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Sample records for gadolinium oxides

  1. Characteristics of Gadolinium Oxide Nanoparticles Using Terahertz Spectroscopy (abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Dongkyu; Maeng, Inhee; Oh, Seung Jae; Kim, Taekhoon; Cho, Byung Kyu; Lee, Kwangyeol; Son, Joo-Hiuk

    2009-04-01

    The penetration property of the terahertz electromagnetic (THz) wave is relevant to its use. We used the THz wave spectroscopy system which easily penetrates some materials that do not contain water, e.g., plastic and ceramics. The system has been developed for several purposes, including measuring the properties of semiconductors and bio-materials, and detecting plastic bombs and ceramic knives at airports. It is also used for medical imaging systems, such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), at some research institutes. It can show not only the difference in amplitude, but also the difference of the phase of each point of sample. MRI technology usually uses contrast agents to enhance the quality of the image. Gadolinium diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (Gd-DTPA), made with a heavy metal ion, is commonly used as a clinical MRI contrast agent. Gadolinium oxide (Gd2O3) nanoparticle is a new contrast agent. It serves to equip the core of each particle with antibodies or ligands. It can freely circulate in blood vessels without amassing in the liver or lungs. This study shows the characteristics of gadolinium oxide nanoparticles to further advance terahertz medical imaging.

  2. Characteristics of Gadolinium Oxide Nanoparticles Using Terahertz Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Dongkyu; Maeng, Inhee; Son, Joo-Hiuk

    2009-04-19

    The penetration property of the terahertz electromagnetic (THz) wave is relevant to its use. We used the THz wave spectroscopy system which easily penetrates some materials that do not contain water, e.g., plastic and ceramics. The system has been developed for several purposes, including measuring the properties of semiconductors and bio-materials, and detecting plastic bombs and ceramic knives at airports. It is also used for medical imaging systems, such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), at some research institutes. It can show not only the difference in amplitude, but also the difference of the phase of each point of sample. MRImore » technology usually uses contrast agents to enhance the quality of the image. Gadolinium diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (Gd-DTPA), made with a heavy metal ion, is commonly used as a clinical MRI contrast agent. Gadolinium oxide (Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3}) nanoparticle is a new contrast agent. It serves to equip the core of each particle with antibodies or ligands. It can freely circulate in blood vessels without amassing in the liver or lungs. This study shows the characteristics of gadolinium oxide nanoparticles to further advance terahertz medical imaging.« less

  3. Geometry of electromechanically active structures in Gadolinium - doped Cerium oxides

    DOE PAGES

    Li, Yuanyuan; Kraynis, Olga; Kas, Joshua; ...

    2016-05-20

    Local distortions from average structure are important in many functional materials, such as electrostrictors or piezoelectrics, and contain clues about their mechanism of work. However, the geometric attributes of these distortions are exceedingly difficult to measure, leading to a gap in knowledge regarding their roles in electromechanical response. This task is particularly challenging in the case of recently reported non-classical electrostriction in Cerium-Gadolinium oxides (CGO), where only a small population of Ce-O bonds that are located near oxygen ion vacancies responds to external electric field. In this study, we used high-energy resolution fluorescence detection (HERFD) technique to collect X-ray absorptionmore » spectra in CGO in situ, with and without an external electric field, coupled with theoretical modeling to characterize three-dimensional geometry of electromechanically active units.« less

  4. Geometry of electromechanically active structures in Gadolinium - doped Cerium oxides

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Yuanyuan; Zacharowicz, Renee; Frenkel, Anatoly I., E-mail: igor.lubomirsky@weizmann.ac.il, E-mail: anatoly.frenkel@yu.edu

    2016-05-15

    Local distortions from average structure are important in many functional materials, such as electrostrictors or piezoelectrics, and contain clues about their mechanism of work. However, the geometric attributes of these distortions are exceedingly difficult to measure, leading to a gap in knowledge regarding their roles in electromechanical response. This task is particularly challenging in the case of recently reported non-classical electrostriction in Cerium-Gadolinium oxides (CGO), where only a small population of Ce-O bonds that are located near oxygen ion vacancies responds to external electric field. We used high-energy resolution fluorescence detection (HERFD) technique to collect X-ray absorption spectra in CGOmore » in situ, with and without an external electric field, coupled with theoretical modeling to characterize three-dimensional geometry of electromechanically active units.« less

  5. Solid solutions of gadolinium doped zinc oxide nanorods by combined microwave-ultrasonic irradiation assisted crystallization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiani, Armin; Dastafkan, Kamran; Obeydavi, Ali; Rahimi, Mohammad

    2017-12-01

    Nanocrystalline solid solutions consisting of un-doped and gadolinium doped zinc oxide nanorods were fabricated by a modified sol-gel process utilizing combined ultrasonic-microwave irradiations. Polyvinylpyrrolidone, diethylene glycol, and triethylenetetramine respectively as capping, structure directing, and complexing agents were used under ultrasound dynamic aging and microwave heating to obtain crystalline nanorods. Crystalline phase monitoring, lattice parameters and variation, morphology and shape, elemental analysis, functional groups, reducibility, and the oxidation state of emerged species were examined by PXRD, FESEM, TEM, EDX, FTIR, micro Raman, H2-TPR, and EPR techniques. Results have verified that irradiation mechanism of gelation and crystallization reduces the reaction time, augments the crystal quality, and formation of hexagonal close pack structure of Wurtzite morphology. Besides, dissolution of gadolinium within host lattice involves lattice deformation, unit cell distortion, and angular position variation. Structure related shape and growth along with compositional purity were observed through microscopic and spectroscopic surveys. Furthermore, TPR and EPR studies elucidated more detailed behavior upon exposure to the exerted irradiations and subsequent air-annealing including the formed oxidation states and electron trapping centers, presence of gadolinium, zinc, and oxygen disarrays and defects, as well as alteration in the host unit cell via gadolinium addition.

  6. Graphene oxide-gadolinium (III) oxide nanoparticle composite: a novel MR contrast agent with high longitudinal and transverse relaxivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venkatesha, N.; Poojar, Pavan; Geethanath, Sairam; Srivastava, Chandan

    2014-12-01

    Production of bio-compatible contrast agent materials to enhance the sensitivity of the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technique is a highly active area in MRI related research. This work illustrates the potential of a new material: graphene oxide-gadolinium (III) oxide nanoparticle (GO-Gd2O3) composite in yielding both transverse (16.3 mM-1 s-1) and longitudinal relaxivity (40 mM-1 s-1) values which are significantly higher than the proton relaxivity values achieved using the gadolinium based contrast agents currently used in MRI. Such high proton relaxivity values can facilitate low dosage of GO-Gd2O3 composite for obtaining both T1 and T2 weighted high signal-to-noise ratio images in MRI.

  7. Synthesis of samarium doped gadolinium oxide nanorods, its spectroscopic and physical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boopathi, G.; Gokul Raj, S.; Ramesh Kumar, G.; Mohan, R.; Mohan, S.

    2018-06-01

    One-dimensional samarium doped gadolinium oxide [Sm:Gd2O3] nanorods have been synthesized successfully through co-precipitation technique in aqueous solution. The as-synthesized and calcined products were characterized by using powder X-ray diffraction pattern, Fourier transform Raman spectroscopy, thermogravimetric/differential thermal analysis, scanning electron microscopy with energy-dispersive X-ray analysis, transmission electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, Ultraviolet-Visible spectrometry, photoluminescence spectrophotometer and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy techniques. The obtained results are discussed in detailed manner.

  8. Geometrically confined ultrasmall gadolinium oxide nanoparticles boost the T1 contrast ability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ni, Kaiyuan; Zhao, Zhenghuan; Zhang, Zongjun; Zhou, Zijian; Yang, Li; Wang, Lirong; Ai, Hua; Gao, Jinhao

    2016-02-01

    High-performance magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agents and novel contrast enhancement strategies are urgently needed for sensitive and accurate diagnosis. Here we report a strategy to construct a new T1 contrast agent based on the Solomon-Bloembergen-Morgan (SBM) theory. We loaded the ultrasmall gadolinium oxide nanoparticles into worm-like interior channels of mesoporous silica nanospheres (Gd2O3@MSN nanocomposites). This unique structure endows the nanocomposites with geometrical confinement, high molecular tumbling time, and a large coordinated number of water molecules, which results in a significant enhancement of the T1 contrast with longitudinal proton relaxivity (r1) as high as 45.08 mM-1 s-1. Such a high r1 value of Gd2O3@MSN, compared to those of ultrasmall Gd2O3 nanoparticles and gadolinium-based clinical contrast agents, is mainly attributed to the strong geometrical confinement effect. This strategy provides new guidance for developing various high-performance T1 contrast agents for sensitive imaging and disease diagnosis.High-performance magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agents and novel contrast enhancement strategies are urgently needed for sensitive and accurate diagnosis. Here we report a strategy to construct a new T1 contrast agent based on the Solomon-Bloembergen-Morgan (SBM) theory. We loaded the ultrasmall gadolinium oxide nanoparticles into worm-like interior channels of mesoporous silica nanospheres (Gd2O3@MSN nanocomposites). This unique structure endows the nanocomposites with geometrical confinement, high molecular tumbling time, and a large coordinated number of water molecules, which results in a significant enhancement of the T1 contrast with longitudinal proton relaxivity (r1) as high as 45.08 mM-1 s-1. Such a high r1 value of Gd2O3@MSN, compared to those of ultrasmall Gd2O3 nanoparticles and gadolinium-based clinical contrast agents, is mainly attributed to the strong geometrical confinement effect. This strategy

  9. Electronic structure, charge transfer, and intrinsic luminescence of gadolinium oxide nanoparticles: Experiment and theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zatsepin, D. A.; Boukhvalov, D. W.; Zatsepin, A. F.; Kuznetsova, Yu. A.; Mashkovtsev, M. A.; Rychkov, V. N.; Shur, V. Ya.; Esin, A. A.; Kurmaev, E. Z.

    2018-04-01

    The cubic (c) and monoclinic (m) polymorphs of Gd2O3 were studied using the combined analysis of several materials science techniques - X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy. Density functional theory (DFT) based calculations for the samples under study were performed as well. The cubic phase of gadolinium oxide (c-Gd2O3) synthesized using a precipitation method exhibits spheroidal-like nanoclusters with well-defined edges assembled from primary nanoparticles with an average size of 50 nm, whereas the monoclinic phase of gadolinium oxide (m-Gd2O3) deposited using explosive pyrolysis has a denser structure compared with natural gadolinia. This phase also has a structure composed of three-dimensional complex agglomerates without clear-edged boundaries that are ∼21 nm in size plus a cubic phase admixture of only 2 at.% composed of primary edge-boundary nanoparticles ∼15 nm in size. These atomic features appear in the electronic structure as different defects ([Gd…Osbnd OH] and [Gd…Osbnd O]) and have dissimilar contributions to the charge-transfer processes among the appropriate electronic states with ambiguous contributions in the Gd 5р - O 2s core-like levels in the valence band structures. The origin of [Gd…Osbnd OH] defects found by XPS was well-supported by PL analysis. The electronic and atomic structures of the synthesized gadolinias calculated using DFT were compared and discussed on the basis of the well-known joint OKT-van der Laan model, and good agreement was established.

  10. Gadolinium oxide nanoplates with high longitudinal relaxivity for magnetic resonance imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Minjung; Sethi, Richa; Ananta Narayanan, Jeyarama Subramanian; Lee, Seung Soo; Benoit, Denise N.; Taheri, Nasim; Decuzzi, Paolo; Colvin, Vicki L.

    2014-10-01

    Molecular-based contrast agents for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are often characterized by insufficient relaxivity, thus requiring the systemic injection of high doses to induce sufficient contrast enhancement at the target site. In this work, gadolinium oxide (Gd2O3) nanoplates are produced via a thermal decomposition method. The nanoplates have a core diameter varying from 2 to 22 nm, a thickness of 1 to 2 nm and are coated with either an oleic acid bilayer or an octylamine modified poly(acrylic acid) (PAA-OA) polymer layer. For the smaller nanoplates, longitudinal relaxivities (r1) of 7.96 and 47.2 (mM s)-1 were measured at 1.41 T for the oleic acid bilayer and PAA-OA coating, respectively. These values moderately reduce as the size of the Gd2O3 nanoplates increases, and are always larger for the PAA-OA coating. Cytotoxicity studies on human dermal fibroblast cells documented no significant toxicity, with 100% cell viability preserved up to 250 μM for the PAA-OA coated Gd2O3 nanoplates. Given the 10 times increase in longitudinal relaxivity over the commercially available Gd-based molecular agents and the favorable toxicity profile, the 2 nm PAA-OA coated Gd2O3 nanoplates could represent a new class of highly effective T1 MRI contrast agents.Molecular-based contrast agents for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are often characterized by insufficient relaxivity, thus requiring the systemic injection of high doses to induce sufficient contrast enhancement at the target site. In this work, gadolinium oxide (Gd2O3) nanoplates are produced via a thermal decomposition method. The nanoplates have a core diameter varying from 2 to 22 nm, a thickness of 1 to 2 nm and are coated with either an oleic acid bilayer or an octylamine modified poly(acrylic acid) (PAA-OA) polymer layer. For the smaller nanoplates, longitudinal relaxivities (r1) of 7.96 and 47.2 (mM s)-1 were measured at 1.41 T for the oleic acid bilayer and PAA-OA coating, respectively. These values

  11. Gadolinium-Encapsulating Iron Oxide Nanoprobe as Activatable NMR/MRI Contrast Agent

    PubMed Central

    Santra, Santimukul; Jativa, Samuel D.; Kaittanis, Charalambos; Normand, Guillaume; Grimm, Jan; Perez, J. Manuel

    2012-01-01

    Herein we report a novel gadolinium-encapsulating iron oxide nanoparticle-based activatable NMR/MRI nanoprobe. In our design, Gd-DTPA is encapsulated within the polyacrylic acid (PAA) polymer coating of a superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticle (IO-PAA) yielding a composite magnetic nanoprobe (IO-PAA-Gd-DTPA) with quenched longitudinal spin-lattice magnetic relaxation (T1). Upon release of the Gd-DTPA complex from the nanoprobe's polymeric coating in acidic media, an increase in the T1 relaxation rate (1/T1) of the composite magnetic nanoprobe was observed, indicating a dequenching of the nanoprobe with a corresponding increase in the T1-weighted MRI signal. When a folate-conjugated nanoprobe was incubated in HeLa cells, a cancer cell line overexpressing folate receptors, an increase in the 1/T1 signal was observed. This result suggests that upon receptor-mediated internalization, the composite magnetic nanoprobe degraded within the cell's lysosome acidic (pH = 5.0) environment, resulting in an intracellular release of Gd-DTPA complex with subsequent T1 activation. No change in T1 was observed when the Gd-DTPA complex was chemically conjugated on the surface of the nanoparticle's polymeric coating or when encapsulated in the polymeric coating of a non-magnetic nanoparticle. These results confirmed that the observed (T1) quenching of the composite magnetic nanoprobe is due to the encapsulation and close proximity of the Gd ion to the nanoparticles superparamagnetic iron oxide (IO) core. In addition, when an anticancer drug (Taxol) was co-encapsulated with the Gd-DTPA within the folate receptor targeting composite magnetic nanoprobe, the T1 activation of the probe coincide with the rate of drug release and corresponding cytotoxic effect in cell culture studies. Taken together, these results suggest that our activatable T1 nanoagent could be of great importance for the detection of acidic tumors and assessment of drug targeting and release by MRI. PMID:22809405

  12. Luminescence studies of rare earth doped yttrium gadolinium mixed oxide phosphor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Som, S.; Choubey, A.; Sharma, S. K.

    2012-09-01

    This paper reports the photoluminescence and thermoluminescence properties of gamma ray induced rare earth doped yttrium gadolinium mixed oxide phosphor. The europium (Eu3+) was used as rare earth dopant. The phosphor was prepared by chemical co-precipitation method according to the formula (Y2-x-yGdx) O3: Euy3+ (x=0.5; y=0.05). The photoluminescence emission spectrum of the prepared phosphor shows intense peaks in the red region at 615 nm for 5D0→7F2 transitions and the photoluminescence excitation spectra show a broad band located around 220-270 nm for the emission wavelength fixed at 615 nm. The thermoluminescence studies were carried out after irradiating the phosphor by gamma rays in the dose range from 100 Gy to 1 KGy. In the thermoluminescence glow curves, one single peak was observed at about 300 °C of which the intensity increases linearly in the studied dose range of gamma rays. The glow peak was deconvoluted by GlowFit program and the kinetic parameters associated with the deconvoluted peaks were calculated. The kinetic parameters were also calculated by various glow curve shape and heating rate methods.

  13. Impact of agglomeration on the relaxometric properties of paramagnetic ultra-small gadolinium oxide nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faucher, Luc; Gossuin, Yves; Hocq, Aline; Fortin, Marc-André

    2011-07-01

    Ultra-small gadolinium oxide nanoparticles (US-Gd2O3) are used to provide 'positive' contrast effects in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and are being considered for molecular and cellular imaging applications. However, these nanoparticles can aggregate over time in aqueous medium, as well as when internalized into cells. This study is aimed at measuring in vitro, in aqueous medium, the impact of aggregation on the relaxometric properties of paramagnetic US-Gd2O3 particles. First, the nanoparticle core size as well as aggregation behaviour was assessed by HRTEM. DLS (hydrodynamic diameter) was used to measure the hydrodynamic diameter of nanoparticles and nanoaggregates. The relaxometric properties were measured by NMRD profiling, as well as with 1H NMR relaxometers. Then, the positive contrast enhancement effect was assessed by using magnetic resonance scanners (at 1.5 and 7 T). At every magnetic field, the longitudinal relaxivity (r1) decreased upon agglomeration, while remaining high enough to provide positive contrast. On the other hand, the transverse relaxivity (r2) slightly decreased at 0.47 and 1.41 T, but it was enhanced at higher fields (7 and 11.7 T) upon agglomeration. All NMRD profiles revealed a characteristic relaxivity peak in the range 60-100 MHz, suggesting the possibility to use US-Gd2O3 as an efficient 'positive-T1' contrast agent at clinical magnetic fields (1-3 T), in spite of aggregation.

  14. Gadolinium-encapsulating iron oxide nanoprobe as activatable NMR/MRI contrast agent.

    PubMed

    Santra, Santimukul; Jativa, Samuel D; Kaittanis, Charalambos; Normand, Guillaume; Grimm, Jan; Perez, J Manuel

    2012-08-28

    Herein we report a novel gadolinium-encapsulating iron oxide nanoparticle-based activatable NMR/MRI nanoprobe. In our design, Gd-DTPA is encapsulated within the poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) polymer coating of a superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticle (IO-PAA), yielding a composite magnetic nanoprobe (IO-PAA-Gd-DTPA) with quenched longitudinal spin-lattice magnetic relaxation (T(1)). Upon release of the Gd-DTPA complex from the nanoprobe's polymeric coating in acidic media, an increase in the T(1) relaxation rate (1/T(1)) of the composite magnetic nanoprobe was observed, indicating a dequenching of the nanoprobe with a corresponding increase in the T(1)-weighted MRI signal. When a folate-conjugated nanoprobe was incubated in HeLa cells, a cancer cell line overexpressing folate receptors, an increase in the 1/T(1) signal was observed. This result suggests that, upon receptor-mediated internalization, the composite magnetic nanoprobe degraded within the cell's lysosome acidic (pH 5.0) environment, resulting in an intracellular release of Gd-DTPA complex with subsequent T(1) activation. In addition, when an anticancer drug (Taxol) was coencapsulated with the Gd-DTPA within the folate receptor targeting composite magnetic nanoprobe, the T(1) activation of the probe coincided with the rate of drug release and corresponding cytotoxic effect in cell culture studies. Taken together, these results suggest that our activatable T(1) nanoagent could be of great importance for the detection of acidic tumors and assessment of drug targeting and release by MRI.

  15. Preparation of 152Gd targets from a small quantity of gadolinium oxide in a pyrochemical reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lipski, A. R.

    1995-02-01

    A simple method utilizing small amounts (< 5 mg) of isotopically enriched material for the production of gadolinium targets is discussed. An electrostatically focused e-gun is used in the procedure in which 152Gd 2O 3 powder undergoes reduction-distillation and deposition onto an Fe foil.

  16. High longitudinal relaxivity of ultra-small gadolinium oxide prepared by microsecond laser ablation in diethylene glycol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Ningqi; Tian, Xiumei; Xiao, Jun; Hu, Wenyong; Yang, Chuan; Li, Li; Chen, Dihu

    2013-04-01

    Ultra-small gadolinium oxide (Gd2O3) can be used as T1-weighted Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) contrast agent own to its high longitudinal relaxivity (r1) and has attracted intensive attention in these years. In this paper, ultra-small Gd2O3 nanoparticles of 3.8 nm in diameter have been successfully synthesized by a microsecond laser ablating a gadolinium (Gd) target in diethylene glycol (DEG). The growth inhibition effect induced by the large viscosity of DEG makes it possible to synthesize ultra-small Gd2O3 by laser ablation in DEG. The r1 value and T1-weighted MR images are measured by a 3.0 T MRI spectroscope. The results show these nanoparticles with a high r1 value of 9.76 s-1 mM-1 to be good MRI contrast agents. We propose an explanation for the high r1 value of ultra-small Gd2O3 by considering the decreasing factor (surface to volume ratio of the nanoparticles, S/V) and the increasing factor (water hydration number of the Gd3+ on Gd2O3 surface, q), which offer a new look into the relaxivity studies of MRI contrast agents. Our research provides a new approach to preparing ultra-small Gd2O3 of high r1 value by laser ablation in DEG and develops the understanding of high relaxivity of ultra-small Gd2O3 MRI contrast agents.

  17. Various ligand-coated ultrasmall gadolinium-oxide nanoparticles: Water proton relaxivity and in-vivo T1 MR image

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Ja Young; Kim, Sung June; Lee, Gang Ho; Jin, Seonguk; Chang, Yongmin; Bae, Ji Eun; Chae, Kwon Seok

    2015-04-01

    Surface coating of nanoparticles with ligands is essential in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) because of solubility in water and biocompatibility. In this study, five organic molecules were used for surface coating of ultrasmall gadolinium-oxide (Gd2O3) nanoparticles (d avg = 2.0 nm). All of the samples showed large longitudinal (r1) and transverse (r2) water proton relaxivities with r2/r1 ratios that were close to one, corresponding to ideal conditions for T1 MRI contrast agents. Finally, in-vivo T1 MR images were acquired to prove the effectiveness of the surface-coated ultrasmall Gd2O3 nanoparticles as a T1 MRI contrast agent.

  18. Gadolinium oxide decorated multiwalled carbon nanotube/tridoped titania nanocomposites for improved dye degradation under simulated solar light irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Mamba, Gcina; Nanotechnology and Water Sustainability Research Unit, College of Engineering, Science and Technology, University of South Africa Florida Science Campus, 1709 Florida; Mbianda, Xavier Yangkou

    2016-03-15

    Graphical abstract: Illustration of the collaborative effect between MWCNT-Gd and Gd,N,S-TiO{sub 2} towards degradation of AB 74. - Highlights: • MWCNT-Gd/tridoped titania was successfully prepared via a sol-gel method. • XPS revealed the presence of Ti, C, O, S, N and Gd in MWCNT-Gd/Gd,N,S-TiO{sub 2}. • MWCNT-Gd/Gd,N,S-TiO{sub 2} displayed 100% degradation of acid blue 74 in 150 min. • Over 60% TOC removal by MWCNT-Gd/Gd,N,S-TiO{sub 2}. - Abstract: Neodymium/gadolinium/europium, nitrogen and sulphur tridoped titania (Nd/Gd/Eu, N,S-TiO{sub 2}) was hybridised with pre-synthesised gadolinium oxide decorated multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT-Gd) using a sol–gel method. Subsequent to drying and calcination, composite photocatalysts: MWCNT-Gd/Nd,N,S-TiO{submore » 2}, MWCNT-Gd/Gd,N,S-TiO{sub 2} and MWCNT-Gd/Eu,N,S-TiO{sub 2}, were obtained and characterised using TEM, SEM-EDX, UV–vis, XPS, XRD and FT-IR. Acid blue 74 (AB74) was used as a model dye to investigate the photocatalytic degradation properties of the prepared materials under simulated solar light irradiation. Coupling the different tridoped titania with MWCNT-Gd enhanced their activity compared to MWCNT/TiO{sub 2}, MWCNT-Gd/TiO{sub 2} and MWCNT/Gd,N,S-TiO{sub 2}. MWCNT-Gd/Gd,N,S-TiO{sub 2} showed the highest activity towards AB74 degradation reaching 100% decolourisation after 150 min of irradiation. Total organic carbon analysis revealed that over 50% of the AB74 molecules were completely mineralised after 180 min of irradiation in the presence of MWCNT-Gd/Gd,N,S-TiO{sub 2}.« less

  19. Co-Precipitation Synthesis of Gadolinium Aluminum Gallium Oxide (GAGG) via Different Precipitants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Yan; Yang, Shenghui; Zhang, Ye; Jiang, Jun; Jiang, Haochuan

    2014-02-01

    In order to obtain a uniform transparent ceramic scintillator, well-dispersed fine starting powders with high-purity, small grain size, spherical morphology and high sinter-ability are necessary. In this study, Ce3+ doped gadolinium aluminum gallium garnet Gd3Al3Ga2O12 (GAGG) powders were synthesized by the co-precipitation method. NH4OH, NH4HCO3 and the mixed solution of NH4OH and NH4HCO3 were used as precipitants, respectively. The precursor composition, phase formation process, microstructure, morphology, particle size distribution and luminescent properties of obtained GAGG powders were measured. The results show that powders prepared using the mixed precipitant exhibit the best microstructural morphology, good sinter-ability and highest luminescent intensity. Pure GAGG polycrystalline powders could be obtained at about 950°C for 1.5 h and the average size of the particles is about 50 nm. The photoluminescence spectrum shows a strong green-yellow emission near 540 nm.

  20. Gadolinium embedded iron oxide nanoclusters as T1-T2 dual-modal MRI-visible vectors for safe and efficient siRNA delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiaoyong; Zhou, Zijian; Wang, Zhiyong; Xue, Yunxin; Zeng, Yun; Gao, Jinhao; Zhu, Lei; Zhang, Xianzhong; Liu, Gang; Chen, Xiaoyuan

    2013-08-01

    This report illustrates a new strategy of designing a T1-T2 dual-modal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-visible vector for siRNA delivery and MRI. Hydrophobic gadolinium embedded iron oxide (GdIO) nanocrystals are self-assembled into nanoclusters in the water phase with the help of stearic acid modified low molecular weight polyethylenimine (stPEI). The resulting water-dispersible GdIO-stPEI nanoclusters possess good stability, monodispersity with narrow size distribution and competitive T1-T2 dual-modal MR imaging properties. The nanocomposite system is capable of binding and delivering siRNA for knockdown of a gene of interest while maintaining its magnetic properties and biocompatibility. This new gadolinium embedded iron oxide nanocluster provides an important platform for safe and efficient gene delivery with non-invasive T1-T2 dual-modal MRI monitoring capability.This report illustrates a new strategy of designing a T1-T2 dual-modal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-visible vector for siRNA delivery and MRI. Hydrophobic gadolinium embedded iron oxide (GdIO) nanocrystals are self-assembled into nanoclusters in the water phase with the help of stearic acid modified low molecular weight polyethylenimine (stPEI). The resulting water-dispersible GdIO-stPEI nanoclusters possess good stability, monodispersity with narrow size distribution and competitive T1-T2 dual-modal MR imaging properties. The nanocomposite system is capable of binding and delivering siRNA for knockdown of a gene of interest while maintaining its magnetic properties and biocompatibility. This new gadolinium embedded iron oxide nanocluster provides an important platform for safe and efficient gene delivery with non-invasive T1-T2 dual-modal MRI monitoring capability. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c3nr02797j

  1. Designing Tripodal and Triangular Gadolinium Oxide Nanoplates and Self-Assembled Nanofibrils as Potential Multimodal Bioimaging Probes

    SciTech Connect

    Paik, T; Gordon, TR; Prantner, AM

    2013-03-01

    Here, we report the shape-controlled synthesis of tripodal and triangular gadolinium oxide (Gd2O3) nanoplates. In the presence of lithium ions, the shape of the nanocrystals is readily controlled by tailoring reaction parameters such as temperature and time. We observe that the morphology transforms from an initial tripodal shape to a triangular shape with increasing reaction time or elevated temperatures. Highly uniform Gd2O3 nanoplates are self-assembled into nanofibril-like liquid-crystalline superlattices with long-range orientational and positional order. In addition, shape-directed self-assemblies are investigated by tailoring the aspect ratio of the arms of the Gd2O3 nanoplates. Due to a strong paramagnetic response, Gd2O3more » nanocrystals are excellent candidates for MRI contrast agents and also can be doped with rare-earth ions to form nanophosphors, pointing to their potential in multimodal imaging. In this work, we investigate the MR relaxometry at high magnetic fields (9,4 and 14.1 T) and the optical properties including near-IR to visible upconversion luminescence and X-ray excited optical luminescence of doped Gd2O3 nanoplates. The complex shape of Gd2O3 nanoplates, coupled with their magnetic properties and their ability to phosphoresce under NIR or X-ray excitation which penetrate deep into tissue, makes these nanoplates a promising platform for multimodal imaging in biomedical applications.« less

  2. High-performance field-effect transistors based on gadolinium doped indium oxide nanofibers and their application in logic gate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chao; Meng, You; Guo, Zidong; Shin, Byoungchul; Liu, Guoxia; Shan, Fukai

    2018-05-01

    One-dimensional metal oxide nanofibers have been regarded as promising building blocks for large area low cost electronic devices. As one of the representative metal oxide semiconducting materials, In2O3 based materials have attracted much interest due to their excellent electrical and optical properties. However, most of the field-effect transistors (FETs) based on In2O3 nanofibers usually operate in a depletion mode, which lead to large power consumption and a complicated integrated circuit design. In this report, gadolinium (Gd) doped In2O3 (InGdO) nanofibers were fabricated by electrospinning and applied as channels in the FETs. By optimizing the doping concentration and the nanofiber density, the device performance could be precisely manipulated. It was found that the FETs based on InGdO nanofibers, with a Gd doping concentration of 3% and a nanofiber density of 2.9 μm-1, exhibited the best device performance, including a field-effect mobility (μFE) of 2.83 cm2/V s, an on/off current ratio of ˜4 × 108, a threshold voltage (VTH) of 5.8 V, and a subthreshold swing (SS) of 2.4 V/decade. By employing the high-k ZrOx thin films as the gate dielectrics in the FETs, the μFE, VTH and SS can be further improved to be 17.4 cm2/V s, 0.7 V and 160 mV/decade, respectively. Finally, an inverter based on the InGdO nanofibers/ZrOx FETs was constructed and a gain of ˜11 was achieved.

  3. Lanthanum Gadolinium Oxide: A New Electronic Device Material for CMOS Logic and Memory Devices

    PubMed Central

    Pavunny, Shojan P.; Scott, James F.; Katiyar, Ram S.

    2014-01-01

    A comprehensive study on the ternary dielectric, LaGdO3, synthesized and qualified in our laboratory as a novel high-k dielectric material for logic and memory device applications in terms of its excellent features that include a high linear dielectric constant (k) of ~22 and a large energy bandgap of ~5.6 eV, resulting in sufficient electron and hole band offsets of ~2.57 eV and ~1.91 eV, respectively, on silicon, good thermal stability with Si and lower gate leakage current densities within the International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors (ITRS) specified limits at the sub-nanometer electrical functional thickness level, which are desirable for advanced complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS), bipolar (Bi) and BiCMOS chips applications, is presented in this review article. PMID:28788589

  4. Synthesis of gadolinium doped titanium(IV) oxide and their photocatalytic activity to decrease chemical oxygen demand (COD) value of water pollutants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eddy, Diana Rakhmawaty; Dwiyanti, Dina; Rahayu, Iman; Hastiawan, Iwan; Bahti, Husein H.

    2017-05-01

    Pesticides are widely used for the control of plant disease. Unfortunately they are highly toxic to terraneous and aquatic life; this is a particular problem in agricultural areas. TiO2 is widely used for pesticide control because of its photocatalytic activity, but it still has inadequacy in its wide band gap. Alternatively, the wide band gap of TiO2 could be narrowed by modification with rare earth element such as gadolinium, so the photocatalytic activity of TiO2could be significantly enhanced. The purpose of this experiment is to synthesize Gd/TiO2 and its application to reduce COD of water pollutants such as carbosulfan pesticide. This experiment is done by doping gadolinium oxide into titanium tetra isopropoxide by sol-gel method. The crystal structure is characterized by using XRD, shown anatase successfully obtained with the smallest crystallite size is 37.655 nm, indicated optimum calcination time is 4 hours. SEM-EDX result shown morphology of crystal is big aggregates. Photocatalytic activity is tested to carbosulfan pesticide, obtained the COD percent decreases up to 87.88%.

  5. Synthesis route and three different core-shell impacts on magnetic characterization of gadolinium oxide-based nanoparticles as new contrast agents for molecular magnetic resonance imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azizian, Gholamreza; Riyahi-Alam, Nader; Haghgoo, Soheila; Moghimi, Hamid Reza; Zohdiaghdam, Reza; Rafiei, Behrooz; Gorji, Ensieh

    2012-10-01

    Despite its good resolution, magnetic resonance imaging intrinsically has low sensitivity. Recently, contrast agent nanoparticles have been used as sensitivity and contrast enhancer. The aim of this study was to investigate a new controlled synthesis method for gadolinium oxide-based nanoparticle preparation. For this purpose, diethyleneglycol coating of gadolinium oxide (Gd2O3-DEG) was performed using new supervised polyol route, and small particulate gadolinium oxide (SPGO) PEGylation was obtained with methoxy-polyethylene-glycol-silane (550 and 2,000 Da) coatings as SPGO-mPEG-silane550 and 2,000, respectively. Physicochemical characterization and magnetic properties of these three contrast agents in comparison with conventional Gd-DTPA were verified by dynamic light scattering transmission electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, inductively coupled plasma, X-ray diffraction, vibrating sample magnetometer, and the signal intensity and relaxivity measurements were performed using 1.5-T MRI scanner. As a result, the nanoparticle sizes of Gd2O3-DEG, SPGO-mPEG-silane550, and SPGO-mPEG-silane2000 could be reached to 5.9, 51.3, 194.2 nm, respectively. The image signal intensity and longitudinal ( r 1) and transverse relaxivity ( r 2) measurements in different concentrations (0.3 to approximately 2.5 mM), revealed the r 2/ r 1 ratios of 1.13, 0.89, 33.34, and 33.72 for Gd-DTPA, Gd2O3-DEG, SPGO-mPEG-silane550, and SPGO-mPEG-silane2000, respectively. The achievement of new synthesis route of Gd2O3-DEG resulted in lower r 2/ r 1 ratio for Gd2O3-DEG than Gd-DTPA and other previous synthesized methods by this and other groups. The smaller r 2/ r 1 ratios of two PEGylated-SPGO contrast agents in our study in comparison with r 2/ r 1 ratio of previous PEGylation ( r 2/ r 1 = 81.9 for mPEG-silane 6,000 MW) showed that these new three introduced contrast agents could potentially be proper contrast enhancers for cellular and molecular MR imaging.

  6. Structural, optical and magnetic properties of gadolinium sesquioxide nanobars synthesized via thermal decomposition of gadolinium oxalate

    SciTech Connect

    Manigandan, R.; Giribabu, K.; Suresh, R.

    2013-10-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • The cubic Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanobars are synthesized by decomposition of C{sub 6}H{sub 20}Gd{sub 2}O{sub 22}. • The nanoparticles are rectangular bar shape with high porous surface. • The combination of magnetic and optical properties within a single particle. • The Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanobars have tailorable nanostructure, wide bandgap and are paramagnetic. - Abstract: Gadolinium oxide nanobars were obtained by thermal decomposition of gadolinium oxalate, which was synthesized by the chemical precipitation method along with glycerol. The functional group analysis and formation of gadolinium oxide from gadolinium oxalate were characterized by the Fourier transformmore » infrared spectroscopy and thermo gravimetric analyzer. The crystal structure, average crystallite size, and lattice parameter were analyzed by X-ray diffraction technique. Moreover, Raman shifts, elemental composition and morphology of the gadolinium oxide was widely investigated by the laser Raman microscope, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, FE-SEM-EDAX and HR-TEM, respectively. Furthermore, the optical properties like band gap, absorbance measurement of the gadolinium oxide were extensively examined. In addition, the paramagnetic property of gadolinium oxide nanobars was explored by the vibrating sample magnetometer.« less

  7. Graphene Oxide and Gadolinium-Chelate Functionalized Poly(lactic acid) Nanocapsules Encapsulating Perfluorooctylbromide for Ultrasound/Magnetic Resonance Bimodal Imaging Guided Photothermal Ablation of Cancer.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhenglin; Ke, Hengte; Wang, Jinrui; Miao, Zhaohua; Yue, Xiuli

    2016-03-01

    This paper successfully fabricated a novel multifunctional theranostic agent (PFOB@PLA/GO/Gd-DTPA NCs) by loading perfluorooctylbromide (PFOB) into poly(lactic acid) (PLA) nanocapsules (NCs) followed by surface functionalization with graphene oxide (GO) and gadolinium-chelate (Gd-DTPA). It was found that the resulting nanoagent could serve as a contrast agent simultaneously to enhance ultrasound (US) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Benefiting from the strong absorption in the near infrared (NIR) region, the nanocapsules could efficiently kill cancer cells under NIR laser irradiation. Thus, such a single theranostic agent with the combination of realtime US imaging and high-resolution MR imaging could achieve great therapeutic effectiveness without systemic damage to the body. In addition, the cytotoxicity assay on HUVEC cells revealed a good biocompatibility of PFOB@PLA/GO/Gd-DTPA NCs, showing that the versatile nanocapsule system may hold great potential as an effective nanoplatform for contrast enhanced imaging guided photothermal therapy.

  8. Extracellular biosynthesis of gadolinium oxide (Gd2O3) nanoparticles, their biodistribution and bioconjugation with the chemically modified anticancer drug taxol

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Shadab Ali; Gambhir, Sanjay

    2014-01-01

    Summary As a part of our programme to develop nanobioconjugates for the treatment of cancer, we first synthesized extracellular, protein-capped, highly stable and well-dispersed gadolinium oxide (Gd2O3) nanoparticles by using thermophilic fungus Humicola sp. The biodistribution of the nanoparticles in rats was checked by radiolabelling with Tc-99m. Finally, these nanoparticles were bioconjugated with the chemically modified anticancer drug taxol with the aim of characterizing the role of this bioconjugate in the treatment of cancer. The biosynthesized Gd2O3 nanoparticles were characterized by UV–vis spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS). The Gd2O3–taxol bioconjugate was confirmed by UV–vis spectroscopy and fluorescence microscopy and was purified by using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). PMID:24778946

  9. Dual-mode T1 and T2 magnetic resonance imaging contrast agent based on ultrasmall mixed gadolinium-dysprosium oxide nanoparticles: synthesis, characterization, and in vivo application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tegafaw, Tirusew; Xu, Wenlong; Wasi Ahmad, Md; Baeck, Jong Su; Chang, Yongmin; Bae, Ji Eun; Chae, Kwon Seok; Kim, Tae Jeong; Lee, Gang Ho

    2015-09-01

    A new type of dual-mode T1 and T2 magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agent based on mixed lanthanide oxide nanoparticles was synthesized. Gd3+ (8S7/2) plays an important role in T1 MRI contrast agents because of its large electron spin magnetic moment resulting from its seven unpaired 4f-electrons, and Dy3+ (6H15/2) has the potential to be used in T2 MRI contrast agents because of its very large total electron magnetic moment: among lanthanide oxide nanoparticles, Dy2O3 nanoparticles have the largest magnetic moments at room temperature. Using these properties of Gd3+ and Dy3+ and their oxide nanoparticles, ultrasmall mixed gadolinium-dysprosium oxide (GDO) nanoparticles were synthesized and their potential to act as a dual-mode T1 and T2 MRI contrast agent was investigated in vitro and in vivo. The D-glucuronic acid coated GDO nanoparticles (davg = 1.0 nm) showed large r1 and r2 values (r2/r1 ≈ 6.6) and as a result clear dose-dependent contrast enhancements in R1 and R2 map images. Finally, the dual-mode imaging capability of the nanoparticles was confirmed by obtaining in vivo T1 and T2 MR images.

  10. GADOLINIUM(Gd)-BASED and Ion Oxide Nanoparticle Contrast Agents for Pre-Clinical and Clinical Magnetic Resonance Imaging (mri) Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ng, Thian C.

    2012-06-01

    It is known that one strength of MRI is its excellent soft tissue discrimination. It naturally provides sufficient contrast between the structural differences of normal and pathological tissues, their spatial extent and progression. However, to further extend its applications and enhance even more contrast for clinical studies, various Gadolinium (Gd)-based contrast agents have been developed for different organs (brain strokes, cancer, cardio-MRI, etc). These Gd-based contrast agents are paramagnetic compounds that have strong T1-effect for enhancing the contrast between tissue types. Gd-contrast can also enhance magnetic resonance angiography (CE-MRA) for studying stenosis and for measuring perfusion, vascular susceptibility, interstitial space, etc. Another class of contrast agents makes use of ferrite iron oxide nanoparticles (including Superparamagnetic Ion Oxide (SPIO) and Ultrasmall Superparamagnetic Iron Oxide (USPIO)). These nanoparticles have superior magnetic susceptibility effect and produce a drop in signal, namely in T2*-weighted images, useful for the determination of lymph nodes metastases, angiogenesis and arteriosclerosis plaques.

  11. Gadolinium toxicity and treatment.

    PubMed

    Ramalho, Joana; Ramalho, Miguel; Jay, Michael; Burke, Lauren M; Semelka, Richard C

    2016-12-01

    Gadolinium based contrast agents (GBCAs) play an important role in the diagnostic evaluation of many patients. The safety of these agents has been once again questioned after gadolinium deposits were observed and measured in brain and bone of patients with normal renal function. This retention of gadolinium in the human body has been termed "gadolinium storage condition". The long-term and cumulative effects of retained gadolinium in the brain and elsewhere are not as yet understood. Recently, patients who report that they suffer from chronic symptoms secondary to gadolinium exposure and retention created gadolinium-toxicity on-line support groups. Their self-reported symptoms have recently been published. Bone and joint complaints, and skin changes were two of the most common complaints. This condition has been termed "gadolinium deposition disease". In this review we will address gadolinium toxicity disorders, from acute adverse reactions to GBCAs to gadolinium deposition disease, with special emphasis on the latter, as it is the most recently described and least known. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Proton-conducting Micro-solid Oxide Fuel Cells with Improved Cathode Reactions by a Nanoscale Thin Film Gadolinium-doped Ceria Interlayer

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yong; Wang, Shijie; Su, Pei-Chen

    2016-01-01

    An 8 nm-thick gadolinium-doped ceria (GDC) layer was inserted as a cathodic interlayer between the nanoscale proton-conducting yttrium-doped barium zirconate (BZY) electrolyte and the porous platinum cathode of a micro-solid oxide fuel cell (μ-SOFC), which has effectively improved the cathode reaction kinetics and rendered high cell power density. The addition of the GDC interlayer significantly reduced the cathodic activation loss and increased the peak power density of the μ-SOFC by 33% at 400 °C. The peak power density reached 445 mW/cm2 at 425 °C, which is the highest among the reported μ-SOFCs using proton-conducting electrolytes. The impressive performance was attributed to the mixed protonic and oxygen ionic conducting properties of the nano-granular GDC, and also to the high densities of grain boundaries and lattice defects in GDC interlayer that favored the oxygen incorporation and transportation during the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) and the water evolution reaction at cathode. PMID:26928192

  13. Sulfur poisoning of Ni/Gadolinium-doped ceria anodes: A long-term study outlining stable solid oxide fuel cell operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riegraf, Matthias; Zekri, Atef; Knipper, Martin; Costa, Rémi; Schiller, Günter; Friedrich, K. Andreas

    2018-03-01

    This work presents an analysis of the long-term behavior of nickel/gadolinium-doped ceria (CGO) anode-based solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) under sulfur poisoning conditions. A parameter study of sulfur-induced irreversible long-term degradation of commercial, high-performance single cells was carried out at 900 °C for different H2/N2/H2S fuel gas atmospheres, current densities and Ni/CGO anodes. The poisoning periods of the cells varied from 200 to 1500 h. The possibility of stable long-term Ni/CGO anode operation under sulfur exposure is established and the critical operating regime is outlined. Depending on the operating conditions, two degradation phenomena can be observed. Small degradation of the ohmic resistance was witnessed for sulfur exposure times of approximately 1000 h. Moreover, degradation of the anode charge transfer resistance was observed to be triggered by the combination of a small anodic potential step and high sulfur coverage on Ni. The microstructural evolution of altered Ni/CGO anodes was examined post-mortem by means of SEM and FIB/SEM, and is correlated to the anode performance degradation under critical operating conditions, establishing Ni depletion, porosity increase and a tripe phase boundary density decrease in the anode functional layer. It is shown that short-term sulfur poisoning behavior can be used to assess long-term stability.

  14. Novel multi-functional europium-doped gadolinium oxide nanoparticle aerosols facilitate the study of deposition in the developing rat lung

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Gautom K.; Anderson, Donald S.; Wallis, Chris D.; Carratt, Sarah A.; Kennedy, Ian M.; van Winkle, Laura S.

    2016-06-01

    Ambient ultrafine particulate matter (UPM), less than 100 nm in size, has been linked to the development and exacerbation of pulmonary diseases. Age differences in susceptibility to UPM may be due to a difference in delivered dose as well as age-dependent differences in lung biology and clearance. In this study, we developed and characterized aerosol exposures to novel metal oxide nanoparticles containing lanthanides to study particle deposition in the developing postnatal rat lung. Neonatal, juvenile and adult rats (1, 3 and 12 weeks old) were nose only exposed to 380 μg m-3 of ~30 nm europium doped gadolinium oxide nanoparticles (Gd2O3:Eu3+) for 1 h. The deposited dose in the nose, extrapulmonary airways and lungs was determined using inductively-coupled plasma mass spectroscopy. The dose of deposited particles was significantly greater in the juvenile rats at 2.22 ng per g body weight compared to 1.47 ng per g and 0.097 ng per g for the adult and neonate rats, respectively. Toxicity was investigated in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) by quantifying recovered cell types, and measuring lactate dehydrogenase activity and total protein. The toxicity data suggests that the lanthanide particles were not acutely toxic or inflammatory with no increase in neutrophils or lactate dehydrogenase activity at any age. Juvenile and adult rats had the same mass of deposited NPs per gram of lung tissue, while neonatal rats had significantly less NPs deposited per gram of lung tissue. The current study demonstrates the utility of novel lanthanide-based nanoparticles to study inhaled particle deposition in vivo and has important implications for nanoparticles delivery to the developing lung either as therapies or as a portion of particulate matter air pollution.Ambient ultrafine particulate matter (UPM), less than 100 nm in size, has been linked to the development and exacerbation of pulmonary diseases. Age differences in susceptibility to UPM may be due to a difference in

  15. Novel multi-functional europium-doped gadolinium oxide nanoparticle aerosols facilitate the study of deposition in the developing rat lung.

    PubMed

    Das, Gautom K; Anderson, Donald S; Wallis, Chris D; Carratt, Sarah A; Kennedy, Ian M; Van Winkle, Laura S

    2016-06-02

    Ambient ultrafine particulate matter (UPM), less than 100 nm in size, has been linked to the development and exacerbation of pulmonary diseases. Age differences in susceptibility to UPM may be due to a difference in delivered dose as well as age-dependent differences in lung biology and clearance. In this study, we developed and characterized aerosol exposures to novel metal oxide nanoparticles containing lanthanides to study particle deposition in the developing postnatal rat lung. Neonatal, juvenile and adult rats (1, 3 and 12 weeks old) were nose only exposed to 380 μg m(-3) of ∼30 nm europium doped gadolinium oxide nanoparticles (Gd2O3:Eu(3+)) for 1 h. The deposited dose in the nose, extrapulmonary airways and lungs was determined using inductively-coupled plasma mass spectroscopy. The dose of deposited particles was significantly greater in the juvenile rats at 2.22 ng per g body weight compared to 1.47 ng per g and 0.097 ng per g for the adult and neonate rats, respectively. Toxicity was investigated in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) by quantifying recovered cell types, and measuring lactate dehydrogenase activity and total protein. The toxicity data suggests that the lanthanide particles were not acutely toxic or inflammatory with no increase in neutrophils or lactate dehydrogenase activity at any age. Juvenile and adult rats had the same mass of deposited NPs per gram of lung tissue, while neonatal rats had significantly less NPs deposited per gram of lung tissue. The current study demonstrates the utility of novel lanthanide-based nanoparticles to study inhaled particle deposition in vivo and has important implications for nanoparticles delivery to the developing lung either as therapies or as a portion of particulate matter air pollution.

  16. Gadolinium photoionization process

    DOEpatents

    Paisner, J.A.; Comaskey, B.J.; Haynam, C.A.; Eggert, J.H.

    1993-04-13

    A method is provided for selective photoionization of the odd-numbered atomic mass gadolinium isotopes 155 and 157. The selective photoionization is accomplished by circular or linear parallel polarized laser beam energy effecting a three-step photoionization pathway.

  17. Gadolinium photoionization process

    DOEpatents

    Paisner, Jeffrey A.; Comaskey, Brian J.; Haynam, Christopher A.; Eggert, Jon H.

    1993-01-01

    A method is provided for selective photoionization of the odd-numbered atomic mass gadolinium isotopes 155 and 157. The selective photoionization is accomplished by circular or linear parallel polarized laser beam energy effecting a three-step photoionization pathway.

  18. Microstructural Investigation, Raman and Magnetic Studies on Chemically Synthesized Nanocrystalline Ni-Doped Gadolinium Oxide (Gd1.90Ni0.10O3- δ )

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarkar, B. J.; Mandal, J.; Dalal, M.; Bandyopadhyay, A.; Satpati, B.; Chakrabarti, P. K.

    2018-03-01

    Nanocrystalline Ni-doped gadolinium oxide (Gd1.90Ni0.10O3- δ , GNO) is synthesized by co-precipitation method. The as-prepared sample is annealed in vacuum at 700°C for 6 h. Analyses of the x-ray diffractogram by Rietveld refinement method, transmission electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy of GNO recorded at room temperature confirmed the pure crystallographic phase and complete substitution of Ni-ions in Gd2O3 lattice. Magnetization ( M) as a function of temperature ( T) and magnetic field ( H) is measured by a superconducting quantum interference device magnetometer, which suggests the presence of ferromagnetic/antiferromagnetic phases together with a paramagnetic phase. From the M-T curve it can be shown that the ferromagnetic phase dominates over para-/antiferromagnetic phases in the temperature range of 300-100 K, but from 100 K to 50 K, the antiferromagnetic phase dominates over ferro-/paramagnetic phases. Hysteresis loops recorded at different temperatures indicate the presence of weak ferro-/antiferromagnetism, which dominates in the low field region (˜ 4000 Oe), above which magnetization increases linearly. The sharp increase of magnetization in M-T curve observed in the temperature range of 50-5 K confirms the presence of dominating ferromagnetic plus paramagnetic phase over antiferromagnetic part. For the first time a combined formula generated from three-dimensional (3D) spin wave model and Johnston formula is proposed to analyze the coexistence of different magnetic phases in different temperature ranges. Interestingly, the combined formula successfully explains the co-existence of different magnetic phases along with their contribution at different temperatures. The onset of ferromagnetism in Gd1.90Ni0.10O3- δ is explained by oxygen vacancy mediated F-centre exchange (FCE) coupling mechanism.

  19. Process-structure-property relationships of micron thick gadolinium oxide films deposited by reactive electron beam-physical vapor deposition (EB-PVD)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grave, Daniel A.

    Gadolinium oxide (Gd2O3) is an attractive material for solid state neutron detection due to gadolinium's high thermal neutron capture cross section. Development of neutron detectors based on Gd2 O3 requires sufficiently thick films to ensure neutron absorption. In this dissertation work, the process-structure-property relationships of micron thick Gd2O3 films deposited by reactive electron-beam physical vapor deposition (EB-PVD) were studied. Through a systematic design of experiments, fundamental studies were conducted to determine the effects of processing conditions such as deposition temperature, oxygen flow rate, deposition rate, and substrate material on Gd2O3 film crystallographic phase, texture, morphology, grain size, density, and surface roughness. Films deposited at high rates (> 5 A/s) were examined via x-ray diffraction (XRD) and Raman spectroscopy. Quantitative phase volume calculations were performed via a Rietveld refinement technique. All films deposited at high rates were found to be fully monoclinic or mixed cubic/monoclinic phase. Generally, increased deposition temperature and increased oxygen flow resulted in increased cubic phase volume. As film thickness increased, monoclinic phase volume increased. Grazing incidence x-ray diffraction (GIXRD) depth profiling analysis showed that cubic phase was only present under large incidence angle (large penetration depth) measurements, and after a certain point, only monoclinic phase was grown. This was confirmed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis with selected area diffraction (SAD). Based on this information, a large compressive stress was hypothesized to cause the formation of the monoclinic phase and this hypothesis was confirmed by demonstrating the existence of a stress induced phase transition. An experiment was designed to introduce compressive stress into the Gd2O 3 films via ion beam assisted deposition (IBAD). This allowed for systematic increase in compressive stress while

  20. Gadolinium-Induced Fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Todd, Derrick J; Kay, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    Gadolinium-based contrast agents (GBCAs), once believed to be safe for patients with renal disease, have been strongly associated with nephrogenic systemic fibrosis (NSF), a severe systemic fibrosing disorder that predominantly afflicts individuals with advanced renal dysfunction. We provide a historical perspective on the appearance and disappearance of NSF, including its initial recognition as a discrete clinical entity, its association with GBCA exposure, and the data supporting a causative relationship between GBCA exposure and NSF. On the basis of this body of evidence, we propose that the name gadolinium-induced fibrosis (GIF) more accurately reflects the totality of knowledge regarding this disease. Use of high-risk GBCAs, such as formulated gadodiamide, should be avoided in patients with renal disease. Restriction of GBCA use in this population has almost completely eradicated new cases of this debilitating condition. Emerging antifibrotic therapies may be useful for patients who suffer from GIF.

  1. High performance novel gadolinium doped ceria/yttria stabilized zirconia/nickel layered and hybrid thin film anodes for application in solid oxide fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia-Garcia, F. J.; Beltrán, A. M.; Yubero, F.; González-Elipe, A. R.; Lambert, R. M.

    2017-09-01

    Magnetron sputtering under oblique angle deposition was used to produce Ni-containing ultra thin film anodes comprising alternating layers of gadolinium doped ceria (GDC) and yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) of either 200 nm or 1000 nm thickness. The evolution of film structure from initial deposition, through calcination and final reduction was examined by XRD, SEM, TEM and TOF-SIMS. After subsequent fuel cell usage, the porous columnar architecture of the two-component layered thin film anodes was maintained and their resistance to delamination from the underlying YSZ electrolyte was superior to that of corresponding single component Ni-YSZ and Ni-GDC thin films. Moreover, the fuel cell performance of the 200 nm layered anodes compared favorably with conventional commercially available thick anodes. The observed dependence of fuel cell performance on individual layer thicknesses prompted study of equivalent but more easily fabricated hybrid anodes consisting of simultaneously deposited Ni-GDC and Ni-YSZ, which procedure resulted in exceptionally intimate mixing and interaction of the components. The hybrids exhibited very unusual and favorable Isbnd V characteristics, along with exceptionally high power densities at high currents. Their discovery is the principal contribution of the present work.

  2. Proton Relaxivity and Magnetic Hyperthermia Evaluation of Gadolinium Doped Nickel Ferrite Nanoparticles as Potential Theranostic Agents.

    PubMed

    Yadavalli, Tejabhiram; Raja, Paradeep; Ramaswamy, Shivaraman; Chandrasekharan, Gopalakrishnan; Chennakesavulu, Ramasamy

    2017-02-01

    This paper outlines the preparation of gadolinium doped nickel ferrite nanoparticles as potential magnetic carriers and longitudinal magnetic resonance imaging contrast agents using hydrothermal method with gadolinium concentration varying from 10% to 40%. A concise effect on the crystal structure was observed at 10% and 20% gadolinium doping, while gadolinium oxide was observed to leach at concentrations exceeding 20%. Further, gadolinium doped nickel ferrites were analyzed for their morphological, magnetic, proton relaxation and magnetic hyperthermia heating properties to understand their potential role as magnetic carrier agents. Low temperature and room temperature magnetic studies conducted on the samples showed comparatively high magnetic saturation with low remanent magnetization. Further, relaxometry studies revealed a high relaxation rate of 6.63 s−1 at a concentration of 0.1 mg/mL. Magnetic hyperthermia studies of the samples at a concentration of 1 mg/mL, assessed that the samples attained a temperature of 68 °C in 240 seconds.

  3. Fabrication and electrochemical performance of nickel- and gadolinium-doped ceria-infiltrated La0·2Sr0·8TiO3 anodes for solid oxide fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Min-Jin; Shin, Jae-Hwa; Ji, Mi-Jung; Hwang, Hae-Jin

    2018-01-01

    In this work, nickel and gadolinium-doped ceria (GDC)-infiltrated lanthanum strontium titanate (LST) anodes are fabricated, and their electrode performances under a hydrogen atmosphere is investigated in terms of the Ni:GDC ratios and cell operating temperature. The Ni/GDC-infiltrated LST anode exhibits excellent electrode performance in comparison with the Ni- or GDC-infiltrated anodes, which is attributed to the synergistic effect of an extended triple-phase boundary length by GDC and good catalytic activity for hydrogen oxidation because of the Ni particles. The polarization resistances (Rp) of Ni/GDC-infiltrated LST are 0.07, 0.08, and 0.12 Ω cm2 at 800, 750, and 700 °C, respectively, which are approximately three orders of magnitude lower than that of the LST anode (68.5 Ω cm2 at 700 °C). The effect of Ni and GDC on the electrochemical performance of LST was also investigated by using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The anode polarization resistance (Rp) is confirmed to be dependent on the content and dispersion state (microstructure) of the Ni and GDC nanoparticles.

  4. Tailoring gadolinium-doped ceria-based solid oxide fuel cells to achieve 2 W cm(-2) at 550 °C.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jin Goo; Park, Jeong Ho; Shul, Yong Gun

    2014-06-04

    Low-temperature operation is necessary for next-generation solid oxide fuel cells due to the wide variety of their applications. However, significant increases in the fuel cell losses appear in the low-temperature solid oxide fuel cells, which reduce the cell performance. To overcome this problem, here we report Gd0.1Ce0.9O1.95-based low-temperature solid oxide fuel cells with nanocomposite anode functional layers, thin electrolytes and core/shell fibre-structured Ba0.5Sr0.5Co0.8Fe0.2O3-δ-Gd0.1Ce0.9O1.95 cathodes. In particular, the report describes the use of the advanced electrospinning and Pechini process in the preparation of the core/shell-fibre-structured cathodes. The fuel cells show a very high performance of 2 W cm(-2) at 550 °C in hydrogen, and are stable for 300 h even under the high current density of 1 A cm(-2). Hence, the results suggest that stable and high-performance solid oxide fuel cells at low temperatures can be achieved by modifying the microstructures of solid oxide fuel cell components.

  5. Degradation of the electrical characteristics of MOS structures with erbium, gadolinium, and dysprosium oxides under the effect of an electric field

    SciTech Connect

    Shalimova, M. B., E-mail: shamb@samsu.ru; Sachuk, N. V.

    2015-08-15

    The degradation of the characteristics of silicon metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) structures with oxides of rare-earth elements under the effect of electric fields with intensities of 0.1–4 MV/cm during the course of electroforming is studied. A specific feature of electroforming consists in the possibility of multiple switching of the structures from the insulating state to the low-resistivity one and back. The temporal characteristics of the degradation of MOS structures during the course of electroforming are exponential. The current-voltage characteristics follow the power law in the range of 0.2–3 V; the effect of an electric field brings about a variation in the distributionmore » of the energy density of traps responsible for currents limited by space charge. It is established that multiple cycles of electroforming lead to an increase in the density of surface states at the Si-oxide interface and to a variation in the energy position of the trap levels, which affects the charge state of the traps.« less

  6. Removal of gadolinium by peritoneal dialysis.

    PubMed

    Murashima, M; Drott, H R; Carlow, D; Shaw, L M; Milone, M; Bachman, M; Tsai, D E; Yang, S-L; Bloom, R D

    2008-05-01

    An association between gadolinium-containing contrast and the development of nephrogenic systemic fibrosis (NSF) has been increasingly recognized. For patients receiving hemodialysis (HD) who are exposed to gadolinium, the Federal Drug Administration (FDA) recommends HD to remove this contrast agent in order to minimize the risk of NSF. This study examines if gadolinium can be removed by frequent exchanges by peritoneal dialysis (PD). Following administration of 0.1 mmol/kg of gadodiamide to a patient with end-stage renal disease, the serum clearance of this contrast agent by automated PD was examined. 10 and 15 exchanges of PD using an automated cycler were respectively performed during the first and second 24-hour periods after gadolinium exposure. Serum gadolinium levels were measured 1 hour after the gadolinium administration, then at 24 and 48 hours after PD was initiated. 90% of the gadolinium was removed from the circulation in 2 days with a regimen of 10-15 exchanges per day of PD. For patients on chronic maintenance PD who receive gadolinium, our case suggests that a temporary intensive automated PD regimen, aimed at maximizing clearance of this contrast agent immediately after exposure, could be an effective alternative when institution of HD is problematic.

  7. Pathophysiology of gadolinium-associated systemic fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Drel, Viktor; Gorin, Yves

    2016-01-01

    Systemic fibrosis from gadolinium-based magnetic resonance imaging contrast is a scourge for the afflicted. Although gadolinium-associated systemic fibrosis is a rare condition, the threat of litigation has vastly altered clinical practice. Most theories concerning the etiology of the fibrosis are grounded in case reports rather than experiment. This has led to the widely accepted conjecture that the relative affinity of certain contrast agents for the gadolinium ion inversely correlates with the risk of succumbing to the disease. How gadolinium-containing contrast agents trigger widespread and site-specific systemic fibrosis and how chronicity is maintained are largely unknown. This review highlights experimentally-derived information from our laboratory and others that pertain to our understanding of the pathophysiology of gadolinium-associated systemic fibrosis. PMID:27147669

  8. Gadolinium diethylenetriaminopentaacetic acid-loaded chitosan microspheres for gadolinium neutron-capture therapy.

    PubMed

    Saha, Tapan Kumar; Ichikawa, Hideki; Fukumori, Yoshinobu

    2006-12-11

    In order to provide a suitable device that would contain water-soluble drugs, highly water-soluble gadolinium diethylenetriaminopentaacetic acid-loaded chitosan microspheres (CMS-Gd-DTPA) were prepared by the emulsion method using glutaraldehyde as a cross-linker and Span 80 as a surfactant for gadolinium neutron-capture therapy of cancer. The gadolinium content and the mass median diameter of CMS-Gd-DTPA were estimated. The size and morphology of the CMS-Gd-DTPA were strongly influenced by the initial applied weight ratio of Gd-DTPA:chitosan. FTIR spectra showed that the electrostatic interaction between chitosan and Gd-DTPA accelerated the formation of gadolinium-enriched chitosan microspheres. Sufficient amounts of glutaraldehyde and Span 80 were necessary for producing discrete CMS-Gd-DTPA. The CMS-Gd-DTPA having a mass median diameter 11.7microm and 11.6% of gadolinium could be used in Gd-NCT following intratumoral injection.

  9. Are gadolinium contrast agents suitable for gadolinium neutron capture therapy?

    PubMed

    De Stasio, Gelsomina; Rajesh, Deepika; Casalbore, Patrizia; Daniels, Matthew J; Erhardt, Robert J; Frazer, Bradley H; Wiese, Lisa M; Richter, Katherine L; Sonderegger, Brandon R; Gilbert, Benjamin; Schaub, Sebastien; Cannara, Rachel J; Crawford, John F; Gilles, Mary K; Tyliszczak, Tolek; Fowler, John F; Larocca, Luigi M; Howard, Steven P; Mercanti, Delio; Mehta, Minesh P; Pallini, Roberto

    2005-06-01

    Gadolinium neutron capture therapy (GdNCT) is a potential treatment for malignant tumors based on two steps: (1) injection of a tumor-specific (157)Gd compound; (2) tumor irradiation with thermal neutrons. The GdNC reaction can induce cell death provided that Gd is proximate to DNA. Here, we studied the nuclear uptake of Gd by glioblastoma (GBM) tumor cells after treatment with two Gd compounds commonly used for magnetic resonance imaging, to evaluate their potential as GdNCT agents. Using synchrotron X-ray spectromicroscopy, we analyzed the Gd distribution at the subcellular level in: (1) human cultured GBM cells exposed to Gd-DTPA or Gd-DOTA for 0-72 hours; (2) intracerebrally implanted C6 glioma tumors in rats injected with one or two doses of Gd-DOTA, and (3) tumor samples from GBM patients injected with Gd-DTPA. In cell cultures, Gd-DTPA and Gd-DOTA were found in 84% and 56% of the cell nuclei, respectively. In rat tumors, Gd penetrated the nuclei of 47% and 85% of the tumor cells, after single and double injection of Gd-DOTA, respectively. In contrast, in human GBM tumors 6.1% of the cell nuclei contained Gd-DTPA. Efficacy of Gd-DTPA and Gd-DOTA as GdNCT agents is predicted to be low, due to the insufficient number of tumor cell nuclei incorporating Gd. Although multiple administration schedules in vivo might induce Gd penetration into more tumor cell nuclei, a search for new Gd compounds with higher nuclear affinity is warranted before planning GdNCT in animal models or clinical trials.

  10. The Effect of gadolinium on the ESR response of alanine and ammonium tartrate exposed to thermal neutrons.

    PubMed

    Marrale, Maurizio; Brai, Maria; Gennaro, Gaetano; Bartolotta, Antonio; D'Oca, Maria Cristina

    2008-02-01

    Many efforts have been made to develop neutron capture therapy (NCT) for cancer treatment. Among the challenges in using NCT is the characterization of the features of the mixed radiation field and of its components. In this study, we examined the enhancement of the ESR response of pellets of alanine and ammonium tartrate with gadolinium oxide exposed to a thermal neutron beam. In particular, the ESR response of these dosimeters as a function of the gadolinium content inside the dosimeter was analyzed. We found that the addition of gadolinium improves the sensitivity of both alanine and ammonium tartrate. However, the use of gadolinium reduces or abolishes tissue equivalence because of its high atomic number (Z(Gd) = 64). Therefore, it is necessary to find the optimum compromise between the sensitivity to thermal neutrons and the reduction of tissue equivalence. Our analysis showed that a low concentration of gadolinium oxide (of the order of 5% of the total mass of the dosimeter) can enhance the thermal neutron sensitivity more than 13 times with an insignificant reduction of tissue equivalence.

  11. Gadolinium: Central Metal of the Lanthanoids

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laing, Michael

    2009-01-01

    The physical and chemical properties of gadolinium are compared with those of the other lanthanoids. Some properties are intermediate between those of lanthanum and lutetium; some between those of barium and hafnium; and others (unexpectedly) between those of ytterbium and lutetium. Both the remarkably high molar heat capacity of the metal and the…

  12. In vitro radiosensitizing effects of ultrasmall gadolinium based particles on tumour cells.

    PubMed

    Mowat, P; Mignot, A; Rima, W; Lux, F; Tillement, O; Roulin, C; Dutreix, M; Bechet, D; Huger, S; Humbert, L; Barberi-Heyob, M; Aloy, M T; Armandy, E; Rodriguez-Lafrasse, C; Le Duc, G; Roux, S; Perriat, P

    2011-09-01

    Since radiotherapy is widely used in cancer treatment, it is essential to develop strategies which lower the irradiation burden while increasing efficacy and become efficient even in radio resistant tumors. Our new strategy is relying on the development of solid hybrid nanoparticles based on rare-earth such as gadolinium. In this paper, we then evidenced that gadolinium-based particles can be designed to enter efficiently into the human glioblastoma cell line U87 in quantities that can be tuned by modifying the incubation conditions. These sub-5 nm particles consist in a core of gadolinium oxide, a shell of polysiloxane and are functionalized by diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA). Although photoelectric effect is maximal in the [10-100 keV] range, such particles were found to possess efficient in-vitro radiosensitizing properties at an energy of 660 keV by using the "single-cell gel electrophoresis comet assay," an assay that measures the number of DNA damage that occurs during irradiation. Even more interesting, the particles have been evidenced by MTT assays to be also efficient radiosensitizers at an energy of 6 MeV for doses comprised between 2 and 8 Gy. The properties of the gadolinium-based particles give promising opening to a particle-assisted radio-therapy by using irradiation systems already installed in the majority of hospitals.

  13. Subcellular SIMS imaging of gadolinium isotopes in human glioblastoma cells treated with a gadolinium containing MRI agent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Duane R.; Lorey, Daniel R.; Chandra, Subhash

    2004-06-01

    Neutron capture therapy is an experimental binary radiotherapeutic modality for the treatment of brain tumors such as glioblastoma multiforme. Recently, neutron capture therapy with gadolinium-157 has gained attention, and techniques for studying the subcellular distribution of gadolinium-157 are needed. In this preliminary study, we have been able to image the subcellular distribution of gadolinium-157, as well as the other six naturally abundant isotopes of gadolinium, with SIMS ion microscopy. T98G human glioblastoma cells were treated for 24 h with 25 mg/ml of the metal ion complex diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid Gd(III) dihydrogen salt hydrate (Gd-DTPA). Gd-DTPA is a contrast enhancing agent used for MRI of brain tumors, blood-brain barrier impairment, diseases of the central nervous system, etc. A highly heterogeneous subcellular distribution was observed for gadolinium-157. The nuclei in each cell were distinctly lower in gadolinium-157 than in the cytoplasm. Even within the cytoplasm the gadolinium-157 was heterogeneously distributed. The other six naturally abundant isotopes of gadolinium were imaged from the same cells and exhibited a subcellular distribution consistent with that observed for gadolinium-157. These observations indicate that SIMS ion microscopy may be a viable approach for subcellular studies of gadolinium containing neutron capture therapy drugs and may even play a major role in the development and validation of new gadolinium contrast enhancing agents for diagnostic MRI applications.

  14. Method of separating and purifying gadolinium-153

    DOEpatents

    Bray, Lane A [Richland, WA; Corneillie, Todd M [Davis, CA

    2001-01-01

    The present invention is an improvement to the method of separating and purifying gadolinium from a mixture of gadolinium and europium having the steps of (a) dissolving the mixture in an acid; (b) reducing europium+3 to europium+2; and (c) precipitating the europium+2 with a sulfate ion in a superstoichiometric amount; wherein the improvement is achieved by using one or more of the following: (i) the acid is an anoic acid; (ii) the reducing is with zinc metal in the absence of a second metal or with an amount of the second metal that is ineffective in the reducing; (iii) adding a group IIA element after step (c) for precipitating the excess sulfate prior to repeating step (c); (iv) the sulfate is a sulfate salt with a monovalent cation; (v) adding cold europium+3 prior to repeating step (c).

  15. Room temperature ferromagnetic gadolinium silicide nanoparticles

    DOEpatents

    Hadimani, Magundappa Ravi L.; Gupta, Shalabh; Harstad, Shane; Pecharsky, Vitalij; Jiles, David C.

    2018-03-06

    A particle usable as T1 and T2 contrast agents is provided. The particle is a gadolinium silicide (Gd5Si4) particle that is ferromagnetic at temperatures up to 290 K and is less than 2 .mu.m in diameter. An MRI contrast agent that includes a plurality of gadolinium silicide (Gd.sub.5Si.sub.4) particles that are less than 1 .mu.m in diameter is also provided. A method for creating gadolinium silicide (Gd5Si4) particles is also provided. The method includes the steps of providing a Gd5Si4 bulk alloy; grinding the Gd5Si4 bulk alloy into a powder; and milling the Gd5Si4 bulk alloy powder for a time of approximately 20 minutes or less.

  16. Reaction of gadolinium chelates with ozone and hydroxyl radicals.

    PubMed

    Cyris, Maike; Knolle, Wolfgang; Richard, Jessica; Dopp, Elke; von Sonntag, Clemens; Schmidt, Torsten C

    2013-09-03

    Gadolinium chelates are used in increasing amounts as contrast agents in magnetic resonance imaging, and their fate in wastewater treatment has recently become the focus of research. Oxidative processes, in particular the application of ozone, are currently discussed or even implemented for advanced wastewater treatment. However, reactions of the gadolinium chelates with ozone are not yet characterized. In this study, therefore, rate constants with ozone were determined for the three commonly used chelates Gd-DTPA, Gd-DTPA-BMA, and Gd-BT-DO3A, which were found to be 4.8 ± 0.88, 46 ± 2.5, and 24 ± 1.5 M(-1) s(-1), respectively. These low rate constants indicate that a direct reaction with ozone in wastewater is negligible. However, application of ozone in wastewater leads to substantial yields of (•)OH. Different methods have been applied and compared for determination of k((•)OH+Gd chelate). From rate constants determined by pulse radiolysis experiments (k((•)OH+Gd-DTPA) = 2.6 ± 0.2 × 10(9) M(-1) s(-1), k((•)OH+Gd-DTPA-BMA) = 1.9 ± 0.7 × 10(9) M(-1) s(-1), k((•)OH+Gd-BT-DO3A) = 4.3 ± 0.2 × 10(9) M(-1) s(-1)), it is concluded that a reaction in wastewater via (•)OH radicals is feasible. Toxicity has been tested for educt and product mixtures of both reactions. Cytotoxicity (MTT test) and genotoxicity (micronuclei assay) were not detectable.

  17. Blue/pink/purple electroluminescence from metal-oxide-semiconductor devices fabricated by spin-coating of [tantalum:(gadolinium/praseodymium)] and (praseodymium:cerium) organic compounds on silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohzone, Takashi; Matsuda, Toshihiro; Fukuoka, Ryouhei; Hattori, Fumihiro; Iwata, Hideyuki

    2016-08-01

    Blue/pink/purple electroluminescence (EL) from metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) devices with an indium tin oxide (ITO)/[Gd/(Ta + Gd/Pr)/(Pr + Ce)-Si-O] insulator layer/n+-Si substrate surface is reported. The insulator layers were fabricated from organic liquid sources of Gd or (Ta + Gd/Pr)/(Pr + Ce) mixtures, which were spin-coated on the n+-Si substrate and annealed at 950 °C for 30 min in air. The EL emission could be observed by the naked eye in the dark in the Fowler-Nordheim (FN) tunnel current regions. Peak wavelengths in the measured EL spectra were independent of the positive current. The EL intensity ratio of ultraviolet (UV) to the visible range varied with the composition ratio of the (Ta + Gd) liquids, and an optimum Ta to Gd ratio existed for the strongest blue emission, which could be attributed to the Ta-related oxide/silicate. The pink EL of the device fabricated with the (\\text{Ta}:\\text{Pr} = 6:4) mixture ratio can be explained by EL emission peaks related to the Pr3+ ions. The purple EL observed from the (\\text{Pr}:\\text{Ce} = 6:4) device corresponds to the strong and broad emission profile near the 357 nm peak, which cannot be assigned to Ce3+ ions. The results suggest that the EL can be attributed to the double-layer oxides with different compositions in the MOS devices. The upper layer consists of various Ta-, Gd-, Pr-, and Ce-related oxides and their silicates, while the lower SiO x -rich layer contributes to the FN current due to the high electric field, and thus the various EL colors.

  18. Microstructural Anisotropy of Magnetocaloric Gadolinium Cylinders: Effect on the Mechanical Properties of the Material

    PubMed Central

    Petrovič, Darja Steiner; Šturm, Roman; Naglič, Iztok; Markoli, Boštjan; Pepelnjak, Tomaž

    2016-01-01

    The development of advanced materials and technologies based on magnetocaloric Gd and its compounds requires an understanding of the dependency of mechanical properties on their underlying microstructure. Therefore, the aim of the study was to characterize microstructural inhomogeneities in the gadolinium that can be used in magnetocaloric refrigeration systems. Microstructures of magnetocaloric gadolinium cylinders were investigated by light microscopy and FE-SEM (Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy), EDS (Energy-dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy), and BSE (Back-scattered Electrons) in both the extrusion and the extrusion-transversal directions. XRD (X-ray Diffraction) analyses were performed to reveal the presence of calcium- and fluorine-based compounds. Metallographic characterization showed an oxidized and inhomogeneous microstructure of the cross-sections. The edges and the outer parts of the cylinders were oxidized more intensively on the surfaces directly exposed to the processing tools. Moreover, a significant morphological anisotropy of the non-metallic inclusions was observed. CaF inclusions act as active nucleation sites for internal oxidation. The non-metallic, Ca- and F-containing inclusions can be classified as complex calciumoxyfluorides. The solubility of Er and Yb in the CaF was negligible compared to the Gd matrix and/or the oxide phase. Lower mechanical properties of the material are a consequence of the lower structural integrity due to selective oxidation of surfaces and interfaces. PMID:28773502

  19. Light deflection in gadolinium molybdate ferroelastic crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Staniorowski, Piotr; Bornarel, Jean

    2000-02-01

    The deflection of a He-Ne light beam by polydomain gadolinium molybdate (GMO) crystals has been studied with respect to incidence angle icons/Journals/Common/alpha" ALT="alpha" ALIGN="TOP"/> i on the sample at room temperature. The A and B deflected beams do not cross each other during the icons/Journals/Common/alpha" ALT="alpha" ALIGN="TOP"/> i variation, in contrast to results and calculations previously published. The model using the Fresnel equation confirms this result. The model presented is more accurate for numerical calculation than that using the Huygens construction.

  20. Nephrogenic Systemic Fibrosis Manifesting a Decade After Exposure to Gadolinium.

    PubMed

    Larson, Krista N; Gagnon, Amy L; Darling, Melissa D; Patterson, James W; Cropley, Thomas G

    2015-10-01

    Nephrogenic systemic fibrosis (NSF) is a fibrosing skin disorder that develops in patients with kidney failure and has been linked to exposure to gadolinium-containing contrast agents. The time between exposure to gadolinium and the initial presentation of NSF is typically weeks to months but has been documented to be as long as 3½ years. We report a case of NSF developing 10 years after exposure to gadolinium. A long-term hemodialysis patient was exposed to gadolinium several times between 1998 and 2004 during magnetic resonance angiography of his abdominal vessels and arteriovenous fistula. In 2014, he was seen at our clinic with new dermal papules and plaques. Biopsy of affected skin showed thickening of collagen, CD34+ spindle cells, and increased mucin in the dermis, supporting the diagnosis of NSF. The clinical history and histopathological features of this case support the diagnosis of NSF 10 years after exposure to gadolinium. Although the use of gadolinium contrast agents in patients with kidney failure has markedly decreased, patients with exposure to gadolinium years to decades previously may manifest the disease.

  1. Alkali metal and alkali earth metal gadolinium halide scintillators

    DOEpatents

    Bourret-Courchesne, Edith; Derenzo, Stephen E.; Parms, Shameka; Porter-Chapman, Yetta D.; Wiggins, Latoria K.

    2016-08-02

    The present invention provides for a composition comprising an inorganic scintillator comprising a gadolinium halide, optionally cerium-doped, having the formula A.sub.nGdX.sub.m:Ce; wherein A is nothing, an alkali metal, such as Li or Na, or an alkali earth metal, such as Ba; X is F, Br, Cl, or I; n is an integer from 1 to 2; m is an integer from 4 to 7; and the molar percent of cerium is 0% to 100%. The gadolinium halides or alkali earth metal gadolinium halides are scintillators and produce a bright luminescence upon irradiation by a suitable radiation.

  2. Removal of gadolinium nitrate from heavy water

    SciTech Connect

    Wilde, E.W.

    2000-03-22

    Work was conducted to develop a cost-effective process to purify 181 55-gallon drums containing spent heavy water moderator (D2O) contaminated with high concentrations of gadolinium nitrate, a chemical used as a neutron poison during former nuclear reactor operations at the Savannah River Site (SRS). These drums also contain low level radioactive contamination, including tritium, which complicates treatment options. Presently, the drums of degraded moderator are being stored on site. It was suggested that a process utilizing biological mechanisms could potentially lower the total cost of heavy water purification by allowing the use of smaller equipment with less product loss andmore » a reduction in the quantity of secondary waste materials produced by the current baseline process (ion exchange).« less

  3. Neutron Detection Utilizing Gadolinium Doped Hafnium Oxide Films

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-03-01

    2.2. Charge Carriers ................................................................................................ 2-2 2.3. Dopants and Impurities...the movement of the charge carries can be assumed to be at this drift velocity and in the direction of the electric field. 2.3. Dopants and...present even with the best purification processes. However, a material, or dopant , can be intentionally added to vary the electrical

  4. Toxicological and pharmacological effects of gadolinium and samarium chlorides

    PubMed Central

    Haley, T. J.; Raymond, K.; Komesu, N.; Upham, H. C.

    1961-01-01

    A study has been made of the toxicology and pharmacology of gadolinium and samarium chlorides. The symptoms of acute toxicity following intraperitoneal injection are described. The chronic oral ingestion of both chemicals for 12 weeks produced no effects on growth or the blood picture, and only the male rats receiving gadolinium chloride showed liver damage. The pharmacological responses to both chemicals were mainly depressant on all systems studied, and death was associated with cardiovascular collapse coupled with respiratory paralysis. The greatest damage seen was on abraded skin, where non-healing ulcers were produced by both chemicals, whereas irritation of intact skin and ocular tissues was only transient in nature. PMID:13903826

  5. Gadolinium Distribution in Cerebrospinal Fluid after Administration of a Gadolinium-based MR Contrast Agent in Humans.

    PubMed

    Berger, Florian; Kubik-Huch, Rahel A; Niemann, Tilo; Schmid, Hans Ruedi; Poetzsch, Michael; Froehlich, Johannes M; Beer, Jürg H; Thali, Michael J; Kraemer, Thomas

    2018-05-08

    Purpose To evaluate whether gadolinium penetrates human cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) after MR imaging (MRI) with a gadolinium-based contrast agent (GBCA). Materials and Methods For this retrospective study, the authors analyzed 60 CSF samples from 57 patients (median age, 50 years; range, 3-92 years) who underwent one contrast material-enhanced MRI examination with gadoterate meglumine within 60 days of CSF extraction between January and December 2016. CSF samples from patients who underwent MRI without contrast material administration (n = 22) or those who underwent contrast-enhanced MRI at least 1 year before extraction (n = 2) were analyzed and used as control samples. CSF measurements were performed with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry by monitoring the gadolinium 158 isotope. Statistical analyses were performed by using a preliminary Kruskal-Wallis test. Results Higher CSF gadolinium concentrations were detected within the first 8 hours after GBCA administration (mean concentration, 1152 ng/mL ± 734.6). Concentrations were lower between 8 and 48 hours (872 ng/mL ± 586). After 48 hours, gadolinium was almost completely cleared from CSF (121 ng/mL ± 296.3). All but two samples from the 24 control patients (median age, 60.5 years; range, 19-79 years) were negative for the presence of gadolinium. Those samples were from patients who had undergone GBCA-enhanced MRI examination more than a year before CSF extraction (0.1 and 0.2 ng/mL after 1 and 3 years, respectively). The concentrations in patients with chronic renal insufficiency (n = 3), cerebral toxoplasmosis (n = 1), and liver cirrhosis (n = 1) were higher than the mean concentrations. Conclusion Gadoterate meglumine can be detected in human CSF after intravenous administration. © RSNA, 2018.

