baclofen and detection of its metabolites in plasma. The present assay provides a protein precipitation method starting with 100 μL plasma giving a wide polynomial dynamic range (R 2  > 0.999) between 10 and 2000 ng/mL and a lower limit of quantitation of 3 ng/mL for baclofen. Intra- and inter-day precisions were <8.1% and accuracies were between 91.2 and 103.3% for baclofen. No matrix effect was observed. The assay was successfully applied to 36 patients following baclofen administration. Plasma concentrations of baclofen were determined between 12.2 and 1399.9 ng/mL and metabolic ratios were estimated between 0.4 and 81.8% for M1 metabolite and on the order of 0.3% for M2 in two samples. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Solubility and Stability of Baclofen 3 mg/mL Intrathecal Formulation and Its Compatibility With Implantable Programmable Intrathecal Infusion Systems.

    PubMed

    Yue, Baohua; Brendel, Ron; Lukitsch, Amelia; Prentice, Thomas; Doty, Brian

    2017-06-01

    Commercial baclofen formulations used with infusion pumps are available at therapeutic concentrations of 0.5-2.0 mg/mL. However, patients who receive higher daily doses of baclofen may benefit from products with greater baclofen concentrations since their refill frequency would be reduced (up to a maximum of 180 days). We evaluated baclofen solubility, baclofen 3 mg/mL intrathecal (IT) formulation stability, and chemical and physical compatibility with Medtronic SynchroMed ® II and Codman Medstream ® programmable IT infusion pumps. For solubility evaluations, baclofen powder was dissolved into isotonic saline and tested at 5°C, 25°C, and 40°C. To demonstrate drug product stability, both physical and chemical stability attributes of baclofen 3 mg/mL in prefilled syringes were evaluated over 36 months with storage at 25°C. For a simulated in-use stability (compatibility) study, a 3 mg/mL baclofen IT formulation was placed in SynchroMed II and Codman Medstream pumps at 37ºC for study durations, and evaluated at different flow rates. Pump effluent was collected at various times and analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography for baclofen content. On completion of the in-use stability study, pumps exposed to baclofen 3 mg/mL were dissected and visually evaluated for signs of deterioration. Baclofen solubility was found to be 3.2 mg/mL at 5°C, 3.6 mg/mL at 25°C, and 3.9 mg/mL at 40°C. During the 36-month stability study of prefilled syringes stored at 25°C, baclofen content remained unchanged and no precipitation was observed. The simulated in-use pump study performed at 37ºC showed that a baclofen 3 mg/mL IT formulation was stable at different flow rates and throughout different expected residence times for both pump models. Components from both pumps exhibited no noticeable deterioration after exposure to the 3 mg/mL formulation. Baclofen 3 mg/mL IT formulation was stable during long-term storage at 25°C and remained stable under conditions matching

  1. Contribution of ventral tegmental GABA receptors to cocaine self-administration in rats.

    PubMed

    Backes, E N; Hemby, S E

    2008-03-01

    Recent evidence has suggested that compounds affecting GABAergic transmission may provide useful pharmacological tools for the treatment of cocaine addiction. Using a rat model of self-administration, the present study examined the effects of GABA agonists and antagonists injected directly into the ventral tegmental area (VTA) on cocaine intake in rats trained to self-administer cocaine (0, 125, 250 and 500 microg/infusion) under an FR5 schedule of reinforcement. Separate groups of rats received bilateral intra-VTA injections of the GABA-A antagonist picrotoxin (34 ng/side, n = 7; 68 ng/side, n = 8), GABA-A agonist muscimol (14 ng/side, n = 8), GABA-B agonist baclofen (56 ng/side, n = 7; 100 ng/side, n = 6), picrotoxin (68 ng/side) co-injected with the GABA-B antagonist 2-hydroxysaclofen (100 ng/side, n = 7; 2 microg/side, n = 8) or artificial cerebrospinal fluid (aCSF, n = 6) to assess the effects of the various compounds on the cocaine self-administration dose-response curve. Both picrotoxin and baclofen reduced responding maintained by cocaine, whereas muscimol had no effect on responding. In contrast, neither picrotoxin (n = 6) nor baclofen (n = 8) affected responding maintained by food. Interestingly, 2-hydroxysaclofen effectively blocked the suppression of responding produced by picrotoxin, suggesting that both picrotoxin and baclofen exert their effects via activation of GABA-B receptors. Additionally, these effects appear to be specific to cocaine reinforcement, supporting current investigation of baclofen as a treatment for cocaine addiction.

  2. Contribution of ventral tegmental GABA receptors to cocaine self-administration in rats

    PubMed Central

    Backes, E.N.; Hemby, S.E.

    2008-01-01

    Recent evidence has suggested that compounds affecting GABAergic transmission may provide useful pharmacological tools for the treatment of cocaine addiction. Using a rat model of self-administration, the present study examined the effects of GABA agonists and antagonists injected directly into the ventral tegmental area (VTA) on cocaine intake in rats trained to self-administer cocaine (0, 125, 250 and 500 µg/infusion) under an FR5 schedule of reinforcement. Separate groups of rats received bilateral intra-VTA injections of the GABA-A antagonist picrotoxin (34 ng/side, n=7; 68 ng/side, n=8), GABA-A agonist muscimol (14 ng/side, n=8), GABA-B agonist baclofen (56 ng/side, n=7; 100 ng/side, n=6), picrotoxin (68 ng/side) co-injected with the GABA-B antagonist 2-hydroxysaclofen (100 ng/side, n=7; 2 µg/side, n=8) or artificial cerebrospinal fluid (aCSF, n=6) to assess the effects of the various compounds on the cocaine self-administration dose-response curve. Both picrotoxin and baclofen reduced responding maintained by cocaine, whereas muscimol had no effect on responding. In contrast, neither picrotoxin (n=6) nor baclofen (n=8) affected responding maintained by food. Interestingly, 2-hydroxysaclofen effectively blocked the suppression of responding produced by picrotoxin, suggesting that both picrotoxin and baclofen exert their effects via activation of GABA-B receptors. Additionally, these effects appear to be specific to cocaine reinforcement, supporting current investigation of baclofen as a treatment for cocaine addiction. PMID:17943439

  3. KK-92A, a novel GABAB receptor positive allosteric modulator, attenuates nicotine self-administration and cue-induced nicotine seeking in rats.

    PubMed

    Li, Xia; Sturchler, Emmanuel; Kaczanowska, Katarzyna; Cameron, Michael; Finn, M G; Griffin, Patrick; McDonald, Patricia; Markou, Athina

    2017-05-01

    GABA B receptors (GABA B R) play a critical role in GABAergic neurotransmission in the brain and are thought to be one of the most promising targets for the treatment of drug addiction. GABA B R positive allosteric modulators (PAMs) have shown promise as potential anti-addictive therapies, as they lack the sedative and muscle relaxant properties of full GABA B receptor agonists such as baclofen. The present study was aimed at developing novel, selective, and potent GABA B R PAMs with efficacy on abuse-related effects of nicotine. We synthetized ~100 analogs of BHF177, a GABA B R PAM that has been shown to inhibit nicotine taking and seeking, and tested their activity in multiple cell-based functional assays. Among these compounds, KK-92A displayed superior PAM properties at the GABA B R. Interestingly, our results revealed the existence of pathway-selective differential modulation of GABA B R signaling by the structurally related GABA B R allosteric modulators BHF177 and KK-92A. In vivo, similarly to BHF177, KK-92A inhibited intravenous nicotine self-administration under both fixed- and progressive-ratio schedules of reinforcement in rats. In contrast to BHF177, KK-92A had no effect on food self-administration. Furthermore, KK-92A decreased cue-induced nicotine-seeking behavior without affecting food seeking. These results indicate that KK-92A is a selective GABA B R PAM with efficacy in inhibition of the primary reinforcing and incentive motivational effects of nicotine, and attenuation of nicotine seeking, further confirming that GABA B R PAMs may be useful antismoking medications.

  4. Gi-coupled γ-aminobutyric acid-B receptors cross-regulate phospholipase C and calcium in airway smooth muscle.

    PubMed

    Mizuta, Kentaro; Mizuta, Fumiko; Xu, Dingbang; Masaki, Eiji; Panettieri, Reynold A; Emala, Charles W

    2011-12-01

    γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the mammalian central nervous system, and exerts its actions via both ionotropic (GABA(A)) and metabotropic (GABA(B)) receptors. Although the functional expression of GABA(B) receptors coupled to the G(i) protein was reported for airway smooth muscle, the role of GABA(B) receptors in airway responsiveness remains unclear. We investigated whether G(i)-coupled GABA(B) receptors cross-regulate phospholipase C (PLC), an enzyme classically regulated by G(q)-coupled receptors in human airway smooth muscle cells. Both the GABA(B)-selective agonist baclofen and the endogenous ligand GABA significantly increased the synthesis of inositol phosphate, whereas GABA(A) receptor agonists, muscimol, and 4,5,6,7-tetrahydroisoxazolo[5,4-c]pyridin-3-ol exerted no effect. The baclofen-induced synthesis of inositol phosphate and transient increases in [Ca(2+)](i) were blocked by CGP35348 and CGP55845 (selective GABA(B) antagonists), pertussis toxin (PTX, which inactivates the G(i) protein), gallein (a G(βγ) signaling inhibitor), U73122 (an inhibitor of PLC-β), and xestospongin C, an inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate receptor blocker. Baclofen also potentiated the bradykinin-induced synthesis of inositol phosphate and transient increases in [Ca(2+)](i), which were blocked by CGP35348 or PTX. Moreover, baclofen potentiated the substance P-induced contraction of airway smooth muscle in isolated guinea pig tracheal rings. In conclusion, the stimulation of GABA(B) receptors in human airway smooth muscle cells rapidly mobilizes intracellular Ca(2+) stores by the synthesis of inositol phosphate via the activation of PLC-β, which is stimulated by G(βγ) protein liberated from G(i) proteins coupled to GABA(B) receptors. Furthermore, crosstalk between GABA(B) receptors and G(q)-coupled receptors potentiates the synthesis of inositol phosphate, transient increases in [Ca(2+)](i), and smooth muscle contraction through G

  5. Possible involvement of ATP-sensitive potassium channels in the antidepressant-like effect of baclofen in mouse forced swimming test.

    PubMed

    Nazari, Seyedeh Khadijeh; Nikoui, Vahid; Ostadhadi, Sattar; Chegini, Zahra Hadi; Oryan, Shahrbanoo; Bakhtiarian, Azam

    2016-12-01

    Previous study confirmed that the acute treatment with baclofen by inhibition of the l-arginine-nitric oxide (NO) pathway diminished the immobility behavior in the forced swimming test (FST) of mice. Considering the involvement of NO in adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-sensitive potassium channels (K ATP ), in the present study we investigated the involvement of K ATP channels in antidepressant-like effect of baclofen in the forced swimming test (FST). After assessment of locomotor behavior in the open-field test (OFT), FST was applied for evaluation of the antidepressant-like activity of baclofen in mice. Baclofen at different doses (0.1, 0.3, and 1mg/kg) and fluoxetine (20mg/kg) were administrated by intraperitoneal (ip) route, 30min before the FST or OFT. To clarify the probable involvement of K ATP channels, after determination of sub-effective doses of glibenclamide as a K ATP channel blocker and cromakalim, as an opener of these channels, they were co-administrated with the sub-effective and effective doses of baclofen, respectively. Baclofen at dose 1mg/kg significantly decreased the immobility behavior of mice similar to fluoxetine (20mg/kg). Co-administration of gelibenclamide sub-effective dose (1mg/kg) with baclofen (0.1mg/kg) showed a synergistic antidepressant-like effect in the FST. Also, sub-effective dose of cromakalim (0.1mg/kg) inhibited the antidepressant-like effect of baclofen (1mg/kg) in the FST. All aforementioned treatments had not any impact on the locomotor movement of mice in OFT. Our study for the first time revealed that antidepressant-like effect of baclofen on mice is K ATP -dependent, and baclofen seems that exert this effect by blocking the K ATP channels. Copyright © 2016 Institute of Pharmacology, Polish Academy of Sciences. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.

  6. Progression of scoliosis in patients with spastic quadriplegia after the insertion of an intrathecal baclofen pump.

    PubMed

    Ginsburg, Glen M; Lauder, Anthony J

    2007-11-15

    Medical and radiographic review of 19 consecutive patients with spastic quadriplegia before and after intrathecal baclofen pump insertion with special attention paid to progression of scoliosis. Many orthopedic surgeons who treat spastic quadriplegic patients have noticed a trend of marked scoliosis progression after the administration of intrathecal baclofen (ITB) via subcutaneous pump and catheter. The purpose of this study is to quantify scoliosis progression in this patient population before and after baclofen administration and compare this to published natural history data. The authors had noted rapid progression of scoliosis in spastic quadriplegic patients after intrathecal baclofen pump insertion. This had been noted at other centers, but no significant statistical analysis had been done comparing prepump to postpump scoliosis progression in these patients. To document the magnitude and rate of scoliosis progressions after the placement of an ITB pump, the charts and radiographs of 19 consecutive nonambulatory patients with spastic quadriplegia and an ITB pump were reviewed. To document the rate of scoliosis progression, each patient had at least 2 pre and 2 postpump insertion spinal radiographs made. All radiographs were made with the patients in the supine position without orthoses. A board-certified orthopedic surgeon reviewed these radiographs. Skeletal maturity was assessed using Risser grading. Catheter tip location and rate of baclofen administration were recorded. For 19 patients with complete radiographic data, average Cobb angles were 10.2 degrees before pump insertion and 25 degrees at an average of 20.9 months after pump insertion (P < 0.0001). These 19 patients had a mean rate of change in their Cobb angles of 1.825%/year before pump insertion and 10.95 degrees /year at an average of 23.9 months after pump insertion (P = 0.024). These results represent a 6-fold increase in the curve progression rate after pump insertion. There was no

  7. Neuroleptic-induced "painful legs and moving toes" syndrome: successful treatment with clonazepam and baclofen.

    PubMed

    Sandyk, R

    1990-12-01

    The syndrome of "painful legs and moving toes" is characterised by spontaneous causalgic pain in the lower extremities associated with peculiar involuntary movements of the toes and feet. It has been observed after a variety of lesions affecting the posterior nerve roots, the spinal ganglia and the peripheral nerves. The pathophysiology of the syndrome is unknown. I report a patient who developed the syndrome during treatment for schizophrenia with the antipsychotic agent molindone hydrochloride. The patient's response to the combination of clonazepam and baclofen suggests that the pathophysiology of the "painful legs and moving toes" may be linked to impairment of spinal serotonergic and GABA functions.

  8. Phone-based safety monitoring of the first year of baclofen treatment for alcohol use disorder: the BACLOPHONE cohort study protocol.

    PubMed

    Rolland, Benjamin; Auffret, Marine; Labreuche, Julien; Lapeyre-Mestre, Maryse; Dib, Malek; Kemkem, Aomar; Grit, Isabelle; Drelon, Marie; Duhamel, Alain; Cabe, Nicolas; Vabret, François; Guillin, Olivier; Baguet, Alexandre; Masquelier, Céline; Dervaux, Alain; Deheul, Sylvie; Bordet, Régis; Carton, Louise; Cottencin, Olivier; Jardri, Renaud; Gautier, Sophie

    2017-02-01

    In France, baclofen is frequently used off-label for alcohol use disorder (AUD). Baclofen has been associated with diverse adverse events (AEs), but the causality of these AEs has never been properly assessed. BACLOPHONE is a prospective multicenter cohort study conducted in the Hauts-de-France and Normandie French regions. BACLOPHONE consists of the phone-based monitoring of 792 patients during their first year of baclofen treatment for AUD. Two initial phone interviews assess the medical history, current medications, and substance use as well as complete the alcohol use identification test (AUDIT) and severity of alcohol dependence questionnaire (SADQ). Daily alcohol use and baclofen doses are noted throughout the follow-up. For every reported AE, additional phone interviews determine the seriousness of the AE, the causality of baclofen using validated causality algorithms, and the final outcome. The main objective of the study is to determine the rate of patients who stop baclofen due to an AE during the first year of treatment. BACLOPHONE will provide important safety data on baclofen as a complement to the forthcoming efficacy data of randomized clinical trials.

  9. Behavioral impact of neurotransmitter-activated GPCRs: Muscarinic and GABAB receptors regulate C. elegans locomotion

    PubMed Central

    Dittman, Jeremy S; Kaplan, Joshua M

    2008-01-01

    Neurotransmitter released from presynaptic terminals activates both ligand-gated ion channels (ionotropic receptors) and a variety of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). These neurotransmitter receptors are expressed on both pre- and postsynaptic cells. Thus, each neurotransmitter acts on multiple receptor classes, generating a large repertoire of physiological responses. The impact of many ionotropic receptors on neuronal activity and behavior has been clearly elucidated; however, much less is known about how neurotransmitter-gated GPCRs regulate neurons and circuits. In C. elegans, both Acetylcholine (ACh) and GABA are released in the nerve cord and mediate fast neuromuscular excitation and inhibition during locomotion. Here we identify a muscarinic receptor (GAR-2) and the GABAB receptor dimer (GBB-1/2) that detect synaptically released ACh and GABA, respectively. Both GAR-2 and GBB-1/2 inhibited cholinergic motor neurons when ACh and GABA levels were enhanced. Loss of either GPCR resulted in movement defects, suggesting that these receptors are activated during locomotion. When the negative feedback provided by GAR-2 was replaced with positive feedback, animals became highly sensitive to ACh levels and locomotion was severely impaired. Thus, conserved GPCRs act in the nematode motor circuit to provide negative feedback and to regulate locomotory behaviors that underlie navigation. PMID:18614679

  10. Intrathecal Baclofen in Children with Spastic Cerebral Palsy: A Double-Blind, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled, Dose-Finding Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoving, Marjanke A.; van Raak, Elisabeth P. M.; Spincemaille, Geert H. J. J.; Palmans, Liesbeth J.; Sleypen, Frans A. M.; Vles, Johan S. H.

    2007-01-01

    Intrathecal baclofen (ITB) therapy can be very effective in the treatment of intractable spasticity, but its effectiveness and safety have not yet been thoroughly studied in children with cerebral palsy (CP). The aims of this double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, dose-finding study were to select children eligible for continuous ITB…

  11. Safety reports on the off-label use of baclofen for alcohol-dependence: recommendations to improve causality assessment.

    PubMed

    Rolland, Benjamin; Auffret, Marine; Franchitto, Nicolas

    2016-06-01

    The off-label use of high-dose baclofen (HDB) for alcohol-dependence has recently spread. However, HDB has been associated with numerous reports of adverse events (AEs). Pharmacovigilance reporting is supposed to differentiate AEs from adverse drug reactions (ADRs), for which the causality of the drug is determined using validated methods. Since 2010, we found 20 publications on baclofen-related AEs in alcohol dependence, in Medline-referenced journals or national pharmacovigilance reports. We focused on whether these reports used causality algorithms, and provided essential elements for determining baclofen causality and excluding the involvement of alcohol and other psychoactive substances or psychotropic drugs. In half of the cases, no causality algorithm was used. Detailed information on baclofen dosing was found in 17 out of 20 (85%) articles, whereas alcohol doses were given only in 10 (50%) publications. Other psychoactive substances and psychotropic drugs were broached in 14 (70%) publications. future publications reporting suspected HDB-induced ADRs should use validated causality algorithms and provide sufficient amount of contextual information for excluding other potential causes. For HDB, the psychiatric history, and the longitudinal description of alcohol consumptions and associated doses of psychoactive substances or psychotropic medications should be detailed for every reported case.

  12. Long-term therapy with intrathecal baclofen improves quality of life in children with severe spastic cerebral palsy.

    PubMed

    Kraus, Tanja; Gegenleitner, Kathrin; Svehlik, Martin; Novak, Michael; Steinwender, Gerhardt; Singer, Georg

    2017-05-01

    Children with severe spastic cerebral palsy (CP) are highly limited in daily life activities causing a reduced quality of life (QoL). This is partly due to an increased muscle tone causing pain and contractures. Continuous intrathecal infusion of baclofen (ITB) reduces the spasticity of affected patients. The hypothesis of the present study was that ITB leads to a significant improvement of QoL in non-ambulant children with CP. 13 patients (10 male, 3 female, mean age 14 years) were included. Mean time between pump implantation and follow-up was 60 months (range, 12-100). QoL was assessed before and after baclofen pump implantation using standardized questionnaires (CP CHILD, KINDL). Spasticity was evaluated using the modified Ashworth Scale (MAS) at the two time points. QoL evaluated with the CPCHILD questionnaire and the KINDL improved from pre - implantation to follow-up. MAS markedly decreased from 3.8 to 1.7. All interviewed participants indicated that their expectations had been met and that they would choose ITB treatment again. Intrathecal treatment of baclofen is an excellent method for spasticity management in children with severe cerebral palsy. Quality of life sustainably improves, parents' satisfaction is high and the level of spasticity decreases. Therefore, baclofen treatment can be highly recommended in non-ambulant children with CP suffering from spasticity. Copyright © 2017 European Paediatric Neurology Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Controlled Study of the Effects of Continuous Intrathecal Baclofen Infusion in Non-Ambulant Children with Cerebral Palsy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morton, Richard E.; Gray, Natalie; Vloeberghs, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Aim: To measure changes in children with severe spastic cerebral palsy (CP) after continuous intrathecal baclofen (ITB) infusion over 18 months and to compare the results with those of a comparison group awaiting treatment. Method: Thirty-eight children with severe spastic CP considered suitable for ITB were assessed when first seen, just before…

  14. Baclofen in the Therapeutic of Sequele of Traumatic Brain Injury: Spasticity

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-Arredondo, Adán; Cázares-Ramírez, Eduardo; Carrillo-Mora, Paul; Martínez-Vargas, Marina; Cárdenas-Rodríguez, Noemí; Coballase-Urrutia, Elvia; Alemón-Medina, Radamés; Sampieri, Aristides; Navarro, Luz; Carmona-Aparicio, Liliana

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is an alteration in brain function, caused by an external force, which may be a hit on the skull, rapid acceleration or deceleration, penetration of an object, or shock waves from an explosion. Traumatic brain injury is a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, with a high prevalence rate in pediatric patients, in which treatment options are still limited, not available at present neuroprotective drugs. Although the therapeutic management of these patients is varied and dependent on the severity of the injury, general techniques of drug types are handled, as well as physical and surgical. Baclofen is a muscle relaxant used to treat spasticity and improve mobility in patients with spinal cord injuries, relieving pain and muscle stiffness. Pharmacological support with baclofen is contradictory, because disruption of its oral administration may cause increased muscle tone syndrome and muscle spasm, prolonged seizures, hyperthermia, dysesthesia, hallucinations, or even multisystem organ failure. Combined treatments must consider the pathophysiology of broader alterations than only excitation/inhibition context, allowing the patient's reintegration with the greatest functionality. PMID:27563745

  15. R-Baclofen Reverses a Social Behavior Deficit and Elevated Protein Synthesis in a Mouse Model of Fragile X Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Qin, Mei; Huang, Tianjian; Kader, Michael; Krych, Leland; Xia, Zengyan; Burlin, Thomas; Zeidler, Zachary; Zhao, Tingrui; Smith, Carolyn B

    2015-03-28

    Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is the most common known inherited form of intellectual disability and the single genomic cause of autism spectrum disorders. It is caused by the absence of a fragile X mental retardation gene (Fmr1) product, FMRP, an RNA-binding translation suppressor. Elevated rates of protein synthesis in the brain and an imbalance between synaptic signaling via glutamate and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) are both considered important in the pathogenesis of FXS. In a mouse model of FXS (Fmr1 knockout [KO]), treatment with R-baclofen reversed some behavioral and biochemical phenotypes. A remaining crucial question is whether R-baclofen is also able to reverse increased brain protein synthesis rates. To answer this question, we measured regional rates of cerebral protein synthesis in vivo with the L-[1-(14)C]leucine method in vehicle- and R-baclofen-treated wildtype and Fmr1 KO mice. We further probed signaling pathways involved in the regulation of protein synthesis. Acute R-baclofen administration corrected elevated protein synthesis and reduced deficits on a test of social behavior in adult Fmr1 KO mice. It also suppressed activity of the mammalian target of rapamycin pathway, particularly in synaptosome-enriched fractions, but it had no effect on extracellular-regulated kinase 1/2 activity. Ninety min after R-baclofen treatment, we observed an increase in metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 expression in the frontal cortex, a finding that may shed light on the tolerance observed in human studies with this drug. Our results suggest that treatment via activation of the GABA (GABA receptor subtype B) system warrants further study in patients with FXS. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of CINP 2015. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  16. Pharmacokinetic comparison and bioequivalence evaluation of two 10-mg baclofen formulations in healthy male subjects
.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Sumin; Lee, SeungHwan; Yu, Kyung-Sang; Yim, Sung-Vin; Kim, Bo-Hyung

    2017-02-01

    Baclofen is used as a skeletal muscle relaxant for multiple sclerosis patients. It depresses the transmission of monosynaptic and polysynaptic reflex by stimulating GABAβ (gamma-aminobutyric acid) receptors. The aim of this study was to compare the pharmacokinetic characteristics of two 10-mg baclofen formulations and to assess bioequivalence. A randomized, single-dose, two-period, two-sequence crossover study was conducted in healthy male subjects. Each subject received the test or reference formulations. After washout period, all subjects received the alternative formulation. Blood samples were collected for up to 24 hours after the dose in each period. Pharmacokinetic (PK) parameters, including tmax, Cmax, and AUClast were calculated by noncompartmental methods. The geometric mean ratio (GMR) of the test to the reference formulation and its 90% confidence interval (CI) for Cmax and AUClast were calculated for assessment of bioequivalence. A total of 22 subjects completed the study. The median tmax of the test and the reference formulation were 1.50 and 1.25 hours, respectively. The mean (± SD) Cmax of the test and the reference formulation were 141.401 ± 29.447 ng/mL and 138.837 ± 31.392 ng/mL, respectively. The mean (± SD) AUClast of the two formulations were 702.404 ± 82.149 ng×h/mL and 726.803 ± 90.638 ng×h/mL, respectively. The GMR (90% CI) of the test to the reference formulation for the Cmax and AUClast were 1.0306 (0.9564 - 1.1106) and 0.9674 (0.9437 - 0.9916), respectively. The two different baclofen 10-mg formulations had similar PK profiles and were bioequivalent based on Cmax and AUClast.
.

  17. [Use in France of Baclofen for Alcohol Dependence from 2007 to 2013: Cohort Study Based on the Databases SNIIRAM and PMSI].

    PubMed

    Chaignot, Christophe; Weill, Alain; Ricordeau, Philippe; Alla, François

    2015-01-01

    To quantify and describe the population starting treatment with baclofen for alcohol dependence during the period 2007-2013 in France. The French national health insurance (système national d'information inter-régimes de l'Assurance maladie [SNIIRAM]) and French hospital discharge (programme de médicalisation des systèmes d'information [PMSI]) databases were used to identify the population starting treatment with baclofen, determine the algorithm of baclofen use, define patient characteristics and their treatment. About 200,000 subjects initiated baclofen therapy between 2007 and 2013, for alcohol dependence in 52.0% of cases. In 2013, this population was predominantly male (62.3%), with a mean age of 50.1 years, the first prescriber was a general practitioner in 58.9% of cases, they continued their treatment 6 months after their initiation in 48.8% of cases and one half of these subjects consumed at least 57.0 mg of baclofen daily. The use of baclofen for alcohol dependence increased considerably since 2008, with more than 34,000 new users and more than 9,000 general practitioners as first prescribers in 2013. © 2015 Société Française de Pharmacologie et de Thérapeutique.

  18. [Intrathecal baclofen therapy for spastic paraparesis due to aortic dissecting aneurysm; recent progress in treatment strategy].

    PubMed

    Nakajima, T; Akagawa, H; Ochiai, T; Hayashi, M; Goto, S; Taira, T; Okada, Y

    2009-11-01

    A 48-year-old man suffered from acute dissection of thoracic aortic aneurysm which eventually led to replacement of the ascending aorta with a tube graft. During this clinical course, circulatory failure in intercostal artery resulted in spinal cord infarction followed by moto-sensory disturbance below Th7 dermatomic area. Seven months later, spasticity with pain in both lower extremities became conspicuous that was uncontrollable by any oral medication. Eventually the patient underwent the implantation of continuous infusion pump for intrathecal baclofen therapy (ITB). The clinical condition was remarkably improved and now has been well controlled. ITB, authorized by Japanese Ministry of Health Labour and Welfare in 2006, has notable therapeutic effects on spasticity derived from any sort of central nervous disorder. More promotive enlightenment if ITB is indispensable for enhancement of its medical benefit in Japan.

  19. The tuberal lateral hypothalamus is a major target for GABAA--but not GABAB-mediated control of food intake.

    PubMed

    Turenius, Christine I; Charles, Jonathan R; Tsai, Donna H; Ebersole, Priscilla L; Htut, Myat H; Ngo, Phuong T; Lara, Raul N; Stanley, B Glenn

    2009-08-04

    The lateral hypothalamus (LH) is a site of integration for control mechanisms of feeding behavior as it has extensive reciprocal connections with multiple intrahypothalamic and extrahypothalamic brain areas. Evidence suggests that blockade of ionotropric gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptors in the LH elicits eating in satiated rats. To determine whether this GABA(A) receptor antagonist effect is specific to the LH, the antagonist picrotoxin was injected into one of six nearby sites and food intake was measured. Picrotoxin at 133 pmol elicited eating in the LH, but not in surrounding sites (thalamus, lateral preoptic area, ventral tegmental area, dorsomedial hypothalamus, and entopeduncular nucleus). More specifically, picrotoxin injected into the tuberal LH (tLH) elicited eating, but was ineffective when injected into the anterior or posterior LH. We also investigated whether GABA(B) receptors in the LH participated in the control of food intake and found that neither blockade nor activation of these receptors under multiple conditions changed food intake. Collectively, our findings suggest that GABA(A) but not GABA(B) receptors in the tLH act to suppress feeding behavior.

  20. Risk factors for baclofen pump infection in children: a multivariate analysis.

    PubMed

    Spader, Heather S; Bollo, Robert J; Bowers, Christian A; Riva-Cambrin, Jay

    2016-06-01

    OBJECTIVE Intrathecal baclofen infusion systems to manage severe spasticity and dystonia are associated with higher infection rates in children than in adults. Factors unique to this population, such as poor nutrition and physical limitations for pump placement, have been hypothesized as the reasons for this disparity. The authors assessed potential risk factors for infection in a multivariate analysis. METHODS Patients who underwent implantation of a programmable pump and intrathecal catheter for baclofen infusion at a single center between January 1, 2000, and March 1, 2012, were identified in this retrospective cohort study. The primary end point was infection. Potential risk factors investigated included preoperative (i.e., demographics, body mass index [BMI], gastrostomy tube, tracheostomy, previous spinal fusion), intraoperative (i.e., surgeon, antibiotics, pump size, catheter location), and postoperative (i.e., wound dehiscence, CSF leak, and number of revisions) factors. Univariate analysis was performed, and a multivariate logistic regression model was created to identify independent risk factors for infection. RESULTS A total of 254 patients were evaluated. The overall infection rate was 9.8%. Univariate analysis identified young age, shorter height, lower weight, dehiscence, CSF leak, and number of revisions within 6 months of pump placement as significantly associated with infection. Multivariate analysis identified young age, dehiscence, and number of revisions as independent risk factors for infection. CONCLUSIONS Young age, wound dehiscence, and number of revisions were independent risk factors for infection in this pediatric cohort. A low BMI and the presence of either a gastrostomy or tracheostomy were not associated with infection and may not be contraindications for this procedure.

  1. Best Practices for Intrathecal Baclofen Therapy: Dosing and Long-Term Management.

    PubMed

    Boster, Aaron L; Adair, Roy L; Gooch, Judith L; Nelson, Mary Elizabeth S; Toomer, Andrea; Urquidez, Joe; Saulino, Michael

    2016-08-01

    Intrathecal baclofen (ITB) therapy aims to reduce spasticity and provide functional control. An expert panel consulted on best practices. Pump fill and drug delivery can be started intraoperatively, with monitoring for at least eight hours. Initiate with the 500 mcg/mL concentration. The starting daily dose should be twice the effective bolus screening dose, or the screening dose if the patient had a prolonged response (greater than eight hours) or negative reactions. Oral antispasmodics can be weaned, one drug at a time beginning with oral baclofen after ITB begins. Assessment should occur within 24 hours of a dose change. For adults, daily dose increases may be 5% to 15% once every 24 hours for cerebral-origin spasticity and 10% to 30% once every 24 hours for spinal-origin spasticity. Daily dose increases can be 5% to 15% once every 24 hours for children. Inpatients should be assessed at least every 24 hours and receive rehabilitation. Step dosing can be used for outpatients who cannot return daily. Dosing options include simple continuous dosing, variable 24-hour flex dosing, or regularly scheduled boluses. Patients/caregivers should understand the care plan, responsibilities, and possible side-effects. Low-reservoir alarm dates and refill schedules should be written down, along with emergency contact information. A higher concentration at refill can extend refill intervals, and a bridge bolus must be programmed. Time changes may affect flex dosing. Pump replacement should be scheduled at least three months in advance. ITB dosing is multistep and individualized. © 2016 International Neuromodulation Society.

