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Sample records for gag facilitates hiv-1

  1. Sprouty 2 binds ESCRT-II factor Eap20 and facilitates HIV-1 gag release.

    PubMed

    Medina, G N; Ehrlich, L S; Chen, M H; Khan, M B; Powell, M D; Carter, C A

    2011-07-01

    The four ESCRT (endocytic sorting complexes required for transport) complexes (ESCRT-0, -I, -II, and -III) normally operate sequentially in the trafficking of cellular cargo. HIV-1 Gag trafficking and release as virus-like particles (VLPs) require the participation of ESCRTs; however, its use of ESCRTs is selective and nonsequential. Specifically, Gag trafficking to release sites on the plasma membrane does not require ESCRT-0 or -II. It is known that a bypass of ESCRT-0 is achieved by the direct linkage of the ESCRT-I component, Tsg101, to the primary L domain motif (PTAP) in Gag and that bypass of ESCRT-II is achieved by the linkage of Gag to ESCRT-III through the adaptor protein Alix. However, the mechanism by which Gag suppresses the interaction of bound ESCRT-I with ESCRT-II is unknown. Here we show (i) that VLP release requires the steady-state level of Sprouty 2 (Spry2) in COS-1 cells, (ii) that Spry2 binds the ESCRT-II component Eap20, (iii) that binding Eap20 permits Spry2 to disrupt ESCRT-I interaction with ESCRT-II, and (iv) that coexpression of Gag with a Spry2 fragment that binds Eap20 increases VLP release. Spry2 also facilitated release of P7L-Gag (i.e., release in the absence of Tsg101 binding). In this case, rescue required the secondary L domain (YPX(n)L) in HIV-1 Gag that binds Alix and the region in Spry2 that binds Eap20. The results identify Spry2 as a novel cellular factor that facilitates release driven by the primary and secondary HIV-1 Gag L domains.

  2. The phosphorylation of HIV-1 Gag by atypical protein kinase C facilitates viral infectivity by promoting Vpr incorporation into virions

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) Gag is the main structural protein that mediates the assembly and release of virus-like particles (VLPs) from an infected cell membrane. The Gag C-terminal p6 domain contains short sequence motifs that facilitate virus release from the plasma membrane and mediate incorporation of the viral Vpr protein. Gag p6 has also been found to be phosphorylated during HIV-1 infection and this event may affect virus replication. However, the kinase that directs the phosphorylation of Gag p6 toward virus replication remains to be identified. In our present study, we identified this kinase using a proteomic approach and further delineate its role in HIV-1 replication. Results A proteomic approach was designed to systematically identify human protein kinases that potently interact with HIV-1 Gag and successfully identified 22 candidates. Among this panel, atypical protein kinase C (aPKC) was found to phosphorylate HIV-1 Gag p6. Subsequent LC-MS/MS and immunoblotting analysis with a phospho-specific antibody confirmed both in vitro and in vivo that aPKC phosphorylates HIV-1 Gag at Ser487. Computer-assisted structural modeling and a subsequent cell-based assay revealed that this phosphorylation event is necessary for the interaction between Gag and Vpr and results in the incorporation of Vpr into virions. Moreover, the inhibition of aPKC activity reduced the Vpr levels in virions and impaired HIV-1 infectivity of human primary macrophages. Conclusion Our current results indicate for the first time that HIV-1 Gag phosphorylation on Ser487 is mediated by aPKC and that this kinase may regulate the incorporation of Vpr into HIV-1 virions and thereby supports virus infectivity. Furthermore, aPKC inhibition efficiently suppresses HIV-1 infectivity in macrophages. aPKC may therefore be an intriguing therapeutic target for HIV-1 infection. PMID:24447338

  3. Abrogation of contaminating RNA activity in HIV-1 Gag VLPs.

    PubMed

    Valley-Omar, Ziyaad; Meyers, Ann E; Shephard, Enid G; Williamson, Anna-Lise; Rybicki, Edward P

    2011-10-06

    HIV-1 Gag virus like particles (VLPs) used as candidate vaccines are regarded as inert particles as they contain no replicative nucleic acid, although they do encapsidate cellular RNAs. During HIV-1 Gag VLP production in baculovirus-based expression systems, VLPs incorporate the baculovirus Gp64 envelope glycoprotein, which facilitates their entry into mammalian cells. This suggests that HIV-1 Gag VLPs produced using this system facilitate uptake and subsequent expression of encapsidated RNA in mammalian cells - an unfavourable characteristic for a vaccine. HIV-1 Gag VLPs encapsidating reporter chloramphenicol acetyl transferase (CAT) RNA, were made in insect cells using the baculovirus expression system. The presence of Gp64 on the VLPs was verified by western blotting and RT-PCR used to detect and quantitate encapsidated CAT RNA. VLP samples were heated to inactivate CAT RNA. Unheated and heated VLPs incubated with selected mammalian cell lines and cell lysates tested for the presence of CAT protein by ELISA. Mice were inoculated with heated and unheated VLPs using a DNA prime VLP boost regimen. HIV-1 Gag VLPs produced had significantly high levels of Gp64 (~1650 Gp64 molecules/VLP) on their surfaces. The amount of encapsidated CAT RNA/μg Gag VLPs ranged between 0.1 to 7 ng. CAT protein was detected in 3 of the 4 mammalian cell lines incubated with VLPs. Incubation with heated VLPs resulted in BHK-21 and HeLa cell lysates showing reduced CAT protein levels compared with unheated VLPs and HEK-293 cells. Mice inoculated with a DNA prime VLP boost regimen developed Gag CD8 and CD4 T cell responses to GagCAT VLPs which also boosted a primary DNA response. Heating VLPs did not abrogate these immune responses but enhanced the Gag CD4 T cell responses by two-fold. Baculovirus-produced HIV-1 Gag VLPs encapsidating CAT RNA were taken up by selected mammalian cell lines. The presence of CAT protein indicates that encapsidated RNA was expressed in the mammalian cells. Heat

  4. Solution Properties of Murine Leukemia Virus Gag Protein: Differences from HIV-1 Gag

    SciTech Connect

    Datta, Siddhartha A.K.; Zuo, Xiaobing; Clark, Patrick K.; Campbell, Stephen J.; Wang, Yun-Xing; Rein, Alan

    2012-05-09

    Immature retrovirus particles are assembled from the multidomain Gag protein. In these particles, the Gag proteins are arranged radially as elongated rods. We have previously characterized the properties of HIV-1 Gag in solution. In the absence of nucleic acid, HIV-1 Gag displays moderately weak interprotein interactions, existing in monomer-dimer equilibrium. Neutron scattering and hydrodynamic studies suggest that the protein is compact, and biochemical studies indicate that the two ends can approach close in three-dimensional space, implying the need for a significant conformational change during assembly. We now describe the properties of the Gag protein of Moloney murine leukemia virus (MLV), a gammaretrovirus. We found that this protein is very different from HIV-1 Gag: it has much weaker protein-protein interaction and is predominantly monomeric in solution. This has allowed us to study the protein by small-angle X-ray scattering and to build a low-resolution molecular envelope for the protein. We found that MLV Gag is extended in solution, with an axial ratio of {approx}7, comparable to its dimensions in immature particles. Mutational analysis suggests that runs of prolines in its matrix and p12 domains and the highly charged stretch at the C terminus of its capsid domain all contribute to this extended conformation. These differences between MLV Gag and HIV-1 Gag and their implications for retroviral assembly are discussed.

  5. Reversible aggregation of HIV-1 Gag proteins mediated by nucleic acids.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhilin; Cheng, Wei

    2017-01-22

    HIV-1 Gag protein is the major structural protein for the assembly of virion particles. Although studies have been carried out using partially purified Gag proteins to investigate the mechanisms of viral particle assembly, the outcomes of an assembly reaction remain controversial. Here we have developed an improved procedure for purification of several untagged retroviral Gag proteins from E. coli to more than 95% purity and characterized Gag assembly in solution. We found that HIV-1 Gag proteins can undergo nucleic acid-dependent aggregation with several unexpected features: (1) they form spherical particles that are as large as microns in diameter; (2) the size of the aggregates vary with the molar ratio between nucleic acids and proteins, with the average size of these particles reaching maximal at a molar ratio of 1:2 between nucleic acids and proteins; and (3) these particles can be efficiently disassembled simply upon addition of excess nucleic acids into the solution, suggesting the presence of an ordered assembly. Single-stranded DNA oligos that are 10 nucleotides or shorter do not support the formation of these particles. Furthermore, the matrix domain of the Gag protein dramatically facilitates the formation of these aggregates. These studies uncover a previously uncharacterized pathway of HIV Gag assembly in vitro, and have implications for HIV-1 Gag assembly and pathogenesis in vivo. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Efavirenz enhances HIV-1 gag processing at the plasma membrane through Gag-Pol dimerization.

    PubMed

    Sudo, Sho; Haraguchi, Hiyori; Hirai, Yoko; Gatanaga, Hiroyuki; Sakuragi, Jun-ichi; Momose, Fumitaka; Morikawa, Yuko

    2013-03-01

    Efavirenz (EFV), a nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase (RT) inhibitor, also inhibits HIV-1 particle release through enhanced Gag/Gag-Pol processing by protease (PR). To better understand the mechanisms of the EFV-mediated enhancement of Gag processing, we examined the intracellular localization of Gag/Gag-Pol processing products and their precursors. Confocal microscopy revealed that in the presence of EFV, the N-terminal p17 matrix (p17MA) fragment was uniformly distributed at the plasma membrane (PM) but the central p24 capsid (p24CA) and the Pol-encoded RT antigens were diffusely distributed in the cytoplasm, and all of the above were observed in puncta at the PM in the absence of EFV. EFV did not impair PM targeting of Gag/Gag-Pol precursors. Membrane flotation analysis confirmed these findings. Such uniform distribution of p17MA at the PM was not seen by overexpression of Gag-Pol and was suppressed when EFV-resistant HIV-1 was used. Forster's fluorescence resonance energy transfer assay revealed that Gag-Pol precursor dimerization occurred mainly at the PM and that EFV induced a significant increase of the Gag-Pol dimerization at the PM. Gag-Pol dimerization was not enhanced when HIV-1 contained the EFV resistance mutation in RT. Bacterial two-hybrid assay showed that EFV enhanced the dimerization of PR-RT fragments and restored the dimerization impaired by the dimerization-defective mutation in the RT tryptophan repeat motif but not that impaired by the mutation at the PR dimer interface. Collectively, our data indicate that EFV enhances Gag-Pol precursor dimerization, likely after PM targeting but before complete particle assembly, resulting in uniform distribution of p17MA to and dissociation of p24CA and RT from the PM.

  7. N6-methyladenosine of HIV-1 RNA regulates viral infection and HIV-1 Gag protein expression

    PubMed Central

    Tirumuru, Nagaraja; Zhao, Boxuan Simen; Lu, Wuxun; Lu, Zhike; He, Chuan; Wu, Li

    2016-01-01

    The internal N6-methyladenosine (m6A) methylation of eukaryotic nuclear RNA controls post-transcriptional gene expression, which is regulated by methyltransferases (writers), demethylases (erasers), and m6A-binding proteins (readers) in cells. The YTH domain family proteins (YTHDF1–3) bind to m6A-modified cellular RNAs and affect RNA metabolism and processing. Here, we show that YTHDF1–3 proteins recognize m6A-modified HIV-1 RNA and inhibit HIV-1 infection in cell lines and primary CD4+ T-cells. We further mapped the YTHDF1–3 binding sites in HIV-1 RNA from infected cells. We found that the overexpression of YTHDF proteins in cells inhibited HIV-1 infection mainly by decreasing HIV-1 reverse transcription, while knockdown of YTHDF1–3 in cells had the opposite effects. Moreover, silencing the m6A writers decreased HIV-1 Gag protein expression in virus-producing cells, while silencing the m6A erasers increased Gag expression. Our findings suggest an important role of m6A modification of HIV-1 RNA in viral infection and HIV-1 protein synthesis. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.15528.001 PMID:27371828

  8. Ubiquitin conjugation to Gag is essential for ESCRT-mediated HIV-1 budding

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background HIV-1 relies on the host ESCRTs for release from cells. HIV-1 Gag engages ESCRTs by directly binding TSG101 or Alix. ESCRTs also sort ubiquitinated membrane proteins through endosomes to facilitate their lysosomal degradation. The ability of ESCRTs to recognize and process ubiquitinated proteins suggests that ESCRT-dependent viral release may also be controlled by ubiquitination. Although both Gag and ESCRTs undergo some level of ubiquitination, definitive demonstration that ubiquitin is required for viral release is lacking. Here we suppress ubiquitination at viral budding sites by fusing the catalytic domain of the Herpes Simplex UL36 deubiquitinating enzyme (DUb) onto TSG101, Alix, or Gag. Results Expressing DUb-TSG101 suppressed Alix-independent HIV-1 release and viral particles remained tethered to the cell surface. DUb-TSG101 had no effect on budding of MoMLV or EIAV, two retroviruses that rely on the ESCRT machinery for exit. Alix-dependent virus release such as EIAV’s, and HIV-1 lacking access to TSG101, was instead dramatically blocked by co-expressing DUb-Alix. Finally, Gag-DUb was unable to support virus release and dominantly interfered with release of wild type HIV-1. Fusion of UL36 did not effect interactions with Alix, TSG101, or Gag and all of the inhibitory effects of UL36 fusion were abolished when its catalytic activity was ablated. Accordingly, Alix, TSG101 and Gag fused to inactive UL36 functionally replaced their unfused counterparts. Interestingly, coexpression of the Nedd4-2s ubiquitin ligase suppressed the ability of DUb-TSG101 to inhibit HIV-1 release while also restoring detectable Gag ubiquitination at the membrane. Similarly, incorporation of Gag-Ub fusion proteins into virions lifted DUb-ESCRT inhibitory effect. In contrast, Nedd4-2s did not suppress the inhibition mediated by Gag-DUb despite restoring robust ubiquitination of TSG101/ESCRT-I at virus budding sites. Conclusions These studies demonstrate a necessary and

  9. Galectin-3 promotes HIV-1 budding via association with Alix and Gag p6.

    PubMed

    Wang, Sheng-Fan; Tsao, Ching-Han; Lin, Yu-Ting; Hsu, Daniel K; Chiang, Meng-Lin; Lo, Chia-Hui; Chien, Fan-Ching; Chen, Peilin; Arthur Chen, Yi-Ming; Chen, Huan-Yuan; Liu, Fu-Tong

    2014-11-01

    Galectin-3 has been reported to regulate the functions of a number of immune cell types. We previously reported that galectin-3 is translocated to immunological synapses in T cells upon T-cell receptor engagement, where it associates with ALG-2-interacting protein X (Alix). Alix is known to coordinate with the endosomal sorting complex required for transport (ESCRT) to promote human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 virion release. We hypothesized that galectin-3 plays a role in HIV-1 viral budding. Cotransfection of cells of the Jurkat T line with galectin-3 and HIV-1 plasmids resulted in increased HIV-1 budding, and suppression of galectin-3 expression by RNAi in Hut78 and primary CD4+ T cells led to reduced HIV-1 budding. We used immunofluorescence microscopy to observe the partial colocalization of galectin-3, Alix and Gag in HIV-1-infected cells. Results from co-immunoprecipitation experiments indicate that galectin-3 expression promotes Alix-Gag p6 association, whereas the results of Alix knockdown suggest that galectin-3 promotes HIV-1 budding through Alix. HIV-1 particles released from galectin-3-expressing cells acquire the galectin-3 protein in an Alix-dependent manner, with proteins primarily residing inside the virions. We also found that the galectin-3 N-terminal domain interacts with the proline-rich region of Alix. Collectively, these results suggest that endogenous galectin-3 facilitates HIV-1 budding by promoting the Alix-Gag p6 association. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. The tumour suppressor APC promotes HIV-1 assembly via interaction with Gag precursor protein

    PubMed Central

    Miyakawa, Kei; Nishi, Mayuko; Matsunaga, Satoko; Okayama, Akiko; Anraku, Masaki; Kudoh, Ayumi; Hirano, Hisashi; Kimura, Hirokazu; Morikawa, Yuko; Yamamoto, Naoki; Ono, Akira; Ryo, Akihide

    2017-01-01

    Diverse cellular proteins and RNAs are tightly regulated in their subcellular localization to exert their local function. Here we report that the tumour suppressor adenomatous polyposis coli protein (APC) directs the localization and assembly of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 Gag polyprotein at distinct membrane components to enable the efficient production and spread of infectious viral particles. A proteomic analysis and subsequent biomolecular interaction assay reveals that the carboxyl terminus of APC interacts with the matrix region of Gag. Ectopic expression of APC, but not its familial adenomatous polyposis-related truncation mutant, prominently enhances HIV-1 production. Conversely, the depletion of APC leads to a significant decrease in membrane targeting of viral components, resulting in the severe loss of production of infectious virions. Furthermore, APC promotes the directional assembly of viral components at virological synapses, thereby facilitating cell-to-cell viral transmission. These findings reveal an unexpected role of APC in the directional spread of HIV-1. PMID:28134256

  11. Interactions between HIV-1 Gag and Viral RNA Genome Enhance Virion Assembly.

    PubMed

    Dilley, Kari A; Nikolaitchik, Olga A; Galli, Andrea; Burdick, Ryan C; Levine, Louis; Li, Kelvin; Rein, Alan; Pathak, Vinay K; Hu, Wei-Shau

    2017-08-15

    Most HIV-1 virions contain two copies of full-length viral RNA, indicating that genome packaging is efficient and tightly regulated. However, the structural protein Gag is the only component required for the assembly of noninfectious viruslike particles, and the viral RNA is dispensable in this process. The mechanism that allows HIV-1 to achieve such high efficiency of genome packaging when a packageable viral RNA is not required for virus assembly is currently unknown. In this report, we examined the role of HIV-1 RNA in virus assembly and found that packageable HIV-1 RNA enhances particle production when Gag is expressed at levels similar to those in cells containing one provirus. However, such enhancement is diminished when Gag is overexpressed, suggesting that the effects of viral RNA can be replaced by increased Gag concentration in cells. We also showed that the specific interactions between Gag and viral RNA are required for the enhancement of particle production. Taken together, these studies are consistent with our previous hypothesis that specific dimeric viral RNA-Gag interactions are the nucleation event of infectious virion assembly, ensuring that one RNA dimer is packaged into each nascent virion. These studies shed light on the mechanism by which HIV-1 achieves efficient genome packaging during virus assembly.IMPORTANCE Retrovirus assembly is a well-choreographed event, during which many viral and cellular components come together to generate infectious virions. The viral RNA genome carries the genetic information to new host cells, providing instructions to generate new virions, and therefore is essential for virion infectivity. In this report, we show that the specific interaction of the viral RNA genome with the structural protein Gag facilitates virion assembly and particle production. These findings resolve the conundrum that HIV-1 RNA is selectively packaged into virions with high efficiency despite being dispensable for virion assembly

  12. RRE-dependent HIV-1 Env RNA effects on Gag protein expression, assembly and release

    SciTech Connect

    López, Claudia S.; Sloan, Rachel; Cylinder, Isabel; Kozak, Susan L.; Kabat, David; Barklis, Eric

    2014-08-15

    The HIV-1 Gag proteins are translated from the full-length HIV-1 viral RNA (vRNA), whereas the envelope (Env) protein is translated from incompletely spliced Env mRNAs. Nuclear export of vRNAs and Env mRNAs is mediated by the Rev accessory protein which binds to the rev-responsive element (RRE) present on these RNAs. Evidence has shown there is a direct or indirect interaction between the Gag protein, and the cytoplasmic tail (CT) of the Env protein. Our current work shows that env gene expression impacts HIV-1 Gag expression and function in two ways. At the protein level, full-length Env expression altered Gag protein expression, while Env CT-deletion proteins did not. At the RNA level, RRE-containing Env mRNA expression reduced Gag expression, processing, and virus particle release from cells. Our results support models in which Gag is influenced by the Env CT, and Env mRNAs compete with vRNAs for nuclear export. - Highlights: • At the protein level, full-length HIV-1 Env alters Gag protein expression. • HIV-1 Env RNA expression reduces Gag levels and virus release. • Env RNA effects on Gag are dependent on the RRE. • RRE-containing Env RNAs compete with vRNAs for nuclear export.

  13. Reconstitution of selective HIV-1 RNA packaging in vitro by membrane-bound Gag assemblies

    PubMed Central

    Carlson, Lars-Anders; Bai, Yun; Keane, Sarah C; Doudna, Jennifer A; Hurley, James H

    2016-01-01

    HIV-1 Gag selects and packages a dimeric, unspliced viral RNA in the context of a large excess of cytosolic human RNAs. As Gag assembles on the plasma membrane, the HIV-1 genome is enriched relative to cellular RNAs by an unknown mechanism. We used a minimal system consisting of purified RNAs, recombinant HIV-1 Gag and giant unilamellar vesicles to recapitulate the selective packaging of the 5’ untranslated region of the HIV-1 genome in the presence of excess competitor RNA. Mutations in the CA-CTD domain of Gag which subtly affect the self-assembly of Gag abrogated RNA selectivity. We further found that tRNA suppresses Gag membrane binding less when Gag has bound viral RNA. The ability of HIV-1 Gag to selectively package its RNA genome and its self-assembly on membranes are thus interdependent on one another. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.14663.001 PMID:27343348

  14. HIV-1 Gag Blocks Selenite-Induced Stress Granule Assembly by Altering the mRNA Cap-Binding Complex

    PubMed Central

    Cinti, Alessandro; Le Sage, Valerie; Ghanem, Marwan

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Stress granules (SGs) are dynamic accumulations of stalled preinitiation complexes and translational machinery that assemble under stressful conditions. Sodium selenite (Se) induces the assembly of noncanonical type II SGs that differ in morphology, composition, and mechanism of assembly from canonical SGs. Se inhibits translation initiation by altering the cap-binding activity of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E (eIF4E)-binding protein 1 (4EBP1). In this work, we show that human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) Gag is able to block the assembly of type II noncanonical SGs to facilitate continued Gag protein synthesis. We demonstrate that expression of Gag reduces the amount of hypophosphorylated 4EBP1 associated with the 5′ cap potentially through an interaction with its target, eIF4E. These results suggest that the assembly of SGs is an important host antiviral defense that HIV-1 has evolved for inhibition through several distinct mechanisms. PMID:27025252

  15. Real-time visualization of HIV-1 GAG trafficking in infected macrophages.

    PubMed

    Gousset, Karine; Ablan, Sherimay D; Coren, Lori V; Ono, Akira; Soheilian, Ferri; Nagashima, Kunio; Ott, David E; Freed, Eric O

    2008-03-07

    HIV-1 particle production is driven by the Gag precursor protein Pr55(Gag). Despite significant progress in defining both the viral and cellular determinants of HIV-1 assembly and release, the trafficking pathway used by Gag to reach its site of assembly in the infected cell remains to be elucidated. The Gag trafficking itinerary in primary monocyte-derived macrophages is especially poorly understood. To define the site of assembly and characterize the Gag trafficking pathway in this physiologically relevant cell type, we have made use of the biarsenical-tetracysteine system. A small tetracysteine tag was introduced near the C-terminus of the matrix domain of Gag. The insertion of the tag at this position did not interfere with Gag trafficking, virus assembly or release, particle infectivity, or the kinetics of virus replication. By using this in vivo detection system to visualize Gag trafficking in living macrophages, Gag was observed to accumulate both at the plasma membrane and in an apparently internal compartment that bears markers characteristic of late endosomes or multivesicular bodies. Significantly, the internal Gag rapidly translocated to the junction between the infected macrophages and uninfected T cells following macrophage/T-cell synapse formation. These data indicate that a population of Gag in infected macrophages remains sequestered internally and is presented to uninfected target cells at a virological synapse.

  16. Live-cell observation of cytosolic HIV-1 assembly onset reveals RNA-interacting Gag oligomers

    PubMed Central

    Hendrix, Jelle; Baumgärtel, Viola; Schrimpf, Waldemar; Ivanchenko, Sergey; Digman, Michelle A.; Gratton, Enrico; Kräusslich, Hans-Georg; Müller, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    Assembly of the Gag polyprotein into new viral particles in infected cells is a crucial step in the retroviral replication cycle. Currently, little is known about the onset of assembly in the cytosol. In this paper, we analyzed the cytosolic HIV-1 Gag fraction in real time in live cells using advanced fluctuation imaging methods and thereby provide detailed insights into the complex relationship between cytosolic Gag mobility, stoichiometry, and interactions. We show that Gag diffuses as a monomer on the subsecond timescale with severely reduced mobility. Reduction of mobility is associated with basic residues in its nucleocapsid (NC) domain, whereas capsid (CA) and matrix (MA) domains do not contribute significantly. Strikingly, another diffusive Gag species was observed on the seconds timescale that oligomerized in a concentration-dependent manner. Both NC- and CA-mediated interactions strongly assist this process. Our results reveal potential nucleation steps of cytosolic Gag fractions before membrane-assisted Gag assembly. PMID:26283800

  17. A large extension to HIV-1 Gag, like Pol, has negative impacts on virion assembly.

    PubMed

    Haraguchi, Hiyori; Noda, Takeshi; Kawaoka, Yoshihiro; Morikawa, Yuko

    2012-01-01

    The GagPol protein of HIV-1 harbors viral enzymes, such as protease (PR), reverse transcriptase, and integrase, that are all crucial for virion infectivity. Previous studies have suggested that expression of GagPol alone does not produce viral particles and that the budding defect is caused by the presence of the Pol region. However, it has remained unknown why GagPol fails to produce viral particles. We show here that HIV-1 GagPol is incapable of membrane binding and subsequent particle assembly. Our confocal data indicated that, despite full N-myristoylation, GagPol protein failed to target plasma membrane with diffuse distribution in the cytoplasm. Membrane flotation analysis confirmed these findings. Progressive C-terminal truncation of GagPol to give GagPR allowed for plasma membrane targeting but still not for particle production. Conversely, the C-terminal addition of a noncognate protein, such as ß-galactosidase or 4 tandem GFP, to Gag impaired the membrane affinity, indicating that the Pol region, a large extension to Gag, inhibits membrane binding in the context of GagPol. The addition of the 10 N-terminal amino acids of Fyn kinase [Fyn(10)], a tight membrane-binding signal, conferred plasma membrane targeting on GagPol, but the Fyn(10)GagPol did not produce viral particles. The defect in particle budding was not rescued by the introduction of the PTAP motif, which is responsible for a late stage of viral particle budding. Rather, electron microscopy suggested that the budding defect of GagPR occurred at an early stage of particle morphogenesis. Our data, which were consistent with previous observations, demonstrate the defects of GagPol in membrane binding and particle assembly.

  18. Antiviral activity of recombinant ankyrin targeted to the capsid domain of HIV-1 Gag polyprotein.

    PubMed

    Nangola, Sawitree; Urvoas, Agathe; Valerio-Lepiniec, Marie; Khamaikawin, Wannisa; Sakkhachornphop, Supachai; Hong, Saw-See; Boulanger, Pierre; Minard, Philippe; Tayapiwatana, Chatchai

    2012-02-20

    Ankyrins are cellular mediators of a number of essential protein-protein interactions. Unlike intrabodies, ankyrins are composed of highly structured repeat modules characterized by disulfide bridge-independent folding. Artificial ankyrin molecules, designed to target viral components, might act as intracellular antiviral agents and contribute to the cellular immunity against viral pathogens such as HIV-1. A phage-displayed library of artificial ankyrins was constructed, and screened on a polyprotein made of the fused matrix and capsid domains (MA-CA) of the HIV-1 Gag precursor. An ankyrin with three modules named Ank(GAG)1D4 (16.5 kDa) was isolated. Ank(GAG)1D4 and MA-CA formed a protein complex with a stoichiometry of 1:1 and a dissociation constant of K(d) ~ 1 μM, and the Ank(GAG)1D4 binding site was mapped to the N-terminal domain of the CA, within residues 1-110. HIV-1 production in SupT1 cells stably expressing Ank(GAG)1D4 in both N-myristoylated and non-N-myristoylated versions was significantly reduced compared to control cells. Ank(GAG)1D4 expression also reduced the production of MLV, a phylogenetically distant retrovirus. The Ank(GAG)1D4-mediated antiviral effect on HIV-1 was found to occur at post-integration steps, but did not involve the Gag precursor processing or cellular trafficking. Our data suggested that the lower HIV-1 progeny yields resulted from the negative interference of Ank(GAG)1D4-CA with the Gag assembly and budding pathway. The resistance of Ank(GAG)1D4-expressing cells to HIV-1 suggested that the CA-targeted ankyrin Ank(GAG)1D4 could serve as a protein platform for the design of a novel class of intracellular inhibitors of HIV-1 assembly based on ankyrin-repeat modules.

  19. Basic Residues in the Nucleocapsid Domain of Gag Are Critical for Late Events of HIV-1 Budding▿

    PubMed Central

    Dussupt, Vincent; Sette, Paola; Bello, Nana F.; Javid, Melodi P.; Nagashima, Kunio; Bouamr, Fadila

    2011-01-01

    The p6 region of HIV-1 Gag contains two late (L) domains, PTAP and LYPXnL, that bind the cellular proteins Tsg101 and Alix, respectively. These interactions are thought to recruit members of the host fission machinery (ESCRT) to facilitate HIV-1 release. Here we report a new role for the p6-adjacent nucleocapsid (NC) domain in HIV-1 release. The mutation of basic residues in NC caused a pronounced decrease in virus release from 293T cells, although NC mutant Gag proteins retained the ability to interact with cellular membranes and RNAs. Remarkably, electron microscopy analyses of these mutants revealed arrested budding particles at the plasma membrane, analogous to those seen following the disruption of the PTAP motif. This result indicated that the basic residues in NC are important for virus budding. When analyzed in physiologically more relevant T-cell lines (Jurkat and CEM), NC mutant viruses remained tethered to the plasma membrane or to each other by a membranous stalk, suggesting membrane fission impairment. Remarkably, NC mutant release defects were alleviated by the coexpression of a Gag protein carrying a wild-type (WT) NC domain but devoid of all L domain motifs and by providing alternative access to the ESCRT pathway, through the in trans expression of the ubiquitin ligase Nedd4.2s. Since NC mutant Gag proteins retained the interaction with Tsg101, we concluded that NC mutant budding arrests might have resulted from the inability of Gag to recruit or utilize members of the host ESCRT machinery that act downstream of Tsg101. Together, these data support a model in which NC plays a critical role in HIV-1 budding. PMID:21159863

  20. Basic residues in the nucleocapsid domain of Gag are critical for late events of HIV-1 budding.

    PubMed

    Dussupt, Vincent; Sette, Paola; Bello, Nana F; Javid, Melodi P; Nagashima, Kunio; Bouamr, Fadila

    2011-03-01

    The p6 region of HIV-1 Gag contains two late (L) domains, PTAP and LYPXnL, that bind the cellular proteins Tsg101 and Alix, respectively. These interactions are thought to recruit members of the host fission machinery (ESCRT) to facilitate HIV-1 release. Here we report a new role for the p6-adjacent nucleocapsid (NC) domain in HIV-1 release. The mutation of basic residues in NC caused a pronounced decrease in virus release from 293T cells, although NC mutant Gag proteins retained the ability to interact with cellular membranes and RNAs. Remarkably, electron microscopy analyses of these mutants revealed arrested budding particles at the plasma membrane, analogous to those seen following the disruption of the PTAP motif. This result indicated that the basic residues in NC are important for virus budding. When analyzed in physiologically more relevant T-cell lines (Jurkat and CEM), NC mutant viruses remained tethered to the plasma membrane or to each other by a membranous stalk, suggesting membrane fission impairment. Remarkably, NC mutant release defects were alleviated by the coexpression of a Gag protein carrying a wild-type (WT) NC domain but devoid of all L domain motifs and by providing alternative access to the ESCRT pathway, through the in trans expression of the ubiquitin ligase Nedd4.2s. Since NC mutant Gag proteins retained the interaction with Tsg101, we concluded that NC mutant budding arrests might have resulted from the inability of Gag to recruit or utilize members of the host ESCRT machinery that act downstream of Tsg101. Together, these data support a model in which NC plays a critical role in HIV-1 budding.

  1. HIV-1 Nef-associated Factor 1 Enhances Viral Production by Interacting with CRM1 to Promote Nuclear Export of Unspliced HIV-1 gag mRNA.

    PubMed

    Ren, Xiao-Xin; Wang, Hai-Bo; Li, Chuan; Jiang, Jin-Feng; Xiong, Si-Dong; Jin, Xia; Wu, Li; Wang, Jian-Hua

    2016-02-26

    HIV-1 depends on host-cell-encoded factors to complete its life cycle. A comprehensive understanding of how HIV-1 manipulates host machineries during viral infection can facilitate the identification of host targets for antiviral drugs or gene therapy. The cellular protein Naf1 (HIV-1 Nef-associated factor 1) is a CRM1-dependent nucleo-cytoplasmic shuttling protein, and has been identified to regulate multiple receptor-mediated signal pathways in inflammation. The cytoplasm-located Naf1 can inhibit NF-κB activation through binding to A20, and the loss of Naf1 controlled NF-κB activation is associated with multiple autoimmune diseases. However, the effect of Naf1 on HIV-1 mRNA expression has not been characterized. In this study we found that the nucleus-located Naf1 could promote nuclear export of unspliced HIV-1 gag mRNA. We demonstrated that the association between Naf1 and CRM1 was required for this function as the inhibition or knockdown of CRM1 expression significantly impaired Naf1-promoted HIV-1 production. The mutation of Naf1 nuclear export signals (NESs) that account for CRM1 recruitment for nuclear export decreased Naf1 function. Additionally, the mutation of the nuclear localization signal (NLS) of Naf1 diminished its ability to promote HIV-1 production, demonstrating that the shuttling property of Naf1 is required for this function. Our results reveal a novel role of Naf1 in enhancing HIV-1 production, and provide a potential therapeutic target for controlling HIV-1 infection. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  2. Interaction of HIV-1 gag and membranes in a cell-free system.

    PubMed

    Yang, Liuzhan; Ratner, Lee

    2002-10-10

    A coupled transcription-translation (TNT) reticulocyte lysate system was used to examine posttranslational alterations in HIV-1 Gag upon addition of Jurkat T cell membranes. Incubation of the Gag precursor protein, Pr55gag, with membranes resulted in a time-dependent alteration in Gag resulting in partial resistance to trypsin treatment. Treatment of membranes and TNT extract with apyrase or pretreatment of membranes with trypsin prevented this posttranslational alteration of Gag. In contrast, this activity was not disrupted by pretreatment of membranes with Triton X-100 at 4 degrees C, under conditions which do not solubilize raft-associated proteins. Flotation studies revealed that acquisition of trypsin-resistance was accompanied by Gag binding to membranes. The myristylation signal and nucleocapsid domain were found to mediate Gag binding to membranes. The posttranslational alteration of Gag accompanying membrane interaction may represent a conformational change, oligomerization, and/or association with or envelopment by membranes. These findings provide new clues to the stepwise process of HIV-1 assembly.

  3. Tsg101 regulates PI(4,5)P2/Ca2+ signaling for HIV-1 Gag assembly

    PubMed Central

    Ehrlich, Lorna S.; Medina, Gisselle N.; Photiadis, Sara; Whittredge, Paul B.; Watanabe, Susan; Taraska, Justin W.; Carter, Carol A.

    2014-01-01

    Our previous studies identified the 1,4,5-inositol trisphosphate receptor (IP3R), a channel mediating release of Ca2+ from ER stores, as a cellular factor differentially associated with HIV-1 Gag that might facilitate ESCRT function in virus budding. Channel opening requires activation that is initiated by binding of 1,4,5-triphosphate (IP3), a product of phospholipase C (PLC)-mediated PI(4,5)P2 hydrolysis. The store emptying that follows stimulates store refilling which requires intact PI(4,5)P2. Raising cytosolic Ca2+ promotes viral particle production and our studies indicate that IP3R and the ER Ca2+ store are the physiological providers of Ca2+ for Gag assembly and release. Here, we show that Gag modulates ER store gating and refilling. Cells expressing Gag exhibited a higher cytosolic Ca2+ level originating from the ER store than control cells, suggesting that Gag induced release of store Ca2+. This property required the PTAP motif in Gag that recruits Tsg101, an ESCRT-1 component. Consistent with cytosolic Ca2+ elevation, Gag accumulation at the plasma membrane was found to require continuous IP3R activation. Like other IP3R channel modulators, Gag was detected in physical proximity to the ER and to endogenous IP3R, as indicated respectively by total internal reflection fluorescence (TIRF) and immunoelectron microscopy (IEM) or indirect immunofluorescence. Reciprocal co-immunoprecipitation suggested that Gag and IP3R proximity is favored when the PTAP motif in Gag is intact. Gag expression was also accompanied by increased PI(4,5)P2 accumulation at the plasma membrane, a condition favoring store refilling capacity. Supporting this notion, Gag particle production was impervious to treatment with 2-aminoethoxydiphenyl borate, an inhibitor of a refilling coupling interaction. In contrast, particle production by a Gag mutant lacking the PTAP motif was reduced. We conclude that a functional PTAP L domain, and by inference Tsg101 binding, confers Gag with an

  4. Tsg101 regulates PI(4,5)P2/Ca(2+) signaling for HIV-1 Gag assembly.

    PubMed

    Ehrlich, Lorna S; Medina, Gisselle N; Photiadis, Sara; Whittredge, Paul B; Watanabe, Susan; Taraska, Justin W; Carter, Carol A

    2014-01-01

    Our previous studies identified the 1,4,5-inositol trisphosphate receptor (IP3R), a channel mediating release of Ca(2+) from ER stores, as a cellular factor differentially associated with HIV-1 Gag that might facilitate ESCRT function in virus budding. Channel opening requires activation that is initiated by binding of 1,4,5-triphosphate (IP3), a product of phospholipase C (PLC)-mediated PI(4,5)P2 hydrolysis. The store emptying that follows stimulates store refilling which requires intact PI(4,5)P2. Raising cytosolic Ca(2+) promotes viral particle production and our studies indicate that IP3R and the ER Ca(2+) store are the physiological providers of Ca(2+) for Gag assembly and release. Here, we show that Gag modulates ER store gating and refilling. Cells expressing Gag exhibited a higher cytosolic Ca(2+) level originating from the ER store than control cells, suggesting that Gag induced release of store Ca(2+). This property required the PTAP motif in Gag that recruits Tsg101, an ESCRT-1 component. Consistent with cytosolic Ca(2+) elevation, Gag accumulation at the plasma membrane was found to require continuous IP3R activation. Like other IP3R channel modulators, Gag was detected in physical proximity to the ER and to endogenous IP3R, as indicated respectively by total internal reflection fluorescence (TIRF) and immunoelectron microscopy (IEM) or indirect immunofluorescence. Reciprocal co-immunoprecipitation suggested that Gag and IP3R proximity is favored when the PTAP motif in Gag is intact. Gag expression was also accompanied by increased PI(4,5)P2 accumulation at the plasma membrane, a condition favoring store refilling capacity. Supporting this notion, Gag particle production was impervious to treatment with 2-aminoethoxydiphenyl borate, an inhibitor of a refilling coupling interaction. In contrast, particle production by a Gag mutant lacking the PTAP motif was reduced. We conclude that a functional PTAP L domain, and by inference Tsg101 binding, confers Gag

  5. HIV-1 RNA genome dimerizes on the plasma membrane in the presence of Gag protein.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jianbo; Rahman, Sheikh Abdul; Nikolaitchik, Olga A; Grunwald, David; Sardo, Luca; Burdick, Ryan C; Plisov, Sergey; Liang, Edward; Tai, Sheldon; Pathak, Vinay K; Hu, Wei-Shau

    2016-01-12

    Retroviruses package a dimeric genome comprising two copies of the viral RNA. Each RNA contains all of the genetic information for viral replication. Packaging a dimeric genome allows the recovery of genetic information from damaged RNA genomes during DNA synthesis and promotes frequent recombination to increase diversity in the viral population. Therefore, the strategy of packaging dimeric RNA affects viral replication and viral evolution. Although its biological importance is appreciated, very little is known about the genome dimerization process. HIV-1 RNA genomes dimerize before packaging into virions, and RNA interacts with the viral structural protein Gag in the cytoplasm. Thus, it is often hypothesized that RNAs dimerize in the cytoplasm and the RNA-Gag complex is transported to the plasma membrane for virus assembly. In this report, we tagged HIV-1 RNAs with fluorescent proteins, via interactions of RNA-binding proteins and motifs in the RNA genomes, and studied their behavior at the plasma membrane by using total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy. We showed that HIV-1 RNAs dimerize not in the cytoplasm but on the plasma membrane. Dynamic interactions occur among HIV-1 RNAs, and stabilization of the RNA dimer requires Gag protein. Dimerization often occurs at an early stage of the virus assembly process. Furthermore, the dimerization process is probably mediated by the interactions of two RNA-Gag complexes, rather than two RNAs. These findings advance the current understanding of HIV-1 assembly and reveal important insights into viral replication mechanisms.

  6. Interaction of HIV-1 Gag protein components with single DNA molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cruceanu, Margareta; Gorelick, Robert J.; Williams, Mark C.

    2003-03-01

    The Gag protein of the HIV-1 retrovirus is cleaved into three major proteins as part of viral maturation: nucleocapsid (NC), capsid, and matrix. NC is the first of these proteins to be cleaved, and it is cleaved in three stages into NCp15, followed by NCp9, and finally NCp7. In this study, we use optical tweezers to investigate the capability of these NC proteins to alter the helix-coil transition of single DNA molecules. We have previously shown that the capability to alter the DNA helix-coil transition is an excellent probe of the nucleic acid chaperone activity of NC proteins, in which the secondary structure of nucleic acids is rearranged to facilitate reverse transcription. By examining the capability of NCp15, NCp9, and NCp7 to alter DNA stretching, the current studies will test the role of proteolytic cleavage of Gag in regulating the nucleic acid chaperone activity of NC. Whereas binding studies suggest that NCp9 and NCp15 bind more strongly to DNA than NCp7, our DNA stretching results indicate that these proteins all have similar effects on DNA stretching.

  7. Subcellular Localization of HIV-1 gag-pol mRNAs Regulates Sites of Virion Assembly

    PubMed Central

    Becker, Jordan T.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Full-length unspliced human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) RNAs serve dual roles in the cytoplasm as mRNAs encoding the Gag and Gag-Pol capsid proteins as well as genomic RNAs (gRNAs) packaged by Gag into virions undergoing assembly at the plasma membrane (PM). Because Gag is sufficient to drive the assembly of virus-like particles even in the absence of gRNA binding, whether viral RNA trafficking plays an active role in the native assembly pathway is unknown. In this study, we tested the effects of modulating the cytoplasmic abundance or distribution of full-length viral RNAs on Gag trafficking and assembly in the context of single cells. Increasing full-length viral RNA abundance or distribution had little-to-no net effect on Gag assembly competency when provided in trans. In contrast, artificially tethering full-length viral RNAs or surrogate gag-pol mRNAs competent for Gag synthesis to non-PM membranes or the actin cytoskeleton severely reduced net virus particle production. These effects were explained, in large part, by RNA-directed changes to Gag's distribution in the cytoplasm, yielding aberrant subcellular sites of virion assembly. Interestingly, RNA-dependent disruption of Gag trafficking required either of two cis-acting RNA regulatory elements: the 5′ packaging signal (Psi) bound by Gag during genome encapsidation or, unexpectedly, the Rev response element (RRE), which regulates the nuclear export of gRNAs and other intron-retaining viral RNAs. Taken together, these data support a model for native infection wherein structural features of the gag-pol mRNA actively compartmentalize Gag to preferred sites within the cytoplasm and/or PM. IMPORTANCE The spatial distribution of viral mRNAs within the cytoplasm can be a crucial determinant of efficient translation and successful virion production. Here we provide direct evidence that mRNA subcellular trafficking plays an important role in regulating the assembly of human immunodeficiency

  8. Functional Equivalence of Retroviral MA Domains in Facilitating Psi RNA Binding Specificity by Gag

    PubMed Central

    Rye-McCurdy, Tiffiny; Olson, Erik D.; Liu, Shuohui; Binkley, Christiana; Reyes, Joshua-Paolo; Thompson, Brian R.; Flanagan, John M.; Parent, Leslie J.; Musier-Forsyth, Karin

    2016-01-01

    Retroviruses specifically package full-length, dimeric genomic RNA (gRNA) even in the presence of a vast excess of cellular RNA. The “psi” (Ψ) element within the 5′-untranslated region (5′UTR) of gRNA is critical for packaging through interaction with the nucleocapsid (NC) domain of Gag. However, in vitro Gag binding affinity for Ψ versus non-Ψ RNAs is not significantly different. Previous salt-titration binding assays revealed that human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) Gag bound to Ψ RNA with high specificity and relatively few charge interactions, whereas binding to non-Ψ RNA was less specific and involved more electrostatic interactions. The NC domain was critical for specific Ψ binding, but surprisingly, a Gag mutant lacking the matrix (MA) domain was less effective at discriminating Ψ from non-Ψ RNA. We now find that Rous sarcoma virus (RSV) Gag also effectively discriminates RSV Ψ from non-Ψ RNA in a MA-dependent manner. Interestingly, Gag chimeras, wherein the HIV-1 and RSV MA domains were swapped, maintained high binding specificity to cognate Ψ RNAs. Using Ψ RNA mutant constructs, determinants responsible for promoting high Gag binding specificity were identified in both systems. Taken together, these studies reveal the functional equivalence of HIV-1 and RSV MA domains in facilitating Ψ RNA selectivity by Gag, as well as Ψ elements that promote this selectivity. PMID:27657107

  9. Mechanistic Studies and Modeling Reveal the Origin of Differential Inhibition of Gag Polymorphic Viruses by HIV-1 Maturation Inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Lin, Zeyu; Cantone, Joseph; Lu, Hao; Nowicka-Sans, Beata; Protack, Tricia; Yuan, Tian; Yang, Hong; Liu, Zheng; Drexler, Dieter; Regueiro-Ren, Alicia; Meanwell, Nicholas A; Cockett, Mark; Krystal, Mark; Lataillade, Max; Dicker, Ira B

    2016-11-01

    HIV-1 maturation inhibitors (MIs) disrupt the final step in the HIV-1 protease-mediated cleavage of the Gag polyprotein between capsid p24 capsid (CA) and spacer peptide 1 (SP1), leading to the production of infectious virus. BMS-955176 is a second generation MI with improved antiviral activity toward polymorphic Gag variants compared to a first generation MI bevirimat (BVM). The underlying mechanistic reasons for the differences in polymorphic coverage were studied using antiviral assays, an LC/MS assay that quantitatively characterizes CA/SP1 cleavage kinetics of virus like particles (VLPs) and a radiolabel binding assay to determine VLP/MI affinities and dissociation kinetics. Antiviral assay data indicates that BVM does not achieve 100% inhibition of certain polymorphs, even at saturating concentrations. This results in the breakthrough of infectious virus (partial antagonism) regardless of BVM concentration. Reduced maximal percent inhibition (MPI) values for BVM correlated with elevated EC50 values, while rates of HIV-1 protease cleavage at CA/SP1 correlated inversely with the ability of BVM to inhibit HIV-1 Gag polymorphic viruses: genotypes with more rapid CA/SP1 cleavage kinetics were less sensitive to BVM. In vitro inhibition of wild type VLP CA/SP1 cleavage by BVM was not maintained at longer cleavage times. BMS-955176 exhibited greatly improved MPI against polymorphic Gag viruses, binds to Gag polymorphs with higher affinity/longer dissociation half-lives and exhibits greater time-independent inhibition of CA/SP1 cleavage compared to BVM. Virological (MPI) and biochemical (CA/SP1 cleavage rates, MI-specific Gag affinities) data were used to create an integrated semi-quantitative model that quantifies CA/SP1 cleavage rates as a function of both MI and Gag polymorph. The model outputs are in accord with in vitro antiviral observations and correlate with observed in vivo MI efficacies. Overall, these findings may be useful to further understand antiviral

  10. Mechanistic Studies and Modeling Reveal the Origin of Differential Inhibition of Gag Polymorphic Viruses by HIV-1 Maturation Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Zeyu; Cantone, Joseph; Lu, Hao; Protack, Tricia; Yuan, Tian; Yang, Hong; Liu, Zheng; Drexler, Dieter; Regueiro-Ren, Alicia; Meanwell, Nicholas A.; Cockett, Mark; Krystal, Mark; Lataillade, Max; Dicker, Ira B.

    2016-01-01

    HIV-1 maturation inhibitors (MIs) disrupt the final step in the HIV-1 protease-mediated cleavage of the Gag polyprotein between capsid p24 capsid (CA) and spacer peptide 1 (SP1), leading to the production of infectious virus. BMS-955176 is a second generation MI with improved antiviral activity toward polymorphic Gag variants compared to a first generation MI bevirimat (BVM). The underlying mechanistic reasons for the differences in polymorphic coverage were studied using antiviral assays, an LC/MS assay that quantitatively characterizes CA/SP1 cleavage kinetics of virus like particles (VLPs) and a radiolabel binding assay to determine VLP/MI affinities and dissociation kinetics. Antiviral assay data indicates that BVM does not achieve 100% inhibition of certain polymorphs, even at saturating concentrations. This results in the breakthrough of infectious virus (partial antagonism) regardless of BVM concentration. Reduced maximal percent inhibition (MPI) values for BVM correlated with elevated EC50 values, while rates of HIV-1 protease cleavage at CA/SP1 correlated inversely with the ability of BVM to inhibit HIV-1 Gag polymorphic viruses: genotypes with more rapid CA/SP1 cleavage kinetics were less sensitive to BVM. In vitro inhibition of wild type VLP CA/SP1 cleavage by BVM was not maintained at longer cleavage times. BMS-955176 exhibited greatly improved MPI against polymorphic Gag viruses, binds to Gag polymorphs with higher affinity/longer dissociation half-lives and exhibits greater time-independent inhibition of CA/SP1 cleavage compared to BVM. Virological (MPI) and biochemical (CA/SP1 cleavage rates, MI-specific Gag affinities) data were used to create an integrated semi-quantitative model that quantifies CA/SP1 cleavage rates as a function of both MI and Gag polymorph. The model outputs are in accord with in vitro antiviral observations and correlate with observed in vivo MI efficacies. Overall, these findings may be useful to further understand antiviral

  11. Interactions between HIV-1 Gag molecules in solution: an inositol phosphate-mediated switch.

    PubMed

    Datta, Siddhartha A K; Zhao, Zhuojun; Clark, Patrick K; Tarasov, Sergey; Alexandratos, Jerry N; Campbell, Stephen J; Kvaratskhelia, Mamuka; Lebowitz, Jacob; Rein, Alan

    2007-01-19

    Retrovirus particle assembly is mediated by the Gag protein. Gag is a multi-domain protein containing discrete domains connected by flexible linkers. When recombinant HIV-1 Gag protein (lacking myristate at its N terminus and the p6 domain at its C terminus) is mixed with nucleic acid, it assembles into virus-like particles (VLPs) in a fully defined system in vitro. However, this assembly is defective in that the radius of curvature of the VLPs is far smaller than that of authentic immature virions. This defect can be corrected to varying degrees by addition of inositol phosphates to the assembly reaction. We have now explored the binding of inositol hexakisphosphate (IP6) to Gag and its effects upon the interactions between Gag protein molecules in solution. Our data indicate that basic regions at both ends of the protein contribute to IP6 binding. Gag is in monomer-dimer equilibrium in solution, and mutation of the previously described dimer interface within its capsid domain drastically reduces Gag dimerization. In contrast, when IP6 is added, Gag is in monomer-trimer rather than monomer-dimer equilibrium. The Gag protein with a mutation at the dimer interface also remains almost exclusively monomeric in IP6; thus the "dimer interface" is essential for the trimeric interaction in IP6. We discuss possible explanations for these results, including a change in conformation within the capsid domain induced by the binding of IP6 to other domains within the protein. The participation of both ends of Gag in IP6 interaction suggests that Gag is folded over in solution, with its ends near each other in three-dimensional space; direct support for this conclusion is provided in a companion manuscript. As Gag is an extended rod in immature virions, this apparent proximity of the ends in solution implies that it undergoes a major conformational change during particle assembly.

  12. Glutamic Acid Residues in HIV-1 p6 Regulate Virus Budding and Membrane Association of Gag.

    PubMed

    Friedrich, Melanie; Setz, Christian; Hahn, Friedrich; Matthaei, Alina; Fraedrich, Kirsten; Rauch, Pia; Henklein, Petra; Traxdorf, Maximilian; Fossen, Torgils; Schubert, Ulrich

    2016-04-25

    The HIV-1 Gag p6 protein regulates the final abscission step of nascent virions from the cell membrane by the action of its two late (L-) domains, which recruit Tsg101 and ALIX, components of the ESCRT system. Even though p6 consists of only 52 amino acids, it is encoded by one of the most polymorphic regions of the HIV-1 gag gene and undergoes various posttranslational modifications including sumoylation, ubiquitination, and phosphorylation. In addition, it mediates the incorporation of the HIV-1 accessory protein Vpr into budding virions. Despite its small size, p6 exhibits an unusually high charge density. In this study, we show that mutation of the conserved glutamic acids within p6 increases the membrane association of Pr55 Gag followed by enhanced polyubiquitination and MHC-I antigen presentation of Gag-derived epitopes, possibly due to prolonged exposure to membrane bound E3 ligases. The replication capacity of the total glutamic acid mutant E0A was almost completely impaired, which was accompanied by defective virus release that could not be rescued by ALIX overexpression. Altogether, our data indicate that the glutamic acids within p6 contribute to the late steps of viral replication and may contribute to the interaction of Gag with the plasma membrane.

  13. Glutamic Acid Residues in HIV-1 p6 Regulate Virus Budding and Membrane Association of Gag

    PubMed Central

    Friedrich, Melanie; Setz, Christian; Hahn, Friedrich; Matthaei, Alina; Fraedrich, Kirsten; Rauch, Pia; Henklein, Petra; Traxdorf, Maximilian; Fossen, Torgils; Schubert, Ulrich

    2016-01-01

    The HIV-1 Gag p6 protein regulates the final abscission step of nascent virions from the cell membrane by the action of its two late (l-) domains, which recruit Tsg101 and ALIX, components of the ESCRT system. Even though p6 consists of only 52 amino acids, it is encoded by one of the most polymorphic regions of the HIV-1 gag gene and undergoes various posttranslational modifications including sumoylation, ubiquitination, and phosphorylation. In addition, it mediates the incorporation of the HIV-1 accessory protein Vpr into budding virions. Despite its small size, p6 exhibits an unusually high charge density. In this study, we show that mutation of the conserved glutamic acids within p6 increases the membrane association of Pr55 Gag followed by enhanced polyubiquitination and MHC-I antigen presentation of Gag-derived epitopes, possibly due to prolonged exposure to membrane bound E3 ligases. The replication capacity of the total glutamic acid mutant E0A was almost completely impaired, which was accompanied by defective virus release that could not be rescued by ALIX overexpression. Altogether, our data indicate that the glutamic acids within p6 contribute to the late steps of viral replication and may contribute to the interaction of Gag with the plasma membrane. PMID:27120610

  14. Immunological Characterization of Plant-Based HIV-1 Gag/Dgp41 Virus-Like Particles

    PubMed Central

    Kessans, Sarah A.; Linhart, Mark D.; Meador, Lydia R.; Kilbourne, Jacquelyn; Hogue, Brenda G.; Fromme, Petra; Matoba, Nobuyuki; Mor, Tsafrir S.

    2016-01-01

    It is widely anticipated that a prophylactic vaccine may be needed to control the HIV/AIDS epidemic worldwide. Despite over two decades of research, a vaccine against HIV-1 remains elusive, although a recent clinical trial has shown promising results. Recent studies have focused on highly conserved domains within HIV-1 such as the membrane proximal external region (MPER) of the envelope glycoprotein, gp41. MPER has been shown to play critical roles in mucosal transmission of HIV-1, though this peptide is poorly immunogenic on its own. Here we provide evidence that plant-produced HIV-1 enveloped virus-like particles (VLPs) consisting of Gag and a deconstructed form of gp41 comprising the MPER, transmembrane, and cytoplasmic domains (Dgp41) provides an effective platform to display MPER for use as an HIV vaccine candidate. Prime-boost strategies combining systemic and mucosal priming with systemic boosting using two different vaccine candidates (VLPs and CTB-MPR—a fusion of MPER and the B-subunit of cholera toxin) were investigated in BALB/c mice. Serum antibody responses against both the Gag and gp41 antigens were elicited when systemically primed with VLPs. These responses could be recalled following systemic boosting with VLPs. In addition, mucosal priming with VLPs allowed for a boosting response against Gag and gp41 when boosted with either candidate. Importantly, the VLPs also induced Gag-specific CD4 and CD8 T-cell responses. This report on the immunogenicity of plant-based Gag/Dgp41 VLPs may represent an important milestone on the road towards a broadly efficacious and inexpensive subunit vaccine against HIV-1. PMID:26986483

  15. A restriction enzyme based cloning method to assess the in vitro replication capacity of HIV-1 subtype C Gag-MJ4 chimeric viruses.

    PubMed

    Claiborne, Daniel T; Prince, Jessica L; Hunter, Eric

    2014-08-31

    The protective effect of many HLA class I alleles on HIV-1 pathogenesis and disease progression is, in part, attributed to their ability to target conserved portions of the HIV-1 genome that escape with difficulty. Sequence changes attributed to cellular immune pressure arise across the genome during infection, and if found within conserved regions of the genome such as Gag, can affect the ability of the virus to replicate in vitro. Transmission of HLA-linked polymorphisms in Gag to HLA-mismatched recipients has been associated with reduced set point viral loads. We hypothesized this may be due to a reduced replication capacity of the virus. Here we present a novel method for assessing the in vitro replication of HIV-1 as influenced by the gag gene isolated from acute time points from subtype C infected Zambians. This method uses restriction enzyme based cloning to insert the gag gene into a common subtype C HIV-1 proviral backbone, MJ4. This makes it more appropriate to the study of subtype C sequences than previous recombination based methods that have assessed the in vitro replication of chronically derived gag-pro sequences. Nevertheless, the protocol could be readily modified for studies of viruses from other subtypes. Moreover, this protocol details a robust and reproducible method for assessing the replication capacity of the Gag-MJ4 chimeric viruses on a CEM-based T cell line. This method was utilized for the study of Gag-MJ4 chimeric viruses derived from 149 subtype C acutely infected Zambians, and has allowed for the identification of residues in Gag that affect replication. More importantly, the implementation of this technique has facilitated a deeper understanding of how viral replication defines parameters of early HIV-1 pathogenesis such as set point viral load and longitudinal CD4+ T cell decline.

  16. Comprehensive Mutational Analysis Reveals p6Gag Phosphorylation To Be Dispensable for HIV-1 Morphogenesis and Replication

    PubMed Central

    Radestock, Benjamin; Morales, Ivonne; Rahman, Sheikh Abdul; Radau, Sonja; Glass, Bärbel; Zahedi, René Peiman; Müller, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    The structural polyprotein Gag of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) is necessary and sufficient for formation of virus-like particles. Its C-terminal p6 domain harbors short peptide motifs that facilitate virus release from the plasma membrane and mediate incorporation of the viral Vpr protein. p6 has been shown to be the major viral phosphoprotein in HIV-1-infected cells and virions, but the sites and functional relevance of p6 phosphorylation are not clear. Here, we identified phosphorylation of several serine and threonine residues in p6 in purified virus preparations using mass spectrometry. Mutation of individual candidate phosphoacceptor residues had no detectable effect on virus assembly, release, and infectivity, however, suggesting that phosphorylation of single residues may not be functionally relevant. Therefore, a comprehensive mutational analysis was conducted changing all potentially phosphorylatable amino acids in p6, except for a threonine that is part of an essential peptide motif. To avoid confounding changes in the overlapping pol reading frame, mutagenesis was performed in a provirus with genetically uncoupled gag and pol reading frames. An HIV-1 derivative carrying 12 amino acid changes in its p6 region, abolishing all but one potential phosphoacceptor site, showed no impairment of Gag assembly and virus release and displayed only very subtle deficiencies in viral infectivity in T-cell lines and primary lymphocytes. All mutations were stable over 2 weeks of culture in primary cells. Based on these findings, we conclude that phosphorylation of p6 is dispensable for HIV-1 assembly, release, and infectivity in tissue culture. PMID:23115284

  17. Comprehensive mutational analysis reveals p6Gag phosphorylation to be dispensable for HIV-1 morphogenesis and replication.

    PubMed

    Radestock, Benjamin; Morales, Ivonne; Rahman, Sheikh Abdul; Radau, Sonja; Glass, Bärbel; Zahedi, René Peiman; Müller, Barbara; Kräusslich, Hans-Georg

    2013-01-01

    The structural polyprotein Gag of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) is necessary and sufficient for formation of virus-like particles. Its C-terminal p6 domain harbors short peptide motifs that facilitate virus release from the plasma membrane and mediate incorporation of the viral Vpr protein. p6 has been shown to be the major viral phosphoprotein in HIV-1-infected cells and virions, but the sites and functional relevance of p6 phosphorylation are not clear. Here, we identified phosphorylation of several serine and threonine residues in p6 in purified virus preparations using mass spectrometry. Mutation of individual candidate phosphoacceptor residues had no detectable effect on virus assembly, release, and infectivity, however, suggesting that phosphorylation of single residues may not be functionally relevant. Therefore, a comprehensive mutational analysis was conducted changing all potentially phosphorylatable amino acids in p6, except for a threonine that is part of an essential peptide motif. To avoid confounding changes in the overlapping pol reading frame, mutagenesis was performed in a provirus with genetically uncoupled gag and pol reading frames. An HIV-1 derivative carrying 12 amino acid changes in its p6 region, abolishing all but one potential phosphoacceptor site, showed no impairment of Gag assembly and virus release and displayed only very subtle deficiencies in viral infectivity in T-cell lines and primary lymphocytes. All mutations were stable over 2 weeks of culture in primary cells. Based on these findings, we conclude that phosphorylation of p6 is dispensable for HIV-1 assembly, release, and infectivity in tissue culture.

  18. Dissection of specific binding of HIV-1 Gag to the 'packaging signal' in viral RNA.

    PubMed

    Comas-Garcia, Mauricio; Datta, Siddhartha Ak; Baker, Laura; Varma, Rajat; Gudla, Prabhakar R; Rein, Alan

    2017-07-20

    Selective packaging of HIV-1 genomic RNA (gRNA) requires the presence of a cis-acting RNA element called the 'packaging signal' (Ψ). However, the mechanism by which Ψ promotes selective packaging of the gRNA is not well understood. We used fluorescence correlation spectroscopy and quenching data to monitor the binding of recombinant HIV-1 Gag protein to Cy5-tagged 190-base RNAs. At physiological ionic strength, Gag binds with very similar, nanomolar affinities to both Ψ-containing and control RNAs. We challenged these interactions by adding excess competing tRNA; introducing mutations in Gag; or raising the ionic strength. These modifications all revealed high specificity for Ψ. This specificity is evidently obscured in physiological salt by non-specific, predominantly electrostatic interactions. This nonspecific activity was attenuated by mutations in the MA, CA, and NC domains, including CA mutations disrupting Gag-Gag interaction. We propose that gRNA is selectively packaged because binding to Ψ nucleates virion assembly with particular efficiency.

  19. An Essential Role of INI1/hSNF5 Chromatin Remodeling Protein in HIV-1 Posttranscriptional Events and Gag/Gag-Pol Stability

    PubMed Central

    La Porte, Annalena; Cano, Jennifer; Wu, Xuhong; Mitra, Doyel

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT INI1/hSNF5/SMARCB1/BAF47 is an HIV-specific integrase (IN)-binding protein that influences HIV-1 transcription and particle production. INI1 binds to SAP18 (Sin3a-associated protein, 18 kDa), and both INI1 and SAP18 are incorporated into HIV-1 virions. To determine the significance of INI1 and the INI1-SAP18 interaction during HIV-1 replication, we isolated a panel of SAP18-interaction-defective (SID)-INI1 mutants using a yeast reverse two-hybrid screen. The SID-INI1 mutants, which retained the ability to bind to IN, cMYC, and INI1 but were impaired for binding to SAP18, were tested for their effects on HIV-1 particle production. SID-INI1 dramatically reduced the intracellular Gag/Gag-Pol protein levels and, in addition, decreased viral particle production. The SID-INI1-mediated effects were less dramatic in trans complementation assays using IN deletion mutant viruses with Vpr-reverse transcriptase (RT)-IN. SID-INI1 did not inhibit long-terminal-repeat (LTR)-mediated transcription, but it marginally decreased the steady-state gag RNA levels, suggesting a posttranscriptional effect. Pulse-chase analysis indicated that in SID-INI1-expressing cells, the pr55Gag levels decreased rapidly. RNA interference analysis indicated that small hairpin RNA (shRNA)-mediated knockdown of INI1 reduced the intracellular Gag/Gag-Pol levels and further inhibited HIV-1 particle production. These results suggest that SID-INI1 mutants inhibit multiple stages of posttranscriptional events of HIV-1 replication, including intracellular Gag/Gag-Pol RNA and protein levels, which in turn inhibits assembly and particle production. Interfering INI1 leads to a decrease in particle production and Gag/Gag-Pol protein levels. Understanding the role of INI1 and SAP18 in HIV-1 replication is likely to provide novel insight into the stability of Gag/Gag-Pol, which may lead to the development of novel therapeutic strategies to inhibit HIV-1 late events. IMPORTANCE Significant gaps exist in our

  20. HIV-1 Pr55(Gag) binds genomic and spliced RNAs with different affinity and stoichiometry.

    PubMed

    Bernacchi, Serena; Abd El-Wahab, Ekram W; Dubois, Noé; Hijnen, Marcel; Smyth, Redmond P; Mak, Johnson; Marquet, Roland; Paillart, Jean-Christophe

    2017-01-02

    The HIV-1 Pr55(Gag) precursor specifically selects genomic RNA (gRNA) from a large variety of cellular and spliced viral RNAs (svRNAs), however the molecular mechanisms of this selective recognition remains poorly understood. To gain better understanding of this process, we analyzed the interactions between Pr55(Gag) and a large panel of viral RNA (vRNA) fragments encompassing the main packaging signal (Psi) and its flanking regions by fluorescence spectroscopy. We showed that the gRNA harbors a high affinity binding site which is absent from svRNA species, suggesting that this site might be crucial for selecting the HIV-1 genome. Our stoichiometry analysis of protein/RNA complexes revealed that few copies of Pr55(Gag) specifically associate with the 5' region of the gRNA. Besides, we found that gRNA dimerization significantly impacts Pr55(Gag) binding, and we confirmed that the internal loop of stem-loop 1 (SL1) in Psi is crucial for specific interaction with Pr55(Gag). Our analysis of gRNA fragments of different length supports the existence of a long-range tertiary interaction involving sequences upstream and downstream of the Psi region. This long-range interaction might promote optimal exposure of SL1 for efficient Pr55(Gag) recognition. Altogether, our results shed light on the molecular mechanisms allowing the specific selection of gRNA by Pr55(Gag) among a variety of svRNAs, all harboring SL1 in their first common exon.