  6. Gadolinium accumulation in organs of Sprague-Dawley® rats after implantation of a biodegradable magnesium-gadolinium alloy.

    PubMed

    Myrissa, Anastasia; Braeuer, Simone; Martinelli, Elisabeth; Willumeit-Römer, Regine; Goessler, Walter; Weinberg, Annelie Martina

    2017-01-15

    Biodegradable magnesium implants are under investigation because of their promising properties as medical devices. For enhancing the mechanical properties and the degradation resistance, rare earth elements are often used as alloying elements. In this study Mg10Gd pins were implanted into Sprague-Dawley® rats. The pin volume loss and a possible accumulation of magnesium and gadolinium in the rats' organs and blood were investigated in a long-term study over 36weeks. The results showed that Mg10Gd is a fast disintegrating material. Already 12weeks after implantation the alloy is fragmented to smaller particles, which can be found within the intramedullary cavity and the cortical bones. They disturbed the bone remodeling until the end of the study. The results concerning the elements' distribution in the animals' bodies were even more striking, since an accumulation of gadolinium could be observed in the investigated organs over the whole time span. The most affected tissue was the spleen, with up to 3240μgGd/kg wet mass, followed by the lung, liver and kidney (up to 1040, 685 and 207μgGd/kg). In the brain, muscle and heart, the gadolinium concentrations were much smaller (less than 20μg/kg), but an accumulation could still be detected. Interestingly, blood serum samples showed no accumulation of magnesium and gadolinium. This is the first time that an accumulation of gadolinium in animal organs was observed after the application of a gadolinium-containing degradable magnesium implant. These findings demonstrate the importance of future investigations concerning the distribution of the constituents of new biodegradable materials in the body, to ensure the patients' safety. In the last years, biodegradable Mg alloys are under investigation due to their promising properties as orthopaedic devices used for bone fracture stabilization. Gadolinium as Rare Earth Element enhances the mechanical properties of Mg-Gd alloys but its toxicity in humans is still questionable

  7. Use of gadolinium-based magnetic resonance imaging contrast agents and awareness of brain gadolinium deposition among pediatric providers in North America.

    PubMed

    Mithal, Leena B; Patel, Payal S; Mithal, Divakar; Palac, Hannah L; Rozenfeld, Michael N

    2017-05-01

    Numerous recent articles have reported brain gadolinium deposition when using linear but not macrocyclic gadolinium-based contrast agents (GBCAs). To determine the current landscape of gadolinium use among pediatric institutions and the knowledge base of radiologists and referring providers with regard to GBCAs and brain gadolinium deposition. We e-mailed voluntary closed surveys to 5,390 physicians in various pediatric professional societies between January 2016 and March 2016. We used chi-square and Fisher exact tests to compare response distributions among specialties. We found that 80% of surveyed pediatric hospitals use macrocyclic contrast agents. In the last year, 58% switched their agent, most commonly to gadoterate meglumine, with the most common reason being brain gadolinium deposition. Furthermore, surveys indicated that 23% of hospitals are considering switching, and, of these, 83% would switch to gadoterate meglumine; the most common reasons were brain gadolinium deposition and safety. Radiologists were more aware of brain gadolinium deposition than non-radiologist physicians (87% vs. 26%; P<0.0001). Radiologists and referring providers expressed similar levels of concern (95% and 89%). Twelve percent of radiologists and 2% of referring providers reported patients asking about brain gadolinium deposition. Radiologists were significantly more comfortable addressing patient inquiries than referring pediatric physicians (48% vs. 6%; P<0.0001). The number of MRIs requested by referring pediatric physicians correlated with their knowledge of brain gadolinium deposition, contrast agent used by their hospital, and comfort discussing brain gadolinium deposition with patients (P<0.0001). Since the discovery of brain gadolinium deposition, many pediatric hospitals have switched to or plan to switch to a more stable macrocyclic MR contrast agent, most commonly gadoterate meglumine. Despite this, there is need for substantial further education of radiologists and

  8. Layered gadolinium hydroxides for low-temperature magnetic cooling.

    PubMed

    Abellán, Gonzalo; Espallargas, Guillermo Mínguez; Lorusso, Giulia; Evangelisti, Marco; Coronado, Eugenio

    2015-09-28

    Layered gadolinium hydroxides have revealed to be excellent candidates for cryogenic magnetic refrigeration. These materials behave as pure 2D magnetic systems with a Heisenberg-Ising critical crossover, induced by dipolar interactions. This 2D character and the possibility offered by these materials to be delaminated open the possibility of rapid heat dissipation upon substrate deposition.

  9. Type-II domains in ferroelectric gadolinium molybdate (in German)

    SciTech Connect

    Bohm, J.; Kuersten, H.D.

    Etching (001)-faces of gadolinium molybdate (GMO) reveals new kinds of domains. They are created by a translation, that leaves the spontaneous polarization and the transition parameter invariant. The translation vector is a part of a lattice vector, similar to stacking faults. (auth)

  10. Structural and magnetic phase transitions in gadolinium under high pressures and low temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Samudrala, Gopi K.; Tsoi, Georgiy M.; Weir, Samuel T.

    High pressure structural transition studies have been carried out on rare earth metal gadolinium in a diamond anvil cell at room temperature to 169 GPa. Gadolinium has been compressed to 38% of its initial volume at this pressure. With increasing pressure, a crystal structure sequence of hcp → Smtype→ dhcp → fcc → dfcc → monoclinic has been observed in our studies on gadolinium. The measured equation of state of gadolinium is presented to 169 GPa at ambient temperature. Magnetic ordering temperature of gadolinium has been studied using designer diamond anvils to a pressure of 25 GP and a temperaturemore » of 10 K. The magnetic ordering temperature has been determined from the four-point electrical resistivity measurements carried out on gadolinium. Furthermore, our experiments show that the magnetic transition temperature decreases with increasing pressure to 19 GPa and then increases when gadolinium is subjected to higher pressures.« less

  11. Structural and magnetic phase transitions in gadolinium under high pressures and low temperatures

    DOE PAGES

    Samudrala, Gopi K.; Tsoi, Georgiy M.; Weir, Samuel T.; ...

    2014-11-07

    High pressure structural transition studies have been carried out on rare earth metal gadolinium in a diamond anvil cell at room temperature to 169 GPa. Gadolinium has been compressed to 38% of its initial volume at this pressure. With increasing pressure, a crystal structure sequence of hcp → Smtype→ dhcp → fcc → dfcc → monoclinic has been observed in our studies on gadolinium. The measured equation of state of gadolinium is presented to 169 GPa at ambient temperature. Magnetic ordering temperature of gadolinium has been studied using designer diamond anvils to a pressure of 25 GP and a temperaturemore » of 10 K. The magnetic ordering temperature has been determined from the four-point electrical resistivity measurements carried out on gadolinium. Furthermore, our experiments show that the magnetic transition temperature decreases with increasing pressure to 19 GPa and then increases when gadolinium is subjected to higher pressures.« less

  12. Magnetic resonance characteristics and susceptibility weighted imaging of the brain in gadolinium encephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Samardzic, Dejan; Thamburaj, Krishnamoorthy

    2015-01-01

    To report the brain imaging features on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in inadvertent intrathecal gadolinium administration. A 67-year-old female with gadolinium encephalopathy from inadvertent high dose intrathecal gadolinium administration during an epidural steroid injection was studied with multisequence 3T MRI. T1-weighted imaging shows pseudo-T2 appearance with diffusion of gadolinium into the brain parenchyma, olivary bodies, and membranous labyrinth. Nulling of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) signal is absent on fluid attenuation recovery (FLAIR). Susceptibility-weighted imaging (SWI) demonstrates features similar to subarachnoid hemorrhage. CT may demonstrate a pseudo-cerebral edema pattern given the high attenuation characteristics of gadolinium. Intrathecal gadolinium demonstrates characteristic imaging features on MRI of the brain and may mimic subarachnoid hemorrhage on susceptibility-weighted imaging. Identifying high dose gadolinium within the CSF spaces on MRI is essential to avoid diagnostic and therapeutic errors. Copyright © 2013 by the American Society of Neuroimaging.

  13. Structural and magnetic phase transitions in gadolinium under high pressures and low temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samudrala, Gopi K.; Tsoi, Georgiy M.; Weir, Samuel T.; Vohra, Yogesh K.

    2014-10-01

    High pressure structural transition studies have been carried out on rare earth metal gadolinium in a diamond anvil cell at room temperature to 169 GPa. Gadolinium has been compressed to 38% of its initial volume at this pressure. With increasing pressure, a crystal structure sequence of hcp → Sm-type → dhcp → fcc → dfcc → monoclinic has been observed in our studies on gadolinium. The measured equation of state of gadolinium is presented to 169 GPa at ambient temperature. Magnetic ordering temperature of gadolinium has been studied using designer diamond anvils to a pressure of 25 GPa and a temperature of 10 K. The magnetic ordering temperature has been determined from the four-point electrical resistivity measurements carried out on gadolinium. Our experiments show that the magnetic transition temperature decreases with increasing pressure to 19 GPa and then increases when gadolinium is subjected to higher pressures.

  14. Gadolinium Brain Deposition after Macrocyclic Gadolinium Administration: A Pediatric Case-Control Study.

    PubMed

    Tibussek, Daniel; Rademacher, Christin; Caspers, Julian; Turowski, Bernd; Schaper, Jörg; Antoch, Gerald; Klee, Dirk

    2017-10-01

    Purpose To determine whether signal intensity (SI) in T1 sequences as a potential indicator of gadolinium deposition increases after repeated administration of the macrocyclic gadolinium-based contrast agents (GBCAs) gadoteridol and gadoterate meglumine in a pediatric cohort. Materials and Methods This retrospective case-control study of children with brain tumors who underwent nine or more contrast material-enhanced brain magnetic resonance (MR) imaging studies from 2008 to 2015 was approved by the local ethics board. Informed consent was obtained for MR imaging. Twenty-four case patients aged 5-18 years and appropriate control patients with nonpathologic MR neuroimaging findings (and no GBCA administration), matched for age and sex, were inculded. SI was measured on unenhanced T1-weighted MR images for the following five regions of interest (ROIs): the dentate nucleus (DN), pons, substantia nigra (SN), pulvinar thalami, and globus pallidus (GP). Paired t tests were used to compare SI and SI ratios (DN to pons, GP to thalamus) between case patients and control patients. Pearson correlations between relative signal changes and the number of GBCA administrations and total GBCA dose were calculated. Results The mean number of GBCA administrations was 14.2. No significant differences in mean SI for any ROI and no group differences were found when DN-to-pons and GP-to-pulvinar ratios were compared (DN-to-pons ratio in case patients: mean, 1.0083 ± 0.0373 [standard deviation]; DN-to-pons ratio in control patients: mean, 1.0183 ± 0.01917; P = .37; GP-to-pulvinar ratio in case patients: mean, 1.1335 ± 0.04528; and GP-to-pulvinar ratio in control patients: mean, 1.1141 ± 0.07058; P = .29). No correlation was found between the number of GBCA administrations or the total amount of GBCA administered and signal change for any ROI. (Number of GBCA applications: DN: r = -0.254, P = .31; pons: r = -0.097, P = .65; SN: r = -0.194, P = .38; GP: r = -0.175, P = .41; pulvinar: r

  15. Synthesis of bulk-size transparent gadolinium oxide–polymer nanocomposites for gamma ray spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Wen; Chen, Qi; Cherepy, Nerine; Dooraghi, Alex; Kishpaugh, David; Chatziioannou, Arion; Payne, Stephen; Xiang, Weidong

    2015-01-01

    Heavy element loaded polymer composites have long been proposed to detect high energy X- and γ-rays upon scintillation. The previously reported bulk composite scintillators have achieved limited success because of the diminished light output resulting from fluorescence quenching and opacity. We demonstrate the synthesis of a transparent nanocomposite comprising gadolinium oxide nanocrystals uniformly dispersed in bulk-size samples at a high loading content. The strategy to avoid luminescence quenching and opacity in the nanocomposite was successfully deployed, which led to the radioluminescence light yield of up to 27 000/MeV, about twice as much as standard commercial plastic scintillators. Nanocomposites monoliths (14 mm diameter by 3 mm thickness) with 31 wt% loading of nanocrystals generated a photoelectric peak for Cs-137 gamma (662 keV) with 11.4% energy resolution. PMID:26478816

  16. Perovskite catalysts for oxidative coupling

    DOEpatents

    Campbell, K.D.

    1991-06-25

    Perovskites of the structure A[sub 2]B[sub 2]C[sub 3]O[sub 10] are useful as catalysts for the oxidative coupling of lower alkane to heavier hydrocarbons. A is alkali metal; B is lanthanide or lanthanum, cerium, neodymium, samarium, praseodymium, gadolinium or dysprosium; and C is titanium.

  17. Perovskite catalysts for oxidative coupling

    DOEpatents

    Campbell, Kenneth D.

    1991-01-01

    Perovskites of the structure A.sub.2 B.sub.2 C.sub.3 O.sub.10 are useful as catalysts for the oxidative coupling of lower alkane to heavier hydrocarbons. A is alkali metal; B is lanthanide or lanthanum, cerium, neodymium, samarium, praseodymium, gadolinium or dysprosium; and C is titanium.

  18. Gadolinium Chelate Safety in Pregnancy: Barely Detectable Gadolinium Levels in the Juvenile Nonhuman Primate after in Utero Exposure.

    PubMed

    Prola-Netto, Joao; Woods, Mark; Roberts, Victoria H J; Sullivan, Elinor L; Miller, Christina Ann; Frias, Antonio E; Oh, Karen Y

    2018-01-01

    Purpose To determine whether gadolinium remains in juvenile nonhuman primate tissue after maternal exposure to intravenous gadoteridol during pregnancy. Materials and Methods Gravid rhesus macaques and their offspring (n = 10) were maintained, as approved by the institutional animal care and utilization committee. They were prospectively studied as part of a pre-existing ongoing research protocol to evaluate the effects of maternal malnutrition on placental and fetal development. On gestational days 85 and 135, they underwent placental magnetic resonance imaging after intravenous gadoteridol administration. Amniocentesis was performed on day 135 prior to administration of the second dose of gadoteridol. After delivery, the offspring were followed for 7 months. Tissue samples from eight different organs and from blood were harvested from each juvenile macaque. Gadolinium levels were measured by using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Results Gadolinium concentration in the amniotic fluid was 0.028 × 10 -5 %ID/g (percentage injected dose per gram of tissue) 50 days after administration of one gadoteridol dose. Gadolinium was most consistently detected in the femur (mean, 2.5 × 10 -5 %ID/g; range, [0.81-4.1] × 10 -5 %ID/g) and liver (mean, 0.15 × 10 -5 %ID/g; range, [0-0.26] × 10 -5 %ID/g). Levels were undetectable in the remaining sampled tissues, with the exception of one juvenile skin sample (0.07 × 10 -5 %ID/g), one juvenile spleen sample (0.039 × 10 -5 %ID/g), and one juvenile brain (0.095 × 10 -5 %ID/g) and kidney (0.13 × 10 -5 %ID/g) sample. Conclusion The presence of gadoteridol in the amniotic fluid after maternal injection enables confirmation that it crosses the placenta. Extremely low levels of gadolinium are found in juvenile macaque tissues after in utero exposure to two doses of gadoteridol, indicating that a very small amount of gadolinium persists after delivery. © RSNA, 2017.

  19. Gadolinium Endohedral Metallofullerene-Based MRI Contrast Agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolskar, Robert D.

    With the ability to encapsulate and carry the highly paramagnetic Gd3+ ion, gadolinium endohedral metallofullerenes or "gadofullerenes" are being explored as alternatives to the chelate complexes that are currently used for contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Reviewed here are the various water-soluble derivatives of the gadofullerenes Gd@C82, Gd@C60, and Gd3N@C80 that have been investigated as MRI contrast agents. The water proton r1 relaxivities of gadofullerenes can be more than an order of magnitude higher than those of clinically used chelate agents. Gadofullerene relaxivity mechanisms have been studied, and multiple factors are found to contribute to their high relaxivities. In vitro and in vivoT1-weighted MRI tests of gadofullerene derivatives have shown their utility as bright image-enhancing agents. The gadofullerene MRI contrast agents are a promising new and unique style of gadolinium carrier for advanced imaging applications, including cellular and molecular imaging.

  20. Electron magnetic resonance investigation of gadolinium diffusion in zircon powders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Biasi, R. S.; Grillo, M. L. N.

    2011-11-01

    The electron magnetic resonance (EMR) technique was used to investigate the diffusion of gadolinium in zircon (ZrSiO4) powders. The EMR absorption intensity was measured for several annealing times and three different temperatures of isothermal annealing: 1273, 1323 and 1373 K. The activation energy for diffusion, calculated from the experimental data using a theoretical model based on the Fick equation, was found to be EA=506±5 kJ mol-1. This value is close to the ones for the diffusion of Gd in UO2 and CeO2, but much larger than for the diffusion of gadolinium in a compound with the same crystal structure as zircon, YVO4. This is attributed to a difference in the relative sizes of the ions involved in the diffusion process.

  1. [Gadolinium-based contrast agents for magnetic resonance imaging].

    PubMed

    Carrasco Muñoz, S; Calles Blanco, C; Marcin, Javier; Fernández Álvarez, C; Lafuente Martínez, J

    2014-06-01

    Gadolinium-based contrast agents are increasingly being used in magnetic resonance imaging. These agents can improve the contrast in images and provide information about function and metabolism, increasing both sensitivity and specificity. We describe the gadolinium-based contrast agents that have been approved for clinical use, detailing their main characteristics based on their chemical structure, stability, and safety. In general terms, these compounds are safe. Nevertheless, adverse reactions, the possibility of nephrotoxicity from these compounds, and the possibility of developing nephrogenic systemic fibrosis will be covered in this article. Lastly, the article will discuss the current guidelines, recommendations, and contraindications for their clinical use, including the management of pregnant and breast-feeding patients. Copyright © 2014 SERAM. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  2. Synthesis and evaluation of gadolinium complexes based on PAMAM as MRI contrast agents.

    PubMed

    Yan, Guo-Ping; Hu, Bin; Liu, Mai-Li; Li, Li-Yun

    2005-03-01

    Diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) and pyridoxamine (PM) were incorporated into the amine groups on the surface of ammonia-core poly(amidoamine) dendrimers (PAMAM, Generation 2.0-5.0) to obtain dendritic ligands. These dendritic ligands were reacted with gadolinium chloride to yield the corresponding dendritic gadolinium (Gd) complexes. The dendritic ligands and their gadolinium complexes were characterized by(1)HNMR, IR, UV and elemental analysis. Relaxivity studies showed that the dendritic gadolinium complexes possessed higher relaxation effectiveness compared with the clinically used Gd-DTPA. After administration of the dendritic gadolinium complexes (0.09 mmol kg(-1) ) to rats, magnetic resonance imaging of the liver indicated that the dendritic gadolinium complexes containing pyridoxamine groups enhanced the contrast of the MR images of the liver, provided prolonged intravascular duration and produced highly contrasted visualization of blood vessels.

  3. Type of MRI contrast, tissue gadolinium, and fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Do, Catherine; Barnes, Jeffrey L; Tan, Chunyan; Wagner, Brent

    2014-10-01

    It has been presupposed that the thermodynamic stability constant (K(therm)) of gadolinium-based MRI chelates relate to the risk of precipitating nephrogenic systemic fibrosis. The present study compared low-K(therm) gadodiamide with high-K(therm) gadoteridol in cultured fibroblasts and rats with uninephrectomies. Gadolinium content was assessed using scanning electron microscopy equipped with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy in paraffin-embedded tissues. In vitro, fibroblasts demonstrated dose-dependent fibronectin generation, transforming growth factor-β production, and expression of activated myofibroblast stress fiber protein α-smooth muscle actin. There were negligible differences with respect to toxicity or proliferation between the two contrast agents. In the rodent model, gadodiamide treatment led to greater skin fibrosis and dermal cellularity than gadoteridol. In the kidney, both contrast agents led to proximal tubule vacuolization and increased fibronectin accumulation. Despite large detectable gadolinium signals in the spleen, skin, muscle, and liver from the gadodiamide-treated group, contrast-induced fibrosis appeared to be limited to the skin and kidney. These findings support the hypothesis that low-K(therm) chelates have a greater propensity to elicit nephrogenic systemic fibrosis and demonstrate that certain tissues are resistant to these effects.

  4. Gadolinium-enhanced computed tomographic angiography: current status.

    PubMed

    Rosioreanu, Alex; Alberico, Ronald A; Litwin, Alan; Hon, Man; Grossman, Zachary D; Katz, Douglas S

    2005-01-01

    This article reviews the research to date, as well as our clinical experience from two institutions, on gadolinium-enhanced computed tomographic angiography (gCTA) for imaging the body. gCTA may be an appropriate examination for the small percentage of patients who would benefit from noninvasive vascular imaging, but who have contraindications to both iodinated contrast and magnetic resonance imaging. gCTA is more expensive than CTA with iodinated contrast, due to the dose of gadolinium administered, and gCTA has limitations compared with CTA with iodinated contrast, in that parenchymal organs are not optimally enhanced at doses of 0.5 mmol/kg or lower. However, in our experience, gCTA has been a very useful problem-solving examination in carefully selected patients. With the advent of 16-64 detector CT, in combination with bolus tracking, we believe that the overall dose of gadolinium needed for diagnostic CTA examinations, while relatively high, can be safely administered.

  5. [Rapid imaging in orbito-ocular pathology. Contribution of gadolinium].

    PubMed

    Pigeau, I; Legeais, J M; D'Hermies, F; Fayet, B; Leport, M; Abenhaim, A; Guinet, C; Levy, C; Renard, G; Vadrot, D

    1990-01-01

    To evaluate Gradient-Echo Imaging (GEI) in orbito-ocular pathology, 15 volunteers and 34 patients (40 lesions) were examined with GEA T1 and GEA T2 (0.5 T). Results were compared with SE T1 in all cases, with SE T2 in 20 cases and with other imaging modalities (CT). 30 patients were examined before and after injection of gadolinium. Final diagnosis was obtained by surgery or biopsy in 24 cases or by combined results of imaging and clinical findings in 16 cases. Compared with SE, GEA demonstrated a better visualisation of optic nerve, orbital muscles, choroidal-retinal layer, lens capsule and episclera and a better detection of small lesions. It is very helpful for characterisation of lesions containing hemorrhages or paramagnetic components (melanine, gadolinium) or of vascular nature (angioma). Gadolinium was useful for detection of small lesions or characterisation of a few lesions. Thus GEA seems to be an efficient method for the evaluation of orbito-ocular pathology.

  6. Thermodynamic properties of gadolinium in Ga-Sn and Ga-Zn eutectic based alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maltsev, Dmitry S.; Volkovich, Vladimir A.; Yamshchikov, Leonid F.; Chukin, Andrey V.

    2016-09-01

    Thermodynamic properties of gadolinium in Ga-Sn and Ga-Zn eutectic based alloys were studied. Temperature dependences of gadolinium activity in the studied alloys were determined at 573-1073 K employing the EMF method. Solubility of gadolinium in the Ga-Sn and Ga-Zn alloys was measured at 462-1073 K using IMCs sedimentation method. Activity coefficients as well as partial and excess thermodynamic functions of gadolinium in the studied alloys were calculated on the basis of the obtained experimental data.

  7. Kinetic characteristics of the luminescence decay for industrial yttrium-gadolinium-aluminium garnet based phosphors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lisitsyn, V. M.; Stepanov, S. A.; Valiev, D. T.; Vishnyakova, E. A.; Abdullin, H. A.; Marhabaeva, A. A.; Tulegenova, A. T.

    2016-02-01

    The spectral and decay kinetic characteristics of pulse cathodoluminescence and photoluminescence of phosphors based on yttrium-gadolinium-aluminum garnet were investigated using pulsed optical time resolved spectroscopy.

  8. Gadolinium-based nanoparticles to improve the hadrontherapy performances.

    PubMed

    Porcel, Erika; Tillement, Olivier; Lux, François; Mowat, Pierre; Usami, Noriko; Kobayashi, Katsumi; Furusawa, Yoshiya; Le Sech, Claude; Li, Sha; Lacombe, Sandrine

    2014-11-01

    Nanomedicine is proposed as a novel strategy to improve the performance of radiotherapy. High-Z nanoparticles are known to enhance the effects of ionizing radiation. Recently, multimodal nanoparticles such as gadolinium-based nanoagents were proposed to amplify the effects of x-rays and g-rays and to improve MRI diagnosis. For tumors sited in sensitive tissues, childhood cases and radioresistant cancers, hadrontherapy is considered superior to x-rays and g-rays. Hadrontherapy, based on fast ion radiation, has the advantage of avoiding damage to the tissues behind the tumor; however, the damage caused in front of the tumor is its major limitation. Here, we demonstrate that multimodal gadolinium-based nanoparticles amplify cell death with fast ions used as radiation. Molecular scale experiments give insights into the mechanisms underlying the amplification of radiation effects. This proof-of-concept opens up novel perspectives for multimodal nanomedicine in hadrontherapy, ultimately reducing negative radiation effects in healthy tissues in front of the tumor. Gadolinium-chelating polysiloxane nanoparticles were previously reported to amplify the anti-tumor effects of x-rays and g-rays and to serve as MRI contrast agents. Fast ion radiation-based hadrontherapy avoids damage to the tissues behind the tumor, with a major limitation of tissue damage in front of the tumor. This study demonstrates a potential role for the above nanoagents in optimizing hadrontherapy with preventive effects in healthy tissue and amplified cell death in the tumor. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Distribution and chemical forms of gadolinium in the brain: a review.

    PubMed

    Kanda, Tomonori; Nakai, Yudai; Hagiwara, Akifumi; Oba, Hiroshi; Toyoda, Keiko; Furui, Shigeru

    2017-11-01

    In the 3 years since residual gadolinium-based contrast agent (GBCA) in the brain was first reported, much has been learned about its accumulation, including the pathway of GBCA entry into the brain, the brain distribution of GBCA and its excretion. Here we review recent progress in understanding the routes of gadolinium deposition in brain structures.

  10. Gadolinium-based contrast agent toxicity: a review of known and proposed mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Rogosnitzky, Moshe; Branch, Stacy

    2016-06-01

    Gadolinium chelates are widely used as contrast media for magnetic resonance imaging. The approved gadolinium-based contrast agents (GBCAs) have historically been considered safe and well tolerated when used at recommended dosing levels. However, for nearly a decade, an association between GBCA administration and the development of nephrogenic systemic fibrosis (NSF) has been recognized in patients with severe renal impairment. This has led to modifications in clinical practices aimed at reducing the potential and incidence of NSF development. Newer reports have emerged regarding the accumulation of gadolinium in various tissues of patients who do not have renal impairment, including bone, brain, and kidneys. Despite the observations of gadolinium accumulation in tissues regardless of renal function, very limited clinical data regarding the potential for and mechanisms of toxicity is available. This significant gap in knowledge warrants retrospective cohort study efforts, as well as prospective studies that involve gadolinium ion (Gd(3+)) testing in patients exposed to GBCA. This review examines the potential biochemical and molecular basis of gadolinium toxicity, possible clinical significance of gadolinium tissue retention and accumulation, and methods that can limit gadolinium body burden.

  11. Studies of MRI relaxivities of gadolinium-labeled dendrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Hongmu; Daniel, Marie-Christine

    2011-05-01

    In cancer detection, imaging techniques have a great importance in early diagnosis. The more sensitive the imaging technique and the earlier the tumor can be detected. Contrast agents have the capability to increase the sensitivity in imaging techniques such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Until now, gadolinium-based contrast agents are mainly used for MRI, and show good enhancement. But improvement is needed for detection of smaller tumors at the earliest stage possible. The dendrons complexed with Gd(DOTA) were synthesized and evaluated as a new MRI contrast agent. The longitudinal and transverse relaxation effects were tested and compared with commercial drug Magnevist, Gd(DTPA).

  12. Gadolinium-hydrogen ion exchange of zirconium phosphate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, D. C.; Power, J. L.

    1972-01-01

    The Gd(+3)/H(+) ion exchange on a commercial zirconium phosphate ion exchanger was investigated in chloride, sulfate, and phosphate solutions of Gd(+3) at gadolinium concentrations of 0.001 to 1 millimole per cc and in the pH range of 0 to 3.5. Relatively low Gd(+3) capacities, in the range of 0.01 to 0.1 millimole per g of ion exchanger were found at room temperature. A significant difference in Gd(+3) sorption was observed, depending on whether the ion exchanger was converted from initial conditions of greater or lesser Gd(+3) sorption than the specific final conditions. Correlations were found between decrease in Gd(+3) capacity and loss of exchanger phosphate groups due to hydrolysis during washing and between increase in capacity and treatment with H3PO4. Fitting of the experimental data to ideal ion exchange equilibrium expressions indicated that each Gd(+3) ion is sorbed on only one site of the ion exchanger. The selectivity quotient was determined to be 2.5 + or - 0.4 at room temperature on gadolinium desorption in chloride solutions.

  13. Solution-processed gadolinium doped indium-oxide thin-film transistors with oxide passivation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Seung-Hun; Kim, Taehun; Lee, Jihun; Avis, Christophe; Jang, Jin

    2017-03-01

    We studied the effect of Gd doping on the structural properties of solution processed, crystalline In2O3 for thin-film transistor (TFT) application. With increasing Gd in In2O3 up to 20%, the material structure changes into amorphous phase, and the oxygen vacancy concentration decreases from 15.4 to 8.4%, and M-OH bonds from 33.5 to 23.7%. The field-effect mobility for the Gd doped In2O3 TFTs decreases and threshold voltage shifts to the positive voltage with increasing Gd concentration. In addition, the stability of the solution processed TFTs can also be improved by increasing Gd concentration. As a result, the optimum Gd concentration is found to be ˜5% in In2O3 and the 5% Gd doped In2O3 TFTs with the Y2O3 passivation layer exhibit the linear mobility of 9.74 cm2/V s, the threshold voltage of -0.27 V, the subthreshold swing of 79 mV/dec., and excellent bias stability.

  14. T1 relaxivity of core-encapsulated gadolinium liposomal contrast agents--effect of liposome size and internal gadolinium concentration.

    PubMed

    Ghaghada, Ketan; Hawley, Catherine; Kawaji, Keigo; Annapragada, Ananth; Mukundan, Srinivasan

    2008-10-01

    Long circulating core-encapsulated gadolinium (CE-Gd) liposomal nanoparticles that have surface conjugated polyethylene glycol are a promising platform technology for use as blood pool T1-based magnetic resonance (MR) contrast agents. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of liposome size and internal (core) Gd concentration on the T1 relaxivity of CE-Gd liposomes. Twelve different liposomal formulations were synthesized and characterized, resulting in a size (50, 100, 200, and 400 nm) and core Gd-concentration (200, 350, and 500 mM) "matrix" of test samples. Subsequently, CE-Gd liposomes were diluted in deionized water (four diluted samples) and molar T1 relaxivity (r1) measurements were performed at 2- and 7-T MR field strengths. The r1 of CE-Gd liposomes was inversely related to the liposome size. The largest change in r1 was observed between liposomes that were extruded through 50- and 100-nm filter membranes. At both field strengths, the variation in internal gadolinium concentration did not show any significant correlation (alpha < or = 0.05) with r1. The size of CE-Gd liposomal nanoparticles significantly affects the T1 relaxivity. An inverse relation was observed between liposome size and T1 relaxivity. The T1 relaxivity did not change significantly with core Gd concentration over the measured concentration range.

  15. Growth Control in Colon Epithelial Cells: Gadolinium Enhances Calcium-Mediated Growth Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Attili, Durga; Jenkins, Brian; Aslam, Muhammad Nadeem; Dame, Michael K.

    2013-01-01

    Gadolinium, a member of the lanthanoid family of transition metals, interacts with calcium-binding sites on proteins and other biological molecules. The overall goal of the present investigation was to determine if gadolinium could enhance calcium-induced epithelial cell growth inhibition in the colon. Gadolinium at concentrations as low as 1–5 µM combined with calcium inhibits proliferation of human colonic epithelial cells more effectively than calcium alone. Gadolinium had no detectable effect on calcium-induced differentiation in the same cells based on change in cell morphology, induction of E-cadherin synthesis, and translocation of E-cadherin from the cytosol to the cell surface. When the colon epithelial cells were treated with gadolinium and then exposed to increased calcium concentrations, movement of extracellular calcium into the cell was suppressed. In contrast, gadolinium treatment had no effect on ionomycin-induced release of stored intracellular calcium into the cytoplasm. Whether these in vitro observations can be translated into an approach for reducing abnormal proliferation in the colonic mucosa (including polyp formation) is not known. These results do, however, provide an explanation for our recent findings that a multi-mineral supplement containing all of the naturally occurring lanthanoid metals including gadolinium are more effective than calcium alone in preventing colon polyp formation in mice on a high-fat diet. PMID:23008064

  16. Growth control in colon epithelial cells: gadolinium enhances calcium-mediated growth regulation.

    PubMed

    Attili, Durga; Jenkins, Brian; Aslam, Muhammad Nadeem; Dame, Michael K; Varani, James

    2012-12-01

    Gadolinium, a member of the lanthanoid family of transition metals, interacts with calcium-binding sites on proteins and other biological molecules. The overall goal of the present investigation was to determine if gadolinium could enhance calcium-induced epithelial cell growth inhibition in the colon. Gadolinium at concentrations as low as 1-5 μM combined with calcium inhibits proliferation of human colonic epithelial cells more effectively than calcium alone. Gadolinium had no detectable effect on calcium-induced differentiation in the same cells based on change in cell morphology, induction of E-cadherin synthesis, and translocation of E-cadherin from the cytosol to the cell surface. When the colon epithelial cells were treated with gadolinium and then exposed to increased calcium concentrations, movement of extracellular calcium into the cell was suppressed. In contrast, gadolinium treatment had no effect on ionomycin-induced release of stored intracellular calcium into the cytoplasm. Whether these in vitro observations can be translated into an approach for reducing abnormal proliferation in the colonic mucosa (including polyp formation) is not known. These results do, however, provide an explanation for our recent findings that a multi-mineral supplement containing all of the naturally occurring lanthanoid metals including gadolinium are more effective than calcium alone in preventing colon polyp formation in mice on a high-fat diet.

  17. Gadolinium-based magnetic resonance imaging contrast agents in interventional radiology.

    PubMed

    Atar, Eli

    2004-07-01

    Gadolinium-based agents are widely used in magnetic resonance imaging as contrast agents. These agents are radio-opaque enough for diagnostic imaging of the vascular tree by using digitally subtracted images as well as for imaging of the biliary system and the urinary tract. The recommended doses for gadolinium do not impair renal function or cause adverse reactions in patients with iodine sensitivity; thus patients with such conditions can safely undergo diagnostic angiography, either by MRI angiography or by catheterization using gadolinium as contrast agent, for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes.

  18. Adsorption Studies of Gadolinium ion on Graphitic Carbon Nitride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuila, S. K.; Kundu, T. K.

    2018-03-01

    Bulk graphitic carbon nitride (g-C3N4) is synthesized by thermal decomposition of urea and used as an adsorbent for gadolinium ion (Gd3+) from aqueous solution. Adsorption capacity of g-C3N4 is found to be influenced by initial Gd3+ concentration, solution pH and contact time. Adsorbed Gd3+is separated from g-C3N4 by ultracentrifuge. Initial and Gd ion accumulated g-C3N4 adsorbent are characterized by X-ray diffraction technique (XRD) for phase identification, UV-visible and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy for adsorption characteristics and optical property, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) for morphological behaviour along with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) for elemental study. HNO3(0.1M), NaOH (0.1M) and de-ionized water are used for desorption and around 97% quantitative recovery of Gd ion is observed.

  19. Stability of Gadolinium-Doped Liquid Organic Scintillators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gromov, M. B.; Kuznetsov, D. S.; Murchenko, A. E.; Novikova, G. Ya.; Obinyakov, B. A.; Oralbaev, A. Yu.; Plakitina, K. V.; Skorokhvatov, M. D.; Sukhotin, S. V.; Chepurnov, A. S.; Etenko, A. V.

    2018-03-01

    The technology of preparing a linear-alkylbenzene-based gadolinium-doped liquid organic scintillator (Gd-LOS) as a target material in reactor antineutrino detectors has been developed. Results of longterm measurements of the light yield of Gd-LOS in contact with acryl and stainless steel are presented, which confirm the compatibility of Gd-LOS with these materials. The measurements were performed for two otherwise identical LOS detectors only differing in wall materials of the sensitive volume: acryl versus stainless steel. The results of measurements over about one year showed almost the same, relatively small decreases in the light yield of both detectors. It is concluded that both structural materials can be used in detector parts contacting with Gd-doped scintillator. Such a long-term parallel comparative test was carried out for the first time.

  20. Strategies for the preparation of bifunctional gadolinium(III) chelators

    PubMed Central

    Frullano, Luca; Caravan, Peter

    2012-01-01

    The development of gadolinium chelators that can be easily and readily linked to various substrates is of primary importance for the development high relaxation efficiency and/or targeted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agents. Over the last 25 years a large number of bifunctional chelators have been prepared. For the most part, these compounds are based on ligands that are already used in clinically approved contrast agents. More recently, new bifunctional chelators have been reported based on complexes that show a more potent relaxation effect, faster complexation kinetics and in some cases simpler synthetic procedures. This review provides an overview of the synthetic strategies used for the preparation of bifunctional chelators for MRI applications. PMID:22375102

  1. SWI enhances vein detection using gadolinium in multiple sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Mazzoni, Lorenzo N; Moretti, Marco; Grammatico, Matteo; Chiti, Stefano; Massacesi, Luca

    2015-01-01

    Susceptibility weighted imaging (SWI) combined with the FLAIR sequence provides the ability to depict in vivo the perivenous location of inflammatory demyelinating lesions – one of the most specific pathologic features of multiple sclerosis (MS). In addition, in MS white matter (WM) lesions, gadolinium-based contrast media (CM) can increase vein signal loss on SWI. This report focuses on two cases of WM inflammatory lesions enhancing on SWI images after CM injection. In these lesions in fact the CM increased the contrast between the parenchyma and the central vein allowing as well, in one of the two cases, the detection of a vein not visible on the same SWI sequence acquired before CM injection. PMID:25815209

  2. The structural response of gadolinium phosphate to pressure

    DOE PAGES

    Heffernan, Karina M.; Ross, Nancy L.; Spencer, Elinor C.; ...

    2016-06-16

    In this study, accurate elastic constants for gadolinium phosphate (GdPO 4) have been measured by single-crystal high-pressure diffraction methods. The bulk modulus of GdPO 4 determined under hydrostatic conditions, 128.1(8) GPa (K'=5.8(2)), is markedly different from that obtained with GdPO 4 under non-hydrostatic conditions (160(2) GPa), which indicates the importance of shear stresses on the elastic response of this phosphate. Finally, high pressure Raman and diffraction analysis indicate that the PO 4 tetrahedra behave as rigid units in response to pressure and that contraction of the GdPO 4 structure is facilitated by bending/twisting of the Gd–O–P links that result inmore » increased distortion in the GdO 9 polyhedra.« less

  3. Thermophysical Property Measurements of Liquid Gadolinium by Containerless Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishikawa, T.; Okada, J. T.; Paradis, P.-F.; Watanabe, Y.

    2010-02-01

    Thermophysical properties of liquid gadolinium were measured using non-contact diagnostic techniques with an electrostatic levitator. Over the 1585 K to 1920 K temperature range, the density can be expressed as ρ( T) = 7.41 × 103 - 0.46 ( T - T m) (kg · m-3) where T m = 1585 K, yielding a volume expansion coefficient of 6.2 × 10-5 K-1. In addition, the surface tension data can be fitted as γ( T) = 8.22 × 102 - 0.097( T - T m)(10-3 N · m-1) over the 1613 K to 1803 K span and the viscosity as η( T) = 1.7exp[1.4 × 104/( RT)](10-3 Pa · s) over the same temperature range.

  4. Complex imaging features of accidental cerebral intraventricular gadolinium administration.

    PubMed

    Nayak, Nita B; Huang, Jimmy C; Hathout, Gasser M; Shaba, Wisam; El-Saden, Suzie M

    2013-05-01

    Gadolinium diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (Gd-DTPA) is a contrast agent commonly used for enhancing MRI. In this paper, the authors report on 2 cases of postoperative inadvertent administration of Gd-DTPA directly into a ventriculostomy tubing side port that was mistaken for intravenous tubing. Both cases demonstrated a low signal on MRI throughout the ventricular system and dependent portions of the subarachnoid spaces, which was originally believed to be CSF with areas of T1 shortening in the nondependent portions of the subarachnoid spaces, and misinterpreted as basal leptomeningeal enhancement and meningitis. The authors propose that the appearance of profound T1 hypointensity within the ventricles and diffuse susceptibility artifact along the ependyma is pathognomonic of intraventricular Gd-DTPA and should be recognized.

  5. Insights into the use of gadolinium and gadolinium/boron-based agents in imaging-guided neutron capture therapy applications.

    PubMed

    Deagostino, Annamaria; Protti, Nicoletta; Alberti, Diego; Boggio, Paolo; Bortolussi, Silva; Altieri, Saverio; Crich, Simonetta Geninatti

    2016-05-01

    Gadolinium neutron capture therapy (Gd-NCT) is currently under development as an alternative approach for cancer therapy. All of the clinical experience to date with NCT is done with (10)B, known as boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT), a binary treatment combining neutron irradiation with the delivery of boron-containing compounds to tumors. Currently, the use of Gd for NCT has been getting more attention because of its highest neutron cross-section. Although Gd-NCT was first proposed many years ago, its development has suffered due to lack of appropriate tumor-selective Gd agents. This review aims to highlight the recent advances for the design, synthesis and biological testing of new Gd- and B-Gd-containing compounds with the task of finding the best systems able to improve the NCT clinical outcome.

  6. Theoretical study of structure and stability of small gadolinium carboxylate complexes in liquid scintillator solvents.

    PubMed

    Huang, Pin-Wen

    2014-09-01

    The structural properties of three small gadolinium carboxylate complexes in three liquid scintillator solvents (pseudocumene, linear alkylbenzene, and phenyl xylylethane) were theoretically investigated using density functional theory (B3LYP/LC-RECP) and polarizable continuum model (PCM). The average interaction energy between gadolinium atom and carboxylate ligand (E(int)) and the energy difference of the highest singly occupied molecular orbital and lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (Δ(SL)) were calculated to evaluate and compare the relative stability of these complexes in solvents. The calculation results show that the larger (with a longer alkyl chain) gadolinium carboxylate complex has greater stability than the smaller one, while these gadolinium carboxylates in linear alkylbenzene were found to have greater stability than those in the other two solvents.

  7. Impact of Impaired Renal Function on Gadolinium Retention After Administration of Gadolinium-Based Contrast Agents in a Mouse Model.

    PubMed

    Kartamihardja, A Adhipatria P; Nakajima, Takahito; Kameo, Satomi; Koyama, Hiroshi; Tsushima, Yoshito

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of impaired renal function on gadolinium (Gd) retention in various organs after Gd-based contrast agent injection. After local animal care and review committee approval, 23 normal mice and 26 with renal failure were divided into 4 treatment groups (Gd-DTPA-BMA, 5 mmol/kg; Gd-DOTA, 5 mmol/kg; GdCl3, 0.02 mmol/kg; and saline, 250 μL). Each agent was intravenously administered on weekdays for 4 weeks. Samples were collected on days 3 (short-term) and 45 (long-term) after the last injection. Gadolinium concentrations were quantified by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. Three mice with renal failure and 2 normal mice in the GdCl3 group and 1 mouse with renal failure in the Gd-DTPA-BMA group died. In the Gd-DTPA-BMA group, impaired renal function increased short-term Gd retention in the liver, bone, spleen, skin, and kidney (P < 0.01) but did not affect long-term Gd retention. Gd-DTPA-BMA showed higher Gd retention than Gd-DOTA. Although Gd retention in the Gd-DOTA group was generally low, impaired renal function increased only long-term hepatic Gd retention. Hepatic and splenic Gd retentions were significantly higher than other organs' Gd retention in the GdCl3 group (P < 0.01). Renal function did not affect brain Gd retention, regardless of the Gd compound used. The tendency of Gd retention varied according to the agent, regardless of renal function. Although renal impairment increased short-term Gd retention after Gd-DTPA-BMA administration, long-term Gd retention for Gd-based contrast agents was almost unaffected by renal function, suggesting that the chemical structures of retained Gd may not be consistent and some Gd is slowly eliminated after initially being retained.

  8. Density of Gadolinium Nitrate Solutions for the High Flux Isotope Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, Paul Allen; Lee, Denise L

    2009-05-01

    In late 1992, the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) was planning to switch the solution contained in the poison injection tank from cadmium nitrate to gadolinium nitrate. The poison injection system is an emergency system used to shut down the reactor by adding a neutron poison to the cooling water. This system must be able to supply a minimum of 69 pounds of gadolinium to the reactor coolant system in order to guarantee that the reactor would become subcritical. A graph of the density of gadolinium nitrate solutions over a concentration range of 5 to 30 wt% and a temperaturemore » range of 15 to 40{sup o}C was prepared. Routine density measurements of the solution in the poison injection tank are made by HFIR personnel, and an adaptation of the original graph is used to determine the gadolinium nitrate concentration. In late 2008, HFIR personnel decided that the heat tracing that was present on the piping for the poison injection system could be removed without any danger of freezing the solution; however, the gadolinium nitrate solution might get as cold as 5{sup o}C. This was outside the range of the current density-concentration correlation, so the range needed to be expanded. This report supplies a new density-concentration correlation that covers the extended temperature range. The correlation is given in new units, which greatly simplifies the calculation that is required to determine the pounds of gadolinium in the tank solution. The procedure for calculating the amount of gadolinium in the HFIR poison injection system is as follows: (1) Calculate the usable volume in the system; (2) Measure the density of the solution; (3) Calculate the gadolinium concentration using the following equation: Gd(lb/ft{sup 3}) = measured density (g/mL) x 34.681 - 34.785; (4) Calculate the amount of gadolinium in the system using the following equation: Amount of Gd(lb) = Gd concentration (lb/ft{sup 3}) x usable volume (ft{sup 3}). The equation in step 3 is exact for a

  9. Gadolinium Use in Spine Pain Management Procedures for Patients with Contrast Allergies: Results in 527 Procedures

    SciTech Connect

    Safriel, Yair; Ang, Roberto; Ali, Muhammed

    2008-03-15

    Introduction. To review the safety and efficacy of gadolinium in spine pain management procedures in patients at high risk for a contrast reaction and who are not suitable candidates for the use of standard non-ionic contrast. Methods. We reviewed records over a 61-month period of all image-guided spinal pain management procedures where patients had allergies making them unsuitable candidates for standard non-ionic contrast and where gadolinium was used to confirm needle tip placement prior to injection of medication. Results. Three hundred and four outpatients underwent 527 procedures. A spinal needle was used in all but 41 procedures. Gadolinium was visualizedmore » using portable C-arm fluoroscopy in vivo allowing for confirmation of needle tip location. The gadolinium dose ranged from 0.2 to 10 ml per level. The highest dose received by one patient was 15.83 ml intradiscally during a three-level discogram. Three hundred and one patients were discharged without complication or known delayed complications. One patient had documented intrathecal injection but without sequelae and 2 patients who underwent cervical procedures experienced seizures requiring admission to the intensive care unit. Both the latter patients were discharged without any further complications. Conclusion. Based on our experience we recommend using gadolinium judiciously for needle tip confirmation. We feel more confident using gadolinium in the lumbar spine and in cervical nerve blocks. Gadolinium should probably not be used as an injectate volume expander. The indications for gadolinium use in cervical needle-guided spine procedures are less clear and use of a blunt-tipped needle should be considered.« less

  10. Technical aspects of MRI signal change quantification after gadolinium-based contrast agents' administration.

    PubMed

    Ramalho, Joana; Ramalho, Miguel; AlObaidy, Mamdoh; Semelka, Richard C

    2016-12-01

    Over the last 2years several studies have been published regarding gadolinium deposition in brain structures in patients with normal renal function after repeated administrations of gadolinium-based contrast agents (GBCAs). Most of the publications are magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) based retrospective studies, where gadolinium deposition may be indirectly measured by evaluating changes in T1 signal intensity (SI) in brain tissue, particularly in the dentate nucleus (DN) and/or globus pallidi (GP). The direct correlation between T1 signal changes and gadolinium deposition was validated by human pathology studies. However, the variability of the MR equipment and parameters used across different publications, along with the inherent limitations of MRI to assess gadolinium in human tissues should be acknowledged when interpreting those studies. Nevertheless, MRI studies remain essential regarding gadolinium bio-distribution knowledge. The aim of this paper is to overview current knowledge of technical aspects of T1 signal intensity evaluation by MRI and describe confounding factors, with the intention to achieve higher accuracy and maximize reproducibility. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Diagnosis of Bell palsy with gadolinium magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Becelli, R; Perugini, M; Carboni, A; Renzi, G

    2003-01-01

    Bell palsy is a condition resulting from a peripheral edematous compression on the nervous fibers of the facial nerve. This pathological condition often has clinical characteristics of no importance and spontaneously disappears in a short time in a high percentage of cases. Facial palsy concerning cranial nerve VII can also be caused by other conditions such as mastoid fracture, acoustic neurinoma, tumor spread to the temporal lobe (e.g., cholesteatoma), neoformation of the parotid gland, Melkersson-Rosenthal syndrome, and Ramsay-Hunt syndrome. Therefore, it is important to adopt an accurate diagnostic technique allowing the rapid detection of Bell palsy and the exclusion of causes of facial paralysis requiring surgical treatment. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with medium contrast of the skull shows a marked increase in revealing lesions, even of small dimensions, inside the temporal bone and at the cerebellopontine angle. The authors present a clinical case to show the important role played by gadolinium MRI in reaching a diagnosis of Bell palsy in the differential diagnosis of the various conditions that determine paralysis of the facial nerve and in selecting the most suitable treatment or surgery to be adopted.

  12. Gadolinium-loaded gel scintillators for neutron and antineutrino detection

    SciTech Connect

    Riddle, Catherine Lynn; Akers, Douglas William; Demmer, Ricky Lynn

    A gadolinium (Gd) loaded scintillation gel (Gd-ScintGel) compound allows for neutron and gamma-ray detection. The unique gel scintillator encompasses some of the best features of both liquid and solid scintillators, yet without many of the disadvantages associated therewith. Preferably, the gel scintillator is a water soluble Gd-DTPA compound and water soluble fluorophores such as: CdSe/ZnS (or ZnS) quantum dot (Q-dot) nanoparticles, coumarin derivatives 7-hydroxy-4-methylcoumarin, 7-hydroxy-4-methylcoumarin-3-acetic acid, 7-hydroxycoumarin-3-carboxylic acid, and Alexa Fluor 350 as well as a carbostyril compound, carbostyril 124 in a stable water-based gel, such as methylcellulose or polyacrylamide polymers. The Gd-loaded ScintGel allows for a homogenious distribution ofmore » the Gd-DTPA and the fluorophores, and yields clean fluorescent emission peaks. A moderator, such as deuterium or a water-based clear polymer, can be incorporated in the Gd-ScintGel. The gel scintillators can be used in compact detectors, including neutron and antineutrino detectors.« less

  13. Target binding improves relaxivity in aptamer-gadolinium conjugates.

    PubMed

    Bernard, Elyse D; Beking, Michael A; Rajamanickam, Karunanithi; Tsai, Eve C; Derosa, Maria C

    2012-12-01

    MRI contrast agents (CA) have been heavily used over the past several decades to enhance the diagnostic value of the obtained images. From a design perspective, two avenues to improve the efficacy of contrast agents are readily evident: optimization of magnetic properties of the CA, and optimization of the pharmacokinetics and distribution of the CA in the patient. Contrast agents consisting of DNA aptamer-gadolinium(III) conjugates provide a single system in which these factors can be addressed simultaneously. In this proof-of-concept study, the 15mer thrombin aptamer was conjugated to diethylenetriaminepentaacetic (DTPA) dianhydride to form a monoamide derivative of the linear open-chain chelate present in the commonly used contrast agent Magnevist(®). The stability of the conjugated DNA aptamer-DTPA-Gd(III) chelate in a transmetallation study using Zn(II) was found to be similar to that reported for DTPA-Gd(III). Relaxivity enhancements of 35 ± 4 and 20 ± 1 % were observed in the presence of thrombin compared to a control protein at fields of 9.4 and 1.5 T, respectively. The inclusion of spacers between the aptamer and the DTPA to eliminate possible steric effects was also investigated but not found to improve the relaxation enhancement achieved in comparison to the unaltered aptamer conjugate.

  14. A pyrophosphate-responsive gadolinium(III) MRI contrast agent.

    PubMed

    Surman, Andrew J; Bonnet, Célia S; Lowe, Mark P; Kenny, Gavin D; Bell, Jimmy D; Tóth, Eva; Vilar, Ramon

    2011-01-03

    This study shows that the relaxivity and optical properties of functionalised lanthanide-DTPA-bis-amide complexes (lanthanide=Gd(3+) and Eu(3+) , DTPA=diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid) can be successfully modulated by addition of specific anions, without direct Ln(3+) /anion coordination. Zinc(II)-dipicolylamine moieties, which are known to bind strongly to phosphates, were introduced in the amide "arms" of these ligands, and the interaction of the resulting Gd-Zn(2) complexes with a range of anions was screened by using indicator displacement assays (IDAs). Considerable selectivity for polyphosphorylated species (such as pyrophosphate and adenosine-5'-triphosphate (ATP)) over a range of other anions (including monophosphorylated anions) was apparent. In addition, we show that pyrophosphate modulates the relaxivity of the gadolinium(III) complex, this modulation being sufficiently large to be observed in imaging experiments. To establish the binding mode of the pyrophosphate and gain insight into the origin of the relaxometric modulation, a series of studies including UV/Vis and emission spectroscopy, luminescence lifetime measurements in H(2) O and D(2) O, (17) O and (31) P NMR spectroscopy and nuclear magnetic resonance dispersion (NMRD) studies were carried out. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Reverse microemulsion synthesis of layered gadolinium hydroxide nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Yadong; Suthar, Jugal; Egbu, Raphael; Weston, Andrew J.; Fogg, Andrew M.; Williams, Gareth R.

    2018-02-01

    A reverse microemulsion approach has been explored for the synthesis of layered gadolinium hydroxide (LGdH) nanoparticles in this work. This method uses oleylamine as a multifunctional agent, acting as surfactant, oil phase and base. 1-butanol is additionally used as a co-surfactant. A systematic study of the key reaction parameters was undertaken, including the volume ratio of surfactant (oleylamine) to water, the reaction time, synthesis temperature, and the amount of co-surfactant (1-butanol) added. It proved possible to obtain pristine LGdH materials at temperatures of 120 °C or below with an oleylamine: water ratio of 1:4. Using larger amounts of surfactant or higher temperatures caused the formation of Gd(OH)3, either as the sole product or as a major impurity phase. The LGdH particles produced have sizes of ca. 200 nm, with this size being largely independent of temperature or reaction time. Adjusting the amount of 1-butanol co-surfactant added permits the size to be varied between 200 and 300 nm.

  16. Electronic transport in gadolinium atomic-size contacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olivera, B.; Salgado, C.; Lado, J. L.; Karimi, A.; Henkel, V.; Scheer, E.; Fernández-Rossier, J.; Palacios, J. J.; Untiedt, C.

    2017-02-01

    We report on the fabrication, transport measurements, and density functional theory (DFT) calculations of atomic-size contacts made of gadolinium (Gd). Gd is known to have local moments mainly associated with f electrons. These coexist with itinerant s and d bands that account for its metallic character. Here we explore whether and how the local moments influence electronic transport properties at the atomic scale. Using both scanning tunneling microscope and lithographic mechanically controllable break junction techniques under cryogenic conditions, we study the conductance of Gd when only few atoms form the junction between bulk electrodes made of the very same material. Thousands of measurements show that Gd has an average lowest conductance, attributed to single-atom contact, below 2/e2 h . Our DFT calculations for monostrand chains anticipate that the f bands are fully spin polarized and insulating and that the conduction may be dominated by s , p , and d bands. We also analyze the electronic transport for model nanocontacts using the nonequilibrium Green's function formalism in combination with DFT. We obtain an overall good agreement with the experimental results for zero bias and show that the contribution to the electronic transport from the f channels is negligible and that from the d channels is marginal.

  17. Gadolinium-Based Contrast Agents for MR Cancer Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Zhuxian; Lu, Zheng-Rong

    2013-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a clinical imaging modality effective for anatomical and functional imaging of diseased soft tissues, including solid tumors. MRI contrast agents have been routinely used for detecting tumor at an early stage. Gadolinium based contrast agents are the most commonly used contrast agents in clinical MRI. There have been significant efforts to design and develop novel Gd(III) contrast agents with high relaxivity, low toxicity and specific tumor binding. The relaxivity of the Gd(III) contrast agents can be increased by proper chemical modification. The toxicity of Gd(III) contrast agents can be reduced by increasing the agents’ thermodynamic and kinetic stability, as well as optimizing their pharmacokinetic properties. The increasing knowledge in the field of cancer genomics and biology provides an opportunity for designing tumor-specific contrast agents. Various new Gd(III) chelates have been designed and evaluated in animal models for more effective cancer MRI. This review outlines the design and development, physicochemical properties, and in vivo properties of several classes of Gd(III)-based MR contrast agents for tumor imaging. PMID:23047730

  18. Analytical Interference in Serum Iron Determination Reveals Iron Versus Gadolinium Transmetallation With Linear Gadolinium-Based Contrast Agents

    PubMed Central

    Fretellier, Nathalie; Poteau, Nathalie; Factor, Cécile; Mayer, Jean-François; Medina, Christelle; Port, Marc; Idée, Jean-Marc; Corot, Claire

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The purposes of this study were to evaluate the risk for analytical interference with gadolinium-based contrast agents (GBCAs) for the colorimetric measurement of serum iron (Fe3+) and to investigate the mechanisms involved. Materials and Methods Rat serum was spiked with several concentrations of all molecular categories of GBCAs, ligands, or “free” soluble gadolinium (Gd3+). Serum iron concentration was determined by 2 different colorimetric methods at pH 4.0 (with a Vitros DT60 analyzer or a Cobas Integra 400 analyzer). Secondly, the cause of interference was investigated by (a) adding free soluble Gd3+ or Mn2+ to serum in the presence of gadobenic acid or gadodiamide and (b) electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. Results Spurious decrease in serum Fe3+ concentration was observed with all linear GBCAs (only with the Vitros DT60 technique occurring at pH 4.0) but not with macrocyclic GBCAs or with free soluble Gd3+. Spurious hyposideremia was also observed with the free ligands present in the pharmaceutical solutions of the linear GBCAs gadopentetic acid and gadodiamide (ie, diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid and calcium-diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid bismethylamide, respectively), suggesting the formation of Fe-ligand chelate. Gadobenic acid-induced interference was blocked in a concentration-dependent fashion by adding a free soluble Gd3+ salt. Conversely, Mn2+, which has a lower affinity than Gd3+ and Fe3+ for the ligand of gadobenic acid (ie, benzyloxypropionic diethylenetriamine tetraacetic acid), was less effective (interference was only partially blocked), suggesting an Fe3+ versus Gd3+ transmetallation phenomenon at pH 4.0. Similar results were observed with gadodiamide. Mass spectrometry detected the formation of Fe-ligand with all linear GBCAs tested in the presence of Fe3+ and the disappearance of Fe-ligand after the addition of free soluble Gd3+. No Fe-ligand chelate was found in the case of the macrocyclic GBCA gadoteric

  19. Hybrid Calcium Phosphate-Polymeric Micelles Incorporating Gadolinium Chelates for Imaging-Guided Gadolinium Neutron Capture Tumor Therapy.

    PubMed

    Mi, Peng; Dewi, Novriana; Yanagie, Hironobu; Kokuryo, Daisuke; Suzuki, Minoru; Sakurai, Yoshinori; Li, Yanmin; Aoki, Ichio; Ono, Koji; Takahashi, Hiroyuki; Cabral, Horacio; Nishiyama, Nobuhiro; Kataoka, Kazunori

    2015-06-23

    Gadolinium (Gd) chelates-loaded nanocarriers have high potential for achieving magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-guided Gd neutron capture therapy (GdNCT) of tumors. Herein, we developed calcium phosphate micelles hybridized with PEG-polyanion block copolymers, and incorporated with the clinical MRI contrast agent Gd-diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (Gd-DTPA/CaP). The Gd-DTPA/CaP were nontoxic to cancer cells at the concentration of 100 μM based on Gd-DTPA, while over 50% of the cancer cells were killed by thermal neutron irradiation at this concentration. Moreover, the Gd-DTPA/CaP showed a dramatically increased accumulation of Gd-DTPA in tumors, leading to the selective contrast enhancement of tumor tissues for precise tumor location by MRI. The enhanced tumor-to-blood distribution ratio of Gd-DTPA/CaP resulted in the effective suppression of tumor growth without loss of body weight, indicating the potential of Gd-DTPA/CaP for safe cancer treatment.

  20. The dosimetric impact of gadolinium-based contrast media in GBM brain patient plans for a MRI-Linac.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Syed Bilal; Paudel, Moti Raj; Sarfehnia, Arman; Kim, Anthony; Pang, Geordi; Ruschin, Mark; Sahgal, Arjun; Keller, Brian M

    2017-08-01

    Dosimetric effects of gadolinium based contrast media (Gadovist) were evaluated for the Elekta MRI linear accelerator using the research version of the Monaco treatment planning system (TPS). In order to represent a gadolinium uptake, the contrast was manually assigned to a phantom as well as to the gross tumour volume (GTV) of 6 glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) patients. A preliminary estimate of the dose enhancement, due to gadolinium, was performed using the phantom irradiated with a single beam. A more complicated assessment was performed for the GBM patients using a 7 field IMRT technique. The material table in Monaco was modified in order to identify the presence of a non-biological material. The dose distribution was modelled using GPUMCD (MC algorithm in Monaco) for an unmodified (or default) material table (DMT) as well as for a modified (or custom) material table (CMT) for both the phantom and patients. Various concentrations ranging between 8 and 157 mg ml -1 were used to represent the gadolinium uptake in the patient's GTV. It was assumed that the gadolinium concentration remained the same for the entire course of radiation treatment. Results showed that at the tissue-Gadovist interface, inside the phantom, dose scored using the DMT was 7% lower compared to that using the CMT for 157 mg ml -1 concentration of gadolinium. Dosimetric differences in the case of the patient study were measured using the DVH parameters. D 50% was higher by 6% when the DMT was used compared to the CMT for dose modelling for a gadolinium concentration of 157 mg ml -1 . This difference decreased gradually with decreasing concentration of gadolinium. It was concluded that dosimetric differences can be quantified in Monaco if the tumour-gadolinium concentration is more than 23 mg ml -1 . If the gadolinium concentration is lower than 23 mg ml -1 , then a correction for the presence of gadolinium may not be necessary in the TPS.

  1. The dosimetric impact of gadolinium-based contrast media in GBM brain patient plans for a MRI-Linac

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bilal Ahmad, Syed; Paudel, Moti Raj; Sarfehnia, Arman; Kim, Anthony; Pang, Geordi; Ruschin, Mark; Sahgal, Arjun; Keller, Brian M.

    2017-08-01

    Dosimetric effects of gadolinium based contrast media (Gadovist) were evaluated for the Elekta MRI linear accelerator using the research version of the Monaco treatment planning system (TPS). In order to represent a gadolinium uptake, the contrast was manually assigned to a phantom as well as to the gross tumour volume (GTV) of 6 glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) patients. A preliminary estimate of the dose enhancement, due to gadolinium, was performed using the phantom irradiated with a single beam. A more complicated assessment was performed for the GBM patients using a 7 field IMRT technique. The material table in Monaco was modified in order to identify the presence of a non-biological material. The dose distribution was modelled using GPUMCD (MC algorithm in Monaco) for an unmodified (or default) material table (DMT) as well as for a modified (or custom) material table (CMT) for both the phantom and patients. Various concentrations ranging between 8 and 157 mg ml-1 were used to represent the gadolinium uptake in the patient’s GTV. It was assumed that the gadolinium concentration remained the same for the entire course of radiation treatment. Results showed that at the tissue-Gadovist interface, inside the phantom, dose scored using the DMT was 7% lower compared to that using the CMT for 157 mg ml-1 concentration of gadolinium. Dosimetric differences in the case of the patient study were measured using the DVH parameters. D 50% was higher by 6% when the DMT was used compared to the CMT for dose modelling for a gadolinium concentration of 157 mg ml-1. This difference decreased gradually with decreasing concentration of gadolinium. It was concluded that dosimetric differences can be quantified in Monaco if the tumour-gadolinium concentration is more than 23 mg ml-1. If the gadolinium concentration is lower than 23 mg ml-1, then a correction for the presence of gadolinium may not be necessary in the TPS.

  2. Gadolinium deposition disease: Initial description of a disease that has been around for a while.

    PubMed

    Semelka, Richard C; Ramalho, Joana; Vakharia, Ami; AlObaidy, Mamdoh; Burke, Lauren M; Jay, Michael; Ramalho, Miguel

    2016-12-01

    To describe the clinical manifestations of presumed gadolinium toxicity in patients with normal renal function. Participants were recruited from two online gadolinium toxicity support groups. The survey was anonymous and individuals were instructed to respond to the survey only if they had evidence of normal renal function, evidence of gadolinium in their system beyond 30days of this MRI, and no pre-existent clinical symptoms and/or signs of this type. 42 subjects responded to the survey (age: 28-69, mean 49.1±22.4years). The most common findings were: central pain (n=15), peripheral pain (n=26), headache (n=28), and bone pain (n=26). Only subjects with distal leg and arm distribution described skin thickening (n=22). Clouded mentation and headache were the symptoms described as persistent beyond 3months in 29 subjects. Residual disease was present in all patients. Twenty-eight patients described symptoms following administration of one brand of Gadolinium-Based Contrast Agent (GBCA), 21 after a single GBCA administration and 7 after multiple GBCA administrations, including: gadopentetate dimeglumine, n=9; gadodiamide, n=4; gadoversetamide, n=4; gadobenate dimeglumine, n=4; gadobutrol, n=1; gadoteridol, n=2; and unknown, n=4. Gadolinium toxicity appears to arise following GBCA administration, which appears to contain clinical features seen in Nephrogenic Systemic Fibrosis, but also features not observed in that condition. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Identification and characterization of gadolinium(III) complexes in biological tissue extracts.

    PubMed

    Kahakachchi, Chethaka L; Moore, Dennis A

    2010-07-01

    The gadolinium species present in a rat kidney following intravenous administration of a gadolinium-based magnetic resonance contrast agent (Optimark™, Gadoversetamide injection) to a rat was examined in the present study. The major gadolinium species in the supernatant of the rat kidney tissue extracts was determined by reversed-phase liquid chromatography with online inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (HPLC-ICP-OES). The identity of the compound was established by liquid chromatography electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS) detection. The principal gadolinium(III) complex in a rat kidney tissue extract was identified as Gd-DTPA-BMEA 24 Hrs and 7 days after a single intravenous injection of Optimark™ (gadoversetamide; Gd-DTPA-BMEA) at a dose of 5 mmol Gd/kg body weight. The study demonstrated for the first time the feasibility of the use of two complementary techniques, HPLC-ICP-OES and HPLC-ESI-MS to study the in vivo behavior of gadolinium-based magnetic resonance contrast media.

  4. Compensated gadolinium-loaded plastic scintillators for thermal neutron detection (and counting)

    SciTech Connect

    Dumazert, Jonathan; Coulon, Romain; Bertrand, Guillaume H. V.

    2015-07-01

    Plastic scintillator loading with gadolinium-rich organometallic complexes shows a high potential for the deployment of efficient and cost-effective neutron detectors. Due to the low-energy photon and electron signature of thermal neutron capture by gadolinium-155 and gadolinium-157, alternative treatment to Pulse Shape Discrimination has to be proposed in order to display a trustable count rate. This paper discloses the principle of a compensation method applied to a two-scintillator system: a detection scintillator interacts with photon radiation and is loaded with gadolinium organometallic compound to become a thermal neutron absorber, while a non-gadolinium loaded compensation scintillator solely interacts with the photon partmore » of the incident radiation. Posterior to the nonlinear smoothing of the counting signals, a hypothesis test determines whether the resulting count rate after photon response compensation falls into statistical fluctuations or provides a robust image of a neutron activity. A laboratory prototype is tested under both photon and neutron irradiations, allowing us to investigate the performance of the overall compensation system in terms of neutron detection, especially with regards to a commercial helium-3 counter. The study reveals satisfactory results in terms of sensitivity and orientates future investigation toward promising axes. (authors)« less

  5. Thermal NF3 fluorination/oxidation of cobalt, yttrium, zirconium, and selected lanthanide oxides

    SciTech Connect

    Scheele, Randall D.; McNamara, Bruce K.; Casella, Andrew M.

    2013-02-01

    This paper presents results of our continuing investigation on the use of nitrogen trifluoride as a fluorination or fluorination/oxidation agent for separating valuable constituents from used nuclear fuels by exploiting the different volatilities of the constituent fission product and actinide fluorides. This article focuses on fission products that do not have volatile fluorides or oxyfluorides at expected operations temperatures. Our thermodynamic calculations show that nitrogen trifluoride has the potential to completely fluorinate fission product oxides to their fluorides. Simultaneous thermogravimetric and differential thermal analyses show that the oxides of cobalt, zirconium, and the lanthanides are fluorinated but do not formmore » volatile fluorides when treated with nitrogen trifluoride at temperatures up to 550°C. Our studies of gadolinium-doped commercial nuclear fuel indicate that nitrogen trifluoride can extract uranium from the non-volatile gadolinium.« less

  6. Tumor Xenograft Response to Redox-Active Therapies Assessed by Magnetic Resonance Imaging Using a Thiol-Bearing DOTA Complex of Gadolinium1

    PubMed Central

    Guntle, Gerald P; Jagadish, Bhumasamudram; Mash, Eugene A; Powis, Garth; Dorr, Robert T; Raghunand, Natarajan

    2012-01-01

    Gd-LC6-SH is a thiol-bearing DOTA complex of gadolinium designed to bind plasma albumin at the conserved Cys34 site. The binding of Gd-LC6-SH shows sensitivity to the presence of competing thiols. We hypothesized that Gd-LC6-SH could provide magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) enhancement that is sensitive to tumor redox state and that the prolonged retention of albumin-bound Gd-LC6-SH in vivo can be exploited to identify a saturating dose above which the shortening of MRI longitudinal relaxation time (T1) of tissue is insensitive to the injected gadolinium dose. In the Mia-PaCa-2 pancreatic tumor xenograft model in SCID mice, both the small-molecule Gd-DTPA-BMA and the macromolecule Galbumin MRI contrast agents produced dose-dependent decreases in tumor T1. By contrast, the decreases in tumor T1 provided by Gd-LC6-SH at 0.05 and 0.1 mmol/kg were not significantly different at longer times after injection. SCID mice bearing Mia-PaCa-2 or NCI-N87 tumor xenografts were treated with either the glutathione synthesis inhibitor buthionine sulfoximine or the thiol-oxidizing anticancer drug Imexon, respectively. In both models, there was a significantly greater increase in tumor R1 (=1/T1) 60 minutes after injection of Gd-LC6-SH in drug-treated animals relative to saline-treated controls. In addition, Mercury Orange staining for nonprotein sulfhydryls was significantly decreased by drug treatment relative to controls in both tumor models. In summary, these studies show that thiol-bearing complexes of gadolinium such as Gd-LC6-SH can serve as redox-sensitive MRI contrast agents for detecting differences in tumor redox status and can be used to evaluate the effects of redox-active drugs. PMID:22741038

  7. GADOLINIUM OXALATE SOLUBILITY MEASUREMENTS IN NITRIC ACID SOLUTIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Pierce, R. A.

    2012-03-12

    HB-Line will begin processing Pu solutions during FY2012 that will involve the recovery of Pu using oxalate precipitation and filtration. After the precipitation and filtration processes, the filtrate solution will be transferred from HB-Line to H-Canyon. The presence of excess oxalate and unfiltered Pu oxalate solids in these solutions create a criticality safety issue if they are sent to H-Canyon without controls in H-Canyon. One approach involves H-Canyon receiving the filtrate solution into a tank that is poisoned with soluble gadolinium (Gd). Decomposition of the oxalate will occur within a subsequent H-Canyon vessel. The receipt of excess oxalate into themore » H-Canyon receipt tanks has the potential to precipitate a portion of the Gd poison in the receipt tanks. Because the amount of Gd in solution determines the maximum amount of Pu solids that H-Canyon can receive, H-Canyon Engineering requested that SRNL determine the solubility of Gd in aqueous solutions of 4-10 M nitric acid (HNO{sub 3}), 4-12 g/L Gd, and 0.15-0.25 M oxalic acid (H{sub 2}C{sub 2}O{sub 4}) at 25 °C. The target soluble Gd concentration is 6 g/L. The data indicate that the target can be achieved above 6 M HNO{sub 3} and below 0.25 M H{sub 2}C{sub 2}O{sub 4}. At 25 °C, for 6 M HNO{sub 3}, 11 g/L and 7 g/L Gd are soluble in 0.15 M and 0.25 M H{sub 2}C{sub 2}O{sub 4}, respectively. In 4 M HNO{sub 3}, the Gd solubility drops significantly to 2.5 g/L and 0.8 g/L in 0.15 M and 0.25 M H{sub 2}C{sub 2}O{sub 4}, respectively. The solubility of Gd at 8-10 M HNO{sub 3} exceeds the solubility at 6 M HNO{sub 3}. The data for 4 M HNO{sub 3} showed good agreement with data in the literature. To achieve a target of 6 g/L soluble Gd in solution in the presence of 0.15-0.25 M oxalate, the HNO{sub 3} concentration must be maintained at or above 6 M HNO{sub 3}. The solubility of Gd in 4 M HNO{sub 3} with 0.15 M oxalate at 10 °C is about 1.5 g/L. For 6 M HNO{sub 3} with 0.15 M oxalate, the solubility of

  8. Layered gadolinium hydroxides for simultaneous drug delivery and imaging.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yadong; Goyanes, Alvaro; Wang, Yuwei; Weston, Andrew J; So, Po-Wah; Geraldes, Carlos F G C; Fogg, Andrew M; Basit, Abdul W; Williams, Gareth R

    2018-02-27

    The potential of the layered gadolinium hydroxide (LGdH) [Gd 2 (OH) 5 ]Cl·yH 2 O (LGdH-Cl) for simultaneous drug delivery and magnetic resonance imaging was explored in this work. Three non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (diclofenac [dic], ibuprofen [ibu], and naproxen [nap]) were intercalated into LGdH-Cl for the first time, using three different routes (ion exchange intercalation, coprecipitation, and exfoliation-self-assembly). X-ray diffraction, elemental microanalysis and IR spectroscopy confirmed successful incorporation of the drug into the interlayer spaces of the LGdH in all cases. From a comparison of the guest anion sizes and interlayer spacings, the active ingredients are believed to adopt intertwined bilayer configurations between the LGdH layers. The materials prepared by coprecipitation in general have noticeably higher drug loadings than those produced by ion exchange or self-assembly, as a result of the incorporation of some neutral drug into the composites. The LGdH-drug intercalates are stable at neutral pH, but rapidly degrade in acidic conditions to free Gd 3+ into solution. While LGdH-nap releases its drug loading into solution very rapidly (within ca. 1.5 h) at pH 7.4, LGdH-dic shows sustained release over 4 h, and LGdH-ibu extends this to 24 h. The latter composites therefore can be incorporated into enteric-coated tablets to provide sustained release in the small intestine. The drug intercalates are highly biocompatible and retain the proton relaxivity properties of the parent LGdH-Cl, with the materials most promising for use as negative contrast agents in MRI. Overall, the LGdH-drug intercalation compounds appear to have great potential for use in theranostic applications.

  9. Utility of late gadolinium enhancement in pediatric cardiac MRI.

    PubMed

    Etesami, Maryam; Gilkeson, Robert C; Rajiah, Prabhakar

    2016-07-01

    Late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) cardiac magnetic resonance (MR) imaging sequence is increasingly used in the evaluation of pediatric cardiovascular disorders, and although LGE might be a normal feature at the sites of previous surgeries, it is pathologically seen as a result of extracellular space expansion, either from acute cell damage or chronic scarring or fibrosis. LGE is broadly divided into ischemic and non-ischemic patterns. LGE caused by myocardial infarction occurs in a vascular distribution and always involves the subendocardial portion, progressively involving the outer regions in a waveform pattern. Non-ischemic cardiomyopathies can have a mid-myocardial (either linear or patchy), subepicardial or diffuse subendocardial distribution. Idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy can have a linear mid-myocardial pattern, while hypertrophic cardiomyopathy can have fine, patchy enhancement in hypertrophied and non-hypertrophied segments as well as right ventricular insertion points. Myocarditis and sarcoidosis have a mid-myocardial or subepicardial pattern of LGE. Fabry disease typically affects the basal inferolateral segment while Danon disease typically spares the septum. Pericarditis is characterized by diffuse or focal pericardial thickening and enhancement. Thrombus, the most common non-neoplastic cardiac mass, is characterized by absence of enhancement in all sequences, while neoplastic masses show at least some contrast enhancement, depending on the pathology. Regardless of the etiology, presence of LGE is associated with a poor prognosis. In this review, we describe the technical modifications required for performing LGE cardiac MR sequence in children, review and illustrate the patterns of LGE in children, and discuss their clinical significance.

  10. Measurement of gamma-ray production from thermal neutron capture on gadolinium for neutrino experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yano, Takatomi; 2012B0025 Collaboration; 2014B0126 Collaboration

    2017-02-01

    Recently, several scientific applications of gadolinium are found in neutrino physics experiments. Gadolinium-157 is the nucleus, which has the largest thermal neutron capture cross-section among all stable nuclei. Gadolinium-155 also has the large cross-section. These neutron capture reactions provide the gamma-ray cascade with the total energy of about 8 MeV. This reaction is applied for several neutrino experiments, e.g. reactor neutrino experiments and Gd doped large water Cherenkov detector experiments, to recognize inverse-beta-decay reaction. A good Gd(n,γ) simulation model is needed to evaluate the detection efficiency of the neutron capture reaction, i.e. the efficiency of IBD detection. In this presentation, we will report the development and study status of a Gd(n,γ) calculation model and comparison with our experimental data taken at ANNRI/MLF beam line, J-PARC.

  11. Nephrogenic systemic fibrosis (NSF): a late adverse reaction to some of the gadolinium based contrast agents

    PubMed Central

    Marckmann, Peter; Logager, Vibeke B.

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Until recently it was believed that extracellular gadolinium based contrast agents were safe for both the kidneys and all other organs within the dose range up to 0.3 mmol/kg body weight. However, in 2006, it was demonstrated that some gadolinium based contrast agents may trigger the development of nephrogenic systemic fibrosis, a generalised fibrotic disorder, in renal failure patients. Accordingly, the use of gadodiamide and gadopentate dimeglumine for renal failure patients was banned in Europe in spring 2007. The same two compounds should only be used cautiously in patients with moderate renal dysfunction. The current paper reviews the situation (July 2007) regarding gadolinium based contrast agent and the severe delayed reaction to some of these agents. The fear of nephrogenic systemic fibrosis should not lead to a denial of a well indicated enhanced magnetic resonance imaging examination. PMID:17905680

  12. The High Radiosensitizing Efficiency of a Trace of Gadolinium-Based Nanoparticles in Tumors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dufort, Sandrine; Le Duc, Géraldine; Salomé, Murielle; Bentivegna, Valerie; Sancey, Lucie; Bräuer-Krisch, Elke; Requardt, Herwig; Lux, François; Coll, Jean-Luc; Perriat, Pascal; Roux, Stéphane; Tillement, Olivier

    2016-07-01

    We recently developed the synthesis of ultrasmall gadolinium-based nanoparticles (GBN), (hydrodynamic diameter <5 nm) characterized by a safe behavior after intravenous injection (renal clearance, preferential accumulation in tumors). Owing to the presence of gadolinium ions, GBN can be used as contrast agents for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and as radiosensitizers. The attempt to determine the most opportune delay between the intravenous injection of GBN and the irradiation showed that a very low content of radiosensitizing nanoparticles in the tumor area is sufficient (0.1 μg/g of particles, i.e. 15 ppb of gadolinium) for an important increase of the therapeutic effect of irradiation. Such a promising and unexpected result is assigned to a suited distribution of GBN within the tumor, as revealed by the X-ray fluorescence (XRF) maps.

  13. The network formers role of gadolinium(III) ions in some zinc-borate glass ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bosca, Maria; Pop, Lidia; Pascuta, Petru

    2017-12-01

    EPR and magnetic susceptibility measurements were performed on glass ceramics from the (Gd2O3)x.(B2O3)(60-x).(ZnO)40 system, with 0 ≤ x ≤ 15 mol%, in order to determine the role of gadolinium ions on structural and magnetic properties. At low Gd2O3 contents (x ≤ 1 mol%) the EPR spectra show four resonance lines with effective g-values of ˜ 6, 4.8, 2.8 and 2, typical for Gd3+ ions uniformly distributed in the glass and glass ceramic samples. For higher contents of gadolinium ions (x ≥ 3 mol%) the EPR spectra are dominated by a single broad line centered at g ˜ 2, which can be due to the magnetic clusters containing Gd3+ ions. The magnetic susceptibility data show that the gadolinium ions are involved in superexchange interactions in all the investigated glass ceramics, being antiferromagnetically coupled.

  14. Determination of trace rare earth elements in gadolinium aluminate by inductively coupled plasma time of flight mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saha, Abhijit; Deb, S. B.; Nagar, B. K.; Saxena, M. K.