  2. Intrathecal baclofen in dyskinetic cerebral palsy: effects on function and activity.

    PubMed

    Eek, Meta N; Olsson, Kristina; Lindh, Karin; Askljung, Berit; Påhlman, Magnus; Corneliusson, Olle; Himmelmann, Kate

    2018-01-01

    To investigate the effect of intrathecal baclofen (ITB) on function and activity in dyskinetic cerebral palsy (CP). A retrospective cohort study of records from 25 children (15 males, 10 females; mean age 10y 11mo, SD 4y 9mo). Five were classified in Gross Motor Function Classification level IV and 20 in level V. Parents were interviewed about activities in daily life, sitting, communication, pain, sleep, and gross and fine motor function. Differences before and 1 year after ITB were graded as positive, no change, or negative. Assessments of dystonia (using the Barry-Albright Dystonia Scale) and muscle tone (Ashworth Scale) were made. Joint range of motion (ROM) was measured. Both dystonia and increased muscle tone, present in all participants before ITB, decreased after (p<0.001). Passive ROM was restricted, with no difference after. Parents reported improvements in activities in daily life (p<0.001), sitting (p<0.001), communication (p<0.001), and fine motor function (p=0.013), but no change in gross motor function. Before ITB, pain and disturbed sleep were reported. There was a reduction in pain (p=0.002) and sleep improved (p=0.004) after ITB. After ITB in individuals with dyskinetic CP, improvements were found in sitting, communication, and fine motor skills. There was a reduction in dystonia and muscle tone, and pain and sleep improved. Intrathecal baclofen can affect specific aspects of functioning in dyskinetic cerebral palsy. Sitting, communication, and fine motor function improved. Dystonia and spasticity were reduced. Pain was reduced and sleep improved. © 2017 Mac Keith Press.

  3. Lateral Orbitofrontal Cortical Modulation on the Medial Prefrontal Cortex-Amygdala Pathway: Differential Regulation of Intra-Amygdala GABAA and GABAB Receptors.

    PubMed

    Chang, Chun-Hui

    2017-07-01

    The basolateral complex of the amygdala receives inputs from neocortical areas, including the medial prefrontal cortex and lateral orbitofrontal cortex. Earlier studies have shown that lateral orbitofrontal cortex activation exerts an inhibitory gating on medial prefrontal cortex-amygdala information flow. Here we examined the individual role of GABAA and GABAB receptors in this process. In vivo extracellular single-unit recordings were done in anesthetized rats. We searched amygdala neurons that fire in response to medial prefrontal cortex activation, tested lateral orbitofrontal cortex gating at different delays (lateral orbitofrontal cortex-medial prefrontal cortex delays: 25, 50, 100, 250, 500, and 1000 milliseconds), and examined differential contribution of GABAA and GABAB receptors with iontophoresis. Relative to baseline, lateral orbitofrontal cortex stimulation exerted an inhibitory modulatory gating on the medial prefrontal cortex-amygdala pathway and was effective up to a long delay of 500 ms (long-delay latencies at 100, 250, and 500 milliseconds). Moreover, blockade of intra-amygdala GABAA receptors with bicuculline abolished the lateral orbitofrontal cortex inhibitory gating at both short- (25 milliseconds) and long-delay (100 milliseconds) intervals, while blockade of GABAB receptors with saclofen reversed the inhibitory gating at long delay (100 milliseconds) only. Among the majority of the neurons examined (8 of 9), inactivation of either GABAA or GABAB receptors during baseline did not change evoked probability per se, suggesting that local feed-forward inhibitory mechanism is pathway specific. Our results suggest that the effect of lateral orbitofrontal cortex inhibitory modulatory gating was effective up to 500 milliseconds and that intra-amygdala GABAA and GABAB receptors differentially modulate the short- and long-delay lateral orbitofrontal cortex inhibitory gating on the medial prefrontal cortex-amygdala pathway. © The Author 2017

  4. R-Baclofen Reverses a Social Behavior Deficit and Elevated Protein Synthesis in a Mouse Model of Fragile X Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Mei; Huang, Tianjian; Kader, Michael; Krych, Leland; Xia, Zengyan; Burlin, Thomas; Zeidler, Zachary; Zhao, Tingrui

    2015-01-01

    Background: Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is the most common known inherited form of intellectual disability and the single genomic cause of autism spectrum disorders. It is caused by the absence of a fragile X mental retardation gene (Fmr1) product, FMRP, an RNA-binding translation suppressor. Elevated rates of protein synthesis in the brain and an imbalance between synaptic signaling via glutamate and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) are both considered important in the pathogenesis of FXS. In a mouse model of FXS (Fmr1 knockout [KO]), treatment with R-baclofen reversed some behavioral and biochemical phenotypes. A remaining crucial question is whether R-baclofen is also able to reverse increased brain protein synthesis rates. Methods: To answer this question, we measured regional rates of cerebral protein synthesis in vivo with the L-[1-14C]leucine method in vehicle- and R-baclofen–treated wildtype and Fmr1 KO mice. We further probed signaling pathways involved in the regulation of protein synthesis. Results: Acute R-baclofen administration corrected elevated protein synthesis and reduced deficits on a test of social behavior in adult Fmr1 KO mice. It also suppressed activity of the mammalian target of rapamycin pathway, particularly in synaptosome-enriched fractions, but it had no effect on extracellular-regulated kinase 1/2 activity. Ninety min after R-baclofen treatment, we observed an increase in metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 expression in the frontal cortex, a finding that may shed light on the tolerance observed in human studies with this drug. Conclusions: Our results suggest that treatment via activation of the GABA (GABA receptor subtype B) system warrants further study in patients with FXS. PMID:25820841

  5. Examining the effectiveness of intrathecal baclofen on spasticity in individuals with chronic spinal cord injury: A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    McIntyre, Amanda; Mays, Rachel; Mehta, Swati; Janzen, Shannon; Townson, Andrea; Hsieh, Jane; Wolfe, Dalton; Teasell, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Objective To review the available evidence on the effectiveness of intrathecal baclofen in the treatment of spasticity in individuals with spinal cord injuries (SCIs) at least 6 months post-injury or diagnosis. Data sources A literature search of multiple databases (Pub Med, CINAHL, EMBASE) was conducted to identify articles published in the English language. Study selection Studies were included for review if: (1) more than 50% of the sample size had suffered a traumatic or non-traumatic SCI; (2) there were more than three subjects; (3) subjects received continuous intrathecal baclofen via an implantable pump aimed at improving spasticity; and (4) all subjects were ≥6 months post-SCI, at the time of the intervention. Data extraction Data extracted from the studies included patient and treatment characteristics, study design, method of assessment, and outcomes of the intervention. Data synthesis Methodological quality was assessed using the PEDro for randomized-controlled trials (RCTs) and the Downs and Black (D&B) tool for non-RCTs. A level of evidence was assigned to each intervention using a modified Sackett scale. Conclusion The literature search resulted in 677 articles. No RCTs and eight non-RCTs (D&B scores 13–24) met criteria for inclusion, providing a pooled sample size of 162 individuals. There was substantial level 4 evidence that intrathecal baclofen is effective in reducing spasticity. Mean Ashworth scores reduced from 3.1–4.5 at baseline to 1.0–2.0 (P < 0.005) at follow-up (range 2–41 months). Average dosing increased from 57–187 µg/day at baseline to 218.7–535.9 µg/day at follow-up. Several complications from the use of intrathecal baclofen or pump and catheter malfunction were reported. PMID:24089997

  6. Continuous intrathecal baclofen infusion by a programmable pump in 131 consecutive patients with severe spasticity of spinal origin.

    PubMed

    Ordia, Joe I; Fischer, Edward; Adamski, Ellen; Chagnon, Kimberly G; Spatz, Edward L

    2002-01-01

    We began this study to determine the efficacy and safety of intrathecal baclofen (ITB) delivered by a programmable pump for the treatment of severe spasticity of spinal cord origin. One hundred fifty two patients with severe spasticity of spinal origin, refractory to oral baclofen, or who experienced intolerable side-effects were given a test dose of ITB. Only those who had a satisfactory response were considered to be appropriate for pump implantation. All but one of the 152 patients had a satisfactory response, and the pump was implanted in 131 patients. Pre- and postoperative spasticity scores were compared and analyzed. The mean Ashworth score for rigidity decreased from 4.2 preoperatively to 1.3 (p < 0.0005) on ITB. The spasm score decreased from a mean of 3.4 to 0.6 (p < 0.0005). Reduction of spasticity resulted in improved levels of physical activity, decreased pain, and augmentation of sleep. Drug-related complications included constipation, muscular hypotonia, urinary retention, erectile dysfunction, nausea, dizziness, drowsiness, hypotension and bradycardia as well as tolerance to baclofen. Some patients experienced post-spinal puncture headaches. Catheter-related problems included occlusions, breaks, punctures, and dislodgments. Superficial pump pocket infection, pocket erosion, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leak, post-spinal puncture headache, and meningitis were some of the procedure-related complications. Two pumps flipped and another pump valve was stuck. We conclude that long-term intrathecal baclofen by an implanted programmable pump is a safe and effective method of treating severe intractable spinal spasticity.

  7. Acamprosate and Baclofen were Not Effective in the Treatment of Pathological Gambling: Preliminary Blind Rater Comparison Study.

    PubMed

    Dannon, Pinhas N; Rosenberg, Oded; Schoenfeld, Netta; Kotler, Moshe

    2011-01-01

    Pathological gambling (PG) is a highly prevalent and disabling impulse control disorder. A range of psychopharmacological options are available for the treatment of PG, including selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, opioid receptor antagonists, anti-addiction drugs, and mood stabilizers. In our preliminary study, we examined the efficacy of two anti-addiction drugs, baclofen and acamprosate, in the treatment of PG. Seventeen male gamblers were randomly divided into two groups. Each group received one of the two drugs without being blind to treatment. All patients underwent a comprehensive psychiatric diagnostic evaluation and completed a series of semi-structured interviews. During the 6-months of study, monthly evaluations were carried out to assess improvement and relapses. Relapse was defined as recurrent gambling behavior. None of the 17 patients reached the 6-months abstinence. One patient receiving baclofen sustained abstinence for 4 months. Fourteen patients succeeded in sustaining abstinence for 1-3 months. Two patients stopped attending monthly evaluations. Baclofen and acamprosate did not prove efficient in treating pathological gamblers.

  8. Cautious Use of Intrathecal Baclofen in Walking Spastic Patients: Results on Long-term Follow-up.

    PubMed

    Dones, Ivano; Nazzi, Vittoria; Tringali, Giovanni; Broggi, Giovanni

    2006-04-01

    Intrathecal baclofen is presently the most effective treatment for diffuse spasticity whatever the cause. The fact that both spasticity is always accompanied by a degree of muscle weakness and that any antispastic treatment causes a decrease in muscle strength indicate that major attention must be paid in treating spasticity in ambulant patients. Methods.  We present here a retrospective study, approved by the insitutional ethics committee, of 22 ambulant spastic patients, selected as homogeneous for disease and disease duration, who were treated with intrathecal baclofen at the Istituto Nazionale Neurologico "C.Besta" in Milan. These patients were followed-up for to 15 years of treatment and their clinical assessment was enriched by the evaluation of their functional independence measurement (FIM) before and during treatment. Results.  There was improvement in quality of life as measured by the FIM scale; however, an increase in the patient's motor performance could not be detected. Conclusion.  Although we did not show any improvement in muscle performance, intrathecal baclofen did improve daily quality of life, even in spastic patients who were able to walk.

  9. Management of intrathecal baclofen therapy for severe acquired brain injury: consensus and recommendations for good clinical practice.

    PubMed

    De Tanti, Antonio; Scarponi, Federico; Bertoni, Michele; Gasperini, Giulio; Lanzillo, Bernardo; Molteni, Franco; Posteraro, Federico; Vitale, Dino Francesco; Zanpolini, Mauro

    2017-08-01

    Although widespread in the treatment of generalised spasticity due to severe acquired brain injury, clinical use of intrathecal baclofen administered through an implanted catheter is not yet supported by full scientific evidence. The aim of the study is to provide recommendations for good clinical practice regarding intrathecal baclofen therapy. We used a modified RAND Delphi method to develop consensus-based medical guidelines, involving clinicians who use intrathecal baclofen therapy throughout Italy. The clinicians were asked 38 questions grouped in six areas (patient selection, contraindications for implant, tests prior to implant, method of implant and management of therapy, efficacy evaluation and goal setting, and management of complications). To establish consensus, 75% agreement was required in answers to every question. Consensus was reached on the second round of the Delphi process on 27/38 questions (71%), specifically those regarding identification of objectives, efficacy evaluation, and method of implant and management of therapy, whereas management of complications and contraindications for implant remained critical areas. Despite the limits of our method, a set of recommendations was drawn up for clinical practice in this sector. The study also revealed residual critical areas and indicated future lines of research necessary to reach evidence-based consensus.

  10. One year of baclofen in 100 patients with or without cirrhosis: a French real-life experience.

    PubMed

    Barrault, Camille; Lison, Hortensia; Roudot-Thoraval, Françoise; Garioud, Armand; Costentin, Charlotte; Béhar, Véronique; Medmoun, Mourad; Pulwermacher, Georges; Hagège, Hervé; Cadranel, Jean-François

    2017-10-01

    Several studies have suggested the efficacy of baclofen in reducing alcohol consumption, leading to a temporary recommendation for use in France. Our aim was to report our experience in using baclofen in alcohol-dependant patients with or without liver cirrhosis. Consecutive patients from two liver and alcohol units were recruited over a 3-year period and received increasing doses of baclofen associated with social, psychological, and medical care. One hundred patients were treated, of whom 65 were cirrhotic. After 1 year, 86 patients were still being followed up. At a mean dosage of 40 mg/day (extremes: 30-210), the median daily alcohol consumption reduced from 80 to 0 g/day (P<0.001). Twenty patients drank a small amount of alcohol of up to 30 g/day and 44 patients were completely abstinent. These declarative results were associated with a significant improvement in alcohol-related biological markers in this 'low-consumption' group of 64 patients: the median γ-glutamyl transferase decreased from 3.9 to 2.0 UNL (P<0.001), the mean aspartate transaminase decreased from 2.6 to 1.2 UNL (P<0.001), and the mean corpuscular volume decreased from 101 to 93 µm (P<0.001). In cirrhotic patients, bilirubinemia decreased significantly from 22 to 11 µmol/l (P=0.026), prothrombin time increased from 68 to 77% (P<0.001), and albuminemia increased from 34.1 to 37.4 g/l (P<0.001). Twenty patients reported grades 1-2 adverse events. No liver or renal function deterioration occurred in cirrhotic patients. In our cohort, baclofen associated with a global care was very well tolerated even in cirrhotic patients. The marked reduction in alcohol consumption in 64 patients translated into a significant improvement in biological markers and in liver function tests. Baclofen could be very useful, especially in cases of severe alcoholic liver disease.

  11. Subarachnoid-to-Subarachnoid Shunt for Correction of Nonfunctioning Baclofen Pump in a Severe Case of Chronic Debilitating Post-Spinal Cord Injury Spasticity.

    PubMed

    Bakare, Adewale A; Weyhenmeyer, Jonathan; Lee, Albert

    2018-02-01

    Perhaps the most disabling condition seen in patients with spinal cord injury (SCI) is spasticity. Spasticity is characterized as hyperreflexia and hypertonicity as a result of damage to the supraspinal tracts in the aftermath of SCI. Intrathecal baclofen (ITB) is the mainstay therapy for spasticity unresponsive to oral baclofen. One of the problems associated with post-SCI spasticity unresponsive to ITB is the development of scar tissue that prevents the diffusion of baclofen in the desired spinal cord area. This case offers a unique strategy to deal with multilevel scar tissue. This 46-year-old paraplegic male with a T8 SCI whose spasticity had been well managed with ITB therapy for many years recently suffered intractable spasticity necessitating multiple reoperations for a nonfunctioning ITB catheter secondary to extensive scar tissue and intrathecal adhesions. Placement of a subarachnoid-to-subarachnoid shunt eliminated the problem of extensive scar tissue preventing adequate baclofen therapy. After undergoing multilevel thoracic and lumbar laminectomies with subarachnoid-to-subarachnoid spinal shunt, the patient's spasticity was finally brought under control with adequate daily baclofen infusion. This case demonstrates a creative way to address ITB catheter failure before considering other measures, such as neuroablative procedures (e.g., rhizotomy, myelotomy). This case reinforces the recommendation that ablative procedures, which have far greater complications, should be reserved for patients who have failed medical or other nonablative therapies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Off-Label Baclofen Prescribing Practices among French Alcohol Specialists: Results of a National Online Survey

    PubMed Central

    Rolland, Benjamin; Paille, François; Fleury, Benoit; Cottencin, Olivier; Benyamina, Amine; Aubin, Henri-Jean

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate, among alcohol specialists belonging to the Société Française d’Alcoologie (SFA), i.e., the French Alcohol Society, the proportion of physicians who prescribed off-label baclofen for alcohol use disorders (AUDs). The secondary objective was to depict the features of individual prescribing and monitoring practices. Methods On-line survey among 484 French alcohol specialists. Physicians were asked whether they prescribed baclofen for AUDs. If they did not, the reasons for this choice were investigated. If they did, the features of the physician’s prescribing practice were explored, including the number of patients treated, the mean and maximum doses, the monitoring precautions and the pharmacovigilance reporting. Participants were also asked about their empirical findings on HDB’s efficacy and safety. Results In total, 302 physicians (response rate of 62.4%) participated in the survey. Data from 296 participants were analysed, representing 59.4% of all active prescribing physicians belonging to the SFA. HDB use was declared by 74.6% of participants (mean dose 109.5±43.6 mg/d; maximum dose 188±93.3 mg/d). However, 79.2% of prescribers had treated less than 30 patients, and 67.8% used HDB as a second-line medication. Although HDB was perceived as more efficacious than approved drugs by 54.3% of prescribers, it was also declared less safe by 62.8%. Nonetheless, 79.7% of prescribers had never filed any pharmacovigilance report. Non-prescribers (25.6%) were primarily deterred by the current lack of scientific data and official regulation. Conclusion A majority of French alcohol specialists reported using HDB, although often on a limited number of their patients. HDB was considered efficacious but also potentially hazardous. Despite this, physicians reported minimal safety data to the health security system. While French health authorities are planning to draft a specific regulatory measure for framing off-label HDB prescribing practices

  13. Inhibitory control of plateau properties in dorsal horn neurones in the turtle spinal cord in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Russo, Raúl E; Nagy, Frédéric; Hounsgaard, Jørn

    1998-01-01

    The role of inhibition in control of plateau-generating neurones in the dorsal horn was studied in an in vitro preparation of the spinal cord of the turtle. Ionotropic and metabotropic inhibition was found to condition the expression of plateau potentials. Blockade of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABAA) and glycine receptors by their selective antagonists bicuculline (10-50 μM) and strychnine (5-20 μM) enhanced the excitatory response to stimulation of the dorsal root and facilitated the expression of plateau potentials. Bicuculline and strychnine also facilitated the generation of plateau potentials in response to depolarizing current pulses, suggesting the presence of tonic ionotropic inhibitory mechanisms in turtle spinal cord slices. Activation of GABAB receptors also inhibited plateau-generating neurones. The selective agonist baclofen (5-50 μM) inhibited wind-up of the response to repeated depolarizations induced synaptically or by intracellular current pulses. Baclofen reduced afferent synaptic input. This effect was not affected by bicuculline or strychnine and was blocked by the selective GABAB receptor antagonist 2-hydroxysaclofen (2-OH-saclofen, 100-400 μM). Postsynaptically, baclofen inhibited plateau properties. Activation of GABAB receptors produced a hyperpolarization (7.0 ± 0.5 mV, mean ± s.e.m., n= 29) with an associated decrease in input resistance (22.7 ± 3.1 %, n= 24). These effects were blocked by extracellular Ba2+ (1-2 mM). When the baclofen-induced hyperpolarization and shunt were compensated for by adjusting the bias current and the strength of the stimulus, baclofen still inhibited generation of plateau potentials. Wind-up and after-discharges were also inhibited by baclofen. These effects remained in the presence of tetrodotoxin (1 μM) and were antagonized by 2-OH-saclofen. The inhibition of plateau properties was observed even when the baclofen-induced hyperpolarization and shunt were blocked by Ba2+ and when potassium channels were

  14. Effects of GABAergic modulators on food and cocaine self-administration in baboons.

    PubMed

    Weerts, Elise M; Froestl, Wolfgang; Griffiths, Roland R

    2005-12-12

    Drugs that indirectly alter dopaminergic systems may alter the reinforcing effects of cocaine. The inhibitory neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) has extensive neural connections in mesolimbic regions that appear to modulate dopamine. The current study evaluated the effects of GABA(B) receptor agonists baclofen and CGP44532, the benzodiazepine agonist alprazolam, and the GABA reuptake inhibitor tiagabine on lever responding maintained by low dose cocaine injections (0.032 mg/kg) or by food pellet (1 g) delivery in baboons. The benzodiazepine antagonist flumazenil was tested as a negative control. Cocaine or food was available under a fixed ratio (FR 10) schedule of reinforcement during daily 2-h sessions. During baseline conditions, cocaine and pellets maintained similar numbers of reinforcers per session. Baclofen, CGP44532 and tiagabine dose-dependently reduced the number of cocaine injections, where as the benzodiazepine antagonist flumazenil did not. Baclofen, CGP44532 and tiagabine also produced dose-related decreases in food-maintained behavior. In contrast, the benzodiazepine agonist alprazolam, which positively modulates GABA(A) receptors via the benzodiazepine site, produced decreases in cocaine self-injection, but not food-maintained behavior. Thus, the effects of alprazolam were specific for cocaine-maintained behavior, where as the effects of baclofen and CGP44532 were not.

  15. A Novel Skin and Fascia Opening for Subfascial Inserting of Intrathecal Baclofen Pump.

    PubMed

    Fiaschi, Pietro; Cama, Armando; Piatelli, Gianluca; Moretti, Paolo; Pavanello, Marco

    2018-02-01

    The aim of this article is to introduce a new skin and fascia opening for intrathecal baclofen pump implantation in the abdomen, with the purpose of reducing complications related to wound breakdown. We introduce a novel way of cutaneous and fascial opening that leads two opposed "L shaped" incisions. This method entails numerous advantages. The first advantage is avoiding the direct alignment of overlapped sutures, which creates a locus minoris resistentiae that can weaken and break under the push of the pump. Another advantage consists of an increased obstruction against deep extension of infective processes from cutaneous origin. The wide opening of the subfascial pocket permits the implantation of any type of pump available, and it reduces complexities in reopening the pouch for pump replacement. It also permits the fastening of all anchoring systems usually present in pumps. Another advantage is the improved possibility of careful muscle cauterization thanks to the wide fascia opening, with reduced risk of postsurgical hematoma. Our results showed a reduction of wound complications with this method. This method could contribute to reducing the rate of wound complications and patient discomfort. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. ANALGESIC EFFECT OF INTRATHECAL BACLOFEN BOLUS ON NEUROPATHIC PAIN IN SPINAL CORD INJURY PATIENTS.

    PubMed

    Kumru, Hatice; Benito-Penalva, Jesus; Kofler, Markus; Vidal, Joan

    2018-05-18

    GABA-ergic neurons are widely distributed throughout the central nervous system, including the spinal cord which is important for the transmission of pain impulses to the brain. Here we hypothesized that intrathecal baclofen (ITB) which is a GABA analogue might exert analgesic effects on neuropathic pain, which could be related to subtypes of pain in spinal cord injury (SCI). SCI patients with a cervical or thoracic lesion and neuropathic pain were randomized to receive either a single ITB bolus or placebo. Numerical Rating Scale (NRS), Neuropathic Pain Symptom Inventory (NPSI), and Brief Pain Inventory (BPI) were obtained for assessment of neuropathic pain. Spasticity was assessed using Modified Ashworth Scale and visual analogue scale. Evaluations were performed at baseline, and 4, 8, and 24 hours after application of ITB or placebo. Eight patients received ITB, 5 placebo. Neuropathic pain improved significantly in the ITB group based on NRS, BPI, and NPSI, which revealed an effect on all subtypes of pain. Spasticity declined significantly. In the placebo group, there was neither significant change in pain nor in spasticity. An ITB bolus exerted a significant analgesic effect on all subtypes of neuropathic pain in SCI patients. ITB has analgesic effects on all subtypes of neuropathic pain and can improve interference of neuropathic pain with activities of daily living. ITB might be a promising analgesic treatment to control neuropathic pain. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. Intrathecal baclofen therapy in paediatrics: a study protocol for an Australian multicentre, 10-year prospective audit.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Kirsty; Hutana, Gavin; Kentish, Megan

    2017-06-21

    Increasing clinical use of Intrathecal baclofen (ITB) in Australian tertiary paediatric hospitals, along with the need for standardised assessment and reporting of adverse events, saw the formation of the Australian Paediatric ITB Research Group (APIRG). APIRG developed a National ITB Audit tool designed to capture clinical outcomes and adverse events data for all Australian children and adolescents receiving ITB therapy. The Australian ITB Audit is a 10 year, longitudinal, prospective, clinical audit collecting all adverse events and assessment data across body functions and structure, participation and activity level domains of the ICF. Data will be collected at baseline, 6 and 12 months with ongoing capture of all adverse event data. This is the first Australian study that aims to capture clinical and adverse event data from a complete population of children with neurological impairment receiving a specific intervention between 2011 and 2021. This multi-centre study will inform ITB clinical practice in children and adolescents, direct patient selection, record and aid decision making regarding adverse events and investigate the impact of ITB therapy on family and patient quality of life. This project was approved by the individual Human Research Ethics committees at the six Australian tertiary hospitals involved in the study. Results will be published in various peer reviewed journals and presented at national and international conferences. ACTRN 12610000323022; Pre-results. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  18. Intrathecal baclofen therapy in paediatrics: a study protocol for an Australian multicentre, 10-year prospective audit

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, Kirsty; Hutana, Gavin; Kentish, Megan

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Increasing clinical use of Intrathecal baclofen (ITB) in Australian tertiary paediatric hospitals, along with the need for standardised assessment and reporting of adverse events, saw the formation of the Australian Paediatric ITB Research Group (APIRG). APIRG developed a National ITB Audit tool designed to capture clinical outcomes and adverse events data for all Australian children and adolescents receiving ITB therapy. Methods and analysis The Australian ITB Audit is a 10 year, longitudinal, prospective, clinical audit collecting all adverse events and assessment data across body functions and structure, participation and activity level domains of the ICF. Data will be collected at baseline, 6 and 12 months with ongoing capture of all adverse event data. This is the first Australian study that aims to capture clinical and adverse event data from a complete population of children with neurological impairment receiving a specific intervention between 2011 and 2021. This multi-centre study will inform ITB clinical practice in children and adolescents, direct patient selection, record and aid decision making regarding adverse events and investigate the impact of ITB therapy on family and patient quality of life. Ethics and dissemination This project was approved by the individual Human Research Ethics committees at the six Australian tertiary hospitals involved in the study. Results will be published in various peer reviewed journals and presented at national and international conferences. Trial registration number ACTRN 12610000323022; Pre-results. PMID:28637739

  19. Enantiodifferentiation of chiral baclofen by β-cyclodextrin using capillary electrophoresis: A molecular modeling approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suliman, FakhrEldin O.; Elbashir, Abdalla A.

    2012-07-01

    Using capillary electrophoresis baclofen (BF) enantiomers were separated only in the presence of β-cyclodextrin (βCD) as a chiral selector when added to the background electrolyte. Proton nuclear magnetic resonance and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) techniques were used to determine the structure of the BF-βCD inclusion complexes. From the MS data BF was found to form a 1:1 complex with α- and βCD, while the NMR data suggest location of the aromatic ring of BF into the cyclodextrin cavity. A molecular modeling study, using the semiempirical PM6 calculations was used to investigate the mechanism of enantiodifferentiation of BF with cyclodextrins. Optimization of the structures of the complexes by PM6 method indicated that separation is obtained in the presence of β-CD due to a large binding energy difference (ΔΔE) of 46.8 kJ mol-1 between S-BF-βCD and R-BF-βCD complexes. In the case of αCD complexes ΔΔE was 1.3 kJ mol-1 indicating poor resolution between the two enantiomers. Furthermore, molecular dynamic simulations show that the formation of more stable S-BF-βCD complex compared to R-BF-β-CD complex is primarily due to differences in intermolecular hydrogen bonding.

  20. Intrathecal Baclofen Therapy for Painful Muscle Spasms in a Patient with Friedreich's Ataxia.

    PubMed

    Kalyvas, Aristotelis V; Drosos, Evangelos; Korfias, Stefanos; Gatzonis, Stylianos; Themistocleous, Marios; Sakas, Damianos E

    2018-06-08

    Friedreich's ataxia (FA) is the most frequent hereditary ataxia syndrome, while painful muscle spasms and spasticity have been reported in 11-15% of FA patients. This report describes the successful management of painful spasms in a 65-year-old woman with FA via intrathecal baclofen (ITB) therapy following unsuccessful medical treatments. To our knowledge, this is the third reported case in the literature. Unfortunately, the pathophysiological characteristics of muscle spasms in FA are not well explored and understood while the therapeutic mechanisms of the different treatments are rather vague. Taking into consideration the suggested spinal atrophy in FA, the clinical resemblance of FA and chronic spinal injury muscle spasms, together with the rapid ITB therapy effectiveness in alleviating FA muscle spasms, we attempted to suggest a putative pathophysiological mechanism acting at the spinal level and possibly explained by the presence of independent spinal locomotor systems producing muscle spasms. Specifically, overexcitement of these centers, due to loss of normal regulation from upper CNS levels, may result in the uncontrolled firing of secondary motor neurons and may be the key to producing muscle spasms. However, further research under experimental and clinical settings seems to be necessary. © 2018 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  1. Cerebellar ataxia and intrathecal baclofen therapy: Focus on patients´ experiences

    PubMed Central

    Berntsson, Shala Ghaderi; Landtblom, Anne-Marie; Flensner, Gullvi

    2017-01-01

    Elucidating patients´ experiences of living with chronic progressive hereditary ataxia and the symptomatic treatment with intrathecal baclofen (ITB) is the objective of the current study. A multicenter qualitative study with four patients included due to the rare combination of hereditary ataxia and ITB therapy was designed to elucidate participants’ experiences through semi-structured interviews. The transcribed text was analyzed according to content analysis guidelines. Overall we identified living in the present/ taking one day at a time as the main theme covering the following categories: 1) Uncertainty about the future as a consequence of living with a hereditary disease; The disease; 2) Impact on life as a whole, 3) Influence on personal life in terms of feeling forced to terminate employment, 4) Limiting daily activities, and 5) ITB therapy, advantages, and disadvantages. Uncertainty about the future was the category that affected participants’ personal life, employment, and daily activities. The participants’ experience of receiving ITB therapy was expressed in terms of improved quality of life due to better body position and movement as well as better sleep and pain relief. PMID:28654671

  2. Discrimination between olfactory receptor agonists and non-agonists.

    PubMed

    Topin, Jérémie; de March, Claire A; Charlier, Landry; Ronin, Catherine; Antonczak, Serge; Golebiowski, Jérôme

    2014-08-11

    A joint approach combining free-energy calculations and calcium-imaging assays on the broadly tuned human 1G1 olfactory receptor is reported. The free energy of binding of ten odorants was computed by means of molecular-dynamics simulations. This state function allows separating the experimentally determined eight agonists from the two non-agonists. This study constitutes a proof-of-principle for the computational deorphanization of olfactory receptors. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. The involvement of NMDA receptor/NO/cGMP pathway in the antidepressant like effects of baclofen in mouse force swimming test.

    PubMed

    Khan, Muhammad Imran; Ostadhadi, Sattar; Zolfaghari, Samira; Ejtemaei Mehr, Shahram; Hassanzadeh, Gholamreza; Dehpour, Ahmad-Reza

    2016-01-26

    In the current study, the involvement of N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) and nitric oxide (NO)/cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) system in the antidepressant-like effects of baclofen was evaluated by using animal model in forced swimming test. Followed by an open field test for the evaluation of locomotor activity, the immobility time for mice in force swimming test was recorded. Only the last four min was analyzed. Administration of Baclofen (0.5 and 1mg/kg, i.p.) reduced the immobility interval in the FST. Prior administration of l-arginine (750mg/kg, i.p.,) a nitric oxide synthase substrate or sildenafil (5mg/kg, i.p.) a phosphodiesterase 5 into mice suppressed the antidepressant-like activity of baclofen (1mg/kg, i.p.).Co-treatment of 7-nitroindazole (50mg/kg, i.p.,) an inhibitor of neuronal nitric oxide synthase, L-NAME (10mg/kg, i.p.,) a non-specific inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase or MK-801 (0.05mg/kg, i.p.) an NMDA receptor antagonist with subeffective dose of baclofen (0.1mg/kg, i.p.), reduced the immobility time in the FST as compared to the drugs when used alone. Co-administrated of lower doses of MK-801 (0.01mg/kg) or l-NAME (1mg/kg) failed to effect immobility time however, simultaneous administration of these two agents in same dose with subeffective dose of baclofen (0.1mg/kg, i.p.), minimized the immobility time in the FST. Thus, our results support the role of NMDA receptors and l-arginine-NO-GMP pathway in the antidepressant-like action of baclofen. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Brain region-selective cellular redistribution of mGlu5 but not GABA(B) receptors following methamphetamine-induced associative learning.