  1. Role of Transmitted Gag CTL Polymorphisms in Defining Replicative Capacity and Early HIV-1 Pathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Carlson, Jonathan M.; Schaefer, Malinda; Yu, Tianwei; Lahki, Shabir; Prentice, Heather A.; Yue, Ling; Vishwanathan, Sundaram A.; Kilembe, William; Goepfert, Paul; Price, Matthew A.; Gilmour, Jill; Mulenga, Joseph; Farmer, Paul; Derdeyn, Cynthia A.; Tang, Jiaming; Heckerman, David; Kaslow, Richard A.; Allen, Susan A.; Hunter, Eric

    2012-01-01

    Initial studies of 88 transmission pairs in the Zambia Emory HIV Research Project cohort demonstrated that the number of transmitted HLA-B associated polymorphisms in Gag, but not Nef, was negatively correlated to set point viral load (VL) in the newly infected partners. These results suggested that accumulation of CTL escape mutations in Gag might attenuate viral replication and provide a clinical benefit during early stages of infection. Using a novel approach, we have cloned gag sequences isolated from the earliest seroconversion plasma sample from the acutely infected recipient of 149 epidemiologically linked Zambian transmission pairs into a primary isolate, subtype C proviral vector, MJ4. We determined the replicative capacity (RC) of these Gag-MJ4 chimeras by infecting the GXR25 cell line and quantifying virion production in supernatants via a radiolabeled reverse transcriptase assay. We observed a statistically significant positive correlation between RC conferred by the transmitted Gag sequence and set point VL in newly infected individuals (p = 0.02). Furthermore, the RC of Gag-MJ4 chimeras also correlated with the VL of chronically infected donors near the estimated date of infection (p = 0.01), demonstrating that virus replication contributes to VL in both acute and chronic infection. These studies also allowed for the elucidation of novel sites in Gag associated with changes in RC, where rare mutations had the greatest effect on fitness. Although we observed both advantageous and deleterious rare mutations, the latter could point to vulnerable targets in the HIV-1 genome. Importantly, RC correlated significantly (p = 0.029) with the rate of CD4+ T cell decline over the first 3 years of infection in a manner that is partially independent of VL, suggesting that the replication capacity of HIV-1 during the earliest stages of infection is a determinant of pathogenesis beyond what might be expected based on set point VL alone. PMID:23209412

  2. HIV-1 gag expression is quantitatively dependent on the ratio of native and optimized codons.

    PubMed

    Kofman, Alexander; Graf, Marcus; Bojak, Alexandra; Deml, Ludwig; Bieler, Kurt; Kharazova, Alexandra; Wolf, Hans; Wagner, Ralf

    2003-01-01

    There is a significant variation of codon usage bias among different species and even among genes within the same organisms. Codon optimization, this is, gene redesigning with the use of codons preferred for the specific expression system, results in improved expression of heterologous genes in bacteria, plants, yeast, mammalian cells, and transgenic animals. The mechanisms preventing expression of genes with rare or low-usage codons at adequate levels are not completely elucidated. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) represents an interesting model for studying how differences in codon usage affect gene expression in heterologous systems. Construction of synthetic genes with optimized codons demonstrated that the codon-usage effects might be a major impediment to the efficient expression of HIV gag/pol and env gene products in mammalian cells. According to another hypothesis, the poor expression of HIV structural proteins even without HIV context is attributed to the so-called cis-acting inhibitory elements (INS), which are located within the protein-coding region. They consist of AU-rich sequences and may be inactivated through the introduction of multiple mutations over the large regions of gag gene. In our work, we evaluated expression of hybrid HIV-1 gag mRNAs where wild-type (A-rich) gag sequences were combined with artificial sequences. In such "humanized" gag fragments with adapted codon usage, AT-content was significantly reduced in favor of G and C nucleotides without any changes in protein sequence. We show that wild-type gag sequences negatively influence expression of gag-reporter, and the addition of fragments with optimized codons to gag mRNA partially rescues its expression. The results demonstrate that the expression of HIV-1 gag is determined by the ratio of optimized and rare codons within mRNA. Our data also indicates that some wtgag fragments counteract the influence of the other wtgag sequences, which cause the inhibition of gag expression. The

  3. HIV-1 and MLV Gag proteins are sufficient to recruit APOBEC3G into virus-like particles.

    PubMed

    Douaisi, Marc; Dussart, Sylvie; Courcoul, Marianne; Bessou, Gilles; Vigne, Robert; Decroly, Etienne

    2004-08-27

    The cytidine deaminase hAPOBEC3G is an antiviral human factor that counteracts the replication of HIV-1 in absence of the Vif protein. hAPOBEC3G is packaged into virus particles and lethally hypermutates HIV-1. In this work, we examine the mechanisms governing hAPOBEC3G packaging. By GST pull-down and co-immunoprecipitation assays, we show that hAPOBEC3G binds to HIV-1 Pr55 Gag and its NC domain and to the RT and IN domains contained in Pr160 Gag-Pol. We demonstrate that the expression of HIV-1 Gag is sufficient to induce the packaging of hAPOBEC3G into Gag particles. Gag-Pol polypeptides containing RT and IN domains, as well as HIV-1 genomic RNA, seem not to be necessary for hAPOBEC3G packaging. Lastly, we show that hAPOBEC3G and its murine ortholog are packaged into HIV-1 and MLV Gag particles. We conclude that the Gag polypeptides from distant retroviruses have conserved domains allowing the packaging of the host antiviral factor APOBEC3G.

  4. Induction of HIV-1 gag specific immune responses by cationic micelles mediated delivery of gag mRNA.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Mengnan; Li, Man; Zhang, Zhirong; Gong, Tao; Sun, Xun

    2016-09-01

    In recent years, mRNA-based vaccines have emerged to be a great alternative to DNA-based vaccines due to the safety of not inserting into host genome. However, mRNA molecules are single-stranded nucleic acids that are vulnerable under RNase existing in human skin and tissues. In this study, a self-assembled cationic nanomicelles based on polyethyleneimine-stearic acid (PSA) copolymer were developed to delivery HIV-1 gag encoding mRNA to dendritic cells and BALB/c mice. We evaluated the transfection efficiency and cell uptake efficiency of naked EGFP mRNA, PSA, PEI-2k and PEI-25k nanoparticles format on DC2.4 cell lines. Immune responses after sub-cutaneous administration of gag mRNA to BALB/c mice were notably induced by PSA as compared with naked gag mRNA. We found the PSA/mRNA nanomicelles were potent systems that can effectively deliver mRNA and induce antigen-specific immune response, stimulating various new vaccine strategies using mRNA.

  5. Structural Basis for Specific Membrane Targeting by the HIV-1 Gag Protein.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Summers, Michael F.

    2006-03-01

    In HIV-1 infected cells, newly synthesized retroviral Gag polyproteins are directed to specific cellular membranes where they assemble and bud to form immature virions. Membrane binding is mediated by Gag's matrix (MA) domain, a 132-residue polypeptide containing an N-terminal myristyl group that can adopt sequestered and exposed conformations. Membane specificity was recently shown to be regulated by phosphatidylinositol-(4,5)-bisphosphate (PI(4,5)P2), a cellular factor abundant in the inner leaflet of the plasma membrane (PM). We now show that phosphoinositides, including soluble analogs of PI(4,5)P2 with truncated lipids, bind HIV-1 MA and trigger myristate exposure. The phosphoinositol moiety and one of the fatty acid tails binds to a cleft on the surface of the protein. The other fatty acid chain of PI(4,5)P2 and the exposed myristyl group of MA bracket a conserved basic surface patch implicated in membrane binding. Our findings indicate that PI(4,5)P2 acts as both a trigger of the myristyl switch and as a membrane anchor, and suggest a structure-based mechanism for the specific targeting HIV-1 Gag to PI(4,5)P2-enriched membranes.

  6. Inositol pyrophosphate mediated pyrophosphorylation of AP3B1 regulates HIV-1 Gag release

    PubMed Central

    Azevedo, Cristina; Burton, Adam; Ruiz-Mateos, Ezequiel; Marsh, Mark; Saiardi, Adolfo

    2009-01-01

    High-energy inositol pyrophosphates, such as IP7 (diphosphoinositol pentakisphosphate), can directly donate a β-phosphate to a prephosphorylated serine residue generating pyrophosphorylated proteins. Here, we show that the β subunit of AP-3, a clathrin-associated protein complex required for HIV-1 release, is a target of IP7-mediated pyrophosphorylation. We have identified Kif3A, a motor protein of the kinesin superfamily, as an AP3B1-binding partner and demonstrate that Kif3A, like the AP-3 complex, is involved in an intracellular process required for HIV-1 Gag release. Importantly, IP7-mediated pyrophosphorylation of AP3B1 modulates the interaction with Kif3A and, as a consequence, affects the release of HIV-1 virus-like particles. This study identifies a cellular process that is regulated by IP7-mediated pyrophosphorylation. PMID:19934039

  7. Relationship between LTR methylation and gag expression of HIV-1 in human spermatozoa and sperm-derived embryos.

    PubMed

    Li, FangZheng; Li, LianBing; Zhong, Ying; Xie, QingDong; Huang, JiHua; Kang, XiangJin; Wang, Dian; Xu, Lan; Huang, TianHua

    2013-01-01

    Studying the methylation status of long terminal repeats (LTR) and its relationship to gag expression of HIV-1 in order to explore regulation mechanism of HIV-1 gene expression in vertical transmission from sperm to embryo. Sperm samples were collected from a healthy donor and seven patients with HIV/AIDS. Zona-free hamster ova were fertilized by donor's spermatozoa transfected with pIRES2-EGFP-LTR-gag and patient's spermatozoa to obtain zygotes and 2-cell embryos, respectively. Interspecific in vitro fertilization, bisulfite sequencing PCR (BSP), RT-PCR, nested RT-PCR, nested real-time qRT-PCR and 2(-△△Ct) method, indirect immunofluoresence (IF) assay were performed. For donor's samples, the methylation rates of HIV-1 LTR were 0.56%, 1.67%, 0.56%, 0.56% in plasmid, spermatozoa, zygotes and 2-cell embryos, respectively while spermatozoa were transfected with unmethylated plasmid, and were 95.0%, 84.44%, 3.3%, 1.67% while transfected with methylated plasmid. The positive bands for HIV-1 gag cDNA were detected in spermatozoa and 2-cell embryos. The positive signals for HIV-1 p24 Gag protein were detected in 2-cell embryos but not in spermatozoa. For patient's samples, methylation rates of HIV-1 LTR were different in spermatozoa among patients. After fertilization, CpG sites in HIV-1 LTR were highly demethylated in zygotes and 2-cell embryos. The gag transcription levels increased with decreasing of methylation rates of HIV-1 LTR, which showed a strong negative correlations between gag transcription levels and methylation rates of HIV-LTR ether in the spermatozoa (r = -0.9877, P<0.0001) or in the sperm-derived 2-cell embryos (r = -0.9092, P = 0.0045). LTR methylation regulates expression of HIV-1 gag in vertical transmission from sperm to embryo.

  8. HIV-1 gag proteins in virions and in infected cell fractions.

    PubMed

    Sharova, N K; Grigor'ev, V B; Bukrinskaya, A G

    1991-01-01

    The relation of the initial products of the HIV-1 gag gene to the final products was determined in virus samples and cell fractions of infected H9 and Jurkat-tat cell cultures. The proteins were identified by immunoblotting with pooled sera from AIDS patients or monoclonal antibodies. The proportion in the virions of gag precursor proteins and the products of their proteolytic cleavage varied according to the maturity of the virus particles as determined by electron microscopy. The distribution of viral gag proteins in the cell fractions was determined 2, 4, and 24 h after infection. Treatment of cells with cycloheximide to block de novo protein synthesis did not significantly affect the results. Gag proteins containing the N terminus of the precursor p55 (including p55, the intermediate precursors p41(45) and p39, and mature protein p17) were found in the cell nuclei up to 24 h after infection. The major core protein p24 was located in the cytoplasmic fraction. These data strongly suggest that gag precursors from the p55 N terminus and the matrix protein p17 enter the infected cell separately from the major core protein p24, or become separated from it in the cytoplasm.

  9. HIV-1 Gag as an Antiviral Target: Development of Assembly and Maturation Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Spearman, Paul

    2016-01-01

    HIV-1 Gag is the master orchestrator of particle assembly. The central role of Gag at multiple stages of the HIV lifecycle has led to efforts to develop drugs that directly target Gag and prevent the formation and release of infectious particles. Until recently, however, only the catalytic site protease inhibitors have been available to inhibit late stages of HIV replication. This review summarizes the current state of development of antivirals that target Gag or disrupt late events in the retrovirus lifecycle such as maturation of the viral capsid. Maturation inhibitors represent an exciting new series of antiviral compounds, including those that specifically target CA-SP1 cleavage and the allosteric integrase inhibitors that inhibit maturation by a completely different mechanism. Numerous small molecules and peptides targeting CA have been studied in attempts to disrupt steps in assembly. Efforts to target CA have recently gained have considerable momentum from the development of small molecules that bind CA and alter capsid stability at the post-entry stage of the lifecycle. Efforts to develop antivirals that inhibit incorporation of genomic RNA or to inhibit late budding events remain in preliminary stages of development. Overall, the development of novel antivirals targeting Gag and the late stages in HIV replication appears much closer to success than ever, with the new maturation inhibitors leading the way. PMID:26329615

  10. Cytolytic T lymphocytes (CTLs) from HIV-1 subtype C-infected Indian patients recognize CTL epitopes from a conserved immunodominant region of HIV-1 Gag and Nef.

    PubMed

    Thakar, Madhuri R; Bhonge, Leena S; Lakhashe, Samir K; Shankarkumar, U; Sane, Suvarna S; Kulkarni, Smita S; Mahajan, Bharati A; Paranjape, Ramesh S

    2005-09-01

    Analysis of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) cytolytic T lymphocyte (CTL) epitopes recognized by the targeted population is critical for HIV-1 vaccine design. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells from 47 Indian subjects at different stages of HIV-1 infection were tested for HIV-1 Gag-, Nef-, and Env-specific T cell responses by interferon (IFN)- gamma enzyme-linked immunospot (ELISPOT) assay, using pools of overlapping peptides. The Gag and Nef antigens were targeted by 83% and 36% of responders. Five immunodominant regions, 4 in Gag and 1 in Nef, were identified in the study; these regions are conserved across clades, including the African subtype C clade. Three antigenic regions were also found to be recognized by CTLs of the study participants. These regions were not identified as immunodominant regions in studies performed in Africa, which highlights the importance of differential clustering of responses within HIV-1 subtype C. Twenty-six putative epitopes--15 Gag (10 in p24 and 5 in p17), 10 Nef, and 1 Env (gp 41)--were predicted using a combination of peptide matrix ELISPOT assay and CTL epitope-prediction software. Ninety percent of the predicted epitopes were clustered in the conserved immunodominant regions of the Gag and Nef antigens. Of 26 predicted epitopes, 8 were promiscuous, 3 of which were highly conserved across clades. Three Gag and 4 Nef epitopes were novel. The identification of conserved epitopes will be important in the planning of an HIV-1 vaccine strategy for subtype C-affected regions.

  11. Construction and characterization of a chimeric virus (BIV/HIV-1) carrying the bovine immunodeficiency virus gag-pol gene.

    PubMed

    Chen, Guomin; Wang, Shuhui; Xiong, Kun; Wang, Jinzhong; Ye, Tao; Dong, Wenping; Wang, Qi; Chen, Qimin; Geng, Yunqi; Wood, Charles; Zeng, Yi

    2002-01-04

    HIV-1(HXB2) 5'LTR region, most of BIV(R29) gag-pol segment and HIV-1(HXB2) pol IN-3'LTR region were respectively amplified. A chimeric clone, designated as pHBIV(3753), was constructed by cloning three fragments sequentially into pUC18. MT4 cells were transfected with pHBIV3753. The replication and expressions of the chimeric virus (HBIV3753) were monitored by RT activity and IFA. The results firstly demonstrated that it is possible to generate a new type of the BIV/HIV-1 chimeric virus containing BIV gag-pol gene.

  12. Cross-Reactive Potential of HIV-1 Subtype C-Infected Indian Individuals Against Multiple HIV-1 Potential T Cell Epitope Gag Variants.

    PubMed

    Negi, Neema; Vajpayee, Madhu; Singh, Ravinder; Sharma, Ashutosh; Murugavel, Kailapuri G; Ranga, Udaykumar; Thakar, Madhuri; Sreenivas, Vishnubhatla; Das, Bimal Kumar

    2016-12-01

    Vaccine immunogen with expanded T cell coverage for protection against HIV-1 diversity is the need of the hour. This study was undertaken to examine the ability of T cells to respond to a broad spectrum of potential T cell epitope (PTE) peptides containing variable as well as conserved sequences that would most accurately reflect immune responses to different circulating strains. Set of 320 PTE peptides were pooled in a matrix format that included 40 pools of 32 peptides per pool. These pools were used in interferon-γ enzyme-linked immunospot assay for screening and confirmation of HIV-1 PTE Gag-specific T cell immune responses in 34 HIV-1 seropositive Indian individuals. "Deconvolute This" software was used for result analysis. The dominant target in terms of magnitude and breadth of responses was observed to be the p24 subunit of Gag protein. Of the 34 study subjects, 26 (77%) showed a response to p24 PTE Gag peptides, 17 (50%) to p17, and 17 (50%) responded to p15 PTE peptides. The total breadth and magnitude of immune response ranged from 0.75 to 14.50 and 95.02 to 1,103 spot-forming cells/10(6) cells, respectively. Seventy-six peptides located in p24 Gag were targeted by 77% of the study subjects followed by 51 peptides in p17 Gag and 46 peptides in p15 Gag with multiple variants being recognized. Maximum study participants recognized PTE peptide sequence Gag271→285NKIVRMYSPVSILDI located in p24 Gag subunit. T cells from HIV-1-infected individuals can recognize multiple PTE peptide variants, although the magnitude of the responses can vary greatly across these variants.

  13. Crystallographic and Functional Analysis of the ESCRT-I /HIV-1 Gag PTAP Interaction

    SciTech Connect

    Im, Young Jun; Kuo, Lillian; Ren, Xuefeng; Burgos, Patricia V.; Zhao, Xue Zhi; Liu, Fa; Burke, Jr., Terrence R.; Bonifacino, Juan S.; Freed, Eric O.; Hurley, James H.

    2010-12-03

    Budding of HIV-1 requires the binding of the PTAP late domain of the Gag p6 protein to the UEV domain of the TSG101 subunit of ESCRT-I. The normal function of this motif in cells is in receptor downregulation. Here, we report the 1.41.6 {angstrom} structures of the human TSG101 UEV domain alone and with wild-type and mutant HIV-1 PTAP and Hrs PSAP nonapeptides. The hydroxyl of the Thr or Ser residue in the P(S/T)AP motif hydrogen bonds with the main chain of Asn69. Mutation of the Asn to Pro, blocking the main-chain amide, abrogates PTAP motif binding in vitro and blocks budding of HIV-1 from cells. N69P and other PTAP binding-deficient alleles of TSG101 did not rescue HIV-1 budding. However, the mutant alleles did rescue downregulation of endogenous EGF receptor. This demonstrates that the PSAP motif is not rate determining in EGF receptor downregulation under normal conditions.

  14. Crystallographic and functional analysis of the ESCRT-I /HIV-1 Gag PTAP interaction.

    PubMed

    Im, Young Jun; Kuo, Lillian; Ren, Xuefeng; Burgos, Patricia V; Zhao, Xue Zhi; Liu, Fa; Burke, Terrence R; Bonifacino, Juan S; Freed, Eric O; Hurley, James H

    2010-11-10

    Budding of HIV-1 requires the binding of the PTAP late domain of the Gag p6 protein to the UEV domain of the TSG101 subunit of ESCRT-I. The normal function of this motif in cells is in receptor downregulation. Here, we report the 1.4-1.6 Å structures of the human TSG101 UEV domain alone and with wild-type and mutant HIV-1 PTAP and Hrs PSAP nonapeptides. The hydroxyl of the Thr or Ser residue in the P(S/T)AP motif hydrogen bonds with the main chain of Asn69. Mutation of the Asn to Pro, blocking the main-chain amide, abrogates PTAP motif binding in vitro and blocks budding of HIV-1 from cells. N69P and other PTAP binding-deficient alleles of TSG101 did not rescue HIV-1 budding. However, the mutant alleles did rescue downregulation of endogenous EGF receptor. This demonstrates that the PSAP motif is not rate determining in EGF receptor downregulation under normal conditions. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Crystallographic and Functional Analysis of the ESCRT-I /HIV-1 Gag PTAP Interaction

    PubMed Central

    Im, Young Jun; Kuo, Lillian; Ren, Xuefeng; Burgos, Patricia V.; Zhao, Xue Zhi; Liu, Fa; Burke, Terrence R.; Bonifacino, Juan S.; Freed, Eric O.; Hurley, James H.

    2011-01-01

    Budding of HIV-1 requires the binding of the PTAP late domain of the Gag p6 protein to the UEV domain of the TSG101 subunit of ESCRT-I. The normal function of this motif in cells is in receptor downregulation. Here we report the 1.4 to 1.6 Å structures of the human TSG101 UEV domain alone and with wild-type and mutant HIV-1 PTAP and Hrs PSAP nonapeptides. The hydroxyl of the Thr or Ser residue in the P(S/T)AP motif hydrogen bonds with the main-chain of Asn69. Mutation of the Asn to Pro, blocking the main-chain amide, abrogates PTAP motif binding in vitro and blocks budding of HIV-1 from cells. N69P and other PTAP binding-deficient alleles of TSG101 did not rescue HIV-1 budding. However, the mutant alleles did rescue downregulation of endogenous EGF receptor. This demonstrates that the PSAP motif is not rate determining in EGF receptor downregulation under normal conditions. PMID:21070952

  16. The Use of Directed Evolution to Create a Stable and Immunogenic Recombinant BCG Expressing a Modified HIV-1 Gag Antigen

    PubMed Central

    Shephard, Enid; Stutz, Helen; Douglass, Nicola; Mgwebi, Thandi; Meyers, Ann; Chin'ombe, Nyasha; Williamson, Anna-Lise

    2014-01-01

    Numerous features make Mycobacterium bovis BCG an attractive vaccine vector for HIV. It has a good safety profile, it elicits long-lasting cellular immune responses and in addition manufacturing costs are affordable. Despite these advantages it is often difficult to express viral antigens in BCG, which results in genetic instability and low immunogenicity. The aim of this study was to generate stable recombinant BCG (rBCG) that express high levels of HIV antigens, by modification of the HIV genes. A directed evolution process was applied to recombinant mycobacteria that expressed HIV-1 Gag fused to the green fluorescent protein (GFP). Higher growth rates and increased GFP expression were selected for. Through this process a modified Gag antigen was selected. Recombinant BCG that expressed the modified Gag (BCG[pWB106] and BCG[pWB206]) were more stable, produced higher levels of antigen and grew faster than those that expressed the unmodified Gag (BCG[pWB105]). The recombinant BCG that expressed the modified HIV-1 Gag induced 2 to 3 fold higher levels of Gag-specific CD4 T cells than those expressing the unmodified Gag (BCG[pWB105]). Mice primed with 107 CFU BCG[pWB206] and then boosted with MVA-Gag developed Gag-specific CD8 T cells with a frequency of 1343±17 SFU/106 splenocytes, 16 fold greater than the response induced with MVA-Gag alone. Levels of Gag-specific CD4 T cells were approximately 5 fold higher in mice primed with BCG[pWB206] and boosted with MVA-Gag than in those receiving the MVA-Gag boost alone. In addition mice vaccinated with BCG[pWB206] were protected from a surrogate vaccinia virus challenge. PMID:25061753

  17. Dual Mechanisms of Translation Initiation of the Full-Length HIV-1 mRNA Contribute to Gag Synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Rivero, Matias; Cohen, Éric A.; Lopez-Lastra, Marcelo; Mouland, Andrew J.

    2013-01-01

    The precursor group-specific antigen (pr55Gag) is central to HIV-1 assembly. Its expression alone is sufficient to assemble into virus-like particles. It also selects the genomic RNA for encapsidation and is involved in several important virus-host interactions for viral assembly and restriction, making its synthesis essential for aspects of viral replication. Here, we show that the initiation of translation of the HIV-1 genomic RNA is mediated through both a cap-dependent and an internal ribosome entry site (IRES)-mediated mechanisms. In support of this notion, pr55Gag synthesis was maintained at 70% when cap-dependent translation initiation was blocked by the expression of eIF4G- and PABP targeting viral proteases in two in vitro systems and in HIV-1-expressing cells directly infected with poliovirus. While our data reveal that IRES-dependent translation of the viral genomic RNA ensures pr55Gag expression, the synthesis of other HIV-1 proteins, including that of pr160Gag/Pol, Vpr and Tat is suppressed early during progressive poliovirus infection. The data presented herein implies that the unspliced HIV-1 genomic RNA utilizes both cap-dependent and IRES-dependent translation initiation to supply pr55Gag for virus assembly and production. PMID:23861855

  18. Dendritic cells primed with a chimeric plasmid containing HIV-1-gag associated with lysosomal-associated protein-1 (LAMP/gag) is a potential therapeutic vaccine against HIV.

    PubMed

    Lucas, Carolina G D O; Matassoli, Flavio L; Peçanha, Ligia M T; Santillo, Bruna Tereso; Oliveira, Luanda Mara da Silva; Oshiro, Telma Miyuki; Marques, Ernesto T D A; Oxenius, Annette; de Arruda, Luciana B

    2016-08-01

    The decline in number and function of T cells is a hallmark of HIV infection, and preservation or restoration of HIV-specific cellular immune response is a major goal of AIDS treatment. Dendritic cells (DCs) play a key role in the initiation and maintenance of the immune response, and their use as a vaccine vehicle is a promising strategy for enhancing vaccine efficacy. We evaluated the potential of DC-mediated immunization with a DNA vaccine consisting of HIV-1-p55gag (gag, group-specific antigen) associated to lysosomal associated protein (LAMP) sequence (LAMP/gag vaccine). Immunization of mice with mouse DCs transfected with LAMP/gag (Lg-mDCs) stimulated more potent B- and T-cell responses than naked DNA or DCs pulsed with inactivated HIV. Anti-Gag antibody levels were sustained for at least 3 mo after immunization, and recall T-cell responses were also strongly detected at this time point. Human DCs transfected with LAMP/gag (Lg-hDCs) were also activated and able to stimulate greater T-cell response than native gag-transfected DCs. Coculture between Lg-hDCs and T lymphocytes obtained from patients with HIV resulted in upregulation of CD38, CD69, HLA-DR, and granzyme B by CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells, and increased IFN-γ and TNF-α production. These results indicate that the use of LAMP/gag-DC may be an efficient strategy for enhancing immune function in patients with HIV.-Lucas, C. G. D. O., Matassoli, F. L., Peçanha, L. M. T., Santillo, B. T., Oliveira, L. M. D. S., Oshiro, T. M., Marques, E. T. D. A., Jr., Oxenius, A., de Arruda, L. B. Dendritic cells primed with a chimeric plasmid containing HIV-1-gag associated with lysosomal-associated protein-1 (LAMP/gag) is a potential therapeutic vaccine against HIV.

  19. A temporospatial map that defines specific steps at which critical surfaces in the Gag MA and CA domains act during immature HIV-1 capsid assembly in cells.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Bridget A; Reed, Jonathan C; Geary, Clair D; Swain, J Victor; Lingappa, Jaisri R

    2014-05-01

    During HIV-1 assembly, Gag polypeptides target to the plasma membrane, where they multimerize to form immature capsids that undergo budding and maturation. Previous mutational analyses identified residues within the Gag matrix (MA) and capsid (CA) domains that are required for immature capsid assembly, and structural studies showed that these residues are clustered on four exposed surfaces in Gag. Exactly when and where the three critical surfaces in CA function during assembly are not known. Here, we analyzed how mutations in these four critical surfaces affect the formation and stability of assembly intermediates in cells expressing the HIV-1 provirus. The resulting temporospatial map reveals that critical MA residues act during membrane targeting, residues in the C-terminal CA subdomain (CA-CTD) dimer interface are needed for the stability of the first membrane-bound assembly intermediate, CA-CTD base residues are necessary for progression past the first membrane-bound intermediate, and residues in the N-terminal CA subdomain (CA-NTD) stabilize the last membrane-bound intermediate. Importantly, we found that all four critical surfaces act while Gag is associated with the cellular facilitators of assembly ABCE1 and DDX6. When correlated with existing structural data, our findings suggest the following model: Gag dimerizes via the CA-CTD dimer interface just before or during membrane targeting, individual CA-CTD hexamers form soon after membrane targeting, and the CA-NTD hexameric lattice forms just prior to capsid release. This model adds an important new dimension to current structural models by proposing the potential order in which key contacts within the immature capsid lattice are made during assembly in cells. While much is known about the structure of the completed HIV-1 immature capsid and domains of its component Gag proteins, less is known about the sequence of events leading to formation of the HIV-1 immature capsid. Here we used biochemical and

  20. Detection of HIV-1 p24 Gag in plasma by a nanoparticle-based bio-barcode-amplification method

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Eun-Young; Stanton, Jennifer; Korber, Bette TM; Krebs, Kendall; Bogdan, Derek; Kunstman, Kevin; Wu, Samuel; Phair, John P; Mirkin, Chad A

    2010-01-01

    Background Detection of HIV-1 in patients is limited by the sensitivity and selectivity of available tests. The nanotechnology-based bio-barcode-amplification method offers an innovative approach to detect specific HIV-1 antigens from diverse HIV-1 subtypes. We evaluated the efficacy of this protein-detection method in detecting HIV-1 in men enrolled in the Chicago component of the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study (MACS). Methods The method relies on magnetic microparticles with antibodies that specifically bind the HIV-1 p24 Gag protein and nanoparticles that are encoded with DNA and antibodies that can sandwich the target protein captured by the microparticle-bound antibodies. The aggregate sandwich structures are magnetically separated from solution, and treated to remove the conjugated barcode DNA. The DNA barcodes (hundreds per target) were identified by a nanoparticle-based detection method that does not rely on PCR. Results Of 112 plasma samples from HIV-1-infected subjects, 111 were positive for HIV-1 p24 Gag protein (range: 0.11–71.5 ng/ml of plasma) by the bio-barcode-amplification method. HIV-1 p24 Gag protein was detected in only 23 out of 112 men by the conventional ELISA. A total of 34 uninfected subjects were negative by both tests. Thus, the specificity of the bio-barcode-amplification method was 100% and the sensitivity 99%. The bio-barcode-amplification method detected HIV-1 p24 Gag protein in plasma from all study subjects with less than 200 CD4+ T cells/μl of plasma (100%) and 19 out of 20 (95%) HIV-1-infected men who had less than 50 copies/ml of plasma of HIV-1 RNA. In a separate group of 60 diverse international isolates, representative of clades A, B, C and D and circulating recombinant forms CRF01_AE and CRF02_AG, the bio-barcode-amplification method identified the presence of virus correctly. Conclusions The bio-barcode-amplification method was superior to the conventional ELISA assay for the detection of HIV-1 p24 Gag protein in plasma

  1. Relationship between LTR Methylation and gag Expression of HIV-1 in Human Spermatozoa and Sperm-Derived Embryos

    PubMed Central

    Li, FangZheng; Li, LianBing; Zhong, Ying; Xie, QingDong; Huang, JiHua; Kang, XiangJin; Wang, Dian; Xu, Lan; Huang, TianHua

    2013-01-01

    Objective Studying the methylation status of long terminal repeats (LTR) and its relationship to gag expression of HIV-1 in order to explore regulation mechanism of HIV-1 gene expression in vertical transmission from sperm to embryo. Methods/Principal Findings Sperm samples were collected from a healthy donor and seven patients with HIV/AIDS. Zona-free hamster ova were fertilized by donor’s spermatozoa transfected with pIRES2-EGFP-LTR-gag and patient’s spermatozoa to obtain zygotes and 2-cell embryos, respectively. Interspecific in vitro fertilization, bisulfite sequencing PCR (BSP), RT-PCR, nested RT-PCR, nested real-time qRT-PCR and 2−△△Ct method, indirect immunofluoresence (IF) assay were performed. For donor’s samples, the methylation rates of HIV-1 LTR were 0.56%, 1.67%, 0.56%, 0.56% in plasmid, spermatozoa, zygotes and 2-cell embryos, respectively while spermatozoa were transfected with unmethylated plasmid, and were 95.0%, 84.44%, 3.3%, 1.67% while transfected with methylated plasmid. The positive bands for HIV-1 gag cDNA were detected in spermatozoa and 2-cell embryos. The positive signals for HIV-1 p24 Gag protein were detected in 2-cell embryos but not in spermatozoa. For patient’s samples, methylation rates of HIV-1 LTR were different in spermatozoa among patients. After fertilization, CpG sites in HIV-1 LTR were highly demethylated in zygotes and 2-cell embryos. The gag transcription levels increased with decreasing of methylation rates of HIV-1 LTR, which showed a strong negative correlations between gag transcription levels and methylation rates of HIV-LTR ether in the spermatozoa (r = −0.9877, P<0.0001) or in the sperm-derived 2-cell embryos (r = −0.9092, P = 0.0045). Conclusion LTR methylation regulates expression of HIV-1 gag in vertical transmission from sperm to embryo. PMID:23382972

  2. Heterologous prime-boost vaccination with DNA and MVA vaccines, expressing HIV-1 subtype C mosaic Gag virus-like particles, is highly immunogenic in mice

    PubMed Central

    Douglass, Nicola; Chege, Gerald; Williamson, Anna-Lise

    2017-01-01

    In an effort to make affordable vaccines suitable for the regions most affected by HIV-1, we have constructed stable vaccines that express an HIV-1 subtype C mosaic Gag immunogen (BCG-GagM, MVA-GagM and DNA-GagM). Mosaic immunogens have been designed to address the tremendous diversity of this virus. Here we have shown that GagM buds from cells infected and transfected with MVA-GagM and DNA-GagM respectively and forms virus-like particles. Previously we showed that a BCG-GagM prime MVA-GagM boost generated strong cellular immune responses in mice. In this study immune responses to the DNA-GagM and MVA-GagM vaccines were evaluated in homologous and heterologous prime-boost vaccinations. The DNA homologous prime boost vaccination elicited predominantly CD8+ T cells while the homologous MVA vaccination induced predominantly CD4+ T cells. A heterologous DNA-GagM prime MVA-GagM boost induced strong, more balanced Gag CD8+ and CD4+ T cell responses and that were predominantly of an effector memory phenotype. The immunogenicity of the mosaic Gag (GagM) was compared to a naturally occurring subtype C Gag (GagN) using a DNA homologous vaccination regimen. DNA-GagN expresses a natural Gag with a sequence that was closest to the consensus sequence of subtype C viruses sampled in South Africa. DNA-GagM homologous vaccination induced cumulative HIV-1 Gag-specific IFN-γ ELISPOT responses that were 6.5-fold higher than those induced by the DNA-GagN vaccination. Similarly, DNA-GagM vaccination generated 7-fold higher levels of cytokine-positive CD8+ T cells than DNA-GagN, indicating that this subtype C mosaic Gag elicits far more potent immune responses than a consensus-type Gag. Cells transfected and infected with DNA-GagM and MVA-GagM respectively, expressed high levels of GagM and produced budding virus-like particles. Our data indicates that a heterologous prime boost regimen using DNA and MVA vaccines expressing HIV-1 subtype C mosaic Gag is highly immunogenic in mice and

  3. Heterologous prime-boost vaccination with DNA and MVA vaccines, expressing HIV-1 subtype C mosaic Gag virus-like particles, is highly immunogenic in mice.

    PubMed

    Chapman, Ros; Jongwe, Tsungai Ivai; Douglass, Nicola; Chege, Gerald; Williamson, Anna-Lise

    2017-01-01

    In an effort to make affordable vaccines suitable for the regions most affected by HIV-1, we have constructed stable vaccines that express an HIV-1 subtype C mosaic Gag immunogen (BCG-GagM, MVA-GagM and DNA-GagM). Mosaic immunogens have been designed to address the tremendous diversity of this virus. Here we have shown that GagM buds from cells infected and transfected with MVA-GagM and DNA-GagM respectively and forms virus-like particles. Previously we showed that a BCG-GagM prime MVA-GagM boost generated strong cellular immune responses in mice. In this study immune responses to the DNA-GagM and MVA-GagM vaccines were evaluated in homologous and heterologous prime-boost vaccinations. The DNA homologous prime boost vaccination elicited predominantly CD8+ T cells while the homologous MVA vaccination induced predominantly CD4+ T cells. A heterologous DNA-GagM prime MVA-GagM boost induced strong, more balanced Gag CD8+ and CD4+ T cell responses and that were predominantly of an effector memory phenotype. The immunogenicity of the mosaic Gag (GagM) was compared to a naturally occurring subtype C Gag (GagN) using a DNA homologous vaccination regimen. DNA-GagN expresses a natural Gag with a sequence that was closest to the consensus sequence of subtype C viruses sampled in South Africa. DNA-GagM homologous vaccination induced cumulative HIV-1 Gag-specific IFN-γ ELISPOT responses that were 6.5-fold higher than those induced by the DNA-GagN vaccination. Similarly, DNA-GagM vaccination generated 7-fold higher levels of cytokine-positive CD8+ T cells than DNA-GagN, indicating that this subtype C mosaic Gag elicits far more potent immune responses than a consensus-type Gag. Cells transfected and infected with DNA-GagM and MVA-GagM respectively, expressed high levels of GagM and produced budding virus-like particles. Our data indicates that a heterologous prime boost regimen using DNA and MVA vaccines expressing HIV-1 subtype C mosaic Gag is highly immunogenic in mice and

  4. Conformational changes of Gag HIV-1 on a lipid bilayer measured by neutron reflectivity provides insights into viral particle assembly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nanda, H.; Datta, S. A. K.; Heinrich, F.; Loesche, M.; Rein, A.; Krueger, S.

    2009-03-01

    Formation of the HIV-1 is mediated by the Gag polyprotein at the cytoplasmic membrane surface of the infected host cell. Studies suggest large conformational changes in the Gag protein may occur during self-assembly on the membrane [Current Biology, 1997 (7) p.729, J. Mol. Biol. 2007 (365) p. 812]. The one-dimensional profile of Gag bound to a lipid bilayer interface was determined at angstrom resolution by neutron reflectometry. This was done using a novel method for modeling reflectivity data by a Monte Carlo simulation technique. The results show conditions under which the Gag protein can be made to extend or stay compact on the membrane surface. Further atomic detail was obtained using atomistic models to fit the one-dimensional Gag structural data. This involved combining X-ray resolution structures of the ordered protein domains with conformational sampling of the flexible linker region.

  5. Generation of HIV-1 Gag VLPs by transient transfection of HEK 293 suspension cell cultures using an optimized animal-derived component free medium.

    PubMed

    Cervera, Laura; Gutiérrez-Granados, Sonia; Martínez, Marta; Blanco, Julià; Gòdia, Francesc; Segura, María Mercedes

    2013-07-20

    Virus-like particles (VLPs) offer great promise as candidates for new vaccine strategies. Large-scale approaches for the manufacturing of HIV-1 Gag VLPs have mainly focused on the use of the baculovirus expression system. In this work, the development and optimization of an HIV-1 Gag VLP production protocol by transient gene expression in mammalian cell suspension cultures is reported. To facilitate process optimization, a Gag-GFP fusion construct enabling the generation of fluorescent VLPs was used. The great majority of Gag-GFP present in cell culture supernatants was shown to be correctly assembled into virus-like particles of the expected size and morphology consistent with immature HIV-1 particles. Medium optimization was performed using design of experiments (DoE). Culture medium supplementation with non-animal derived components including recombinant proteins and lipids of synthetic or non-animal-derived origin resulted in improved HEK 293 cell growth and VLP production. The maximum cell density attained using the optimized Freestyle culture medium was 5.4×10(6)cells/mL in batch mode, almost double of that observed using the unsupplemented medium (2.9×10(6)cells/mL). Best production performance was attained when cells were transfected at mid-log phase (2-3×10(6)cells/mL) with medium exchange at the time of transfection using standard amounts of plasmid DNA and polyethylenimine. By using an optimized production protocol, VLP titers were increased 2.4-fold obtaining 2.8μg of Gag-GFP/mL or 2.7×10(9)VLPs/mL according to ELISA and nanoparticle tracking quantification analyses, respectively. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Gag-Pol Transframe Domain p6* Is Essential for HIV-1 Protease-Mediated Virus Maturation

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Fu-Hsien; Chou, Ting-An; Liao, Wei-Hao; Huang, Kuo-Jung; Wang, Chin-Tien

    2015-01-01

    HIV-1 protease (PR) is encoded by pol, which is initially translated as a Pr160gag-pol polyprotein by a ribosomal frameshift event. Within Gag-Pol, truncated p6gag is replaced by a transframe domain (referred to as p6* or p6pol) located directly upstream of PR. p6* has been proposed as playing a role in modulating PR activation. Overlapping reading frames between p6* and p6gag present a challenge to researchers using genetic approaches to studying p6* biological functions. To determine the role of p6* in PR activation without affecting the gag reading frame, we constructed a series of Gag/Gag-Pol expression vectors by duplicating PR with or without p6* between PR pairs, and observed that PR duplication eliminated virus production due to significant Gag cleavage enhancement. This effect was mitigated when p6* was placed between the two PRs. Further, Gag cleavage enhancement was markedly reduced when either one of the two PRs was mutationally inactivated. Additional reduction in Gag cleavage efficiency was noted following the removal of p6* from between the two PRs. The insertion of a NC domain (wild-type or mutant) directly upstream of PR or p6*PR did not significantly improve Gag processing efficiency. With the exception of those containing p6* directly upstream of an active PR, all constructs were either noninfectious or weakly infectious. Our results suggest that (a) p6* is essential for triggering PR activation, (b) p6* has a role in preventing premature virus processing, and (c) the NC domain within Gag-Pol is not a major determinant of PR activation. PMID:26030443

  7. Structural basis and distal effects of Gag substrate coevolution in drug resistance to HIV-1 protease

    PubMed Central

    Özen, Ayşegül; Lin, Kuan-Hung; Schiffer, Celia A.

    2014-01-01

    Drug resistance mutations in response to HIV-1 protease inhibitors are selected not only in the drug target but elsewhere in the viral genome, especially at the protease cleavage sites in the precursor protein Gag. To understand the molecular basis of this protease–substrate coevolution, we solved the crystal structures of drug resistant I50V/A71V HIV-1 protease with p1-p6 substrates bearing coevolved mutations. Analyses of the protease–substrate interactions reveal that compensatory coevolved mutations in the substrate do not restore interactions lost due to protease mutations, but instead establish other interactions that are not restricted to the site of mutation. Mutation of a substrate residue has distal effects on other residues’ interactions as well, including through the induction of a conformational change in the protease. Additionally, molecular dynamics simulations suggest that restoration of active site dynamics is an additional constraint in the selection of coevolved mutations. Hence, protease–substrate coevolution permits mutational, structural, and dynamic changes via molecular mechanisms that involve distal effects contributing to drug resistance. PMID:25355911

  8. Structural basis and distal effects of Gag substrate coevolution in drug resistance to HIV-1 protease.

    PubMed

    Özen, Ayşegül; Lin, Kuan-Hung; Kurt Yilmaz, Nese; Schiffer, Celia A

    2014-11-11

    Drug resistance mutations in response to HIV-1 protease inhibitors are selected not only in the drug target but elsewhere in the viral genome, especially at the protease cleavage sites in the precursor protein Gag. To understand the molecular basis of this protease-substrate coevolution, we solved the crystal structures of drug resistant I50V/A71V HIV-1 protease with p1-p6 substrates bearing coevolved mutations. Analyses of the protease-substrate interactions reveal that compensatory coevolved mutations in the substrate do not restore interactions lost due to protease mutations, but instead establish other interactions that are not restricted to the site of mutation. Mutation of a substrate residue has distal effects on other residues' interactions as well, including through the induction of a conformational change in the protease. Additionally, molecular dynamics simulations suggest that restoration of active site dynamics is an additional constraint in the selection of coevolved mutations. Hence, protease-substrate coevolution permits mutational, structural, and dynamic changes via molecular mechanisms that involve distal effects contributing to drug resistance.

  9. C-terminal HIV-1 transframe p6* tetra-peptide blocks enhanced Gag cleavage incurred by leucine zipper replacement of a deleted p6* domain.

    PubMed

    Yu, Fu-Hsien; Huang, Kuo-Jung; Wang, Chin-Tien

    2017-03-01

    HIV-1 protease (PR) functions as a homodimer mediating virus maturation following virus budding. Gag-Pol dimerization is believed to trigger embedded PR activation by promoting PR dimer formation. Early PR activation can lead to markedly reduced virus yields due to premature Gag cleavage. The p6* peptide, located between Gag and PR, is believed to ensure virus production by preventing early PR maturation. Studies aimed at finding supporting evidence for this proposal are limited due to a reading frame overlap between p6* and the p6gag budding domain. To determine if p6* affects virus production via the modulation of PR activation, we engineered multiple constructs derived from Dp6*PR (an assembly- and processing-competent construct with Pol fused at the inactivated PR C-terminus). The data indicate that a p6* deletion adjacent to active PR significantly impaired virus processing. We also observed that the insertion of a leucine zipper (LZ) dimerization motif in the deleted region eliminated virus production in a PR activity-dependent manner, suggesting that the LZ insertion triggered premature PR activation by facilitating PR dimer formation. As few as four C-terminal p6* residues remaining at the p6*/PR junction were sufficient to restore virus yields, with a Gag processing profile similar to that of the wild type. Our study provides supporting evidence in a virus assembly context that the C-terminal p6* tetra-peptide plays a role in preventing premature PR maturation.IMPORTANCE Supporting evidence is lacking for the assumption that p6* retards PR maturation in the context of virus assembly. We found that replacing p6* with a leucine-zipper peptide abolished virus assembly due to the significant enhancement of Gag cleavage. However, as few as four C-terminal p6* residues remaining in the deleted region were sufficient for significant PR release, as well as for counteracting leucine zipper-incurred premature Gag cleavage. Our data provide evidence that (a) p6

  10. Effect of promoter strength on protein expression and immunogenicity of an HSV-1 amplicon vector encoding HIV-1 Gag

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Kathlyn; Duke, Cindy M.P.; Rodriguez-Colon, Sol M.; Dakwar, Anthony; Fan, Shongshan; Keefer, Michael C.; Federoff, Howard J.; Frelinger, John G.; Bowers, William J.; Dewhurst., Stephen

    2007-01-01

    Helper-free herpes simplex virus type-1 (HSV-1) amplicon vectors elicit robust immune responses to encoded proteins, including human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) antigens. To improve this vaccine delivery system, seven amplicon vectors were constructed, each encoding HIV-1 Gag under the control of a different promoter. Gag expression levels were analyzed in murine and human cell lines, as well as in biopsied tissue samples from injected mice; these data were then compared with Gag-specific T cell responses in BALB/c mice. The magnitude of the amplicon-induced immune response was found to correlate strongly with the level of Gag production both in vitro and in vivo. Interestingly, the best correlation of the strength of the amplicon-induced immune response was with antigen expression in cultured DC rather than expression at the tissue site of injection or in cultured cell lines. These findings may have implications for the generation of improved HSV-1 amplicon vectors for HIV-1 vaccine delivery. PMID:17145123

  11. Self assembly of HIV-1 Gag protein on lipid membranes generates PI(4,5)P2/Cholesterol nanoclusters

    PubMed Central

    Yandrapalli, Naresh; Lubart, Quentin; Tanwar, Hanumant S.; Picart, Catherine; Mak, Johnson; Muriaux, Delphine; Favard, Cyril

    2016-01-01

    The self-assembly of HIV-1 Gag polyprotein at the inner leaflet of the cell host plasma membrane is the key orchestrator of virus assembly. The binding between Gag and the plasma membrane is mediated by specific interaction of the Gag matrix domain and the PI(4,5)P2 lipid (PIP2). It is unknown whether this interaction could lead to local reorganization of the plasma membrane lipids. In this study, using model membranes, we examined the ability of Gag to segregate specific lipids upon self-assembly. We show for the first time that Gag self-assembly is responsible for the formation of PIP2 lipid nanoclusters, enriched in cholesterol but not in sphingomyelin. We also show that Gag mainly partition into liquid-disordered domains of these lipid membranes. Our work strongly suggests that, instead of targeting pre-existing plasma membrane lipid domains, Gag is more prone to generate PIP2/Cholesterol lipid nanodomains at the inner leaflet of the plasma membrane during early events of virus assembly. PMID:28008947

  12. Conserved Interaction of Lentiviral Vif Molecules with HIV-1 Gag and Differential Effects of Species-Specific Vif on Virus Production.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Wenwen; Ling, Limian; Li, Zhaolong; Wang, Hong; Rui, Yajuan; Gao, Wenying; Wang, Shaohua; Su, Xing; Wei, Wei; Yu, Xiao-Fang

    2017-04-01

    The virion infectivity factor (Vif) open reading frame is conserved among most lentiviruses. Vif molecules contribute to viral replication by inactivating host antiviral factors, the APOBEC3 cytidine deaminases. However, various species of lentiviral Vif proteins have evolved different strategies for overcoming host APOBEC3. Whether different species of lentiviral Vif proteins still preserve certain common features has not been reported. Here, we show for the first time that diverse lentiviral Vif molecules maintain the ability to interact with the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) Gag precursor (Pr55(Gag)) polyprotein. Surprisingly, bovine immunodeficiency virus (BIV) Vif, but not HIV-1 Vif, interfered with HIV-1 production and viral infectivity even in the absence of APOBEC3. Further analysis revealed that BIV Vif demonstrated an enhanced interaction with Pr55(Gag) compared to that of HIV-1 Vif, and BIV Vif defective for the Pr55(Gag) interaction lost its ability to inhibit HIV-1. The C-terminal region of capsid (CA) and the p2 region of Pr55(Gag), which are important for virus assembly and maturation, were involved in the interaction. Transduction of CD4(+) T cells with BIV Vif blocked HIV-1 replication. Thus, the conserved Vif-Pr55(Gag) interaction provides a potential target for the future development of antiviral strategies.IMPORTANCE The conserved Vif accessory proteins of primate lentiviruses HIV-1, simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV), and BIV all form ubiquitin ligase complexes to target host antiviral APOBEC3 proteins for degradation, with different cellular requirements and using different molecular mechanisms. Here, we demonstrate that BIV Vif can interfere with HIV-1 Gag maturation and suppress HIV-1 replication through interaction with the precursor of the Gag (Pr55(Gag)) of HIV-1 in virus-producing cells. Moreover, the HIV-1 and SIV Vif proteins are conserved in terms of their interactions with HIV-1 Pr55(Gag) although HIV-1 Vif proteins

  13. HIV-1 Cis Enhancing Sequence (CES) enhances CTE-dependent Gag expression.

    PubMed

    Suptawiwat, Ornpreya; Lee, Tun-Hou; Auewarakul, Prasert

    2005-11-10

    In order to export intron-containing RNA from nucleus, retroviruses use either viral trans-acting factors or constitutive cellular factors interacting with cis-elements in their intron-containing RNA. We have previously identified a Cis Enhancing Sequence (CES) in HIV-1 env region that could co-operate with Rev and RRE to enhance Gag expression by promoting RNA stabilization and exportation. In this study, we found that CES could function in a Rev-independent manner by co-operating with a Constitutive Transport Element (CTE) of Mason-Pfizer monkey viruses (MPMV). RRE and CTE promote intron-containing RNA exportation through different pathways. The fact that CES could function in both pathways of RNA export suggested that CES might function at a common step either up- or downstream to Rev/RRE or CTE functions. Known hnRNP-A1-binding sites as well as other 3 highly conserved sequences in the CES were found to be required for its activity.

  14. Phenotype of HIV-1 lacking a functional nuclear localization signal in matrix protein of gag and Vpr is comparable to wild-type HIV-1 in primary macrophages.

    PubMed

    Kootstra, N A; Schuitemaker, H

    1999-01-20

    Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) is considered to infect nondividing cells because nuclear localization signals (NLS) in matrix (MA, p17(Gag)) and Vpr allow active nuclear transport of the preintegration complex. Previous studies demonstrated that HIV-1 reverse transcription is successful only in cells with proliferative potential, thus restricting HIV-1 replication to cycling cells. To sort out this apparent discrepancy we compared the phenotype of a chimeric HIV-1 variant lacking a functional Vpr and MA-NLS (R7. deltaVpr.deltaNLS), and previously described to lack replicative capacity in macrophages and growth-arrested cells, with a chimera lacking a functional Vpr (R7.deltaVpr). Both variants replicated efficiently in primary macrophages, with only minimal differences in the kinetics of reverse transcription, integration, or p24 production. In agreement with our previous observation, elongation of reverse transcription was restricted to the proliferating subpopulation of macrophages. Replication of R7.deltaVpr and R7.deltaVpr.deltaNLS could also be demonstrated in aphidicolin-treated macrophages, indicating efficient nuclear transport in G1/S phase-arrested cells. In conclusion, our results confirm the dependency of the process of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase on cell proliferation in primary macrophages and exclude an important role of MA-NLS and Vpr in macrophage infection.

  15. Identification of peptides from human pathogens able to cross-activate an HIV-1-gag-specific CD4+ T cell clone.

    PubMed

    Venturini, Sara; Allicotti, Gina; Zhao, Yindong; Simon, Richard; Burton, Dennis R; Pinilla, Clemencia; Poignard, Pascal

    2006-01-01

    Antigen recognition by T cells is degenerate both at the MHC and the TCR level. In this study, we analyzed the cross-reactivity of a human HIV-1 gag p24-specific CD4(+) T cell clone obtained from an HIV-1-seronegative donor using a positional scanning synthetic combinatorial peptide library (PS-SCL)-based biometrical analysis. A number of decapeptides able to activate the HIV-1 gag-specific clone were identified and shown to correspond to sequences found in other human pathogens. Two of these peptides activated the T cell clone with the same stimulatory potency as the original HIV-1 gag p24 peptide. These findings show that an HIV-1-specific human T helper clone can react efficiently with peptides from other pathogens and suggest that cellular immune responses identified as being specific for one human pathogen (HIV-1) could arise from exposure to other pathogens.

  16. Mutations in the HIV-1 reverse transcriptase tryptophan repeat motif affect virion maturation and Gag-Pol packaging.

    PubMed

    Chiang, Chien-Cheng; Tseng, Ying-Tzu; Huang, Kuo-Jung; Pan, Yen-Yu; Wang, Chin-Tien

    2012-01-20

    Our goal was to determine the contribution of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase tryptophan repeat motif residues to virion maturation. With the exception of W402A, we found none of the single substitution mutations exerted major impacts on virus assembly or processing. However, all mutants except for W410A exhibited significant decreases in virus-associated RT, presumably a result of unstable RT mutant degradation. Mutations W398A, W401A and W406A decreased the enhancement effect of efavirenz on PR-mediated Gag processing efficiency, which is in agreement with their destabilizing RT effects. Furthermore, combined double or triple W398, W401 and W406 mutations significantly affected virus processing and Gag-Pol packaging. Further analyses suggest that inefficient PR-mediated Gag cleavage partly accounts for the virion processing defect. Our results support the idea that in addition to playing a role in RT heterodimer stabilization, the RT Trp repeat motif in the Gag-Pol context is also involved in PR activation via Gag-Pol/Gag-Pol interaction. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Mosaic HIV-1 Gag antigens can be Processed and Presented to human HIV-specific CD8+ T cells

    PubMed Central

    Ndhlovu, Zaza M; Piechocka-Trocha, Alicja; Vine, Seanna; McMullen, Ashley; Koofhethile, Kegakilwe C; Goulder, Phillip JR; Ndung’u, Thumbi; Barouch, Dan H; Walker, Bruce D

    2011-01-01

    Polyvalent “mosaic” HIV immunogens offer a potential solution for generating vaccines that can elicit immune responses against genetically diverse viruses. However, it is unclear whether key T cell epitopes can be processed and presented from these synthetic antigens and recognized by epitope-specific human T cells. Here we tested the ability of mosaic HIV immunogens expressed by recombinant, replication-incompetent adenovirus serotype 26 vectors to process and present major HIV clade B and clade C CD8 T cell epitopes in human cells. A bivalent mosaic vaccine expressing HIV Gag sequences was used to transduce PBMC from 12 HIV-1-infected individuals from the US and 10 HIV-1-infected individuals from South Africa, and intracellular cytokine staining together with tetramer staining was used to assess the ability of mosaic Gag antigens to stimulate pre-existing memory responses compared to natural clade B and C vectors. Mosaic Gag antigens expressed all 8 clade B epitopes tested in 12 US subjects and all 5 clade C epitopes tested in 10 South African subjects. Overall, the magnitude of cytokine production induced by stimulation with mosaic antigens was comparable to clade B and clade C antigens tested, but the mosaic antigens elicited greater cross-clade recognition. Additionally, mosaic antigens also induced HIV-specific CD4 T cell responses. Our studies demonstrate that mosaic antigens express major clade B and clade C viral T cell epitopes in human cells, and support the evaluation of mosaic HIV-1 vaccines in humans. PMID:21576505

  18. Mosaic HIV-1 Gag antigens can be processed and presented to human HIV-specific CD8+ T cells.

    PubMed

    Ndhlovu, Zaza M; Piechocka-Trocha, Alicja; Vine, Seanna; McMullen, Ashley; Koofhethile, Kegakilwe C; Goulder, Phillip J R; Ndung'u, Thumbi; Barouch, Dan H; Walker, Bruce D

    2011-06-15

    Polyvalent mosaic HIV immunogens offer a potential solution for generating vaccines that can elicit immune responses against genetically diverse viruses. However, it is unclear whether key T cell epitopes can be processed and presented from these synthetic Ags and recognized by epitope-specific human T cells. In this study, we tested the ability of mosaic HIV immunogens expressed by recombinant, replication-incompetent adenovirus serotype 26 vectors to process and present major HIV clade B and clade C CD8 T cell epitopes in human cells. A bivalent mosaic vaccine expressing HIV Gag sequences was used to transduce PBMCs from 12 HIV-1-infected individuals from the United States and 10 HIV-1-infected individuals from South Africa; intracellular cytokine staining, together with tetramer staining, was used to assess the ability of mosaic Gag Ags to stimulate pre-existing memory responses compared with natural clade B and C vectors. Mosaic Gag Ags expressed all eight clade B epitopes tested in 12 United States subjects and all 5 clade C epitopes tested in 10 South African subjects. Overall, the magnitude of cytokine production induced by stimulation with mosaic Ags was comparable to clade B and clade C Ags tested, but the mosaic Ags elicited greater cross-clade recognition. Additionally, mosaic Ags induced HIV-specific CD4 T cell responses. Our studies demonstrate that mosaic Ags express major clade B and clade C viral T cell epitopes in human cells, as well as support the evaluation of mosaic HIV-1 vaccines in humans.

  19. The prototype HIV-1 maturation inhibitor, bevirimat, binds to the CA-SP1 cleavage site in immature Gag particles

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Bevirimat, the prototype Human Immunodeficiency Virus type 1 (HIV-1) maturation inhibitor, is highly potent in cell culture and efficacious in HIV-1 infected patients. In contrast to inhibitors that target the active site of the viral protease, bevirimat specifically inhibits a single cleavage event, the final processing step for the Gag precursor where p25 (CA-SP1) is cleaved to p24 (CA) and SP1. Results In this study, photoaffinity analogs of bevirimat and mass spectrometry were employed to map the binding site of bevirimat to Gag within immature virus-like particles. Bevirimat analogs were found to crosslink to sequences overlapping, or proximal to, the CA-SP1 cleavage site, consistent with previous biochemical data on the effect of bevirimat on Gag processing and with genetic data from resistance mutations, in a region predicted by NMR and mutational studies to have α-helical character. Unexpectedly, a second region of interaction was found within the Major Homology Region (MHR). Extensive prior genetic evidence suggests that the MHR is critical for virus assembly. Conclusions This is the first demonstration of a direct interaction between the maturation inhibitor, bevirimat, and its target, Gag. Information gained from this study sheds light on the mechanisms by which the virus develops resistance to this class of drug and may aid in the design of next-generation maturation inhibitors. PMID:22151792

  20. Proteolysis of mature HIV-1 p6 Gag protein by the insulin-degrading enzyme (IDE) regulates virus replication in an Env-dependent manner

    PubMed Central

    Setz, Christian; Friedrich, Melanie; Schlößer, Stefan; Kölle, Julia; Spranger, Robert; Rauch, Pia; Reif, Tatjana; Karius-Fischer, Julia; Balasubramanyam, Ashok; Henklein, Petra; Fossen, Torgils; Schubert, Ulrich

    2017-01-01

    There is a significantly higher risk for type II diabetes in HIV-1 carriers, albeit the molecular mechanism for this HIV-related pathology remains enigmatic. The 52 amino acid HIV-1 p6 Gag protein is synthesized as the C-terminal part of the Gag polyprotein Pr55. In this context, p6 promotes virus release by its two late (L-) domains, and facilitates the incorporation of the viral accessory protein Vpr. However, the function of p6 in its mature form, after proteolytic release from Gag, has not been investigated yet. We found that the mature p6 represents the first known viral substrate of the ubiquitously expressed cytosolic metalloendopeptidase insulin-degrading enzyme (IDE). IDE is sufficient and required for degradation of p6, and p6 is approximately 100-fold more efficiently degraded by IDE than its eponymous substrate insulin. This observation appears to be specific for HIV-1, as p6 proteins from HIV-2 and simian immunodeficiency virus, as well as the 51 amino acid p9 from equine infectious anaemia virus were insensitive to IDE degradation. The amount of virus-associated p6, as well as the efficiency of release and maturation of progeny viruses does not depend on the presence of IDE in the host cells, as it was shown by CRISPR/Cas9 edited IDE KO cells. However, HIV-1 mutants harboring IDE-insensitive p6 variants exhibit reduced virus replication capacity, a phenomenon that seems to depend on the presence of an X4-tropic Env. Furthermore, competing for IDE by exogenous insulin or inhibiting IDE by the highly specific inhibitor 6bK, also reduced virus replication. This effect could be specifically attributed to IDE since replication of HIV-1 variants coding for an IDE-insensitive p6 were inert towards IDE-inhibition. Our cumulative data support a model in which removal of p6 during viral entry is important for virus replication, at least in the case of X4 tropic HIV-1. PMID:28388673

  1. Significant Reductions in Gag-Protease-Mediated HIV-1 Replication Capacity during the Course of the Epidemic in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Nomura, Shigeru; Hosoya, Noriaki; Brumme, Zabrina L.; Brockman, Mark A.; Kikuchi, Tadashi; Koga, Michiko; Nakamura, Hitomi; Koibuchi, Tomohiko; Fujii, Takeshi; Carlson, Jonathan M.; Heckerman, David; Kawana-Tachikawa, Ai; Iwamoto, Aikichi

    2013-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) evolves rapidly in response to host immune selection pressures. As a result, the functional properties of HIV-1 isolates from earlier in the epidemic may differ from those of isolates from later stages. However, few studies have investigated alterations in viral replication capacity (RC) over the epidemic. In the present study, we compare Gag-Protease-associated RC between early and late isolates in Japan (1994 to 2009). HIV-1 subtype B sequences from 156 antiretroviral-naïve Japanese with chronic asymptomatic infection were used to construct a chimeric NL4-3 strain encoding plasma-derived gag-protease. Viral replication capacity was examined by infecting a long terminal repeat-driven green fluorescent protein-reporter T cell line. We observed a reduction in the RC of chimeric NL4-3 over the epidemic, which remained significant after adjusting for the CD4+ T cell count and plasma virus load. The same outcome was seen when limiting the analysis to a single large cluster of related sequences, indicating that our results are not due to shifts in the molecular epidemiology of the epidemic in Japan. Moreover, the change in RC was independent of genetic distance between patient-derived sequences and wild-type NL4-3, thus ruling out potential temporal bias due to genetic similarity between patient and historic viral backbone sequences. Collectively, these data indicate that Gag-Protease-associated HIV-1 replication capacity has decreased over the epidemic in Japan. Larger studies from multiple geographical regions will be required to confirm this phenomenon. PMID:23152532

  2. Phase I safety and immunogenicity evaluations of an alphavirus replicon HIV-1 subtype C gag vaccine in healthy HIV-1-uninfected adults.

    PubMed

    Wecker, M; Gilbert, P; Russell, N; Hural, J; Allen, M; Pensiero, M; Chulay, J; Chiu, Ya-Lin; Abdool Karim, S S; Burke, D S

    2012-10-01

    On the basis of positive preclinical data, we evaluated the safety and immunogenicity of an alphavirus replicon HIV-1 subtype C gag vaccine (AVX101), expressing a nonmyristoylated form of Gag, in two double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trials in healthy HIV-1-uninfected adults. Escalating doses of AVX101 or placebo were administered subcutaneously to participants in the United States and Southern Africa. Because of vaccine stability issues, the first trial was halted prior to completion of all dose levels and a second trial was implemented. The second trial was also stopped prematurely due to documentation issues with the contract manufacturer. Safety and immunogenicity were evaluated through assessments of reactogenicity, reports of adverse events, and assessment of replication-competent and Venezuelan equine encephalitis (VEE) viremia. Immunogenicity was measured using the following assays: enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), chromium 51 ((51)Cr)-release cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL), gamma interferon (IFN-γ) ELISpot, intracellular cytokine staining (ICS), and lymphoproliferation assay (LPA). Anti-vector antibodies were also measured. AVX101 was well tolerated and exhibited only modest local reactogenicity. There were 5 serious adverse events reported during the trials; none were considered related to the study vaccine. In contrast to the preclinical data, immune responses in humans were limited. Only low levels of binding antibodies and T-cell responses were seen at the highest doses. This trial also highlighted the difficulties in developing a novel vector for HIV.

  3. Role of semen in HIV-1 transmission: inhibitor or facilitator?

    PubMed

    Doncel, Gustavo F; Joseph, Theresa; Thurman, Andrea R

    2011-03-01

    Sexual transmission of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) accounts for 60-90% of new infections, especially in developing countries. During male-to-female transmission, the virus is typically deposited in the vagina as cell-free and cell-associated virions carried by semen. But semen is more than just a carrier for HIV-1. Evidence from in vitro and in vivo studies supports both inhibitory and enhancing effects. Intrinsic antiviral activity mediated by cationic antimicrobial peptides, cytotoxicity, and blockage of HIV-dendritic cell interactions are seminal plasma properties that inhibit HIV-1 infection. On the contrary, neutralization of vaginal acidic pH, enhanced virus-target cell attachment by seminal amyloid fibrils, opsonization by complement fragments, and electrostatic interactions are factors that facilitate HIV-1 infection. The end result, i.e., inhibition or enhancement of HIV mucosal infection, in vivo, likely depends on the summation of all these biological effects. More research is needed, especially in animal models, to dissect the role of these factors and establish their relevance in HIV-1 transmission. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  4. Rescue of HIV-1 Release by Targeting Widely Divergent NEDD4-Type Ubiquitin Ligases and Isolated Catalytic HECT Domains to Gag

    PubMed Central

    Weiss, Eric R.; Popova, Elena; Yamanaka, Hikaru; Kim, Hyung Cheol; Huibregtse, Jon M.; Göttlinger, Heinrich

    2010-01-01

    Retroviruses engage the ESCRT pathway through late assembly (L) domains in Gag to promote virus release. HIV-1 uses a PTAP motif as its primary L domain, which interacts with the ESCRT-I component Tsg101. In contrast, certain other retroviruses primarily use PPxY-type L domains, which constitute ligands for NEDD4-type ubiquitin ligases. Surprisingly, although HIV-1 Gag lacks PPxY motifs, the release of HIV-1 L domain mutants is potently enhanced by ectopic NEDD4-2s, a native isoform with a naturally truncated C2 domain that appears to account for the residual titer of L domain-defective HIV-1. The reason for the unique potency of the NEDD4-2s isoform has remained unclear. We now show that the naturally truncated C2 domain of NEDD4-2s functions as an autonomous Gag-targeting module that can be functionally replaced by the unrelated Gag-binding protein cyclophilin A (CypA). The residual C2 domain of NEDD4-2s was sufficient to transfer the ability to stimulate HIV-1 budding to other NEDD4 family members, including the yeast homologue Rsp5, and even to isolated catalytic HECT domains. The isolated catalytic domain of NEDD4-2s also efficiently promoted HIV-1 budding when targeted to Gag via CypA. We conclude that the regions typically required for substrate recognition by HECT ubiquitin ligases are all dispensable to stimulate HIV-1 release, implying that the relevant target for ubiquitination is Gag itself or can be recognized by divergent isolated HECT domains. However, the mere ability to ubiquitinate Gag was not sufficient to stimulate HIV-1 budding. Rather, our results indicate that the synthesis of K63-linked ubiquitin chains is critical for ubiquitin ligase-mediated virus release. PMID:20862313

  5. Rescue of HIV-1 release by targeting widely divergent NEDD4-type ubiquitin ligases and isolated catalytic HECT domains to Gag.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Eric R; Popova, Elena; Yamanaka, Hikaru; Kim, Hyung Cheol; Huibregtse, Jon M; Göttlinger, Heinrich

    2010-09-16

    Retroviruses engage the ESCRT pathway through late assembly (L) domains in Gag to promote virus release. HIV-1 uses a PTAP motif as its primary L domain, which interacts with the ESCRT-I component Tsg101. In contrast, certain other retroviruses primarily use PPxY-type L domains, which constitute ligands for NEDD4-type ubiquitin ligases. Surprisingly, although HIV-1 Gag lacks PPxY motifs, the release of HIV-1 L domain mutants is potently enhanced by ectopic NEDD4-2s, a native isoform with a naturally truncated C2 domain that appears to account for the residual titer of L domain-defective HIV-1. The reason for the unique potency of the NEDD4-2s isoform has remained unclear. We now show that the naturally truncated C2 domain of NEDD4-2s functions as an autonomous Gag-targeting module that can be functionally replaced by the unrelated Gag-binding protein cyclophilin A (CypA). The residual C2 domain of NEDD4-2s was sufficient to transfer the ability to stimulate HIV-1 budding to other NEDD4 family members, including the yeast homologue Rsp5, and even to isolated catalytic HECT domains. The isolated catalytic domain of NEDD4-2s also efficiently promoted HIV-1 budding when targeted to Gag via CypA. We conclude that the regions typically required for substrate recognition by HECT ubiquitin ligases are all dispensable to stimulate HIV-1 release, implying that the relevant target for ubiquitination is Gag itself or can be recognized by divergent isolated HECT domains. However, the mere ability to ubiquitinate Gag was not sufficient to stimulate HIV-1 budding. Rather, our results indicate that the synthesis of K63-linked ubiquitin chains is critical for ubiquitin ligase-mediated virus release.

  6. Modulation of HIV-1 Gag NC/p1 cleavage efficiency affects protease inhibitor resistance and viral replicative capacity.

    PubMed

    van Maarseveen, Noortje M; Andersson, Dan; Lepšík, Martin; Fun, Axel; Schipper, Pauline J; de Jong, Dorien; Boucher, Charles A B; Nijhuis, Monique

    2012-04-01

    Mutations in the substrate of HIV-1 protease, especially changes in the NC/p1 cleavage site, can directly contribute to protease inhibitor (PI) resistance and also compensate for defects in viral replicative capacity (RC) due to a drug resistant protease. These NC/p1 changes are known to enhance processing of the Gag protein. To investigate the capacity of HIV-1 to modulate Gag cleavage and its consequences for PI resistance and RC, we performed a detailed enzymatic and virological analysis using a set of PI resistant NC/p1 variants (HXB2431V, HXB2436E+437T, HXB2437T and HXB2437V). Here, we demonstrate that single NC/p1 mutants, which displayed only a slight increase in PI resistance did not show an obvious change in RC. In contrast, the double NC/p1 mutant, which displayed a clear increase in processing efficiency and PI resistance, demonstrated a clear reduction in RC. Cleavage analysis showed that a tridecameric NC/p1 peptide representing the double NC/p1 mutant was cleaved in two specific ways instead of one.The observed decrease in RC for the double NC/p1 mutant (HXB2436E+437T) could (partially) be restored by either reversion of the 436E change or by acquisition of additional changes in the NC/p1 cleavage site at codon 435 or 438 as was revealed during in vitro evolution experiments. These changes not only restored RC but also reduced PI resistance levels. Furthermore these changes normalized Gag processing efficiency and obstructed the novel secondary cleavage site observed for the double NC/p1 mutant. The results of this study clearly demonstrate that HIV-1 can modulate Gag processing and thereby PI resistance. Distinct increases in Gag cleavage and PI resistance result in a reduced RC that can only be restored by amino acid changes in NC/p1 which reduce Gag processing to an optimal rate.