    An analytical methodology was developed for the precise quantification of ten trace rare earth elements (REEs), namely, La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Tb, Dy, Ho, and Tm, in gadolinium aluminate (GdAlO3) employing an ultrasonic nebulizer (USN)-desolvating device based inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). A microwave digestion procedure was optimized for digesting 100 mg of the refractory oxide using a mixture of sulphuric acid (H2SO4), phosphoric acid (H3PO4) and water (H2O) with 1400 W power, 10 min ramp and 60 min hold time. An USN-desolvating sample introduction system was employed to enhance analyte sensitivities by minimizing their oxide ion formation in the plasma. Studies on the effect of various matrix concentrations on the analyte intensities revealed that precise quantification of the analytes was possible with matrix level of 250 mg L- 1. The possibility of using indium as an internal standard was explored and applied to correct for matrix effect and variation in analyte sensitivity under plasma operating conditions. Individual oxide ion formation yields were determined in matrix matched solution and employed for correcting polyatomic interferences of light REE (LREE) oxide ions on the intensities of middle and heavy rare earth elements (MREEs and HREEs). Recoveries of ≥ 90% were achieved for the analytes employing standard addition technique. Three real samples were analyzed for traces of REEs by the proposed method and cross validated for Eu and Nd by isotope dilution mass spectrometry (IDMS). The results show no significant difference in the values at 95% confidence level. The expanded uncertainty (coverage factor 1σ) in the determination of trace REEs in the samples were found to be between 3 and 8%. The instrument detection limits (IDLs) and the method detection limits (MDLs) for the ten REEs lie in the ranges 1-5 ng L- 1 and 7-64 μg kg- 1 respectively.

  15. Magnetization reversal and inverted magnetoresistance of exchange-biased spin valves with a gadolinium layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milyaev, M.; Naumova, L.; Chernyshova, T.; Proglyado, V.; Kamensky, I.; Krinitsina, T.; Ryabukhina, M.; Ustinov, V.

    2017-03-01

    FeMn-based spin valves with a gadolinium layer have been fabricated by magnetron sputtering. The magnetoresistive properties of the spin valves have been investigated at temperatures of 80-293 K. Temperature-induced switching between low- and high-resistance magnetic states has been revealed. Realization of the low- or high-resistance states depends on which magnetic moment dominates in the exchange-coupled Gd/CoFe, of Gd or CoFe. It has been shown that the switching temperature depends on the thickness of the gadolinium layer.

  16. Recovery of methamphetamine associated cardiomyopathy predicted by late gadolinium enhanced cardiovascular magnetic resonance.

    PubMed

    Lopez, Javier E; Yeo, Khung; Caputo, Gary; Buonocore, Michael; Schaefer, Saul

    2009-11-11

    Methamphetamine is known to cause a cardiomyopathy which may be reversible with appropriate medical therapy and cessation of use. Late gadolinium enhancement cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) has been shown to identify fibrosis in ischemic and non-ischemic cardiomyopathies. We present a case of severe methamphetamine-associated cardiomyopathy in which cardiac function recovered after 6 months. Evaluation by CMR using late gadolinium enhancement was notable for an absence of enhancement, suggesting an absence of irreversible myocyte injury and a good prognosis. CMR may be useful to predict recovery in toxin-associated non-ischemic cardiomyopathies.

  17. Gadolinium-Conjugated Gold Nanoshells for Multimodal Diagnostic Imaging and Photothermal Cancer Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Coughlin, Andrew J.; Ananta, Jeyarama S.; Deng, Nanfu; Larina, Irina V.; Decuzzi, Paolo

    2014-01-01

    Multimodal imaging offers the potential to improve diagnosis and enhance the specificity of photothermal cancer therapy. Toward this goal, we have engineered gadolinium-conjugated gold nanoshells and demonstrated that they enhance contrast for magnetic resonance imaging, X-Ray, optical coherence tomography, reflectance confocal microscopy, and two-photon luminescence. Additionally, these particles effectively convert near-infrared light to heat, which can be used to ablate cancer cells. Ultimately, these studies demonstrate the potential of gadolinium-nanoshells for image-guided photothermal ablation. PMID:24115690

  18. Gadolinium Scandium Gallium Garnet (GSGG) as a Solid-State Laser Host

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-07-01

    o*SATI CODSi1.SBEC EM (otne nrvrs fnceayad dniy nb)k ubr ~~~~~~~~ Gadolinium Scandium Gallium Garnet (GSGG)asaSldtteLerHt 17. ABSTRACT 6.SUJCTTEM...certain other garnet materials for replacement. It also addresses the solid-state laser host material Gadolinium Scandium Gal- lium Garnet (GSGG) and its...by neodymium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet (Nd:YAG) or other mate- rials for most applications. In the years after the invention of the ruby laser, in

  19. Recovery of methamphetamine associated cardiomyopathy predicted by late gadolinium enhanced cardiovascular magnetic resonance

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Methamphetamine is known to cause a cardiomyopathy which may be reversible with appropriate medical therapy and cessation of use. Late gadolinium enhancement cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) has been shown to identify fibrosis in ischemic and non-ischemic cardiomyopathies. We present a case of severe methamphetamine-associated cardiomyopathy in which cardiac function recovered after 6 months. Evaluation by CMR using late gadolinium enhancement was notable for an absence of enhancement, suggesting an absence of irreversible myocyte injury and a good prognosis. CMR may be useful to predict recovery in toxin-associated non-ischemic cardiomyopathies. PMID:19906310

  20. A Manganese Alternative to Gadolinium for MRI Contrast

    PubMed Central

    Gale, Eric M.; Atanasova, Iliyana P.; Blasi, Francesco; Ay, Ilknur; Caravan, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are routinely used to diagnose soft tissue and vascular abnormalities. However safety concerns limit the use of iodinated and gadolinium- (Gd) based CT and MRI contrast media in renally compromised patients. With an estimated 14% of the US population suffering from chronic kidney disease (CKD), contrast media compatible with renal impairment is sorely needed. We present the new manganese(II) complex [Mn(PyC3A)(H2O)]- as a Gd alternative. [Mn(PyC3A)(H2O)]- is amongst the most stable Mn(II) complexes at pH 7.4 (log KML = 11.40). In the presence of 25 mol equiv. Zn at pH 6.0, 37 °C, [Mn(PyC3A)(H2O)]- is 20-fold more resistant to dissociation than [Gd(DTPA)(H2O)]2-. Relaxivity of [Mn(PyC3A)(H2O)]- in blood plasma is comparable to commercial Gd contrast agents. Biodistribution analysis confirms that [Mn(PyC3A)(H2O)]- clears via a mixed renal/ hepatobiliary pathway with >99% elimination by 24h. [Mn(PyC3A)(H2O)]- was modified to form a bifunctional chelator and 4 chelates were conjugated to a fibrin-specific peptide to give Mn-FBP. Mn-FBP binds the soluble fibrin fragment DD(E) with Kd = 110 nM. Per Mn relaxivity of Mn-FBP is 4-fold greater than [Mn(PyC3A)(H2O)]- and increases 60% in the presence of fibrin, consistent with binding. Mn-FBP provided equivalent thrombus enhancement to the state of the art Gd analog, EP-2104R, in a rat model of arterial thrombosis. Mn metabolite analysis reveals no evidence of dechelation and the probe was >99% eliminated after 24 hr. [Mn(PyC3A)(H2O)]- is a lead development candidate for an imaging probe that is compatible with renally compromised patients. PMID:26588204

  1. Gadolinium-enhanced cardiovascular magnetic resonance: administered dose in relationship to United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) guidelines.

    PubMed

    Nacif, Marcelo S; Arai, Andrew E; Lima, Joao A C; Bluemke, David A

    2012-02-29

    Myocardial late gadolinium enhancement was originally validated using higher than label-recommended doses of gadolinium chelate. The objective of this study was to evaluate available evidence for various gadolinium dosing regimens used for CMR. The relationship of gadolinium dose warnings (due to nephrogenic systemic fibrosis) announced in 2008 to gadolinium dosing regimens was also examined. We conducted a meta-analysis of peer reviewed publications from January, 2004 to December, 2010. Major subject search headings (MeSh) terms from the National Library of Medicine's PubMed were: contrast media, gadolinium, heart, magnetic resonance imaging; searches were limited to human studies with abstracts published in English. Case reports, review articles, editorials, MRA related papers and all reports that did not indicate gadolinium type or weight-based dose were excluded. For all included references, full text was available to determine the total administered gadolinium dose on a per kg basis. Average and median dose values were weighted by the number of subjects in each study. 399 publications were identified in PubMed; 233 studies matched the inclusion criteria, encompassing 19,934 patients with mean age 54.2 ± 11.4 (range 9.3 to 76 years). 34 trials were related to perfusion testing and 199 to myocardial late gadolinium enhancement. In 2004, the weighted-median and weighted-mean contrast dose were 0.15 and 0.16 ± 0.06 mmol/kg, respectively. Median contrast doses for 2005-2010 were: 0.2 mmol/kg for all years, respectively. Mean contrast doses for the years 2005-2010 were: 0.19 ± 0.03, 0.18 ± 0.04, 0.18 ± 0.10, 0.18 ± 0.03, 0.18 ± 0.04 and 0.18 ± 0.04 mmol/kg, respectively (p for trend, NS). Gadopentetate dimeglumine was the most frequent gadolinium type [114 (48.9%) studies]. No change in mean gadolinium dose was present before, versus after the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) black box warning (p > 0.05). Three multi-center dose ranging trials have been

  2. Myocardial late gadolinium enhancement in specific cardiomyopathies by cardiovascular magnetic resonance: a preliminary experience.

    PubMed

    Silva, Caterina; Moon, James C; Elkington, Andrew G; John, Anna S; Mohiaddin, Raad H; Pennell, Dudley J

    2007-12-01

    Late gadolinium enhancement cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) can visualize myocardial interstitial abnormalities. The aim of this study was to assess whether regions of abnormal myocardium can also be visualized by late enhancement gadolinium CMR in the specific cardiomyopathies. A retrospective review of all referrals for gadolinium CMR with specific cardiomyopathy over 20 months. Nine patients with different specific cardiomyopathies were identified. Late enhancement was demonstrated in all patients, with a mean signal intensity of 390 +/- 220% compared with normal regions. The distribution pattern of late enhancement was unlike the subendocardial late enhancement related to coronary territories found in myocardial infarction. The affected areas included papillary muscles (sarcoid), the mid-myocardium (Anderson-Fabry disease, glycogen storage disease, myocarditis, Becker muscular dystrophy) and the global sub-endocardium (systemic sclerosis, Loeffler's endocarditis, amyloid, Churg-Strauss). Focal myocardial late gadolinium enhancement is found in the specific cardiomyopathies, and the pattern is distinct from that seen in infarction. Further systematic studies are warranted to assess whether the pattern and extent of late enhancement may aid diagnosis and prognostic assessment.

  3. Switching of the polarization of ferroelectric-ferroelastic gadolinium molybdate in a magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yakushkin, E. D.

    2017-10-01

    A change in the character of the electric switching of polydomain ferroelectric-ferroelastic gadolinium molybdate in an external magnetic field has been detected. This change has been attributed to a magnetically stimulated increase in the pinning of domain walls. Under certain conditions, the loop of switchable polarization is degenerated into an ellipse characteristic of a linear insulator with leakage current.

  4. Use of gadolinium chloride as a contrast agent for imaging spruce knots by magnetic resonance

    Treesearch

    Thomas L. Eberhardt; Chi-Leung So; Amy H. Herlihy; Po-Wah So

    2006-01-01

    Treatments of knot-containing spruce wood blocks with a paramagnetic salt, gadolinium (III) chloride, in combination with solvent pretreatments, were evaluated as strategies to enhance the visualization of wood features by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Initial experiments with clear wood and excised knot samples showed differences in moisture uptake after...

  5. Gadolinium chloride as a contrast agent for imaging wood composite components by magnetic resonance

    Treesearch

    Thomas L. Eberhardt; Chi-Leung So; Andrea Protti; Po-Wah So

    2009-01-01

    Although paramagnetic contrast agents have an established track record in medical uses of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), only recently has a contrast agent been used for enhancing MRI images of solid wood specimens. Expanding on this concept, wood veneers were treated with a gadolinium-based contrast agent and used in a model system comprising three-ply plywood...

  6. A polymeric fastener can easily functionalize liposome surfaces with gadolinium for enhanced magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Smith, Cartney E; Shkumatov, Artem; Withers, Sarah G; Yang, Binxia; Glockner, James F; Misra, Sanjay; Roy, Edward J; Wong, Chun-Ho; Zimmerman, Steven C; Kong, Hyunjoon

    2013-11-26

    Common methods of loading magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agents into nanoparticles often suffer from challenges related to particle formation, complex chemical modification/purification steps, and reduced contrast efficiency. This study presents a simple, yet advanced process to address these issues by loading gadolinium, an MRI contrast agent, exclusively on a liposome surface using a polymeric fastener. The fastener, so named for its ability to physically link the two functional components together, consisted of chitosan substituted with diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) to chelate gadolinium, as well as octadecyl chains to stabilize the modified chitosan on the liposome surface. The assembly strategy, mimicking the mechanisms by which viruses and proteins naturally anchor to a cell, provided greater T1 relaxivity than liposomes loaded with gadolinium in both the interior and outer leaflet. Gadolinium-coated liposomes were ultimately evaluated in vivo using murine ischemia models to highlight the diagnostic capability of the system. Taken together, this process decouples particle assembly and functionalization and, therefore, has considerable potential to enhance imaging quality while alleviating many of the difficulties associated with multifunctional particle fabrication.

  7. Porphyrin-containing polyaspartamide gadolinium complexes as potential magnetic resonance imaging contrast agents.

    PubMed

    Yan, Guo-Ping; Li, Zhen; Xu, Wei; Zhou, Cheng-Kai; Yang, Lian; Zhang, Qiao; Li, Liang; Liu, Fan; Han, Lin; Ge, Yuan-Xing; Guo, Jun-Fang

    2011-04-04

    Porphyrin-containing polyaspartamide ligands (APTSPP-PHEA-DTPA) were synthesized by the incorporation of diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) and 5-(4'-aminophenyl)-10,15,20-tris(4'-sulfonatophenyl) porphyrin, trisodium salt (APTSPP) into poly-α,β-[N-(2-hydroxyethyl)-l-aspartamide] (PHEA). These ligands were further reacted with gadolinium chloride to produce macromolecule-gadolinium complexes (APTSPP-PHEA-DTPA-Gd). Experimental data of (1)H NMR, IR, UV and elemental analysis evidenced the formation of the polyaspartamide ligands and gadolinium complexes. In vitro and in vivo property tests indicated that APTSPP-PHEA-DTPA-Gd possessed noticeably higher relaxation effectiveness, less toxicity to HeLa cells, and significantly higher enhanced signal intensities (SI) of the VX2 carcinoma in rabbits with lower injection dose requirement than that of Gd-DTPA. Moreover, APTSPP-PHEA-DTPA-Gd was found to greatly enhance the contrast of MR images of the VX2 carcinoma, providing prolonged intravascular duration, and distinguished the VX2 carcinoma and normal tissues in rabbits according to MR image signal enhancements. These porphyrin-containing polyaspartamide gadolinium complexes can be used as the candidates of contrast agents for targeted MRI to tumors. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Do we need gadolinium-based contrast medium for brain magnetic resonance imaging in children?

    PubMed

    Dünger, Dennis; Krause, Matthias; Gräfe, Daniel; Merkenschlager, Andreas; Roth, Christian; Sorge, Ina

    2018-06-01

    Brain imaging is the most common examination in pediatric magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), often combined with the use of a gadolinium-based contrast medium. The application of gadolinium-based contrast medium poses some risk. There is limited evidence of the benefits of contrast medium in pediatric brain imaging. To assess the diagnostic gain of contrast-enhanced sequences in brain MRI when the unenhanced sequences are normal. We retrospectively assessed 6,683 brain MR examinations using contrast medium in children younger than 16 years in the pediatric radiology department of the University Hospital Leipzig to determine whether contrast-enhanced sequences delivered additional, clinically relevant information to pre-contrast sequences. All examinations were executed using a 1.5-T or a 3-T system. In 8 of 3,003 (95% confidence interval 0.12-0.52%) unenhanced normal brain examinations, a relevant additional finding was detected when contrast medium was administered. Contrast enhancement led to a change in diagnosis in only one of these cases. Children with a normal pre-contrast brain MRI rarely benefit from contrast medium application. Comparing these results to the risks and disadvantages of a routine gadolinium application, there is substantiated numerical evidence for avoiding routine administration of gadolinium in a pre-contrast normal MRI examination.

  9. Accumulation of MRI contrast agents in malignant fibrous histiocytoma for gadolinium neutron capture therapy.

    PubMed

    Fujimoto, T; Ichikawa, H; Akisue, T; Fujita, I; Kishimoto, K; Hara, H; Imabori, M; Kawamitsu, H; Sharma, P; Brown, S C; Moudgil, B M; Fujii, M; Yamamoto, T; Kurosaka, M; Fukumori, Y

    2009-07-01

    Neutron-capture therapy with gadolinium (Gd-NCT) has therapeutic potential, especially that gadolinium is generally used as a contrast medium in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The accumulation of gadolinium in a human sarcoma cell line, malignant fibrosis histiocytoma (MFH) Nara-H, was visualized by the MRI system. The commercially available MRI contrast medium Gd-DTPA (Magnevist, dimeglumine gadopentetate aqueous solution) and the biodegradable and highly gadopentetic acid (Gd-DTPA)-loaded chitosan nanoparticles (Gd-nanoCPs) were prepared as MRI contrast agents. The MFH cells were cultured and collected into three falcon tubes that were set into the 3-tesra MRI system to acquire signal intensities from each pellet by the spin echo method, and the longitudinal relaxation time (T1) was calculated. The amount of Gd in the sample was measured by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrography (ICP-AES). The accumulation of gadolinium in cells treated with Gd-nanoCPs was larger than that in cells treated with Gd-DTPA. In contrast, and compared with the control, Gd-DTPA was more effective than Gd-nanoCPs in reducing T1, suggesting that the larger accumulation exerted the adverse effect of lowering the enhancement of MRI. Further studies are warranted to gain insight into the therapeutic potential of Gd-NCT.

  10. Are gadolinium-based contrast media nephrotoxic? A renal biopsy study.

    PubMed

    Akgun, Hulya; Gonlusen, Gulfiliz; Cartwright, Joiner; Suki, Wadi N; Truong, Luan D

    2006-09-01

    Gadolinium-based contrast media were originally introduced as alternatives to iodinated media for magnetic resonance imaging. Although originally thought to be nonnephrotoxic, gadolinium-based contrast media have recently been reported to be associated with acute renal failure; the mechanism and the underlying renal injury are not completely understood. We report what is, to our knowledge, the first renal biopsy in this context. A 56-year-old patient underwent 2 consecutive vascular imaging procedures in conjunction with gadolinium-based contrast medium administration. A few days later, the patient developed acute renal failure. A renal biopsy showed acute tubular cell injury including patchy tubular cell necrosis, tubular cell degeneration, and marked proliferation of tubular cells, together with mild interstitial edema and interstitial inflammation, but without significant glomerular or vascular changes. During supportive therapy, renal function was partially regained. This case emphasizes the potential nephrotoxicity of gadolinium-based contrast media and suggests that the nephrotoxicity is related to potentially reversible acute tubular cell injury.

  11. A Polymeric Fastener can Easily Functionalize Liposome Surfaces with Gadolinium for Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Cartney E.; Shkumatov, Artem; Withers, Sarah G.; Glockner, James F.; Misra, Sanjay; Roy, Edward J.; Wong, Chun-Ho; Zimmerman, Steven C.; Kong, Hyunjoon

    2013-01-01

    Common methods of loading magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agents into nanoparticles often suffer from challenges related to particle formation, complex chemical modification/purification steps, and reduced contrast efficiency. This study presents a simple, yet advanced process to address these issues by loading gadolinium, an MRI contrast agent, exclusively on a liposome surface using a polymeric fastener. The fastener, so named for its ability to physically link the two functional components together, consisted of chitosan substituted with diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) to chelate gadolinium, as well as octadecyl chains to stabilize the modified chitosan on the liposome surface. The assembly strategy, mimicking the mechanisms by which viruses and proteins naturally anchor to a cell, provided greater T1 relaxivity than liposomes loaded with gadolinium in both the interior and outer leaflet. Gadolinium-coated liposomes were ultimately evaluated in vivo using murine ischemia models to highlight the diagnostic capability of the system. Taken together, this process decouples particle assembly and functionalization, and therefore has considerable potential to enhance imaging quality while alleviating many of the difficulties associated with multifunctional particle fabrication. PMID:24083377

  12. Removal of gadolinium, a neutron poison from the moderator system of nuclear reactors.

    PubMed

    Rufus, A L; Kumar, Padma S; Jeena, K; Velmurugan, S

    2018-01-15

    Gadolinium as gadolinium nitrate is used as neutron poison in the moderator system for regulating and controlling the power generation of Pressurized Heavy Water Reactors (PHWR) and proposed to be used in Advanced Heavy Water Reactors (AHWR) owing to its high neutron absorption cross section. Removal of the added gadolinium nitrate (Gd 3+ and NO 3 - ) from the system after its intended use is done using ion exchange resins. In the present investigation, attempts have been made to optimize the ion exchange process for generation of low radioactive waste and maximize utilization of the ion exchange resins by employing different types of resins and different modes of operation. The investigations revealed that use of mixed bed (MB) resin column consisting of Strong Acid Cation (SAC) resin and Strong Base Anion (SBA) resin followed by SAC resin column is efficient in removing the Gd 3+ and NO 3 - from the system besides maintaining the pH of the moderator system in the desirable regime, where gadolinium does not get precipitated as its hydroxide. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Gadolinium Deposition in Human Brain Tissues after Contrast-enhanced MR Imaging in Adult Patients without Intracranial Abnormalities.

    PubMed

    McDonald, Robert J; McDonald, Jennifer S; Kallmes, David F; Jentoft, Mark E; Paolini, Michael A; Murray, David L; Williamson, Eric E; Eckel, Laurence J

    2017-11-01

    Purpose To determine whether gadolinium deposits in neural tissues of patients with intracranial abnormalities following intravenous gadolinium-based contrast agent (GBCA) exposure might be related to blood-brain barrier integrity by studying adult patients with normal brain pathologic characteristics. Materials and Methods After obtaining antemortem consent and institutional review board approval, the authors compared postmortem neuronal tissue samples from five patients who had undergone four to 18 gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance (MR) examinations between 2005 and 2014 (contrast group) with samples from 10 gadolinium-naive patients who had undergone at least one MR examination during their lifetime (control group). All patients in the contrast group had received gadodiamide. Neuronal tissues from the dentate nuclei, pons, globus pallidus, and thalamus were harvested and analyzed with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), transmission electron microscopy with energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy, and light microscopy to quantify, localize, and assess the effects of gadolinium deposition. Results Tissues from the four neuroanatomic regions of gadodiamide-exposed patients contained 0.1-19.4 μg of gadolinium per gram of tissue in a statistically significant dose-dependent relationship (globus pallidus: ρ = 0.90, P = .04). In contradistinction, patients in the control group had undetectable levels of gadolinium with ICP-MS. All patients had normal brain pathologic characteristics at autopsy. Three patients in the contrast group had borderline renal function (estimated glomerular filtration rate <45 mL/min/1.73 m 2 ) and hepatobiliary dysfunction at MR examination. Gadolinium deposition in the contrast group was localized to the capillary endothelium and neuronal interstitium and, in two cases, within the nucleus of the cell. Conclusion Gadolinium deposition in neural tissues after GBCA administration occurs in the absence of intracranial

  14. Acute side effects of three commonly used gadolinium contrast agents in the paediatric population.

    PubMed

    Neeley, Chris; Moritz, Michael; Brown, Jeffrey J; Zhou, Yihua

    2016-07-01

    To determine the incidence of acute side effects of three commonly used gadolinium contrast agents in the paediatric population. A retrospective review of medical records was performed to determine the incidence of acute adverse side effects of i.v. gadolinium contrast agents [MultiHance(®) (Bracco Diagnostics Inc., Princeton, NJ), Magnevist(®) (Bayer Healthcare Pharmaceuticals, Wayne, NJ) or Gadavist(®) (Bayer HealthCare Pharmaceuticals)] in paediatric patients. 40 of the 2393 patients who received gadolinium contrast agents experienced acute side effects, representing an incidence of 1.7%. The majority of the acute side effects (in 30 patients) were nausea and vomiting. The incidence was significantly higher in non-sedated patients (2.37% vs 0.7%; p = 0.0018). Furthermore, without sedation, the incidence of both nausea and vomiting was significantly higher in children receiving MultiHance, with a 4.48% incidence of nausea when compared with Magnevist (0.33%, p < 0.0001) and Gadavist (0.28%, p < 0.0001) and a 2.36% incidence of vomiting compared with those for Magnevist (0.50%, p = 0.0054) and Gadavist (0.28%, p = 0.014), whereas no difference was observed between Magnevist and Gadavist within the power of the study. In addition, there was no apparent difference between any of the three contrast agents for the incidence of allergy or other acute side effects detected, given the sample size. The gadolinium contrast agents MultiHance, Magnevist and Gadavist have a low incidence of acute side effects in the paediatric population, a rate that is further reduced in moderately sedated patients. MultiHance demonstrated significantly increased incidence of gastrointestinal symptoms compared with Magnevist and Gadavist. The incidence of acute side effects of three commonly used gadolinium contrast agents was determined in the paediatric population, which can have clinical implications.

  15. A new method for the determination of Gadolinium in ppq levels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brünjes, Robert; Bichler, Andrea; Hofmann, Thilo

    2015-04-01

    The use of Gadolinium (Gd) complexes as a contrast agent in Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) results in an enhanced Gd input in the aquatic environment. Gd-complexes are excreted by humans unmetabolized within 12h after application. Passing the sewage systems with almost no degradation taking place, they successively reach surface waters, which make Gd a capable tracer for surface water/groundwater (SW/GW) interactions. The natural background concentration of Gd and other rare earth elements (REE) occur at ultratrace levels [low ng/L]. Crust-normalized REE patterns show positive Gd-anomalies in surface water, groundwater, and recently also in tap water. The difference between the total concentration and its natural background concentration estimated by the REE pattern is the anthropogenic Gd. Not only densely populated areas are affected by the presence of anthropogenic Gd. Studies have shown that even in rural areas without MRI facilities, anthropogenic Gd can be detected, since people are sent home after treatment. However, low input concentrations and mixing with natural waters lead to a decrease of Gd concentration below the current limit of quantification (LOQ) [1-5ng/L]. Often anthropogenic Gd cannot be calculated, although it is present, because natural background concentration cannot be determined with current methods, in particular in areas with low waste water load (e.g. headwater catchments). A new method using an on-line preconcentration system "SeaFAST" (Elemental Scientific Inc., USA), in combination with a desolvation system "Apex Q" (Elemental Scientific Inc., USA) and a QQQ-ICP-MS instrument (Agilent Technologies, Japan) does lower the LOQ for REE by a factor of 10 to 20. The SeaFAST-system uses a resin with ethylenediaminetriacetic acid and iminodiacetic acid functional groups to preconcentrate specifically REE as they are exclusively trivalent while anions, alkali and alkaline earth cations are washed out. The Apex Q interface is also supposed to

  16. Gadolinium Oxide / Silicon Thin Film Heterojunction Solid-State Neutron Detector

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-03-01

    PRODUCED AS A MEDICAL APPLICATOR SHOWN IN „A‟. THE SOURCE, PICTURED IN „B‟ HAS A PLASTIC SHIELD THAT SLIDES UP AND DOWN THE SHAFT WHICH IS DESIGNED TO...down the shaft which is designed to shield the operator from radiation. The source is sitting head-down and is covered by a thick aluminum shield for...EXPERIMENT, RESULTS, AND ANALYSIS ........................................................ 37 4.1 Experimental Design & Apparatus

  17. Metabolomic Analysis of N-acetylcysteine Protection of Injury from Gadolinium-DTPA Contrast Agent in Rats with Chronic Renal Failure.

    PubMed

    Wan, Chuanling; Xue, Rong; Zhan, Youyang; Wu, Yijie; Li, Xiaojing; Pei, Fengkui

    2017-09-01

    Gadolinium-based contrast agents (GBCAs) are frequently used to enhance the diagnostic efficacy of magnetic resonance imaging. On the other hand, the association between GBCA administration in patients with advanced renal disease and nephrogenic systemic fibrosis (NSF) was also noted. NSF is a systemic disorder characterized by widespread tissue fibrosis that may lead to death. N-acetylcysteine (NAC) protects rats from injury induced by gadolinium-based contrast agents, but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. In this study, a nuclear magnetic resonance-based metabolomic approach was used to systematically investigate the protective effects of NAC on Gd-DTPA-induced injury. Thirty-two male Sprague-Dawley rats were given adenine (200 mg·kg -1 body weight) by oral gavage once a day for 3 weeks to induce chronic renal failure (CRF). NAC (600 mg/L in drinking water for 9 days) pretreatment was initiated 2 days before Gd-DTPA injection (a single tail vein injection, 2 mmol/kg body weight). Serum and liver samples were collected on day 7 after Gd-DTPA injection. By study design, the serum and hepatic metabolic changes of rats were measured in four groups of eight each: CRF, CRF-Gd, CRF-Gd-NAC, and CRF-NAC. Gd-DTPA administration to rats with CRF resulted in disturbances of several metabolic pathways, including glucose, lipid, glutamate, choline, gut microbiota, one-carbon, and purine metabolism. NAC pretreatment reversed the abundance changes of high-density lipoprotein, low-density lipoprotein, very low-density lipoprotein, glutamate, glutamine, oxidized glutathione, choline, phosphocholine, glycerophosphocholine, trimethylamine, and trimethylamine-N-oxide induced by Gd-DTPA. It is noteworthy, however, that the ameliorating effects of NAC on the disturbance of glutamate, choline, and gut microbiota metabolism may be specific to Gd-DTPA. In all, these findings could be potentially useful to decipher the underlying mechanisms of NAC protective effects from the

  18. Gadolinium-based Contrast Media, Cerebrospinal Fluid and the Glymphatic System: Possible Mechanisms for the Deposition of Gadolinium in the Brain

    PubMed Central

    Taoka, Toshiaki; Naganawa, Shinji

    2018-01-01

    After Kanda’s first report in 2014 on gadolinium (Gd) deposition in brain tissue, a considerable number of studies have investigated the explanation for the observation. Gd deposition in brain tissue after repeated administration of gadolinium-based contrast medium (GBCM) has been histologically proven, and chelate stability has been shown to affect the deposition. However, the mechanism for this deposition has not been fully elucidated. Recently, a hypothesis was introduced that involves the ‘glymphatic system’, which is a coined word that combines ‘gl’ for glia cell and ‘lymphatic’ system. According to this hypothesis, the perivascular space functions as a conduit for cerebrospinal fluid to flow into the brain parenchyma. The perivascular space around the arteries allows cerebrospinal fluid to enter the interstitial space of the brain tissue through water channels controlled by aquaporin 4. The cerebrospinal fluid entering the interstitial space clears waste proteins from the tissue. It then flows into the perivascular space around the vein and is discharged outside the brain. In addition to the hypothesis regarding the glymphatic system, some reports have described that after GBCM administration, some of the GBCM distributes through systemic blood circulation and remains in other compartments including the cerebrospinal fluid. It is thought that the GBCM distributed into the cerebrospinal fluid cavity via the glymphatic system may remain in brain tissue for a longer duration compared to the GBCM in systemic circulation. Glymphatic system may of course act as a clearance system for GBCM from brain tissue. Based on these findings, the mechanism for Gd deposition in the brain will be discussed in this review. The authors speculate that the glymphatic system may be the major contributory factor to the deposition and clearance of gadolinium in brain tissue. PMID:29367513

  19. Gadolinium-based Contrast Media, Cerebrospinal Fluid and the Glymphatic System: Possible Mechanisms for the Deposition of Gadolinium in the Brain.

    PubMed

    Taoka, Toshiaki; Naganawa, Shinji

    2018-04-10

    After Kanda's first report in 2014 on gadolinium (Gd) deposition in brain tissue, a considerable number of studies have investigated the explanation for the observation. Gd deposition in brain tissue after repeated administration of gadolinium-based contrast medium (GBCM) has been histologically proven, and chelate stability has been shown to affect the deposition. However, the mechanism for this deposition has not been fully elucidated. Recently, a hypothesis was introduced that involves the 'glymphatic system', which is a coined word that combines 'gl' for glia cell and 'lymphatic' system. According to this hypothesis, the perivascular space functions as a conduit for cerebrospinal fluid to flow into the brain parenchyma. The perivascular space around the arteries allows cerebrospinal fluid to enter the interstitial space of the brain tissue through water channels controlled by aquaporin 4. The cerebrospinal fluid entering the interstitial space clears waste proteins from the tissue. It then flows into the perivascular space around the vein and is discharged outside the brain. In addition to the hypothesis regarding the glymphatic system, some reports have described that after GBCM administration, some of the GBCM distributes through systemic blood circulation and remains in other compartments including the cerebrospinal fluid. It is thought that the GBCM distributed into the cerebrospinal fluid cavity via the glymphatic system may remain in brain tissue for a longer duration compared to the GBCM in systemic circulation. Glymphatic system may of course act as a clearance system for GBCM from brain tissue. Based on these findings, the mechanism for Gd deposition in the brain will be discussed in this review. The authors speculate that the glymphatic system may be the major contributory factor to the deposition and clearance of gadolinium in brain tissue.

  20. Feasibility and accuracy of dual-layer spectral detector computed tomography for quantification of gadolinium: a phantom study.

    PubMed

    van Hamersvelt, Robbert W; Willemink, Martin J; de Jong, Pim A; Milles, Julien; Vlassenbroek, Alain; Schilham, Arnold M R; Leiner, Tim

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility and accuracy of dual-layer spectral detector CT (SDCT) for the quantification of clinically encountered gadolinium concentrations. The cardiac chamber of an anthropomorphic thoracic phantom was equipped with 14 tubular inserts containing different gadolinium concentrations, ranging from 0 to 26.3 mg/mL (0.0, 0.1, 0.2, 0.4, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, 3.0, 4.0, 5.1, 10.6, 15.7, 20.7 and 26.3 mg/mL). Images were acquired using a novel 64-detector row SDCT system at 120 and 140 kVp. Acquisitions were repeated five times to assess reproducibility. Regions of interest (ROIs) were drawn on three slices per insert. A spectral plot was extracted for every ROI and mean attenuation profiles were fitted to known attenuation profiles of water and pure gadolinium using in-house-developed software to calculate gadolinium concentrations. At both 120 and 140 kVp, excellent correlations between scan repetitions and true and measured gadolinium concentrations were found (R > 0.99, P < 0.001; ICCs > 0.99, CI 0.99-1.00). Relative mean measurement errors stayed below 10% down to 2.0 mg/mL true gadolinium concentration at 120 kVp and below 5% down to 1.0 mg/mL true gadolinium concentration at 140 kVp. SDCT allows for accurate quantification of gadolinium at both 120 and 140 kVp. Lowest measurement errors were found for 140 kVp acquisitions. • Gadolinium quantification may be useful in patients with contraindication to iodine. • Dual-layer spectral detector CT allows for overall accurate quantification of gadolinium. • Interscan variability of gadolinium quantification using SDCT material decomposition is excellent.

  1. Polythermal investigation of viscosity of solution of metal carboxylates in VIK-grade mixed carboxylic acids: Yttrium and gadolinium carboxylates

    SciTech Connect

    Mezhov, E.A.; Samatov, A.V.; Troyanovskii, L.V.

    Kinematic viscosities have been measured for solutions of yttrium and gadolinium carboxylates in grade VIK mixed carboxylic acids (MCA). It has been established that the optimal fluidity of these metal carboxylate solutions for application to articles is reached at 333 K. A regression model has been developed to describe the concentration and temperature dependences of the viscosity of yttrium- and gadolinium-containing MCA solutions. 2 refs., 3 tabs.

  2. Retention of Gadolinium-Based Contrast Agents in Multiple Sclerosis: Retrospective Analysis of an 18-Year Longitudinal Study.

    PubMed

    Forslin, Y; Shams, S; Hashim, F; Aspelin, P; Bergendal, G; Martola, J; Fredrikson, S; Kristoffersen-Wiberg, M; Granberg, T

    2017-07-01

    Gadolinium-based contrast agents have been associated with lasting high T1-weighted signal intensity in the dentate nucleus and globus pallidus, with histopathologically confirmed gadolinium retention. We aimed to longitudinally investigate the relationship of multiple gadolinium-based contrast agent administrations to the Signal Intensity Index in the dentate nucleus and globus pallidus and any associations with cognitive function in multiple sclerosis. The Signal Intensity Index in the dentate nucleus and globus pallidus was retrospectively evaluated on T1-weighted MR imaging in an 18-year longitudinal cohort study of 23 patients with MS receiving multiple gadolinium-based contrast agent administrations and 23 healthy age- and sex-matched controls. Participants also underwent comprehensive neuropsychological testing. Patients with MS had a higher Signal Intensity Index in the dentate nucleus ( P < .001), but not in the globus pallidus ( P = .19), compared with non-gadolinium-based contrast agent-exposed healthy controls by an unpaired t test. Increasing numbers of gadolinium-based contrast agent administrations were associated with an increased Signal Intensity Index in the dentate nucleus (β = 0.45, P < .001) and globus pallidus (β = 0.60, P < .001). This association remained stable with corrections for the age, disease duration, and physical disability for both the dentate nucleus (β = 0.43, P = .001) and globus pallidus (β = 0.58, P < .001). An increased Signal Intensity Index in the dentate nucleus among patients with MS was associated with lower verbal fluency scores, which remained significant after correction for several aspects of disease severity (β = -0.40 P = .013). Our data corroborate previous reports of lasting gadolinium retention in brain tissues. An increased Signal Intensity Index in the dentate nucleus and globus pallidus was associated with lower verbal fluency, which does not prove causality but encourages further studies on cognition

  3. Kondo effect and enhanced magnetic properties in gadolinium functionalized carbon nanotube supramolecular complex.

    PubMed

    Ncube, S; Coleman, C; Strydom, A; Flahaut, E; de Sousa, A; Bhattacharyya, S

    2018-05-23

    We report on the enhancement of magnetic properties of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) functionalized with a gadolinium based supramolecular complex. By employing a newly developed synthesis technique we find that the functionalization method of the nanocomposite enhances the strength of magnetic interaction leading to a large effective moment of 15.79 µ B and non-superparamagnetic behaviour unlike what has been previously reported. Saturating resistance at low temperatures is fitted with the numerical renormalization group formula verifying the Kondo effect for magnetic impurities on a metallic electron system. Magnetoresistance shows devices fabricated from aligned gadolinium functionalized MWNTs (Gd-Fctn-MWNTs) exhibit spin-valve switching behaviour of up to 8%. This study highlights the possibility of enhancing magnetic interactions in carbon systems through chemical modification, moreover we demonstrate the rich physics that might be useful for developing spin based quantum computing elements based on one-dimensional (1D) channels.

  4. Gadolinium-modulated 19F signals from Perfluorocarbon Nanoparticles as a New Strategy for Molecular Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Neubauer, Anne M.; Myerson, Jacob; Caruthers, Shelton D.; Hockett, Franklin D.; Winter, Patrick M.; Chen, Junjie; Gaffney, Patrick J.; Robertson, J. David; Lanza, Gregory M.; Wickline, Samuel A.

    2008-01-01

    Recent advances in the design of fluorinated nanoparticles for magnetic resonance molecular imaging have enabled specific detection of 19F nuclei, providing unique and quantifiable spectral signatures. However, a pressing need for signal enhancement exists because the total 19F in imaging voxels is often limited. By directly incorporating a relaxation agent (gadolinium) into the lipid monolayer that surrounds the perfluorocarbon, a marked augmentation of the 19F signal from 200nm nanoparticles was achieved. This design increases the magnetic relaxation rate of the 19F nuclei 4-fold at 1.5 T and effects a 125% increase in signal, an effect which is maintained when they are targeted to human plasma clots. By varying the surface concentration of gadolinium, the relaxation effect can be quantitatively modulated to tailor particle properties. This novel strategy dramatically improves the sensitivity and range of 19F MRI/MRS and forms the basis for designing contrast agents capable of sensing their surface chemistry. PMID:18956457

  5. Biocompatible Polyhydroxyethylaspartamide-based Micelles with Gadolinium for MRI Contrast Agents

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Biocompatible poly-[N-(2-hydroxyethyl)-d,l-aspartamide]-methoxypoly(ethyleneglycol)-hexadecylamine (PHEA-mPEG-C16) conjugated with 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecan-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid-gadolinium (DOTA-Gd) via ethylenediamine (ED) was synthesized as a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agent. Amphiphilic PHEA-mPEG-C16-ED-DOTA-Gd forms micelle in aqueous solution. All the synthesized materials were characterized by proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR). Micelle size and shape were examined by dynamic light scattering (DLS) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Micelles with PHEA-mPEG-C16-ED-DOTA-Gd showed higher relaxivities than the commercially available gadolinium contrast agent. Moreover, the signal intensity of a rabbit liver was effectively increased after intravenous injection of PHEA-mPEG-C16-ED-DOTA-Gd. PMID:21170410

  6. Renal function, nephrogenic systemic fibrosis and other adverse reactions associated with gadolinium-based contrast media.

    PubMed

    Canga, Ana; Kislikova, Maria; Martínez-Gálvez, María; Arias, Mercedes; Fraga-Rivas, Patricia; Poyatos, Cecilio; de Francisco, Angel L M

    2014-01-01

    Nephrogenic systemic fibrosis is a fibrosing disorder that affects patients with impaired renal function and is associated with the administration of gadolinium-based contrast media used in MRI. Despite being in a group of drugs that were considered safe, report about this potentially serious adverse reaction was a turning point in the administration guidelines of these contrast media. There has been an attempt to establish safety parameters to identify patients with risk factors of renal failure. The close pharmacovigilance and strict observation of current regulations, with special attention being paid to the value of glomerular filtration, have reduced the published cases involving the use of gadolinium-based contrast media. In a meeting between radiologists and nephrologists we reviewed the most relevant aspects currently and recommendations for its prevention.

  7. Biocompatible Polyhydroxyethylaspartamide-based Micelles with Gadolinium for MRI Contrast Agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeong, Sang Young; Kim, Hyo Jeong; Kwak, Byung-Kook; Lee, Ha-Young; Seong, Hasoo; Shin, Byung Cheol; Yuk, Soon Hong; Hwang, Sung-Joo; Cho, Sun Hang

    2010-12-01

    Biocompatible poly-[ N-(2-hydroxyethyl)- d, l-aspartamide]-methoxypoly(ethyleneglycol)-hexadecylamine (PHEA-mPEG-C16) conjugated with 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecan-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid-gadolinium (DOTA-Gd) via ethylenediamine (ED) was synthesized as a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agent. Amphiphilic PHEA-mPEG-C16-ED-DOTA-Gd forms micelle in aqueous solution. All the synthesized materials were characterized by proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR). Micelle size and shape were examined by dynamic light scattering (DLS) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Micelles with PHEA-mPEG-C16-ED-DOTA-Gd showed higher relaxivities than the commercially available gadolinium contrast agent. Moreover, the signal intensity of a rabbit liver was effectively increased after intravenous injection of PHEA-mPEG-C16-ED-DOTA-Gd.

  8. The performance of hafnium and gadolinium self powered neutron detectors in the TREAT reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imel, G. R.; Hart, P. R.

    1996-05-01

    The use of gadolinium and hafnium self powered neutron detectors in a transient reactor is described in this paper. The detectors were calibrated to the fission rate of U-235 using calibrated fission chambers; the calibration factors were tested in two reactors in steady state and found to be consistent. Calibration of the detectors in transient reactor conditions was done by using uranium wires that were analyzed by radiochemistry techniques to determine total fissions during the transient. This was correlated to the time-integrated current of the detectors during the transient. A temperature correction factor was derived to account for self-shielding effects in the hafnium and gadolinium detectors. The dynamic response of the detectors under transient conditions was studied, and found to be excellent.

  9. Gadolinium-based nanoparticles for highly efficient T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Eun-Kyung; Kang, Byunghoon; Choi, Yuna; Jang, Eunji; Han, Seungmin; Lee, Kwangyeol; Suh, Jin-Suck; Haam, Seungjoo; Huh, Yong-Min

    2014-06-01

    We developed Pyrene-Gadolinium (Py-Gd) nanoparticles as pH-sensitive magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agents capable of showing a high-Mr signal in cancer-specific environments, such as acidic conditions. Py-Gd nanoparticles were prepared by coating Py-Gd, which is a complex of gadolinium with pyrenyl molecules, with pyrenyl polyethyleneglycol PEG using a nano-emulsion method. These particles show better longitudinal relaxation time (T1) MR signals in acidic conditions than they do in neutral conditions. Furthermore, the particles exhibit biocompatibility and MR contrast effects in both in vitro and in vivo studies. From these results, we confirm that Py-Gd nanoparticles have the potential to be applied for accurate cancer diagnosis and therapy.

  10. The evolution of gadolinium based contrast agents: from single-modality to multi-modality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Li; Liu, Ruiqing; Peng, Hui; Li, Penghui; Xu, Zushun; Whittaker, Andrew K.

    2016-05-01

    Gadolinium-based contrast agents are extensively used as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agents due to their outstanding signal enhancement and ease of chemical modification. However, it is increasingly recognized that information obtained from single modal molecular imaging cannot satisfy the higher requirements on the efficiency and accuracy for clinical diagnosis and medical research, due to its limitation and default rooted in single molecular imaging technique itself. To compensate for the deficiencies of single function magnetic resonance imaging contrast agents, the combination of multi-modality imaging has turned to be the research hotpot in recent years. This review presents an overview on the recent developments of the functionalization of gadolinium-based contrast agents, and their application in biomedicine applications.

  11. Suppression of Rabbit VX‐2 Subcutaneous Tumor Growth by Gadolinium Neutron Capture Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Tokita, Nobuhiko; Tokuuye, Koichi; Satoh, Michinao; Churei, Hisahiko; Pechoux, Cécile Le; Kobayashi, Tooru; Kanda, Keiji

    1993-01-01

    VX‐2 tumors growing in hind legs of New Zealand White rabbits (n=4) were exposed to thermal neutrons for 40 min (2.1 × 1012 neutrons cm−2) while one of two hind leg tumors of each rabbit was infused continuously with meglumine gadopentetate through a branch of the left femoral artery. The contralateral (uninfused) tumors served as controls. Although no differential distribution of gadolinium was achieved between the tumor and its adjacent normal tissue, the gadolinium concentration in the infused tumor was approximately 5–6 fold higher than that in the contralateral tumor. Growth of gadolinium‐infused tumors was significantly inhibited compared to that of control tumors (P<0.05) between the 16th and 23rd days after treatment. PMID:8407547

  12. Gadolinium concentration analysis in brain phantom by X-ray fluorescence.

    PubMed

    Almalki, Musaed; Majid, Samir Abdul; Butler, Philip H; Reinisch, Lou

    2010-06-01

    We have measured the X-ray fluorescence from gadolinium as a function of concentration and position in tumors of different sizes and shapes in a head phantom. The gadolinium fluorescence was excited with a 36 GBq Am-241 source. The fluorescence signal was detected with a CdTe detector and a multi-channel analyzer. The fluorescence peak was clearly separated from the scattered X-rays. Concentrations of 5.62-78.63 mg/ml of Gd ion were used in 1, 2, and 3 cm diameter spherical tumors and a 2x4 cm oblate spheroid tumor. The data show trends approaching saturation for the highest concentrations, probably due to reabsorption in the tumor. A comparison of X-ray photographic imaging and densitometer measurements to determine concentration is also presented.

  13. Hyperintense Dentate Nuclei on T1-Weighted MRI: Relation to Repeat Gadolinium Administration

    PubMed Central

    Adin, M.E.; Kleinberg, L.; Vaidya, D.; Zan, E.; Mirbagheri, S.; Yousem, D.M.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE A hyperintense appearance of the dentate nucleus on T1-weighted MR images has been related to various clinical conditions, but the etiology remains indeterminate. We aimed to investigate the possible associations between a hyperintense appearance of the dentate nucleus on T1-weighted MR images in patients exposed to radiation and factors including, but not limited to, the cumulative number of contrast-enhanced MR images, amount of gadolinium administration, dosage of ionizing radiation, and patient demographics. MATERIALS AND METHODS The medical records of 706 consecutive patients who were treated with brain irradiation at The Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions between 1995 and 2010 were blindly reviewed by 2 readers. RESULTS One hundred eighty-four subjects were included for dentate nuclei analysis. Among the 184 subjects who cumulatively underwent 2677 MR imaging studies following intravenous gadolinium administration, 103 patients had hyperintense dentate nuclei on precontrast T1-weighted MR images. The average number of gadolinium-enhanced MR imaging studies performed in the group with normal dentate nuclei was significantly lower than that of the group with hyperintense dentate nuclei. The average follow-up time was 62.5 months. No significant difference was observed between hyperintense and normal dentate nuclei groups in terms of exposed radiation dose, serum creatinine and calcium/phosphate levels, patient demographics, history of chemotherapy, and strength of the scanner. No dentate nuclei abnormalities were found on the corresponding CT scans of patients with hyperintense dentate nuclei (n = 44). No dentate nuclei abnormalities were found in 53 healthy volunteers. CONCLUSIONS Repeat performance of gadolinium-enhanced studies likely contributes to a long-standing hyperintense appearance of dentate nuclei on precontrast T1-weighted-MR images. PMID:26294649

  14. Effect of Cu2+ substitution on the structural, magnetic and electrical properties of gadolinium orthoferrite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sai Vandana, C.; Hemalatha Rudramadevi, B.

    2018-04-01

    The pure and copper (Cu) substituted Gadolinium orthoferrites, GdFeO3, GdCu0.1Fe0.9O3, GdCu0.2Fe0.8O3 and GdCu0.3Fe0.7O3 were synthesized by conventional solid state method. The structural, morphological, dielectric, magnetic and impedance properties of Cu substituted Gadolinium orthoferrites have been investigated. The crystallographic phase as well as the substitution of Cu2+ ions in the lattice of GdFeO3 is confirmed from the x-ray diffraction patterns. The Fourier transform infrared spectra exhibit two prominent fundamental absorption peaks at ∼417 cm‑1 and 545 cm‑1. These bands are related to inherent stretching vibrations of metals at octahedral and tetrahedral sites respectively. The coercivity (Hc) and saturation magnetization (Ms) of the synthesized samples at different temperatures were determined from the hysteresis plots. Higher coercive values, 598 Oe and 600 Oe were achieved in GdCu0.1Fe0.9O3 ferrites compared to 527 Oe and 360 Oe in pure GdFeO3 at room temperature (300 K) and low temperature (20 k) respectively. Dielectric dispersion has been observed for gadolinium ferrite samples with Maxwell–Wagner type interfacial polarization. The decrease of dielectric constant and dielectric loss tangent with an increase in frequency was observed. The conduction due to charge hopping between localized states was confirmed from AC conductivity measurements. The composition dependent cationic distributions estimated from XRD, magnetic and electrical studies are in good agreement with each other. The achieved results indicate that the substitution of Cu in gadolinium orthoferrite strongly influences the crystal structure, magnetic and electrical properties thereby making them suitable as multiple state memory devices, transducers, electronic field controlled ferromagnetic resonance devices and spintronic devices.

  15. Sensitive and transportable gadolinium-core plastic scintillator sphere for neutron detection and counting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dumazert, Jonathan; Coulon, Romain; Carrel, Frédérick; Corre, Gwenolé; Normand, Stéphane; Méchin, Laurence; Hamel, Matthieu

    2016-08-01

    Neutron detection forms a critical branch of nuclear-related issues, currently driven by the search for competitive alternative technologies to neutron counters based on the helium-3 isotope. The deployment of plastic scintillators shows a high potential for efficient detectors, safer and more reliable than liquids, more easily scalable and cost-effective than inorganic. In the meantime, natural gadolinium, through its 155 and mostly 157 isotopes, presents an exceptionally high interaction probability with thermal neutrons. This paper introduces a dual system including a metal gadolinium core inserted at the center of a high-scale plastic scintillator sphere. Incident fast neutrons are thermalized by the scintillator shell and then may be captured with a significant probability by gadolinium 155 and 157 nuclei in the core. The deposition of a sufficient fraction of the capture high-energy prompt gamma signature inside the scintillator shell will then allow discrimination from background radiations by energy threshold, and therefore neutron detection. The scaling of the system with the Monte Carlo MCNPX2.7 code was carried out according to a tradeoff between the moderation of incident fast neutrons and the probability of slow neutron capture by a moderate-cost metal gadolinium core. Based on the parameters extracted from simulation, a first laboratory prototype for the assessment of the detection method principle has been synthetized. The robustness and sensitivity of the neutron detection principle are then assessed by counting measurement experiments. Experimental results confirm the potential for a stable, highly sensitive, transportable and cost-efficient neutron detector and orientate future investigation toward promising axes.

  16. Neurosarcoidosis--demonstration of meningeal disease by gadolinium enhanced magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed Central

    Khaw, K T; Manji, H; Britton, J; Schon, F

    1991-01-01

    Arriving at a firm diagnosis of neurosarcoidosis continues to pose serious problems, particularly when evidence of granulomatous disease outside the nervous system is lacking. The commonest mode of presentation of neurosarcoidosis is with cranial nerve palsies. Two cases of presumed neurosarcoidosis with cranial nerve palsies showed clear evidence of focal meningeal disease on gadolinium-DTPA enhanced MRI brain scans. Although not specific for sarcoidosis, this technique may be very useful in aiding the diagnosis in suspected cases. Images PMID:1880510

  17. Nanoamplifiers synthesized from gadolinium and gold nanocomposites for magnetic resonance imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Xiumei; Shao, Yuanzhi; He, Haoqiang; Liu, Huan; Shen, Yingying; Huang, Wenlin; Li, Li

    2013-03-01

    We have synthesized an efficient and highly sensitive nanoamplifier composed of gadolinium-doped silica nanoparticles and gold nanoparticles (AuNPs). Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in vitro and in vivo assays revealed enhancement of signal sensitivity, which may be explained by electron transfer between water and gadolinium-doped nanoparticles, apparent in the presence of gold. In vitro and in vivo evaluation demonstrated nanoamplifier incurred minimal cytotoxicity and immunotoxicity, increased stability, and gradual excretion patterns. Tumor targeted properties were preliminarily determined when the nanoamplifier was injected into mouse models of colon cancer liver metastasis. Furthermore, although AuNPs departed from the nanoamplifiers in specific mice tissues, optical and magnetic resonance imaging was efficient, especially in metastatic tumors. These assays validate our nanoamplifier as an effective MRI signal enhancer with sensitive cancer diagnosis potential.We have synthesized an efficient and highly sensitive nanoamplifier composed of gadolinium-doped silica nanoparticles and gold nanoparticles (AuNPs). Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in vitro and in vivo assays revealed enhancement of signal sensitivity, which may be explained by electron transfer between water and gadolinium-doped nanoparticles, apparent in the presence of gold. In vitro and in vivo evaluation demonstrated nanoamplifier incurred minimal cytotoxicity and immunotoxicity, increased stability, and gradual excretion patterns. Tumor targeted properties were preliminarily determined when the nanoamplifier was injected into mouse models of colon cancer liver metastasis. Furthermore, although AuNPs departed from the nanoamplifiers in specific mice tissues, optical and magnetic resonance imaging was efficient, especially in metastatic tumors. These assays validate our nanoamplifier as an effective MRI signal enhancer with sensitive cancer diagnosis potential. Electronic supplementary information

  18. Measurement of gadolinium retention: current status and review from an applied radiation physics perspective.

    PubMed

    Gräfe, James L; McNeill, Fiona E

    2018-06-28

    This article briefly reviews the main measurement techniques for the non-invasive detection of residual gadolinium (Gd) in those exposed to gadolinium-based contrast agents (GBCAs). Approach and Main results: The current status of in vivo Gd measurement is discussed and is put into the context of concerns within the radiology community. The main techniques are based on applied atomic/nuclear medicine utilizing the characteristic atomic and nuclear spectroscopic signature of Gd. The main emission energies are in the 40-200 keV region and require spectroscopic detectors with good energy resolution. The two main techniques, prompt gamma neutron activation analysis and x-ray fluorescence, provide adequate detection limits for in vivo measurement, whilst delivering a low effective radiation dose on the order of a few µSv. Gadolinium is being detected in measureable quantities in people with healthy renal function who have received FDA approved GBCAs. The applied atomic/nuclear medicine techniques discussed in this review will be useful in determining the significance of this retention, and will help on advising future administration protocols.

  19. Study of the Photon Strength Functions for Gadolinium Isotopes with the DANCE Array

    SciTech Connect

    Dashdorj, D.; Mitchell, G. E.; Baramsai, B.

    2009-03-10

    The gadolinium isotopes are interesting for reactor applications as well as for medicine and astrophysics. The gadolinium isotopes have some of the largest neutron capture cross sections. As a consequence they are used in the control rod in reactor fuel assembly. From the basic science point of view, there are seven stable isotopes of gadolinium with varying degrees of deformation. Therefore they provide a good testing ground for the study of deformation dependent structure such as the scissors mode. Decay gamma rays following neutron capture on Gd isotopes are detected by the DANCE array, which is located at flight pathmore » 14 at the Lujan Neutron Scattering Center at Los Alamos National Laboratory. The high segmentation and close packing of the detector array enable gamma-ray multiplicity measurements. The calorimetric properties of the DANCE array coupled with the neutron time-of-flight technique enables one to gate on a specific resonance of a specific isotope in the time-of-flight spectrum and obtain the summed energy spectrum for that isotope. The singles gamma-ray spectrum for each multiplicity can be separated by their DANCE cluster multiplicity. Various photon strength function models are used for comparison with experimentally measured DANCE data and provide insight for understanding the statistical decay properties of deformed nuclei.« less

  20. Gadolinium-loaded Plastic Scintillators for Thermal Neutron Detection using Compensation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dumazert, Jonathan; Coulon, Romain; Hamel, Matthieu; Carrel, Frédérick; Sguerra, Fabien; Normand, Stéphane; Méchin, Laurence; Bertrand, Guillaume H. V.

    2016-06-01

    Plastic scintillator loading with gadolinium-rich organometallic complexes shows a high potential for the deployment of efficient and cost-effective neutron detectors. Due to the low-energy photon and electron signature of thermal neutron capture by Gd-155 and Gd-157, alternative treatment to pulse-shape discrimination has to be proposed in order to display a count rate. This paper discloses the principle of a compensation method applied to a two-scintillator system: a detection scintillator interacts with photon and fast neutron radiation and is loaded with gadolinium organometallic compound to become a thermal neutron absorber, while a not-gadolinium loaded compensation scintillator solely interacts with the fast neutron and photon part of incident radiation. After the nonlinear smoothing of the counting signals, a hypothesis test determines whether the resulting count rate post-background response compensation falls into statistical fluctuations or provides a robust indication of neutron activity. Laboratory samples are tested under both photon and neutron irradiations, allowing the authors to investigate the performance of the overall detection system in terms of sensitivity and detection limits, especially with regards to a similar-active volume He-3 based commercial counter. The study reveals satisfactory figures of merit in terms of sensitivity and directs future investigation toward promising paths.

  1. Gadolinium prevents high airway pressure-induced permeability increases in isolated rat lungs.

    PubMed

    Parker, J C; Ivey, C L; Tucker, J A

    1998-04-01

    To determine the initial signaling event in the vascular permeability increase after high airway pressure injury, we compared groups of lungs ventilated at different peak inflation pressures (PIPs) with (gadolinium group) and without (control group) infusion of 20 microM gadolinium chloride, an inhibitor of endothelial stretch-activated cation channels. Microvascular permeability was assessed by using the capillary filtration coefficient (Kfc), a measure of capillary hydraulic conductivity. Kfc was measured after ventilation for 30-min periods with 7, 20, and 30 cmH2O PIP with 3 cmH2O positive end-expiratory pressure and with 35 cmH2O PIP with 8 cmH2O positive end-expiratory pressure. In control lungs, Kfc increased significantly to 1.8 and 3.7 times baseline after 30 and 35 cmH2O PIP, respectively. In the gadolinium group, Kfc was unchanged from baseline (0.060 +/- 0.010 ml . min-1 . cmH2O-1 . 100 g-1) after any PIP ventilation period. Pulmonary vascular resistance increased significantly from baseline in both groups before the last Kfc measurement but was not different between groups. These results suggest that microvascular permeability is actively modulated by a cellular response to mechanical injury and that stretch-activated cation channels may initiate this response through increases in intracellular calcium concentration.

  2. Breakthrough reactions of iodinated and gadolinium contrast media after oral steroid premedication protocol.

    PubMed

    Jingu, Akiko; Fukuda, Junya; Taketomi-Takahashi, Ayako; Tsushima, Yoshito

    2014-10-06

    Adverse reactions to iodinated and gadolinium contrast media are an important clinical issue. Although some guidelines have proposed oral steroid premedication protocols to prevent adverse reactions, some patients may have reactions to contrast media in spite of premedication (breakthrough reaction; BTR).The purpose of this study was to assess the frequency, type and severity of BTR when following an oral steroid premedication protocol. All iodinated and gadolinium contrast-enhanced radiologic examinations between August 2011 and February 2013 for which the premedication protocol was applied in our institution were assessed for BTRs. The protocol was applied to a total of 252 examinations (153 patients, ages 15-87 years; 63 males, 90 females). Of these, 152 were for prior acute adverse reactions to contrast media, 85 were for a history of bronchial asthma, and 15 were for other reasons. There were 198 contrast enhanced CTs and 54 contrast enhanced MRIs. There were nine BTR (4.5%) for iodinated contrast media, and only one BTR (1.9%) for gadolinium contrast media: eight were mild and one was moderate. No patient who had a mild index reaction (IR) had a severe BTR. Incidence of BTRs when following the premedication protocol was low. This study by no means proves the efficacy of premedication, but provides some support for following a premedication protocol to improve safety of contrast-enhanced examinations when prior adverse reactions are mild, or when there is a history of asthma.

  3. Breakthrough reactions of iodinated and gadolinium contrast media after oral steroid premedication protocol

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Adverse reactions to iodinated and gadolinium contrast media are an important clinical issue. Although some guidelines have proposed oral steroid premedication protocols to prevent adverse reactions, some patients may have reactions to contrast media in spite of premedication (breakthrough reaction; BTR). The purpose of this study was to assess the frequency, type and severity of BTR when following an oral steroid premedication protocol. Methods All iodinated and gadolinium contrast-enhanced radiologic examinations between August 2011 and February 2013 for which the premedication protocol was applied in our institution were assessed for BTRs. Results The protocol was applied to a total of 252 examinations (153 patients, ages 15–87 years; 63 males, 90 females). Of these, 152 were for prior acute adverse reactions to contrast media, 85 were for a history of bronchial asthma, and 15 were for other reasons. There were 198 contrast enhanced CTs and 54 contrast enhanced MRIs. There were nine BTR (4.5%) for iodinated contrast media, and only one BTR (1.9%) for gadolinium contrast media: eight were mild and one was moderate. No patient who had a mild index reaction (IR) had a severe BTR. Conclusion Incidence of BTRs when following the premedication protocol was low. This study by no means proves the efficacy of premedication, but provides some support for following a premedication protocol to improve safety of contrast-enhanced examinations when prior adverse reactions are mild, or when there is a history of asthma. PMID:25287952

  4. Tungsten-encapsulated gadolinium nanoislands with enhanced magnetocaloric response

    DOE PAGES

    Logan, Jonathan M.; Rosenmann, Daniel; Sangpo, Tenzin; ...

    2017-07-03

    Here, we report a method for growing chemically pure, oxide-free, air-stable Gd nanoislands with enhanced magnetic properties. These nanoislands are grown by solid-state dewetting and are fully encapsulated in tungsten such that they remain stable in ambient environments. They display good crystalline properties with hexagonally close-packed crystal structure and strong preferential orientation. We show that the choice of substrate strongly affects their shape, crystal orientation, and magnetic properties. The temperature-dependent magnetic coercivity and remanence of the Gd islands can vary by as much as a factor of three depending on the substrate used. The magneto- caloric properties of Gd islandsmore » grown on a sapphire substrate exceed those of high-quality Gd thin films.« less

  5. Simple method for quantification of gadolinium magnetic resonance imaging contrast agents using ESR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Takeshita, Keizo; Kinoshita, Shota; Okazaki, Shoko

    2012-01-01

    To develop an estimation method of gadolinium magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agents, the effect of concentration of Gd compounds on the ESR spectrum of nitroxyl radical was examined. A solution of either 4-oxo-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-N-oxyl (TEMPONE) or 4-hydroxy-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-N-oxyl (TEMPOL) was mixed with a solution of Gd compound and the ESR spectrum was recorded. Increased concentration of gadolinium-diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid chelate (Gd-DTPA), an MRI contrast agent, increased the peak-to-peak line widths of ESR spectra of the nitroxyl radicals, in accordance with a decrease of their signal heights. A linear relationship was observed between concentration of Gd-DTPA and line width of ESR signal, up to approximately 50 mmol/L Gd-DTPA, with a high correlation coefficient. Response of TEMPONE was 1.4-times higher than that of TEMPOL as evaluated from the slopes of the lines. The response was slightly different among Gd compounds; the slopes of calibration curves for acua[N,N-bis[2-[(carboxymethyl)[(methylcarbamoyl)methyl]amino]ethyl]glycinato(3-)]gadolinium hydrate (Gd-DTPA-BMA) (6.22 μT·L/mmol) and gadolinium-1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid chelate (Gd-DOTA) (6.62 μT·L/mmol) were steeper than the slope for Gd-DTPA (5.45 μT·L/mmol), whereas the slope for gadolinium chloride (4.94 μT·L/mmol) was less steep than that for Gd-DTPA. This method is simple to apply. The results indicate that this method is useful for rough estimation of the concentration of Gd contrast agents if calibration is carried out with each standard compound. It was also found that the plot of the reciprocal square root of signal height against concentrations of contrast agents could be useful for the estimation if a constant volume of sample solution is taken and measured at the same position in the ESR cavity every time.

  6. Gadolinium-148 and other spallation production cross section measurements for accelerator target facilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelley, Karen Corzine

    At the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center accelerator complex, protons are accelerated to 800 MeV and directed to two tungsten targets, Target 4 at the Weapons Neutron Research facility and the 1L target at the Lujan Center. The Department of Energy requires hazard classification analyses to be performed on these targets and places limits on certain radionuclide inventories in the targets to avoid characterizing the facilities as "nuclear facilities." Gadolinium-148 is a radionuclide created from the spallation of tungsten. Allowed isotopic inventories are particularly low for this isotope because it is an alpha-particle emitter with a 75-year half-life. The activity level of Gadolinium-148 is low, but it encompasses almost two-thirds of the total dose burden for the two tungsten targets based on present yield estimates. From a hazard classification standpoint, this severely limits the lifetime of these tungsten targets. The cross section is not well-established experimentally and this is the motivation for measuring the Gadolinium-148 production cross section from tungsten. In a series of experiments at the Weapons Neutron Research facility, Gadolinium-148 production was measured for 600- and 800-MeV protons on tungsten, tantalum, and gold. These experiments used 3 mum thin tungsten, tantalum, and gold foils and 10 mum thin aluminum activation foils. In addition, spallation yields were determined for many short-lived and long-lived spallation products with these foils using gamma and alpha spectroscopy and compared with predictions of the Los Alamos National Laboratory codes CEM2k+GEM2 and MCNPX. The cumulative Gadolinium-148 production cross section measured from tantalum, tungsten, and gold for incident 600-MeV protons were 15.2 +/- 4.0, 8.31 +/- 0.92, and 0.591 +/- 0.155, respectively. The average production cross sections measured at 800 MeV were 28.6 +/- 3.5, 19.4 +/- 1.8, and 3.69 +/- 0.50 for tantalum, tungsten, and gold, respectively. These cumulative

  7. Influence of acquired obesity on coronary vessel wall late gadolinium enhancement in discordant monozygote twins.

    PubMed

    Makowski, Marcus R; Jansen, Christian H P; Ebersberger, Ullrich; Schaeffter, Tobias; Razavi, Reza; Mangino, Massimo; Spector, Tim D; Botnar, Rene M; Greil, Gerald F

    2017-11-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of BMI on late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) of the coronary artery wall in identical monozygous twins discordant for BMI. Coronary LGE represents a useful parameter for the detection and quantification of atherosclerotic coronary vessel wall disease. Thirteen monozygote female twin pairs (n = 26) with significantly different BMIs (>1.6 kg/m2) were recruited out of >10,000 twin pairs (TwinsUK Registry). A coronary 3D-T2prep-TFE MR angiogram and 3D-IR-TFE vessel wall scan were performed prior to and following the administration of 0.2 mmol/kg of Gd-DTPA on a 1.5 T MR scanner. The number of enhancing coronary segments and contrast to noise ratios (CNRs) of the coronary wall were quantified. An increase in BMI was associated with an increased number of enhancing coronary segments (5.3 ± 1.5 vs. 3.5 ± 1.6, p < 0.0001) and increased coronary wall enhancement (6.1 ± 1.1 vs. 4.8 ± 0.9, p = 0.0027) compared to matched twins with lower BMI. This study in monozygous twins indicates that acquired factors predisposing to obesity, including lifestyle and environmental factors, result in increased LGE of the coronary arteries, potentially reflecting an increase in coronary atherosclerosis in this female study population. • BMI-discordant twins allow the investigation of the influence of lifestyle factors independent from genetic confounders. • Only thirteen obesity-discordant twins were identified underlining the strong genetic component of BMI. • In female twins, a BMI increase is associated with increased coronary late gadolinium enhancement. • Increased late gadolinium enhancement in the coronary vessel wall potentially reflects increased atherosclerosis.

  8. Quantitative assessment of the rheumatoid synovial microvascular bed by gadolinium-DTPA enhanced magnetic resonance imaging

    PubMed Central

    Gaffney, K.; Cookson, J.; Blades, S.; Coumbe, A.; Blake, D.

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To examine the relation between rate of synovial membrane enhancement, intra-articular pressure (IAP), and histologically determined synovial vascularity in rheumatoid arthritis, using gadolinium-DTPA enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).
METHODS—Dynamic gadolinium-DTPA enhanced MRI was performed in 31 patients with knee synovitis (10 patients IAP study, 21 patients vascular morphometry study). Rate of synovial membrane enhancement was quantified by line profile analysis using the image processing package ANALYZE. IAP was measured using an intra-compartmental pressure monitor system. Multiple synovial biopsy specimens were obtained by a blind biopsy technique. Blood vessels were identified immunohistochemically using the endothelial cell marker QBend30 and quantified (blood vessel numerical density and fractional area).
RESULTS—Median blood vessel numerical density and fractional area were 77.5/mm2 (IQR; 69.3-110.7) and 5.6% (IQR; 3.4-8.5) respectively. The rate of synovial membrane enhancement (median 2.74 signal intensity units/s, IQR 2.0-3.8) correlated with both blood vessel numerical density (r = 0.46, p < 0.05) and blood vessel fractional area (r = 0.55, p < 0.02). IAP did not influence the rate of enhancement.
CONCLUSIONS—Gadolinium-DTPA enhanced MRI may prove to be a valuable technique for evaluating drugs that influence angiogenesis.

 Keywords: magnetic resonance imaging; rheumatoid arthritis; synovitis; vascularity PMID:9640130

  9. Caustic Precipitation of Plutonium Using Gadolinium as the Neutron Poison for Disposition to High Level Waste

    SciTech Connect

    Bronikowski, M.G.

    2002-06-24

    Nuclear Materials Management Division (NMMD) has proposed that up to 100 kg of the plutonium (Pu) solutions stored in H-Canyon be precipitated with a nuclear poison and dispositioned to H-Area Tank Farm. The use of gadolinium (Gd) as the poison would greatly reduce the number of additional glass logs resulting from this disposition. This report summarizes the characteristics of the precipitation process and addresses criticality concerns in the Nuclear Criticality Safety Evaluation. No problems were found with the nature of the precipitate or the neutralization process.

  10. Active extravasation of gadolinium-based contrast agent into the subdural space following lumbar puncture.

    PubMed

    Kothari, Pranay D; Hanser, Evelyn M; Wang, Harrison; Farid, Nikdokht

    2016-01-01

    A 38year-old male presented with cauda equina syndrome following multiple lumbar puncture attempts. Lumbar spine magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed a subdural hematoma and an area of apparent contrast enhancement in the spinal canal on sagittal post-contrast images. Axial post-contrast images obtained seven minutes later demonstrated an increase in size and change in shape of the region of apparent contrast enhancement, indicating active extravasation of the contrast agent. This is the first reported case of active extravasation of gadolinium-based contrast agent in the spine. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Gadolinium(III)-sensitized fluorescence of europium in its mixed-metal compounds with trifluroacetate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalinovskaya, I. V.; Zadorozhnaya, A. N.

    2017-04-01

    The fluorescence properties of mixed-metal compounds of Eu(III) and Gd(III) with trifluoroacetic acid, Eu1-хGdx(С2F3O2)3·yD·zH2O, where D - 1,10-phenanthroline, 2,2-dipyridil, diphenylguanidine, x = 0, 0.25, 0.5, or 0.7, were studied. Luminescence spectroscopic evidence and the examination of excitation spectra indicate the occurrence of efficient energy transfer from the gadolinium to the europium ion. The greatest promotion of Eu3+ photoluminescence at 615 nm is observed when Eu:Gd = 1:1.

  12. Bioconjugation of luminescent silicon quantum dots to gadolinium ions for bioimaging applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erogbogbo, Folarin; Chang, Ching-Wen; May, Jasmine L.; Liu, Liwei; Kumar, Rajiv; Law, Wing-Cheung; Ding, Hong; Yong, Ken Tye; Roy, Indrajit; Sheshadri, Mukund; Swihart, Mark T.; Prasad, Paras N.

    2012-08-01

    Luminescent imaging agents and MRI contrast agents are desirable components in the rational design of multifunctional nanoconstructs for biological imaging applications. Luminescent biocompatible silicon quantum dots (SiQDs) and gadolinium chelates can be applied for fluorescence microscopy and MRI, respectively. Here, we report the first synthesis of a nanocomplex incorporating SiQDs and gadolinium ions (Gd3+) for biological applications. The nanoconstruct is composed of a PEGylated micelle, with hydrophobic SiQDs in its core, covalently bound to DOTA-chelated Gd3+. Dynamic light scattering reveals a radius of 85 nm for these nanoconstructs, which is consistent with the electron microscopy results depicting radii ranging from 25 to 60 nm. Cellular uptake of the probes verified that they maintain their optical properties within the intracellular environment. The magnetic resonance relaxivity of the nanoconstruct was 2.4 mM-1 s-1 (in terms of Gd3+ concentration), calculated to be around 6000 mM-1 s-1 per nanoconstruct. These desirable optical and relaxivity properties of the newly developed probe open the door for use of SiQDs in future multimodal applications such as tumour imaging.Luminescent imaging agents and MRI contrast agents are desirable components in the rational design of multifunctional nanoconstructs for biological imaging applications. Luminescent biocompatible silicon quantum dots (SiQDs) and gadolinium chelates can be applied for fluorescence microscopy and MRI, respectively. Here, we report the first synthesis of a nanocomplex incorporating SiQDs and gadolinium ions (Gd3+) for biological applications. The nanoconstruct is composed of a PEGylated micelle, with hydrophobic SiQDs in its core, covalently bound to DOTA-chelated Gd3+. Dynamic light scattering reveals a radius of 85 nm for these nanoconstructs, which is consistent with the electron microscopy results depicting radii ranging from 25 to 60 nm. Cellular uptake of the probes verified that they

  13. Investigation of terbium in the ferroelectric crystal, gadolinium molybdate, as a potential laser

    SciTech Connect

    Crouch, J.E.

    A preliminary non-stimulated study of the laser host combination Gd(2 - x)Tb(x)(MoO4)3 is made. The host material, gadolinium molybdate (GMO), is a ferroelectric/ferroelastic crystal. An investigation of temperature and external electric field affects on the absorption and fluorescence of the crystal did not produce any unusual results. The terbium ion, Tb(3+), peak cross section in GMO for the 5D sub 4 to 7F sub 5 transition is 10 x 10 to the minus twenty first power sq. cm. at 300K. The wavelength of this four level laser transition is 543 nm. (GRA)

  14. Dielectric properties and activation behavior of gadolinium doped nanocrystalline yttrium chromite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinha, R.; Basu, S.; Meikap, A. K.

    2018-04-01

    Gadolinium doped Yttrium Chromite nanoparticles are synthesized following sol-gel method. The formation of the nanoparticles are confirmed by XRD and TEM measurements. Dielectric permittivity and dielectric loss are estimated within the temperature range 298K to 523K and in the frequency range 20 Hz to 1 MHz. Dielectric permittivity follows the power law ɛ'(f) ∝ Tm. It is observed that the temperature exponent m increases with the decreasing frequency. The temperature variation of resistivity shows that the samples have semiconducting behavior. The activation energy is also measured.

  15. Modification of the crystal structure of gadolinium gallium garnet by helium ion irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Ostafiychuk, B. K.; Yaremiy, I. P., E-mail: yaremiy@rambler.ru; Yaremiy, S. I.

    2013-12-15

    The structure of gadolinium gallium garnet (GGG) single crystals before and after implantation by He{sup +} ions has been investigated using high-resolution X-ray diffraction methods and the generalized dynamic theory of X-ray scattering. The main types of growth defects in GGG single crystals and radiation-induced defects in the ion-implanted layer have been determined. It is established that the concentration of dislocation loops in the GGG surface layer modified by ion implantation increases and their radius decreases with an increase in the implantation dose.

  16. Tracing gadolinium-based contrast agents from surface water to drinking water by means of speciation analysis.

    PubMed

    Birka, Marvin; Wehe, Christoph A; Hachmöller, Oliver; Sperling, Michael; Karst, Uwe

    2016-04-01

    In recent decades, a significant amount of anthropogenic gadolinium has been released into the environment as a result of the broad application of contrast agents for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Since this anthropogenic gadolinium anomaly has also been detected in drinking water, it has become necessary to investigate the possible effect of drinking water purification on these highly polar microcontaminats. Therefore, a novel highly sensitive method for speciation analysis of gadolinium is presented. For that purpose, the hyphenation of hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC) and inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) was employed. In order to enhance the detection power, sample introduction was carried out by ultrasonic nebulization. In combination with a novel HILIC method using a diol-based stationary phase, it was possible to achieve superior limits of detection for frequently applied gadolinium-based contrast agents below 20pmol/L. With this method, the contrast agents Gd-DTPA, Gd-DOTA and Gd-BT-DO3A were determined in concentrations up to 159pmol/L in samples from several waterworks in a densely populated region of Germany alongside the river Ruhr as well as from a waterworks near a catchment lake. Thereby, the direct impact of anthropogenic gadolinium species being present in the surface water on the amount of anthropogenic gadolinium in drinking water was shown. There was no evidence for the degradation of contrast agents, the release of Gd(3+) or the presence of further Gd species. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Gadolinium chelate coated gold nanoparticles as contrast agents for both X-ray computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Alric, Christophe; Taleb, Jacqueline; Le Duc, Géraldine; Mandon, Céline; Billotey, Claire; Le Meur-Herland, Alice; Brochard, Thierry; Vocanson, Francis; Janier, Marc; Perriat, Pascal; Roux, Stéphane; Tillement, Olivier

    2008-05-07

    Functionalized gold nanoparticles were applied as contrast agents for both in vivo X-ray and magnetic resonance imaging. These particles were obtained by encapsulating gold cores within a multilayered organic shell which is composed of gadolinium chelates bound to each other through disulfide bonds. The contrast enhancement in MRI stems from the presence of gadolinium ions which are entrapped in the organic shell, whereas the gold core provides a strong X-ray absorption. This study revealed that these particles suited for dual modality imaging freely circulate in the blood vessels without undesirable accumulation in the lungs, spleen, and liver.

  18. Validation of the analytical methods in the LWR code BOXER for gadolinium-loaded fuel pins

    SciTech Connect

    Paratte, J.M.; Arkuszewski, J.J.; Kamboj, B.K.

    1990-01-01

    Due to the very high absorption occurring in gadolinium-loaded fuel pins, calculations of lattices with such pins present are a demanding test of the analysis methods in light water reactor (LWR) cell and assembly codes. Considerable effort has, therefore, been devoted to the validation of code methods for gadolinia fuel. The goal of the work reported in this paper is to check the analysis methods in the LWR cell/assembly code BOXER and its associated cross-section processing code ETOBOX, by comparison of BOXER results with those from a very accurate Monte Carlo calculation for a gadolinium benchmark problem. Initial results ofmore » such a comparison have been previously reported. However, the Monte Carlo calculations, done with the MCNP code, were performed at Los Alamos National Laboratory using ENDF/B-V data, while the BOXER calculations were performed at the Paul Scherrer Institute using JEF-1 nuclear data. This difference in the basic nuclear data used for the two calculations, caused by the restricted nature of these evaluated data files, led to associated uncertainties in a comparison of the results for methods validation. In the joint investigations at the Georgia Institute of Technology and PSI, such uncertainty in this comparison was eliminated by using ENDF/B-V data for BOXER calculations at Georgia Tech.« less

  19. Right ventricular stress-induced perfusion defects and late gadolinium enhancement in coronary artery disease.

    PubMed

    Milks, Michael Wesley; Upadhya, Bharathi; Hall, Michael E; Vasu, Sujethra; Hundley, William Gregory; Stacey, Richard Brandon

    2015-01-01

    The assessment of right ventricular (RV) perfusion defects has remained challenging during vasodilator stress perfusion with cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR). The significance of RV signal abnormalities during vasodilator stress perfusion and late gadolinium-enhanced CMR is yet uncertain. Among 61 individuals who underwent adenosine CMR stress testing before cardiac catheterization, we assessed the severity of coronary artery stenoses, mortality, the presence of stress and rest perfusion defects, as well as the presence of late gadolinium enhancement (LGE). Right ventricular stress-induced perfusion defects were positively associated with left anterior descending artery and proximal right coronary artery stenoses but were negatively associated with left circumflex artery stenoses. The presence of RVLGE was associated with mortality, but 77% of those with RVLGE also had left ventricular LGE. Proximal right coronary artery and left anterior descending artery stenoses are positively associated, whereas left circumflex artery stenoses are negatively associated with RV stress-induced perfusion defects. Right ventricular LGE was associated with mortality, but further study is needed to determine whether this is independent of left ventricular LGE.

  20. Evaluating the potential of chelation therapy to prevent and treat gadolinium deposition from MRI contrast agents

    SciTech Connect

    Rees, Julian A.; Deblonde, Gauthier J. -P.; An, Dahlia D.