    PubMed

    Herrold, Amy A; Voigt, Robin M; Napier, T Celeste

    2011-12-01

    Alterations in receptor expression and distribution between cell surface and cytoplasm are means by which psychostimulants regulate neurotransmission. Metabotropic glutamate receptor group I, subtype 5 (mGluR5) and GABA(B) receptors (GABA(B) R) are critically involved in the development and expression of stimulant-induced behaviors, including conditioned place preference (CPP), an index of drug-seeking. However, it is not known if psychostimulant-induced CPP alters the trafficking of these receptors. To fill this gap, this study used methamphetamine (Meth)-induced CPP in rats to ascertain if receptor changes occur in limbic brain regions that regulate drug-seeking, the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), nucleus accumbens (NAc), and ventral pallidum (VP). To do so, ex vivo tissue was assessed for changes in expression and surface vs. intracellular distribution of mGluR5 and GABA(B) Rs. There was a decrease in the surface to intracellular ratio of mGluR5 in the mPFC in Meth-conditioned rats, commensurate with an increase in intracellular levels. mGluR5 levels in the NAc or the VP were unaltered. There were no changes for GABA(B) R in any brain region assayed. This ex vivo snapshot of metabotropic glutamate and GABA receptor cellular distribution following induction of Meth-induced CPP is the first report to determine if these receptors are differentially altered after Meth-induced CPP. The results suggest that this Meth treatment paradigm likely induced a compensatory change in mGluR5 surface to intracellular ratio such that the surface remains unaltered while an increase in intracellular protein occurred. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  5. Baclofen to prevent agitation in alcohol-addicted patients in the ICU: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Vourc'h, Mickael; Feuillet, Fanny; Mahe, Pierre-Joachim; Sebille, Véronique; Asehnoune, Karim

    2016-08-19

    Alcohol is the leading psychoactive substance consumed in France, with about 15 million regular consumers. The National institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) considers alcohol abuse to be more than 14 units of alcohol a week for men and 7 units for women. The specific complication of alcoholism is the alcohol withdrawal syndrome. Its incidence reaches up to 30 % and its main complications are delirium tremens, restlessness, extended hospital stay, higher morbidity, and psychiatric and cognitive impairment. Without appropriate treatment, delirium tremens can lead to death in up to 50 % of patients. This prospective, double-blind, randomised controlled study versus placebo will be conducted in twelve French intensive care units (ICU). Patients with an alcohol intake level higher than the NIAAA threshold, who are under mechanical ventilation, will be included. The primary objective is to determine whether baclofen is more efficient than placebo in preventing restlessness-related side effects in the ICU. Secondary outcomes include mechanical ventilation duration, length of ICU stay, and cumulative doses of sedatives and painkillers received within 28 days of ICU admission. Restlessness-related side effects in the ICU are defined as unplanned extubation, medical disposal removal (such as urinary catheter, venous or arterial line or surgical drain), falling out of bed, ICU runaway (leaving ICU without physician's approval), immobilisation device removal, self-aggression or aggression towards medical staff. Daily doses of baclofen/placebo will be guided by daily creatinine clearance assessment. Restlessness in alcoholic patients is a life-threatening issue in ICUs. BACLOREA is a randomised study assessing the capacity of baclofen to prevent agitation in mechanically ventilated patients. Enrolment of 314 patients will begin in June 2016 and is expected to end in October 2018. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02723383 , registered on 3 March 2016.

  6. Effects of intrathecal baclofen therapy on motor and cognitive functions in a rat model of cerebral palsy.

    PubMed

    Nomura, Sadahiro; Kagawa, Yoshiteru; Kida, Hiroyuki; Maruta, Yuichi; Imoto, Hirochika; Fujii, Masami; Suzuki, Michiyasu

    2012-02-01

    Cerebral palsy (CP) arises in the early stages of brain development and manifests as spastic paresis that is often associated with cognitive dysfunction. Available CP treatments are aimed at the management of spasticity and include botulinum toxin administration, selective dorsal rhizotomy, and intrathecal baclofen (ITB). In this study, the authors investigated whether the management of spasticity with ITB therapy affected motor function and whether the release of spasticity was associated with an improvement in intellectual function. Newborn Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into the following groups: control, CP model, and CP model with ITB therapy. For the CP model, postnatal Day 7 (P7) rats were exposed to hypoxic conditions (8% O(2)) for 150 minutes after ligation of the right common carotid artery. In the groups receiving ITB therapy, a spinal catheter was connected to an osmotic pump filled with baclofen and placed in the spinal subarachnoid space on P21 in the early group and on P35 in the late group. A daily dose of 12 μg of baclofen was continuously administered until P49, resulting in 28 days of therapy in the early group and 14 days in the late group. Changes in spasticity in the CP and CP with ITB treatment groups were confirmed by assessing the motor evoked potential in the plantar muscle. In the CP group, the time required to complete a beam-walking test on P49 was significantly longer than that in the control and ITB treatment groups (4.15 ± 0.60 vs 2.10 ± 0.18 and 2.22 ± 0.22 seconds, respectively). Results of the beam-walking test are expressed as the mean ± SD. Radial arm maze performance on P49 indicated that spatial reference memory had significantly deteriorated in the CP group compared with controls (2.33 ± 0.87 vs 0.86 ± 0.90 points); moreover, working memory was also negatively affected by CP (0.78 ± 1.09 vs 0.14 ± 0.38 points). Results of the memory tests are expressed as the mean ± SE. These memory functions did not recover after

  7. [Dissociated learning with GABAergic drugs].

    PubMed

    Azarashvili, A A; Kaĭmachnikova, I E

    2008-01-01

    The possibility of dissociated learning was investigated using drugs which act directly on GABAB receptors of the brain. The earlier proposed suggestion that the cholinergic system plays a key role in the mechanisms of dissociated learning was tested. It was shown in male Wistar rats that dissociated learning was possible with GABAergic drugs. The dissociated state was induced by injecting the animals with both GABA agonist Baclofen and GABA antagonist 5-aminovaleric acid. Thus, dissociated learning is possible with drugs which act on either cholinergic or GABAergic transmitter systems.

  8. Effects of GABA ligands injected into the nucleus accumbens shell on fear/anxiety-like and feeding behaviours in food-deprived rats.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Ana Paula Fraga; Ganzer, Laís; Borges, Aline Caon; Kochenborger, Larissa; Januário, Ana Cláudia; Faria, Moacir Serralvo; Marino-Neto, José; Paschoalini, Marta Aparecida

    2012-03-01

    In an attempt to establish a relationship between food intake and fear/anxiety-related behaviours, the goal of this study was to investigate the effect of bilateral injections of GABAA (Muscimol, MUS, doses 25 and 50ng/side) and GABAB (Baclofen, BAC, doses 32 and 64ng/side) receptor agonists in the nucleus accumbens shell (AcbSh) on the level of fear/anxiety-like and feeding behaviours in 24h food-deprived rats. The antagonists of GABAA (Bicuculline, BIC, doses 75 and 150ng/side) and GABAB (Saclofen, SAC, doses 1.5 and 3μg/side) were also tested. The results indicated that the total number of risk assessment behaviour decreased after the injection of both doses of GABAA agonist (MUS) into the AcbSh of 24h food-deprived rats exposed to elevated plus maze. Similar results were obtained after treatment with both doses of GABAB (BAC) agonist in the AcbSh. These data indicated that the activation of both GABAA and GABAB receptors within the AcbSh caused anxiolysis in 24h food-deprived rats. In addition, feeding behaviour (food intake, feeding latency and feeding duration) remained unchanged after treatment with both GABA agonists. In contrast, both food intake and feeding duration decreased after injections of both doses of BIC (GABAA antagonist), while the feeding latency remained unchanged after treatment with both GABA antagonists in the AcbSh of 24h food-deprived rats. The treatment with SAC (GABAB antagonist) did not affect feeding behaviour. Collectively, these data suggest that emotional changes evoked by pharmacological manipulation of the GABA neurotransmission in the AcbSh are not linked with changes in food intake. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Comparison of Efficacy and Side Effects of Oral Baclofen Versus Tizanidine Therapy with Adjuvant Botulinum Toxin Type A in Children With Cerebral Palsy and Spastic Equinus Foot Deformity.

    PubMed

    Dai, Alper I; Aksoy, Sefika N; Demiryürek, Abdullah T

    2016-02-01

    This retrospective study aimed to compare the therapeutic response, including side effects, for oral baclofen versus oral tizanidine therapy with adjuvant botulinum toxin type A in a group of 64 pediatric patients diagnosed with static encephalopathy and spastic equinus foot deformity. Following botulinum toxin A treatment, clinical improvement led to the gradual reduction of baclofen or tizanidine dosing to one-third of the former dose. Gross Motor Functional Measure and Caregiver Health Questionnaire scores were markedly elevated post-botulinum toxin A treatment, with scores for the tizanidine (Gross Motor Functional Measure: 74.45 ± 3.72; Caregiver Health Questionnaire: 72.43 ± 4.29) group significantly higher than for the baclofen group (Gross Motor Functional Measure: 68.23 ± 2.66; Caregiver Health Questionnaire: 67.53 ± 2.67, P < .001). These findings suggest that the combined use of botulinum toxin A and a low dose of tizanidine in treating children with cerebral palsy appears to be more effective and has fewer side effects versus baclofen with adjuvant botulinum toxin A. © The Author(s) 2015.

  10. Regio- and enantioselective palladium-catalyzed allylic alkylation of nitromethane with monosubstituted allyl substrates: synthesis of (R)-rolipram and (R)-baclofen.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiao-Fei; Ding, Chang-Hua; Li, Xiao-Hui; Huang, Jian-Qiang; Hou, Xue-Long; Dai, Li-Xin; Wang, Pin-Jie

    2012-10-19

    The Pd-catalyzed asymmetric allylic alkylation (AAA) reaction of nitromethane with monosubstituted allyl substrates was realized for the first time to provide corresponding products in high yields with excellent regio- and enantioselectivities. The protocol was applied to the enantioselective synthesis of (R)-baclofen and (R)-rolipram.

  11. Bioavailability enhancement of baclofen by gastroretentive floating formulation: statistical optimization, in vitro and in vivo pharmacokinetic studies.

    PubMed

    Thakar, Krishna; Joshi, Garima; Sawant, Krutika K

    2013-06-01

    The study was aimed to improve bioavailability of baclofen by developing gastroretentive floating drug delivery system (GFDDS). Preliminary optimization was done to select various release retardants to obtain minimum floating lag time, maximum floating duration and sustained release. Optimization by 3(2) factorial design was done using Polyox WSR 303 (X1) and HPMC K4M (X2) as independent variables and cumulative percentage drug released at 6 h (Q6h) as dependent variable. Optimized formulation showed floating lag time of 4-5 s, floated for more than 12 h and released the drug in sustained manner. In vitro release followed zero ordered kinetics and when fitted to Korsemeyer Peppas model, indicated drug release by combination of diffusion as well as chain relaxation. In vivo floatability study confirmed floatation for more than 6 h. In vivo pharmacokinetic studies in rabbits showed Cmax of 189.96 ± 13.04 ng/mL and Tmax of 4 ± 0.35 h for GFDDS. The difference for AUC(0-T) and AUC(0-∞) between the test and reference formulation was statistically significant (p > 0.05). AUC(0-T) and AUC(0-∞) for GFDDS was 2.34 and 2.43 times greater than the marketed formulation respectively. GFDDS provided prolonged gastric residence and showed significant increase in bioavailability of baclofen.

  12. Centralization of Noxious Stimulus-induced Analgesia (NSIA) is Related to Activity at Inhibitory Synapses in the Spinal Cord

    PubMed Central

    Tambeli, Claudia H.; Levine, Jon D.; Gear, Robert W.

    2009-01-01

    The duration of noxious stimulus-induced antinociception (NSIA) has been shown to outlast the pain stimulus that elicited it, however, the mechanism that determines the duration of analgesia is unknown. We evaluated the role of spinal excitatory and inhibitory receptors (NMDA, mGluR-5, mu-opioid, GABA-A, and GABA-B), previously implicated in NSIA initiation, in its maintenance. As in our previous studies, the supraspinal trigeminal jaw-opening reflex (JOR) in the rat was used for nociceptive testing because of its remoteness from the region of drug application, the lumbar spinal cord. NSIA was reversed by antagonists for two inhibitory receptors (GABA-B and mu-opioid) but not by antagonists for either of the two excitatory receptors (NMDA and mGluR-5), indicating that NSIA is maintained by ongoing activity at inhibitory synapses in the spinal cord. Furthermore, spinal administration of the GABA-B agonist baclofen mimicked NSIA in that it could be blocked by prior injection of the mu-opioid receptor antagonist H-D-Phe-Cys-Tyr-D-Trp-Arg-Thr-Pen-Thr-NH2 (CTAP) in nucleus accumbens. CTAP also blocked baclofen antinociception when administered in the spinal cord. We conclude that analgesia induced by noxious stimulation is maintained by activity in spinal inhibitory receptors. PMID:19375225

  13. GABAB receptor-mediated, layer-specific synaptic plasticity reorganizes gamma-frequency neocortical response to stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Ainsworth, Matthew; Lee, Shane; Kaiser, Marcus; Simonotto, Jennifer; Kopell, Nancy J.

    2016-01-01

    Repeated presentations of sensory stimuli generate transient gamma-frequency (30–80 Hz) responses in neocortex that show plasticity in a task-dependent manner. Complex relationships between individual neuronal outputs and the mean, local field potential (population activity) accompany these changes, but little is known about the underlying mechanisms responsible. Here we show that transient stimulation of input layer 4 sufficient to generate gamma oscillations induced two different, lamina-specific plastic processes that correlated with lamina-specific changes in responses to further, repeated stimulation: Unit rates and recruitment showed overall enhancement in supragranular layers and suppression in infragranular layers associated with excitatory or inhibitory synaptic potentiation onto principal cells, respectively. Both synaptic processes were critically dependent on activation of GABAB receptors and, together, appeared to temporally segregate the cortical representation. These data suggest that adaptation to repetitive sensory input dramatically alters the spatiotemporal properties of the neocortical response in a manner that may both refine and minimize cortical output simultaneously. PMID:27118845

  14. GABAB receptor-mediated, layer-specific synaptic plasticity reorganizes gamma-frequency neocortical response to stimulation.

    PubMed

    Ainsworth, Matthew; Lee, Shane; Kaiser, Marcus; Simonotto, Jennifer; Kopell, Nancy J; Whittington, Miles A

    2016-05-10

    Repeated presentations of sensory stimuli generate transient gamma-frequency (30-80 Hz) responses in neocortex that show plasticity in a task-dependent manner. Complex relationships between individual neuronal outputs and the mean, local field potential (population activity) accompany these changes, but little is known about the underlying mechanisms responsible. Here we show that transient stimulation of input layer 4 sufficient to generate gamma oscillations induced two different, lamina-specific plastic processes that correlated with lamina-specific changes in responses to further, repeated stimulation: Unit rates and recruitment showed overall enhancement in supragranular layers and suppression in infragranular layers associated with excitatory or inhibitory synaptic potentiation onto principal cells, respectively. Both synaptic processes were critically dependent on activation of GABAB receptors and, together, appeared to temporally segregate the cortical representation. These data suggest that adaptation to repetitive sensory input dramatically alters the spatiotemporal properties of the neocortical response in a manner that may both refine and minimize cortical output simultaneously.

  15. Effects of fendiline on cocaine-seeking behavior in the rat.

    PubMed

    Cunningham, Jonathan J; Orr, Erin; Lothian, Barbara C; Morgen, Jennifer; Brebner, Karen

    2015-12-01

    L-type Ca(2+) channels (LTCC) and GABAB receptors are both possible targets in the development of new pharmacological compounds for cocaine addiction. Drugs that target either receptor attenuate a wide range of cocaine-seeking behaviors in the rat. However, there is no current human-approved pharmacotherapeutic intervention for psychostimulant addiction. This study examined the effects of a human-approved LTCC blocker, fendiline, on cocaine-taking and cocaine-seeking behavior in rats. The effects of combining fendiline with the GABAB receptor agonist baclofen on cocaine self-administration were also tested. Male Wistar rats were trained to self-administer cocaine, and the effects of fendiline pretreatment (vehicle, 1.78, 3.16, 5.62 mg/kg, intraperitoneal (IP)) were tested on progressive ratio responding and cue- and drug-induced reinstatement. The effects of baclofen (vehicle, 0.56, 1.78, 3.16, 5.62 mg/kg, IP) combined with fendiline (5.62 mg/kg, IP) were tested on progressive ratio responding. Control experiments measured locomotor activity and lever pressing for food in rats that received both baclofen and fendiline prior to the test session. Acute injections of fendiline prior to cue- or drug-induced reinstatement significantly attenuated lever-pressing behavior (p < 0.05). Fendiline and baclofen, but not fendiline alone, not only significantly attenuated breakpoints, but also impaired general motor behavior and naturalistic reinforcement (p < 0.05). These data suggest that the LTCC blocker fendiline may represent a novel pharmacotherapeutic intervention to prevent reinstatement to cocaine seeking. Also, co-administration of fendiline and baclofen not only can attenuate the motivation to take cocaine, but also impairs general motor behavior and naturalistic reinforcement.

  16. Outcomes of intrathecal baclofen therapy in patients with cerebral palsy and acquired brain injury

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Young Kwon; Lee, Kil Chan; Cho, Han Eol; Chae, Minji; Chang, Jin Woo; Chang, Won Seok; Cho, Sung-Rae

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Intrathecal baclofen (ITB) has been known to reduce spasticity which did not respond to oral medications and botulinum toxin treatment. However, few results have been reported comparing the effects of ITB therapy in patients with cerebral palsy (CP) and acquired brain injury. This study aimed to investigate beneficial and adverse effects of ITB bolus injection and pump therapy in patients with CP and to compare outcomes to patients with acquired brain injury such as traumatic brain injury and hypoxic brain injury. ITB test trials were performed in 37 patients (19 CP and 18 acquired brain injury). Based on ambulatory function, CP patients were divided into 2 groups: 11 patients with nonambulatory CP and 8 patients with ambulatory CP. Change of spasticity was evaluated using the Modified Ashworth Scale. Additional positive or negative effects were also evaluated after ITB bolus injection. In patients who received ITB pump implantation, outcomes of spasticity, subjective satisfaction and adverse events were evaluated until 12 months post-treatment. After ITB bolus injection, 32 patients (86.5%) (CP 84.2% versus acquired brain injury 88.9%) showed a positive response of reducing spasticity. However, 8 patients with CP had negative adverse effects. Particularly, 3 ambulatory CP patients showed standing impairment and 1 ambulatory CP patient showed impaired gait pattern such as foot drop because of excessive reduction of lower extremity muscle tone. Ambulatory CP patients received ITB pump implantation less than patients with acquired brain injury after ITB test trials (P = .003 by a chi-squared test). After the pump implantation, spasticity was significantly reduced within 1 month and the effect maintained for 12 months. Seventeen patients or their caregivers (73.9%) were very satisfied, whereas 5 patients (21.7%) suffered from adverse events showed no subjective satisfaction. In conclusion, ITB therapy was effective in reducing spasticity in patients with

  17. Administration of growth hormone and nandrolone decanoate alters mRNA expression of the GABAB receptor subunits as well as of the GH receptor, IGF-1, and IGF-2 in rat brain.

    PubMed

    Grönbladh, Alfhild; Johansson, Jenny; Nyberg, Fred; Hallberg, Mathias

    2014-01-01

    The illicit use of anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS), especially among young adults, is of major concern. Among AAS users it is common to combine the AAS nandrolone decanoate (ND), with intake of growth hormone (GH) and a connection between gonadal steroids and the GH system has been suggested. Both AAS and GH affect functions in the brain, for example those associated with the hypothalamus and pituitary, and several GH actions are mediated by growth factors such as insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) and insulin-like growth factor 2 (IGF-2). The GABAergic system is implicated in actions induced by AAS and previous studies have provided evidence for a link between GH and GABAB receptors in the brain. Our aim was to examine the impact of AAS administration and a subsequent administration of GH, on the expression of GABAB receptors and important GH mediators in rat brain. The aim was to investigate the CNS effects of a high-dose ND, and to study if a low, but physiological relevant, dose of GH could reverse the ND-induced effects. In the present study, male rats were administered a high dose of ND every third day during three weeks, and subsequently the rats were given recombinant human GH (rhGH) during ten days. Quantitative PCR (qPCR) was used to analyze gene expression in hypothalamus, anterior pituitary, caudate putamen, nucleus accumbens, and amygdala. In the pituitary gland, the expression of GABAB receptor subunits was affected differently by the steroid treatment; the GABAB1 mRNA expression was decreased whereas a distinct elevation of the GABAB2 expression was found. Administration of ND also caused a decrease of GHR, IGF-1, and IGF-2 mRNA expression in the pituitary while the corresponding expression in the hypothalamus, caudate putamen, nucleus accumbens, and amygdala was unaffected. The rhGH administration did not alter the GABAB2 expression but increased the GABAB1 gene expression in the hypothalamus as compared to the AAS treated group. These results

  18. Agonist-induced modulation of inverse agonist efficacy at the beta 2-adrenergic receptor.

    PubMed

    Chidiac, P; Nouet, S; Bouvier, M

    1996-09-01

    Sustained stimulation of several G protein-coupled receptors is known to lead to a reduction in the signaling efficacy. This phenomenon, named agonist-induced desensitization, has been best studied for the beta 2-adrenergic receptor (AR) and is characterized by a decreased efficacy of beta-adrenergic agonists to stimulate the adenylyl cyclase activity. Recently, several beta-adrenergic ligands were found to inhibit the spontaneous agonist-independent activity of the beta 2AR. These compounds, termed inverse agonists, have different inhibitory efficacies, ranging from almost neutral antagonists to full inverse agonists. The current study was undertaken to determine whether, as is the case for agonists, desensitization can affect the efficacies of inverse agonists. Agonist-promoted desensitization of the human beta 2AR expressed in Sf9 cells potentiated the inhibitory actions of the inverse agonists, with the extent of the potentiation being inversely proportional to their intrinsic activity. For example, desensitization increased the inhibitory action of the weak inverse agonist labetalol by 29%, whereas inhibition of the spontaneous activity by the strong inverse agonist timolol was not enhanced by the desensitizing stimuli. Interestingly, dichloroisoproterenol acted stochastically as either a weak partial agonist or a weak inverse agonist in control conditions but always behaved as an inverse agonist after desensitization. These data demonstrate that like for agonists, the efficacies of inverse agonists can be modulated by a desensitizing treatment. Also, the data show that the initial state of the receptor can determine whether a ligand behaves as a partial agonist or an inverse agonist.

  19. Inhibition of presynaptic calcium transients in cortical inputs to the dorsolateral striatum by metabotropic GABAB and mGlu2/3 receptors

    PubMed Central

    Kupferschmidt, David A; Lovinger, David M

    2015-01-01

    Cortical inputs to the dorsolateral striatum (DLS) are dynamically regulated during skill learning and habit formation, and are dysregulated in disorders characterized by impaired action control. Therefore, a mechanistic investigation of the processes regulating corticostriatal transmission is key to understanding DLS-associated circuit function, behaviour and pathology. Presynaptic GABAB and group II metabotropic glutamate (mGlu2/3) receptors exert marked inhibitory control over corticostriatal glutamate release in the DLS, yet the signalling pathways through which they do so are unclear. We developed a novel approach using the genetically encoded calcium (Ca2+) indicator GCaMP6 to assess presynaptic Ca2+ in corticostriatal projections to the DLS. Using simultaneous photometric presynaptic Ca2+ and striatal field potential recordings, we report that relative to P/Q-type Ca2+ channels, N-type channels preferentially contributed to evoked presynaptic Ca2+ influx in motor cortex projections to, and excitatory transmission in, the DLS. Activation of GABAB or mGlu2/3 receptors inhibited both evoked presynaptic Ca2+ transients and striatal field potentials. mGlu2/3 receptor-mediated depression did not require functional N-type Ca2+ channels, but was attenuated by blockade of P/Q-type channels. These findings reveal presynaptic mechanisms of inhibitory modulation of corticostriatal function that probably contribute to the selection and shaping of behavioural repertoires. Key points Plastic changes at cortical inputs to the dorsolateral striatum (DLS) underlie skill learning and habit formation, so characterizing the mechanisms by which these inputs are regulated is important for understanding the neural basis of action control. We developed a novel approach using the genetically encoded calcium (Ca2+) indicator GCaMP6 and brain slice photometry to assess evoked presynaptic Ca2+ transients in cortical inputs to the DLS and study their regulation by GABAB and mGlu2

  20. Kappa Opioid Receptor Agonist and Brain Ischemia

    PubMed Central

    Chunhua, Chen; Chunhua, Xi; Megumi, Sugita; Renyu, Liu

    2014-01-01

    Opioid receptors, especially Kappa opioid receptor (KOR) play an important role in the pathophysiological process of cerebral ischemia reperfusion injury. Previously accepted KOR agonists activity has included anti-nociception, cardiovascular, anti-pruritic, diuretic, and antitussive effects, while compelling evidence from various ischemic animal models indicate that KOR agonist have neuroprotective effects through various mechanisms. In this review, we aimed to demonstrate the property of KOR agonist and its role in global and focal cerebral ischemia. Based on current preclinical research, the KOR agonists may be useful as a neuroprotective agent. The recent discovery of salvinorin A, highly selective non-opioid KOR agonist, offers a new tool to study the role of KOR in brain HI injury and the protective effects of KOR agonist. The unique pharmacological profile of salvinorin A along with the long history of human usage provides its high candidacy as a potential alternative medication for brain HI injury. PMID:25574482

  1. The epileptogenic spectrum of opiate agonists.

    PubMed

    Snead, O C; Bearden, L J

    1982-11-01

    The present authors gave mu, delta, kappa, epsilon and sigma opiate receptor agonists intracerebroventricularly to rats both singly and in combination while monitoring the electroencephalogram from cortical and depth electrodes. Dose-response curves were plotted with naloxone against the changes produced by each agonist, and the effect of a number of anticonvulsant drugs on agonist-induced seizures was ascertained. Each opiate agonist produced a different seizure pattern with a different naloxone dose-response curve and anticonvulsant profile. The order of convulsive potency was epsilon greater than delta greater than mu greater than sigma much greater than kappa. Petit mal-like seizure activity was unique to the delta agonist, leucine-enkephalin, while only the mu agonist, morphine produced generalized convulsive seizures. These experiments raise the possibility that opiate systems in the brain may be involved in the pathogenesis of a wide spectrum of seizure disorders.

  2. Intrathecal baclofen: effects on spasticity, pain, and consciousness in disorders of consciousness and locked-in syndrome.

    PubMed

    Pistoia, Francesca; Sacco, Simona; Sarà, Marco; Franceschini, Marco; Carolei, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Disorders of consciousness (DOCs) include coma, vegetative state (VS), and minimally conscious state (MCS). Coma is characterized by impaired wakefulness and consciousness, while VS and MCS are defined by lacking or discontinuous consciousness despite recovered wakefulness. Conversely, locked-in syndrome (LIS) is characterized by quadriplegia and lower cranial nerve paralysis with preserved consciousness. Intrathecal baclofen (ITB) is a useful treatment to improve spasticity both in patients with DOCs and LIS. Moreover, it supports the recovery of consciousness in some patients with VS or MCS. The precise mechanism underlying this recovery has not yet been elucidated. It has been hypothesized that ITB may act by reducing the overload of dysfunctional sensory stimuli reaching the injured brain or by stabilizing the imbalanced circadian rhythms. Although the current indication of ITB is the management of severe spasticity, its potential use in speeding the recovery of consciousness merits further investigation.

  3. Effect of GABAB receptor antagonists (CGP 35348 and CGP 55845) on serum interleukin 6 and 18 concentrations in albino mice following neonatal hypoxia ischemia insult.

    PubMed

    Gillani, Quratulane; Ali, Muhammad; Iqbal, Furhan

    2016-09-01

    Interleukin (IL) 6 and 18 plays an important role in inflammatory response following hypoxia ischemia encephalopathy (HIE). Present study was designed to demonstrate the effect of two GABAB receptor antagonists (CGP 35348 and 55845), respectively, on the serum IL6 and IL 18 concentrations in albino mice. Albino mice pups (of both genders) were subjected to Murine model of hypoxia-ischemia encephalopathy on postnatal day 10 (right common carotid artery was ligated followed by 8% hypoxia for 25 minutes). After neonatal brain damage and following weaning, mice were divided in three groups, in gender specific manner, and fed on normal rodent diet till they were 13 week old. At this time point, group 1 received intraperitonial saline solution (control group), group 2 was supplemented with CGP 35348 (1mg/ml solvent/Kg body weight) and group 3 with CGP 55845 (1mg/ml solvent/Kg body weight), intraperitonially, for 12 days and IL 6 and 18 concentrations were determined in serum by ELISA. It was observed that CGP 35348 supplementation resulted in reduced interlukin-6 and interlukin-18 concentrations in male albino mice. While CGP 55845 supplementation increased IL-6 and IL-18 concentrations in female albino mice following HIE. Our results are indicating that GABAB receptor antagonist's supplementation affects IL concentrations in albino mice in a gender specific manner following neonatal brain damage and can be further explored for the treatments of hypoxia ischemia associated neurological ailments.

  4. Beta-agonists and animal welfare

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The use of beta-agonists in animal feed is a high profile topic within the U.S. as consumers and activist groups continue to question its safety. The only beta-agonist currently available for use in swine is ractopamine hydrochloride (RAC). This is available as Paylean™ (Elanco Animal Health – FDA a...

  5. Small molecule fluoride toxicity agonists.

    PubMed

    Nelson, James W; Plummer, Mark S; Blount, Kenneth F; Ames, Tyler D; Breaker, Ronald R

    2015-04-23

    Fluoride is a ubiquitous anion that inhibits a wide variety of metabolic processes. Here, we report the identification of a series of compounds that enhance fluoride toxicity in Escherichia coli and Streptococcus mutans. These molecules were isolated by using a high-throughput screen (HTS) for compounds that increase intracellular fluoride levels as determined via a fluoride riboswitch reporter fusion construct. A series of derivatives were synthesized to examine structure-activity relationships, leading to the identification of compounds with improved activity. Thus, we demonstrate that small molecule fluoride toxicity agonists can be identified by HTS from existing chemical libraries by exploiting a natural fluoride riboswitch. In addition, our findings suggest that some molecules might be further optimized to function as binary antibacterial agents when combined with fluoride. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Small Molecule Fluoride Toxicity Agonists

    PubMed Central

    Nelson1, James W.; Plummer, Mark S.; Blount, Kenneth F.; Ames, Tyler D.; Breaker, Ronald R.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Fluoride is a ubiquitous anion that inhibits a wide variety of metabolic processes. Here we report the identification of a series of compounds that enhance fluoride toxicity in Escherichia coli and Streptococcus mutans. These molecules were isolated by using a high-throughput screen (HTS) for compounds that increase intracellular fluoride levels as determined via a fluoride riboswitch-reporter fusion construct. A series of derivatives were synthesized to examine structure-activity relationships, leading to the identification of compounds with improved activity. Thus, we demonstrate that small molecule fluoride toxicity agonists can be identified by HTS from existing chemical libraries by exploiting a natural fluoride riboswitch. In addition, our findings suggest that some molecules might be further optimized to function as binary antibacterial agents when combined with fluoride. PMID:25910244

  7. Validated Method for the Quantification of Baclofen in Human Plasma Using Solid-Phase Extraction and Liquid Chromatography–Tandem Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Nahar, Limon Khatun; Cordero, Rosa Elena; Nutt, David; Lingford-Hughes, Anne; Turton, Samuel; Durant, Claire; Wilson, Sue; Paterson, Sue

    2016-01-01

    Abstract A highly sensitive and fully validated method was developed for the quantification of baclofen in human plasma. After adjusting the pH of the plasma samples using a phosphate buffer solution (pH 4), baclofen was purified using mixed mode (C8/cation exchange) solid-phase extraction (SPE) cartridges. Endogenous water-soluble compounds and lipids were removed from the cartridges before the samples were eluted and concentrated. The samples were analyzed using triple-quadrupole liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (LC–MS-MS) with triggered dynamic multiple reaction monitoring mode for simultaneous quantification and confirmation. The assay was linear from 25 to 1,000 ng/mL (r2 > 0.999; n = 6). Intraday (n = 6) and interday (n = 15) imprecisions (% relative standard deviation) were <5%, and the average recovery was 30%. The limit of detection of the method was 5 ng/mL, and the limit of quantification was 25 ng/mL. Plasma samples from healthy male volunteers (n = 9, median age: 22) given two single oral doses of baclofen (10 and 60 mg) on nonconsecutive days were analyzed to demonstrate method applicability. PMID:26538544

  8. Validated Method for the Quantification of Baclofen in Human Plasma Using Solid-Phase Extraction and Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Nahar, Limon Khatun; Cordero, Rosa Elena; Nutt, David; Lingford-Hughes, Anne; Turton, Samuel; Durant, Claire; Wilson, Sue; Paterson, Sue

    2016-03-01

    A highly sensitive and fully validated method was developed for the quantification of baclofen in human plasma. After adjusting the pH of the plasma samples using a phosphate buffer solution (pH 4), baclofen was purified using mixed mode (C8/cation exchange) solid-phase extraction (SPE) cartridges. Endogenous water-soluble compounds and lipids were removed from the cartridges before the samples were eluted and concentrated. The samples were analyzed using triple-quadrupole liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS) with triggered dynamic multiple reaction monitoring mode for simultaneous quantification and confirmation. The assay was linear from 25 to 1,000 ng/mL (r(2) > 0.999; n = 6). Intraday (n = 6) and interday (n = 15) imprecisions (% relative standard deviation) were <5%, and the average recovery was 30%. The limit of detection of the method was 5 ng/mL, and the limit of quantification was 25 ng/mL. Plasma samples from healthy male volunteers (n = 9, median age: 22) given two single oral doses of baclofen (10 and 60 mg) on nonconsecutive days were analyzed to demonstrate method applicability. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Gamma-aminobutyric acid agonists for antipsychotic-induced tardive dyskinesia.