  7. Certification assays for HIV-1-based vectors: frequent passage of gag sequences without evidence of replication-competent viruses.

    PubMed

    Sastry, Lakshmi; Xu, Yi; Johnson, Terry; Desai, Kunal; Rissing, David; Marsh, Jonathan; Cornetta, Kenneth

    2003-11-01

    A principal concern regarding the safety of HIV-1-based vectors is replication-competent lentivirus (RCL). We have developed two PCR assays for detecting RCL; the first detects recombination between gag regions in the transfer vector and the packaging construct (sensitivity of detection approximately 10-100 copies of target sequence). The second assay uses real-time PCR to detect vesicular stomatitis virus glycoprotein (VSVG) envelope DNA (sensitivity approximately 5-50 VSVG sequences). In an attempt to amplify any RCL, test vectors were used to transduce C8166 and 293 cells, which were then screened weekly for 3 weeks. Psi-gag recombinants were routinely detected (20 of 21 analyses) in four transductions using the RRL-CMV-GFP vector. In contrast, VSVG sequences were detected only once in 21 analyses. Interestingly, p24 levels (as measured by ELISA) were occasionally detectable after 3 weeks of culture. To determine if a true RCL was present, 21-day cell-free medium was used to transduce naïve cells. No evidence of psi-gag or VSVG transfer was detected, indicating that the recombination events were insufficient to reconstitute a true RCL. These findings have important implications for the design and safety of HIV-1-based vectors intended for clinical applications.

  8. The ESCRT-associated protein Alix recruits the ubiquitin ligase Nedd4-1 to facilitate HIV-1 release through the LYPXnL L domain motif.

    PubMed

    Sette, Paola; Jadwin, Joshua A; Dussupt, Vincent; Bello, Nana F; Bouamr, Fadila

    2010-08-01

    The p6 region of HIV-1 Gag contains two late (L) domains, PTAP and LYPX(n)L, that bind Tsg101 and Alix, respectively. Interactions with these two cellular proteins recruit members of the host's fission machinery (ESCRT) to facilitate HIV-1 release. Other retroviruses gain access to the host ESCRT components by utilizing a PPXY-type L domain that interacts with cellular Nedd4-like ubiquitin ligases. Despite the absence of a PPXY motif in HIV-1 Gag, interaction with the ubiquitin ligase Nedd4-2 was recently shown to stimulate HIV-1 release. We show here that another Nedd4-like ubiquitin ligase, Nedd4-1, corrected release defects resulting from the disruption of PTAP (PTAP(-)), suggesting that HIV-1 Gag also recruits Nedd4-1 to facilitate virus release. Notably, Nedd4-1 remediation of HIV-1 PTAP(-) budding defects is independent of cellular Tsg101, implying that Nedd4-1's function in HIV-1 release does not involve ESCRT-I components and is therefore distinct from that of Nedd4-2. Consistent with this finding, deletion of the p6 region decreased Nedd4-1-Gag interaction, and disruption of the LYPX(n)L motif eliminated Nedd4-1-mediated restoration of HIV-1 PTAP(-). This result indicated that both Nedd4-1 interaction with Gag and function in virus release occur through the Alix-binding LYPX(n)L motif. Mutations of basic residues located in the NC domain of Gag that are critical for Alix's facilitation of HIV-1 release, also disrupted release mediated by Nedd4-1, further confirming a Nedd4-1-Alix functional interdependence. In fact we found that Nedd4-1 binds Alix in both immunoprecipitation and yeast-two-hybrid assays. In addition, Nedd4-1 requires its catalytic activity to promote virus release. Remarkably, RNAi knockdown of cellular Nedd4-1 eliminated Alix ubiquitination in the cell and impeded its ability to function in HIV-1 release. Together our data support a model in which Alix recruits Nedd4-1 to facilitate HIV-1 release mediated through the LYPX(n)L/Alix budding

  9. The ESCRT-Associated Protein Alix Recruits the Ubiquitin Ligase Nedd4-1 To Facilitate HIV-1 Release through the LYPXnL L Domain Motif▿

    PubMed Central

    Sette, Paola; Jadwin, Joshua A.; Dussupt, Vincent; Bello, Nana F.; Bouamr, Fadila

    2010-01-01

    The p6 region of HIV-1 Gag contains two late (L) domains, PTAP and LYPXnL, that bind Tsg101 and Alix, respectively. Interactions with these two cellular proteins recruit members of the host's fission machinery (ESCRT) to facilitate HIV-1 release. Other retroviruses gain access to the host ESCRT components by utilizing a PPXY-type L domain that interacts with cellular Nedd4-like ubiquitin ligases. Despite the absence of a PPXY motif in HIV-1 Gag, interaction with the ubiquitin ligase Nedd4-2 was recently shown to stimulate HIV-1 release. We show here that another Nedd4-like ubiquitin ligase, Nedd4-1, corrected release defects resulting from the disruption of PTAP (PTAP−), suggesting that HIV-1 Gag also recruits Nedd4-1 to facilitate virus release. Notably, Nedd4-1 remediation of HIV-1 PTAP− budding defects is independent of cellular Tsg101, implying that Nedd4-1's function in HIV-1 release does not involve ESCRT-I components and is therefore distinct from that of Nedd4-2. Consistent with this finding, deletion of the p6 region decreased Nedd4-1-Gag interaction, and disruption of the LYPXnL motif eliminated Nedd4-1-mediated restoration of HIV-1 PTAP−. This result indicated that both Nedd4-1 interaction with Gag and function in virus release occur through the Alix-binding LYPXnL motif. Mutations of basic residues located in the NC domain of Gag that are critical for Alix's facilitation of HIV-1 release, also disrupted release mediated by Nedd4-1, further confirming a Nedd4-1-Alix functional interdependence. In fact we found that Nedd4-1 binds Alix in both immunoprecipitation and yeast-two-hybrid assays. In addition, Nedd4-1 requires its catalytic activity to promote virus release. Remarkably, RNAi knockdown of cellular Nedd4-1 eliminated Alix ubiquitination in the cell and impeded its ability to function in HIV-1 release. Together our data support a model in which Alix recruits Nedd4-1 to facilitate HIV-1 release mediated through the LYPXnL/Alix budding pathway

  10. Interactions between Nef and AIP1 proliferate multivesicular bodies and facilitate egress of HIV-1

    PubMed Central

    Costa, Luciana J; Chen, Nan; Lopes, Adriana; Aguiar, Renato S; Tanuri, Amilcar; Plemenitas, Ana; Peterlin, B Matija

    2006-01-01

    Background Nef is an accessory protein of primate lentiviruses, HIV-1, HIV-2 and SIV. Besides removing CD4 and MHC class I from the surface and activating cellular signaling cascades, Nef also binds GagPol during late stages of the viral replicative cycle. In this report, we investigated further the ability of Nef to facilitate the replication of HIV-1. Results To this end, first the release of new viral particles was much lower in the absence of Nef in a T cell line. Since the same results were obtained in the absence of the viral envelope using pseudo-typed viruses, this phenomenon was independent of CD4 and enhanced infectivity. Next, we found that Nef not only possesses a consensus motif for but also binds AIP1 in vitro and in vivo. AIP1 is the critical intermediate in the formation of multivesicular bodies (MVBs), which play an important role in the budding and release of viruses from infected cells. Indeed, Nef proliferated MVBs in cells, but only when its AIP1-binding site was intact. Finally, these functions of Nef were reproduced in primary macrophages, where the wild type but not mutant Nef proteins led to increased release of new viral particles from infected cells. Conclusion We conclude that by binding GagPol and AIP1, Nef not only proliferates MVBs but also contributes to the egress of viral particles from infected cells. PMID:16764724

  11. Circularization of the HIV-1 genome facilitates strand transfer during reverse transcription.

    PubMed

    Beerens, Nancy; Kjems, Jørgen

    2010-06-01

    Two obligatory DNA strand transfers take place during reverse transcription of a retroviral RNA genome. The first strand transfer involves a jump from the 5' to the 3' terminal repeat (R) region positioned at each end of the viral genome. The process depends on base pairing between the cDNA synthesized from the 5' R region and the 3' R RNA. The tertiary conformation of the viral RNA genome may facilitate strand transfer by juxtaposing the 5' R and 3' R sequences that are 9 kb apart in the linear sequence. In this study, RNA sequences involved in an interaction between the 5' and 3' ends of the HIV-1 genome were mapped by mutational analysis. This interaction appears to be mediated mainly by a sequence in the extreme 3' end of the viral genome and in the gag open reading frame. Mutation of 3' R sequences was found to inhibit the 5'-3' interaction, which could be restored by a complementary mutation in the 5' gag region. Furthermore, we find that circularization of the HIV-1 genome does not affect the initiation of reverse transcription, but stimulates the first strand transfer during reverse transcription in vitro, underscoring the functional importance of the interaction.

  12. HIV-1 Gag, Envelope, and Extracellular Determinants Cooperate To Regulate the Stability and Turnover of Virological Synapses

    PubMed Central

    Gardiner, Jaye C.; Mauer, Eric J.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Retroviruses spread more efficiently when infected and uninfected cells form tight, physical interfaces known as virological synapses (VSs). VS formation is initiated by adhesive interactions between viral Envelope (Env) glycoproteins on the infected cell and CD4 receptor molecules on the uninfected cell. How high-avidity Env-CD4 linkages are resolved over time is unknown. We describe here a tractable two-color, long-term (>24 h) live cell imaging strategy to study VS turnover in the context of a large cell population, quantitatively. We show that Env's conserved cytoplasmic tail (CT) can potently signal the recruitment of Gag capsid proteins to the VS, a process also dependent on residues within Gag's N-terminal matrix (MA) domain. Additionally, we demonstrate that Env's CT and Gag's MA domain both regulate the duration of interactions between viral donor and target cells, as well as the stability of this interaction over time (i.e., its capacity to resolve or form a syncytium). Finally, we report the unexpected finding that modulating extracellular fluid viscosity markedly impacts target T cell trafficking and thus affects the duration, stability, and turnover of virus-induced cell-cell contacts. Combined, these results suggest a stepwise model for viral cell-to-cell transmission wherein (i) Env-receptor interactions anchor target cells to infected cells, (ii) Env signals Gag's recruitment to the cell-cell contact dependent on an intact Env CT and Gag MA, and (iii) Env CT and Gag MA, in conjunction with extracellular forces, combine to regulate VS stability and infectious outcomes. IMPORTANCE HIV-1 spreads efficiently at physical, cell-cell interfaces known as virological synapses (VSs). The VS provides for spatiotemporal coupling of virus assembly and entry into new host cells and may transmit signals relevant to pathogenesis. Disrupting this mode of transmission may be critical to the goal of abolishing viral persistence in infected individuals. We

  13. Intersubtype differences in the effect of a rare p24 gag mutation on HIV-1 replicative fitness.

    PubMed

    Chopera, Denis R; Cotton, Laura A; Zawaira, Alexander; Mann, Jaclyn K; Ngandu, Nobubelo K; Ntale, Roman; Carlson, Jonathan M; Mlisana, Koleka; Woodman, Zenda; de Assis Rosa, Debra; Martin, Eric; Miura, Toshiyuki; Pereyra, Florencia; Walker, Bruce D; Gray, Clive M; Martin, Darren P; Ndung'u, Thumbi; Brockman, Mark A; Karim, Salim Abdool; Brumme, Zabrina L; Williamson, Carolyn

    2012-12-01

    Certain immune-driven mutations in HIV-1, such as those arising in p24(Gag), decrease viral replicative capacity. However, the intersubtype differences in the replicative consequences of such mutations have not been explored. In HIV-1 subtype B, the p24(Gag) M250I mutation is a rare variant (0.6%) that is enriched among elite controllers (7.2%) (P = 0.0005) and appears to be a rare escape variant selected by HLA-B58 supertype alleles (P < 0.01). In contrast, in subtype C, it is a relatively common minor polymorphic variant (10 to 15%) whose appearance is not associated with a particular HLA allele. Using site-directed mutant viruses, we demonstrate that M250I reduces in vitro viral replicative capacity in both subtype B and subtype C sequences. However, whereas in subtype C downstream compensatory mutations at p24(Gag) codons 252 and 260 reduce the adverse effects of M250I, fitness costs in subtype B appear difficult to restore. Indeed, patient-derived subtype B sequences harboring M250I exhibited in vitro replicative defects, while those from subtype C did not. The structural implications of M250I were predicted by protein modeling to be greater in subtype B versus C, providing a potential explanation for its lower frequency and enhanced replicative defects in subtype B. In addition to accounting for genetic differences between HIV-1 subtypes, the design of cytotoxic-T-lymphocyte-based vaccines may need to account for differential effects of host-driven viral evolution on viral fitness.

  14. Soluble multi-trimeric TNF superfamily ligand adjuvants enhance immune responses to a HIV-1 Gag DNA vaccine.

    PubMed

    Kanagavelu, Saravana K; Snarsky, Victoria; Termini, James M; Gupta, Sachin; Barzee, Suzanne; Wright, Jacqueline A; Khan, Wasif N; Kornbluth, Richard S; Stone, Geoffrey W

    2012-01-17

    DNA vaccines remain an important component of HIV vaccination strategies, typically as part of a prime/boost vaccination strategy with viral vector or protein boost. A number of DNA prime/viral vector boost vaccines are currently being evaluated for both preclinical studies and in Phase I and Phase II clinical trials. These vaccines would benefit from molecular adjuvants that increase correlates of immunity during the DNA prime. While HIV vaccine immune correlates are still not well defined, there are a number of immune assays that have been shown to correlate with protection from viral challenge including CD8+ T cell avidity, antigen-specific proliferation, and polyfunctional cytokine secretion. Recombinant DNA vaccine adjuvants composed of a fusion between Surfactant Protein D (SP-D) and either CD40 Ligand (CD40L) or GITR Ligand (GITRL) were previously shown to enhance HIV-1 Gag DNA vaccines. Here we show that similar fusion constructs composed of the TNF superfamily ligands (TNFSFL) 4-1BBL, OX40L, RANKL, LIGHT, CD70, and BAFF can also enhanced immune responses to a HIV-1 Gag DNA vaccine. BALB/c mice were vaccinated intramuscularly with plasmids expressing secreted Gag and SP-D-TNFSFL fusions. Initially, mice were analyzed 2 weeks or 7 weeks following vaccination to evaluate the relative efficacy of each SP-D-TNFSFL construct. All SP-D-TNFSFL constructs enhanced at least one Gag-specific immune response compared to the parent vaccine. Importantly, the constructs SP-D-4-1BBL, SP-D-OX40L, and SP-D-LIGHT enhanced CD8+ T cell avidity and CD8+/CD4+ T cell proliferation 7 weeks post vaccination. These avidity and proliferation data suggest that 4-1BBL, OX40L, and LIGHT fusion constructs may be particularly effective as vaccine adjuvants. Constructs SP-D-OX40L, SP-D-LIGHT, and SP-D-BAFF enhanced Gag-specific IL-2 secretion in memory T cells, suggesting these adjuvants can increase the number of self-renewing Gag-specific CD8+ and/or CD4+ T cells. Finally adjuvants SP

  15. HIV-1 Subtype C Mosaic Gag Expressed by BCG and MVA Elicits Persistent Effector T Cell Responses in a Prime-Boost Regimen in Mice.

    PubMed

    Jongwe, Tsungai Ivai; Chapman, Ros; Douglass, Nicola; Chetty, Shivan; Chege, Gerald; Williamson, Anna-Lise

    2016-01-01

    Over 90% of HIV/AIDS positive individuals in sub-Saharan Africa are infected with highly heterogeneous HIV-1 subtype C (HIV-1C) viruses. One of the best ways to reduce the burden of this disease is the development of an affordable and effective prophylactic vaccine. Mosaic immunogens are computationally designed to overcome the hurdle of HIV diversity by maximizing the expression of potential T cell epitopes. Mycobacterium bovis BCG ΔpanCD auxotroph and modified vaccinia Ankara (MVA) vaccines expressing HIV-1C mosaic Gag (GagM) were tested in a prime-boost regimen to demonstrate immunogenicity in a mouse study. The BCG-GagM vaccine was stable and persisted 11.5 weeks post vaccination in BALB/c mice. Priming with BCG-GagM and boosting with MVA-GagM elicited higher Gag-specific IFN-γ ELISPOT responses than the BCG-GagM only and MVA-GagM only homologous vaccination regimens. The heterologous vaccination also generated a more balanced and persistent CD4+ and CD8+ T cell Gag-specific IFN-γ ELISPOT response with a predominant effector memory phenotype. A Th1 bias was induced by the vaccines as determined by the predominant secretion of IFN-γ, TNF-α, and IL-2. This study shows that a low dose of MVA (104 pfu) can effectively boost a BCG prime expressing the same mosaic immunogen, generating strong, cellular immune responses against Gag in mice. Our data warrants further evaluation in non-human primates. A low dose vaccine would be an advantage in the resource limited countries of sub-Saharan Africa and India (where the predominating virus is HIV-1 subtype C).

  16. HIV-1 Subtype C Mosaic Gag Expressed by BCG and MVA Elicits Persistent Effector T Cell Responses in a Prime-Boost Regimen in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Jongwe, Tsungai Ivai; Chapman, Ros; Douglass, Nicola; Chetty, Shivan; Chege, Gerald; Williamson, Anna-Lise

    2016-01-01

    Over 90% of HIV/AIDS positive individuals in sub-Saharan Africa are infected with highly heterogeneous HIV-1 subtype C (HIV-1C) viruses. One of the best ways to reduce the burden of this disease is the development of an affordable and effective prophylactic vaccine. Mosaic immunogens are computationally designed to overcome the hurdle of HIV diversity by maximizing the expression of potential T cell epitopes. Mycobacterium bovis BCG ΔpanCD auxotroph and modified vaccinia Ankara (MVA) vaccines expressing HIV-1C mosaic Gag (GagM) were tested in a prime-boost regimen to demonstrate immunogenicity in a mouse study. The BCG-GagM vaccine was stable and persisted 11.5 weeks post vaccination in BALB/c mice. Priming with BCG-GagM and boosting with MVA-GagM elicited higher Gag-specific IFN-γ ELISPOT responses than the BCG-GagM only and MVA-GagM only homologous vaccination regimens. The heterologous vaccination also generated a more balanced and persistent CD4+ and CD8+ T cell Gag-specific IFN-γ ELISPOT response with a predominant effector memory phenotype. A Th1 bias was induced by the vaccines as determined by the predominant secretion of IFN-γ, TNF-α, and IL-2. This study shows that a low dose of MVA (104 pfu) can effectively boost a BCG prime expressing the same mosaic immunogen, generating strong, cellular immune responses against Gag in mice. Our data warrants further evaluation in non-human primates. A low dose vaccine would be an advantage in the resource limited countries of sub-Saharan Africa and India (where the predominating virus is HIV-1 subtype C). PMID:27427967

  17. Increased replication capacity following evolution of PYxE insertion in Gag-p6 is associated with enhanced virulence in HIV-1 subtype C from East Africa.

    PubMed

    Aralaguppe, Shambhu G; Winner, Dane; Singh, Kamalendra; Sarafianos, Stefan G; Quiñones-Mateu, Miguel E; Sönnerborg, Anders; Neogi, Ujjwal

    2017-01-01

    A lower virulence of HIV-1 subtype C (HIV-1C) is suggested to be related to the global dominance of HIV-1C. In this observational study, combining in vivo (clinical monitoring) and in vitro (genotypic, biochemical, and phenotypic assays), we explored whether HIV-1C from East Africa (HIV-1CEA ) is more pathogenic due to the evolution of a PYxE-insertion (CPYxEi ) in the gag-p6 that also could affect the therapy response. HIV-1B (n = 112) and HIV-1CEA (n = 128)-infected individuals residing in Sweden were analyzed with regard to Gag-p6 genotype and clinically monitored. Based on the Gag-p6 characteristics, three HIV-1CEA and one HIV-1 B patient-derived p2-INT-recombinant virus (gag-p2/NCp7/p1/p6/pol-PR/RT/IN) were constructed to analyze viral growth kinetics (VGKs) and drug sensitivity assays. Reverse transcriptase (RT) from the same samples was cloned into the heterodimer expression plasmid (pRT6H-PROT) to analyze catalytic efficiency of RT. A higher viral failure rate and lower pre-therapy CD4(+) T-cell counts were observed in HIV-1CEA -infected patients compared to HIV-1B-infected patients. In Gag-p6, PTAP-duplication was more common in HIV-1C. HIV-1CEA -infected patients with signature CPYxEi, evidenced very low pre-therapy CD4(+) T-cell counts and suboptimal gain in CD4(+) T-cells following therapy, as compared to the non-CPYxEi -strains indicating higher virulence. VGKs showed a statistically significant higher replication capacity (RC) for the CPYxEi viruses than the other two non-CPYxEi strains. No statistically significant difference was observed in the catalytic efficiency among HIV-1C RTs. This is the first evidence of polymerase independent increased virulence and RC in HIV-1CEA following PYxE-insertion that is associated with suboptimal CD4(+) T-cell gain following therapy initiation. J. Med. Virol. 89:106-111, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Separation of HIV-1 gag virus-like particles from vesicular particles impurities by hydroxyl-functionalized monoliths.

    PubMed

    Steppert, Petra; Burgstaller, Daniel; Klausberger, Miriam; Kramberger, Petra; Tover, Andres; Berger, Eva; Nöbauer, Katharina; Razzazi-Fazeli, Ebrahim; Jungbauer, Alois

    2017-02-01

    The downstream processing of enveloped virus-like particles is very challenging because of the biophysical and structural similarity between correctly assembled particles and contaminating vesicular particles present in the feedstock. We used hydroxyl-functionalized polymethacrylate monoliths, providing hydrophobic and electrostatic binding contributions, for the purification of HIV-1 gag virus-like particles. The clarified culture supernatant was conditioned with ammonium sulfate and after membrane filtration loaded onto a 1 mL monolith. The binding capacity was 2 × 10(12) /mL monolith and was only limited by the pressure drop. By applying either a linear or a step gradient elution, to decrease the ammonium sulfate concentration, the majority of double-stranded DNA (88-90%) and host cell protein impurities (39-61%) could be removed while the particles could be separated into two fractions. Proteomic analysis and evaluation of the p24 concentration showed that one fraction contained majority of the HIV-1 gag and the other fraction was less contaminated with proteins originated from intracellular compartments. We were able to process up to 92 bed volumes of conditioned loading material within 3 h and eluted in average 7.3 × 10(11) particles per particle fraction, which is equivalent to 730 vaccination doses of 1 × 10(9) particles. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Differential Gag-Specific Polyfunctional T Cell Maturation Patterns in HIV-1 Elite Controllers

    PubMed Central

    Ferrando-Martínez, Sara; Casazza, Joseph P.; Leal, Manuel; Machmach, Kawthar; Muñoz-Fernández, Ma Ángeles; Viciana, Pompeyo; Koup, Richard A.

    2012-01-01

    A small fraction of HIV-infected individuals (<1%), referred to as elite controllers (EC), are able to maintain undetectable viral loads indefinitely without treatment. The role of the maturational phenotype of T cells in the control of HIV infection in these individuals is not well described. We compared the maturational and functional phenotypes of Gag-specific CD4 and CD8 T cells from EC, who maintain undetectable viral loads without treatment; relative controllers (RC), who maintain viral loads of <1,000 copies/ml without treatment; and noncontrollers (NC), who fail to control viral replication. EC maintained higher frequencies of HIV-specific CD4 T cells, less mature polyfunctional Gag-specific CD4 T cells (CD27+ CD57− CD45RO+), and Gag-specific polyfunctional CD4 T cells than those observed in NC. In EC, the frequency of polyfunctional Gag-specific CD8 T cells was higher than that observed in RC and NC. RC had a similar functional phenotype to that observed in NC, despite consistently lower viral loads. Finally, we found a direct correlation between the frequency of Gag-specific CD27+ CD57− CD45RO+ CD4+ T cells and the frequency of mature HIV-specific CD8 T cells. Altogether, our data suggest that immature Gag-specific interleukin-2 (IL-2)-producing CD4+ T cells may play an important role in spontaneous control of HIV viremia by effectively supporting HIV-specific CD8 T lymphocytes. This difference appears to differentiate EC from RC. PMID:22278254

  20. Vaccination with a Fusion Protein That Introduces HIV-1 Gag Antigen into a Multitrimer CD40L Construct Results in Enhanced CD8+ T Cell Responses and Protection from Viral Challenge by Vaccinia-Gag

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Sachin; Termini, James M.; Raffa, Francesca N.; Williams, Cindi-Ann; Kornbluth, Richard S.

    2014-01-01

    CD40 ligand (CD40L, CD154) is a membrane protein that is important for the activation of dendritic cells (DCs) and DC-induced CD8+ T cell responses. To be active, CD40L must cluster CD40 receptors on responding cells. To produce a soluble form of CD40L that clusters CD40 receptors necessitates the use of a multitrimer construct. With this in mind, a tripartite fusion protein was made from surfactant protein D (SPD), HIV-1 Gag as a test antigen, and CD40L, where SPD serves as a scaffold for the multitrimer protein complex. This SPD-Gag-CD40L protein activated CD40-bearing cells and bone marrow-derived DCs in vitro. Compared to a plasmid for Gag antigen alone (pGag), DNA vaccination of mice with pSPD-Gag-CD40L induced an increased number of Gag-specific CD8+ T cells with increased avidity for major histocompatibility complex class I-restricted Gag peptide and improved vaccine-induced protection from challenge by vaccinia-Gag virus. The importance of the multitrimeric nature of the complex was shown using a plasmid lacking the N terminus of SPD that produced a single trimer fusion protein. This plasmid, pTrimer-Gag-CD40L, was only weakly active on CD40-bearing cells and did not elicit strong CD8+ T cell responses or improve protection from vaccinia-Gag challenge. An adenovirus 5 (Ad5) vaccine incorporating SPD-Gag-CD40L was much stronger than Ad5 expressing Gag alone (Ad5-Gag) and induced complete protection (i.e., sterilizing immunity) from vaccinia-Gag challenge. Overall, these results show the potential of a new vaccine design in which antigen is introduced into a construct that expresses a multitrimer soluble form of CD40L, leading to strongly protective CD8+ T cell responses. PMID:24227853

  1. Maternal LAMP/p55gagHIV-1 DNA Immunization Induces In Utero Priming and a Long-Lasting Immune Response in Vaccinated Neonates

    PubMed Central

    Rigato, Paula Ordonhez; Maciel, Milton; Goldoni, Adriana Letícia; Piubelli, Orlando Guerra; Orii, Noemia Mie; Marques, Ernesto Torres; August, Joseph Thomas; Duarte, Alberto José da Silva; Sato, Maria Notomi

    2012-01-01

    Infants born to HIV-infected mothers are at high risk of becoming infected during gestation or the breastfeeding period. A search is thus warranted for vaccine formulations that will prevent mother-to-child HIV transmission. The LAMP/gag DNA chimeric vaccine encodes the HIV-1 p55gag fused to the lysosome-associated membrane protein-1 (LAMP-1) and has been shown to enhance anti-Gag antibody (Ab) and cellular immune responses in adult and neonatal mice; such a vaccine represents a new concept in antigen presentation. In this study, we evaluated the effect of LAMP/gag DNA immunization on neonates either before conception or during pregnancy. LAMP/gag immunization of BALB/c mice before conception by the intradermal route led to the transfer of anti-Gag IgG1 Ab through the placenta and via breastfeeding. Furthermore, there were an increased percentage of CD4+CD25+Foxp3+T cells in the spleens of neonates. When offspring were immunized with LAMP/gag DNA, the anti-Gag Ab response and the Gag-specific IFN-γ-secreting cells were decreased. Inhibition of anti-Gag Ab production and cellular responses were not observed six months after immunization, indicating that maternal immunization did not interfere with the long-lasting memory response in offspring. Injection of purified IgG in conjunction with LAMP/gag DNA immunization decreased humoral and cytotoxic T-cell responses. LAMP/gag DNA immunization by intradermal injection prior to conception promoted the transfer of Ab, leading to a diminished response to Gag without interfering with the development of anti-Gag T- and B-cell memory. Finally, we assessed responses after one intravenous injection of LAMP/gag DNA during the last five days of pregnancy. The intravenous injection led to in utero immunization. In conclusion, DNA vaccine enconding LAMP-1 with Gag and other HIV-1 antigens should be considered in the development of a protective vaccine for the maternal/fetal and newborn periods. PMID:22355381

  2. Comparative structural effects of HIV-1 Gag and nucleocapsid proteins in binding to and unwinding of the viral RNA packaging signal.

    PubMed

    Bell, Neil M; Kenyon, Julia C; Balasubramanian, Shankar; Lever, Andrew M L

    2012-04-17

    The major RNA binding region of the HIV-1 Gag polyprotein is the nucleocapsid (NC) domain, which is responsible for the specific capture of the genomic RNA genome during viral assembly. The Gag polyprotein has other RNA chaperone functions, which are mirrored by the isolated NC protein after physiological cleavage from Gag. Gag, however, is suggested to have superior nucleic acid chaperone activity. Here we investigate the interaction of Gag and NC with the core RNA structure of the HIV-1 packaging signal (Ψ), using 2-aminopurine substitution to create a series of modified RNAs based on the Ψ helix loop structure. The effects of 2-aminopurine substitution on the physical and structural properties of the viral Ψ were characterized. The fluorescence properties of the 2-aminopurine substitutions showed features consistent with the native GNAR tetraloop. Dissociation constants (K(d)) of the two viral proteins, measured by fluorescence polarization (FP), were similar, and both NC and Gag affected the 2-aminopurine fluorescence of bases close to the loop binding region in a similar fashion. However, the influence of Gag on the fluorescence of the 2-aminopurine nucleotides at the base of the helix implied a much more potent helix destabilizing action on the RNA stem loop (SL) versus that seen with NC. This was further supported when the viral Ψ SL was tagged with a 5' fluorophore and 3' quencher. In the absence of any viral protein, minimal fluorescence was detected; addition of NC yielded a slight increase in fluorescence, while addition of the Gag protein yielded a large change in fluorescence, further suggesting that, compared to NC, the Gag protein has a greater propensity to affect RNA structure and that Ψ helix unwinding may be an intrinsic step in RNA encapsidation.

  3. Broad and persistent Gag-specific CD8+ T-cell responses are associated with viral control but rarely drive viral escape during primary HIV-1 infection

    PubMed Central

    Radebe, Mopo; Gounder, Kamini; Mokgoro, Mammekwa; Ndhlovu, Zaza M.; Mncube, Zenele; Mkhize, Lungile; van der Stok, Mary; Jaggernath, Manjeetha; Walker, Bruce D.; Ndung’u, Thumbi

    2015-01-01

    Objective We characterized protein-specific CD8+ T-cell immunodominance patterns during the first year of HIV-1 infection, and their impact on viral evolution and immune control. Methods We analyzed CD8+ T-cell responses to the full HIV-1 proteome during the first year of infection in eighteen antiretroviral-naïve individuals with acute HIV-1 subtype C infection, all identified prior to seroconversion. Ex vivo and cultured IFN-γ ELISPOT assays were performed and viruses from plasma were sequenced within defined CTL Gag epitopes. Results Nef-specific CD8+ T-cell responses were dominant during the first 4 weeks post infection and made up 40% of total responses at this time, yet by 1 year responses against this region had declined and Gag responses made up to 47% of all T-cell responses measured. An inverse correlation between the breadth of Gag-specific responses and viral load set point was evident at 26 weeks post infection (p=0.0081; r= −0.60) and beyond. An inverse correlation between the number of persistent responses targeting Gag and viral set point was also identified (p=0.01; r=−0.58). Gag-specific responses detectable by the cultured ELISPOT assay correlated negatively with viral load set point (p=0.0013; r=−0.91). Sequence evolution in targeted and non-targeted Gag epitopes in this cohort was infrequent. Conclusions These data underscore the importance of HIV-specific CD8+ T-cell responses, particularly to the Gag protein, in the maintenance of low viral load levels during primary infection and show that these responses are initially poorly elicited by natural infection. These data have implications for vaccine design strategies. PMID:25387316

  4. Selection of HLA-B57-associated Gag A146P mutant by HLA-B∗48:01-restricted Gag140-147-specific CTLs in chronically HIV-1-infected Japanese.

    PubMed

    Naruto, Takuya; Murakoshi, Hayato; Chikata, Takayuki; Koyanagi, Madoka; Kawashima, Yuka; Gatanaga, Hiroyuki; Oka, Shinichi; Takiguchi, Masafumi

    2011-08-01

    We previously showed the possibility that Gag A146P, which is an escape mutant from HLA-B∗57-restricted CTLs, was selected by HLA-B∗48:01-restricted Gag138-147(LI10)-specific CTLs in a Japanese cohort in which HLA-B∗57 individuals were not detected. We herein demonstrated Gag140-147(GI8) to be the optimal epitope rather than LI10 and that GI8-specific T cells failed to recognize the A146P mutant virus-infected cells. The sequence analysis of Gag146 in 261 chronically HIV-1-infected Japanese showed the accumulation of the A146P mutation in HLA-B∗48:01(+) individuals. These findings together indicate that the A146P mutant is accumulating in Japanese by selection by GI8-specific CTLs.

  5. Preferential Targeting of Conserved Gag Regions after Vaccination with a Heterologous DNA Prime-Modified Vaccinia Virus Ankara Boost HIV-1 Vaccine Regimen.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Asli; Podola, Lilli; Mann, Philipp; Missanga, Marco; Haule, Antelmo; Sudi, Lwitiho; Nilsson, Charlotta; Kaluwa, Bahati; Lueer, Cornelia; Mwakatima, Maria; Munseri, Patricia J; Maboko, Leonard; Robb, Merlin L; Tovanabutra, Sodsai; Kijak, Gustavo; Marovich, Mary; McCormack, Sheena; Joseph, Sarah; Lyamuya, Eligius; Wahren, Britta; Sandström, Eric; Biberfeld, Gunnel; Hoelscher, Michael; Bakari, Muhammad; Kroidl, Arne; Geldmacher, Christof

    2017-09-15

    Prime-boost vaccination strategies against HIV-1 often include multiple variants for a given immunogen for better coverage of the extensive viral diversity. To study the immunologic effects of this approach, we characterized breadth, phenotype, function, and specificity of Gag-specific T cells induced by a DNA-prime modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA)-boost vaccination strategy, which uses mismatched Gag immunogens in the TamoVac 01 phase IIa trial. Healthy Tanzanian volunteers received three injections of the DNA-SMI vaccine encoding a subtype B and AB-recombinant Gagp37 and two vaccinations with MVA-CMDR encoding subtype A Gagp55 Gag-specific T-cell responses were studied in 42 vaccinees using fresh peripheral blood mononuclear cells. After the first MVA-CMDR boost, vaccine-induced gamma interferon-positive (IFN-γ(+)) Gag-specific T-cell responses were dominated by CD4(+) T cells (P < 0.001 compared to CD8(+) T cells) that coexpressed interleukin-2 (IL-2) (66.4%) and/or tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) (63.7%). A median of 3 antigenic regions were targeted with a higher-magnitude median response to Gagp24 regions, more conserved between prime and boost, compared to those of regions within Gagp15 (not primed) and Gagp17 (less conserved; P < 0.0001 for both). Four regions within Gagp24 each were targeted by 45% to 74% of vaccinees upon restimulation with DNA-SMI-Gag matched peptides. The response rate to individual antigenic regions correlated with the sequence homology between the MVA- and DNA Gag-encoded immunogens (P = 0.04, r(2) = 0.47). In summary, after the first MVA-CMDR boost, the sequence-mismatched DNA-prime MVA-boost vaccine strategy induced a Gag-specific T-cell response that was dominated by polyfunctional CD4(+) T cells and that targeted multiple antigenic regions within the conserved Gagp24 protein.IMPORTANCE Genetic diversity is a major challenge for the design of vaccines against variable viruses. While including multiple variants for a given

  6. The PTAP sequence duplication in HIV-1 subtype C Gag p6 in drug-naive subjects of India and South Africa.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Shilpee; Aralaguppe, Shambhu G; Abrahams, Melissa-Rose; Williamson, Carolyn; Gray, Clive; Balakrishnan, Pachamuthu; Saravanan, Shanmugam; Murugavel, Kailapuri G; Solomon, Suniti; Ranga, Udaykumar

    2017-01-24

    HIV-1 subtype C demonstrates several biological properties distinct from other viral subtypes. One such variation is the duplication of PTAP motif in p6 Gag. PTAP motif is a key player in viral budding. Here, we studied the prevalence of PTAP motif duplication in subtype C viral strains in a longitudinal study. In a prospective follow-up study, 65 HIV-1 seropositive drug-naive subjects were monitored in two different clinical cohorts of India for 2 years with repeated sampling at 6-month intervals. The viral RNA was extracted from plasma, the gag segment was amplified and sequenced. From a subset of viral isolates the sequences of pol, env and LTR were sequenced. Using HIV-1 gag amino acid sequences available from public databases and additional sequences derived from the Indian and South-African cohorts, we examined the nature of PTAP motif duplication in subtype C. In 16% (8 of 50) of the primary viral strains of India, we identified a sequence duplication of the PTAP motif in Gag p6. The length of the sequence duplication varied from 6 to 14 amino acids in the viral isolates but remained fixed within a subject over a period of 24-36 month follow-up. In the duplicated motif, the core PTAP motif was invariable, but the flanking residues were highly variable. In an acute phase clinical cohort of South Africa, in a subset of 75 subjects, we found the presence of the PTAP duplication at a frequency of 29.3%. An analysis of the gag sequences from the extant databases showed that unlike other subtypes of HIV-1, subtype C has a natural propensity to generate the PTAP motif duplication at a significantly higher frequency and of greater length. Additionally, the global prevalence of PTAP duplication in subtype C appears to be increasing progressively over the past 30 years. We showed that in subtype C, the duplication of the PTAP motif in p6 Gag involves sequence stretches of greater length, and at a much higher frequency as compared to other HIV-1 subtypes. Given that

  7. Mutations of Conserved Residues in the Major Homology Region Arrest Assembling HIV-1 Gag as a Membrane-Targeted Intermediate Containing Genomic RNA and Cellular Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Tanaka, Motoko; Robinson, Bridget A.; Chutiraka, Kasana; Geary, Clair D.; Reed, Jonathan C.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The major homology region (MHR) is a highly conserved motif that is found within the Gag protein of all orthoretroviruses and some retrotransposons. While it is widely accepted that the MHR is critical for assembly of HIV-1 and other retroviruses, how the MHR functions and why it is so highly conserved are not understood. Moreover, consensus is lacking on when HIV-1 MHR residues function during assembly. Here, we first addressed previous conflicting reports by confirming that MHR deletion, like conserved MHR residue substitution, leads to a dramatic reduction in particle production in human and nonhuman primate cells expressing HIV-1 proviruses. Next, we used biochemical analyses and immunoelectron microscopy to demonstrate that conserved residues in the MHR are required after assembling Gag has associated with genomic RNA, recruited critical host factors involved in assembly, and targeted to the plasma membrane. The exact point of inhibition at the plasma membrane differed depending on the specific mutation, with one MHR mutant arrested as a membrane-associated intermediate that is stable upon high-salt treatment and other MHR mutants arrested as labile, membrane-associated intermediates. Finally, we observed the same assembly-defective phenotypes when the MHR deletion or conserved MHR residue substitutions were engineered into Gag from a subtype B, lab-adapted provirus or Gag from a subtype C primary isolate that was codon optimized. Together, our data support a model in which MHR residues act just after membrane targeting, with some MHR residues promoting stability and another promoting multimerization of the membrane-targeted assembling Gag oligomer. IMPORTANCE The retroviral Gag protein exhibits extensive amino acid sequence variation overall; however, one region of Gag, termed the major homology region, is conserved among all retroviruses and even some yeast retrotransposons, although the reason for this conservation remains poorly understood. Highly

  8. Mutations of Conserved Residues in the Major Homology Region Arrest Assembling HIV-1 Gag as a Membrane-Targeted Intermediate Containing Genomic RNA and Cellular Proteins.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Motoko; Robinson, Bridget A; Chutiraka, Kasana; Geary, Clair D; Reed, Jonathan C; Lingappa, Jaisri R

    2015-12-09

    The major homology region (MHR) is a highly conserved motif that is found within the Gag protein of all orthoretroviruses and some retrotransposons. While it is widely accepted that the MHR is critical for assembly of HIV-1 and other retroviruses, how the MHR functions and why it is so highly conserved are not understood. Moreover, consensus is lacking on when HIV-1 MHR residues function during assembly. Here, we first addressed previous conflicting reports by confirming that MHR deletion, like conserved MHR residue substitution, leads to a dramatic reduction in particle production in human and nonhuman primate cells expressing HIV-1 proviruses. Next, we used biochemical analyses and immunoelectron microscopy to demonstrate that conserved residues in the MHR are required after assembling Gag has associated with genomic RNA, recruited critical host factors involved in assembly, and targeted to the plasma membrane. The exact point of inhibition at the plasma membrane differed depending on the specific mutation, with one MHR mutant arrested as a membrane-associated intermediate that is stable upon high-salt treatment and other MHR mutants arrested as labile, membrane-associated intermediates. Finally, we observed the same assembly-defective phenotypes when the MHR deletion or conserved MHR residue substitutions were engineered into Gag from a subtype B, lab-adapted provirus or Gag from a subtype C primary isolate that was codon optimized. Together, our data support a model in which MHR residues act just after membrane targeting, with some MHR residues promoting stability and another promoting multimerization of the membrane-targeted assembling Gag oligomer. The retroviral Gag protein exhibits extensive amino acid sequence variation overall; however, one region of Gag, termed the major homology region, is conserved among all retroviruses and even some yeast retrotransposons, although the reason for this conservation remains poorly understood. Highly conserved residues

  9. Sprouty2 Regulates PI(4,5)P2/Ca2+ Signaling and HIV-1 Gag Release

    PubMed Central

    Ehrlich, Lorna S.; Medina, Gisselle N.; Carter, Carol A.

    2011-01-01

    We recently reported that activation of the inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate receptor (IP3R) is required for efficient HIV-1 Gag trafficking and viral particle release (Ehrlich 2010). IP3R activation requires phospholipase C (PLC)-catalyzed hydrolysis of PI(4,5)P2 to IP3 and diacylglycerol. Here we show that Sprouty2 (Spry2), which binds PI(4,5)P2 and PLCγ, interfered with PI(4,5)P2 in a manner similar to U73122, an inhibitor of PI(4,5)P2 hydrolysis, suggesting that Spry2 may negatively regulate IP3R by preventing formation of its activating ligand, IP3. Mutation to Asp of R252, a critical determinant of PI(4,5)P2 binding in the C-terminal domain of Spry2, prevented the interference completely, indicating that binding to the phospholipid is required. In contrast, deletion of the PLCγ binding region or mutation of a critical Tyr residue in the region did not prevent the interference but Spry2-PI(4,5)P2 colocalization was not detected, suggesting that PLC binding is required for their stable association. Like U73122, Spry2 over-expression inhibited WT Gag release as virus-like particles. The inhibition was relieved by disrupting either binding determinant. IP3R-mediated Ca2+ signaling, in turn, was found to influence Spry2 subcellular distribution and ERK, a Spry2 regulator. Our findings suggest that Spry2 influences IP3R function through control of PI(4,5)P2 and IP3R influences Spry2 function by controlling its distribution and ERK activation. PMID:21762810

  10. Mutation of the highly conserved Ser-40 of the HIV-1 p6 gag protein to Phe causes the formation of a hydrophobic patch, enhances membrane association, and polyubiquitination of Gag.

    PubMed

    Hahn, Friedrich; Setz, Christian; Friedrich, Melanie; Rauch, Pia; Solbak, Sara Marie; Frøystein, Nils Age; Henklein, Petra; Votteler, Jörg; Fossen, Torgils; Schubert, Ulrich

    2014-10-02

    The HIV-1 p6 Gag protein contains two late assembly (l-) domains that recruit proteins of the endosomal sorting complex required for transport (ESCRT) pathway to mediate membrane fission between the nascent virion and the cell membrane. It was recently demonstrated that mutation of the highly conserved Ser-40 to Phe (S40F) disturbs CA-SP1 processing, virus morphogenesis, and infectivity. It also causes the formation of filopodia-like structures, while virus release remains unaffected. Here, we show that the mutation S40F, but not the conservative mutation to Asp (S40D) or Asn (S40N), augments membrane association, K48-linked polyubiquitination, entry into the 26S proteasome, and, consequently, enhances MHC-I antigen presentation of Gag derived epitopes. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) structure analyses revealed that the newly introduced Phe-40, together with Tyr-36, causes the formation of a hydrophobic patch at the C-terminal α-helix of p6, providing a molecular rationale for the enhanced membrane association of Gag observed in vitro and in HIV-1 expressing cells. The extended exposure of the S40F mutant to unidentified membrane-resident ubiquitin E3-ligases might trigger the polyubiquitination of Gag. The cumulative data support a previous model of a so far undefined property of p6, which, in addition to MA, acts as membrane targeting domain of Gag.

  11. Mutation of the Highly Conserved Ser-40 of the HIV-1 p6 Gag Protein to Phe Causes the Formation of a Hydrophobic Patch, Enhances Membrane Association, and Polyubiquitination of Gag

    PubMed Central

    Hahn, Friedrich; Setz, Christian; Friedrich, Melanie; Rauch, Pia; Solbak, Sara Marie; Frøystein, Nils Åge; Henklein, Petra; Votteler, Jörg; Fossen, Torgils; Schubert, Ulrich

    2014-01-01

    The HIV-1 p6 Gag protein contains two late assembly (l-) domains that recruit proteins of the endosomal sorting complex required for transport (ESCRT) pathway to mediate membrane fission between the nascent virion and the cell membrane. It was recently demonstrated that mutation of the highly conserved Ser-40 to Phe (S40F) disturbs CA-SP1 processing, virus morphogenesis, and infectivity. It also causes the formation of filopodia-like structures, while virus release remains unaffected. Here, we show that the mutation S40F, but not the conservative mutation to Asp (S40D) or Asn (S40N), augments membrane association, K48-linked polyubiquitination, entry into the 26S proteasome, and, consequently, enhances MHC-I antigen presentation of Gag derived epitopes. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) structure analyses revealed that the newly introduced Phe-40, together with Tyr-36, causes the formation of a hydrophobic patch at the C-terminal α-helix of p6, providing a molecular rationale for the enhanced membrane association of Gag observed in vitro and in HIV-1 expressing cells. The extended exposure of the S40F mutant to unidentified membrane-resident ubiquitin E3-ligases might trigger the polyubiquitination of Gag. The cumulative data support a previous model of a so far undefined property of p6, which, in addition to MA, acts as membrane targeting domain of Gag. PMID:25279819

  12. In vitro reconstitution of the ordered assembly of the endosomal sorting complex required for transport at membrane-bound HIV-1 Gag clusters.

    PubMed

    Carlson, Lars-Anders; Hurley, James H

    2012-10-16

    Most membrane-enveloped viruses depend on host proteins of the endosomal sorting complex required for transport (ESCRT) machinery for their release. HIV-1 is the prototypic ESCRT-dependent virus. The direct interactions between HIV-1 and the early ESCRT factors TSG101 and ALIX have been mapped in detail. However, the full pathway of ESCRT recruitment to HIV-1 budding sites, which culminates with the assembly of the late-acting CHMP4, CHMP3, CHMP2, and CHMP1 subunits, is less completely understood. Here, we report the biochemical reconstitution of ESCRT recruitment to viral assembly sites, using purified proteins and giant unilamellar vesicles. The myristylated full-length Gag protein of HIV-1 was purified to monodispersity. Myr-Gag forms clusters on giant unilamellar vesicle membranes containing the plasma membrane lipid PI(4,5)P(2). These Gag clusters package a fluorescent oligonucleotide, and recruit early ESCRT complexes ESCRT-I or ALIX with the appropriate dependence on the Gag PTAP and LYP(X)(n)L motifs. ALIX directly recruits the key ESCRT-III subunit CHMP4. ESCRT-I can only recruit CHMP4 when ESCRT-II and CHMP6 are present as intermediary factors. Downstream of CHMP4, CHMP3 and CHMP2 assemble synergistically, with the presence of both subunits required for efficient recruitment. The very late-acting factor CHMP1 is not recruited unless the pathway is completed through CHMP3 and CHMP2. These findings define the minimal sets of components needed to complete ESCRT assembly at HIV-1 budding sites, and provide a starting point for in vitro structural and biophysical dissection of the system.

  13. The nucleocapsid region of HIV-1 Gag cooperates with the PTAP and LYPXnL late domains to recruit the cellular machinery necessary for viral budding.

    PubMed

    Dussupt, Vincent; Javid, Melodi P; Abou-Jaoudé, Georges; Jadwin, Joshua A; de La Cruz, Jason; Nagashima, Kunio; Bouamr, Fadila

    2009-03-01

    HIV-1 release is mediated through two motifs in the p6 region of Gag, PTAP and LYPX(n)L, which recruit cellular proteins Tsg101 and Alix, respectively. The Nucleocapsid region of Gag (NC), which binds the Bro1 domain of Alix, also plays an important role in HIV-1 release, but the underlying mechanism remains unclear. Here we show that the first 202 residues of the Bro1 domain (Bro(i)) are sufficient to bind Gag. Bro(i) interferes with HIV-1 release in an NC-dependent manner and arrests viral budding at the plasma membrane. Similar interrupted budding structures are seen following over-expression of a fragment containing Bro1 with the adjacent V domain (Bro1-V). Although only Bro1-V contains binding determinants for CHMP4, both Bro(i) and Bro1-V inhibited release via both the PTAP/Tsg101 and the LYPX(n)L/Alix pathways, suggesting that they interfere with a key step in HIV-1 release. Remarkably, we found that over-expression of Bro1 rescued the release of HIV-1 lacking both L domains. This rescue required the N-terminal region of the NC domain in Gag and the CHMP4 binding site in Bro1. Interestingly, release defects due to mutations in NC that prevented Bro1 mediated rescue of virus egress were rescued by providing a link to the ESCRT machinery via Nedd4.2s over-expression. Our data support a model in which NC cooperates with PTAP in the recruitment of cellular proteins necessary for its L domain activity and binds the Bro1-CHMP4 complex required for LYPX(n)L-mediated budding.

  14. The Nucleocapsid Region of HIV-1 Gag Cooperates with the PTAP and LYPXnL Late Domains to Recruit the Cellular Machinery Necessary for Viral Budding

    PubMed Central

    Dussupt, Vincent; Javid, Melodi P.; Abou-Jaoudé, Georges; Jadwin, Joshua A.; de La Cruz, Jason; Nagashima, Kunio; Bouamr, Fadila

    2009-01-01

    HIV-1 release is mediated through two motifs in the p6 region of Gag, PTAP and LYPXnL, which recruit cellular proteins Tsg101 and Alix, respectively. The Nucleocapsid region of Gag (NC), which binds the Bro1 domain of Alix, also plays an important role in HIV-1 release, but the underlying mechanism remains unclear. Here we show that the first 202 residues of the Bro1 domain (Broi) are sufficient to bind Gag. Broi interferes with HIV-1 release in an NC–dependent manner and arrests viral budding at the plasma membrane. Similar interrupted budding structures are seen following over-expression of a fragment containing Bro1 with the adjacent V domain (Bro1-V). Although only Bro1-V contains binding determinants for CHMP4, both Broi and Bro1-V inhibited release via both the PTAP/Tsg101 and the LYPXnL/Alix pathways, suggesting that they interfere with a key step in HIV-1 release. Remarkably, we found that over-expression of Bro1 rescued the release of HIV-1 lacking both L domains. This rescue required the N-terminal region of the NC domain in Gag and the CHMP4 binding site in Bro1. Interestingly, release defects due to mutations in NC that prevented Bro1 mediated rescue of virus egress were rescued by providing a link to the ESCRT machinery via Nedd4.2s over-expression. Our data support a model in which NC cooperates with PTAP in the recruitment of cellular proteins necessary for its L domain activity and binds the Bro1–CHMP4 complex required for LYPXnL–mediated budding. PMID:19282983

  15. In vitro reconstitution of the ordered assembly of the endosomal sorting complex required for transport at membrane-bound HIV-1 Gag clusters

    PubMed Central

    Carlson, Lars-Anders; Hurley, James H.

    2012-01-01

    Most membrane-enveloped viruses depend on host proteins of the endosomal sorting complex required for transport (ESCRT) machinery for their release. HIV-1 is the prototypic ESCRT-dependent virus. The direct interactions between HIV-1 and the early ESCRT factors TSG101 and ALIX have been mapped in detail. However, the full pathway of ESCRT recruitment to HIV-1 budding sites, which culminates with the assembly of the late-acting CHMP4, CHMP3, CHMP2, and CHMP1 subunits, is less completely understood. Here, we report the biochemical reconstitution of ESCRT recruitment to viral assembly sites, using purified proteins and giant unilamellar vesicles. The myristylated full-length Gag protein of HIV-1 was purified to monodispersity. Myr-Gag forms clusters on giant unilamellar vesicle membranes containing the plasma membrane lipid PI(4,5)P2. These Gag clusters package a fluorescent oligonucleotide, and recruit early ESCRT complexes ESCRT-I or ALIX with the appropriate dependence on the Gag PTAP and LYP(X)nL motifs. ALIX directly recruits the key ESCRT-III subunit CHMP4. ESCRT-I can only recruit CHMP4 when ESCRT-II and CHMP6 are present as intermediary factors. Downstream of CHMP4, CHMP3 and CHMP2 assemble synergistically, with the presence of both subunits required for efficient recruitment. The very late-acting factor CHMP1 is not recruited unless the pathway is completed through CHMP3 and CHMP2. These findings define the minimal sets of components needed to complete ESCRT assembly at HIV-1 budding sites, and provide a starting point for in vitro structural and biophysical dissection of the system. PMID:23027949

  16. The HIV-1 Pr55 gag polyprotein binds to plastidial membranes and leads to severe impairment of chloroplast biogenesis and seedling lethality in transplastomic tobacco plants.

    PubMed

    Scotti, N; Sannino, L; Idoine, A; Hamman, P; De Stradis, A; Giorio, P; Maréchal-Drouard, L; Bock, R; Cardi, T

    2015-04-01

    Chloroplast genetic engineering has long been recognised as a powerful technology to produce recombinant proteins. To date, however, little attention has been given to the causes of pleiotropic effects reported, in some cases, as consequence of the expression of foreign proteins in transgenic plastids. In this study, we investigated the phenotypic alterations observed in transplastomic tobacco plants accumulating the Pr55(gag) polyprotein of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1). The expression of Pr55(gag) at high levels in the tobacco plastome leads to a lethal phenotype of seedlings grown in soil, severe impairment of plastid development and photosynthetic activity, with chloroplasts largely resembling undeveloped proplastids. These alterations are associated to the binding of Pr55(gag) to thylakoids. During particle assembly in HIV-1 infected human cells, the binding of Pr55(gag) to a specific lipid [phosphatidylinositol-(4-5) bisphosphate] in the plasma membrane is mediated by myristoylation at the amino-terminus and the so-called highly basic region (HBR). Surprisingly, the non-myristoylated Pr55(gag) expressed in tobacco plastids was likely able, through the HBR motif, to bind to nonphosphorous glycerogalactolipids or other classes of lipids present in plastidial membranes. Although secondary consequences of disturbed chloroplast biogenesis on expression of nuclear-encoded plastid proteins cannot be ruled out, results of proteomic analyses suggest that their altered accumulation could be due to retrograde control in which chloroplasts relay their status to the nucleus for fine-tuning of gene expression.

  17. A cis-acting element present within the Gag open reading frame negatively impacts on the activity of the HIV-1 IRES.

    PubMed

    Valiente-Echeverría, Fernando; Vallejos, Maricarmen; Monette, Anne; Pino, Karla; Letelier, Alejandro; Huidobro-Toro, J Pablo; Mouland, Andrew J; López-Lastra, Marcelo

    2013-01-01

    Translation initiation from the human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) mRNA can occur through a cap or an IRES dependent mechanism. Cap-dependent translation initiation of the HIV-1 mRNA can be inhibited by the instability element (INS)-1, a cis-acting regulatory element present within the gag open reading frame (ORF). In this study we evaluated the impact of the INS-1 on HIV-1 IRES-mediated translation initiation. Using heterologous bicistronic mRNAs, we show that the INS-1 negatively impact on HIV-1 IRES-driven translation in in vitro and in cell-based experiments. Additionally, our results show that the inhibitory effect of the INS-1 is not general to all IRESes since it does not hinder translation driven by the HCV IRES. The inhibition by the INS-1 was partially rescued in cells by the overexpression of the viral Rev protein or hnRNPA1.

  18. A cis-Acting Element Present within the gag Open Reading Frame Negatively Impacts on the Activity of the HIV-1 IRES

    PubMed Central

    Valiente-Echeverría, Fernando; Vallejos, Maricarmen; Monette, Anne; Pino, Karla; Letelier, Alejandro; Huidobro-Toro, J. Pablo; Mouland, Andrew J.; López-Lastra, Marcelo

    2013-01-01

    Translation initiation from the human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) mRNA can occur through a cap or an IRES dependent mechanism. Cap-dependent translation initiation of the HIV-1 mRNA can be inhibited by the instability element (INS)-1, a cis-acting regulatory element present within the gag open reading frame (ORF). In this study we evaluated the impact of the INS-1 on HIV-1 IRES-mediated translation initiation. Using heterologous bicistronic mRNAs, we show that the INS-1 negatively impact on HIV-1 IRES-driven translation in in vitro and in cell-based experiments. Additionally, our results show that the inhibitory effect of the INS-1 is not general to all IRESes since it does not hinder translation driven by the HCV IRES. The inhibition by the INS-1 was partially rescued in cells by the overexpression of the viral Rev protein or hnRNPA1. PMID:23451120

  19. Context Surrounding Processing Sites Is Crucial in Determining Cleavage Rate of a Subset of Processing Sites in HIV-1 Gag and Gag-Pro-Pol Polyprotein Precursors by Viral Protease*

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sook-Kyung; Potempa, Marc; Kolli, Madhavi; Özen, Ayşegül; Schiffer, Celia A.; Swanstrom, Ronald

    2012-01-01

    Processing of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) Gag and Gag-Pro-Pol polyproteins by the HIV-1 protease (PR) is essential for the production of infectious particles. However, the determinants governing the rates of processing of these substrates are not clearly understood. We studied the effect of substrate context on processing by utilizing a novel protease assay in which a substrate containing HIV-1 matrix (MA) and the N-terminal domain of capsid (CA) is labeled with a FlAsH (fluorescein arsenical hairpin) reagent. When the seven cleavage sites within the Gag and Gag-Pro-Pol polyproteins were placed at the MA/CA site, the rates of cleavage changed dramatically compared with that of the cognate sites in the natural context reported previously. The rate of processing was affected the most for three sites: CA/spacer peptide 1 (SP1) (≈10-fold increase), SP1/nucleocapsid (NC) (≈10–30-fold decrease), and SP2/p6 (≈30-fold decrease). One of two multidrug-resistant (MDR) PR variants altered the pattern of processing rates significantly. Cleavage sites within the Pro-Pol region were cleaved in a context-independent manner, suggesting for these sites that the sequence itself was the determinant of rate. In addition, a chimera consisting of SP1/NC P4–P1 and MA/CA P1′–P4′ residues (ATIM↓PIVQ) abolished processing by wild type and MDR proteases, and the reciprocal chimera consisting of MA/CA P4–P1 and SP1/NC P1′–4′ (SQNY↓IQKG) was cleaved only by one of the MDR proteases. These results suggest that complex substrate interactions both beyond the active site of the enzyme and across the scissile bond contribute to defining the rate of processing by the HIV-1 PR. PMID:22334652

  20. Identification and Characterization of BMS-955176, a Second-Generation HIV-1 Maturation Inhibitor with Improved Potency, Antiviral Spectrum, and Gag Polymorphic Coverage

    PubMed Central

    Nowicka-Sans, Beata; Protack, Tricia; Lin, Zeyu; Li, Zhufang; Zhang, Sharon; Sun, Yongnian; Samanta, Himadri; Terry, Brian; Liu, Zheng; Chen, Yan; Sin, Ny; Sit, Sing-Yuen; Swidorski, Jacob J.; Chen, Jie; Venables, Brian L.; Healy, Matthew; Meanwell, Nicholas A.; Cockett, Mark; Hanumegowda, Umesh; Regueiro-Ren, Alicia; Krystal, Mark

    2016-01-01

    BMS-955176 is a second-generation human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) maturation inhibitor (MI). A first-generation MI, bevirimat, showed clinical efficacy in early-phase studies, but ∼50% of subjects had viruses with reduced susceptibility associated with naturally occurring polymorphisms in Gag near the site of MI action. MI potency was optimized using a panel of engineered reporter viruses containing site-directed polymorphic changes in Gag that reduce susceptibility to bevirimat (including V362I, V370A/M/Δ, and T371A/Δ), leading incrementally to the identification of BMS-955176. BMS-955176 exhibits potent activity (50% effective concentration [EC50], 3.9 ± 3.4 nM [mean ± standard deviation]) toward a library (n = 87) of gag/pr recombinant viruses representing 96.5% of subtype B polymorphic Gag diversity near the CA/SP1 cleavage site. BMS-955176 exhibited a median EC50 of 21 nM toward a library of subtype B clinical isolates assayed in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). Potent activity was maintained against a panel of reverse transcriptase, protease, and integrase inhibitor-resistant viruses, with EC50s similar to those for the wild-type virus. A 5.4-fold reduction in EC50 occurred in the presence of 40% human serum plus 27 mg/ml of human serum albumin (HSA), which corresponded well to an in vitro measurement of 86% human serum binding. Time-of-addition and pseudotype reporter virus studies confirm a mechanism of action for the compound that occurs late in the virus replication cycle. BMS-955176 inhibits HIV-1 protease cleavage at the CA/SP1 junction within Gag in virus-like particles (VLPs) and in HIV-1-infected cells, and it binds reversibly and with high affinity to assembled Gag in purified HIV-1 VLPs. Finally, in vitro combination studies showed no antagonistic interactions with representative antiretrovirals (ARVs) of other mechanistic classes. In conclusion, BMS-955176 is a second-generation MI with potent in vitro anti-HIV-1

  1. Identification and Characterization of BMS-955176, a Second-Generation HIV-1 Maturation Inhibitor with Improved Potency, Antiviral Spectrum, and Gag Polymorphic Coverage.

    PubMed

    Nowicka-Sans, Beata; Protack, Tricia; Lin, Zeyu; Li, Zhufang; Zhang, Sharon; Sun, Yongnian; Samanta, Himadri; Terry, Brian; Liu, Zheng; Chen, Yan; Sin, Ny; Sit, Sing-Yuen; Swidorski, Jacob J; Chen, Jie; Venables, Brian L; Healy, Matthew; Meanwell, Nicholas A; Cockett, Mark; Hanumegowda, Umesh; Regueiro-Ren, Alicia; Krystal, Mark; Dicker, Ira B

    2016-07-01

    BMS-955176 is a second-generation human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) maturation inhibitor (MI). A first-generation MI, bevirimat, showed clinical efficacy in early-phase studies, but ∼50% of subjects had viruses with reduced susceptibility associated with naturally occurring polymorphisms in Gag near the site of MI action. MI potency was optimized using a panel of engineered reporter viruses containing site-directed polymorphic changes in Gag that reduce susceptibility to bevirimat (including V362I, V370A/M/Δ, and T371A/Δ), leading incrementally to the identification of BMS-955176. BMS-955176 exhibits potent activity (50% effective concentration [EC50], 3.9 ± 3.4 nM [mean ± standard deviation]) toward a library (n = 87) of gag/pr recombinant viruses representing 96.5% of subtype B polymorphic Gag diversity near the CA/SP1 cleavage site. BMS-955176 exhibited a median EC50 of 21 nM toward a library of subtype B clinical isolates assayed in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). Potent activity was maintained against a panel of reverse transcriptase, protease, and integrase inhibitor-resistant viruses, with EC50s similar to those for the wild-type virus. A 5.4-fold reduction in EC50 occurred in the presence of 40% human serum plus 27 mg/ml of human serum albumin (HSA), which corresponded well to an in vitro measurement of 86% human serum binding. Time-of-addition and pseudotype reporter virus studies confirm a mechanism of action for the compound that occurs late in the virus replication cycle. BMS-955176 inhibits HIV-1 protease cleavage at the CA/SP1 junction within Gag in virus-like particles (VLPs) and in HIV-1-infected cells, and it binds reversibly and with high affinity to assembled Gag in purified HIV-1 VLPs. Finally, in vitro combination studies showed no antagonistic interactions with representative antiretrovirals (ARVs) of other mechanistic classes. In conclusion, BMS-955176 is a second-generation MI with potent in vitro anti-HIV-1

  2. Clustered epitopes within the Gag-Pol fusion protein DNA vaccine enhance immune responses and protection against challenge with recombinant vaccinia viruses expressing HIV-1 Gag and Pol antigens.

    PubMed

    Bolesta, Elizabeth; Gzyl, Jaroslaw; Wierzbicki, Andrzej; Kmieciak, Dariusz; Kowalczyk, Aleksandra; Kaneko, Yutaro; Srinivasan, Alagarsamy; Kozbor, Danuta

    2005-02-20

    We have generated a codon-optimized hGagp17p24-Polp51 plasmid DNA expressing the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) Gag-Pol fusion protein that consists of clusters of highly conserved cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) epitopes presented by multiple MHC class I alleles. In the hGagp17p24-Polp51 construct, the ribosomal frameshift site had been deleted together with the potentially immunosuppressive Gag nucleocapsid (p15) as well as Pol protease (p10) and integrase (p31). Analyses of the magnitude and breadth of cellular responses demonstrated that immunization of HLA-A2/K(b) transgenic mice with the hGagp17p24-Polp51 construct induced 2- to 5-fold higher CD8+ T-cell responses to Gag p17-, p24-, and Pol reverse transcriptase (RT)-specific CTL epitopes than the full-length hGag-PolDeltaFsDeltaPr counterpart. The increases were correlated with higher protection against challenge with recombinant vaccinia viruses (rVVs) expressing gag and pol gene products. Consistent with the profile of Gag- and Pol-specific CD8+ T cell responses, an elevated level of type 1 cytokine production was noted in p24- and RT-stimulated splenocyte cultures established from hGagp17p24-Polp51-immunized mice compared to responses induced with the hGag-PolDeltaFsDeltaPr vaccine. Sera of mice immunized with the hGagp17p24-Polp51 vaccine also exhibited an increased titer of p24- and RT-specific IgG2 antibody responses. The results from our studies provide insights into approaches for boosting the breadth of Gag- and Pol-specific immune responses.

  3. HIV-1 CRF07_BC with a Seven Amino Acid Deletion in the gag p6 Region Dominates in HIV-1-Infected Men Who Have Sex with Men in China.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yue; Wang, Haiying; Ren, Xuqi; Wan, Zhengwei; Hu, Guifang; Tang, Shixing

    2017-09-01

    We examined sequence variation in the HIV-1 gag p6 region from 27 individuals infected with HIV-1 CRF07_BC. An additional 269 gag p6 sequences of CRF07_BC from the Los Alamos National Laboratory database were also analyzed. A unique deletion of seven amino acid (aa) (p6Δ7) (aa 30-36, PIDKELY, in the HXB2 genome) was observed to exist exclusively in CRF07_BC. Indeed, 54.1% (160/296) of the CRF07_BC sequences contained the p6Δ7 mutation. The prevalence of the p6Δ7 mutation was 37.2% (29/78) and 92.3% (48/52) in CRF07_BC-infected intravenous drug users and men who have sex with men (MSM), respectively. Our results demonstrate that the p6Δ7 mutation dominates in MSM infected by HIV-1 CRF07_BC in China and suggests that this deletion could serve as a useful marker for monitoring HIV-1 evolution and epidemic. In future studies, it will be of interest to determine whether such genotypic variation influences viral replication capacity and disease progression.