    Several MRI contrast agent clinical formulations are now known to leave deposits of the heavy metal gadolinium in the brain, bones, and other organs of patients. This persistent biological accumulation of gadolinium has been recently recognized as a deleterious outcome in patients administered Gd-based contrast agents (GBCAs) for MRI, prompting the European Medicines Agency to recommend discontinuing the use of over half of the GBCAs currently approved for clinical applications. Here, to address this problem, we find that the orally-available metal decorporation agent 3,4,3-LI(1,2-HOPO) demonstrates superior efficacy at chelating and removing Gd from the body compared to diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid, amore » ligand commonly used in the United States in the GBCA Gadopentetate (Magnevist). Using the radiotracer 153Gd to obtain precise biodistribution data, the results herein, supported by speciation simulations, suggest that the prophylactic or post-hoc therapeutic use of 3,4,3-LI(1,2-HOPO) may provide a means to mitigate Gd retention in patients requiring contrast-enhanced MRI.« less

  1. Evaluating the potential of chelation therapy to prevent and treat gadolinium deposition from MRI contrast agents

    DOE PAGES

    Rees, Julian A.; Deblonde, Gauthier J. -P.; An, Dahlia D.; ...

    2018-03-13

    Several MRI contrast agent clinical formulations are now known to leave deposits of the heavy metal gadolinium in the brain, bones, and other organs of patients. This persistent biological accumulation of gadolinium has been recently recognized as a deleterious outcome in patients administered Gd-based contrast agents (GBCAs) for MRI, prompting the European Medicines Agency to recommend discontinuing the use of over half of the GBCAs currently approved for clinical applications. Here, to address this problem, we find that the orally-available metal decorporation agent 3,4,3-LI(1,2-HOPO) demonstrates superior efficacy at chelating and removing Gd from the body compared to diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid, amore » ligand commonly used in the United States in the GBCA Gadopentetate (Magnevist). Using the radiotracer 153Gd to obtain precise biodistribution data, the results herein, supported by speciation simulations, suggest that the prophylactic or post-hoc therapeutic use of 3,4,3-LI(1,2-HOPO) may provide a means to mitigate Gd retention in patients requiring contrast-enhanced MRI.« less

  2. Magnetic resonance imaging with gadolinium arthrography to assess acetabular cartilage delamination.

    PubMed

    Zaragoza, Edward; Lattanzio, Pierre-Jean; Beaule, Paul E

    2009-01-01

    Recent reports have demonstrated magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as a promising technique in detecting articular cartilage lesions of the hip joint. The purpose of our study was to evaluate the diagnostic performance of MRI with gadolinium arthrography in detecting acetabular cartilage delamination in patients with pre-arthritic hip pain. 46 patients (48 hips) underwent surgical dislocation of the hip. Mean age was 38.8 (range 17-56). There were 26 males and 20 females. All patients had Magnetic Resonance Imaging with gadolinium arthrography (MRA) before undergoing open hip surgery where the acetabular cartilage was inspected. Acetabular cartilage delamination on MRA was seen on sagittal images as a linear intra-articular filling defect of low signal intensity >1mm in thickness on T1 weighted images and surrounded by contrast. On MRA all hips had a labral tear confirmed at surgery. At surgery 30 hips had evidence of acetabular cartilage delamination, 4 hips had ulceration and 14 had no articular cartilage damage. The majority of labral tears and cartilage damage were located in the antero-superior quadrant. The sensitivity and specificity of MRA detection of cartilage delamination confirmed at surgery were 97% and 84%, respectively. The positive and negative predictive values of the MRA finding were 90% and 94%, respectively. The presence of the acetabular cartilage delamination represents an early stage of articular cartilage degeneration. When evaluating a young adult with hip pain, labral tears in association with cartilage delamination should be considered. MRA represents an effective diagnostic tool.

  3. Modulation of channel activity and gadolinium block of MscL by static magnetic fields.

    PubMed

    Petrov, Evgeny; Martinac, Boris

    2007-02-01

    The magnetic field of the Earth has for long been known to influence the behaviour and orientation of a variety of living organisms. Experimental studies of the magnetic sense have, however, been impaired by the lack of a plausible cellular and/or molecular mechanism providing meaningful explanation for detection of magnetic fields by these organisms. Recently, mechanosensitive (MS) ion channels have been implied to play a role in magnetoreception. In this study we have investigated the effect of static magnetic fields (SMFs) of moderate intensity on the activity and gadolinium block of MscL, the bacterial MS channel of large conductance, which has served as a model channel to study the basic physical principles of mechanosensory transduction in living cells. In addition to showing that direct application of the magnetic field decreased the activity of the MscL channel, our study demonstrates for the first time that SMFs can reverse the effect of gadolinium, a well-known blocker of MS channels. The results of our study are consistent with a notion that (1) the effects of SMFs on the MscL channels may result from changes in physical properties of the lipid bilayer due to diamagnetic anisotropy of phospholipid molecules and consequently (2) cooperative superdiamagnetism of phospholipid molecules under influence of SMFs could cause displacement of Gd(3+) ions from the membrane bilayer and thus remove the MscL channel block.

  4. High Relaxivity Gadolinium Hydroxypyridonate-Viral Capsid Conjugates: Nano-sized MRI Contrast Agents

    SciTech Connect

    Meux, Susan C.; Datta, Ankona; Hooker, Jacob M.

    2007-08-29

    High relaxivity macromolecular contrast agents based on the conjugation of gadolinium chelates to the interior and exterior surfaces of MS2 viral capsids are assessed. The proton nuclear magnetic relaxation dispersion (NMRD) profiles of the conjugates show up to a five-fold increase in relaxivity, leading to a peak relaxivity (per Gd{sup 3+} ion) of 41.6 mM{sup -1}s{sup -1} at 30 MHz for the internally modified capsids. Modification of the exterior was achieved through conjugation to flexible lysines, while internal modification was accomplished by conjugation to relatively rigid tyrosines. Higher relaxivities were obtained for the internally modified capsids, showing that (1) theremore » is facile diffusion of water to the interior of capsids and (2) the rigidity of the linker attaching the complex to the macromolecule is important for obtaining high relaxivity enhancements. The viral capsid conjugated gadolinium hydroxypyridonate complexes appear to possess two inner-sphere water molecules (q = 2) and the NMRD fittings highlight the differences in the local motion for the internal ({tau}{sub RI} = 440 ps) and external ({tau}{sub RI} = 310 ps) conjugates. These results indicate that there are significant advantages of using the internal surface of the capsids for contrast agent attachment, leaving the exterior surface available for the installation of tissue targeting groups.« less

  5. Effect of solid-phase amorphization on the spectral characteristics of europium-doped gadolinium molybdate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shmurak, S. Z.; Kiselev, A. P.; Kurmasheva, D. M.; Red'Kin, B. S.; Sinitsyn, V. V.

    2010-05-01

    A method is proposed for detecting spectral characteristics of optically inactive molybdates of rare-earth elements by their doping with rare-earth ions whose luminescence lies in the transparency region of all structural modifications of the sample. Gadolinium molybdate is chosen as the object of investigations, while europium ions are used as an optically active and structurally sensitive admixture. It is shown that after the action of a high pressure under which gadolinium molybdate passes to the amorphous state, the spectral characteristics of Gd1.99Eu0.01(MoO4)3 (GMO:Eu) change radically; namely, considerable line broadening is observed in the luminescence spectra and the luminescence excitation spectra, while the long-wave threshold of optical absorption is shifted considerably (by approximately 1.1 eV) towards lower energies. It is found that by changing the structural state of GMO:Eu by solid-state amorphization followed by annealing, the spectral characteristics of the sample can be purposefully changed. This is extremely important for solving the urgent problem of designing high-efficiency light-emitting diodes producing “white” light.

  6. Disparate ultrafast dynamics of itinerant and localized magnetic moments in gadolinium metal

    PubMed Central

    Frietsch, B.; Bowlan, J.; Carley, R.; Teichmann, M.; Wienholdt, S.; Hinzke, D.; Nowak, U.; Carva, K.; Oppeneer, P. M.; Weinelt, M.

    2015-01-01

    The Heisenberg–Dirac intra-atomic exchange coupling is responsible for the formation of the atomic spin moment and thus the strongest interaction in magnetism. Therefore, it is generally assumed that intra-atomic exchange leads to a quasi-instantaneous aligning process in the magnetic moment dynamics of spins in separate, on-site atomic orbitals. Following ultrashort optical excitation of gadolinium metal, we concurrently record in photoemission the 4f magnetic linear dichroism and 5d exchange splitting. Their dynamics differ by one order of magnitude, with decay constants of 14 versus 0.8 ps, respectively. Spin dynamics simulations based on an orbital-resolved Heisenberg Hamiltonian combined with first-principles calculations explain the particular dynamics of 5d and 4f spin moments well, and corroborate that the 5d exchange splitting traces closely the 5d spin-moment dynamics. Thus gadolinium shows disparate dynamics of the localized 4f and the itinerant 5d spin moments, demonstrating a breakdown of their intra-atomic exchange alignment on a picosecond timescale. PMID:26355196

  7. Pediatric Patients Demonstrate Progressive T1-Weighted Hyperintensity in the Dentate Nucleus following Multiple Doses of Gadolinium-Based Contrast Agent.

    PubMed

    Roberts, D R; Chatterjee, A R; Yazdani, M; Marebwa, B; Brown, T; Collins, H; Bolles, G; Jenrette, J M; Nietert, P J; Zhu, X

    2016-12-01

    While there have been recent reports of brain retention of gadolinium following gadolinium-based contrast agent administration in adults, a retrospective series of pediatric patients has not previously been reported, to our knowledge. We investigated the relationship between the number of prior gadolinium-based contrast agent doses and increasing T1 signal in the dentate nucleus on unenhanced T1-weighted MR imaging. We hypothesized that despite differences in pediatric physiology and the smaller gadolinium-based contrast agent doses that pediatric patients are typically administered based on weighted-adjusted dosing, the pediatric brain would also demonstrate dose-dependent increasing T1 signal in the dentate nucleus. We included children with multiple gadolinium-based contrast agent administrations at our institution. A blinded reader placed ROIs within the dentate nucleus and adjacent cerebellar white matter. To eliminate reader bias, we also performed automated ROI delineation of the dentate nucleus, cerebellar white matter, and pons. Dentate-to-cerebellar white matter and dentate-to pons ratios were compared with the number of gadolinium-based contrast agent administrations. During 20 years at our institution, 280 patients received at least 5 gadolinium-based contrast agent doses, with 1 patient receiving 38 doses. Sixteen patients met the inclusion/exclusion criteria for ROI analysis. Blinded reader dentate-to-cerebellar white matter ratios were significantly associated with gadolinium-based contrast agent doses (r s = 0.77, P = .001). The dentate-to-pons ratio and dentate-to-cerebellar white matter ratios based on automated ROI placement were also significantly correlated with gadolinium-based contrast agent doses (t = 4.98, P < .0001 and t = 2.73, P < .02, respectively). In pediatric patients, the number of prior gadolinium-based contrast agent doses is significantly correlated with progressive T1-weighted dentate hyperintensity. Definitive confirmation of

  8. Imaging of cauda equina edema in lumbar canal stenosis by using gadolinium-enhanced MR imaging: experimental constriction injury.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, S; Uchida, K; Takeno, K; Baba, H; Suzuki, Y; Hayakawa, K; Yoshizawa, H

    2006-02-01

    It has been reported that disturbance of blood flow arising from circumferential compression of the cauda equina by surrounding tissue plays a major role in the appearance of neurogenic intermittent claudication (NIC) associated with lumbar spinal canal stenosis (LSCS). We created a model of LSCS to clarify the mechanism of enhancement within the cauda equina on gadolinium-enhanced MR images from patients with LSCS. In 20 dogs, a lumbar laminectomy was performed by applying circumferential constriction to the cauda equina by using a silicon tube, to produce 30% stenosis of the circumferential diameter of the dural tube. After 1 and 3 weeks, gadolinium and Evans blue albumin were injected intravenously at the same time. The sections were used to investigate the status of the blood-nerve barrier function under a fluorescence microscope and we compared gadolinium-enhanced MR images with Evans blue albumin distribution in the nerve. The other sections were used for light and transmission electron microscopic study. In this model, histologic examination showed congestion and dilation in many of the intraradicular veins, as well as inflammatory cell infiltration. The intraradicular edema caused by venous congestion and Wallerian degeneration can also occur at sites that are not subject to mechanical compression. Enhanced MR imaging showed enhancement of the cauda equina at the stenosed region, demonstrating the presence of edema. Gadolinium-enhanced MR imaging may be a useful tool for the diagnosis of microcirculatory disorders of the cauda equina associated with LSCS.

  9. Rapid colorimetric sensing of gadolinium by EGCG-derived AgNPs: the development of a nanohybrid bioimaging probe.

    PubMed

    Singh, Rohit Kumar; Mishra, Sourav; Jena, Satyapriya; Panigrahi, Bijayananda; Das, Bhaskar; Jayabalan, Rasu; Parhi, Pankaj Kumar; Mandal, Dindyal

    2018-04-17

    Polyphenol functionalized silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) have been developed and demonstrated as colorimetric sensors for the selective detection of gadolinium. The newly obtained AgNP-Gd3+ conjugates exhibit high aqueous dispersibility and excitation dependent fluorescence emission. The conjugates offer multicolor bioimaging potential owing to their excellent luminescence properties.

  10. The feasibility of in vivo quantification of bone-gadolinium in humans by prompt gamma neutron activation analysis (PGNAA) following gadolinium-based contrast-enhanced MRI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mostafaei, F.; McNeill, F. E.; Chettle, D. R.; Noseworthy, M. D.; Prestwich, W. V.

    2015-11-01

    The feasibility of using a 238Pu/Be-based in vivo prompt γ-ray neutron activation analysis (IVNAA) system, previously successfully used for measurements of muscle, for the detection of gadolinium (Gd) in bone was presented. Gd is extensively used in contrast agents in MR imaging. We present phantom measurement data for the measurement of Gd in the tibia. Gd has seven naturally occurring isotopes, of which two have extremely large neutron capture cross sections; 155Gd (14.8% natural abundance (NA), σ= 60,900 barns) and 157Gd (15.65% NA, σ= 254,000 barns). Our previous work focused on muscle but this only informs about the short term kinetics of Gd. We studied the possibility of measuring bone, as it may be a long term storage site for Gd. A human simulating bone phantom set was developed. The phantoms were doped with seven concentrations of Gd of concentrations 0.0, 25, 50, 75, 100, 120 and 150 ppm. Additional elements important for neutron activation analysis, Na, Cl and Ca, were also included to create an overall elemental composition consistent with Reference Man. The overall conclusion is that the potential application of this Pu-Be-based prompt in vivo NAA for the monitoring of the storage and retention of Gd in bone is not feasible.

  11. Investigation of Plutonium and Uranium Precipitation Behavior with Gadolinium as a Neutron Poison

    SciTech Connect

    Visser, A.E.

    2003-10-17

    The caustic precipitation of plutonium (Pu)-containing solutions has been investigated to determine whether the presence of 3:1 uranium (U):Pu in solutions stored in the H-Canyon Facility at the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Savannah River Site (SRS) would adversely impact the use of gadolinium nitrate (Gd(NO3)3) as a neutron poison. In the past, this disposition strategy has been successfully used to discard solutions containing approximately 100 kg of Pu to the SRS high level waste (HLW) system. In the current experiments, gadolinium (as Gd(NO3)3) was added to samples of a 3:1 U:Pu solution, a surrogate 3 g/L U solution, andmore » a surrogate 3 g/L U with 1 g/L Pu solution. A series of experiments was then performed to observe and characterize the precipitate at selected pH values. Solids formed at pH 4.5 and were found to contain at least 50 percent of the U and 94 percent of the Pu, but only 6 percent of the Gd. As the pH of the solution increased (e.g., pH greater than 14 with 1.2 or 3.6 M sodium hydroxide (NaOH) excess), the precipitate contained greater than 99 percent of the Pu, U, and Gd. After the pH greater than 14 systems were undisturbed for one week, no significant changes were found in the composition of the solid or supernate for each sample. The solids were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) which found sodium diuranate (Na2U2O7) and gadolinium hydroxide (Gd(OH)3) at pH 14. Thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) indicated sufficient water molecules were present in the solids to thermalize the neutrons, a requirement for the use of Gd as a neutron poison. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was also performed and the accompanying back-scattering electron analysis (BSE) found Pu, U, and Gd compounds in all pH greater than 14 precipitate samples. The rheological properties of the slurries at pH greater than 14 were also investigated by performing precipitate settling rate studies and measuring the viscosity and density of the materials. Based

  12. Characterization of the reaction products and precipitates at the interface of carbon fiber reinforced magnesium–gadolinium composite

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Yaping; Jiang, Longtao, E-mail: longtaojiang@163.com; Chen, Guoqin

    2016-03-15

    In the present work, carbon fiber reinforced magnesium-gadolinium composite was fabricated by pressure infiltration method. The phase composition, micro-morphology, and crystal structure of reaction products and precipitates at the interface of the composite were investigated. Scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy analysis revealed the segregation of gadolinium element at the interface between carbon fiber and matrix alloy. It was shown that block-shaped Gd4C5, GdC2 and nano-sized Gd2O3 were formed at the interface during the fabrication process due to the interfacial reaction. Furthermore, magnesium-gadolinium precipitates including needle-like Mg5Gd (or Mg24Gd5) and thin plate-shaped long period stacking-ordered phase, were also observedmore » at the interface and in the matrix near the interface. The interfacial microstructure and bonding mode were influenced by these interfacial products, which were beneficial for the improvement of the interfacial bonding strength. - Highlights: • Gadolinium element segregated on the surface of carbon fibers. • Block-shaped Gd{sub 4}C{sub 5} and GdC{sub 2} were formed at the interface via chemical reaction. • Gadolinium and oxygen reacted at the interface and formed nano-scaled Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3}. • The precipitates formed in the interface were identified to be Mg{sub 5}Gd (or Mg{sub 24}Gd{sub 5}) and plate-shaped long period stacking-ordered phase.« less

  13. Progressing Toward a Cohesive Pediatric 18F-FDG PET/MR Protocol: Is Administration of Gadolinium Chelates Necessary?

    PubMed

    Klenk, Christopher; Gawande, Rakhee; Tran, Vy Thao; Leung, Jennifer Trinh; Chi, Kevin; Owen, Daniel; Luna-Fineman, Sandra; Sakamoto, Kathleen M; McMillan, Alex; Quon, Andy; Daldrup-Link, Heike E

    2016-01-01

    With the increasing availability of integrated PET/MR scanners, the utility and need for MR contrast agents for combined scans is questioned. The purpose of our study was to evaluate whether administration of gadolinium chelates is necessary for evaluation of pediatric tumors on (18)F-FDG PET/MR images. First, in 119 pediatric patients with primary and secondary tumors, we used 14 diagnostic criteria to compare the accuracy of several MR sequences: unenhanced T2-weighted fast spin-echo imaging; unenhanced diffusion-weighted imaging; and-before and after gadolinium chelate contrast enhancement-T1-weighted 3-dimensional spoiled gradient echo LAVA (liver acquisition with volume acquisition) imaging. Next, in a subset of 36 patients who had undergone (18)F-FDG PET within 3 wk of MRI, we fused the PET images with the unenhanced T2-weighted MR images (unenhanced (18)F-FDG PET/MRI) and the enhanced T1-weighted MR images (enhanced (18)F-FDG PET/MRI). Using the McNemar test, we compared the accuracy of the two types of fused images using the 14 diagnostic criteria. We also evaluated the concordance between (18)F-FDG avidity and gadolinium chelate enhancement. The standard of reference was histopathologic results, surgical notes, and follow-up imaging. There was no significant difference in diagnostic accuracy between the unenhanced and enhanced MR images. Accordingly, there was no significant difference in diagnostic accuracy between the unenhanced and enhanced (18)F-FDG PET/MR images. (18)F-FDG avidity and gadolinium chelate enhancement were concordant in 30 of the 36 patients and 106 of their 123 tumors. Gadolinium chelate administration is not necessary for accurate diagnostic characterization of most solid pediatric malignancies on (18)F-FDG PET/MR images, with the possible exception of focal liver lesions. © 2016 by the Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Inc.

  14. Monte Carlo simulation of energy absorbed in phenolic ESR dosimeters added with gadolinium exposed to thermal, epithermal and fast neutrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Longo, A.; Collura, G.; Gallo, S.; Bartolotta, A.; Marrale, M.

    2017-11-01

    In this work analyses of the energy released per unit mass in phenolic compound exposed to neutron beams were performed with the aim of predicting the increase in dose achievable by addition of gadolinium (Gd) inside the pellets. In particular, Monte Carlo (MC) simulations were carried out for IRGANOX® 1076 phenolic compound irradiated with neutron beams with different energy spectra at various depths inside a water phantom. The addition of gadolinium increases sensitivity of phenolic ESR (electron spin resonance) dosimeters to neutrons thanks to the high gadolinium cross section for neutron capture and to the large number of secondary particles (mainly Auger and internal conversion electrons) which are able to release energy inside the sensitive material layers. For small depths in water phantom and low energy neutron spectra the increase in dose due to gadolinium is large (more than a factor 50). The enhancement is smaller in case of epithermal neutron beam, whereas the increase in dose for fast neutrons is less than 50%. In order to have a comparison with other ESR dosimeters the energy released per unit mass in phenolic compound was compared with that calculated in alanine pellets. For thermal neutron beams the energy released in phenolic compound with gadolinium is comparable to that released in alanine for small depths in phantom, whereas it is larger than in alanine for large depths. In case of epithermal and fast neutron beams the energy released in phenolic compound is larger than in alanine samples because the elastic scattering with hydrogen nuclei is more probable for high neutron energies and this phenolic compound is characterized by an higher number of 1H nuclei than alanine. All results here found suggest that these phenolic pellets could be fruitfully used for dosimetric applications in Neutron Capture Therapy.

  15. Two- and three-dimensional networks of gadolinium(III) with dicarboxylate ligands: synthesis, crystal structure, and magnetic properties.

    PubMed

    Cañadillas-Delgado, Laura; Pasan, Jorge; Fabelo, Oscar; Hernandez-Molina, María; Lloret, Francesc; Julve, Miguel; Ruiz-Pérez, Catalina

    2006-12-25

    Four gadolinium(III) complexes with dicarboxylate ligands of formulas [Gd2(mal)3(H2O)5]n.2nH2O (1), [Gd2(mal)3(H2O)6]n (2), [NaGd(mal)(ox)(H2O)3]n (3), and [Gd2(ox)3(H2O)6]n.2.5nH2O (4) (mal = malonate; ox = oxalate) have been prepared, and their magnetic properties have been investigated as a function of the temperature. The structures of 1-3 have been determined by X-ray diffraction methods. The crystal structure of 4 was already known, and it is made of hexagonal layers of Gd atoms that are bridged by bis-bidentate oxalate. Compound 1 is isostructural with the europium(III) malonate complex [Eu2(mal)3(H2O)5]n.2nH2O,1 whose structure was reported elsewhere. The Gd atoms in 1 define a two-dimensional network where a terminal bidentate and bridging bidentate/bis-monodentate and tris-bidentate coordination modes of malonate occur. Compound 2 has a three-dimensional structure with a structural phase transition at 226 K, which involves a change of the space group from I2/a to Ia. Although its structure at room temperature was already known, that below 226 K was not. Pairs of Gd atoms with a double oxo-carboxylate bridge occur in both phases, and the main differences between both structures deal with the Gd environment and the H-bond pattern. 3 is also a three-dimensional compound, and it was obtained by reacting Gd(III) ions with malonic acid in a silica gel medium. Oxalic acid results as an oxidized product of the malonic acid, and single crystals of the heteroleptic complex were produced. The Gd atoms in 3 are connected through bis-bidentate oxalate and carboxylate-malonate bridges in the anti-anti and anti-syn coordination modes. Compounds 1 and 2 exhibit weak but significant ferromagnetic couplings between the Gd(III) ions through the single (1) and double (2) oxo-carboxylate bridges, whereas antiferromagnetic interactions across the bis-bidentate oxalate account for the overall antiferromagnetic behavior observed in 3 and 4.

  16. 15Mcps photon-counting X-ray computed tomography system using a ZnO-MPPC detector and its application to gadolinium imaging.

    PubMed

    Sato, Eiichi; Sugimura, Shigeaki; Endo, Haruyuki; Oda, Yasuyuki; Abudurexiti, Abulajiang; Hagiwara, Osahiko; Osawa, Akihiro; Matsukiyo, Hiroshi; Enomoto, Toshiyuki; Watanabe, Manabu; Kusachi, Shinya; Sato, Shigehiro; Ogawa, Akira; Onagawa, Jun

    2012-01-01

    15Mcps photon-counting X-ray computed tomography (CT) system is a first-generation type and consists of an X-ray generator, a turntable, a translation stage, a two-stage controller, a detector consisting of a 2mm-thick zinc-oxide (ZnO) single-crystal scintillator and an MPPC (multipixel photon counter) module, a counter card (CC), and a personal computer (PC). High-speed photon counting was carried out using the detector in the X-ray CT system. The maximum count rate was 15Mcps (mega counts per second) at a tube voltage of 100kV and a tube current of 1.95mA. Tomography is accomplished by repeated translations and rotations of an object, and projection curves of the object are obtained by the translation. The pulses of the event signal from the module are counted by the CC in conjunction with the PC. The minimum exposure time for obtaining a tomogram was 15min, and photon-counting CT was accomplished using gadolinium-based contrast media. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Analysis of Blood Gadolinium in an Isotope Geochemist Following Contrast MRI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wasylenki, L. E.

    2011-12-01

    Normal brain tissue does not have blood flowing throughout it; instead oxygen diffuses across a blood-brain barrier in order to oxygenate brain cells. Brain tumors, however, do grow blood supplies, so an abnormal distribution of blood in the brain is a key indicator of abnormal cell growth. But how is the distribution of blood in inside the brain observed? The lanthanide ion gadolinium(III) has unpaired 5f-shell electrons and is thus paramagnetic. As such, the presence of Gd causes the nuclei of nearby atoms to relax more quickly when excited to high-energy spin states by pulses of radio-frequency energy than they would without Gd nearby. The signal in magnetic resonance imaging correlates with this nuclear spin relaxation time, so gadolinium's presence in certain body tissues makes those tissues appear as bright areas on MRI images. Gadolinium is therefore commonly injected intravenously just prior to MRI imaging, so that the distribution of blood in and around the brain can be mapped. Gadolinium as a free ion is toxic, so it is injected in a relatively inert form, often as gadoversetamide, in which Gd is tightly bound in nine-fold coordination with N, C, and O. This compound is removed from the blood by the kidneys at a rate that is fast compared to the rate of breakdown of this compound in the blood, thus preventing release of toxic Gd in the bloodstream. But how quickly can the kidneys of an isotope geochemist remove Gd from blood? In this experiment, a single isotope geochemist's wristwatch was synchronized with that of the MRI technician and then left in a dressing room with all other magnetically susceptible objects until after the MRI. The time of intravenous injection of gadoversetamide into the isotopist was recorded by the technician and later transmitted verbally to the isotopist. Following the MRI session, blood samples were collected by self-fingerprick, in a Class 100 trace metal clean lab, from 47 to 281 minutes after intravenous injection. For each

  18. Investigating phase transition temperatures of size separated gadolinium silicide magnetic nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hunagund, Shivakumar G.; Harstad, Shane M.; El-Gendy, Ahmed A.; Gupta, Shalabh; Pecharsky, Vitalij K.; Hadimani, Ravi L.

    2018-05-01

    Gadolinium silicide (Gd5Si4) nanoparticles (NPs) exhibit different properties compared to their parent bulk materials due to finite size, shape, and surface effects. NPs were prepared by high energy ball-milling of the as-cast Gd5Si4 ingot and size separated into eight fractions using time sensitive sedimentation in an applied dc magnetic field with average particle sizes ranging from 700 nm to 82 nm. The largest Gd5Si4 NPs order ferromagnetically at 316 K. A second anomaly observed at 110 K can be ascribed to a Gd5Si3 impurity. As the particle sizes decrease, the volume fraction of Gd5Si3 phase increases at the expense of the Gd5Si4 phase, and the ferromagnetic transition temperature of Gd5Si4 is reduced from 316 K to 310 K, while the ordering of the minor phase is independent of the particle size, remaining at 110 K.

  19. In vivo selective cancer-tracking gadolinium eradicator as new-generation photodynamic therapy agent

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Tao; Lan, Rongfeng; Chan, Chi-Fai; Law, Ga-Lai; Wong, Wai-Kwok; Wong, Ka-Leung

    2014-01-01

    In this work, we demonstrate a modality of photodynamic therapy (PDT) through the design of our truly dual-functional—PDT and imaging—gadolinium complex (Gd-N), which can target cancer cells specifically. In the light of our design, the PDT drug can specifically localize on the anionic cell membrane of cancer cells in which its laser-excited photoemission signal can be monitored without triggering the phototoxic generation of reactive oxygen species—singlet oxygen—before due excitation. Comprehensive in vitro and in vivo studies had been conducted for the substantiation of the effectiveness of Gd-N as such a tumor-selective PDT photosensitizer. This treatment modality does initiate a new direction in the development of “precision medicine” in line with stem cell and gene therapies as tools in cancer therapy. PMID:25453097

  20. Thermal neutron detector based on COTS CMOS imagers and a conversion layer containing Gadolinium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez, Martín; Blostein, Juan Jerónimo; Bessia, Fabricio Alcalde; Tartaglione, Aureliano; Sidelnik, Iván; Haro, Miguel Sofo; Suárez, Sergio; Gimenez, Melisa Lucía; Berisso, Mariano Gómez; Lipovetzky, Jose

    2018-06-01

    In this work we will introduce a novel low cost position sensitive thermal neutron detection technique, based on a Commercial Off The Shelf CMOS image sensor covered with a Gadolinium containing conversion layer. The feasibility of the neutron detection technique implemented in this work has been experimentally demonstrated. A thermal neutron detection efficiency of 11.3% has been experimentally obtained with a conversion layer of 11.6 μm. It was experimentally verified that the thermal neutron detection efficiency of this technique is independent on the intensity of the incident thermal neutron flux, which was confirmed for conversion layers of different thicknesses. Based on the experimental results, a spatial resolution better than 25 μm is expected. This spatial resolution makes the proposed technique specially useful for neutron beam characterization, neutron beam dosimetry, high resolution neutron imaging, and several neutron scattering techniques.

  1. Radioluminescence and optical studies of gadolinium calcium phosphate oxyfluoride glasses doped with Sm3+

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meejitpaisan, P.; Insiripong, S.; Kedkaew, C.; Kim, H. J.; Kaewkhao, J.

    2017-08-01

    Sm3+-doped gadolinium calcium phosphate oxyfluoride glasses have been synthesized and investigated their optical, photo and radioluminescence properties. The glasses were prepared by melt quenching technique at 1400 °C. The characteristic absorption bands of Sm3+ ions originating from the 6H5/2 ground state and occurring absorbed photon in visible light (VIS) and near-infrared (NIR) region with clearly observed from absorption spectra. From the photoluminescence (PL), the glasses showed the emission at 561 (4G5/2→6H5/2), 598 (4G5/2→6H7/2), 644 (4G5/2→6H9/2) and 705 nm (4G5/2→6H11/2). The radioluminescence (RL), emission spectra were corresponding to those from PL measurements. From RL measurement, the integral scintillation efficiency of developed glass was determined at 43% when compared with BGO crystal.

  2. Gadolinium-free MR in coarctation-can contrast-enhanced MR angiography be replaced?

    PubMed

    Kalmar, Peter I; Koestenberger, Martin; Marterer, Robert; Tschauner, Sebastian; Sorantin, Erich

    2016-01-01

    To determine the difference in vessel measurements, signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), and voxel size between contrast-enhanced and noncontrast magnetic resonance techniques in patients with coarctation of the aorta (CoA). In 39 patients, vessel size, SNR, and voxel size were compared in cine magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), gadolinium-free magnetic resonance angiography (Gd-free MRA), and contrast-enhanced MRA (ce-MRA). There was no significant difference in measurement and SNR, but there was a significant difference in voxel size (P<.001). Our results show that, in CoA patients, monitoring of vessel size using cine MRI and Gd-free MRA is equivalent to ce-MRA while being less invasive. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid-gadolinium (DTPA-Gd)-conjugated polysuccinimide derivatives as magnetic resonance imaging contrast agents.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ha Young; Jee, Hye Won; Seo, Sung Mi; Kwak, Byung Kook; Khang, Gilson; Cho, Sun Hang

    2006-01-01

    Biocompatible polysuccinimide (PSI) derivatives conjugated with diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid gadolinium (DTPA-Gd) were prepared as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agents. In this study, we synthesized PSI derivatives incorporating methoxy-poly(ethylene glycol) (mPEG) as hydrophilic ligand, hexadecylamine as hydrophobic ligand, and DTPA-Gd as contrast agent. PSI was synthesized by the polycondensation polymerization of aspartic acid. All the synthesized materials were characterized by proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR). Critical micellization concentrations were determined using fluorescent probes (pyrene). Micelle size and shape were measured by electro-photometer light scattering (ELS) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The formed micelle size ranged from 100 to 300 nm. The T1-weighted MR images of the phantom prepared with PSI-mPEG-C16-(DTPA-Gd) were obtained in a 3.0 T clinical MR imager, and the conjugates showed a great potential as MRI contrast agents.

  4. Deep learning enables reduced gadolinium dose for contrast-enhanced brain MRI.

    PubMed

    Gong, Enhao; Pauly, John M; Wintermark, Max; Zaharchuk, Greg

    2018-02-13

    There are concerns over gadolinium deposition from gadolinium-based contrast agents (GBCA) administration. To reduce gadolinium dose in contrast-enhanced brain MRI using a deep learning method. Retrospective, crossover. Sixty patients receiving clinically indicated contrast-enhanced brain MRI. 3D T 1 -weighted inversion-recovery prepped fast-spoiled-gradient-echo (IR-FSPGR) imaging was acquired at both 1.5T and 3T. In 60 brain MRI exams, the IR-FSPGR sequence was obtained under three conditions: precontrast, postcontrast images with 10% low-dose (0.01mmol/kg) and 100% full-dose (0.1 mmol/kg) of gadobenate dimeglumine. We trained a deep learning model using the first 10 cases (with mixed indications) to approximate full-dose images from the precontrast and low-dose images. Synthesized full-dose images were created using the trained model in two test sets: 20 patients with mixed indications and 30 patients with glioma. For both test sets, low-dose, true full-dose, and the synthesized full-dose postcontrast image sets were compared quantitatively using peak-signal-to-noise-ratios (PSNR) and structural-similarity-index (SSIM). For the test set comprised of 20 patients with mixed indications, two neuroradiologists scored blindly and independently for the three postcontrast image sets, evaluating image quality, motion-artifact suppression, and contrast enhancement compared with precontrast images. Results were assessed using paired t-tests and noninferiority tests. The proposed deep learning method yielded significant (n = 50, P < 0.001) improvements over the low-dose images (>5 dB PSNR gains and >11.0% SSIM). Ratings on image quality (n = 20, P = 0.003) and contrast enhancement (n = 20, P < 0.001) were significantly increased. Compared to true full-dose images, the synthesized full-dose images have a slight but not significant reduction in image quality (n = 20, P = 0.083) and contrast enhancement (n = 20, P = 0.068). Slightly

  5. Characterization of PAH matrix with monazite stream containing uranium, gadolinium and iron

    SciTech Connect

    Pal, Sangita, E-mail: sangpal@barc.gov.in; Goswami, D.; Meena, Sher Singh

    2016-05-23

    Uranium (U) gadolinium (Gd) and iron (Fe) containing alkaline waste simulated effluent (relevant to alkaline effluent of monazite ore) has been treated with a novel amphoteric resin viz, Polyamidehydroxamate (PAH) containing amide and hydroxamic acid groups. The resin has been synthesized in an eco-friendly manner by polymerization nad conversion to functional groups characterized by FT-IR spectra and architectural overview by SEM. Coloration of the loaded matrix and de-coloration after extraction of uranium is the special characteristic of the matrix. Effluent streams have been analyzed by ICP-AES, U loaded PAH has been characterized by FT-IR, EXAFS, Gd and Fe by X-raymore » energy values of EDXRF at 6.053 KeVand 6.405 KeV respectively. The remarkable change has been observed in Mössbauer spectrum of Fe-loaded PAH samples.« less

  6. Comparison of cardiogoniometry and electrocardiography with perfusion cardiac magnetic resonance imaging and late gadolinium enhancement.

    PubMed

    Birkemeyer, Ralf; Toelg, Ralph; Zeymer, Uwe; Wessely, Rainer; Jäckle, Sebastian; Hairedini, Bajram; Lübke, Mike; Aßfalg, Manfred; Jung, Werner

    2012-12-01

    Cardiogoniometry (CGM) is a spatio-temporal five-lead resting electrocardiographic method utilizing automated analysis. The purpose of this study was to determine CGM's and electrocardiography (ECG)'s accuracy for detecting myocardial ischaemia and/or lesions in comparison with perfusion cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMRI) and late gadolinium enhancement (LGE). Forty (n= 40) patients with suspected or known stable coronary artery disease were examined by CGM and resting ECG directly prior to CMRI including adenosine stress perfusion (ASP) and LGE. The investigators visually reading the CMRI were blinded to the CGM and ECG results. Half of the patients (n= 20) had a normal CMRI while the other half presented with either abnormal ASP and/or detectable LGE. Cardiogoniometry yielded an accuracy of 83% (sensitivity 70%) and ECG of 63% (sensitivity 35%) compared with CMRI. In this pilot study CGM compares more favourably than ECG with the detection of ischaemia and/or structural myocardial lesions on CMRI.

  7. Induction of skeletal abnormalities and autophagy in Paracentrotus lividus sea urchin embryos exposed to gadolinium.

    PubMed

    Martino, Chiara; Chiarelli, Roberto; Bosco, Liana; Roccheri, Maria Carmela

    2017-09-01

    Gadolinium (Gd) concentration is constantly increasing in the aquatic environment, becoming an emergent environmental pollutant. We investigated the effects of Gd on Paracentrotus lividus sea urchin embryos, focusing on skeletogenesis and autophagy. We observed a delay of biomineral deposition at 24 hours post fertilization (hpf), and a strong impairment of skeleton growth at 48 hpf, frequently displayed by an asymmetrical pattern. Skeleton growth was found partially resumed in recovery experiments. The mesodermal cells designated to biomineralization were found correctly migrated at 24 hpf, but not at 48 hpf. Western blot analysis showed an increase of the LC3-II autophagic marker at 24 and 48 hpf. Confocal microscopy studies confirmed the increased number of autophagolysosomes and autophagosomes. Results show the hazard of Gd in the marine environment, indicating that Gd is able to affect different aspects of sea urchin development: morphogenesis, biomineralization, and stress response through autophagy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Controllable Fabrication and Optical Properties of Uniform Gadolinium Oxysulfate Hollow Spheres

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Fashen; Chen, Gen; Liu, Tao; Zhang, Ning; Liu, Xiaohe; Luo, Hongmei; Li, Junhui; Chen, Limiao; Ma, Renzhi; Qiu, Guanzhou

    2015-01-01

    Uniform gadolinium oxysulfate (Gd2O2SO4) hollow spheres were successfully fabricated by calcination of corresponding Gd-organic precursor obtained via a facile hydrothermal process. The Gd2O2SO4 hollow spheres have a mean diameter of approximately 550 nm and shell thickness in the range of 30–70 nm. The sizes and morphologies of as-prepared Gd2O2SO4 hollow spheres could be deliberately controlled by adjusting the experimental parameters. Eu-doped Gd2O2SO4 hollow spheres have also been prepared for the property modification and practical applications. The structure, morphology, and properties of as-prepared products were characterized by XRD, TEM, HRTEM, SEM and fluorescence spectrophotometer. Excited with ultraviolet (UV) pump laser, successful downconversion (DC) could be achieved for Eu-doped Gd2O2SO4 hollow spheres. PMID:26671661

  9. Lutetium oxide-based transparent ceramic scintillators

    DOEpatents

    Seeley, Zachary; Cherepy, Nerine; Kuntz, Joshua; Payne, Stephen A.

    2016-01-19

    In one embodiment, a transparent ceramic of sintered nanoparticles includes gadolinium lutetium oxide doped with europium having a chemical composition (Lu.sub.1-xGd.sub.x).sub.2-YEu.sub.YO.sub.3, where X is any value within a range from about 0.05 to about 0.45 and Y is any value within a range from about 0.01 to about 0.2, and where the transparent ceramic exhibits a transparency characterized by a scatter coefficient of less than about 10%/cm. In another embodiment, a transparent ceramic scintillator of sintered nanoparticles, includes a body of sintered nanoparticles including gadolinium lutetium oxide doped with a rare earth activator (RE) having a chemical composition (Lu.sub.1-xGd.sub.x).sub.2-YRE.sub.YO.sub.3, where RE is selected from the group consisting of: Sm, Eu, Tb, and Dy, where the transparent ceramic exhibits a transparency characterized by a scatter coefficient of less than about 10%/cm.

  10. Prognostic Value of Late Gadolinium Enhancement Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance in Cardiac Amyloidosis.

    PubMed

    Fontana, Marianna; Pica, Silvia; Reant, Patricia; Abdel-Gadir, Amna; Treibel, Thomas A; Banypersad, Sanjay M; Maestrini, Viviana; Barcella, William; Rosmini, Stefania; Bulluck, Heerajnarain; Sayed, Rabya H; Patel, Ketna; Mamhood, Shameem; Bucciarelli-Ducci, Chiara; Whelan, Carol J; Herrey, Anna S; Lachmann, Helen J; Wechalekar, Ashutosh D; Manisty, Charlotte H; Schelbert, Eric B; Kellman, Peter; Gillmore, Julian D; Hawkins, Philip N; Moon, James C

    2015-10-20

    The prognosis and treatment of the 2 main types of cardiac amyloidosis, immunoglobulin light chain (AL) and transthyretin (ATTR) amyloidosis, are substantially influenced by cardiac involvement. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance with late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) is a reference standard for the diagnosis of cardiac amyloidosis, but its potential for stratifying risk is unknown. Two hundred fifty prospectively recruited subjects, 122 patients with ATTR amyloid, 9 asymptomatic mutation carriers, and 119 patients with AL amyloidosis, underwent LGE cardiovascular magnetic resonance. Subjects were followed up for a mean of 24±13 months. LGE was performed with phase-sensitive inversion recovery (PSIR) and without (magnitude only). These were compared with extracellular volume measured with T1 mapping. PSIR was superior to magnitude-only inversion recovery LGE because PSIR always nulled the tissue (blood or myocardium) with the longest T1 (least gadolinium). LGE was classified into 3 patterns: none, subendocardial, and transmural, which were associated with increasing amyloid burden as defined by extracellular volume (P<0.0001), with transitions from none to subendocardial LGE at an extracellular volume of 0.40 to 0.43 (AL) and 0.39 to 0.40 (ATTR) and to transmural at 0.48 to 0.55 (AL) and 0.47 to 0.59 (ATTR). Sixty-seven patients (27%) died. Transmural LGE predicted death (hazard ratio, 5.4; 95% confidence interval, 2.1-13.7; P<0.0001) and remained independent after adjustment for N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide, ejection fraction, stroke volume index, E/E', and left ventricular mass index (hazard ratio, 4.1; 95% confidence interval, 1.3-13.1; P<0.05). There is a continuum of cardiac involvement in systemic AL and ATTR amyloidosis. Transmural LGE is determined reliably by PSIR and represents advanced cardiac amyloidosis. The PSIR technique provides incremental information on outcome even after adjustment for known prognostic factors. © 2015 The Authors.

  11. Gadolinium-enhanced MR images of the growing piglet skeleton: ionic versus nonionic contrast agent.

    PubMed

    Menezes, Nina M; Olear, Elizabeth A; Li, Xiaoming; Connolly, Susan A; Zurakowski, David; Foley, Mary; Shapiro, Frederic; Jaramillo, Diego

    2006-05-01

    To determine whether there are differences in the distribution of ionic and nonionic gadolinium-based contrast agents by evaluating contrast enhancement of the physis, epiphyseal cartilage, secondary ossification center, and metaphysis in the knees of normal piglets. Following approval from the Subcommittee on Research Animal Care, knees of 12 3-week-old piglets were imaged at 3-T magnetic resonance (MR) imaging after intravenous injection of gadoteridol (nonionic contrast agent; n = 6) or gadopentetate dimeglumine (ionic contrast agent; n = 6). Early enhancement evaluation with gradient-echo MR imaging was quantified and compared (Student t test) by means of enhancement ratios. Distribution of contrast material was assessed and compared (Student t test) by means of T1 measurements obtained before and at three 15-minute intervals after contrast agent administration. The relative visibility of the physis, epiphyseal cartilage, secondary ossification center, and metaphysis was qualitatively assessed by two observers and compared (Wilcoxon signed rank test). Differences in matrix content and cellularity that might explain the imaging findings were studied at histologic evaluation. Enhancement ratios were significantly higher for gadoteridol than for gadopentetate dimeglumine in the physis, epiphyseal cartilage, and secondary ossification center (P < .05). After contrast agent administration, T1 values decreased sharply for both agents-but more so for gadoteridol. Additionally, there was less variability in T1 values across structures with this contrast agent. Gadoteridol resulted in greater visibility of the physis, while gadopentetate dimeglumine resulted in greater contrast between the physis and metaphysis (P < .05). The results suggest different roles for the two gadolinium-based contrast agents: The nonionic contrast medium is better suited for evaluating perfusion and anatomic definition in the immature skeleton, while the ionic contrast medium is better for

  12. Intraoperative Near-Infrared Optical Imaging Can Localize Gadolinium-Enhancing Gliomas During Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Lee, John Y-K.; Thawani, Jayesh P.; Pierce, John; Zeh, Ryan; Martinez-Lage, Maria; Chanin, Michelle; Venegas, Ollin; Nims, Sarah; Learned, Kim; Keating, Jane; Singhal, Sunil

    2016-01-01

    Background Although real-time localization of gliomas has improved with intraoperative image guidance systems, these tools are limited by brain shift, surgical cavity deformation, and expense. Objective To propose a novel method to perform near-infrared (NIR) imaging during glioma resections based on preclinical and clinical investigations, in order to localize tumors and to potentially identify residual disease. Methods Fifteen patients were identified and administered an FDA-approved, NIR contrast agent (Second Window indocyanine green [ICG], 5 mg/kg) prior to surgical resection. An NIR camera was utilized to localize the tumor prior to resection and to visualize surgical margins following resection. Neuropathology and MR imaging data were used to assess the accuracy and precision of NIR-fluorescence in identifying tumor tissue. Results NIR visualization of 15 gliomas (10 glioblastoma multiforme, 1 anaplastic astrocytoma, 2 low grade astrocytoma, 1 juvenile pilocytic astrocytoma, and 1 ganglioglioma) was performed 22.7 hours (mean) after intravenous injection of ICG. During surgery, 12/15 tumors were visualized with the NIR camera. The mean signal-to-background ratio was 9.5 ± 0.8 and fluorescence was noted through the dura to a maximum parenchymal depth of 13 mm. The best predictor of positive fluorescence was enhancement on T1-weighted imaging; this correlated with SBR (P = .03). Non-enhancing tumors did not demonstrate NIR fluorescence. Using pathology as the gold standard, the technique demonstrated a sensitivity of 98% and specificity of 45% to identify tumor in gadolinium-enhancing specimens (n = 71). Conclusion Using Second Window ICG, gadolinium-enhancing tumors can be localized through brain parenchyma intraoperatively. Its utility for margin detection is promising but limited by lower specificity. PMID:27741220

  13. Gadolinium for neutron detection in current nuclear instrumentation research: A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dumazert, J.; Coulon, R.; Lecomte, Q.; Bertrand, G. H. V.; Hamel, M.

    2018-02-01

    Natural gadolinium displays a number of remarkable physical properties: it is a rare earth element, composed of seven stable or quasi-stable isotopes, with an exceptionally high magnetization and a Curie point near room temperature. Its use in the field of nuclear instrumentation historically relates to its efficiency as a neutron poison in power reactors. Gadolinium is indeed the naturally occurring element with the highest interaction probability with neutrons at thermal energy, shared between Gd-157 (15.65%, 254000 b cross section) and Gd-155 (14.8%, 60900 b) isotopes. Considering that neutron capture results in an isotopic change, followed by a radiative rearrangement of nuclear and atomic structures, Gd may be embodied not merely as a neutron poison but as a neutron converter into a prompt photon and an electron source term. Depending on the nature and energy of the reaction products (from a few-keV Auger electrons up to 8 MeV gamma rays) that the detector aims at isolating as an indirect neutron signature, a variety of sensor media and counting methods have been introduced during the last decades. This review first draws a theoretical description of the radiative cascade following Gd(n , γ) capture. The cascade may be subdivided into regions of interest, each corresponding to dedicated detection designs and optimizations whose current status is detailed. This inventory has allowed the authors to extract and benchmark key figures of merit for the definition of a detection scheme: neutron attenuation, neutron sensitivity (cps/nv), gamma rejection, neutron detection limit in a mixed field, intrinsic or extrinsic moderation, and transportability. On this basis, the authors have identified promising paths for Gd-based neutron detection in contemporary instrumentation.

  14. The use of theranostic gadolinium-based nanoprobes to improve radiotherapy efficacy

    PubMed Central

    Sancey, L; Kotb, S; Roux, S; Dufort, S; Bianchi, A; Crémillieux, Y; Fries, P; Coll, J-L; Rodriguez-Lafrasse, C; Janier, M; Dutreix, M; Barberi-Heyob, M; Boschetti, F; Denat, F; Louis, C; Porcel, E; Lacombe, S; Le Duc, G; Deutsch, E; Perfettini, J-L; Detappe, A; Verry, C; Berbeco, R; Butterworth, K T; McMahon, S J; Prise, K M; Perriat, P; Tillement, O

    2014-01-01

    A new efficient type of gadolinium-based theranostic agent (AGuIX®) has recently been developed for MRI-guided radiotherapy (RT). These new particles consist of a polysiloxane network surrounded by a number of gadolinium chelates, usually 10. Owing to their small size (<5 nm), AGuIX typically exhibit biodistributions that are almost ideal for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. For example, although a significant proportion of these particles accumulate in tumours, the remainder is rapidly eliminated by the renal route. In addition, in the absence of irradiation, the nanoparticles are well tolerated even at very high dose (10 times more than the dose used for mouse treatment). AGuIX particles have been proven to act as efficient radiosensitizers in a large variety of experimental in vitro scenarios, including different radioresistant cell lines, irradiation energies and radiation sources (sensitizing enhancement ratio ranging from 1.1 to 2.5). Pre-clinical studies have also demonstrated the impact of these particles on different heterotopic and orthotopic tumours, with both intratumoural or intravenous injection routes. A significant therapeutical effect has been observed in all contexts. Furthermore, MRI monitoring was proven to efficiently aid in determining a RT protocol and assessing tumour evolution following treatment. The usual theoretical models, based on energy attenuation and macroscopic dose enhancement, cannot account for all the results that have been obtained. Only theoretical models, which take into account the Auger electron cascades that occur between the different atoms constituting the particle and the related high radical concentrations in the vicinity of the particle, provide an explanation for the complex cell damage and death observed. PMID:24990037

  15. Gadolinium Enhanced MR Coronary Vessel Wall Imaging at 3.0 Tesla.

    PubMed

    Kelle, Sebastian; Schlendorf, Kelly; Hirsch, Glenn A; Gerstenblith, Gary; Fleck, Eckart; Weiss, Robert G; Stuber, Matthias

    2010-10-11

    Purpose. We evaluated the influence of the time between low-dose gadolinium (Gd) contrast administration and coronary vessel wall enhancement (LGE) detected by 3T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in healthy subjects and patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). Materials and Methods. Four healthy subjects (4 men, mean age 29 ± 3 years and eleven CAD patients (6 women, mean age 61 ± 10 years) were studied on a commercial 3.0 Tesla (T) whole-body MR imaging system (Achieva 3.0 T; Philips, Best, The Netherlands). T1-weighted inversion-recovery coronary magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was repeated up to 75 minutes after administration of low-dose Gadolinium (Gd) (0.1 mmol/kg Gd-DTPA). Results. LGE was seen in none of the healthy subjects, however in all of the CAD patients. In CAD patients, fifty-six of 62 (90.3%) segments showed LGE of the coronary artery vessel wall at time-interval 1 after contrast. At time-interval 2, 34 of 42 (81.0%) and at time-interval 3, 29 of 39 evaluable segments (74.4%) were enhanced. Conclusion. In this work, we demonstrate LGE of the coronary artery vessel wall using 3.0 T MRI after a single, low-dose Gd contrast injection in CAD patients but not in healthy subjects. In the majority of the evaluated coronary segments in CAD patients, LGE of the coronary vessel wall was already detectable 30-45 minutes after administration of the contrast agent.

  16. Aqueous stability of gadolinium in surface waters receiving sewage treatment plant effluent, Boulder Creek, Colorado.

    PubMed

    Verplanck, Philip L; Taylor, Howard E; Nordstrom, D Kirk; Barber, Larry B

    2005-09-15

    In many surface waters, sewage treatment plant (STP) effluent is a substantial source of both regulated and unregulated contaminants, including a suite of complex organic compounds derived from household chemicals, pharmaceuticals, and industrial and medical byproducts. In addition, STP effluents in some urban areas have also been shown to have a positive gadolinium (Gd) anomaly in the rare earth element (REE) pattern, with the Gd derived from its use in medical facilities. REE concentrations are relatively easy to measure compared to many organic wastewater compounds and may provide a more widely utilized tracer of STP effluents. To evaluate whether sewage treatment plant-associated Gd is a useful tracer of treatment plant effluent, an investigation of the occurrence, fate, and transport of rare earth elements was undertaken. The rare earth element patterns of four of five STP effluents sampled display positive Gd anomalies. The one site that did not have a Gd anomaly serves a small community, population 1200, with no medical facilities. Biosolids from a large metropolitan STP are not enriched in Gd even though the effluent is, suggesting that a substantial fraction of Gd remains in the aqueous phase through routine treatment plant operation. To evaluate whether STP-derived Gd persists in the fluvial environment, a 14-km study reach downstream of an STP was sampled. Gadolinium anomalies were present at all five downstream sites, but the magnitude of the anomaly decreased. Effluent from STPs is a complex mixture of organic and inorganic constituents, and to better understand the chemical interactions and their effect on REEs, the aqueous speciation was modeled using comprehensive chemical analyses of water samples collected downstream of STP input. These calculations suggest that the REEs will likely remain dissolved because phosphate and carbonate complexes dominate over free REE ions. This study supports the application of Gd anomalies as a useful tracer of urban

  17. Effects of gadolinium-based MRI contrast agents on liver tissue.

    PubMed

    Mercantepe, Tolga; Tümkaya, Levent; Çeliker, Fatma Beyazal; Topal Suzan, Zehra; Çinar, Seda; Akyildiz, Kerimali; Mercantepe, Filiz; Yilmaz, Adnan

    2018-04-01

    MRI with contrast is often used clinically. However, recent studies have reported a high accumulation of gadolinium-based contrast agents (GBCAs) in kidney, liver, and spleen tissues in several mouse models. To compare the effects on liver tissue of gadolinium-based MRI contrast agents in the light of biochemical and histopathological evaluation. Institutional Review Board (IRB)-approved controlled longitudinal study. In all, 32 male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into a healthy control group subjected to no procedure (Group 1), a sham group (Group 2), a gadodiamide group (Group 3), and a gadoteric acid group (Group 4). Not applicable. Liver tissues removed at the end of the fifth week and evaluated pathologically (scored Knodell's histological activity index [HAI] method by two histopathologists) immunohistochemical (caspase-3 and biochemical tests (AST, ALT, TAS, TOS, and OSI method by Erel et al) were obtained. Differences between groups were analyzed using the nonparametric Kruskal-Wallis test followed by the Tamhane test, and one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by Turkey's HSD test. An increase was observed in histological activity scores in sections from rats administered gadodiamide and gadoteric acid, and in caspase-3, AST and ALT values (P < 0.05). In contrast, we determined no change in TOS (P = 0.568 and P = 0.094, respectively), TAS (P = 0.151 and P = 0.055, respectively), or OSI (P = 0.949 and P = 0.494, respectively) values. These data suggest that gadodiamide and gadoteric acid trigger hepatocellular necrosis and apoptosis by causing damage in hepatocytes, although no change occurs in total antioxidant and antioxidant capacity. 1 Technical Efficacy: Stage 4 J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2018. © 2018 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  18. Self-assembled gemcitabine-gadolinium nanoparticles for magnetic resonance imaging and cancer therapy.

    PubMed

    Li, Lele; Tong, Rong; Li, Mengyuan; Kohane, Daniel S

    2016-03-01

    Nanoparticles with combined diagnostic and therapeutic functions are promising tools for cancer diagnosis and treatment. Here, we demonstrate a theranostic nanoparticle that integrates an active gemcitabine metabolite and a gadolinium-based magnetic resonance imaging agent via a facile supramolecular self-assembly synthesis, where the anti-cancer drug gemcitabine-5'-monophosphate (a phosphorylated active metabolite of the anti-cancer drug gemcitabine) was used to coordinate with Gd(III) to self-assemble into theranostic nanoparticles. The formulation exhibits a strong T1 contrast signal for magnetic resonance imaging of tumors in vivo, with enhanced retention time. Furthermore, the nanoparticles did not require other inert nanocarriers or excipients and thus had an exceptionally high drug loading (55 wt%), resulting in the inhibition of MDA-MB-231 tumor growth in mice. Recent advances in nanoparticle-based drug delivery systems have spurred the development of "theranostic" multifunctional nanoparticles, which combine therapeutic and diagnostic functionalities in a single formulation. Developing simple and efficient synthetic strategies for the construction of nanotheranostics with high drug loading remains a challenge. Here, we demonstrate a theranostic nanoparticle that integrates high loadings of an active gemcitabine metabolite and a gadolinium-based magnetic resonance imaging agent via a facile synthesis. The nanoparticles were better T1 contrast agents than currently used Gd-DTPA and had prolonged retention in tumor. Moreover they exhibited enhanced in vivo antitumor activity compared to free drug in a breast cancer xenograft mouse model. The strategy provides a scalable way to fabricate nanoparticles that enables enhancement of both therapeutic and diagnostic capabilities. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Aqueous stability of gadolinium in surface waters receiving sewage treatment plant effluent Boulder Creek, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Verplanck, P.L.; Taylor, Howard E.; Nordstrom, D. Kirk; Barber, L.B.

    2005-01-01

    In many surface waters, sewage treatment plant (STP) effluent is a substantial source of both regulated and unregulated contaminants, including a suite of complex organic compounds derived from household chemicals, pharmaceutical, and industrial and medical byproducts. In addition, STP effluents in some urban areas have also been shown to have a positive gadolinium (Gd) anomaly in the rare earth element (REE) pattern, with the Gd derived from its use in medical facilities. REE concentrations are relatively easy to measure compared to many organic wastewater compounds and may provide a more widely utilized tracer of STP effluents. To evaluate whether sewage treatment plant-associated Gd is a useful tracer of treatment plant effluent, an investigation of the occurrence, fate, and transport of rare earth elements was undertaken. The rare earth element patterns of four of five STP effluents sampled display positive Gd anomalies. The one site that did not have a Gd anomaly serves a small community, population 1200, with no medical facilities. Biosolids from a large metropolitan STP are not enriched in Gd even though the effluent is, suggesting that a substantial fraction of Gd remains in the aqueous phase through routine treatment plant operation. To evaluate whether STP-derived Gd persists in the fluvial environment, a 14-km study reach downstream of an STP was sampled. Gadolinium anomalies were present at all five downstream sites, but the magnitude of the anomaly decreased. Effluent from STPs is a complex mixture of organic and inorganic constituents, and to better understand the chemical interactions and their effect on REEs, the aqueous speciation was modeled using comprehensive chemical analyses of water samples collected downstream of STP input. These calculations suggest that the REEs will likely remain dissolved because phosphate and carbonate complexes dominate over free REE ions. This study supports the application of Gd anomalies as a useful tracer of urban

  20. Gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography in renal artery stenosis: comparison with digital subtraction angiography.

    PubMed

    Law, Y M; Tay, K H; Gan, Y U; Cheah, F K; Tan, B S

    2008-04-01

    To evaluate the accuracy of gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography in assessing renal artery stenosis compared to catheter digital subtraction angiography. Retrospective study. Singapore General Hospital. Records of patients who underwent magnetic resonance angiography as well as digital subtraction angiography for assessment of renal artery stenosis from January 2003 to December 2005 were reviewed. There were 27 patients (14 male, 13 female) with a mean age of 62 (range, 44-77) years. There were 10 patients with renal transplants; their native renal arteries were not evaluated. Each of the two experienced interventional and body magnetic resonance radiologists, who were blinded to the results, reviewed the digital subtraction angiography and magnetic resonance angiography images respectively. Digital subtraction angiography was used as the standard of reference. A total of 39 renal arteries from these 27 patients were evaluated. One of the arteries was previously stented and could not be assessed with magnetic resonance angiography due to severe artefacts. Of the remaining 38 renal arteries, two were graded as normal, seven as having mild stenosis (<50%), eight as having moderate stenosis (> or =50% but <75%), and 21 as having severe stenosis (> or =75%). Magnetic resonance angiography and digital subtraction angiography were concordant in 89% of the arteries; magnetic resonance angiography overestimated the degree of stenosis in 8% and underestimated it in 3% of them. In the evaluation of clinically significant renal artery stenosis (> or =50%) with magnetic resonance angiography, the overall sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value were 97%, 67%, 90%, and 86% respectively. The sensitivity and specificity of magnetic resonance angiography in transplant renal artery stenosis was 100%. CONCLUSION. Our experience suggested that gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography is a sensitive non

  1. Revisiting the Pharmacokinetic Profiles of Gadolinium-Based Contrast Agents: Differences in Long-Term Biodistribution and Excretion.

    PubMed

    Lancelot, Eric

    2016-11-01

    Gadolinium-based contrast agents (GBCAs) have been used for years for magnetic resonance imaging examinations. Because of their rapid blood clearance, they were considered as very safe products until some of them were shown to induce nephrogenic systemic fibrosis in patients with renal failure and hypersignals on T1-weighted unenhanced brain scans of patients with normal renal function. To date, these adverse effects have been related almost exclusively to the use of low-stability linear agents, which are more prone to release free gadolinium. The aim of the present meta-analysis was to ascertain the existence of a deep compartment for gadolinium storage in the body and to assess whether all the GBCAs present the same toxicokinetic profile. Applying a systematic literature search methodology, all clinical and preclinical studies reporting time-dependent plasma concentrations and renal excretion data of gadolinium were identified and analyzed. Since the individual data were not available, the analysis focused on the average values per groups of subjects or animals, which had received a given GBCA at a given dose. The rate constants of the distribution phase (α), rapid elimination phase (β), and residual excretion phase (γ) of gadolinium were determined in each group from the plasma concentration (Cp) time curves and the relative urinary excretion rate (rER) time curves, taking the 2-hour time point as a reference. Moreover, as bone may represent a reservoir for long-term gadolinium accumulation and slow release into the blood stream, the time curves of the relative concentration in the bone (rCB) of Gd-labeled GBCAs in mice or rats were analyzed taking day 1 concentrations as a reference. The ratio of gadolinium concentrations in the bone marrow (CBM) as compared with the bone (CB) was also calculated. The relative urinary excretion rate (rER) plots revealed a prolonged residual excretion phase of gadolinium in healthy volunteers, consistent with the existence of

  2. Tissue gadolinium deposition in renally impaired rats exposed to different gadolinium-based MRI contrast agents: evaluation with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS).

    PubMed

    Sato, Tomohiro; Ito, Katsuyoshi; Tamada, Tsutomu; Kanki, Akihiko; Watanabe, Shigeru; Nishimura, Hirotake; Tanimoto, Daigo; Higashi, Hiroki; Yamamoto, Akira

    2013-10-01

    To quantify tissue gadolinium (Gd) deposition in renally impaired rats exposed to Gd-EOB-DTPA and other Gd-based MRI contrast agents by means of inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), and to compare the differences in distribution among major organs as possible triggers for nephrogenic systemic fibrosis (NSF). A total of 15 renally impaired rats were injected with Gd-EOB-DTPA, Gd-DTPA-BMA and Gd-HP-DO3A. Gd contents of skin, liver, kidney, lung, heart, spleen, diaphragm and femoral muscle were measured by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Histological assessment was also conducted. Tissue Gd deposition in all organs was significantly higher (P=0.005~0.009) in the Gd-DTPA-BMA group than in the Gd-HP-DO3A and Gd-EOB-DTPA groups. In the Gd-DTPA-BMA group, Gd was predominantly deposited in kidney (1306±605.7μg/g), followed by skin, liver, lung, spleen, femoral muscle, diaphragm and heart. Comparing Gd-HP-DO3A and Gd-EOB-DTPA groups, Gd depositions in the kidney, liver and lung were significantly lower (P=0.009~0.011) in the Gd-EOB-DTPA group than in the Gd-HP-DO3A group although no significant differences were seen for any other organs. Gd-EOB-DTPA is a stable and safe Gd-based contrast agent (GBCA) showing lower Gd deposition in major organs in renally impaired rats, compared with other GBCAs. This fact suggests that the risk of NSF onset would be low in the use of Gd-EOB-DTPA. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Delayed gadolinium-enhanced MRI of cartilage (dGEMRIC) of cadaveric shoulders: comparison of contrast dynamics in hyaline and fibrous cartilage after intraarticular gadolinium injection.

    PubMed

    Wiener, E; Hodler, J; Pfirrmann, C W A

    2009-01-01

    Delayed gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging of cartilage (dGEMRIC) is a novel method to investigate cartilaginous and fibrocartilaginous structures. To investigate the contrast dynamics in hyaline and fibrous cartilage of the glenohumeral joint after intraarticular injection of gadopentetate dimeglumine. Transverse T(1) maps were acquired on a 1.5T scanner before and after intraarticular injection of 2.0 mmol/l gadopentetate dimeglumine in five cadaveric shoulders using a dual flip angle three-dimensional gradient echo (3D-GRE) sequence. The acquisition time for the T(1) maps was 5 min 5 s for the whole shoulder. Measurements were repeated every 15 min over 2.5 hours. Regions of interest (ROIs) covering the glenoid cartilage and the labrum were drawn to assess the temporal evolution of the relaxation parameters. T(1) of unenhanced hyaline cartilage of the glenoid was 568+/-34 ms. T(1) of unenhanced fibrous cartilage of the labrum was 552+/-38 ms. Significant differences (P=0.002 and 0.03) in the relaxation parameters were already measurable after 15 min. After 2 to 2.5 hours, hyaline and fibrous cartilage still demonstrated decreasing relaxation parameters, with a larger range of the T(1)(Gd) values in fibrous cartilage. T(1) and triangle Delta R(1) values of hyaline and fibrous cartilage after 2.5 hours were 351+/-16 ms and 1.1+/-0.09 s(-1), and 332+/-31 ms and 1.2+/-0.1 s(-1), respectively. A significant decrease in T(1)(Gd) was found 15 min after intraarticular contrast injection. Contrast accumulation was faster in hyaline than in fibrous cartilage. After 2.5 hours, contrast accumulation showed a higher rate of decrease in hyaline cartilage, but neither hyaline nor fibrous cartilage had reached equilibrium.

  4. Bi-atrial fibrosis detected using three-dimensional late gadolinium enhancement magnetic resonance imaging in a patient with cardiac sarcoidosis.

    PubMed

    Spence, Stewart; Pena, Elena; Thornhill, Rebecca E; Nery, Pablo B; Birnie, David H

    2018-05-01

    Presented is the case of a 62-year old male with a history of sarcoidosis and sinus node dysfunction, who underwent late gadolinium enhancement magnetic resonance imaging, which demonstrated left ventricular hyperenhancement and bi-atrial fibrosis.

  5. In vitro comparison of intracranial stent visibility using various concentrations of gadolinium contrast agent under 1.5 T and 3 T MR angiography.

    PubMed

    Chiang, Chen-Hua; Tseng, Ying-Chi; Chen, Ai-Chi; Huang, Yen-Lin; Chen, David Yen-Ting; Chen, Chi-Jen; Lin, Yen-Kuang; Hsu, Hui-Ling

    2017-04-01

    MR angiography (MRA) is an increasingly used evaluation method following intracranial stenting. However, the various artifacts created by the stent limit this technique. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of various concentrations of gadolinium contrast agent on the visibility and signal characteristics of two stents using the a contrast enhanced MRA technique. Two intracranial stents (Enterprise and Helistent) were placed in polyvinyl chloride tubes as vascular phantoms. They were filled with six different doses of gadolinium contrast agent (1.0, 2.0, 4.0, 6.0, 8.0, and 10.0 mmol/L dimeglumine gadopentetate, respectively) and imaged using 3 T and 1.5 T MR systems. Relative in-stent signal (RIS) was calculated and artificial luminal narrowing (ALN) was obtained using pixel by pixel analysis. The Enterprise stent, performed in both 1.5 T and 3 T MR systems, showed mean RIS values much less than those for the Helistent for all different doses of gadolinium solution. Increased gadolinium concentration resulted in a gradual reduction in RIS values in the Enterprise group. Also, ALN in the Enterprise group showed no or little change with various gadolinium doses. The Enterprise stent demonstrated good luminal visibility regardless of gadolinium concentration. The relative in-stent signals were more predictable in the Enterprise stent with various doses of gadolinium. Therefore, the Enterprise stent has been shown to provide better in-stent visibility compared with the Helistent using various gadolinium doses. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  6. The Effect of Pressure and Temperature on Separation of Free Gadolinium(III) From Gd-DTPA Complex by Nanofiltration-Complexation Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahayu, Iman; Anggraeni, Anni; Ukun, MSS; Bahti, Husein H.

    2017-05-01

    Nowdays, the utilization of rare earth elements has been carried out widely in industry and medicine, one of them is gadolinium in Gd-DTPA complex is used as a contrast agent in a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) diagnostic to increase the visual contrast between normal tissue and diseased. Although the stability of a given complex may be high enough, the complexation step couldnot have been completed, so there is possible to gadolinium(III) in the complex compound. Therefore, the function of that compounds should be dangerous because of the toxicity of gadolinium(III) in human body. So, it is necessarry to separate free gadolinium(III) from Gd-DTPA complex by nanofiltration-complexation. The method of this study is complexing of Gd2O3 with DTPA ligand by reflux and separation of Gd-DTPA complex from gadolinium(III) with a nanofiltration membrane on the variation of pressures(2, 3, 4, 5, 6 bars) and temperature (25, 30, 35, 40 °C) and determined the flux and rejection. The results of this study are the higher of pressures and temperatures, permeation flux are increasing and ion rejections are decreasing and gave the free gadolinium(III) rejection until 86.26%.

  7. Applying Amide Proton Transfer MR Imaging to Hybrid Brain PET/MR: Concordance with Gadolinium Enhancement and Added Value to [18F]FDG PET.

    PubMed

    Sun, Hongzan; Xin, Jun; Zhou, Jinyuan; Lu, Zaiming; Guo, Qiyong

    2018-06-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the diagnostic concordance and metric correlations of amide proton transfer (APT) imaging with gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and 2-deoxy-2-[ 18 F-]fluoro-D-glucose ([ 18 F]FDG) positron emission tomography (PET), using hybrid brain PET/MRI. Twenty-one subjects underwent brain gadolinium-enhanced [ 18 F]FDG PET/MRI prospectively. Imaging accuracy was compared between unenhanced MRI, MRI with enhancement, APT-weighted (APTW) images, and PET based on six diagnostic criteria. Among tumors, the McNemar test was further used for concordance assessment between gadolinium-enhanced imaging, APT imaging, and [ 18 F]FDG PET. As well, the relation of metrics between APT imaging and PET was analyzed by the Pearson correlation analysis. APT imaging and gadolinium-enhanced MRI showed superior and similar diagnostic accuracy. APTW signal intensity and gadolinium enhancement were concordant in 19 tumors (100 %), while high [ 18 F]FDG avidity was shown in only 12 (63.2 %). For the metrics from APT imaging and PET, there was significant correlation for 13 hypermetabolic tumors (P < 0.05) and no correlation for the remaining six [ 18 F]FDG-avid tumors. APT imaging can be used to increase diagnostic accuracy with no need to administer gadolinium chelates. APT imaging may provide an added value to [ 18 F]FDG PET in the evaluation of tumor metabolic activity during brain PET/MR studies.

  8. Helium defectoscopy of cerium gadolinium ceramics Ce0.8Gd0.2O1.9 with a submicrocrystalline structure in the impurity disorder region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koromyslov, A. V.; Zhiganov, A. N.; Kovalenko, M. A.; Kupryazhkin, A. Ya.

    2013-12-01

    The concentration of impurity anion vacancies formed upon the dissociation of gadolinium-vacancy complexes has been determined using helium defectoscopy of the cerium gadolinium ceramics Ce0.8Gd0.2O1.9 with a submicrocrystalline structure in the temperature range T = 740-1123 K and at saturation pressures ranging from 0.05 to 15 MPa. It has been found that the energy of dissociation of gadoliniumvacancy complexes is E {eff/ D }= 0.26 ± 0.06 eV, and the energy of dissolution of helium in anion vacancies in the impurity disorder region is E P = -0.31 ± 0.09 eV. The proposed mechanism of dissolution has been confirmed by the investigation of the electrical conductivity of the cerium gadolinium ceramics, as well as by the high-speed molecular dynamics simulation of the dissociation of gadolinium-vacancy complexes. It has been assumed that a decrease in the effective dissolution energy in comparison with the results of the previously performed low-temperature investigations is caused by the mutual repulsion of vacancies formed upon the dissociation of gadolinium-vacancy complexes in highly concentrated solutions of gadolinium in CeO2 with increasing temperature.

  9. Dramatic impact of the giant local magnetic fields on spin-dependent recombination processes in gadolinium based garnets

    SciTech Connect

    Romanov, N. G., E-mail: nikolai.romanov@mail.ioffe.ru; Tolmachev, D. O.; Gurin, A. S.

    2015-06-29

    A giant magnetic field effect on spin-dependent recombination of the radiation-induced defects has been found in cerium doped gadolinium based garnet crystals and ceramics, promising materials for scintillator applications. A sharp and strong increase in the afterglow intensity stimulated by external magnetic field and an evidence of the magnetic field memory have been discovered. The effect was ascribed to huge Gd-induced internal magnetic fields, which suppress the recombination, and cross-relaxation with Gd{sup 3+} ions leading to reorientation of the spins of the electron and hole centers. Thus, the spin system of radiation-induced defects in gadolinium garnet based scintillator materials wasmore » shown to accumulate significant energy which can be released in external magnetic fields.« less

  10. Electrical and Structural Substrate of Arrhythmogenic Right Ventricular Cardiomyopathy Determined Using Noninvasive Electrocardiographic Imaging and Late Gadolinium Magnetic Resonance Imaging.

    PubMed

    Andrews, Christopher M; Srinivasan, Neil T; Rosmini, Stefania; Bulluck, Heerajnarain; Orini, Michele; Jenkins, Sharon; Pantazis, Antonis; McKenna, William J; Moon, James C; Lambiase, Pier D; Rudy, Yoram

    2017-07-01

    Arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy (ARVC) is a significant cause of sudden cardiac death in the young. Improved noninvasive assessment of ARVC and better understanding of the disease substrate are important for improving patient outcomes. We studied 20 genotyped ARVC patients with a broad spectrum of disease using electrocardiographic imaging (a method for noninvasive cardiac electrophysiology mapping) and advanced late gadolinium enhancement cardiac magnetic resonance scar imaging. Compared with 20 healthy controls, ARVC patients had longer ventricular activation duration (median, 52 versus 42 ms; P =0.007) and prolonged mean epicardial activation-recovery intervals (a surrogate for local action potential duration; median, 275 versus 241 ms; P =0.014). In these patients, we observed abnormal and varied epicardial activation breakthrough locations and regions of nonuniform conduction and fractionated electrograms. Nonuniform conduction and fractionated electrograms were present in the early concealed phase of ARVC. Electrophysiological abnormalities colocalized with late gadolinium enhancement scar, indicating a relationship with structural disease. Premature ventricular contractions were common in ARVC patients with variable initiation sites in both ventricles. Premature ventricular contraction rate increased with exercise, and within anatomic segments, it correlated with prolonged repolarization, electric markers of scar, and late gadolinium enhancement (all P <0.001). Electrocardiographic imaging reveals electrophysiological substrate properties that differ in ARVC patients compared with healthy controls. A novel mechanistic finding is the presence of repolarization abnormalities in regions where ventricular ectopy originates. The results suggest a potential role for electrocardiographic imaging and late gadolinium enhancement in early diagnosis and noninvasive follow-up of ARVC patients. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  11. The use of innovative gadolinium-based contrast agent for MR-diagnosis of cancer in the experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chernov, V.; Medvedeva, A.; Sinilkin, I.; Zelchan, R.; Grigorev, E.; Frolova, I.; Nam, I.

    2016-02-01

    The present study of the functional suitability and specific activity of the contrast agent gadolinium-based for magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated that the investigated contrast agent intensively accumulates in organs and anatomical structures of the experimental animals. In the model of tumor lesions in animals, study have shown that investigational contrast agent accumulates in the tumor tissue and retained there in for a long enough time.

  12. STABILIZED RARE EARTH OXIDES FOR A CONTROL ROD AND METHOD OF PREPARATION

    DOEpatents

    McNees, R.A.; Potter, R.A.

    1964-01-14

    A method is given for preparing mixed oxides of the formula MR/sub x/O/ sub 12/ wherein M is tungsten or molybdenum and R is a rare earth in the group consisting of samarium, europium, dysprosium, and gadolinium and x is 4 to 5. Oxides of this formula, and particularly the europiumcontaining species, are useful as control rod material for water-cooled nuclear reactors owing to their stability, favorable nuclear properties, and resistance to hydration. These oxides may be utilized as a dispersion in a stainlesssteel matrix. Preparation of these oxides is effected by blending tungsten oxide or molybdenum oxide with a rare earth oxide, compressing the mixture, and firing at an elevated temperature in an oxygen-containing atmosphere. (AEC)

  13. Gadolinium-enhanced inner ear magnetic resonance imaging for evaluation of delayed endolymphatic hydrops, including a bilateral case.

    PubMed

    Fukushima, Munehisa; Oya, Ryohei; Akazawa, Hitoshi; Tsuruta, Yukinori; Inohara, Hidenori

    2016-01-01

    The data suggests that gadolinium-enhanced inner ear MR imaging is useful for diagnosis of delayed endolymphatic hydrops (DEH) because it is independent of inner ear function, and the size of the affected endolymphatic space is clearly enlarged. This study was performed to semi-quantitatively evaluate the endolymphatic space in patients with all types of DEH using gadolinium-enhanced inner ear magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. Seven patients (age range = 21-77 years; five female, two male) with ipsilateral DEH (n = 5), contralateral DEH (n = 1), and bilateral DEH (n = 1). All patients underwent 3T MR imaging 4 h after intravenous injection of gadolinium. Software was used to determine the size of the endolymphatic space. Pure tone audiometry and caloric testing using an electronystagmogram were carried out. One side of the endolymphatic space was dominantly extended in patients with ipsilateral DEH, and both sides of the space were extended in patients with contralateral and bilateral DEH. In patients with ipsilateral DEH, the volume ratio of endolymph to vestibule was 2.5-4.3-times that in the unaffected ear. The volume ratio of endolymph to vestibule was nearly equal in patients with contralateral and bilateral DEH.

  14. High-pressure high-temperature phase diagram of gadolinium studied using a boron-doped heater anvil

    SciTech Connect

    Montgomery, J. M.; Samudrala, G. K.; Vohra, Y. K.

    A boron-doped designer heater anvil is used in conjunction with powder x-ray diffraction to collect structural information on a sample of quasi-hydrostatically loaded gadolinium metal up to pressures above 8 GPa and 600 K. The heater anvil consists of a natural diamond anvil that has been surface modified with a homoepitaxially grown chemical-vapor-deposited layer of conducting boron-doped diamond, and is used as a DC heating element. Internally insulating both diamond anvils with sapphire support seats allows for heating and cooling of the high-pressure area on the order of a few tens of seconds. This device is then used to scan the phasemore » diagram of the sample by oscillating the temperature while continuously increasing the externally applied pressure and collecting in situ time-resolved powder diffraction images. In the pressure-temperature range covered in this experiment, the gadolinium sample is observed in its hcp, αSm, and dhcp phases. Under this temperature cycling, the hcp → αSm transition proceeds in discontinuous steps at points along the expected phase boundary. From these measurements (representing only one hour of synchrotron x-ray collection time), a single-experiment equation of state and phase diagram of each phase of gadolinium is presented for the range of 0–10 GPa and 300–650 K.« less

  15. A first principles kinetic Monte Carlo investigation of the adsorption and mobility of gadolinium on the (100) surface of tungsten

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samin, Adib J.; Zhang, Jinsuo

    2017-05-01

    An accurate characterization of lanthanide adsorption and mobility on tungsten surfaces is important for pyroprocessing. In the present study, the adsorption and diffusion of gadolinium on the (100) surface of tungsten was investigated. It was found that the hollow sites were the most energetically favorable for the adsorption. It was further observed that a magnetic moment was induced following the adsorption of gadolinium on the tungsten surface and that the system with adsorbed hollow sites had the largest magnetization. A pathway for the surface diffusion of gadolinium was determined to occur by hopping between the nearest neighbor hollow sites via the bridge site and the activation energy for the hop was calculated to be 0.75 eV. The surface diffusion process was further assessed using two distinct kinetic Monte Carlo models; one that accounted for lateral adsorbate interactions up to the second nearest neighbor and one that did not account for such interatomic interactions in the adlayer. When the lateral interactions were included in the simulations, the diffusivity was observed to have a strong dependence on coverage (for the coverage values being studied). The effects of lateral interactions were further observed in a one-dimensional simulation of the diffusion equation where the asymmetry in the surface coverage profile upon its approach to a steady state distribution was clear in comparison with the simulations which did not account for those interactions.

  16. Gadolinium enhanced cardiovascular magnetic resonance in Anderson-Fabry disease. Evidence for a disease specific abnormality of the myocardial interstitium.

    PubMed

    Moon, James C C; Sachdev, Bhavesh; Elkington, Andrew G; McKenna, William J; Mehta, Atul; Pennell, Dudley J; Leed, Philip J; Elliott, Perry M

    2003-12-01

    Anderson-Fabry Disease (AFD), an X-linked disorder of sphingolipid metabolism, is a cause of idiopathic left ventricular hypertrophy but the mechanism of hypertrophy is poorly understood. Gadolinium enhanced cardiovascular magnetic resonance can detect focal myocardial fibrosis. We hypothesised that hyperenhancement would be present in AFD. Eighteen males (mean 43+/-14 years) and eight female heterozygotes (mean 48+/-12 years) with AFD underwent cine and late gadolinium cardiovascular magnetic resonance. Nine male (50%) had myocardial hyperenhancement ranging from 3.4% to 20.6% (mean 7.7+/-5.7%) of total myocardium; in males, percentage hyperenhancement related to LV mass index (r=0.78, P=0.0002) but not to ejection fraction or left ventricular volumes. Lesser hyperenhancement was also found in four (50%) heterozygous females (mean 4.6%). In 12 (92%) patients with abnormal gadolinium uptake, hyperenhancement occurred in the basal infero-lateral wall where, unlike myocardial infarction, it was not sub-endocardial. In two male patients with severe LVH (left ventricular hypertrophy) and systolic impairment there was additional hyperenhancement in other myocardial segments. These observations suggests that myocardial fibrosis occurs in AFD and may contribute to the hypertrophy and the natural history of the disease.