    PubMed

    Alabed, Samer; Latifeh, Youssef; Mohammad, Husam Aldeen; Bergman, Hanna

    2018-04-17

    in the included studies was unclear, mainly due to poor reporting; allocation concealment was not described, generation of the sequence was not explicit, participants and outcome assessors were not clearly blinded. For some studies we were unsure if data were complete, and data were often poorly or selectively reported.Data from six trials showed that there may be a clinically important improvement in TD symptoms after GABA agonist treatment compared with placebo at six to eight weeks follow-up (6 RCTs, n = 258, RR 0.83, CI 0.74 to 0.92; low-quality evidence). Data from five studies showed no difference between GABA agonist treatment and placebo for deterioration of TD symptoms (5 RCTs, n = 136, RR 1.90, CI 0.70 to 5.16; very low-quality evidence). Studies reporting adverse events found a significant effect favouring placebo compared with baclofen, sodium valproate or progabide for dizziness/confusion (3 RCTs, n = 62 RR 4.54, CI 1.14 to 18.11; very low-quality evidence) and sedation/drowsiness (4 RCTS, n = 144, RR 2.29, CI 1.08 to 4.86; very low-quality evidence). Studies reporting on akathisia (RR 1.05, CI 0.32 to 3.49, 2 RCTs, 80 participants), ataxia (RR 3.25, CI 0.36 to 29.73, 2 RCTs, 95 participants), nausea/vomiting (RR 2.61, CI 0.79 to 8.67, 2 RCTs, 64 participants), loss of muscle tone (RR 3.00, CI 0.15 to 59.89, 1 RCT, 10 participants), seizures (RR 3.00, CI 0.24 to 37.67, 1 RCT, 2 participants), hypotension (RR 3.04, CI 0.33 to 28.31, 2 RCTs, 119 participants) found no significant difference between GABA drug and placebo (very low-quality evidence). Evidence on mental state also showed no effect between treatment groups (6 RCTS, n = 121, RR 2.65, CI 0.71 to 9.86; very low-quality evidence) as did data for leaving the study early (around 10% in both groups, 6 RCTS, n = 218, RR 1.47, CI 0.69 to 3.15; very low-quality evidence). No study reported on social confidence, social inclusion, social networks, or personalised quality of life, a group of outcomes

  10. New thrombopoietin receptor agonists for platelet disorders.

    PubMed

    Homeida, S; Ebdon, C; Batty, P; Jackson, B; Kolade, S; Bateman, C; Peng, Y Y; Stasi, R

    2012-04-01

    Since thrombopoietin (TPO) was cloned in 1994, TPO receptor (TPO-R) agonists have been developed which have shown significant clinical activity in various conditions characterized by thrombocytopenia. First-generation TPO-R agonists were recombinant forms of human TPO. The clinical development of these molecules was discontinued after one of them, pegylated recombinant human megakaryocyte growth and development factor, was associated with the development of neutralizing autoantibodies cross-reacting with endogenous TPO. Second-generation TPO-R agonists are now available, which present no sequence homology to endogenous TPO. Two of these new agents, romiplostim and eltrombopag, have been granted marketing authorization for use in patients with primary immune thrombocytopenia unresponsive to conventional treatments. Clinical trials with TPO-R agonists are also ongoing in other thrombocytopenias, such as hepatitis C virus-related thrombocytopenia and the myelodysplastic syndromes. Copyright 2012 Prous Science, S.A.U. or its licensors. All rights reserved.

  11. Distribution and properties of GABA(B) antagonist [3H]CGP 62349 binding in the rhesus monkey thalamus and basal ganglia and the influence of lesions in the reticular thalamic nucleus.

    PubMed

    Ambardekar, A V; Ilinsky, I A; Forestl, W; Bowery, N G; Kultas-Ilinsky, K

    1999-01-01

    GABA(B) receptors are believed to be associated with the efferents of the nucleus reticularis thalami, which is implicated in the regulation of activity in the thalamocortical-corticothalamic circuit and plays a role in absence seizures. Yet, the distribution of GABA(B) receptors in the thalamus has only been studied in the rat, and there is no comparable information in primates. The potent GABA(B) receptor antagonist [3H]CGP 62349 was used to study the distribution and binding properties of the receptor in control monkeys and those with small ibotenic acid lesions in the anterodorsal segment of the nucleus reticularis thalami. Eight-micrometer-thick cryostat sections of the fresh frozen brains were incubated in the presence of varying concentrations of the ligand. Autoradiographs were analysed using a quantitative image analysis technique, and binding parameters were calculated for select thalamic nuclei as well as basal ganglia structures present in the same sections. The overall number of GABA(B) binding sites in the monkey thalamus and basal ganglia was several-fold higher than previously reported values for the rat. In the thalamus, the receptors were distributed rather uniformly and the binding densities and affinities were high (Bmax range of 245.5-437.9 fmol/ mg of tissue, Kd range of 0.136-0.604 nM). In the basal ganglia, the number of binding sites and the affinities were lower (Bmax range of 51.1-244.2 fmol/mg of tissue; K(d) range of 0.416-1.394 nM), and the differences between nuclei were more pronounced, with striatum and substantia nigra pars compacta displaying the highest binding densities. Seven days post-lesion, a 20-30% decrease in Bmax values (P < 0.05) was found in the nuclei receiving input from the lesioned nucleus reticularis thalami sector (the mediodorsal nucleus and densicellular and magnocellular parts of the ventral anterior nucleus) without changes in affinity. No significant changes were detected in any other structures. The results

  12. Negative cooperativity in binding of muscarinic receptor agonists and GDP as a measure of agonist efficacy

    PubMed Central

    Jakubík, J; Janíčková, H; El-Fakahany, EE; Doležal, V

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Conventional determination of agonist efficacy at G-protein coupled receptors is measured by stimulation of guanosine-5′-γ−thiotriphosphate (GTPγS) binding. We analysed the role of guanosine diphosphate (GDP) in the process of activation of the M2 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor and provide evidence that negative cooperativity between agonist and GDP binding is an alternative measure of agonist efficacy. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH Filtration and scintillation proximity assays measured equilibrium binding as well as binding kinetics of [35S]GTPγS and [3H]GDP to a mixture of G-proteins as well as individual classes of G-proteins upon binding of structurally different agonists to the M2 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor. KEY RESULTS Agonists displayed biphasic competition curves with the antagonist [3H]-N-methylscopolamine. GTPγS (1 µM) changed the competition curves to monophasic with low affinity and 50 µM GDP produced a similar effect. Depletion of membrane-bound GDP increased the proportion of agonist high-affinity sites. Carbachol accelerated the dissociation of [3H]GDP from membranes. The inverse agonist N-methylscopolamine slowed GDP dissociation and GTPγS binding without changing affinity for GDP. Carbachol affected both GDP association with and dissociation from Gi/o G-proteins but only its dissociation from Gs/olf G-proteins. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS These findings suggest the existence of a low-affinity agonist-receptor conformation complexed with GDP-liganded G-protein. Also the negative cooperativity between GDP and agonist binding at the receptor/G-protein complex determines agonist efficacy. GDP binding reveals differences in action of agonists versus inverse agonists as well as differences in activation of Gi/o versus Gs/olf G-proteins that are not identified by conventional GTPγS binding. PMID:20958290

  13. Negative cooperativity in binding of muscarinic receptor agonists and GDP as a measure of agonist efficacy.

    PubMed

    Jakubík, J; Janíčková, H; El-Fakahany, E E; Doležal, V

    2011-03-01

    Conventional determination of agonist efficacy at G-protein coupled receptors is measured by stimulation of guanosine-5'-γ-thiotriphosphate (GTPγS) binding. We analysed the role of guanosine diphosphate (GDP) in the process of activation of the M₂ muscarinic acetylcholine receptor and provide evidence that negative cooperativity between agonist and GDP binding is an alternative measure of agonist efficacy. Filtration and scintillation proximity assays measured equilibrium binding as well as binding kinetics of [³⁵S]GTPγS and [³H]GDP to a mixture of G-proteins as well as individual classes of G-proteins upon binding of structurally different agonists to the M₂ muscarinic acetylcholine receptor. Agonists displayed biphasic competition curves with the antagonist [³H]-N-methylscopolamine. GTPγS (1 µM) changed the competition curves to monophasic with low affinity and 50 µM GDP produced a similar effect. Depletion of membrane-bound GDP increased the proportion of agonist high-affinity sites. Carbachol accelerated the dissociation of [³H]GDP from membranes. The inverse agonist N-methylscopolamine slowed GDP dissociation and GTPγS binding without changing affinity for GDP. Carbachol affected both GDP association with and dissociation from G(i/o) G-proteins but only its dissociation from G(s/olf) G-proteins. These findings suggest the existence of a low-affinity agonist-receptor conformation complexed with GDP-liganded G-protein. Also the negative cooperativity between GDP and agonist binding at the receptor/G-protein complex determines agonist efficacy. GDP binding reveals differences in action of agonists versus inverse agonists as well as differences in activation of G(i/o) versus G(s/olf) G-proteins that are not identified by conventional GTPγS binding. © 2011 The Authors. British Journal of Pharmacology © 2011 The British Pharmacological Society.

  14. Experience with external pump trial prior to implantation for intrathecal baclofen in ambulatory patients with spastic cerebral palsy.

    PubMed

    Bleyenheuft, C; Filipetti, P; Caldas, C; Lejeune, T

    2007-01-01

    To evaluate effectiveness and safety of intrathecal baclofen administration (ITB) testing with continuous infusion via an external pump before the implantation of an internal one in ambulatory spastic patients with cerebral palsy (CP). Seven CP patients (3 diplegic, 4 quadriplegic - 18.4+/-7.0 years) with a progressive decrease in walking ability were included. Assessments included: Ashworth's scale, Observational Gait Scale (OGS), and GMFM-66. During the ITB test (45-150 microg/24h), spasticity decreased by more than two points on Ashworth's scale (p<0.001) and walking ability improved (median OGS increased from 7 to 9, p

  15. Long-term studies of dopamine agonists.

    PubMed

    Hubble, Jean P

    2002-02-26

    Dopamine agonists have long been used as adjunctive therapy for the treatment of Parkinson's disease (PD). In more recent years these drugs have also been proved safe and effective as initial therapy in lieu of levodopa in the treatment of PD. Long-term levodopa therapy is associated with motor complications, including fluctuating response patterns and dyskinesia. By initially introducing a dopamine agonist as symptomatic drug therapy, it may be possible to postpone the use of levodopa and delay or prevent the development of motor complications. Recently, four clinical trials have explored this hypothesis by comparing the long-term response and side effects of levodopa with dopamine agonist therapy. The drugs studied have included ropinirole, pramipexole, cabergoline, and pergolide. In each of these projects, the occurrence of motor complications, such as wearing off and dyskinesia, was significantly less in the subjects assigned to initiation of therapy with a dopamine agonist. The addition of levodopa could be postponed by many months or even several years. Therefore, these long-term studies of dopamine agonists support the initiation of a dopamine agonist instead of levodopa in an effort to postpone levodopa-related motor complications. This therapeutic approach may be particularly appropriate in PD patients with a long treatment horizon on the basis of age and general good health. The extension phase of the long-term study comparing pramipexole with levodopa is ongoing, and follow-up information may help to establish the value of this treatment strategy.

  16. Adverse Effects of GLP-1 Receptor Agonists

    PubMed Central

    Filippatos, Theodosios D.; Panagiotopoulou, Thalia V.; Elisaf, Moses S.

    2014-01-01

    Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonists are a class of injective anti-diabetic drugs that improve glycemic control and many other atherosclerosis-related parameters in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D). However, the use of this relatively new class of drugs may be associated with certain adverse effects. Concerns have been expressed regarding the effects of these drugs on pancreatic and thyroid tissue, since animal studies and analyses of drug databases indicate an association of GLP-1 receptor agonists with pancreatitis, pancreatic cancer, and thyroid cancer. However, several meta-analyses failed to confirm a cause-effect relation between GLP-1 receptor agonists and the development of these adverse effects. One benefit of GLP-1 receptor agonists is that they do not cause hypoglycemia when combined with metformin or thiazolidinediones, but the dose of concomitant sulphonylurea or insulin may have to be decreased to reduce the risk of hypoglycemic episodes. On the other hand, several case reports have linked the use of these drugs, mainly exenatide, with the occurrence of acute kidney injury, primarily through hemodynamic derangement due to nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea. The most common symptoms associated with the use of GLP-1 receptor agonists are gastrointestinal symptoms, mainly nausea. Other common adverse effects include injection site reactions, headache, and nasopharyngitis, but these effects do not usually result in discontinuation of the drug. Current evidence shows that GLP-1 receptor agonists have no negative effects on the cardiovascular risk of patients with T2D. Thus, GLP-1 receptor agonists appear to have a favorable safety profile, but ongoing trials will further assess their cardiovascular effects. The aim of this review is to analyze critically the available data regarding adverse events of GLP-1 receptor agonists in different anatomic systems published in Pubmed and Scopus. Whenever possible, certain differences between GLP-1

  17. Mechanisms of carbacholine and GABA action on resting membrane potential and Na+/K+-ATPase of Lumbricus terrestris body wall muscles.

    PubMed

    Volkov, Eugeny M; Nurullin, Leniz F; Volkov, Michael E; Nikolsky, Eugeny E; Vyskočil, Frantisek

    2011-04-01

    This work was aimed to identify the action of several ion channel and pump inhibitors as well as nicotinic, GABAergic, purinergic and serotoninergic drugs on the resting membrane potential (RMP) and assess the role of cholinergic and GABAergic sensitivity in earthworm muscle electrogenesis. The nicotinic agonists acetylcholine (ACh), carbacholine (CCh) and nicotine depolarize the RMP at concentrations of 5 μM and higher. The nicotinic antagonists (+)tubocurarine, α-bungarotoxin, muscarinic antagonists atropine and hexamethonium do not remove or prevent the CCh-induced depolarization. Verapamil, tetrodotoxin, removal of Cl(-) and Ca(2+) from the solution also cannot prevent the depolarization by CCh. In a Na(+)-free medium, however, CCh lost this depolarization ability and this indicates that the drug opens the sodium permeable pathway. Serotonin, glutamate, glycine, adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and cis-4-aminocrotonic acid (GABA(C) receptor antagonist) had no effect on the RMP. On the other hand, isoguvacin, γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and baclofen (GABA(B) receptor agonist) hyperpolarized the RMP. Ouabain, bicucullin (GABA(A) antagonist) and phaclofen (GABA(B) antagonist), as well as the removal of Cl(-), suppressed the effect of GABA and baclofen. CCh did not enhance the depolarization generated by ouabain but, on the other hand, hindered the hyperpolarizing activity of baclofen both in the absence and presence of atropine and (+)tubocurarine. The long-term application of CCh depolarizes the RMP primarily by inhibiting the Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase. The muscle membrane also contains A and B type GABA binding sites, the activation of which increases the RMP at the expense of increasing the action of ouabain- and Cl(-) -sensitive electrogenic pumps. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Evaluation of the Percutaneous Absorption of Ketamine HCl, Gabapentin, Clonidine HCl, and Baclofen, in Compounded Transdermal Pain Formulations, Using the Franz Finite Dose Model.

    PubMed

    Bassani, August S; Banov, Daniel

    2016-02-01

    This study evaluates the ability of four commonly used analgesics (ketamine HCl, gabapentin, clonidine HCl, and baclofen), when incorporated into two transdermal compounding bases, Lipoderm and Lipoderm ActiveMax, to penetrate human cadaver trunk skin in vitro, using the Franz finite dose model. In vitro experimental study. Methods. Ketamine HCl 5% w/w, gabapentin 10% w/w, clonidine HCl 0.2% w/w, and baclofen 2% w/w were compounded into two transdermal bases, Lipoderm and Lipoderm ActiveMax. Each compounded drug formulation was tested on skin from three different donors and three replicate skin sections per donor. The Franz finite dose model was used in this study to evaluate the percutaneous absorption and distribution of drugs within each formulation. Rapid penetration to peak flux was detected for gabapentin and baclofen at approximately 1 hour after application. Clonidine HCl also had a rapid penetration to peak flux occurring approximately 1 hour after application and had a secondary peak at approximately 40 hours. Ketamine HCl exhibited higher overall absorption rates than the other drugs, and peaked at 6–10 hours. Similar patterns of drug distribution within the skin were also observed using both transdermal bases. This study suggests that the combination of these 4 analgesic drugs can be successfully delivered transdermally, using either Lipoderm or Lipoderm ActiveMax. Compounded transdermal drug preparations may then provide physicians with an alternative to traditional oral pain management regimens that can be personalized to the specific patient with the potential for enhanced pain control.

  19. Proactive Regional Pharmacovigilance System Versus National Spontaneous Reporting for Collecting Safety Data on Concerning Off-Label Prescribing Practices: An Example with Baclofen and Alcohol Dependence in France.

    PubMed

    Auffret, Marine; Labreuche, Julien; Duhamel, Alain; Deheul, Sylvie; Cottencin, Olivier; Bordet, Régis; Gautier, Sophie; Rolland, Benjamin

    2017-03-01

    Off-label prescribing (OLP) may raise serious safety concerns that traditional spontaneous reporting of adverse drug reactions (ADRs) may not identify in a timely manner. In France, the 'Multidisciplinary Consultation Service for Off-Label Prescribing in Addiction Medicine' (CAMTEA) is a proactive regional system established to identify ADRs associated with the OLP of baclofen for alcohol dependence. The aim was to demonstrate, using the French pharmacovigilance database (FPVD), that CAMTEA allowed for the reporting of a substantial amount of ADRs, comparable in nature to those provided via spontaneous reporting. The 2012-2013 FPVD notifications associated with baclofen OLP were extracted. The ten most frequent types of ADRs among 'serious' and 'non-serious' reports were listed. The frequency of each type of ADR was compared between CAMTEA and spontaneous reporting, and the magnitudes of the differences were assessed using standardized differences. A total of 428 baclofen reports (1043 ADRs) were identified, among which 221 (51.64%) originated from CAMTEA. The ten most frequent ADRs in 'serious' reports were (1) confusion (17.3%), (2) seizures (11.5%), (3) drowsiness/sedation (11.5%), (4) agitation (10.9%), (5) coma (9.6%), (6) hallucinations (7.7%), (7) falls (7.1%), (8) behavioral disorders (5.8%), (9) withdrawal syndrome (5.1%), and (10) space-time disorientation (5.1%). A standardized difference of <0.2 was identified for six out of the ten most frequent 'serious' ADRs, and eight of the ten 'non-serious' ADRs. A proactive regional pharmacovigilance system could collect a substantial amount of safety data on a specific OLP practice. The profile of the ADRs collected was similar to that seen in the nationwide spontaneous reporting system.

  20. Antagonism of GABA-B but not GABA-A receptors in the VTA prevents stress- and intra-VTA CRF-induced reinstatement of extinguished cocaine seeking in rats.

    PubMed

    Blacktop, Jordan M; Vranjkovic, Oliver; Mayer, Matthieu; Van Hoof, Matthew; Baker, David A; Mantsch, John R

    2016-03-01

    Stress-induced reinstatement of cocaine seeking requires corticotropin releasing factor (CRF) actions in the ventral tegmental area (VTA). However the mechanisms through which CRF regulates VTA function to promote cocaine use are not fully understood. Here we examined the role of GABAergic neurotransmission in the VTA mediated by GABA-A or GABA-B receptors in the reinstatement of extinguished cocaine seeking by a stressor, uncontrollable intermittent footshock, or bilateral intra-VTA administration of CRF. Rats underwent repeated daily cocaine self-administration (1.0 mg/kg/ing; 14 × 6 h/day) and extinction and were tested for reinstatement in response to footshock (0.5 mA, 0.5" duration, average every 40 s; range 10-70 s) or intra-VTA CRF delivery (500 ng/side) following intra-VTA pretreatment with the GABA-A antagonist, bicuculline, the GABA-B antagonist, 2-hydroxysaclofen or vehicle. Intra-VTA bicuculline (1, 10 or 20 ng/side) failed to block footshock- or CRF-induced cocaine seeking at either dose tested. By contrast, 2-hydroxysaclofen (0.2 or 2 μg/side) prevented reinstatement by both footshock and intra-VTA CRF at a concentration that failed to attenuate food-reinforced lever pressing (45 mg sucrose-sweetened pellets; FR4 schedule) in a separate group of rats. These data suggest that GABA-B receptor-dependent CRF actions in the VTA mediate stress-induced cocaine seeking and that GABA-B receptor antagonists may have utility for the management of stress-induced relapse in cocaine addicts. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Antagonism of GABA-B but not GABA-A receptors in the VTA prevents stress- and intra-VTA CRF-induced reinstatement of extinguished cocaine seeking in rats

    PubMed Central

    Blacktop, Jordan M.; Vranjkovic, Oliver; Mayer, Matthieu; Van Hoof, Matthew; Baker, David A.; Mantsch, John R.

    2015-01-01

    Stress-induced reinstatement of cocaine seeking requires corticotropin releasing factor (CRF) actions in the ventral tegmental area (VTA). However the mechanisms through which CRF regulates VTA function to promote cocaine use are not fully understood. Here we examined the role of GABAergic neurotransmission in the VTA mediated by GABA-A or GABA-B receptors in the reinstatement of extinguished cocaine seeking by a stressor, uncontrollable intermittent footshock, or bilateral intra-VTA administration of CRF. Rats underwent repeated daily cocaine self-administration (1.0 mg/kg/ing; 14 × 6 hrs/day) and extinction and were tested for reinstatement in response to footshock (0.5 mA, 0.5” duration, average every 40 sec; range 10–70 sec) or intra-VTA CRF delivery (500 ng/side) following intra-VTA pretreatment with the GABA-A antagonist, bicuculline, the GABA-B antagonist, 2-hydroxysaclofen or vehicle. Intra-VTA bicuculline (1, 10 or 20 ng/side) failed to block footshock- or CRF-induced cocaine seeking at either dose tested. By contrast, 2-hydroxysaclofen (0.2 or 2 µg/side) prevented reinstatement by both footshock and intra-VTA CRF at a concentration that failed to attenuate food-reinforced lever pressing (45 mg sucrose-sweetened pellets; FR4 schedule) in a separate group of rats. These data suggest that GABA-B receptor-dependent CRF actions in the VTA mediate stress-induced cocaine seeking and that GABA-B receptor antagonists may have utility for the management of stress-induced relapse in cocaine addicts. PMID:26596556

  2. Update in TSH Receptor Agonists and Antagonists

    PubMed Central

    Neumann, Susanne

    2012-01-01

    The physiological role of the TSH receptor (TSHR) as a major regulator of thyroid function is well understood, but TSHRs are also expressed in multiple normal extrathyroidal tissues, and the physiological roles of TSHRs in these tissues are unclear. Moreover, TSHRs play a major role in several pathological conditions including hyperthyroidism, hypothyroidism, and thyroid tumors. Small molecule, “drug-like” TSHR agonists, neutral antagonists, and inverse agonists may be useful as probes of TSHR function in extrathyroidal tissues and as leads to develop drugs for several diseases of the thyroid. In this Update, we review the most recent findings regarding the development and use of these small molecule TSHR ligands. PMID:23019348

  3. Reciprocity of agonistic support in ravens.

    PubMed

    Fraser, Orlaith N; Bugnyar, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Cooperative behaviour through reciprocation or interchange of valuable services in primates has received considerable attention, especially regarding the timeframe of reciprocation and its ensuing cognitive implications. Much less, however, is known about reciprocity in other animals, particularly birds. We investigated patterns of agonistic support (defined as a third party intervening in an ongoing conflict to attack one of the conflict participants, thus supporting the other) in a group of 13 captive ravens, Corvus corax. We found support for long-term, but not short-term, reciprocation of agonistic support. Ravens were more likely to support individuals who preened them, kin and dominant group members. These results suggest that ravens do not reciprocate on a calculated tit-for-tat basis, but aid individuals from whom reciprocated support would be most useful and those with whom they share a good relationship. Additionally, dyadic levels of agonistic support and consolation (postconflict affiliation from a bystander to the victim) correlated strongly with each other, but we found no evidence to suggest that receiving agonistic support influences the victim's likelihood of receiving support (consolation) after the conflict ends. Our findings are consistent with an emotionally mediated form of reciprocity in ravens and provide additional support for convergent cognitive evolution in birds and mammals.

  4. 5-Functionalized indazoles as glucocorticoid receptor agonists.

    PubMed

    Bai, Mei; Carr, Grant; Deorazio, Russell J; Friedrich, Thomas D; Dobritsa, Svetlana; Fitzpatrick, Kevin; Guzzo, Peter R; Kitchen, Douglas B; Lynch, Michael A; Peace, Denise; Sajad, Mohammed; Usyatinsky, Alexander; Wolf, Mark A

    2010-05-15

    An indazole based series of glucocorticoid receptor agonists is reported. The SAR exploration of this scaffold yielded compounds with nanomolar affinity for the glucocorticoid receptor with indications of selectivity for the preferred transrepression mechanism; in vivo efficacy was observed in the mouse LPS induced TNFalpha model for compound 28. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Reciprocity of agonistic support in ravens

    PubMed Central

    Fraser, Orlaith N.; Bugnyar, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Cooperative behaviour through reciprocation or interchange of valuable services in primates has received considerable attention, especially regarding the timeframe of reciprocation and its ensuing cognitive implications. Much less, however, is known about reciprocity in other animals, particularly birds. We investigated patterns of agonistic support (defined as a third party intervening in an ongoing conflict to attack one of the conflict participants, thus supporting the other) in a group of 13 captive ravens, Corvus corax. We found support for long-term, but not short-term, reciprocation of agonistic support. Ravens were more likely to support individuals who preened them, kin and dominant group members. These results suggest that ravens do not reciprocate on a calculated tit-for-tat basis, but aid individuals from whom reciprocated support would be most useful and those with whom they share a good relationship. Additionally, dyadic levels of agonistic support and consolation (postconflict affiliation from a bystander to the victim) correlated strongly with each other, but we found no evidence to suggest that receiving agonistic support influences the victim’s likelihood of receiving support (consolation) after the conflict ends. Our findings are consistent with an emotionally mediated form of reciprocity in ravens and provide additional support for convergent cognitive evolution in birds and mammals. PMID:22298910

  6. FXR agonist activity of conformationally constrained analogs of GW 4064.

    PubMed

    Akwabi-Ameyaw, Adwoa; Bass, Jonathan Y; Caldwell, Richard D; Caravella, Justin A; Chen, Lihong; Creech, Katrina L; Deaton, David N; Madauss, Kevin P; Marr, Harry B; McFadyen, Robert B; Miller, Aaron B; Navas, Frank; Parks, Derek J; Spearing, Paul K; Todd, Dan; Williams, Shawn P; Bruce Wisely, G

    2009-08-15

    Two series of conformationally constrained analogs of the FXR agonist GW 4064 1 were prepared. Replacement of the metabolically labile stilbene with either benzothiophene or naphthalene rings led to the identification of potent full agonists 2a and 2g.

  7. Modification of kindled amygdaloid seizures by opiate agonists and antagonists.

    PubMed

    Albertson, T E; Joy, R M; Stark, L G

    1984-03-01

    The effects of 19 opiate agonists and antagonists on kindled amygdaloid seizures in the rat were studied. The mu agonists tended to reduce the length of elicited afterdischarges and behavioral ranks, while markedly increasing postictal electroencephalogram spikes and behavioral arrest time. These effects were reversed by naloxone. The kappa agonists reduced behavioral rank and variably reduced afterdischarge length with a concomitant lengthening of postictal behavioral arrest time and number of electroencephalogram spikes. The putative sigma agonist, SKF 10,047, reduced afterdischarge durations only at the higher doses tested. The decreases found after the sigma agonists in postictal electroencephalogram spiking and time of behavioral arrest were not reversed by naloxone. Only the lower doses of normeperidine were found to decrease seizure thresholds. The mixed agonist/antagonists (MAA) cyclazocine and cyclorphan markedly increased seizure threshold and reduced afterdischarge duration and behavioral rank. Only the MAA pentazocine tended to increase threshold but not suprathreshold afterdischarge durations. The order of ability to modify the ictal events was MAA (selected) greater than kappa agonists greater than mu agonists greater than sigma agonists. The increase in postictal events (behavior arrest and spikes) was caused most effectively by pretreatment with mu agonist greater than kappa agonist greater than selected MAA greater than sigma agonists.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  8. Regulation by divalent cations of /sup 3/H-baclofen binding to GABA/sub B/ sites in rat cerebellar membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Kato, K.; Goto, M.; Fukuda, H.

    1983-02-21

    When investigating the effects of divalent cations (Mg/sup 2 +/, Ca/sup 2 +/, Sr/sup 2 +/, Ba/sup 2 +/, Mn/sup 2 +/ and Ni/sup 2 +/) on /sup 3/H-baclofen binding to rat cerebellar synaptic membranes, we found that the specific binding of /sup 3/H-baclofen was not only dependent on divalent cations, but was increased dose-dependently in the presence of these cations. The effects were in the following order of potency: Mn/sup 2 +/ approx. = Ni/sup 2 +/ > Mg/sup 2 +/ > Ca/sup 2 +/ > Sr/sup 2 +/ > Ba/sup 2 +/. Scatchard analysis of the binding datamore » revealed a single component of the binding sites in the presence of 2.5 mM MgCl/sub 2/, 2.5 mM CaCl/sub 2/ or 0.3 mM MnCl/sub 2/ whereas two components appeared in the presence of 2.5 mM MnCl/sub 2/ or 1 mM NiCl/sub 2/. In the former, divalent cations altered the apparent affinity (K/sub d/) without affecting density of the binding sites (B/sub max/). In the latter, the high-affinity sites showed a higher affinity and lower density of the binding sites than did the single component of the former. As the maximal effects of four cations (Mg/sup 2 +/, Ca/sup 2 +/, Mn/sup 2 +/, and Ni/sup 2 +/) were not additive, there are probably common sites of action of these divalent cations. Among the ligands for GABA/sub B/ sites, the affinity for (-), (+) and (+/-)baclofen, GABA and ..beta..-phenyl GABA increased 2 - 6 fold in the presence of 2.5 mM MnCl/sub 2/, in comparison with that in HEPES-buffered Krebs solution (containing 2.5 mM CaCl/sub 2/ and 1.2 mM MgSO/sub 4/), whereas that for muscimol was decreased to one-fifth. Thus, the affinity of GABA/sub B/ sites for its ligands is probably regulated by divalent cations, through common sites of action.« less

  9. [Dopamine agonists--clinical applications beyond Parkinson's disease].

    PubMed

    Kuran, Włodzimierz

    2007-01-01

    Contemporary experience and results of clinical trials concerning dopamine agonist application in the treatment of many different diseases (apart from Parkinson's disease) are presented in the paper. A basic clinical recommendation for agonists is restless legs syndrome. In this syndrome almost all agonists give a considerable subjective and objective improvement. Treatment of atypical parkinsonism (MSA, PSP, CBD) in the majority of patients is ineffective. The author also presents promising results of treatment with agonists in such diverse diseases as hyperkinetic syndromes, cocaine dependence, drug-resistant depression and erectile dysfunction (apomorphine). Dopamine partial agonists (e.g. aripiprazol) are recommended in the modern treatment of schizophrenia.

  10. AMPK and PPARδ agonists are exercise mimetics

    PubMed Central

    Narkar, Vihang A.; Downes, Michael; Yu, Ruth T.; Embler, Emi; Wang, Yong-Xu; Banayo, Ester; Mihaylova, Maria M.; Nelson, Michael C.; Zou, Yuhua; Juguilon, Henry; Kang, Heonjoong; Shaw, Reuben; Evans, Ronald M.

    2008-01-01

    SUMMARY The benefits of endurance exercise on general health make it desirable to identify orally active agents that would mimic or potentiate the effects of exercise to treat metabolic diseases. Although certain natural compounds, such as reseveratrol, have endurance-enhancing activities, their exact metabolic targets remain elusive. We therefore tested the effect of pathway-specific drugs on endurance capacities of mice in a treadmill running test. We found that PPARβ/δ agonist and exercise training synergistically increase oxidative myofibers and running endurance in adult mice. Because training activates AMPK and PGC1α, we then tested whether the orally active AMPK agonist AICAR might be sufficient to overcome the exercise requirement. Unexpectedly, even in sedentary mice, 4 weeks of AICAR treatment alone induced metabolic genes and enhanced running endurance by 44%. These results demonstrate that AMPK-PPARδ pathway can be targeted by orally active drugs to enhance training adaptation or even to increase endurance without exercise. PMID:18674809

  11. Role of ventral medial prefrontal cortex in incubation of cocaine craving

    PubMed Central

    Koya, Eisuke; Uejima, Jamie L.; Wihbey, Kristina A.; Bossert, Jennifer M.; Hope, Bruce T.; Shaham, Yavin

    2009-01-01

    Cue-induced drug-seeking in rodents progressively increases after withdrawal from cocaine, suggesting that cue-induced cocaine craving incubates over time. Here, we explored the role of the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC, a brain area previously implicated in cue-induced cocaine seeking) in this incubation. We trained rats to self-administer cocaine for 10 d (6 h/d, infusions were paired with a tone-light cue), and then assessed after 1 or 30 withdrawal days the effect of exposure to cocaine cues on lever presses in extinction tests. We found that cue-induced cocaine-seeking in the extinction tests was higher after 30 withdrawal days than after 1 day. The time-dependent increases in extinction responding were associated with large (ventral mPFC) or modest (dorsal mPFC) increases in ERK phosphorylation (a measure of ERK activity and an index of neuronal activation). After 30 withdrawal days, ventral but not dorsal injections of muscimol+baclofen (GABAa+GABAb receptor agonists that inhibit neuronal activity) decreased extinction responding. After 1 withdrawal day, ventral but not dorsal mPFC injections of bicuculline+saclofen (GABAa+GABAb receptor antagonists that increase neuronal activity) strongly increased extinction responding. Finally, muscimol+baclofen had minimal effect on extinction responding after 1 day, and in cocaine-experienced rats, ventral mPFC injections of muscimol+baclofen or bicuculline+saclofen had no effect on lever presses for an oral sucrose solution. The present results indicate that ventral mPFC neuronal activity plays an important role in the incubation of cocaine craving. PMID:18565549

  12. Glutamate input in the dorsal raphe nucleus as a determinant of escalated aggression in male mice.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Aki; Lee, Ray X; Iwasato, Takuji; Itohara, Shigeyoshi; Arima, Hiroshi; Bettler, Bernhard; Miczek, Klaus A; Koide, Tsuyoshi

    2015-04-22

    Although the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) has long been linked to neural control of aggression, little is known about the regulatory influences of the DRN when an animal engages in either adaptive species-typical aggressive behavior or escalated aggression. Therefore it is important to explore which neurotransmitter inputs into the DRN determine the escalation of aggression in male mice. Previously, we observed that microinjection of the GABAB receptor agonist baclofen into the DRN escalates aggressive behavior in male mice. Here, we used a serotonin (5-HT) neuron-specific GABAB receptor knock-out mouse to demonstrate that baclofen acts on nonserotonergic neurons to escalate aggression. Intra-DRN baclofen administration increased glutamate release, but did not alter GABA release, within the DRN. Microinjection of l-glutamate into the DRN escalated dose-dependently attack bites toward an intruder. In vivo microdialysis showed that glutamate release increased in the DRN during an aggressive encounter, and the level of glutamate was further increased when the animal was engaged in escalated aggressive behavior after social instigation. Finally, 5-HT release was increased within the DRN and also in the medial prefrontal cortex when animals were provoked by social instigation, and during escalated aggression after social instigation, but this increase in 5-HT release was not observed when animals were engaged in species-typical aggression. In summary, glutamate input into the DRN is enhanced during escalated aggression, which causes a phasic increase of 5-HT release from the DRN 5-HT neurons. Copyright © 2015 the authors 0270-6474/15/356452-12$15.00/0.