  4. Gag Mutations Strongly Contribute to HIV-1 Resistance to Protease Inhibitors in Highly Drug-Experienced Patients besides Compensating for Fitness Loss

    PubMed Central

    Glass, Bärbel; Descamps, Diane; Launay, Odile; Duval, Xavier; Kräusslich, Hans-Georg; Hance, Allan J.; Clavel, François

    2009-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) resistance to protease inhibitors (PI) results from mutations in the viral protease (PR) that reduce PI binding but also decrease viral replicative capacity (RC). Additional mutations compensating for the RC loss subsequently accumulate within PR and in Gag substrate cleavage sites. We examined the respective contribution of mutations in PR and Gag to PI resistance and RC and their interdependence using a panel of HIV-1 molecular clones carrying different sequences from six patients who had failed multiple lines of treatment. Mutations in Gag strongly and directly contributed to PI resistance besides compensating for fitness loss. This effect was essentially carried by the C-terminal region of Gag (containing NC-SP2-p6) with little or no contribution from MA, CA, and SP1. The effect of Gag on resistance depended on the presence of cleavage site mutations A431V or I437V in NC-SP2-p6 and correlated with processing of the NC/SP2 cleavage site. By contrast, reverting the A431V or I437V mutation in these highly evolved sequences had little effect on RC. Mutations in the NC-SP2-p6 region of Gag can be dually selected as compensatory and as direct PI resistance mutations, with cleavage at the NC-SP2 site behaving as a rate-limiting step in PI resistance. Further compensatory mutations render viral RC independent of the A431V or I437V mutations while their effect on resistance persists. PMID:19300491

  5. Live attenuated measles vaccine expressing HIV-1 Gag virus like particles covered with gp160DELTAV1V2 is strongly immunogenic

    SciTech Connect

    Guerbois, Mathilde; Moris, Arnaud; Combredet, Chantal; Najburg, Valerie; Ruffie, Claude; Fevrier, Michele; Cayet, Nadege; Brandler, Samantha; Schwartz, Olivier; Tangy, Frederic

    2009-05-25

    Although a live attenuated HIV vaccine is not currently considered for safety reasons, a strategy inducing both T cells and neutralizing antibodies to native assembled HIV-1 particles expressed by a replicating virus might mimic the advantageous characteristics of live attenuated vaccine. To this aim, we generated a live attenuated recombinant measles vaccine expressing HIV-1 Gag virus-like particles (VLPs) covered with gp160DELTAV1V2 Env protein. The measles-HIV virus replicated efficiently in cell culture and induced the intense budding of HIV particles covered with Env. In mice sensitive to MV infection, this recombinant vaccine stimulated high levels of cellular and humoral immunity to both MV and HIV with neutralizing activity. The measles-HIV virus infected human professional antigen-presenting cells, such as dendritic cells and B cells, and induced efficient presentation of HIV-1 epitopes and subsequent activation of human HIV-1 Gag-specific T cell clones. This candidate vaccine will be next tested in non-human primates. As a pediatric vaccine, it might protect children and adolescents simultaneously from measles and HIV.

  6. Human Ubc9 Is Involved in Intracellular HIV-1 Env Stability after Trafficking out of the Trans-Golgi Network in a Gag Dependent Manner

    PubMed Central

    Bohl, Christopher R.; Abrahamyan, Levon G.; Wood, Charles

    2013-01-01

    The cellular E2 Sumo conjugase, Ubc9 interacts with HIV-1 Gag, and is important for the assembly of infectious HIV-1 virions. In the previous study we demonstrated that in the absence of Ubc9, a defect in virion assembly was associated with decreased levels of mature intracellular Envelope (Env) that affected Env incorporation into virions and virion infectivity. We have further characterized the effect of Ubc9 knockdown on HIV Env processing and assembly. We found that gp160 stability in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and its trafficking to the trans-Golgi network (TGN) were unaffected, indicating that the decreased intracellular mature Env levels in Ubc9-depleted cells were due to a selective degradation of mature Env gp120 after cleavage from gp160 and trafficked out of the TGN. Decreased levels of Gag and mature Env were found to be associated with the plasma membrane and lipid rafts, which suggest that these viral proteins were not trafficked correctly to the assembly site. Intracellular gp120 were partially rescued when treated with a combination of lysosome inhibitors. Taken together our results suggest that in the absence of Ubc9, gp120 is preferentially degraded in the lysosomes likely before trafficking to assembly sites leading to the production of defective virions. This study provides further insight in the processing and packaging of the HIV-1 gp120 into mature HIV-1 virions. PMID:23861967

  7. Safety and Immunogenicity of an HIV-1 Gag DNA Vaccine with or without IL-12 and/or IL-15 Plasmid Cytokine Adjuvant in Healthy, HIV-1 Uninfected Adults

    PubMed Central

    Kalams, Spyros A.; Parker, Scott; Jin, Xia; Elizaga, Marnie; Metch, Barbara; Wang, Maggie; Hural, John; Lubeck, Michael; Eldridge, John; Cardinali, Massimo; Blattner, William A.; Sobieszczyk, Magda; Suriyanon, Vinai; Kalichman, Artur; Weiner, David B.; Baden, Lindsey R.

    2012-01-01

    Background DNA vaccines are a promising approach to vaccination since they circumvent the problem of vector-induced immunity. DNA plasmid cytokine adjuvants have been shown to augment immune responses in small animals and in macaques. Methodology/Principal Findings We performed two first in human HIV vaccine trials in the US, Brazil and Thailand of an RNA-optimized truncated HIV-1 gag gene (p37) DNA derived from strain HXB2 administered either alone or in combination with dose-escalation of IL-12 or IL-15 plasmid cytokine adjuvants. Vaccinations with both the HIV immunogen and cytokine adjuvant were generally well-tolerated and no significant vaccine-related adverse events were identified. A small number of subjects developed asymptomatic low titer antibodies to IL-12 or IL-15. Cellular immunogenicity following 3 and 4 vaccinations was poor, with response rates to gag of 4.9%/8.7% among vaccinees receiving gag DNA alone, 0%/11.5% among those receiving gag DNA+IL-15, and no responders among those receiving DNA+high dose (1500 ug) IL-12 DNA. However, after three doses, 44.4% (4/9) of vaccinees receiving gag DNA and intermediate dose (500 ug) of IL-12 DNA demonstrated a detectable cellular immune response. Conclusions/Significance This combination of HIV gag DNA with plasmid cytokine adjuvants was well tolerated. There were minimal responses to HIV gag DNA alone, and no apparent augmentation with either IL-12 or IL-15 plasmid cytokine adjuvants. Despite the promise of DNA vaccines, newer formulations or methods of delivery will be required to increase their immunogenicity. Trial Registration Clinicaltrials.gov NCT00115960 NCT00111605 PMID:22242162

  8. Gag-Specific CD4 T Cell Proliferation, Plasmacytoid Dendritic Cells, and Ethnicity in Perinatally HIV-1-Infected Youths: The ANRS-EP38-IMMIP Study.

    PubMed

    Scott-Algara, Daniel; Warszawski, Josiane; Chenadec, Jérôme Le; Didier, Céline; Montange, Thomas; Viard, Jean-Paul; Dollfus, Catherine; Avettand-Fenoel, Véronique; Rouzioux, Christine; Blanche, Stéphane; Buseyne, Florence

    2017-01-01

    In perinatally HIV-1-infected youths living in France, we previously reported that Gag-specific CD4 and CD8 T cell proliferation is more frequently detected in patients of black ethnicity than in those of other ethnicities. We observed that black patients had higher levels of dendritic cells (DCs) than other patients. We aimed at studying the association of DC levels with Gag-specific T cell proliferation. The ANRS-EP38-IMMIP study is an observational study of youths aged between 15 and 24 years who were perinatally infected with HIV. A single blood sample was drawn for virological and immunological assays. Data from cART-treated 53 youths with undetectable plasma HIV RNA were analyzed. Gag-specific T cell proliferation was assessed by using a CFSE-based test. Peripheral blood myeloid dendritic cells (mDCs) and plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) were phenotyped by flow cytometry. Plasma markers were quantified by ELISA or multiplex assays. Logistic regression was used for univariate and multivariate analyses. Patients with Gag-specific CD4 T cell proliferative responses had significantly higher percentages and absolute counts of mDCs and pDCs in the peripheral blood than nonresponding patients. Gag-specific CD4 and CD8 T cell proliferation was associated with lower plasma sCD14 levels. Plasma levels of IFN-α, TRAIL, and chemokines involved in T cell migration to secondary lymphoid organs were not associated with T cell proliferation. Multivariate analysis confirmed the association between Gag-specific CD4 T cell proliferation and pDC levels. In conclusion, DC levels are a robust correlate of the presence of Gag-specific T cell proliferation in successfully treated youths.

  9. The S40 residue in HIV-1 Gag p6 impacts local and distal budding determinants, revealing additional late domain activities.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Susan M; Chen, Min-Huei; Khan, Mahfuz; Ehrlich, Lorna; Kemal, Kimdar Sherefa; Weiser, Barbara; Shi, Binshan; Chen, Chaoping; Powell, Michael; Anastos, Kathryn; Burger, Harold; Carter, Carol A

    2013-11-21

    HIV-1 budding is directed primarily by two motifs in Gag p6 designated as late domain-1 and -2 that recruit ESCRT machinery by binding Tsg101 and Alix, respectively, and by poorly characterized determinants in the capsid (CA) domain. Here, we report that a conserved Gag p6 residue, S40, impacts budding mediated by all of these determinants. Whereas budding normally results in formation of single spherical particles ~100 nm in diameter and containing a characteristic electron-dense conical core, the substitution of Phe for S40, a change that does not alter the amino acids encoded in the overlapping pol reading frame, resulted in defective CA-SP1 cleavage, formation of strings of tethered particles or filopodia-like membrane protrusions containing Gag, and diminished infectious particle formation. The S40F-mediated release defects were exacerbated when the viral-encoded protease (PR) was inactivated or when L domain-1 function was disrupted or when budding was almost completely obliterated by the disruption of both L domain-1 and -2. S40F mutation also resulted in stronger Gag-Alix interaction, as detected by yeast 2-hybrid assay. Reducing Alix binding by mutational disruption of contact residues restored single particle release, implicating the perturbed Gag-Alix interaction in the aberrant budding events. Interestingly, introduction of S40F partially rescued the negative effects on budding of CA NTD mutations EE75,76AA and P99A, which both prevent membrane curvature and therefore block budding at an early stage. The results indicate that the S40 residue is a novel determinant of HIV-1 egress that is most likely involved in regulation of a critical assembly event required for budding in the Tsg101-, Alix-, Nedd4- and CA N-terminal domain affected pathways.

  10. Nedd4-Mediated Increase in HIV-1 Gag and Env Proteins and Immunity following DNA-Vaccination of BALB/c Mice

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Brad; Whitney, Stephen; Hudacik, Lauren; Galmin, Lindsey; Huaman, Maria Cecilia; Cristillo, Anthony D.

    2014-01-01

    The late assembly domain of many viruses is critical for budding. Within these domains, encoded in viral structural proteins, are the conserved motifs PTAP, PPxY and YPxL. These sequences are the key determinants for association of viral proteins with intracellular molecules such as Tsg101, Nedd4 and AIP1/ALIX. While roles for Tsg101 and AIP1/ALIX in HIV-1 budding have been well established, less is known about the role of Nedd4. Recent studies, however, have identified a function for Nedd4-like protein in HIV-1 release. In this study, we investigated post-transcriptional changes of Nedd4 following SHIVSF162P3 infection of rhesus macaques, its role on HIV-1 p24 and gp120 levels in vitro and its potential as an immune modulator in HIV vaccination of BALB/c mice. Increased Nedd4 protein levels were noted in both CD4+ and CD8+ T cells following SHIVSF162P3-infection of naïve macaques. Transient co-transfection studies in 293 cells with HXB2 and Nedd4 demonstrated a Nedd4-mediated increase in p24 and gp120 levels. This increase was found to be dependent on the Ca2+/calmodulin-regulated phospholipid binding C2 domain and not ubiquitin ligase activity or HIV LTR activity. Co-transfection of Nedd4 with plasmid DNA expressing Gag or Env was further shown to augment both intracellular and extracellular Gag or Env proteins. To assess the potential of Nedd4 as an immune modulator, BALB/c mice were immunized intramuscularly with plasmid DNA encoding HIV gag, env and Nedd4. Nedd4 co-administration was found to increase serum anti-p24 but not anti-gp120 antibodies. Nedd4 co-injection was found to have no affect on Gag- or Env-specific IFNγ but had a trend of increased Gag-specific IL-6, IL-17A and TNFα that was not seen following Env stimulation. Based on our initial findings, Nedd4-mediated changes in HIV protein levels and its potential use in HIV-1 vaccine development warrants further investigation. PMID:24614057

  11. Nedd4-mediated increase in HIV-1 Gag and Env proteins and immunity following DNA-vaccination of BALB/c mice.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Brad; Whitney, Stephen; Hudacik, Lauren; Galmin, Lindsey; Huaman, Maria Cecilia; Cristillo, Anthony D

    2014-01-01

    The late assembly domain of many viruses is critical for budding. Within these domains, encoded in viral structural proteins, are the conserved motifs PTAP, PPxY and YPxL. These sequences are the key determinants for association of viral proteins with intracellular molecules such as Tsg101, Nedd4 and AIP1/ALIX. While roles for Tsg101 and AIP1/ALIX in HIV-1 budding have been well established, less is known about the role of Nedd4. Recent studies, however, have identified a function for Nedd4-like protein in HIV-1 release. In this study, we investigated post-transcriptional changes of Nedd4 following SHIVSF162P3 infection of rhesus macaques, its role on HIV-1 p24 and gp120 levels in vitro and its potential as an immune modulator in HIV vaccination of BALB/c mice. Increased Nedd4 protein levels were noted in both CD4+ and CD8+ T cells following SHIVSF162P3-infection of naïve macaques. Transient co-transfection studies in 293 cells with HXB2 and Nedd4 demonstrated a Nedd4-mediated increase in p24 and gp120 levels. This increase was found to be dependent on the Ca2+/calmodulin-regulated phospholipid binding C2 domain and not ubiquitin ligase activity or HIV LTR activity. Co-transfection of Nedd4 with plasmid DNA expressing Gag or Env was further shown to augment both intracellular and extracellular Gag or Env proteins. To assess the potential of Nedd4 as an immune modulator, BALB/c mice were immunized intramuscularly with plasmid DNA encoding HIV gag, env and Nedd4. Nedd4 co-administration was found to increase serum anti-p24 but not anti-gp120 antibodies. Nedd4 co-injection was found to have no affect on Gag- or Env-specific IFNγ but had a trend of increased Gag-specific IL-6, IL-17A and TNFα that was not seen following Env stimulation. Based on our initial findings, Nedd4-mediated changes in HIV protein levels and its potential use in HIV-1 vaccine development warrants further investigation.

  12. Improved quantification of HIV-1-infected CD4+ T cells using an optimised method of intracellular HIV-1 gag p24 antigen detection.

    PubMed

    Yang, Hongbing; Yorke, Elisabeth; Hancock, Gemma; Clutton, Genevieve; Sande, Nellia; Angus, Brian; Smyth, Redmond; Mak, Johnson; Dorrell, Lucy

    2013-05-31

    The capacity of CD8+ T cells to inhibit HIV-1 replication in vitro strongly correlates with virus control in vivo. Post-hoc evaluations of HIV-1 vaccine candidates suggest that this immunological parameter is a promising benchmark of vaccine efficacy. Large-scale analysis of CD8+ T cell antiviral activity requires a rapid, robust and economical assay for accurate quantification of HIV-1 infection in primary CD4+ T cells. Detection of intracellular HIV-1 p24 antigen (p24 Ag) by flow cytometry is one such method but it is thought to be less sensitive and quantitative than p24 Ag ELISA. We report that fixation and permeabilisation of HIV-infected cells using paraformaldehyde/50% methanol/Nonidet P-40 instead of a conventional paraformaldehyde/saponin-based protocol improved their detection across multiplicities of infection (MOI) ranging from 10(-2) to 8×10(-5), and by nearly two-fold (p<0.001) at the optimal MOI tested (10(-2)). The frequency of infected cells was strongly correlated with p24 Ag release during culture, thus validating its use as a measure of productive infection. We were also able to quantify infection with a panel of HIV-1 isolates representing the major clades. The protocol described here is rapid and cost-effective compared with ELISA and thus could be a useful component of immune monitoring of HIV-1 vaccines and interventions to reduce viral reservoirs.

  13. A Conserved Target Site in HIV-1 Gag RNA is Accessible to Inhibition by Both an HDV Ribozyme and a Short Hairpin RNA

    PubMed Central

    Scarborough, Robert J; Lévesque, Michel V; Boudrias-Dalle, Etienne; Chute, Ian C; Daniels, Sylvanne M; Ouellette, Rodney J; Perreault, Jean-Pierre; Gatignol, Anne

    2014-01-01

    Antisense-based molecules targeting HIV-1 RNA have the potential to be used as part of gene or drug therapy to treat HIV-1 infection. In this study, HIV-1 RNA was screened to identify more conserved and accessible target sites for ribozymes based on the hepatitis delta virus motif. Using a quantitative screen for effects on HIV-1 production, we identified a ribozyme targeting a highly conserved site in the Gag coding sequence with improved inhibitory potential compared to our previously described candidates targeting the overlapping Tat/Rev coding sequence. We also demonstrate that this target site is highly accessible to short hairpin directed RNA interference, suggesting that it may be available for the binding of antisense RNAs with different modes of action. We provide evidence that this target site is structurally conserved in diverse viral strains and that it is sufficiently different from the human transcriptome to limit off-target effects from antisense therapies. We also show that the modified hepatitis delta virus ribozyme is more sensitive to a mismatch in its target site compared to the short hairpin RNA. Overall, our results validate the potential of a new target site in HIV-1 RNA to be used for the development of antisense therapies. PMID:25072692

  14. Human Endogenous Retrovirus K(HML-2) Gag- and Env-Specific T-Cell Responses Are Infrequently Detected in HIV-1-Infected Subjects Using Standard Peptide Matrix-Based Screening

    PubMed Central

    John, Vivek M.; Hunter, Diana V.; Martin, Eric; Mujib, Shariq; Mihajlovic, Vesna; Burgers, Peter C.; Luider, Theo M.; Gyenes, Gabor; Sheppard, Neil C.; SenGupta, Devi; Tandon, Ravi; Yue, Feng-Yun; Benko, Erika; Kovacs, Colin; Nixon, Douglas F.; Ostrowski, Mario A.

    2012-01-01

    T-cell responses to human endogenous retrovirus (HERV) K(HML-2) Gag and Env were mapped in HIV-1-infected subjects using 15mer peptides. Small peptide pools and high concentrations were used to maximize sensitivity. In the 23 subjects studied, only three bona fide HERV-K(HML-2)-specific responses were detected. At these high peptide concentrations, we detected false-positive responses, three of which were mapped to an HIV-1 Gag peptide contaminant. Thus, HERV-K(HML-2) Gag- and Env-specific T-cell responses are infrequently detected by 15mer peptide mapping. PMID:22205657

  15. RNA helicase MOV10 functions as a co-factor of HIV-1 Rev to facilitate Rev/RRE-dependent nuclear export of viral mRNAs

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Feng; Zhang, Junsong; Zhang, Yijun; Geng, Guannan; Liang, Juanran; Li, Yingniang; Chen, Jingliang; Liu, Chao; Zhang, Hui

    2015-12-15

    Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) exploits multiple host factors during its replication. The REV/RRE-dependent nuclear export of unspliced/partially spliced viral transcripts needs the assistance of host proteins. Recent studies have shown that MOV10 overexpression inhibited HIV-1 replication at various steps. However, the endogenous MOV10 was required in certain step(s) of HIV-1 replication. In this report, we found that MOV10 potently enhances the nuclear export of viral mRNAs and subsequently increases the expression of Gag protein and other late products through affecting the Rev/RRE axis. The co-immunoprecipitation analysis indicated that MOV10 interacts with Rev in an RNA-independent manner. The DEAG-box of MOV10 was required for the enhancement of Rev/RRE-dependent nuclear export and the DEAG-box mutant showed a dominant-negative activity. Our data propose that HIV-1 utilizes the anti-viral factor MOV10 to function as a co-factor of Rev and demonstrate the complicated effects of MOV10 on HIV-1 life cycle. - Highlights: • MOV10 can function as a co-factor of HIV-1 Rev. • MOV10 facilitates Rev/RRE-dependent transport of viral mRNAs. • MOV10 interacts with Rev in an RNA-independent manner. • The DEAG-box of MOV10 is required for the enhancement of Rev/RRE-dependent export.

  16. Natural deletion of L35Y36 in p6 gag eliminate LYPXnL/ALIX auxiliary virus release pathway in HIV-1 subtype C.

    PubMed

    Patil, Ajit; Bhattacharya, Jayanta

    2012-12-01

    Natural loss of L35Y36 residues in ALIX binding site of HIV-1 subtype C was found to prevent the p6 gag-ALIX interaction. Over expression of ALIX 364-716 (V-domain) unlike pNL4.3 (subtype B), also did not inhibit the release of chimeric pNL4.3 expressing subtype C p6 late domain. Loss of V domain binding consequently affected the ALIX mediated particle release in the absence of PTAP/TSG101 pathway. Our data indicated absence of LYPXnL/ALIX pathway in HIV-1 subtype C. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. HIV Controllers Exhibit Enhanced Frequencies of Major Histocompatibility Complex Class II Tetramer+ Gag-Specific CD4+ T Cells in Chronic Clade C HIV-1 Infection

    PubMed Central

    Laher, Faatima; Ranasinghe, Srinika; Porichis, Filippos; Mewalal, Nikoshia; Pretorius, Karyn; Ismail, Nasreen; Buus, Søren; Stryhn, Anette; Carrington, Mary; Walker, Bruce D.; Ndung'u, Thumbi

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Immune control of viral infections is heavily dependent on helper CD4+ T cell function. However, the understanding of the contribution of HIV-specific CD4+ T cell responses to immune protection against HIV-1, particularly in clade C infection, remains incomplete. Recently, major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II tetramers have emerged as a powerful tool for interrogating antigen-specific CD4+ T cells without relying on effector functions. Here, we defined the MHC class II alleles for immunodominant Gag CD4+ T cell epitopes in clade C virus infection, constructed MHC class II tetramers, and then used these to define the magnitude, function, and relation to the viral load of HIV-specific CD4+ T cell responses in a cohort of untreated HIV clade C-infected persons. We observed significantly higher frequencies of MHC class II tetramer-positive CD4+ T cells in HIV controllers than progressors (P = 0.0001), and these expanded Gag-specific CD4+ T cells in HIV controllers showed higher levels of expression of the cytolytic proteins granzymes A and B. Importantly, targeting of the immunodominant Gag41 peptide in the context of HLA class II DRB1*1101 was associated with HIV control (r = −0.5, P = 0.02). These data identify an association between HIV-specific CD4+ T cell targeting of immunodominant Gag epitopes and immune control, particularly the contribution of a single class II MHC-peptide complex to the immune response against HIV-1 infection. Furthermore, these results highlight the advantage of the use of class II tetramers in evaluating HIV-specific CD4+ T cell responses in natural infections. IMPORTANCE Increasing evidence suggests that virus-specific CD4+ T cells contribute to the immune-mediated control of clade B HIV-1 infection, yet there remains a relative paucity of data regarding the role of HIV-specific CD4+ T cells in shaping adaptive immune responses in individuals infected with clade C, which is responsible for the majority of HIV

  18. HIV Controllers Exhibit Enhanced Frequencies of Major Histocompatibility Complex Class II Tetramer(+) Gag-Specific CD4(+) T Cells in Chronic Clade C HIV-1 Infection.

    PubMed

    Laher, Faatima; Ranasinghe, Srinika; Porichis, Filippos; Mewalal, Nikoshia; Pretorius, Karyn; Ismail, Nasreen; Buus, Søren; Stryhn, Anette; Carrington, Mary; Walker, Bruce D; Ndung'u, Thumbi; Ndhlovu, Zaza M

    2017-04-01

    Immune control of viral infections is heavily dependent on helper CD4(+) T cell function. However, the understanding of the contribution of HIV-specific CD4(+) T cell responses to immune protection against HIV-1, particularly in clade C infection, remains incomplete. Recently, major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II tetramers have emerged as a powerful tool for interrogating antigen-specific CD4(+) T cells without relying on effector functions. Here, we defined the MHC class II alleles for immunodominant Gag CD4(+) T cell epitopes in clade C virus infection, constructed MHC class II tetramers, and then used these to define the magnitude, function, and relation to the viral load of HIV-specific CD4(+) T cell responses in a cohort of untreated HIV clade C-infected persons. We observed significantly higher frequencies of MHC class II tetramer-positive CD4(+) T cells in HIV controllers than progressors (P = 0.0001), and these expanded Gag-specific CD4(+) T cells in HIV controllers showed higher levels of expression of the cytolytic proteins granzymes A and B. Importantly, targeting of the immunodominant Gag41 peptide in the context of HLA class II DRB1*1101 was associated with HIV control (r = -0.5, P = 0.02). These data identify an association between HIV-specific CD4(+) T cell targeting of immunodominant Gag epitopes and immune control, particularly the contribution of a single class II MHC-peptide complex to the immune response against HIV-1 infection. Furthermore, these results highlight the advantage of the use of class II tetramers in evaluating HIV-specific CD4(+) T cell responses in natural infections.IMPORTANCE Increasing evidence suggests that virus-specific CD4(+) T cells contribute to the immune-mediated control of clade B HIV-1 infection, yet there remains a relative paucity of data regarding the role of HIV-specific CD4(+) T cells in shaping adaptive immune responses in individuals infected with clade C, which is responsible for the majority of

  19. gag, vif, and nef Genes Contribute to the Homologous Viral Interference Induced by a Nonproducer Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 (HIV-1) Variant: Identification of Novel HIV-1-Inhibiting Viral Protein Mutants

    PubMed Central

    D’Aloja, Paola; Olivetta, Eleonora; Bona, Roberta; Nappi, Filomena; Pedacchia, Daniela; Pugliese, Katherina; Ferrari, Giuliana; Verani, Paola; Federico, Maurizio

    1998-01-01

    We previously demonstrated that expression of the nonproducer F12-human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) variant induces a block in the replication of superinfecting HIV that does not depend on the down-regulation of CD4 HIV receptors. In order to individuate the gene(s) involved in F12-HIV-induced interference, vectors expressing each of the nine F12-HIV proteins were transfected in HIV-susceptible HeLa CD4 cells. Pools of cell clones stably producing each viral protein were infected with HIV-1, and virus release was measured in terms of reverse transcriptase activity in supernatants. We hereby demonstrate that HeLa CD4 cells expressing the F12-HIV gag, vif, or nef gene were resistant, to different degrees, to infection with T-cell-line-adapted HIV-1 strains. Conversely, expression of either the tat, rev, or vpu F12-HIV gene increased the rate of HIV release, and no apparent effects on HIV replication were observed in cells expressing either the F12-HIV vpr, pol, or env gene. No variation of CD4 exposure was detected in any of the uninfected HeLa CD4 pools. These data indicate that F12-HIV homologous viral interference is the consequence of the synergistic anti-HIV effects of Gag, Vif, and Nef proteins. Retrovirus vectors expressing F12-HIV vif or nef allowed us to further establish that the expression of each mutated protein (i) inhibits the replication of clinical HIV-1 isolates as well, (ii) impairs the infectivity of the virus released by cells chronically infected with HIV-1, and (iii) limitedly to F12-HIV Vif protein, induces HIV resistance in both vif-permissive and vif-nonpermissive cells. The levels of action of F12-HIV vif and nef anti-HIV effects were also determined. We observed that HIV virions emerging from the first viral cycle on F12-HIV vif-expressing cells, although released in unaltered amounts, had a strongly reduced ability to initiate the retrotranscription process when they reinfected parental HeLa CD4 cells. Differently, we observed

  20. Processing sites in the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) Gag-Pro-Pol precursor are cleaved by the viral protease at different rates.

    PubMed

    Pettit, Steve C; Lindquist, Jeffrey N; Kaplan, Andrew H; Swanstrom, Ronald

    2005-11-01

    We have examined the kinetics of processing of the HIV-1 Gag-Pro-Pol precursor in an in vitro assay with mature protease added in trans. The processing sites were cleaved at different rates to produce distinct intermediates. The initial cleavage occurred at the p2/NC site. Intermediate cleavages occurred at similar rates at the MA/CA and RT/IN sites, and to a lesser extent at sites upstream of RT. Late cleavages occurred at the sites flanking the protease (PR) domain, suggesting sequestering of these sites. We observed paired intermediates indicative of half- cleavage of RT/RH site, suggesting that the RT domain in Gag-Pro-Pol was in a dimeric form under these assay conditions. These results clarify our understanding of the processing kinetics of the Gag-Pro-Pol precursor and suggest regulated cleavage. Our results further suggest that early dimerization of the PR and RT domains may serve as a regulatory element to influence the kinetics of processing within the Pol domain.

  1. Processing sites in the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) Gag-Pro-Pol precursor are cleaved by the viral protease at different rates

    PubMed Central

    Pettit, Steve C; Lindquist, Jeffrey N; Kaplan, Andrew H; Swanstrom, Ronald

    2005-01-01

    We have examined the kinetics of processing of the HIV-1 Gag-Pro-Pol precursor in an in vitro assay with mature protease added in trans. The processing sites were cleaved at different rates to produce distinct intermediates. The initial cleavage occurred at the p2/NC site. Intermediate cleavages occurred at similar rates at the MA/CA and RT/IN sites, and to a lesser extent at sites upstream of RT. Late cleavages occurred at the sites flanking the protease (PR) domain, suggesting sequestering of these sites. We observed paired intermediates indicative of half- cleavage of RT/RH site, suggesting that the RT domain in Gag-Pro-Pol was in a dimeric form under these assay conditions. These results clarify our understanding of the processing kinetics of the Gag-Pro-Pol precursor and suggest regulated cleavage. Our results further suggest that early dimerization of the PR and RT domains may serve as a regulatory element to influence the kinetics of processing within the Pol domain. PMID:16262906

  2. Selection of an HLA-C*03:04-Restricted HIV-1 p24 Gag Sequence Variant Is Associated with Viral Escape from KIR2DL3+ Natural Killer Cells: Data from an Observational Cohort in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Hölzemer, Angelique; Thobakgale, Christina F; Jimenez Cruz, Camilo A; Garcia-Beltran, Wilfredo F; Carlson, Jonathan M; van Teijlingen, Nienke H; Mann, Jaclyn K; Jaggernath, Manjeetha; Kang, Seung-gu; Körner, Christian; Chung, Amy W; Schafer, Jamie L; Evans, David T; Alter, Galit; Walker, Bruce D; Goulder, Philip J; Carrington, Mary; Hartmann, Pia; Pertel, Thomas; Zhou, Ruhong; Ndung'u, Thumbi; Altfeld, Marcus

    2015-11-01

    Viruses can evade immune surveillance, but the underlying mechanisms are insufficiently understood. Here, we sought to understand the mechanisms by which natural killer (NK) cells recognize HIV-1-infected cells and how this virus can evade NK-cell-mediated immune pressure. Two sequence mutations in p24 Gag associated with the presence of specific KIR/HLA combined genotypes were identified in HIV-1 clade C viruses from a large cohort of infected, untreated individuals in South Africa (n = 392), suggesting viral escape from KIR+ NK cells through sequence variations within HLA class I-presented epitopes. One sequence polymorphism at position 303 of p24 Gag (TGag303V), selected for in infected individuals with both KIR2DL3 and HLA-C*03:04, enabled significantly better binding of the inhibitory KIR2DL3 receptor to HLA-C*03:04-expressing cells presenting this variant epitope compared to the wild-type epitope (wild-type mean 18.01 ± 10.45 standard deviation [SD] and variant mean 44.67 ± 14.42 SD, p = 0.002). Furthermore, activation of primary KIR2DL3+ NK cells from healthy donors in response to HLA-C*03:04+ target cells presenting the variant epitope was significantly reduced in comparison to cells presenting the wild-type sequence (wild-type mean 0.78 ± 0.07 standard error of the mean [SEM] and variant mean 0.63 ± 0.07 SEM, p = 0.012). Structural modeling and surface plasmon resonance of KIR/peptide/HLA interactions in the context of the different viral sequence variants studied supported these results. Future studies will be needed to assess processing and antigen presentation of the investigated HIV-1 epitope in natural infection, and the consequences for viral control. These data provide novel insights into how viruses can evade NK cell immunity through the selection of mutations in HLA-presented epitopes that enhance binding to inhibitory NK cell receptors. Better understanding of the mechanisms by which HIV-1 evades NK-cell-mediated immune pressure and the

  3. Selection of an HLA-C*03:04-Restricted HIV-1 p24 Gag Sequence Variant Is Associated with Viral Escape from KIR2DL3+ Natural Killer Cells: Data from an Observational Cohort in South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Jimenez Cruz, Camilo A.; Garcia-Beltran, Wilfredo F.; Carlson, Jonathan M.; van Teijlingen, Nienke H.; Mann, Jaclyn K.; Jaggernath, Manjeetha; Kang, Seung-gu; Körner, Christian; Chung, Amy W.; Schafer, Jamie L.; Evans, David T.; Alter, Galit; Walker, Bruce D.; Goulder, Philip J.; Carrington, Mary; Hartmann, Pia; Pertel, Thomas; Zhou, Ruhong; Ndung’u, Thumbi; Altfeld, Marcus

    2015-01-01

    Background Viruses can evade immune surveillance, but the underlying mechanisms are insufficiently understood. Here, we sought to understand the mechanisms by which natural killer (NK) cells recognize HIV-1-infected cells and how this virus can evade NK-cell-mediated immune pressure. Methods and Findings Two sequence mutations in p24 Gag associated with the presence of specific KIR/HLA combined genotypes were identified in HIV-1 clade C viruses from a large cohort of infected, untreated individuals in South Africa (n = 392), suggesting viral escape from KIR+ NK cells through sequence variations within HLA class I—presented epitopes. One sequence polymorphism at position 303 of p24 Gag (TGag303V), selected for in infected individuals with both KIR2DL3 and HLA-C*03:04, enabled significantly better binding of the inhibitory KIR2DL3 receptor to HLA-C*03:04-expressing cells presenting this variant epitope compared to the wild-type epitope (wild-type mean 18.01 ± 10.45 standard deviation [SD] and variant mean 44.67 ± 14.42 SD, p = 0.002). Furthermore, activation of primary KIR2DL3+ NK cells from healthy donors in response to HLA-C*03:04+ target cells presenting the variant epitope was significantly reduced in comparison to cells presenting the wild-type sequence (wild-type mean 0.78 ± 0.07 standard error of the mean [SEM] and variant mean 0.63 ± 0.07 SEM, p = 0.012). Structural modeling and surface plasmon resonance of KIR/peptide/HLA interactions in the context of the different viral sequence variants studied supported these results. Future studies will be needed to assess processing and antigen presentation of the investigated HIV-1 epitope in natural infection, and the consequences for viral control. Conclusions These data provide novel insights into how viruses can evade NK cell immunity through the selection of mutations in HLA-presented epitopes that enhance binding to inhibitory NK cell receptors. Better understanding of the mechanisms by which HIV-1 evades

  4. Trans-packaging of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 genome into Gag virus-like particles in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Tomo, Naoki; Goto, Toshiyuki; Morikawa, Yuko

    2013-03-26

    Yeast is recognized as a generally safe microorganism and is utilized for the production of pharmaceutical products, including vaccines. We previously showed that expression of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) Gag protein in Saccharomyces cerevisiae spheroplasts released Gag virus-like particles (VLPs) extracellularly, suggesting that the production system could be used in vaccine development. In this study, we further establish HIV-1 genome packaging into Gag VLPs in a yeast cell system. The nearly full-length HIV-1 genome containing the entire 5' long terminal repeat, U3-R-U5, did not transcribe gag mRNA in yeast. Co-expression of HIV-1 Tat, a transcription activator, did not support the transcription. When the HIV-1 promoter U3 was replaced with the promoter for the yeast glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase gene, gag mRNA transcription was restored, but no Gag protein expression was observed. Co-expression of HIV-1 Rev, a factor that facilitates nuclear export of gag mRNA, did not support the protein synthesis. Progressive deletions of R-U5 and its downstream stem-loop-rich region (SL) to the gag start ATG codon restored Gag protein expression, suggesting that a highly structured noncoding RNA generated from the R-U5-SL region had an inhibitory effect on gag mRNA translation. When a plasmid containing the HIV-1 genome with the R-U5-SL region was coexpressed with an expression plasmid for Gag protein, the HIV-1 genomic RNA was transcribed and incorporated into Gag VLPs formed by Gag protein assembly, indicative of the trans-packaging of HIV-1 genomic RNA into Gag VLPs in a yeast cell system. The concentration of HIV-1 genomic RNA in Gag VLPs released from yeast was approximately 500-fold higher than that in yeast cytoplasm. The deletion of R-U5 to the gag gene resulted in the failure of HIV-1 RNA packaging into Gag VLPs, indicating that the packaging signal of HIV-1 genomic RNA present in the R-U5 to gag region functions similarly in yeast cells

  5. Cell-dependent gag mutants of HIV-1 are crucially defective at the stage of uncoating/reverse transcription in non-permissive cells.

    PubMed

    Koh, K; Miyaura, M; Yoshida, A; Sakurai, A; Fujita, M; Adachi, A

    2000-10-01

    We have previously shown that some of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) gag matrix (MA), capsid (CA), and nucleocapsid (NC) mutants display host-cell-dependent replication potential, and that they are defective at the early phase of the virus replication cycle in non-permissive cells. To determine the defective replication stage of the cell-dependent mutants precisely, the processes of virus entry into cells and virus DNA synthesis were monitored by the highly sensitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and polymerase chain reaction amplification analysis. The results obtained indicated that all the cell-dependent MA, CA and NC mutants are defective at the stage of uncoating/reverse transcription, and that a cellular factor(s) is involved in this process.

  6. Plasmacytoid dendritic cell and functional HIV Gag p55-specific T cells before treatment interruption can inform set-point plasma HIV viral load after treatment interruption in chronically suppressed HIV-1+ patients

    PubMed Central

    Papasavvas, Emmanouil; Foulkes, Andrea; Yin, Xiangfan; Joseph, Jocelin; Ross, Brian; Azzoni, Livio; Kostman, Jay R; Mounzer, Karam; Shull, Jane; Montaner, Luis J

    2015-01-01

    The identification of immune correlates of HIV control is important for the design of immunotherapies that could support cure or antiretroviral therapy (ART) intensification-related strategies. ART interruptions may facilitate this task through exposure of an ART partially reconstituted immune system to endogenous virus. We investigated the relationship between set-point plasma HIV viral load (VL) during an ART interruption and innate/adaptive parameters before or after interruption. Dendritic cell (DC), natural killer (NK) cell and HIV Gag p55-specific T-cell functional responses were measured in paired cryopreserved peripheral blood mononuclear cells obtained at the beginning (on ART) and at set-point of an open-ended interruption from 31 ART-suppressed chronically HIV-1+ patients. Spearman correlation and linear regression modeling were used. Frequencies of plasmacytoid DC (pDC), and HIV Gag p55-specific CD3+ CD4− perforin+ IFN-γ+ cells at the beginning of interruption associated negatively with set-point plasma VL. Inclusion of both variables with interaction into a model resulted in the best fit (adjusted R2 = 0·6874). Frequencies of pDC or HIV Gag p55-specific CD3+ CD4− CSFElo CD107a+ cells at set-point associated negatively with set-point plasma VL. The dual contribution of pDC and anti-HIV T-cell responses to viral control, supported by our models, suggests that these variables may serve as immune correlates of viral control and could be integrated in cure or ART-intensification strategies. PMID:25684333

  7. Elucidation of New Binding Interactions with the Tumor Susceptibility Gene 101 (Tsg101) Protein Using Modified HIV-1 Gag-p6 Derived Peptide Ligands.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sung-Eun; Liu, Fa; Im, Young Jun; Stephen, Andrew G; Fivash, Matthew J; Waheed, Abdul A; Freed, Eric O; Fisher, Robert J; Hurley, James H; Burke, Terrence R

    2011-05-12

    Targeting protein-protein interactions is gaining greater recognition as an attractive approach to therapeutic development. An example of this may be found with the human cellular protein encoded by the tumor susceptibility gene 101 (Tsg101), where interaction with the p6 C-terminal domain of the nascent viral Gag protein is required for HIV-1 particle budding and release. This association of Gag with Tsg101 is highly dependent on a "Pro-Thr-Ala-Pro" ("PTAP") peptide sequence within the p6 protein. Although p6-derived peptides offer potential starting points for developing Tsg101-binding inhibitors, the affinities of canonical peptides are outside the useful range (K(d) values greater than 50 μM). Reported herein are crystal structures of Tsg101 in complex with two structurally-modified PTAP-derived peptides. This data define new regions of ligand interaction not previously identified with canonical peptide sequences. This information could be highly useful in the design of Tsg101-binding antagonists.

  8. The HIV-1 viral synapse signals human foreskin keratinocytes to secrete thymic stromal lymphopoietin facilitating HIV-1 foreskin entry.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Z; Xu, L; Sennepin, A; Federici, C; Ganor, Y; Tudor, D; Damotte, D; Barry Delongchamps, N; Zerbib, M; Bomsel, M

    2017-04-26

    The complexity of signal transduction resulting from the contact of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-infected cells and mucosal cells has hampered our comprehension of HIV-1 mucosal entry. Such process is driven efficiently only by viral synapse contacts, whereas cell-free HIV-1 remains poorly infectious. Using CD4(+) T-cells expressing only HIV-1 envelope inoculated on human adult foreskin tissues, we designed methodologies to identify the signals transduced in foreskin keratinocytes following HIV-1-envelope-dependent viral synapse formation. We find that the viral synapse activates the MyD88-independent TLR-4-nuclear factor (NfκB) signaling pathway in keratinocytes and the subsequent secretion of cytokines including thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP), a cytokine linking innate and T-helper type 2-adaptive immune responses. Moreover, the viral synapse upregulates the non-coding microRNA miR-375, known to control TSLP, and transfection of keratinocytes with anti-miR-375 blocks significantly TSLP secretion. Thus, the secretion of TSLP by keratinocytes is induced by the viral synapse in a miR-375 controlled manner. At the tissue level, these signals translate into the epidermal redistribution of Langerhans cells and formation of conjugates with T-cells, recapitulating the initial events observed in human foreskin infection by HIV-1. These results open new possibilities for designing strategies to block mucosal HIV-1 transmission, the major pathway by which HIV-1 spreads worldwide.Mucosal Immunology advance online publication 26 April 2017; doi:10.1038/mi.2017.23.

  9. Single point dilution method for the quantitative analysis of antibodies to the gag24 protein of HIV-1.

    PubMed

    Palenzuela, D O; Benítez, J; Rivero, J; Serrano, R; Ganzó, O

    1997-10-13

    In the present work a concept proposed in 1992 by Dopotka and Giesendorf was applied to the quantitative analysis of antibodies to the p24 protein of HIV-1 in infected asymptomatic individuals and AIDS patients. Two approaches were analyzed, a linear model OD = b0 + b1.log(titer) and a nonlinear log(titer) = alpha.OD beta, similar to the Dopotka-Giesendorf's model. The above two proposed models adequately fit the dependence of the optical density values at a single point dilution, and titers achieved by the end point dilution method (EPDM). Nevertheless, the nonlinear model better fits the experimental data, according to residuals analysis. Classical EPDM was compared with the new single point dilution method (SPDM) using both models. The best correlation between titers calculated using both models and titers achieved by EPDM was obtained with the nonlinear model. The correlation coefficients for the nonlinear and linear models were r = 0.85 and r = 0.77, respectively. A new correction factor was introduced into the nonlinear model and this reduced the day-to-day variation of titer values. In general, SPDM saves time, reagents and is more precise and sensitive to changes in antibody levels, and therefore has a higher resolution than EPDM.

  10. Biochemical and Biologic Characterization of Exosomes and Microvesicles as Facilitators of HIV-1 Infection in Macrophages1

    PubMed Central

    Kadiu, Irena; Narayanasamy, Prabagaran; Dash, Prasanta K.; Zhang, Wei; Gendelman, Howard E.

    2013-01-01

    Exosomes and microvesicles are cell membranous sacs originating from multivesicular bodies and plasma membranes that facilitate long-distance intercellular communications. Lipidomic, proteomic and cell biologic approaches uncovered processes by which the human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) can use exosomes and MV to facilitate its dissemination. Macrophage MV and exosomes were isolated by immunoaffinity and sucrose cushion centrifugation and characterized by morphologic, biochemical and molecular assays. HIV-1 was “entrapped” in exosome aggregates. Robust HIV-1 replication followed infection with exosome-enhanced fractions isolated from infected cell supernatants. MV and exosomes facilitated viral infection that was affected by a range of cell surface receptors and adhesion proteins. HIV-1 readily completed its life cycle in human monocyte-derived macrophages but not in CD4 negative cells. The data support a significant role for exosomes as facilitators of viral infection. PMID:22711894

  11. Mutations in both env and gag genes are required for HIV-1 resistance to the polysulfonic dendrimer SPL2923, as corroborated by chimeric virus technology.

    PubMed

    Hantson, Anke; Fikkert, Valery; Van Remoortel, Barbara; Pannecouque, Chistophe; Cherepanov, Peter; Matthews, Barry; Holan, George; De Clercq, Erik; Vandamme, Anne-Mieke; Debyser, Zeger; Witvrouw, Myriam

    2005-01-01

    A drug-resistant NL4.3/SPL2923 strain has previously been generated by in vitro selection of HIV-1(NL4.3) in the presence of the polysulfonic dendrimer SPL2923 and mutations were reported in its gp120 gene (Witvrouw et al., 2000). Here, we further analysed the (cross) resistance profile of NL4.3/SPL2923. NL4.3/SPL2923 was found to contain additional mutations in gp41 and showed reduced susceptibility to SPL2923, dextran sulfate (DS) and enfuvirtide. To delineate to what extent the mutations in each env gene were accountable for the phenotypic (cross) resistance of NL4.3/SPL2923, the gp120-, gp41- and gp160-sequences derived from this strain were placed into a wild-type background using env chimeric virus technology (CVT). The cross resistance of NL4.3/SPL2923 towards DS was fully reproduced following gp160-recombination, while it was only partially reproduced following gp120- or gp41-recombination. The mutations in gp41 of NL4.3/SPL2923 were sufficient to reproduce the cross resistance to enfuvirtide. Unexpectedly, the reduced sensitivity towards SPL2923 was not fully reproduced after gp160-recombination. The search for mutations in NL4.3/SPL2923 in viral genes other than env revealed several mutations in the gene encoding the HIV p17 matrix protein (MA) and one mutation in the gene encoding the p24 capsid protein (CA). In order to analyse the impact of the gag mutations alone and in combination with the mutations in env on the phenotypic resistance towards SPL2923, we developed a novel p17- and p17/gp160-CVT. Phenotypic analysis of the NL4.3/SPL2923 p17- and p17/gp160-recombined strains indicated that the mutations in both env and gag have to be present to fully reproduce the resistance of NL4.3/SPL2923 towards SPL2923.

  12. Primary Human Mammary Epithelial Cells Endocytose HIV-1 and Facilitate Viral Infection of CD4+ T Lymphocytes ▿

    PubMed Central

    Dorosko, Stephanie M.; Connor, Ruth I.

    2010-01-01

    The contribution of mammary epithelial cells (MEC) to human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) in breast milk remains largely unknown. While breast milk contains CD4+ cells throughout the breast-feeding period, it is not known whether MEC directly support HIV-1 infection or facilitate infection of CD4+ cells in the breast compartment. This study evaluated primary human MEC for direct infection with HIV-1 and for indirect transfer of infection to CD4+ target cells. Primary human MEC were isolated and assessed for expression of HIV-1 receptors. MEC were exposed to CCR5-, CXCR4- and dual-tropic strains of HIV-1 and evaluated for viral reverse transcription and integration and productive viral infection. MEC were also tested for the ability to transfer HIV to CD4+ target cells and to activate resting CD4+ T cells. Our results demonstrate that MEC express HIV-1 receptor proteins CD4, CCR5, CXCR4, and galactosyl ceramide (GalCer). While no evidence for direct infection of MEC was found, HIV-1 virions were observed in MEC endosomal compartments. Coculture of HIV-exposed MEC resulted in productive infection of activated CD4+ T cells. In addition, MEC secretions increased HIV-1 replication and proliferation of infected target cells. Overall, our results indicate that MEC are capable of endosomal uptake of HIV-1 and can facilitate virus infection and replication in CD4+ target cells. These findings suggest that MEC may serve as a viral reservoir for HIV-1 and may enhance infection of CD4+ T lymphocytes in vivo. PMID:20702626

  13. GANP interacts with APOBEC3G and facilitates its encapsidation into the virions to reduce HIV-1 infectivity

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Shailendra Kumar; Eid, Mohammed Mansour Abbas; Shimoda, Mayuko; Ikeda, Terumasa; Koito, Atsushi; Pham, Phuong; Goodman, Myron F.; Sakaguchi, Nobuo

    2013-01-01

    The single-stranded DNA-dependent deoxycytidine deaminase APOBEC3G (A3G) is a potent restrictive factor against HIV-1 virus lacking viral-encoded infectivity factor (Vif) in CD4+ T cells. A3G antiretroviral activity requires its encapsulation into HIV-1 virions. Here we show that germinal center-associated nuclear protein (GANP) is induced in activated CD4+ T cells and physically interacts with A3G. Overexpression of GANP augments the A3G encapsidation into the virion-like particles and ΔVif HIV-1 virions. GANP is encapsidated in HIV-1 virion and modulates A3G packaging into the cores together with cellular RNAs including 7SL RNA, and with unspliced HIV-1 genomic RNA. GANP upregulation leads to a significant increase in A3G-catalyzed G→A hypermutation in the viral genome and suppression of HIV-1 infectivity in a single-round viral infection assay. Conversely, GANP knockdown caused a marked increase in HIV-1 infectivity in a multiple rounds infection assay. The data suggest that GANP is a cellular factor that facilitates A3G encapsidation into HIV-1 virions to inhibit the viral infectivity. PMID:24198285

  14. Fusion of Epstein-Barr virus nuclear antigen-1-derived glycine-alanine repeat to trans-dominant HIV-1 Gag increases inhibitory activities and survival of transduced cells in vivo.

    PubMed

    Hammer, Diana; Wild, Jens; Ludwig, Christine; Asbach, Benedikt; Notka, Frank; Wagner, Ralf

    2008-06-01

    Trans-dominant human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) Gag derivatives have been shown to efficiently inhibit late steps of HIV-1 replication in vitro by interfering with Gag precursor assembly, thus ranking among the interesting candidates for gene therapy approaches. However, efficient antiviral activities of corresponding transgenes are likely to be counteracted in particular by cell-mediated host immune responses toward the transgene-expressing cells. To decrease this potential immunogenicity, a 24-amino acid Gly-Ala (GA) stretch derived from Epstein-Barr virus nuclear antigen-1 (EBNA1) and known to overcome proteasomal degradation was fused to a trans-dominant Gag variant (sgD1). To determine the capacity of this fusion polypeptide to repress viral replication, PM-1 cells were transduced with sgD1 and GAsgD1 transgenes, using retroviral gene transfer. Challenge of stably transfected permissive cell lines with various viral strains indicated that N-terminal GA fusion even enhanced the inhibitory properties of sgD1. Further studies revealed that the GA stretch increased protein stability by blocking proteasomal degradation of Gag proteins. Immunization of BALB/c mice with a DNA vaccine vector expressing sgD1 induced substantial Gag-specific immune responses that were, however, clearly diminished in the presence of GA. Furthermore, recognition of cells expressing the GA-fused transgene by CD8(+) T cells was drastically reduced, both in vitro and in vivo, resulting in prolonged survival of the transduced cells in recipient mice.

  15. Post-translational intracellular trafficking determines the type of immune response elicited by DNA vaccines expressing Gag antigen of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 (HIV-1).

    PubMed

    Wallace, Aaron; West, Kim; Rothman, Alan L; Ennis, Francis A; Lu, Shan; Wang, Shixia

    2013-10-01

    In the current study, immune responses induced by Gag DNA vaccines with different designs were evaluated in Balb/C mice. The results demonstrated that the DNA vaccine with the full length wild type gag gene (Wt-Gag) mainly produced Gag antigens intracellularly and induced a higher level of cell-mediated immune (CMI) responses, as measured by IFN-gamma ELISPOT, intracellular cytokine staining (ICS), and cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) assays against a dominant CD8(+) T cell epitope (AMQMLKETI). In contrast, the addition of a tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) leader sequence significantly improved overall Gag protein expression/secretion and Gag-specific antibody responses; however, Gag-specific CMI responses were decreased. The mutation of zinc-finger motif changed Gag protein expression patterns and reduced the ability to generate both CMI and antibody responses against Gag. These findings indicate that the structure and post-translational processing of antigens expressed by DNA vaccines play a critical role in eliciting optimal antibody or CMI responses.

  16. Post-translational intracellular trafficking determines the type of immune response elicited by DNA vaccines expressing Gag antigen of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 (HIV-1)

    PubMed Central

    Wallace, Aaron; West, Kim; Rothman, Alan L; Ennis, Francis A; Lu, Shan; Wang, Shixia

    2013-01-01

    In the current study, immune responses induced by Gag DNA vaccines with different designs were evaluated in Balb/C mice. The results demonstrated that the DNA vaccine with the full length wild type gag gene (Wt-Gag) mainly produced Gag antigens intracellularly and induced a higher level of cell-mediated immune (CMI) responses, as measured by IFN-gamma ELISPOT, intracellular cytokine staining (ICS), and cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) assays against a dominant CD8+ T cell epitope (AMQMLKETI). In contrast, the addition of a tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) leader sequence significantly improved overall Gag protein expression/secretion and Gag-specific antibody responses; however, Gag-specific CMI responses were decreased. The mutation of zinc-finger motif changed Gag protein expression patterns and reduced the ability to generate both CMI and antibody responses against Gag. These findings indicate that the structure and post-translational processing of antigens expressed by DNA vaccines play a critical role in eliciting optimal antibody or CMI responses. PMID:23941868

  17. Replication Competent Molecular Clones of HIV-1 Expressing Renilla Luciferase Facilitate the Analysis of Antibody Inhibition in PBMC

    PubMed Central

    Edmonds, Tara G.; Ding, Haitao; Yuan, Xing; Wei, Qing; Smith, Kendra S.; Conway, Joan A.; Wieczorek, Lindsay; Brown, Bruce; Polonis, Victoria; West, John T.; Montefiori, David C.; Kappes, John C.; Ochsenbauer, Christina

    2010-01-01

    Effective vaccine development for human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) will require assays that ascertain the capacity of vaccine immunogens to elicit neutralizing antibodies (NAb) to diverse HIV-1 strains. To facilitate NAb assessment in peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC)-based assays, we developed an assay-adaptable platform based on a Renilla luciferase (LucR) expressing HIV-1 proviral backbone. LucR was inserted into pNL4-3 DNA, preserving all viral open reading frames. The proviral genome was engineered to facilitate expression of diverse HIV-1 env sequences, allowing analysis in an isogenic background. The resulting Env-IMC-LucR viruses are infectious, and LucR is stably expressed over multiple replications in PBMC. HIV-1 neutralization, targeting TZM-bl cells, was highly correlative comparing virus (LucR) and cell (firefly luciferase) readouts. In PBMC, NAb activity can be analyzed either within a single or multiple cycles of replication. These results represent advancement toward a standardizable PBMC-based neutralization assay for assessing HIV-1 vaccine immunogen efficacy. PMID:20863545

  18. Structure of an anti-HIV-1 hammerhead ribozyme complex with a 17-mer DNA substrate analog of HIV-1 gag RNA and a mechanism for the cleavage reaction: 750 MHz NMR and computer experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ojha, R. P.; Dhingra, M. M.; Sarma, M. H.; Myer, Y. P.; Setlik, R. F.; Shibata, M.; Kazim, A. L.; Ornstein, R. L.; Rein, R.; Turner, C. J.; Sarma, R. H.

    1997-01-01

    between the anti HIV-1 gag ribozyme and its abortive DNA substrate manifests in the detection of a continuous track of A.T base pairs; this suggests that the interaction between the ribozyme and its DNA substrate is stronger than the one observed in the case of the free ribozyme where the bases in stem I and stem III regions interact strongly with the ribozyme core region (Sarma, R. H., et al. FEBS Letters 375, 317-23, 1995). The complex formation provides certain guidelines in the design of suitable therapeutic ribozymes. If the residues in the ribozyme stem regions interact with the conserved core, it may either prevent or interfere with the formation of a catalytically active tertiary structure.

  19. Structure of an anti-HIV-1 hammerhead ribozyme complex with a 17-mer DNA substrate analog of HIV-1 gag RNA and a mechanism for the cleavage reaction: 750 MHz NMR and computer experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ojha, R. P.; Dhingra, M. M.; Sarma, M. H.; Myer, Y. P.; Setlik, R. F.; Shibata, M.; Kazim, A. L.; Ornstein, R. L.; Rein, R.; Turner, C. J.; hide

    1997-01-01

    between the anti HIV-1 gag ribozyme and its abortive DNA substrate manifests in the detection of a continuous track of A.T base pairs; this suggests that the interaction between the ribozyme and its DNA substrate is stronger than the one observed in the case of the free ribozyme where the bases in stem I and stem III regions interact strongly with the ribozyme core region (Sarma, R. H., et al. FEBS Letters 375, 317-23, 1995). The complex formation provides certain guidelines in the design of suitable therapeutic ribozymes. If the residues in the ribozyme stem regions interact with the conserved core, it may either prevent or interfere with the formation of a catalytically active tertiary structure.

  20. High Frequency of Transmitted HIV-1 Gag HLA Class I-Driven Immune Escape Variants but Minimal Immune Selection over the First Year of Clade C Infection

    PubMed Central

    Gounder, Kamini; Padayachi, Nagavelli; Mann, Jaclyn K.; Radebe, Mopo; Mokgoro, Mammekwa; van der Stok, Mary; Mkhize, Lungile; Mncube, Zenele; Jaggernath, Manjeetha; Reddy, Tarylee; Walker, Bruce D.; Ndung’u, Thumbi

    2015-01-01

    In chronic HIV infection, CD8+ T cell responses to Gag are associated with lower viral loads, but longitudinal studies of HLA-restricted CD8+ T cell-driven selection pressure in Gag from the time of acute infection are limited. In this study we examined Gag sequence evolution over the first year of infection in 22 patients identified prior to seroconversion. A total of 310 and 337 full-length Gag sequences from the earliest available samples (median = 14 days after infection [Fiebig stage I/II]) and at one-year post infection respectively were generated. Six of 22 (27%) individuals were infected with multiple variants. There was a trend towards early intra-patient viral sequence diversity correlating with viral load set point (p = 0.07, r = 0.39). At 14 days post infection, 59.7% of Gag CTL epitopes contained non-consensus polymorphisms and over half of these (35.3%) comprised of previously described CTL escape variants. Consensus and variant CTL epitope proportions were equally distributed irrespective of the selecting host HLA allele and most epitopes remained unchanged over 12 months post infection. These data suggest that intrapatient diversity during acute infection is an indicator of disease outcome. In this setting, there is a high rate of transmitted CTL escape variants and limited immune selection in Gag during the first year of infection. These data have relevance for vaccine strategies designed to elicit effective CD8+ T cell immune responses. PMID:25781986

  1. Molecular mimicry of human tRNALys anti-codon domain by HIV-1 RNA genome facilitates tRNA primer annealing

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Christopher P.; Saadatmand, Jenan; Kleiman, Lawrence; Musier-Forsyth, Karin

    2013-01-01

    The primer for initiating reverse transcription in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) is tRNALys3. Host cell tRNALys is selectively packaged into HIV-1 through a specific interaction between the major tRNALys-binding protein, human lysyl-tRNA synthetase (hLysRS), and the viral proteins Gag and GagPol. Annealing of the tRNA primer onto the complementary primer-binding site (PBS) in viral RNA is mediated by the nucleocapsid domain of Gag. The mechanism by which tRNALys3 is targeted to the PBS and released from hLysRS prior to annealing is unknown. Here, we show that hLysRS specifically binds to a tRNA anti-codon-like element (TLE) in the HIV-1 genome, which mimics the anti-codon loop of tRNALys and is located proximal to the PBS. Mutation of the U-rich sequence within the TLE attenuates binding of hLysRS in vitro and reduces the amount of annealed tRNALys3 in virions. Thus, LysRS binds specifically to the TLE, which is part of a larger LysRS binding domain in the viral RNA that includes elements of the Psi packaging signal. Our results suggest that HIV-1 uses molecular mimicry of the anti-codon of tRNALys to increase the efficiency of tRNALys3 annealing to viral RNA. PMID:23264568

  2. Transmembrane TNF-α Facilitates HIV-1 Infection of Podocytes Cultured from Children with HIV-Associated Nephropathy.

    PubMed

    Li, Jinliang; Das, Jharna R; Tang, Pingtao; Han, Zhe; Jaiswal, Jyoti K; Ray, Patricio E

    2017-03-01

    Studies have shown that podocytes and renal tubular epithelial cells from patients with HIV-associated nephropathy (HIVAN) express HIV-1 transcripts, suggesting that productive infection of renal epithelial cells precipitates development of HIVAN. However, podocytes and renal tubular epithelial cells do not express CD4 receptors, and it is unclear how these cells become productively infected in vivo We investigated the mechanisms underlying the infection by HIV-1 of podocytes cultured from the urine of children with HIVAN. We observed low-level productive infection on exposure of these cells to primary cell-free HIV-1 supernatants. However, envelope-defective recombinant HIV-1 did not infect the renal epithelial cell lines. Moreover, treatment of podocytes to inhibit endocytic transport or dynamin activity or remove cell surface heparan sulfate proteoglycans reduced infection efficiency. Transfection of CD4- 293T cells with a cDNA expression library developed from a podocyte cell line derived from a child with HIVAN led to the identification of TNF-α as a possible mediator of HIV-1 infection. Overexpression of transmembrane TNF-α in cultured CD4- renal tubular epithelial cells, 293T cells, and HeLa cells enabled the infection of these cells; exposure to soluble TNF-α did not. Immunohistochemistry showed TNF-α expression in podocytes of renal sections from children with HIVAN. Furthermore, we found that TNF-α enhanced NF-κB activation and integration of HIV-1 into the podocyte DNA. Finally, inhibition of dynamin activity blocked TNF-α-mediated infection. These data establish a role for transmembrane TNF-α in facilitating the viral entry and integration of HIV-1 into the DNA of renal epithelial cells.

  3. Higher cross-subtype IFN-γ ELISpot responses to Gag and Nef peptides in Brazilian HIV-1 subtype B- and F1- than in C-infected subjects.

    PubMed

    Côrtes, Fernanda Heloise; Bello, Gonzalo; Vorsatz, Carla; Pilotto, José Henrique; Guimarães, Monick Lindenmeyer; Grinsztejn, Beatriz; Veloso, Valdiléa Gonçalves; Pinto, Aguinaldo Roberto; Morgado, Mariza Gonçalves

    2013-02-04

    HIV-1 diversity has been considered a huge challenge for the HIV-1 vaccine development. To overcome it, immunogens based on centralized sequences, as consensus, have been tested. In Brazil, the co-circulation of three subtypes offers a suitable scenario to test T cell cross-subtype responses to consensus sequences. Furthermore, we included peptides based on closest viral isolates (CVI) from each subtype analyzed to compare with T cell responses detected against the consensus sequences. The study included 32 subjects infected with HIV-1 subtype B (n=13),C (n=11), and F1 (n=8). Gag and Nef-specific T cell responses were evaluated by IFN-γ-ELISpot assay. Peptides based on CVI sequences were similar to consensus in both reducing genetic distance and detecting T cell responses. A high cross-subtype response between B and F1 in both regions was observed in HIV-1 subtype B and F1-infected subjects. We also found no significant difference in responses to subtype B and C consensus peptides among subtype B-infected subjects. In contrast, the magnitude of T cell responses to consensus C peptides in the Gag region was higher than to consensus B peptides among HIV-1 subtype C-infected subjects. Regarding Nef, subtype C-infected subjects showed higher values to consensus C than to consensus F1 peptides. Moreover, subtype F1-infected subjects presented lower responses to subtype C peptides than to subtype F1 and B. A similar level of responses was detected with group M based peptides in subtype B and F1 infected subjects. However, among subtype C infected subjects, this set of peptides detected lower levels of response than consensus C. Overall, the level of cross-subtype response between subtypes B and F1 was higher than between subtype C and B or C and F1. Our data suggests that the barrier of genetic diversity in HIV-1 group M for vaccine design may be dependent on the subtypes involved. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Ectopic ATP synthase facilitates transfer of HIV-1 from antigen-presenting cells to CD4+ target cells

    PubMed Central

    Yavlovich, Amichai; Viard, Mathias; Zhou, Ming; Veenstra, Timothy D.; Wang, Ji Ming; Gong, Wanghua; Heldman, Eliahu; Blumenthal, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Antigen-presenting cells (APCs) act as vehicles that transfer HIV to their target CD4+ cells through an intercellular junction, termed the virologic synapse. The molecules that are involved in this process remain largely unidentified. In this study, we used photoaffinity labeling and a proteomic approach to identify new proteins that facilitate HIV-1 transfer. We identified ectopic mitochondrial ATP synthase as a factor that mediates HIV-1 transfer between APCs and CD4+ target cells. Monoclonal antibodies against the β-subunit of ATP synthase inhibited APC-mediated transfer of multiple strains HIV-1 to CD4+ target cells. Likewise, the specific inhibitors of ATPase, citreoviridin and IF1, completely blocked APC-mediated transfer of HIV-1 at the APC-target cell interaction step. Confocal fluorescent microscopy showed localization of extracellular ATP synthase at junctions between APC and CD4+ target cells. We conclude that ectopic ATP synthase could be an accessible molecular target for inhibiting HIV-1 proliferation in vivo. PMID:22753871

  5. Interleukin-7 Facilitates HIV-1 Transmission to Cervico-Vaginal Tissue ex vivo

    PubMed Central

    Introini, Andrea; Vanpouille, Christophe; Lisco, Andrea; Grivel, Jean-Charles; Margolis, Leonid

    2013-01-01

    The majority of HIV-1 infections in women occur through vaginal intercourse, in which virus-containing semen is deposited on the cervico-vaginal mucosa. Semen is more than a mere carrier of HIV-1, since it contains many biological factors, in particular cytokines, that may affect HIV-1 transmission. The concentration of interleukin (IL)-7, one of the most prominent cytokines in semen of healthy individuals, is further increased in semen of HIV-1-infected men. Here, we investigated the potential role of IL-7 in HIV-1 vaginal transmission in an ex vivo system of human cervico-vaginal tissue. We simulated an in vivo situation by depositing HIV-1 on cervico-vaginal tissue in combination with IL-7 at concentrations comparable with those measured in semen of HIV-1-infected individuals. We found that IL-7 significantly enhanced virus replication in ex vivo infected cervico-vaginal tissue. Similarly, we observed an enhancement of HIV-1 replication in lymphoid tissue explants. Analysis of T cells isolated from infected tissues showed that IL-7 reduced CD4+ T cell depletion preventing apoptosis, as shown by the decrease in the number of cells expressing the apoptotic marker APO2.7 and the increase in the expression of the anti-apoptotic protein B-cell lymphoma (Bcl)-2. Also, IL-7 increased the fraction of cycling CD4+ T cells, as evidenced by staining for the nuclear factor Ki-67. High levels of seminal IL-7 in vivo may be relevant to the survival of the founder pool of HIV-1-infected cells in the cervico-vaginal mucosa at the initial stage of infection, promoting local expansion and dissemination of HIV infection. PMID:23408885

  6. Extracellular ATP acts on P2Y2 purinergic receptors to facilitate HIV-1 infection.

    PubMed

    Séror, Claire; Melki, Marie-Thérèse; Subra, Frédéric; Raza, Syed Qasim; Bras, Marlène; Saïdi, Héla; Nardacci, Roberta; Voisin, Laurent; Paoletti, Audrey; Law, Frédéric; Martins, Isabelle; Amendola, Alessandra; Abdul-Sater, Ali A; Ciccosanti, Fabiola; Delelis, Olivier; Niedergang, Florence; Thierry, Sylvain; Said-Sadier, Najwane; Lamaze, Christophe; Métivier, Didier; Estaquier, Jérome; Fimia, Gian Maria; Falasca, Laura; Casetti, Rita; Modjtahedi, Nazanine; Kanellopoulos, Jean; Mouscadet, Jean-François; Ojcius, David M; Piacentini, Mauro; Gougeon, Marie-Lise; Kroemer, Guido; Perfettini, Jean-Luc

    2011-08-29

    Extracellular adenosine triphosphate (ATP) can activate purinergic receptors of the plasma membrane and modulate multiple cellular functions. We report that ATP is released from HIV-1 target cells through pannexin-1 channels upon interaction between the HIV-1 envelope protein and specific target cell receptors. Extracellular ATP then acts on purinergic receptors, including P2Y2, to activate proline-rich tyrosine kinase 2 (Pyk2) kinase and transient plasma membrane depolarization, which in turn stimulate fusion between Env-expressing membranes and membranes containing CD4 plus appropriate chemokine co-receptors. Inhibition of any of the constituents of this cascade (pannexin-1, ATP, P2Y2, and Pyk2) impairs the replication of HIV-1 mutant viruses that are resistant to conventional antiretroviral agents. Altogether, our results reveal a novel signaling pathway involved in the early steps of HIV-1 infection that may be targeted with new therapeutic approaches.