  17. Gadolinium based contrast agents in current practice: Risks of accumulation and toxicity in patients with normal renal function

    PubMed Central

    Ranga, Anju; Agarwal, Yatish; Garg, Kanika J

    2017-01-01

    Despite being decked as the most prized compounds in the nugget box of contrast agents for clinical radiologists, and carrying an indisputable tag of safety of the US Food and Drug Administration for close to three decades, all may not be seemingly well with the family of gadolinium compounds. If the first signs of violations of primum non nocere in relation to gadolinium-based contrast agents (GBCAs) appeared in the millennium year with the first published report of skin fibrosis in patients with compromised renal function, the causal relationship between the development of nephrogenic systemic fibrosis (NSF) and GBCAs, first proposed by two European groups in 2006, further precluded their use in renocompromised patients. The toxicity, pharmacokinetics, and pharmacodynamics of GBCAs, however, has come under hawk-eyed scrutiny with recent reports that gadolinium tends to deposit cumulatively in the brain of patients with normal hepatobiliary function and intact blood–brain barrier. While the jury on the long-term hazard significance of this critical scientific finding is still out, the use of GBCAs must be guided by due clinical diligence, avoidance of repeated doses, and preferring GBCAs with the best safety profiles. PMID:28744073

  18. K3 Li3 Gd7 (BO3 )9 : A New Gadolinium-Rich Orthoborate for Cryogenic Magnetic Cooling.

    PubMed

    Xia, Mingjun; Shen, Shipeng; Lu, Jun; Sun, Young; Li, Rukang

    2018-03-02

    Magnetic cooling technology based on magnetocaloric effect (MCE) has attracted great interest in obtaining extremely low temperatures, for example, for space exploration. Here, we grew a new gadolinium-rich orthoborate K 3 Li 3 Gd 7 (BO 3 ) 9 (1) as a promising cryogenic magnetic coolant. It exhibits a complicated three dimensional framework constructed from BO 3 groups and gadolinium-oxygen chains. The Gd-O chain consists of two types of clusters of Gd 3 O 20 and Gd 3 O 19 interconnection by Gd(4)O 8 polyhydron. Due to its high gadolinium concentration, a large -ΔS m of 56.6 J kg -1  K -1 for 1 was obtained at 2 K and ΔH=7 T, much larger than that of the commercial benchmark Gd 3 Ga 5 O 12 (GGG) crystal (38.4 J kg -1  K -1 ), suggesting it to be an excellent MCE material. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Neuroprotective effect of gadolinium: a stretch-activated calcium channel blocker in mouse model of ischemia-reperfusion injury.

    PubMed

    Gulati, Puja; Muthuraman, Arunachalam; Jaggi, Amteshwar S; Singh, Nirmal

    2013-03-01

    The present study was designed to investigate the potential of gadolinium, a stretch-activated calcium channel blocker in ischemic reperfusion (I/R)-induced brain injury in mice. Bilateral carotid artery occlusion of 12 min followed by reperfusion for 24 h was given to induce cerebral injury in male Swiss mice. Cerebral infarct size was measured using triphenyltetrazolium chloride staining. Memory was assessed using Morris water maze test and motor incoordination was evaluated using rota-rod, lateral push, and inclined beam walking tests. In addition, total calcium, thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS), reduced glutathione (GSH), and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity were also estimated in brain tissue. I/R injury produced a significant increase in cerebral infarct size. A significant loss of memory along with impairment of motor performance was also noted. Furthermore, I/R injury also produced a significant increase in levels of TBARS, total calcium, AChE activity, and a decrease in GSH levels. Pretreatment of gadolinium significantly attenuated I/R-induced infarct size, behavioral and biochemical changes. On the basis of the present findings, we can suggest that opening of stretch-activated calcium channel may play a critical role in ischemic reperfusion-induced brain injury and that gadolinium has neuroprotective potential in I/R-induced injury.

  20. High-pressure high-temperature phase diagram of gadolinium studied using a boron-doped heater anvil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montgomery, J. M.; Samudrala, G. K.; Velisavljevic, N.; Vohra, Y. K.

    2016-04-01

    A boron-doped designer heater anvil is used in conjunction with powder x-ray diffraction to collect structural information on a sample of quasi-hydrostatically loaded gadolinium metal up to pressures above 8 GPa and 600 K. The heater anvil consists of a natural diamond anvil that has been surface modified with a homoepitaxially grown chemical-vapor-deposited layer of conducting boron-doped diamond, and is used as a DC heating element. Internally insulating both diamond anvils with sapphire support seats allows for heating and cooling of the high-pressure area on the order of a few tens of seconds. This device is then used to scan the phase diagram of the sample by oscillating the temperature while continuously increasing the externally applied pressure and collecting in situ time-resolved powder diffraction images. In the pressure-temperature range covered in this experiment, the gadolinium sample is observed in its hcp, αSm, and dhcp phases. Under this temperature cycling, the hcp → αSm transition proceeds in discontinuous steps at points along the expected phase boundary. From these measurements (representing only one hour of synchrotron x-ray collection time), a single-experiment equation of state and phase diagram of each phase of gadolinium is presented for the range of 0-10 GPa and 300-650 K.

  1. Application of an oscillation-type linear cadmium telluride detector to enhanced gadolinium K-edge computed tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsukiyo, Hiroshi; Sato, Eiichi; Hagiwara, Osahiko; Abudurexiti, Abulajiang; Osawa, Akihiro; Enomoto, Toshiyuki; Watanabe, Manabu; Nagao, Jiro; Sato, Shigehiro; Ogawa, Akira; Onagawa, Jun

    2011-03-01

    A linear cadmium telluride (CdTe) detector is useful for carrying out energy-discrimination X-ray imaging, including computed tomography (CT). To perform enhanced gadolinium K-edge CT, we used an oscillation-type linear CdTe detector with an energy resolution of 1.2 keV. CT is performed by repeating the linear scan and the rotation of an object. Penetrating X-ray photons from the object are detected by the CdTe detector, and event signals of X-ray photons are produced using charge-sensitive and shaping amplifiers. Both the photon energy and the energy width are selected using a multichannel analyzer, and the number of photons is counted by a counter card. In energy-discrimination CT, tube voltage and current were 80 kV and 20 μA, respectively, and X-ray intensity was 1.55 μGy/s at 1.0 m from the source at a tube voltage of 80 kV. Demonstration of enhanced gadolinium K-edge X-ray CT was carried out by selecting photons with energies just beyond gadolinium K-edge energy of 50.3 keV.

  2. Gadolinium released by the linear gadolinium-based contrast-agent Gd-DTPA decreases the activity of human epithelial Na+ channels (ENaCs).

    PubMed

    Knoepp, Fenja; Bettmer, Joerg; Fronius, Martin

    2017-05-01

    Gadolinium-based-contrast-agents (GBCAs) are used for magnetic-resonance-imaging and associated with renal and cardiovascular adverse reactions caused by released Gd 3+ ions. Gd 3+ is also a modulator of mechano-gated ion channels, including the epithelial Na + channel (ENaC) that is expressed in kidney epithelium and the vasculature. ENaC is important for salt-/water homeostasis and blood pressure regulation and a likely target of released Gd 3+ from GBCAs causing the above-mentioned adverse reactions. Therefore this study examined the effect of Gd 3+ and GBCAs on ENaC's activity. Human αβγENaC was expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes and exposed to Gd 3+ , linear (Gd-DTPA, Magnevist) or cyclic (Dotarem) GBCAs. Transmembrane ion-currents (I M ) were recorded by the two-electrode-voltage-clamp technique and Gd 3+ -release by Gd-DTPA was confirmed by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. Gd 3+ exerts biphasic effects on ENaC's activity: ≤0.3mmol/l decreased I M which was preventable by DEPC (modifies histidines). Strikingly Gd 3+ ≥0.4mmol/l increased I M and this effect was prevented by cysteine-modifying MTSEA. Linear Gd-DTPA and Magnevist mimicked the effect of ≤0.3mmol/l Gd 3+ , whereas the chelator DTPA showed no effect. Gd 3+ and Gd-DTPA increased the IC 50 for amiloride, but did not affect ENaC's self-inhibition. Interestingly, cyclic Gd-DOTA (Dotarem) increased I M to a similar extent as its chelator DOTA, suggesting that the chelator rather than released Gd 3+ is responsible for this effect. These results confirm Gd 3+ -release from linear Gd-DTPA and indicate that the released Gd 3+ amount is sufficient to interfere with ENaC's activity to provide putative explanations for GBCA-related adverse effects. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Prognostic Value of Late Gadolinium Enhancement Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance in Cardiac Amyloidosis

    PubMed Central

    Fontana, Marianna; Pica, Silvia; Reant, Patricia; Abdel-Gadir, Amna; Treibel, Thomas A.; Banypersad, Sanjay M.; Maestrini, Viviana; Barcella, William; Rosmini, Stefania; Bulluck, Heerajnarain; Sayed, Rabya H.; Patel, Ketna; Mamhood, Shameem; Bucciarelli-Ducci, Chiara; Whelan, Carol J.; Herrey, Anna S.; Lachmann, Helen J.; Wechalekar, Ashutosh D.; Manisty, Charlotte H.; Schelbert, Eric B.; Kellman, Peter; Gillmore, Julian D.; Hawkins, Philip N.

    2015-01-01

    Background— The prognosis and treatment of the 2 main types of cardiac amyloidosis, immunoglobulin light chain (AL) and transthyretin (ATTR) amyloidosis, are substantially influenced by cardiac involvement. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance with late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) is a reference standard for the diagnosis of cardiac amyloidosis, but its potential for stratifying risk is unknown. Methods and Results— Two hundred fifty prospectively recruited subjects, 122 patients with ATTR amyloid, 9 asymptomatic mutation carriers, and 119 patients with AL amyloidosis, underwent LGE cardiovascular magnetic resonance. Subjects were followed up for a mean of 24±13 months. LGE was performed with phase-sensitive inversion recovery (PSIR) and without (magnitude only). These were compared with extracellular volume measured with T1 mapping. PSIR was superior to magnitude-only inversion recovery LGE because PSIR always nulled the tissue (blood or myocardium) with the longest T1 (least gadolinium). LGE was classified into 3 patterns: none, subendocardial, and transmural, which were associated with increasing amyloid burden as defined by extracellular volume (P<0.0001), with transitions from none to subendocardial LGE at an extracellular volume of 0.40 to 0.43 (AL) and 0.39 to 0.40 (ATTR) and to transmural at 0.48 to 0.55 (AL) and 0.47 to 0.59 (ATTR). Sixty-seven patients (27%) died. Transmural LGE predicted death (hazard ratio, 5.4; 95% confidence interval, 2.1–13.7; P<0.0001) and remained independent after adjustment for N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide, ejection fraction, stroke volume index, E/E′, and left ventricular mass index (hazard ratio, 4.1; 95% confidence interval, 1.3–13.1; P<0.05). Conclusions— There is a continuum of cardiac involvement in systemic AL and ATTR amyloidosis. Transmural LGE is determined reliably by PSIR and represents advanced cardiac amyloidosis. The PSIR technique provides incremental information on outcome even after

  4. Anomalous Hall effect in calcium-doped lanthanum cobaltite and gadolinium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baily, Scott Alan

    The physical origin of the anomalous (proportional to magnetization) Hall effect is not very well understood. While many theories account for a Hall effect proportional to the magnetization of a material, these theories often predict effects significantly smaller than those found in ferromagnetic materials. An even more significant deficiency of the conventional theories is that they predict an anomalous Hall resistivity that is proportional to a power of the resistivity, and in the absence of a metal insulator transition cannot account for the anomalous Hall effect that peaks near TC. Recent models based on a geometric, or Berry, phase have had a great deal of success describing the anomalous Hall effect in double-exchange systems (e.g., lanthanum manganite and chromium dioxide). In gadolinium, as in double-exchange magnets, the exchange interaction is mediated by the conduction electrons and the anomalous Hall effect may therefore resemble that of CrO2 and other metallic double-exchange ferromagnets. Lanthanum cobaltite is similar to manganite in many ways, but a strong double-exchange interaction is not present. Calcium-doped lanthanum cobaltite films were found to have the largest anomalous Hall effect of any ferromagnetic metal. The primary purpose of this study is to gain insight into the origin of the anomalous Hall effect with the hope that these theories can be extended to account for the effect in other materials. The Hall resistivity, magnetoresistance, and magnetization of a Gadolinium single crystal were measured in fields up to 30 T. Cobaltite films were grown via laser ablation and characterized by a variety of techniques. Hall resistivity, magnetoresistance, magnetization, and magnetothermopower of L 1-xCaxCoO3 samples with 0.15 < x < 0.4 were measured in fields up to 7 T. The Gd results suggest that Berry's phase contributes partially to the Hall effect near TC. Berry's phase theories hold promise for explaining the large anomalous Hall effect in

  5. Design and development of a Gadolinium-doped water Cherenkov detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poudyal, Nabin

    This thesis describes a research and development project for neutron capture and detection in Gadolinium doped water. The Sanford Underground Research Facility (SURF) is exploring rare event physics, such as neutrinoless double beta decay (MAJORANA Project) and dark-matter detection (LUX experiment). The success of these experiments requires a careful study and understanding of background radiation, including flux and energy spectrum. The background radiation from surface contamination, radioactive decays of U-238, Th-232, Rn-222 in the surrounding rocks and muon induced neutrons have a large impact on the success of rare-event physics. The main objective of this R&D project is to measure the neutron flux contributing to ongoing experiments at SURF and suppress it by identification and capture method. For this purpose, we first modeled and designed a detector with Geant4 software. The approximate dimension of the detector is determined. The neutron capture percentage of the detector is estimated using Monte Carlo. The energy response of the detector is simulated. Next, we constructed the experimental detector, an acrylic rectangular tank (60cm x 30cm x 30cm), filled with Gadolinium-doped deionized water. The tank is coated with high efficient reflector and then taped with black electrical tape to make it opaque. The voltage dividers attached to PMTs are covered with mu-metal. Two 5-inch Hamamatsu Photomultiplier tubes were attached on both sides facing the tank to collect the Cherenkov light produced in the water. The detector utilizes the principle of Cherenkov light emission by a charged particle moving through a water at a speed higher than the speed of light in the water, hence it has an inherent energy threshold of Cherenkov photon production. This property reduces the lower energy backgrounds. Event data are obtained using the Data Acquisition hardware, Flash Analog to digital converter, along with Multi Instance Data Acquisition software. Post

  6. Luminescence properties and electronic structure of Ce{sup 3+}-doped gadolinium aluminum garnet

    SciTech Connect

    Dotsenko, V.P., E-mail: ssclab@ukr.net; Berezovskaya, I.V.; Voloshinovskii, A.S.

    2015-04-15

    Highlights: • The luminescence properties of Ce{sup 3+} ions in (Y, Gd){sub 3}Al{sub 5}O{sub 12} are analyzed. • The Gd{sup 3+} → Y{sup 3+} substitution leads to increasing of Ce{sup 3+} noncubic crystal field splitting parameter. • The excitation spectra for the Ce{sup 3+} emission in GdAG contain bands at 6.67, 7.75, and 9.76 eV. • These features are due to the Ce{sup 3+}-bound exciton formation and O 2p → Al 3s, 3p transitions. • Contributions from Al atoms to the conduction-band density of states are quite essential. - Abstract: Yttrium-gadolinium aluminum garnets (YGdAG) doped with Ce{sup 3+} ions havemore » been prepared by co-precipitation method. The luminescent properties of Ce{sup 3+} ions in Gd{sub 3(1−x)}Ce{sub 3x}Al{sub 5}O{sub 12} (x = 0.01) have been studied upon excitation in the 2–20 eV region. The substitution of Gd{sup 3+} for Y{sup 3+} in the garnet structure results in broadening the emission band and shifting its maximum towards the longer wavelengths. It was found that in addition to the 4f → 5d excitation bands of Ce{sup 3+} ions, the excitation spectra for the Ce{sup 3+} emission contain bands at 6.67, 7.75, and 9.76 eV. These bands are attributed to the Ce{sup 3+}-bound exciton formation and O 2p → Al 3s, 3p transitions, respectively. Although gadolinium states dominate near the bottom of the conduction band of Gd{sub 3}Al{sub 5}O{sub 12}, contributions from Al{sub tetr} and Al{sub oct} atoms to the conduction-band density of states are evaluated as quite essential.« less

  7. Multispectral Emissions of Lanthanide-Doped Gadolinium Oxide Nanophosphors for Cathodoluminescence and Near-Infrared Upconversion/Downconversion Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Thi Kim Dung, Doan; Fukushima, Shoichiro; Furukawa, Taichi; Niioka, Hirohiko; Sannomiya, Takumi; Kobayashi, Kaori; Yukawa, Hiroshi; Baba, Yoshinobu; Hashimoto, Mamoru; Miyake, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Comprehensive imaging of a biological individual can be achieved by utilizing the variation in spatial resolution, the scale of cathodoluminescence (CL), and near-infrared (NIR), as favored by imaging probe Gd2O3 co-doped lanthanide nanophosphors (NPPs). A series of Gd2O3:Ln3+/Yb3+ (Ln3+: Tm3+, Ho3+, Er3+) NPPs with multispectral emission are prepared by the sol-gel method. The NPPs show a wide range of emissions spanning from the visible to the NIR region under 980 nm excitation. The dependence of the upconverting (UC)/downconverting (DC) emission intensity on the dopant ratio is investigated. The optimum ratios of dopants obtained for emissions in the NIR regions at 810 nm, 1200 nm, and 1530 nm are applied to produce nanoparticles by the homogeneous precipitation (HP) method. The nanoparticles produced from the HP method are used to investigate the dual NIR and CL imaging modalities. The results indicate the possibility of using Gd2O3 co-doped Ln3+/Yb3+ (Ln3+: Tm3+, Ho3+, Er3+) in correlation with NIR and CL imaging. The use of Gd2O3 promises an extension of the object dimension to the whole-body level by employing magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). PMID:28335291

  8. Multispectral Emissions of Lanthanide-Doped Gadolinium Oxide Nanophosphors for Cathodoluminescence and Near-Infrared Upconversion/Downconversion Imaging.

    PubMed

    Thi Kim Dung, Doan; Fukushima, Shoichiro; Furukawa, Taichi; Niioka, Hirohiko; Sannomiya, Takumi; Kobayashi, Kaori; Yukawa, Hiroshi; Baba, Yoshinobu; Hashimoto, Mamoru; Miyake, Jun

    2016-09-06

    Comprehensive imaging of a biological individual can be achieved by utilizing the variation in spatial resolution, the scale of cathodoluminescence (CL), and near-infrared (NIR), as favored by imaging probe Gd₂O₃ co-doped lanthanide nanophosphors (NPPs). A series of Gd₂O₃:Ln 3+ /Yb 3+ (Ln 3+ : Tm 3+ , Ho 3+ , Er 3+ ) NPPs with multispectral emission are prepared by the sol-gel method. The NPPs show a wide range of emissions spanning from the visible to the NIR region under 980 nm excitation. The dependence of the upconverting (UC)/downconverting (DC) emission intensity on the dopant ratio is investigated. The optimum ratios of dopants obtained for emissions in the NIR regions at 810 nm, 1200 nm, and 1530 nm are applied to produce nanoparticles by the homogeneous precipitation (HP) method. The nanoparticles produced from the HP method are used to investigate the dual NIR and CL imaging modalities. The results indicate the possibility of using Gd₂O₃ co-doped Ln 3+ /Yb 3+ (Ln 3+ : Tm 3+ , Ho 3+ , Er 3+ ) in correlation with NIR and CL imaging. The use of Gd₂O₃ promises an extension of the object dimension to the whole-body level by employing magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).

  9. [Optical and spectral parameters in Ce3+ -doped gadolinium gallium aluminum garnet glass-ceramics].

    PubMed

    Gong, Hua; Zhao, Xin; Yu, Xiao-bo; Setsuhisa, Tanabe; Lin, Hai

    2010-01-01

    The crystalline phases of Ce3+ -doped gadolinium gallium aluminum garnet (GGAG) glass-ceramics were investigated by X-ray diffraction, and the fluorescence spectra were recorded under the pumping of blue light-emitting diode (LED) using an integrating sphere of 10-inch in diameter, which connected to a CCD detector. The spectral power distribution of the glass-ceramics was obtained from the measured spectra first, and then the quantum yield was derived based on the photon distribution. The quantum yield of Ce3+ emission in GGAG glass-ceramics is 29.2%, meanwhile, the color coordinates and the correlated color temperature (CCT) of combined white light were proved to be x = 0.319, y = 0.349 and 6086 K, respectively. Although the quantum yield is a little smaller than the value in Ce3+ -doped YAG glass-ceramics, the CCT of the combined white light is much smaller than that in the latter. The optical behavior of GGAG glass-ceramics provides new vision for developing comfortable LED lighting devices.

  10. High performance magneto-fluorescent nanoparticles assembled from terbium and gadolinium 1,3-diketones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zairov, Rustem; Mustafina, Asiya; Shamsutdinova, Nataliya; Nizameev, Irek; Moreira, Beatriz; Sudakova, Svetlana; Podyachev, Sergey; Fattakhova, Alfia; Safina, Gulnara; Lundstrom, Ingemar; Gubaidullin, Aidar; Vomiero, Alberto

    2017-01-01

    Polyelectrolyte-coated nanoparticles consisting of terbium and gadolinium complexes with calix[4]arene tetra-diketone ligand were first synthesized. The antenna effect of the ligand on Tb(III) green luminescence and the presence of water molecules in the coordination sphere of Gd(III) bring strong luminescent and magnetic performance to the core-shell nanoparticles. The size and the core-shell morphology of the colloids were studied using transmission electron microscopy and dynamic light scattering. The correlation between photophysical and magnetic properties of the nanoparticles and their core composition was highlighted. The core composition was optimized for the longitudinal relaxivity to be greater than that of the commercial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agents together with high level of Tb(III)-centered luminescence. The tuning of both magnetic and luminescent output of nanoparticles is obtained via the simple variation of lanthanide chelates concentrations in the initial synthetic solution. The exposure of the pheochromocytoma 12 (PC 12) tumor cells and periphery human blood lymphocytes to nanoparticles results in negligible effect on cell viability, decreased platelet aggregation and bright coloring, indicating the nanoparticles as promising candidates for dual magneto-fluorescent bioimaging.

  11. Controlled intracellular self-assembly of gadolinium nanoparticles as smart molecular MR contrast agents.

    PubMed

    Cao, Chun-Yan; Shen, Ying-Ying; Wang, Jian-Dong; Li, Li; Liang, Gao-Lin

    2013-01-01

    Herein we developed a new "smart" Gd-based MR contrast agent (i.e., 1) which is susceptive to furin, a protease overexpressed in tumor. Under the action of furin, 1 condenses to form dimers (1-Ds) and the latter self-assemble into gadolinium nanparticles (Gd-NPs). Relaxivity of 1-D is more than 2 folds of those of 1 and magnevist at 1.5 T, and 1.4 folds of that of 1 at 3 T. Intracellular condensation of 1 in furin-overexpressed MDA-MB-468 cells was proven with direct two-photon laser microscopy (TPLM) fluorescence imaging of the cells incubated with the europium analog of 1 (i.e., 2). Intracellular Gd-NPs of 1 were uncovered and characterized for the first time. MRI of MDA-MB-468 tumors showed that 1 has enhanced MR contrast within the tumors than that of its scrambled control 1-Scr.

  12. Dual photon absorptiometry using a gadolinium-153 source applied to measure equine bone mineral content

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moure, Alessandro; Reichmann, Peter; Remigio Gamba, Humberto

    2003-12-01

    The application of the dual photon absorptiometry (DPA) technique, using gadolinium-153 as the photon source, to evaluate the bone mineral density (BMD) of the third metacarpal bone of horses is presented. The radiation detector was implemented with a NaI(TI) scintillator coupled to a 14 stage photomultiplier. A modular mechanical system allows the position of the prototype to be adjusted in relation to the animal. A moveable carrier makes it possible to scan the third metacarpal with a velocity adjustable between 1 and 12 mm s-1, in steps of 1 mm s-1, for a total distance of 250 mm. The prototype was evaluated with a phantom of the third metacarpal bone made of perspex and aluminium, and in vitro with a transverse slice of the third metacarpal bone of a horse. The tests showed that the prototype has an accuracy and precision of, approximately, 10% and 6%, respectively, for a 6 s acquisition time. Preliminary studies carried out in three foals from birth to one year of age indicated that the prototype is well suited to in vivo and in situ analysis of the BMD of the third metacarpal bones of horses, making it possible to evaluate the changes of BMD levels on a monthly basis. Also, results indicated an exponential behaviour of the BMD curve during the first year of life of the studied horses.

  13. Engineered gadolinium-doped carbon dots for magnetic resonance imaging-guided radiotherapy of tumors.

    PubMed

    Du, Fengyi; Zhang, Lirong; Zhang, Li; Zhang, Miaomiao; Gong, Aihua; Tan, Youwen; Miao, Jiawen; Gong, Yuhua; Sun, Mingzhong; Ju, Huixiang; Wu, Chaoyang; Zou, Shenqiang

    2017-03-01

    The effectiveness of radiotherapy can decrease due to inaccurate positioning of machinery and inherent radioresistance of tumors. To address this issue, we present a novel theranostic nanoplatform based on gadolinium-doped carbon dots (Gd-doped CDs) designed specifically for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-guided radiotherapy of tumors. The Gd-doped CDs (∼18 nm) with dispersibility in water and stable photoluminescence were synthesized via a one-step hydrothermal approach. After tail vein injection of the Gd-doped CDs, they exhibited a relatively long circulation time (∼6 h), enabled efficient passive tumor targeting. Gd-doped CDs accumulate in the kidney and could be cleared out of the body from bladder. Importantly, they exhibited favorable biocompatibility with excellent performance in longitudinal relaxivity rate (r 1 ) of 6.45 mM -1 S -1 and radiosensitization enhancements. These results show that Gd-doped CDs are excellent T 1 contrast agents and radiosensitizers, possessing great promise for MRI-guided radiotherapy of tumors. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome after the Use of Gadolinium Contrast Media.

    PubMed

    Park, Jihye; Byun, Il Hwan; Park, Kyung Hee; Lee, Jae-Hyun; Nam, Eun Ji; Park, Jung-Won

    2015-07-01

    Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a medical emergency that threatens life. To this day, ARDS is very rarely reported by iodine contrast media, and there is no reported case of ARDS induced by gadolinium contrast media. Here, we present a case with ARDS after the use of gadobutrol (Gadovist) as a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast medium. A 26 years old female without any medical history, including allergic diseases and without current use of drugs, visited the emergency room for abdominal pain. Her abdominopelvic computed tomography with iodine contrast media showed a right ovarian cyst and possible infective colitis. Eighty-three hours later, she underwent pelvis MRI after injection of 7.5 mL (0.1 mL/kg body weight) of gadobutrol (Gadovist) to evaluate the ovarian cyst. She soon presented respiratory difficulty, edema of the lips, nausea, and vomiting, and we could hear wheezing upon auscultation. She was treated with dexamethasone, epinephrine, and norepinephrine. Her chest X-ray showed bilateral central bat-wing consolidative appearance. Managed with mechanical ventilation, she was extubated 3 days later and discharged without complications.

  15. Caustic Precipitation of Plutonium and Uranium with Gadolinium as a Neutron Poison

    SciTech Connect

    VISSER, ANN E.; BRONIKOWSKI, MICHAEL G.; RUDISILL, TRACY S.

    2005-10-18

    The caustic precipitation of plutonium (Pu) and uranium (U) from Pu and U-containing waste solutions has been investigated to determine whether gadolinium (Gd) could be used as a neutron poison for precipitation with greater than a fissile mass containing both Pu and enriched U. Precipitation experiments were performed using both process solution samples and simulant solutions with a range of 2.6-5.16 g/L U and 0-4.3:1 U:Pu. Analyses were performed on solutions at intermediate pH to determine the partitioning of elements for accident scenarios. When both Pu and U were present in the solution, precipitation began at pH 4.5 and bymore » pH 7, 99% of Pu and U had precipitated. When complete neutralization was achieved at pH > 14 with 1.2 M excess OH{sup -}, greater than 99% of Pu, U, and Gd had precipitated. At pH > 14, the particles sizes were larger and the distribution was a single mode. The ratio of hydrogen:fissile atoms in the precipitate was determined after both settling and centrifuging and indicates that sufficient water was associated with the precipitates to provide the needed neutron moderation for Gd to prevent a criticality in solutions containing up to 4.3:1 U:Pu and up to 5.16 g/L U.« less

  16. Caustic Precipitation of Plutonium and Uranium with Gadolinium as a Neutron Poison

    SciTech Connect

    ANN, VISSER

    2005-04-14

    The caustic precipitation of plutonium (Pu) and uranium (U) from Pu and U containing waste solutions has been investigated to determine whether gadolinium (Gd) could be used as a neutron poison for precipitation with greater than a fissile mass containing both Pu and enriched U. Precipitation experiments were performed using both actual samples and simulant solutions with a range of 2.6-5.16 g/L U and 0-4.3 to 1 U to Pu. Analyses were performed on solutions at intermediate pH to determine the partitioning of elements for accident scenarios. When both Pu and U were present in the solution, precipitation began atmore » pH 4.5 and by pH 7, 99 percent of Pu and U had precipitated. When complete neutralization was achieved at pH greater than 14 with 1.2 M excess OH-, greater than 99 percent of Pu, U, and Gd had precipitated. At pH greater than 14, the particles sizes were larger and the distribution was a single mode. The ratio of hydrogen to fissile atoms in the precipitate was determined after both settling and centrifuging and indicates that sufficient water was associated with the precipitates to provide the needed neutron moderation for Gd to prevent a criticality in solutions containing up to 4.3 to 1 U to Pu and up to 5.16 g/L U.« less

  17. Influence of gamma-irradiation on the non-isothermal decomposition of calcium-gadolinium oxalate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moharana, S. C.; Praharaj, J.; Bhatta, D.

    Thermal decomposition of co-precipitated unirradiated and irradiated Ca-Gd oxalate has been studied by adopting differential thermal analysis (DTA) and thermogravimetric (TG) techniques. The reaction occurs through two stages corresponding to the decomposition of gadolinium oxalate (Gd-Ox) followed by that of calcium oxalate (Ca-Ox). The kinetic parameters for both the stages are calculated by using solid state reaction models and Coats-Redfern's equation. The co-precipitation as well as irradiation alter the DTA peak temperatures and the kinetic parameters of Ca-Ox. The decomposition of Gd-Ox follows the two dimensional Contracting area (R-2) mechanism, while that of Ca-Ox follows the Avrami-Erofeev (A(2)) mechanism (n =2), which are also exhibited by the co-precipitated and irradiated samples. Co-precipitation decreases the energy of activation and the pre-exponential factor of the individual components but the reverse phenomenon takes place upon irradiation of the co-precipitate. The mechanisms underlying the phenomena are explored.

  18. High performance magneto-fluorescent nanoparticles assembled from terbium and gadolinium 1,3-diketones

    PubMed Central

    Zairov, Rustem; Mustafina, Asiya; Shamsutdinova, Nataliya; Nizameev, Irek; Moreira, Beatriz; Sudakova, Svetlana; Podyachev, Sergey; Fattakhova, Alfia; Safina, Gulnara; Lundstrom, Ingemar; Gubaidullin, Aidar; Vomiero, Alberto

    2017-01-01

    Polyelectrolyte-coated nanoparticles consisting of terbium and gadolinium complexes with calix[4]arene tetra-diketone ligand were first synthesized. The antenna effect of the ligand on Tb(III) green luminescence and the presence of water molecules in the coordination sphere of Gd(III) bring strong luminescent and magnetic performance to the core-shell nanoparticles. The size and the core-shell morphology of the colloids were studied using transmission electron microscopy and dynamic light scattering. The correlation between photophysical and magnetic properties of the nanoparticles and their core composition was highlighted. The core composition was optimized for the longitudinal relaxivity to be greater than that of the commercial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agents together with high level of Tb(III)-centered luminescence. The tuning of both magnetic and luminescent output of nanoparticles is obtained via the simple variation of lanthanide chelates concentrations in the initial synthetic solution. The exposure of the pheochromocytoma 12 (PC 12) tumor cells and periphery human blood lymphocytes to nanoparticles results in negligible effect on cell viability, decreased platelet aggregation and bright coloring, indicating the nanoparticles as promising candidates for dual magneto-fluorescent bioimaging. PMID:28091590

  19. Multifunctional gadolinium-based dendritic macromolecules as liver targeting imaging probes.

    PubMed

    Luo, Kui; Liu, Gang; He, Bin; Wu, Yao; Gong, Qingyong; Song, Bin; Ai, Hua; Gu, Zhongwei

    2011-04-01

    The quest for highly efficient and safe contrast agents has become the key factor for successful application of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The gadolinium (Gd) based dendritic macromolecules, with precise and tunable nanoscopic sizes, are excellent candidates as multivalent MRI probes. In this paper, a novel series of Gd-based multifunctional peptide dendritic probes (generation 2, 3, and 4) possessing highly controlled structures and single molecular weight were designed and prepared as liver MRI probes. These macromolecular Gd-ligand agents exhibited up to 3-fold increase in T(1) relaxivity comparing to Gd-DTPA complexes. No obvious in vitro cytotoxicity was observed from the measured concentrations. These dendritic probes were further functionalized with multiple galactosyl moieties and led to much higher cell uptake in vitro as demonstrated in T(1)-weighted scans. During in vivo animal studies, the probes provided better signal intensity (SI) enhancement in mouse liver, especially at 60 min post-injection, with the most efficient enhancement from the galactosyl moiety decorated third generation dendrimer. The imaging results were verified with analysis of Gd content in liver tissues. The design strategy of multifunctional Gd-ligand peptide dendritic macromolecules in this study may be used for developing other sensitive MRI probes with targeting capability. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Removal of gadolinium-based contrast agents: adsorption on activated carbon.

    PubMed

    Elizalde-González, María P; García-Díaz, Esmeralda; González-Perea, Mario; Mattusch, Jürgen

    2017-03-01

    Three carbon samples were employed in this work, including commercial (1690 m 2  g -1 ), activated carbon prepared from guava seeds (637 m 2  g -1 ), and activated carbon prepared from avocado kernel (1068 m 2  g -1 ), to study the adsorption of the following gadolinium-based contrast agents (GBCAs): gadoterate meglumine Dotarem®, gadopentetate dimeglumine Magnevist®, and gadoxetate disodium Primovist®. The activation conditions with H 3 PO 4 were optimized using a Taguchi methodology to obtain mesoporous materials. The best removal efficiency by square meter in a batch system in aqueous solution and model urine was achieved by avocado kernel carbon, in which mesoporosity prevails over microporosity. The kinetic adsorption curves were described by a pseudo-second-order equation, and the adsorption isotherms in the concentration range 0.5-6 mM fit the Freundlich equation. The chemical characterization of the surfaces shows that materials with a greater amount of phenolic functional groups adsorb the GBCA better. Adsorption strongly depends on the pH due to the combination of the following factors: contrast agent protonated forms and carbon surface charge. The tested carbon samples were able to adsorb 70-90% of GBCA in aqueous solution and less in model urine. This research proposes a method for the elimination of GBCA from patient urine before its discharge into wastewater.

  1. Evaluating the behavior of gadolinium and other rare earth elements through large metropolitan sewage treatment plants.

    PubMed

    Verplanck, Philip L; Furlong, Edward T; Gray, James L; Phillips, Patrick J; Wolf, Ruth E; Esposito, Kathleen

    2010-05-15

    A primary pathway for emerging contaminants (pharmaceuticals, personal care products, steroids, and hormones) to enter aquatic ecosystems is effluent from sewage treatment plants (STP), and identifying technologies to minimize the amount of these contaminants released is important. Quantifying the flux of these contaminants through STPs is difficult. This study evaluates the behavior of gadolinium, a rare earth element (REE) utilized as a contrasting agent in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), through four full-scale metropolitan STPs that utilize several biosolids thickening, conditioning, stabilization, and dewatering processing technologies. The organically complexed Gd from MRIs has been shown to be stable in aquatic systems and has the potential to be utilized as a conservative tracer in STP operations to compare to an emerging contaminant of interest. Influent and effluent waters display large enrichments in Gd compared to other REEs. In contrast, most sludge samples from the STPs do not display Gd enrichments, including primary sludges and end-product sludges. The excess Gd appears to remain in the liquid phase throughout the STP operations, but detailed quantification of the input Gd load and residence times of various STP operations is needed to utilize Gd as a conservative tracer.

  2. Mechanical delivery of aerosolized gadolinium-DTPA for pulmonary ventilation assessment in MR imaging.

    PubMed

    Haage, P; Adam, G; Karaagac, S; Pfeffer, J; Glowinski, A; Döhmen, S; Günther, R W

    2001-04-01

    To evaluate a new technique with mechanical administration of aerosolized gadolinium (Gd)-DTPA for MR visualization of lung ventilation. Ten experimental procedures were performed in six domestic pigs. Gd-DTPA was aerosolized by a small-particle generator. The intubated animals were mechanically aerosolized with the nebulized contrast agent and studied on a 1.5-T MR imager. Respiratory gated T1-weighted turbo spin-echo images were obtained before, during, and after contrast administration. Pulmonary signal intensity (SI) changes were calculated for corresponding regions of both lungs. Homogeneity of aerosol distribution was graded independently by two radiologists. To achieve a comparable SI increase as attained in previous trials that used manual aerosol ventilation, a ventilation period of 20 minutes (formerly 30 minutes) was sufficient. Mean SI changes of 116% were observed after that duration. Contrast delivery was rated evenly distributed in all cases by the reviewers. The feasibility of applying Gd-DTPA as a contrast agent to demonstrate pulmonary ventilation in large animals has been described before. The results of this refined technique substantiate the potential of Gd-based ventilation MR imaging by improving aerosol distribution and shortening the nebulization duration in the healthy lung.

  3. The Use of Gadolinium-Carbon Nanostructures to Magnetically Enhance Stem Cell Retention for Cellular Cardiomyoplasty

    PubMed Central

    Tran, Lesa A.; Hernández-Rivera, Mayra; Berlin, Ari N.; Zheng, Yi; Sampaio, Luiz; Bové, Christina; Cabreira-Hansen, Maria da Graça; Willerson, James T.; Perin, Emerson C.; Wilson, Lon J.

    2014-01-01

    In this work, the effectiveness of using Gadonanotubes (GNTs) with an external magnetic field to improve retention of transplanted adult mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) during cellular cardiomyoplasty was evaluated. As a high-performance T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) cell tracking label, the GNTs are gadolinium-loaded carbon nanotube capsules that render MSCs magnetic when internalized. MSCs were internally labeled with either superparamagnetic GNTs or colloidal diamagnetic lutetium (Lu). In vitro cell rolling assays and ex vivo cardiac perfusion experiments qualitatively demonstrated increased magnetic-assisted retention of GNT-labeled MSCs. Subsequent in vivo epicardial cell injections were performed around a 1.3 T NdFeB ring magnet sutured onto the left ventricle of female juvenile pigs (n = 21). Cell dosage, magnet exposure time, and endpoints were varied to evaluate the safety and efficacy of the proposed therapy. Quantification of retained cells in collected tissues by elemental analysis (Gd or Lu) showed that the external magnet helped retain nearly three times more GNT-labeled MSCs than Lu-labeled cells. The sutured magnet was tolerated for up to 168 hours; however, an inflammatory response to the magnet was noted after 48 hours. These proof-of-concept studies support the feasibility and value of using GNTs as a magnetic nanoparticle facilitator to improve cell retention during cellular cardiomyoplasty. PMID:24148239

  4. Gadolinium sulfate modified by formate to obtain optimized magneto-caloric effect.

    PubMed

    Xu, Long-Yang; Zhao, Jiong-Peng; Liu, Ting; Liu, Fu-Chen

    2015-06-01

    Three new Gd(III) based coordination polymers [Gd2(C2H6SO)(SO4)3(H2O)2]n (1), {[Gd4(HCOO)2(SO4)5(H2O)6]·H2O}n (2), and [Gd(HCOO)(SO4)(H2O)]n (3) were obtained by modifying gadolinium sulfate. With the gradual increase of the volume ratio of HCOOH and DMSO in synthesis, the formate anions begin to coordinate with metal centers; this results in the coordination numbers of sulfate anion increasing and the contents of water and DMSO molecules decreasing in target complexes. Accordingly, spin densities both per mass and per volume were enhanced step by step, which are beneficial for the magneto-caloric effect (MCE). Magnetic studies reveal that with the more formate anions present, the larger the negative value of magnetic entropy change (-ΔSm) is. Complex 3 exhibits the largest -ΔSm = 49.91 J kg(-1) K(-1) (189.51 mJ cm(-3) K(-1)) for T = 2 K and ΔH = 7 T among three new complexes.

  5. Lattice dynamics of a rigid-ion model for gadolinium molybdate

    SciTech Connect

    Boyer, L.L.; Hardy, J.R.

    Calculations are presented which support the view that the ferroelectric phase tnnnsition in gadolinium molybdate (GMO) arises from the softening and ultimate instability of a doubly degenerate zone-edge mode of the high- temperature paraelectric phase. A rigid-ion model was used in which the short- range force constants are obtained from a detailed knowledge of the crystal structure together wiih the conditions imposed by the requirement that the crystal must be in static equilibrium under the combined influence of both Coulomb and short-range forces. Results show that this type of approach is very useful when one is dealing with complex structuresmore » such as GMO, which has thirty- four ions per unit cell in the paraelectric phase. In view of the simplicity of the model, a surprisingly good correlation with experimental results was obtained. In particular, the calculated zone-center frequencies reproduce the basic features of the observed Raman spectruna. Dispersion curves are presented which show a pronounced softening of two phonon branches which become doubly degenerate at the M point, in agreement with inelastic neutron scattering. The displacements associated wiih the soft M-point modes correlate with the difference in the structures of the high- and low-temperature phases determined by x-ray diffraction. This provides further evidence that the ferroelectric domains in GMO are to be interpreted as frozen-in'' soft zoneboundary modes of the paraelectric phase. (auth)« less

  6. Investigating phase transition temperatures of size separated gadolinium silicide magnetic nanoparticles

    DOE PAGES

    Hunagund, Shivakumar G.; Harstad, Shane M.; El-Gendy, Ahmed A.; ...

    2018-01-11

    Gadolinium silicide (Gd 5Si 4) nanoparticles (NPs) exhibit different properties compared to their parent bulk materials due to finite size, shape, and surface effects. NPs were prepared by high energy ball-milling of the as-cast Gd 5Si 4 ingot and size separated into eight fractions using time sensitive sedimentation in an applied dc magnetic field with average particle sizes ranging from 700 nm to 82 nm. The largest Gd 5Si 4 NPs order ferromagnetically at 316 K. A second anomaly observed at 110 K can be ascribed to a Gd 5Si 3 impurity. Here as the particle sizes decrease, the volumemore » fraction of Gd 5Si 3 phase increases at the expense of the Gd 5Si 4 phase, and the ferromagnetic transition temperature of Gd 5Si 4 is reduced from 316 K to 310 K, while the ordering of the minor phase is independent of the particle size, remaining at 110 K.« less

  7. [Studies of three-dimensional cardiac late gadolinium enhancement MRI at 3.0 Tesla].

    PubMed

    Ishimoto, Takeshi; Ishihara, Masaru; Ikeda, Takayuki; Kawakami, Momoe

    2008-12-20

    Cardiac late Gadolinium enhancement MR imaging has been shown to allow assessment of myocardial viability in patients with ischemic heart disease. The current standard approach is a 3D inversion recovery sequence at 1.5 Tesla. The aims of this study were to evaluate the technique feasibility and clinical utility of MR viability imaging at 3.0 Tesla in patients with myocardial infarction and cardiomyopathy. In phantom and volunteer studies, the inversion time required to suppress the signal of interests and tissues was prolonged at 3.0 Tesla. In the clinical study, the average inversion time to suppress the signal of myocardium at 3.0 Tesla with respect to MR viability imaging at 1.5 Tesla was at 15 min after the administration of contrast agent (304.0+/-29.2 at 3.0 Tesla vs. 283.9+/-20.9 at 1.5 Tesla). The contrast between infarction and viable myocardium was equal at both field strengths (4.06+/-1.30 at 3.0 Tesla vs. 4.42+/-1.85 at 1.5 Tesla). Even at this early stage, MR viability imaging at 3.0 Tesla provides high quality images in patients with myocardial infarction. The inversion time is significantly prolonged at 3.0 Tesla. The contrast between infarction and viable myocardium at 3.0 Tesla are equal to 1.5 Tesla. Further investigation is needed for this technical improvement, for clinical evaluation, and for limitations.

  8. Process-Property Relationship for Air Plasma-Sprayed Gadolinium Zirconate Coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dwivedi, Gopal; Tan, Yang; Viswanathan, Vaishak; Sampath, Sanjay

    2015-02-01

    The continuous need of elevating operating temperature of gas turbine engines has introduced several challenges with the current state-of-the-art yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ)-based thermal barrier coatings (TBCs), requiring examination of new TBC material with high temperature phase stability, lower thermal conductivity, and resistance to environmental ash particles. Gadolinium zirconate (Gd2Zr2O7) (GDZ) has been shown to meet many of these requirements, and has, in fact, been successfully implemented in to engine components. However, several fundamental issues related to the process-ability, toughness, and microstructural differences for GDZ when compared to equivalent YSZ coating. This study seeks to critically address the process-structure-property correlations for plasma-sprayed GDZ coating subjected to controlled parametric exploration. Use of in-flight diagnostics coupled with in situ and ex situ coating property monitoring allows examination and comparison of the process-property interplay and the resultant differences between the two TBC compositions. The results indicate that it is feasible to retain material chemistry and fabricate relevant microstructures of interest with GDZ with concomitant performance advantages such as low conductivity, mechanical compliance, sintering resistance, and suppression of environmentally induced damage from ash particles. This study provides a framework for optimal design and manufacturing of emergent multi-layer and multi-material TBCs.

  9. Normal spinal bone marrow in adults: dynamic gadolinium-enhanced MR imaging.

    PubMed

    Montazel, Jean-Luc; Divine, Marine; Lepage, Eric; Kobeiter, Hicham; Breil, Stephane; Rahmouni, Alain

    2003-12-01

    To determine the patterns of dynamic enhancement of normal spinal bone marrow in adults at gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and the changes that occur with aging. Dynamic contrast material-enhanced MR imaging of the thoracolumbar spine was performed in 71 patients. The maximum percentage of enhancement (Emax), enhancement slope, and enhancement washout were determined from bone marrow enhancement time curves (ETCs). The bone marrow signal intensity on T1-weighted spin-echo MR images was qualitatively classified into three grade categories. Quantitative ETC values were correlated with patient age and bone marrow fat content grade. Statistical analysis included mean t test comparison, analysis of variance, and regression analysis of the correlations between age and quantitative MR parameters. Emax, slope, and washout varied widely among the patients. Emax values were obtained within 1 minute after contrast material injection and ranged from 0% to 430%. Emax values were significantly higher in patients younger than 40 years than in those aged 40 years or older (P <.001). These values decreased with increasing age in a logarithmic relationship (r = 0.71). Emax values decreased as fat content increased, but some overlap among the fat content grades was noted. Analysis of variance revealed that Emax was significantly related to age (younger than 40 years vs 40 years or older) (P <.001) and fat content grade (P <.001) but not significantly related to sex. Dynamic contrast-enhanced MR imaging patterns of normal spinal bone marrow are dependent mainly on patient age and fat content.

  10. Modelling of the Gadolinium Fuel Test IFA-681 using the BISON Code

    SciTech Connect

    Pastore, Giovanni; Hales, Jason Dean; Novascone, Stephen Rhead

    2016-05-01

    In this work, application of Idaho National Laboratory’s fuel performance code BISON to modelling of fuel rods from the Halden IFA-681 gadolinium fuel test is presented. First, an overview is given of BISON models, focusing on UO2/UO2-Gd2O3 fuel and Zircaloy cladding. Then, BISON analyses of selected fuel rods from the IFA-681 test are performed. For the first time in a BISON application to integral fuel rod simulations, the analysis is informed by detailed neutronics calculations in order to accurately capture the radial power profile throughout the fuel, which is strongly affected by the complex evolution of absorber Gd isotopes. Inmore » particular, radial power profiles calculated at IFE–Halden Reactor Project with the HELIOS code are used. The work has been carried out in the frame of the collaboration between Idaho National Laboratory and Halden Reactor Project. Some slide have been added as an Appendix to present the newly developed PolyPole-1 algorithm for modeling of intra-granular fission gas release.« less

  11. The magnetic, relaxometric, and optical properties of gadolinium-catalyzed single walled carbon nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sitharaman, Balaji; Jacobson, Barry D.; Wadghiri, Youssef Z.; Bryant, Henry; Frank, Joseph

    2013-04-01

    We report the magnetic behavior, relaxometry, phantom magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and near-infrared (NIR) photoluminescence spectroscopy of gadolinium (Gd) catalyzed single-walled carbon nanotubes (Gd-SWCNTs). Gd-SWCNTs are paramagnetic with an effective magnetic moment of 7.29 μB. Gd-SWCNT solutions show high r1 and r2 relaxivities at very low (0.01 MHz) to clinically relevant (61 MHz) magnetic fields (r1 ≥ 130 mM-1 s-1, r2 ≥ 160 mM-1 s-1). Analysis of nuclear magnetic resonance dispersion profiles using Solomon, Bloembergen, and Morgan equations suggests that multiple structural and dynamic parameters such as rotational correlation time τR, rate of water exchange τM, and the number of fast-exchanging water molecules within the inner sphere q may be responsible for the increase in r1 and r2 relaxivity. The T1 weighted MRI signal intensity (gradient echo sequence; repetition time (TR) = 66 ms, echo time (TE) = 3 ms, flop angle = 108°) of Gd-SWCNT phantom solution is 14 times greater than the Gd-based clinical MRI contrast agent Magnevist. Additionally, these nanotubes exhibit near infrared fluorescence with distinct E11 transitions of several semiconducting SWCNTs. Taken together, these results demonstrate that Gd-SWCNTs have potential as a novel, highly efficacious, multimodal MRI-NIR optical imaging contrast agent.

  12. Modified Wideband Three-Dimensional Late Gadolinium Enhancement MRI for Patients with Implantable Cardiac Devices

    PubMed Central

    Rashid, Shams; Rapacchi, Stanislas; Shivkumar, Kalyanam; Plotnik, Adam; Finn, J. Paul; Hu, Peng

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To study the effects of cardiac devices on three-dimensional (3D) late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) MRI and to develop a 3D LGE protocol for implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) patients with reduced image artifacts. Theory and Methods The 3D LGE sequence was modified by implementing a wideband inversion pulse, which reduces hyperintensity artifacts, and by increasing bandwidth of the excitation pulse. The modified wideband 3D LGE sequence was tested in phantoms and evaluated in six volunteers and five patients with ICDs. Results Phantom and in vivo studies results demonstrated extended signal void and ripple artifacts in 3D LGE that were associated with ICDs. The reason for these artifacts was slab profile distortion and the subsequent aliasing in the slice-encoding direction. The modified wideband 3D LGE provided significantly reduced ripple artifacts than 3D LGE with wideband inversion only. Comparison of 3D and 2D LGE images demonstrated improved spatial resolution of the heart using 3D LGE. Conclusion Increased bandwidth of the inversion and excitation pulses can significantly reduce image artifacts associated with ICDs. Our modified wideband 3D LGE protocol can be readily used for imaging patients with ICDs given appropriate safety guidelines are followed. PMID:25772155

  13. Effects of exposure to gadolinium on the development of geographically and phylogenetically distant sea urchins species.

    PubMed

    Martino, Chiara; Bonaventura, Rosa; Byrne, Maria; Roccheri, Maria; Matranga, Valeria

    2017-07-01

    Gadolinium (Gd), a metal of the lanthanide series used as contrast agent for magnetic resonance imaging, is released into the aquatic environment. We investigated the effects of Gd on the development of four sea urchin species: two from Europe, Paracentrotus lividus and Arbacia lixula, and two from Australia, Heliocidaris tuberculata and Centrostephanus rodgersii. Exposure to Gd from fertilization resulted in inhibition or alteration of skeleton growth in the plutei. The similar morphological response to Gd in the four species indicates a similar mechanism underlying abnormal skeletogenesis. Sensitivity to Gd greatly varied, with the EC50 ranging from 56 nM to 132 μM across the four species. These different sensitivities highlight the importance of testing toxicity in several species for risk assessment. The strong negative effects of Gd on calcification in plutei, together with the plethora of marine species that have calcifying larvae, indicates that Gd pollution is urgent issue that needs to be addressed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Investigating phase transition temperatures of size separated gadolinium silicide magnetic nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Hunagund, Shivakumar G.; Harstad, Shane M.; El-Gendy, Ahmed A.

    Gadolinium silicide (Gd 5Si 4) nanoparticles (NPs) exhibit different properties compared to their parent bulk materials due to finite size, shape, and surface effects. NPs were prepared by high energy ball-milling of the as-cast Gd 5Si 4 ingot and size separated into eight fractions using time sensitive sedimentation in an applied dc magnetic field with average particle sizes ranging from 700 nm to 82 nm. The largest Gd 5Si 4 NPs order ferromagnetically at 316 K. A second anomaly observed at 110 K can be ascribed to a Gd 5Si 3 impurity. Here as the particle sizes decrease, the volumemore » fraction of Gd 5Si 3 phase increases at the expense of the Gd 5Si 4 phase, and the ferromagnetic transition temperature of Gd 5Si 4 is reduced from 316 K to 310 K, while the ordering of the minor phase is independent of the particle size, remaining at 110 K.« less

  15. Inactivation of kupffer cells by gadolinium chloride protects murine liver from radiation-induced apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Du, Shi-Suo; Qiang, Min; Zeng, Zhao-Chong; Ke, Ai-Wu; Ji, Yuan; Zhang, Zheng-Yu; Zeng, Hai-Ying; Liu, Zhongshan

    2010-03-15

    To determine whether the inhibition of Kupffer cells before radiotherapy (RT) would protect hepatocytes from radiation-induced apoptosis. A single 30-Gy fraction was administered to the upper abdomen of Sprague-Dawley rats. The Kupffer cell inhibitor gadolinium chloride (GdCl3; 10 mg/kg body weight) was intravenously injected 24 h before RT. The rats were divided into four groups: group 1, sham RT plus saline (control group); group 2, sham RT plus GdCl3; group 3, RT plus saline; and group 4, RT plus GdCl3. Liver tissue was collected for measurement of apoptotic cytokine expression and evaluation of radiation-induced liver toxicity by analysis of liver enzyme activities, hepatocyte micronucleus formation, apoptosis, and histologic staining. The expression of interleukin-1beta, interleukin-6, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha was significantly attenuated in group 4 compared with group 3 at 2, 6, 24, and 48 h after injection (p <0.05). At early points after RT, the rats in group 4 exhibited significantly lower levels of liver enzyme activity, apoptotic response, and hepatocyte micronucleus formation compared with those in group 3. Selective inactivation of Kupffer cells with GdCl3 reduced radiation-induced cytokine production and protected the liver against acute radiation-induced damage. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Absence of magnetic ordering and field-induced phase diagram in the gadolinium aluminum garnet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Florea, O.; Lhotel, E.; Jacobsen, H.; Knee, C. S.; Deen, P. P.

    2017-12-01

    The robustness of spin liquids with respect to small perturbations, and the way magnetic frustration can be lifted by slight changes in the balance between competing magnetic interactions, remains a rich and open issue. We address this question through the study of the gadolinium aluminum garnet Gd3Al5O12 , a related compound to the extensively studied Gd3Ga5O12 . We report on its magnetic properties at very low temperatures. We show that despite a freezing at about 300 mK, no magnetic transition is observed, suggesting the presence of a spin-liquid state down to the lowest temperatures, similarly to Gd3Ga5O12 , in spite of a larger ratio between exchange and dipolar interactions. Finally, the phase diagram as a function of field and temperature is strongly reminiscent of the one reported in Gd3Ga5O12 . This study reveals the robust nature of the spin-liquid phase for Gd ions on the garnet lattice, in stark contrast to Gd ions on the pyrochlore lattice for which a slight perturbation drives the compound into a range of magnetically ordered states.

  17. Manifestation of intra-atomic 5d6s-4f exchange coupling in photoexcited gadolinium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, G. P.; Jenkins, T.; Bennett, M.; Bai, Y. H.

    2017-12-01

    Intra-atomic exchange couplings (IECs) between 5d6s and 4f electrons are ubiquitous in rare-earth metals and play a critical role in spin dynamics. However, detecting them in real time domain has been difficult. Here we show the direct evidence of IEC between 5d6s and 4f electrons in gadolinium. Upon femtosecond laser excitation, 5d6s electrons are directly excited; their majority bands shift toward the Fermi level while their minority bands do the opposite. For the first time, our first-principles minority shift now agrees with the experiment quantitatively. Excited 5d6s electrons lower the exchange potential barrier for 4f electrons, so the 4f states are also shifted in energy, a prediction that can be tested experimentally. Although a significant number of 5d6s electrons, some several eV below the Fermi level, are excited out of the Fermi sea, there is no change in the 4f states, a clear manifestation of intra-atomic exchange coupling.

  18. A highly stable gadolinium complex with a fast, associative mechanism of water exchange.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Marlon K; Botta, Mauro; Nicolle, Gaëlle; Helm, Lothar; Aime, Silvio; Merbach, André E; Raymond, Kenneth N

    2003-11-26

    The stability and water exchange dynamics of gadolinium (GdIII) complexes are critical characteristics that determine their effectiveness as contrast agents for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). A new heteropodal GdIII chelate, [Gd-TREN-bis(6-Me-HOPO)-(TAM-TRI)(H2O)2] (Gd-2), is presented which is based on a hydroxypyridinate (HOPO)-terephthalamide (TAM) ligand design. Thermodynamic equilibrium constants for the acid-base properties and the GdIII complexation strength of TREN-bis(6-Me-HOPO)-(TAM-TRI) (2) were measured by potentiometric and spectrophotometric titration techniques, respectively. The pGd of 2 is 20.6 (pH 7.4, 25 degrees C, I = 0.1 M), indicating that Gd-2 is of more than sufficient thermodynamic stability for in vivo MRI applications. The water exchange rate of Gd-2 (kex = 5.3(+/-0.6) x 107 s-1) was determined by variable temperature 17O NMR and is in the fast exchange regime - ideal for MRI. Variable pressure 17O NMR was used to determine the volume of activation (DeltaV) of Gd-2. DeltaV for Gd-2 is -5 cm3 mol-1, indicative of an interchange associative (Ia) water exchange mechanism. The results reported herein are important as they provide insight into the factors influencing high stability and fast water exchange in the HOPO series of complexes, potentially future clinical contrast agents.

  19. Comparison of MRI properties between derivatized DTPA and DOTA gadolinium-dendrimer conjugates.

    PubMed

    Nwe, K; Bernardo, M; Regino, C A S; Williams, M; Brechbiel, M W

    2010-08-15

    In this report we directly compare the in vivo and in vitro MRI properties of gadolinium-dendrimer conjugates of derivatized acyclic diethylenetriamine-N,N',N',N'',N''-pentaacetic acid (1B4M-DTPA) and macrocyclic 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-N,N',N'',N'''-tetraacetic acid (C-DOTA). The metal-ligand chelates were pre-formed in alcohol prior to conjugation to the generation 4 PAMAM dendrimer (G4D), and the dendrimer-based agents were purified by Sephadex(R) G-25 column. The analysis and SE-HPLC data indicated chelate to dendrimer ratios of 30:1 and 28:1, respectively. Molar relaxivity measured at pH 7.4, 22 degrees C, and 3T are comparable (29.5 vs 26.9 mM(-1)s(-1)), and both conjugates are equally viable as MRI contrast agents based on the images obtained. The macrocyclic agent however exhibits a faster rate of clearance in vivo (t(1/2)=16 vs 29 min). Our conclusion is that the macrocyclic-based agent is the more suitable agent for in vivo use for these reasons combined with kinetic inertness associated with the Gd(III) DOTA complex stability properties. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Polydisulfide Manganese(II) Complexes as Non-Gadolinium Biodegradable Macromolecular MRI Contrast Agents

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Zhen; Jeong, Eun-Kee; Wu, Xueming; Tan, Mingqian; Yin, Shouyu; Lu, Zheng-Rong

    2011-01-01

    Purpose To develop safe and effective manganese(II) based biodegradable macromolecular MRI contrast agents. Materials and Methods In this study, we synthesized and characterized two polydisulfide manganese(II) complexes, Mn-DTPA cystamine copolymers and Mn-EDTA cystamine copolymers, as new biodegradable macromolecular MRI contrast agents. The contrast enhancement of the two manganese based contrast agents were evaluated in mice bearing MDA-MB-231 human breast carcinoma xenografts, in comparison with MnCl2. Results The T1 and T2 relaxivities were 4.74 and 10.38 mM−1s−1 per manganese at 3T for Mn-DTPA cystamine copolymers (Mn=30.50 kDa) and 6.41 and 9.72 mM−1s−1 for Mn-EDTA cystamine copolymers (Mn= 61.80 kDa). Both polydisulfide Mn(II) complexes showed significant liver, myocardium and tumor enhancement. Conclusion The manganese based polydisulfide contrast agents have a potential to be developed as alternative non-gadolinium contrast agents for MR cancer and myocardium imaging. PMID:22031457

  1. Comparison of MRI properties between derivatized DTPA and DOTA gadolinium-dendrimer conjugates

    PubMed Central

    Nwe, K.; Bernardo, M; Regino, C. A. S.; Williams, M; Brechbiel, M. W.

    2010-01-01

    In this report we directly compare the in vivo and in vitro MRI properties of gadolinium-dendrimer conjugates of derivatized acyclic diethylenetriamine-N,N’,N’,N’’, N’’-pentaacetic acid (1B4M-DTPA) and macrocyclic 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-N,N’,N’’,N’’’-tetraacetic acid (C-DOTA). The metal-ligand chelates were pre-formed in alcohol prior to conjugation to the generation 4 PAMAM dendrimer (G4D), and the dendrimer-based agents were purified by Sephadex® G-25 column. The analysis and SE-HPLC data indicated chelate to dendrimer ratios of 30:1 and 28:1 respectively. Molar relaxivity measured at pH 7.4, 22°C, and 3T are comparable (29.5 vs. 26.9 mM−1s−1), and both conjugates are equally viable as MRI contrast agents based on the images obtained. The macrocyclic agent however exhibits a faster rate of clearance in vivo (t1/2 = 16 vs. 29 min.). Our conclusion is that the macrocyclic-based agent is the more suitable agent for in vivo use for these reasons combined with kinetic inertness associated with the Gd(III) DOTA complex stability properties. PMID:20663676

  2. Platinum(II)-gadolinium(III) complexes as potential single-molecular theranostic agents for cancer treatment.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Zhenzhu; Wang, Xiaoyong; Li, Tuanjie; Aime, Silvio; Sadler, Peter J; Guo, Zijian

    2014-11-24

    Theranostic agents are emerging multifunctional molecules capable of simultaneous therapy and diagnosis of diseases. We found that platinum(II)-gadolinium(III) complexes with the formula [{Pt(NH3)2Cl}2GdL](NO3)2 possess such properties. The Gd center is stable in solution and the cytoplasm, whereas the Pt centers undergo ligand substitution in cancer cells. The Pt units interact with DNA and significantly promote the cellular uptake of Gd complexes. The cytotoxicity of the Pt-Gd complexes is comparable to that of cisplatin at high concentrations (≥0.1 mM), and their proton relaxivity is higher than that of the commercial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agent Gd-DTPA. T1-weighted MRI on B6 mice demonstrated that these complexes can reveal the accumulation of platinum drugs in vivo. Their cytotoxicity and imaging capabilities make the Pt-Gd complexes promising theranostic agents for cancer treatment. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Heavy-ion beam induced effects in enriched gadolinium target films prepared by molecular plating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayorov, D. A.; Tereshatov, E. E.; Werke, T. A.; Frey, M. M.; Folden, C. M.

    2017-09-01

    A series of enriched gadolinium (Gd, Z = 64) targets was prepared using the molecular plating process for nuclear physics experiments at the Cyclotron Institute at Texas A&M University. After irradiation with 48Ca and 45Sc projectiles at center-of-target energies of Ecot = 3.8-4.7 MeV/u, the molecular films displayed visible discoloration. The morphology of the films was examined and compared to the intact target surface. The thin films underwent a heavy-ion beam-induced density change as identified by scanning electron microscopy and α-particle energy loss measurements. The films became thinner and more homogenous, with the transformation occurring early on in the irradiation. This transformation is best described as a crystalline-to-amorphous phase transition induced by atomic displacement and destruction of structural order of the original film. The chemical composition of the thin films was surveyed using energy dispersive spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction, with the results confirming the complex chemistry of the molecular films previously noted in other publications.

  4. Quantification and Assessment of the Chemical Form of Residual Gadolinium in the Brain After Repeated Administration of Gadolinium-Based Contrast Agents: Comparative Study in Rats.

    PubMed

    Frenzel, Thomas; Apte, Chirag; Jost, Gregor; Schöckel, Laura; Lohrke, Jessica; Pietsch, Hubertus

    2017-07-01

    Multiple clinical and preclinical studies have reported a signal intensity increase and the presence of gadolinium (Gd) in the brain after repeated administration of Gd-based contrast agents (GBCAs). This bioanalytical study in rat brain tissue was initiated to investigate whether the residual Gd is present as intact GBCA or in other chemical forms by using tissue fractionation and chromatography. Rats were divided randomly in 6 groups of 10 animals each. They received 10 daily injections of 2.5 mmol/kg bodyweight of 1 of 5 different GBCAs: linear GBCAs such as gadodiamide (Omniscan; GE Healthcare), gadopentetate dimeglumine (Gd-DTPA, Magnevist; Bayer), or gadobenate dimeglumine (Multihance; Bracco) and macrocyclic GBCAs such as gadobutrol (Gadovist; Bayer) and gadoterate meglumine (Gd-DOTA, Dotarem; Guerbet) or saline. On days 3 and 24 after the last injection (p.i.), 5 randomly chosen animals of each group were killed by exsanguination, and their brains were excised and divided into cerebrum, pons, and cerebellum. The brain sections were homogenized by sonication in ice-cold buffer at pH 7.4. Soluble and insoluble fractions were separated by centrifugation, and the soluble fractions were further separated by gel permeation chromatography (GPC). The Gd concentration in all tissue fractions and in the GPC eluate was measured by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. In a recovery control experiment, all GBCAs were spiked to blank brain tissue and more than 94% recovery of Gd in the tissue fractions was demonstrated. Only traces of the administered Gd were found in the rat brain tissue on day 3 and day 24 p.i. In the animals treated with macrocyclic GBCAs, Gd was found only in the soluble brain fraction and was present solely as low molecular weight molecules, most likely the intact GBCA. In the animals treated with linear GBCAs Gd was found to a large extent in the insoluble tissue fraction. The Gd concentration in the soluble fraction was comparable to the

  5. Quantification and Assessment of the Chemical Form of Residual Gadolinium in the Brain After Repeated Administration of Gadolinium-Based Contrast Agents

    PubMed Central

    Frenzel, Thomas; Apte, Chirag; Jost, Gregor; Schöckel, Laura; Lohrke, Jessica; Pietsch, Hubertus

    2017-01-01

    Objective Multiple clinical and preclinical studies have reported a signal intensity increase and the presence of gadolinium (Gd) in the brain after repeated administration of Gd-based contrast agents (GBCAs). This bioanalytical study in rat brain tissue was initiated to investigate whether the residual Gd is present as intact GBCA or in other chemical forms by using tissue fractionation and chromatography. Materials and Methods Rats were divided randomly in 6 groups of 10 animals each. They received 10 daily injections of 2.5 mmol/kg bodyweight of 1 of 5 different GBCAs: linear GBCAs such as gadodiamide (Omniscan; GE Healthcare), gadopentetate dimeglumine (Gd-DTPA, Magnevist; Bayer), or gadobenate dimeglumine (Multihance; Bracco) and macrocyclic GBCAs such as gadobutrol (Gadovist; Bayer) and gadoterate meglumine (Gd-DOTA, Dotarem; Guerbet) or saline. On days 3 and 24 after the last injection (p.i.), 5 randomly chosen animals of each group were killed by exsanguination, and their brains were excised and divided into cerebrum, pons, and cerebellum. The brain sections were homogenized by sonication in ice-cold buffer at pH 7.4. Soluble and insoluble fractions were separated by centrifugation, and the soluble fractions were further separated by gel permeation chromatography (GPC). The Gd concentration in all tissue fractions and in the GPC eluate was measured by inductively coupled plasma–mass spectrometry. In a recovery control experiment, all GBCAs were spiked to blank brain tissue and more than 94% recovery of Gd in the tissue fractions was demonstrated. Results Only traces of the administered Gd were found in the rat brain tissue on day 3 and day 24 p.i. In the animals treated with macrocyclic GBCAs, Gd was found only in the soluble brain fraction and was present solely as low molecular weight molecules, most likely the intact GBCA. In the animals treated with linear GBCAs Gd was found to a large extent in the insoluble tissue fraction. The Gd concentration in

  6. Histology and Gadolinium Distribution in the Rodent Brain After the Administration of Cumulative High Doses of Linear and Macrocyclic Gadolinium-Based Contrast Agents

    PubMed Central

    Lohrke, Jessica; Frisk, Anna-Lena; Frenzel, Thomas; Schöckel, Laura; Rosenbruch, Martin; Jost, Gregor; Lenhard, Diana Constanze; Sieber, Martin A.; Nischwitz, Volker; Küppers, Astrid; Pietsch, Hubertus

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Retrospective studies in patients with primary brain tumors or other central nervous system pathologies as well as postmortem studies have suggested that gadolinium (Gd) deposition occurs in the dentate nucleus (DN) and globus pallidus (GP) after multiple administrations of primarily linear Gd-based contrast agents (GBCAs). However, this deposition has not been associated with any adverse effects or histopathological alterations. The aim of this preclinical study was to systematically examine differences between linear and macrocyclic GBCAs in their potential to induce changes in brain and skin histology including Gd distribution in high spatial resolution. Materials and Methods Fifty male Wistar-Han rats were randomly allocated into control (saline, n = 10 rats) and 4 GBCA groups (linear GBCAs: gadodiamide and gadopentetate dimeglumine, macrocyclic GBCAs: gadobutrol and gadoteridol; n = 10 rats per group). The animals received 20 daily intravenous injections at a dose of 2.5 mmol Gd/kg body weight. Eight weeks after the last GBCA administration, the animals were killed, and the brain and skin samples were histopathologically assessed (hematoxylin and eosin; cresyl violet [Nissl]) and by immunohistochemistry. The Gd concentration in the skin, bone, brain, and skeletal muscle samples were analyzed using inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS, n = 4). The spatial Gd distribution in the brain and skin samples was analyzed in cryosections using laser ablation coupled with ICP-MS (LA-ICP-MS, n = 3). For the ultra-high resolution of Gd distribution, brain sections of rats injected with gadodiamide or saline (n = 1) were assessed by scanning electron microscopy coupled to energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy, respectively. Results No histological changes were observed in the brain. In contrast, 4 of 10 animals in the gadodiamide group but none of the animals in other groups showed macroscopic and histological

  7. Histology and Gadolinium Distribution in the Rodent Brain After the Administration of Cumulative High Doses of Linear and Macrocyclic Gadolinium-Based Contrast Agents.

    PubMed

    Lohrke, Jessica; Frisk, Anna-Lena; Frenzel, Thomas; Schöckel, Laura; Rosenbruch, Martin; Jost, Gregor; Lenhard, Diana Constanze; Sieber, Martin A; Nischwitz, Volker; Küppers, Astrid; Pietsch, Hubertus

    2017-06-01

    Retrospective studies in patients with primary brain tumors or other central nervous system pathologies as well as postmortem studies have suggested that gadolinium (Gd) deposition occurs in the dentate nucleus (DN) and globus pallidus (GP) after multiple administrations of primarily linear Gd-based contrast agents (GBCAs). However, this deposition has not been associated with any adverse effects or histopathological alterations. The aim of this preclinical study was to systematically examine differences between linear and macrocyclic GBCAs in their potential to induce changes in brain and skin histology including Gd distribution in high spatial resolution. Fifty male Wistar-Han rats were randomly allocated into control (saline, n = 10 rats) and 4 GBCA groups (linear GBCAs: gadodiamide and gadopentetate dimeglumine, macrocyclic GBCAs: gadobutrol and gadoteridol; n = 10 rats per group). The animals received 20 daily intravenous injections at a dose of 2.5 mmol Gd/kg body weight. Eight weeks after the last GBCA administration, the animals were killed, and the brain and skin samples were histopathologically assessed (hematoxylin and eosin; cresyl violet [Nissl]) and by immunohistochemistry. The Gd concentration in the skin, bone, brain, and skeletal muscle samples were analyzed using inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS, n = 4). The spatial Gd distribution in the brain and skin samples was analyzed in cryosections using laser ablation coupled with ICP-MS (LA-ICP-MS, n = 3). For the ultra-high resolution of Gd distribution, brain sections of rats injected with gadodiamide or saline (n = 1) were assessed by scanning electron microscopy coupled to energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy, respectively. No histological changes were observed in the brain. In contrast, 4 of 10 animals in the gadodiamide group but none of the animals in other groups showed macroscopic and histological nephrogenic systemic fibrosis-like skin

  8. In vitro study of novel gadolinium-loaded liposomes guided by GBI-10 aptamer for promising tumor targeting and tumor diagnosis by magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Gu, Meng-Jie; Li, Kun-Feng; Zhang, Lan-Xin; Wang, Huan; Liu, Li-Si; Zheng, Zhuo-Zhao; Han, Nan-Yin; Yang, Zhen-Jun; Fan, Tian-Yuan

    2015-01-01

    Novel gadolinium-loaded liposomes guided by GBI-10 aptamer were developed and evaluated in vitro to enhance magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) diagnosis of tumor. Nontargeted gadolinium-loaded liposomes were achieved by incorporating amphipathic material, Gd (III) [N,N-bis-stearylamidomethyl-N'-amidomethyl] diethylenetriamine tetraacetic acid, into the liposome membrane using lipid film hydration method. GBI-10, as the targeting ligand, was then conjugated onto the liposome surface to get GBI-10-targeted gadolinium-loaded liposomes (GTLs). Both nontargeted gadolinium-loaded liposomes and GTLs displayed good dispersion stability, optimal size, and zeta potential for tumor targeting, as well as favorable imaging properties with enhanced relaxivity compared with a commercial MRI contrast agent (CA), gadopentetate dimeglumine. The use of GBI-10 aptamer in this liposomal system was intended to result in increased accumulation of gadolinium at the periphery of C6 glioma cells, where the targeting extracellular matrix protein tenascin-C is overexpressed. Increased cellular binding of GTLs to C6 cells was confirmed by confocal microscopy, flow cytometry, and MRI, demonstrating the promise of this novel delivery system as a carrier of MRI contrast agent for the diagnosis of tumor. These studies provide a new strategy furthering the development of nanomedicine for both diagnosis and therapy of tumor.

  9. In vitro study of novel gadolinium-loaded liposomes guided by GBI-10 aptamer for promising tumor targeting and tumor diagnosis by magnetic resonance imaging

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Meng-Jie; Li, Kun-Feng; Zhang, Lan-Xin; Wang, Huan; Liu, Li-Si; Zheng, Zhuo-Zhao; Han, Nan-Yin; Yang, Zhen-Jun; Fan, Tian-Yuan

    2015-01-01

    Novel gadolinium-loaded liposomes guided by GBI-10 aptamer were developed and evaluated in vitro to enhance magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) diagnosis of tumor. Nontargeted gadolinium-loaded liposomes were achieved by incorporating amphipathic material, Gd (III) [N,N-bis-stearylamidomethyl-N′-amidomethyl] diethylenetriamine tetraacetic acid, into the liposome membrane using lipid film hydration method. GBI-10, as the targeting ligand, was then conjugated onto the liposome surface to get GBI-10-targeted gadolinium-loaded liposomes (GTLs). Both nontargeted gadolinium-loaded liposomes and GTLs displayed good dispersion stability, optimal size, and zeta potential for tumor targeting, as well as favorable imaging properties with enhanced relaxivity compared with a commercial MRI contrast agent (CA), gadopentetate dimeglumine. The use of GBI-10 aptamer in this liposomal system was intended to result in increased accumulation of gadolinium at the periphery of C6 glioma cells, where the targeting extracellular matrix protein tenascin-C is overexpressed. Increased cellular binding of GTLs to C6 cells was confirmed by confocal microscopy, flow cytometry, and MRI, demonstrating the promise of this novel delivery system as a carrier of MRI contrast agent for the diagnosis of tumor. These studies provide a new strategy furthering the development of nanomedicine for both diagnosis and therapy of tumor. PMID:26316749

  10. Microfabrication of a gadolinium-derived solid-state sensor for thermal neutrons

    DOE PAGES

    Pfeifer, Kent B.; Achyuthan, Komandoor E.; Allen, Matthew; ...

    2017-03-25

    Neutron sensing is critical in civilian and military applications. Conventional neutron sensors are limited by size, weight, cost, portability and helium supply. Here in this study, the microfabrication of gadolinium (Gd) conversion material–based heterojunction diodes for detecting thermal neutrons using electrical signals produced by internal conversion electrons (ICEs) is described. Films with negligible stress were produced at the tensile-compressive crossover point, enabling Gd coatings of any desired thickness by controlling the radiofrequency sputtering power and using the zero-point near p(Ar) of 50 mTorr at 100 W. Post-deposition Gd oxidation–induced spallation was eliminated by growing a residual stress-free 50 nm neodymium-dopedmore » aluminum cap layer atop Gd. The resultant coatings were stable for at least 6 years, demonstrating excellent stability and product shelf-life. Depositing Gd directly on the diode surface eliminated the air gap, leading to a 200-fold increase in electron capture efficiency and facilitating monolithic microfabrication. The conversion electron spectrum was dominated by ICEs with energies of 72, 132 and 174 keV. Results are reported for neutron reflection and moderation by polyethylene for enhanced sensitivity, and γ- and X-ray elimination for improved specificity. The optimal Gd thickness was 10.4 μm for a 300 μm-thick partially depleted diode of 300 mm 2 active surface area. Fast detection (within 10 min) at a neutron source-to-diode distance of 11.7 cm was achieved with this configuration. All ICE energies along with γ-ray and K α,β X-rays were modeled to emphasize correlations between experiment and theory. Semi-conductor thermal neutron detectors offer advantages for field-sensing of radioactive neutron sources.« less

  11. Non‐invasive evaluation of the myocardial substrate of cardiac amyloidosis by gadolinium cardiac magnetic resonance

    PubMed Central

    Perugini, E; Rapezzi, C; Piva, T; Leone, O; Bacchi‐Reggiani, L; Riva, L; Salvi, F; Lovato, L; Branzi, A; Fattori, R

    2006-01-01

    Objective To investigate the prevalence and distribution of gadolinium (Gd) enhancement at cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging in patients with cardiac amyloidosis (CA) and to look for associations with clinical, morphological, and functional features. Patients and design 21 patients with definitely diagnosed CA (nine with immunoglobulin light chain amyloidosis and 12 transthyretin related) underwent Gd‐CMR. Results Gd enhancement was detected in 16 of 21 (76%) patients. Sixty six of 357 (18%) segments were enhanced, more often at the mid ventricular level. Transmural extension of enhancement within each patient significantly correlated with left ventricular (LV) end systolic volume (r  =  0.58). The number of enhanced segments correlated with LV end diastolic volume (r  =  0.76), end systolic volume (r  =  0.6), and left atrial size (r  =  0.56). Segments with > 50% extensive transmural enhancement more often were severely hypokinetic or akinetic (p  =  0.001). Patients with > 2 enhanced segments had significantly lower 12 lead QRS voltage and Sokolow‐Lyon index. No relation was apparent with any other clinical, morphological, functional, or histological characteristics. Conclusion Gd enhancement is common but not universally present in CA, probably due to expansion of infiltrated interstitium. The segmental and transmural distribution of the enhancement is highly variable, and mid‐ventricular regions are more often involved. Enhancement appears to be associated with impaired segmental and global contractility and a larger atrium. PMID:15939726

  12. Neutralization of Plutonium and Enriched Uranium Solutions Containing Gadolinium as a Neutron Poison

    SciTech Connect

    BRONIKOWSKI, MG.

    2004-04-01

    Materials currently being dissolved in the HB-Line Facility will result in an accumulated solution containing an estimated uranium:plutonium (U:Pu) ratio of 4.3:1 and an 235U enrichment estimated at 30 per cent The U:Pu ratio and the enrichment are outside the evaluated concentration range for disposition to high level waste (HLW) using gadolinium (Gd) as a neutron poison. To confirm that the solution generated during the current HB-Line dissolving campaign can be poisoned with Gd, neutralized and discarded to the Savannah River Site (SRS) high level waste (HLW) system without undue nuclear safety concerns the caustic precipitation of surrogate solutions wasmore » examined. Experiments were performed with a U/Pu/Gd solution representative of the HB-Line estimated concentration ratio and also a U/Gd solution. Depleted U was used in the experiments as the enrichment of the U will not affect the chemical behavior during neutralization, but will affect the amount of Gd added to the solution. Settling behavior of the neutralized solutions was found to be comparable to previous studies. The neutralized solutions mixed easily and had expected densities of typical neutralized waste. The neutralized solids were found to be homogeneous and less than 20 microns in size. Partially neutralized solids were more amorphous than the fully neutralized solids. Based on the results of these experiments, Gd was found to be a viable poison for neutralizing a U/Pu/Gd solution with a U:Pu mass ratio of 4.3:1 thus extending the U:Pu mass ratio from the previously investigated 0-3:1 to 4.3:1. However, further work is needed to allow higher U concentrations or U:Pu ratios greater than investigated in this work.« less

  13. Phenotypic expression in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and late gadolinium enhancement on cardiac magnetic resonance.