  13. Subcortical Control of Precision Grip after Human Spinal Cord Injury

    PubMed Central

    Bunday, Karen L.; Tazoe, Toshiki; Rothwell, John C.

    2014-01-01

    The motor cortex and the corticospinal system contribute to the control of a precision grip between the thumb and index finger. The involvement of subcortical pathways during human precision grip remains unclear. Using noninvasive cortical and cervicomedullary stimulation, we examined motor evoked potentials (MEPs) and the activity in intracortical and subcortical pathways targeting an intrinsic hand muscle when grasping a small (6 mm) cylinder between the thumb and index finger and during index finger abduction in uninjured humans and in patients with subcortical damage due to incomplete cervical spinal cord injury (SCI). We demonstrate that cortical and cervicomedullary MEP size was reduced during precision grip compared with index finger abduction in uninjured humans, but was unchanged in SCI patients. Regardless of whether cortical and cervicomedullary stimulation was used, suppression of the MEP was only evident 1–3 ms after its onset. Long-term (∼5 years) use of the GABAb receptor agonist baclofen by SCI patients reduced MEP size during precision grip to similar levels as uninjured humans. Index finger sensory function correlated with MEP size during precision grip in SCI patients. Intracortical inhibition decreased during precision grip and spinal motoneuron excitability remained unchanged in all groups. Our results demonstrate that the control of precision grip in humans involves premotoneuronal subcortical mechanisms, likely disynaptic or polysynaptic spinal pathways that are lacking after SCI and restored by long-term use of baclofen. We propose that spinal GABAb-ergic interneuronal circuits, which are sensitive to baclofen, are part of the subcortical premotoneuronal network shaping corticospinal output during human precision grip. PMID:24849366

  14. Development of a Novel Floating In-situ Gelling System for Stomach Specific Drug Delivery of the Narrow Absorption Window Drug Baclofen.

    PubMed

    R Jivani, Rishad; N Patel, Chhagan; M Patel, Dashrath; P Jivani, Nurudin

    2010-01-01

    The present study deals with development of a floating in-situ gel of the narrow absorption window drug baclofen. Sodium alginate-based in-situ gelling systems were prepared by dissolving various concentrations of sodium alginate in deionized water, to which varying concentrations of drug and calcium bicarbonate were added. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) were used to check the presence of any interaction between the drug and the excipients. A 3(2) full factorial design was used for optimization. The concentrations of sodium alginate (X1) and calcium bicarbonate (X2) were selected as the independent variables. The amount of the drug released after 1 h (Q1) and 10 h (Q10) and the viscosity of the solution were selected as the dependent variables. The gels were studied for their viscosity, in-vitro buoyancy and drug release. Contour plots were drawn for each dependent variable and check-point batches were prepared in order to get desirable release profiles. The drug release profiles were fitted into different kinetic models. The floating lag time and floating time found to be 2 min and 12 h respectively. A decreasing trend in drug release was observed with increasing concentrations of CaCO3. The computed values of Q1 and Q10 for the check-point batch were 25% and 86% respectively, compared to the experimental values of 27.1% and 88.34%. The similarity factor (f 2) for the check-point batch being 80.25 showed that the two dissolution profiles were similar. The drug release from the in-situ gel follows the Higuchi model, which indicates a diffusion-controlled release. A stomach specific in-situ gel of baclofen could be prepared using floating mechanism to increase the residence time of the drug in stomach and thereby increase the absorption.

  15. HPLC enantioseparation of racemic bupropion, baclofen and etodolac: modification of conventional ligand exchange approach by pre-column formation of chiral ligand exchange complexes.

    PubMed

    Singh, Manisha; Bhushan, Ravi

    2016-11-01

    Separation of racemic mixture of (RS)-bupropion, (RS)-baclofen and (RS)-etodolac, commonly marketed racemic drugs, has been achieved by modifying the conventional ligand exchange approach. The Cu(II) complexes were first prepared with a few l-amino acids, namely, l-proline, l-histidine, l-phenylalanine and l-tryptophan, and to these was introduced a mixture of the enantiomer pair of (RS)-bupropion, or (RS)-baclofen or (RS)-etodolac. As a result, formation of a pair of diastereomeric complexes occurred by 'chiral ligand exchange' via the competition between the chelating l-amino acid and each of the two enantiomers from a given pair. The diastereomeric mixture formed in the pre-column process was loaded onto HPLC column. Thus, both the phases during chromatographic separation process were achiral (i.e. neither the stationary phase had any chiral structural feature of its own nor did the mobile phase have any chiral additive). Separation of diastereomers was successful using a C 18 column and a binary mixture of MeCN and TEAP buffer of pH 4.0 (60:40, v/v) as mobile phase at a flow rate of 1 mL/min and UV detection at 230 nm for (RS)-Bup, 220 nm for (RS)-Bac and 223 nm for (RS)-Etd. Baseline separation of the two enantiomers was obtained with a resolution of 6.63 in <15 min. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Evaluation of partial beta-adrenoceptor agonist activity.

    PubMed

    Lipworth, B J; Grove, A

    1997-01-01

    A partial beta-adrenoceptor (beta-AR) agonist will exhibit opposite agonist and antagonist activity depending on the prevailing degree of adrenergic tone or the presence of a beta-AR agonist with higher intrinsic activity. In vivo partial beta-AR agonist activity will be evident at rest with low endogenous adrenergic tone, as for example with chronotropicity (beta 1/beta 2), inotropicity (beta 1) or peripheral vasodilatation and finger tremor (beta 2). beta-AR blocking drugs which have partial agonist activity may exhibit a better therapeutic profile when used for hypertension because of maintained cardiac output without increased systemic vascular resistance, along with an improved lipid profile. In the presence of raised endogenous adrenergic tone such as exercise or an exogenous full agonist, beta-AR subtype antagonist activity will become evident in terms of effects on exercise induced heart rate (beta 1) and potassium (beta 2) responses. Reduction of exercise heart rate will occur to a lesser degree in the case of a beta-adrenoceptor blocker with partial beta 1-AR agonist activity compared with a beta-adrenoceptor blocker devoid of partial agonist activity. This may result in reduced therapeutic efficacy in the treatment of angina on effort when using beta-AR blocking drugs with partial beta 1-AR agonist activity. Effects on exercise hyperkalaemia are determined by the balance between beta 2-AR partial agonist activity and endogenous adrenergic activity. For predominantly beta 2-AR agonist such as salmeterol and salbutamol, potentiation of exercise hyperkalaemia occurs. For predominantly beta 2-AR antagonists such as carteolol, either potentiation or attenuation of exercise hyperkalaemia occurs at low and high doses respectively. beta 2-AR partial agonist activity may also be expressed as antagonism in the presence of an exogenous full agonist, as for example attenuation of fenoterol induced responses by salmeterol. Studies are required to investigate whether

  17. Signal Use by Octopuses in Agonistic Interactions.

    PubMed

    Scheel, David; Godfrey-Smith, Peter; Lawrence, Matthew

    2016-02-08

    Cephalopods show behavioral parallels to birds and mammals despite considerable evolutionary distance [1, 2]. Many cephalopods produce complex body patterns and visual signals, documented especially in cuttlefish and squid, where they are used both in camouflage and a range of interspecific interactions [1, 3-5]. Octopuses, in contrast, are usually seen as solitary and asocial [6, 7]; their body patterns and color changes have primarily been interpreted as camouflage and anti-predator tactics [8-12], though the familiar view of the solitary octopus faces a growing list of exceptions. Here, we show by field observation that in a shallow-water octopus, Octopus tetricus, a range of visible displays are produced during agonistic interactions, and these displays correlate with the outcome of those interactions. Interactions in which dark body color by an approaching octopus was matched by similar color in the reacting octopus were more likely to escalate to grappling. Darkness in an approaching octopus met by paler color in the reacting octopus accompanied retreat of the paler octopus. Octopuses also displayed on high ground and stood with spread web and elevated mantle, often producing these behaviors in combinations. This study is the first to document the systematic use of signals during agonistic interactions among octopuses. We show prima facie conformity of our results to an influential model of agonistic signaling [13]. These results suggest that interactions have a greater influence on octopus evolution than has been recognized and show the importance of convergent evolution in behavioral traits. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Beta2-adrenoceptor agonists for dysmenorrhoea.

    PubMed

    Fedorowicz, Zbys; Nasser, Mona; Jagannath, Vanitha A; Beaman, Jessica H; Ejaz, Kiran; van Zuuren, Esther J

    2012-05-16

    Dysmenorrhoea is a common gynaecological complaint that can affect as many as 50% of premenopausal women, 10% of whom suffer severely enough to be rendered incapacitated for one to three days during each menstrual cycle. Primary dysmenorrhoea is where women suffer from menstrual pain but lack any pathology in their pelvic anatomy. Beta2-adrenoceptor agonists have been used in the treatment of women with primary dysmenorrhoea but their effects are unclear. To determine the effectiveness and safety of beta2-adrenoceptor agonists in the treatment of primary dysmenorrhoea. We searched the Cochrane Menstrual Disorders and Subfertility Group Specialised Register; CENTRAL (The Cochrane Library 2011, Issue 8); MEDLINE; EMBASE; PsycINFO and the EBM Reviews databases. The last search was on 22 August 2011. Randomised controlled trials comparing beta2-adrenoceptor agonists with placebo or no treatment, each other or any other conventional treatment in women of reproductive age with primary dysmenorrhoea. Two review authors independently assessed trial quality and extracted the data. Five trials involving 187 women with an age range of 15 to 40 years were included. Oral isoxsuprine was compared with placebo in two trials; terbutaline oral spray, ritodrine chloride and oral hydroxyphenyl-orciprenalin were compared with placebo in a further three trials. Clinical diversity in the studies in terms of the interventions being evaluated, assessments at different time points and the use of different assessment tools mitigated against pooling of outcome data across studies in order to provide a summary estimate of effect for any of the comparisons. Only one study, with unclear risk of bias, reported pain relief with a combination of isoxsuprine, acetaminophen and caffeine. None of the other studies reported any significant clinical difference in effectiveness between the intervention and placebo. Adverse effects were reported with all of these medications in up to a quarter of the

  19. Sulfoximines as potent RORγ inverse agonists.

    PubMed

    Ouvry, Gilles; Bihl, Franck; Bouix-Peter, Claire; Christin, Olivier; Defoin-Platel, Claire; Deret, Sophie; Feret, Christophe; Froude, David; Hacini-Rachinel, Feriel; Harris, Craig S; Hervouet, Catherine; Lafitte, Guillaume; Luzy, Anne-Pascale; Musicki, Branislav; Orfila, Danielle; Parnet, Veronique; Pascau, Coralie; Pascau, Jonathan; Pierre, Romain; Raffin, Catherine; Rossio, Patricia; Spiesse, Delphine; Taquet, Nathalie; Thoreau, Etienne; Vatinel, Rodolphe; Vial, Emmanuel; Hennequin, Laurent F

    2018-05-01

    Progress in the identification of suitable RORγ inverse agonists as clinical candidates has been hampered by the high lipophilicity that seems required for high potency on this nuclear receptor. In this context, we decided to focus on the replacement of the hydroxymethyl group found on known modulators to determine if more polarity could be tolerated in this position. SAR of the replacement of this moiety is presented in this article leading to the identification of sulfoximine derivatives as potent modulators with pharmacological activity in the in vivo mouse Imiquimod psoriasis model. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Sports doping: emerging designer and therapeutic β2-agonists.

    PubMed

    Fragkaki, A G; Georgakopoulos, C; Sterk, S; Nielen, M W F

    2013-10-21

    Beta2-adrenergic agonists, or β2-agonists, are considered essential bronchodilator drugs in the treatment of bronchial asthma, both as symptom-relievers and, in combination with inhaled corticosteroids, as disease-controllers. The use of β2-agonists is prohibited in sports by the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) due to claimed anabolic effects, and also, is prohibited as growth promoters in cattle fattening in the European Union. This paper reviews the last seven-year (2006-2012) literature concerning the development of novel β2-agonists molecules either by modifying the molecule of known β2-agonists or by introducing moieties producing indole-, adamantyl- or phenyl urea derivatives. New emerging β2-agonists molecules for future therapeutic use are also presented, intending to emphasize their potential use for doping purposes or as growth promoters in the near future. © 2013.

  1. Agonist-Directed Desensitization of the β2-Adrenergic Receptor

    PubMed Central

    Goral, Vasiliy; Jin, Yan; Sun, Haiyan; Ferrie, Ann M.; Wu, Qi; Fang, Ye

    2011-01-01

    The β2-adrenergic receptor (β2AR) agonists with reduced tachyphylaxis may offer new therapeutic agents with improved tolerance profile. However, receptor desensitization assays are often inferred at the single signaling molecule level, thus ligand-directed desensitization is poorly understood. Here we report a label-free biosensor whole cell assay with microfluidics to determine ligand-directed desensitization of the β2AR. Together with mechanistic deconvolution using small molecule inhibitors, the receptor desensitization and resensitization patterns under the short-term agonist exposure manifested the long-acting agonism of salmeterol, and differentiated the mechanisms of agonist-directed desensitization between a full agonist epinephrine and a partial agonist pindolol. This study reveals the cellular mechanisms of agonist-selective β2AR desensitization at the whole cell level. PMID:21541288

  2. Low-dose baclofen therapy raised plasma insulin-like growth factor-1 concentrations, but not into the normal range in a predictable and sustained manner in men with chronic spinal cord injury

    PubMed Central

    Bauman, William A.; La Fountaine, Michael F.; Cirnigliaro, Christopher M.; Kirshblum, Steven C.; Spungen, Ann M.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To evaluate, whether once-daily oral baclofen administration increases and/or sustains plasma insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) concentration in 11 men with chronic spinal cord injury (SCI) and IGF-1 deficiency (i.e. <250 ng/ml). Design Prospective, open-label, dose titration study. Baclofen was administered at 20 mg/day for 8 weeks; then increased to 40 mg/day for another 8 weeks. Plasma IGF-1 and self-reported side effects were measured at baseline and every other week for the duration of the study. Results The subjects were 43 ± 12 years old, had duration of injury of 20 ± 12 years; eight subjects had a complete motor injury, and eight had paraplegia. Nine of 11 subjects completed the 20 mg/day treatment and 5 subjects completed the 40 mg/day treatment. Plasma IGF-1 levels improved with each baclofen dose; however, only one subject increased from baseline and remained above the targeted physiological range of 250 ng/ml throughout treatment. A significant increase in IGF-1concentration was observed between baseline and week 2 (154 ± 63 vs. 217 ± 69 ng/ml; P < 0.05), weeks 8 and 10 (188 ± 95 vs. 228 ± 93 ng/ml; P < 0.05), and weeks 8 and 16 (188 ± 95 vs. 259 ± 92 ng/ml; P < 0.05). No serious side effects were observed at 20 mg/day; the 40 mg/day dose was less well tolerated. Conclusion Baclofen was not effective at sustaining plasma IGF-1 concentrations in the physiological range in men with chronic SCI. PMID:23941795

  3. Therapeutic perspectives for melatonin agonists and antagonists.

    PubMed

    Delagrange, P; Atkinson, J; Boutin, J A; Casteilla, L; Lesieur, D; Misslin, R; Pellissier, S; Pénicaud, L; Renard, P

    2003-04-01

    Melatonin is a neurohormone synthesized in the pineal gland during the dark period in all species, including humans. The diversity and differences in melatonin receptor distribution in the brain and extracerebral organs suggest multiple functional roles for melatonin. Administration of melatonin agonists reduces neophobia and treatment with a melatonin antagonist during the dark period reverses the anxiolytic-like effect of endogenous melatonin. Chronic treatment with agonists prevents various perturbations induced by chronic mild stress. Melatonin in vivo directly constricts cerebral arterioles in rats and decreases the lower limit of cerebral blood flow autoregulation, suggesting that melatonin may diminish the risk of hypoperfusion-induced cerebral ischemia. At the extracerebral level, melatonin regulates intestinal motility in rats. The intestinal postprandial motor response is shorter in the dark phase than in the light phase and this reduction is reversed in animals pretreated with a melatonin antagonist. Moreover, melatonin reduces the duration of cholecystokinin excitomotor effect. Endogenous melatonin may modulate intestinal motility to coordinate intestinal functions such as digestion and transit and control the metabolism of the animal. An adipocyte melatonin binding site may also participate in this control. Melatonin is involved in a wide range of physiological functions. The question remains as to whether evolution, adaptation and diurnal life have modified the physiological role of melatonin in humans. Moreover, the functional role of each of the receptor subtypes has to be characterized to design selective ligands to treat specific diseases.

  4. GABAergic Neural Activity Involved in Salicylate-Induced Auditory Cortex Gain Enhancement

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Jianzhong; Lobarinas, Edward; Deng, Anchun; Goodey, Ronald; Stolzberg, Daniel; Salvi, Richard J.; Sun, Wei

    2011-01-01

    Although high doses of sodium salicylate impair cochlear function, it paradoxically enhances sound-evoked activity in the auditory cortex (AC) and augments acoustic startle reflex responses, neural and behavioral metrics associated with hyperexcitability and hyperacusis. To explore the neural mechanisms underlying salicylate-induced hyperexcitability and “increased central gain”, we examined the effects of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptor agonists and antagonists on salicylate-induced hyperexcitability in the AC and startle reflex responses. Consistent with our previous findings, local or systemic application of salicylate significantly increased the amplitude of sound-evoked AC neural activity, but generally reduced spontaneous activity in the AC. Systemic injection of salicylate also significantly increased the acoustic startle reflex. S-baclofen or R-baclofen, GABA-B agonists, which suppressed sound-evoked AC neural firing rate and local field potentials, also suppressed the salicylate-induced enhancement of the AC field potential and the acoustic startle reflex. Local application of vigabatrin, which enhances GABA concentration in the brain, suppressed the salicylate-induced enhancement of AC firing rate. Systemic injection of vigabatrin also reduced the salicylate-induced enhancement of acoustic startle reflex. Collectively, these results suggest that the sound-evoked behavioral and neural hyperactivity induced by salicylate may arise from a salicylate-induced suppression GABAergic inhibition in the AC. PMID:21664433

  5. The interaction of central nitrergic and GABAergic systems on food intake in neonatal layer-type chicks.

    PubMed

    Mokhtarpouriani, Kasra; Zendehdel, Morteza; Jonaidi, Hossein; Babapour, Vahab; Shayan, Parviz

    2016-05-01

    Most physiological behaviors such as food intake are controlled by the hypothalamus and its nuclei. It has been demonstrated that injection of the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus with nitric oxide (NO) donors elicited changes in the concentration of some amino acids, including GABA. Also, central nitrergic and GABAergic systems are known to provide inputs to the paraventricular nucleus and are involved in food intake control. Therefore, the present study examines the probable interaction of central nitrergic and GABAergic systems on food intake in neonatal layer-type chicks. The results of this study showed that intracerebroventricular (ICV) injection of L-arginine (400 and 800 nmol), as a NO donor, significantly decreased food intake (P < 0.001), but ICV injection of Nω-Nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) (200 and 400 nmol), a NO synthesis inhibitor, increased food intake (P < 0.001). In addition, the orexigenic effect of gaboxadol (0.2 µg), a GABAA agonist, was significantly attenuated in ICV co-injection of L-arginine (200 nmol) and gaboxadol (0.2 µg) (P < 0.001), but it was significantly amplified in ICV co-injection of L-NAME (100 nmol) and gaboxadol (0.2 µg) (P < 0.001). On the other hand, the orexigenic effect of baclofen (0.2 µg), a GABAB agonist, did not change in ICV co-injection of L-arginine (200 nmol) or L-NAME (100 nmol) with baclofen (0.2 µg) (P > 0.05). Also, the hypophagic effect of L-arginine (800 nmol) was significantly amplified in ICV co-injection of picrotoxin (0.5 µg), a GABAA antagonist, or CGP54626 (21 ng), a GABAB antagonist, with L-arginine (800 nmol) (P < 0.001). These results probably suggest an interaction of central nitrergic and GABAergic systems on food intake in neonatal layer-type chicks and GABAA receptors play a major role in this interaction.

  6. Recovery from ketamine-induced amnesia by blockade of GABA-A receptor in the medial prefrontal cortex of mice.

    PubMed

    Farahmandfar, Maryam; Akbarabadi, Ardeshir; Bakhtazad, Atefeh; Zarrindast, Mohammad-Reza

    2017-03-06

    Ketamine and other noncompetitive N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonists are known to induce deficits in learning and cognitive performance sensitive to prefrontal cortex (PFC) functions. The interaction of a glutamatergic and GABAergic systems is essential for many cognitive behaviors. In order to understand the effect of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)/glutamate interactions on learning and memory, we investigated the effects of intra medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) injections of GABAergic agents on ketamine-induced amnesia using a one-trial passive avoidance task in mice. Pre-training systemic administration of ketamine (5, 10 and 15mg/kg, i.p.) dose-dependently decreased the memory acquisition of a one-trial passive avoidance task. Pre-training intra-mPFC injection of muscimol, GABAA receptor agonist (0.05, 0.1 and 0.2μg/mouse) and baclofen GABAB receptor agonist (0.05, 0.1, 0.5 and 1μg/mouse), impaired memory acquisition. However, co-pretreatment of different doses of muscimol and baclofen with a lower dose of ketamine (5mg/kg), which did not induce amnesia by itself, caused inhibition of memory formation. Our data showed that sole pre-training administration of bicuculline, GABA-A receptor antagonist and phaclofen GABA-B receptor antagonist into the mPFC, did not affect memory acquisition. In addition, the amnesia induced by pre-training ketamine (15mg/kg) was significantly decreased by the pretreatment of bicuculline (0.005, 0.1 and 0.5μg/mouse). It can be concluded that GABAergic system of the mPFC is involved in the ketamine-induced impairment of memory acquisition. Copyright © 2016 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. TOXICITY OF AHR AGONISTS TO FISH EARLY LIFE STAGES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Fish early life stages are exceptionally sensitive to the lethal toxicity of chemicals that act as arylhydrocarbon receptor (AhR) agonists. Toxicity characterizations based on 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin, generally the most potent AhR agonist, support the toxicity equiva...

  8. Physical Chemistry to the Rescue: Differentiating Nicotinic and Cholinergic Agonists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Angela G.

    2005-01-01

    Researches suggest that two agonists can bind to the same binding site of an important transmembrane protein and elicit a biological response through strikingly different binding interactions. Evidence is provided which suggests two possible types of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor agonist binding like acetlycholine (cholinergic) or like nicotine…

  9. The Central Amygdala Nucleus is Critical for Incubation of Methamphetamine Craving

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xuan; Zeric, Tamara; Kambhampati, Sarita; Bossert, Jennifer M; Shaham, Yavin

    2015-01-01

    Cue-induced methamphetamine seeking progressively increases after withdrawal but mechanisms underlying this ‘incubation of methamphetamine craving' are unknown. Here we studied the role of central amygdala (CeA), ventral medial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC), and orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), brain regions implicated in incubation of cocaine and heroin craving, in incubation of methamphetamine craving. We also assessed the role of basolateral amygdala (BLA) and dorsal medial prefrontal cortex (dmPFC). We trained rats to self-administer methamphetamine (10 days; 9 h/day, 0.1 mg/kg/infusion) and tested them for cue-induced methamphetamine seeking under extinction conditions during early (2 days) or late (4–5 weeks) withdrawal. We first confirmed that ‘incubation of methamphetamine craving' occurs under our experimental conditions. Next, we assessed the effect of reversible inactivation of CeA or BLA by GABAA+GABAB receptor agonists (muscimol+baclofen, 0.03+0.3 nmol) on cue-induced methamphetamine seeking during early and late withdrawal. We also assessed the effect of muscimol+baclofen reversible inactivation of vmPFC, dmPFC, and OFC on ‘incubated' cue-induced methamphetamine seeking during late withdrawal. Lever presses in the cue-induced methamphetamine extinction tests were higher during late withdrawal than during early withdrawal (incubation of methamphetamine craving). Muscimol+baclofen injections into CeA but not BLA decreased cue-induced methamphetamine seeking during late but not early withdrawal. Muscimol+baclofen injections into dmPFC, vmPFC, or OFC during late withdrawal had no effect on incubated cue-induced methamphetamine seeking. Together with previous studies, results indicate that the CeA has a critical role in incubation of both drug and non-drug reward craving and demonstrate an unexpected dissociation in mechanisms of incubation of methamphetamine vs cocaine craving. PMID:25475163

  10. Dopamine agonists in the treatment of Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Bonuccelli, Ubaldo; Pavese, Nicola

    2006-01-01

    Dopamine agonists are highly effective as adjunctive therapy to levodopa in advanced Parkinson's disease and have rapidly gained popularity as a monotherapy in the early stages of Parkinson's disease for patients less than 65-70 years old. In the latter case, dopamine agonists are about as effective as levodopa but patients demonstrate a lower tendency to develop motor complications. However, dopamine agonists lose efficacy over time and the number of patients remaining on agonist monotherapy decreases to less than 50% after 3 years of treatment. Thus, after a few years of treatment the majority of patients who started on dopamine agonists will be administered levodopa, in a combined dopaminergic therapy, in order to achieve a better control of motor symptoms.

  11. Differential agonist and inverse agonist profile of antipsychotics at D2L receptors coupled to GIRK potassium channels.

    PubMed

    Heusler, Peter; Newman-Tancredi, Adrian; Castro-Fernandez, Annabelle; Cussac, Didier

    2007-03-01

    The D(2) dopaminergic receptor represents a major target of antipsychotic drugs. Using the coupling of the human D(2long) (hD(2L)) receptor to G protein-coupled inward rectifier potassium (GIRK) channels in Xenopus laevis oocytes, we examined the activity of antipsychotic agents of different classes - typical, atypical, and a "new generation" of compounds, exhibiting a preferential D(2) and 5-HT(1A) receptor profile. When the hD(2L) receptor was coexpressed with GIRK channels, a series of reference compounds exhibited full agonist (dopamine, and quinpirole), partial agonist (apomorphine, (-)3-PPP, and (+)-UH232) or inverse agonist (raclopride, and L741626) properties. Sarizotan exhibited only very weak partial agonist action. At higher levels of receptor cRNA injected per oocyte, both partial agonist activity and inverse agonist properties were generally more pronounced. The inverse agonist action of L741626 was reversed by interaction with sarizotan, thus confirming the constitutive activity of wild-type hD(2L) receptors in the oocyte expression system. When antipsychotic agents were tested for their actions at the hD(2L) receptor, typical (haloperidol) as well as atypical (nemonapride, ziprasidone, and clozapine) compounds acted as inverse agonists. In contrast, among D(2)/5-HT(1A) antipsychotics, only SLV313 and F15063 behaved as inverse agonists, whilst the other members of this group (bifeprunox, SSR181507 and the recently marketed antipsychotic, aripiprazole) exhibited partial agonist properties. Thus, the X. laevis oocyte expression system highlights markedly different activity of antipsychotics at the hD(2L) receptor. These differential properties may translate to distinct therapeutic potential of these compounds.

  12. Nicotine receptor partial agonists for smoking cessation.

    PubMed

    Cahill, Kate; Stead, Lindsay F; Lancaster, Tim

    2008-07-16

    Nicotine receptor partial agonists may help people to stop smoking by a combination of maintaining moderate levels of dopamine to counteract withdrawal symptoms (acting as an agonist) and reducing smoking satisfaction (acting as an antagonist). Varenicline was developed as a nicotine receptor partial agonist from cytisine, a drug widely used in central and eastern Europe for smoking cessation. The first trial reports of varenicline were released in 2006, and further trials have now been published or are currently are underway. The primary objective of this review is to assess the efficacy and tolerability of nicotine receptor partial agonists, including varenicline and cytisine, for smoking cessation. We searched the Cochrane Tobacco Addiction Group's specialised register for trials, using the terms ('varenicline' or 'cytisine' or 'Tabex' or 'nicotine receptor partial agonist') and 'smoking' in the title or abstract, or as keywords. We also searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO and CINAHL using MeSH terms and free text, and we contacted authors of trial reports for additional information where necessary. The latest search was in March 2008. We included randomized controlled trials which compared the treatment drug with placebo. We also included comparisons with bupropion and nicotine patches where available. We excluded trials which did not report a minimum follow-up period of six months from start of treatment. We extracted data in duplicate on the type of participants, the dose and duration of treatment, the outcome measures, the randomization procedure, concealment of allocation, and completeness of follow up. The main outcome measured was abstinence from smoking after at least six months from the beginning of treatment. We used the most rigorous definition of abstinence, and preferred biochemically validated rates where they were reported. Where appropriate we performed meta-analysis to produce a risk ratio, using the Mantel-Haenszel fixed-effect model. We found

  13. Nicotine receptor partial agonists for smoking cessation.

    PubMed

    Cahill, Kate; Stead, Lindsay F; Lancaster, Tim

    2011-02-16

    Nicotine receptor partial agonists may help people to stop smoking by a combination of maintaining moderate levels of dopamine to counteract withdrawal symptoms (acting as an agonist) and reducing smoking satisfaction (acting as an antagonist). Varenicline was developed as a nicotine receptor partial agonist from cytisine, a drug widely used in central and eastern Europe for smoking cessation. The first trial reports of varenicline were released in 2006, and further trials have now been published or are currently underway. The primary objective of this review is to assess the efficacy and tolerability of nicotine receptor partial agonists, including varenicline and cytisine, for smoking cessation. We searched the Cochrane Tobacco Addiction Group's specialised register for trials, using the terms ('varenicline' or 'cytisine' or 'Tabex' or 'nicotine receptor partial agonist') and 'smoking' in the title or abstract, or as keywords. We also searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO and CINAHL using MeSH terms and free text, and we contacted authors of trial reports for additional information where necessary. The latest search was in September 2010. We included randomized controlled trials which compared the treatment drug with placebo. We also included comparisons with bupropion and nicotine patches where available. We excluded trials which did not report a minimum follow-up period of six months from start of treatment. We extracted data on the type of participants, the dose and duration of treatment, the outcome measures, the randomization procedure, concealment of allocation, and completeness of follow up.The main outcome measured was abstinence from smoking after at least six months from the beginning of treatment. We used the most rigorous definition of abstinence, and preferred biochemically validated rates where they were reported. Where appropriate we performed meta-analysis to produce a risk ratio, using the Mantel-Haenszel fixed-effect model. We found 11 trials of

  14. Nicotine receptor partial agonists for smoking cessation.

    PubMed

    Cahill, Kate; Stead, Lindsay F; Lancaster, Tim

    2010-12-08

    Nicotine receptor partial agonists may help people to stop smoking by a combination of maintaining moderate levels of dopamine to counteract withdrawal symptoms (acting as an agonist) and reducing smoking satisfaction (acting as an antagonist). Varenicline was developed as a nicotine receptor partial agonist from cytisine, a drug widely used in central and eastern Europe for smoking cessation. The first trial reports of varenicline were released in 2006, and further trials have now been published or are currently underway. The primary objective of this review is to assess the efficacy and tolerability of nicotine receptor partial agonists, including varenicline and cytisine, for smoking cessation. We searched the Cochrane Tobacco Addiction Group's specialised register for trials, using the terms ('varenicline' or 'cytisine' or 'Tabex' or 'nicotine receptor partial agonist') and 'smoking' in the title or abstract, or as keywords. We also searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO and CINAHL using MeSH terms and free text, and we contacted authors of trial reports for additional information where necessary. The latest search was in September 2010. We included randomized controlled trials which compared the treatment drug with placebo. We also included comparisons with bupropion and nicotine patches where available. We excluded trials which did not report a minimum follow-up period of six months from start of treatment. We extracted data on the type of participants, the dose and duration of treatment, the outcome measures, the randomization procedure, concealment of allocation, and completeness of follow up.The main outcome measured was abstinence from smoking after at least six months from the beginning of treatment. We used the most rigorous definition of abstinence, and preferred biochemically validated rates where they were reported. Where appropriate we performed meta-analysis to produce a risk ratio, using the Mantel-Haenszel fixed-effect model. We found 11 trials of

  15. The effect of intrathecal baclofen treatment on activities of daily life in children and young adults with cerebral palsy and progressive neurological disorders.