  7. Extracellular ATP acts on P2Y2 purinergic receptors to facilitate HIV-1 infection

    PubMed Central

    Séror, Claire; Melki, Marie-Thérèse; Subra, Frédéric; Raza, Syed Qasim; Bras, Marlène; Saïdi, Héla; Nardacci, Roberta; Voisin, Laurent; Paoletti, Audrey; Law, Frédéric; Martins, Isabelle; Amendola, Alessandra; Abdul-Sater, Ali A.; Ciccosanti, Fabiola; Delelis, Olivier; Niedergang, Florence; Thierry, Sylvain; Said-Sadier, Najwane; Lamaze, Christophe; Métivier, Didier; Estaquier, Jérome; Fimia, Gian Maria; Falasca, Laura; Casetti, Rita; Modjtahedi, Nazanine; Kanellopoulos, Jean; Mouscadet, Jean-François; Ojcius, David M.; Piacentini, Mauro; Gougeon, Marie-Lise

    2011-01-01

    Extracellular adenosine triphosphate (ATP) can activate purinergic receptors of the plasma membrane and modulate multiple cellular functions. We report that ATP is released from HIV-1 target cells through pannexin-1 channels upon interaction between the HIV-1 envelope protein and specific target cell receptors. Extracellular ATP then acts on purinergic receptors, including P2Y2, to activate proline-rich tyrosine kinase 2 (Pyk2) kinase and transient plasma membrane depolarization, which in turn stimulate fusion between Env-expressing membranes and membranes containing CD4 plus appropriate chemokine co-receptors. Inhibition of any of the constituents of this cascade (pannexin-1, ATP, P2Y2, and Pyk2) impairs the replication of HIV-1 mutant viruses that are resistant to conventional antiretroviral agents. Altogether, our results reveal a novel signaling pathway involved in the early steps of HIV-1 infection that may be targeted with new therapeutic approaches. PMID:21859844

  8. HIV-1 Gag p17 presented as virus-like particles on the E2 scaffold from Geobacillus stearothermophilus induces sustained humoral and cellular immune responses in the absence of IFN{gamma} production by CD4+ T cells

    SciTech Connect

    Caivano, Antonella; Doria-Rose, Nicole A.; Buelow, Benjamin; Sartorius, Rossella; Trovato, Maria; D'Apice, Luciana; Domingo, Gonzalo J.; Sutton, William F.; Haigwood, Nancy L.; De Berardinis, Piergiuseppe

    2010-11-25

    We have constructed stable virus-like particles displaying the HIV-1 Gag(p17) protein as an N-terminal fusion with an engineered protein domain from the Geobacillus stearothermophilus pyruvate dehydrogenase subunit E2. Mice immunized with the Gag(p17)-E2 60-mer scaffold particles mounted a strong and sustained antibody response. Antibodies directed to Gag(p17) were boosted significantly with additional immunizations, while anti-E2 responses reached a plateau. The isotype of the induced antibodies was biased towards IgG1, and the E2-primed CD4+ T cells did not secrete IFN{gamma}. Using transgenic mouse model systems, we demonstrated that CD8+ T cells primed with E2 particles were able to exert lytic activity and produce IFN{gamma}. These results show that the E2 scaffold represents a powerful vaccine delivery system for whole antigenic proteins or polyepitope engineered proteins, evoking antibody production and antigen specific CTL activity even in the absence of IFN{gamma}-producing CD4+ T cells.

  9. HIV-1 Gag p17 presented as virus-like particles on the E2 scaffold from Geobacillus stearothermophilus induces sustained humoral and cellular immune responses in the absence of IFNγ production by CD4+ T cells

    PubMed Central

    Caivano, Antonella; Doria-Rose, Nicole A.; Buelow, Benjamin; Sartorius, Rossella; Trovato, Maria; D’Apice, Luciana; Domingo, Gonzalo J.; Sutton, William F.; Haigwood, Nancy L.; De Berardinis, Piergiuseppe

    2012-01-01

    We have constructed stable virus-like particles displaying the HIV-1 Gag(p17) protein as an N-terminal fusion with an engineered protein domain from the Geobacillus stearothermophilus pyruvate dehydrogenase subunit E2. Mice immunized with the Gag(p17)-E2 60-mer scaffold particles mounted a strong and sustained antibody response. Antibodies directed to Gag(p17) were boosted significantly with additional immunizations, while anti-E2 responses reached a plateau. The isotype of the induced antibodies was biased towards IgG1, and the E2-primed CD4+ T cells did not secrete IFNγ. Using transgenic mouse model systems, we demonstrated that CD8+ T cells primed with E2 particles were able to exert lytic activity and produce IFNγ. These results show that the E2 scaffold represents a powerful vaccine delivery system for whole antigenic proteins or polyepitope engineered proteins, evoking antibody production and antigen specific CTL activity even in the absence of IFNγ-producing CD4+ T cells. PMID:20850858

  10. Sequence conservation, HLA-E-Restricted peptide, and best-defined CTL/CD8+ epitopes in gag P24 (capsid) of HIV-1 subtype B

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prasetyo, Afiono Agung; Dharmawan, Ruben; Sari, Yulia; Sariyatun, Ratna

    2017-02-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) remains a cause of global health problem. Continuous studies of HIV-1 genetic and immunological profiles are important to find strategies against the virus. This study aimed to conduct analysis of sequence conservation, HLA-E-restricted peptide, and best-defined CTL/CD8+ epitopes in p24 (capsid) of HIV-1 subtype B worldwide. The p24-coding sequences from 3,557 HIV subtype B isolates were aligned using MUSCLE and analysed. Some highly conserved regions (sequence conservation ≥95%) were observed. Two considerably long series of sequences with conservation of 100% was observed at base 349-356 and 550-557 of p24 (HXB2 numbering). The consensus from all aligned isolates was precisely the same as consensus B in the Los Alamos HIV Database. The HLA-E-restricted peptide in amino acid (aa) 14-22 of HIV-1 p24 (AISPRTLNA) was found in 55.9% (1,987/3,557) of HIV-1 subtype B worldwide. Forty-four best-defined CTL/CD8+ epitopes were observed, in which VKNWMTETL epitope (aa 181-189 of p24) restricted by B*4801 was the most frequent, as found in 94.9% of isolates. The results of this study would contribute information about HIV-1 subtype B and benefits for further works willing to develop diagnostic and therapeutic strategies against the virus.

  11. Recombination enhances HIV-1 envelope diversity by facilitating the survival of latent genomic fragments in the plasma virus population

    SciTech Connect

    Immonen, Taina T.; Conway, Jessica M.; Romero-Severson, Ethan O.; Perelson, Alan S.; Leitner, Thomas; Kouyos, Roger Dimitri

    2015-12-22

    HIV-1 is subject to immune pressure exerted by the host, giving variants that escape the immune response an advantage. Virus released from activated latent cells competes against variants that have continually evolved and adapted to host immune pressure. Nevertheless, there is increasing evidence that virus displaying a signal of latency survives in patient plasma despite having reduced fitness due to long-term immune memory. We investigated the survival of virus with latent envelope genomic fragments by simulating within-host HIV-1 sequence evolution and the cycling of viral lineages in and out of the latent reservoir. Our model incorporates a detailed mutation process including nucleotide substitution, recombination, latent reservoir dynamics, diversifying selection pressure driven by the immune response, and purifying selection pressure asserted by deleterious mutations. We evaluated the ability of our model to capture sequence evolution in vivo by comparing our simulated sequences to HIV-1 envelope sequence data from 16 HIV-infected untreated patients. Empirical sequence divergence and diversity measures were qualitatively and quantitatively similar to those of our simulated HIV-1 populations, suggesting that our model invokes realistic trends of HIV-1 genetic evolution. Moreover, reconstructed phylogenies of simulated and patient HIV-1 populations showed similar topological structures. Our simulation results suggest that recombination is a key mechanism facilitating the persistence of virus with latent envelope genomic fragments in the productively infected cell population. Recombination increased the survival probability of latent virus forms approximately 13-fold. Prevalence of virus with latent fragments in productively infected cells was observed in only 2% of simulations when we ignored recombination, while the proportion increased to 27% of simulations when we allowed recombination. We also found that the selection pressures exerted by different fitness

  12. Recombination Enhances HIV-1 Envelope Diversity by Facilitating the Survival of Latent Genomic Fragments in the Plasma Virus Population

    PubMed Central

    Immonen, Taina T.; Conway, Jessica M.; Romero-Severson, Ethan O.; Perelson, Alan S.; Leitner, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    HIV-1 is subject to immune pressure exerted by the host, giving variants that escape the immune response an advantage. Virus released from activated latent cells competes against variants that have continually evolved and adapted to host immune pressure. Nevertheless, there is increasing evidence that virus displaying a signal of latency survives in patient plasma despite having reduced fitness due to long-term immune memory. We investigated the survival of virus with latent envelope genomic fragments by simulating within-host HIV-1 sequence evolution and the cycling of viral lineages in and out of the latent reservoir. Our model incorporates a detailed mutation process including nucleotide substitution, recombination, latent reservoir dynamics, diversifying selection pressure driven by the immune response, and purifying selection pressure asserted by deleterious mutations. We evaluated the ability of our model to capture sequence evolution in vivo by comparing our simulated sequences to HIV-1 envelope sequence data from 16 HIV-infected untreated patients. Empirical sequence divergence and diversity measures were qualitatively and quantitatively similar to those of our simulated HIV-1 populations, suggesting that our model invokes realistic trends of HIV-1 genetic evolution. Moreover, reconstructed phylogenies of simulated and patient HIV-1 populations showed similar topological structures. Our simulation results suggest that recombination is a key mechanism facilitating the persistence of virus with latent envelope genomic fragments in the productively infected cell population. Recombination increased the survival probability of latent virus forms approximately 13-fold. Prevalence of virus with latent fragments in productively infected cells was observed in only 2% of simulations when we ignored recombination, while the proportion increased to 27% of simulations when we allowed recombination. We also found that the selection pressures exerted by different fitness

  13. Recombination Enhances HIV-1 Envelope Diversity by Facilitating the Survival of Latent Genomic Fragments in the Plasma Virus Population.

    PubMed

    Immonen, Taina T; Conway, Jessica M; Romero-Severson, Ethan O; Perelson, Alan S; Leitner, Thomas

    2015-12-01

    HIV-1 is subject to immune pressure exerted by the host, giving variants that escape the immune response an advantage. Virus released from activated latent cells competes against variants that have continually evolved and adapted to host immune pressure. Nevertheless, there is increasing evidence that virus displaying a signal of latency survives in patient plasma despite having reduced fitness due to long-term immune memory. We investigated the survival of virus with latent envelope genomic fragments by simulating within-host HIV-1 sequence evolution and the cycling of viral lineages in and out of the latent reservoir. Our model incorporates a detailed mutation process including nucleotide substitution, recombination, latent reservoir dynamics, diversifying selection pressure driven by the immune response, and purifying selection pressure asserted by deleterious mutations. We evaluated the ability of our model to capture sequence evolution in vivo by comparing our simulated sequences to HIV-1 envelope sequence data from 16 HIV-infected untreated patients. Empirical sequence divergence and diversity measures were qualitatively and quantitatively similar to those of our simulated HIV-1 populations, suggesting that our model invokes realistic trends of HIV-1 genetic evolution. Moreover, reconstructed phylogenies of simulated and patient HIV-1 populations showed similar topological structures. Our simulation results suggest that recombination is a key mechanism facilitating the persistence of virus with latent envelope genomic fragments in the productively infected cell population. Recombination increased the survival probability of latent virus forms approximately 13-fold. Prevalence of virus with latent fragments in productively infected cells was observed in only 2% of simulations when we ignored recombination, while the proportion increased to 27% of simulations when we allowed recombination. We also found that the selection pressures exerted by different fitness

  14. Presence of HIV-1 Gag-specific IFN-gamma+IL-2+ and CD28+IL-2+ CD4 T cell responses is associated with nonprogression in HIV-1 infection.

    PubMed

    Boaz, Mark J; Waters, Anele; Murad, Shahed; Easterbrook, Philippa J; Vyakarnam, Annapurna

    2002-12-01

    HIV immunity is likely CD4 T cell dependent. HIV-specific CD4 T cell proliferative responses are reported to correlate inversely with virus load and directly with specific CD8 responses. However, the phenotype and cytokine profile of specific CD4 T cells that correlate with disease is unknown. We compared the number/function of Gag p24-specific CD4 T cells in 17 HIV-infected long-term nonprogressors (LTNPs) infected for a median of 14.6 years with those of 16 slow progressors (SPs), also HIV infected for a median of 14 years but whose CD4 count had declined to <500 cells/ micro l. Compared with SPs, LTNPs had higher numbers of specific CD4s that were double positive for IFN-gamma and IL-2 as well as CD28 and IL-2. However, CD4 T cells that produced IL-2 alone (IL-2(+)IFN-gamma(-)) or IFN-gamma alone (IFN-gamma(+)IL-2(-)) did not differ between LTNPs and SPs. The decrease in p24-specific CD28(+)IL-2(+) cells with a concomitant increase of p24-specific CD28(-)IL-2(+) cells occurred before those specific for a non-HIV Ag, CMV. p24-specific CD28(-)IL-2(+) cells were evident in LTNPs and SPs, whereas the CMV-specific CD28(-)IL-2(+) response was confined to SPs. The difference between LTNPs and SPs in the Gag p24 IFN-gamma(+)IL-2(+) response was maintained when responses to total Gag (p17 plus p24) were measured. The percentage and absolute number of Gag-specific IFN-gamma(+)IL-2(+) but not of IFN-gamma(+)IL-2(-) CD4s correlated inversely with virus load. The Gag-specific IFN-gamma(+)IL-2(+) CD4 response also correlated positively with the percentage of Gag-specific IFN-gamma(+) CD8 T cells in these subjects. Accumulation of specific CD28(-)IL-2(+) helpers and loss of IFN-gamma(+)IL-2(+) CD4 T cells may compromise specific CD8 responses and, in turn, immunity to HIV.

  15. ADAR1 Facilitates HIV-1 Replication in Primary CD4+ T Cells

    PubMed Central

    van Hamme, John L.; Jansen, Machiel H.; van Dort, Karel A.; Vanderver, Adeline; Rice, Gillian I.; Crow, Yanick J.; Kootstra, Neeltje A.; Kuijpers, Taco W.

    2015-01-01

    Unlike resting CD4+ T cells, activated CD4+T cells are highly susceptible to infection of human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1). HIV-1 infects T cells and macrophages without activating the nucleic acid sensors and the anti-viral type I interferon response. Adenosine deaminase acting on RNA 1 (ADAR1) is an RNA editing enzyme that displays antiviral activity against several RNA viruses. Mutations in ADAR1 cause the autoimmune disorder Aicardi-Goutieères syndrome (AGS). This disease is characterized by an inappropriate activation of the interferon-stimulated gene response. Here we show that HIV-1 replication, in ADAR1-deficient CD4+T lymphocytes from AGS patients, is blocked at the level of protein translation. Furthermore, viral protein synthesis block is accompanied by an activation of interferon-stimulated genes. RNA silencing of ADAR1 in Jurkat cells also inhibited HIV-1 protein synthesis. Our data support that HIV-1 requires ADAR1 for efficient replication in human CD4+T cells. PMID:26629815

  16. HIV Type 1 Gag as a Target for Antiviral Therapy

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Abstract The Gag proteins of HIV-1 are central players in virus particle assembly, release, and maturation, and also function in the establishment of a productive infection. Despite their importance throughout the replication cycle, there are currently no approved antiretroviral therapies that target the Gag precursor protein or any of the mature Gag proteins. Recent progress in understanding the structural and cell biology of HIV-1 Gag function has revealed a number of potential Gag-related targets for possible therapeutic intervention. In this review, we summarize our current understanding of HIV-1 Gag and suggest some approaches for the development of novel antiretroviral agents that target Gag. PMID:21848364

  17. HIV-1 Prevention for HIV-1 Serodiscordant Couples

    PubMed Central

    Curran, Kathryn; Baeten, Jared M.; Coates, Thomas J.; Kurth, Ann; Mugo, Nelly R.

    2013-01-01

    A substantial proportion of HIV-1-infected individuals in sub-Saharan Africa are in stable relationships with HIV-1-uninfected partners, and HIV-1 serodiscordant couples thus represent an important target population for HIV-1 prevention. Couple-based HIV-1 testing and counseling facilitates identification of HIV-1 serodiscordant couples, counseling about risk reduction, and referrals to HIV-1 treatment, reproductive health services, and support services. Maximizing HIV-1 prevention for HIV-1 serodiscordant couples requires a combination of strategies, including counseling about condoms, sexual risk, fertility, contraception, and the clinical and prevention benefits of antiretroviral therapy (ART) for the HIV-1-infected partner; provision of clinical care and ART for the HIV-1-infected partner; antenatal care and services to prevent mother to child transmission for HIV-1- infected pregnant women; male circumcision for HIV-1-uninfected men; and, pending guidelines and demonstration projects, oral pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) for HIV-1-uninfected partners. PMID:22415473

  18. Molecular mimicry of human tRNALys anti-codon domain by HIV-1 RNA genome facilitates tRNA primer annealing.

    PubMed

    Jones, Christopher P; Saadatmand, Jenan; Kleiman, Lawrence; Musier-Forsyth, Karin

    2013-02-01

    The primer for initiating reverse transcription in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) is tRNA(Lys3). Host cell tRNA(Lys) is selectively packaged into HIV-1 through a specific interaction between the major tRNA(Lys)-binding protein, human lysyl-tRNA synthetase (hLysRS), and the viral proteins Gag and GagPol. Annealing of the tRNA primer onto the complementary primer-binding site (PBS) in viral RNA is mediated by the nucleocapsid domain of Gag. The mechanism by which tRNA(Lys3) is targeted to the PBS and released from hLysRS prior to annealing is unknown. Here, we show that hLysRS specifically binds to a tRNA anti-codon-like element (TLE) in the HIV-1 genome, which mimics the anti-codon loop of tRNA(Lys) and is located proximal to the PBS. Mutation of the U-rich sequence within the TLE attenuates binding of hLysRS in vitro and reduces the amount of annealed tRNA(Lys3) in virions. Thus, LysRS binds specifically to the TLE, which is part of a larger LysRS binding domain in the viral RNA that includes elements of the Psi packaging signal. Our results suggest that HIV-1 uses molecular mimicry of the anti-codon of tRNA(Lys) to increase the efficiency of tRNA(Lys3) annealing to viral RNA.

  19. CRISPR-Cas9 Can Inhibit HIV-1 Replication but NHEJ Repair Facilitates Virus Escape.

    PubMed

    Wang, Gang; Zhao, Na; Berkhout, Ben; Das, Atze T

    2016-03-01

    Several recent studies demonstrated that the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-associated endonuclease Cas9 can be used for guide RNA (gRNA)-directed, sequence-specific cleavage of HIV proviral DNA in infected cells. We here demonstrate profound inhibition of HIV-1 replication by harnessing T cells with Cas9 and antiviral gRNAs. However, the virus rapidly and consistently escaped from this inhibition. Sequencing of the HIV-1 escape variants revealed nucleotide insertions, deletions, and substitutions around the Cas9/gRNA cleavage site that are typical for DNA repair by the nonhomologous end-joining pathway. We thus demonstrate the potency of CRISPR-Cas9 as an antiviral approach, but any therapeutic strategy should consider the viral escape implications.

  20. RNA Structures Facilitate Recombination-Mediated Gene Swapping in HIV-1

    PubMed Central

    Simon-Loriere, Etienne; Martin, Darren P.; Weeks, Kevin M.; Negroni, Matteo

    2010-01-01

    Many viruses, including retroviruses, undergo frequent recombination, a process which can increase their rate of adaptive evolution. In the case of HIV, recombination has been responsible for the generation of numerous intersubtype recombinant variants with epidemiological importance in the AIDS pandemic. Although it is known that fragments of genetic material do not combine randomly during the generation of recombinant viruses, the mechanisms that lead to preferential recombination at specific sites are not fully understood. Here we reanalyze recent independent data defining (i) the structure of a complete HIV-1 RNA genome and (ii) favorable sites for recombination. We show that in the absence of selection acting on recombinant genomes, regions harboring RNA structures in the NL4-3 model strain are strongly predictive of recombination breakpoints in the HIV-1 env genes of primary isolates. In addition, we found that breakpoints within recombinant HIV-1 genomes sampled from human populations, which have been acted upon extensively by natural selection, also colocalize with RNA structures. Critically, junctions between genes are enriched in structured RNA elements and are also preferred sites for generating functional recombinant forms. These data suggest that RNA structure-mediated recombination allows the virus to exchange intact genes rather than arbitrary subgene fragments, which is likely to increase the overall viability and replication success of the recombinant HIV progeny. PMID:20881047

  1. RNA structures facilitate recombination-mediated gene swapping in HIV-1.

    PubMed

    Simon-Loriere, Etienne; Martin, Darren P; Weeks, Kevin M; Negroni, Matteo

    2010-12-01

    Many viruses, including retroviruses, undergo frequent recombination, a process which can increase their rate of adaptive evolution. In the case of HIV, recombination has been responsible for the generation of numerous intersubtype recombinant variants with epidemiological importance in the AIDS pandemic. Although it is known that fragments of genetic material do not combine randomly during the generation of recombinant viruses, the mechanisms that lead to preferential recombination at specific sites are not fully understood. Here we reanalyze recent independent data defining (i) the structure of a complete HIV-1 RNA genome and (ii) favorable sites for recombination. We show that in the absence of selection acting on recombinant genomes, regions harboring RNA structures in the NL4-3 model strain are strongly predictive of recombination breakpoints in the HIV-1 env genes of primary isolates. In addition, we found that breakpoints within recombinant HIV-1 genomes sampled from human populations, which have been acted upon extensively by natural selection, also colocalize with RNA structures. Critically, junctions between genes are enriched in structured RNA elements and are also preferred sites for generating functional recombinant forms. These data suggest that RNA structure-mediated recombination allows the virus to exchange intact genes rather than arbitrary subgene fragments, which is likely to increase the overall viability and replication success of the recombinant HIV progeny.

  2. Recombination enhances HIV-1 envelope diversity by facilitating the survival of latent genomic fragments in the plasma virus population

    DOE PAGES

    Immonen, Taina T.; Conway, Jessica M.; Romero-Severson, Ethan O.; ...

    2015-12-22

    HIV-1 is subject to immune pressure exerted by the host, giving variants that escape the immune response an advantage. Virus released from activated latent cells competes against variants that have continually evolved and adapted to host immune pressure. Nevertheless, there is increasing evidence that virus displaying a signal of latency survives in patient plasma despite having reduced fitness due to long-term immune memory. We investigated the survival of virus with latent envelope genomic fragments by simulating within-host HIV-1 sequence evolution and the cycling of viral lineages in and out of the latent reservoir. Our model incorporates a detailed mutation processmore » including nucleotide substitution, recombination, latent reservoir dynamics, diversifying selection pressure driven by the immune response, and purifying selection pressure asserted by deleterious mutations. We evaluated the ability of our model to capture sequence evolution in vivo by comparing our simulated sequences to HIV-1 envelope sequence data from 16 HIV-infected untreated patients. Empirical sequence divergence and diversity measures were qualitatively and quantitatively similar to those of our simulated HIV-1 populations, suggesting that our model invokes realistic trends of HIV-1 genetic evolution. Moreover, reconstructed phylogenies of simulated and patient HIV-1 populations showed similar topological structures. Our simulation results suggest that recombination is a key mechanism facilitating the persistence of virus with latent envelope genomic fragments in the productively infected cell population. Recombination increased the survival probability of latent virus forms approximately 13-fold. Prevalence of virus with latent fragments in productively infected cells was observed in only 2% of simulations when we ignored recombination, while the proportion increased to 27% of simulations when we allowed recombination. We also found that the selection pressures exerted by different

  3. RNA helicase MOV10 functions as a co-factor of HIV-1 Rev to facilitate Rev/RRE-dependent nuclear export of viral mRNAs.

    PubMed

    Huang, Feng; Zhang, Junsong; Zhang, Yijun; Geng, Guannan; Liang, Juanran; Li, Yingniang; Chen, Jingliang; Liu, Chao; Zhang, Hui

    2015-12-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) exploits multiple host factors during its replication. The REV/RRE-dependent nuclear export of unspliced/partially spliced viral transcripts needs the assistance of host proteins. Recent studies have shown that MOV10 overexpression inhibited HIV-1 replication at various steps. However, the endogenous MOV10 was required in certain step(s) of HIV-1 replication. In this report, we found that MOV10 potently enhances the nuclear export of viral mRNAs and subsequently increases the expression of Gag protein and other late products through affecting the Rev/RRE axis. The co-immunoprecipitation analysis indicated that MOV10 interacts with Rev in an RNA-independent manner. The DEAG-box of MOV10 was required for the enhancement of Rev/RRE-dependent nuclear export and the DEAG-box mutant showed a dominant-negative activity. Our data propose that HIV-1 utilizes the anti-viral factor MOV10 to function as a co-factor of Rev and demonstrate the complicated effects of MOV10 on HIV-1 life cycle. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. FACT Proteins, SUPT16H and SSRP1, Are Transcriptional Suppressors of HIV-1 and HTLV-1 That Facilitate Viral Latency.

    PubMed

    Huang, Huachao; Santoso, Netty; Power, Derek; Simpson, Sydney; Dieringer, Michael; Miao, Hongyu; Gurova, Katerina; Giam, Chou-Zen; Elledge, Stephen J; Zhu, Jian

    2015-11-06

    Our functional genomic RNAi screens have identified the protein components of the FACT (facilitates chromatin transcription) complex, SUPT16H and SSRP1, as top host factors that negatively regulate HIV-1 replication. FACT interacts specifically with histones H2A/H2B to affect assembly and disassembly of nucleosomes, as well as transcription elongation. We further investigated the suppressive role of FACT proteins in HIV-1 transcription. First, depletion of SUPT16H or SSRP1 protein enhances Tat-mediated HIV-1 LTR (long terminal repeat) promoter activity. Second, HIV-1 Tat interacts with SUPT16H but not SSRP1 protein. However, both SUPT16H and SSRP1 are recruited to LTR promoter. Third, the presence of SUPT16H interferes with the association of Cyclin T1 (CCNT1), a subunit of P-TEFb, with the Tat-LTR axis. Removing inhibitory mechanisms to permit HIV-1 transcription is an initial and key regulatory step to reverse post-integrated latent HIV-1 proviruses for purging of reservoir cells. We therefore evaluated the role of FACT proteins in HIV-1 latency and reactivation. Depletion of SUPT16H or SSRP1 protein affects both HIV-1 transcriptional initiation and elongation and spontaneously reverses latent HIV-1 in U1/HIV and J-LAT cells. Similar effects were observed with a primary CD4+ T cell model of HIV-1 latency. FACT proteins also interfere with HTLV-1 Tax-LTR-mediated transcription and viral latency, indicating that they may act as general transcriptional suppressors for retroviruses. We conclude that FACT proteins SUPT16H and SSRP1 play a key role in suppressing HIV-1 transcription and promoting viral latency, which may serve as promising gene targets for developing novel HIV-1 latency-reversing agents.

  5. Sequential Deletion of the Integrase (Gag-Pol) Carboxyl Terminus Reveals Distinct Phenotypic Classes of Defective HIV-1 ▿ † §

    PubMed Central

    Mohammed, Kevin D.; Topper, Michael B.; Muesing, Mark A.

    2011-01-01

    A requisite step in the life cycle of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) is the insertion of the viral genome into that of the host cell, a process catalyzed by the 288-amino-acid (32-kDa) viral integrase (IN). IN recognizes and cleaves the ends of reverse-transcribed viral DNA and directs its insertion into the chromosomal DNA of the target cell. IN function, however, is not limited to integration, as the protein is required for other aspects of viral replication, including assembly, virion maturation, and reverse transcription. Previous studies demonstrated that IN is comprised of three domains: the N-terminal domain (NTD), catalytic core domain (CCD), and C-terminal domain (CTD). Whereas the CCD is mainly responsible for providing the structural framework for catalysis, the roles of the other two domains remain enigmatic. This study aimed to elucidate the primary and subsidiary roles that the CTD has in protein function. To this end, we generated and tested a nested set of IN C-terminal deletion mutants in measurable assays of virologic function. We discovered that removal of up to 15 residues (IN 273) resulted in incremental diminution of enzymatic function and infectivity and that removal of the next three residues resulted in a loss of infectivity. However, replication competency was surprisingly reestablished with one further truncation, corresponding to IN 269 and coinciding with partial restoration of integration activity, but it was lost permanently for all truncations extending N terminal to this position. Our analyses of these replication-competent and -incompetent truncation mutants suggest potential roles for the IN CTD in precursor protein processing, reverse transcription, integration, and IN multimerization. PMID:21367893

  6. The 5′ RNA Terminus of Spleen Necrosis Virus Contains a Novel Posttranscriptional Control Element That Facilitates Human Immunodeficiency Virus Rev/RRE-Independent Gag Production

    PubMed Central

    Butsch, Melinda; Hull, Stacey; Wang, Yalai; Roberts, Tiffiney M.; Boris-Lawrie, Kathleen

    1999-01-01

    Previous work has shown that spleen necrosis virus (SNV) long terminal repeats (LTRs) are associated with Rex/Rex-responsive element-independent expression of bovine leukemia virus RNA and supports the hypothesis that SNV RNA contains a cis-acting element that interacts with cellular Rex-like proteins. To test this hypothesis, the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV) Rev/RRE-dependent gag gene was used as a reporter to analyze various SNV sequences. Gag enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and Western blot analyses reveal that HIV Gag production is enhanced at least 20,000-fold by the 5′ SNV LTR in COS, D17, and 293 cells. Furthermore, SNV RU5 in the sense but not the antisense orientation is sufficient to confer Rev/RRE-independent expression onto a cytomegalovirus-gag plasmid. In contrast, the SNV 3′ LTR and 3′ untranslated sequence between env and the LTR did not support Rev-independent gag expression. Quantitative RNase protection assays indicate that the SNV 5′ RNA terminus enhances cytoplasmic accumulation and polysome association of HIV unspliced and spliced transcripts. However, comparison of the absolute amounts of polysomal RNA indicates that polysome association is not sufficient to account for the significant increase in Gag production by the SNV sequences. Our analysis reveals that the SNV 5′ RNA terminus contains a unique cis-acting posttranscriptional control element that interacts with hypothetical cellular Rev-like proteins to facilitate HIV RNA transport and efficient translation. PMID:10233946

  7. HIV-1 replication.

    PubMed

    Freed, E O

    2001-11-01

    In general terms, the replication cycle of lentiviruses, including HIV-1, closely resembles that of other retroviruses. There are, however, a number of unique aspects of HIV replication; for example, the HIVs and SIVs target receptors and coreceptors distinct from those used by other retroviruses. Lentiviruses encode a number of regulatory and accessory proteins not encoded by the genomes of the prototypical "simple" retroviruses. Of particular interest from the gene therapy perspective, lentiviruses possess the ability to productively infect some types of non-dividing cells. This chapter, while reiterating certain points discussed in Chapter 1, will attempt to focus on issues unique to HIV-1 replication. The HIV-1 genome encodes the major structural and non-structural proteins common to all replication-competent retroviruses (Fig. 1, and Chapter 1). From the 5'- to 3'-ends of the genome are found the gag (for group-specific antigen), pol (for polymerase), and env (for envelope glycoprotein) genes. The gag gene encodes a polyprotein precursor whose name, Pr55Gag, is based on its molecular weight. Pr55Gag is cleaved by the viral protease (PR) to the mature Gag proteins matrix (also known as MA or p17), capsid (CA or p24), nucleocapsid (NC or p7), and p6. Two spacer peptides, p2 and p1, are also generated upon Pr55Gag processing. The pol-encoded enzymes are initially synthesized as part of a large polyprotein precursor, Pr160GagPol, whose synthesis results from a rare frameshifting event during Pr55Gag translation. The individual pol-encoded enzymes, PR, reverse transcriptase (RT), and integrase (IN), are cleaved from Pr160GagPol by the viral PR. The envelope (Env) glycoproteins are also synthesized as a polyprotein precursor (Fig. 1). Unlike the Gag and Pol precursors, which are cleaved by the viral PR, the Env precursor, known as gp160, is processed by a cellular protease during Env trafficking to the cell surface, gp160 processing results in the generation of the

  8. Critical Contribution of Tyr15 in the HIV-1 Integrase (IN) in Facilitating IN Assembly and Nonenzymatic Function through the IN Precursor Form with Reverse Transcriptase.

    PubMed

    Takahata, Tatsuro; Takeda, Eri; Tobiume, Minoru; Tokunaga, Kenzo; Yokoyama, Masaru; Huang, Yu-Lun; Hasegawa, Atsuhiko; Shioda, Tatsuo; Sato, Hironori; Kannagi, Mari; Masuda, Takao

    2017-01-01

    Nonenzymatic roles for HIV-1 integrase (IN) at steps prior to the enzymatic integration step have been reported. To obtain structural and functional insights into the nonenzymatic roles of IN, we performed genetic analyses of HIV-1 IN, focusing on a highly conserved Tyr15 in the N-terminal domain (NTD), which has previously been shown to regulate an equilibrium state between two NTD dimer conformations. Replacement of Tyr15 with alanine, histidine, or tryptophan prevented HIV-1 infection and caused severe impairment of reverse transcription without apparent defects in reverse transcriptase (RT) or in capsid disassembly kinetics after entry into cells. Cross-link analyses of recombinant IN proteins demonstrated that lethal mutations of Tyr15 severely impaired IN structure for assembly. Notably, replacement of Tyr15 with phenylalanine was tolerated for all IN functions, demonstrating that a benzene ring of the aromatic side chain is a key moiety for IN assembly and functions. Additional mutagenic analyses based on previously proposed tetramer models for IN assembly suggested a key role of Tyr15 in facilitating the hydrophobic interaction among IN subunits, together with other proximal residues within the subunit interface. A rescue experiment with a mutated HIV-1 with RT and IN deleted (ΔRT ΔIN) and IN and RT supplied in trans revealed that the nonenzymatic IN function might be exerted through the IN precursor conjugated with RT (RT-IN). Importantly, the lethal mutations of Tyr15 significantly reduced the RT-IN function and assembly. Taken together, Tyr15 seems to play a key role in facilitating the proper assembly of IN and RT on viral RNA through the RT-IN precursor form. Inhibitors of the IN enzymatic strand transfer function (INSTI) have been applied in combination antiretroviral therapies to treat HIV-1-infected patients. Recently, allosteric IN inhibitors (ALLINIs) that interact with HIV-1 IN residues, the locations of which are distinct from the catalytic

  9. Recombination elevates the effective evolutionary rate and facilitates the establishment of HIV-1 infection in infants after mother-to-child transmission

    SciTech Connect

    Sanborn, Keri B.; Somasundaran, Mohan; Luzuriaga, Katherine; Leitner, Thomas K.

    2015-11-16

    Some previous studies have demonstrated that single HIV-1 genotypes are commonly transmitted from mother to child, but such analyses primarily used single samples from mother and child. It is possible that in a single sample, obtained early after infection, only the most replication competent virus is detected even when other forms may have been transmitted. Such forms may have advantages later in infection, and may thus be detected in follow-up samples. Furthermore, because HIV-1 frequently recombines, phylogenetic analyses that ignore recombination may miss transmission of multiple forms if they recombine after transmission. Moreover, recombination may facilitate adaptation, thus providing an advantage in establishing infection. The effect of recombination on viral evolution in HIV-1 infected children has not been well defined.

  10. Recombination elevates the effective evolutionary rate and facilitates the establishment of HIV-1 infection in infants after mother-to-child transmission

    DOE PAGES

    Sanborn, Keri B.; Somasundaran, Mohan; Luzuriaga, Katherine; ...

    2015-11-16

    Some previous studies have demonstrated that single HIV-1 genotypes are commonly transmitted from mother to child, but such analyses primarily used single samples from mother and child. It is possible that in a single sample, obtained early after infection, only the most replication competent virus is detected even when other forms may have been transmitted. Such forms may have advantages later in infection, and may thus be detected in follow-up samples. Furthermore, because HIV-1 frequently recombines, phylogenetic analyses that ignore recombination may miss transmission of multiple forms if they recombine after transmission. Moreover, recombination may facilitate adaptation, thus providing anmore » advantage in establishing infection. The effect of recombination on viral evolution in HIV-1 infected children has not been well defined.« less

  11. HIV-1 Protease: Structure, Dynamics and Inhibition

    SciTech Connect

    Louis, John M.; Ishima, R.; Torchia, D.A.; Weber, Irene T.

    2008-06-03

    The HIV-1 protease is synthesized as part of a large Gag-Pol precursor protein. It is responsible for its own release from the precursor and the processing of the Gag and Gag-Pol polyproteins into the mature structural and functional proteins required for virus maturation. Because of its indispensable role, the mature HIV-1 protease dimer has proven to be a successful target for the development of antiviral agents. In the last 5 years, a major emphasis in protease research has been to improve inhibitor design and treatment regimens.

  12. Identifying Recombination Hot Spots in the HIV-1 Genome

    PubMed Central

    Smyth, Redmond P.; Schlub, Timothy E.; Grimm, Andrew J.; Waugh, Caryll; Ellenberg, Paula; Chopra, Abha; Mallal, Simon; Cromer, Deborah

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT HIV-1 infection is characterized by the rapid generation of genetic diversity that facilitates viral escape from immune selection and antiretroviral therapy. Despite recombination's crucial role in viral diversity and evolution, little is known about the genomic factors that influence recombination between highly similar genomes. In this study, we use a minimally modified full-length HIV-1 genome and high-throughput sequence analysis to study recombination in gag and pol in T cells. We find that recombination is favored at a number of recombination hot spots, where recombination occurs six times more frequently than at corresponding cold spots. Interestingly, these hot spots occur near important features of the HIV-1 genome but do not occur at sites immediately around protease inhibitor or reverse transcriptase inhibitor drug resistance mutations. We show that the recombination hot and cold spots are consistent across five blood donors and are independent of coreceptor-mediated entry. Finally, we check common experimental confounders and find that these are not driving the location of recombination hot spots. This is the first study to identify the location of recombination hot spots between two similar viral genomes with great statistical power and under conditions that closely reflect natural recombination events among HIV-1 quasispecies. IMPORTANCE The ability of HIV-1 to evade the immune system and antiretroviral therapy depends on genetic diversity within the viral quasispecies. Retroviral recombination is an important mechanism that helps to generate and maintain this genetic diversity, but little is known about how recombination rates vary within the HIV-1 genome. We measured recombination rates in gag and pol and identified recombination hot and cold spots, demonstrating that recombination is not random but depends on the underlying gene sequence. The strength and location of these recombination hot and cold spots can be used to improve models of

  13. Linker-extended native cyanovirin-N facilitates PEGylation and potently inhibits HIV-1 by targeting the glycan ligand.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jia; Huang, Dane; Chen, Wei; Guo, Chaowan; Wei, Bo; Wu, Chongchao; Peng, Zhou; Fan, Jun; Hou, Zhibo; Fang, Yongsheng; Wang, Yifei; Kitazato, Kaio; Yu, Guoying; Zou, Chunbin; Qian, Chuiwen; Xiong, Sheng

    2014-01-01

    Cyanovirin-N (CVN) potently inhibits human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection, but both cytotoxicity and immunogenicity have hindered the translation of this protein into a viable therapeutic. A molecular docking analysis suggested that up to 12 residues were involved in the interaction of the reverse parallel CVN dimer with the oligosaccharide targets, among which Leu-1 was the most prominent hot spot residue. This finding provided a possible explanation for the lack of anti-HIV-1 activity observed with N-terminal PEGylated CVN. Therefore, linker-CVN (LCVN) was designed as a CVN derivative with a flexible and hydrophilic linker (Gly4Ser)3 at the N-terminus. The N-terminal α-amine of LCVN was PEGylated to create 10 K PEG-aldehyde (ALD)-LCVN. LCVN and 10 K PEG-ALD-LCVN retained the specificity and affinity of CVN for high mannose N-glycans. Moreover, LCVN exhibited significant anti-HIV-1 activity with attenuated cytotoxicity in the HaCaT keratinocyte cell line and MT-4 T lymphocyte cell lines. 10 K PEG-ALD-LCVN also efficiently inactivated HIV-1 with remarkably decreased cytotoxicity and pronounced cell-to-cell fusion inhibitory activity in vitro. The linker-extended CVN and the mono-PEGylated derivative were determined to be promising candidates for the development of an anti-HIV-1 agent. This derivatization approach provided a model for the PEGylation of biologic candidates without introducing point mutations.

  14. Downregulation of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Gag expression by a gp41 cytoplasmic domain fusion protein

    SciTech Connect

    Chan, W.-E.; Chen, Steve S.-L. . E-mail: schen@ibms.sinica.edu.tw

    2006-05-10

    The cytoplasmic domain of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) envelope (Env) transmembrane protein gp41 interacts with the viral matrix MA protein, which facilitates incorporation of the trimeric Env complex into the virus. It is thus feasible to design an anti-HIV strategy targeting this interaction. We herein describe that Gag expression can be downregulated by a cytoplasmic domain fusion protein of the Env transmembrane protein, {beta}-galactosidase ({beta}-gal)/706-856, which contains the cytoplasmic tail of gp41 fused at the C terminus of Escherichia coli {beta}-gal. This mediator depleted intracellular Gag molecules in a dose-dependent manner. Sucrose gradient ultracentrifugation and confocal microscopy revealed that Gag and {beta}-gal/706-856 had stable interactions and formed aggregated complexes in perinuclear, intracellular sites. Pulse-chase and cycloheximide chase analyses demonstrated that this mediator enhanced unmyristylated Gag degradation. The results demonstrate a novel mode of HIV-1 Gag downregulation by directing Gag to an intracellular site via the interaction of Gag with a gp41 cytoplasmic domain fusion protein.

  15. Super-Resolution Microscopy Reveals Specific Recruitment of HIV-1 Envelope Proteins to Viral Assembly Sites Dependent on the Envelope C-Terminal Tail

    PubMed Central

    Muranyi, Walter; Malkusch, Sebastian; Müller, Barbara; Heilemann, Mike; Kräusslich, Hans-Georg

    2013-01-01

    The inner structural Gag proteins and the envelope (Env) glycoproteins of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) traffic independently to the plasma membrane, where they assemble the nascent virion. HIV-1 carries a relatively low number of glycoproteins in its membrane, and the mechanism of Env recruitment and virus incorporation is incompletely understood. We employed dual-color super-resolution microscopy visualizing Gag assembly sites and HIV-1 Env proteins in virus-producing and in Env expressing cells. Distinctive HIV-1 Gag assembly sites were readily detected and were associated with Env clusters that always extended beyond the actual Gag assembly site and often showed enrichment at the periphery and surrounding the assembly site. Formation of these Env clusters depended on the presence of other HIV-1 proteins and on the long cytoplasmic tail (CT) of Env. CT deletion, a matrix mutation affecting Env incorporation or Env expression in the absence of other HIV-1 proteins led to much smaller Env clusters, which were not enriched at viral assembly sites. These results show that Env is recruited to HIV-1 assembly sites in a CT-dependent manner, while Env(ΔCT) appears to be randomly incorporated. The observed Env accumulation surrounding Gag assemblies, with a lower density on the actual bud, could facilitate viral spread in vivo. Keeping Env molecules on the nascent virus low may be important for escape from the humoral immune response, while cell-cell contacts mediated by surrounding Env molecules could promote HIV-1 transmission through the virological synapse. PMID:23468635

  16. Nef enhances HIV-1 infectivity via association with the virus assembly complex

    SciTech Connect

    Qi Mingli; Aiken, Christopher

    2008-04-10

    The HIV-1 accessory protein Nef enhances virus infectivity by facilitating an early post-entry step of infection. Nef acts in the virus producer cell, leading to a beneficial modification to HIV-1 particles. Nef itself is incorporated into HIV-1 particles, where it is cleaved by the viral protease during virion maturation. To probe the role of virion-associated Nef in HIV-1 infection, we generated a fusion protein consisting of the host protein cyclophilin A (CypA) linked to the amino terminus of Nef. The resulting CypA-Nef protein enhanced the infectivity of Nef-defective HIV-1 particles and was specifically incorporated into the virions via association with Gag during particle assembly. Pharmacologic or genetic inhibition of CypA-Nef binding to Gag prevented incorporation of CypA-Nef into virions and inhibited infectivity enhancement. Our results indicate that infectivity enhancement by Nef requires its association with a component of the assembling HIV-1 particle.

  17. HIV/AIDS Vaccine Candidates Based on Replication-Competent Recombinant Poxvirus NYVAC-C-KC Expressing Trimeric gp140 and Gag-Derived Virus-Like Particles or Lacking the Viral Molecule B19 That Inhibits Type I Interferon Activate Relevant HIV-1-Specific B and T Cell Immune Functions in Nonhuman Primates.

    PubMed

    García-Arriaza, Juan; Perdiguero, Beatriz; Heeney, Jonathan L; Seaman, Michael S; Montefiori, David C; Yates, Nicole L; Tomaras, Georgia D; Ferrari, Guido; Foulds, Kathryn E; Roederer, Mario; Self, Steven G; Borate, Bhavesh; Gottardo, Raphael; Phogat, Sanjay; Tartaglia, Jim; Barnett, Susan W; Burke, Brian; Cristillo, Anthony D; Weiss, Deborah E; Lee, Carter; Kibler, Karen V; Jacobs, Bertram L; Wagner, Ralf; Ding, Song; Pantaleo, Giuseppe; Esteban, Mariano

    2017-05-01

    The nonreplicating attenuated poxvirus vector NYVAC expressing clade C(CN54) HIV-1 Env(gp120) and Gag-Pol-Nef antigens (NYVAC-C) showed limited immunogenicity in phase I clinical trials. To enhance the capacity of the NYVAC vector to trigger broad humoral responses and a more balanced activation of CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells, here we compared the HIV-1-specific immunogenicity elicited in nonhuman primates immunized with two replicating NYVAC vectors that have been modified by the insertion of the K1L and C7L vaccinia virus host range genes and express the clade C(ZM96) trimeric HIV-1 gp140 protein or a Gag(ZM96)-Pol-Nef(CN54) polyprotein as Gag-derived virus-like particles (termed NYVAC-C-KC). Additionally, one NYVAC-C-KC vector was generated by deleting the viral gene B19R, an inhibitor of the type I interferon response (NYVAC-C-KC-ΔB19R). An immunization protocol mimicking that of the RV144 phase III clinical trial was used. Two groups of macaques received two doses of the corresponding NYVAC-C-KC vectors (weeks 0 and 4) and booster doses with NYVAC-C-KC vectors plus the clade C HIV-1 gp120 protein (weeks 12 and 24). The two replicating NYVAC-C-KC vectors induced enhanced and similar HIV-1-specific CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cell responses, similar levels of binding IgG antibodies, low levels of IgA antibodies, and high levels of antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity responses and HIV-1-neutralizing antibodies. Small differences within the NYVAC-C-KC-ΔB19R group were seen in the magnitude of CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells, the induction of some cytokines, and the neutralization of some HIV-1 isolates. Thus, replication-competent NYVAC-C-KC vectors acquired relevant immunological properties as vaccine candidates against HIV/AIDS, and the viral B19 molecule exerts some control of immune functions.IMPORTANCE It is of special importance to find a safe and effective HIV/AIDS vaccine that can induce strong and broad T cell and humoral immune responses correlating with HIV-1

  18. Trichomonas vaginalis-Induced Epithelial Monolayer Disruption and Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 (HIV-1) Replication: Implications for the Sexual Transmission of HIV-1

    PubMed Central

    Guenthner, Patricia C.; Secor, W. Evan; Dezzutti, Charlene S.

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate potential mechanisms of Trichomonas vaginalis involvement in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) transmission. Polarized monolayer integrity of primary cervical and prostate epithelial cells or cell lines cultured with T. vaginalis was measured by monitoring transepithelium resistance. The effect of T. vaginalis isolates on HIV-1 passage through polarized epithelial cell monolayers was evaluated for HIV-1 p24gag in the basolateral supernatants. Coincubation with T. vaginalis isolates induced disruption of monolayer integrity and resulted in passage of virus to the basolateral side of the monolayer. Furthermore, there was isolate variability in which two isolates induced greater monolayer damage and increased HIV-1 passage than did the other two isolates. Coincubation of T. vaginalis isolates with acutely HIV-1-infected peripheral blood mononuclear cells enhanced HIV-1 replication. This enhancement was associated with cellular proliferation and activation, as well as with tumor necrosis factor alpha production. In contrast to the monolayer disruption, the effect of T. vaginalis on HIV-1 replication was not isolate dependent. Thus, two mechanisms have been identified that could contribute to the epidemiologic association of trichomoniasis with the sexual transmission of HIV-1. (i) T. vaginalis disruption of urogenital epithelial monolayers could facilitate passage of HIV-1 to underlying layers. (ii) Activation of local immune cells by T. vaginalis in the presence of infectious HIV-1 might lead to increased viral replication. Collectively, these data suggest the need for more vigilant efforts in the diagnosis and treatment of T. vaginalis in women and men, especially in countries with a high prevalence of HIV-1. PMID:15972505

  19. Trichomonas vaginalis-induced epithelial monolayer disruption and human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) replication: implications for the sexual transmission of HIV-1.

    PubMed

    Guenthner, Patricia C; Secor, W Evan; Dezzutti, Charlene S

    2005-07-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate potential mechanisms of Trichomonas vaginalis involvement in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) transmission. Polarized monolayer integrity of primary cervical and prostate epithelial cells or cell lines cultured with T. vaginalis was measured by monitoring transepithelium resistance. The effect of T. vaginalis isolates on HIV-1 passage through polarized epithelial cell monolayers was evaluated for HIV-1 p24gag in the basolateral supernatants. Coincubation with T. vaginalis isolates induced disruption of monolayer integrity and resulted in passage of virus to the basolateral side of the monolayer. Furthermore, there was isolate variability in which two isolates induced greater monolayer damage and increased HIV-1 passage than did the other two isolates. Coincubation of T. vaginalis isolates with acutely HIV-1-infected peripheral blood mononuclear cells enhanced HIV-1 replication. This enhancement was associated with cellular proliferation and activation, as well as with tumor necrosis factor alpha production. In contrast to the monolayer disruption, the effect of T. vaginalis on HIV-1 replication was not isolate dependent. Thus, two mechanisms have been identified that could contribute to the epidemiologic association of trichomoniasis with the sexual transmission of HIV-1. (i) T. vaginalis disruption of urogenital epithelial monolayers could facilitate passage of HIV-1 to underlying layers. (ii) Activation of local immune cells by T. vaginalis in the presence of infectious HIV-1 might lead to increased viral replication. Collectively, these data suggest the need for more vigilant efforts in the diagnosis and treatment of T. vaginalis in women and men, especially in countries with a high prevalence of HIV-1.

  20. NLRX1 Sequesters STING to Negatively Regulate the Interferon Response, Thereby Facilitating the Replication of HIV-1 and DNA Viruses.

    PubMed

    Guo, Haitao; König, Renate; Deng, Meng; Riess, Maximilian; Mo, Jinyao; Zhang, Lu; Petrucelli, Alex; Yoh, Sunnie M; Barefoot, Brice; Samo, Melissa; Sempowski, Gregory D; Zhang, Aiping; Colberg-Poley, Anamaris M; Feng, Hui; Lemon, Stanley M; Liu, Yong; Zhang, Yanping; Wen, Haitao; Zhang, Zhigang; Damania, Blossom; Tsao, Li-Chung; Wang, Qi; Su, Lishan; Duncan, Joseph A; Chanda, Sumit K; Ting, Jenny P-Y

    2016-04-13

    Understanding the negative regulators of antiviral immune responses will be critical for advancing immune-modulated antiviral strategies. NLRX1, an NLR protein that negatively regulates innate immunity, was previously identified in an unbiased siRNA screen as required for HIV infection. We find that NLRX1 depletion results in impaired nuclear import of HIV-1 DNA in human monocytic cells. Additionally, NLRX1 was observed to reduce type-I interferon (IFN-I) and cytokines in response to HIV-1 reverse-transcribed DNA. NLRX1 sequesters the DNA-sensing adaptor STING from interaction with TANK-binding kinase 1 (TBK1), which is a requisite for IFN-1 induction in response to DNA. NLRX1-deficient cells generate an amplified STING-dependent host response to cytosolic DNA, c-di-GMP, cGAMP, HIV-1, and DNA viruses. Accordingly, Nlrx1(-/-) mice infected with DNA viruses exhibit enhanced innate immunity and reduced viral load. Thus, NLRX1 is a negative regulator of the host innate immune response to HIV-1 and DNA viruses.

  1. Analysis of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Gag ubiquitination.

    PubMed

    Gottwein, Eva; Kräusslich, Hans-Georg

    2005-07-01

    Ubiquitin is important for the release of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and several other retroviruses, but the functional significance of Gag ubiquitination is unknown. To address this problem, we decided to analyze Gag ubiquitination in detail. A low percentage of the HIV-1 p6 protein has previously been shown to be ubiquitinated, and published mutagenesis data suggested that Gag ubiquitination is largely lost upon mutation of the two lysine residues in p6. In this study, we show that Gag proteins lacking the p6 domain or the two lysine residues within p6 are ubiquitinated at levels comparable to those of the wild-type Gag protein. We detected monoubiquitinated forms of the matrix (MA), capsid (CA), and nucleocapsid (NC) proteins in mature virus preparations. Protease digestion of Gag polyproteins extracted from immature virions indicated that ubiquitinated MA, CA, and possibly NC are as abundant as ubiquitinated p6. The HIV-1 late-domain motifs PTAP and LRSLF were not required for Gag ubiquitination, and mutation of the PTAP motif even resulted in an increase in the amount of Gag-Ub conjugates detected. Finally, at steady state, ubiquitinated Gag proteins were not enriched in either membrane-associated or virus-derived Gag fractions. In summary, these results indicate that HIV-1 Gag can be monoubiquitinated in all domains and that ubiquitination of lysine residues outside p6 may thus contribute to viral release and/or infectivity.

  2. Interleukin-1- and Type I Interferon-Dependent Enhanced Immunogenicity of an NYVAC-HIV-1 Env-Gag-Pol-Nef Vaccine Vector with Dual Deletions of Type I and Type II Interferon-Binding Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Delaloye, Julie; Filali-Mouhim, Abdelali; Cameron, Mark J.; Haddad, Elias K.; Harari, Alexandre; Goulet, Jean-Pierre; Gomez, Carmen E.; Perdiguero, Beatriz; Esteban, Mariano; Pantaleo, Giuseppe; Roger, Thierry; Sékaly, Rafick-Pierre

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT NYVAC, a highly attenuated, replication-restricted poxvirus, is a safe and immunogenic vaccine vector. Deletion of immune evasion genes from the poxvirus genome is an attractive strategy for improving the immunogenic properties of poxviruses. Using systems biology approaches, we describe herein the enhanced immunological profile of NYVAC vectors expressing the HIV-1 clade C env, gag, pol, and nef genes (NYVAC-C) with single or double deletions of genes encoding type I (ΔB19R) or type II (ΔB8R) interferon (IFN)-binding proteins. Transcriptomic analyses of human monocytes infected with NYVAC-C, NYVAC-C with the B19R deletion (NYVAC-C-ΔB19R), or NYVAC-C with B8R and B19R deletions (NYVAC-C-ΔB8RB19R) revealed a concerted upregulation of innate immune pathways (IFN-stimulated genes [ISGs]) of increasing magnitude with NYVAC-C-ΔB19R and NYVAC-C-ΔB8RB19R than with NYVAC-C. Deletion of B8R and B19R resulted in an enhanced activation of IRF3, IRF7, and STAT1 and the robust production of type I IFNs and of ISGs, whose expression was inhibited by anti-type I IFN antibodies. Interestingly, NYVAC-C-ΔB8RB19R induced the production of much higher levels of proinflammatory cytokines (tumor necrosis factor [TNF], interleukin-6 [IL-6], and IL-8) than NYVAC-C or NYVAC-C-ΔB19R as well as a strong inflammasome response (caspase-1 and IL-1β) in infected monocytes. Top network analyses showed that this broad response mediated by the deletion of B8R and B19R was organized around two upregulated gene expression nodes (TNF and IRF7). Consistent with these findings, monocytes infected with NYVAC-C-ΔB8RB19R induced a stronger type I IFN-dependent and IL-1-dependent allogeneic CD4+ T cell response than monocytes infected with NYVAC-C or NYVAC-C-ΔB19R. Dual deletion of type I and type II IFN immune evasion genes in NYVAC markedly enhanced its immunogenic properties via its induction of the increased expression of type I IFNs and IL-1β and make it an attractive candidate HIV

  3. Interleukin-1- and type I interferon-dependent enhanced immunogenicity of an NYVAC-HIV-1 Env-Gag-Pol-Nef vaccine vector with dual deletions of type I and type II interferon-binding proteins.

    PubMed

    Delaloye, Julie; Filali-Mouhim, Abdelali; Cameron, Mark J; Haddad, Elias K; Harari, Alexandre; Goulet, Jean-Pierre; Gomez, Carmen E; Perdiguero, Beatriz; Esteban, Mariano; Pantaleo, Giuseppe; Roger, Thierry; Sékaly, Rafick-Pierre; Calandra, Thierry

    2015-04-01

    NYVAC, a highly attenuated, replication-restricted poxvirus, is a safe and immunogenic vaccine vector. Deletion of immune evasion genes from the poxvirus genome is an attractive strategy for improving the immunogenic properties of poxviruses. Using systems biology approaches, we describe herein the enhanced immunological profile of NYVAC vectors expressing the HIV-1 clade C env, gag, pol, and nef genes (NYVAC-C) with single or double deletions of genes encoding type I (ΔB19R) or type II (ΔB8R) interferon (IFN)-binding proteins. Transcriptomic analyses of human monocytes infected with NYVAC-C, NYVAC-C with the B19R deletion (NYVAC-C-ΔB19R), or NYVAC-C with B8R and B19R deletions (NYVAC-C-ΔB8RB19R) revealed a concerted upregulation of innate immune pathways (IFN-stimulated genes [ISGs]) of increasing magnitude with NYVAC-C-ΔB19R and NYVAC-C-ΔB8RB19R than with NYVAC-C. Deletion of B8R and B19R resulted in an enhanced activation of IRF3, IRF7, and STAT1 and the robust production of type I IFNs and of ISGs, whose expression was inhibited by anti-type I IFN antibodies. Interestingly, NYVAC-C-ΔB8RB19R induced the production of much higher levels of proinflammatory cytokines (tumor necrosis factor [TNF], interleukin-6 [IL-6], and IL-8) than NYVAC-C or NYVAC-C-ΔB19R as well as a strong inflammasome response (caspase-1 and IL-1β) in infected monocytes. Top network analyses showed that this broad response mediated by the deletion of B8R and B19R was organized around two upregulated gene expression nodes (TNF and IRF7). Consistent with these findings, monocytes infected with NYVAC-C-ΔB8RB19R induced a stronger type I IFN-dependent and IL-1-dependent allogeneic CD4(+) T cell response than monocytes infected with NYVAC-C or NYVAC-C-ΔB19R. Dual deletion of type I and type II IFN immune evasion genes in NYVAC markedly enhanced its immunogenic properties via its induction of the increased expression of type I IFNs and IL-1β and make it an attractive candidate HIV

  4. Spinoculation Triggers Dynamic Actin and Cofilin Activity That Facilitates HIV-1 Infection of Transformed and Resting CD4 T Cells▿

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Jia; Wang, Weifeng; Yu, Dongyang; Wu, Yuntao

    2011-01-01

    Centrifugal inoculation, or spinoculation, is widely used in virology research to enhance viral infection. However, the mechanism remained obscure. Using HIV-1 infection of human T cells as a model, we demonstrate that spinoculation triggers dynamic actin and cofilin activity, probably resulting from cellular responses to centrifugal stress. This actin activity also leads to the upregulation of the HIV-1 receptor and coreceptor, CD4 and CXCR4, enhancing viral binding and entry. We also demonstrate that an actin inhibitor, jasplakinolide, diminishes spin-mediated enhancement. In addition, small interfering RNA (siRNA) knockdown of LIMK1, a cofilin kinase, decreases the enhancement. These results suggest that spin-mediated enhancement cannot be explained simply by a virus-concentrating effect; rather, it is coupled with spin-induced cytoskeletal dynamics that promote receptor mobilization, viral entry, and postentry processes. Our results highlight the importance of cofilin and a dynamic cytoskeleton for the initiation of viral infection. Our results also indicate that caution needs to be taken in data interpretation when cells are spinoculated; some of the spin-induced cellular permissiveness may be beyond the natural capacity of an infecting virus. PMID:21795326

  5. Disparate Contributions of Human Retrovirus Capsid Subdomains to Gag-Gag Oligomerization, Virus Morphology, and Particle Biogenesis.

    PubMed

    Martin, Jessica L; Mendonça, Luiza M; Angert, Isaac; Mueller, Joachim D; Zhang, Wei; Mansky, Louis M

    2017-07-15

    The capsid domain (CA) of the retroviral Gag protein is a primary determinant of Gag oligomerization, which is a critical step for immature Gag lattice formation and virus particle budding. Although the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) CA carboxy-terminal domain (CTD) is essential for CA-CA interactions, the CA CTD has been suggested to be largely dispensable for human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) particle biogenesis. To more clearly define the roles of the HTLV-1 CA amino-terminal domain (NTD) and CA CTD in particle biogenesis, we generated and analyzed a panel of Gag proteins with chimeric HIV-1/HTLV-1 CA domains. Subcellular distribution and protein expression levels indicated that Gag proteins with a chimeric HIV-1 CA NTD/HTLV-1 CA CTD did not result in Gag oligomerization regardless of the parent Gag background. Furthermore, chimeric Gag proteins with the HTLV-1 CA NTD produced particles phenotypically similar to HTLV-1 immature particles, highlighting the importance of the HTLV-1 CA NTD in HTLV-1 immature particle morphology. Taken together, these observations support the conclusion that the HTLV-1 CA NTD can functionally replace the HIV-1 CA CTD, but the HIV-1 CA NTD cannot replace the HTLV-1 CA CTD, indicating that the HTLV-1 CA subdomains provide distinct contributions to Gag-Gag oligomerization, particle morphology, and biogenesis. Furthermore, we have shown for the first time that HIV-1 and HTLV-1 Gag domains outside the CA (e.g., matrix and nucleocapsid) impact Gag oligomerization as well as immature particle size and morphology.IMPORTANCE A key aspect in virus replication is virus particle assembly, which is a poorly understood process for most viruses. For retroviruses, the Gag structural protein is the primary driver of virus particle biogenesis, and the CA CTD is the primary determinant of Gag-Gag interactions for HIV-1. In this study, the HTLV-1 capsid amino-terminal domain was found to provide distinct contributions to Gag-Gag

  6. Phenyl-1-Pyridin-2yl-Ethanone-Based Iron Chelators Increase IκB-α Expression, Modulate CDK2 and CDK9 Activities, and Inhibit HIV-1 Transcription

    PubMed Central

    Kumari, Namita; Iordanskiy, Sergey; Kovalskyy, Dmytro; Breuer, Denitra; Niu, Xiaomei; Lin, Xionghao; Xu, Min; Gavrilenko, Konstantin; Kashanchi, Fatah; Dhawan, Subhash

    2014-01-01

    HIV-1 transcription is activated by the Tat protein, which recruits CDK9/cyclin T1 to the HIV-1 promoter. CDK9 is phosphorylated by CDK2, which facilitates formation of the high-molecular-weight positive transcription elongation factor b (P-TEFb) complex. We previously showed that chelation of intracellular iron inhibits CDK2 and CDK9 activities and suppresses HIV-1 transcription, but the mechanism of the inhibition was not understood. In the present study, we tested a set of novel iron chelators for the ability to inhibit HIV-1 transcription and elucidated their mechanism of action. Novel phenyl-1-pyridin-2yl-ethanone (PPY)-based iron chelators were synthesized and examined for their effects on cellular iron, HIV-1 inhibition, and cytotoxicity. Activities of CDK2 and CDK9, expression of CDK9-dependent and CDK2-inhibitory mRNAs, NF-κB expression, and HIV-1- and NF-κB-dependent transcription were determined. PPY-based iron chelators significantly inhibited HIV-1, with minimal cytotoxicity, in cultured and primary cells chronically or acutely infected with HIV-1 subtype B, but they had less of an effect on HIV-1 subtype C. Iron chelators upregulated the expression of IκB-α, with increased accumulation of cytoplasmic NF-κB. The iron chelators inhibited CDK2 activity and reduced the amount of CDK9/cyclin T1 in the large P-TEFb complex. Iron chelators reduced HIV-1 Gag and Env mRNA synthesis but had no effect on HIV-1 reverse transcription. In addition, iron chelators moderately inhibited basal HIV-1 transcription, equally affecting HIV-1 and Sp1- or NF-κB-driven transcription. By virtue of their involvement in targeting several key steps in HIV-1 transcription, these novel iron chelators have the potential for the development of new therapeutics for the treatment of HIV-1 infection. PMID:25155598

  7. Membrane Binding of HIV-1 Matrix Protein: Dependence on Bilayer Composition and Protein Lipidation

    PubMed Central

    Barros, Marilia; Nanda, Hirsh

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT By assembling in a protein lattice on the host's plasma membrane, the retroviral Gag polyprotein triggers formation of the viral protein/membrane shell. The MA domain of Gag employs multiple signals—electrostatic, hydrophobic, and lipid-specific—to bring the protein to the plasma membrane, thereby complementing protein-protein interactions, located in full-length Gag, in lattice formation. We report the interaction of myristoylated and unmyristoylated HIV-1 Gag MA domains with bilayers composed of purified lipid components to dissect these complex membrane signals and quantify their contributions to the overall interaction. Surface plasmon resonance on well-defined planar membrane models is used to quantify binding affinities and amounts of protein and yields free binding energy contributions, ΔG, of the various signals. Charge-charge interactions in the absence of the phosphatidylinositide PI(4,5)P2 attract the protein to acidic membrane surfaces, and myristoylation increases the affinity by a factor of 10; thus, our data do not provide evidence for a PI(4,5)P2 trigger of myristate exposure. Lipid-specific interactions with PI(4,5)P2, the major signal lipid in the inner plasma membrane, increase membrane attraction at a level similar to that of protein lipidation. While cholesterol does not directly engage in interactions, it augments protein affinity strongly by facilitating efficient myristate insertion and PI(4,5)P2 binding. We thus observe that the isolated MA protein, in the absence of protein-protein interaction conferred by the full-length Gag, binds the membrane with submicromolar affinities. IMPORTANCE Like other retroviral species, the Gag polyprotein of HIV-1 contains three major domains: the N-terminal, myristoylated MA domain that targets the protein to the plasma membrane of the host; a central capsid-forming domain; and the C-terminal, genome-binding nucleocapsid domain. These domains act in concert to condense Gag into a membrane

  8. Interaction of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Vif with Gag and Gag-Pol precursors: co-encapsidation and interference with viral protease-mediated Gag processing.

    PubMed

    Bardy, M; Gay, B; Pébernard, S; Chazal, N; Courcoul, M; Vigne, R; Decroly, E; Boulanger, P

    2001-11-01

    Interactions of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) Vif protein with various forms of Gag and Gag-Pol precursors expressed in insect cells were investigated in vivo and in vitro by co-encapsidation, co-precipitation and viral protease (PR)-mediated Gag processing assays. Addressing of Gag to the plasma membrane, its budding as extracellular virus-like particles (VLP) and the presence of the p6 domain were apparently not required for Vif encapsidation, as non-N-myristoylated Deltap6-Gag and Vif proteins were co-encapsidated into intracellular VLP. Encapsidation of Vif occurred at significantly higher copy numbers in extracellular VLP formed from N-myristoylated, budding-competent Gag-Pol precursors harbouring an inactive PR domain or in chimaeric VLP composed of Gag and Gag-Pol precursors compared with the Vif content of Pr55Gag VLP. Vif encapsidation efficiency did not seem to correlate directly with VLP morphology, since these chimaeric VLP were comparable in size and shape to Pr55Gag VLP. Vif apparently inhibited PR-mediated Pr55Gag processing in vitro, with preferential protection of cleavage sites at the MA-CA and CA-NC junctions. Vif was resistant to PR action in vitro under conditions that allowed full Gag processing, and no direct interaction between Vif and PR was detected in vivo or in vitro. This suggested that inhibition by Vif of PR-mediated Gag processing resulted from interaction of Vif with the Gag substrate and not with the enzyme. Likewise, the higher efficiency of Vif encapsidation by Gag-Pol precursor compared with Pr55Gag was probably not mediated by direct binding of Vif to the Gag-Pol-embedded PR domain, but more likely resulted from a particular conformation of the Gag structural domains of the Gag-Pol precursor.

  9. The C-Terminal Portion of the Hrs Protein Interacts with Tsg101 and Interferes with Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Gag Particle Production▿

    PubMed Central

    Bouamr, Fadila; Houck-Loomis, Brian R.; De Los Santos, Martha; Casaday, Rebecca J.; Johnson, Marc C.; Goff, Stephen P.