    PubMed

    Caetano, Francisca; Botelho, Ana; Trigo, Joana; Silva, Joana; Almeida, Inês; Venâncio, Margarida; Pais, João; Sanches, Conceição; Leitão Marques, António

    2014-05-01

    The prognostic value of late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) for risk stratification of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) patients is the subject of disagreement. We set out to examine the association between clinical and morphological variables, risk factors for sudden cardiac death and LGE in HCM patients. From a population of 78 patients with HCM, we studied 53 who underwent cardiac magnetic resonance. They were divided into two groups according to the presence or absence of LGE. Ventricular arrhythmias and morbidity and mortality during follow-up were analyzed. Patients with LGE were younger at the time of diagnosis (p=0.046) and more often had a family history of sudden death (p=0.008) and known coronary artery disease (p=0.086). On echocardiography they had greater maximum wall thickness (p=0.007) and left atrial area (p=0.037) and volume (p=0.035), and more often presented a restrictive pattern of diastolic dysfunction (p=0.011) with a higher E/É ratio (p=0.003) and left ventricular systolic dysfunction (p=0.038). Cardiac magnetic resonance supported the association between LGE and previous echocardiographic findings: greater left atrial area (p=0.029) and maximum wall thickness (p<0.001) and lower left ventricular ejection fraction (p=0.056). Patients with LGE more often had an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) (p=0.015). At follow-up, no differences were found in the frequency of ventricular arrhythmias, appropriate ICD therapies or mortality. The presence of LGE emerges as a risk marker, associated with the classical predictors of sudden cardiac death in this population. However, larger studies are required to confirm its independent association with clinical events. Copyright © 2013 Sociedade Portuguesa de Cardiologia. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  14. Speciation and isotope dilution analysis of gadolinium-based contrast agents in wastewater.

    PubMed

    Telgmann, Lena; Wehe, Christoph A; Birka, Marvin; Künnemeyer, Jens; Nowak, Sascha; Sperling, Michael; Karst, Uwe

    2012-11-06

    The fate of Gadolinium (Gd)-based contrast agents for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) during sewage treatment was investigated. The total concentration of Gd in influent and effluent 2 and 24 h composite samples was determined by means of isotope dilution analysis. The balancing of Gd input and output of a sewage plant over seven days indicated that approximately 10% of the Gd is removed during treatment. Batch experiments simulating the aeration tank of a sewage treatment plant confirmed the Gd complex removal during activated sludge treatment. For speciation analysis of the Gd complexes in wastewater samples, high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was hyphenated to inductively coupled plasma sector field mass spectrometry (ICP-SFMS). Separation of the five predominantly used contrast agents was carried out on a new hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography stationary phase in less than 15 min. A limit of detection (LOD) of 0.13 μg/L and a limit of quantification of 0.43 μg/L could be achieved for the Gd chelates without having to apply enrichment techniques. Speciation analysis of the 24 h composite samples revealed that 80% of the Gd complexes are present as Gd-BT-DO3A in the sampled treatment plant. The day-of-week dependent variation of the complex load followed the variation of the total Gd load, indicating a similar behavior. The analysis of sewage sludge did not prove the presence of anthropogenic Gd. However, in the effluent of the chamber filter press, which was used for sludge dewatering, two of the contrast agents and three other unknown Gd species were observed. This indicates that species transformation took place during anaerobic sludge treatment.

  15. Triple dose of gadolinium-DTPA and delayed MRI in patients with benign multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed Central

    Filippi, M; Capra, R; Campi, A; Colombo, B; Prandini, F; Marcianò, N; Gasparotti, R; Comi, G

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVES--To evaluate whether a triple dose of gadolinium-DTPA (Gd-DTPA) or delayed MRI increase the number, size, and conspicuousness of enhancing lesions in patients with benign multiple sclerosis. METHODS--T1 weighted brain MRI was carried out on 20 patients with benign multiple sclerosis (expanded disability status scale < 3 with a disease duration > 10 years) in two sessions. In the first session, one scan was obtained before and two scans five to seven minutes and 20-30 minutes after the injection of 0.1 mmol/kg Gd-DTPA (standard dose). In the second session, six to 24 hours later, the same procedure was repeated with 0.3 mmol/kg Gd-DTPA (triple dose). RESULTS--Nine enhancing lesions were found in seven patients (35%) using the standard dose of Gd-DTPA. The numbers of enhancing lesions increased to 13 (P = 0.03) and the number of patients with such lesions to eight (40%) on the delayed standard dose scans. On the early triple dose scans, we found 19 enhancing lesions in 10 patients (50%). The number of enhancing lesions was significantly higher (P = 0.01) than that obtained with the early standard dose. The number of enhancing lesions was 18 and the number of "active" patients 11 (55%) on the delayed triple dose scans. The enhancing areas increased progressively from the early standard dose scans to the delayed triple dose scans. The contrast ratios of the lesions detected in early standard dose scans was lower than those of lesions present in the early (P = 0.01) and delayed (P = 0.04) triple dose scans. CONCLUSIONS--More enhancing lesions were detected in patients with benign multiple sclerosis with both delay of MRI and the use of triple dose of Gd-DTPA suggesting that the amount of inflammation in the lesions of such patients is mild and heterogeneous. Images PMID:8778257

  16. Chelating DTPA amphiphiles: ion-tunable self-assembly structures and gadolinium complexes.

    PubMed

    Moghaddam, Minoo J; de Campo, Liliana; Kirby, Nigel; Drummond, Calum J

    2012-10-05

    A series of chelating amphiphiles and their gadolinium (Gd(III)) metal complexes have been synthesized and studied with respect to their neat and lyotropic liquid crystalline phase behavior. These amphiphiles have the ability to form ion-tunable self-assembly nanostructures and their associated Gd(III) complexes have potential as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast enhancement agents. The amphiphiles are composed of diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) chelates conjugated to one or two oleyl chain(s) (DTPA-MO and DTPA-BO), or isoprenoid-type chain(s) of phytanyl (DTPA-MP and DTPA-BP). The thermal phase behavior of the neat amphiphiles was examined by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and cross polarizing optical microscopy (POM). Self-assembly of neat amphiphiles and their associated Gd complexes, as well as their lyotropic phase behavior in water and sodium acetate solutions of different ionic strengths, were examined by POM and small and wide angle X-ray scattering (SWAXS). All neat amphiphiles exhibited lamellar structures. The non-complexed amphiphiles showed a variety of lyotropic phases depending on the number and nature of the hydrophobic chain in addition to the ionic state of the hydration. Upon hydration with increased Na-acetate concentration and the subtle changes in the effective headgroup size, the interfacial curvature of the amphiphile increased, altering the lyotropic liquid crystalline structures towards higher order mesophases such as the gyroid (Ia3d) bicontinuous cubic phase. The chelation of Gd with the DTPA amphiphiles resulted in lamellar crystalline structures for all the neat amphiphiles. Upon hydration with water, the Gd-complexed mono-conjugates formed micellar or vesicular self-assemblies, whilst the bis-conjugates transformed only partially into lyotropic liquid crystalline mesophases.

  17. Regional convection-enhanced delivery of gadolinium-labeled albumin in the rat hippocampus in vivo.

    PubMed

    Astary, Garrett W; Kantorovich, Svetlana; Carney, Paul R; Mareci, Thomas H; Sarntinoranont, Malisa

    2010-03-15

    Convection-enhanced delivery (CED) has emerged as a promising method of targeted drug delivery for treating central nervous system (CNS) disorders, but the influence of brain structure on infusate distribution is unclear. We have utilized this approach to study extracellular transport and distribution of a contrast agent in the hippocampus, a complex structure susceptible to CNS disorders. The magnetic resonance (MR) contrast agent diethylene triamene penta-acetic acid chelated gadolinium-labeled albumin (Gd-albumin), tagged with Evans blue dye, was directly infused (V(i)=5 microl) into the dorsal and ventral hippocampus of seven male Sprague-Dawley rats. The final distribution profile of the contrast agent, a product of CED and limited diffusion, was observed in vivo using high-resolution T1-weighted MR imaging at 11.1T. Dense cell layers, such as the granule cell layer of the dentate gyrus and the pyramidal cell layer of CA1, appeared to be barriers to transport of the tracer. Three-dimensional distribution shape and volume (V(d)) differences, between the dorsal and ventral hippocampus infusions, were determined from the MR images using a semi-automatic segmentation routine (dorsal V(d)=23.4+/-1.8 microl, ventral V(d)=36.4+/-5.1 microl). Finer structural detail of the hippocampus was obtained using a combination of histological analysis and fluorescence imaging. This study demonstrates that CED has the potential to target all regions of the hippocampus and that tracer distribution is influenced by infusion site, underlying structure and circuitry, and extent of backflow. Therefore, CED, combined with high-resolution MR imaging, may be a useful strategy for delivering therapeutics for the treatment of CNS disorders affecting the hippocampus. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. Gadolinium-DTPA enhanced magnetic resonance imaging of bone cysts in patients with rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed Central

    Gubler, F M; Algra, P R; Maas, M; Dijkstra, P F; Falke, T H

    1993-01-01

    OBJECTIVES--To examine the contents of intraosseous cysts in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) through the signal intensity characteristics on gadolinium-DTPA (Gd-DTPA) enhanced magnetic resonance imaging. METHODS--The hand or foot joints of nine patients with the cystic form of RA (where the initial radiological abnormality consisted of intraosseous cysts without erosions) were imaged before and after intravenous administration of Gd-DTPA. A 0.6 unit, T1 weighted spin echo and T2* weighted gradient echo were used to obtain images in at least two perpendicular planes. RESULTS--Most cysts showed a low signal intensity on the non-enhanced T1 weighted (spin echo) images and a high signal intensity on the T2* weighted (gradient echo) images, consistent with a fluid content. No cyst showed an enhancement of signal intensity on the T1 weighted images after intravenous administration of Gd-DTPA, whereas synovium hyperplasia at the site of bony erosions did show an increased signal intensity after Gd-DTPA. Magnetic resonance imaging detected more cysts (as small as 2 mm) than plain films, and the cysts were located truly intraosseously. In six patients no other joint abnormalities were identified by magnetic resonance imaging; the three other patients also showed, after Gd-DTPA administration, an enhanced synovium at the site of bony erosions. CONCLUSIONS--It is suggested that intraosseous bone cysts in patients with RA do not contain hyperaemic synovial proliferation. The bone cysts in patients with the cystic form of RA may be the only joint abnormality. Images PMID:8257207

  19. Gadolinium-conjugated PLA-PEG nanoparticles as liver targeted molecular MRI contrast agent.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhijin; Yu, Dexin; Liu, Chunxi; Yang, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Na; Ma, Chunhong; Song, Jibin; Lu, Zaijun

    2011-09-01

    A nanoparticle magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agent targeted to liver was developed by conjugation of gadolinium (Gd) chelate groups onto the biocompatible poly(l-lactide)-block-poly (ethylene glycol) (PLA-PEG) nanoparticles. PLA-PEG conjugated with diethylenetriaminopentaacetic acid (DTPA) was used to formulate PLA-PEG-DTPA nanoparticles by solvent diffusion method, and then Gd was loaded onto the nanoparticles by chelated with the unfolding DTPA on the surface of the PLA-PEG-DTPA nanoparticles. The mean size of the nanoparticles was 265.9 ± 6.7 nm. The relaxivity of the Gd-labeled nanoparticles was measured, and the distribution in vivo was evaluated in rats. Compared with conventional contrast agent (Magnevist), the Gd-labeled PLA-PEG nanoparticles showed significant enhancement both on liver targeting ability and imaging signal intensity. The T(1) and T(2) relaxivities per [Gd] of the Gd-labeled nanoparticles was 18.865 mM(-1) s(-1) and 24.863 mM(-1) s(-1) at 3 T, respectively. In addition, the signal intensity in vivo was stronger comparing with the Gd-DTPA and the T(1) weight time was lasting for 4.5 h. The liver targeting efficiency of the Gd-labeled PLA-PEG nanoparticles in rats was 14.57 comparing with Magnevist injection. Therefore, the Gd-labeled nanoparticles showed the potential as targeting molecular MRI contrast agent for further clinical utilization.

  20. Microfabrication of a gadolinium-derived solid-state sensor for thermal neutrons

    PubMed Central

    Achyuthan, Komandoor E.; Allen, Matthew; Denton, Michele L. B.; Siegal, Michael P.; Manginell, Ronald P.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Neutron sensing is critical in civilian and military applications. Conventional neutron sensors are limited by size, weight, cost, portability and helium supply. Here the microfabrication of gadolinium (Gd) conversion material–based heterojunction diodes for detecting thermal neutrons using electrical signals produced by internal conversion electrons (ICEs) is described. Films with negligible stress were produced at the tensile-compressive crossover point, enabling Gd coatings of any desired thickness by controlling the radiofrequency sputtering power and using the zero-point near p(Ar) of 50 mTorr at 100 W. Post-deposition Gd oxidation–induced spallation was eliminated by growing a residual stress-free 50 nm neodymium-doped aluminum cap layer atop Gd. The resultant coatings were stable for at least 6 years, demonstrating excellent stability and product shelf-life. Depositing Gd directly on the diode surface eliminated the air gap, leading to a 200-fold increase in electron capture efficiency and facilitating monolithic microfabrication. The conversion electron spectrum was dominated by ICEs with energies of 72, 132 and 174 keV. Results are reported for neutron reflection and moderation by polyethylene for enhanced sensitivity, and γ- and X-ray elimination for improved specificity. The optimal Gd thickness was 10.4 μm for a 300 μm-thick partially depleted diode of 300 mm2 active surface area. Fast detection (within 10 min) at a neutron source-to-diode distance of 11.7 cm was achieved with this configuration. All ICE energies along with γ-ray and Kα,β X-rays were modeled to emphasize correlations between experiment and theory. Semi-conductor thermal neutron detectors offer advantages for field-sensing of radioactive neutron sources. PMID:28369631

  1. Clinical predictors of cardiac magnetic resonance late gadolinium enhancement in patients with atrial fibrillation.

    PubMed

    Chrispin, Jonathan; Ipek, Esra Gucuk; Habibi, Mohammadali; Yang, Eunice; Spragg, David; Marine, Joseph E; Ashikaga, Hiroshi; Rickard, John; Berger, Ronald D; Zimmerman, Stefan L; Calkins, Hugh; Nazarian, Saman

    2017-03-01

    This study aims to examine the association of clinical co-morbidities with the presence of left atrial (LA) late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) on cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR). Previous studies have established the severity of LA LGE to be associated with atrial fibrillation (AF) recurrence following AF ablation. We sought to determine whether baseline clinical characteristics were associated with LGE extent among patients presenting for an initial AF ablation. The cohort consisted of 179 consecutive patients with no prior cardiac ablation procedures who underwent pre-procedure LGE-CMR. The extent of LA LGE for each patient was calculated using the image intensity ratio, normalized to the mean blood pool intensity, corresponding to a bipolar voltage ≤0.3 mV. The association of LGE extent with baseline clinical characteristics was examined using non-parametric and multivariable models. The mean age of the cohort was 60.9 ± 9.6 years and 128 (72%) were male. In total, 56 (31%) patients had persistent AF. The mean LA volume was 118.4 ± 41.6 mL, and the mean LA LGE extent was 14.1 ± 10.4%. There was no association with any clinical variables with LGE extent by quartiles in the multivariable model. Extent of LGE as a continuous variable was positively, but weakly associated with LA volume in a multivariable model adjusting for age, body mass index, AF persistence, and left ventricular ejection fraction (1.5% scar/mL, P = 0.038). In a cohort of patients presenting for initial AF ablation, the presence of pre-ablation LA LGE extent was weakly, but positively associated with increasing LA volume. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2016. For permissions please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Investigating the stability of gadolinium based contrast agents towards UV radiation.

    PubMed

    Birka, Marvin; Roscher, Jörg; Holtkamp, Michael; Sperling, Michael; Karst, Uwe

    2016-03-15

    Since the 1980s, the broad application of gadolinium(Gd)-based contrast agents for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has led to significantly increased concentrations of Gd in the aqueous environment. Little is known about the stability of these highly polar xenobiotics under environmental conditions, in wastewater and in drinking water treatment. Therefore, the stability of frequently applied Gd-based MRI contrast agents towards UV radiation was investigated. The hyphenation of hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC) with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and of HILIC with electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) provided quantitative elemental information as well as structural information. The contrast agents Gd-DTPA, Gd-DOTA and Gd-BT-DO3A showed a high stability in irradiation experiments applying a wavelength range from 220 nm to 500 nm. Nevertheless, the degradation of Gd-BOPTA as well as the formation of Gd-containing transformation products was observed by means of HILIC-ICP-MS. Matrix-dependent irradiation experiments showed a degradation of Gd-BOPTA down to 3% of the initial amount in purified water after 300 min, whereas the degradation was slowed down in drinking water and surface water. Furthermore, it was observed that the sum of species continuously decreased with proceeding irradiation in all matrices. After irradiation in purified water for 300 min only 16% of the sum of species was left. This indicates a release of Gd(III) ions from the complex in course of irradiation. HILIC-ESI-MS measurements revealed that the transformation products mostly resulted from O-dealkylation and N-dealkylation reactions. In good correlation with retention times, the majority of transformation products were found to be more polar than Gd-BOPTA itself. Based on accurate masses, sum formulas were obtained and structures could be proposed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Anterior delayed gadolinium-enhanced MRI of cartilage values predict joint failure after periacetabular osteotomy.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sang Do; Jessel, Rebecca; Zurakowski, David; Millis, Michael B; Kim, Young-Jo

    2012-12-01

    Several available compositional MRIs seem to detect early osteoarthritis before radiographic appearance. Delayed gadolinium-enhanced MRI of cartilage (dGEMRIC) has been most frequently used in clinical studies and reportedly predicts premature joint failure in patients undergoing Bernese periacetabular osteotomies (PAOs). We asked, given regional variations in biochemical composition in dysplastic hips, whether the dGEMRIC index of the anterior joint would better predict premature joint failure after PAOs than the coronal dGEMRIC index as previously reported. We retrospectively reviewed 43 hips in 41 patients who underwent Bernese PAO for hip dysplasia. Thirty-seven hips had preserved joints after PAOs and six were deemed premature failures based on pain, joint space narrowing, or subsequent THA. We used dGEMRIC to determine regional variations in biochemical composition. Preoperative demographic and clinical outcome score, radiographic measures of osteoarthritis and severity of dysplasia, and dGEMRIC indexes from different hip regions were analyzed in a multivariable regression analysis to determine the best predictor of premature joint failure. Minimum followup was 24 months (mean, 32 months; range, 24-46 months). The two cohorts were similar in age and sex distribution. Severity of dysplasia was similar as measured by lateral center-edge, anterior center-edge, and Tönnis angles. Preoperative pain, joint space width, Tönnis grade, and coronal and sagittal dGEMRIC indexes differed between groups. The dGEMRIC index in the anterior weightbearing region of the hip was lower in the prematurely failed group and was the best predictor. Success of PAO depends on the amount of preoperative osteoarthritis. These degenerative changes are seen most commonly in the anterior joint. The dGEMRIC index of the anterior joint may better predict premature joint failure than radiographic measures of hip osteoarthritis and coronal dGEMRIC index. Level II, prognostic study. See

  4. Random lasing in Nd{sup 3+} doped potassium gadolinium tungstate crystal powder

    SciTech Connect

    Moura, André L., E-mail: andre.moura@fis.ufal.br; Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, 50670-901 Recife, PE; Fewo, Serge I.

    2015-02-28

    Random laser (RL) emission in Nd{sup 3+} doped potassium gadolinium tungstate—KGd(WO{sub 4}){sub 2}:Nd{sup 3+}—crystal powder is demonstrated. The powder was excited at 813 nm in resonance with the Nd{sup 3+} transition {sup 4}I{sub 9/2}→{sup 4}F{sub 5/2}. RL emission at 1067 nm due to the {sup 4}F{sub 3/2}→{sup 4}I{sub 11/2} transition was observed and characterized. An intensity threshold dependent on the laser spot area and bandwidth narrowing from ≈2.20 nm to ≈0.40 nm were observed and measured. For a beam spot area of 0.4 mm{sup 2}, a RL threshold of 6.5 mJ/mm{sup 2} (90 MW/cm{sup 2}) was determined. For excitation intensity smaller than the RL threshold, only spontaneousmore » emission from level {sup 4}F{sub 3/2} with decay time in the tens microsecond range was observed, but for excitation above the RL threshold, significant shortening of excited level lifetime, characteristic of a stimulated process was found. The overall characteristics measured show that KGd(WO{sub 4}){sub 2}:Nd{sup 3+} is an efficient material for operation of solid state RLs in the near-infrared.« less

  5. Erosion Performance of Gadolinium Zirconate-Based Thermal Barrier Coatings Processed by Suspension Plasma Spray

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahade, Satyapal; Curry, Nicholas; Björklund, Stefan; Markocsan, Nicolaie; Nylén, Per; Vaßen, Robert

    2017-01-01

    7-8 wt.% Yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) is the standard thermal barrier coating (TBC) material used by the gas turbines industry due to its excellent thermal and thermo-mechanical properties up to 1200 °C. The need for improvement in gas turbine efficiency has led to an increase in the turbine inlet gas temperature. However, above 1200 °C, YSZ has issues such as poor sintering resistance, poor phase stability and susceptibility to calcium magnesium alumino silicates (CMAS) degradation. Gadolinium zirconate (GZ) is considered as one of the promising top coat candidates for TBC applications at high temperatures (>1200 °C) due to its low thermal conductivity, good sintering resistance and CMAS attack resistance. Single-layer 8YSZ, double-layer GZ/YSZ and triple-layer GZdense/GZ/YSZ TBCs were deposited by suspension plasma spray (SPS) process. Microstructural analysis was carried out by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). A columnar microstructure was observed in the single-, double- and triple-layer TBCs. Phase analysis of the as-sprayed TBCs was carried out using XRD (x-ray diffraction) where a tetragonal prime phase of zirconia in the single-layer YSZ TBC and a cubic defect fluorite phase of GZ in the double and triple-layer TBCs was observed. Porosity measurements of the as-sprayed TBCs were made by water intrusion method and image analysis method. The as-sprayed GZ-based multi-layered TBCs were subjected to erosion test at room temperature, and their erosion resistance was compared with single-layer 8YSZ. It was shown that the erosion resistance of 8YSZ single-layer TBC was higher than GZ-based multi-layered TBCs. Among the multi-layered TBCs, triple-layer TBC was slightly better than double layer in terms of erosion resistance. The eroded TBCs were cold-mounted and analyzed by SEM.

  6. Mannose-coated gadolinium liposomes for improved magnetic resonance imaging in acute pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Tian, Bing; Liu, Ri; Chen, Shiyue; Chen, Luguang; Liu, Fang; Jia, Guorong; Dong, Yinmei; Li, Jing; Chen, Huaiwen; Lu, Jianping

    2017-01-01

    Acute pancreatitis (AP) is an acute inflammatory condition of the pancreas. The symptoms, treatment, and prognosis of mild and severe AP are different, and severe AP is a potentially life-threatening disease with a high incidence of complications and high mortality rate. Thus, it is urgent to develop an effective approach to reliably discriminate between mild and severe AP. We have developed novel gadolinium-diethylenetriaminepentaacetic (Gd-DTPA)-loaded mannosylated liposomes (named thereafter M-Gd-NL) that preferably target macrophages in AP. The targeting ability of M-Gd-NL toward macrophages in AP and its ability to discriminate between mild and severe AP were evaluated. The liposomes were of desired particle size (~100 nm), Gd-DTPA encapsulation efficiency (~85%), and stability. M-Gd-NL and non-targeted Gd-DTPA-loaded liposomes (Gd-NL) exhibited increased relaxivity compared with Gd-DTPA. Compared with Gd-NL and Gd-DTPA, M-Gd-NL showed increased uptake in macrophages, resulting in increased T 1 imaging ability both in vitro (macrophage cell line) and in vivo (severe AP model). Importantly, M-Gd-NL had the ability to discriminate between mild and severe AP, as reflected by a significantly higher T 1 magnetic resonance imaging signal in severe AP than in mild AP. M-Gd-NL did not show severe organ toxicity in rats. Our data suggest that M-Gd-NL had enhanced magnetic resonance imaging ability by targeting macrophages in AP and good ability to discriminate between mild and severe AP. We believe that M-Gd-NL could shed new light on the diagnosis of AP in the near future.

  7. Microfabrication of a gadolinium-derived solid-state sensor for thermal neutrons

    SciTech Connect

    Pfeifer, Kent B.; Achyuthan, Komandoor E.; Allen, Matthew

    Neutron sensing is critical in civilian and military applications. Conventional neutron sensors are limited by size, weight, cost, portability and helium supply. Here in this study, the microfabrication of gadolinium (Gd) conversion material–based heterojunction diodes for detecting thermal neutrons using electrical signals produced by internal conversion electrons (ICEs) is described. Films with negligible stress were produced at the tensile-compressive crossover point, enabling Gd coatings of any desired thickness by controlling the radiofrequency sputtering power and using the zero-point near p(Ar) of 50 mTorr at 100 W. Post-deposition Gd oxidation–induced spallation was eliminated by growing a residual stress-free 50 nm neodymium-dopedmore » aluminum cap layer atop Gd. The resultant coatings were stable for at least 6 years, demonstrating excellent stability and product shelf-life. Depositing Gd directly on the diode surface eliminated the air gap, leading to a 200-fold increase in electron capture efficiency and facilitating monolithic microfabrication. The conversion electron spectrum was dominated by ICEs with energies of 72, 132 and 174 keV. Results are reported for neutron reflection and moderation by polyethylene for enhanced sensitivity, and γ- and X-ray elimination for improved specificity. The optimal Gd thickness was 10.4 μm for a 300 μm-thick partially depleted diode of 300 mm 2 active surface area. Fast detection (within 10 min) at a neutron source-to-diode distance of 11.7 cm was achieved with this configuration. All ICE energies along with γ-ray and K α,β X-rays were modeled to emphasize correlations between experiment and theory. Semi-conductor thermal neutron detectors offer advantages for field-sensing of radioactive neutron sources.« less

  8. Gadolinium Enhancement in Intracranial Atherosclerotic Plaque and Ischemic Stroke: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Ajay; Baradaran, Hediyeh; Al-Dasuqi, Khalid; Knight-Greenfield, Ashley; Giambrone, Ashley E; Delgado, Diana; Wright, Drew; Teng, Zhongzhao; Min, James K; Navi, Babak B; Iadecola, Costantino; Kamel, Hooman

    2016-08-15

    Gadolinium enhancement on high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has been proposed as a marker of inflammation and instability in intracranial atherosclerotic plaque. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to summarize the association between intracranial atherosclerotic plaque enhancement and acute ischemic stroke. We searched the medical literature to identify studies of patients undergoing intracranial vessel wall MRI for evaluation of intracranial atherosclerotic plaque. We recorded study data and assessed study quality, with disagreements in data extraction resolved by a third reader. A random-effects odds ratio was used to assess whether, in any given patient, cerebral infarction was more likely in the vascular territory supplied by an artery with MRI-detected plaque enhancement as compared to territory supplied by an artery without enhancement. We calculated between-study heterogeneity using the Cochrane Q test and publication bias using the Begg-Mazumdar test. Eight articles published between 2011 and 2015 met inclusion criteria. These studies provided information about plaque enhancement characteristics from 295 arteries in 330 patients. We found a significant positive relationship between MRI enhancement and cerebral infarction in the same vascular territory, with a random effects odds ratio of 10.8 (95% CI 4.1-28.1, P<0.001). No significant heterogeneity (Q=11.08, P=0.14) or publication bias (P=0.80) was present. Intracranial plaque enhancement on high-resolution vessel wall MRI is strongly associated with ischemic stroke. Evaluation for plaque enhancement on MRI may be a useful test to improve diagnostic yield in patients with ischemic strokes of undetermined etiology. © 2016 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley Blackwell.

  9. Gadolinium deposition in the brain: association with various GBCAs using a generalized additive model.

    PubMed

    Bae, Sohi; Lee, Ho-Joon; Han, Kyunghwa; Park, Yae-Won; Choi, Yoon Seong; Ahn, Sung Soo; Kim, Jinna; Lee, Seung-Koo

    2017-08-01

    To determine the relationship between the number of administrations of various gadolinium-based contrast agents (GBCAs) and increased T1 signal intensity in the globus pallidus (GP) and dentate nucleus (DN). This retrospective study included 122 patients who underwent double-dose GBCA-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging. Two radiologists calculated GP-to-thalamus (TH) signal intensity ratio, DN-to-pons signal intensity ratio and relative change (R change ) between the baseline and final examinations. Interobserver agreement was evaluated. The relationships between R change and several factors, including number of each GBCA administrations, were analysed using a generalized additive model. Six patients (4.9%) received linear GBCAs (mean 20.8 number of administration; range 15-30), 44 patients (36.1%) received macrocyclic GBCAs (mean 26.1; range 14-51) and 72 patients (59.0%) received both types of GBCAs (mean 31.5; range 12-65). Interobserver agreement was almost perfect (0.99; 95% CI: 0.99-0.99). R change (DN:pons) was associated with gadodiamide (p = 0.006) and gadopentetate dimeglumine (p < 0.001), but not with other GBCAs. R change (GP:TH) was not associated with GBCA administration. Previous administration of linear agents gadoiamide and gadopentetate dimeglumine is associated with increased T1 signal intensity in the DN, whereas macrocyclic GBCAs do not show an association. • Certain linear GBCAs are associated with T1 signal change in the dentate nucleus. • The signal change is related to the administration number of certain linear GBCAs. • Difference in signal change may reflect differences in stability of agents.

  10. Retention of gadolinium compounds used in magnetic resonance imaging: a critical review and the recommendations of regulatory agencies.

    PubMed

    Martí-Bonmatí, L; Martí-Bonmatí, E

    The Spanish Agency for Drugs and Healthcare Products (AEMPS), based on the recommendations of the European Committee for Risk Assessment in Pharmacovigilance, established on 13 March 2017 that linear gadolinium-based MR contrast media, such as MultiHance, Omniscan, Magnevist (currently not marketed) and Optimark (no longer marketed in Spain), the clinical benefits do not outweigh the potential risks derived from their use. AEMPS recommends to suspend its marketing for general use based on the retention of these compounds in the brain. On the other hand, the AEMPS justifies the maintenance of Primovist and MultiHance for liver studies, and Magnevist of intra-articular administration (not commercialized in Spain), and justified the almost exclusive use of macrocyclic structure contrasts (Gadovist, ProHance and Dotarem). However, this retention is known to be different for each of the contrast media. All existing gadolinium contrasts agents have a distribution phase with tissue retention, due to a very slow exchange, in the interstitium of bone, skin, kidney, brain and other organs. The existence of histological effects or clinical symptoms associated with the accumulation of these trace amounts of gadolinium has not been demonstrated. The major toxicological concern with these contrast agents is related to nephrogenic systemic fibrosis (NSF). Since the safety profiles are mainly related to the interstitial retention space in the tissues, it does not seem justified to actually exclude contrast media that do not have cases related to the NSF. Based on all of this, we disagree with the latest AEMPS recommendation suggesting the marketing stoppage of linear agents without considering the individual retention profiles. This recommendation is not based neither on the data nor existing knowledge about the retention, relaxivity and clinical efficiency of the Gd compounds. It is therefore necessary to carry out prospective studies on the histological and clinical relevance of

  11. High-pressure high-temperature phase diagram of gadolinium studied using a boron-doped heater anvil

    SciTech Connect

    Montgomery, J. M.; Samudrala, G. K.; Velisavljevic, N.

    A boron-doped designer heater anvil is used in conjunction with powder x-ray diffraction to collect structural information on a sample of quasi-hydrostatically loaded gadolinium metal up to pressures above 8 GPa and 600 K. The heater anvil consists of a natural diamond anvil that has been surface modified with a homoepitaxially-grown chemical-vapor-deposited layer of conducting boron-doped diamond, and is used as a DC heating element. Internally insulating both diamond anvils with sapphire support seats allows for heating and cooling of the high pressure area on the order of a few tens of seconds. This device is then used to scanmore » the phase diagram of the sample by oscillating the temperature while continuously increasing the externally applied pressure and collecting in situ time-resolved powder diffraction images. In the pressure-temperature range covered in the experiment the gadolinium sample is observed in its hcp, αSm, and dhcp phases. Under this temperature cycling, the hcp→αSm transition proceeds in discontinuous steps at points along the expected phase boundary. Additionally, the unit cell volumes of each phase deviate from the expected thermal expansion behavior just before each transition is observed from the diffraction data. From these measurements (representing only one hour of synchrotron x-ray collection time), a single-experiment equation of state and phase diagram of each phase of gadolinium is presented for the range of 0 - 10 GPa and 300 - 650 K.« less

  12. A novel cryogenic magnetic refrigerant metal-organic framework based on 1D gadolinium(III) chain

    SciTech Connect

    Tang, Qun; Li, Peng-Fei; Zou, Zhi-Ming, E-mail: 2014005@glut.edu.cn

    2017-02-15

    A metal-organic framework (MOF) based on gadolinium ion (Gd{sup 3+}) and tricarboxylate ligand, [Gd(BTPCA)(H{sub 2}O)]·2DMF·3H{sub 2}O (Gd-BTPCA) (H{sub 3}BTPCA =1,1′,1′-(benzene-1,3,5-triyl)tripiperidine-4-carboxylic acid; DMF=dimethylformamide), was synthesized and structurally characterized. The adjacent Gd{sup 3+} ions are intraconnected by the carboxylate groups of the BTPCA{sup 3-} ligands to form a 1D Gd{sup 3+} ion chain. The 1D Gd{sup 3+} ion chains are interconnected by the BTPCA{sup 3-} ligands, giving rise to a 3D framework with 1D open channel. The magnetic studies indicate that Gd-BTPCA exhibits weak ferromagnetic interactions, and acts as a cryogenic magnetic refrigerant having the magnetic entropy change (−ΔS{sub m}) of 20.40more » J kg{sup −1} K{sup −1} for ΔH =7 T at 3 K. - Graphical abstract: A 1D gadolinium(III) chains-based metal-organic framework performed ferromagnetic coupling on the magnetic property. Magnetic investigation reveals that Gd-BTPCA exhibits the entropy change (−ΔS{sub m}) of 20.40 J kg{sup −1} K{sup −1} for ΔH =7 T at 3 K. - Highlights: • The MOF based on gadolinium ion and tricarboxylate ligand was synthesized. • This MOF is connected with 1D Gd{sup 3+} ions chain and the carboxylate groups of BTPCA{sup 3-} ligands. • The magnetic studies indicate that the MOF exhibits the weak ferromagnetic interactions. • Magnetic investigation reveals that the MOF exhibits the high entropy change.« less

  13. Clinical application of a gadolinium-based capsule as an MRI contrast agent in slow transit constipation diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Zhi, M; Zhou, Z; Chen, H; Xiong, F; Huang, J; He, H; Zhang, M; Su, M; Gao, X; Hu, P

    2017-06-01

    As a traditional method for the assessment of colon dynamics, radio-opaque markers (ROMs) are limited in clinical use because of their ionizing radiation. We compared the accuracy and applicability of gadolinium-based capsules with ROMs in the measurement of colon dynamics in healthy controls and slow transit constipation (STC) patients. Seven patients with STC and nine healthy controls under a normal diet orally consumed ROMs and gadolinium-based capsules simultaneously. All subjects underwent X-ray and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Healthy control images were acquired at 12, 24, and 48 h, and STC patient images were acquired at 24, 48, and 72 h. The scores based on the position of the labeling capsules and ROMs in the colon and the colon transit times (CTTs) in the two groups were compared. The CTTs obtained via the ROMs were 34.7±17.4 and 67.3±6.5 h in the healthy controls and STC patients, respectively (P<.05). The CTTs obtained via MRI were 30.9±15.9 and 74.1±7.2 h in the healthy controls and STC patients, respectively (P<.05). The CTTs of the STC patients were significantly longer than the healthy controls. The correlation (r s ) between the scores based on the position of the labeling capsule and ROMs in the healthy group and the STC patients was .880 (P<.05) and .889 (P<.05), respectively. As a MRI contrast label, gadolinium-based capsules exhibit results comparable to ROMs in colon motility measurements. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. High-pressure high-temperature phase diagram of gadolinium studied using a boron-doped heater anvil

    DOE PAGES

    Montgomery, J. M.; Samudrala, G. K.; Velisavljevic, N.; ...

    2016-04-07

    A boron-doped designer heater anvil is used in conjunction with powder x-ray diffraction to collect structural information on a sample of quasi-hydrostatically loaded gadolinium metal up to pressures above 8 GPa and 600 K. The heater anvil consists of a natural diamond anvil that has been surface modified with a homoepitaxially-grown chemical-vapor-deposited layer of conducting boron-doped diamond, and is used as a DC heating element. Internally insulating both diamond anvils with sapphire support seats allows for heating and cooling of the high pressure area on the order of a few tens of seconds. This device is then used to scanmore » the phase diagram of the sample by oscillating the temperature while continuously increasing the externally applied pressure and collecting in situ time-resolved powder diffraction images. In the pressure-temperature range covered in the experiment the gadolinium sample is observed in its hcp, αSm, and dhcp phases. Under this temperature cycling, the hcp→αSm transition proceeds in discontinuous steps at points along the expected phase boundary. Additionally, the unit cell volumes of each phase deviate from the expected thermal expansion behavior just before each transition is observed from the diffraction data. From these measurements (representing only one hour of synchrotron x-ray collection time), a single-experiment equation of state and phase diagram of each phase of gadolinium is presented for the range of 0 - 10 GPa and 300 - 650 K.« less

  15. Relaxivity enhancement of aquated Tris(β-diketonate)gadolinium(III) chelates by confinement within ultrashort single-walled carbon nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Law, Justin J; Guven, Adem; Wilson, Lon J

    2014-01-01

    Ultrashort single-walled carbon nanotubes loaded with gadolinium ions (gadonanotubes) have been previously shown to exhibit extremely high T1 -weighted relaxivities (>100 mm(-1) s(-1) ). To further examine the effect of nanoconfinement on the relaxivity of gadolinium-based contrast agents for magnetic resonance imaging, a series of ultrashort single-walled carbon nanotube (US-tube) materials internally loaded with gadolinium chelates have been prepared and studied. US-tubes were loaded with Gd(acac)3  · 2H2 O, Gd(hfac)3  · 2H2 O, and Gd(thd)3 (acac = acetylacetone, hfac = hexafluoroacetylacetone, thd = tetramethylheptanedione). The longitudinal relaxivities of the prepared materials determined at 25°C in a 1.5 T field were 103 mm(-1) s(-1) for Gd(acac)3  · 2H2 O@US-tubes, 105 mm(-1) s(-1) for Gd(hfac)3  · 2H2 O@US-tubes and 26 mm(-1) s(-1) for Gd(thd)3 @US-tubes. Compared with the relaxivities obtained for the unloaded chelates (<10 mm(-1) s(-1) ) as well as accounting for the T1 reduction observed for the empty US-tubes, the boost in relaxivity for chelate-loaded US-tubes is attributed to confinement within the nanotube and depends on the number of coordinated water molecules. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Transient arterial phase respiratory motion-related artifact in MR imaging of the liver: an analysis of four different gadolinium-based contrast agents.

    PubMed

    Shah, Mansi R; Flusberg, Milana; Paroder, Viktoriya; Rozenblit, Alla M; Chernyak, Victoria

    The purpose was to compare hepatic arterial phase (HAP) respiratory motion artifact (RMA) between gadoxetate, gadobutrol, gadopentetate, and gadobenate. Two hundred cases of each gadolinium agent were included. RMA was assigned using 5-point Likert scale (1=no motion, 5=extreme motion) on precontrast and HAP. RMA increase (increase ≥1 on HAP from precontrast) was the outcome in logistic regression. Odds of RMA increase for gadoxetate were 5.5 (P<.001), 3.6 (P=.034), and 9.5 (P<.001) times higher than gadobutrol, gadopentetate, and gadobenate, respectively. Gadolinium volume and dose were not independent predictors of RMA increase. Gadoxetate has increased odds of RMA compared with other gadolinium agents; tight contrast bolus is not a contributor. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. A comparison of the COG and MCNP codes in computational neutron capture therapy modeling, Part II: gadolinium neutron capture therapy models and therapeutic effects.

    PubMed

    Wangerin, K; Culbertson, C N; Jevremovic, T

    2005-08-01

    The goal of this study was to evaluate the COG Monte Carlo radiation transport code, developed and tested by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, for gadolinium neutron capture therapy (GdNCT) related modeling. The validity of COG NCT model has been established for this model, and here the calculation was extended to analyze the effect of various gadolinium concentrations on dose distribution and cell-kill effect of the GdNCT modality and to determine the optimum therapeutic conditions for treating brain cancers. The computational results were compared with the widely used MCNP code. The differences between the COG and MCNP predictions were generally small and suggest that the COG code can be applied to similar research problems in NCT. Results for this study also showed that a concentration of 100 ppm gadolinium in the tumor was most beneficial when using an epithermal neutron beam.

  18. MRI with intrathecal MRI gadolinium contrast medium administration: a possible method to assess glymphatic function in human brain.

    PubMed

    Eide, Per Kristian; Ringstad, Geir

    2015-11-01

    Recently, the "glymphatic system" of the brain has been discovered in rodents, which is a paravascular, transparenchymal route for clearance of excess brain metabolites and distribution of compounds in the cerebrospinal fluid. It has already been demonstrated that intrathecally administered gadolinium (Gd) contrast medium distributes along this route in rats, but so far not in humans. A 27-year-old woman underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with intrathecal administration of gadobutrol, which distributed throughout her entire brain after 1 and 4.5 h. MRI with intrathecal Gd may become a tool to study glymphatic function in the human brain.

  19. MRI with intrathecal MRI gadolinium contrast medium administration: a possible method to assess glymphatic function in human brain

    PubMed Central

    Ringstad, Geir

    2015-01-01

    Recently, the “glymphatic system” of the brain has been discovered in rodents, which is a paravascular, transparenchymal route for clearance of excess brain metabolites and distribution of compounds in the cerebrospinal fluid. It has already been demonstrated that intrathecally administered gadolinium (Gd) contrast medium distributes along this route in rats, but so far not in humans. A 27-year-old woman underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with intrathecal administration of gadobutrol, which distributed throughout her entire brain after 1 and 4.5 h. MRI with intrathecal Gd may become a tool to study glymphatic function in the human brain. PMID:26634147

  20. A smart T(1)-weighted MRI contrast agent for uranyl cations based on a DNAzyme-gadolinium conjugate.

    PubMed

    Xu, Weichen; Xing, Hang; Lu, Yi

    2013-11-07

    Rational design of smart MRI contrast agents with high specificity for metal ions remains a challenge. Here, we report a general strategy for the design of smart MRI contrast agents for detecting metal ions based on conjugation of a DNAzyme with a gadolinium complex. The 39E DNAzyme, which has high selectivity for UO2(2+), was conjugated to Gd(III)-DOTA and streptavidin. The binding of UO2(2+) to its 39E DNAzyme resulted in the dissociation of Gd(III)-DOTA from the large streptavidin, leading to a decrease of the T1 correlation time, and a change in the MRI signal.

  1. The histological basis of late gadolinium enhancement cardiovascular magnetic resonance in a patient with Anderson-Fabry disease.

    PubMed

    Moon, James C; Sheppard, Mary; Reed, Emma; Lee, Phillip; Elliott, Perry M; Pennell, Dudley J

    2006-01-01

    Anderson-Fabry Disease (AFD) is a storage disease that mimics hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) by cardiovascular magnetic resonance occurs in approximately 50% of patients in the basal inferolateral LV wall, but how an intracellular storage disease causes focal LGE is unknown. We present a whole-heart histological validation that LGE is caused by focal myocardial collagen scarring. This scarring may be the substrate for electrical re-entry and sudden arrhythmic death. The reasons for this distribution of fibrosis are unclear, but may reflect inhomogeneous left ventricular wall stress.

  2. Enhancements in hepatobiliary imaging: the spectrum of gadolinium-ethoxybenzyl diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid usages in hepatobiliary magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Channual, Stephanie; Pahwa, Anokh; Lu, David S; Raman, Steven S

    2016-09-01

    Gadolinium-ethoxybenzyl diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (Gd-EOB-DTPA) is a unique hepatocyte-specific contrast agent approved for clinical use in the United States in 2008. Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced MR has shown to improve detection and characterization of hepatic lesions. Gd-EOB-DTPA is now being routinely used in daily clinical practice worldwide. Therefore, it is important for radiologists to be familiar with the potential uses and pitfalls of Gd-EOB-DTPA, which extends beyond the assessment of focal hepatic lesions. The purpose of this article is to review the various usages of Gd-EOB-DTPA in hepatobiliary MR imaging.

  3. Gadolinium and didymium (praseodymium/neodymium) cations as capture agents in lightmicroscopical histochemistry of acid and alkaline phosphatase.

    PubMed

    Halbhuber, K J; Zimmermann, N

    1987-01-01

    In previous papers, cerium and lanthanum based methods for light-microscopical detection of acid and alkaline phosphatase activity were proposed. In this paper, the usefulness of other lanthanide cations such as gadolinium and praseodymium/neodymium cations as capture agents in phosphatase histochemistry is tested. It is evident that phosphate ions were sufficiently trapped by these cations. According to the lead and silver multistep procedures earlier described it is possible to visualize alkaline phosphatase activity in the brush borders of the intestine or kidney as well as acid phosphatase activity in the lysosomes. These methods can be recommended.

  4. Gadolinium-doped water cerenkov-based neutron and high energy gamma-ray detector and radiation portal monitoring system

    DOEpatents

    Dazeley, Steven A; Svoboda, Robert C; Bernstein, Adam; Bowden, Nathaniel

    2013-02-12

    A water Cerenkov-based neutron and high energy gamma ray detector and radiation portal monitoring system using water doped with a Gadolinium (Gd)-based compound as the Cerenkov radiator. An optically opaque enclosure is provided surrounding a detection chamber filled with the Cerenkov radiator, and photomultipliers are optically connected to the detect Cerenkov radiation generated by the Cerenkov radiator from incident high energy gamma rays or gamma rays induced by neutron capture on the Gd of incident neutrons from a fission source. The PMT signals are then used to determine time correlations indicative of neutron multiplicity events characteristic of a fission source.

  5. Band-gap modulation via gallium substitution in cerium doped gadolinium aluminum garnet using a mixed fuel combustion approach

    SciTech Connect

    Tyagi, Mohit; Pitale, Shreyas S.; Ghosh, Manoranjan

    2014-04-24

    Cerium doped Gadolinium garnets (Gd{sub 3}Al{sub x}Ga{sub 5−x}O{sub 12} where 0≤x≤5) are synthesized via combustion synthesis using mixture of urea and glycine fuels. A 4h Post annealing at 1400 oC is found to be necessary for pure phase formation. Lattice spacing variation as a result of partial or total Ga substitution at Al site was mapped by X-ray diffraction. Photoluminescence emission of Ce shifts as a consequence of Ga substitution and therefore suggests a local re-adjustment of crystal field around activator site.

  6. Band-gap modulation via gallium substitution in cerium doped gadolinium aluminum garnet using a mixed fuel combustion approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tyagi, Mohit; Pitale, Shreyas S.; Ghosh, Manoranjan; Shinde, Seema

    2014-04-01

    Cerium doped Gadolinium garnets (Gd3AlxGa5-xO12 where 0≤x≤5) are synthesized via combustion synthesis using mixture of urea and glycine fuels. A 4h Post annealing at 1400 oC is found to be necessary for pure phase formation. Lattice spacing variation as a result of partial or total Ga substitution at Al site was mapped by X-ray diffraction. Photoluminescence emission of Ce shifts as a consequence of Ga substitution and therefore suggests a local re-adjustment of crystal field around activator site.

  7. Highly transparent cerium doped gadolinium gallium aluminum garnet ceramic prepared with precursors fabricated by ultrasonic enhanced chemical co-precipitation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ji-Yun; Luo, Zhao-Hua; Jiang, Hao-Chuan; Jiang, Jun; Chen, Chun-Hua; Zhang, Jing-Xian; Gui, Zhen-Zhen; Xiao, Na

    2017-11-01

    Cerium doped gadolinium gallium aluminum garnet (GGAG:Ce) ceramic precursors have been synthesized with an ultrasonic chemical co-precipitation method (UCC) and for comparison with a traditional chemical co-precipitation method (TCC). The effect of ultra-sonication on the morphology of powders and the transmittance of GGAG:Ce ceramics are studied. The results indicate that the UCC method can effectively improve the homogenization and sinterability of GGAG:Ce powders, which contribute to obtain high transparent GGAG ceramic with the highest transmittance of 81%. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. MRI of normal and abnormal duodenum using Half-Fourier Single-Shot RARE and gadolinium-enhanced spoiled gradient echo sequences.

    PubMed

    Marcos, H B; Semelka, R C; Noone, T C; Woosley, J T; Lee, J K

    1999-07-01

    The objective of this research was two-fold: First, to describe the normal and abnormal MR appearances of the duodenum using combined Half-Fourier Acquisition Single Shot RARE (HASTE) and gadolinium-enhanced standard and fat suppressed spoiled gradient echo (SGE) sequences. The second objective was to assess the ability of these combined sequences to detect and characterize duodenal diseases. MR examinations were performed on fifty consecutive patients with no clinical history of duodenal diseases, who were 1) imaged with HASTE and gadolinium-enhanced standard and fat suppressed SGE sequences and 2) referred to MR examination for reasons other than duodenal diseases, and were reviewed retrospectively to determine the normal MR appearances of the duodenum. A second population of patients with abnormal duodenum who were imaged with the same MR sequences were included in the second part of this study. This population was composed of 20 consecutive patients with subsequently proven duodenal abnormalities, including: malrotation (2), diverticula (4), intussusception (1), sprue (1), polyps (2), neurofibroma (1), lymphoma (1), Zollinger Ellison syndrome (1), metastatic disease (1), Crohn's disease (1), and wall thickening and duodenitis (5). Normal measurements of the duodenum are described. Abnormalities of wall thickness and duodenal masses required combined HASTE and gadolinium-enhanced SGE images to evaluate well. Abnormalities of the bowel lumen (e.g., diverticula and intussusception), and developmental variants (e.g., malrotation), were sufficiently visualized on HASTE images alone. Bowel inflammation was best shown on gadolinium-enhanced fat suppressed SGE images. HASTE and gadolinium-enhanced fat suppressed SGE sequences are complementary techniques for the demonstration of normal and abnormal duodenum. The combined use of both sequences allows evaluation of different aspects of bowel diseases; abnormalities of position, lumen, and contents are well shown on HASTE

  9. Comparative theoretical study of the structures and stabilities of four typical gadolinium carboxylates in different scintillator solvents.

    PubMed

    Huang, Pin-Wen

    2016-03-01

    The structural properties and stabilities of four typical gadolinium carboxylates (Gd-CBX) in toluene, linear alkyl benzene (LAB), and phenyl xylyl ethane (PXE) solvents were theoretically studied using density functional theory (DFT/B3LYP with the basis sets 6-311G(d) and MWB54) and the polarizable continuum model (PCM). The average Gd-ligand interaction energies (E int, corrected for dispersion) and the values of the energy gap between the highest occupied molecular orbital and lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (ΔHL) for the gadolinium complexes were calculated to compare the relative stabilities of the four Gd-CBX molecules in the three liquid scintillator solvents. According to the calculations, the values of E int and ΔHL for Gd-CBX in LAB are larger than the corresponding values in PXE and toluene. Gd-CBX may therefore be more compatible with LAB than with PXE and toluene. It was also found that, in the three scintillator solvents, the stabilities of the four Gd-CBX molecules increase in the order Gd-2EHA < Gd-2MVA < Gd-pivalate < Gd-TMHA.

  10. Heterogeneous intratumoral distribution of gadolinium nanoparticles within U87 human glioblastoma xenografts unveiled by micro-PIXE imaging.

    PubMed

    Carmona, Asuncion; Roudeau, Stéphane; L'Homel, Baptiste; Pouzoulet, Frédéric; Bonnet-Boissinot, Sarah; Prezado, Yolanda; Ortega, Richard

    2017-04-15

    Metallic nanoparticles have great potential in cancer radiotherapy as theranostic drugs since, they serve simultaneously as contrast agents for medical imaging and as radio-therapy sensitizers. As with other anticancer drugs, intratumoral diffusion is one of the main limiting factors for therapeutic efficiency. To date, a few reports have investigated the intratumoral distribution of metallic nanoparticles. The aim of this study was to determine the quantitative distribution of gadolinium (Gd) nanoparticles after direct intratumoral injection within U87 human glioblastoma tumors grafted in mice, using micro-PIXE (Particle Induced X-ray Emission) imaging. AGuIX (Activation and Guiding of Irradiation by X-ray) 3 nm particles composed of a polysiloxane network surrounded by gadolinium chelates were used. PIXE results indicate that the direct injection of Gd nanoparticles in tumors results in their heterogeneous diffusion, probably related to variations in tumor density. All tumor regions contain Gd, but with markedly different concentrations, with a more than 250-fold difference. Also Gd can diffuse to the healthy adjacent tissue. This study highlights the usefulness of mapping the distribution of metallic nanoparticles at the intratumoral level, and proposes PIXE as an imaging modality to probe the quantitative distribution of metallic nanoparticles in tumors from experimental animal models with micrometer resolution. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Magnetic and magnetothermal studies of pure and doped gadolinium silicide nanoparticles for self-controlled hyperthermia applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alnasir, M. Hisham; Awan, M. S.; Manzoor, Sadia

    2018-03-01

    We report on magnetic and magnetothermal properties of undoped and doped gadolinium silicide (Gd5Si4) nanoparticles with the objective of simultaneously attaining high specific absorption rate (SAR) and low Curie temperature (TC) suitable for self-controlled hyperthermia applications for which TC ∼ 315-320 K. Pellets of doped gadolinium silicide Gd5(Si1-xGex)4 and (Gd1-xRx)5Si4 with R = Ho, Nd and Er and 0 ≤ x ≤ 0.35 were made by arc melting and reduced to nanoparticulate form by surfactant assisted ball milling. Structural and morphological studies were done using X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy respectively. All samples show soft magnetic properties. At low fields there is a ferromagnetic to paramagnetic transition that reduces remanance and coercivity to zero making these materials very attractive for biomedical applications. Zero-field-cooled thermal demagnetization measurements showed that TC of these nanoparticles can be lowered to lie within the limits required for self-controlled hyperthermia by varying the dopant concentration. Specific absorption rates (SAR's) were obtained from magnetothermia measurements made in an ac magnetic field of amplitude 10 Oe and frequency 300 kHz. We have identified samples that have SAR values larger or comparable to those of magnetite and several ferrite nanoparticles, while having Curie temperatures that are low enough for self controlled hyperthermia applications.

  12. Effects of iodinated contrast agent, xylocaine and gadolinium concentration on the signal emitted in magnetic resonance arthrography: a samples study*

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, Yvana Lopes Pinheiro; Costa, Rita Zanlorensi Visneck; Pinho, Kátia Elisa Prus; Ferreira, Ricardo Rabello; Schuindt, Sueliton Miyamoto

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effects of dilution of paramagnetic contrast agent with iodinated contrast and xylocaine on the signal intensity during magnetic resonance arthrography, and to improve the paramagnetic contrast agent concentration utilized in this imaging modality. Materials and Methods Samples specially prepared for the study with three different concentrations of paramagnetic contrast agent diluted in saline, iodinated contrast agent and xylocaine were imaged with fast spin echo T1-weighted sequences with fat saturation. The samples were placed into flasks and graphical analysis of the signal intensity was performed as a function of the paramagnetic contrast concentration. Results As compared with samples of equal concentrations diluted only with saline, the authors have observed an average signal intensity decrease of 20.67% for iodinated contrast agent, and of 28.34% for xylocaine. However, the increased gadolinium concentration in the samples caused decrease in signal intensity with all the dilutions. Conclusion Minimizing the use of iodinated contrast media and xylocaine and/or the use of a gadolinium concentration of 2.5 mmol/L diluted in saline will improve the sensitivity of magnetic resonance arthrography. PMID:25987746

  13. Safe use of iodinated and gadolinium-based contrast media in current practice in Japan: a questionnaire survey.

    PubMed

    Tsushima, Yoshito; Ishiguchi, Tsuneo; Murakami, Takamichi; Hayashi, Hiromitsu; Hayakawa, Katsumi; Fukuda, Kunihiko; Korogi, Yukunori; Sugimoto, Hideharu; Takehara, Yasuo; Narumi, Yoshifumi; Arai, Yasuaki; Kuwatsuru, Ryohei; Yoshimitsu, Kengo; Awai, Kazuo; Kanematsu, Masayuki; Takagi, Ryo

    2016-02-01

    To help establish consensus on the safe use of contrast media in Japan. Questionnaires were sent to accredited teaching hospitals with radiology residency programs. The reply rate was 45.4% (329/724). For contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN), chronic and acute kidney diseases were considered a risk factor in 96.7 and 93.6%, respectively, and dehydration in 73.9%. As preventive actions, intravenous hydration (89.1%) and reduction of iodinated contrast media dose (86.9%) were commonly performed. For nephrogenic systemic fibrosis (NSF), chronic and acute kidney diseases were considered risk factors in 98.5 and 90.6%, respectively, but use of unstable gadolinium-based contrast media was considered a risk factor in only 55.6%. A renal function test was always (63.5% in iodinated; 65.7% in gadolinium) or almost always (23.1; 19.8%) performed, and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was the parameter most frequently used (80.8; 82.6%). For the patients with risk factors for acute adverse reaction (AAR), steroid premedication or/and change of contrast medium were frequent preventive actions, but intravenous steroid administration immediately before contrast media use was still performed. Our questionnaire survey revealed that preventive actions against CIN were properly performed based on patients' eGFR. Preventive actions against NSF and AAR still lacked consensus.

  14. Monte Carlo calculations of thermal neutron capture in gadolinium: a comparison of GEANT4 and MCNP with measurements.

    PubMed

    Enger, Shirin A; Munck af Rosenschöld, Per; Rezaei, Arash; Lundqvist, Hans

    2006-02-01

    GEANT4 is a Monte Carlo code originally implemented for high-energy physics applications and is well known for particle transport at high energies. The capacity of GEANT4 to simulate neutron transport in the thermal energy region is not equally well known. The aim of this article is to compare MCNP, a code commonly used in low energy neutron transport calculations and GEANT4 with experimental results and select the suitable code for gadolinium neutron capture applications. To account for the thermal neutron scattering from chemically bound atoms [S(alpha,beta)] in biological materials a comparison of thermal neutron fluence in tissue-like poly(methylmethacrylate) phantom is made with MCNP4B, GEANT4 6.0 patch1, and measurements from the neutron capture therapy (NCT) facility at the Studsvik, Sweden. The fluence measurements agreed with MCNP calculated results considering S(alpha,beta). The location of the thermal neutron peak calculated with MCNP without S(alpha,beta) and GEANT4 is shifted by about 0.5 cm towards a shallower depth and is 25%-30% lower in amplitude. Dose distribution from the gadolinium neutron capture reaction is then simulated by MCNP and compared with measured data. The simulations made by MCNP agree well with experimental results. As long as thermal neutron scattering from chemically bound atoms are not included in GEANT4 it is not suitable for NCT applications.

  15. Hypophosphatemia is Associated with the Serial Administration of Triple-Dose Gadolinium to Patients for Brain MRI.

    PubMed

    Wolansky, Leo J; Cadavid, Diego; Punia, Vineet; Kim, Soyeon; Cheriyan, Jojy; Haghighi, Mershad; Cook, Stuart D

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to report a metabolic abnormality associated with frequent, triple-dose Gadolinium (TdGd) use in MS patients during BECOME trial. Potential clinical adverse events and lab abnormalities were monitored at each monthly MRI visit. Hypophosphatemia was defined as phosphate <2.5 mg/dL. Statistical analysis included McNemar's test for pairwise comparisons across visits and generalized estimating equations (GEE) to fit models over time. Eight hundred seventy seven phosphate values were analyzed from the first 12 months. Compared with 4% of subjects at screening, an average of 15.1% (95% confidence interval (CI): 11.4%-19.7%) of patients had hypophosphatemia at visits from months 1 to 12, during which subjects received serial TdGd. Forty four of seventy five (59%) patients developed hypophosphatemia at least once. We also found a significant increasing trend in hypophosphatemia by visit when treatment groups were evaluated together or separately (p < .001). There was a statistically significant decrease in frequency to 9.8% (95% CI: 4.6-19.8%) by month 24 (p = .005) coinciding with a period of less frequent gadolinium administration. Serial TdGd in MS patients, unrelated to immunomodulatory treatment, was associated with increased frequency of hypophosphatemia that progressed with cumulative triple-dose and markedly decreased in second year, with less frequent triple-dose administration. Copyright © 2015 by the American Society of Neuroimaging.

  16. Prognostic Value of Late Gadolinium Enhancement CMR in Systemic Amyloidosis.

    PubMed

    Raina, Sameer; Lensing, Shelly Y; Nairooz, Ramez S; Pothineni, Naga Venkata K; Hakeem, Abdul; Bhatti, Sabha; Pandey, Tarun

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this study was to access the prognostic implication of late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) in patients with systemic amyloidosis undergoing cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR). Cardiac amyloidosis confers significantly worse prognosis in patients with systemic amyloidosis. CMR imaging has emerged as an attractive noninvasive modality to diagnose cardiac involvement in patients with systemic amyloidosis. We performed a systemic review and meta-analysis to evaluate the prognostic role of LGE-CMR imaging in patients with systemic amyloidosis. Electronic databases MEDLINE, PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane were systematically searched to identify studies evaluating the association between LGE-CMR and prognosis in systemic amyloidosis with cardiac involvement. The present study was designed to systematically review and assess the association between LGE and the primary endpoint of all-cause mortality. A random effects model was used to calculate a pooled odds ratio using inverse-variance weighting. Data were included from 7 studies with a total of 425 patients and a mean follow-up of 25 months. Patients had a weighted average age of 64 years and left ventricular ejection fraction of 59.2%; 67% were male. Endomyocardial biopsy was positive for amyloidosis in 20%, whereas LGE was present in 73% of patients. LGE-positive patients had increased overall mortality compared with those without LGE (pooled odds ratio: 4.96; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.90 to 12.93; p = 0.001). For the LGE group, the pooled death rate was 0.07 (95% CI: 0.03 to 0.19) events per year and for the LGE+ group, the rate was 0.25 (95% CI: 0.16 to 0.39 per year; p = 0.001). The proportion of patients with cardiac biopsy within each study ranged from 3% to 68%, and the relationship between LGE status and death did not vary according to cardiac biopsy proportion across studies. LGE on CMR in patients with systemic amyloidosis with known or suspected cardiac amyloidosis is associated with increased

  17. Role of late gadolinium enhancement cardiovascular magnetic resonance in the risk stratification of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Ismail, Tevfik F; Jabbour, Andrew; Gulati, Ankur; Mallorie, Amy; Raza, Sadaf; Cowling, Thomas E; Das, Bibek; Khwaja, Jahanzaib; Alpendurada, Francisco D; Wage, Ricardo; Roughton, Michael; McKenna, William J; Moon, James C; Varnava, Amanda; Shakespeare, Carl; Cowie, Martin R; Cook, Stuart A; Elliott, Perry; O'Hanlon, Rory; Pennell, Dudley J; Prasad, Sanjay K

    2014-12-01

    Myocardial fibrosis identified by late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) in patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is associated with adverse cardiovascular events, but its value as an independent risk factor for sudden cardiac death (SCD) is unknown. We investigated the role of LGE-CMR in the risk stratification of HCM. We conducted a prospective cohort study in a tertiary referral centre. Consecutive patients with HCM (n=711, median age 56.3 years, IQR 46.7-66.6; 70.0% male) underwent LGE-CMR and were followed for a median 3.5 years. The primary end point was SCD or aborted SCD. Overall, 471 patients (66.2%) had myocardial fibrosis (median 5.9% of left ventricular mass, IQR: 2.2-13.3). Twenty-two (3.1%) reached the primary end point. The extent but not the presence of fibrosis was a significant univariable predictor of the primary end point (HR per 5% LGE: 1.24, 95% CI 1.06 to 1.45; p=0.007 and HR for LGE: 2.69, 95% CI 0.91 to 7.97; p=0.073, respectively). However, on multivariable analysis, only LV-EF remained statistically significant (HR: 0.92, 95% CI 0.89 to 0.95; p<0.001). For the secondary outcome of cardiovascular mortality/aborted SCD, the presence and the amount of fibrosis were significant predictors on univariable but not multivariable analysis after adjusting for LV-EF and non-sustained ventricular tachycardia. The amount of myocardial fibrosis was a strong univariable predictor of SCD risk. However, this effect was not maintained after adjusting for LV-EF. Further work is required to elucidate the interrelationship between fibrosis and traditional predictors of outcome in HCM. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  18. Assessment of gadolinium calcium oxoborate (GdCOB) for laser applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bajor, A. L.; Kisielewski, J.; Kłos, A.; Kopczyński, K.; Łukasiewicz, T.; Mierczyk, J.; Młyńczak, J.

    2011-12-01

    Increasing demand for growing high quality laser crystals puts a question about their most important parameters that one should concentrate on to get a desired product which will exhibit best properties in practical use. And by no means, this is a simple question. Apart of the usual lasing properties associated with a special dopant in the host material itself, one needs to consider another two lasing phenomena, namely second (SHG) and higher harmonic generation, and self-frequency doubling (SFD). Not necessarily all of these three can meet altogether in the same host material to yield in its best appearance in every case. We have made a review of basic properties of gadolinium oxoborate GdCa4O(BO3)3 (GdCOB) crystal and came to the conclusion that, currently, as a host material this is probably the best in all of its lasing applications. Although GdCOB has low thermal conductivity, which requires a suitable cooling, on the other hand it has got small thermo-optic coefficients which govern good operation in SHG and SFD experiments. Two inch dia. Nd-doped crystals were grown by the Czochralski technique. Since a large discrepancy in the literature exists on exact values of nonlinear coefficients, one is never sure about this whether theoretically predicted phase-matching angles (PMA) are those that are really optimal. Besides, none has yet measured the values of nonlinear coefficients as a function of doping concentration. Therefore we have not decided to cut numerous differently oriented samples for generation of different wavelengths in SHG and SFD, but rather tried to generate different wavelengths from the same samples. We have also not paid special attention to get highest possible conversion efficiencies. However, we have concentrated our attention on potential use of the core region in laser technique. Unlike in YAG crystals, when the core is by all means a parasitic structure, we discovered that the core region in GdCOB, that majority of investigators are

  19. Gadolinium-based compounds induce NLRP3-dependent IL-1β production and peritoneal inflammation.

    PubMed

    Schmidt-Lauber, Christian; Bossaller, Lukas; Abujudeh, Hani H; Vladimer, Gregory I; Christ, Anette; Fitzgerald, Katherine A; Latz, Eicke; Gravallese, Ellen M; Marshak-Rothstein, Ann; Kay, Jonathan

    2015-11-01

    Nephrogenic systemic fibrosis (NSF) is a progressive fibrosing disorder that may develop in patients with chronic kidney disease after administration of gadolinium (Gd)-based contrast agents (GBCAs). In the setting of impaired renal clearance of GBCAs, Gd deposits in various tissues and fibrosis subsequently develops. However, the precise mechanism by which fibrosis occurs in NSF is incompletely understood. Because other profibrotic agents, such as silica or asbestos, activate the nucleotide-binding oligomerisation domain (NOD)-like receptor protein 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome and initiate interleukin (IL)-1β release with the subsequent development of fibrosis, we evaluated the effects of GBCAs on inflammasome activation. Bone marrow derived macrophages from C57BL/6, Nlrp3(-/-) and Asc(-/-) mice were incubated with three Gd-containing compounds and IL-1β activation and secretion was detected by ELISA and western blot analysis. Inflammasome activation and regulation was investigated in IL-4- and interferon (IFN)γ-polarised macrophages by ELISA, quantitative real time (qRT)-PCR and NanoString nCounter analysis. Furthermore, C57BL/6 and Nlrp3(-/-)mice were intraperitoneally injected with GBCA and recruitment of inflammatory cells to the peritoneum was analysed by fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS). Free Gd and GBCAs activate the NLRP3 inflammasome and induce IL-1β secretion in vitro. Gd-diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid also induces the recruitment of neutrophils and inflammatory monocytes to the peritoneum in vivo. Gd activated IL-4-polarised macrophages more effectively than IFNγ-polarised macrophages, which preferentially expressed genes known to downregulate inflammasome activity. These data suggest that Gd released from GBCAs triggers a NLRP3 inflammasome-dependent inflammatory response that leads to fibrosis in an appropriate clinical setting. The preferential activation of IL-4-differentiated macrophages is consistent with the predominantly fibrotic

  20. Adverse allergic reactions to linear ionic gadolinium-based contrast agents: experience with 194, 400 injections.

    PubMed

    Aran, S; Shaqdan, K W; Abujudeh, H H

    2015-05-01

    To report the authors' experience with the administration of four gadolinium-based contrast agents (GBCA; gadopentetate dimeglumine, gadofosveset trisodium, gadoxetate disodium and gadobenate dimeglumine) in a large study population at a single, large academic medical centre. The institutional review board approved this retrospective study in which data in the electronic incident reporting system were searched. A total of 194, 400 intravenous administrations of linear ionic GBCAs were assessed for the incidence of adverse reactions and risk factors from 1 January 2007 to 14 January 2014. The severity of reactions (mild, moderate, and severe), patient type (outpatients, inpatients, and emergency), examination type, and treatment options were also investigated. In total, 204/194400 (0.1%) patients (mean age 45.7 ± 14.9) showed adverse reactions, consisting of 6/746 (0.80%), 10/3200 (0.31%), 14/6236 (0.22%) and 174/184218 (0.09%), for gadofosveset trisodium, gadoxetate disodium, gadobenate dimeglumine, and gadopentetate dimeglumine, respectively. An overall significant difference was found between different GBCAs regarding the total number of reactions (p < 0.0001). When comparing the GBCAs together, significant differences were found between gadofosveset trisodium versus gadopentetate dimeglumine (p < 0.0001), gadofosveset trisodium versus gadobenate dimeglumine (p = 0.0051), gadoxetate disodium versus gadopentetate dimeglumine (p < 0.0001) and gadopentetate dimeglumine versus gadobenate dimeglumine (p = 0.0013). Rate of reaction was higher in females (F: 146/113187, 0.13%/M: 58/81213, 0.07%; p < 0.0001). Rate of reactions was higher in outpatient (180/158885, 0.11%), emergency (10/10413, 0.10%), and inpatients (14/25102, 0.05%), respectively (p < 0.0001). Most of the patients had mild symptoms 171/204 (83.8%). Abdomen-pelvis, liver, and thoracic examinations had highest rates of reactions (0.17 versus 0.16 versus 0.15). The overall rate of adverse reaction to GBCAs

  1. Compressed sensing for rapid late gadolinium enhanced imaging of the left atrium: A preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Kamesh Iyer, Srikant; Tasdizen, Tolga; Burgon, Nathan; Kholmovski, Eugene; Marrouche, Nassir; Adluru, Ganesh; DiBella, Edward

    2016-09-01

    Current late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) imaging of left atrial (LA) scar or fibrosis is relatively slow and requires 5-15min to acquire an undersampled (R=1.7) 3D navigated dataset. The GeneRalized Autocalibrating Partially Parallel Acquisitions (GRAPPA) based parallel imaging method is the current clinical standard for accelerating 3D LGE imaging of the LA and permits an acceleration factor ~R=1.7. Two compressed sensing (CS) methods have been developed to achieve higher acceleration factors: a patch based collaborative filtering technique tested with acceleration factor R~3, and a technique that uses a 3D radial stack-of-stars acquisition pattern (R~1.8) with a 3D total variation constraint. The long reconstruction time of these CS methods makes them unwieldy to use, especially the patch based collaborative filtering technique. In addition, the effect of CS techniques on the quantification of percentage of scar/fibrosis is not known. We sought to develop a practical compressed sensing method for imaging the LA at high acceleration factors. In order to develop a clinically viable method with short reconstruction time, a Split Bregman (SB) reconstruction method with 3D total variation (TV) constraints was developed and implemented. The method was tested on 8 atrial fibrillation patients (4 pre-ablation and 4 post-ablation datasets). Blur metric, normalized mean squared error and peak signal to noise ratio were used as metrics to analyze the quality of the reconstructed images, Quantification of the extent of LGE was performed on the undersampled images and compared with the fully sampled images. Quantification of scar from post-ablation datasets and quantification of fibrosis from pre-ablation datasets showed that acceleration factors up to R~3.5 gave good 3D LGE images of the LA wall, using a 3D TV constraint and constrained SB methods. This corresponds to reducing the scan time by half, compared to currently used GRAPPA methods. Reconstruction of 3D LGE images

  2. Biologically-compatible gadolinium(at)(carbon nanostructures) as advanced contrast agents for magnetic resonance imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sitharaman, Balaji

    2005-11-01

    Paramagnetic gadolinium-based carbon nanostructures are introduced as a new paradigm in high-performance magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agent (CA) design. Two Gd C60-based nanomaterials, Gd C60 [C(COOH)2]10 and Gd C60(OH)x are shown to have MRI efficacies (relaxivities) 5 to 20 times larger than any current Gd3+-based CA in clinical use. The first detailed and systematic physicochemical characterization was performed on these materials using the same experimental techniques usually applied to traditional Gd 3+-based CAs. Water-proton relaxivities were measured for the first time on these materials, as a function of magnetic field (5 x 10-4--9.4 T) to elucidate the different interaction mechanisms and dynamic processes influencing the relaxation behavior. These studies attribute the observed enhanced relaxivities completely to the "outer sphere" proton relaxation mechanism. These "outer sphere" relaxation effects are the largest reported for any Gd3+-based agent without inner-sphere water molecules. The proton relaxivities displayed a remarkable pH-dependency, increasing dramatically with decreasing pH (pH: 3--12). The increase in relaxivity resulted mainly from aggregation and subsequent three-order-of-magnitude increase in tauR, the rotational correlation time. Water-soluble fullerene materials (such as the neuroprotective fullerene drug, C3) readily cross cell membranes, suggesting an application for these gadofullerenes as the first intracellular, as well as pH-responsive MRI CAs. Studies performed at 60 MHz in the presence of phosphate-buffered saline (PBS, mice serum pH: 7.4) to mimic physiological conditions demonstrated that the aggregates can be disrupted by addition of salts, leading to a decrease in relaxivity. Biological fluids present a high salt concentration and should strongly modify the behavior of any fullerenes/metallofullerene-based drug in vivo. Gd C60[C(COOH)2]10 also showed enhanced relaxivity (23% increase) in the presence of the

  3. T(2) relaxation time of hyaline cartilage in presence of different gadolinium-based contrast agents.

    PubMed

    Wiener, Edzard; Settles, Marcus; Diederichs, Gerd

    2010-01-01

    The transverse relaxation time, T(2), of native cartilage is used to quantify cartilage degradation. T(2) is frequently measured after contrast administration, assuming that the impact of gadolinium-based contrast agents on cartilage T(2) is negligible. To verify this assumption the depth-dependent variation of T(2) in the presence of gadopentetate dimeglumine, gadobenate dimeglumine and gadoteridol was investigated. Furthermore, the r(2)/r(1) relaxivity ratios were quantified in different cartilage layers to demonstrate differences between T(2) and T(1) relaxation effects. Transverse high-spatial-resolution T(1)- and T(2)-maps were simultaneously acquired on a 1.5 T MR scanner before and after contrast administration in nine bovine patellae using a turbo-mixed sequence. The r(2)/r(1) ratios were calculated for each contrast agent in cartilage. Profiles of T(1), T(2) and r(2)/r(1) across cartilage thickness were generated in the absence and presence of contrast agent. The mean values in different cartilage layers were compared for global variance using the Kruskal-Wallis test and pairwise using the Mann-Whitney U-test. T(2) of unenhanced cartilage was 98 +/- 5 ms at 1 mm and 65 +/- 4 ms at 3 mm depth. Eleven hours after contrast administration significant differences (p < 0.001) were measurable for all three contrast agents. T(2) values were 58 +/- 2 and 62 +/- 3 ms for gadopentetate dimeglumine, 46 +/- 2 and 57 +/- 2 ms for gadobenate dimeglumine, and 38 +/- 2 and 42 +/- 2 ms for gadoteridol at 1 and 3 mm depths, respectively. The r(2)/r(1) relaxivity ratios across cartilage thickness were close to 1.0 (range 0.9-1.3). At 1.5 T, T(2) decreased significantly in the presence of contrast agents, more pronounced in superficial than in deep cartilage. The change in T(2) relaxation rate was similar to the change in T(1). Cartilage T(2) measurements after contrast administration will lead to systematic errors in the quantification of cartilage degradation. 2010 John

  4. Critical Questions Regarding Gadolinium Deposition in the Brain and Body After Injections of the Gadolinium-Based Contrast Agents, Safety, and Clinical Recommendations in Consideration of the EMA's Pharmacovigilance and Risk Assessment Committee Recommendation for Suspension of the Marketing Authorizations for 4 Linear Agents.

    PubMed

    Runge, Val M

    2017-06-01

    For magnetic resonance, the established class of intravenous contrast media is the gadolinium-based contrast agents. In the 3 decades since initial approval, these have proven in general to be very safe for human administration. However, in 2006, a devastating late adverse reaction to administration of the less stable gadolinium-based contrast agents was identified, nephrogenic systemic fibrosis. The result of actions taken by the European Medicines Agency and the US Food and Drug Administration, stratifying the agents by risk and contraindicating specific agents in severe renal dysfunction, has led to no new cases being identified in North America or Europe. Subsequently, in 2014, long-term deposition in the brain of gadolinium was first shown, after administration of 2 nonionic linear chelates, gadodiamide, and gadopentetate dimeglumine. This has led to an intense focus on the question of in vivo distribution, possible dechelation, and subsequent deposition of gadolinium, together with substantial clarification of the phenomenon as well as stratification of the agents on this basis. This review focuses on 8 critical questions regarding gadolinium deposition in the brain and body, with the answers and discussion therein important for future regulatory decisions and clinical practice. It is now clear that dechelation of gadolinium occurs in vivo with the linear agents and is responsible for this phenomenon, with key experts in the field recommending, except where there is no suitable alternative, a shift in clinical practice from the linear to macrocyclic agents. In addition, on March 10, 2017, the Pharmacovigilance and Risk Assessment Committee of the European Medicines Agency recommended suspension of the marketing authorization for 4 linear gadolinium contrast agents-specifically Omniscan, Optimark, Magnevist, and MultiHance (gadodiamide, gadoversetamide, gadopentetate dimeglumine, and gadobenate dimeglumine)-for intravenous injection. Cited in the report was

  5. Direct hydrothermal growth of GDC nanorods for low temperature solid oxide fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Soonwook; Lee, Dohaeng; Yang, Hwichul; Kim, Young-Beom

    2018-06-01

    We report a novel synthesis technique of gadolinia-doped ceria (GDC) nano-rod (NRs) via direct hydrothermal process to enhance performance of low temperature solid oxide fuel cell by increasing active reaction area and ionic conductivity at interface between cathode and electrolyte. The cerium nitrate hexahydrate, gadolinium nitrate hexahydrate and urea were used to synthesis GDC NRs for growth on diverse substrate. The directly grown GDC NRs on substrate had a width from 819 to 490 nm and height about 2200 nm with a varied urea concentration. Under the optimized urea concentration of 40 mMol, we confirmed that GDC NRs able to fully cover the substrate by enlarging active reaction area. To maximize ionic conductivity of GDC NRs, we synthesis varied GDC NRs with different ratio of gadolinium and cerium precursor. Electrochemical analysis revealed a significant enhanced performance of fuel cells applying synthesized GDC NRs with a ratio of 2:8 gadolinium and cerium precursor by reducing polarization resistance, which was chiefly attributed to the enlarged active reaction area and enhanced ionic conductivity of GDC NRs. This method of direct hydrothermal growth of GDC NRs enhancing fuel cell performance was considered to apply other types of catalyzing application using nano-structure such as gas sensing and electrolysis fields.

  6. Corrosion resistance of 0Kh18N10T steel in gadolinium nitrate solutions in the liquid regulation of the reactivity of nuclear reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Ganzha, V.D.; Konoplev, K.A.; Mashchetov, V.P.

    1986-03-01

    This study was carried out in connection with the preparation of the design for the PIK research reactor. The corrosion resistance of 0Kh18N10T steel in gadolinium nitrate solutions was tested in laboratory, ampule, and loop corrosion tests. At all stages of the tests, the authors investigated the effect produced on the corrosion processes by factors related to the technology of preparation of the equipment (mechanical working of the surfaces, welding, sensitizing, annealing, stressed state of the material, cracks, etc.). Ampule tests were conducted in order to determine the effect produced by reactor radiation and shutdown regimes on the corrosion resistancemore » of the steel. Special ampules made of 0Kh18N10T steel were filled with gadolinium nitrate solutions of various concentrations, sealed, and irradiated for a long period in the core of the VVR-M reactor at a temperature of 20-50 degrees C. The results of the tests are shown. The investigations showed that the corrosion of 0Kh18N10T steel in solutions of gadolinium nitrate is uniform, regardless of the state of the surface, the concentration of gadolinium nitrate, the duration of the tests, the action of the reactor radiation under static and dynamic conditions, and the presence of mechanical stresses.« less

  7. NEUTRALIZATIONS OF HIGH ALUMINUM LOW URANIUM USED NUCLEAR FUEL SOLUTIONS CONTAINING GADOLINIUM AS A NEUTRON POISON

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor-Pashow, K.