    PubMed

    Bonouvrié, Laura; Becher, Jules; Soudant, Dan; Buizer, Annemieke; van Ouwerkerk, Willem; Vles, Georges; Vermeulen, R Jeroen

    2016-07-01

    Intrathecal baclofen (ITB) treatment is applied in patients with spastic cerebral palsy (SCP), dystonic cerebral palsy (DCP) and progressive neurological disease (PND). Our aim was to investigate whether ITB treatment has a different effect on activities of daily life (ADL) in these groups. A retrospective and cross-sectional survey was conducted using a questionnaire to assess the qualitative effect of ITB (Likert scale) on different domains of functioning (mobility, personal care, communication, comfort) and satisfaction with the results. Groups were compared using non-parametric statistics. Questionnaires were completed for 68 patients (39 SCP, 13 DCP, 16 PND). Satisfaction scores were relatively high in all groups (7-8) and the positive effect on personal care and communication was similar in all groups. The PND group had the shortest follow-up and scored significantly less favourably for the effect on mobility and comfort. This is the first study to show that ITB treatment has similar effects on personal care and communication in stable and progressive neurological disease. The decrease in mobility in the PND group is likely due to the progressive nature of the disease. The different effect on comfort between groups is mainly due to the smaller effect on startles in the PND group. Copyright © 2016 European Paediatric Neurology Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Stability of Acetazolamide, Baclofen, Dipyridamole, Mebeverine Hydrochloride, Propylthiouracil, Quinidine Sulfate, and Topiramate Oral Suspensions in SyrSpend SF PH4.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Anderson de Oliveira; Polonini, Hudson; da Silva, Sharlene Loures; Aglio, Natália Cristina Buzinari; Abreu, Jordana; Fernandes, Brandão Marcos Antônio

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the stability of 7 commonly used active pharmaceutical ingredients compounded in oral suspensions using an internationally used suspending vehicle (SyrSpend SF PH4): acetazolamide 25.0 mg/mL, baclofen 10.0 mg/mL, dipyridamole 10.0 mg/mL, mebeverine hydrochloride 10.0 mg/mL, propylthiouracil 5.0 mg/mL, quinidine sulfate 10.0 mg/mL, and topiramate 5.0 mg/mL. All suspensions were stored both at controlled refrigerated (2°C to 8°C) and room temperature (20°C to 25°C). Stability was assessed by measuring the percentage recovery at varying time points throughout a 90-day period. Active pharmaceutical ingredient quantification was performed by ultraviolet (UV) high-performance liquid chromatography, via a stability-indicating method. Given the percentage of recovery of the active pharmaceutical ingredients within the suspensions, the beyond-use date of the final products (active pharmaceutical ingredient + vehicle) was at least 90 days for all suspensions with regards to both temperatures. This suggests that SyrSpend SF PH4 is suitable for compounding active pharmaceutical ingredients from different pharmacological classes. Copyright© by International Journal of Pharmaceutical Compounding, Inc.

  17. Dopamine agonist withdrawal syndrome: implications for patient care.

    PubMed

    Nirenberg, Melissa J

    2013-08-01

    Dopamine agonists are effective treatments for a variety of indications, including Parkinson's disease and restless legs syndrome, but may have serious side effects, such as orthostatic hypotension, hallucinations, and impulse control disorders (including pathological gambling, compulsive eating, compulsive shopping/buying, and hypersexuality). The most effective way to alleviate these side effects is to taper or discontinue dopamine agonist therapy. A subset of patients who taper a dopamine agonist, however, develop dopamine agonist withdrawal syndrome (DAWS), which has been defined as a severe, stereotyped cluster of physical and psychological symptoms that correlate with dopamine agonist withdrawal in a dose-dependent manner, cause clinically significant distress or social/occupational dysfunction, are refractory to levodopa and other dopaminergic medications, and cannot be accounted for by other clinical factors. The symptoms of DAWS include anxiety, panic attacks, dysphoria, depression, agitation, irritability, suicidal ideation, fatigue, orthostatic hypotension, nausea, vomiting, diaphoresis, generalized pain, and drug cravings. The severity and prognosis of DAWS is highly variable. While some patients have transient symptoms and make a full recovery, others have a protracted withdrawal syndrome lasting for months to years, and therefore may be unwilling or unable to discontinue DA therapy. Impulse control disorders appear to be a major risk factor for DAWS, and are present in virtually all affected patients. Thus, patients who are unable to discontinue dopamine agonist therapy may experience chronic impulse control disorders. At the current time, there are no known effective treatments for DAWS. For this reason, providers are urged to use dopamine agonists judiciously, warn patients about the risks of DAWS prior to the initiation of dopamine agonist therapy, and follow patients closely for withdrawal symptoms during dopamine agonist taper.

  18. Relamorelin: A Novel Gastrocolokinetic Synthetic Ghrelin Agonist

    PubMed Central

    Camilleri, Michael; Acosta, Andres

    2015-01-01

    Synthetic ghrelin agonists, predominantly small molecules, are being developed as prokinetic agents that may prove useful in the treatment of gastrointestinal motility disorders. Relamorelin (RM-131) is a pentapeptide synthetic ghrelin analog that activates the growth hormone secretagogue (GHS)-1a (also called the ghrelin) receptor with approximately 6-fold greater potency than natural ghrelin. The ability of relamorelin to stimulate growth hormone (GH) release is comparable to that of native ghrelin. Relamorelin has enhanced efficacy and plasma stability compared to native ghrelin. In this review, we discuss the pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics and potential indications for relamorelin. Relamorelin is administered subcutaneously, dosed daily or twice daily. Relamorelin is being studied for the treatment of patients with gastrointestinal motility disorders. Phase IIA pharmacodynamic studies have demonstrated acceleration of gastric emptying in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) and type 2 DM (T2DM) and upper gastrointestinal symptoms. In a phase IIA study in patients with diabetic gastroparesis, relamorelin accelerated gastric emptying and significantly improved vomiting frequency compared to placebo and improved other symptoms of gastroparesis in a pre-specified subgroup of patients with vomiting at baseline. In patients with chronic idiopathic constipation with defined transit profile at baseline, relamorelin relieved constipation and accelerated colonic transit compared to placebo. These characteristics suggest that this new ghrelin analog shows great promise to relieve patients with upper or lower gastrointestinal motility disorders. PMID:25545036

  19. Tyraminergic modulation of agonistic outcomes in crayfish.

    PubMed

    Momohara, Yuto; Aonuma, Hitoshi; Nagayama, Toshiki

    2018-05-01

    Octopamine, a biogenic amine, modulates various behaviors, ranging from locomotion and aggression to learning and memory in invertebrates. Several studies recently demonstrated that tyramine, the biological precursor of octopamine, also affects behaviors independent of octopamine. Here we investigated the involvement of tyramine in agonistic interaction of the male crayfish Procambarus clarkii. When male crayfish fight, larger animals (3-7% difference in body length) are more likely to win. By contrast, direct injection of tyramine or octopamine counteracted the physical advantage of larger animals. Tyramine or octopamine-injected naive large animals were mostly beaten by untreated smaller naive animals. This pharmacological effect was similar to the loser effect in which subordinate larger animals are frequently beaten by smaller animals. Furthermore, loser effects were partly eliminated by either injection of epinastine, an octopamine blocker, or yohimbine, a tyramine blocker, and significantly diminished by injection of a mixture of both blockers. We also observed that tyramine levels in the subesophageal ganglion were remarkably increased in subordinate crayfish after losing a fight. These results suggest that tyramine modulates aggressive levels of crayfish and contributes to the loser effect in parallel with octopamine.

  20. Partial agonist therapy in schizophrenia: relevance to diminished criminal responsibility.

    PubMed

    Gavaudan, Gilles; Magalon, David; Cohen, Julien; Lançon, Christophe; Léonetti, Georges; Pélissier-Alicot, Anne-Laure

    2010-11-01

    Pathological gambling (PG), classified in the DSM-IV among impulse control disorders, is defined as inappropriate, persistent gaming for money with serious personal, family, and social consequences. Offenses are frequently committed to obtain money for gambling. Pathological gambling, a planned and structured behavioral disorder, has often been described as a complication of dopamine agonist treatment in patients with Parkinson's disease. It has never been described in patients with schizophrenia receiving dopamine agonists. We present two patients with schizophrenia, previously treated with antipsychotic drugs without any suggestion of PG, who a short time after starting aripiprazole, a dopamine partial agonist, developed PG and criminal behavior, which totally resolved when aripiprazole was discontinued. Based on recent advances in research on PG and adverse drug reactions to dopamine agonists in Parkinson's disease, we postulate a link between aripiprazole and PG in both our patients with schizophrenia and raise the question of criminal responsibility. © 2010 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  1. [Effects of GLP-1 receptor agonists on carbohydrate metabolism control].

    PubMed

    Fernández-García, José Carlos; Colomo, Natalia; Tinahones, Francisco José

    2014-01-01

    Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonists are a new group of drugs for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2). In the present article, we review the available evidence on the efficacy of GLP-1 receptor agonists as glucose-lowering agents, their place in therapeutic algorithms, and the clinical factors associated with a favorable treatment response. Finally, we describe the clinical characteristics of patients who may benefit from these drugs.

  2. Mechanisms of inverse agonist action at D2 dopamine receptors

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, David J; Strange, Philip G

    2005-01-01

    Mechanisms of inverse agonist action at the D2(short) dopamine receptor have been examined. Discrimination of G-protein-coupled and -uncoupled forms of the receptor by inverse agonists was examined in competition ligand-binding studies versus the agonist [3H]NPA at a concentration labelling both G-protein-coupled and -uncoupled receptors. Competition of inverse agonists versus [3H]NPA gave data that were fitted best by a two-binding site model in the absence of GTP but by a one-binding site model in the presence of GTP. Ki values were derived from the competition data for binding of the inverse agonists to G-protein-uncoupled and -coupled receptors. Kcoupled and Kuncoupled were statistically different for the set of compounds tested (ANOVA) but the individual values were different in a post hoc test only for (+)-butaclamol. These observations were supported by simulations of these competition experiments according to the extended ternary complex model. Inverse agonist efficacy of the ligands was assessed from their ability to reduce agonist-independent [35S]GTPγS binding to varying degrees in concentration–response curves. Inverse agonism by (+)-butaclamol and spiperone occurred at higher potency when GDP was added to assays, whereas the potency of (−)-sulpiride was unaffected. These data show that some inverse agonists ((+)-butaclamol, spiperone) achieve inverse agonism by stabilising the uncoupled form of the receptor at the expense of the coupled form. For other compounds tested, we were unable to define the mechanism. PMID:15735658

  3. Identification of M-CSF agonists and antagonists

    DOEpatents

    Pandit, Jayvardhan [Mystic, CT; Jancarik, Jarmila [Walnut Creek, CA; Kim, Sung-Hou [Moraga, CA; Koths, Kirston [El Cerrito, CA; Halenbeck, Robert [San Rafael, CA; Fear, Anna Lisa [Oakland, CA; Taylor, Eric [Oakland, CA; Yamamoto, Ralph [Martinez, CA; Bohm, Andrew [Armonk, NY

    2000-02-15

    The present invention is directed to methods for crystallizing macrophage colony stimulating factor. The present invention is also directed to methods for designing and producing M-CSF agonists and antagonists using information derived from the crystallographic structure of M-CSF. The invention is also directed to methods for screening M-CSF agonists and antagonists. In addition, the present invention is directed to an isolated, purified, soluble and functional M-CSF receptor.

  4. Trial Watch: Toll-like receptor agonists for cancer therapy.

    PubMed

    Vacchelli, Erika; Eggermont, Alexander; Sautès-Fridman, Catherine; Galon, Jérôme; Zitvogel, Laurence; Kroemer, Guido; Galluzzi, Lorenzo

    2013-08-01

    Toll-like receptors (TLRs) have long been known for their ability to initiate innate immune responses upon exposure to conserved microbial components such as lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and double-stranded RNA. More recently, this family of pattern recognition receptors has been attributed a critical role in the elicitation of anticancer immune responses, raising interest in the development of immunochemotherapeutic regimens based on natural or synthetic TLR agonists. In spite of such an intense wave of preclinical and clinical investigation, only three TLR agonists are currently licensed by FDA for use in cancer patients: bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG), an attenuated strain of Mycobacterium bovis that operates as a mixed TLR2/TLR4 agonist; monophosphoryl lipid A (MPL), a derivative of Salmonella minnesota that functions as a potent agonist of TLR4; and imiquimod, a synthetic imidazoquinoline that activates TLR7. One year ago, in the August and September issues of OncoImmunology , we described the main biological features of TLRs and discussed the progress of clinical studies evaluating the safety and therapeutic potential of TLR agonists in cancer patients. Here, we summarize the latest developments in this exciting area of research, focusing on preclinical studies that have been published during the last 13 mo and clinical trials launched in the same period to investigate the antineoplastic activity of TLR agonists.

  5. Differential effects of AMPK agonists on cell growth and metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Vincent, Emma E.; Coelho, Paula P.; Blagih, Julianna; Griss, Takla; Viollet, Benoit; Jones, Russell G.

    2016-01-01

    As a sensor of cellular energy status, the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is believed to act in opposition to the metabolic phenotypes favored by proliferating tumor cells. Consequently, compounds known to activate AMPK have been proposed as cancer therapeutics. However, the extent to which the anti-neoplastic properties of these agonists are mediated by AMPK is unclear. Here we examined the AMPK-dependence of six commonly used AMPK agonists (metformin, phenformin, AICAR, 2DG, salicylate and A-769662) and their influence on cellular processes often deregulated in tumor cells. We demonstrate that the majority of these agonists display AMPK-independent effects on cell proliferation and metabolism with only the synthetic activator, A-769662, exerting AMPK-dependent effects on these processes. We find that A-769662 promotes an AMPK-dependent increase in mitochondrial spare respiratory capacity (SRC). Finally, contrary to the view of AMPK activity being tumor suppressive, we find A-769662 confers a selective proliferative advantage to tumor cells growing under nutrient deprivation. Our results indicate that many of the anti-growth properties of these agonists cannot be attributed to AMPK activity in cells, and thus any observed effects using these agonists should be confirmed using AMPK-deficient cells. Ultimately, our data urge caution, not only regarding the type of AMPK agonist proposed for cancer treatment, but also the context in which they are used. PMID:25241895

  6. Differential effects of AMPK agonists on cell growth and metabolism.

    PubMed

    Vincent, E E; Coelho, P P; Blagih, J; Griss, T; Viollet, B; Jones, R G

    2015-07-01

    As a sensor of cellular energy status, the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is believed to act in opposition to the metabolic phenotypes favored by proliferating tumor cells. Consequently, compounds known to activate AMPK have been proposed as cancer therapeutics. However, the extent to which the anti-neoplastic properties of these agonists are mediated by AMPK is unclear. Here we examined the AMPK dependence of six commonly used AMPK agonists (metformin, phenformin, 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide ribonucleotide (AICAR), 2-deoxy-D-glucose (2DG), salicylate and A-769662) and their influence on cellular processes often deregulated in tumor cells. We demonstrate that the majority of these agonists display AMPK-independent effects on cell proliferation and metabolism with only the synthetic activator, A-769662, exerting AMPK-dependent effects on these processes. We find that A-769662 promotes an AMPK-dependent increase in mitochondrial spare respiratory capacity. Finally, contrary to the view of AMPK activity being tumor suppressive, we find that A-769662 confers a selective proliferative advantage to tumor cells growing under nutrient deprivation. Our results indicate that many of the antigrowth properties of these agonists cannot be attributed to AMPK activity in cells, and thus any observed effects using these agonists should be confirmed using AMPK-deficient cells. Ultimately, our data urge caution not only regarding the type of AMPK agonist proposed for cancer treatment but also the context in which they are used.

  7. Retinoid agonist isotretinoin ameliorates obstructive renal injury.

    PubMed

    Schaier, Matthias; Jocks, Thomas; Grone, Hermann-Josef; Ritz, Eberhard; Wagner, Juergen

    2003-10-01

    Interstitial fibrosis is a major cause of end stage renal failure. Retinoids, which are involved in tissue repair and fibrosis, inhibit inflammatory and proliferative pathways. Therefore, we studied the dose dependent effects of the retinoid receptor agonist isotretinoin 13-cis retinoic acid in the unilateral ureteral obstruction model (UUO). Sham operated control rats were compared with UUO rats treated with vehicle (UUO-Veh), or low (5 mg/kg body weight (UUO-LD) or high (25 mg/kg) (UUO-HD) dose isotretinoin. Kidneys were evaluated using reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and immunohistology 7 days after UUO. Renal injury and fibrosis were quantified by immunostaining and expression measurements of the genes involved in renal fibrosis. In UUO-Veh kidneys the interstitial area was expanded 5-fold but only 3-fold in UUO-HD and 3.5-fold in UUO-LD rats. Interstitial cell counts were 3-fold higher in UUO-Veh rats but significantly less in UUO-HD or UUO-LD animals. Tubular and interstitial cell proliferation was significantly higher in UUO-Veh rats compared with sham operated control plus vehicle animals but less so in UUO-LD and UUO-HD rats. In UUO-Veh rats interstitial infiltration by monocytes/macrophages was higher compared with unobstructed controls. It was significantly less after isotretinoin treatment. In UUO-Veh rats mRNA for procollagen I, and transforming growth factor-beta1 and II receptor was significantly increased. It was significantly less after treatment with isotretinoin. Fibronectin and collagen I immunostaining was also decreased by isotretinoin. Since isotretinoin limits proliferation, inflammation and fibrosis after UUO, retinoids should be further investigated as potentially promising therapeutic agents for renal disease.

  8. Exploring the binding energy profiles of full agonists, partial agonists, and antagonists of the α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor.

    PubMed

    Tabassum, Nargis; Ma, Qianyun; Wu, Guanzhao; Jiang, Tao; Yu, Rilei

    2017-09-01

    Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) belong to the Cys-loop receptor family and are important drug targets for the treatment of neurological diseases. However, the precise determinants of the binding efficacies of ligands for these receptors are unclear. Therefore, in this study, the binding energy profiles of various ligands (full agonists, partial agonists, and antagonists) were quantified by docking those ligands with structural ensembles of the α7 nAChR exhibiting different degrees of C-loop closure. This approximate treatment of interactions suggested that full agonists, partial agonists, and antagonists of the α7 nAChR possess distinctive binding energy profiles. Results from docking revealed that ligand binding efficacy may be related to the capacity of the ligand to stabilize conformational states with a closed C loop.

  9. Identification of Determinants Required for Agonistic and Inverse Agonistic Ligand Properties at the ADP Receptor P2Y12

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, Philipp; Ritscher, Lars; Dong, Elizabeth N.; Hermsdorf, Thomas; Cöster, Maxi; Wittkopf, Doreen; Meiler, Jens

    2013-01-01

    The ADP receptor P2Y12 belongs to the superfamily of G protein–coupled receptors (GPCRs), and its activation triggers platelet aggregation. Therefore, potent antagonists, such as clopidogrel, are of high clinical relevance in prophylaxis and treatment of thromboembolic events. P2Y12 displays an elevated basal activity in vitro, and as such, inverse agonists may be therapeutically beneficial compared with antagonists. Only a few inverse agonists of P2Y12 have been described. To expand this limited chemical space and improve understanding of structural determinants of inverse agonist-receptor interaction, this study screened a purine compound library for lead structures using wild-type (WT) human P2Y12 and 28 constitutively active mutants. Results showed that ATP and ATP derivatives are agonists at P2Y12. The potency at P2Y12 was 2-(methylthio)-ADP > 2-(methylthio)-ATP > ADP > ATP. Determinants required for agonistic ligand activity were identified. Molecular docking studies revealed a binding pocket for the ATP derivatives that is bordered by transmembrane helices 3, 5, 6, and 7 in human P2Y12, with Y105, E188, R256, Y259, and K280 playing a particularly important role in ligand interaction. N-Methyl-anthraniloyl modification at the 3′-OH of the 2′-deoxyribose leads to ligands (mant-deoxy-ATP [dATP], mant-deoxy-ADP) with inverse agonist activity. Inverse agonist activity of mant-dATP was found at the WT human P2Y12 and half of the constitutive active P2Y12 mutants. This study showed that, in addition to ADP and ATP, other ATP derivatives are not only ligands of P2Y12 but also agonists. Modification of the ribose within ATP can result in inverse activity of ATP-derived ligands. PMID:23093496

  10. The need for and provision of intrathecal baclofen therapy for the management of spasticity in England: an assessment of the Hospital Episode Statistics database.

    PubMed

    Narendran, Rajesh C; Duarte, Rui V; Valyi, Andrea; Eldabe, Sam

    2015-06-30

    The aim of this study was to evaluate changes in the uptake of intrathecal baclofen (ITB) following commissioning of this therapy by the National Health Service (NHS) England in April 2013. The specific objectives of this study were: (i) to explore the gap between the need for and the actual provision of ITB services; and (ii) to compare England figures with other European countries with comparable data available. Data for ITB -related procedures were obtained from the Hospital Episode Statistics (HES) database from 2009/2010 to 2013/2014. Patients receiving ITB for the management of spasticity. The available data for implantation of ITB from 2009/2010 to 2013/2014 for the treatment of spasticity due to varied aetiologies show that there has not been an increase in uptake of this therapy. The estimated need for this treatment based on the incidence and prevalence of conditions susceptible to ITB therapy is between 4.6 and 5.7 per million population. Our analysis of the data available from the HES database showed that the actual number of implants is around 3.0 per million population. The same period 2009-2014 has seen an increase in the delivery of other neuromodulation techniques including spinal cord stimulation, deep brain stimulation and sacral nerve stimulation. There is a considerable gap between the need for and provision of ITB figures nationally. Additionally, within the same area, we have observed important differences in the ITB service delivery between the various trusts. The reasons for this can be multifactorial, including individual experience and opinions, organisational structures, resource and financial limitations. Further research analysing the efficacy and cost-effectiveness of this treatment in the UK might inform the development of Technology Appraisal Guidance for ITB, potentially leading to an improvement in service provision. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence

  11. Evaluation of AhR-agonists and AhR-agonist activity in sediments of Liaohe River protected areas, China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yun; Ke, Xin; Gui, Shaofeng; Wu, Xiaoqiong; Wang, Chunyong; Zhang, Haijun

    2017-02-15

    A total of 9 sediment samples of Liaohe River protected areas were collected to evaluate aryl hydrocarbon receptor agonists (AhR-agonists) and AhR-agonist activity via chemical analysis and in vitro H4IIE cell bioassay. Results indicated that bioassay-derived 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin equivalents (Bio-TEQs) ranged from 89.1 to 251.1pg/g dry weight. Concentrations of 16 EPA polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), 12 dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) ranged from 256.8 to 560.1ng/g, 79.2 to 416.2pg/g, and 199.6 to 538.4pg/g, respectively. According to potency balance analysis, TEQ chem s based on PAHs, PCBs, and PCDD/Fs could contribute 16.56% to 26.11% of Bio-TEQs. This could be explained by the potential existence of unidentified AhR-agonists and the potential non-additive interactions among AhR-agonists in sediment extracts. Through the different contributions to Bio-TEQs, this study confirms that PCDD/Fs were the main pollutants that induced significantly AhR-agonist activity in sediments of Liaohe River protected areas. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Agonists and antagonists for P2 receptors

    PubMed Central

    Jacobson, Kenneth A.; Costanzi, Stefano; Joshi, Bhalchandra V.; Besada, Pedro; Shin, Dae Hong; Ko, Hyojin; Ivanov, Andrei A.; Mamedova, Liaman

    2015-01-01

    Recent work has identified nucleotide agonists selective for P2Y1, P2Y2 and P2Y6 receptors and nucleotide antagonists selective for P2Y1, P2Y12 and P2X1 receptors. Selective non-nucleotide antagonists have been reported for P2Y1, P2Y2, P2Y6, P2Y12, P2Y13, P2X2/3/P2X3 and P2X7 receptors. For example, the dinucleotide INS 37217 (Up4dC) potently activates the P2Y2 receptor, and the non-nucleotide antagonist A-317491 is selective for P2X2/3/P2X3 receptors. Nucleotide analogues in which the ribose moiety is substituted by a variety of novel ring systems, including conformation-ally locked moieties, have been synthesized as ligands for P2Y receptors. The focus on conformational factors of the ribose-like moiety allows the inclusion of general modifications that lead to enhanced potency and selectivity. At P2Y1,2,4,11 receptors, there is a preference for the North conformation as indicated with (N)-methanocarba analogues. The P2Y1 antagonist MRS2500 inhibited ADP-induced human platelet aggregation with an IC50 of 0.95 nM. MRS2365, an (N)-methanocarba analogue of 2-MeSADP, displayed potency (EC50) of 0.4 nM at the P2Y1 receptor, with >10 000-fold selectivity in comparison to P2Y12 and P2Y13 receptors. At P2Y6 receptors there is a dramatic preference for the South conformation. Three-dimensional structures of P2Y receptors have been deduced from structure activity relationships (SAR), mutagenesis and modelling studies. Detailed three-dimensional structures of P2X receptors have not yet been proposed. PMID:16805423

  13. Prenatal phencyclidine treatment induces behavioral deficits through impairment of GABAergic interneurons in the prefrontal cortex.

    PubMed

    Toriumi, Kazuya; Oki, Mika; Muto, Eriko; Tanaka, Junko; Mouri, Akihiro; Mamiya, Takayoshi; Kim, Hyoung-Chun; Nabeshima, Toshitaka

    2016-06-01

    We previously reported that prenatal treatment with phencyclidine (PCP) induces glutamatergic dysfunction in the prefrontal cortex (PFC), leading to schizophrenia-like behavioral deficits in adult mice. However, little is known about the prenatal effect of PCP treatment on other types of neurons. We focused on γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-ergic interneurons and evaluated the effect of prenatal PCP exposure on the neurodevelopment of GABAergic interneurons in the PFC. PCP was administered at the dose of 10 mg/kg/day to pregnant dams from embryonic day 6.5 to 18.5. After the pups were reared to adult, we analyzed their GABAergic system in the PFC using immunohistological, biochemical, and behavioral analyses in adulthood. The prenatal PCP treatment decreased the density of parvalbumin-positive cells and reduced the expression level of glutamic acid decarboxylase 67 (GAD67) and GABA content of the PFC in adults. Additionally, prenatal PCP treatment induced behavioral deficits in adult mice, such as hypersensitivity to PCP and prepulse inhibition (PPI) deficits. These behavioral deficits were ameliorated by pretreatment with the GABAB receptor agonist baclofen. Furthermore, the density of c-Fos-positive cells was decreased after the PPI test in the PFC of mice treated with PCP prenatally, and this effect was ameliorated by pretreatment with baclofen. These findings suggest that prenatal treatment with PCP induced GABAergic dysfunction in the PFC, which caused behavioral deficits.

  14. Functional inactivation of the orbitofrontal cortex disrupts context-induced reinstatement of alcohol seeking in rats.

    PubMed

    Bianchi, Paula Cristina; Carneiro de Oliveira, Paulo Eduardo; Palombo, Paola; Leão, Rodrigo Molini; Cogo-Moreira, Hugo; Planeta, Cleopatra da Silva; Cruz, Fábio Cardoso

    2018-05-01

    The high rate of relapse to drug use remains a central challenge to treating drug addiction. In human and rat models of addiction, environmental stimuli in contexts associated with previous drug use can provoke a relapse of drug seeking. Pre-clinical studies have used the ABA renewal procedure to study context-induced reinstatement of drug seeking. In the current study, we studied the role of the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) in context-induced reinstatement to alcohol. We trained male and female rats to self-administer alcohol in context A, extinguished drug-reinforced responding in a distinct context B, and assessed context-induced reinstatement in context A or B (control group). Next, we determined the effect of context-induced renewal of alcohol-seeking behavior on the expression of Fos (a neuronal activity marker) in the OFC. Finally, we determined the effect of reversible inactivation by GABAa and GABAb receptor agonists (i.e., muscimol and baclofen, respectively) in the OFC. There were no differences between male and female rats in context-induced reinstatement of alcohol-seeking behavior. Re-exposure to Context A, but not Context B, reinstated alcohol-seeking behavior and increased expression of the neural activity marker Fos in the OFC. Reversible inactivation of the OFC with muscimol and baclofen attenuated context-induced reinstatement. Our data indicated that the OFC mediates context-induced reinstatement of alcohol-seeking behavior. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Choline as an agonist: determination of its agonistic potency on cholinergic receptors.

    PubMed

    Ulus, I H; Millington, W R; Buyukuysal, R L; Kiran, B K

    1988-07-15

    These experiments examined the potency of choline as a cholinergic agonist at both muscarinic and nicotinic receptors in rat brain and peripheral tissues. Choline stimulated the contraction of isolated smooth muscle preparations of the stomach fundus, urinary bladder and trachea and reduced the frequency of spontaneous contractions of the right atrium at high micromolar and low millimolar concentrations. The potency of choline to elicit a biological response varied markedly among these tissues; EC50 values ranged between 0.41 mM in the fundus to 14.45 mM in the atrium. Choline also displaced [3H]quinuclidinyl benzilate binding in a concentration-dependent manner although, again, its potency varied among different brain regions (Ki = 1.2 to 3.5 mM) and peripheral tissues (Ki = 0.28 to 3.00 mM). Choline exhibited a comparable affinity for nicotinic receptors. It stimulated catecholamine release from the vascularly perfused adrenal gland (EC50 = 1.3 mM) and displaced L-[3H]nicotine binding to membrane preparations of brain and peripheral tissues (Ki = 0.38 to 1.17 mM). However, the concentration of choline required to bind to cholinergic receptors in most tissues was considerably higher than serum levels either in controls (8-13 microM) or following the administration of choline chloride (200 microM). These results clearly demonstrate that choline is a weak cholinergic agonist. Its potency is too low to account for the central nervous system effects produced by choline administration, although the direct activation of cholinergic receptors in several peripheral tissues may explain some of its side effects.

  16. Magnesium ions and opioid agonists in vincristine-induced neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Bujalska, Magdalena; Makulska-Nowak, Helena; Gumułka, Stanisław W

    2009-01-01

    Neuropathic pain is difficult to treat. Classic analgesics (i.e., opioid receptor agonists) usually possess low activity. Therefore other agents such as antidepressants, anticonvulsants, and corticosteroids are used. It is commonly known that NMDA antagonists increase analgesic activity of opioids. Unfortunately, clinical use of NMDA antagonists is limited because of the relatively frequent occurrence of adverse effects e.g., memory impairment, psychomimetic effects, ataxia and motor in-coordination. Magnesium ions (Mg(2+)) are NMDA receptor blockers in physiological conditions. Therefore, in this study the effect of opioid receptor agonists and the influence of Mg(2+) on the action of opioid agonists in vincristine-induced hyperalgesia were examined. Opioid agonists such as morphine (5 mg/kg, ip), and fentanyl (0.0625 mg/kg, ip), as well as the partial agonist buprenorphine (0.075 mg/kg, ip) administered alone on 5 consecutives days did not modify the hyperalgesia in vincristine rats. In contrast, pretreatment with a low dose of magnesium sulfate (30 mg/kg, ip) resulted in a progressive increase of the analgesic action of all three investigated opioids. After discontinuation of drug administration, the effect persisted for several days.

  17. Modification of opiate agonist binding by pertussis toxin

    SciTech Connect

    Abood, M.E.; Lee, N.M.; Loh, H.H.

    1986-03-05

    Opiate agonist binding is decreased by GTP, suggesting the possible involvement of GTP binding proteins in regulation of opiate receptor binding. This possibility was addressed by asking whether pertussis toxin treatment, which results in ADP-ribosylation and modification of G proteins, would alter opiate agonist binding. The striatum was chosen for the initial brain area to be studied, since regulation of opiate action in this area had been shown to be modified by pertussis toxin. Treatment of striatal membranes with pertussis toxin results in up to a 55% decrease in /sup 3/(H)-DADLE binding as compared with membranes treated identically without toxin.more » This corresponds to a near complete ADP-ribosylation of both G proteins in the striatal membrane. The decrease in agonist binding appears to be due to an altered affinity of the receptor for agonist as opposed to a decrease in the number of sites. This effect of pertussis toxin on opiate agonist binding demonstrates the actual involvement of G proteins in regulation of opiate receptor binding.« less

  18. [Effects of GLP-1 receptor agonists on carbohydrate metabolism control].

    PubMed

    Fernández-García, José Carlos; Colomo, Natalia; Tinahones, Francisco José

    2014-09-01

    Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonists are a new group of drugs for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2). In the present article, we review the available evidence on the efficacy of GLP-1 receptor agonists as glucose-lowering agents, their place in therapeutic algorithms, and the clinical factors associated with a favorable treatment response. Finally, we describe the clinical characteristics of patients who may benefit from these drugs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  19. Estradiol and ERβ agonists enhance recognition memory, and DPN, an ERβ agonist, alters brain monoamines

    PubMed Central

    Jacome, Luis F.; Gautreaux, Claris; Inagaki, Tomoko; Mohan, Govini; Alves, Stephen; Lubbers, Laura S.; Luine, Victoria

    2010-01-01

    Effects of estradiol benzoate (EB), ERα-selective agonist, propyl pyrazole triol (PPT) and ERβ-selective agonists, diarylpropionitrile (DPN) and Compound 19 (C-19) on memory were investigated in OVX rats using object recognition (OR) and placement (OP) memory tasks. Treatments were acute (behavior 4 h later) or sub chronic (daily injections for 2 days with behavior 48 h later). Objects were explored in sample trials (T1), and discrimination between sample (old) and new object/location in recognition trials (T2) was examined after 2–4 h inter-trial delays. Subjects treated sub chronically with EB, DPN, and C-19, but not PPT, discriminated between old and new objects and objects in old and new locations, suggesting that, at these doses and duration of treatments, estrogenic interactions with ERβ contributes to enhancements in recognition memory. Acute injections of DPN, but not PPT, immediately after T1, also enhanced discrimination for both tasks (C19 was not investigated). Effects of EB, DPN and PPT on anxiety and locomotion, measured on elevated plus maze and open field, did not appear to account for the mnemonic enhancements. Monoamines and metabolites were measured following DPN treatment in subjects that did not receive behavioral testing. DPN was associated with alterations in monoamines in several brain areas: indexed by the metabolite, 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol (MHPG), or the MHPG/norepinephrine (NE) ratio, NE activity was increased by 60–130% in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and ventral hippocampus, and NE activity was decreased by 40–80% in the v. diagonal bands and CA1. Levels of the dopamine (DA) metabolite, homovanillic acid (HVA), increased 100% in the PFC and decreased by 50% in the dentate gyrus following DPN treatment. The metabolite of serotonin, 5-hydroxyindole acetic acid (5-HIAA), was increased in the PFC and CA3, by approximately 20%. No monoaminergic changes were noted in striatum or medial septum. Results suggest that ER

  20. Endocannabinoid/GABA interactions in the entopeduncular nucleus modulates alcohol intake in rats.

    PubMed

    Méndez-Díaz, Mónica; Caynas Rojas, Seraid; Gómez Armas, David; Ruiz-Contreras, Alejandra E; Aguilar-Roblero, Raúl; Prospéro-García, Oscar

    2013-02-01

    Alcohol use disorder is a compulsive behavior driven by motivational systems and by a poor control of consummatory behavior. The entopeduncular nucleus (EP) seems to be involved in the regulation of executive mechanisms, hence, in the expression of behavior. Endocannabinoids (eCB) are involved in alcohol intake mechanisms. The eCB receptor name cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1R) is expressed in the EP in GABAergic terminals. The role of the eCB system (eCBs) of the EP in the modulation of alcohol seeking and intake behavior is unknown. Therefore, we decided to investigate the role of the eCBs and its interaction with GABA transmission in rat EP, in the regulation of alcohol intake behavior. Rats were submitted to a 10-day period of moderate alcohol (10% in tap water) ingestion. No tap water was available. On day 11, either anandamide (AEA, CB1 receptor agonist), AM251 (CB1R inverse agonist), baclofen (BAC, GABAB receptor agonist), or CGP35348 (GABAB receptor antagonist) was administered into the EP. One bottle of water and one of alcohol (10% in water) were available ad libitum for the following 24 h, and consumption was quantified at the end of this period. Results show that administration of AEA into the EP decreased alcohol consumption while AM251 and BAC administered independently increased alcohol consumption. AEA prevented the increase induced by AM251 or BAC. Likewise, CGP35348 prevented alcohol ingestion induced by AM251. These data suggest that eCBs dysfunction in the EP may be playing a crucial role in the abuse and dependence of alcohol and other drugs. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Structure/function relationships of calcitonin analogues as agonists, antagonists, or inverse agonists in a constitutively activated receptor cell system.