    2007-01-01

    The human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) Gag protein recruits Tsg101 to facilitate HIV-1 particle budding and release. In uninfected cells, the Hrs protein recruits the ESCRT-I complex to the endosome, also through an interaction with Tsg101, to promote the sorting of host proteins into endosomal vesicles and multivesicular bodies. Here, we show that the overexpression of the C-terminal fragment of Hrs (residues 391 to 777) or Hrs mutants lacking either the N-terminal FYVE domain (mutant dFYVE) or the PSAP (residues 348 to 351) motif (mutant ASAA) all efficiently inhibit HIV-1 Gag particle production. Expression of the dFYVE or ASAA mutants of Hrs had no effect on the release of Moloney murine leukemia virus. Coimmunoprecipitation analysis showed that the expression of Hrs mutant dFYVE or ASAA significantly reduced or abolished the HIV-1 Gag-Tsg101 interaction. Yeast-two hybrid assays were used to identify two new and independent Tsg101 binding sites, one in the Hrs coiled-coil domain and one in the proline/glutamic acid-rich domain. Scanning electron microscopy of HeLa cells expressing HIV-1 Gag and the Hrs ASAA mutant showed viral particles arrested in “lump-like” structures that remained attached to the cell surface. Together, these data indicate that fragments of Hrs containing the C-terminal portion of the protein can potently inhibit HIV-1 particle release by efficiently sequestering Tsg101 away from the Gag polyprotein. PMID:17182674

  10. HIV-1 transmission linkage in an HIV-1 prevention clinical trial

    SciTech Connect

    Leitner, Thomas; Campbell, Mary S; Mullins, James I; Hughes, James P; Wong, Kim G; Raugi, Dana N; Scrensen, Stefanie

    2009-01-01

    HIV-1 sequencing has been used extensively in epidemiologic and forensic studies to investigate patterns of HIV-1 transmission. However, the criteria for establishing genetic linkage between HIV-1 strains in HIV-1 prevention trials have not been formalized. The Partners in Prevention HSV/HIV Transmission Study (ClinicaITrials.gov NCT00194519) enrolled 3408 HIV-1 serodiscordant heterosexual African couples to determine the efficacy of genital herpes suppression with acyclovir in reducing HIV-1 transmission. The trial analysis required laboratory confirmation of HIV-1 linkage between enrolled partners in couples in which seroconversion occurred. Here we describe the process and results from HIV-1 sequencing studies used to perform transmission linkage determination in this clinical trial. Consensus Sanger sequencing of env (C2-V3-C3) and gag (p17-p24) genes was performed on plasma HIV-1 RNA from both partners within 3 months of seroconversion; env single molecule or pyrosequencing was also performed in some cases. For linkage, we required monophyletic clustering between HIV-1 sequences in the transmitting and seroconverting partners, and developed a Bayesian algorithm using genetic distances to evaluate the posterior probability of linkage of participants sequences. Adjudicators classified transmissions as linked, unlinked, or indeterminate. Among 151 seroconversion events, we found 108 (71.5%) linked, 40 (26.5%) unlinked, and 3 (2.0%) to have indeterminate transmissions. Nine (8.3%) were linked by consensus gag sequencing only and 8 (7.4%) required deep sequencing of env. In this first use of HIV-1 sequencing to establish endpoints in a large clinical trial, more than one-fourth of transmissions were unlinked to the enrolled partner, illustrating the relevance of these methods in the design of future HIV-1 prevention trials in serodiscordant couples. A hierarchy of sequencing techniques, analysis methods, and expert adjudication contributed to the linkage

  11. The Vaginal Acquisition and Dissemination of HIV-1 Infection in a Novel Transgenic Mouse Model Is Facilitated by Coinfection with Herpes Simplex Virus 2 and Is Inhibited by Microbicide Treatment.

    PubMed

    Seay, Kieran; Khajoueinejad, Nazanin; Zheng, Jian Hua; Kiser, Patrick; Ochsenbauer, Christina; Kappes, John C; Herold, Betsy; Goldstein, Harris

    2015-09-01

    Epidemiological studies have demonstrated that herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2) infection significantly increases the risk of HIV-1 acquisition, thereby contributing to the expanding HIV-1 epidemic. To investigate whether HSV-2 infection directly facilitates mucosal HIV-1 acquisition, we used our transgenic hCD4/R5/cT1 mouse model which circumvents major entry and transcription blocks preventing murine HIV-1 infection by targeting transgenic expression of human CD4, CCR5, and cyclin T1 genes to CD4(+) T cells and myeloid-committed cells. Productive infection of mucosal leukocytes, predominantly CD4(+) T cells, was detected in all hCD4/R5/cT1 mice intravaginally challenged with an HIV-1 infectious molecular clone, HIV-Du151.2env-NLuc, which expresses an env gene (C.Du151.2) cloned from an acute heterosexually infected woman and a NanoLuc luciferase reporter gene. Lower genital tract HIV-1 infection after HIV-Du151.2env-NLuc intravaginal challenge was increased ~4-fold in hCD4/R5/cT1 mice coinfected with HSV-2. Furthermore, HIV-1 dissemination to draining lymph nodes was detected only in HSV-2-coinfected mice. HSV-2 infection stimulated local infiltration and activation of CD4(+) T cells and dendritic cells, likely contributing to the enhanced HIV-1 infection and dissemination in HSV-2-coinfected mice. We then used this model to demonstrate that a novel gel containing tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF), the more potent prodrug of tenofovir (TFV), but not the TFV microbicide gel utilized in the recent CAPRISA 004, VOICE (Vaginal and Oral Interventions to Control the Epidemic), and FACTS 001 clinical trials, was effective as preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) to completely prevent vaginal HIV-1 infection in almost half of HSV-2-coinfected mice. These results also support utilization of hCD4/R5/cT1 mice as a highly reproducible immunocompetent preclinical model to evaluate HIV-1 acquisition across the female genital tract. Multiple epidemiological studies have reported that

  12. Trimer Enhancement Mutation Effects on HIV-1 Matrix Protein Binding Activities

    PubMed Central

    Alfadhli, Ayna; Mack, Andrew; Ritchie, Christopher; Cylinder, Isabel; Harper, Logan; Tedbury, Philip R.; Freed, Eric O.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The HIV-1 matrix (MA) protein is the amino-terminal domain of the HIV-1 precursor Gag (Pr55Gag) protein. MA binds to membranes and RNAs, helps transport Pr55Gag proteins to virus assembly sites at the plasma membranes of infected cells, and facilitates the incorporation of HIV-1 envelope (Env) proteins into virions by virtue of an interaction with the Env protein cytoplasmic tails (CTs). MA has been shown to crystallize as a trimer and to organize on membranes in hexamer lattices. MA mutations that localize to residues near the ends of trimer spokes have been observed to impair Env protein assembly into virus particles, and several of these are suppressed by the 62QR mutation at the hubs of trimer interfaces. We have examined the binding activities of wild-type (WT) MA and 62QR MA variants and found that the 62QR mutation stabilized MA trimers but did not alter the way MA proteins organized on membranes. Relative to WT MA, the 62QR protein showed small effects on membrane and RNA binding. However, 62QR proteins bound significantly better to Env CTs than their WT counterparts, and CT binding efficiencies correlated with trimerization efficiencies. Our data suggest a model in which multivalent binding of trimeric HIV-1 Env proteins to MA trimers contributes to the process of Env virion incorporation. IMPORTANCE The HIV-1 Env proteins assemble as trimers, and incorporation of the proteins into virus particles requires an interaction of Env CT domains with the MA domains of the viral precursor Gag proteins. Despite this knowledge, little is known about the mechanisms by which MA facilitates the virion incorporation of Env proteins. To help elucidate this process, we examined the binding activities of an MA mutant that stabilizes MA trimers. We found that the mutant proteins organized similarly to WT proteins on membranes, and that mutant and WT proteins revealed only slight differences in their binding to RNAs or lipids. However, the mutant proteins showed

  13. Hyperthermia stimulates HIV-1 replication.

    PubMed

    Roesch, Ferdinand; Meziane, Oussama; Kula, Anna; Nisole, Sébastien; Porrot, Françoise; Anderson, Ian; Mammano, Fabrizio; Fassati, Ariberto; Marcello, Alessandro; Benkirane, Monsef; Schwartz, Olivier

    2012-01-01

    HIV-infected individuals may experience fever episodes. Fever is an elevation of the body temperature accompanied by inflammation. It is usually beneficial for the host through enhancement of immunological defenses. In cultures, transient non-physiological heat shock (42-45°C) and Heat Shock Proteins (HSPs) modulate HIV-1 replication, through poorly defined mechanisms. The effect of physiological hyperthermia (38-40°C) on HIV-1 infection has not been extensively investigated. Here, we show that culturing primary CD4+ T lymphocytes and cell lines at a fever-like temperature (39.5°C) increased the efficiency of HIV-1 replication by 2 to 7 fold. Hyperthermia did not facilitate viral entry nor reverse transcription, but increased Tat transactivation of the LTR viral promoter. Hyperthermia also boosted HIV-1 reactivation in a model of latently-infected cells. By imaging HIV-1 transcription, we further show that Hsp90 co-localized with actively transcribing provirus, and this phenomenon was enhanced at 39.5°C. The Hsp90 inhibitor 17-AAG abrogated the increase of HIV-1 replication in hyperthermic cells. Altogether, our results indicate that fever may directly stimulate HIV-1 replication, in a process involving Hsp90 and facilitation of Tat-mediated LTR activity.

  14. Hyperthermia Stimulates HIV-1 Replication

    PubMed Central

    Roesch, Ferdinand; Meziane, Oussama; Kula, Anna; Nisole, Sébastien; Porrot, Françoise; Anderson, Ian; Mammano, Fabrizio; Fassati, Ariberto; Marcello, Alessandro; Benkirane, Monsef; Schwartz, Olivier

    2012-01-01

    HIV-infected individuals may experience fever episodes. Fever is an elevation of the body temperature accompanied by inflammation. It is usually beneficial for the host through enhancement of immunological defenses. In cultures, transient non-physiological heat shock (42–45°C) and Heat Shock Proteins (HSPs) modulate HIV-1 replication, through poorly defined mechanisms. The effect of physiological hyperthermia (38–40°C) on HIV-1 infection has not been extensively investigated. Here, we show that culturing primary CD4+ T lymphocytes and cell lines at a fever-like temperature (39.5°C) increased the efficiency of HIV-1 replication by 2 to 7 fold. Hyperthermia did not facilitate viral entry nor reverse transcription, but increased Tat transactivation of the LTR viral promoter. Hyperthermia also boosted HIV-1 reactivation in a model of latently-infected cells. By imaging HIV-1 transcription, we further show that Hsp90 co-localized with actively transcribing provirus, and this phenomenon was enhanced at 39.5°C. The Hsp90 inhibitor 17-AAG abrogated the increase of HIV-1 replication in hyperthermic cells. Altogether, our results indicate that fever may directly stimulate HIV-1 replication, in a process involving Hsp90 and facilitation of Tat-mediated LTR activity. PMID:22807676

  15. [A new unique HIV-1 recombinant form detected in Belarus].

    PubMed

    Eremin, V F; Gasich, E L; Sosinovich, S V

    2012-01-01

    Republican Research-and-Practical Center for Epidemiology and Microbiology, Ministry of Health of Belarus, Minsk The paper presents data on the molecular genetic characteristics of a new HIV-1 recombinant form. The study has shown that the virus is referred to as HIV-1 subtype B in terms of the gag gene and HIV-1 subtype A in terms of the pol and env genes. At the same time the new isolate is closer, in terms of the gag gene, to the HIV-1 DQ207943 strain isolated in Georgia, in terms of the pol gene, to the HIV-1 AF413987.1 strain isolated in Ukraine and, in terms of the env gene to the HIV-1 AY500393 strain isolated in Russia. Thus, the described new HIV-1 recombinant form has the following structure: BgagApolAenv. The gag, pol, and env gene sequences from the new unique HIV-1 recombinant form have been registered in the international database EMBL/Genbank/DDBJ under accession numbers FR775442.1, FN995656.1, and FR775443.1.

  16. MAS NMR of HIV-1 protein assemblies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suiter, Christopher L.; Quinn, Caitlin M.; Lu, Manman; Hou, Guangjin; Zhang, Huilan; Polenova, Tatyana

    2015-04-01

    The negative global impact of the AIDS pandemic is well known. In this perspective article, the utility of magic angle spinning (MAS) NMR spectroscopy to answer pressing questions related to the structure and dynamics of HIV-1 protein assemblies is examined. In recent years, MAS NMR has undergone major technological developments enabling studies of large viral assemblies. We discuss some of these evolving methods and technologies and provide a perspective on the current state of MAS NMR as applied to the investigations into structure and dynamics of HIV-1 assemblies of CA capsid protein and of Gag maturation intermediates.

  17. Characterization of cytoplasmic Gag-gag interactions by dual-color z-scan fluorescence fluctuation spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Fogarty, Keir H; Chen, Yan; Grigsby, Iwen F; Macdonald, Patrick J; Smith, Elizabeth M; Johnson, Jolene L; Rawson, Jonathan M; Mansky, Louis M; Mueller, Joachim D

    2011-03-16

    Fluorescence fluctuation spectroscopy (FFS) quantifies the interactions of fluorescently-labeled proteins inside living cells by brightness analysis. However, the study of cytoplasmic proteins that interact with the plasma membrane is challenging with FFS. If the cytoplasmic section is thinner than the axial size of the observation volume, cytoplasmic and membrane-bound proteins are coexcited, which leads to brightness artifacts. This brightness bias, if not recognized, leads to erroneous interpretation of the data. We have overcome this challenge by introducing dual-color z-scan FFS and the addition of a distinctly colored reference protein. Here, we apply this technique to study the cytoplasmic interactions of the Gag proteins from human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1). The Gag protein plays a crucial role in the assembly of retroviruses and is found in both membrane and cytoplasm. Dual-color z-scans demonstrate that brightness artifacts are caused by a dim nonpunctate membrane-bound fraction of Gag. We perform an unbiased brightness characterization of cytoplasmic Gag by avoiding the membrane-bound fraction and reveal previously unknown differences in the behavior of the two retroviral Gag species. HIV-1 Gag exhibits concentration-dependent oligomerization in the cytoplasm, whereas HTLV-1 Gag lacks significant cytoplasmic Gag-Gag interactions. Copyright © 2011 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Novel two-round phenotypic assay for protease inhibitor susceptibility testing of recombinant and primary HIV-1 isolates.

    PubMed

    Puertas, Maria C; Buzón, Maria J; Ballestero, Mònica; Van Den Eede, Peter; Clotet, Bonaventura; Prado, Julia G; Martinez-Picado, Javier

    2012-12-01

    Antiretroviral drug susceptibility tests facilitate therapeutic management of HIV-1-infected patients. Although genotyping systems are affordable, inaccuracy in the interpretation of complex mutational patterns may limit their usefulness. Currently available HIV-1 phenotypic assays are based on the generation of recombinant viruses in which the specific viral gene of interest, derived from a patient plasma sample, is cloned into a susceptible genetic viral backbone prior to in vitro drug susceptibility evaluation. Nevertheless, in the case of protease inhibitors, not only are mutations in the HIV-1 protease-coding region involved in resistance, but the role of Gag in drug susceptibility has also recently been reported. In order to avoid the inherent limitations resulting from partial cloning of the viral genome, we designed and evaluated a new experimental strategy to test the in vitro susceptibility of primary viral isolates to protease inhibitors. Our protocol, which is based on a two-round infection protocol using the reporter TZM-bl cell line, showed a good correlation with genotypic resistance prediction and with the Antivirogram phenotypic assay, in both protease-recombinant viruses and primary viral isolates. The protocol is suitable for any HIV-1 subtype and enables rapid in-house measurement of protease inhibitor susceptibility, thus making it possible to evaluate the concomitant effects of both patient-derived gag and protease-coding regions.

  19. Cocaine Enhances DC to T-cell HIV-1 Transmission by Activating DC-SIGN/LARG/LSP1 Complex and Facilitating Infectious Synapse Formation

    PubMed Central

    Prasad, Anil; Kulkarni, Rutuja; Jiang, Shuxian; Groopman, Jerome E.

    2017-01-01

    DC-SIGN is a dendritic cell surface structure which participates in binding and transmission of HIV-1. Here, for the first time we demonstrate that cocaine induces over expression of DC-SIGN and significantly enhances virus transfer from DCs to T-cells by increasing the binding and internalization of HIV-1 in DCs. We found that cocaine activates a DC-SIGN mediated ‘signalosome’ complex by enhancing its association with LARG and LSP1. Further, LARG was observed to participate in DC-SIGN mediated internalization of HIV-1 in DCs. Intracellular trafficking studies of HIV-1 in cocaine treated DCs revealed increased co-localization of HIV-1 with endosomal or multi vesicular body (MVB) markers such as CD81 and VPS4 and decreased co-localization with the phagolysomal marker LAMP1; this signified altered intracellular trafficking and decreased degradation of HIV-1 in cocaine treated DCs. Furthermore, we found that cocaine induced activation of LARG which in turn activated Rho A and the focal adhesion molecules FAK, Pyk2 and paxillin. This signaling cascade enhanced the formation of an infectious synapse between DCs and T-cells. Our study provides insight into the molecular mechanisms of cocaine’s contribution to key components in HIV pathogenesis and highlights novel targets for interrupting the virus life cycle in substance using hosts. PMID:28094782

  20. Dynamics of HIV-1 RNA Near the Plasma Membrane during Virus Assembly.

    PubMed

    Sardo, Luca; Hatch, Steven C; Chen, Jianbo; Nikolaitchik, Olga; Burdick, Ryan C; Chen, De; Westlake, Christopher J; Lockett, Stephen; Pathak, Vinay K; Hu, Wei-Shau

    2015-11-01

    To increase our understanding of the events that lead to HIV-1 genome packaging, we examined the dynamics of viral RNA and Gag-RNA interactions near the plasma membrane by using total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy. We labeled HIV-1 RNA with a photoconvertible Eos protein via an RNA-binding protein that recognizes stem-loop sequences engineered into the viral genome. Near-UV light exposure causes an irreversible structural change in Eos and alters its emitted fluorescence from green to red. We studied the dynamics of HIV-1 RNA by photoconverting Eos near the plasma membrane, and we monitored the population of photoconverted red-Eos-labeled RNA signals over time. We found that in the absence of Gag, most of the HIV-1 RNAs stayed near the plasma membrane transiently, for a few minutes. The presence of Gag significantly increased the time that RNAs stayed near the plasma membrane: most of the RNAs were still detected after 30 min. We then quantified the proportion of HIV-1 RNAs near the plasma membrane that were packaged into assembling viral complexes. By tagging Gag with blue fluorescent protein, we observed that only a portion, ∼13 to 34%, of the HIV-1 RNAs that reached the membrane were recruited into assembling particles in an hour, and the frequency of HIV-1 RNA packaging varied with the Gag expression level. Our studies reveal the HIV-1 RNA dynamics on the plasma membrane and the efficiency of RNA recruitment and provide insights into the events leading to the generation of infectious HIV-1 virions. Nascent HIV-1 particles assemble on plasma membranes. During the assembly process, HIV-1 RNA genomes must be encapsidated into viral complexes to generate infectious particles. To gain insights into the RNA packaging and virus assembly mechanisms, we labeled and monitored the HIV-1 RNA signals near the plasma membrane. Our results showed that most of the HIV-1 RNAs stayed near the plasma membrane for only a few minutes in the absence of Gag, whereas

  1. Dynamics of HIV-1 RNA Near the Plasma Membrane during Virus Assembly

    PubMed Central

    Sardo, Luca; Hatch, Steven C.; Chen, Jianbo; Nikolaitchik, Olga; Burdick, Ryan C.; Chen, De; Westlake, Christopher J.; Lockett, Stephen; Pathak, Vinay K.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT To increase our understanding of the events that lead to HIV-1 genome packaging, we examined the dynamics of viral RNA and Gag-RNA interactions near the plasma membrane by using total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy. We labeled HIV-1 RNA with a photoconvertible Eos protein via an RNA-binding protein that recognizes stem-loop sequences engineered into the viral genome. Near-UV light exposure causes an irreversible structural change in Eos and alters its emitted fluorescence from green to red. We studied the dynamics of HIV-1 RNA by photoconverting Eos near the plasma membrane, and we monitored the population of photoconverted red-Eos-labeled RNA signals over time. We found that in the absence of Gag, most of the HIV-1 RNAs stayed near the plasma membrane transiently, for a few minutes. The presence of Gag significantly increased the time that RNAs stayed near the plasma membrane: most of the RNAs were still detected after 30 min. We then quantified the proportion of HIV-1 RNAs near the plasma membrane that were packaged into assembling viral complexes. By tagging Gag with blue fluorescent protein, we observed that only a portion, ∼13 to 34%, of the HIV-1 RNAs that reached the membrane were recruited into assembling particles in an hour, and the frequency of HIV-1 RNA packaging varied with the Gag expression level. Our studies reveal the HIV-1 RNA dynamics on the plasma membrane and the efficiency of RNA recruitment and provide insights into the events leading to the generation of infectious HIV-1 virions. IMPORTANCE Nascent HIV-1 particles assemble on plasma membranes. During the assembly process, HIV-1 RNA genomes must be encapsidated into viral complexes to generate infectious particles. To gain insights into the RNA packaging and virus assembly mechanisms, we labeled and monitored the HIV-1 RNA signals near the plasma membrane. Our results showed that most of the HIV-1 RNAs stayed near the plasma membrane for only a few minutes in the

  2. A global approach to HIV-1 vaccine development

    PubMed Central

    Stephenson, Kathryn E; Barouch, Dan H

    2013-01-01

    Summary A global human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) vaccine will have to elicit immune responses capable of providing protection against a tremendous diversity of HIV-1 variants. In this review, we first describe the current state of the HIV-1 vaccine field, outlining the immune responses that are desired in a global HIV-1 vaccine. In particular, we emphasize the likely importance of Env-specific neutralizing and non-neutralizing antibodies for protection against HIV-1 acquisition and the likely importance of effector Gag-specific T lymphocytes for virologic control. We then highlight four strategies for developing a global HIV-1 vaccine. The first approach is to design specific vaccines for each geographic region that include antigens tailor-made to match local circulating HIV-1 strains. The second approach is to design a vaccine that will elicit Env-specific antibodies capable of broadly neutralizing all HIV-1 subtypes. The third approach is to design a vaccine that will elicit cellular immune responses that are focused on highly conserved HIV-1 sequences. The fourth approach is to design a vaccine to elicit highly diverse HIV-1-specific responses. Finally, we emphasize the importance of conducting clinical efficacy trials as the only way to determine which strategies will provide optimal protection against HIV-1 in humans. PMID:23772627

  3. A Phase I Double Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Randomized Study of the Safety and Immunogenicity of an Adjuvanted HIV-1 Gag-Pol-Nef Fusion Protein and Adenovirus 35 Gag-RT-Int-Nef Vaccine in Healthy HIV-Uninfected African Adults

    PubMed Central

    Omosa-Manyonyi, Gloria; Mpendo, Juliet; Ruzagira, Eugene; Kilembe, William; Chomba, Elwyn; Roman, François; Bourguignon, Patricia; Koutsoukos, Marguerite; Collard, Alix; Voss, Gerald; Laufer, Dagna; Stevens, Gwynn; Hayes, Peter; Clark, Lorna; Cormier, Emmanuel; Dally, Len; Barin, Burc; Ackland, Jim; Syvertsen, Kristen; Zachariah, Devika; Anas, Kamaal; Sayeed, Eddy; Lombardo, Angela; Gilmour, Jill; Cox, Josephine; Fast, Patricia; Priddy, Frances

    2015-01-01

    Background Sequential prime-boost or co-administration of HIV vaccine candidates based on an adjuvanted clade B p24, RT, Nef, p17 fusion protein (F4/AS01) plus a non-replicating adenovirus 35 expressing clade A Gag, RT, Int and Nef (Ad35-GRIN) may lead to a unique immune profile, inducing both strong T-cell and antibody responses. Methods In a phase 1, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, 146 healthy adult volunteers were randomized to one of four regimens: heterologous prime-boost with two doses of F4/AS01E or F4/AS01B followed by Ad35-GRIN; Ad35-GRIN followed by two doses of F4/AS01B; or three co-administrations of Ad35-GRIN and F4/AS01B. T cell and antibody responses were measured. Results The vaccines were generally well-tolerated, and did not cause serious adverse events. The response rate, by IFN-γ ELISPOT, was greater when Ad35-GRIN was the priming vaccine and in the co-administration groups. F4/AS01 induced CD4+ T-cells expressing primarily CD40L and IL2 +/- TNF-α, while Ad35-GRIN induced predominantly CD8+ T-cells expressing IFN-γ +/- IL2 or TNF-α. Viral inhibition was induced after Ad35-GRIN vaccination, regardless of the regimen. Strong F4-specific antibody responses were induced. Immune responses persisted at least a year after the last vaccination. The complementary response profiles, characteristic of each vaccine, were both expressed after co-administration. Conclusion Co-administration of an adjuvanted protein and an adenovirus vector showed an acceptable safety and reactogenicity profile and resulted in strong, multifunctional and complementary HIV-specific immune responses. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01264445 PMID:25961283

  4. HIV-1 vaccine antibody induction against a variable region of HIV-1: a possible link to protective immunity?

    PubMed

    Bauer, Gerhard

    2013-05-01

    Evaluation of: Liao H, Bonsignori M, Alam M et al. Vaccine induction of antibodies against a structurally heterogeneous site of immune pressure within HIV-1 envelope protein variable regions 1 and 2. Immunity 38, 176-186 (2013). In 2009, results from the Phase III HIV-1 vaccine clinical trial RV144 applying a prime/boost regimen with a canarypox vaccine vector ALVAC-HIV plus the AIDSVAX B/E subunit envelope vaccine conducted in Thailand were reported. The priming canarypox vector carried the HIV-1 vaccine genes gp120 linked to the transmembrane-anchoring portion of subtype B gp41, HIV-1 Gag and protease; the boosting vaccine was composed of clades B and E of HIV-1 gp120. A 31.2% vaccine efficacy could be seen in this trial, an encouraging result in HIV-1 vaccine research that had been previously plagued with little clinical efficacy. In this paper, results from tests of four monoclonal antibodies isolated from RV144 vaccinees are reported. The antibodies recognize a certain HIV-1 envelope residue (169), neutralize laboratory-adapted HIV-1 strains and mediate killing of CD4(+) cells infected with HIV-1 laboratory isolates. Crystal structure analysis suggests that the recognized HIV-1 envelope epitope can exist in different conformations. It is thought that the immune pressure elicited by the monoclonal antibodies targets a HIV-1 envelope region with variable sequence structure.

  5. M2BP inhibits HIV-1 virion production in a vimentin filaments-dependent manner

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Qin; Zhang, Xiaolin; Han, Yuling; Wang, Xinlu; Gao, Guangxia

    2016-01-01

    M2BP (also called 90K) is an interferon-stimulated gene product that is upregulated in HIV-1 infection. A recent study revealed that M2BP reduces the infectivity of HIV-1 by inhibiting the processing of the viral envelope protein. Here we report that in addition to reducing viral infectivity, M2BP inhibits HIV-1 virion production. We provide evidence showing that M2BP inhibits HIV-1 Gag trafficking to the plasma membrane in a vimentin-dependent manner. When vimentin filaments were collapsed by treating cells with acrylamide or by overexpression of a dominant-negative mutant of vimentin, M2BP inhibition of HIV-1 virion production was significantly relieved. We further show that M2BP interacts with both HIV-1 Gag and vimentin and thereby mediates their interactions. We propose that M2BP traps HIV-1 Gag to vimentin filaments to inhibit the transportation of HIV-1 Gag to the plasma membrane. These findings uncover a novel mechanism by which a host antiviral factor inhibits HIV-1 virion production. PMID:27604950

  6. Molecular cloning and biological characterization of full-length HIV-1 subtype C from Botswana.

    PubMed

    Ndung'u, T; Renjifo, B; Novitsky, V A; McLane, M F; Gaolekwe, S; Essex, M

    2000-12-20

    Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) subtype C is now responsible for more than half of all HIV-1 infections in the global epidemic and for the high levels of HIV-1 prevalence in southern Africa. To facilitate studies of the biological nature and the underlying molecular determinants of this virus, we constructed eight full-length proviral clones from two asymptomatic and three AIDS patients infected with HIV-1 subtype C from Botswana. Analysis of viral lysates showed that Gag, Pol, and Env structural proteins were present in the virions. In four clones, the analysis suggested inefficient envelope glycoprotein processing. Nucleotide sequence analysis of the eight clones did not reveal frameshifts, deletions, premature truncations, or translational stop codons in any structural, regulatory, or accessory genes. None of the subtype C clones were replication competent in donor peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), macrophages, Jurkat(tat) cells, or U87. CD4.CCR5 cells. However, infection by two clones could be rescued by complementation with a functional subtype C envelope clone, resulting in a productive infection of PBMCs, macrophages, and U87. CD4.CCR5 cells.

  7. Genetic assay for multimerization of retroviral gag polyproteins.

    PubMed Central

    Luban, J; Alin, K B; Bossolt, K L; Humaran, T; Goff, S P

    1992-01-01

    We have established a genetic assay for the multimerization of retroviral gag polyproteins. This assay is based on the GAL4 two-hybrid system for studying protein-protein interactions (S. Fields and O. Song, Nature (London) 340:245-246, 1989). In our initial experiments, we generated Saccharomyces cerevisiae plasmids that separately express the GAL4 DNA-binding and GAL4 activation domains fused to the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) gag polyprotein, Pr55gag. The coexpression of these two hybrid proteins in S. cerevisiae results in the association of the GAL4 domains and the potent activation of an integrated GAL4-responsive lacZ indicator gene. Similar results were obtained with plasmids encoding GAL4-Moloney murine leukemia virus (M-MuLV) gag polyprotein hybrid proteins. In contrast, the heterologous GAL4-HIV-1 gag and GAL4-M-MuLV gag fusion proteins were unable to interact with each other to induce lacZ expression. The results suggest that this yeast system provides a rapid and specific assay for the interactions of retroviral gag proteins that occur during virion assembly. Images PMID:1629970

  8. HIV-1 Vpr Abrogates the Effect of TSG101 Overexpression to Support Virus Release

    PubMed Central

    Chutiwitoonchai, Nopporn; Siarot, Lowela; Takeda, Eri; Shioda, Tatsuo; Ueda, Motoki; Aida, Yoko

    2016-01-01

    HIV-1 budding requires interaction between Gag and cellular TSG101 to initiate viral particle assembly and release via the endosomal sorting complexes required for transport (ESCRT) pathway. However, some reports show that overexpression of TSG101 inhibits virus release by disruption of Gag targeting process. Since a HIV-1 accessory protein, Vpr binds to Gag p6 domain at the position close to the binding site for TSG101, whether Vpr implicates TSG101 overexpression effect has not been investigated. Here, we found that Vpr abrogates TSG101 overexpression effect to rescue viral production. Co-transfection of TSG101 and Gag with Vpr prevented TSG101-induced Gag accumulation in endosomes and lysosomes. In addition, Vpr rescued virus-like particle (VLP) production in a similar manner as a lysosomal inhibitor, Bafilomycin A1 indicating that Vpr inhibits TSG101-induced Gag downregulation via lysosomal pathway. Vpr and Gag interaction is required to counteract TSG101 overexpression effect since Vpr A30F mutant which is unable to interact with Gag and incorporate into virions, reduced ability to prevent Gag accumulation and to rescue VLP production. In addition, GST pull-down assays and Biacore analysis revealed that Vpr competed with TSG101 for Gag binding. These results indicate that Vpr overcomes the effects of TSG101 overexpression to support viral production by competing with TSG101 to bind Gag. PMID:27648839

  9. Generation of Rhesus Macaque-Tropic HIV-1 Clones That Are Resistant to Major Anti-HIV-1 Restriction Factors

    PubMed Central

    Nomaguchi, Masako; Yokoyama, Masaru; Kono, Ken; Nakayama, Emi E.; Shioda, Tatsuo; Doi, Naoya; Fujiwara, Sachi; Saito, Akatsuki; Akari, Hirofumi; Miyakawa, Kei; Ryo, Akihide; Ode, Hirotaka; Iwatani, Yasumasa; Miura, Tomoyuki; Igarashi, Tatsuhiko

    2013-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) replication in macaque cells is restricted mainly by antiviral cellular APOBEC3, TRIM5α/TRIM5CypA, and tetherin proteins. For basic and clinical HIV-1/AIDS studies, efforts to construct macaque-tropic HIV-1 (HIV-1mt) have been made by us and others. Although rhesus macaques are commonly and successfully used as infection models, no HIV-1 derivatives suitable for in vivo rhesus research are available to date. In this study, to obtain novel HIV-1mt clones that are resistant to major restriction factors, we altered Gag and Vpu of our best HIV-1mt clone described previously. First, by sequence- and structure-guided mutagenesis, three amino acid residues in Gag-capsid (CA) (M94L/R98S/G114Q) were found to be responsible for viral growth enhancement in a macaque cell line. Results of in vitro TRIM5α susceptibility testing of HIV-1mt carrying these substitutions correlated well with the increased viral replication potential in macaque peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) with different TRIM5 alleles, suggesting that the three amino acids in HIV-1mt CA are involved in the interaction with TRIM5α. Second, we replaced the transmembrane domain of Vpu of this clone with the corresponding region of simian immunodeficiency virus SIVgsn166 Vpu. The resultant clone, MN4/LSDQgtu, was able to antagonize macaque but not human tetherin, and its Vpu effectively functioned during viral replication in a macaque cell line. Notably, MN4/LSDQgtu grew comparably to SIVmac239 and much better than any of our other HIV-1mt clones in rhesus macaque PBMCs. In sum, MN4/LSDQgtu is the first HIV-1 derivative that exhibits resistance to the major restriction factors in rhesus macaque cells. PMID:23966385

  10. Nucleic acids encoding mosaic HIV-1 gag proteins

    DOEpatents

    Korber, Bette T.; Perkins, Simon; Bhattacharya, Tanmoy; Fischer, William M.; Theiler, James; Letvin, Norman; Haynes, Barton F.; Hahn, Beatrice H.; Yusim, Karina; Kuiken, Carla

    2016-11-15

    The disclosure generally relates to an immunogenic composition (e.g., a vaccine) and, in particular, to a polyvalent immunogenic composition, such as a polyvalent HIV vaccine, and to methods of using same.

  11. Tracking the assembly pathway of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Gag deletion mutants by immunogold labeling.

    PubMed

    Wang, J J; Sandefur, S; Spearman, P; Chiou, C T; Chiang, P H; Ratner, L

    2001-12-01

    The Pr55gag gene product of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) is sufficient to direct the formation of retrovirus-like particles (RVLPs). Recent biochemical evidence has indicated the presence of Gag intermediates in the cytoplasm; however, the Gag assembly process into RVLPs remains incompletely defined. The authors present here the subcellular localization of Gag mutant proteins in BSC40 and Jurkat cells by immunoelectron microscopy (IEM). The full Gag/Pol and Gag precursors, a C-terminal deletion mutant lacking a portion of nucleocapsid (NC), and all p6Gag gave rise to similar levels of RVLPs at the cell surface. A C-terminal deletion of all NC and p6Gag abrogated particle formation, whereas p24 was found in patches at the cell surface. Deletion of matrix (MA) sequences from Gag resulted in intracellular particles, and myristylation was not required for particle formation in the context of the MA deletion. Matrix expression was enhanced with Gag/Pol or Env coexpression as determined by semiquantitative IEM. p24 protein was targeted at vacuolar and mitochondrial membranes, but not at Golgi cisternae. In addition, aggregations of Gag intermediates and RVLPs in the cytoplasm, rough endoplasmic reticulum, cisternae, and mitochondria were noted. These results provide defined in situ evidence that HIV-1 particle assembly occurs in the cytosol in addition to budding at most intracellular membranes.

  12. Viral linkage in HIV-1 seroconverters and their partners in an HIV-1 prevention clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Mary S; Mullins, James I; Hughes, James P; Celum, Connie; Wong, Kim G; Raugi, Dana N; Sorensen, Stefanie; Stoddard, Julia N; Zhao, Hong; Deng, Wenjie; Kahle, Erin; Panteleeff, Dana; Baeten, Jared M; McCutchan, Francine E; Albert, Jan; Leitner, Thomas; Wald, Anna; Corey, Lawrence; Lingappa, Jairam R

    2011-03-02

    Characterization of viruses in HIV-1 transmission pairs will help identify biological determinants of infectiousness and evaluate candidate interventions to reduce transmission. Although HIV-1 sequencing is frequently used to substantiate linkage between newly HIV-1 infected individuals and their sexual partners in epidemiologic and forensic studies, viral sequencing is seldom applied in HIV-1 prevention trials. The Partners in Prevention HSV/HIV Transmission Study (ClinicalTrials.gov #NCT00194519) was a prospective randomized placebo-controlled trial that enrolled serodiscordant heterosexual couples to determine the efficacy of genital herpes suppression in reducing HIV-1 transmission; as part of the study analysis, HIV-1 sequences were examined for genetic linkage between seroconverters and their enrolled partners. We obtained partial consensus HIV-1 env and gag sequences from blood plasma for 151 transmission pairs and performed deep sequencing of env in some cases. We analyzed sequences with phylogenetic techniques and developed a Bayesian algorithm to evaluate the probability of linkage. For linkage, we required monophyletic clustering between enrolled partners' sequences and a Bayesian posterior probability of ≥ 50%. Adjudicators classified each seroconversion, finding 108 (71.5%) linked, 40 (26.5%) unlinked, and 3 (2.0%) indeterminate transmissions, with linkage determined by consensus env sequencing in 91 (84%). Male seroconverters had a higher frequency of unlinked transmissions than female seroconverters. The likelihood of transmission from the enrolled partner was related to time on study, with increasing numbers of unlinked transmissions occurring after longer observation periods. Finally, baseline viral load was found to be significantly higher among linked transmitters. In this first use of HIV-1 sequencing to establish endpoints in a large clinical trial, more than one-fourth of transmissions were unlinked to the enrolled partner, illustrating the

  13. TIM-family proteins inhibit HIV-1 release

    PubMed Central

    Li, Minghua; Ablan, Sherimay D.; Miao, Chunhui; Zheng, Yi-Min; Fuller, Matthew S.; Rennert, Paul D.; Maury, Wendy; Johnson, Marc C.; Freed, Eric O.; Liu, Shan-Lu

    2014-01-01

    Accumulating evidence indicates that T-cell immunoglobulin (Ig) and mucin domain (TIM) proteins play critical roles in viral infections. Herein, we report that the TIM-family proteins strongly inhibit HIV-1 release, resulting in diminished viral production and replication. Expression of TIM-1 causes HIV-1 Gag and mature viral particles to accumulate on the plasma membrane. Mutation of the phosphatidylserine (PS) binding sites of TIM-1 abolishes its ability to block HIV-1 release. TIM-1, but to a much lesser extent PS-binding deficient mutants, induces PS flipping onto the cell surface; TIM-1 is also found to be incorporated into HIV-1 virions. Importantly, TIM-1 inhibits HIV-1 replication in CD4-positive Jurkat cells, despite its capability of up-regulating CD4 and promoting HIV-1 entry. In addition to TIM-1, TIM-3 and TIM-4 also block the release of HIV-1, as well as that of murine leukemia virus (MLV) and Ebola virus (EBOV); knockdown of TIM-3 in differentiated monocyte-derived macrophages (MDMs) enhances HIV-1 production. The inhibitory effects of TIM-family proteins on virus release are extended to other PS receptors, such as Axl and RAGE. Overall, our study uncovers a novel ability of TIM-family proteins to block the release of HIV-1 and other viruses by interaction with virion- and cell-associated PS. Our work provides new insights into a virus-cell interaction that is mediated by TIMs and PS receptors. PMID:25136083

  14. HIV-1 molecular epidemiology among newly diagnosed HIV-1 individuals in Hebei, a low HIV prevalence province in China

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Xinli; Kang, Xianjiang; Liu, Yongjian; Cui, Ze; Guo, Wei; Zhao, Cuiying; Li, Yan; Chen, Suliang; Li, Jingyun; Zhang, Yuqi; Zhao, Hongru

    2017-01-01

    New human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) diagnoses are increasing rapidly in Hebei. The aim of this study presents the most extensive HIV-1 molecular epidemiology investigation in Hebei province in China thus far. We have carried out the most extensive systematic cross-sectional study based on newly diagnosed HIV-1 positive individuals in 2013, and characterized the molecular epidemiology of HIV-1 based on full length gag-partial pol gene sequences in the whole of Hebei. Nine HIV-1 genotypes based on full length gag-partial pol gene sequence were identified among 610 newly diagnosed naïve individuals. The four main genotypes were circulating recombinant form (CRF)01_AE (53.4%), CRF07_BC (23.4%), subtype B (15.9%), and unique recombinant forms URFs (4.9%). Within 1 year, three new genotypes (subtype A1, CRF55_01B, CRF65_cpx), unknown before in Hebei, were first found among men who have sex with men (MSM). All nine genotypes were identified in the sexually contracted HIV-1 population. Among 30 URFs, six recombinant patterns were revealed, including CRF01_AE/BC (40.0%), CRF01_AE/B (23.3%), B/C (16.7%), CRF01_AE/C (13.3%), CRF01_AE/B/A2 (3.3%) and CRF01_AE/BC/A2 (3.3%), plus two potential CRFs. This study elucidated the complicated characteristics of HIV-1 molecular epidemiology in a low HIV-1 prevalence northern province of China and revealed the high level of HIV-1 genetic diversity. All nine HIV-1 genotypes circulating in Hebei have spread out of their initial risk groups into the general population through sexual contact, especially through MSM. This highlights the urgency of HIV prevention and control in China. PMID:28178737

  15. HIV-1 molecular epidemiology among newly diagnosed HIV-1 individuals in Hebei, a low HIV prevalence province in China.

    PubMed

    Lu, Xinli; Kang, Xianjiang; Liu, Yongjian; Cui, Ze; Guo, Wei; Zhao, Cuiying; Li, Yan; Chen, Suliang; Li, Jingyun; Zhang, Yuqi; Zhao, Hongru

    2017-01-01

    New human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) diagnoses are increasing rapidly in Hebei. The aim of this study presents the most extensive HIV-1 molecular epidemiology investigation in Hebei province in China thus far. We have carried out the most extensive systematic cross-sectional study based on newly diagnosed HIV-1 positive individuals in 2013, and characterized the molecular epidemiology of HIV-1 based on full length gag-partial pol gene sequences in the whole of Hebei. Nine HIV-1 genotypes based on full length gag-partial pol gene sequence were identified among 610 newly diagnosed naïve individuals. The four main genotypes were circulating recombinant form (CRF)01_AE (53.4%), CRF07_BC (23.4%), subtype B (15.9%), and unique recombinant forms URFs (4.9%). Within 1 year, three new genotypes (subtype A1, CRF55_01B, CRF65_cpx), unknown before in Hebei, were first found among men who have sex with men (MSM). All nine genotypes were identified in the sexually contracted HIV-1 population. Among 30 URFs, six recombinant patterns were revealed, including CRF01_AE/BC (40.0%), CRF01_AE/B (23.3%), B/C (16.7%), CRF01_AE/C (13.3%), CRF01_AE/B/A2 (3.3%) and CRF01_AE/BC/A2 (3.3%), plus two potential CRFs. This study elucidated the complicated characteristics of HIV-1 molecular epidemiology in a low HIV-1 prevalence northern province of China and revealed the high level of HIV-1 genetic diversity. All nine HIV-1 genotypes circulating in Hebei have spread out of their initial risk groups into the general population through sexual contact, especially through MSM. This highlights the urgency of HIV prevention and control in China.

  16. The Preserved HTH-Docking Cleft of HIV-1 Integrase Is Functionally Critical.

    PubMed

    Galilee, Meytal; Britan-Rosich, Elena; Griner, Sarah L; Uysal, Serdar; Baumgärtel, Viola; Lamb, Don C; Kossiakoff, Anthony A; Kotler, Moshe; Stroud, Robert M; Marx, Ailie; Alian, Akram

    2016-11-01

    HIV-1 integrase (IN) catalyzes viral DNA integration into the host genome and facilitates multifunctional steps including virus particle maturation. Competency of IN to form multimeric assemblies is functionally critical, presenting an approach for anti-HIV strategies. Multimerization of IN depends on interactions between the distinct subunit domains and among the flanking protomers. Here, we elucidate an overlooked docking cleft of IN core domain that anchors the N-terminal helix-turn-helix (HTH) motif in a highly preserved and functionally critical configuration. Crystallographic structure of IN core domain in complex with Fab specifically targeting this cleft reveals a steric overlap that would inhibit HTH-docking, C-terminal domain contacts, DNA binding, and subsequent multimerization. While Fab inhibits in vitro IN integration activity, in vivo it abolishes virus particle production by specifically associating with preprocessed IN within Gag-Pol and interfering with early cytosolic Gag/Gag-Pol assemblies. The HTH-docking cleft may offer a fresh hotspot for future anti-HIV intervention strategies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Hydrodynamic and Membrane Binding Properties of Purified Rous Sarcoma Virus Gag Protein

    SciTech Connect

    Dick, Robert A.; Datta, Siddhartha A. K.; Nanda, Hirsh; Fang, Xianyang; Wen, Yi; Barros, Marilia; Wang, Yun-Xing; Rein, Alan; Vogt, Volker M.; Sundquist, W. I.

    2016-05-06

    Previously, no retroviral Gag protein has been highly purified in milligram quantities and in a biologically relevant and active form. We have purified Rous sarcoma virus (RSV) Gag protein and in parallel several truncation mutants of Gag and have studied their biophysical properties and membrane interactionsin vitro. RSV Gag is unusual in that it is not naturally myristoylated. From its ability to assemble into virus-like particlesin vitro, we infer that RSV Gag is biologically active. By size exclusion chromatography and small-angle X-ray scattering, Gag in solution appears extended and flexible, in contrast to previous reports on unmyristoylated HIV-1 Gag, which is compact. However, by neutron reflectometry measurements of RSV Gag bound to a supported bilayer, the protein appears to adopt a more compact, folded-over conformation. At physiological ionic strength, purified Gag binds strongly to liposomes containing acidic lipids. This interaction is stimulated by physiological levels of phosphatidylinositol-(4,5)-bisphosphate [PI(4,5)P2] and by cholesterol. However, unlike HIV-1 Gag, RSV Gag shows no sensitivity to acyl chain saturation. In contrast with full-length RSV Gag, the purified MA domain of Gag binds to liposomes only weakly. Similarly, both an N-terminally truncated version of Gag that is missing the MA domain and a C-terminally truncated version that is missing the NC domain bind only weakly. These results imply that NC contributes to membrane interactionin vitro, either by directly contacting acidic lipids or by promoting Gag multimerization.

    Retroviruses like HIV assemble at and bud from the plasma membrane of cells. Assembly requires the interaction between thousands of Gag molecules to form a lattice. Previous work indicated that lattice formation at the plasma membrane is influenced by the conformation of monomeric HIV. We have extended this work to the more tractable RSV Gag. Our

  18. In vitro assembly of the feline immunodeficiency virus Gag polyprotein.

    PubMed

    Affranchino, José L; González, Silvia A

    2010-06-01

    The retroviral Gag protein is the only viral product that is necessary for the assembly of virions in mammalian cells. We have established an in vitro assembly system to study the assembly properties of purified feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) Gag protein expressed in bacteria. Under fully defined conditions, the FIV Gag protein assembles into spherical particles of 33 nm in diameter which are morphologically similar to authentic immature particles, albeit smaller than virions. The in vitro assembly of FIV Gag into particles was found to be resistant to the addition of Triton X-100 and required the presence of RNA. Notably, we found that an amino acid substitution in the nucleocapsid domain of Gag that impairs RNA binding and blocks virion production in vivo, also abrogates Gag assembly in vitro. The development of an in vitro assembly system for FIV Gag protein will facilitate the study of the mechanisms by which this protein assembles into immature particles.

  19. Maternal plasma and breastmilk viral loads are associated with HIV-1-specific cellular immune responses among HIV-1-exposed, uninfected infants in Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Liu, A Y; Lohman-Payne, B; Chung, M H; Kiarie, J; Kinuthia, J; Slyker, J; Richardson, B; Lehman, D; Farquhar, C; John-Stewart, G

    2015-01-01

    Infants exposed to maternal HIV-1 provide an opportunity to assess correlates of HIV-1-specific interferon (IFN)-γ responses and may be informative in the development of HIV-1 vaccines. HIV-1-infected women with CD4 counts 200–500 cells/mm3 were randomized to short-course zidovudine/nevirapine (ZDV/NVP) or highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART) between 2003 and 2005. Maternal plasma and breastmilk HIV-1 RNA and DNA were quantified during the first 6–12 months postpartum. HIV-1 gag peptide-stimulated enzyme-linked immunospot (ELISPOT) assays were conducted in HIV-1-exposed, uninfected infants (EU), and correlates were determined using regression and generalized estimating equations. Among 47 EU infants, 21 (45%) had ≥1 positive ELISPOT result during follow-up. Infants had a median response magnitude of 177 HIV-1-specific spot-forming units (SFU)/106 peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) [interquartile range (IQR) = 117–287] directed against 2 (IQR = 1–3) gag peptide pools. The prevalence and magnitude of responses did not differ by maternal anti-retroviral (ARV) randomization arm. Maternal plasma HIV-1 RNA levels during pregnancy (P = 0·009) and breastmilk HIV-1 DNA levels at 1 month (P = 0·02) were associated with a higher magnitude of infant HIV-1-specific ELISPOT responses at 1 month postpartum. During follow-up, concurrent breastmilk HIV-1 RNA and DNA (cell-free virus and cell-associated virus, respectively) each were associated positively with magnitude of infant HIV-1-specific responses (P = 0·01). Our data demonstrate the importance of antigenic exposure on the induction of infant HIV-1-specific cellular immune responses in the absence of infection. PMID:25652232

  20. HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein

    DOEpatents

    Caulfield, Michael; Cupo, Albert; Dean, Hansi; Hoffenberg, Simon; King, C. Richter; Klasse, P. J.; Marozsan, Andre; Moore, John P.; Sanders, Rogier W.; Ward, Andrew; Wilson, Ian; Julien, Jean-Philippe

    2017-08-22

    The present application relates to novel HIV-1 envelope glycoproteins, which may be utilized as HIV-1 vaccine immunogens, and antigens for crystallization, electron microscopy and other biophysical, biochemical and immunological studies for the identification of broad neutralizing antibodies. The present invention encompasses the preparation and purification of immunogenic compositions, which are formulated into the vaccines of the present invention.

  1. Psychoneuroimmunology and HIV-1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Antoni, Michael H.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Presents evidence describing benefits of behavioral interventions such as aerobic exercise training on both psychological and immunological functioning among high risk human immunodeficiency virus-Type 1 (HIV-1) seronegative and very early stage seropositive homosexual men. HIV-1 infection is cast as chronic disease for which early…

  2. Differential effects of Vpr on single-cycle and spreading HIV-1 infections in CD4+ T-cells and dendritic cells.

    PubMed

    de Silva, Suresh; Planelles, Vicente; Wu, Li

    2012-01-01

    The Vpr protein of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) contributes to viral replication in non-dividing cells, specifically those of the myeloid lineage. However, the effects of Vpr in enhancing HIV-1 infection in dendritic cells have not been extensively investigated. Here, we evaluated the role of Vpr during infection of highly permissive peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and CD4(+) T-cells and compared it to that of monocyte-derived dendritic cells (MDDCs), which are less susceptible to HIV-1 infection. Infections of dividing PBMCs and non-dividing MDDCs were carried out with single-cycle and replication-competent HIV-1 encoding intact Vpr or Vpr-defective mutants. In contrast to previous findings, we observed that single-cycle HIV-1 infection of both PBMCs and MDDCs was significantly enhanced in the presence of Vpr when the viral stocks were carefully characterized and titrated. HIV-1 DNA quantification revealed that Vpr only enhanced the reverse transcription and nuclear import processes in single-cycle HIV-1 infected MDDCs, but not in CD4(+) T-cells. However, a significant enhancement in HIV-1 gag mRNA expression was observed in both CD4(+) T-cells and MDDCs in the presence of Vpr. Furthermore, Vpr complementation into HIV-1 virions did not affect single-cycle viral infection of MDDCs, suggesting that newly synthesized Vpr plays a significant role to facilitate single-cycle HIV-1 infection. Over the course of a spreading infection, Vpr significantly enhanced replication-competent HIV-1 infection in MDDCs, while it modestly promoted viral infection in activated PBMCs. Quantification of viral DNA in replication-competent HIV-1 infected PBMCs and MDDCs revealed similar levels of reverse transcription products, but increased nuclear import in the presence of Vpr independent of the cell types. Taken together, our results suggest that Vpr has differential effects on single-cycle and spreading HIV-1 infections, which are dependent on the

  3. Unusual Fusion Proteins of HIV-1

    PubMed Central

    Langer, Simon; Sauter, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    Despite its small genome size, the Human Immunodeficiency Virus 1 (HIV-1) is one of the most successful pathogens and has infected more than 70 million people worldwide within the last decades. In total, HIV-1 expresses 16 canonical proteins from only nine genes within its 10 kb genome. Expression of the structural genes gag, pol, and env, the regulatory genes rev and tat and the accessory genes vpu, nef, vpr, and vif enables assembly of the viral particle, regulates viral gene transcription, and equips the virus to evade or counteract host immune responses. In addition to the canonically expressed proteins, a growing number of publications describe the existence of non-canonical fusion proteins in HIV-1 infected cells. Most of them are encoded by the tat-env-rev locus. While the majority of these fusion proteins (e.g., TNV/p28tev, p186Drev, Tat1-Rev2, Tat^8c, p17tev, or Ref) are the result of alternative splicing events, Tat-T/Vpt is produced upon programmed ribosomal frameshifting, and a Rev1-Vpu fusion protein is expressed due to a nucleotide polymorphism that is unique to certain HIV-1 clade A and C strains. A better understanding of the expression and activity of these non-canonical viral proteins will help to dissect their potential role in viral replication and reveal how HIV-1 optimized the coding potential of its genes. The goal of this review is to provide an overview of previously described HIV-1 fusion proteins and to summarize our current knowledge of their expression patterns and putative functions. PMID:28119676

  4. The ESCRT pathway and HIV-1 budding.

    PubMed

    Usami, Yoshiko; Popov, Sergei; Popova, Elena; Inoue, Michio; Weissenhorn, Winfried; G Göttlinger, Heinrich

    2009-02-01

    HIV-1 Gag engages components of the ESCRT (endosomal sorting complex required for transport) pathway via so-called L (late-assembly) domains to promote virus budding. Specifically, the PTAP (Pro-Thr-Ala-Pro)-type primary L domain of HIV-1 recruits ESCRT-I by binding to Tsg101 (tumour susceptibility gene 101), and an auxiliary LYPX(n)L (Leu-Tyr-Pro-Xaa(n)-Leu)-type L domain recruits the ESCRT-III-binding partner Alix [ALG-2 (apoptosis-linked gene 2)-interacting protein X]. The structurally related CHMPs (charged multivesicular body proteins), which form ESCRT-III, are kept in an inactive state through intramolecular interactions, and become potent inhibitors of HIV-1 budding upon removal of an autoinhibitory region. In the absence of the primary L domain, HIV-1 budding is strongly impaired, but can be efficiently rescued through the overexpression of Alix. This effect of Alix depends on its ability to interact with CHMP4, suggesting that it is the recruitment of CHMPs that ultimately drives virus release. Surprisingly, HIV-1 budding defects can also be efficiently corrected by overexpressing Nedd (neural-precursor-cell-expressed developmentally down-regulated) 4-2s, a member of a family of ubiquitin ligases previously implicated in the function of PPXY (Pro-Pro-Xaa-Tyr)-type L domains, which are absent from HIV-1. At least under certain circumstances, Nedd4-2s stimulates the activity of PTAP-type L domains, raising the possibility that the ubiquitin ligase regulates the activity of ESCRT-I.

  5. On the Selective Packaging of Genomic RNA by HIV-1.

    PubMed

    Comas-Garcia, Mauricio; Davis, Sean R; Rein, Alan

    2016-09-12

    Like other retroviruses, human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) selectively packages genomic RNA (gRNA) during virus assembly. However, in the absence of the gRNA, cellular messenger RNAs (mRNAs) are packaged. While the gRNA is selected because of its cis-acting packaging signal, the mechanism of this selection is not understood. The affinity of Gag (the viral structural protein) for cellular RNAs at physiological ionic strength is not much higher than that for the gRNA. However, binding to the gRNA is more salt-resistant, implying that it has a higher non-electrostatic component. We have previously studied the spacer 1 (SP1) region of Gag and showed that it can undergo a concentration-dependent conformational transition. We proposed that this transition represents the first step in assembly, i.e., the conversion of Gag to an assembly-ready state. To explain selective packaging of gRNA, we suggest here that binding of Gag to gRNA, with its high non-electrostatic component, triggers this conversion more readily than binding to other RNAs; thus we predict that a Gag-gRNA complex will nucleate particle assembly more efficiently than other Gag-RNA complexes. New data shows that among cellular mRNAs, those with long 3'-untranslated regions (UTR) are selectively packaged. It seems plausible that the 3'-UTR, a stretch of RNA not occupied by ribosomes, offers a favorable binding site for Gag.

  6. A nuclear export signal within the structural Gag protein is required for prototype foamy virus replication

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The Gag polyproteins play distinct roles during the replication cycle of retroviruses, hijacking many cellular machineries to fulfill them. In the case of the prototype foamy virus (PFV), Gag structural proteins undergo transient nuclear trafficking after their synthesis, returning back to the cytoplasm for capsid assembly and virus egress. The functional role of this nuclear stage as well as the molecular mechanism(s) responsible for Gag nuclear export are not understood. Results We have identified a leptomycin B (LMB)-sensitive nuclear export sequence (NES) within the N-terminus of PFV Gag that is absolutely required for the completion of late stages of virus replication. Point mutations of conserved residues within this motif lead to nuclear redistribution of Gag, preventing subsequent virus egress. We have shown that a NES-defective PFV Gag acts as a dominant negative mutant by sequestrating its wild-type counterpart in the nucleus. Trans-complementation experiments with the heterologous NES of HIV-1 Rev allow the cytoplasmic redistribution of FV Gag, but fail to restore infectivity. Conclusions PFV Gag-Gag interactions are finely tuned in the cytoplasm to regulate their functions, capsid assembly, and virus release. In the nucleus, we have shown Gag-Gag interactions which could be involved in the nuclear export of Gag and viral RNA. We propose that nuclear export of unspliced and partially spliced PFV RNAs relies on two complementary mechanisms, which take place successively during the replication cycle. PMID:21255441

  7. Insights into the activity of maturation inhibitor PF-46396 on HIV-1 clade C

    PubMed Central

    Ghimire, Dibya; Timilsina, Uddhav; Srivastava, Tryambak Pratap; Gaur, Ritu

    2017-01-01

    HIV maturation inhibitors are an emerging class of anti-retroviral compounds that inhibit the viral protease-mediated cleavage of the Gag, CA-SP1 (capsid-spacer peptide 1) peptide to mature CA. The first-in-class maturation inhibitor bevirimat (BVM) displayed potent activity against HIV-1 clade B but was ineffective against other HIV-1 clades including clade C. Another pyridone-based maturation inhibitor, PF-46396 displayed potent activity against HIV-1 clade B. In this study, we aimed at determining the activity of PF-46396 against HIV-1 clade C. We employed various biochemical and virological assays to demonstrate that PF-46396 is effective against HIV-1 clade C. We observed a dose dependent accumulation of CA-SP1 intermediate in presence of the compound. We carried out mutagenesis in the CA- SP1 region of HIV-1 clade C Gag and observed that the mutations conferred resistance against the compound. Many mutations inhibited Gag processing thereby reducing virus release in the absence of the compound. However, presence of PF-46396 rescued these defects and enhanced virus release, replication capacity and infectivity of HIV-1 clade C. These results put together identify PF-46396 as a broadly active maturation inhibitor against HIV-1 clade B and C and help in rational designing of novel analogs with reduced toxicity and increased efficacy for its potential use in clinics. PMID:28252110

  8. Naf1 Regulates HIV-1 Latency by Suppressing Viral Promoter-Driven Gene Expression in Primary CD4+ T Cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Chuan; Wang, Hai-Bo; Kuang, Wen-Dong; Ren, Xiao-Xin; Song, Shu-Ting; Zhu, Huan-Zhang; Li, Qiang; Xu, Li-Ran; Guo, Hui-Jun; Wu, Li; Wang, Jian-Hua

    2017-01-01

    HIV-1 latency is characterized by reversible silencing of viral transcription driven by the long terminal repeat (LTR) promoter of HIV-1. Cellular and viral factors regulating LTR activity contribute to HIV-1 latency, and certain repressive cellular factors modulate viral transcription silencing. Nef-associated factor 1 (Naf1) is a host nucleocytoplasmic shuttling protein that regulates multiple cellular signaling pathways and HIV-1 production. We recently reported that nuclear Naf1 promoted nuclear export of unspliced HIV-1 gag mRNA, leading to increased Gag production. Here we demonstrate new functions of Naf1 in regulating HIV-1 persistence. We found that Naf1 contributes to the maintenance of HIV-1 latency by inhibiting LTR-driven HIV-1 gene transcription in a nuclear factor kappa B-dependent manner. Interestingly, Naf1 knockdown significantly enhanced viral reactivation in both latently HIV-1-infected Jurkat T cells and primary central memory CD4(+) T cells. Furthermore, Naf1 knockdown in resting CD4(+) T cells from HIV-1-infected individuals treated with antiretroviral therapy significantly increased viral reactivation upon T-cell activation, suggesting an important role of Naf1 in modulating HIV-1 latency in vivo Our findings provide new insights for a better understanding of HIV-1 latency and suggest that inhibition of Naf1 activity to activate latently HIV-1-infected cells may be a potential therapeutic strategy.

  9. Viral Evolution and Cytotoxic T Cell Restricted Selection in Acute Infant HIV-1 Infection

    PubMed Central

    Garcia-Knight, Miguel A.; Slyker, Jennifer; Payne, Barbara Lohman; Pond, Sergei L. Kosakovsky; de Silva, Thushan I.; Chohan, Bhavna; Khasimwa, Brian; Mbori-Ngacha, Dorothy; John-Stewart, Grace; Rowland-Jones, Sarah L.; Esbjörnsson, Joakim

    2016-01-01

    Antiretroviral therapy-naive HIV-1 infected infants experience poor viral containment and rapid disease progression compared to adults. Viral factors (e.g. transmitted cytotoxic T- lymphocyte (CTL) escape mutations) or infant factors (e.g. reduced CTL functional capacity) may explain this observation. We assessed CTL functionality by analysing selection in CTL-targeted HIV-1 epitopes following perinatal infection. HIV-1 gag, pol and nef sequences were generated from a historical repository of longitudinal specimens from 19 vertically infected infants. Evolutionary rate and selection were estimated for each gene and in CTL-restricted and non-restricted epitopes. Evolutionary rate was higher in nef and gag vs. pol, and lower in infants with non-severe immunosuppression vs. severe immunosuppression across gag and nef. Selection pressure was stronger in infants with non-severe immunosuppression vs. severe immunosuppression across gag. The analysis also showed that infants with non-severe immunosuppression had stronger selection in CTL-restricted vs. non-restricted epitopes in gag and nef. Evidence of stronger CTL selection was absent in infants with severe immunosuppression. These data indicate that infant CTLs can exert selection pressure on gag and nef epitopes in early infection and that stronger selection across CTL epitopes is associated with favourable clinical outcomes. These results have implications for the development of paediatric HIV-1 vaccines. PMID:27403940

  10. Cellular aspartyl proteases promote the unconventional secretion of biologically active HIV-1 matrix protein p17

    PubMed Central

    Caccuri, Francesca; Iaria, Maria Luisa; Campilongo, Federica; Varney, Kristen; Rossi, Alessandro; Mitola, Stefania; Schiarea, Silvia; Bugatti, Antonella; Mazzuca, Pietro; Giagulli, Cinzia; Fiorentini, Simona; Lu, Wuyuan; Salmona, Mario; Caruso, Arnaldo

    2016-01-01

    The human immune deficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) matrix protein p17 (p17), although devoid of a signal sequence, is released by infected cells and detected in blood and in different organs and tissues even in HIV-1-infected patients undergoing successful combined antiretroviral therapy (cART). Extracellularly, p17 deregulates the function of different cells involved in AIDS pathogenesis. The mechanism of p17 secretion, particularly during HIV-1 latency, still remains to be elucidated. A recent study showed that HIV-1-infected cells can produce Gag without spreading infection in a model of viral latency. Here we show that in Gag-expressing cells, secretion of biologically active p17 takes place at the plasma membrane and occurs following its interaction with phosphatidylinositol-(4,5)-bisphosphate and its subsequent cleavage from the precursor Gag (Pr55Gag) operated by cellular aspartyl proteases. These enzymes operate a more complex Gag polypeptide proteolysis than the HIV-1 protease, thus hypothetically generating slightly truncated or elongated p17s in their C-terminus. A 17 C-terminal residues excised p17 was found to be structurally and functionally identical to the full-length p17 demonstrating that the final C-terminal region of p17 is irrelevant for the protein’s biological activity. These findings offer new opportunities to identify treatment strategies for inhibiting p17 release in the extracellular microenvironment. PMID:27905556

  11. Molecular characterization of gag proteins from simian immunodeficiency virus (SIVMne).

    PubMed Central

    Henderson, L E; Benveniste, R E; Sowder, R; Copeland, T D; Schultz, A M; Oroszlan, S

    1988-01-01

    A simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) designated SIVMne was isolated from a pig-tailed macaque with lymphoma housed at the University of Washington Regional Primate Research Center, Seattle. To better establish the relationship of SIVMne to other immunodeficiency viruses, we purified and determined the partial amino acid sequences of six structural proteins (p1, p2, p6, p8, p16, and p28) from SIVMne and compared these amino acid sequences to the translated nucleotide sequences of SIVMac and human immunodeficiency virus types 1 and 2 (HIV-1 and HIV-2). A total of 125 residues of SIVMne amino acid sequence were compared to the predicted amino acid sequences of the gag precursors of SIV and HIVs. In the compared regions 92% of the SIVMne amino acids were identical to predicted residues of SIVMac, 83% were identical to predicted residues of HIV-2, and 41% were identical to predicted residues of HIV-1. These data reveal that the six SIVMne proteins are proteolytic cleavage products of the gag precursor (Pr60gag) and that their order in the structure of Pr60gag is p16-p28-p2-p8-p1-p6. Rabbit antisera prepared against purified p28 and p16 were shown to cross-react with proteins of 60, 54, and 47 kilodaltons present in the viral preparation and believed to be SIVMne Pr60gag and intermediate cleavage products, respectively. SIVMne p16 was shown to contain covalently bound myristic acid, and p8 was identified as a nucleic acid-binding protein. The high degree of amino acid sequence homology between SIVs and HIV-2 around proven proteolytic cleavage sites in SIV Pr60gag suggests that proteolytic processing of the HIV-2 gag precursor is probably very similar to processing of the SIV gag precursor. Peptide bonds cleaved during proteolytic processing of the SIV gag precursor were similar to bonds cleaved during processing of HIV-1 gag precursors, suggesting that the SIV and HIV viral proteases have similar cleavage site specificities. Images PMID:3292789

  12. A Single Residue within the V5 Region of HIV-1 Envelope Facilitates Viral Escape from the Broadly Neutralizing Monoclonal Antibody VRC01*

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Dongxing; Shi, Xuanling; Arledge, Kelly C.; Song, Dingka; Jiang, Liwei; Fu, Lili; Gong, Xinqi; Zhang, Senyan; Wang, Xinquan; Zhang, Linqi

    2012-01-01

    VRC01, a broadly neutralizing monoclonal antibody, is capable of neutralizing a diverse array of HIV-1 isolates by mimicking CD4 binding with the envelope glycoprotein gp120. Nonetheless, resistant strains have been identified. Here, we examined two genetically related and two unrelated envelope clones, derived from CRF08_BC-infected patients, with distinct VRC01 neutralization profiles. A total of 22 chimeric envelope clones was generated by interchanging the loop D and/or V5 regions between the original envelopes or by single alanine substitutions within each region. Analysis of pseudoviruses built from these mutant envelopes showed that interchanging the V5 region between the genetically related or unrelated clones completely swapped their VRC01 sensitivity profiles. Mutagenesis analysis revealed that the asparagine residue at position 460 (Asn-460), a potential N-linked glycosylation site in the V5 region, is a key factor for observed resistance in these strains, which is further supported by our structural modeling. Moreover, changes in resistance were found to positively correlate with deviations in VRC01 binding affinity. Overall, our study indicates that Asn-460 in the V5 region is a critical determinant of sensitivity to VRC01 specifically in these viral strains. The long side chain of Asn-460, and potential glycosylation, may create steric hindrance that lowers binding affinity, thereby increasing resistance to VRC01 neutralization. PMID:23100255

  13. A single residue within the V5 region of HIV-1 envelope facilitates viral escape from the broadly neutralizing monoclonal antibody VRC01.

    PubMed

    Guo, Dongxing; Shi, Xuanling; Arledge, Kelly C; Song, Dingka; Jiang, Liwei; Fu, Lili; Gong, Xinqi; Zhang, Senyan; Wang, Xinquan; Zhang, Linqi

    2012-12-14

    VRC01, a broadly neutralizing monoclonal antibody, is capable of neutralizing a diverse array of HIV-1 isolates by mimicking CD4 binding with the envelope glycoprotein gp120. Nonetheless, resistant strains have been identified. Here, we examined two genetically related and two unrelated envelope clones, derived from CRF08_BC-infected patients, with distinct VRC01 neutralization profiles. A total of 22 chimeric envelope clones was generated by interchanging the loop D and/or V5 regions between the original envelopes or by single alanine substitutions within each region. Analysis of pseudoviruses built from these mutant envelopes showed that interchanging the V5 region between the genetically related or unrelated clones completely swapped their VRC01 sensitivity profiles. Mutagenesis analysis revealed that the asparagine residue at position 460 (Asn-460), a potential N-linked glycosylation site in the V5 region, is a key factor for observed resistance in these strains, which is further supported by our structural modeling. Moreover, changes in resistance were found to positively correlate with deviations in VRC01 binding affinity. Overall, our study indicates that Asn-460 in the V5 region is a critical determinant of sensitivity to VRC01 specifically in these viral strains. The long side chain of Asn-460, and potential glycosylation, may create steric hindrance that lowers binding affinity, thereby increasing resistance to VRC01 neutralization.

  14. War and peace between microbes: HIV-1 interactions with coinfecting viruses.

    PubMed

    Lisco, Andrea; Vanpouille, Christophe; Margolis, Leonid

    2009-11-19

    HIV-1 disrupts the homeostatic equilibrium between the host and coinfecting microbes, facilitating reactivation of persistent viruses and invasion by new viruses. These viruses usually accelerate HIV disease but occasionally create conditions detrimental for HIV-1. Understanding these phenomena may lead to anti-HIV-1 strategies that specifically target interactions between HIV-1 and coinfecting viruses.