    2011-06-08

    H-Canyon will begin dissolving High Aluminum - Low Uranium (High Al/Low U) Used Nuclear Fuel (UNF) following approval by DOE which is anticipated in CY2011. High Al/Low U is an aluminum/enriched uranium UNF with small quantities of uranium relative to aluminum. The maximum enrichment level expected is 93% {sup 235}U. The High Al/Low U UNF will be dissolved in H-Canyon in a nitric acid/mercury/gadolinium solution. The resulting solution will be neutralized and transferred to Tank 39H in the Tank Farm. To confirm that the solution generated could be poisoned with Gd, neutralized, and discarded to the Savannah River Site (SRS)more » high level waste (HLW) system without undue nuclear safety concerns the caustic precipitation of simulant solutions was examined. Experiments were performed with three simulant solutions representative of the H-Canyon estimated concentrations in the final solutions after dissolution. The maximum U, Gd, and Al concentration were selected for testing from the range of solution compositions provided. Simulants were prepared in three different nitric acid concentrations, ranging from 0.5 to 1.5 M. The simulant solutions were neutralized to four different endpoints: (1) just before a solid phase was formed (pH 3.5-4), (2) the point where a solid phase was obtained, (3) 0.8 M free hydroxide, and (4) 1.2 M free hydroxide, using 50 wt % sodium hydroxide (NaOH). The settling behavior of the neutralized solutions was found to be slower compared to previous studies, with settling continuing over a one week period. Due to the high concentration of Al in these solutions, precipitation of solids was observed immediately upon addition of NaOH. Precipitation continued as additional NaOH was added, reaching a point where the mixture becomes almost completely solid due to the large amount of precipitate. As additional NaOH was added, some of the precipitate began to redissolve, and the solutions neutralized to the final two endpoints mixed easily and had

  8. Performance of Large Neutron Detectors Containing Lithium-Gadolinium-Borate Scintillator

    SciTech Connect

    Slaughter, David M.; Stuart, Cory R.; Klaass, R. Fred

    2015-07-01

    This paper describes the development and testing of a neutron counter, spectrometer, and dosimeter that is compact, efficient, and accurate. A self-contained neutron detection instrument has wide applications in health physics, scientific research, and programs to detect, monitor, and control strategic nuclear materials (SNM). The 1.3 liter detector head for this instrument is a composite detector with an organic scintillator containing uniformly distributed {sup 6}Li{sub 6}{sup nat}Gd{sup 10}B{sub 3}O{sub 9}:Ce (LGB:Ce) microcrystals. The plastic scintillator acts to slow impinging neutrons and emits light proportional to the energy lost by the neutrons as they moderate in the detector body. Moderating neutronsmore » that have slowed sufficiently capture in one of the Lithium-6, Boron-10, or Gadolinium-157 atoms in the LGB:Ce scintillator, which then releases the capture energy in a characteristic cerium emission pulse. The measured captured pulses indicate the presence of neutrons. When a scintillating fluor is present in the plastic, the light pulse resulting from the neutron moderating in the plastic is paired with the LGB:Ce capture pulse to identify the energy of the neutron. About 2% of the impinging neutrons lose all of their energy in a single collision with the detector. There is a linear relationship between the pulse areas of this group of neutrons and energy. The other 98% of neutrons have a wide range of collision histories within the detector body. When these neutrons are 'binned' into energy groups, each group contains a distribution of pulse areas. This data was used to assist in the unfolding of the neutron spectra. The unfolded spectra were then validated with known spectra, at both neutron emitting isotopes and fission/accelerator facilities. Having validated spectra, the dose equivalent and dose rate are determined by applying standard, regulatory damage coefficients to the measured neutron counts for each energy bin of the spectra. Testing

  9. Recent progress in advanced optical materials based on gadolinium aluminate garnet (Gd3Al5O12)

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ji-Guang; Sakka, Yoshio

    2015-01-01

    This review article summarizes the recent achievements in stabilization of the metastable lattice of gadolinium aluminate garnet (Gd3Al5O12, GAG) and the related developments of advanced optical materials, including down-conversion phosphors, up-conversion phosphors, transparent ceramics, and single crystals. Whenever possible, the materials are compared with their better known YAG and LuAG counterparts to demonstrate the merits of the GAG host. It is shown that novel emission features and significantly improved luminescence can be attained for a number of phosphor systems with the more covalent GAG lattice and the efficient energy transfer from Gd3+ to the activator. Ce3+ doped GAG-based single crystals and transparent ceramics are also shown to simultaneously possess the advantages of high theoretical density, fast scintillation decay, and high light yields, and hold great potential as scintillators for a wide range of applications. The unresolved issues are also pointed out. PMID:27877750

  10. Induction of sister chromatid exchange in the presence of gadolinium-DTPA and its reduction by dimethyl sulfoxide

    SciTech Connect

    Yamazaki, Etsuo; Fukuda, Hozumi; Shibuya, Hitoshi

    The authors investigate the frequency of sister chromatid exchange (SCE) after the addition of gadolinium (Gd)-DTPA to venous blood samples. Venous blood was obtained from nonsmokers. Samples were incubated with Gd-DTPA alone or in combination with mitomycin C, cytarabine, and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), and then evaluated for SCEs. The frequency of SCE increased with the concentration of Gd-DTPA and as each chemotherapeutic agent was added. Sister chromatid exchange frequencies were lower when the blood was treated with a combination of Gd-DTPA and DMSO compared with Gd-DTPA alone. The increase in frequency of SCE seen after the addition of Gd-DTPA wasmore » decreased by the addition of DMSO, indicating the production of hydroxyl radicals. The effect likely is dissociation-related. 14 refs., 6 tabs.« less

  11. Constructing experimental devices for half-ton synthesis of gadolinium-loaded liquid scintillator and its performance.

    PubMed

    Park, Young Seo; Jang, Yeong Min; Joo, Kyung Kwang

    2018-04-01

    This paper describes in brief features of various experimental devices constructed for half-ton synthesis of gadolinium(Gd)-loaded liquid scintillator (GdLS) and also includes the performances and detailed chemical and physical results of a 0.5% high-concentration GdLS. Various feasibility studies on useful apparatus used for loading Gd into solvents have been carried out. The transmittance, Gd concentration, density, light yield, and moisture content were measured for quality control. We show that with the help of adequate automated experimental devices and tools, it is possible to perform ton scale synthesis of GdLS at moderate laboratory scale without difficulty. The synthesized GdLS was satisfactory to meet chemical, optical, and physical properties and various safety requirements. These synthesizing devices can be expanded into massive scale next-generation neutrino experiments of several hundred tons.

  12. Tuning emission color of electroluminescence from two organic interfacial exciplexes by modulating the thickness of middle gadolinium complex layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Mingtao; Li, Wenlian; Chen, Lili; Kong, Zhiguo; Chu, Bei; Li, Bin; Hu, Zhizhi; Zhang, Zhiqiang

    2006-02-01

    Electroluminescent colors of organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) can be tuned by modulating the thickness of gadolinium (Gd) complex layer sandwiched between an electron-transporting layer (ETL) and a hole-transporting layer (HTL). The emission colors, which originate from the two interfacial exciplexes simultaneously, can be tuned from green to orange by increasing the thickness of the Gd-complex layer. The atom force microscope images have proved that there are many gaps in the thinner Gd-complex layers. Therefore, besides the exciplex formation between Gd complex and HTL, the exciplex between ETL and HTL is also formed. The results demonstrate that a simple way of color tuning can be realized by inserting a thin layer of color tuning material between HTL with lower ionization potentials and ETL with higher electron affinities. Moreover, photovoltaic device and white OLED based on the two exciplexes are also discussed.

  13. Nephrogenic systemic fibrosis and class labeling of gadolinium-based contrast agents by the Food and Drug Administration.

    PubMed

    Yang, Lucie; Krefting, Ira; Gorovets, Alex; Marzella, Louis; Kaiser, James; Boucher, Robert; Rieves, Dwaine

    2012-10-01

    In 2007, the Food and Drug Administration requested that manufacturers of all approved gadolinium-based contrast agents (GBCAs), drugs widely used in magnetic resonance imaging, use nearly identical text in their product labeling to describe the risk of nephrogenic systemic fibrosis (NSF). Accumulating information about NSF risks led to revision of the labeling text for all of these drugs in 2010. The present report summarizes the basis and purpose of this class-labeling approach and describes some of the related challenges, given the evolutionary nature of the NSF risk evidence. The class-labeling approach for presentation of product risk is designed to decrease the occurrence of NSF and to enhance the safe use of GBCAs in radiologic practice. © RSNA, 2012.

  14. Constructing experimental devices for half-ton synthesis of gadolinium-loaded liquid scintillator and its performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Young Seo; Jang, Yeong Min; Joo, Kyung Kwang

    2018-04-01

    This paper describes in brief features of various experimental devices constructed for half-ton synthesis of gadolinium(Gd)-loaded liquid scintillator (GdLS) and also includes the performances and detailed chemical and physical results of a 0.5% high-concentration GdLS. Various feasibility studies on useful apparatus used for loading Gd into solvents have been carried out. The transmittance, Gd concentration, density, light yield, and moisture content were measured for quality control. We show that with the help of adequate automated experimental devices and tools, it is possible to perform ton scale synthesis of GdLS at moderate laboratory scale without difficulty. The synthesized GdLS was satisfactory to meet chemical, optical, and physical properties and various safety requirements. These synthesizing devices can be expanded into massive scale next-generation neutrino experiments of several hundred tons.

  15. Recent progress in advanced optical materials based on gadolinium aluminate garnet (Gd3Al5O12)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ji-Guang; Sakka, Yoshio

    2015-02-01

    This review article summarizes the recent achievements in stabilization of the metastable lattice of gadolinium aluminate garnet (Gd3Al5O12, GAG) and the related developments of advanced optical materials, including down-conversion phosphors, up-conversion phosphors, transparent ceramics, and single crystals. Whenever possible, the materials are compared with their better known YAG and LuAG counterparts to demonstrate the merits of the GAG host. It is shown that novel emission features and significantly improved luminescence can be attained for a number of phosphor systems with the more covalent GAG lattice and the efficient energy transfer from Gd3+ to the activator. Ce3+ doped GAG-based single crystals and transparent ceramics are also shown to simultaneously possess the advantages of high theoretical density, fast scintillation decay, and high light yields, and hold great potential as scintillators for a wide range of applications. The unresolved issues are also pointed out.

  16. Diuretic-enhanced gadolinium excretory MR urography: comparison of conventional gradient-echo sequences and echo-planar imaging.

    PubMed

    Nolte-Ernsting, C C; Tacke, J; Adam, G B; Haage, P; Jung, P; Jakse, G; Günther, R W

    2001-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the utility of different gadolinium-enhanced T1-weighted gradient-echo techniques in excretory MR urography. In 74 urologic patients, excretory MR urography was performed using various T1-weighted gradient-echo (GRE) sequences after injection of gadolinium-DTPA and low-dose furosemide. The examinations included conventional GRE sequences and echo-planar imaging (GRE EPI), both obtained with 3D data sets and 2D projection images. Breath-hold acquisition was used primarily. In 20 of 74 examinations, we compared breath-hold imaging with respiratory gating. Breath-hold imaging was significantly superior to respiratory gating for the visualization of pelvicaliceal systems, but not for the ureters. Complete MR urograms were obtained within 14-20 s using 3D GRE EPI sequences and in 20-30 s with conventional 3D GRE sequences. Ghost artefacts caused by ureteral peristalsis often occurred with conventional 3D GRE imaging and were almost completely suppressed in EPI sequences (p < 0.0001). Susceptibility effects were more pronounced on GRE EPI MR urograms and calculi measured 0.8-21.7% greater in diameter compared with conventional GRE sequences. Increased spatial resolution degraded the image quality only in GRE-EPI urograms. In projection MR urography, the entire pelvicaliceal system was imaged by acquisition of a fast single-slice sequence and the conventional 2D GRE technique provided superior morphological accuracy than 2D GRE EPI projection images (p < 0.0003). Fast 3D GRE EPI sequences improve the clinical practicability of excretory MR urography especially in old or critically ill patients unable to suspend breathing for more than 20 s. Conventional GRE sequences are superior to EPI in high-resolution detail MR urograms and in projection imaging.

  17. Role of MRI T2-DRIVE in the assessment of pituitary stalk abnormalities without gadolinium in pituitary diseases.

    PubMed

    Godano, Elisabetta; Morana, Giovanni; Di Iorgi, Natascia; Pistorio, Angela; Allegri, Anna Elsa Maria; Napoli, Flavia; Gastaldi, Roberto; Calcagno, Annalisa; Patti, Giuseppa; Gallizia, Annalisa; Notarnicola, Sara; Giaccardi, Marta; Noli, Serena; Severino, Mariasavina; Tortora, Domenico; Rossi, Andrea; Maghnie, Mohamad

    2018-06-01

    To investigate the role of T2-DRIVE MRI sequence in the accurate measurement of pituitary stalk (PS) size and the identification of PS abnormalities in patients with hypothalamic-pituitary disorders without the use of gadolinium. This was a retrospective study conducted on 242 patients who underwent MRI due to pituitary dysfunction between 2006 and 2015. Among 135 eligible patients, 102 showed eutopic posterior pituitary (PP) gland and 33 showed 'ectopic' PP (EPP). Two readers independently measured the size of PS in patients with eutopic PP at the proximal, midpoint and distal levels on pre- and post-contrast T1-weighted as well as T2-DRIVE images; PS visibility was assessed on pre-contrast T1 and T2-DRIVE sequences in those with EPP. The length, height, width and volume of the anterior pituitary (AP), PP height and length and PP area were analyzed. Significant agreement between the two readers was obtained for T2-DRIVE PS measurements in patients with 'eutopic' PP; a significant difference was demonstrated between the intraclass correlation coefficient calculated on the T2-DRIVE and the T1-pre- and post-contrast sequences. The percentage of PS identified by T2-DRIVE in EPP patients was 72.7% compared to 30.3% of T1 pre-contrast sequences. A significant association was found between the visibility of PS on T2-DRIVE and the height of AP. T2-DRIVE sequence is extremely precise and reliable for the evaluation of PS size and the recognition of PS abnormalities; the use of gadolinium-based contrast media does not add significant information and may thus be avoided. © 2018 European Society of Endocrinology.

  18. Ultra high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) fiber epoxy composite hybridized with Gadolinium and Boron nanoparticles for radiation shielding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mani, Venkat; Prasad, Narasimha S.; Kelkar, Ajit

    2016-09-01

    Deep space radiations pose a major threat to the astronauts and their spacecraft during long duration space exploration missions. The two sources of radiation that are of concern are the galactic cosmic radiation (GCR) and the short lived secondary neutron radiations that are generated as a result of fragmentation that occurs when GCR strikes target nuclei in a spacecraft. Energy loss, during the interaction of GCR and the shielding material, increases with the charge to mass ratio of the shielding material. Hydrogen with no neutron in its nucleus has the highest charge to mass ratio and is the element which is the most effective shield against GCR. Some of the polymers because of their higher hydrogen content also serve as radiation shield materials. Ultra High Molecular Weight Polyethylene (UHMWPE) fibers, apart from possessing radiation shielding properties by the virtue of the high hydrogen content, are known for extraordinary properties. An effective radiation shielding material is the one that will offer protection from GCR and impede the secondary neutron radiations resulting from the fragmentation process. Neutrons, which result from fragmentation, do not respond to the Coulombic interaction that shield against GCR. To prevent the deleterious effects of secondary neutrons, targets such as Gadolinium are required. In this paper, the radiation shielding studies that were carried out on the fabricated sandwich panels by vacuum-assisted resin transfer molding (VARTM) process are presented. VARTM is a manufacturing process used for making large composite structures by infusing resin into base materials formed with woven fabric or fiber using vacuum pressure. Using the VARTM process, the hybridization of Epoxy/UHMWPE composites with Gadolinium nanoparticles, Boron, and Boron carbide nanoparticles in the form of sandwich panels were successfully carried out. The preliminary results from neutron radiation tests show that greater than 99% shielding performance was

  19. Gadolinium and ruthenium red attenuate remote hind limb preconditioning-induced cardioprotection: possible role of TRP and especially TRPV channels.

    PubMed

    Randhawa, Puneet Kaur; Jaggi, Amteshwar Singh

    2016-08-01

    Remote ischemic preconditioning is a well reported therapeutic strategy that induces cardioprotective effects but the underlying intracellular mechanisms have not been widely explored. The current study was designed to investigate the involvement of TRP and especially TRPV channels in remote hind limb preconditioning-induced cardioprotection. Remote hind limb preconditioning stimulus (4 alternate cycles of inflation and deflation of 5 min each) was delivered using a blood pressure cuff tied on the hind limb of the anesthetized rat. Using Langendorff's system, the heart was perfused and subjected to 30-min ischemia and 120-min reperfusion. The myocardial injury was assessed by measuring infarct size, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), creatine kinase (CK), LVDP, +dp/dtmax, -dp/dtmin, heart rate, and coronary flow rate. Gadolinium, TRP blocker, and ruthenium red, TRPV channel blocker, were employed as pharmacological tools. Remote hind limb preconditioning significantly reduced the infarct size, LDH release, CK release and improved coronary flow rate, hemodynamic parameters including LVDP, +dp/dtmax, -dp/dtmin, and heart rate. However, gadolinium (7.5 and 15 mg kg(-1)) and ruthenium red (4 and 8 mg kg(-1)) significantly attenuated the cardioprotective effects suggesting the involvement of TRP especially TRPV channels in mediating remote hind limb preconditioning-induced cardioprotection. Remote hind limb preconditioning stimulus possibly activates TRPV channels on the heart or sensory nerve fibers innervating the heart to induce cardioprotective effects. Alternatively, remote hind limb preconditioning stimulus may also activate the mechanosensitive TRP and especially TRPV channels on the sensory nerve fibers innervating the skeletal muscles to trigger cardioprotective neurogenic signaling cascade. The cardioprotective effects of remote hind limb preconditioning may be mediated via activation of mechanosensitive TRP and especially TRPV channels.

  20. Direct comparison of intra-articular versus intravenous delayed gadolinium-enhanced MRI of hip joint cartilage.

    PubMed

    Zilkens, Christoph; Miese, Falk; Kim, Young-Jo; Jäger, Marcus; Mamisch, Tallal C; Hosalkar, Harish; Antoch, Gerald; Krauspe, Rüdiger; Bittersohl, Bernd

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the potential of delayed gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging in cartilage (dGEMRIC) after intra-articular (ia) contrast agent administration at 3 Tesla (T), a paired study comparing intravenous (iv) dGEMRIC (standard) with ia-dGEMRIC was performed. Thirty-five symptomatic patients with suspected cartilage damage underwent ia- and iv-dGEMRIC. MRI was performed with a 3T system wherein the interval between both measurements was 2 weeks. For iv-dGEMRIC, FDA approved Gd-DOTA(-) was injected intravenously 45 min before the MRI scan. For ia-dGEMRIC, 10-20 mL of a 2 mM solution of Gd- DOTA(-) was injected under fluoroscopic guidance 30 min before the MRI scan. Both ia- and iv-dGEMRIC demonstrated the typical T1Gd pattern in hip joint cartilage with increasing values toward the superior regions in acetabular cartilage reflecting the higher glycosaminoglycan (GAG) content in the main weight-bearing area. Correlation analysis revealed a moderate correlation between both techniques (r = 0.439, P-value < 0.001), whereas the T1Gd values for iv-dGEMRIC were significantly higher than those for ia-dGEMRIC. This corresponds with the Bland-Altman plot analysis, which revealed a systemic bias (higher T1Gd values after iv gadolinium application) of ∼70 ms. Ia-dGEMRIC was able to reveal the characteristic T1Gd pattern in hip joint cartilage confirming the sensitivity of ia-dGEMRIC for GAG. In addition, there was a significant correlation between iv-dGEMRIC and ia-dGEMRIC. However, the T1Gd values after ia contrast media application were significantly lower than those after iv application that has to be considered for future studies. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. In vitro cellular accumulation of gadolinium incorporated into chitosan nanoparticles designed for neutron-capture therapy of cancer.

    PubMed

    Shikata, Futoshi; Tokumitsu, Hiroyuki; Ichikawa, Hideki; Fukumori, Yoshinobu

    2002-01-01

    The accumulation of gadolinium loaded as gadopentetic acid (Gd-DTPA) in chitosan nanoparticles (Gd-nanoCPs), which were designed for gadolinium neutron-capture therapy (Gd-NCT) for cancer, was evaluated in vitro in cultured cells. Using L929 fibroblast cells, the Gd accumulation for 12 h at 37 degrees C was investigated at Gd concentrations lower than 40 ppm. The accumulation leveled above 20 ppm and reached 18.0+/-2.7 (mean+/-S.D.) microg Gd/10(6) cells at 40 ppm. Furthermore, the corresponding accumulations in B16F10 melanoma cells and SCC-VII squamous cell carcinoma, which were used in the previous Gd-NCT trials in vivo, were 27.1+/-2.9 and 59.8+/-9.8 microg Gd/10(6) cells, respectively, hence explaining the superior growth-suppression in the in vivo trials using SCC-VII cells. The accumulation of Gd-nanoCPs in these cells was 100-200 times higher in comparison to dimeglumine gadopentetate aqueous solution (Magnevist), a magnetic resonance imaging contrast agent. The endocytic uptake of Gd-nanoCPs, strongly holding Gd-DTPA, was suggested from transmission electron microscopy and comparative studies at 4 degrees C and with the solution system. These findings indicated that Gd-nanoCPs had a high affinity to the cells, probably contributing to the long retention of Gd in tumor tissue and leading to the significant suppression of tumor growth in the in vivo studies that were previously reported.

  2. Anti-EpCAM scFv gadolinium chelate: a novel targeted MRI contrast agent for imaging of colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Khantasup, Kannika; Saiviroonporn, Pairash; Jarussophon, Suwatchai; Chantima, Warangkana; Dharakul, Tararaj

    2018-05-08

    The development of targeted contrast agents for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) facilitates enhanced cancer imaging and more accurate diagnosis. In the present study, a novel contrast agent was developed by conjugating anti-EpCAM humanized scFv with gadolinium chelate to achieve target specificity. The material design strategy involved site-specific conjugation of the chelating agent to scFv. The scFv monomer was linked to maleimide-DTPA via unpaired cysteine at the scFv C-terminus, followed by chelation with gadolinium (Gd). Successful scFv-DTPA conjugation was achieved at 1:10 molar ratio of scFv to maleimide-DTPA at pH 6.5. The developed anti-EpCAM-Gd-DTPA MRI contrast agent was evaluated for cell targeting ability, in vitro serum stability, cell cytotoxicity, relaxivity, and MR contrast enhancement. A high level of targeting efficacy of anti-EpCAM-Gd-DTPA to an EpCAM-overexpressing HT29 colorectal cell was demonstrated by confocal microscopy. Good stability of the contrast agent was obtained and no cytotoxicity was observed in HT29 cells after 48 h incubation with 25-100 µM of Gd. Favorable imaging was obtained using anti-EpCAM-Gd-DTPA, including 1.8-fold enhanced relaxivity compared with Gd-DTPA, and MR contrast enhancement observed after binding to HT29. The potential benefit of this contrast agent for in vivo MR imaging of colorectal cancer, as well as other EpCAM positive cancers, is suggested and warrants further investigation.

  3. MO-FG-BRA-07: Theranostic Gadolinium-Based AGuIX Nanoparticles for MRI-Guided Radiation Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Detappe, A; Institut Lumiere-Matiere, Villeurbanne; Nano-H, St-Quentin Fallavier

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: AGuIX are gadolinium-based nanoparticles, initially developed for MRI, that have a potential role in radiation therapy as a radiosensitizer. Our goal is to demonstrate that these nanoparticles can both be used as an MRI contrast agent, as well as to obtain local dose enhancement in a pancreatic tumor when delivered in combination with an external beam irradiation. Methods: We performed in vitro cell uptake and radiosensitization studies of a pancreatic cancer cell line in a low energy (220kVp) beam, a standard clinical 6MV beam (STD) and a flattening filter free clinical 6MV beam (FFF). After injection of 40mM ofmore » nanoparticles, a biodistribution study was performed in vivo on mice with subcutaneous xenograft pancreatic tumors. In vivo radiation therapy studies were performed at the time point of maximum tumor uptake. Results: The concentration of AGuIX nanoparticles in Panc-1 pancreatic cancer cells, determined in vitro by MRI and ICPMS, peaks after 30 minutes with 0.3% of the initial concentration (5mg/g). Clonogenic assays show a significant effect (p<0.05) when the AGuIX are coupled with MV photon irradiation (DEF20%=1.31). Similar AGuIX tumor uptake is found in vivo by both MRI and ICPMS 30 minutes after intravenous injection. For long term survival studies, the choice of the radiation dose is determined with 5 control groups (3mice/group) irradiated with 0, 5, 10, 15, and 20Gy. Afterwards, 4 groups (8mice/group) are used to evaluate the effect of the nanoparticles. A Logrank test is performed as a statistical test to evaluate the effect of the nanoparticles. Conclusion: The combination of the MRI contrast and radiosensitization properties of gadolinium nanoparticles reveals a strong potential for usage with MRI-guided radiation therapy.« less

  4. Ethylene Oxide

    Cancer.gov

    Learn about ethylene oxide, which can raise your risk of lymphoma and leukemia. Exposure may occur through industrial emissions, tobacco smoke, and the use of products sterilized with ethylene oxide, such as certain medical products or cosmetics.

  5. The effect of boron and gadolinium burnable poisons on the hot-to-cold reactivity swing of a pressurized water reactor assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Galperin, A.; Segev, M.; Radkowsky, A.

    1986-11-01

    Control requirements for advanced pressurized water reactor designs must be met with heavy loadings of burnable poison rods, the required reactivity hold-down typically amounting to 30% or more in a poisoned subassembly. Two apparent choices for poisons are natural boron rods and natural gadolinium rods. Studied and analyzed is the effect of these two poisons on the hot-to-cold reactivity upswing. Compared with an upswing of 2.9% in a nonpoisoned assembly, the upswing in the gadolinium-poisoned assembly is 3.0%, and the upswing in the boron-poisoned assembly is 8.8%. Thus the hot-to-cold control penalty is almost nil for the choice of gadoliniummore » and is considerable for the choice of boron.« less

  6. Liver acquisition with acceleration volume acquisition gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance combined with T2 sequences in the diagnosis of local recurrence of rectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Cao, Wuteng; Li, Fangqian; Gong, Jiaying; Liu, Dechao; Deng, Yanhong; Kang, Liang; Zhou, Zhiyang

    2016-11-22

    To investigate the efficacy of liver acquisition with acceleration volume acquisition (LAVA) gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance (MR) sequences and to assess its added accuracy in diagnosing local recurrence (LR) of rectal cancer with conventional T2-weighted fast spin echo (FSE) sequences. Pelvic MRI, including T2-weighted FSE sequences, gadolinium-enhanced sequences of LAVA and T1-weighted FSE with fat suppression, was performed on 225 patients with postoperative rectal cancer. Two readers evaluated the presence of LR according to "T2" (T2 sequences only), "T2 + LAVA-Gad" (LAVA and T2 imaging), and "T2 + T1-fs-Gad" (T1 fat suppression-enhanced sequence with T2 images). To evaluate diagnostic efficiency, imaging quality with LAVA and T1-fs-Gad by subjective scores and the signal intensity (SI) ratio. In the result, the SI ratio of LAVA was significantly higher than that of T1-fs-Gad (p = 0.0001). The diagnostic efficiency of "T2 + LAVA-Gad" was better than that of "T2 + T1-fs-Gad" (p = 0.0016 for Reader 1, p = 0.0001 for Reader 2) and T2 imaging only (p = 0.0001 for Reader 1; p = 0.0001 for Reader 2). Therefore, LAVA gadolinium-enhanced MR increases the accuracy of diagnosis of LR from rectal cancer and could replace conventional T1 gadolinium-enhanced sequences in the postoperative pelvic follow-up of rectal cancer.

  7. Penetration and distribution of gadolinium-based contrast agents into the cerebrospinal fluid in healthy rats: a potential pathway of entry into the brain tissue.

    PubMed

    Jost, Gregor; Frenzel, Thomas; Lohrke, Jessica; Lenhard, Diana Constanze; Naganawa, Shinji; Pietsch, Hubertus

    2017-07-01

    Signal hyperintensity on unenhanced MRI in certain brain regions has been reported after multiple administrations of some, but not all, gadolinium-based contrast agents (GBCAs). One potential initial pathway of GBCA entry into the brain, infiltration from blood into the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), was systematically evaluated in this preclinical study. GBCA infiltration and distribution in the CSF were investigated in healthy rats using repeated fluid-attenuated MRI up to 4 h after high-dose (1.8 mmol/kg) administration of six marketed and one experimental GBCA. Additionally, gadolinium measurements in CSF, blood and brain tissue samples (after 24 h) were performed using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Enhanced MRI signals in the CSF spaces with similar distribution kinetics were observed for all GBCAs. No substantial differences in the gadolinium concentrations among the marketed GBCAs were found in the CSF, blood or brain tissue. After 4.5 h, the concentration in the CSF was clearly higher than in blood but was almost completely cleared and lower than the brain tissue concentration after 24 h. In contrast to the brain signal hyperintensities, no differences in penetration and distribution into the CSF of healthy rats exist among the marketed GBCAs. • Gadolinium-based contrast agents can cross the blood-CSF barrier. • Fluid-attenuated MRI shows GBCA distribution with CSF flow. • GBCA structure and physicochemical properties do not impact CSF penetration and distribution. • GBCA clearance from CSF was almost complete within 24 h in rats. • CSF is a potential pathway of GBCA entry into the brain.

  8. Evaluation of Novel 64Cu-Labeled Theranostic Gadolinium-Based Nanoprobes in HepG2 Tumor-Bearing Nude Mice.

    PubMed

    Hu, Pengcheng; Cheng, Dengfeng; Huang, Tao; Banizs, Anna B; Xiao, Jie; Liu, Guobing; Chen, Quan; Wang, Yuenan; He, Jiang; Shi, Hongcheng

    2017-09-06

    Radiation therapy of liver cancer is limited by low tolerance of the liver to radiation. Radiosensitizers can effectively reduce the required radiation dose. AGuIX nanoparticles are small, multifunctional gadolinium-based nanoparticles that can carry radioisotopes or fluorescent markers for single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), positron emission tomography (PET), fluorescence imaging, and even multimodality imaging. In addition, due to the high atomic number of gadolinium, it can also serve as a tumor radiation sensitizer. It is critical to define the biodistribution and pharmacokinetics of these gadolinium-based nanoparticles to quantitate the magnitude and duration of their retention within the tumor microenvironment during radiotherapy. Therefore, in this study, we successfully labeled AGuIX with 64 Cu through the convenient built-in chelator. The biodistribution studies indicated that the radiotracer 64 Cu-AGuIX accumulates to high levels in the HepG2 xenograft of nude mice, suggesting that it would be a potential theranostic nanoprobe for image-guided radiotherapy in HCC. We also used a transmission electron microscope to confirm AGuIX uptake in the HepG2 cells. In radiation therapy studies, a decrease in 18 F-FDG uptake was observed in the xenografts of the nude mice irradiated with AGuIX, which was injected 1 h before. These results provide proof-of-concept that AGuIX can be used as a theranostic radiosensitizer for PET imaging to guide radiotherapy for liver cancer.

  9. Ferromagnetic coupling in the three-dimensional malonato-bridged gadoliniumIII complex [Gd2(mal)3(H2O)6] (H2mal = malonic acid).

    PubMed

    Hernández-Molina, María; Ruiz-Pérez, Catalina; López, Trinidad; Lloret, Francesc; Julve, Miguel

    2003-09-08

    The novel gadolinium(III) complex of formula [Gd(2)(mal)(3)(H(2)O)(6)] (1) (H(2)mal = 1,3-propanedioic acid) has been prepared and characterized by X-ray diffraction analysis. Crystal data for 1: monoclinic, space group I2/a, a = 11.1064(10) A, b = 12.2524(10) A, c =13.6098(2) A, beta = 92.925(10) degrees, U = 1849.5(3) A(3), Z = 4. Compound 1 is a three-dimensional network made up of malonate-bridged gadolinium(III) ions where the malonate exhibits two bridging modes, eta(5)-bidentate + unidentate and eta(3):eta(3) + bis(unidentate). The gadolinium atom is nine-coordinate with three water molecules and six malonate oxygen atoms from three malonate ligands forming a distorted monocapped square antiprism. The shortest metal-metal separations are 4.2763(3) A [through the oxo-carboxylate bridge] and 6.541(3) A [through the carboxylate in the anti-syn coordination mode]. The value of the angle at the oxo-carboxylate atom is 116.8(2) degrees. Variable-temperature magnetic susceptibility measurements reveal the occurrence of a significant ferromagnetic interaction through the oxo-carboxylate pathway (J = +0.048(1) cm(-1), H = -JS(Gd(1)) x S(Gd(1a))).

  10. Evaluation of Novel 64Cu-Labeled Theranostic Gadolinium-Based Nanoprobes in HepG2 Tumor-Bearing Nude Mice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Pengcheng; Cheng, Dengfeng; Huang, Tao; Banizs, Anna B.; Xiao, Jie; Liu, Guobing; Chen, Quan; Wang, Yuenan; He, Jiang; Shi, Hongcheng

    2017-09-01

    Radiation therapy of liver cancer is limited by low tolerance of the liver to radiation. Radiosensitizers can effectively reduce the required radiation dose. AGuIX nanoparticles are small, multifunctional gadolinium-based nanoparticles that can carry radioisotopes or fluorescent markers for single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), positron emission tomography (PET), fluorescence imaging, and even multimodality imaging. In addition, due to the high atomic number of gadolinium, it can also serve as a tumor radiation sensitizer. It is critical to define the biodistribution and pharmacokinetics of these gadolinium-based nanoparticles to quantitate the magnitude and duration of their retention within the tumor microenvironment during radiotherapy. Therefore, in this study, we successfully labeled AGuIX with 64Cu through the convenient built-in chelator. The biodistribution studies indicated that the radiotracer 64Cu-AGuIX accumulates to high levels in the HepG2 xenograft of nude mice, suggesting that it would be a potential theranostic nanoprobe for image-guided radiotherapy in HCC. We also used a transmission electron microscope to confirm AGuIX uptake in the HepG2 cells. In radiation therapy studies, a decrease in 18F-FDG uptake was observed in the xenografts of the nude mice irradiated with AGuIX, which was injected 1 h before. These results provide proof-of-concept that AGuIX can be used as a theranostic radiosensitizer for PET imaging to guide radiotherapy for liver cancer.

  11. [Combined use of contrast media containing iodine and gadolinium for imaging and intervention : A hitherto widely ignored topic in radiological practice].

    PubMed

    Golder, W

    2012-02-01

    The synchronous use of chemically different contrast media in the same body compartment is a challenge for the radiologist, whether it is scheduled or unexpected. However, to inject contrast media containing iodine and gadolinium at the same time can be a prerequisite for the examination of several organs or organ systems. Unlike other topics of contrast-enhanced imaging procedures, the difficulties encountered with double contrast injections have been widely ignored in the literature. In the absence of reliable data from experimental and clinical studies the radiologist is dependent on case reports, information provided by the contrast media manufacturers, personal communications, mostly scanty personal experiences and a skilful time management, in order to overcome the situation. Only the combination of X-ray, computed tomography and magnetic resonance arthrography can be performed without another thought. However, the more or less synchronous vascular application of contrast media containing iodine and gadolinium requires vigilance. The more seriously ill the patient is, the more caution is advised even if the decision on the combined administration has to be reached urgently. The following overview gives a description of the properties of contrast media containing iodine and gadolinium as far as interactions following simultaneous administration are concerned. Subsequently, the clinically relevant situations and constellations are outlined and analyzed.

  12. Investigation of suspected Guillain-Barre syndrome in childhood: what is the role for gadolinium enhanced magnetic resonance imaging of the spine?

    PubMed

    Smith, Nicholas; Pereira, John; Grattan-Smith, Padraic

    2014-10-01

    To review the role of gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging of the spine in the diagnosis of paediatric Guillain-Barre syndrome and compare it with nerve conduction studies and cerebrospinal fluid analysis. A retrospective review of investigations undertaken in children admitted to our institution with acute Guillain-Barre syndrome over a 10-year period was performed. Seven of eight children (88%) displayed post-gadolinium nerve root enhancement consistent with Guillain-Barre syndrome. This compared with supportive nerve conduction studies in 21/24 children (88%) and cerebrospinal fluid protein analysis consistent with the diagnosis in 16/20 children (80%). Nerve conduction studies are the recognised 'gold standard' technique for confirming a clinical diagnosis of Guillain-Barre syndrome. In this study, a high positive rate was demonstrated. While more experience is necessary, this study and the literature support gadolinium enhanced magnetic resonance imaging of the spine as a valuable, although not necessarily superior, investigation in the diagnosis of Guillain-Barre syndrome. It may be of particular benefit when specialist neurophysiology expertise is unavailable. © 2010 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2010 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  13. Effect of Renal Function on Gadolinium-Related Signal Increases on Unenhanced T1-Weighted Brain Magnetic Resonance Imaging.

    PubMed

    Cao, Yan; Zhang, Yang; Shih, George; Zhang, Yan; Bohmart, Andrew; Hecht, Elizabeth M; Prince, Martin R

    2016-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if renal function affects signal changes in the deep brain nuclei on unenhanced T1-weighted images after administration of linear gadolinium-based contrast agents (GBCAs). An electronic medical records search of 2 large medical centers identified 25 patients who received linear GBCA while on hemodialysis and had unenhanced T1-weighted images of the brain before and after. The dentate-to-cerebellar peduncle (DCP) ratio, globus pallidus-to-mid thalamus (GPT) ratio, and choroid plexus-to-nearby white matter ratio were measured and compared with 25 age/sex/GBCA exposure-matched control patients with normal or near-normal renal function (estimated glomerular filtration rate >60 mL/min per 1.73 m). Two additional control groups included 13 patients on hemodialysis without GBCA exposure and 13 age/sex-matched patients with estimated glomerular filtration rate greater than 60 mL/min per 1.73 m. Hemodialysis patients (n = 25) with an average of 1.8 linear GBCA administrations had a 4.9% mean increase (1.00 ± 0.04 vs 1.05 ± 0.05; P < 0.001) in DCP, which was greater than the 1.6% change (0.99 ± 0.04 vs 1.00 ± 0.05; P = 0.08) observed in matched controls (P = 0.01). There was no significant signal change in the DCP ratio in the 13 hemodialysis patients (0.99 ± 0.04 vs 0.99 ± 0.04; P = 0.78) and 13 age/sex-matched patients (0.99 ± 0.02 vs 0.99 ± 0.03; P = 0.78) who did not receive GBCA. The hemodialysis patients had a baseline GPT that was higher than nondialysis patients (P < 0.001). However, the GPT change after GBCA administration was not significantly different from controls. Increased signal in the choroid plexus on unenhanced T1-weighted images after GBCA administration was noted in hemodialysis patients (0.72 ± 0.20 vs 0.86 ± 0.23; P = 0.006); however, a multivariate analysis showed this to be primarily related to hemodialysis (P = 0.003) with only a trend toward relating to GBCA exposure (P = 0.07). Hemodialysis

  14. Self-Gated Late Gadolinium Enhancement at 7T to Image Rats with Reperfused Acute Myocardial Infarction.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lei; Chen, Yushu; Zhang, Bing; Chen, Wei; Wang, Chunhua; Song, Li; Xu, Ziqian; Zheng, Jie; Gao, Fabao

    2018-01-01

    A failed electrocardiography (ECG)-trigger often leads to a long acquisition time (TA) and deterioration in image quality. The purpose of this study was to evaluate and optimize the technique of self-gated (SG) cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) for cardiac late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) imaging of rats with myocardial infarction/reperfusion. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance images of 10 rats were obtained using SG-LGE or ECG with respiration double-gating (ECG-RESP-gating) method at 7T to compare differences in image interference and TA between the two methods. A variety of flip angles (FA: 10°-80°) and the number of repetitions (NR: 40, 80, 150, and 300) were investigated to determine optimal scan parameters of SG-LGE technique based on image quality score and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR). Self-gated late gadolinium enhancement allowed successful scan in 10 (100%) rats. However, only 4 (40%) rats were successfully scanned with the ECG-RESP-gating method. TAs with SG-LGE varied depending on NR used (TA: 41, 82, 154, and 307 seconds, corresponding to NR of 40, 80, 150, and 300, respectively). For the ECG-RESP-gating method, the average TA was 220 seconds. For SG-LGE images, CNR (42.5 ± 5.5, 43.5 ± 7.5, 54 ± 9, 59.5 ± 8.5, 56 ± 13, 54 ± 8, and 41 ± 9) and image quality score (1.85 ± 0.75, 2.20 ± 0.83, 2.85 ± 0.37, 3.85 ± 0.52, 2.8 ± 0.51, 2.45 ± 0.76, and 1.95 ± 0.60) were achieved with different FAs (10°, 15°, 20°, 25°, 30°, 35°, and 40°, respectively). Optimal FAs of 20°-30° and NR of 80 were recommended. Self-gated technique can improve image quality of LGE without irregular ECG or respiration gating. Therefore, SG-LGE can be used an alternative method of ECG-RESP-gating.

  15. Oxidative shielding or oxidative stress?

    PubMed

    Naviaux, Robert K

    2012-09-01

    In this review I report evidence that the mainstream field of oxidative damage biology has been running fast in the wrong direction for more than 50 years. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) and chronic oxidative changes in membrane lipids and proteins found in many chronic diseases are not the result of accidental damage. Instead, these changes are the result of a highly evolved, stereotyped, and protein-catalyzed "oxidative shielding" response that all eukaryotes adopt when placed in a chemically or microbially hostile environment. The machinery of oxidative shielding evolved from pathways of innate immunity designed to protect the cell from attack and limit the spread of infection. Both oxidative and reductive stress trigger oxidative shielding. In the cases in which it has been studied explicitly, functional and metabolic defects occur in the cell before the increase in ROS and oxidative changes. ROS are the response to disease, not the cause. Therefore, it is not the oxidative changes that should be targeted for therapy, but rather the metabolic conditions that create them. This fresh perspective is relevant to diseases that range from autism, type 1 diabetes, type 2 diabetes, cancer, heart disease, schizophrenia, Parkinson's disease, and Alzheimer disease. Research efforts need to be redirected. Oxidative shielding is protective and is a misguided target for therapy. Identification of the causal chemistry and environmental factors that trigger innate immunity and metabolic memory that initiate and sustain oxidative shielding is paramount for human health.

  16. Dynamic global model of oxide Czochralski process with weighing control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mamedov, V. M.; Vasiliev, M. G.; Yuferev, V. S.

    2011-03-01

    A dynamic model of oxide Czochralski growth with weighing control has been developed for the first time. A time-dependent approach is used for the calculation of temperature fields in different parts of a crystallization set-up and convection patterns in a melt, while internal radiation in crystal is considered in a quasi-steady approximation. A special algorithm is developed for the calculation of displacement of a triple point and simulation of a crystal surface formation. To calculate variations in the heat generation, a model of weighing control with a commonly used PID regulator is applied. As an example, simulation of the growth process of gallium-gadolinium garnet (GGG) crystals starting from the stage of seeding is performed.

  17. Comparison of Image Processing Techniques for Nonviable Tissue Quantification in Late Gadolinium Enhancement Cardiac Magnetic Resonance Images.

    PubMed

    Carminati, M Chiara; Boniotti, Cinzia; Fusini, Laura; Andreini, Daniele; Pontone, Gianluca; Pepi, Mauro; Caiani, Enrico G

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the performance of quantitative methods, either semiautomated or automated, for left ventricular (LV) nonviable tissue analysis from cardiac magnetic resonance late gadolinium enhancement (CMR-LGE) images. The investigated segmentation techniques were: (i) n-standard deviations thresholding; (ii) full width at half maximum thresholding; (iii) Gaussian mixture model classification; and (iv) fuzzy c-means clustering. These algorithms were applied either in each short axis slice (single-slice approach) or globally considering the entire short-axis stack covering the LV (global approach). CMR-LGE images from 20 patients with ischemic cardiomyopathy were retrospectively selected, and results from each technique were assessed against manual tracing. All methods provided comparable performance in terms of accuracy in scar detection, computation of local transmurality, and high correlation in scar mass compared with the manual technique. In general, no significant difference between single-slice and global approach was noted. The reproducibility of manual and investigated techniques was confirmed in all cases with slightly lower results for the nSD approach. Automated techniques resulted in accurate and reproducible evaluation of LV scars from CMR-LGE in ischemic patients with performance similar to the manual technique. Their application could minimize user interaction and computational time, even when compared with semiautomated approaches.

  18. Anthropogenic gadolinium anomalies and rare earth elements in the water of Atibaia River and Anhumas Creek, Southeast Brazil.

    PubMed

    de Campos, Francisco Ferreira; Enzweiler, Jacinta

    2016-05-01

    The concentrations of rare earth elements (REE), measured in water samples from Atibaia River and its tributary Anhumas Creek, Brazil, present excess of dissolved gadolinium. Such anthropogenic anomalies of Gd in water, already described in other parts of the world, result from the use of stable and soluble Gd chelates as contrast agents in magnetic resonance imaging. Atibaia River constitutes the main water supply of Campinas Metropolitan area, and its basin receives wastewater effluents. The REE concentrations in water samples were determined in 0.22-μm pore size filtered samples, without and after preconcentration by solid-phase extraction with bis-(2-ethyl-hexyl)-phosphate. This preconcentration method was unable to retain the anthropogenic Gd quantitatively. The probable reason is that the Gd chelates dissociate slowly in acidic media to produce the free ion that is retained by the phosphate ester. Strong correlations between Gd and constituents or parameters associated with effluents confirmed the source of most Gd in water samples as anthropogenic. The shale-normalized REE patterns of Atibaia River and Anhumas Creek water samples showed light and heavy REE enrichment trends, respectively. Also, positive Ce anomalies in many Atibaia River samples, as well as the strong correlations of the REE (except Gd) with terrigenous elements, imply that inorganic colloidal particles contributed to the REE measured values.

  19. Trapped ventricle after laser ablation of a subependymal giant cell astrocytoma complicated by intraventricular gadolinium extravasation: case report.

    PubMed

    Karsy, Michael; Patel, Daxa M; Bollo, Robert J

    2018-05-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging-guided stereotactic laser ablation of intracranial targets, including brain tumors, has expanded dramatically over the past decade, but there have been few reports of complications, especially those occurring in a delayed fashion. Laser ablation of subependymal giant cell astrocytomas (SEGAs) is an attractive alternative to maintenance immunotherapy in some children with tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC); however, the effect of treatment on disease progression and the nature and frequency of potential complications remains largely unknown. The authors report the case of a 5-year-old boy with TSC who underwent stereotactic laser ablation of a SEGA at the right foramen of Monro on 2 separate occasions. After the second ablation, immediate posttreatment MRI revealed gadolinium extravasation from the tumor into the lateral ventricle. Nine months later, the patient presented with papilledema and delayed obstructive hydrocephalus secondary to intraventricular adhesions causing a trapped right lateral ventricle. This was successfully treated with endoscopic septostomy. The authors discuss the potential cause and clinical management of a delayed complication not previously reported after a relatively novel surgical therapy.

  20. In vivo observation of dynamic perilymph formation using 4.7 T MRI with gadolinium as a tracer.

    PubMed

    Zou, Jing; Pyykkö, Ilmari; Counter, S Allen; Klason, Tomas; Bretlau, Poul; Bjelke, Börje

    2003-10-01

    To investigate the pharmacokinetics of gadolinium in the perilymphatic fluid spaces of the cochlea in vivo using high-resolution MRI to obtain information concerning perilymph formation. A Bruker Biospec Avance 47/40 experimental MRI system with a magnetic field strength of 4.7 T was used. Anesthetized pigmented guinea pigs were injected with the contrast agent Gd-diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid-bismethylamide and placed in the magnet. The signal intensity of Gd in the tissues was used as a biomarker for dynamic changes in the perilymphatic fluid. The most rapid uptake of Gd in the perilymphatic fluid spaces occurred in the lower part of the modiolus, followed by the second turn of the scala tympani. Within the scala tympani, the distribution of Gd in the basal turn was significantly lower than that in the other turns. Destruction of the cochlear aqueduct was followed by an increase in Gd uptake in the perilymph instead of a reduction. These findings offer further evidence that the pervasive perilymphatic fluid derives from the cochlear blood supply via the cochlear glomeruli, which are in close proximity to the scala tympani within the modiolus, and the capillary in the spiral ligament. Cerebrospinal fluid communicates with perilymph via the cochlear aqueduct but is not the main source of perilymph. These findings are of relevance to the treatment of inner ear diseases, as well as to our understanding of the flow and source of perilymphatic fluid.

  1. Diagnosis of endolymphatic hydrops by means of 3T magnetic resonance imaging after intratympanic administration of gadolinium.

    PubMed

    Tuñón Gómez, M; Lobo Duro, D R; Brea Álvarez, B; García-Berrocal, J R

    To detect and graduate endolymphatic hydrops or endolymphatic space dilations in patients with suspected Meniere's disease or immune-mediated inner ear disease by magnetic resonance imaging. A prospective study was performed including all the patients with clinical suspicion of Meniere's disease or immune-mediated inner ear disease treated at the Otolaryngology department during a one year period. In all cases, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed in a 3T scanner. IR sequence was performed after 24 to 28h prior intratimpanic injection of gadolinium on both ears. Two neurorradiologist graduated endolymphatic space volume as agreed on normal, moderate and significant in the obtained images. The presence of hydrops was documented by MRI in six patients with definite or probable Meniere's disease. In two of the four cases without vertigo hydrops was not demonstrated. In the other two cases with a high clinical suspicion of immune-mediated disease but with negative autoimmune tests hydrops was proved. There was only disagreement on cochlear hydrops presence on two patients. The detection of endolymphatic hydrops in patients with definite or probable Meniere's disease served to confirm the final diagnosis. Moreover, hydrops was detected in patients with suspected immune-mediated inner ear disease, which could have an impact on the diagnosis and treatment of these patients. Therefore, we suggest that this test could be included for the diagnosis of these inner ear diseases. Copyright © 2016 SERAM. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  2. Caspase-responsive smart gadolinium-based contrast agent for magnetic resonance imaging of drug-induced apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Ye, Deju; Shuhendler, Adam J; Pandit, Prachi; Brewer, Kimberly D; Tee, Sui Seng; Cui, Lina; Tikhomirov, Grigory; Rutt, Brian; Rao, Jianghong

    2014-10-01

    Non-invasive detection of caspase-3/7 activity in vivo has provided invaluable predictive information regarding tumor therapeutic efficacy and anti-tumor drug selection. Although a number of caspase-3/7 targeted fluorescence and positron emission tomography (PET) imaging probes have been developed, there is still a lack of gadolinium (Gd)-based magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) probes that enable high spatial resolution detection of caspase-3/7 activity in vivo . Here we employ a self-assembly approach and develop a caspase-3/7 activatable Gd-based MRI probe for monitoring tumor apoptosis in mice. Upon reduction and caspase-3/7 activation, the caspase-sensitive nano-aggregation MR probe (C-SNAM: 1 ) undergoes biocompatible intramolecular cyclization and subsequent self-assembly into Gd-nanoparticles (GdNPs). This results in enhanced r 1 relaxivity-19.0 (post-activation) vs. 10.2 mM -1 s -1 (pre-activation) at 1 T in solution-and prolonged accumulation in chemotherapy-induced apoptotic cells and tumors that express active caspase-3/7. We demonstrate that C-SNAM reports caspase-3/7 activity by generating a significantly brighter T 1 -weighted MR signal compared to non-treated tumors following intravenous administration of C-SNAM, providing great potential for high-resolution imaging of tumor apoptosis in vivo .

  3. Indirect MR lymphangiography of the head and neck using conventional gadolinium contrast: A pilot study in humans

    SciTech Connect

    Loo, Billy W.; Draney, Mary T.; Sivanandan, Ranjiv

    2006-10-01

    Purpose: To evaluate indirect magnetic resonance lymphangiography (MR-LAG) using interstitial injection of conventional gadolinium contrast (gadoteridol and gadopentetate dimeglumine) for delineating the primary lymphatic drainage of head-and-neck sites. Methods and Materials: We performed head-and-neck MR-LAG in 5 healthy volunteers, with injection of dermal and mucosal sites. We evaluated the safety of the procedure, the patterns of enhancement categorized by injection site and nodal level, the time course of enhancement, the optimal concentration and volume of contrast, and the optimal imaging sequence. Results: The worst side effects of interstitial contrast injection were brief, mild pain and swelling at the injected sitesmore » that were self-limited. MR-LAG resulted in consistent visualization of the primary lymphatic drainage pattern specific to each injected site, which was reproducible on repeated examinations. The best enhancement was obtained with injection of small volumes (0.3-0.5 mL) of either agent diluted, imaging within 5-15 min of injection, and a three-dimensional fast spoiled gradient echo sequence with magnetization transfer. Conclusions: We found head-and-neck MR-LAG to be a safe, convenient imaging method that provides functional information about the lymphatic drainage of injected sites. Applied to head-and-neck cancer, it has the potential to identify sites at highest risk of occult metastatic spread for radiotherapy or surgical planning, and possibly to visualize micrometastases.« less

  4. Distribution of late gadolinium enhancement in various types of cardiomyopathies: Significance in differential diagnosis, clinical features and prognosis

    PubMed Central

    Satoh, Hiroshi; Sano, Makoto; Suwa, Kenichiro; Saitoh, Takeji; Nobuhara, Mamoru; Saotome, Masao; Urushida, Tsuyoshi; Katoh, Hideki; Hayashi, Hideharu

    2014-01-01

    The recent development of cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) techniques has allowed detailed analyses of cardiac function and tissue characterization with high spatial resolution. We review characteristic CMR features in ischemic and non-ischemic cardiomyopathies (ICM and NICM), especially in terms of the location and distribution of late gadolinium enhancement (LGE). CMR in ICM shows segmental wall motion abnormalities or wall thinning in a particular coronary arterial territory, and the subendocardial or transmural LGE. LGE in NICM generally does not correspond to any particular coronary artery distribution and is located mostly in the mid-wall to subepicardial layer. The analysis of LGE distribution is valuable to differentiate NICM with diffusely impaired systolic function, including dilated cardiomyopathy, end-stage hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), cardiac sarcoidosis, and myocarditis, and those with diffuse left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy including HCM, cardiac amyloidosis and Anderson-Fabry disease. A transient low signal intensity LGE in regions of severe LV dysfunction is a particular feature of stress cardiomyopathy. In arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy/dysplasia, an enhancement of right ventricular (RV) wall with functional and morphological changes of RV becomes apparent. Finally, the analyses of LGE distribution have potentials to predict cardiac outcomes and response to treatments. PMID:25068019

  5. Distribution of late gadolinium enhancement in various types of cardiomyopathies: Significance in differential diagnosis, clinical features and prognosis.

    PubMed

    Satoh, Hiroshi; Sano, Makoto; Suwa, Kenichiro; Saitoh, Takeji; Nobuhara, Mamoru; Saotome, Masao; Urushida, Tsuyoshi; Katoh, Hideki; Hayashi, Hideharu

    2014-07-26

    The recent development of cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) techniques has allowed detailed analyses of cardiac function and tissue characterization with high spatial resolution. We review characteristic CMR features in ischemic and non-ischemic cardiomyopathies (ICM and NICM), especially in terms of the location and distribution of late gadolinium enhancement (LGE). CMR in ICM shows segmental wall motion abnormalities or wall thinning in a particular coronary arterial territory, and the subendocardial or transmural LGE. LGE in NICM generally does not correspond to any particular coronary artery distribution and is located mostly in the mid-wall to subepicardial layer. The analysis of LGE distribution is valuable to differentiate NICM with diffusely impaired systolic function, including dilated cardiomyopathy, end-stage hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), cardiac sarcoidosis, and myocarditis, and those with diffuse left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy including HCM, cardiac amyloidosis and Anderson-Fabry disease. A transient low signal intensity LGE in regions of severe LV dysfunction is a particular feature of stress cardiomyopathy. In arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy/dysplasia, an enhancement of right ventricular (RV) wall with functional and morphological changes of RV becomes apparent. Finally, the analyses of LGE distribution have potentials to predict cardiac outcomes and response to treatments.

  6. Nuclear spin relaxation in ligands outside of the first coordination sphere in a gadolinium (III) complex: Effects of intermolecular forces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kruk, Danuta; Kowalewski, Jozef

    2002-07-01

    This article describes paramagnetic relaxation enhancement (PRE) in systems with high electron spin, S, where there is molecular interaction between a paramagnetic ion and a ligand outside of the first coordination sphere. The new feature of our treatment is an improved handling of the electron-spin relaxation, making use of the Redfield theory. Following a common approach, a well-defined second coordination sphere is assumed, and the PRE contribution from these more distant and shorter-lived ligands is treated in a way similar to that used for the first coordination sphere. This model is called "ordered second sphere," OSS. In addition, we develop here a formalism similar to that of Hwang and Freed [J. Chem. Phys. 63, 4017 (1975)], but accounting for the electron-spin relaxation effects. We denote this formalism "diffuse second sphere," DSS. The description of the dynamics of the intermolecular dipole-dipole interaction is based on the Smoluchowski equation, with a potential of mean force related to the radial distribution function. We have used a finite-difference method to calculate numerically a correlation function for translational motion, taking into account the intermolecular forces leading to an arbitrary radial distribution of the ligand protons. The OSS and DSS models, including the Redfield description of the electron-spin relaxation, were used to interpret the PRE in an aqueous solution of a slowly rotating gadolinium (III) complex (S=7/2) bound to a protein.

  7. Pinhole X-ray fluorescence imaging of gadolinium and gold nanoparticles using polychromatic X-rays: a Monte Carlo study

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Seongmoon; Sung, Wonmo; Ye, Sung-Joon

    2017-01-01

    This work aims to develop a Monte Carlo (MC) model for pinhole K-shell X-ray fluorescence (XRF) imaging of metal nanoparticles using polychromatic X-rays. The MC model consisted of two-dimensional (2D) position-sensitive detectors and fan-beam X-rays used to stimulate the emission of XRF photons from gadolinium (Gd) or gold (Au) nanoparticles. Four cylindrical columns containing different concentrations of nanoparticles ranging from 0.01% to 0.09% by weight (wt%) were placed in a 5 cm diameter cylindrical water phantom. The images of the columns had detectable contrast-to-noise ratios (CNRs) of 5.7 and 4.3 for 0.01 wt% Gd and for 0.03 wt% Au, respectively. Higher concentrations of nanoparticles yielded higher CNR. For 1×1011 incident particles, the radiation dose to the phantom was 19.9 mGy for 110 kVp X-rays (Gd imaging) and 26.1 mGy for 140 kVp X-rays (Au imaging). The MC model of a pinhole XRF can acquire direct 2D slice images of the object without image reconstruction. The MC model demonstrated that the pinhole XRF imaging system could be a potential bioimaging modality for nanomedicine. PMID:28860750

  8. Thermal, spectroscopic and laser properties of Nd3+ in gadolinium scandium gallium garnet crystal produced by optical floating zone method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Li; Wang, Shuxian; Wu, Kui; Wang, Baolin; Yu, Haohai; Zhang, Huaijin; Cai, Huaqiang; Huang, Hui

    2013-12-01

    A neodymium-doped gadolinium scandium gallium garnet (Nd:GSGG) single crystal with dimensions of Φ 5 × 20 mm2 has been grown by means of optical floating zone (OFZ). X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD) result shows that the as-grown Nd:GSGG crystal possesses a cubic structure with space group Ia3d and a cell parameter of a = 1.2561 nm. Effective elemental segregation coefficients of the Nd:GSGG as-grown crystal were calculated by using X-ray fluorescence (XRF). The thermal properties of the Nd:GSGG crystal were systematically studied by measuring the specific heat, thermal expansion and thermal diffusion coefficient, and the thermal conductivity of this crystal was calculated. The absorption and luminescence spectra of Nd:GSGG were measured at room temperature (RT). By using the Judd-Ofelt (J-O) theory, the theoretical radiative lifetime was calculated and compared with the experimental result. Continuous wave (CW) laser performance was achieved with the Nd:GSGG at the wavelength of 1062 nm when it was pumped by a laser diode (LD). A maximum output power of 0.792 W at 1062 nm was obtained with a slope efficiency of 11.89% under a pump power of 7.36 W, and an optical-optical conversion efficiency of 11.72%.

  9. Gadolinium heteropoly complex K 17[Gd(P 2W 17O 61) 2] as a potential MRI contrast agent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Guoying; Feng, Jianghua; Wu, Huifeng; Pei, Fengkui; Fang, Ke; Lei, Hao

    2004-10-01

    Gadolinium heteropoly complex K17[Gd(P2W17O61)2] has been evaluated by in vitro and in vivo experiments as a potential contrast agent for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The thermal analysis and conductivity study indicate that this complex has good thermal stability and wide pH stability range. The T1 relaxivity is 7.59 mM-1 s-1 in aqueous solution and 7.97 mM-1 s-1 in 0.725 mmol l-1 bovine serum albumin (BSA) solution at 25 °C and 9.39 T, respectively. MR imaging of three male Sprague-Dawley rats showed remarkable enhancement in rat liver after intravenous injection, which persisted longer than with Gd-DTPA. The signal intensity increased by 57.1±16.9% during the whole imaging period at 0.082 mmol kg-1dose. Our preliminary in vitro and in vivo studies indicate that K17[Gd(P2W17O61)2] is a potential liver-specific MRI contrast agent.

  10. Comparison of gadolinium-EOB-DTPA-enhanced and diffusion-weighted liver MRI for detection of small hepatic metastases.

    PubMed

    Shimada, Kotaro; Isoda, Hiroyoshi; Hirokawa, Yuusuke; Arizono, Shigeki; Shibata, Toshiya; Togashi, Kaori

    2010-11-01

    To compare the accuracy of gadolinium ethoxybenzyl-diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (Gd-EOB-DTPA)-enhanced MRI with that of diffusion-weighted MRI (DWI) in the detection of small hepatic metastases (2 cm or smaller). Forty-five patients underwent abdominal MRI at 3 T, including T1-weighted imaging (T1WI), T2-weighted imaging (T2WI), heavily T2WI (HASTE), DWI with a b-value of 500 s/mm(2) and contrast-enhanced MRI with Gd-EOB-DTPA. Two groups were assigned and compared: group A (T1WI, T2WI, HASTE and contrast-enhanced study with Gd-EOB-DTPA), and group B (T1WI, T2WI, HASTE and DWI). Two observers independently interpreted the images obtained in a random order. For all hepatic metastases, the diagnostic performance using each imaging set was evaluated by receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis. A total of 51 hepatic metastases were confirmed. The area under the ROC curve (Az) of group A was larger than that of group B, and the difference in the mean Az values between the two image sets was statistically significant, whereas, there were three metastases that lay near thin vessels or among multiple cysts and were better visualised in group B than in group A. Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced MRI showed higher accuracy in the detection of small metastases than DWI.

  11. Dynamic aggregation of the mid-sized gadolinium complex {Ph4[Gd(DTTA)(H2O)2](-)3}.

    PubMed

    Jaccard, Hugues; Miéville, Pascal; Cannizzo, Caroline; Mayer, Cédric R; Helm, Lothar

    2014-02-01

    A compound binding three Gd(3+) ions, {Ph4[Gd(DTTA)(H2O)2](-) 3} (where H5DTTA is diethylenetriaminetetraacetic acid), has been synthesized around a hydrophobic center made up of four phenyl rings. In aqueous solution the molecules start to self-aggregate at concentrations well below 1 mM as shown by the increase of rotational correlation times and by the decrease of the translational self-diffusion constant. NMR spectra recorded in aqueous solution of the diamagnetic analogue {Ph4[Y(DTTA)(H2O)2](-)3} show that the aggregation is dynamic and due to intermolecular π-stacking interactions between the hydrophobic aromatic centers. From estimations of effective radii, it can be concluded that the aggregates are composed of two to three monomers. The paramagnetic {Ph4[Gd(DTTA)(H2O)2](-)3} exhibits concentration-dependent (1)H NMR relaxivities with high values of approximately 50 mM(-1) s(-1) (30 MHz, 25 °C) at gadolinium concentrations above 20 mM. A combined analysis of (1)H NMR dispersion profiles measured at different concentrations of the compound and (17)O NMR data measured at various temperatures was performed using different theoretical approaches. The fitted parameters showed that the increase in relaxivity with increasing concentration of the compound is due to slower global rotational motion and an increase of the Lipari-Szabo order parameter S(2).

  12. Response of gadolinium doped liquid scintillator to charged particles: measurement based on intrinsic U/Th contamination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Q.; Lin, S. T.; He, H. T.; Liu, S. K.; Tang, C. J.; Wang, L.; Wong, H. T.; Xing, H. Y.; Yue, Q.; Zhu, J. J.

    2018-04-01

    A measurement is reported for the response to charged particles of a liquid scintillator named EJ-335 doped with 0.5% gadolinium by weight. This liquid scintillator was used as the detection medium in a neutron detector. The measurement is based on the in-situ α-particles from the intrinsic Uranium and Thorium contamination in the scintillator. The β–α and the α–α cascade decays from the U/Th decay chains were used to select α-particles. The contamination levels of U/Th were consequently measured to be (5.54±0.15)× 10‑11 g/g, (1.45±0.01)× 10‑10 g/g and (1.07±0.01)× 10‑11 g/g for 232Th, 238U and 235U, respectively, assuming secular equilibrium. The stopping power of α-particles in the liquid scintillator was simulated by the TRIM software. Then the Birks constant, kB, of the scintillator for α-particles was determined to be (7.28±0.23) mg/(cm2ṡMeV) by Birks' formulation. The response for protons is also presented assuming the kB constant is the same as for α-particles.

  13. Double-Layer Gadolinium Zirconate/Yttria-Stabilized Zirconia Thermal Barrier Coatings Deposited by the Solution Precursor Plasma Spray Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Chen; Jordan, Eric H.; Harris, Alan B.; Gell, Maurice; Roth, Jeffrey

    2015-08-01

    Advanced thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) with lower thermal conductivity, increased resistance to calcium-magnesium-aluminosilicate (CMAS), and improved high-temperature capability, compared to traditional yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) TBCs, are essential to higher efficiency in next generation gas turbine engines. Double-layer rare-earth zirconate/YSZ TBCs are a promising solution. From a processing perspective, solution precursor plasma spray (SPPS) process with its unique and beneficial microstructural features can be an effective approach to obtaining the double-layer microstructure. Previously durable low-thermal-conductivity YSZ TBCs with optimized layered porosity, called the inter-pass boundaries (IPBs) were produced using the SPPS process. In this study, an SPPS gadolinium zirconate (GZO) protective surface layer was successfully added. These SPPS double-layer TBCs not only retained good cyclic durability and low thermal conductivity, but also demonstrated favorable phase stability and increased surface temperature capabilities. The CMAS resistance was evaluated with both accumulative and single applications of simulated CMAS in isothermal furnaces. The double-layer YSZ/GZO exhibited dramatic improvement in the single application, but not in the continuous one. In addition, to explore their potential application in integrated gasification combined cycle environments, double-layer TBCs were tested under high-temperature humidity and encouraging performance was recorded.

  14. Gadolinium-based magnetic resonance contrast agents at 7 Tesla: in vitro T1 relaxivities in human blood plasma.

    PubMed

    Noebauer-Huhmann, Iris M; Szomolanyi, Pavol; Juras, Vladimír; Kraff, Oliver; Ladd, Mark E; Trattnig, Siegfried

    2010-09-01

    PURPOSE/INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to determine the T1 relaxivities (r1) of 8 gadolinium (Gd)-based MR contrast agents in human blood plasma at 7 Tesla, compared with 3 Tesla. Eight commercially available Gd-based MR contrast agents were diluted in human blood plasma to concentrations of 0, 0.25, 0.5, 1, and 2 mmol/L. In vitro measurements were performed at 37 degrees C, on a 7 Tesla and on a 3 Tesla whole-body magnetic resonance imaging scanner. For the determination of T1 relaxation times, Inversion Recovery Sequences with inversion times from 0 to 3500 ms were used. The relaxivities were calculated. The r1 relaxivities of all agents, diluted in human blood plasma at body temperature, were lower at 7 Tesla than at 3 Tesla. The values at 3 Tesla were comparable to those published earlier. Notably, in some agents, a minor negative correlation of r1 with a concentration of up to 2 mmol/L could be observed. This was most pronounced in the agents with the highest protein-binding capacity. At 7 Tesla, the in vitro r1 relaxivities of Gd-based contrast agents in human blood plasma are lower than those at 3 Tesla. This work may serve as a basis for the application of Gd-based MR contrast agents at 7 Tesla. Further studies are required to optimize the contrast agent dose in vivo.

  15. Synthesis and characterization of gadolinium nanosheets with bound rose bengal: potential use in photodynamic therapy and MRI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stefanakis, Dimitrios; Seimenis, Ioannis; Ghanotakis, Demetrios

    2014-11-01

    Gadolinium (Gd) is a trivalent paramagnetic element, making it useful as a contrast agent for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Gd2(OH)5NO3· xH2O belongs to a new family of nanosheets. The advantages of these materials are their relatively small size, paramagnetic behavior, stability, lack of toxicity and highly ordered structure. In the present study, Gd2(OH)5NO3 nanosheets were functionalized with amino groups and modified with the photosensitiser rose bengal (RB). This surface modification makes possible the use of the nanosheets in photodynamic therapy. The coated nanosheets were characterized with X-ray diffraction, fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and UV-Vis spectroscopy, as well as transmission electron microscopy. The possibility of using these nanosheets as potential spin-lattice ( T 1) and spin-spin relaxation ( T 2) contrast agents in MRI was evaluated at 1.5 T. Finally, the ability of Gd2(OH)5NO3-RB to catalyze photooxidization reactions was examined using nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS).

  16. Synthesis and characterization of protocatechuic acid-loaded gadolinium-layered double hydroxide and gold nanocomposite for theranostic application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Usman, Muhammad Sani; Hussein, Mohd Zobir; Kura, Aminu Umar; Fakurazi, Sharida; Masarudin, Mas Jaffri; Saad, Fathinul Fikri Ahmad

    2018-03-01

    A theranostic nanocomposite was developed using anticancer agent, protocatechuic acid (PA) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agent gadolinium nitrate (Gd) for simultaneous delivery using layered double hydroxide (LDH) as the delivery agent. Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) were adsorbed on the surface of the LDH, which served as a complementary contrast agent. Based on the concept of supramolecular chemistry (SPC) and multimodal delivery system (MDS), the PA and Gd guests were first intercalated into the LDH host and subsequently AuNPs were surface adsorbed as the third guest. The nanohybrid developed was named MAPGAu. The MAPGAu was exposed to various characterizations at different stages of synthesis, starting with XRD analysis, which was used to confirm the intercalation episode and surface adsorption of the guest molecules. Consequently, FESEM, Hi-TEM, XRD, ICP-OES, CHNS, FTIR and UV-Vis analyses were done on the nanohybrids. The result of XRD analysis indicated successful intercalation of the Gd and PA as well the adsorption of AuNPs. The UV-Vis release study showed 90% of the intercalated drug was released at pH 4.8, which is the pH of the cancer cells. The FESEM and TEM micrographs obtained equally confirmed the formation of MAGPAu nanocomposite, with AuNPs conspicuously deposited on the LDH surface. The cytotoxicity study of the nanohybrid also showed insignificant toxicity to normal cell lines and significant toxicity to cancer cell lines. The developed MAGPAu nanocomposite has shown prospects for future theranostic cancer treatment.

  17. Gadolinium substitution induced defect restructuring in multiferroic BiFeO3: case study by positron annihilation spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukherjee, A.; Banerjee, M.; Basu, S.; Nambissan, P. M. G.; Pal, M.

    2013-12-01

    Positron annihilation spectroscopy (PAS) comprising of the measurements of positron lifetime and coincidence Doppler broadening spectra has been carried out to understand and monitor the evolution of the vacancy-type defects arising from the ionic deficiencies at lattice points of the multiferroic perovskite bismuth ferrite (BiFeO3) doped with 1, 5 and 10 at% gadolinium (Gd3+) ions. Negatively charged defects in the form of Bi3+ monovacancies (V_{Bi}^{3-} ) were present in the undoped nanocrystallites, which strongly trapped positrons. During the successive doping by Gd3+ ions, the positron trapping efficiency decreased while the doped ions combined with the vacancies to form complexes, which became neutral. A fraction of the positrons got annihilated at the crystallite surfaces too, being evident from the very large positron lifetimes obtained and confirming the nano-size-specific characteristics of the samples. Further, the intercrystallite regions provided favourable sites for orthopositronium formation, although in minute concentrations. The dopant ion-complex formation was also depicted clearly by the defect characteristic S-W plot. Also, the large change of electrical resistivity with Gd concentration has been explained nicely by invoking the defect information from the PAS study. The study has demonstrated the usefulness of an excellent method of defect identification in such a novel material system, which is vital information for exploiting them for further technological applications.

  18. Immediate Adverse Reactions to Gadolinium-Based MR Contrast Media: A Retrospective Analysis on 10,608 Examinations.

    PubMed

    Granata, Vincenza; Cascella, Marco; Fusco, Roberta; dell'Aprovitola, Nicoletta; Catalano, Orlando; Filice, Salvatore; Schiavone, Vincenzo; Izzo, Francesco; Cuomo, Arturo; Petrillo, Antonella

    2016-01-01

    Background and Purpose. Contrast media (CM) for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) may determine the development of acute adverse reactions. Objective was to retrospectively assess the frequency and severity of adverse reactions associated with gadolinium-based contrast agents (GBCAs) injection in patients who underwent MRI. Material and Methods. At our center 10608 MRI examinations with CM were performed using five different GBCAs: Gd-BOPTA (MultiHance), Gd-DTPA (Magnevist), Gd-EOBDTPA (Primovist), Gd-DOTA (Dotarem), and Gd-BTDO3A (Gadovist). Results. 32 acute adverse reactions occurred, accounting for 0.3% of all administration. Twelve reactions were associated with Gd-DOTA injection (0.11%), 9 with Gd-BOPTA injection (0.08%), 6 with Gd-BTDO3A (0.056%), 3 with Gd-EOB-DTPA (0.028%), and 2 with Gd-DTPA (0.018%). Twenty-four reactions (75.0%) were mild, four (12.5%) moderate, and four (12.5%) severe. The most severe reactions were seen associated with use of Gd-BOPTA, with 3 severe reactions in 32 total reactions. Conclusion. Acute adverse reactions are generally rare with the overall adverse reaction rate of 0.3%. The most common adverse reactions were not severe, consisting in skin rash and hives.

  19. Characterization of the biliary tract by virtual ultrasonography constructed by gadolinium ethoxybenzyl diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Koizumi, Yohei; Hirooka, Masashi; Ochi, Hironori; Tokumoto, Yoshio; Takechi, Megumi; Hiraoka, Atsushi; Ikeda, Yoshio; Kumagi, Teru; Matsuura, Bunzo; Abe, Masanori; Hiasa, Yoichi

    2015-04-01

    This study aimed at prospectively evaluating bile duct anatomy on ultrasonography and evaluating the safety and utility of radiofrequency ablation (RFA) assisted by virtual ultrasonography from gadolinium ethoxybenzyl diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (Gd-EOB-DTPA)-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The institutional review board approved this study, and patients provided written informed consent prior to entry into the study. Bile duct anatomy was assessed in 201 patients who underwent Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced MRI for the evaluation of hepatic tumor. Eighty-one of these patients subsequently underwent RFA assisted by ultrasound imaging. In 23 patients, the tumor was located within 5 mm of the central bile duct, as demonstrated by MRI. Virtual ultrasonography constructed by Gd-EOB-enhanced MRI was able to visualize the common bile duct, left hepatic duct, and right hepatic duct in 96.5, 94.0, and 89.6 % of cases, respectively. The target hepatic tumor nodule and biliary duct could be detected with virtual ultrasonography in all patients, and no severe complications occurred. The running pattern of the bile ducts could be recognized on conventional ultrasound by referencing virtual ultrasonography constructed by Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced MRI. RFA assisted by this imaging strategy did not result in bile duct injury.

  20. Structural, optical, dielectric and magnetic studies of gadolinium-added Mn-Cu nanoferrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanna, R. Rajesh; Lenin, N.; Sakthipandi, K.; Kumar, A. Senthil

    2018-05-01

    Spinel ferrite with the general formula Mn1-xCuxFe1.85Gd0.15O4 (x = 0.2, 0.4, 0.6 and 0.8) was synthesized using the standard sonochemical method. The structure, optical, morphology, dielectric and magnetic properties of the prepared Mn1-xCuxFe1.85Gd0.15O4 nanoferrites were exhaustively investigated using various characterization techniques. The phase purity, secondary phase and crystallite parameters were studied from X-ray diffraction patterns. Fourier transform infrared spectra showed two absorption bands of transition metal oxides in the frequency range from 400 to 650 cm-1, which are related to asymmetric stretching modes of the spinel ferrites (AB2O4). Raman spectra have five active modes illustrating the vibration of O2- ions at both tetrahedral (A) site and octahedral (B) site ions. The wide and narrow scan spectrum from X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy results confirmed the presence of Mn, Cu, Gd, Fe, C and O elements in the composition. The oxidation state and core level of the photo electron peaks of Mn 2p, Cu 2p, Gd 3d, Fe 2p and O 1s were analyzed. The influence of the Cu2+ concentration in Mn1-xCuxFe1.85Gd0.15O4 on the morphology, varying from nanorods, nanoflakes to spherical, was explored on the basis of scanning electron microscopy images. Ultraviolet diffuse reflectance spectroscopy studies indicated that the optical bandgap (5.12-5.32 eV) of the nanoferrites showed an insulating behavior. The dielectric constant, loss tangent and complex dielectric constant values decreased with an increase in frequency with the addition of Gd3+ content. A vibrating sample magnetometer showed that the prepared nanoferrites had a soft ferromagnetic nature. The magnetic parameter changed markedly with an increase in the Cu content in Mn1-xCuxFe1.85Gd0.15O4 nanoferrites. The optical, dielectric and magnetic properties were considerably enhanced with the addition of Gd3+ ions in the spinel nanoferrites.

  1. Effect of gadolinium incorporation on the structure and luminescence properties of niobium-based materials.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Lidia Resende; Moscardini, Susane Bonamin; Molina, Eduardo Ferreira; Nassar, Eduardo José; Verelst, Marc; Rocha, Lucas Alonso

    2018-06-08

    In this work, we have investigated how the concentration of Gd 3+ ions affects the structural and luminescent properties of niobium oxide-based matrices doped with Eu 3+ ions obtained by the adapted non-hydrolytic sol-gel route. X-ray diffractograms revealed that increasing the concentration of Gd 3+ ions favored the onset of the Gd 2 O 3 structure decreasing the GdNbO 4 phase. The excitation spectra (λ em  = 613 nm) presented bands corresponding to the 7 F 0  →  5 L J transitions (L = D, G, and L, where J = 0-7), attributed to the Eu 3+ ions, and a broad band at 270 nm, assigned to the charge transfer of the [Formula: see text] group. The emission spectra contained bands refer to the 5 D 0  →  7 F J internal configuration transitions (J = 0, 1, 2, 3, and 4). Finally, the CIE chromaticity coordinates met the standard for the color red established by the National Television Standard Committee (NTSC).

  2. Effect of gadolinium incorporation on the structure and luminescence properties of niobium-based materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Resende Oliveira, Lidia; Bonamin Moscardini, Susane; Ferreira Molina, Eduardo; José Nassar, Eduardo; Verelst, Marc; Alonso Rocha, Lucas

    2018-06-01

    In this work, we have investigated how the concentration of Gd3+ ions affects the structural and luminescent properties of niobium oxide-based matrices doped with Eu3+ ions obtained by the adapted non-hydrolytic sol–gel route. X-ray diffractograms revealed that increasing the concentration of Gd3+ ions favored the onset of the Gd2O3 structure decreasing the GdNbO4 phase. The excitation spectra (λ em = 613 nm) presented bands corresponding to the 7F0 → 5LJ transitions (L = D, G, and L, where J = 0–7), attributed to the Eu3+ ions, and a broad band at 270 nm, assigned to the charge transfer of the {{{{NbO}}}4}3- group. The emission spectra contained bands refer to the 5D0 → 7FJ internal configuration transitions (J = 0, 1, 2, 3, and 4). Finally, the CIE chromaticity coordinates met the standard for the color red established by the National Television Standard Committee (NTSC).

  3. Role of ytterbium-erbium co-doped gadolinium molybdate (Gd2(MoO4)3:Yb/Er) nanophosphors in solar cells.

    PubMed

    Jin, Xiao; Li, Haiyang; Li, Dongyu; Zhang, Qin; Li, Feng; Sun, Weifu; Chen, Zihan; Li, Qinghua

    2016-09-05

    Insufficient harvest of solar light energy is one of the obstacles for current photovoltaic devices to achieve high performance. Especially, conventional organic/inorganic hybrid solar cells (HSCs) based on PTB7 as p-type semiconductor can only utilize 400-800 nm solar spectrum. One effective strategy to overcome this obstacle is the introduction of up-conversion nanophosphors (NPs), in the virtue of utilizing the near infrared region (NIR) of solar radiation. Up-conversion can convert low-energy photons to high-energy ones through multi-photon processes, by which the solar spectrum is tailored to well match the absorptive domain of the absorber. Herein we incorporate erbium-ytterbium co-doped gadolinium molybdate (Gd2(MoO4)3, GMO), denoted as GMO:Yb/Er, into TiO2 acceptor film in HSCs to enhance the light harvest. Here Er3+ acts as activator while Yb-MoO4 2- is the joint sensitizer. Facts proved that the GMO:Yb/Er single crystal NPs are capable of turning NIR photons to visible photons that can be easily captured by PTB7. Studies on time-resolved photoluminescence demonstrate that electron transfer rate at the interface increases sharply from 0.65 to 1.42 × 109 s-1. As a result, the photoelectric conversion efficiency of the GMO:Yb/Er doped TiO2/PTB7 HSCs reach 3.67%, which is increased by around 25% compared to their neat PTB7/TiO2 counterparts (2.94%). This work may open a hopeful way to take the advantage of those conversional rare-earth ion doped oxides that function in tailoring solar light spectrum for optoelectronic applications.

  4. Magnesium Oxide

    MedlinePlus

    ... used for different reasons. Some people use it as an antacid to relieve heartburn, sour stomach, or acid indigestion. Magnesium oxide also may be used as a laxative for short-term, rapid emptying of ...

  5. Myocardial Damage Detected by Late Gadolinium Enhancement Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance Is Associated With Subsequent Hospitalization for Heart Failure

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Timothy C.; Piehler, Kayla M.; Zareba, Karolina M.; Lin, Kathie; Phrampus, Ashley; Patel, Agam; Moon, James C.; Ugander, Martin; Valeti, Uma; Holtz, Jonathan E.; Fu, Bo; Chang, Chung‐Chou H.; Mathier, Michael; Kellman, Peter; Butler, Javed; Gheorghiade, Mihai; Schelbert, Erik B.