    PubMed

    Pozvek, G; Hilton, J M; Quiza, M; Houssami, S; Sexton, P M

    1997-04-01

    The structure/function relationship of salmon calcitonin (sCT) analogues was investigated in heterologous calcitonin receptor (CTR) expression systems. sCT analogues with progressive amino-terminal truncations intermediate of sCT-(1-32) to sCT-(8-32) were examined for their ability to act as agonists, antagonists, or inverse agonists. Two CTR cell clones, B8-H10 and G12-E12, which express approximately 5 million and 25,000 C1b receptors/cell, respectively, were used for this study. The B8-H10 clone has an approximately 80-fold increase in basal levels of intracellular cAMP due to constitutive activation of the overexpressed receptor. In whole-cell competition binding studies, sCT-(1-32) was more potent than any of its amino-terminally truncated analogues in competition for 125I-sCT binding. In cAMP accumulation studies, sCT-(1-32) and modified analogues sCT-(2-32) and sCT-(3-32) had agonist activities. SDZ-216-710, with an amino-terminal truncation of four amino acids, behaved as a partial agonist/antagonist, whereas amino-terminal truncations of six or seven amino acid residues produced a 16-fold reduction in basal cAMP levels and attenuated the response to the agonist sCT-(1-32) in the constitutively active CTR system. This inverse agonist effect was insensitive to pertussis toxin inhibition. In contrast, the inverse agonist activity of these peptides was not observed in the nonconstitutively active CTR system, in which sCT analogues with amino-terminal truncations of four or more amino acids behaved as neutral competitive antagonists. These results suggest that the inverse agonist activity is mediated by stabilization of the inactive state of the receptor, which does not couple to G protein, and attenuates basal signaling initiated by ligand-independent activation of the effector adenylyl cyclase.

  2. Use of ß-adrenergic agonists in hybrid catfish

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Ractopamine hydrochloride (RH) is a potent ß-adrenergic agonist that has been used in some species of fish to improve growth performance and dress out characteristics. While this metabolic modifier has been shown to have positive effects on growth of fish, little research has focused on the mechani...

  3. PPARgamma agonists inhibit TGF-beta-PKA signaling in glomerulosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Zou, Rong; Xu, Gang; Liu, Xiao-cheng; Han, Min; Jiang, Jing-jing; Huang, Qian; He, Yong; Yao, Ying

    2010-01-01

    To study the probable mechanisms of the anti-glomerulosclerosis effects induced by peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma) agonists in rat intraglomerular mesangial cells (MCs). Cells were transfected with the pTAL-PPRE-tk-Luc(+) plasmid and then treated with different concentrations of PPARgamma agonist, either troglitazone or telmisartan, for the indicated times. Promega luciferase assays were subsequently used for the detection of PPARgamma activation. Protein expression levels were assessed by Western blot, and PepTag assays were used for the non-radioactive detection of protein kinase A (PKA) activity. The deposition of alpha-smooth muscle actin (alpha-SMA) and p-cyclic AMP responsive element binding protein (pCREB) were analyzed by confocal laser scanning. Both troglitazone and telmisartan remarkably inhibit the PKA activation and pCREB expression that is stimulated by TGF-beta. The PPARgamma agonists also inhibited alpha-SMA and collagen IV protein expression by blocking PKA activation. PPARgamma ligands effectively suppress the activation of MCs and the accumulation of collagen IV stimulated by TGF-beta in vitro. The renal protection provided by PPARgamma agonists is partly mediated via their blockade of TGF-beta/PKA signaling.

  4. Synthetic RORγt Agonists Enhance Protective Immunity

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Mi Ra; Dharmarajan, Venkatasubramanian; Doebelin, Christelle; Garcia-Ordonez, Ruben D.; Novick, Scott J.; Kuruvilla, Dana S.; Kamenecka, Theodore M.; Griffin, Patrick R.

    2016-01-01

    The T cell specific RORγ isoform RORγt has been shown to be the key lineage-defining transcription factor to initiate the differentiation program of TH17 and Tc17 cells, cells that have demonstrated anti-tumor efficacy. RORγt controls gene networks that enhance immunity including increased IL17 production and decreased immune suppression. Both synthetic and putative endogenous agonists of RORγt have been shown to increase the basal activity of RORγt enhancing TH17 cell proliferation. Here we show that activation of RORγt using synthetic agonists drives proliferation of TH17 cells while decreasing levels of the immune checkpoint protein PD-1, a mechanism that should enhance anti-tumor immunity while blunting tumor associated adaptive immune resistance. Interestingly, putative endogenous agonists drive proliferation of TH17 cells but do not repress PD-1. These findings suggest that synthetic agonists of RORγt should activate TC17/TH17 cells (with concomitant reduction in the Tregs population), repress PD-1, and produce IL17 in situ (a factor associated with good prognosis in cancer). Enhanced immunity and blockage of immune checkpoints has transformed cancer treatment, thus such a molecule would provide a unique approach for the treatment of cancer. PMID:26785144

  5. Muscarinic agonists for the treatment of cognition in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Sellin, Angela K; Shad, Mujeeb; Tamminga, Carol

    2008-11-01

    It is widely accepted that cholinergic activity at muscarinic receptors is required to maintain cognitive functions, including learning and memory. Memory domains are especially impaired in schizophrenia, which may explain difficulties in psychosocial rehabilitation of individuals with this illness. However, little is known about the mechanism of this impairment. To understand our current knowledge, we reviewed the literature since 1990 via a PubMed search for the terms "muscarinic", "schizophrenia", "cognition", "memory", "learning", and "agonist" in combination. We found 89 basic science/laboratory studies, case reports/series, case-control studies, cross-sectional studies, standardized controlled animal trials, standardized controlled human trials, and reviews. Although further research is required to fully understand the neuropharmacology of the cholinergic system in cognitive function in schizophrenia, we have examined the data currently available. In general, these data suggest that agonist activity at acetylcholine muscarinic type 1 (M1) receptors would enhance memory and learning in schizophrenia. We present an overview of likely side effects of muscarinic agonists. We outline the anticholinergic activity of several available antipsychotics and review the available M1 muscarinic agonists.

  6. Opioid tolerance in periaqueductal gray neurons isolated from mice chronically treated with morphine

    PubMed Central

    Bagley, Elena E; Chieng, Billy C H; Christie, MacDonald J; Connor, Mark

    2005-01-01

    The midbrain periaqueductal gray (PAG) is a major site of opioid analgesic action, and a significant site of cellular adaptations to chronic morphine treatment (CMT). We examined μ-opioid receptor (MOP) regulation of voltage-gated calcium channel currents (ICa) and G-protein-activated K channel currents (GIRK) in PAG neurons from CMT mice. Mice were injected s.c. with 300 mg kg−1 of morphine base in a slow release emulsion three times over 5 days, or with emulsion alone (vehicles). This protocol produced significant tolerance to the antinociceptive effects of morphine in a test of thermal nociception. Voltage clamp recordings were made of ICa in acutely isolated PAG neurons and GIRK in PAG slices. The MOP agonist DAMGO (Tyr-D-Ala-Gly-N-Me-Phe-Gly-ol enkephalin) inhibited ICa in neurons from CMT mice (230 nM) with a similar potency to vehicle (150 nM), but with a reduced maximal effectiveness (37% inhibition in vehicle neurons, 27% in CMT neurons). Inhibition of ICa by the GABAB agonist baclofen was not altered by CMT. Met-enkephalin-activated GIRK currents recorded in PAG slices were significantly smaller in neurons from CMT mice than vehicles, while GIRK currents activated by baclofen were unaltered. These data demonstrate that CMT-induced antinociceptive tolerance is accompanied by homologous reduction in the effectiveness of MOP agonists to inhibit ICa and activate GIRK. Thus, a reduction in MOP number and/or functional coupling to G proteins accompanies the characteristic cellular adaptations to CMT previously described in PAG neurons. PMID:15980868

  7. Opioid tolerance in periaqueductal gray neurons isolated from mice chronically treated with morphine.

    PubMed

    Bagley, Elena E; Chieng, Billy C H; Christie, MacDonald J; Connor, Mark

    2005-09-01

    The midbrain periaqueductal gray (PAG) is a major site of opioid analgesic action, and a significant site of cellular adaptations to chronic morphine treatment (CMT). We examined mu-opioid receptor (MOP) regulation of voltage-gated calcium channel currents (I(Ca)) and G-protein-activated K channel currents (GIRK) in PAG neurons from CMT mice. Mice were injected s.c. with 300 mg kg(-1) of morphine base in a slow release emulsion three times over 5 days, or with emulsion alone (vehicles). This protocol produced significant tolerance to the antinociceptive effects of morphine in a test of thermal nociception. Voltage clamp recordings were made of I(Ca) in acutely isolated PAG neurons and GIRK in PAG slices. The MOP agonist DAMGO (Tyr-D-Ala-Gly-N-Me-Phe-Gly-ol enkephalin) inhibited I(Ca) in neurons from CMT mice (230 nM) with a similar potency to vehicle (150 nM), but with a reduced maximal effectiveness (37% inhibition in vehicle neurons, 27% in CMT neurons). Inhibition of I(Ca) by the GABA(B) agonist baclofen was not altered by CMT. Met-enkephalin-activated GIRK currents recorded in PAG slices were significantly smaller in neurons from CMT mice than vehicles, while GIRK currents activated by baclofen were unaltered. These data demonstrate that CMT-induced antinociceptive tolerance is accompanied by homologous reduction in the effectiveness of MOP agonists to inhibit I(Ca) and activate GIRK. Thus, a reduction in MOP number and/or functional coupling to G proteins accompanies the characteristic cellular adaptations to CMT previously described in PAG neurons.

  8. Outward current produced by somatostatin (SRIF) in rat anterior cingulate pyramidal cells in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Hicks, G A; Feniuk, W; Humphrey, P P A

    1998-01-01

    A high density of receptors for somatostatin (SRIF) exists in the anterior cingulate cortex but their function is unknown. Whole-cell patch clamp recordings were made from visualized deep layer pyramidal cells of the rat anterior cingulate cortex contained in isolated brain slices to investigate the putative effects of SRIF and to identify the receptor subtype(s) involved.SRIF (1–1000 nM) produced a concentration-dependent outward current which was associated with an increased membrane conductance, was sensitive to Ba2+ (300 μM–1 mM), and was absent in the presence of a maximal concentration of the GABAB receptor agonist, baclofen (100 μM). These observations suggest the outward current was carried by K+ ions.SRIF analogues also elicited outward currents with a rank potency order of (EC50, nM): octreotide (1.8)>BIM-23027 (3.7)>SRIF (20)=L-362,855 (20). BIM-23056 was without agonist or antagonist activity. Responses to L-362,855 were unlike those to the other agonists since they were sustained for the duration of the application.The sst2 receptor antagonist, L-Tyr8Cyanamid 154806 (1 μM), had no effect alone but partially reversed responses to submaximal concentrations of SRIF (100 nM, 44±6% reversal) and L-362,855 (100 nM, 70±6% reversal) and fully reversed the response to BIM-23027 (10 nM). In contrast, L-Tyr8Cyanamid 154806 did not antagonize the response to baclofen (10 μM).We conclude that SRIF activates a K+ conductance in anterior cingulate pyramidal neurones via an action predominantly at sst2 receptors. PMID:9630367

  9. Effect of beta-agonists on LAM progression and treatment.

    PubMed

    Le, Kang; Steagall, Wendy K; Stylianou, Mario; Pacheco-Rodriguez, Gustavo; Darling, Thomas N; Vaughan, Martha; Moss, Joel

    2018-01-30

    Lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM), a rare disease of women, is associated with cystic lung destruction resulting from the proliferation of abnormal smooth muscle-like LAM cells with mutations in the tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) genes TSC1 and/or TSC2 The mutant genes and encoded proteins are responsible for activation of the mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR), which is inhibited by sirolimus (rapamycin), a drug used to treat LAM. Patients who have LAM may also be treated with bronchodilators for asthma-like symptoms due to LAM. We observed stabilization of forced expiratory volume in 1 s over time in patients receiving sirolimus and long-acting beta-agonists with short-acting rescue inhalers compared with patients receiving only sirolimus. Because beta-agonists increase cAMP and PKA activity, we investigated effects of PKA activation on the mTOR pathway. Human skin TSC2 +/- fibroblasts or LAM lung cells incubated short-term with isoproterenol (beta-agonist) showed a sirolimus-independent increase in phosphorylation of S6, a downstream effector of the mTOR pathway, and increased cell growth. Cells incubated long-term with isoproterenol, which may lead to beta-adrenergic receptor desensitization, did not show increased S6 phosphorylation. Inhibition of PKA blocked the isoproterenol effect on S6 phosphorylation. Thus, activation of PKA by beta-agonists increased phospho-S6 independent of mTOR, an effect abrogated by beta-agonist-driven receptor desensitization. In agreement, retrospective clinical data from patients with LAM suggested that a combination of bronchodilators in conjunction with sirolimus may be preferable to sirolimus alone for stabilization of pulmonary function.

  10. Progesterone receptor isoforms, agonists and antagonists differentially reprogram estrogen signaling

    PubMed Central

    Singhal, Hari; Greene, Marianne E.; Zarnke, Allison L.; Laine, Muriel; Al Abosy, Rose; Chang, Ya-Fang; Dembo, Anna G.; Schoenfelt, Kelly; Vadhi, Raga; Qiu, Xintao; Rao, Prakash; Santhamma, Bindu; Nair, Hareesh B.; Nickisch, Klaus J.; Long, Henry W.; Becker, Lev; Brown, Myles; Greene, Geoffrey L.

    2018-01-01

    Major roadblocks to developing effective progesterone receptor (PR)-targeted therapies in breast cancer include the lack of highly-specific PR modulators, a poor understanding of the pro- or anti-tumorigenic networks for PR isoforms and ligands, and an incomplete understanding of the cross talk between PR and estrogen receptor (ER) signaling. Through genomic analyses of xenografts treated with various clinically-relevant ER and PR-targeting drugs, we describe how the activation or inhibition of PR differentially reprograms estrogen signaling, resulting in the segregation of transcriptomes into separate PR agonist and antagonist-mediated groups. These findings address an ongoing controversy regarding the clinical utility of PR agonists and antagonists, alone or in combination with tamoxifen, for breast cancer management. Additionally, the two PR isoforms PRA and PRB, bind distinct but overlapping genomic sites and interact with different sets of co-regulators to differentially modulate estrogen signaling to be either pro- or anti-tumorigenic. Of the two isoforms, PRA inhibited gene expression and ER chromatin binding significantly more than PRB. Differential gene expression was observed in PRA and PRB-rich patient tumors and PRA-rich gene signatures had poorer survival outcomes. In support of antiprogestin responsiveness of PRA-rich tumors, gene signatures associated with PR antagonists, but not PR agonists, predicted better survival outcomes. The better patient survival associated with PR antagonists versus PR agonists treatments was further reflected in the higher in vivo anti-tumor activity of therapies that combine tamoxifen with PR antagonists and modulators. This study suggests that distinguishing common effects observed due to concomitant interaction of another receptor with its ligand (agonist or antagonist), from unique isoform and ligand-specific effects will inform the development of biomarkers for patient selection and translation of PR

  11. Illegal use of beta-adrenergic agonists: European Community.

    PubMed

    Kuiper, H A; Noordam, M Y; van Dooren-Flipsen, M M; Schilt, R; Roos, A H

    1998-01-01

    The use of veterinary medicinal products within the European Community is governed by a series of directives and regulations that describe the requirements for safety, quality, and efficacy of these products. Veterinary therapeutic use of beta-agonists has only been approved in the case of clenbuterol for bronchodilatation in horses and calves and for tocolysis in cows. No beta-agonists have been permitted in the European Community for growth-promoting purposes in farm animals. Surveillance for the presence of residues of veterinary agents in food-producing animals and meat is regulated by the Directive 86/469/EEC containing specific guidelines for sampling procedures on farms and in slaughterhouses. The level and frequency of sampling is dependent on the category of compounds and animal species. When positive samples have been identified (above certain action levels), sampling intensity is increased. Results of monitoring programs in EU member states during 1992 and 1993 for the occurrence of residues of beta-agonists in food-producing animals vary substantially with respect to the percentages of positive samples, ranging from 0 to 7%. The variability is partly explained by differences in sampling strategies, detection methods, and action levels applied. Identification of the proper matrices for sampling and detection of beta-agonists is important. In the case of clenbuterol, hair and choroid retinal tissue are appropriate tissues because clenbuterol accumulates in these matrices. A clear decrease in the use of clenbuterol in cattle has been observed in The Netherlands, Germany, Northern Ireland, and Spanish Basque Country over the last 3 yr. This is partly due to intensified surveillance activities at farms and slaughterhouses by governmental agencies and production sector organizations. There are data on human intoxication following consumption of liver or meat from cattle treated with beta-agonists. At the concentrations of clenbuterol measured in contaminated

  12. A Potent and Site-Selective Agonist of TRPA1.

    PubMed

    Takaya, Junichiro; Mio, Kazuhiro; Shiraishi, Takuya; Kurokawa, Tatsuki; Otsuka, Shinya; Mori, Yasuo; Uesugi, Motonari

    2015-12-23

    TRPA1 is a member of the transient receptor potential (TRP) cation channel family that is expressed primarily on sensory neurons. This chemosensor is activated through covalent modification of multiple cysteine residues with a wide range of reactive compounds including allyl isothiocyanate (AITC), a spicy component of wasabi. The present study reports on potent and selective agonists of TRPA1, discovered through screening 1657 electrophilic molecules. In an effort to validate the mode of action of hit molecules, we noted a new TRPA1-selective agonist, JT010 (molecule 1), which opens the TRPA1 channel by covalently and site-selectively binding to Cys621 (EC50 = 0.65 nM). The results suggest that a single modification of Cys621 is sufficient to open the TRPA1 channel. The TRPA1-selective probe described herein might be useful for further mechanistic studies of TRPA1 activation.

  13. Human muscle fascicle behavior in agonist and antagonist isometric contractions.

    PubMed

    Simoneau, Emilie M; Longo, Stefano; Seynnes, Olivier R; Narici, Marco V

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare, at a given level of electromyographic (EMG) activity, the behavior of dorsiflexor and plantarflexor muscles as assessed via their architecture (pennation angle and fiber length) during agonist or antagonist isometric contractions. Real-time ultrasonography and EMG activity of gastrocnemius medialis (GM) and tibialis anterior (TA) muscles were obtained while young males performed ramp isometric contractions in dorsi- and plantarflexion. For both muscles, at a similar level of EMG activity, fiber length was longer, and pennation angle was smaller, during antagonist than during agonist contractions. These results indicate that, at similar levels of EMG activity, GM and TA muscles elicit a higher mechanical output while acting as an antagonist. These findings have important implications for muscle function testing. They show that estimation of antagonistic force using the common method based on the EMG/net torque relationship yields underestimated values. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Structure of an agonist-bound ionotropic glutamate receptor.

    PubMed

    Yelshanskaya, Maria V; Li, Minfen; Sobolevsky, Alexander I

    2014-08-29

    Ionotropic glutamate receptors (iGluRs) mediate most excitatory neurotransmission in the central nervous system and function by opening their ion channel in response to binding of agonist glutamate. Here, we report a structure of a homotetrameric rat GluA2 receptor in complex with partial agonist (S)-5-nitrowillardiine. Comparison of this structure with the closed-state structure in complex with competitive antagonist ZK 200775 suggests conformational changes that occur during iGluR gating. Guided by the structures, we engineered disulfide cross-links to probe domain interactions that are important for iGluR gating events. The combination of structural information, kinetic modeling, and biochemical and electrophysiological experiments provides insight into the mechanism of iGluR gating. Copyright © 2014, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  15. Gingerols: a novel class of vanilloid receptor (VR1) agonists

    PubMed Central

    Dedov, Vadim N; Tran, Van H; Duke, Colin C; Connor, Mark; Christie, MacDonald J; Mandadi, Sravan; Roufogalis, Basil D

    2002-01-01

    Gingerols, the pungent constituents of ginger, were synthesized and assessed as agonists of the capsaicin-activated VR1 (vanilloid) receptor. [6]-Gingerol and [8]-gingerol evoked capsaicin-like intracellular Ca2+ transients and ion currents in cultured DRG neurones. These effects of gingerols were blocked by capsazepine, the VR1 receptor antagonist. The potency of gingerols increased with increasing size of the side chain and with the overall hydrophobicity in the series. We conclude that gingerols represent a novel class of naturally occurring VR1 receptor agonists that may contribute to the medicinal properties of ginger, which have been known for centuries. The gingerol structure may be used as a template for the development of drugs acting as moderately potent activators of the VR1 receptor. PMID:12411409

  16. Newspapers and Newspaper Ink Contain Agonists for the Ah Receptor

    PubMed Central

    Bohonowych, Jessica E. S.; Zhao, Bin; Timme-Laragy, Alicia; Jung, Dawoon; Di Giulio, Richard T.; Denison, Michael S.

    2010-01-01

    Ligand-dependent activation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) pathway leads to a diverse array of biological and toxicological effects. The best-studied ligands for the AhR include polycyclic and halogenated aromatic hydrocarbons, the most potent of which is 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD). However, as new AhR ligands are identified and characterized, their structural and physiochemical diversity continues to expand. Our identification of AhR agonists in crude extracts from diverse materials raises questions as to the magnitude and extent of human exposure to AhR ligands through normal daily activities. We have found that solvent extracts of newspapers from countries around the world stimulate the AhR signaling pathway. AhR agonist activity was observed for dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), ethanol, and water extracts of printed newspaper, unprinted virgin paper, and black printing ink, where activation of luciferase reporter gene expression was transient, suggesting that the AhR active chemical(s) was metabolically labile. DMSO and ethanol extracts also stimulated AhR transformation and DNA binding, and also competed with [3H]TCDD for binding to the AhR. In addition, DMSO extracts of printed newspaper induced cytochrome P450 1A associated 7-ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase activity in zebrafish embryos in vivo. Although the responsible bioactive chemical(s) remain to be identified, our results demonstrate that newspapers and printing ink contain relatively potent metabolically labile agonists of the AhR. Given the large amount of recycling and reprocessing of newspapers throughout the world, release of these easily extractable AhR agonists into the environment should be examined and their potential effects on aquatic organisms assessed. PMID:18203687

  17. Adenosine A2A receptor agonists with potent antiplatelet activity.

    PubMed

    Fuentes, Eduardo; Fuentes, Manuel; Caballero, Julio; Palomo, Iván; Hinz, Sonja; El-Tayeb, Ali; Müller, Christa E

    2018-05-01

    Selected adenosine A 2A receptor agonists (PSB-15826, PSB-12404, and PSB-16301) have been evaluated as new antiplatelet agents. In addition, radioligand-binding studies and receptor-docking experiments were performed in order to explain their differential biological effects on a molecular level. Among the tested adenosine derivatives, PSB-15826 was the most potent compound to inhibit platelet aggregation (EC 50 0.32 ± 0.05 µmol/L) and platelet P-selectin cell-surface localization (EC 50 0.062 ± 0.2 µmol/L), and to increase intraplatelets cAMP levels (EC 50 0.24 ± 0.01 µmol/L). The compound was more active than CGS21680 (EC 50 0.97±0.07 µmol/L) and equipotent to NECA (EC 50 0.31 ± 0.05 µmol/L) in platelet aggregation induced by ADP. In contrast to the results from cAMP assays, K i values determined in radioligand-binding studies were not predictive of the A 2A agonists' antiplatelet activity. Docking studies revealed the key molecular determinants of this new family of adenosine A 2A receptor agonists: differences in activities are related to π-stacking interactions between the ligands and the residue His264 in the extracellular loop of the adenosine A 2A receptor which may result in increased residence times. In conclusion, these results provide an improved understanding of the requirements of antiplatelet adenosine A 2A receptor agonists.

  18. A Human Platelet Calcium Calculator Trained by Pairwise Agonist Scanning

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Mei Yan; Diamond, Scott L.

    2015-01-01

    Since platelet intracellular calcium mobilization [Ca(t)]i controls granule release, cyclooxygenase-1 and integrin activation, and phosphatidylserine exposure, blood clotting simulations require prediction of platelet [Ca(t)]i in response to combinatorial agonists. Pairwise Agonist Scanning (PAS) deployed all single and pairwise combinations of six agonists (ADP, convulxin, thrombin, U46619, iloprost and GSNO used at 0.1, 1, and 10xEC50; 154 conditions including a null condition) to stimulate platelet P2Y1/P2Y12 GPVI, PAR1/PAR4, TP, IP receptors, and guanylate cyclase, respectively, in Factor Xa-inhibited (250 nM apixaban), diluted platelet rich plasma that had been loaded with the calcium dye Fluo-4 NW. PAS of 10 healthy donors provided [Ca(t)]i data for training 10 neural networks (NN, 2-layer/12-nodes) per donor. Trinary stimulations were then conducted at all 0.1x and 1xEC50 doses (160 conditions) as was a sampling of 45 higher ordered combinations (four to six agonists). The NN-ensemble average was a calcium calculator that accurately predicted [Ca (t)]i beyond the single and binary training set for trinary stimulations (R = 0.924). The 160 trinary synergy scores, a normalized metric of signaling crosstalk, were also well predicted (R = 0.850) as were the calcium dynamics (R = 0.871) and high-dimensional synergy scores (R = 0.695) for the 45 higher ordered conditions. The calculator even predicted sequential addition experiments (n = 54 conditions, R = 0.921). NN-ensemble is a fast calcium calculator, ideal for multiscale clotting simulations that include spatiotemporal concentrations of ADP, collagen, thrombin, thromboxane, prostacyclin, and nitric oxide. PMID:25723389

  19. Pharmacological Studies of NOP Receptor Agonists as Novel Analgesics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-05-01

    found in hot-chili peppers that evokes pain sensation by activating at the TRPV1 . TRPV1 and the up-regulation of its expression have been strongly...via nociceptin/orphanin FQ receptors. Br J Pharmacol 137:1355-1361. Knotkova H, Pappagallo M, Szallasi A (2008) Capsaicin ( TRPV1 Agonist) therapy...Szallasi A, Cortright DN, Blum CA, Eid SR (2007). The vanilloid receptor TRPV1 : 10 years from channel cloning to antagonist proof of concept. Nat Rev Drug

  20. Improving the developability profile of pyrrolidine progesterone receptor partial agonists

    SciTech Connect

    Kallander, Lara S.; Washburn, David G.; Hoang, Tram H.

    2010-09-17

    The previously reported pyrrolidine class of progesterone receptor partial agonists demonstrated excellent potency but suffered from serious liabilities including hERG blockade and high volume of distribution in the rat. The basic pyrrolidine amine was intentionally converted to a sulfonamide, carbamate, or amide to address these liabilities. The evaluation of the degree of partial agonism for these non-basic pyrrolidine derivatives and demonstration of their efficacy in an in vivo model of endometriosis is disclosed herein.

  1. Mixed Kappa/Mu Opioid Receptor Agonists: The 6β-Naltrexamines

    PubMed Central

    Cami-Kobeci, Gerta; Neal, Adrian P.; Bradbury, Faye A.; Purington, Lauren C.; Aceto, Mario D.; Harris, Louis S.; Lewis, John W.; Traynor, John R.; Husbands, Stephen M.

    2011-01-01

    Ligands from the naltrexamine series have consistently demonstrated agonist activity at kappa opioid receptors (KOR), with varying activity at the mu opioid receptor (MOR). Various 6β-cinnamoylamino derivatives were made with the aim of generating ligands with a KOR agonist/MOR partial agonist profile, as ligands with this activity may be of interest as treatment agents for cocaine abuse. The ligands all displayed the desired high affinity, non-selective binding in vitro and in the functional assays were high efficacy KOR agonists with some partial agonist activity at MOR. Two of the new ligands (12a, 12b) have been evaluated in vivo, with 12a acting as a KOR agonist, and therefore somewhat similar to the previously evaluated analogues 3–6, while 12b displayed predominant MOR agonist activity. PMID:19253970

  2. Targeting GLP-1 receptor trafficking to improve agonist efficacy.

    PubMed

    Jones, Ben; Buenaventura, Teresa; Kanda, Nisha; Chabosseau, Pauline; Owen, Bryn M; Scott, Rebecca; Goldin, Robert; Angkathunyakul, Napat; Corrêa, Ivan R; Bosco, Domenico; Johnson, Paul R; Piemonti, Lorenzo; Marchetti, Piero; Shapiro, A M James; Cochran, Blake J; Hanyaloglu, Aylin C; Inoue, Asuka; Tan, Tricia; Rutter, Guy A; Tomas, Alejandra; Bloom, Stephen R

    2018-04-23

    Glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor (GLP-1R) activation promotes insulin secretion from pancreatic beta cells, causes weight loss, and is an important pharmacological target in type 2 diabetes (T2D). Like other G protein-coupled receptors, the GLP-1R undergoes agonist-mediated endocytosis, but the functional and therapeutic consequences of modulating GLP-1R endocytic trafficking have not been clearly defined. Here, we investigate a series of biased GLP-1R agonists with variable propensities for GLP-1R internalization and recycling. Compared to a panel of FDA-approved GLP-1 mimetics, compounds that retain GLP-1R at the plasma membrane produce greater long-term insulin release, which is dependent on a reduction in β-arrestin recruitment and faster agonist dissociation rates. Such molecules elicit glycemic benefits in mice without concomitant increases in signs of nausea, a common side effect of GLP-1 therapies. Our study identifies a set of agents with specific GLP-1R trafficking profiles and the potential for greater efficacy and tolerability as T2D treatments.

  3. LHRH Agonists for the Treatment of Prostate Cancer: 2012

    PubMed Central

    Lepor, Herbert; Shore, Neal D

    2012-01-01

    The most recent guidelines on prostate cancer screening from the American Urological Association (2009), the National Comprehensive Cancer Network (2011), and the European Association of Urology (2011), as well as treatment and advances in disease monitoring, have increased the androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) population and the duration of ADT usage as the first-line treatment for metastatic prostate cancer. According to the European Association of Urology, gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonists have become the leading therapeutic option for ADT because they avoid the physical and psychological discomforts associated with orchiectomy. However, GnRH agonists display several shortcomings, including testosterone (T) surge (“clinical flare”) and microsurges. T surge delays the intended serologic endpoint of T suppression and may exacerbate clinical symptoms. Furthermore, ADT manifests an adverse-event spectrum that can impact quality of life with its attendant well-documented morbidities. Strategies to improve ADT tolerability include a holistic management approach, improved diet and exercise, and more specific monitoring to detect and prevent T depletion toxicities. Intermittent ADT, which allows hormonal recovery between treatment periods, has become increasingly utilized as a methodology for improving quality of life while not diminishing chronic ADT efficacy, and may also provide healthcare cost savings. This review assesses the present and potential future role of GnRH agonists in prostate cancer and explores strategies to minimize the adverse-event profile for patients receiving ADT. PMID:23172994

  4. Molecular impact of juvenile hormone agonists on neonatal Daphnia magna.

    PubMed

    Toyota, Kenji; Kato, Yasuhiko; Miyakawa, Hitoshi; Yatsu, Ryohei; Mizutani, Takeshi; Ogino, Yukiko; Miyagawa, Shinichi; Watanabe, Hajime; Nishide, Hiroyo; Uchiyama, Ikuo; Tatarazako, Norihisa; Iguchi, Taisen

    2014-05-01

    Daphnia magna has been used extensively to evaluate organism- and population-level responses to pollutants in acute toxicity and reproductive toxicity tests. We have previously reported that exposure to juvenile hormone (JH) agonists results in a reduction of reproductive function and production of male offspring in a cyclic parthenogenesis, D. magna. Recent advances in molecular techniques have provided tools to understand better the responses to pollutants in aquatic organisms, including D. magna. DNA microarray was used to evaluate gene expression profiles of neonatal daphnids exposed to JH agonists: methoprene (125, 250 and 500 ppb), fenoxycarb (0.5, 1 and 2 ppb) and epofenonane (50, 100 and 200 ppb). Exposure to these JH analogs resulted in chemical-specific patterns of gene expression. The heat map analyses based on hierarchical clustering revealed a similar pattern between treatments with a high dose of methoprene and with epofenonane. In contrast, treatment with low to middle doses of methoprene resulted in similar profiles to fenoxycarb treatments. Hemoglobin and JH epoxide hydrolase genes were clustered as JH-responsive genes. These data suggest that fenoxycarb has high activity as a JH agonist, methoprene shows high toxicity and epofenonane works through a different mechanism compared with other JH analogs, agreeing with data of previously reported toxicity tests. In conclusion, D. magna DNA microarray is useful for the classification of JH analogs and identification of JH-responsive genes. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Appraisal of unimodal cues during agonistic interactions in Maylandia zebra

    PubMed Central

    Ben Ammar, Imen; Fernandez, Marie S.A.; Boyer, Nicolas; Attia, Joël; Fonseca, Paulo J.; Amorim, M. Clara P.; Beauchaud, Marilyn

    2017-01-01

    Communication is essential during social interactions including animal conflicts and it is often a complex process involving multiple sensory channels or modalities. To better understand how different modalities interact during communication, it is fundamental to study the behavioural responses to both the composite multimodal signal and each unimodal component with adequate experimental protocols. Here we test how an African cichlid, which communicates with multiple senses, responds to different sensory stimuli in a social relevant scenario. We tested Maylandia zebra males with isolated chemical (urine or holding water coming both from dominant males), visual (real opponent or video playback) and acoustic (agonistic sounds) cues during agonistic interactions. We showed that (1) these fish relied mostly on the visual modality, showing increased aggressiveness in response to the sight of a real contestant but no responses to urine or agonistic sounds presented separately, (2) video playback in our study did not appear appropriate to test the visual modality and needs more technical prospecting, (3) holding water provoked territorial behaviours and seems to be promising for the investigation into the role of the chemical channel in this species. Our findings suggest that unimodal signals are non-redundant but how different sensory modalities interplay during communication remains largely unknown in fish. PMID:28785523

  6. Suppression of atherosclerosis by synthetic REV-ERB agonist

    SciTech Connect

    Sitaula, Sadichha; Billon, Cyrielle; Kamenecka, Theodore M.