  15. Specific binding of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 gag polyprotein and nucleocapsid protein to viral RNAs detected by RNA mobility shift assays.

    PubMed Central

    Berkowitz, R D; Luban, J; Goff, S P

    1993-01-01

    Packaging of retroviral genomic RNA during virion assembly is thought to be mediated by specific interactions between the gag polyprotein and RNA sequences (often termed the psi or E region) near the 5' end of the genome. For many retroviruses, including human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), the portions of the gag protein and the RNA that are required for this interaction remain poorly defined. We have used an RNA gel mobility shift assay to measure the in vitro binding of purified glutathione S-transferase-HIV-1 gag fusion proteins to RNA riboprobes. Both the complete gag polyprotein and the nucleocapsid (NC) protein alone were found to bind specifically to an HIV-1 riboprobe. Either Cys-His box of NC could be removed without eliminating specific binding to the psi riboprobe, but portions of gag containing only the MA and CA proteins without NC did not bind to RNA. There were at least two binding sites in HIV-1 genomic RNA that bound to the gag polyprotein: one entirely 5' to gag and one entirely within gag. The HIV-1 NC protein bound to riboprobes containing other retroviral psi sequences almost as well as to the HIV-1 psi riboprobe. Images PMID:8230441

  16. HIV-1 protease-substrate coevolution in nelfinavir resistance.

    PubMed

    Kolli, Madhavi; Ozen, Ayşegül; Kurt-Yilmaz, Nese; Schiffer, Celia A

    2014-07-01

    Resistance to various human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) protease inhibitors (PIs) challenges the effectiveness of therapies in treating HIV-1-infected individuals and AIDS patients. The virus accumulates mutations within the protease (PR) that render the PIs less potent. Occasionally, Gag sequences also coevolve with mutations at PR cleavage sites contributing to drug resistance. In this study, we investigated the structural basis of coevolution of the p1-p6 cleavage site with the nelfinavir (NFV) resistance D30N/N88D protease mutations by determining crystal structures of wild-type and NFV-resistant HIV-1 protease in complex with p1-p6 substrate peptide variants with L449F and/or S451N. Alterations of residue 30's interaction with the substrate are compensated by the coevolving L449F and S451N cleavage site mutations. This interdependency in the PR-p1-p6 interactions enhances intermolecular contacts and reinforces the overall fit of the substrate within the substrate envelope, likely enabling coevolution to sustain substrate recognition and cleavage in the presence of PR resistance mutations. Resistance to human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) protease inhibitors challenges the effectiveness of therapies in treating HIV-1-infected individuals and AIDS patients. Mutations in HIV-1 protease selected under the pressure of protease inhibitors render the inhibitors less potent. Occasionally, Gag sequences also mutate and coevolve with protease, contributing to maintenance of viral fitness and to drug resistance. In this study, we investigated the structural basis of coevolution at the Gag p1-p6 cleavage site with the nelfinavir (NFV) resistance D30N/N88D protease mutations. Our structural analysis reveals the interdependency of protease-substrate interactions and how coevolution may restore substrate recognition and cleavage in the presence of protease drug resistance mutations. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  17. Immunogenicity of a recombinant measles HIV-1 subtype C vaccine.

    PubMed

    Stebbings, Richard; Li, Bo; Lorin, Clarisse; Koutsoukos, Marguerite; Février, Michèle; Mee, Edward T; Page, Mark; Almond, Neil; Tangy, Frédéric; Voss, Gérald

    2013-12-09

    The HIV epidemic is greatest in Sub-Saharan Africa and India where HIV-1 subtype C is predominant. To control the spread of HIV in these parts of the world a preventive HIV-1 subtype C vaccine is urgently required. Here we report the immunogenicity of a candidate HIV-1 subtype C vaccine delivered by a recombinant measles vector carrying an insert encoding HIV-1 subtype C Gag, RT and Nef (MV1-F4), in MHC-typed non-human primates. HIV-1 specific cytokine secreting CD4+ and CD8+ T cell responses were detected in 15 out of 16 vaccinees. These HIV-specific T cell responses persisted in lymphoid tissues. Anti-HIV-1 antibody responses were detected in 15 out of 16 vaccinees and titres were boosted by a second immunisation carried out 84 days later. These findings support further exploration of the MV1-F4 vector as a candidate HIV-1 subtype C vaccine or as part of a wider vaccine strategy. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  18. Assembly, processing, and infectivity of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 gag mutants.

    PubMed

    Wang, C T; Barklis, E

    1993-07-01

    We studied the effects of gag mutations on human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) assembly, processing, and infectivity by using a replication-defective HIV expression system. HIV mutants were screened for infectivity by transduction of a selectable marker and were examined for assembly by monitoring particle release from transfected cells. Gag protein processing and reverse transcriptase activities of mutant particles were also assayed. Surprisingly, most Gag protein mutants were assembled and processed. The two exceptions to this rule were a myristylation-minus mutant, and one gag matrix domain mutant which expressed proteins that were trapped intracellularly. Interestingly, a mutant with a 56-amino-acid deletion within the HIV gag capsid domain still could assemble and process virus particles, exhibited a wild-type retrovirus particle density, and had wild-type reverse transcriptase activity. Indeed, although most HIV-1 gag mutants were noninfectious or poorly infectious, they produced apparently normal particles which possessed significant reverse transcriptase activities. These results strongly support the notion that the HIV-1 Gag proteins are functionally involved in post-assembly, postprocessing stages of virus infectivity.

  19. HIV-1 Protease in the Fission Yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe.

    PubMed

    Benko, Zsigmond; Elder, Robert T; Li, Ge; Liang, Dong; Zhao, Richard Y

    2016-01-01

    HIV-1 protease (PR) is an essential viral enzyme. Its primary function is to proteolyze the viral Gag-Pol polyprotein for production of viral enzymes and structural proteins and for maturation of infectious viral particles. Increasing evidence suggests that PR cleaves host cellular proteins. However, the nature of PR-host cellular protein interactions is elusive. This study aimed to develop a fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe) model system and to examine the possible interaction of HIV-1 PR with cellular proteins and its potential impact on cell proliferation and viability. A fission yeast strain RE294 was created that carried a single integrated copy of the PR gene in its chromosome. The PR gene was expressed using an inducible nmt1 promoter so that PR-specific effects could be measured. HIV-1 PR from this system cleaved the same indigenous viral p6/MA protein substrate as it does in natural HIV-1 infections. HIV-1 PR expression in fission yeast cells prevented cell proliferation and induced cellular oxidative stress and changes in mitochondrial morphology that led to cell death. Both these PR activities can be prevented by a PR-specific enzymatic inhibitor, indinavir, suggesting that PR-mediated proteolytic activities and cytotoxic effects resulted from enzymatic activities of HIV-1 PR. Through genome-wide screening, a serine/threonine kinase, Hhp2, was identified that suppresses HIV-1 PR-induced protease cleavage and cell death in fission yeast and in mammalian cells, where it prevented PR-induced apoptosis and cleavage of caspase-3 and caspase-8. This is the first report to show that HIV-1 protease is functional as an enzyme in fission yeast, and that it behaves in a similar manner as it does in HIV-1 infection. HIV-1 PR-induced cell death in fission yeast could potentially be used as an endpoint for mechanistic studies, and this system could be used for developing a high-throughput system for drug screenings.

  20. The HIV-1 Rev/RRE system is required for HIV-1 5' UTR cis elements to augment encapsidation of heterologous RNA into HIV-1 viral particles.

    PubMed

    Cockrell, Adam S; van Praag, Henriette; Santistevan, Nicholas; Ma, Hong; Kafri, Tal

    2011-06-24

    The process of HIV-1 genomic RNA (gRNA) encapsidation is governed by a number of viral encoded components, most notably the Gag protein and gRNA cis elements in the canonical packaging signal (ψ). Also implicated in encapsidation are cis determinants in the R, U5, and PBS (primer binding site) from the 5' untranslated region (UTR). Although conventionally associated with nuclear export of HIV-1 RNA, there is a burgeoning role for the Rev/RRE in the encapsidation process. Pleiotropic effects exhibited by these cis and trans viral components may confound the ability to examine their independent, and combined, impact on encapsidation of RNA into HIV-1 viral particles in their innate viral context. We systematically reconstructed the HIV-1 packaging system in the context of a heterologous murine leukemia virus (MLV) vector RNA to elucidate a mechanism in which the Rev/RRE system is central to achieving efficient and specific encapsidation into HIV-1 viral particles. We show for the first time that the Rev/RRE system can augment RNA encapsidation independent of all cis elements from the 5' UTR (R, U5, PBS, and ψ). Incorporation of all the 5' UTR cis elements did not enhance RNA encapsidation in the absence of the Rev/RRE system. In fact, we demonstrate that the Rev/RRE system is required for specific and efficient encapsidation commonly associated with the canonical packaging signal. The mechanism of Rev/RRE-mediated encapsidation is not a general phenomenon, since the combination of the Rev/RRE system and 5' UTR cis elements did not enhance encapsidation into MLV-derived viral particles. Lastly, we show that heterologous MLV RNAs conform to transduction properties commonly associated with HIV-1 viral particles, including in vivo transduction of non-dividing cells (i.e. mouse neurons); however, the cDNA forms are episomes predominantly in the 1-LTR circle form. Premised on encapsidation of a heterologous RNA into HIV-1 viral particles, our findings define a functional

  1. The HIV-1 Rev/RRE system is required for HIV-1 5' UTR cis elements to augment encapsidation of heterologous RNA into HIV-1 viral particles

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The process of HIV-1 genomic RNA (gRNA) encapsidation is governed by a number of viral encoded components, most notably the Gag protein and gRNA cis elements in the canonical packaging signal (ψ). Also implicated in encapsidation are cis determinants in the R, U5, and PBS (primer binding site) from the 5' untranslated region (UTR). Although conventionally associated with nuclear export of HIV-1 RNA, there is a burgeoning role for the Rev/RRE in the encapsidation process. Pleiotropic effects exhibited by these cis and trans viral components may confound the ability to examine their independent, and combined, impact on encapsidation of RNA into HIV-1 viral particles in their innate viral context. We systematically reconstructed the HIV-1 packaging system in the context of a heterologous murine leukemia virus (MLV) vector RNA to elucidate a mechanism in which the Rev/RRE system is central to achieving efficient and specific encapsidation into HIV-1 viral particles. Results We show for the first time that the Rev/RRE system can augment RNA encapsidation independent of all cis elements from the 5' UTR (R, U5, PBS, and ψ). Incorporation of all the 5' UTR cis elements did not enhance RNA encapsidation in the absence of the Rev/RRE system. In fact, we demonstrate that the Rev/RRE system is required for specific and efficient encapsidation commonly associated with the canonical packaging signal. The mechanism of Rev/RRE-mediated encapsidation is not a general phenomenon, since the combination of the Rev/RRE system and 5' UTR cis elements did not enhance encapsidation into MLV-derived viral particles. Lastly, we show that heterologous MLV RNAs conform to transduction properties commonly associated with HIV-1 viral particles, including in vivo transduction of non-dividing cells (i.e. mouse neurons); however, the cDNA forms are episomes predominantly in the 1-LTR circle form. Conclusions Premised on encapsidation of a heterologous RNA into HIV-1 viral particles

  2. Bioorthogonal mimetics of palmitoyl-CoA and myristoyl-CoA and their subsequent isolation by click chemistry and characterization by mass spectrometry reveal novel acylated host-proteins modified by HIV-1 infection.

    PubMed

    Colquhoun, David R; Lyashkov, Alexey E; Ubaida Mohien, Ceereena; Aquino, Veronica N; Bullock, Brandon T; Dinglasan, Rhoel R; Agnew, Brian J; Graham, David R M

    2015-06-01

    Protein acylation plays a critical role in protein localization and function. Acylation is essential for human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) assembly and budding of HIV-1 from the plasma membrane in lipid raft microdomains and is mediated by myristoylation of the Gag polyprotein and the copackaging of the envelope protein is facilitated by colocalization mediated by palmitoylation. Since the viral accessory protein NEF has been shown to alter the substrate specificity of myristoyl transferases, and alter cargo trafficking lipid rafts, we hypothesized that HIV-1 infection may alter protein acylation globally. To test this hypothesis, we labeled HIV-1 infected cells with biomimetics of acyl azides, which are incorporated in a manner analogous to natural acyl-Co-A. A terminal azide group allowed us to use a copper catalyzed click chemistry to conjugate the incorporated modifications to a number of substrates to carry out SDS-PAGE, fluorescence microscopy, and enrichment for LC-MS/MS. Using LC-MS/MS, we identified 103 and 174 proteins from the myristic and palmitic azide enrichments, with 27 and 45 proteins respectively that differentiated HIV-1 infected from uninfected cells. This approach has provided us with important insights into HIV-1 biology and is widely applicable to many virological systems.

  3. Basic Motifs Target PSGL-1, CD43, and CD44 to Plasma Membrane Sites Where HIV-1 Assembles

    PubMed Central

    Grover, Jonathan R.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT HIV-1 incorporates various host membrane proteins during particle assembly at the plasma membrane; however, the mechanisms mediating this incorporation process remain poorly understood. We previously showed that the HIV-1 structural protein Gag localizes to the uropod, a rear-end structure of polarized T cells, and that assembling Gag copatches with a subset, but not all, of the uropod-directed proteins, i.e., PSGL-1, CD43, and CD44, in nonpolarized T cells. The latter observation suggests the presence of a mechanism promoting virion incorporation of these cellular proteins. To address this possibility and identify molecular determinants, in the present study we examined coclustering between Gag and the transmembrane proteins in T and HeLa cells using quantitative two-color superresolution localization microscopy. Consistent with the findings of the T-cell copatching study, we found that basic residues within the matrix domain of Gag are required for Gag–PSGL-1 coclustering. Notably, the presence of a polybasic sequence in the PSGL-1 cytoplasmic domain significantly enhanced this coclustering. We also found that polybasic motifs present in the cytoplasmic tails of CD43 and CD44 also promote their coclustering with Gag. ICAM-1 and ICAM-3, uropod-directed proteins that do not copatch with Gag in T cells, and CD46, a non-uropod-directed protein, showed no or little coclustering with Gag. However, replacing their cytoplasmic tails with the cytoplasmic tail of PSGL-1 significantly enhanced their coclustering with Gag. Altogether, these results identify a novel mechanism for host membrane protein association with assembling HIV-1 Gag in which polybasic sequences present in the cytoplasmic tails of the membrane proteins and in Gag are the major determinants. IMPORTANCE Nascent HIV-1 particles incorporate many host plasma membrane proteins during assembly. However, it is largely unknown what mechanisms promote the association of these proteins with virus

  4. Consequences of HLA-B*13-Associated Escape Mutations on HIV-1 Replication and Nef Function

    PubMed Central

    Shahid, Aniqa; Olvera, Alex; Anmole, Gursev; Kuang, Xiaomei T.; Cotton, Laura A.; Plana, Montserrat; Brander, Christian; Brockman, Mark A.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT HLA-B*13 is associated with superior in vivo HIV-1 viremia control. Protection is thought to be mediated by sustained targeting of key cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) epitopes and viral fitness costs of CTL escape in Gag although additional factors may contribute. We assessed the impact of 10 published B*13-associated polymorphisms in Gag, Pol, and Nef, in 23 biologically relevant combinations, on HIV-1 replication capacity and Nef-mediated reduction of cell surface CD4 and HLA class I expression. Mutations were engineered into HIV-1NL4.3, and replication capacity was measured using a green fluorescent protein (GFP) reporter T cell line. Nef-mediated CD4 and HLA-A*02 downregulation was assessed by flow cytometry, and T cell recognition of infected target cells was measured via coculture with an HIV-specific luciferase reporter cell line. When tested individually, only Gag-I147L and Gag-I437L incurred replicative costs (5% and 17%, respectively), consistent with prior reports. The Gag-I437L-mediated replication defect was rescued to wild-type levels by the adjacent K436R mutation. A novel B*13 epitope, comprising 8 residues and terminating at Gag147, was identified in p24Gag (GQMVHQAIGag140–147). No other single or combination Gag, Pol, or Nef mutant impaired viral replication. Single Nef mutations did not affect CD4 or HLA downregulation; however, the Nef double mutant E24Q-Q107R showed 40% impairment in HLA downregulation with no evidence of Nef stability defects. Moreover, target cells infected with HIV-1-NefE24Q-Q107R were recognized better by HIV-specific T cells than those infected with HIV-1NL4.3 or single Nef mutants. Our results indicate that CTL escape in Gag and Nef can be functionally costly and suggest that these effects may contribute to long-term HIV-1 control by HLA-B*13. IMPORTANCE Protective effects of HLA-B*13 on HIV-1 disease progression are mediated in part by fitness costs of CTL escape mutations in conserved Gag epitopes, but other

  5. Consequences of HLA-B*13-Associated Escape Mutations on HIV-1 Replication and Nef Function.

    PubMed

    Shahid, Aniqa; Olvera, Alex; Anmole, Gursev; Kuang, Xiaomei T; Cotton, Laura A; Plana, Montserrat; Brander, Christian; Brockman, Mark A; Brumme, Zabrina L

    2015-11-01

    HLA-B*13 is associated with superior in vivo HIV-1 viremia control. Protection is thought to be mediated by sustained targeting of key cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) epitopes and viral fitness costs of CTL escape in Gag although additional factors may contribute. We assessed the impact of 10 published B*13-associated polymorphisms in Gag, Pol, and Nef, in 23 biologically relevant combinations, on HIV-1 replication capacity and Nef-mediated reduction of cell surface CD4 and HLA class I expression. Mutations were engineered into HIV-1NL4.3, and replication capacity was measured using a green fluorescent protein (GFP) reporter T cell line. Nef-mediated CD4 and HLA-A*02 downregulation was assessed by flow cytometry, and T cell recognition of infected target cells was measured via coculture with an HIV-specific luciferase reporter cell line. When tested individually, only Gag-I147L and Gag-I437L incurred replicative costs (5% and 17%, respectively), consistent with prior reports. The Gag-I437L-mediated replication defect was rescued to wild-type levels by the adjacent K436R mutation. A novel B*13 epitope, comprising 8 residues and terminating at Gag147, was identified in p24(Gag) (GQMVHQAIGag140-147). No other single or combination Gag, Pol, or Nef mutant impaired viral replication. Single Nef mutations did not affect CD4 or HLA downregulation; however, the Nef double mutant E24Q-Q107R showed 40% impairment in HLA downregulation with no evidence of Nef stability defects. Moreover, target cells infected with HIV-1-NefE24Q-Q107R were recognized better by HIV-specific T cells than those infected with HIV-1NL4.3 or single Nef mutants. Our results indicate that CTL escape in Gag and Nef can be functionally costly and suggest that these effects may contribute to long-term HIV-1 control by HLA-B*13. Protective effects of HLA-B*13 on HIV-1 disease progression are mediated in part by fitness costs of CTL escape mutations in conserved Gag epitopes, but other mechanisms remain

  6. HIV-1 production is specifically associated with human NMT1 long form in human NMT isozymes.

    PubMed

    Takamune, Nobutoki; Gota, Kayoko; Misumi, Shogo; Tanaka, Kenzo; Okinaka, Shigetaka; Shoji, Shozo

    2008-02-01

    The N-myristoylation of the N-terminal of human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) Pr55(gag) by human N-myristoyltransferase (hNMT) is a prerequisite modification for HIV-1 production. hNMT consists of multiple isozymes encoded by hNMT1 and hNMT2. The hNMT1 isozyme consists of long, medium, and short forms. Here, we investigated which isozyme is crucial for HIV-1 production. Human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293 cells transfected with infectious HIV-1 vectors were used as models of HIV-1-infected cells in this study. The significant reduction in HIV-1 production and the failure of the specific localization of Pr55(gag) in a detergent-resistant membrane fraction were dependent on the knockdown of the different forms of the hNMT1 isozyme but not of the hNMT2 isozyme. Additionally, the coexpression of an inactive mutant hNMT1 isozyme, namely the hNMT1 long form (hNMT1(L)), but not that of other hNMT mutants resulted in a significant reduction in HIV-1 production. These results strongly suggest that HIV-1 production is specifically associated with hNMT1, particularly hNMT1(L), but not with hNMT2 in vivo, contributing to the understanding of a step in HIV-1 replication.

  7. Full-Length HIV-1 Immunogens Induce Greater Magnitude and Comparable Breadth of T Lymphocyte Responses to Conserved HIV-1 Regions Compared with Conserved-Region-Only HIV-1 Immunogens in Rhesus Monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Stephenson, Kathryn E.; SanMiguel, Adam; Simmons, Nathaniel L.; Smith, Kaitlin; Lewis, Mark G.; Szinger, James J.; Korber, Bette

    2012-01-01

    A global HIV-1 vaccine will likely need to induce immune responses against conserved HIV-1 regions to contend with the profound genetic diversity of HIV-1. Here we evaluated the capacity of immunogens consisting of only highly conserved HIV-1 sequences that are aimed at focusing cellular immune responses on these potentially critical regions. We assessed in rhesus monkeys the breadth and magnitude of T lymphocyte responses elicited by adenovirus vectors expressing either full-length HIV-1 Gag/Pol/Env immunogens or concatenated immunogens consisting of only highly conserved HIV-1 sequences. Surprisingly, we found that the full-length immunogens induced comparable breadth (P = 1.0) and greater magnitude (P = 0.01) of CD8+ T lymphocyte responses against conserved HIV-1 regions compared with the conserved-region-only immunogens. Moreover, the full-length immunogens induced a 5-fold increased total breadth of HIV-1-specific T lymphocyte responses compared with the conserved-region-only immunogens (P = 0.007). These results suggest that full-length HIV-1 immunogens elicit a substantially increased magnitude and breadth of cellular immune responses compared with conserved-region-only HIV-1 immunogens, including greater magnitude and comparable breadth of responses against conserved sequences. PMID:22896617

  8. HIV-1 Capsid: The Multifaceted Key Player in HIV-1 infection

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Edward M.; Hope, Thomas J.

    2016-01-01

    In a mature, infectious HIV-1 virion, the viral genome is housed within a conical capsid core comprised of the viral capsid (CA) protein. The CA protein, and the structure into which it assembles, facilitate virtually every step of infection through a series of interactions with multiple host cell factors. This review describes our understanding of the interactions between the viral capsid core and several cellular factors that enable efficient HIV-1 genome replication, timely core disassembly, nuclear import and the integration of the viral genome into the genome of the target cell. We then discuss how elucidating these interactions can reveal new targets for therapeutic interactions against HIV-1. PMID:26179359

  9. Effect of Multimerization on Membrane Association of Rous Sarcoma Virus and HIV-1 Matrix Domain Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Dick, Robert A.; Kamynina, Elena

    2013-01-01

    In most retroviruses, plasma membrane (PM) association of the Gag structural protein is a critical step in viral assembly, relying in part on interaction between the highly basic Gag MA domain and the negatively charged inner leaflet of the PM. Assembly is thought to begin with Gag dimerization followed by multimerization, resulting in a hexameric lattice. To directly address the role of multimerization in membrane binding, we fused the MA domains of Rous sarcoma virus (RSV) and HIV-1 to the chemically inducible dimerization domain FK506-binding protein (FKBP) or to the hexameric protein CcmK4 from cyanobacteria. The cellular localization of the resulting green fluorescent protein (GFP)-tagged chimeric proteins was examined by fluorescence imaging, and the association of the proteins with liposomes was quantified by flotation in sucrose gradients, following synthesis in a reticulocyte extract or as purified proteins. Four lipid compositions were tested, representative of liposomes commonly reported in flotation experiments. By themselves, GFP-tagged RSV and HIV-1 MA proteins were largely cytoplasmic, but both hexamerized proteins were highly concentrated at the PM. Dimerization led to partial PM localization for HIV-1 MA. These in vivo effects of multimerization were reproduced in vitro. In flotation analyses, the intact RSV and HIV-1 Gag proteins were more similar to multimerized MA than to monomeric MA. RNA is reported to compete with acidic liposomes for HIV-1 Gag binding, and thus we also examined the effects of RNase treatment or tRNA addition on flotation. tRNA competed with liposomes in the case of some but not all lipid compositions and ionic strengths. Taken together, our results further underpin the model that multimerization is critical for PM association of retroviral Gag proteins. In addition, they suggest that the modulation of membrane binding by RNA, as previously reported for HIV-1, may not hold for RSV. PMID:24109216

  10. Identification of a Key Target Sequence To Block Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Replication within the gag-pol Transframe Domain

    PubMed Central

    Sei, Shizuko; Yang, Quan-en; O'Neill, Dennis; Yoshimura, Kazuhisa; Nagashima, Kunio; Mitsuya, Hiroaki

    2000-01-01

    Although the full sequence of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) genome has been known for more than a decade, effective genetic antivirals have yet to be developed. Here we show that, of 22 regions examined, one highly conserved sequence (ACTCTTTGGCAACGA) near the 3′ end of the HIV-1 gag-pol transframe region, encoding viral protease residues 4 to 8 and a C-terminal Vpr-binding motif of p6Gag protein in two different reading frames, can be successfully targeted by an antisense peptide nucleic acid oligomer named PNAPR2. A disrupted translation of gag-pol mRNA induced at the PNAPR2-annealing site resulted in a decreased synthesis of Pr160Gag-Pol polyprotein, hence the viral protease, a predominant expression of Pr55Gag devoid of a fully functional p6Gag protein, and the excessive intracellular cleavage of Gag precursor proteins, hindering the processes of virion assembly. Treatment with PNAPR2 abolished virion production by up to 99% in chronically HIV-1-infected H9 cells and in peripheral blood mononuclear cells infected with clinical HIV-1 isolates with the multidrug-resistant phenotype. This particular segment of the gag-pol transframe gene appears to offer a distinctive advantage over other regions in invading viral structural genes and restraining HIV-1 replication in infected cells and may potentially be exploited as a novel antiviral genetic target. PMID:10775598

  11. Interaction with the p6 Domain of the Gag Precursor Mediates Incorporation into Virions of Vpr and Vpx Proteins from Primate Lentiviruses

    PubMed Central

    Selig, L.; Pages, J.-C.; Tanchou, V.; Prévéral, S.; Berlioz-Torrent, C.; Liu, L. X.; Erdtmann, L.; Darlix, J.-L.; Benarous, R.; Benichou, S.

    1999-01-01

    Vpr and Vpx proteins from human and simian immunodeficiency viruses (HIV and SIV) are incorporated into virions in quantities equivalent to those of the viral Gag proteins. We demonstrate here that Vpr and Vpx proteins from distinct lineages of primate lentiviruses were able to bind to their respective Gag precursors. The capacity of HIV type 1 (HIV-1) Vpr mutants to bind to Pr55Gag was correlated with their incorporation into virions. Molecular analysis of these interactions revealed that they required the C-terminal p6 domain of the Gag precursors. While the signal for HIV-1 Vpr binding lies in the leucine triplet repeat region of the p6 domain reported to be essential for incorporation, SIVsm Gag lacking the equivalent region still bound to SIVsm Vpr and Vpx, indicating that the determinants for Gag binding are located upstream of this region of the p6 domain. Binding to Gag cleavage products showed that HIV-1 Vpr interacted directly with the nucleocapsid protein (NC), whereas SIVsm Vpr and Vpx did not interact with NC but with the p6 protein. These results (i) reveal differences between HIV-1 and SIVsm for the p6 determinants required for Vpr and Vpx binding to Gag and (ii) suggest that HIV-1 Vpr and SIVsm Vpr and Vpx interact with distinct cleavage products of the precursor following proteolytic processing in the virions. PMID:9847364

  12. Phosphoinositides Direct Equine Infectious Anemia Virus Gag Trafficking and Release

    PubMed Central

    Fernandes, Fiona; Chen, Kang; Ehrlich, Lorna S.; Jin, Jing; Chen, Min H.; Medina, Gisselle N.; Symons, Marc; Montelaro, Ronald; Donaldson, Julie; Tjandra, Nico; Carter, Carol A.

    2011-01-01

    Phosphatidylinositol 4,5-biphosphate (PI(4,5)P2), the predominant phosphoinositide on the plasma membrane, binds the matrix (MA) protein of Human Immunodeficiency Virus type 1 (HIV-1) and Equine Infectious Anemia Virus (EIAV) with similar affinities in vitro. Interaction with PI(4,5)P2 is critical for HIV-1 assembly on the plasma membrane. EIAV has been shown to localize in internal compartments hence the significance of its interaction with PI(4,5)P2 is unclear. We therefore investigated the binding in vitro of other phosphoinositides to EIAV MA and whether intracellular association with compartments bearing these phosphoinositides was important for assembly and release of virus-like particles (VLPs) formed by Gag. In vitro, EIAV MA bound PI(3)P with higher affinity than PI(4,5)P2 as revealed by NMR spectra upon lipid titration. Gag was detected on the plasma membrane and in compartments enriched in PI(3,5)P2. Treatment of cells with YM201636, a kinase inhibitor that blocks production of PI(3,5)P2 from PI(3)P, caused Gag to co-localize with aberrant compartments and inhibited VLP release. In contrast to HIV-1, release of EIAV VLPs was not significantly diminished by co-expression with 5-phosphatase IV, an enzyme that specifically depletes PI(4,5)P2 from the plasma membrane. However, co-expression with synaptojanin 2, a phosphatase with broader specificity, diminished VLP production. PI-binding pocket mutations caused striking budding defects, as revealed by electron microscopy. One of the mutations also modified Gag-Gag interaction, as suggested by altered bimolecular fluorescence complementation. We conclude that phosphoinositide-mediated targeting to peripheral and internal membranes is a critical factor in EIAV assembly and release. PMID:21176037

  13. Phosphoinositides direct equine infectious anemia virus gag trafficking and release.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Fiona; Chen, Kang; Ehrlich, Lorna S; Jin, Jing; Chen, Min H; Medina, Gisselle N; Symons, Marc; Montelaro, Ronald; Donaldson, Julie; Tjandra, Nico; Carter, Carol A

    2011-04-01

    Phosphatidylinositol 4,5-biphosphate [PI(4,5)P(2) ], the predominant phosphoinositide (PI) on the plasma membrane, binds the matrix (MA) protein of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV) with similar affinities in vitro. Interaction with PI(4,5)P(2) is critical for HIV-1 assembly on the plasma membrane. EIAV has been shown to localize in internal compartments; hence, the significance of its interaction with PI(4,5)P(2) is unclear. We therefore investigated the binding in vitro of other PIs to EIAV MA and whether intracellular association with compartments bearing these PIs was important for assembly and release of virus-like particles (VLPs) formed by Gag. In vitro, EIAV MA bound phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate [PI(3)P] with higher affinity than PI(4,5)P(2) as revealed by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra upon lipid titration. Gag was detected on the plasma membrane and in compartments enriched in phosphatidylinositol 3,5-biphosphate [PI(3,5)P(2) ]. Treatment of cells with YM201636, a kinase inhibitor that blocks production of PI(3,5)P(2) from PI(3)P, caused Gag to colocalize with aberrant compartments and inhibited VLP release. In contrast to HIV-1, release of EIAV VLPs was not significantly diminished by coexpression with 5-phosphatase IV, an enzyme that specifically depletes PI(4,5)P(2) from the plasma membrane. However, coexpression with synaptojanin 2, a phosphatase with broader specificity, diminished VLP production. PI-binding pocket mutations caused striking budding defects, as revealed by electron microscopy. One of the mutations also modified Gag-Gag interaction, as suggested by altered bimolecular fluorescence complementation. We conclude that PI-mediated targeting to peripheral and internal membranes is a critical factor in EIAV assembly and release. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  14. HIV-1 nucleocapsid protein localizes efficiently to the nucleus and nucleolus

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, Kyung Lee; Lee, Sun Hee; Lee, Eun Soo; You, Ji Chang

    2016-05-15

    The HIV-1 nucleocapsid (NC) is an essential viral protein containing two highly conserved retroviral-type zinc finger (ZF) motifs, which functions in multiple stages of the HIV-1 life cycle. Although a number of functions for NC either in its mature form or as a domain of Gag have been revealed, little is known about the intracellular localization of NC and, moreover, its role in Gag protein trafficking. Here, we have investigated various forms of HIV-1 NC protein for its cellular localization and found that the NC has a strong nuclear and nucleolar localization activity. The linker region, composed of a stretch of basic amino acids between the two ZF motifs, was necessary and sufficient for the activity. - Highlights: • HIV-1 NC possess a NLS and leads to nuclear and nucleolus localization. • Mutations in basic residues between two ZFs in NC decrease the nucleus localization. • ZFs of NC affect cytoplasmic organelles localization rather than nucleus localization.

  15. GB Virus Type C Envelope Protein E2 Elicits Antibodies That React with a Cellular Antigen on HIV-1 Particles and Neutralize Diverse HIV-1 Isolates

    PubMed Central

    Mohr, Emma L.; Xiang, Jinhua; McLinden, James H.; Kaufman, Thomas M.; Chang, Qing; Montefiori, David C.; Klinzman, Donna; Stapleton, Jack T.

    2012-01-01

    Broadly neutralizing Abs to HIV-1 are well described; however, identification of Ags that elicit these Abs has proven difficult. Persistent infection with GB virus type C (GBV-C) is associated with prolonged survival in HIV-1–infected individuals, and among those without HIV-1 viremia, the presence of Ab to GBV-C glycoprotein E2 is also associated with survival. GBV-C E2 protein inhibits HIV-1 entry, and an antigenic peptide within E2 interferes with gp41-induced membrane perturbations in vitro, suggesting the possibility of structural mimicry between GBV-C E2 protein and HIV-1 particles. Naturally occurring human and experimentally induced GBV-C E2 Abs were examined for their ability to neutralize infectious HIV-1 particles and HIV-1–enveloped pseudovirus particles. All GBV-C E2 Abs neutralized diverse isolates of HIV-1 with the exception of rabbit anti-peptide Abs raised against a synthetic GBV-C E2 peptide. Rabbit anti–GBV-C E2 Abs neutralized HIV-1–pseudotyped retrovirus particles but not HIV-1–pseudotyped vesicular stomatitis virus particles, and E2 Abs immune-precipitated HIV-1 gag particles containing the vesicular stomatitis virus type G envelope, HIV-1 envelope, GBV-C envelope, or no viral envelope. The Abs did not neutralize or immune-precipitate mumps or yellow fever viruses. Rabbit GBV-C E2 Abs inhibited HIV attachment to cells but did not inhibit entry following attachment. Taken together, these data indicate that the GBV-C E2 protein has a structural motif that elicits Abs that cross-react with a cellular Ag present on retrovirus particles, independent of HIV-1 envelope glycoproteins. The data provide evidence that a heterologous viral protein can induce HIV-1–neutralizing Abs. PMID:20826757

  16. Macrophage polarization and HIV-1 infection.

    PubMed

    Cassol, Edana; Cassetta, Luca; Alfano, Massimo; Poli, Guido

    2010-04-01

    Polarization of MP into classically activated (M1) and alternatively activated (M2a, M2b, and M2c) macrophages is critical in mediating an effective immune response against invading pathogens. However, several pathogens use these activation pathways to facilitate dissemination and pathogenesis. Viruses generally induce an M1-like phenotype during the acute phase of infection. In addition to promoting the development of Th1 responses and IFN production, M1 macrophages often produce cytokines that drive viral replication and tissue damage. As shown for HIV-1, polarization can also alter macrophage susceptibility to infection. In vitro polarization into M1 cells prevents HIV-1 infection, and M2a polarization inhibits viral replication at a post-integration level. M2a cells also express high levels of C-type lectins that can facilitate macrophage-mediated transmission of HIV-1 to CD4(+) T cells. Macrophages are particularly abundant in mucosal membranes and unlike DCs, do not usually migrate to distal tissues. As a result, macrophages are likely to contribute to HIV-1 pathogenesis in mucosal rather than lymphatic tissues. In vivo polarization of MP is likely to span a spectrum of activation phenotypes that may change the permissivity to and alter the outcome of HIV-1 and other viral infections.

  17. Mosaic HIV-1 Vaccines Expand the Breadth and Depth of Cellular Immune Responses in Rhesus Monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Barouch, Dan H.; O'Brien, Kara L.; Simmons, Nathaniel L.; King, Sharon L.; Abbink, Peter; Maxfield, Lori F.; Sun, Ying-Hua; La Porte, Annalena; Riggs, Ambryice M.; Lynch, Diana M.; Clark, Sarah L.; Backus, Katherine; Perry, James R.; Seaman, Michael S.; Carville, Angela; Mansfield, Keith G.; Szinger, James J.; Fischer, Will; Muldoon, Mark; Korber, Bette

    2010-01-01

    The worldwide diversity of HIV-1 presents an unprecedented challenge for vaccine development 1-2. Antigens derived from natural HIV-1 sequences have elicited only limited breadth of cellular immune responses in nonhuman primate studies and clinical trials to date. Polyvalent “mosaic” antigens, in contrast, are designed to optimize cellular immunologic coverage of global HIV-1 sequence diversity 3. Here we show that mosaic HIV-1 Gag, Pol, and Env antigens expressed by recombinant, replication-incompetent adenovirus serotype 26 vectors markedly augmented both the breadth and depth without compromising the magnitude of antigen-specific T lymphocyte responses as compared with consensus or natural sequence HIV-1 antigens in rhesus monkeys. Polyvalent mosaic antigens therefore represent a promising strategy to expand cellular immunologic vaccine coverage for genetically diverse pathogens such as HIV-1. PMID:20173752

  18. Mosaic HIV-1 vaccines expand the breadth and depth of cellular immune responses in rhesus monkeys.

    PubMed

    Barouch, Dan H; O'Brien, Kara L; Simmons, Nathaniel L; King, Sharon L; Abbink, Peter; Maxfield, Lori F; Sun, Ying-Hua; La Porte, Annalena; Riggs, Ambryice M; Lynch, Diana M; Clark, Sarah L; Backus, Katherine; Perry, James R; Seaman, Michael S; Carville, Angela; Mansfield, Keith G; Szinger, James J; Fischer, Will; Muldoon, Mark; Korber, Bette

    2010-03-01

    The worldwide diversity of HIV-1 presents an unprecedented challenge for vaccine development. Antigens derived from natural HIV-1 sequences have elicited only a limited breadth of cellular immune responses in nonhuman primate studies and clinical trials to date. Polyvalent 'mosaic' antigens, in contrast, are designed to optimize cellular immunologic coverage of global HIV-1 sequence diversity. Here we show that mosaic HIV-1 Gag, Pol and Env antigens expressed by recombinant, replication-incompetent adenovirus serotype 26 vectors markedly augmented both the breadth and depth without compromising the magnitude of antigen-specific T lymphocyte responses as compared with consensus or natural sequence HIV-1 antigens in rhesus monkeys. Polyvalent mosaic antigens therefore represent a promising strategy to expand cellular immunologic vaccine coverage for genetically diverse pathogens such as HIV-1.

  19. Three-Dimensional Analysis of Budding Sites and Released Virus Suggests a Revised Model for HIV-1 Morphogenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Carlson, L.; Simon, M.; Briggs, J. A. G.; Glass, B.; Riches, J. D.; Johnson, M. C.; Muller, B.; Grunewald, K.; Krausslich, H.-G.

    2008-12-11

    Current models of HIV-1 morphogenesis hold that newly synthesized viral Gag polyproteins traffic to and assemble at the cell membrane into spherical protein shells. The resulting late-budding structure is thought to be released by the cellular ESCRT machinery severing the membrane tether connecting it to the producer cell. Using electron tomography and scanning transmission electron microscopy, we find that virions have a morphology and composition distinct from late-budding sites. Gag is arranged as a continuous but incomplete sphere in the released virion. In contrast, late-budding sites lacking functional ESCRT exhibited a nearly closed Gag sphere. The results lead us to propose that budding is initiated by Gag assembly, but is completed in an ESCRT-dependent manner before the Gag sphere is complete. This suggests that ESCRT functions early in HIV-1 release - akin to its role in vesicle formation - and is not restricted to severing the thin membrane tether.

  20. HIV-1 vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Excler, Jean-Louis; Robb, Merlin L; Kim, Jerome H

    2014-01-01

    The development of a safe and effective preventive HIV-1 vaccine remains a public health priority. Despite scientific difficulties and disappointing results, HIV-1 vaccine clinical development has, for the first time, established proof-of-concept efficacy against HIV-1 acquisition and identified vaccine-associated immune correlates of risk. The correlate of risk analysis showed that IgG antibodies against the gp120 V2 loop correlated with decreased risk of HIV infection, while Env-specific IgA directly correlated with increased risk. The development of vaccine strategies such as improved envelope proteins formulated with potent adjuvants and DNA and vectors expressing mosaics, or conserved sequences, capable of eliciting greater breadth and depth of potentially relevant immune responses including neutralizing and non-neutralizing antibodies, CD4+ and CD8+ cell-mediated immune responses, mucosal immune responses, and immunological memory, is now proceeding quickly. Additional human efficacy trials combined with other prevention modalities along with sustained funding and international collaboration remain key to bring an HIV-1 vaccine to licensure. PMID:24637946

  1. Measuring T Cell-to-T Cell HIV-1 Transfer, Viral Fusion, and Infection Using Flow Cytometry.

    PubMed

    Durham, Natasha D; Chen, Benjamin K

    2016-01-01

    Direct T cell-to-T cell HIV-1 infection is a distinct mode of HIV-1 infection that requires physical contact between an HIV-1-infected "donor" cell and an uninfected, CD4-expressing "target" cell. In vitro studies indicate that HIV-1 cell-to-cell infection is much more efficient than infection by cell-free viral particles; however, the exact mechanisms of the enhanced efficiency of this infection pathway are still unclear. Several assays have been developed to study the mechanism of direct cell-to-cell HIV-1 transmission and to assess sensitivity to neutralizing antibodies and pharmacologic inhibitors. These assays are based on the coculture of donor and target cells. Here, we describe methods that utilize flow cytometry, which can discriminate donor and target cells and can assess different stages of entry and infection following cell-to-cell contact. HIV Gag-iGFP, a clone that makes fluorescent virus particles, can be used to measure cell-to-cell transfer of virus particles. HIV NL-GI, a clone that expresses GFP as an early gene, facilitates the measure of productive infection after cell-to-cell contact. Lastly, a variation of the β-lactamase (BlaM)-Vpr fusion assay can be used to measure the viral membrane fusion process after coculture of donor and target cells in a manner that is independent of cell-cell fusion. These assays can be performed in the presence of neutralizing antibodies/inhibitors to determine the 50 % inhibitory concentration (IC50) required to block infection specifically in the target cells.

  2. A new ensemble coevolution system for detecting HIV-1 protein coevolution.

    PubMed

    Li, Guangdi; Theys, Kristof; Verheyen, Jens; Pineda-Peña, Andrea-Clemencia; Khouri, Ricardo; Piampongsant, Supinya; Eusébio, Mónica; Ramon, Jan; Vandamme, Anne-Mieke

    2015-01-07

    A key challenge in the field of HIV-1 protein evolution is the identification of coevolving amino acids at the molecular level. In the past decades, many sequence-based methods have been designed to detect position-specific coevolution within and between different proteins. However, an ensemble coevolution system that integrates different methods to improve the detection of HIV-1 protein coevolution has not been developed. We integrated 27 sequence-based prediction methods published between 2004 and 2013 into an ensemble coevolution system. This system allowed combinations of different sequence-based methods for coevolution predictions. Using HIV-1 protein structures and experimental data, we evaluated the performance of individual and combined sequence-based methods in the prediction of HIV-1 intra- and inter-protein coevolution. We showed that sequence-based methods clustered according to their methodology, and a combination of four methods outperformed any of the 27 individual methods. This four-method combination estimated that HIV-1 intra-protein coevolving positions were mainly located in functional domains and physically contacted with each other in the protein tertiary structures. In the analysis of HIV-1 inter-protein coevolving positions between Gag and protease, protease drug resistance positions near the active site mostly coevolved with Gag cleavage positions (V128, S373-T375, A431, F448-P453) and Gag C-terminal positions (S489-Q500) under selective pressure of protease inhibitors. This study presents a new ensemble coevolution system which detects position-specific coevolution using combinations of 27 different sequence-based methods. Our findings highlight key coevolving residues within HIV-1 structural proteins and between Gag and protease, shedding light on HIV-1 intra- and inter-protein coevolution.

  3. Cooperative and specific binding of Vif to the 5' region of HIV-1 genomic RNA.

    PubMed

    Henriet, Simon; Richer, Delphine; Bernacchi, Serena; Decroly, Etienne; Vigne, Robert; Ehresmann, Bernard; Ehresmann, Chantal; Paillart, Jean-Christophe; Marquet, Roland

    2005-11-18

    The viral infectivity factor (Vif) protein of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) is essential for viral replication in vivo. Packaging of Vif into viral particles is mediated by an interaction with viral genomic RNA and association with viral nucleoprotein complexes. Despite recent findings on the RNA-binding properties of Vif suggesting that Vif could be involved in retroviral assembly, no RNA sequence or structure specificity has been determined so far. To gain further insight into the mechanisms by which Vif might regulate viral replication, we studied the interactions of Vif with HIV-1 genomic RNA in vitro. Using extensive biochemical analysis, we have measured the affinity of recombinant Vif proteins for synthetic RNAs corresponding to various regions of the HIV-1 genome. We found that recombinant Vif proteins bind specifically to HIV-1 viral RNA fragments corresponding to the 5'-untranslated region (5'-UTR), gag and the 5' part of pol (K(d) between 45 nM and 65 nM). RNA encompassing nucleotides 1-497 or 499-996 of the HIV-1 genomic RNA bind 9+/-2 and 21+/-3 Vif molecules, respectively, and at least some of these proteins bind in a cooperative manner (Hill constant alpha(H) = 2.3). In contrast, RNAs corresponding to other parts of the HIV-1 genome or heterologous RNAs showed poor binding capacity and weak cooperativity (K(d) > 200 nM). Moreover, RNase T1 footprinting revealed a hierarchical binding of Vif, pointing to TAR and the poly(A) stem-loop structures as primary strong affinity targets, and downstream structures as secondary sites with moderate affinity. Taken together, our findings suggest that Vif may assist other proteins to maintain a correct folding of the genomic RNA in order to facilitate its packaging and further steps such as reverse transcription. Interestingly, our results suggest also that Vif could bind the viral RNA in order to protect it from the action of the antiviral factor APOBEC-3G/3F.

  4. In vitro protease cleavage and computer simulations reveal the HIV-1 capsid maturation pathway

    PubMed Central

    Ning, Jiying; Erdemci-Tandogan, Gonca; Yufenyuy, Ernest L.; Wagner, Jef; Himes, Benjamin A.; Zhao, Gongpu; Aiken, Christopher; Zandi, Roya; Zhang, Peijun

    2016-01-01

    HIV-1 virions assemble as immature particles containing Gag polyproteins that are processed by the viral protease into individual components, resulting in the formation of mature infectious particles. There are two competing models for the process of forming the mature HIV-1 core: the disassembly and de novo reassembly model and the non-diffusional displacive model. To study the maturation pathway, we simulate HIV-1 maturation in vitro by digesting immature particles and assembled virus-like particles with recombinant HIV-1 protease and monitor the process with biochemical assays and cryoEM structural analysis in parallel. Processing of Gag in vitro is accurate and efficient and results in both soluble capsid protein and conical or tubular capsid assemblies, seemingly converted from immature Gag particles. Computer simulations further reveal probable assembly pathways of HIV-1 capsid formation. Combining the experimental data and computer simulations, our results suggest a sequential combination of both displacive and disassembly/reassembly processes for HIV-1 maturation. PMID:27958264

  5. In vitro protease cleavage and computer simulations reveal the HIV-1 capsid maturation pathway.

    PubMed

    Ning, Jiying; Erdemci-Tandogan, Gonca; Yufenyuy, Ernest L; Wagner, Jef; Himes, Benjamin A; Zhao, Gongpu; Aiken, Christopher; Zandi, Roya; Zhang, Peijun

    2016-12-13

    HIV-1 virions assemble as immature particles containing Gag polyproteins that are processed by the viral protease into individual components, resulting in the formation of mature infectious particles. There are two competing models for the process of forming the mature HIV-1 core: the disassembly and de novo reassembly model and the non-diffusional displacive model. To study the maturation pathway, we simulate HIV-1 maturation in vitro by digesting immature particles and assembled virus-like particles with recombinant HIV-1 protease and monitor the process with biochemical assays and cryoEM structural analysis in parallel. Processing of Gag in vitro is accurate and efficient and results in both soluble capsid protein and conical or tubular capsid assemblies, seemingly converted from immature Gag particles. Computer simulations further reveal probable assembly pathways of HIV-1 capsid formation. Combining the experimental data and computer simulations, our results suggest a sequential combination of both displacive and disassembly/reassembly processes for HIV-1 maturation.

  6. In vitro protease cleavage and computer simulations reveal the HIV-1 capsid maturation pathway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ning, Jiying; Erdemci-Tandogan, Gonca; Yufenyuy, Ernest L.; Wagner, Jef; Himes, Benjamin A.; Zhao, Gongpu; Aiken, Christopher; Zandi, Roya; Zhang, Peijun

    2016-12-01

    HIV-1 virions assemble as immature particles containing Gag polyproteins that are processed by the viral protease into individual components, resulting in the formation of mature infectious particles. There are two competing models for the process of forming the mature HIV-1 core: the disassembly and de novo reassembly model and the non-diffusional displacive model. To study the maturation pathway, we simulate HIV-1 maturation in vitro by digesting immature particles and assembled virus-like particles with recombinant HIV-1 protease and monitor the process with biochemical assays and cryoEM structural analysis in parallel. Processing of Gag in vitro is accurate and efficient and results in both soluble capsid protein and conical or tubular capsid assemblies, seemingly converted from immature Gag particles. Computer simulations further reveal probable assembly pathways of HIV-1 capsid formation. Combining the experimental data and computer simulations, our results suggest a sequential combination of both displacive and disassembly/reassembly processes for HIV-1 maturation.

  7. HIV-1 Vpu Promotes Release and Prevents Endocytosis of Nascent Retrovirus Particles from the Plasma Membrane

    PubMed Central

    Neil, Stuart J. D; Eastman, Scott W; Jouvenet, Nolwenn; Bieniasz, Paul D

    2006-01-01

    The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type-1 viral protein U (Vpu) protein enhances the release of diverse retroviruses from human, but not monkey, cells and is thought to do so by ablating a dominant restriction to particle release. Here, we determined how Vpu expression affects the subcellular distribution of HIV-1 and murine leukemia virus (MLV) Gag proteins in human cells where Vpu is, or is not, required for efficient particle release. In HeLa cells, where Vpu enhances HIV-1 and MLV release approximately 10-fold, concentrations of HIV-1 Gag and MLV Gag fused to cyan fluorescent protein (CFP) were initially detected at the plasma membrane, but then accumulated over time in early and late endosomes. Endosomal accumulation of Gag-CFP was prevented by Vpu expression and, importantly, inhibition of plasma membrane to early endosome transport by dominant negative mutants of Rab5a, dynamin, and EPS-15. Additionally, accumulation of both HIV and MLV Gag in endosomes required a functional late-budding domain. In human HOS cells, where HIV-1 and MLV release was efficient even in the absence of Vpu, Gag proteins were localized predominantly at the plasma membrane, irrespective of Vpu expression or manipulation of endocytic transport. While these data indicated that Vpu inhibits nascent virion endocytosis, Vpu did not affect transferrin endocytosis. Moreover, inhibition of endocytosis did not restore Vpu-defective HIV-1 release in HeLa cells, but instead resulted in accumulation of mature virions that could be released from the cell surface by protease treatment. Thus, these findings suggest that a specific activity that is present in HeLa cells, but not in HOS cells, and is counteracted by Vpu, traps assembled retrovirus particles at the cell surface. This entrapment leads to subsequent endocytosis by a Rab5a- and clathrin-dependent mechanism and intracellular sequestration of virions in endosomes. PMID:16699598

  8. The role of nucleocapsid of HIV-1 in virus assembly.

    PubMed

    Dawson, L; Yu, X F

    1998-11-10

    The role of the nucleocapsid protein of HIV-1 Gag in virus assembly was investigated using Gag truncation mutants, a nucleocapsid deletion mutant, and point mutations in the nucleocapsid region of Gag, in transfected COS cells, and in stable T-cell lines. Consistent with previous investigations, a truncation containing only the matrix and capsid regions of Gag was unable to assemble efficiently into particles; also, the pelletable material released was lighter than the density of wild-type HIV-1. A deletion mutant lacking p7 nucleocapsid but containing the C-terminal p6 protein was also inefficient in particle release and released lighter particles, while a truncation containing only the first zinc finger of p7 could assemble more efficiently into virions. These results clearly show that p7 is indispensable for virus assembly and release. Some point mutations in the N-terminal basic domain and in the basic linker region between the two zinc fingers, which had been previously shown to have reduced RNA binding in vitro [Schmalzbauer, E., Strack, B., Dannull, J., Guehmann, S., and Moelling, K. (1996). J. Virol. 70: 771-777], were shown to reduce virus assembly dramatically when expressed in full-length viral clones. A fusion protein consisting of matrix and capsid fused to a heterologous viral protein known to have nonspecific RNA binding activity [Ribas, J. C., Fujimura, T., and Wickner, R. B. (1994) J. Biol. Chem. 269: 28420-28428] released pelletable material slightly more efficiently than matrix and capsid alone, and these particles had density higher than matrix and capsid alone. These results demonstrate the essential role of HIV-1 nucleocapsid in the virus assembly process and show that the positively charged N terminus of p7 is critical for this role.

  9. Insights into the mechanisms of RNA secondary structure destabilization by the HIV-1 nucleocapsid protein.

    PubMed

    Belfetmi, Anissa; Zargarian, Loussiné; Tisné, Carine; Sleiman, Dona; Morellet, Nelly; Lescop, Ewen; Maskri, Ouerdia; René, Brigitte; Mély, Yves; Fossé, Philippe; Mauffret, Olivier

    2016-04-01

    The mature HIV-1 nucleocapsid protein NCp7 (NC) plays a key role in reverse transcription facilitating the two obligatory strand transfers. Several properties contribute to its efficient chaperon activity: preferential binding to single-stranded regions, nucleic acid aggregation, helix destabilization, and rapid dissociation from nucleic acids. However, little is known about the relationships between these different properties, which are complicated by the ability of the protein to recognize particular HIV-1 stem-loops, such as SL1, SL2, and SL3, with high affinity and without destabilizing them. These latter properties are important in the context of genome packaging, during which NC is part of the Gag precursor. We used NMR to investigate destabilization of the full-length TAR (trans activating response element) RNA by NC, which is involved in the first strand transfer step of reverse transcription. NC was used at a low protein:nucleotide (nt) ratio of 1:59 in these experiments. NMR data for the imino protons of TAR identified most of the base pairs destabilized by NC. These base pairs were adjacent to the loops in the upper part of the TAR hairpin rather than randomly distributed. Gel retardation assays showed that conversion from the initial TAR-cTAR complex to the fully annealed form occurred much more slowly at the 1:59 ratio than at the higher ratios classically used. Nevertheless, NC significantly accelerated the formation of the initial complex at a ratio of 1:59.

  10. Insights into the mechanisms of RNA secondary structure destabilization by the HIV-1 nucleocapsid protein

    PubMed Central

    Belfetmi, Anissa; Zargarian, Loussiné; Tisné, Carine; Sleiman, Dona; Morellet, Nelly; Lescop, Ewen; Maskri, Ouerdia; René, Brigitte; Mély, Yves; Fossé, Philippe; Mauffret, Olivier

    2016-01-01

    The mature HIV-1 nucleocapsid protein NCp7 (NC) plays a key role in reverse transcription facilitating the two obligatory strand transfers. Several properties contribute to its efficient chaperon activity: preferential binding to single-stranded regions, nucleic acid aggregation, helix destabilization, and rapid dissociation from nucleic acids. However, little is known about the relationships between these different properties, which are complicated by the ability of the protein to recognize particular HIV-1 stem–loops, such as SL1, SL2, and SL3, with high affinity and without destabilizing them. These latter properties are important in the context of genome packaging, during which NC is part of the Gag precursor. We used NMR to investigate destabilization of the full-length TAR (trans activating response element) RNA by NC, which is involved in the first strand transfer step of reverse transcription. NC was used at a low protein:nucleotide (nt) ratio of 1:59 in these experiments. NMR data for the imino protons of TAR identified most of the base pairs destabilized by NC. These base pairs were adjacent to the loops in the upper part of the TAR hairpin rather than randomly distributed. Gel retardation assays showed that conversion from the initial TAR–cTAR complex to the fully annealed form occurred much more slowly at the 1:59 ratio than at the higher ratios classically used. Nevertheless, NC significantly accelerated the formation of the initial complex at a ratio of 1:59. PMID:26826129

  11. HIV-1 Reverse Transcription

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Wei-Shau; Hughes, Stephen H.

    2012-01-01

    Reverse transcription and integration are the defining features of the Retroviridae; the common name “retrovirus” derives from the fact that these viruses use a virally encoded enzyme, reverse transcriptase (RT), to convert their RNA genomes into DNA. Reverse transcription is an essential step in retroviral replication. This article presents an overview of reverse transcription, briefly describes the structure and function of RT, provides an introduction to some of the cellular and viral factors that can affect reverse transcription, and discusses fidelity and recombination, two processes in which reverse transcription plays an important role. In keeping with the theme of the collection, the emphasis is on HIV-1 and HIV-1 RT. PMID:23028129

  12. Control of HIV-1 replication in vitro by vaccine-induced human CD8+ T cells through conserved subdominant Pol epitopes

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Tina; Borthwick, Nicola J.; Gilmour, Jill; Hayes, Peter; Dorrell, Lucy; Hanke, Tomáš

    2016-01-01

    Objective The specificity of CD8+ T cells is critical for early control of founder/transmitted and reactivated HIV-1. To tackle HIV-1 variability and escape, we designed vaccine immunogen HIVconsv assembled from 14 highly conserved regions of mainly Gag and Pol proteins. When administered to HIV-1-negative human volunteers in trial HIV-CORE 002, HIVconsv vaccines elicited CD8+ effector T cells which inhibited replication of up to 8 HIV-1 isolates in autologous CD4+ cells. This inhibition correlated with interferon-γ production in response to Gag and Pol peptide pools, but direct evidence of the inhibitory specificity was missing. Here, we aimed to define through recognition of which epitopes these effectors inhibit HIV-1 replication. Design CD8+ T-cells from the 3 broadest HIV-1 inhibitors out of 23 vaccine recipients were expanded in culture by Gag or Pol peptide restimulation and tested in viral inhibition assay (VIA) using HIV-1 clade B and A isolates. Methods Frozen PBMCs were expanded first using peptide pools from Gag or Pol conserved regions and tested on HIV-1-infected cells in VIA or by individual peptides for their effector functions. Single peptide specificities responsible for inhibition of HIV-1 replication were then confirmed by single-peptide expanded effectors tested on HIV-1-infected cells. Results We formally demonstrated that the vaccine-elicited inhibitory human CD8+ T cells recognized conserved epitopes of both Pol and Gag proteins. We defined 7 minimum epitopes, of which 3 were novel, presumably naturally subdominant. The effectors were oligofunctional producing several cytokines and chemokines and killing peptide-pulsed target cells. Conclusions These results implicate the use of functionally conserved regions of Pol in addition to the widely used Gag for T-cell vaccine design. Proportion of volunteers developing these effectors and their frequency in circulating PBMC are separate issues, which can be addressed, if needed, by more efficient

  13. Particle size determinants in the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Gag protein.

    PubMed

    Garnier, L; Ratner, L; Rovinski, B; Cao, S X; Wills, J W

    1998-06-01

    The retroviral Gag protein plays the central role in the assembly process and can form membrane-enclosed, virus-like particles in the absence of any other viral products. These particles are similar to authentic virions in density and size. Three small domains of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) Gag protein have been previously identified as being important for budding. Regions that lie outside these domains can be deleted without any effect on particle release or density. However, the regions of Gag that control the size of HIV-1 particles are less well understood. In the case of Rous sarcoma virus (RSV), the size determinant maps to the CA (capsid) and adjacent spacer sequences within Gag, but systematic mapping of the HIV Gag protein has not been reported. To locate the size determinants of HIV-1, we analyzed a large collection of Gag mutants. To our surprise, all mutants with defects in the MA (matrix), CA, and the N-terminal part of NC (nucleocapsid) sequences produced dense particles of normal size, suggesting that oncoviruses (RSV) and lentiviruses (HIV-1) have different size-controlling elements. The most important region found to be critical for determining HIV-1 particle size is the p6 sequence. Particles lacking all or small parts of p6 were uniform in size distribution but very large as measured by rate zonal gradients. Further evidence for this novel function of p6 was obtained by placing this sequence at the C terminus of RSV CA mutants that produce heterogeneously sized particles. We found that the RSV-p6 chimeras produced normally sized particles. Thus, we present evidence that the entire p6 sequence plays a role in determining the size of a retroviral particle.

  14. The choreography of HIV-1 proteolytic processing and virion assembly.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sook-Kyung; Potempa, Marc; Swanstrom, Ronald

    2012-11-30

    HIV-1 has been the target of intensive research at the molecular and biochemical levels for >25 years. Collectively, this work has led to a detailed understanding of viral replication and the development of 24 approved drugs that have five different targets on various viral proteins and one cellular target (CCR5). Although most drugs target viral enzymatic activities, our detailed knowledge of so much of the viral life cycle is leading us into other types of inhibitors that can block or disrupt protein-protein interactions. Viruses have compact genomes and employ a strategy of using a small number of proteins that can form repeating structures to enclose space (i.e. condensing the viral genome inside of a protein shell), thus minimizing the need for a large protein coding capacity. This creates a relatively small number of critical protein-protein interactions that are essential for viral replication. For HIV-1, the Gag protein has the role of a polyprotein precursor that contains all of the structural proteins of the virion: matrix, capsid, spacer peptide 1, nucleocapsid, spacer peptide 2, and p6 (which contains protein-binding domains that interact with host proteins during budding). Similarly, the Gag-Pro-Pol precursor encodes most of the Gag protein but now includes the viral enzymes: protease, reverse transcriptase (with its associated RNase H activity), and integrase. Gag and Gag-Pro-Pol are the substrates of the viral protease, which is responsible for cleaving these precursors into their mature and fully active forms (see Fig. 1A).

  15. Clustering and Mobility of HIV-1 Env at Viral Assembly Sites Predict Its Propensity To Induce Cell-Cell Fusion

    PubMed Central

    Roy, Nathan H.; Chan, Jany; Lambelé, Marie

    2013-01-01

    HIV-1 Env mediates virus attachment to and fusion with target cell membranes, and yet, while Env is still situated at the plasma membrane of the producer cell and before its incorporation into newly formed particles, Env already interacts with the viral receptor CD4 on target cells, thus enabling the formation of transient cell contacts that facilitate the transmission of viral particles. During this first encounter with the receptor, Env must not induce membrane fusion, as this would prevent the producer cell and the target cell from separating upon virus transmission, but how Env's fusion activity is controlled remains unclear. To gain a better understanding of the Env regulation that precedes viral transmission, we examined the nanoscale organization of Env at the surface of producer cells. Utilizing superresolution microscopy (stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy [STORM]) and fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP), we quantitatively assessed the clustering and dynamics of Env upon its arrival at the plasma membrane. We found that Gag assembly induced the aggregation of small Env clusters into larger domains and that these domains were completely immobile. Truncation of the cytoplasmic tail (CT) of Env abrogated Gag's ability to induce Env clustering and restored Env mobility at assembly sites, both of which correlated with increased Env-induced fusion of infected and uninfected cells. Hence, while Env trapping by Gag secures Env incorporation into viral particles, Env clustering and its sequestration at assembly sites likely also leads to the repression of its fusion function, and thus, by preventing the formation of syncytia, Gag helps to secure efficient transfer of viral particles to target cells. PMID:23637402

  16. HIV-1 Nef responsiveness is determined by Env variable regions involved in trimer association and correlates with neutralization sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Usami, Yoshiko; Göttlinger, Heinrich

    2013-11-14

    HIV-1 Nef and the unrelated murine leukemia virus glycoGag similarly enhance the infectivity of HIV-1 virions. We now show that the effects of Nef and glycoGag are similarly determined by variable regions of HIV-1 gp120 that control Env trimer association and neutralization sensitivity. Whereas neutralization-sensitive X4-tropic Env proteins conferred high responsiveness to Nef and glycoGag, particles bearing neutralization-resistant R5-tropic Envs were considerably less affected. The profoundly different Nef/glycoGag responsiveness of a neutralization-resistant and a neutralization-sensitive R5-tropic Env could be switched by exchanging their gp120 V1/V2 regions, which also switches their neutralization sensitivity. Within V1/V2, the same determinants governed Nef/glycoGag responsiveness and neutralization sensitivity, indicating that these phenotypes are mechanistically linked. The V1/V2 and V3 regions, which form an apical trimer-association domain, together determined the Nef and glycoGag responsiveness of an X4-tropic Env. Our results suggest that Nef and glycoGag counteract the inactivation of Env spikes with relatively unstable apical trimer-association domains.

  17. Cyclophilin B enhances HIV-1 infection

    SciTech Connect

    DeBoer, Jason; Madson, Christian J.; Belshan, Michael

    2016-02-15

    Cyclophilin B (CypB) is a member of the immunophilin family and intracellular chaperone. It predominantly localizes to the ER, but also contains a nuclear localization signal and is secreted from cells. CypB has been shown to interact with the Gag protein of human immunodeficiency type 1 (HIV-1). Several proteomic and genetic studies identified it as a potential factor involved in HIV replication. Herein, we show that over-expression of CypB enhances HIV infection by increasing nuclear import of viral DNA. This enhancement was unaffected by cyclosporine treatment and requires the N-terminus of the protein. The N-terminus contains an ER leader sequence, putative nuclear localization signal, and is required for secretion. Deletion of the N-terminus resulted in mislocalization from the ER and suppression of HIV infection. Passive transfer experiments showed that secreted CypB did not impact HIV infection. Combined, these experiments show that intracellular CypB modulates a pathway of HIV nuclear import. - Highlights: • CypB has been identified in several proteomic studies of HIV-1 infection. • CypB expression is upregulated in activated and infected T-cells. • Over-expression of CypB enhances HIV nuclear import and infection. • The N-terminus of CypB is necessary for these effects.

  18. Identifying the Important HIV-1 Recombination Breakpoints

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Jun; Simon-Loriere, Etienne; Arts, Eric J.; Negroni, Matteo; Robertson, David L.

    2008-01-01

    Recombinant HIV-1 genomes contribute significantly to the diversity of variants within the HIV/AIDS pandemic. It is assumed that some of these mosaic genomes may have novel properties that have led to their prevalence, particularly in the case of the circulating recombinant forms (CRFs). In regions of the HIV-1 genome where recombination has a tendency to convey a selective advantage to the virus, we predict that the distribution of breakpoints—the identifiable boundaries that delimit the mosaic structure—will deviate from the underlying null distribution. To test this hypothesis, we generate a probabilistic model of HIV-1 copy-choice recombination and compare the predicted breakpoint distribution to the distribution from the HIV/AIDS pandemic. Across much of the HIV-1 genome, we find that the observed frequencies of inter-subtype recombination are predicted accurately by our model. This observation strongly indicates that in these regions a probabilistic model, dependent on local sequence identity, is sufficient to explain breakpoint locations. In regions where there is a significant over- (either side of the env gene) or under- (short regions within gag, pol, and most of env) representation of breakpoints, we infer natural selection to be influencing the recombination pattern. The paucity of recombination breakpoints within most of the envelope gene indicates that recombinants generated in this region are less likely to be successful. The breakpoints at a higher frequency than predicted by our model are approximately at either side of env, indicating increased selection for these recombinants as a consequence of this region, or at least part of it, having a tendency to be recombined as an entire unit. Our findings thus provide the first clear indication of the existence of a specific portion of the genome that deviates from a probabilistic null model for recombination. This suggests that, despite the wide diversity of recombinant forms seen in the viral

  19. Non-POU Domain-Containing Octamer-Binding Protein Negatively Regulates HIV-1 Infection in CD4(+) T Cells.

    PubMed

    St Gelais, Corine; Roger, Jonathan; Wu, Li

    2015-08-01

    HIV-1 interacts with numerous cellular proteins during viral replication. Identifying such host proteins and characterizing their roles in HIV-1 infection can deepen our understanding of the dynamic interplay between host and pathogen. We previously identified non-POU domain-containing octamer-binding protein (NonO or p54nrb) as one of host factors associated with catalytically active preintegration complexes (PIC) of HIV-1 in infected CD4(+) T cells. NonO is involved in nuclear processes including transcriptional regulation and RNA splicing. Although NonO has been identified as an HIV-1 interactant in several recent studies, its role in HIV-1 replication has not been characterized. We investigated the effect of NonO on the HIV-1 life cycle in CD4(+) T cell lines and primary CD4(+) T cells using single-cycle and replication-competent HIV-1 infection assays. We observed that short hairpin RNA (shRNA)-mediated stable NonO knockdown in a CD4(+) Jurkat T cell line and primary CD4(+) T cells did not affect cell viability or proliferation, but enhanced HIV-1 infection. The enhancement of HIV-1 infection in Jurkat T cells correlated with increased viral reverse transcription and gene expression. Knockdown of NonO expression in Jurkat T cells modestly enhanced HIV-1 gag mRNA expression and Gag protein synthesis, suggesting that viral gene expression and RNA regulation are the predominantly affected events causing enhanced HIV-1 replication in NonO knockdown (KD) cells. Furthermore, overexpression of NonO in Jurkat T cells reduced HIV-1 single-cycle infection by 41% compared to control cells. Our data suggest that NonO negatively regulates HIV-1 infection in CD4(+) T cells, albeit it has modest effects on early and late stages of the viral life cycle, highlighting the importance of host proteins associated with HIV-1 PIC in regulating viral replication.