    2013-01-01

    Background Hospitalization for heart failure (HHF) is among the most important problems confronting medicine. Late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) robustly identifies intrinsic myocardial damage. LGE may indicate inherent vulnerability to HHF, regardless of etiology, across the spectrum of heart failure stage or left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF). Methods and Results We enrolled 1068 consecutive patients referred for CMR where 448 (42%) exhibited LGE. After a median of 1.4 years (Q1 to Q3: 0.9 to 2.0 years), 57 HHF events occurred, 15 deaths followed HHF, and 43 deaths occurred without antecedent HHF (58 total deaths). Using multivariable Cox regression adjusting for LVEF, heart failure stage, and other covariates, LGE was associated with first HHF after CMR (HR: 2.70, 95% CI: 1.32 to 5.50), death (HR: 2.13, 95% CI: 1.08 to 4.21), or either death or HHF (HR: 2.52, 95% CI: 1.49 to 4.25). Quantifying LGE extent yielded similar results; more LGE equated higher risks. LGE improved model discrimination (IDI: 0.016, 95% CI: 0.005 to 0.028, P=0.002) and reclassification of individuals at risk (continuous NRI: 0.40, 95% CI: 0.05 to 0.70, P=0.024). Adjustment for competing risks of death that shares common risk factors with HHF strengthened the LGE and HHF association (HR: 4.85, 95% CI: 1.40 to 16.9). Conclusions The presence and extent of LGE is associated with vulnerability for HHF, including higher risks of HHF across the spectrum of heart failure stage and LVEF. Even when LVEF is severely decreased, those without LGE appear to fare reasonably well. LGE may enhance risk stratification for HHF and may enhance both clinical and research efforts to reduce HHF through targeted treatment. PMID:24249712

  6. Effectiveness of late gadolinium enhancement to improve outcomes prediction in patients referred for cardiovascular magnetic resonance after echocardiography

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Echocardiography (echo) is a first line test to assess cardiac structure and function. It is not known if cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) with late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) ordered during routine clinical practice in selected patients can add additional prognostic information after routine echo. We assessed whether CMR improves outcomes prediction after contemporaneous echo, which may have implications for efforts to optimize processes of care, assess effectiveness, and allocate limited health care resources. Methods and results We prospectively enrolled 1044 consecutive patients referred for CMR. There were 38 deaths and 3 cardiac transplants over a median follow-up of 1.0 years (IQR 0.4-1.5). We first reproduced previous survival curve strata (presence of LGE and ejection fraction (EF) < 50%) for transplant free survival, to support generalizability of any findings. Then, in a subset (n = 444) with contemporaneous echo (median 3 days apart, IQR 1–9), EF by echo (assessed visually) or CMR were modestly correlated (R2 = 0.66, p < 0.001), and 30 deaths and 3 transplants occurred over a median follow-up of 0.83 years (IQR 0.29-1.40). CMR EF predicted mortality better than echo EF in univariable Cox models (Integrated Discrimination Improvement (IDI) 0.018, 95% CI 0.008-0.034; Net Reclassification Improvement (NRI) 0.51, 95% CI 0.11-0.85). Finally, LGE further improved prediction beyond EF as determined by hazard ratios, NRI, and IDI in all Cox models predicting mortality or transplant free survival, adjusting for age, gender, wall motion, and EF. Conclusions Among those referred for CMR after echocardiography, CMR with LGE further improves risk stratification of individuals at risk for death or death/cardiac transplant. PMID:23324403

  7. A small MRI contrast agent library of gadolinium(III)-encapsulated supramolecular nanoparticles for improved relaxivity and sensitivity**

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Kuan-Ju; Wolahan, Stephanie M.; Wang, Hao; Hsu, Chao-Hsiung; Chang, Hsing-Wei; Durazo, Armando; Hwang, Lian-Pin; Garcia, Mitch A.; Jiang, Ziyue Karen; Wu, Lily

    2010-01-01

    We introduce a new category of nanoparticle-based T1 MRI contrast agents (CAs) by encapsulating paramagnetic chelated gadolinium(III), i.e., Gd3+·DOTA, through supramolecular assembly of molecular building blocks that carry complementary molecular recognition motifs, including adamantane (Ad) and β-cyclodextrin (CD). A small library of Gd3+·DOTA-encapsulated supramolecular nanoparticles (Gd3+·DOTA⊂SNPs) was produced by systematically altering the molecular building block mixing ratios. A broad spectrum of relaxation rates was correlated to the resulting Gd3+·DOTA⊂SNP library. Consequently, an optimal synthetic formulation of Gd3+·DOTA⊂SNPs with an r1 of 17.3 s−1mM−1 (ca. 4-fold higher than clinical Gd3+ chelated complexes at high field strengths) was identified. T1-weighted imaging of Gd3+·DOTA⊂SNPs exhibits an enhanced sensitivity with a contrast-to-noise ratio (C/N ratio) ca. 3.6 times greater than that observed for free Gd3+·DTPA. A Gd3+·DOTA⊂SNPs solution was injected into foot pads of mice, and MRI was employed to monitor dynamic lymphatic drainage of the Gd3+·DOTA⊂SNPs-based CA. We observe an increase in signal intensity of the brachial lymph node in T1-weighted imaging after injecting Gd3+·DOTA⊂SNPs but not after injecting Gd3+·DTPA. The MRI results are supported by ICP-MS analysis ex vivo. These results show that Gd3+·DOTA⊂SNPs not only exhibits enhanced relaxivity and high sensitivity but also can serve as a potential tool for diagnosis of cancer metastasis. PMID:21167594

  8. Delayed gadolinium-enhanced MRI of the fibrocartilage disc of the temporomandibular joint--a feasibility study.

    PubMed

    Pittschieler, Elisabeth; Szomolanyi, Pavol; Schmid-Schwap, Martina; Weber, Michael; Egerbacher, Monika; Traxler, Hannes; Trattnig, Siegfried

    2014-12-01

    To 1) test the feasibility of delayed Gadolinium-Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Cartilage (dGEMRIC) at 3 T in the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) and 2) to determine the optimal delay for measurements of the TMJ disc after i.v. contrast agent (CA) administration. MRI of the right and left TMJ of six asymptomatic volunteers was performed at 3 T using a dedicated coil. 2D inversion recovery (2D-IR) sequences were performed at 4 time points covering 120 minutes and 3D gradient-echo (3D GRE) dual flip-angle sequences were performed at 14 time points covering 130 minutes after the administration of 0.2 mmol/kg of Gd-diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid ion (Gd-DTPA)(2-), i.e., 0.4 mL of Magnevist™ per kg body weight. Pair-wise tests were used to assess differences between pre-and post-contrast T1 values. 2D-IR sequences showed a statistically significant drop (p<0.001) in T1 values after i.v. CA administration. The T1 drop of 50% was reached 60 minutes after bolus injection in the TMJ disc. The 3D GRE dual flip-angle sequences confirmed these results and show plateau of T1 after 60 minutes. T1(Gd) maps calculated from dGEMRIC data allow in vivo assessment of the fibrocartilage disc of the TMJ. The recommended measurement time for dGEMRIC in the TMJ after i.v. CA administration is from 60 to 120 minutes. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Delayed gadolinium-enhanced MRI of the fibrocartilage disc of the temporomandibular joint – a feasibility study

    PubMed Central

    Pittschieler, Elisabeth; Szomolanyi, Pavol; Schmid-Schwap, Martina; Weber, Michael; Egerbacher, Monika; Traxler, Hannes; Trattnig, Siegfried

    2014-01-01

    Objective To 1) test the feasibility of delayed Gadolinium-Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Cartilage (dGEMRIC) at 3 T in the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) and 2) to determine the optimal delay for measurements of the TMJ disc after i.v. contrast agent (CA) administration. Design MRI of the right and left TMJ of six asymptomatic volunteers was performed at 3 T using a dedicated coil. 2D inversion recovery (2D-IR) sequences were performed at 4 time points covering 120 minutes and 3D gradient-echo (3D GRE) dual flip-angle sequences were performed at 14 time points covering 130 minutes after the administration of 0.2 mmol/kg of Gd-diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid ion (Gd-DTPA)2-, i.e., 0.4 mL of Magnevist™ per kg body weight. Pair-wise tests were used to assess differences between pre-and post-contrast T1 values. Results 2D-IR sequences showed a statistically significant drop (p < 0.001) in T1 values after i.v. CA administration. The T1 drop of 50% was reached 60 minutes after bolus injection in the TMJ disc. The 3D GRE dual flip-angle sequences confirmed these results and show plateau of T1 after 60 minutes. Conclusions T1(Gd) maps calculated from dGEMRIC data allow in vivo assessment of the fibrocartilage disc of the TMJ. The recommended measurement time for dGEMRIC in the TMJ after i.v. CA administration is from 60 to 120 minutes. PMID:25131629

  10. Evaluation of state-of-the-art segmentation algorithms for left ventricle infarct from late Gadolinium enhancement MR images.

    PubMed

    Karim, Rashed; Bhagirath, Pranav; Claus, Piet; James Housden, R; Chen, Zhong; Karimaghaloo, Zahra; Sohn, Hyon-Mok; Lara Rodríguez, Laura; Vera, Sergio; Albà, Xènia; Hennemuth, Anja; Peitgen, Heinz-Otto; Arbel, Tal; Gonzàlez Ballester, Miguel A; Frangi, Alejandro F; Götte, Marco; Razavi, Reza; Schaeffter, Tobias; Rhode, Kawal

    2016-05-01

    Studies have demonstrated the feasibility of late Gadolinium enhancement (LGE) cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging for guiding the management of patients with sequelae to myocardial infarction, such as ventricular tachycardia and heart failure. Clinical implementation of these developments necessitates a reproducible and reliable segmentation of the infarcted regions. It is challenging to compare new algorithms for infarct segmentation in the left ventricle (LV) with existing algorithms. Benchmarking datasets with evaluation strategies are much needed to facilitate comparison. This manuscript presents a benchmarking evaluation framework for future algorithms that segment infarct from LGE CMR of the LV. The image database consists of 30 LGE CMR images of both humans and pigs that were acquired from two separate imaging centres. A consensus ground truth was obtained for all data using maximum likelihood estimation. Six widely-used fixed-thresholding methods and five recently developed algorithms are tested on the benchmarking framework. Results demonstrate that the algorithms have better overlap with the consensus ground truth than most of the n-SD fixed-thresholding methods, with the exception of the Full-Width-at-Half-Maximum (FWHM) fixed-thresholding method. Some of the pitfalls of fixed thresholding methods are demonstrated in this work. The benchmarking evaluation framework, which is a contribution of this work, can be used to test and benchmark future algorithms that detect and quantify infarct in LGE CMR images of the LV. The datasets, ground truth and evaluation code have been made publicly available through the website: https://www.cardiacatlas.org/web/guest/challenges. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Effect of intravenous gadolinium-DTPA on diffusion-weighted imaging of brain tumors: a short temporal interval assessment.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiang; Qu, Jin-Rong; Luo, Jun-Peng; Li, Jing; Zhang, Hong-Kai; Shao, Nan-Nan; Kwok, Keith; Zhang, Shou-Ning; Li, Yan-le; Liu, Cui-Cui; Zee, Chi-Shing; Li, Hai-Liang

    2014-09-01

    To determine the effect of intravenous administration of gadolinium (Gd) contrast medium (Gd-DTPA) on diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) for the evaluation of normal brain parenchyma vs. brain tumor following a short temporal interval. Forty-four DWI studies using b values of 0 and 1000 s/mm(2) were performed before, immediately after, 1 min after, 3 min after, and 5 min after the administration of Gd-DTPA on 62 separate lesions including 15 meningioma, 17 glioma and 30 metastatic lesions. The signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values of the brain tumor lesions and normal brain tissues were measured on pre- and postcontrast images. Statistical analysis using paired t-test between precontrast and postcontrast data were obtained on three brain tumors and normal brain tissue. The SNR and CNR of brain tumors and the SNR of normal brain tissue showed no statistical differences between pre- and postcontrast (P > 0.05). The ADC values on the three cases of brain tumors demonstrated significant initial increase on the immediate time point (P < 0.01) and decrease on following the 1 min time point (P < 0.01) after contrast. Significant decrease of ADC value was still found at 3min and 5min time point in the meningioma group (P < 0.01) with gradual normalization over time. The ADC values of normal brain tissues demonstrated significant initial elevation on the immediately postcontrast DWI sequence (P < 0.01). Contrast medium can cause a slight but statistically significant change on the ADC value within a short temporal interval after the contrast administration. The effect is both time and lesion-type dependent. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Comparison of nephrotoxicity between two gadolinium-contrasts, gadodiamide and gadopentetate in patients with mildly diminished renal failure.

    PubMed

    Naito, Shokichi; Tazaki, Hiromi; Okamoto, Tomoko; Takeuchi, Kazuhiro; Kan, Shinichi; Takeuchi, Yasuo; Kamata, Kouju

    2017-01-01

    Although gadolinium (Gd)-based contrast media have been found to be nephrotoxic, their nephrotoxicity, and the dependence of nephrotoxicity on chelate types, have not been assessed in patients with normal or mildly diminished renal failure. This prospective, randomized study compared the nephrotoxicity of low doses of the nonionic Gd-based contrast medium gadodiamide (Omniscan®) and the ionic Gd-based contrast medium gadopentetate (Magnevist®) in patients with serum creatinine < 1.6 mg/dL. Patients aged 20 to 80 years, weighing 45 to 70 kg and with normal or < 1.6 mg/dL Serum-creatinine in the 3 months prior to undergoing magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of brain, were enrolled. Patients were randomized to receive 0.1 mol/kg gadodiamide or gadopentetate. Serum-creatinine, serum cystatin-C, estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) using the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) formula, and estimated creatinine clearance rate (eCCr) using the Cockcroft-Gault formula were measured just before and 16-80 hr after MRI. Groups were compared statistically by Mann-Whitney U-tests and Wilcoxon signed-rank tests. There were no significant differences in clinical characteristics between the gadodiamide (n = 43) and gadopentetate (n = 59) groups. Serum-creatinine, eGFR and eCCr before and 16-80 hr after MRI did not differ significantly within either group or between the two groups. Serum cystatin-C was significantly higher 16-80 hr after than before MRI only in the gadodiamide group (0.79 ± 0.21 vs. 0.74 ± 0.14 mg/L, p = 0.028). The ionic contrast medium, gadopentetate, did not affect renal function during MRI, whereas the nonionic contrast medium, gadodiamide, affected renal function transiently.

  13. Acceleration of natural-abundance solid-state MAS NMR measurements on bone by paramagnetic relaxation from gadolinium-DTPA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mroue, Kamal H.; Zhang, Rongchun; Zhu, Peizhi; McNerny, Erin; Kohn, David H.; Morris, Michael D.; Ramamoorthy, Ayyalusamy

    2014-07-01

    Reducing the data collection time without affecting the signal intensity and spectral resolution is one of the major challenges for the widespread application of multidimensional nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, especially in experiments conducted on complex heterogeneous biological systems such as bone. In most of these experiments, the NMR data collection time is ultimately governed by the proton spin-lattice relaxation times (T1). For over two decades, gadolinium(III)-DTPA (Gd-DTPA, DTPA = Diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid) has been one of the most widely used contrast-enhancement agents in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). In this study, we demonstrate that Gd-DTPA can also be effectively used to enhance the longitudinal relaxation rates of protons in solid-state NMR experiments conducted on bone without significant line-broadening and chemical-shift-perturbation side effects. Using bovine cortical bone samples incubated in different concentrations of Gd-DTPA complex, the 1H T1 values were calculated from data collected by 1H spin-inversion recovery method detected in natural-abundance 13C cross-polarization magic angle spinning (CPMAS) NMR experiments. Our results reveal that the 1H T1 values can be successfully reduced by a factor of 3.5 using as low as 10 mM Gd-DTPA without reducing the spectral resolution and thus enabling faster data acquisition of the 13C CPMAS spectra. These results obtained from 13C-detected CPMAS experiments were further confirmed using 1H-detected ultrafast MAS experiments on Gd-DTPA doped bone samples. This approach considerably improves the signal-to-noise ratio per unit time of NMR experiments applied to bone samples by reducing the experimental time required to acquire the same number of scans.

  14. Acceleration of natural-abundance solid-state MAS NMR measurements on bone by paramagnetic relaxation from gadolinium-DTPA.

    PubMed

    Mroue, Kamal H; Zhang, Rongchun; Zhu, Peizhi; McNerny, Erin; Kohn, David H; Morris, Michael D; Ramamoorthy, Ayyalusamy

    2014-07-01

    Reducing the data collection time without affecting the signal intensity and spectral resolution is one of the major challenges for the widespread application of multidimensional nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, especially in experiments conducted on complex heterogeneous biological systems such as bone. In most of these experiments, the NMR data collection time is ultimately governed by the proton spin-lattice relaxation times (T1). For over two decades, gadolinium(III)-DTPA (Gd-DTPA, DTPA=Diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid) has been one of the most widely used contrast-enhancement agents in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). In this study, we demonstrate that Gd-DTPA can also be effectively used to enhance the longitudinal relaxation rates of protons in solid-state NMR experiments conducted on bone without significant line-broadening and chemical-shift-perturbation side effects. Using bovine cortical bone samples incubated in different concentrations of Gd-DTPA complex, the (1)H T1 values were calculated from data collected by (1)H spin-inversion recovery method detected in natural-abundance (13)C cross-polarization magic angle spinning (CPMAS) NMR experiments. Our results reveal that the (1)H T1 values can be successfully reduced by a factor of 3.5 using as low as 10mM Gd-DTPA without reducing the spectral resolution and thus enabling faster data acquisition of the (13)C CPMAS spectra. These results obtained from (13)C-detected CPMAS experiments were further confirmed using (1)H-detected ultrafast MAS experiments on Gd-DTPA doped bone samples. This approach considerably improves the signal-to-noise ratio per unit time of NMR experiments applied to bone samples by reducing the experimental time required to acquire the same number of scans. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Optimisation of dynamic nuclear polarisation of [1-13C] pyruvate by addition of gadolinium-based contrast agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friesen-Waldner, Lanette; Chen, Albert; Mander, Will; Scholl, Timothy J.; McKenzie, Charles A.

    2012-10-01

    Dynamic nuclear polarisation (DNP) of carbon-13 (13C) enriched endogenous compounds provides a novel means for magnetic resonance imaging and spectroscopy of biological processes. Adding small amounts of gadolinium-based contrast agents (GBCAs) to the 13C-enriched substrate matrix increases the amount of hyperpolarisation that can be achieved, but also may decrease the longitudinal relaxation time (T1) of the 13C nucleus in solution. This study examined the effects of five different GBCA at concentrations of 0.5, 1, 2, and 3 mM on [1-13C]-enriched pyruvic acid. It was found that contrast agents with an open chain structure (Gadobenate dimeglumine, Gadopentetate dimeglumine, Gadodiamide) caused the largest enhancement (up to 82%) in solid state polarisation relative to solutions without GBCA. In the liquid state, T1 of pyruvate decreased by as much as 62% and polarisation was much lower (70%) relative to solutions without GBCA added. Conversely, for GBCA with macrocyclic structures (Gadoterate meglumine, Gadoteridol), the solid state polarisation enhancement was only slightly less than the open chain GBCA, but enhanced polarisation was retained much better in the liquid state with minimal decrease in T1 (25% at the highest GBCA concentrations). Near maximum polarisation in the solid state was obtained at a GBCA concentration of 2 mM, with a higher concentration of 3 mM producing minimal improvement. These results indicate that the macrocyclic contrast agents provide the best combination of high solid state and liquid state polarisations with minimal loss of T1 in experiments with hyperpolarised 13C-enriched pyruvate. This suggests that macrocyclic contrast agents should be the GBCA of choice for maximising signal in experiments with hyperpolarised 13C-enriched pyruvate, particularly for in vivo measurements where shortened substrate T1 is especially problematic.

  16. Retrospective analysis of patients for development of nephrogenic systemic fibrosis following conventional angiography using gadolinium-based contrast agents.

    PubMed

    Hoppe, Hanno; Spagnuolo, Sara; Froehlich, Johannes M; Nievergelt, Helga; Dinkel, Hans-Peter; Gretener, Silvia; Thoeny, Harriet C

    2010-03-01

    The purpose was to retrospectively review the data of 27 patients with renal insufficiency who underwent conventional angiography with gadolinium-based contrast agents (GDBCA) as alternative contrast agents and assess the occurrence of nephrogenic systemic fibrosis (NSF) together with associated potential risk factors. This HIPAA-compliant study had institutional review board approval, and informed consent was waived. Statistical analysis was performed for all available laboratory and clinical data, including dermatology reports. Type and amount of the GDBCA used were recorded for angiography and additional MRI studies, if applicable. Serum creatinine levels (SCr) pre- and post-angiography were recorded, and estimated glomerular filtration rates (eGFR) were calculated. Ten female and 17 male patients who underwent angiography with GDBCA were included. The mean amount of GDBCA administered was 44 +/- 15.5 ml (range 15-60 ml) or 0.24 + 0.12 mmol/kg (range 0.1-0.53 mmol/kg). At the time of angiography all patients had renal insufficiency (eGFR <60 ml/min/1.73 m(2)). Mean eGFR pre-angiography was 26 ml/min/1.73 m(2) and 33 ml/min/1.73 m(2) post-angiography. The mean follow-up period covers 28 months, range 1-84 months. Additional MRI studies with GDBCA administration were performed in 15 patients. One patient with typical skin lesions had developed biopsy-confirmed NSF. Conventional arterial angiography with GDBCA may play a role in the development of NSF in patients with renal insufficiency. Alternative contrast agents, such as CO(2) angiography or rather the use of low doses of iodinated contrast agents, should be considered in these patients.

  17. Bone marrow with diffuse tumor infiltration in patients with lymphoproliferative diseases: dynamic gadolinium-enhanced MR imaging.

    PubMed

    Rahmouni, Alain; Montazel, Jean-Luc; Divine, Marine; Lepage, Eric; Belhadj, Karim; Gaulard, Philippe; Bouanane, Mohamed; Golli, Mondher; Kobeiter, Hicham

    2003-12-01

    To evaluate gadolinium enhancement of bone marrow in patients with lymphoproliferative diseases and diffuse bone marrow involvement. Dynamic contrast material-enhanced magnetic resonance (MR) imaging of the thoracolumbar spine was performed in 42 patients with histologically proved diffuse bone marrow involvement and newly diagnosed myeloma (n = 31), non-Hodgkin lymphoma (n = 8), or Hodgkin disease (n = 3). The maximum percentage of enhancement (Emax), enhancement slope, and enhancement washout were determined from enhancement time curves (ETCs). A three-grade system for scoring bone marrow involvement was based on the percentage of neoplastic cells in bone marrow samples. Quantitative ETC values for the 42 patients were compared with ETC values for healthy subjects and with grades of bone marrow involvement by using mean t test comparisons. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was conducted by comparing Emax values between patients with and those without bone marrow involvement. Baseline and follow-up MR imaging findings were compared in nine patients. Significant differences in Emax (P <.001), slope (P <.001), and washout (P =.005) were found between subjects with normal bone marrow and patients with diffuse bone marrow involvement. ROC analysis results showed Emax values to have a diagnostic accuracy of 99%. Emax, slope, and washout values increased with increasing bone marrow involvement grade. The mean Emax increased from 339% to 737%. Contrast enhancement decreased after treatment in all six patients who responded to treatment but not in two of three patients who did not respond to treatment. Dynamic contrast-enhanced MR images can demonstrate increased bone marrow enhancement in patients with lymphoproliferative diseases and marrow involvement.

  18. Fabrication and in vitro characterization of gadolinium-based nanoclusters for simultaneous drug delivery and radiation enhancement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoo, Shannon S.; Guo, Linghong; Sun, Xuejun; Shaw, Andrew R.; Yuan, Zhipeng; Löbenberg, Raimar; Roa, Wilson H.

    2016-09-01

    We report the synthesis of a gadolinium hydroxide (Gd(OH)3) nanorod based doxorubicin (Dox) delivery system that can enhance both magnetic resonance imaging contrast and radiation sensitivity. A simple and cost effective wet-chemical method was utilized in the presence of manganese (Mn) ions and Dox to produce the Gd(OH)3:Mn·Dox nanocluster structure. The Gd(OH)3:Mn·Dox nanocluster was composed of Mn-doped Gd(OH)3 nanorods arranged in parallel with Dox as a linker molecule between the adjacent nanorods. No other studies have utilized Dox as both the linker and therapeutic molecule in a nanostructure to date. The Gd(OH)3 nanorod is reported to have no significant cellular or in vivo toxicity, which makes it an ideal base material for this biomedical application. The Gd(OH)3:Mn·Dox nanocluster exhibited paramagnetic behavior and was stable in a colloidal solution. The nanocluster also enabled high Dox loading capacity and specifically released Dox in a sustained and pH-dependent manner. The positively charged Gd(OH)3:Mn·Dox nanoclusters were readily internalized into MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells via endocytosis, which resulted in intracellular release of Dox. The released Dox in cells was effective in conferring cytotoxicity and inhibiting proliferation of cancer cells. Furthermore, a synergistic anticancer effect could be observed with radiation treatment. Overall, the Gd(OH)3:Mn·Dox nanocluster drug delivery system described herein may have potential utility in clinics as a multifunctional theranostic nanoparticle with combined benefits in both diagnosis and therapy in the management of cancer.

  19. Three-dimensional gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance venography in suspected thrombo-occlusive disease of the central chest veins.

    PubMed

    Kroencke, T J; Taupitz, M; Arnold, R; Fritsche, L; Hamm, B

    2001-11-01

    To determine the usefulness of high-resolution three-dimensional (3D) gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance venography (MRV) in the evaluation of central venous thrombo-occlusive disease of the chest. Prospective study. University hospital. Sixteen consecutive patients with clinically suspected thrombosis of the superior vena cava, subclavian, brachiocephalic/innominate, internal jugular, or axillary veins. Thirteen patients had a neoplasm, two patients had a connective tissue disease, and one patient had a history of strenuous exercise. Twelve of 16 patients had prior central venous catheter placement. MRI was correlated with color-coded duplex sonography (CCDS) in 7 of 16 patients, digital subtraction angiography (DSA) in 3 of 16 patients, and CT in 2 of 16 patients. Contrast-enhanced MRV was performed in a total of 20 examinations. A 3D data set (gradient echo; time to repeat, 4.6 ms; time to echo, 1.8 ms; flip angle, 30 degrees; time of acquisition, 23 s; 512 matrix/64 partitions; slice thickness, 1.5 mm) was acquired in the arterial and venous phase. Overall image quality was assessed on a 5-point scale. The presence, site, and extent of thrombus, as well as presence of an intravascular device, were determined. Overall image quality was rated very good (1 point) in 7 of 16 cases (44%) and good (2 points) in 9 of 16 cases (56%). Thrombus was detected in 16 of 16 patients, and complete extent of disease could be determined in 15 of 16 patients (94%). MRV did not miss any finding obtained by CCDS, DSA, or CT, and provided additional information in 6 of 16 examinations (38%). Contrast-enhanced MRV is a fast and reliable noninvasive procedure with excellent results regarding detection and determination of the extent of thrombo-occlusive disease of the chest veins.

  20. 3D late gadolinium enhancement in a single prolonged breath-hold using supplemental oxygenation and hyperventilation.

    PubMed

    Roujol, Sébastien; Basha, Tamer A; Akçakaya, Mehmet; Foppa, Murilo; Chan, Raymond H; Kissinger, Kraig V; Goddu, Beth; Berg, Sophie; Manning, Warren J; Nezafat, Reza

    2014-09-01

    To evaluate the feasibility of three-dimensional (3D) single breath-hold late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) of the left ventricle (LV) using supplemental oxygen and hyperventilation and compressed-sensing acceleration. Breath-hold metrics [breath-hold duration, diaphragmatic/LV position drift, and maximum variation of R wave to R wave (RR) interval] without and with supplemental oxygen and hyperventilation were assessed in healthy adult subjects using a real-time single shot acquisition. Ten healthy subjects and 13 patients then underwent assessment of the proposed 3D breath-hold LGE acquisition (field of view = 320 × 320 × 100 mm(3) , resolution = 1.6 × 1.6 × 5.0 mm(3) , acceleration rate of 4) and a free-breathing acquisition with right hemidiaphragm navigator (NAV) respiratory gating. Semiquantitative grading of overall image quality, motion artifact, myocardial nulling, and diagnostic value was performed by consensus of two blinded observers. Supplemental oxygenation and hyperventilation increased the breath-hold duration (35 ± 11 s to 58 ± 21 s; P < 0.0125) without significant impact on diaphragmatic/LV position drift or maximum variation of RR interval (both P > 0.01). LGE images were of similar quality when compared with free-breathing acquisitions, but with reduced total scan time (85 ± 22 s to 35 ± 6 s; P < 0.001). Supplemental oxygenation and hyperventilation allow for prolonged breath-holding and enable single breath-hold 3D accelerated LGE with similar image quality as free breathing with NAV. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. 3D Late Gadolinium Enhancement in a Single Prolonged Breath-hold using Supplemental Oxygenation and Hyperventilation

    PubMed Central

    Roujol, Sébastien; Basha, Tamer A.; Akçakaya, Mehmet; Foppa, Murilo; Chan, Raymond H.; Kissinger, Kraig V.; Goddu, Beth; Berg, Sophie; Manning, Warren J.; Nezafat, Reza

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the feasibility of 3D single breath-hold late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) of the left ventricle (LV) using supplemental oxygen and hyperventilation and compressed-sensing acceleration. Methods: Breath-hold metrics (breath-hold duration, diaphragmatic/LV position drift, and maximum variation of RR interval) without and with supplemental oxygen and hyperventilation were assessed in healthy adult subjects using a real time single shot acquisition. Ten healthy subjects and 13 patients then underwent assessment of the proposed 3D breath-hold LGE acquisition (FOV=320×320×100 mm3, resolution=1.6×1.6×5.0 mm3, acceleration rate of 4) and a free breathing acquisition with right hemidiaphragm navigator (NAV) respiratory gating. Semi-quantitative grading of overall image quality, motion artifact, myocardial nulling, and diagnostic value was performed by consensus of two blinded observers. Results: Supplemental oxygenation and hyperventilation increased the breath-hold duration (35±11 s to 58±21 s, p<0.0125) without significant impact on diaphragmatic/LV position drift or maximum variation of RR interval (both p>0.01). LGE images were of similar quality when compared to free breathing acquisitions but with reduced total scan time (85±22 s to 35±6 s, p<0.001). Conclusions: Supplemental oxygenation and hyperventilation allow for prolonged breath-holding and enable single breath-hold 3D accelerated LGE with similar image quality as free breathing with NAV. PMID:24186772

  2. Effect of intravenous gadolinium-DTPA on diffusion tensor MR imaging for the evaluation of brain tumors.

    PubMed

    Bae, Min Sun; Jahng, Geon-Ho; Ryu, Chang Woo; Kim, Eui Jong; Choi, Woo Suk; Yang, Dal Mo

    2009-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether indices of diffusion tensor MRI (DT-MRI) are altered after contrast medium injection in patients with brain tumors. DT-MRIs at a 3-T unit before and 6 min after gadolinium-diethylenetriamine penta-acetic acid injection were obtained in nine patients (five women, four men) with histologically confirmed brain tumors (four metastases, one glioblastoma multiforme, three meningiomas, and one lymphoma). Fractional anisotropy (FA), trace and mean raw DT-MRI data without (DT_b0, b value = 0 s/mm(2)) and with (DT_b800, b value = 800 s/mm(2)) diffusion-encoded gradients were calculated. Regions of interest (ROIs) were placed in the tumor, peritumoral edema, and normal-appearing symmetric contralateral brain tissue for each patient. The Kruskal-Wallis rank sum test was used to determine the effects of contrast medium and ROI for all of the maps, and the Wilcoxon signed-rank test was performed for either paired t test between pre- and post-contrast values of DTI indices for the ROIs or the post hoc test. Statistically significant differences between pre-contrast and post-contrast DT-MRI are shown in the trace value of the peritumoral edema area (p = 0.0195) and the FA value of the tumor area (p = 0.0273). Trace and FA values of the other areas show no statistically significant differences between pre- and post-contrast (p > 0.05). In addition, we find a significant ROI effect for both FA (chi (2) = 26.514, df = 2, p = 0.0001) and trace (chi (2) = 21.218, df = 2, p = 0.0001). DT-MRI obtained after contrast medium injection of 6 min results in significant changes in diffusion isotropic and anisotropic values. Therefore, clinical applications of DT-MRI after administrating a contrast medium require caution in interpretation.

  3. Combined magnetic resonance and optical imaging of head and neck tumor xenografts using Gadolinium-labelled phosphorescent polymeric nanomicelles

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The overall objective of this study was to develop a nanoparticle formulation for dual modality imaging of head and neck cancer. Here, we report the synthesis and characterization of polymeric phospholipid-based nanomicelles encapsulating near-infrared (NIR) phosphorescent molecules of Pt(II)-tetraphenyltetranaphthoporphyrin [Pt(TPNP)] and surface functionalized with gadolinium [Pt(TPNP)-Gd] for combined magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and NIR optical imaging applications. Methods Dynamic light scattering, electron microscopy, optical spectroscopy and MR relaxometric measurements were performed to characterize the optical and magnetic properties of nanoparticles in vitro. Subsequently, in vivo imaging experiments were carried out using nude mice bearing primary patient tumor-derived human head and neck squamous cell carcinoma xenografts. Results The nanomicelles were ~100 nm in size and stable in aqueous suspension. T1-weighted MRI and relaxation rate (R1 = 1/T1) measurements carried out at 4.7 T revealed enhancement in the tumor immediately post injection with nanomicelles, particularly in the tumor periphery which persisted up to 24 hours post administration. Maximum intensity projections (MIPs) generated from 3D T1-weighted images also demonstrated visible enhancement in contrast within the tumor, liver and blood vessels. NIR optical imaging performed (in vivo and ex vivo) following completion of MRI at the 24 h time point confirmed tumor localization of the nanoparticles. The large spectral separation between the Pt(TPNP) absorption (~700 nm) and phosphorescence emission (~900 nm) provided a dramatic decrease in the level of background, resulting in high contrast optical (NIR phosphorescence) imaging. Conclusions In conclusion, Pt(TPNP)-Gd nanomicelles exhibit a high degree of tumor-avidity and favorable imaging properties that allow for combined MR and optical imaging of head and neck tumors. Further investigation into the potential of Pt

  4. Biodegradable gadolinium-chelated cationic poly(urethane amide) copolymers for gene transfection and magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Gao, Xiaolong; Wang, Gangmin; Shi, Ting; Shao, Zhihong; Zhao, Peng; Shi, Donglu; Ren, Jie; Lin, Chao; Wang, Peijun

    2016-08-01

    Theranostic nano-polyplexes containing gene and imaging agents hold a great promise for tumor diagnosis and therapy. In this work, we develop a group of new gadolinium (Gd)-chelated cationic poly(urethane amide)s for gene delivery and T1-weighted magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. Cationic poly(urethane amide)s (denoted as CPUAs) having multiple disulfide bonds, urethane and amide linkages were synthesized by stepwise polycondensation reaction between 1,4-bis(3-aminopropyl)piperazine and a mixture of di(4-nitrophenyl)-2, 2'-dithiodiethanocarbonate (DTDE-PNC) and diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) dianhydride at varied molar ratios. Then, Gd-chelated CPUAs (denoted as GdCPUAs) were produced by chelating Gd(III) ions with DTPA residues of CPUAs. These GdCPUAs could condense gene into nanosized and positively-charged polyplexes in a physiological condition and, however, liberated gene in an intracellular reductive environment. In vitro transfection experiments revealed that the GdCPUA at a DTDE-PNC/DTPA residue molar ratio of 85/15 induced the highest transfection efficiency in different cancer cells. This efficiency was higher than that yielded with 25kDa branched polyethylenimine as a positive control. GdCPUAs and their polyplexes exhibited low cytotoxicity when an optimal transfection activity was detected. Moreover, GdCPUAs may serve as contrast agents for T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging. The results of this work indicate that biodegradable Gd-chelated cationic poly(urethane amide) copolymers have high potential for tumor theranostics. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Survey of gadolinium-based contrast agent utilization among the members of the Society for Pediatric Radiology: a Quality and Safety Committee report.

    PubMed

    Blumfield, Einat; Moore, Michael M; Drake, Mary K; Goodman, Thomas R; Lewis, Kristopher N; Meyer, Laura T; Ngo, Thang D; Sammet, Christina; Stanescu, Arta Luana; Swenson, David W; Slovis, Thomas L; Iyer, Ramesh S

    2017-05-01

    Gadolinium-based contrast agents (GBCAs) have been used for magnetic resonance (MR) imaging over the last three decades. Recent reports demonstrated gadolinium retention in patients' brains following intravenous administration. Since gadolinium is a highly toxic heavy metal, there is a potential for adverse effects from prolonged retention or deposition, particularly in children. For this reason, the Society (SPR) for Pediatric Radiology Quality and Safety committee conducted a survey to evaluate the current status of GBCAs usage among pediatric radiologists. To assess the usage of GBCAs among SPR members. An online 15-question survey was distributed to SPR members. Survey questions pertained to the type of GBCAs used, protocoling workflow, requirement of renal function or pregnancy tests, and various clinical indications for contrast-enhanced MRI examinations. A total of 163 survey responses were compiled (11.1% of survey invitations), the majority of these from academic institutions in the United States. Ninety-four percent reported that MR studies are always or usually protocoled by pediatric radiologists. The most common GBCA utilized by survey respondents were Eovist (60.7%), Ablavar (45.4%), Gadovist (38.7%), Magnevist (34.4%) and Dotarem (32.5%). For several clinical indications, survey responses regarding GBCA administration were concordant with American College of Radiology (ACR) Appropriateness Criteria, including seizures, headache and osteomyelitis. For other indications, including growth hormone deficiency and suspected vascular ring, survey responses revealed potential overutilization of GBCAs when compared to ACR recommendations. Survey results demonstrate that GBCAs are administered judiciously in children, yet there is an opportunity to improve their utilization with the goal of reducing potential future adverse effects.

  6. Apparent diffusion coefficient for molecular subtyping of non-gadolinium-enhancing WHO grade II/III glioma: volumetric segmentation versus two-dimensional region of interest analysis.

    PubMed

    Thust, S C; Hassanein, S; Bisdas, S; Rees, J H; Hyare, H; Maynard, J A; Brandner, S; Tur, C; Jäger, H R; Yousry, T A; Mancini, L

    2018-03-23

    To investigate if quantitative apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) measurements can predict genetic subtypes of non-gadolinium-enhancing gliomas, comparing whole tumour against single slice analysis. Volumetric T2-derived masks of 44 gliomas were co-registered to ADC maps with ADC mean (ADC mean ) calculated. For the slice analysis, two observers placed regions of interest in the largest tumour cross-section. The ratio (ADC ratio ) between ADC mean in the tumour and normal appearing white matter was calculated for both methods. Isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) wild-type gliomas showed the lowest ADC values throughout (p < 0.001). ADC mean in the IDH-mutant 1p19q intact group was significantly higher than in the IDH-mutant 1p19q co-deleted group (p < 0.01). A volumetric ADC mean threshold of 1201 × 10 -6 mm 2 /s identified IDH wild-type with a sensitivity of 83% and a specificity of 86%; a volumetric ADC ratio cut-off value of 1.65 provided a sensitivity of 80% and a specificity of 92% (area under the curve (AUC) 0.9-0.94). A slice ADC ratio threshold for observer 1 (observer 2) of 1.76 (1.83) provided a sensitivity of 80% (86%), specificity of 91% (100%) and AUC of 0.95 (0.96). The intraclass correlation coefficient was excellent (0.98). ADC measurements can support the distinction of glioma subtypes. Volumetric and two-dimensional measurements yielded similar results in this study. • Diffusion-weighted MRI aids the identification of non-gadolinium-enhancing malignant gliomas • ADC measurements may permit non-gadolinium-enhancing glioma molecular subtyping • IDH wild-type gliomas have lower ADC values than IDH-mutant tumours • Single cross-section and volumetric ADC measurements yielded comparable results in this study.

  7. Structural, kinetic, and thermodynamic characterization of the interconverting isomers of MS-325, a gadolinium(III)-based magnetic resonance angiography contrast agent.

    PubMed

    Tyeklar, Zoltan; Dunham, Stephen U; Midelfort, Katarina; Scott, Daniel M; Sajiki, Hirano; Ong, Karen; Lauffer, Randall B; Caravan, Peter; McMurry, Thomas J

    2007-08-06

    The amphiphilic gadolinium complex MS-325 ((trisodium-{(2-(R)-[(4,4-diphenylcyclohexyl) phosphonooxymethyl] diethylenetriaminepentaacetato) (aquo)gadolinium(III)}) is a contrast agent for magnetic resonance angiography (MRA). MS-325 comprises a GdDTPA core with an appended phosphodiester moiety linked to a diphenylcyclohexyl group to facilitate noncovalent binding to serum albumin and extension of the plasma half-life in vivo. The chiral DTPA ligand (R) was derived from L-serine, and upon complexation with gadolinium, forms two interconvertible diastereomers, denoted herein as isomers A and B. X-ray crystallography of the tris(ethylenediamine)cobalt(III) salt derivative of isomer A revealed a structure in the polar acentric space group P32. The structure consisted of three independent molecules of the gadolinium complex in the asymmetric unit along with three Delta-[Co(en)3]3+ cations, and it represents an unusual example of spontaneous Pasteur resolution of the cobalt cation. The geometry of the coordination core was best described as a distorted trigonal prism, and the final R factor was 5.6%. The configuration of the chiral central nitrogen of the DTPA core was S. The Gd-water (2.47-2.48 A), the Gd-acetate oxygens (2.34-2.42 A), and the Gd-N bond distances (central N, 2.59-2.63 A; terminal N, 2.74-2.80 A) were similar to other reported GdDTPA structures. The structurally characterized single crystal was one of two interconvertable diastereomers (isomers A and B) that equilibrated to a ratio of 1.81 to 1 at pH 7.4 and were separable at elevated pH by ion-exchange chromatography. The rate of isomerization was highly pH dependent: k1 = (1.45 +/- 0.08) x 102[H+] + (4.16 +/- 0.30) x 105[H+]2; k-1 = (2.57 +/- 0.17) x 102[H+] + (7.54 +/- 0.60) x 105[H+]2.

  8. Input and fate of anthropogenic estrogens and gadolinium in surface water and sewage plants in the hydrological basin of Prague (Czech Republic).

    PubMed

    Morteani, Giulio; Möller, Peter; Fuganti, Andrea; Paces, Tomas

    2006-06-01

    The concentration of the estrogens 17beta-estradiol, estriol, estrone, 17alpha-ethinylestradiol, mestranol and norethisterone and of the anthropogenic gadolinium (Gd(ant)) has been determined in the creeks and rivers, sewage treatment plants and water works of the city of Prague. The rapid degradation of estrogens in surface water allows the estrogen concentration gradient to be used as a very precise and sensitive guideline by which to pin-point sewage leaks into surface run-off water. The rather conservative behavior of Gd(ant) in surface and ground water documents in the present case the presence of sewage water in the surface water cycle.

  9. Gadolinium Accumulation in the Deep Cerebellar Nuclei and Globus Pallidus After Exposure to Linear but Not Macrocyclic Gadolinium-Based Contrast Agents in a Retrospective Pig Study With High Similarity to Clinical Conditions.

    PubMed

    Boyken, Janina; Frenzel, Thomas; Lohrke, Jessica; Jost, Gregor; Pietsch, Hubertus

    2018-05-01

    The aim of this retrospective study was to determine the gadolinium (Gd) concentration in different brain areas in a pig cohort that received repeated administration of Gd-based contrast agents (GBCAs) at standard doses over several years, comparable with a clinical setting. Brain tissue was collected from 13 Göttingen mini pigs that had received repeated intravenous injections of gadopentetate dimeglumine (Gd-DTPA; Magnevist) and/or gadobutrol (Gadovist). The animals have been included in several preclinical imaging studies since 2008 and received cumulative Gd doses ranging from 7 to 129 mmol per animal over an extended period. Two animals with no history of administration of GBCA were included as controls. Brain autopsies were performed not earlier than 8 and not later than 38 months after the last GBCA application. Tissues from multiple brain areas including cerebellar and cerebral deep nuclei, cerebellar and cerebral cortex, and pons were analyzed for Gd using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Of the 13 animals, 8 received up to 48 injections of gadobutrol and Gd-DTPA and 5 received up to 29 injections of gadobutrol only. In animals that had received both Gd-DTPA and gadobutrol, a median (interquartile range) Gd concentration of 1.0 nmol/g tissue (0.44-1.42) was measured in the cerebellar nuclei and 0.53 nmol/g (0.29-0.62) in the globus pallidus. The Gd concentration in these areas in gadobutrol-only animals was 50-fold lower with median concentrations of 0.02 nmol/g (0.01-0.02) for cerebellar nuclei and 0.01 nmol/g (0.01-0.01) for globus pallidus and was comparable with control animals with no GBCA history. Accordingly, in animals that received both GBCAs, the amount of residual Gd correlated with the administered dose of Gd-DTPA (P ≤ 0.002) but not with the total Gd dose, consisting of Gd-DTPA and gadobutrol. The Gd concentration in cortical tissue and in the pons was very low (≤0.07 nmol/g tissue) in all animals analyzed. Multiple exposure

  10. Does Late Gadolinium Enhancement still have Value? Right Ventricular Internal Mechanical Work, Ea/Emax and Late Gadolinium Enhancement as Prognostic Markers in Patients with Advanced Pulmonary Hypertension via Cardiac MRI.

    PubMed

    Abouelnour, Amr Ei; Doyle, Mark; Thompson, Diane V; Yamrozik, June; Williams, Ronald B; Shah, Moneal B; Soma, Siva Kr; Murali, Srinivas; Benza, Raymond L; Biederman, Robert Ww

    2017-01-01

    Investigate the impact of Right Ventricular (RV) Internal Work (IW), ratio of arterial to ventricular end-systolic elastance (E a /E max ), and RV Insertion Point (IP) Late Gadolinium Enhancement (LGE) on outcome in Pulmonary Hypertension (PH) patients. LGE is well known to be present within the RVIPs and Inter Ventricular Septum (IVS) in PH patients, but its prognostic role remains complex and potentially overestimated via 2D qualitative relative to the 3D quantitative measures now available. However, E a /E max , a measure of ventricular-arterial coupling and IW, when added to external cardiac work i.e. the P-V loop area as correlates to the heart's energy demands, might fundamentally improve measures of prognosis as they interrogate physiology beyond just the RV. Cardiac Magnetic Resonance Imaging (CMR) of 124 PH patients (age = 60±13, 85F) referred to a large tertiary PH center, was retrospectively examined for RV volumetric and functional indices and RVIP LGE%. Right Heart Catheterizations (RHC) performed within 1±2 months of the CMR were reviewed. E a /E max was derived as RV End-Systolic Volume (ESV/RVSV). IW was estimated as RVESV ×(RV end-systolic pressure-RV diastolic pressure). Patients were followed from date of CMR for up to 5 years for MACE (death, hospitalized RV failure, initiation of parenteral prostacyclin, sustained ventricular arrhythmia or referral for lung transplantation). MACE was high; 48/124 (39%) patients had MACE by 1.6±1.3 years. Neither RVIP nor IVS LGE using visual assessment or even 3D quantization predicted MACE. The strongest predictor of MACE was RVIW (OR=1.00013, p<0.002), vs. mPAP, RV mass, RV EF and IP LGE. Surprisingly, neither a single time-point RVIP nor whole IVS LGE% can predict outcome in the largest cohort of PH patients studied to date when compared with conventional or contemporary metrics of disease progression. CMR-LGE appears to lose its' prognostic value in PH patients in stark contradistinction to all other

  11. Oxidation catalyst

    DOEpatents

    Ceyer, Sylvia T.; Lahr, David L.

    2010-11-09

    The present invention generally relates to catalyst systems and methods for oxidation of carbon monoxide. The invention involves catalyst compositions which may be advantageously altered by, for example, modification of the catalyst surface to enhance catalyst performance. Catalyst systems of the present invention may be capable of performing the oxidation of carbon monoxide at relatively lower temperatures (e.g., 200 K and below) and at relatively higher reaction rates than known catalysts. Additionally, catalyst systems disclosed herein may be substantially lower in cost than current commercial catalysts. Such catalyst systems may be useful in, for example, catalytic converters, fuel cells, sensors, and the like.

  12. Process-Structure-Property Relationships of Micron Thick Gadolinium Oxide Films Deposited by Reactive Electron Beam-Physical Vapor Deposition (EB-PVD)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-12-01

    surface roughness on film properties must be considered. Stability at the interface between the film and the substrate becomes critical with...etc.). Addition of atoms to the growing surface creates additional surface energy. Therefore, nuclei of a critical size 23 must be formed in order... critical nuclei size and a lower nucleation rate. Higher deposition rates result in a decreased critical nuclei size which leads to an increase in

  13. Gadolinium doped ceria interlayers for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells cathodes: Enhanced reactivity with sintering aids (Li, Cu, Zn), and improved densification by infiltration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicollet, Clement; Waxin, Jenny; Dupeyron, Thomas; Flura, Aurélien; Heintz, Jean-Marc; Ouweltjes, Jan Pieter; Piccardo, Paolo; Rougier, Aline; Grenier, Jean-Claude; Bassat, Jean-Marc

    2017-12-01

    This paper reports the study of the densification of 20% Gd doped ceria (Ce0.8Gd0.2O1.9 (GDC)) interlayers in SOFC cathodes through two different routes: the well-known addition of sintering elements, and an innovative densification process by infiltration. First, Li, Cu, and Zn nitrates were added to GDC powders. The effect of these additives on the densification was studied by dilatometry on pellets, and show a large decrease of the sintering temperature from 1330 °C (pure GDC), down to 1080 °C, 950 °C, and 930 °C for Zn, Cu, and Li addition, respectively. However, this promising result does not apply to screen-printed layers, which are more porous than pellets and in which the shrinkage is constrained by the substrate. The second approach consists in preparing a pre-sintered GDC layer, which is subsequently infiltrated with Ce and Gd nitrates and sintered at 1250 °C to increase its density. Such an approach results in highly dense GDC interlayers. Using La0.6Sr0.4Co0.2Fe0.8O3-δ (LSCF) as electrode, the influence of the interlayers on the cathode performance was studied. The addition of sintering aids dramatically increases the cell resistances, most likely because the additives increase the reactivity between GDC and either Yttria Stabilized Zirconia (YSZ) or LSCF, thus losing the expected benefit related to the decrease of sintering temperatures. The interlayers prepared by infiltration do not induce additional resistances in the cell, which results in power densities of single cells 40-50% higher than those of cells prepared with commercial GDC interlayers, making this approach a valuable alternative to sintering aids.

  14. Ultrasound guidance to perform intra-articular injection of gadolinium-based contrast material for magnetic resonance arthrography as an alternative to fluoroscopy: the time is now.

    PubMed

    Messina, Carmelo; Banfi, Giuseppe; Aliprandi, Alberto; Mauri, Giovanni; Secchi, Francesco; Sardanelli, Francesco; Sconfienza, Luca Maria

    2016-05-01

    Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging has been definitively established as the reference standard in the evaluation of joints in the body. Similarly, magnetic resonance arthrography has emerged as a technique that has been proven to increase significantly the diagnostic performance if compared with conventional MR imaging, especially when dealing with fibrocartilage and articular cartilage abnormalities. Diluted gadolinium can be injected in the joint space using different approaches: under palpation using anatomic landmarks or using an imaging guidance, such as fluoroscopy, computed tomography, or ultrasound. Fluoroscopy has been traditionally used, but the involvement of ionizing radiation should represent a remarkable limitation of this modality. Conversely, ultrasound has emerged as a feasible, cheap, quick, and radiation-free modality that can be used to inject joints, with comparable accuracy of fluoroscopy. In the present paper, we discuss the advantages and disadvantages of using fluoroscopy or ultrasound in injecting gadolinium-based contrast agents in joints to perform magnetic resonance arthrography, also in view of the new EuroSAFE Imaging initiative promoted by the European Society of Radiology and the recent updates to the European Atomic Energy Community 2013/59 directive on the medical use of ionizing radiation. • Intra-articular contrast agent injection can be performed using different imaging modalities • Fluoroscopy is widely used, but uses ionizing radiation • Ultrasound is an accurate, quick, and radiation-free modality for joint injection • X-rays should be avoided when other radiation-free modalities can be used.

  15. [Comparing the activity of multiple sclerosis (MS) at the minute and at 20 minutes of gadolinium application in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain?

    PubMed

    Saldívar-Uribe, Christina; de la Portilla-Villanueva, Mario Alberto; Esau-Mendoza-García, Alberto

    2017-01-01

    The aim was to compare active disease in patients diagnosed with multiple sclerosis, brain by MRI after gadolinium application at one minute and 20 minutes. A longitudinal, prospective, observational, analytical and comparative study was conducted in 18 patients over 18 years of age diagnosed with multiple sclerosis (MS). An analysis was made for each patient, watching for inflammatory activity in MS lesions, comparing the results to one minute and 20 minutes after the application of gadolinium. For the descriptive analysis, absolute frequencies and percentages were used, as well as means and standard deviations or medians with ranges for the inferential analysis comparing the presence or absence of enhancement in lesions at one minute and 20 minutes; the exact probability test used was Fisher. Finally, the results were analyzed, looking at the gender distribution: 14 (77.8%) were female. The average age was 36.2 ± 9.5 years, with a minimum age of 18 years and a maximum of 55 years; four patients (22.2%) presented further highlight active lesions at 20 minutes, and two patients (11.1%) presented enhancement at one minute. Concluding that MRI in the diagnosis of MS is very important for the detection of activity in lesions caused by the disease, it is evident that the optimum time for evaluation of postcontrast sequences is 20 minutes.

  16. Reticular Appearance on Gadolinium-enhanced T1- and Diffusion-weighted MRI, and Low Apparent Diffusion Coefficient Values in Microcystic Meningioma Cysts.

    PubMed

    Terada, Yukinori; Toda, Hiroki; Okumura, Ryosuke; Ikeda, Naokado; Yuba, Yoshiaki; Katayama, Toshiro; Iwasaki, Koichi

    2018-03-01

    Microcystic meningioma, a rare meningioma subtype, can present diagnostic difficulty. We aimed to investigate the historadiological properties of microcystic meningioma using conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) analysis. We retrospectively analyzed conventional MRI and DWI results of six microcystic meningioma cases by examining their appearance and determining their apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values. The ADC values of the intratumoral components were normalized with ADC values of the cerebrospinal fluid in the lateral ventricle (ADC ratios). As cystic formations are frequently associated with microcystic meningiomas, their MRI characteristics were compared with the imaging data from 11 cystic meningiomas of non-microcystic subtypes. We found that cysts in microcystic meningioma tended to have a reticular appearance on DWI, as they did on gadolinium-enhanced T1-weighted imaging. Additionally, these reticular cysts had significantly lower ADC ratios than microcystic non-reticular and non-microcystic cysts. These DWI characteristics likely reflect the histological properties of microcystic meningioma. A reticular appearance on gadolinium-enhanced T1-weighted MRI and DWI, and cyst formation with relatively low ADC values can be diagnostic markers of microcystic meningiomas.

  17. Association of left ventricular late gadolinium enhancement with left atrial low voltage areas in patients with atrial fibrillation.

    PubMed

    Stegmann, Clara; Jahnke, Cosima; Paetsch, Ingo; Hilbert, Sebastian; Arya, Arash; Bollmann, Andreas; Hindricks, Gerhard; Sommer, Philipp

    2018-02-06

    Presence of late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) is related to adverse cardiovascular outcome. Many patients suffering from atrial fibrillation (AF) undergo cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging prior to ablation. Since quantification of atrial fibrosis still lacks reproducibility, we sought to investigate risk factors for the presence of left ventricular (LV)-LGE and a possible correlation between ventricular fibrosis as defined by positive LGE and pathological atrial voltage maps evaluated by 3D mapping systems. Between May 2015 and January 2017, 241 patients with AF (73% persistent AF, 71% male, mean age 62.8 ± 10.1 years, Redo procedure in 24%, AF history 4.5 ± 5.2 years) underwent CMR including LV LGE prior to pulmonary vein (PV) isolation at Heart Center Leipzig. Depending on CMR results, two groups were separated: 'LV-LGE negative' (Group A, n = 197, 82%) and 'LV-LGE positive' (Group B, n = 44, 18%). To identify low voltage areas (LVA), a 3D electro-anatomic map was created during PV isolation. Multivariate analysis revealed male gender [odds ratio (OR) 7.6, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 2.4-23.9, P = 0.001] and an increased CHA2DS2VASc Score (OR 1.6, 95% CI 1.2-2.2, P = 0.004) as significantly associated with LV-LGE. Impaired left ventricular ejection fraction, LV dilatation, larger LA size and, enlarged septum diameter occurred significantly more often in the 'LGE positive' group. Low voltage areas were detected in 83 patients overall (34%): Group A: n = 64/197 (33%), Group B: n = 19/44 (43%) (P = 0.177). Male gender and high CHA2DS2VASc Score are significantly associated with presence of LV-LGE, but LV-LGE is not associated with left atrial LVA. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author(s) 2018. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Reliability of gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging findings and their correlation with clinical outcome in patients with sciatica.

    PubMed

    el Barzouhi, Abdelilah; Vleggeert-Lankamp, Carmen L A M; Lycklama à Nijeholt, Geert J; Van der Kallen, Bas F; van den Hout, Wilbert B; Koes, Bart W; Peul, Wilco C

    2014-11-01

    Gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (Gd-MRI) is often performed in the evaluation of patients with persistent sciatica after lumbar disc surgery. However, correlation between enhancement and clinical findings is debated, and limited data are available regarding the reliability of enhancement findings. To evaluate the reliability of Gd-MRI findings and their correlation with clinical findings in patients with sciatica. Prospective observational evaluation of patients who were enrolled in a randomized trial with 1-year follow-up. Patients with 6- to 12-week sciatica, who participated in a multicentre randomized clinical trial comparing an early surgery strategy with prolonged conservative care with surgery if needed. In total 204 patients underwent Gd-MRI at baseline and after 1 year. Patients were assessed by means of the Roland Disability Questionnaire (RDQ) for sciatica, visual analog scale (VAS) for leg pain, and patient-reported perceived recovery at 1 year. Kappa coefficients were used to assess interobserver reliability. In total, 204 patients underwent Gd-MRI at baseline and after 1 year. Magnetic resonance imaging findings were correlated to the outcome measures using the Mann-Whitney U test for continuous data and Fisher exact tests for categorical data. Poor-to-moderate agreement was observed regarding Gd enhancement of the herniated disc and compressed nerve root (kappa<0.41), which was in contrast with excellent interobserver agreement of the disc level of the herniated disc and compressed nerve root (kappa>0.95). Of the 59 patients with an enhancing herniated disc at 1 year, 86% reported recovery compared with 100% of the 12 patients with nonenhancing herniated discs (p=.34). Of the 12 patients with enhancement of the most affected nerve root at 1 year, 83% reported recovery compared with 85% of the 192 patients with no enhancement (p=.69). Patients with and without enhancing herniated discs or nerve roots at 1 year reported comparable

  19. Quantification of fibrosis in infarcted swine hearts by ex vivo late gadolinium-enhancement and diffusion-weighted MRI methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pop, Mihaela; Ghugre, Nilesh R.; Ramanan, Venkat; Morikawa, Lily; Stanisz, Greg; Dick, Alexander J.; Wright, Graham A.

    2013-08-01

    Many have speculated that MRI signal characteristics can be used to identify regions of heterogeneous infarct associated with an arrhythmogenic substrate; however, direct evidence of this relationship is limited. The aim of this study was to demonstrate the remodelling characteristics of fibrosis by means of histology and high-resolution MR imaging. For this purpose, we performed whole-mount histology in heart samples (n = 9) collected from five swine at six weeks post-infarction and compared the extent of fibrosis in the infarcted areas delineated in these histological images with that obtained ex vivo by MRI using late gadolinium-enhancement (LGE) and diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) methods. All MR images were obtained at a submillimetre resolution (i.e., voxel size of 0.6×0.6×1.2 mm3). Specifically, in the histology images, we differentiated moderate fibrosis (consisting of a mixture of viable and non-viable myocytes, known as border zone, BZ) from severe fibrosis (i.e., the dense scar). Correspondingly, tissue heterogeneities in the MR images were categorized by a Gaussian mixture model into healthy, BZ and scar. Our results showed that (a) both MRI methods were capable of qualitatively distinguishing sharp edges between dense scar and healthy tissue from regions of heterogeneous BZ; (b) the BZ and dense scar areas had intermediate-to-high increased values of signal intensity in the LGE images and of apparent diffusion coefficient in the DWI, respectively. In addition, as demonstrated by the Picrosirius Red and immunohistochemistry stains, the viable bundles in the BZ were clearly separated by thin collagen strands and had reduced expression of Cx43, whereas the core scar was composed of dense fibrosis. A quantitative analysis demonstrated that the comparison between BZ/scar extent in LGE and DWI to the corresponding areas identified in histology yielded very good correlations (i.e., for the scar identified by LGE, R2 was 0.96 compared to R2 = 0.93 for the

  20. Extended electron energy loss fine structure simulation of the local boron environment in sodium aluminoborosilicate glasses containing gadolinium

    SciTech Connect

    Qian, Morris; Li, Hong; Li, Liyu

    Gadolinium can be dissolved in sodium-alumino-borosilicate glasses up to 47 wt% in a baseline borosilicate glass (mol%) 20 B2O3, 5 Al2O3, 60 SiO2,and 20 Na2O. Understanding of Gd dissolution in borosilicate melts is important in glass formulation optimization. Electron energy loss fine structure (ELFS) spectroscopy is chosen, which provides well resolved local atomic structure information for both amorphous and crystalline materials with high sensitivity to low Z elements such as Al, B, Na, O, and Si where the x-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) technique faces experimental difficulty. In this study, we report our results of boron K-edge ELFS study. Twomore » borosilicate glass samples with 30 and 47 mass% Gd2O3, B20Gd30 and B20Gd47were chosen for B K-edge ELFS study. EEL spectra were acquired on a Philips 430 TEM equipped with Gatan PEELS system 666 and EL/P 2.1 software with Custom function AcqLong. The ELFS data analysis was performed using UWELFS, UWXAFS and FEFF software. From our Gd solubility study, the local structure of Gd in the borate environment possibly resembles double chain structure found in crystalline Gd(BO2)3 as proposed by Chakraborty et al. The B/Gd ratio's in both glasses are smaller then 3, which means the excess Gd atoms in the Si-sites would be 17 and 60 mol% of the total Gd atoms, respectively according to the model, yet the local environment of borate sites saturated with Gd should be remained. To verity above hypothesis, the double chain structure model was applied to fit boron K-edge. The model was shown to well fit experimental boron K-edge EELS spectra for both glasses with some degree of distance distortion which is understandable in amorphous structure. Therefore, it is very likely that Gd stabilized in borate sites has a local structure resembling the double chain Gd(BO2)3 structure as proposed by our solubility study and literature.« less

  1. Improved multimodality data fusion of late gadolinium enhancement MRI to left ventricular voltage maps in ventricular tachycardia ablation.

    PubMed

    Roujol, Sebastien; Basha, Tamer A; Tan, Alex; Khanna, Varun; Chan, Raymond H; Moghari, Mehdi H; Rayatzadeh, Hussein; Shaw, Jaime L; Josephson, Mark E; Nezafat, Reza

    2013-05-01

    Electroanatomical voltage mapping (EAVM) is commonly performed prior to catheter ablation of scar-related ventricular tachycardia (VT) to locate the arrhythmic substrate and to guide the ablation procedure. EAVM is used to locate the position of the ablation catheter and to provide a 3-D reconstruction of left-ventricular anatomy and scar. However, EAVM measurements only represent the endocardial scar with no transmural or epicardial information. Furthermore, EAVM is a time-consuming procedure, with a high operator dependence and has low sampling density, i.e., spatial resolution. Late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) allows noninvasive assessment of scar morphology that can depict 3-D scar architecture. Despite the potential use of LGE as a roadmap for VT ablation for identification of arrhythmogenic substrate, its utility has been very limited. To allow for identification of VT substrate, a correlation is needed between the substrates identified by EAVM as the gold standard and LGE-MRI scar characteristics. To do so, a system must be developed to fuse the datasets from these modalities. In this study, a registration pipeline for the fusion of LGE-MRI and EAVM data is presented. A novel surface registration algorithm is proposed, integrating the matching of global scar areas as an additional constraint in the registration process. A preparatory landmark registration is initially performed to expedite the convergence of the algorithm. Numerical simulations were performed to evaluate the accuracy of the registration in the presence of errors in identifying landmarks in EAVM or LGE-MRI datasets as well as additional errors due to respiratory or cardiac motion. Subsequently, the accuracy of the proposed fusion system was evaluated in a cohort of ten patients undergoing VT ablation where both EAVM and LGE-MRI data were available. Compared to landmark registration and surface registration, the presented method achieved significant

  2. Effect of gadolinium injection on diffusion-weighted imaging with background body signal suppression (DWIBS) imaging of breast lesions.

    PubMed

    Moschetta, Marco; Telegrafo, Michele; Rella, Leonarda; Stabile Ianora, Amato Antonio; Angelelli, Giuseppe

    2014-12-01

    Diffusion-weighted imaging with background body signal suppression (DWIBS) provides both qualitative and quantitative imaging of breast lesions and are usually performed before contrast material injection (CMI). This study aims to assess whether the administration of gadolinium significantly affects DWIBS imaging. 200 patients were prospectively evaluated by MRI with STIR, TSE-T2, pre-CMI DWIBS, contrast enhanced THRIVE-T1 and post-CMI DWIBS sequences. Pre and post-CMI DWIBS were analyzed searching for the presence of breast lesions and calculating the ADC value. ADC values of ≤1.44×10(-3) mm(2)/s were considered suspicious for malignancy. This analysis was then compared with the histological findings. Sensitivity, specificity, diagnostic accuracy (DA), positive predictive value (PPV) and negative (NPV) were calculated for both sequences and represented by ROC analysis. Pre and post-CMI ADC values were compared by using the paired t test. In 150/200 (59%) patients, pre and post-CMI DWIBS indicated the presence of breast lesions, 53 (35%) with ADC values of >1.44×10(-3) mm(2)/s and 97 (65%) with ADC≤1.44×10(-3) mm(2)/s. Pre-CMI and post-DWIBS sequences obtained the same sensitivity, specificity, DA, PPV and NPV values of 97%, 83%, 89%, 79% and 98%. The mean ADC value of benign lesions was 1.831±0.18×10(-3) mm(2)/s before and 1.828±0.18×10(-3) mm(2)/s after CMI. The mean ADC value of the malignant lesions was 1.146±0.16×10(-3) mm(2)/s before and 1.144±0.16×10(-3) mm(2)/s after CMI. No significant difference was found between pre and post CMI ADC values (p>0.05). DWIBS imaging is not influenced by CMI. Breast MR protocol could be modified by placing DWIBS after dynamic contrast enhanced sequences in order to maximize patient cooperation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Magnetic resonance imaging in the pre-operative evaluation of obstructive epiphora: true-FISP and VIBE vs gadolinium.

    PubMed

    Somma, Francesco; d'Agostino, Vincenzo; Tortora, Fabio; Serra, Nicola; Sorrentino, Gerardo; Piscitelli, Valeria; Somma, Andrea; Gamerra, Mario

    2017-02-01

    To assess unenhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the preoperative evaluation of obstructive epiphora in patients undergoing dacryocystorhinostomy (DCR) and in particular, to evaluate the efficacy of this technique in the detection of the exact level of obstruction occurring in the naso-lachrymal duct (NLD). The correct identification and characterization of the NLD and its obstructions lead to a more effective surgery, preventing recurrent dacryocystitis after the surgical treatment. From January 2009 to December 2014, 127 obstructive epiphoras were diagnosed and treated in 127 patients (35 M, 92 F; mean age 60.7 ± 7.48 years, range 42-75 years) with endoscopic DCR, in a IRB-approved protocol. To precisely define the morphology of the NLD and the site of obstruction, some of these patients (67/127) underwent unenhanced 1.5-T MR with TrueFISP and VIBE sequences, while the remaining (60/127) underwent Gadolinium-enhanced 1.5-T MR. Afterwards, surgery checked the real site of obstruction in both groups of patients (enhanced and unenhanced MR), with surgical outcomes matched with previous MR reports. In all cases, unenhanced MRI was able to detect the exact site of obstruction along the NLD, allowing a correct planning of surgical endoscopic procedures. On the contrary, enhanced MRI wrongly diagnosed six patients with proximal stenosis (6/60, 10.0%) as intermediate NLD obstruction. Unenhanced MRI was found to be more accurate than enhanced MRI with a statistical significant difference (p value = 0.0256) and obviously cheaper and easier to perform. All imaging reports were verified with surgery. The correct identification of the level of obstruction allowed successful surgery in around 73% (93/127) of patients, who had no recurrence during 6-month follow-up. In patients with epiphora, unenhanced MR showed to be highly reliable and even more effective than enhanced MR in the preoperative characterization of NLD stenosis, with no need of performing complex

  4. Simple Estimation of the Endolymphatic Volume Ratio after Intravenous Administration of a Single-dose of Gadolinium Contrast

    PubMed Central

    NAGANAWA, Shinji; KANOU, Mai; OHASHI, Toshio; KUNO, Kayao; SONE, Michihiko

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the feasibility of a simple estimation for the endolymphatic volume ratio (endolymph volume/total lymph volume = %ELvolume) from an area ratio obtained from only one slice (%EL1slice) or from three slices (%EL3slices). The %ELvolume, calculated from a time-consuming measurement on all magnetic resonance (MR) slices, was compared to the %EL1slice and the %EL3slices. Methods: In 40 ears of 20 patients with a clinical suspicion of endolymphatic hydrops, MR imaging was performed 4 hours after intravenous administration of a single dose of gadolinium-based contrast material (IV-SD-GBCM). Using previously reported HYDROPS2-Mi2 MR imaging, the %ELvolume values in the cochlea and the vestibule were measured separately by two observers. The correlations between the %EL1slice or the %EL3slices and the %ELvolume values were evaluated. Results: A strong linear correlation was observed between the %ELvolume and the %EL3slices or the %EL1slice in the cochlea. The Pearson correlation coefficient (r) was 0.968 (3 slices) and 0.965 (1 slice) for observer A, and 0.968 (3 slices) and 0.964 (1 slice) for observer B (P < 0.001, for all). A strong linear correlation was also observed between the %ELvolume and the %EL3slices or the %EL1slice in the vestibule. The Pearson correlation coefficient (r) was 0.980 (3 slices) and 0.953 (1 slice) for observer A, and 0.979 (3 slices) and 0.952 (1 slice) for observer B (P < 0.001, for all). The high intra-class correlation coefficients (0.991–0.997) between the endolymph volume ratios by two observers were observed in both the cochlea and the vestibule for values of the %ELvolume, the %EL3slices and the %EL1slice. Conclusion: The %ELvolume might be easily estimated from the %EL3slices or the %EL1slice. PMID:27001396

  5. Simple Estimation of the Endolymphatic Volume Ratio after Intravenous Administration of a Single-dose of Gadolinium Contrast.

    PubMed

    Naganawa, Shinji; Kanou, Mai; Ohashi, Toshio; Kuno, Kayao; Sone, Michihiko

    2016-10-11

    To evaluate the feasibility of a simple estimation for the endolymphatic volume ratio (endolymph volume/total lymph volume = %EL volume ) from an area ratio obtained from only one slice (%EL 1slice ) or from three slices (%EL 3slices ). The %EL volume, calculated from a time-consuming measurement on all magnetic resonance (MR) slices, was compared to the %EL 1slice and the %EL 3slices . In 40 ears of 20 patients with a clinical suspicion of endolymphatic hydrops, MR imaging was performed 4 hours after intravenous administration of a single dose of gadolinium-based contrast material (IV-SD-GBCM). Using previously reported HYDROPS2-Mi2 MR imaging, the %EL volume values in the cochlea and the vestibule were measured separately by two observers. The correlations between the %EL 1slice or the %EL 3slices and the %EL volume values were evaluated. A strong linear correlation was observed between the %EL volume and the %EL 3slices or the %EL 1slice in the cochlea. The Pearson correlation coefficient (r) was 0.968 (3 slices) and 0.965 (1 slice) for observer A, and 0.968 (3 slices) and 0.964 (1 slice) for observer B (P < 0.001, for all). A strong linear correlation was also observed between the %EL volume and the %EL 3slices or the %EL 1slice in the vestibule. The Pearson correlation coefficient (r) was 0.980 (3 slices) and 0.953 (1 slice) for observer A, and 0.979 (3 slices) and 0.952 (1 slice) for observer B (P < 0.001, for all). The high intra-class correlation coefficients (0.991-0.997) between the endolymph volume ratios by two observers were observed in both the cochlea and the vestibule for values of the %EL volume , the %EL 3slices and the %EL 1slice . The %EL volume might be easily estimated from the %EL 3slices or the %EL 1slice .

  6. Propylene oxide

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Propylene oxide ; CASRN 75 - 56 - 9 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Ef

  7. Nitric oxide

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Nitric oxide ; CASRN 10102 - 43 - 9 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Ef

  8. Ethylene oxide

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    EPA / 635 / R - 16 / 350Fc www.epa.gov / iris Evaluation of the Inhalation Carcinogenicity of Ethylene Oxide EXECUTIVE SUMMARY ( CASRN 75 - 21 - 8 ) In Support of Summary Information on the Integrated Risk Information System ( IRIS ) December 201 6 National Center for Environmental Assessment Office

  9. Merphos oxide

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Integrated Risk Information System ( IRIS ) Chemical Assessment Summary U.S . Environmental Protection Agency National Center for Environmental Assessment This IRIS Summary has been removed from the IRIS database and is available for historical reference purposes . ( July 2016 ) Merphos oxide ; CASR

  10. Thallium oxide

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Thallium oxide ; CASRN 1314 - 32 - 5 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic E

  11. ALTERNATIVE OXIDANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This chapter reports on the efforts of the USEPA to study chloramines, chlorine dioxide and ozone as alternative oxidants/disinfectants to chlorine for the control of disinfection by-rpdocuts (DBPs) in drinking water. It examines the control of DBPs like trihalomethanes and haloa...

  12. Europium-activated phosphors containing oxides of rare-earth and group-IIIB metals and method of making the same

    DOEpatents

    Comanzo, Holly Ann; Setlur, Anant Achyut; Srivastava, Alok Mani

    2006-04-04

    Europium-activated phosphors comprise oxides of at least a rare-earth metal selected from the group consisting of gadolinium, yttrium, lanthanum, and combinations thereof and at least a Group-IIIB metal selected from the group consisting of aluminum, gallium, indium, and combinations thereof. A method for making such phosphors comprises adding at least a halide of at least one of the selected Group-IIIB metals in a starting mixture. The method further comprises firing the starting mixture in an oxygen-containing atmosphere. The phosphors produced by such a method exhibit improved absorption in the UV wavelength range and improved quantum efficiency.

  13. Europium-activated phosphors containing oxides of rare-earth and group-IIIB metals and method of making the same

    DOEpatents

    Comanzo, Holly Ann; Setlur, Anant Achyut; Srivastava, Alok Mani; Manivannan, Venkatesan

    2004-07-13

    Europium-activated phosphors comprise oxides of at least a rare-earth metal selected from the group consisting of gadolinium, yttrium, lanthanum, and combinations thereof and at least a Group-IIIB metal selected from the group consisting of aluminum, gallium, indium, and combinations thereof. A method for making such phosphors comprises adding at least a halide of at least one of the selected Group-IIIB metals in a starting mixture. The method further comprises firing the starting mixture in an oxygen-containing atmosphere. The phosphors produced by such a method exhibit improved absorption in the UV wavelength range and improved quantum efficiency.

  14. Usefulness of the advanced neuroimaging protocol based on plain and gadolinium-enhanced constructive interference in steady state images for gamma knife radiosurgery and planning microsurgical procedures for skull base tumors.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Motohiro; Chernov, Mikhail F; Tamura, Noriko; Yomo, Shoji; Tamura, Manabu; Horiba, Ayako; Izawa, Masahiro; Muragaki, Yoshihiro; Iseki, Hiroshi; Okada, Yoshikazu; Ivanov, Pavel; Régis, Jean; Takakura, Kintomo

    2013-01-01

    Gamma Knife radiosurgery (GKS) is currently performed with 0.1 mm preciseness, which can be designated microradiosurgery. It requires advanced methods for visualizing the target, which can be effectively attained by a neuroimaging protocol based on plain and gadolinium-enhanced constructive interference in steady state (CISS) images. Since 2003, the following thin-sliced images are routinely obtained before GKS of skull base lesions in our practice: axial CISS, gadolinium-enhanced axial CISS, gadolinium-enhanced axial modified time-of-flight (TOF), and axial computed tomography (CT). Fusion of "bone window" CT and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and detailed three-dimensional (3D) delineation of the anatomical structures are performed with the Leksell GammaPlan (Elekta Instruments AB). Recently, a similar technique has been also applied to evaluate neuroanatomy before open microsurgical procedures. Plain CISS images permit clear visualization of the cranial nerves in the subarachnoid space. Gadolinium-enhanced CISS images make the tumor "lucid" but do not affect the signal intensity of the cranial nerves, so they can be clearly delineated in the vicinity to the lesion. Gadolinium-enhanced TOF images are useful for 3D evaluation of the interrelations between the neoplasm and adjacent vessels. Fusion of "bone window" CT and MRI scans permits simultaneous assessment of both soft tissue and bone structures and allows 3D estimation and correction of MRI distortion artifacts. Detailed understanding of the neuroanatomy based on application of the advanced neuroimaging protocol permits performance of highly conformal and selective radiosurgical treatment. It also allows precise planning of the microsurgical procedures for skull base tumors.

  15. Effect of gadolinium dopant on structural, magneto-transport, magnetic and thermo-power of Pr0.8Sr0.2MnO3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poojary, Thrapthi; Babu, P. D.; Sanil, Tejaswini; Daivajna, Mamatha D.

    2018-07-01

    In the present investigation structural, magneto-transport, magnetic and thermo-power measurements of Gadolinium (Gd) doped Pr0.8-xGdxSr0.2MnO3 (0, 0.2, 0.25 and 0.3) manganites have been done. All the samples are single phased with orthorhombic structure. Temperature variation of resistance exhibits a high temperature transition occurring at 156 K and a low temperature cusp at around 95 K for pristine sample. With Gd doping resistance behavior shows insulating behavior throughout the whole temperature range. Magneto-Resistance (MR%) increases with Gd doping. A huge increase in thermo-electric power is observed with Gd doping.

  16. Determination of trace level thorium and uranium in high purity gadolinium sulfate using ICP-MS with solid-phase chromatographic extraction resins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ito, S.; Takaku, Y.; Ikeda, M.; Kishimoto, Y.

    2018-01-01

    The Super Kamiokand-Gadolinium (SK-Gd) project is the upgrade of the Super-Kamiokande (SK) detector in order to discover Supernova Relic Neutrinos (SRNs) by loading 0.2% of Gd2(SO4)3 into a 50 kton of the SK water tank. In order to continue solar neutrino measurement with low energy threshold at ˜3.5 MeV, main radioactive contamination, U and Th in Gd2(SO4)3, should be purified before loading. We developed solid-phase extraction technique to measure low concentration of U and Th in Gd2(SO4)3 by ICP-MS. The extraction technique and current status will be presented.

  17. Global and Regional Brain Assessment with Quantitative MR Imaging in Patients with Prior Exposure to Linear Gadolinium-based Contrast Agents.

    PubMed

    Kuno, Hirofumi; Jara, Hernán; Buch, Karen; Qureshi, Muhammad Mustafa; Chapman, Margaret N; Sakai, Osamu

    2017-04-01

    Purpose To assess the association of global and regional brain relaxation times in patients with prior exposure to linear gadolinium-based contrast agents (GBCAs). Materials and Methods The institutional review board approved this cross-sectional study. Thirty-five patients (nine who had received GBCA gadopentetate dimeglumine injections previously [one to eight times] and 26 patients who did not) who underwent brain magnetic resonance (MR) imaging with a mixed fast spin-echo pulse sequence were assessed. The whole brain was segmented according to white and gray matter by using a dual-clustering algorithm. In addition, regions of interest were measured in the globus pallidus, dentate nucleus, thalamus, and pons. The Mann-Whitney U test was used to assess the difference between groups. Multiple regression analysis was performed to assess the association of T1 and T2 with prior GBCA exposure. Results T1 values of gray matter were significantly shorter for patients with than for patients without prior GBCA exposure (P = .022). T1 of the gray matter of the whole brain (P < .001), globus pallidus (P = .002), dentate nucleus (P = .046), and thalamus (P = .026) and T2 of the whole brain (P = .004), dentate nucleus (P = .023), and thalamus (P = .002) showed a significant correlation with the accumulated dose of previous GBCA administration. There was no significant correlation between T1 and the accumulated dose of previous GBCA injections in the white matter (P = .187). Conclusion Global and regional quantitative assessments of T1 and T2 demonstrated an association with prior GBCA exposure, especially for gray matter structures. The results of this study confirm previous research findings that there is gadolinium deposition in wider distribution throughout the brain. © RSNA, 2016 Online supplemental material is available for this article.

  18. Selective modification of NMR relaxation time in human colorectal carcinoma by using gadolinium-diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid conjugated with monoclonal antibody 19-9.

    PubMed Central

    Curtet, C; Tellier, C; Bohy, J; Conti, M L; Saccavini, J C; Thedrez, P; Douillard, J Y; Chatal, J F; Koprowski, H

    1986-01-01

    Monoclonal antibody 19-9 (mAb 19-9) against human colon adenocarcinoma was conjugated with gadolinium X diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (Gd X DTPA) and used as a contrast agent in nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) in an effort to improve tumor target selectivity in nude mice. The data indicate that Gd X DTPA-mAb 19-9 in solution decreased the T1 relaxation of water protons at 90 MHz in direct proportion to the gadolinium concentration, and this effect was greater than in Gd X DTPA solutions. T1 relaxation time at 90 MHz, measured in tumors removed from nude mice 24 hr after injection of Gd X DTPA-mAb 19-9 (Gd, 20 mumol/kg; 16 DTPA molecules per mAb molecule), was significantly decreased (by 15%) as compared with the control group. Similar results were obtained in tumors from mice injected with Gd X DTPA-mAb 19-9 solutions in which Gd was used at 2, 6, or 10 mumol/kg (16 DTPA molecules per mAb molecule). These doses are lower than those commonly used for Gd X DTPA (10-100 mumol/kg) as contrast agent. Tumor localization by the Gd X DTPA-mAb 19-9 complex containing radioactive Gd (0.3 microCi/microgram of 153Gd) to confirm scintigraphy revealed significant concentrations of the complex (5% of the injected dose per gram of tissue) in the tumor. Scan images recorded in planar scintigraphy at day 5 showed good visualization of tumors. Images PMID:3459174

  19. Diagnostic significance of gadolinium-DTPA (diethylenetriamine penta-acetic acid) enhanced magnetic resonance imaging in thrombolytic treatment for acute myocardial infarction: its potential in assessing reperfusion.

    PubMed Central

    van der Wall, E E; van Dijkman, P R; de Roos, A; Doornbos, J; van der Laarse, A; Manger Cats, V; van Voorthuisen, A E; Matheijssen, N A; Bruschke, A V

    1990-01-01

    The diagnostic value of gadolinium-DTPA (diethylenetriamine penta-acetic acid) enhanced magnetic resonance imaging in patients treated by thrombolysis for acute myocardial infarction was assessed in 27 consecutive patients who had a first acute myocardial infarction (14 anterior, 13 inferior) and who underwent thrombolytic treatment and coronary arteriography within 4 hours of the onset of symptoms. Magnetic resonance imaging was performed 93 hours (range 15-241) after the onset of symptoms. A Philips Gyroscan (0.5 T) was used, and spin echo measurements (echo time 30 ms) were made before and 20 minutes after intravenous injection of 0.1 mmol/kg gadolinium-DTPA. In all patients contrast enhancement of the infarcted areas was seen after Gd-DTPA. The signal intensities of the infarcted and normal values were used to calculate the