    2015-05-08

    The nuclear receptors for heme, REV-ERBα and REV-ERBβ, play important roles in the regulation of metabolism and inflammation. Recently it was demonstrated that reduced REV-ERBα expression in hematopoetic cells in LDL receptor null mice led to increased atherosclerosis. We sought to determine if synthetic REV-ERB agonists that we have developed might have the ability to suppress atherosclerosis in this model. A previously characterized synthetic REV-ERB agonist, SR9009, was used to determine if activation of REV-ERB activity would affect atherosclerosis in LDL receptor deficient mice. Atherosclerotic plaque size was significantly reduced (p < 0.05) in mice administered SR9009 (100 mg/kg) for seven weeks comparedmore » to control mice (n = 10 per group). SR9009 treatment of bone marrow-derived mouse macrophages (BMDM) reduced the polarization of BMDMs to proinflammatory M1 macrophage while increasing the polarization of BMDMs to anti-inflammatory M2 macrophages. Our results suggest that pharmacological targeting of REV-ERBs may be a viable therapeutic option for treatment of atherosclerosis. - Highlights: • Synthetic REV-ERB agonist treatment reduced atherosclerosis in a mouse model. • Pharmacological activation of REV-ERB decreased M1 macrophage polarization. • Pharmacological activation of REV-ERB increased M2 macrophage polarization.« less

  7. In vivo electroretinographic studies of the role of GABA C receptors in retinal signal processing

    DOE PAGES

    Wang, Jing; Mojumder, Deb Kumar; Yan, Jun; ...

    2015-07-08

    The retina expresses all three classes of receptors for the inhibitory neurotransmitter GABA (GABAR). Our study investigated roles of GABAR, especially GABA(C)R (GABA(A)-rho), in retinal signaling in vivo by studying effects on the mouse electroretinogram (ERG) of genetic deletion of GABA(C)R versus pharmacological blockade using receptor antagonists. Brief full-field flash ERGs were recorded from anesthetized GABA(C)R(-/-) mice, and WT C57BL/6 (B6) mice, before and after intravitreal injection of GABA(C)R antagonists, TPMPA, 3-APMPA, or the more recently developed 2-AEMP; GABA(A)R antagonist, SR95531; GABA(B)R antagonist, CGP, and agonist, baclofen. Intravitreal injections of TPMPA and SR95531 were also made in Brown Norway rats.more » The effect of 2-AEMP on GABA-induced current was tested directly in isolated rat rod bipolar cells, and 2-AEMP was found to preferentially block GABA(C)R in those cells. Maximum amplitudes of dark (DA) and light-adapted (LA) ERG b-waves were reduced in GABA(C)R(-/-) mice, compared to B6 mice, by 30-60%; a-waves were unaltered and oscillatory potential amplitudes were increased. In B6 mice, after injection of TPMPA (also in rats), 3-APMPA or 2-AEMP, ERGs became similar to ERGs of GABA(C)R(-/-) mice. Blockade of GABA(A)Rs and GABA(B)Rs, or agonism of GABA(B)Rs did not alter B6 DA b-wave amplitude. Furthermore, the negative scotopic threshold response (nSTR) was slightly less sensitive in GABA(C)R(-/-) than in B6 mice, and unaltered by 2-AEMP. However, amplitudes of nSTR and photopic negative response (PhNR), both of which originate from inner retina, were enhanced by TPMPA and 3-APMPA, each of which has GABA(B) agonist properties, and further increased by baclofen. The finding that genetic deletion of GABA(C)R, the GABA(C)R antagonist 2-AEMP, and other antagonists all reduced ERG b-wave amplitude, supports a role for CABA(C)R in determining the maximum response amplitude of bipolar cells contributing to the b-wave. GABA

  8. 2-Aminoethyl Methylphosphonate, a Potent and Rapidly Acting Antagonist of GABA A-ρ1 Receptors

    DOE PAGES

    Xie, A.; Yan, J.; Yue, L.; ...

    2011-08-02

    All three classes of receptors for the inhibitory neurotransmitter GABA (GABAR) are expressed in the retina. This study investigated roles of GABAR, especially GABA(C)R (GABA(A)-rho), in retinal signaling in vivo by studying effects on the mouse electroretinogram (ERG) of genetic deletion of GABA(C)R versus pharmacological blockade using receptor antagonists. Brief full-field flash ERGs were recorded from anesthetized GABA(C)R(-/-) mice, and WT C57BL/6 (B6) mice, before and after intravitreal injection of GABA(C)R antagonists, TPMPA, 3-APMPA, or the more recently developed 2-AEMP; GABA(A)R antagonist, SR95531; GABA(B)R antagonist, CGP, and agonist, baclofen. Intravitreal injections of TPMPA and SR95531 were also made in Brownmore » Norway rats. The effect of 2-AEMP on GABA-induced current was tested directly in isolated rat rod bipolar cells, and 2-AEMP was found to preferentially block GABA(C)R in those cells. Maximum amplitudes of dark (DA) and light-adapted (LA) ERG b-waves were reduced in GABA(C)R(-/-) mice, compared to B6 mice, by 30-60%; a-waves were unaltered and oscillatory potential amplitudes were increased. In B6 mice, after injection of TPMPA (also in rats), 3-APMPA or 2-AEMP, ERGs became similar to ERGs of GABA(C)R(-/-) mice. Blockade of GABA(A)Rs and GABA(B)Rs, or agonism of GABA(B)Rs did not alter B6 DA b-wave amplitude. The negative scotopic threshold response (nSTR) was slightly less sensitive in GABA(C)R(-/-) than in B6 mice, and unaltered by 2-AEMP. However, amplitudes of nSTR and photopic negative response (PhNR), both of which originate from inner retina, were enhanced by TPMPA and 3-APMPA, each of which has GABA(B) agonist properties, and further increased by baclofen. The finding that genetic deletion of GABA(C)R, the GABA(C)R antagonist 2-AEMP, and other antagonists all reduced ERG b-wave amplitude, supports a role for CABA(C)R in determining the maximum response amplitude of bipolar cells contributing to the b-wave. GABA(C)R antagonists

  9. Coexistence of Lambert-Eaton myasthenic syndrome and autoimmune encephalitis with anti-CRMP5/CV2 and anti-GABAB receptor antibodies in small cell lung cancer: A case report.

    PubMed

    Li, Hongfang; Zhang, Aimei; Hao, Yanlei; Guan, Hongzhi; Lv, Zhanyun

    2018-05-01

    Autoimmune encephalitis and Lambert-Eaton myasthenic syndrome are classic paraneoplastic neurological conditions common in patients with small cell lung cancer. The patient complained of tiredness, fluctuating recent memory loss, and inability to find his home. His family members reported a change in character, irritability, and paranoia. One month later, the patient had 1 grand mal seizure lasting 5 minutes. The patient was diagnosed with limbic encephalitis combined with Lambert-Eaton myasthenic syndrome. The gamma-aminobutyric acid B (GABAB) receptor and collapsin response mediator protein 5 (CRMP5, also called CV2) antibody test results were positive. Nine months after the onset of symptoms, the patient was diagnosed with small cell lung cancer. The patient was administered intravenous immunoglobulin for 5 days. He was then treated with 60 mg prednisone once per day. The prednisone dose was gradually reduced by 1 tablet every 2 weeks. After the diagnosis, the patient underwent 6 courses of chemotherapy with cisplatin combined with sequential chemoradiation therapy. The patient was able to take care of himself. Neurological examination revealed a lower limb proximal muscle strength level of 4 and a reduced limb tendon reflex. The patient had deficits in short-term memory, a Mini-Mental State Examination score of 26, Montreal Cognitive Assessment score of 24, Self-rating Depression Scale score of 54 (mild depression), and Self-Rating Anxiety Scale score of 42 (normal). Autoimmune diseases of the peripheral and central nervous systems can be observed at the same time in patients with small cell lung cancer, even when magnetic resonance imaging findings are negative and immune therapy is effective.

  10. Systematic study of association of four GABAergic genes: glutamic acid decarboxylase 1 gene, glutamic acid decarboxylase 2 gene, GABA(B) receptor 1 gene and GABA(A) receptor subunit beta2 gene, with schizophrenia using a universal DNA microarray.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xu; Qin, Shengying; Shi, Yongyong; Zhang, Aiping; Zhang, Jing; Bian, Li; Wan, Chunling; Feng, Guoyin; Gu, Niufan; Zhang, Guangqi; He, Guang; He, Lin

    2007-07-01

    Several studies have suggested the dysfunction of the GABAergic system as a risk factor in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia. In the present study, case-control association analysis was conducted in four GABAergic genes: two glutamic acid decarboxylase genes (GAD1 and GAD2), a GABA(A) receptor subunit beta2 gene (GABRB2) and a GABA(B) receptor 1 gene (GABBR1). Using a universal DNA microarray procedure we genotyped a total of 20 SNPs on the above four genes in a study involving 292 patients and 286 controls of Chinese descent. Statistically significant differences were observed in the allelic frequencies of the rs187269C/T polymorphism in the GABRB2 gene (P=0.0450, chi(2)=12.40, OR=1.65) and the -292A/C polymorphism in the GAD1 gene (P=0.0450, chi(2)=14.64 OR=1.77). In addition, using an electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA), we discovered differences in the U251 nuclear protein binding to oligonucleotides representing the -292 SNP on the GAD1 gene, which suggests that the -292C allele has reduced transcription factor binding efficiency compared with the 292A allele. Using the multifactor-dimensionality reduction method (MDR), we found that the interactions among the rs187269C/T polymorphism in the GABRB2 gene, the -243A/G polymorphism in the GAD2 gene and the 27379C/T and 661C/T polymorphisms in the GAD1 gene revealed a significant association with schizophrenia (P<0.001). These findings suggest that the GABRB2 and GAD1 genes alone and the combined effects of the polymorphisms in the four GABAergic system genes may confer susceptibility to the development of schizophrenia in the Chinese population.

  11. Reduction by the Positive Allosteric Modulator of the GABAB Receptor, GS39783, of Alcohol Self-Administration in Sardinian Alcohol-Preferring Rats Exposed to the “Sipper” Procedure

    PubMed Central

    Maccioni, Paola; Flore, Paolo; Carai, Mauro A. M.; Mugnaini, Claudia; Pasquini, Serena; Corelli, Federico; Gessa, Gian Luigi; Colombo, Giancarlo

    2010-01-01

    The present study was designed to evaluate (a) alcohol self-administration behavior of selectively bred, Sardinian alcohol-preferring (sP) rats exposed to the so-called “sipper” procedure (characterized by the temporal separation between alcohol-seeking and -taking phases), and (b) the effect of the positive allosteric modulator of the GABAB receptor, GS39783, on alcohol self-administration in sP rats exposed to this procedure. To this end, sP rats were initially trained to lever-respond under a reinforcement requirement (RR) 55 (RR55) for alcohol. Achievement of RR55 resulted in the 20-min presentation of the alcohol (15%, v/v)-containing sipper bottle. Once stable levels of lever-responding and alcohol consumption were reached, rats were treated with 0, 25, 50, and 100 mg/kg GS39783 (i.g.) 60 min before the self-administration session. Rats displayed robust alcohol-seeking (as suggested by relatively short latencies to the first lever-response and high frequencies of lever-responding) and -taking (as suggested by alcohol intakes averaging approximately 1.5 g/kg) behaviors. Pretreatment with GS39783 inhibited both alcohol-seeking (the number of rats achieving RR55 and the mean RR value were virtually halved) and -taking (the amount of self-administered alcohol was reduced by approximately 60%). The results of the present study suggest the power of the “sipper” procedure in triggering high levels of alcohol-seeking and -taking behavior in sP rats. Further, these results extend to this additional procedure of alcohol self-administration the capacity of GS39783 to reduce the motivational properties of alcohol and alcohol consumption in sP rats. PMID:21423431

  12. Different skeletal effects of the peroxisome proliferator activated receptor (PPAR)α agonist fenofibrate and the PPARγ agonist pioglitazone

    PubMed Central

    Syversen, Unni; Stunes, Astrid K; Gustafsson, Björn I; Obrant, Karl J; Nordsletten, Lars; Berge, Rolf; Thommesen, Liv; Reseland, Janne E

    2009-01-01

    Background All the peroxisome proliferator activated receptors (PPARs) are found to be expressed in bone cells. The PPARγ agonist rosiglitazone has been shown to decrease bone mass in mice and thiazolidinediones (TZDs) have recently been found to increase bone loss and fracture risk in humans treated for type 2 diabetes mellitus. The aim of the study was to examine the effect of the PPARα agonist fenofibrate (FENO) and the PPARγ agonist pioglitazone (PIO) on bone in intact female rats. Methods Rats were given methylcellulose (vehicle), fenofibrate or pioglitazone (35 mg/kg body weight/day) by gavage for 4 months. BMC, BMD, and body composition were measured by DXA. Histomorphometry and biomechanical testing of excised femurs were performed. Effects of the compounds on bone cells were studied. Results The FENO group had higher femoral BMD and smaller medullary area at the distal femur; while trabecular bone volume was similar to controls. Whole body BMD, BMC, and trabecular bone volume were lower, while medullary area was increased in PIO rats compared to controls. Ultimate bending moment and energy absorption of the femoral shafts were reduced in the PIO group, while similar to controls in the FENO group. Plasma osteocalcin was higher in the FENO group than in the other groups. FENO stimulated proliferation and differentiation of, and OPG release from, the preosteoblast cell line MC3T3-E1. Conclusion We show opposite skeletal effects of PPARα and γ agonists in intact female rats. FENO resulted in significantly higher femoral BMD and lower medullary area, while PIO induced bone loss and impairment of the mechanical strength. This represents a novel effect of PPARα activation. PMID:19331671

  13. Piracetam and aniracetam antagonism of centrally active drug-induced antinociception.

    PubMed

    Galeotti, N; Ghelardini, C; Bartolini, A

    1996-04-01

    The effects of the nootropic drugs piracetam and aniracetam on antinociception induced by baclofen, bicuculline, and picrotoxin and on baclofen-induced muscle relaxation were studied in mice. Antinociception was investigated using both the hot plate (thermal stimulus) and abdominal constriction (chemical stimulus) tests. Both behaviour inhibition and muscle relaxation were observed by using the rota-rod test. Piracetam (30 mg/kg, IP) and aniracetam (10 mg/kg, PO) reduced baclofen, bicuculline, and picrotoxin antinociception without modifying analgesia induced by non-GABAergic drugs such as morphine, physostigmine, clomipramine, and diphenhydramine. In this concentration range, piracetam, and aniracetam were also able to reduce the inhibition of rota-rod performance. At higher doses piracetam (100 mg/kg, IP) and aniracetam (100 mg/kg, PO) were able to completely prevent baclofen antinociception. However, when prevention of GABAergic antinociception was complete, piracetam and aniracetam were able to block non-GABAergic antinociception also. comparing the effects of piracetam and aniracetam with those exerted by the GABAB antagonist CGP 35348, a reduction of non-GABAergic analgesia was also observed using higher doses of CGP 35348 (2.5 micrograms per mouse ICV). The present results indicate that piracetam and aniracetam, by preventing both of the investigated effects of baclofen, have some selectivity against GABAB-mediated inhibition. The well-known activity of piracetam and aniracetam on learning and memory might, therefore, depend, at least in part, on the removal of inhibitory GABAB mechanisms that impair attention and cognitive functions.

  14. Activation of single heteromeric GABAA receptor ion channels by full and partial agonists

    PubMed Central

    Mortensen, Martin; Kristiansen, Uffe; Ebert, Bjarke; Frølund, Bente; Krogsgaard-Larsen, Povl; Smart, Trevor G

    2004-01-01

    The linkage between agonist binding and the activation of a GABAA receptor ion channel is yet to be resolved. This aspect was examined on human recombinant α1β2γ2S GABAA receptors expressed in human embryonic kidney cells using the following series of receptor agonists: GABA, isoguvacine, 4,5,6,7-tetrahydroisoxazolo[5,4-c]pyridin-3-ol (THIP), isonipecotic acid, piperidine-4-sulphonic acid (P4S), imidazole-4-acetic acid (IAA), 5-(4-piperidyl)-3-isothiazolol (thio-4-PIOL) and 5-(4-piperidyl)-3-isoxazolol (4-PIOL). Whole-cell concentration–response curves enabled the agonists to be categorized into four classes based upon their maximum responses. Single channel analyses revealed that the channel conductance of 25–27 pS was unaffected by the agonists. However, two open states were resolved from the open period distributions with mean open times reduced 5-fold by the weakest partial agonists. Using saturating agonist concentrations, estimates of the channel shutting rate, α, ranged from 200 to 600 s−1. The shut period distributions were described by three or four components and for the weakest partial agonists, the interburst shut periods increased whilst the mean burst durations and longest burst lengths were reduced relative to the full agonists. From the burst analyses, the opening rates for channel activation, β, and the total dissociation rates, k−1, for the agonists leaving the receptor were estimated. The agonist efficacies were larger for the full agonists (E ∼7−9) compared to the weak partial agonists (∼0.4–0.6). Overall, changes in agonist efficacy largely determined the different agonist profiles with contributions from the agonist affinities and the degree of receptor desensitization. From this we conclude that GABAA receptor activation does not occur in a switch-like manner since the agonist recognition sites are flexible, accommodating diverse agonist structures which differentially influence the opening and shutting rates of the ion

  15. Agonistic autoantibodies as vasodilators in orthostatic hypotension: a new mechanism.

    PubMed

    Li, Hongliang; Kem, David C; Reim, Sean; Khan, Muneer; Vanderlinde-Wood, Megan; Zillner, Caitlin; Collier, Daniel; Liles, Campbell; Hill, Michael A; Cunningham, Madeleine W; Aston, Christopher E; Yu, Xichun

    2012-02-01

    Agonistic autoantibodies to the β-adrenergic and muscarinic receptors are a novel investigative and therapeutic target for certain orthostatic disorders. We have identified the presence of autoantibodies to β2-adrenergic and/or M3 muscarinic receptors by ELISA in 75% (15 of 20) of patients with significant orthostatic hypotension. Purified serum IgG from all 20 of the patients and 10 healthy control subjects were examined in a receptor-transfected cell-based cAMP assay for β2 receptor activation and β-arrestin assay for M3 receptor activation. There was a significant increase in IgG-induced activation of β2 and M3 receptors in the patient group compared with controls. A dose response was observed for both IgG activation of β2 and M3 receptors and inhibition of their activation with the nonselective β blocker propranolol and muscarinic blocker atropine. The antibody effects on β2 and/or M3 (via production of NO) receptor-mediated vasodilation were studied in a rat cremaster resistance arteriole assay. Infusion of IgG from patients with documented β2 and/or M3 receptor agonistic activity produced a dose-dependent vasodilation. Sequential addition of the β-blocker propranolol and the NO synthase inhibitor N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester partially inhibited IgG-induced vasodilation (percentage of maximal dilatory response: from 57.7±10.4 to 35.3±4.6 and 24.3±5.8, respectively; P<0.01; n=3), indicating that antibody activation of vascular β2 and/or M3 receptors may contribute to systemic vasodilation. These data support the concept that circulating agonistic autoantibodies serve as vasodilators and may cause or exacerbate orthostatic hypotension.

  16. Informed consent to opioid agonist maintenance treatment: recommended ethical guidelines.

    PubMed

    Carter, Adrian; Hall, Wayne

    2008-02-01

    Some bioethicists have questioned whether opioid addicted individuals are able to provide free and informed consent to opioid agonist maintenance treatment. Conflicting motives for providing such treatment (e.g. improving the personal health of addicts and protecting public health and order) can also influence what individuals are required to consent to, and how that consent is obtained. We discuss both issues and attempt to specify the conditions for obtaining informed consent to agonist maintenance treatment for opioid addiction. We briefly review the neuroscientific literature on the effects of addiction on the autonomy and decision-making capacity of opioid dependent individuals, and ascertain how informed consent to the treatment of opioid addiction should be obtained. We also provide an ethical analysis of the competing social and medical forces that influence the consent process and make some recommendations on how to ensure that individuals enter maintenance treatment that is provided in an effective and ethical way. Our analysis shows that whilst the autonomy of opioid dependent individuals is impaired by their addiction, they do retain the ability to consent to treatment provided they are not in acute withdrawal or intoxication. These symptoms should have abated, either by supervised withdrawal or stabilisation on agonist maintenance, before they are asked to consent to a detailed treatment contract. Once stabilised, individuals should be provided with detailed information about the risks and benefits of all treatments, and restrictions and regulations under which they are provided. Informed consent is an important part of the treatment process that should be obtained in ways that increase the autonomy and decision-making capacity in opioid addicts.

  17. Heritable victimization and the benefits of agonistic relationships

    PubMed Central

    Lea, Amanda J.; Blumstein, Daniel T.; Wey, Tina W.; Martin, Julien G. A.

    2010-01-01

    Here, we present estimates of heritability and selection on network traits in a single population, allowing us to address the evolutionary potential of social behavior and the poorly understood link between sociality and fitness. To evolve, sociality must have some heritable basis, yet the heritability of social relationships is largely unknown. Recent advances in both social network analyses and quantitative genetics allow us to quantify attributes of social relationships and estimate their heritability in free-living populations. Our analyses addressed a variety of measures (in-degree, out-degree, attractiveness, expansiveness, embeddedness, and betweenness), and we hypothesized that traits reflecting relationships controlled by an individual (i.e., those that the individual initiated or were directly involved in) would be more heritable than those based largely on the behavior of conspecifics. Identifying patterns of heritability and selection among related traits may provide insight into which types of relationships are important in animal societies. As expected, we found that variation in indirect measures was largely explained by nongenetic variation. Yet, surprisingly, traits capturing initiated interactions do not possess significant additive genetic variation, whereas measures of received interactions are heritable. Measures describing initiated aggression and position in an agonistic network are under selection (0.3 < |S| < 0.4), although advantageous trait values are not inherited by offspring. It appears that agonistic relationships positively influence fitness and seemingly costly or harmful ties may, in fact, be beneficial. Our study highlights the importance of studying agonistic as well as affiliative relationships to understand fully the connections between sociality and fitness. PMID:21115836

  18. Melatonin and Melatonin Agonists as Adjunctive Treatments in Bipolar Disorders.

    PubMed

    Geoffroy, Pierre Alexis; Etain, Bruno; Franchi, Jean-Arthur Micoulaud; Bellivier, Frank; Ritter, Philipp

    2015-01-01

    Bipolar disorders (BD) present with abnormalities of circadian rhythmicity and sleep homeostasis, even during phases of remission. These abnormalities are linked to the underlying neurobiology of genetic susceptibility to BD. Melatonin is a pineal gland secreted neurohormone that induces circadian-related and sleep-related responses. Exogenous melatonin has demonstrated efficacy in treating primary insomnia, delayed sleep phase disorder, improving sleep parameters and overall sleep quality, and some psychiatric disorders like autistic spectrum disorders. In order to evaluate the efficacy of melatonin among patients with BD, this comprehensive review emphasizes the abnormal melatonin function in BD, the rationale of melatonin action in BD, the available data about the exogenous administration of melatonin, and melatonin agonists (ramelteon and tasimelteon), and recommendations of use in patients with BD. There is a scientific rationale to propose melatonin-agonists as an adjunctive treatment of mood stabilizers in treating sleep disorders in BD and thus to possibly prevent relapses when administered during remission phases. We emphasized the need to treat insomnia, sleep delayed latencies and sleep abnormalities in BD that are prodromal markers of an emerging mood episode and possible targets to prevent future relapses. An additional interesting adjunctive therapeutic effect might be on preventing metabolic syndrome, particularly in patients treated with antipsychotics. Finally, melatonin is well tolerated and has little dependence potential in contrast to most available sleep medications. Further studies are expected to be able to produce stronger evidence-based therapeutic guidelines to confirm and delineate the routine use of melatonin-agonists in the treatment of BD.

  19. Novel kinin B1 receptor agonists with improved pharmacological profiles.

    PubMed

    Côté, Jérôme; Savard, Martin; Bovenzi, Veronica; Bélanger, Simon; Morin, Josée; Neugebauer, Witold; Larouche, Annie; Dubuc, Céléna; Gobeil, Fernand

    2009-04-01

    There is some evidence to suggest that inducible kinin B1 receptors (B1R) may play beneficial and protecting roles in cardiovascular-related pathologies such as hypertension, diabetes, and ischemic organ diseases. Peptide B1R agonists bearing optimized pharmacological features (high potency, selectivity and stability toward proteolysis) hold promise as valuable therapeutic agents in the treatment of these diseases. In the present study, we used solid-phase methodology to synthesize a series of novel peptide analogues based on the sequence of Sar[dPhe(8)]desArg(9)-bradykinin, a relatively stable peptide agonist with moderate affinity for the human B1R. We evaluated the pharmacological properties of these peptides using (1) in vitro competitive binding experiments on recombinant human B1R and B2R (for index of selectivity determination) in transiently transfected human embryonic kidney 293 cells (HEK-293T cells), (2) ex vivo vasomotor assays on isolated human umbilical veins expressing endogenous human B1R, and (3) in vivo blood pressure tests using anesthetized lipopolysaccharide-immunostimulated rabbits. Key chemical modifications at the N-terminus, the positions 3 and 5 on Sar[dPhe(8)]desArg(9)-bradykinin led to potent analogues. For example, peptides 18 (SarLys[Hyp(3),Cha(5), dPhe(8)]desArg(9)-bradykinin) and 20 (SarLys[Hyp(3),Igl(5), dPhe(8)]desArg(9)-bradykinin) outperformed the parental molecule in terms of affinity, functional potency and duration of action in vitro and in vivo. These selective agonists should be valuable in future animal and human studies to investigate the potential benefits of B1R activation.

  20. Discovery of a highly potent series of TLR7 agonists.

    PubMed

    Jones, Peter; Pryde, David C; Tran, Thien-Duc; Adam, Fiona M; Bish, Gerwyn; Calo, Frederick; Ciaramella, Guiseppe; Dixon, Rachel; Duckworth, Jonathan; Fox, David N A; Hay, Duncan A; Hitchin, James; Horscroft, Nigel; Howard, Martin; Laxton, Carl; Parkinson, Tanya; Parsons, Gemma; Proctor, Katie; Smith, Mya C; Smith, Nicholas; Thomas, Amy

    2011-10-01

    The discovery of a series of highly potent and novel TLR7 agonist interferon inducers is described. Structure-activity relationships are presented, along with pharmacokinetic studies of a lead molecule from this series of N9-pyridylmethyl-8-oxo-3-deazapurine analogues. A rationale for the very high potency observed is offered. An investigation of the clearance mechanism of this class of compounds in rat was carried out, resulting in aldehyde oxidase mediated oxidation being identified as a key component of the high clearance observed. A possible solution to this problem is discussed. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Clenbuterol, a beta(2)-agonist, retards atrophy in denervated muscles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zeman, Richard J.; Ludemann, Robert; Etlinger, Joseph D.

    1987-01-01

    The effects of a beta(2) agonist, clenbuterol, on the protein content as well as on the contractile strength and the muscle fiber cross-sectional area of various denervated muscles from rats were investigated. It was found that denervated soleus, anterior tibialis, and gastrocnemius muscles, but not the extensor digitorum longus, of rats treated for 2-3 weeks with clenbuterol contained 95-110 percent more protein than denervated controls. The twofold difference in the protein content of denervated solei was paralleled by similar changes in contractile strength and muscle fiber cross-sectional area.

  2. Potent and selective oxytocin receptor agonists without disulfide bridges.

    PubMed

    Adachi, Yusuke; Sakimura, Katsuya; Shimizu, Yuji; Nakayama, Masaharu; Terao, Yasuko; Yano, Takahiko; Asami, Taiji

    2017-06-01

    Oxytocin (OT) is a neuropeptide involved in a wide variety of physiological actions, both peripherally and centrally. Many human studies have revealed the potential of OT to treat autism spectrum disorders and schizophrenia. OT interacts with the OT receptor (OTR) as well as vasopressin 1a and 1b receptors (V 1a R, V 1b R) as an agonist, and agonistic activity for V 1a R and V 1b R may have a negative impact on the therapeutic effects of OTR agonism in the CNS. An OTR-selective agonistic peptide, FE 202767, in which the structural differences from OT are a sulfide bond instead of a disulfide bond, and N-alkylglycine replacement for Pro at position 7, was reported. However, the effects of amino acid substitutions in OT have not been comprehensively investigated to compare OTR, V 1a R, and V 1b R activities. This led us to obtain a new OTR-selective analog by comprehensive amino acid substitutions of OT and replacement of the disulfide bond. A systematic amino acid scanning (Ala, Leu, Phe, Ser, Glu, or Arg) of desamino OT (dOT) at positions 2, 3, 4, 5, 7, and 8 revealed the tolerability for the substitution at positions 7 and 8. Further detailed study showed that trans-4-hydroxyproline (trans-Hyp) at position 7 and γ-methylleucine [Leu(Me)] at position 8 were markedly effective for improving receptor selectivity without decreasing the potency at the OTR. Subsequently, a combination of these amino acid substitutions with the replacement of the disulfide bond of dOT analogs with a sulfide bond (carba analog) or an amide bond (lactam analog) yielded several promising analogs, including carba-1-[trans-Hyp 7 ,Leu(Me) 8 ]dOT (14) with a higher potency (7.2pM) at OTR than that of OT and marked selectivity (>10,000-fold) over V 1a R and V 1b R. Hence, we investigated comprehensive modification of OT and obtained new OT analogs that exhibited high potency at OTR with marked selectivity. These OTR-selective agonists could be useful to investigate OTR-mediated effects on

  3. Binary agonist surface patterns prime platelets for downstream adhesion in flowing whole blood.

    PubMed

    Eichinger, Colin D; Hlady, Vladimir

    2017-04-28

    As platelets encounter damaged vessels or biomaterials, they interact with a complex milieu of surface-bound agonists, from exposed subendothelium to adsorbed plasma proteins. It has been shown that an upstream, surface-immobilized agonist is capable of priming platelets for enhanced adhesion downstream. In this study, binary agonists were integrated into the upstream position of flow cells and the platelet priming response was measured by downstream adhesion in flowing whole blood. A nonadditive response was observed in which platelets transiently exposed to two agonists exhibited greater activation and downstream adhesion than that from the sum of either agonist alone. Antibody blocking of one of the two upstream agonists eliminated nonadditive activation and downstream adhesion. Crosstalk between platelet activation pathways likely led to a synergistic effect which created an enhanced activation response in the platelet population. The existence of synergy between platelet priming pathways is a concept that has broad implications for the field of biomaterials hemocompatibility and platelet activity testing.

  4. Adolescent cocaine self-administration induces habit behavior in adulthood: sex differences and structural consequences

    PubMed Central

    DePoy, L M; Allen, A G; Gourley, S L

    2016-01-01

    Adolescent cocaine use increases the likelihood of drug abuse and addiction in adulthood, and etiological factors may include a cocaine-induced bias towards so-called ‘reward-seeking' habits. To determine whether adolescent cocaine exposure indeed impacts decision-making strategies in adulthood, we trained adolescent mice to orally self-administer cocaine. In adulthood, males with a history of escalating self-administration developed a bias towards habit-based behaviors. In contrast, escalating females did not develop habit biases; rather, low response rates were associated with later behavioral inflexibility, independent of cocaine dose. We focused the rest of our report on understanding how individual differences in young-adolescent females predicted long-term behavioral outcomes. Low, ‘stable' cocaine-reinforced response rates during adolescence were associated with cocaine-conditioned object preference and enlarged dendritic spine head size in the medial (prelimbic) prefrontal cortex in adulthood. Meanwhile, cocaine resilience was associated with enlarged spine heads in deep-layer orbitofrontal cortex. Re-exposure to the cocaine-associated context in adulthood energized responding in ‘stable responders', which could then be reduced by the GABAB agonist baclofen and the putative tyrosine receptor kinase B (trkB) agonist, 7,8-dihydroxyflavone. Together, our findings highlight resilience to cocaine-induced habits in females relative to males when intake escalates. However, failures in instrumental conditioning in adolescent females may precipitate reward-seeking behaviors in adulthood, particularly in the context of cocaine exposure. PMID:27576164

  5. Electrophysiological Perspectives on the Therapeutic Use of Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor Partial AgonistsS⃞

    PubMed Central

    Trocmé-Thibierge, Caryn; Guendisch, Daniela; Al Rubaiy, Shehd Abdullah Abbas; Bloom, Stephen A.

    2011-01-01

    Partial agonist therapies rely variously on two hypotheses: the partial ago