  20. Fullerene Derivatives Strongly Inhibit HIV-1 Replication by Affecting Virus Maturation without Impairing Protease Activity

    PubMed Central

    Martinez, Zachary S.; Castro, Edison; Seong, Chang-Soo; Cerón, Maira R.

    2016-01-01

    Three compounds (1, 2, and 3) previously reported to inhibit HIV-1 replication and/or in vitro activity of reverse transcriptase were studied, but only fullerene derivatives 1 and 2 showed strong antiviral activity on the replication of HIV-1 in human CD4+ T cells. However, these compounds did not inhibit infection by single-round infection vesicular stomatitis virus glycoprotein G (VSV-G)-pseudotyped viruses, indicating no effect on the early steps of the viral life cycle. In contrast, analysis of single-round infection VSV-G-pseudotyped HIV-1 produced in the presence of compound 1 or 2 showed a complete lack of infectivity in human CD4+ T cells, suggesting that the late stages of the HIV-1 life cycle were affected. Quantification of virion-associated viral RNA and p24 indicates that RNA packaging and viral production were unremarkable in these viruses. However, Gag and Gag-Pol processing was affected, as evidenced by immunoblot analysis with an anti-p24 antibody and the measurement of virion-associated reverse transcriptase activity, ratifying the effect of the fullerene derivatives on virion maturation of the HIV-1 life cycle. Surprisingly, fullerenes 1 and 2 did not inhibit HIV-1 protease in an in vitro assay at the doses that potently blocked viral infectivity, suggesting a protease-independent mechanism of action. Highlighting the potential therapeutic relevance of fullerene derivatives, these compounds block infection by HIV-1 resistant to protease and maturation inhibitors. PMID:27431232

  1. Structure of the Tsg101 UEV domain in complex with the PTAP motif of the HIV-1 p6 protein.

    PubMed

    Pornillos, Owen; Alam, Steven L; Davis, Darrell R; Sundquist, Wesley I

    2002-11-01

    The structural proteins of HIV and Ebola display PTAP peptide motifs (termed 'late domains') that recruit the human protein Tsg101 to facilitate virus budding. Here we present the solution structure of the UEV (ubiquitin E2 variant) binding domain of Tsg101 in complex with a PTAP peptide that spans the late domain of HIV-1 p6(Gag). The UEV domain of Tsg101 resembles E2 ubiquitin-conjugating enzymes, and the PTAP peptide binds in a bifurcated groove above the vestigial enzyme active site. Each PTAP residue makes important contacts, and the Ala 9-Pro 10 dipeptide binds in a deep pocket of the UEV domain that resembles the X-Pro binding pockets of SH3 and WW domains. The structure reveals the molecular basis of HIV PTAP late domain function and represents an attractive starting point for the design of novel inhibitors of virus budding.

  2. Cyclophilin A is required for the replication of group M human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and simian immunodeficiency virus SIV(CPZ)GAB but not group O HIV-1 or other primate immunodeficiency viruses.

    PubMed Central

    Braaten, D; Franke, E K; Luban, J

    1996-01-01

    The human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) Gag polyprotein binds to cyclophilin A and incorporates this cellular peptidyl prolyl-isomerase into virions. Disruption of cyclophilin A incorporation, either by gag mutations or by cyclosporine A, inhibits virion infectivity, indicating that cyclophilin A plays an essential role in the HIV-1 life cycle. Using assays for packaging of cyclophilin A into virions and for viral replication sensitivity to cyclosporine A, as well as information gleaned from the alignment of Gag residues encoded by representative viral isolates, we demonstrate that of the five lineages of primate immunodeficiency viruses, only HIV-1 requires cyclophilin A for replication. Cloned viral isolates from clades A, B, and D of HIV-1 group M, as well as a phylogenetically related isolate from chimpanzee, all require cyclophilin A for replication. In contrast, the replication of two outlier (group O) HIV-1 isolates is unaffected by concentrations of cyclosporine A which disrupt cyclophilin A incorporation into virions, indicating that these viruses are capable of replicating independently of cyclophilin A. These studies identify the first phenotypic difference between HIV-1 group M and group O and are consistent with phylogenetic studies suggesting that the two HIV-1 groups were introduced into human populations via separate zoonotic transmission events. PMID:8676442

  3. Cryo Electron Tomography of Native HIV-1 Budding Sites

    PubMed Central

    Carlson, Lars-Anders; de Marco, Alex; Oberwinkler, Heike; Habermann, Anja; Briggs, John A. G.; Kräusslich, Hans-Georg; Grünewald, Kay

    2010-01-01

    The structure of immature and mature HIV-1 particles has been analyzed in detail by cryo electron microscopy, while no such studies have been reported for cellular HIV-1 budding sites. Here, we established a system for studying HIV-1 virus-like particle assembly and release by cryo electron tomography of intact human cells. The lattice of the structural Gag protein in budding sites was indistinguishable from that of the released immature virion, suggesting that its organization is determined at the assembly site without major subsequent rearrangements. Besides the immature lattice, a previously not described Gag lattice was detected in some budding sites and released particles; this lattice was found at high frequencies in a subset of infected T-cells. It displays the same hexagonal symmetry and spacing in the MA-CA layer as the immature lattice, but lacks density corresponding to NC-RNA-p6. Buds and released particles carrying this lattice consistently lacked the viral ribonucleoprotein complex, suggesting that they correspond to aberrant products due to premature proteolytic activation. We hypothesize that cellular and/or viral factors normally control the onset of proteolytic maturation during assembly and release, and that this control has been lost in a subset of infected T-cells leading to formation of aberrant particles. PMID:21124872

  4. Novel Acylguanidine-Based Inhibitor of HIV-1

    PubMed Central

    Mwimanzi, Philip; Tietjen, Ian; Miller, Scott C.; Shahid, Aniqa; Cobarrubias, Kyle; Kinloch, Natalie N.; Baraki, Bemuluyigza; Richard, Jonathan; Finzi, Andrés; Fedida, David; Brumme, Zabrina L.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The emergence of transmissible HIV-1 strains with resistance to antiretroviral drugs highlights a continual need for new therapies. Here we describe a novel acylguanidine-containing compound, 1-(2-(azepan-1-yl)nicotinoyl)guanidine (or SM111), that inhibits in vitro replication of HIV-1, including strains resistant to licensed protease, reverse transcriptase, and integrase inhibitors, without major cellular toxicity. At inhibitory concentrations, intracellular p24Gag production was unaffected, but virion release (measured as extracellular p24Gag) was reduced and virion infectivity was substantially impaired, suggesting that SM111 acts at a late stage of viral replication. SM111-mediated inhibition of HIV-1 was partially overcome by a Vpu I17R mutation alone or a Vpu W22* truncation in combination with Env N136Y. These mutations enhanced virion infectivity and Env expression on the surface of infected cells in the absence and presence of SM111 but also impaired Vpu's ability to downregulate CD4 and BST2/tetherin. Taken together, our results support acylguanidines as a class of HIV-1 inhibitors with a distinct mechanism of action compared to that of licensed antiretrovirals. Further research on SM111 and similar compounds may help to elucidate knowledge gaps related to Vpu's role in promoting viral egress and infectivity. IMPORTANCE New inhibitors of HIV-1 replication may be useful as therapeutics to counteract drug resistance and as reagents to perform more detailed studies of viral pathogenesis. SM111 is a small molecule that blocks the replication of wild-type and drug-resistant HIV-1 strains by impairing viral release and substantially reducing virion infectivity, most likely through its ability to prevent Env expression at the infected cell surface. Partial resistance to SM111 is mediated by mutations in Vpu and/or Env, suggesting that the compound affects host/viral protein interactions that are important during viral egress. Further characterization of

  5. Modulation of innate and adaptive cellular immunity relevant to HIV-1 vaccine design by seminal plasma.

    PubMed

    Selva, Kevin J; Kent, Stephen J; Parsons, Matthew S

    2017-01-28

    Mucosal exposure to HIV-1 infection generally occurs in the presence of semen. Immunomodulation by seminal plasma is well described in the reproductive biology literature. Little is known, however, about the impact of seminal plasma on innate and adaptive anti-HIV-1 cellular immunity. The study investigated the effects of seminal plasma on immune responses considered important for prophylactic HIV-1 vaccine development, namely innate and adaptive cellular immunity mediated by natural killer (NK) cells and T cells, respectively. The ability of seminal plasma to modulate direct, antibody-dependent and cytokine-stimulated NK cell activation was assessed utilizing intracellular cytokine staining. Direct and antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity was assessed using lactate dehydrogenase release assays. The effects of seminal plasma on T-cell activation upon stimulation with staphylococcus enterotoxin B or HIV-1 Gag peptides were assessed by intracellular cytokine staining. The impact of seminal plasma on redirected cytolysis mediated by T cells was measured using lactate dehydrogenase release assays. Both direct and antibody-dependent NK cell activation were dramatically impaired by the presence of either HIV-1-uninfected or HIV-1-infected seminal plasma in a dose-dependent manner. Additionally, seminal plasma suppressed both direct and antibody-dependent NK cell-mediated cytolysis, including anti-HIV-1 antibody-dependent cytolysis of gp120-pulsed CEM.NKr-CCR5 cells. Finally, seminal plasma attenuated both HIV-1 Gag-specific and staphylococcus enterotoxin B-induced CTL activation. Semen contains potent immunosuppressors of both NK cell and CD8 T-cell-mediated anti-HIV-1 immune responses. This could impede attempts to provide vaccine-induced immunity to HIV-1.

  6. Structural Analysis of HIV-1 Maturation Using Cryo-Electron Tomography

    PubMed Central

    de Marco, Alex; Müller, Barbara; Glass, Bärbel; Riches, James D.; Kräusslich, Hans-Georg; Briggs, John A. G.

    2010-01-01

    HIV-1 buds form infected cells in an immature, non-infectious form. Maturation into an infectious virion requires proteolytic cleavage of the Gag polyprotein at five positions, leading to a dramatic change in virus morphology. Immature virions contain an incomplete spherical shell where Gag is arranged with the N-terminal MA domain adjacent to the membrane, the CA domain adopting a hexameric lattice below the membrane, and beneath this, the NC domain and viral RNA forming a disordered layer. After maturation, NC and RNA are condensed within the particle surrounded by a conical CA core. Little is known about the sequence of structural changes that take place during maturation, however. Here we have used cryo-electron tomography and subtomogram averaging to resolve the structure of the Gag lattice in a panel of viruses containing point mutations abolishing cleavage at individual or multiple Gag cleavage sites. These studies describe the structural intermediates correlating with the ordered processing events that occur during the HIV-1 maturation process. After the first cleavage between SP1 and NC, the condensed NC-RNA may retain a link to the remaining Gag lattice. Initiation of disassembly of the immature Gag lattice requires cleavage to occur on both sides of CA-SP1, while assembly of the mature core also requires cleavage of SP1 from CA. PMID:21151640

  7. Elucidation of the Molecular Mechanism Driving Duplication of the HIV-1 PTAP Late Domain

    PubMed Central

    Martins, Angelica N.; Waheed, Abdul A.; Ablan, Sherimay D.; Huang, Wei; Newton, Alicia; Petropoulos, Christos J.; Brindeiro, Rodrigo D. M.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT HIV-1 uses cellular machinery to bud from infected cells. This cellular machinery is comprised of several multiprotein complexes known as endosomal sorting complexes required for transport (ESCRTs). A conserved late domain motif, Pro-Thr-Ala-Pro (PTAP), located in the p6 region of Gag (p6Gag), plays a central role in ESCRT recruitment to the site of virus budding. Previous studies have demonstrated that PTAP duplications are selected in HIV-1-infected patients during antiretroviral therapy; however, the consequences of these duplications for HIV-1 biology and drug resistance are unclear. To address these questions, we constructed viruses carrying a patient-derived PTAP duplication with and without drug resistance mutations in the viral protease. We evaluated the effect of the PTAP duplication on viral release efficiency, viral infectivity, replication capacity, drug susceptibility, and Gag processing. In the presence of protease inhibitors, we observed that the PTAP duplication in p6Gag significantly increased the infectivity and replication capacity of the virus compared to those of viruses bearing only resistance mutations in protease. Our biochemical analysis showed that the PTAP duplication, in combination with mutations in protease, enhances processing between the nucleocapsid and p6 domains of Gag, resulting in more complete Gag cleavage in the presence of protease inhibitors. These results demonstrate that duplication of the PTAP motif in p6Gag confers a selective advantage in viral replication by increasing Gag processing efficiency in the context of protease inhibitor treatment, thereby enhancing the drug resistance of the virus. These findings highlight the interconnected role of PTAP duplications and protease mutations in the development of resistance to antiretroviral therapy. IMPORTANCE Resistance to current drug therapy limits treatment options in many HIV-1-infected patients. Duplications in a Pro-Thr-Ala-Pro (PTAP) motif in the p6 domain of

  8. Elucidation of the Molecular Mechanism Driving Duplication of the HIV-1 PTAP Late Domain.

    PubMed

    Martins, Angelica N; Waheed, Abdul A; Ablan, Sherimay D; Huang, Wei; Newton, Alicia; Petropoulos, Christos J; Brindeiro, Rodrigo D M; Freed, Eric O

    2015-10-28

    HIV-1 uses cellular machinery to bud from infected cells. This cellular machinery is comprised of several multiprotein complexes known as endosomal sorting complexes required for transport (ESCRTs). A conserved late domain motif, Pro-Thr-Ala-Pro (PTAP), located in the p6 region of Gag (p6(Gag)), plays a central role in ESCRT recruitment to the site of virus budding. Previous studies have demonstrated that PTAP duplications are selected in HIV-1-infected patients during antiretroviral therapy; however, the consequences of these duplications for HIV-1 biology and drug resistance are unclear. To address these questions, we constructed viruses carrying a patient-derived PTAP duplication with and without drug resistance mutations in the viral protease. We evaluated the effect of the PTAP duplication on viral release efficiency, viral infectivity, replication capacity, drug susceptibility, and Gag processing. In the presence of protease inhibitors, we observed that the PTAP duplication in p6(Gag) significantly increased the infectivity and replication capacity of the virus compared to those of viruses bearing only resistance mutations in protease. Our biochemical analysis showed that the PTAP duplication, in combination with mutations in protease, enhances processing between the nucleocapsid and p6 domains of Gag, resulting in more complete Gag cleavage in the presence of protease inhibitors. These results demonstrate that duplication of the PTAP motif in p6(Gag) confers a selective advantage in viral replication by increasing Gag processing efficiency in the context of protease inhibitor treatment, thereby enhancing the drug resistance of the virus. These findings highlight the interconnected role of PTAP duplications and protease mutations in the development of resistance to antiretroviral therapy. Resistance to current drug therapy limits treatment options in many HIV-1-infected patients. Duplications in a Pro-Thr-Ala-Pro (PTAP) motif in the p6 domain of Gag are

  9. A Truncated Nef Peptide from SIVcpz Inhibits the Production of HIV-1 Infectious Progeny

    PubMed Central

    Sabino Cunha, Marcela; Lima Sampaio, Thatiane; Peterlin, B. Matija; Jesus da Costa, Luciana

    2016-01-01

    Nef proteins from all primate Lentiviruses, including the simian immunodeficiency virus of chimpanzees (SIVcpz), increase viral progeny infectivity. However, the function of Nef involved with the increase in viral infectivity is still not completely understood. Nonetheless, until now, studies investigating the functions of Nef from SIVcpz have been conducted in the context of the HIV-1 proviruses. In an attempt to investigate the role played by Nef during the replication cycle of an SIVcpz, a Nef-defective derivative was obtained from the SIVcpzWTGab2 clone by introducing a frame shift mutation at a unique restriction site within the nef sequence. This nef-deleted clone expresses an N-terminal 74-amino acid truncated peptide of Nef and was named SIVcpz-tNef. We found that the SIVcpz-tNef does not behave as a classic nef-deleted HIV-1 or simian immunodeficiency virus of macaques SIVmac. Markedly, SIVcpz-tNef progeny from both Hek-293T and Molt producer cells were completely non-infectious. Moreover, the loss in infectivity of SIVcpz-tNef correlated with the inhibition of Gag and GagPol processing. A marked accumulation of Gag and very low levels of reverse transcriptase were detected in viral lysates. Furthermore, these observations were reproduced once the tNef peptide was expressed in trans both in SIVcpzΔNef and HIV-1WT expressing cells, demonstrating that the truncated peptide is a dominant negative for viral processing and infectivity for both SIVcpz and HIV-1. We demonstrated that the truncated Nef peptide binds to GagPol outside the protease region and by doing so probably blocks processing of both GagPol and Gag precursors at a very early stage. This study demonstrates for the first time that naturally-occurring Nef peptides can potently block lentiviral processing and infectivity. PMID:27399760

  10. An atomic model of HIV-1 capsid-SP1 reveals structures regulating assembly and maturation.

    PubMed

    Schur, Florian K M; Obr, Martin; Hagen, Wim J H; Wan, William; Jakobi, Arjen J; Kirkpatrick, Joanna M; Sachse, Carsten; Kräusslich, Hans-Georg; Briggs, John A G

    2016-07-29

    Immature HIV-1 assembles at and buds from the plasma membrane before proteolytic cleavage of the viral Gag polyprotein induces structural maturation. Maturation can be blocked by maturation inhibitors (MIs), thereby abolishing infectivity. The CA (capsid) and SP1 (spacer peptide 1) region of Gag is the key regulator of assembly and maturation and is the target of MIs. We applied optimized cryo-electron tomography and subtomogram averaging to resolve this region within assembled immature HIV-1 particles at 3.9 angstrom resolution and built an atomic model. The structure reveals a network of intra- and intermolecular interactions mediating immature HIV-1 assembly. The proteolytic cleavage site between CA and SP1 is inaccessible to protease. We suggest that MIs prevent CA-SP1 cleavage by stabilizing the structure, and MI resistance develops by destabilizing CA-SP1.

  11. Protective Efficacy of a Global HIV-1 Mosaic Vaccine Against Heterologous SHIV Challenges in Rhesus Monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Barouch, Dan H.; Stephenson, Kathryn E.; Borducchi, Erica N.; Smith, Kaitlin; Stanley, Kelly; McNally, Anna G.; Liu, Jinyan; Abbink, Peter; Maxfield, Lori F.; Seaman, Michael S.; Dugast, Anne-Sophie; Alter, Galit; Ferguson, Melissa; Li, Wenjun; Earl, Patricia L.; Moss, Bernard; Giorgi, Elena E.; Szinger, James J.; Eller, Leigh Anne; Billings, Erik A.; Rao, Mangala; Tovanabutra, Sodsai; Sanders-Buell, Eric; Weijtens, Mo; Pau, Maria G.; Schuitemaker, Hanneke; Robb, Merlin L.; Kim, Jerome H.; Korber, Bette T.; Michael, Nelson L.

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY The global diversity of HIV-1 represents a critical challenge facing HIV-1 vaccine development. HIV-1 mosaic antigens are bioinformatically optimized immunogens designed for improved coverage of HIV-1 diversity. However, the protective efficacy of global HIV-1 vaccine antigens has not previously been evaluated. Here we demonstrate the capacity of bivalent HIV-1 mosaic antigens to protect rhesus monkeys against acquisition of heterologous challenges with the difficult-to-neutralize simian-human immunodeficiency virus SHIV-SF162P3. Adenovirus/poxvirus and adenovirus/adenovirus vector-based vaccines expressing HIV-1 mosaic Env, Gag, and Pol afforded a significant reduction in the per-exposure acquisition risk following repetitive, intrarectal SHIV-SF162P3 challenges. Protection against acquisition of infection was correlated with vaccine-elicited binding, neutralizing, and functional non-neutralizing antibodies. These data demonstrate the protective efficacy of HIV-1 mosaic antigens and suggest a potential strategy towards the development of a global HIV-1 vaccine. Moreover, our findings suggest that the coordinated activity of multiple antibody functions may contribute to protection against difficult-to-neutralize viruses. PMID:24243013

  12. Protective efficacy of a global HIV-1 mosaic vaccine against heterologous SHIV challenges in rhesus monkeys.

    PubMed

    Barouch, Dan H; Stephenson, Kathryn E; Borducchi, Erica N; Smith, Kaitlin; Stanley, Kelly; McNally, Anna G; Liu, Jinyan; Abbink, Peter; Maxfield, Lori F; Seaman, Michael S; Dugast, Anne-Sophie; Alter, Galit; Ferguson, Melissa; Li, Wenjun; Earl, Patricia L; Moss, Bernard; Giorgi, Elena E; Szinger, James J; Eller, Leigh Anne; Billings, Erik A; Rao, Mangala; Tovanabutra, Sodsai; Sanders-Buell, Eric; Weijtens, Mo; Pau, Maria G; Schuitemaker, Hanneke; Robb, Merlin L; Kim, Jerome H; Korber, Bette T; Michael, Nelson L

    2013-10-24

    The global diversity of HIV-1 represents a critical challenge facing HIV-1 vaccine development. HIV-1 mosaic antigens are bioinformatically optimized immunogens designed for improved coverage of HIV-1 diversity. However, the protective efficacy of such global HIV-1 vaccine antigens has not previously been evaluated. Here, we demonstrate the capacity of bivalent HIV-1 mosaic antigens to protect rhesus monkeys against acquisition of infection following heterologous challenges with the difficult-to-neutralize simian-human immunodeficiency virus SHIV-SF162P3. Adenovirus/poxvirus and adenovirus/adenovirus vector-based vaccines expressing HIV-1 mosaic Env, Gag, and Pol afforded a significant reduction in the per-exposure acquisition risk following repetitive, intrarectal SHIV-SF162P3 challenges. Protection against acquisition of infection correlated with vaccine-elicited binding, neutralizing, and functional nonneutralizing antibodies, suggesting that the coordinated activity of multiple antibody functions may contribute to protection against difficult-to-neutralize viruses. These data demonstrate the protective efficacy of HIV-1 mosaic antigens and suggest a potential strategy for the development of a global HIV-1 vaccine. PAPERCLIP: Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Ultrastructural evidence of an interaction between Env and Gag proteins during assembly of HIV type 1.

    PubMed

    Bugelski, P J; Maleeff, B E; Klinkner, A M; Ventre, J; Hart, T K

    1995-01-01

    Assembly and budding of retroviruses is believed to involve a complex interaction of envelope and capsid proteins at the host cell membrane. The nature of these interactions is, however, incompletely understood. Studies of the topography of the surface of HIV-1 have shown that the envelope glycoprotein projections (knobs) are arranged in a T = 7 levo rotational symmetry. Similarly, an icosahedral structure has been suggested for the p17 matrix of HIV-1. In an effort to investigate whether there is a structural interaction between these molecules, virions whose maturation was blocked by an inhibitor of HIV protease were studied using cytochemistry, morphometry, and 2D fast Fourier transform image enhancement. Analysis of the relationship between core morphology and the topographic distribution of envelope glycoprotein projections on HIV-1 provided structural evidence of an interaction between Env and Gag proteins. Furthermore, image enhancement revealed a periodic substructure in the Pr55gag plaque. Taken together, the data suggest an interaction between Pr55gag and the gp120-gp41 complex during assembly and budding of HIV-1. This interaction may, in part, contribute to determining the amount of Env glycoprotein that will be incorporated into a virion, and therefore play a role in the biology of HIV-1.

  14. The effect of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) on amyloid aggregation and toxicity.

    PubMed

    Iannuzzi, Clara; Irace, Gaetano; Sirangelo, Ivana

    2015-02-02

    Amyloidosis is a protein folding disorder in which normally soluble proteins are deposited extracellularly as insoluble fibrils, impairing tissue structure and function. Charged polyelectrolytes such as glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) are frequently found associated with the proteinaceous deposits in tissues of patients affected by amyloid diseases. Experimental evidence indicate that they can play an active role in favoring amyloid fibril formation and stabilization. Binding of GAGs to amyloid fibrils occurs mainly through electrostatic interactions involving the negative polyelectrolyte charges and positively charged side chains residues of aggregating protein. Similarly to catalyst for reactions, GAGs favor aggregation, nucleation and amyloid fibril formation functioning as a structural templates for the self-assembly of highly cytotoxic oligomeric precursors, rich in β-sheets, into harmless amyloid fibrils. Moreover, the GAGs amyloid promoting activity can be facilitated through specific interactions via consensus binding sites between amyloid polypeptide and GAGs molecules. We review the effect of GAGs on amyloid deposition as well as proteins not strictly related to diseases. In addition, we consider the potential of the GAGs therapy in amyloidosis.

  15. Structure of the HIV-1 RNA Packaging Signal

    PubMed Central

    Keane, Sarah C.; Heng, Xiao; Lu, Kun; Kharytonchyk, Siarhei; Ramakrishnan, Venkateswaran; Carter, Gregory; Barton, Shawn; Hosic, Azra; Florwick, Alyssa; Santos, Justin; Bolden, Nicholas C.; McCowin, Sayo; Case, David A.; Johnson, Bruce; Salemi, Marco; Telesnitsky, Alice; Summers, Michael F.

    2015-01-01

    The 5′-leader of the HIV-1 genome contains conserved elements that direct selective packaging of the unspliced, dimeric viral RNA into assembling particles. Using a 2H-edited NMR approach, we determined the structure of a 155-nucleotide region of the leader that is independently capable of directing packaging (Core Encapsidation Signal; ΨCES). The RNA adopts an unexpected tandem three-way junction structure, in which residues of the major splice donor and translation initiation sites are sequestered by long-range base pairing, and guanosines essential for both packaging and high-affinity binding to the cognate Gag protein are exposed in helical junctions. The structure reveals how translation is attenuated, Gag binding promoted, and unspliced dimeric genomes selected, by the RNA conformer that directs packaging. PMID:25999508

  16. RNA structure. Structure of the HIV-1 RNA packaging signal.

    PubMed

    Keane, Sarah C; Heng, Xiao; Lu, Kun; Kharytonchyk, Siarhei; Ramakrishnan, Venkateswaran; Carter, Gregory; Barton, Shawn; Hosic, Azra; Florwick, Alyssa; Santos, Justin; Bolden, Nicholas C; McCowin, Sayo; Case, David A; Johnson, Bruce A; Salemi, Marco; Telesnitsky, Alice; Summers, Michael F

    2015-05-22

    The 5' leader of the HIV-1 genome contains conserved elements that direct selective packaging of the unspliced, dimeric viral RNA into assembling particles. By using a (2)H-edited nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) approach, we determined the structure of a 155-nucleotide region of the leader that is independently capable of directing packaging (core encapsidation signal; Ψ(CES)). The RNA adopts an unexpected tandem three-way junction structure, in which residues of the major splice donor and translation initiation sites are sequestered by long-range base pairing and guanosines essential for both packaging and high-affinity binding to the cognate Gag protein are exposed in helical junctions. The structure reveals how translation is attenuated, Gag binding promoted, and unspliced dimeric genomes selected, by the RNA conformer that directs packaging. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  17. HIV-1 Protease in the Fission Yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe

    PubMed Central

    Benko, Zsigmond; Elder, Robert T.; Li, Ge; Liang, Dong; Zhao, Richard Y.

    2016-01-01

    Background HIV-1 protease (PR) is an essential viral enzyme. Its primary function is to proteolyze the viral Gag-Pol polyprotein for production of viral enzymes and structural proteins and for maturation of infectious viral particles. Increasing evidence suggests that PR cleaves host cellular proteins. However, the nature of PR-host cellular protein interactions is elusive. This study aimed to develop a fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe) model system and to examine the possible interaction of HIV-1 PR with cellular proteins and its potential impact on cell proliferation and viability. Results A fission yeast strain RE294 was created that carried a single integrated copy of the PR gene in its chromosome. The PR gene was expressed using an inducible nmt1 promoter so that PR-specific effects could be measured. HIV-1 PR from this system cleaved the same indigenous viral p6/MA protein substrate as it does in natural HIV-1 infections. HIV-1 PR expression in fission yeast cells prevented cell proliferation and induced cellular oxidative stress and changes in mitochondrial morphology that led to cell death. Both these PR activities can be prevented by a PR-specific enzymatic inhibitor, indinavir, suggesting that PR-mediated proteolytic activities and cytotoxic effects resulted from enzymatic activities of HIV-1 PR. Through genome-wide screening, a serine/threonine kinase, Hhp2, was identified that suppresses HIV-1 PR-induced protease cleavage and cell death in fission yeast and in mammalian cells, where it prevented PR-induced apoptosis and cleavage of caspase-3 and caspase-8. Conclusions This is the first report to show that HIV-1 protease is functional as an enzyme in fission yeast, and that it behaves in a similar manner as it does in HIV-1 infection. HIV-1 PR-induced cell death in fission yeast could potentially be used as an endpoint for mechanistic studies, and this system could be used for developing a high-throughput system for drug screenings. PMID:26982200

  18. Absence of XMRV in Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells of ARV-Treatment Naïve HIV-1 Infected and HIV-1/HCV Coinfected Individuals and Blood Donors

    PubMed Central

    Vigil, Karen J.; Vey, Elana; Arduino, Roberto C.; Kimata, Jason T.

    2012-01-01

    Background Xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus (XMRV) has been found in the prostatic tissue of prostate cancer patients and in the blood of chronic fatigue syndrome patients. However, numerous studies have found little to no trace of XMRV in different human cohorts. Based on evidence suggesting common transmission routes between XMRV and HIV-1, HIV-1 infected individuals may represent a high-risk group for XMRV infection and spread. Methodology/Principal Findings DNA was isolated from the peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of 179 HIV-1 infected treatment naïve patients, 86 of which were coinfected with HCV, and 54 healthy blood donors. DNA was screened for XMRV provirus with two sensitive, published PCR assays targeting XMRV gag and env and one sensitive, published nested PCR assay targeting env. Detection of XMRV was confirmed by DNA sequencing. One of the 179 HIV-1 infected patients tested positive for gag by non-nested PCR whereas the two other assays did not detect XMRV in any specimen. All healthy blood donors were negative for XMRV proviral sequences. Sera from 23 HIV-1 infected patients (15 HCV+) and 12 healthy donors were screened for the presence of XMRV-reactive antibodies by Western blot. Thirteen sera (57%) from HIV-1+ patients and 6 sera (50%) from healthy donors showed reactivity to XMRV-infected cell lysate. Conclusions/Significance The virtual absence of XMRV in PBMCs suggests that XMRV is not associated with HIV-1 infected or HIV-1/HCV coinfected patients, or blood donors. Although we noted isolated incidents of serum reactivity to XMRV, we are unable to verify the antibodies as XMRV specific. PMID:22348082

  19. The thermodynamics of Pr55Gag-RNA interaction regulate the assembly of HIV.

    PubMed

    Tanwar, Hanumant S; Khoo, Keith K; Garvey, Megan; Waddington, Lynne; Leis, Andrew; Hijnen, Marcel; Velkov, Tony; Dumsday, Geoff J; McKinstry, William J; Mak, Johnson

    2017-02-01

    The interactions that occur during HIV Pr55Gag oligomerization and genomic RNA packaging are essential elements that facilitate HIV assembly. However, mechanistic details of these interactions are not clearly defined. Here, we overcome previous limitations in producing large quantities of full-length recombinant Pr55Gag that is required for isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) studies, and we have revealed the thermodynamic properties of HIV assembly for the first time. Thermodynamic analysis showed that the binding between RNA and HIV Pr55Gag is an energetically favourable reaction (ΔG<0) that is further enhanced by the oligomerization of Pr55Gag. The change in enthalpy (ΔH) widens sequentially from: (1) Pr55Gag-Psi RNA binding during HIV genome selection; to (2) Pr55Gag-Guanosine Uridine (GU)-containing RNA binding in cytoplasm/plasma membrane; and then to (3) Pr55Gag-Adenosine(A)-containing RNA binding in immature HIV. These data imply the stepwise increments of heat being released during HIV biogenesis may help to facilitate the process of viral assembly. By mimicking the interactions between A-containing RNA and oligomeric Pr55Gag in immature HIV, it was noted that a p6 domain truncated Pr50Gag Δp6 is less efficient than full-length Pr55Gag in this thermodynamic process. These data suggest a potential unknown role of p6 in Pr55Gag-Pr55Gag oligomerization and/or Pr55Gag-RNA interaction during HIV assembly. Our data provide direct evidence on how nucleic acid sequences and the oligomeric state of Pr55Gag regulate HIV assembly.

  20. The thermodynamics of Pr55Gag-RNA interaction regulate the assembly of HIV

    PubMed Central

    Waddington, Lynne; Hijnen, Marcel; Velkov, Tony; McKinstry, William J.

    2017-01-01

    The interactions that occur during HIV Pr55Gag oligomerization and genomic RNA packaging are essential elements that facilitate HIV assembly. However, mechanistic details of these interactions are not clearly defined. Here, we overcome previous limitations in producing large quantities of full-length recombinant Pr55Gag that is required for isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) studies, and we have revealed the thermodynamic properties of HIV assembly for the first time. Thermodynamic analysis showed that the binding between RNA and HIV Pr55Gag is an energetically favourable reaction (ΔG<0) that is further enhanced by the oligomerization of Pr55Gag. The change in enthalpy (ΔH) widens sequentially from: (1) Pr55Gag-Psi RNA binding during HIV genome selection; to (2) Pr55Gag-Guanosine Uridine (GU)-containing RNA binding in cytoplasm/plasma membrane; and then to (3) Pr55Gag-Adenosine(A)-containing RNA binding in immature HIV. These data imply the stepwise increments of heat being released during HIV biogenesis may help to facilitate the process of viral assembly. By mimicking the interactions between A-containing RNA and oligomeric Pr55Gag in immature HIV, it was noted that a p6 domain truncated Pr50Gag Δp6 is less efficient than full-length Pr55Gag in this thermodynamic process. These data suggest a potential unknown role of p6 in Pr55Gag-Pr55Gag oligomerization and/or Pr55Gag-RNA interaction during HIV assembly. Our data provide direct evidence on how nucleic acid sequences and the oligomeric state of Pr55Gag regulate HIV assembly. PMID:28222188

  1. Single-molecule coordinate-based analysis of the morphology of HIV-1 assembly sites with near-molecular spatial resolution.

    PubMed

    Malkusch, Sebastian; Muranyi, Walter; Müller, Barbara; Kräusslich, Hans-Georg; Heilemann, Mike

    2013-01-01

    We apply single-molecule super-resolution microscopy and coordinate-based cluster analysis to extract information on the distribution and on the morphology and size of clusters of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) Gag polyprotein in fixed cells. Three different patterns of Gag distribution could be distinguished. A major type of assembly observed was in accordance with previous electron microscopy analyses revealing ~140 nm-sized HIV-1 buds at the plasma membrane of virus-producing cells. The distribution of Gag molecules in the 2D projection at these sites was consistent with a semi-spherical 3D assembly. We compared different methods of cluster analysis and demonstrated that we can reliably distinguish different distribution patterns of the Gag polyprotein. These methods were applied to extract information on the properties of the different Gag clusters.

  2. HIV-1 protease inhibitor mutations affect the development of HIV-1 resistance to the maturation inhibitor bevirimat.

    PubMed

    Fun, Axel; van Maarseveen, Noortje M; Pokorná, Jana; Maas, Renée Em; Schipper, Pauline J; Konvalinka, Jan; Nijhuis, Monique

    2011-08-24

    Maturation inhibitors are an experimental class of antiretrovirals that inhibit Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) particle maturation, the structural rearrangement required to form infectious virus particles. This rearrangement is triggered by the ordered cleavage of the precursor Gag polyproteins into their functional counterparts by the viral enzyme protease. In contrast to protease inhibitors, maturation inhibitors impede particle maturation by targeting the substrate of protease (Gag) instead of the protease enzyme itself. Direct cross-resistance between protease and maturation inhibitors may seem unlikely, but the co-evolution of protease and its substrate, Gag, during protease inhibitor therapy, could potentially affect future maturation inhibitor therapy. Previous studies showed that there might also be an effect of protease inhibitor resistance mutations on the development of maturation inhibitor resistance, but the exact mechanism remains unclear. We used wild-type and protease inhibitor resistant viruses to determine the impact of protease inhibitor resistance mutations on the development of maturation inhibitor resistance. Our resistance selection studies demonstrated that the resistance profiles for the maturation inhibitor bevirimat are more diverse for viruses with a mutated protease compared to viruses with a wild-type protease. Viral replication did not appear to be a major factor during emergence of bevirimat resistance. In all in vitro selections, one of four mutations was selected: Gag V362I, A364V, S368N or V370A. The impact of these mutations on maturation inhibitor resistance and viral replication was analyzed in different protease backgrounds. The data suggest that the protease background affects development of HIV-1 resistance to bevirimat and the replication profiles of bevirimat-selected HIV-1. The protease-dependent bevirimat resistance and replication levels can be explained by differences in CA/p2 cleavage processing by the different

  3. Dendritic Cells Exposed to MVA-Based HIV-1 Vaccine Induce Highly Functional HIV-1-Specific CD8+ T Cell Responses in HIV-1-Infected Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Climent, Núria; Guerra, Susana; García, Felipe; Rovira, Cristina; Miralles, Laia; Gómez, Carmen Elena; Piqué, Núria; Gil, Cristina; Gatell, José María; Esteban, Mariano; Gallart, Teresa

    2011-01-01

    Currently, MVA virus vectors carrying HIV-1 genes are being developed as HIV-1/AIDS prophylactic/therapeutic vaccines. Nevertheless, little is known about the impact of these vectors on human dendritic cells (DC) and their capacity to present HIV-1 antigens to human HIV-specific T cells. This study aimed to characterize the interaction of MVA and MVA expressing the HIV-1 genes Env-Gag-Pol-Nef of clade B (referred to as MVA-B) in human monocyte-derived dendritic cells (MDDC) and the subsequent processes of HIV-1 antigen presentation and activation of memory HIV-1-specific T lymphocytes. For these purposes, we performed ex vivo assays with MDDC and autologous lymphocytes from asymptomatic HIV-infected patients. Infection of MDDC with MVA-B or MVA, at the optimal dose of 0.3 PFU/MDDC, induced by itself a moderate degree of maturation of MDDC, involving secretion of cytokines and chemokines (IL1-ra, IL-7, TNF-α, IL-6, IL-12, IL-15, IL-8, MCP-1, MIP-1α, MIP-1β, RANTES, IP-10, MIG, and IFN-α). MDDC infected with MVA or MVA-B and following a period of 48 h or 72 h of maturation were able to migrate toward CCL19 or CCL21 chemokine gradients. MVA-B infection induced apoptosis of the infected cells and the resulting apoptotic bodies were engulfed by the uninfected MDDC, which cross-presented HIV-1 antigens to autologous CD8+ T lymphocytes. MVA-B-infected MDDC co-cultured with autologous T lymphocytes induced a highly functional HIV-specific CD8+ T cell response including proliferation, secretion of IFN-γ, IL-2, TNF-α, MIP-1β, MIP-1α, RANTES and IL-6, and strong cytotoxic activity against autologous HIV-1-infected CD4+ T lymphocytes. These results evidence the adjuvant role of the vector itself (MVA) and support the clinical development of prophylactic and therapeutic anti-HIV vaccines based on MVA-B. PMID:21625608

  4. HIV-1 target cells in the CNS.

    PubMed

    Joseph, Sarah B; Arrildt, Kathryn T; Sturdevant, Christa B; Swanstrom, Ronald

    2015-06-01

    HIV-1 replication in the central nervous system (CNS) is typically limited by the availability of target cells. HIV-1 variants that are transmitted and dominate the early stages of infection almost exclusively use the CCR5 coreceptor and are well adapted to entering, and thus infecting, cells expressing high CD4 densities similar to those found on CD4+ T cells. While the "immune privileged" CNS is largely devoid of CD4+ T cells, macrophage and microglia are abundant throughout the CNS. These cells likely express CD4 densities that are too low to facilitate efficient entry or allow sustained replication by most HIV-1 isolates. Examination of CNS viral populations reveals that late in disease the CNS of some individuals contains HIV-1 lineages that have evolved the ability to enter cells expressing low levels of CD4 and are well-adapted to entering macrophages. These macrophage-tropic (M-tropic) viruses are able to maintain sustained replication in the CNS for many generations, and their presence is associated with severe neurocognitive impairment. Whether conditions such as pleocytosis are necessary for macrophage-tropic viruses to emerge in the CNS is unknown, and extensive examinations of macrophage-tropic variants have not revealed a genetic signature of this phenotype. It is clear, however, that macrophage tropism is rare among HIV-1 isolates and is not transmitted, but is important due to its pathogenic effects on hosts. Prior to the evolution of macrophage-tropic variants, the viruses that are predominately infecting T cells (R5 T cell-tropic) may infect macrophages at a low level and inefficiently, but this could contribute to the reservoir.

  5. HIV-1 target cells in the CNS

    PubMed Central

    Joseph, Sarah B.; Arrildt, Kathryn T.; Sturdevant, Christa B.; Swanstrom, Ronald

    2014-01-01

    HIV-1 replication in the central nervous system (CNS) is typically limited by the availability of target cells. HIV-1 variants that are transmitted and dominate the early stages of infection almost exclusively use the CCR5 coreceptor and are well adapted to entering, and thus infecting, cells expressing high CD4 densities similar to those found on CD4+ T cells. While the “immune privileged” CNS is largely devoid of CD4+ T cells, macrophage and microglia are abundant throughout the CNS. These cells likely express CD4 densities that are too low to facilitate efficient entry or allow sustained replication by most HIV-1 isolates. Examination of CNS viral populations reveals that late in disease the CNS of some individuals contains HIV-1 lineages that have evolved the ability to enter cells expressing low levels of CD4 and are well-adapted to entering macrophages. These macrophage-tropic (M-tropic) viruses are able to maintain sustained replication in the CNS for many generations, and their presence is associated with severe neurocognitive impairment. Whether conditions such as pleocytosis are necessary for macrophage-tropic viruses to emerge in the CNS is unknown, and extensive examinations of macrophage-tropic variants have not revealed a genetic signature of this phenotype. It is clear, however, that macrophage tropism is rare among HIV-1 isolates and is not transmitted, but is important due to its pathogenic effects on hosts. Prior to the evolution of macrophage-tropic variants, the viruses that are predominately infecting T cells (R5 T cell-tropic) may infect macrophages at a low level and inefficiently, but this could contribute to the reservoir. PMID:25236812

  6. Membrane Binding of the Rous Sarcoma Virus Gag Protein Is Cooperative and Dependent on the Spacer Peptide Assembly Domain

    PubMed Central

    Barros, Marilia; Jin, Danni; Lösche, Mathias; Vogt, Volker M.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The principles underlying membrane binding and assembly of retroviral Gag proteins into a lattice are understood. However, little is known about how these processes are related. Using purified Rous sarcoma virus Gag and Gag truncations, we studied the interrelation of Gag-Gag interaction and Gag-membrane interaction. Both by liposome binding and by surface plasmon resonance on a supported bilayer, Gag bound to membranes much more tightly than did matrix (MA), the isolated membrane binding domain. In principle, this difference could be explained either by protein-protein interactions leading to cooperativity in membrane binding or by the simultaneous interaction of the N-terminal MA and the C-terminal nucleocapsid (NC) of Gag with the bilayer, since both are highly basic. However, we found that NC was not required for strong membrane binding. Instead, the spacer peptide assembly domain (SPA), a putative 24-residue helical sequence comprising the 12-residue SP segment of Gag and overlapping the capsid (CA) C terminus and the NC N terminus, was required. SPA is known to be critical for proper assembly of the immature Gag lattice. A single amino acid mutation in SPA that abrogates assembly in vitro dramatically reduced binding of Gag to liposomes. In vivo, plasma membrane localization was dependent on SPA. Disulfide cross-linking based on ectopic Cys residues showed that the contacts between Gag proteins on the membrane are similar to the known contacts in virus-like particles. Taken together, we interpret these results to mean that Gag membrane interaction is cooperative in that it depends on the ability of Gag to multimerize. IMPORTANCE The retroviral structural protein Gag has three major domains. The N-terminal MA domain interacts directly with the plasma membrane (PM) of cells. The central CA domain, together with immediately adjoining sequences, facilitates the assembly of thousands of Gag molecules into a lattice. The C-terminal NC domain interacts with

  7. Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Gag engages the Bro1 domain of ALIX/AIP1 through the nucleocapsid.

    PubMed

    Popov, Sergei; Popova, Elena; Inoue, Michio; Göttlinger, Heinrich G

    2008-02-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and other retroviruses harbor short peptide motifs in Gag that promote the release of infectious virions. These motifs, known as late assembly (L) domains, recruit a cellular budding machinery that is required for the formation of multivesicular bodies (MVBs). The primary L domain of HIV-1 maps to a PTAP motif in the p6 region of Gag and engages the MVB pathway by binding to Tsg101. Additionally, HIV-1 p6 harbors an auxiliary L domain that binds to the V domain of ALIX, another component of the MVB pathway. We now show that ALIX also binds to the nucleocapsid (NC) domain of HIV-1 Gag and that ALIX and its isolated Bro1 domain can be specifically packaged into viral particles via NC. The interaction with ALIX depended on the zinc fingers of NC, which mediate the specific packaging of genomic viral RNA, but was not disrupted by nuclease treatment. We also observed that HIV-1 zinc finger mutants were defective for particle production and exhibited a similar defect in Gag processing as a PTAP deletion mutant. The effects of the zinc finger and PTAP mutations were not additive, suggesting a functional relationship between NC and p6. However, in contrast to the PTAP deletion mutant, the double mutants could not be rescued by overexpressing ALIX, further supporting the notion that NC plays a role in virus release.

  8. HIV-1 Vpr—a still “enigmatic multitasker”

    PubMed Central

    Guenzel, Carolin A.; Hérate, Cécile; Benichou, Serge

    2014-01-01

    Like other HIV-1 auxiliary proteins, Vpr is conserved within all the human (HIV-1, HIV-2) and simian (SIV) immunodeficiency viruses. However, Vpr and homologous HIV-2, and SIV Vpx are the only viral auxiliary proteins specifically incorporated into virus particles through direct interaction with the Gag precursor, indicating that this presence in the core of the mature virions is mainly required for optimal establishment of the early steps of the virus life cycle in the newly infected cell. In spite of its small size, a plethora of effects and functions have been attributed to Vpr, including induction of cell cycle arrest and apoptosis, modulation of the fidelity of reverse transcription, nuclear import of viral DNA in macrophages and other non-dividing cells, and transcriptional modulation of viral and host cell genes. Even if some more recent studies identified a few cellular targets that HIV-1 Vpr may utilize in order to perform its different tasks, the real role and functions of Vpr during the course of natural infection are still enigmatic. In this review, we will summarize the main reported functions of HIV-1 Vpr and their significance in the context of the viral life cycle. PMID:24744753

  9. Analysis of Small Molecule Ligands Targeting the HIV-1 Matrix Protein-RNA Binding Site*

    PubMed Central

    Alfadhli, Ayna; McNett, Henry; Eccles, Jacob; Tsagli, Seyram; Noviello, Colleen; Sloan, Rachel; López, Claudia S.; Peyton, David H.; Barklis, Eric

    2013-01-01

    The matrix domain (MA) of the HIV-1 precursor Gag (PrGag) protein directs PrGag proteins to assembly sites at the plasma membrane by virtue of its affinity to the phospholipid, phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate (PI(4,5)P2). MA also binds to RNA at a site that overlaps its PI(4,5)P2 site, suggesting that RNA binding may protect MA from associating with inappropriate cellular membranes prior to PrGag delivery to the PM. Based on this, we have developed an assay in which small molecule competitors to MA-RNA binding can be characterized, with the assumption that such compounds might interfere with essential MA functions and help elucidate additional features of MA binding. Following this approach, we have identified four compounds, including three thiadiazolanes, that compete with RNA for MA binding. We also have identified MA residues involved in thiadiazolane binding and found that they overlap the MA PI(4,5)P2 and RNA sites. Cell culture studies demonstrated that thiadiazolanes inhibit HIV-1 replication but are associated with significant levels of toxicity. Nevertheless, these observations provide new insights into MA binding and pave the way for the development of antivirals that target the HIV-1 matrix domain. PMID:23135280

  10. A strongly transdominant mutation in the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 gag gene defines an Achilles heel in the virus life cycle.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sook-Kyung; Harris, Janera; Swanstrom, Ronald

    2009-09-01

    The human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) protease (PR) makes five obligatory cleavages in the viral Gag polyprotein precursor. The cleavage events release the virion structural proteins from the precursor and allow the virion to undergo maturation to become infectious. The protease cleavage between the matrix protein (MA) domain and the adjacent capsid protein (CA) domain releases CA from the membrane-anchored MA and allows the N terminus of CA to refold into a structure that facilitates the formation of hexamer arrays that represent the structural unit of the capsid shell. In this study, we analyzed the extent to which each of the HIV-1 Gag processing sites must be cleaved by substituting the P1-position amino acid at each processing site with Ile. A mutation that blocks cleavage at the MA/CA processing site (Y132I) displayed a strong transdominant effect when tested in a phenotypic mixing strategy, inhibiting virion infectivity with a 50% inhibitory concentration of only 4% of the mutant relative to the wild type. This mutation is 10- to 20-fold more potent in phenotypic mixing than an inactivating mutation in the viral protease, the target of many successful inhibitors, and more potent than an inactivating mutation at any of the other Gag cleavage sites. The transdominant effect is manifested as the assembly of an aberrant virion core. Virus containing 20% of the Y132I mutant and 80% of the wild type (to assess the transdominant effect on infectivity) was blocked either before reverse transcription (RT) or at an early RT step. The ability of a small amount of the MA/CA fusion protein to poison the oligomeric assembly of infectious virus identifies an essential step in the complex process of virion formation and maturation. The effect of a small-molecule inhibitor that is able to block MA/CA cleavage even partially would be amplified by this transdominant negative effect on the highly orchestrated process of virion assembly.

  11. Determinants of Glycosaminoglycan (GAG) Structure

    PubMed Central

    Prydz, Kristian

    2015-01-01

    Proteoglycans (PGs) are glycosylated proteins of biological importance at cell surfaces, in the extracellular matrix, and in the circulation. PGs are produced and modified by glycosaminoglycan (GAG) chains in the secretory pathway of animal cells. The most common GAG attachment site is a serine residue followed by a glycine (-ser-gly-), from which a linker tetrasaccharide extends and may continue as a heparan sulfate, a heparin, a chondroitin sulfate, or a dermatan sulfate GAG chain. Which type of GAG chain becomes attached to the linker tetrasaccharide is influenced by the structure of the protein core, modifications occurring to the linker tetrasaccharide itself, and the biochemical environment of the Golgi apparatus, where GAG polymerization and modification by sulfation and epimerization take place. The same cell type may produce different GAG chains that vary, depending on the extent of epimerization and sulfation. However, it is not known to what extent these differences are caused by compartmental segregation of protein cores en route through the secretory pathway or by differential recruitment of modifying enzymes during synthesis of different PGs. The topic of this review is how different aspects of protein structure, cellular biochemistry, and compartmentalization may influence GAG synthesis. PMID:26308067

  12. Efficient HIV-1 replication can occur in the absence of the viral matrix protein.

    PubMed Central

    Reil, H; Bukovsky, A A; Gelderblom, H R; Göttlinger, H G

    1998-01-01

    Matrix (MA), a major structural protein of retroviruses, is thought to play a critical role in several steps of the HIV-1 replication cycle, including the plasma membrane targeting of Gag, the incorporation of envelope (Env) glycoproteins into nascent particles, and the nuclear import of the viral genome in non-dividing cells. We now show that the entire MA protein is dispensable for the incorporation of HIV-1 Env glycoproteins with a shortened cytoplasmic domain. Furthermore, efficient HIV-1 replication in the absence of up to 90% of MA was observed in a cell line in which the cytoplasmic domain of Env is not required. Additional compensatory changes in Gag permitted efficient virus replication even if all of MA was replaced by a heterologous membrane targeting signal. Viruses which lacked the globular domain of MA but retained its N-terminal myristyl anchor exhibited an increased ability to form both extracellular and intracellular virus particles, consistent with a myristyl switch model of Gag membrane targeting. Pseudotyped HIV-1 particles that lacked the structurally conserved globular head of MA efficiently infected macrophages, indicating that MA is dispensable for nuclear import in terminally differentiated cells. PMID:9564051

  13. Efficient HIV-1 replication can occur in the absence of the viral matrix protein.

    PubMed

    Reil, H; Bukovsky, A A; Gelderblom, H R; Göttlinger, H G

    1998-05-01

    Matrix (MA), a major structural protein of retroviruses, is thought to play a critical role in several steps of the HIV-1 replication cycle, including the plasma membrane targeting of Gag, the incorporation of envelope (Env) glycoproteins into nascent particles, and the nuclear import of the viral genome in non-dividing cells. We now show that the entire MA protein is dispensable for the incorporation of HIV-1 Env glycoproteins with a shortened cytoplasmic domain. Furthermore, efficient HIV-1 replication in the absence of up to 90% of MA was observed in a cell line in which the cytoplasmic domain of Env is not required. Additional compensatory changes in Gag permitted efficient virus replication even if all of MA was replaced by a heterologous membrane targeting signal. Viruses which lacked the globular domain of MA but retained its N-terminal myristyl anchor exhibited an increased ability to form both extracellular and intracellular virus particles, consistent with a myristyl switch model of Gag membrane targeting. Pseudotyped HIV-1 particles that lacked the structurally conserved globular head of MA efficiently infected macrophages, indicating that MA is dispensable for nuclear import in terminally differentiated cells.

  14. Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 2 (HIV-2) Gag Is Trafficked in an AP-3 and AP-5 Dependent Manner

    PubMed Central

    Alford, Justine E.; Marongiu, Michela; Watkins, Gemma L.

    2016-01-01

    Although human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) types 1 and 2 are closely related lentiviruses with similar replication cycles, HIV-2 infection is associated with slower progression to AIDS, a higher proportion of long term non-progressors, and lower rates of transmission than HIV-1, likely as a consequence of a lower viral load during HIV-2 infection. A mechanistic explanation for the differential viral load remains unclear but knowledge of differences in particle production between HIV-1 and HIV-2 may help to shed light on this issue. In contrast to HIV-1, little is known about the assembly of HIV-2 particles, and the trafficking of HIV-2 Gag, the structural component of the virus, within cells. We have established that HIV-2 Gag accumulates in intracellular CD63 positive compartments, from which it may be delivered or recycled to the cell surface, or degraded. HIV-2 particle release was dependent on the adaptor protein complex AP-3 and the newly identified AP-5 complex, but much less so on AP-1. In contrast, HIV-1 particle release required AP-1 and AP-3, but not AP-5. AP-2, an essential component of clathrin-mediated endocytosis, which was previously shown to be inhibitory to HIV-1 particle release, had no effect on HIV-2. The differential requirement for adaptor protein complexes confirmed that HIV-1 and HIV-2 Gag have distinct cellular trafficking pathways, and that HIV-2 particles may be more susceptible to degradation prior to release. PMID:27392064

  15. Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 2 (HIV-2) Gag Is Trafficked in an AP-3 and AP-5 Dependent Manner.

    PubMed

    Alford, Justine E; Marongiu, Michela; Watkins, Gemma L; Anderson, Emma C

    2016-01-01

    Although human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) types 1 and 2 are closely related lentiviruses with similar replication cycles, HIV-2 infection is associated with slower progression to AIDS, a higher proportion of long term non-progressors, and lower rates of transmission than HIV-1, likely as a consequence of a lower viral load during HIV-2 infection. A mechanistic explanation for the differential viral load remains unclear but knowledge of differences in particle production between HIV-1 and HIV-2 may help to shed light on this issue. In contrast to HIV-1, little is known about the assembly of HIV-2 particles, and the trafficking of HIV-2 Gag, the structural component of the virus, within cells. We have established that HIV-2 Gag accumulates in intracellular CD63 positive compartments, from which it may be delivered or recycled to the cell surface, or degraded. HIV-2 particle release was dependent on the adaptor protein complex AP-3 and the newly identified AP-5 complex, but much less so on AP-1. In contrast, HIV-1 particle release required AP-1 and AP-3, but not AP-5. AP-2, an essential component of clathrin-mediated endocytosis, which was previously shown to be inhibitory to HIV-1 particle release, had no effect on HIV-2. The differential requirement for adaptor protein complexes confirmed that HIV-1 and HIV-2 Gag have distinct cellular trafficking pathways, and that HIV-2 particles may be more susceptible to degradation prior to release.

  16. Manipulating CD4+ T cells by optical tweezers for the initiation of cell-cell transfer of HIV-1

    PubMed Central

    McNerney, Gregory P.; Hübner, Wolfgang; Chen, Benjamin K.; Huser, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Cell-cell interactions through direct contact are very important for cellular communication and coordination – especially for immune cells. The human immunodeficiency virus type I (HIV-1) induces immune cell interactions between CD4+ cells to shuttle between T cells via a virological synapse. A goal to understand the process of cell-cell transmission through virological synapses is to determine the cellular states that allow a chance encounter between cells to become a stable cell-cell adhesion. Here we demonstrate the use of optical tweezers to manipulate uninfected primary CD4+ T cells near HIV Gag-iGFP transfected Jurkat T cells to probe the determinants that induce stable adhesion. When combined with fast 4D confocal fluorescence microscopy, optical tweezers can be utilized to not only facilitate cell-cell contact, but to also allow one to simultaneously track the formation of a virological synapse, and ultimately to enable us to precisely determine all events preceding virus transfer. HIV-1 infected T cell (green) decorated with uninfected primary T cells (red) by manipulating the primary cells with an optical tweezers system PMID:20301121

  17. HIV-1 Adaptation to Antigen Processing Results in Population-Level Immune Evasion and Affects Subtype Diversification

    PubMed Central

    Tenzer, Stefan; Crawford, Hayley; Pymm, Phillip; Gifford, Robert; Sreenu, Vattipally B.; Weimershaus, Mirjana; de Oliveira, Tulio; Burgevin, Anne; Gerstoft, Jan; Akkad, Nadja; Lunn, Daniel; Fugger, Lars; Bell, John; Schild, Hansjörg; van Endert, Peter; Iversen, Astrid K.N.

    2014-01-01

    Summary The recent HIV-1 vaccine failures highlight the need to better understand virus-host interactions. One key question is why CD8+ T cell responses to two HIV-Gag regions are uniquely associated with delayed disease progression only in patients expressing a few rare HLA class I variants when these regions encode epitopes presented by ∼30 more common HLA variants. By combining epitope processing and computational analyses of the two HIV subtypes responsible for ∼60% of worldwide infections, we identified a hitherto unrecognized adaptation to the antigen-processing machinery through substitutions at subtype-specific motifs. Multiple HLA variants presenting epitopes situated next to a given subtype-specific motif drive selection at this subtype-specific position, and epitope abundances correlate inversely with the HLA frequency distribution in affected populations. This adaptation reflects the sum of intrapatient adaptations, is predictable, facilitates viral subtype diversification, and increases global HIV diversity. Because low epitope abundance is associated with infrequent and weak T cell responses, this most likely results in both population-level immune evasion and inadequate responses in most people vaccinated with natural HIV-1 sequence constructs. Our results suggest that artificial sequence modifications at subtype-specific positions in vitro could refocus and reverse the poor immunogenicity of HIV proteins. PMID:24726370

  18. Tsg101 and the vacuolar protein sorting pathway are essential for HIV-1 budding.

    PubMed

    Garrus, J E; von Schwedler, U K; Pornillos, O W; Morham, S G; Zavitz, K H; Wang, H E; Wettstein, D A; Stray, K M; Côté, M; Rich, R L; Myszka, D G; Sundquist, W I

    2001-10-05

    Like other enveloped viruses, HIV-1 uses cellular machinery to bud from infected cells. We now show that Tsg101 protein, which functions in vacuolar protein sorting (Vps), is required for HIV-1 budding. The UEV domain of Tsg101 binds to an essential tetrapeptide (PTAP) motif within the p6 domain of the structural Gag protein and also to ubiquitin. Depletion of cellular Tsg101 by small interfering RNA arrests HIV-1 budding at a late stage, and budding is rescued by reintroduction of Tsg101. Dominant negative mutant Vps4 proteins that inhibit vacuolar protein sorting also arrest HIV-1 and MLV budding. These observations suggest that retroviruses bud by appropriating cellular machinery normally used in the Vps pathway to form multivesicular bodies.

  19. HERV-K–specific T cells eliminate diverse HIV-1/2 and SIV primary isolates

    PubMed Central

    Jones, R. Brad; Garrison, Keith E.; Mujib, Shariq; Mihajlovic, Vesna; Aidarus, Nasra; Hunter, Diana V.; Martin, Eric; John, Vivek M.; Zhan, Wei; Faruk, Nabil F.; Gyenes, Gabor; Sheppard, Neil C.; Priumboom-Brees, Ingrid M.; Goodwin, David A.; Chen, Lianchun; Rieger, Melanie; Muscat-King, Sophie; Loudon, Peter T.; Stanley, Cole; Holditch, Sara J.; Wong, Jessica C.; Clayton, Kiera; Duan, Erick; Song, Haihan; Xu, Yang; SenGupta, Devi; Tandon, Ravi; Sacha, Jonah B.; Brockman, Mark A.; Benko, Erika; Kovacs, Colin; Nixon, Douglas F.; Ostrowski, Mario A.

    2012-01-01

    The genetic diversity of HIV-1 represents a major challenge in vaccine development. In this study, we establish a rationale for eliminating HIV-1–infected cells by targeting cellular immune responses against stable human endogenous retroviral (HERV) antigens. HERV DNA sequences in the human genome represent the remnants of ancient infectious retroviruses. We show that the infection of CD4+ T cells with HIV-1 resulted in transcription of the HML-2 lineage of HERV type K [HERV-K(HML-2)] and the expression of Gag and Env proteins. HERV-K(HML-2)–specific CD8+ T cells obtained from HIV-1–infected human subjects responded to HIV-1–infected cells in a Vif-dependent manner in vitro. Consistent with the proposed mode of action, a HERV-K(HML-2)–specific CD8+ T cell clone exhibited comprehensive elimination of cells infected with a panel of globally diverse HIV-1, HIV-2, and SIV isolates in vitro. We identified a second T cell response that exhibited cross-reactivity between homologous HIV-1-Pol and HERV-K(HML-2)-Pol determinants, raising the possibility that homology between HIV-1 and HERVs plays a role in shaping, and perhaps enhancing, the T cell response to HIV-1. This justifies the consideration of HERV-K(HML-2)–specific and cross-reactive T cell responses in the natural control of HIV-1 infection and for exploring HERV-K(HML-2)–targeted HIV-1 vaccines and immunotherapeutics. PMID:23143309

  20. Nef Binds p6* in GagPol during Replication of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1

    PubMed Central

    Costa, Luciana J.; Zheng, Yong-Hui; Sabotic, Jerica; Mak, Johnson; Fackler, Oliver T.; Peterlin, B. Matija

    2004-01-01

    The atypical Nef protein (NefF12) from human immunodeficiency virus type 1 strain F12 (HIV-1F12) interferes with virion production and infectivity via a mysterious mechanism. The correlation of these effects with the unusual perinuclear subcellular localization of NefF12 suggested that the wild-type Nef protein could bind to assembly intermediates in late stages of viral replication. To test this hypothesis, Nef from HIV-1NL4-3 was fused to an endoplasmic reticulum (ER) retention signal (NefKKXX). This mutant NefKKXX protein recapitulated fully the effects of NefF12 on Gag processing and virion production, either alone or as a CD8 fusion protein. Importantly, the mutant NefKKXX protein also localized to the intermediate compartment, between the ER and the trans-Golgi network. Furthermore, Nef bound the GagPol polyprotein in vitro and in vivo. This binding mapped to the C-terminal flexible loop in Nef and the transframe p6* protein in GagPol. The significance of this interaction was demonstrated by a genetic assay in which the release of a mutant HIV-1 provirus lacking the PTAP motif in the late domain that no longer binds Tsg101 was rescued by a Nef.Tsg101 chimera. Importantly, this rescue as well as incorporation of Nef into HIV-1 virions correlated with the ability of Nef to interact with GagPol. Our data demonstrate that the retention of Nef in the intermediate compartment interferes with viral replication and suggest a new role for Nef in the production of HIV-1. PMID:15137387

  1. In vitro selection of RNAs that bind to the human immunodeficiency virus type-1 gag polyprotein.

    PubMed Central

    Lochrie, M A; Waugh, S; Pratt, D G; Clever, J; Parslow, T G; Polisky, B

    1997-01-01

    RNA ligands that bind to the human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) gag polyprotein with 10(-9) M affinity were isolated from a complex pool of RNAs using an in vitro selection method. The ligands bind to two different regions within gag, either to the matrix protein or to the nucleocapsid protein. Binding of a matrix ligand to gag did not interfere with the binding of a nucleocapsid ligand, and binding of a nucleocapsid ligand to gag did not interfere with the binding of a matrix ligand. However, binding of a nucleocapsid ligand to gag did interfere with binding of an RNA containing the HIV-1 RNA packaging element (psi), even though the sequence of the nucleocapsid ligand is not similar topsi. The minimal sequences required for the ligands to bind to matrix or nucleocapsid were determined. Minimal nucleocapsid ligands are predicted to form a stem-loop structure that has a self-complementary sequence at one end. Minimal matrix ligands are predicted to form a different stem-loop structure that has a CAARU loop sequence. The properties of these RNA ligands may provide tools for studying RNA interactions with matrix and nucleocapsid, and a novel method for inhibiting HIV replication. PMID:9207041

  2. Alkyl Amine Bevirimat Derivatives Are Potent and Broadly Active HIV-1 Maturation Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Urano, Emiko; Ablan, Sherimay D.; Mandt, Rebecca; Pauly, Gary T.; Sigano, Dina M.; Schneider, Joel P.; Martin, David E.; Nitz, Theodore J.; Wild, Carl T.

    2015-01-01

    Concomitant with the release of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) particles from the infected cell, the viral protease cleaves the Gag polyprotein precursor at a number of sites to trigger virus maturation. We previously reported that a betulinic acid-derived compound, bevirimat (BVM), blocks HIV-1 maturation by disrupting a late step in protease-mediated Gag processing: the cleavage of the capsid-spacer peptide 1 (CA-SP1) intermediate to mature CA. BVM was shown in multiple clinical trials to be safe and effective in reducing viral loads in HIV-1-infected patients. However, naturally occurring polymorphisms in the SP1 region of Gag (e.g., SP1-V7A) led to a variable response in some BVM-treated patients. The reduced susceptibility of SP1-polymorphic HIV-1 to BVM resulted in the discontinuation of its clinical development. To overcome the loss of BVM activity induced by polymorphisms in SP1, we carried out an extensive medicinal chemistry campaign to develop novel maturation inhibitors. In this study, we focused on alkyl amine derivatives modified at the C-28 position of the BVM scaffold. We identified a set of derivatives that are markedly more potent than BVM against an HIV-1 clade B clone (NL4-3) and show robust antiviral activity against a variant of NL4-3 containing the V7A polymorphism in SP1. One of the most potent of these compounds also strongly inhibited a multiclade panel of primary HIV-1 isolates. These data demonstrate that C-28 alkyl amine derivatives of BVM can, to a large extent, overcome the loss of susceptibility imposed by polymorphisms in SP1. PMID:26482309

  3. HIV-1 subtypes in Yugoslavia.

    PubMed

    Stanojevic, Maja; Papa, Anna; Papadimitriou, Evagelia; Zerjav, Sonja; Jevtovic, Djordje; Salemovic, Dubravka; Jovanovic, Tanja; Antoniadis, Antonis

    2002-05-01

    To gain insight concerning the genetic diversity of HIV-1 viruses associated with the HIV-1 epidemic in Yugoslavia, 45 specimens from HIV-1-infected individuals were classified into subtypes by sequence-based phylogenetic analysis of the polymerase (pol) region of the viral genome. Forty-one of 45 specimens (91.2%) were identified as pol subtype B, 2 of 45 as subtype C (4.4%), 1 of 45 as CRF01_AE (2.2%), and 1 as CRF02_AG recombinant (2.2%). Nucleotide divergence among subtype B sequences was 4.8%. Results of this study show that among HIV-1-infected patients in Yugoslavia subtype B predominates (91.5%), whereas non-B subtypes are present at a low percentage, mostly related to travel abroad.

  4. A leucine triplet repeat sequence (LXX)4 in p6gag is important for Vpr incorporation into human immunodeficiency virus type 1 particles.

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Y L; Bennett, R P; Wills, J W; Gorelick, R; Ratner, L

    1995-01-01

    Incorporation of Vpr into human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) virions is mediated by the Gag protein, independently of other viral components. We have coexpressed Vpr and Gag constructs in a vaccinia virus expression system in order to map the region of Gag involved in Vpr packaging. Deletion of the carboxyl-terminal p6 region of Gag impaired the ability of Gag to package Vpr. To confirm the role of p6 in Vpr packaging, Rous sarcoma virus (RSV)-HIV chimeras containing HIV-1 p6 were constructed. Although RSV Gag does not package Vpr into virus particles, a chimera containing HIV-1 p6 is sufficient for Vpr incorporation. To map the region of p6 involved in Vpr packaging, a series of p6 point mutations and deletion mutations was analyzed. Mutations in the N-terminal p6 proline-rich domain, for which preliminary evidence shows a marked decrease in virion incorporated RNA, did not affect Vpr incorporation. Deletion of residues 1 to 31 of HIV-1 p6 did not affect Vpr packaging, but residues 35 to 47, including an (LXX)4 domain, were required for Vpr incorporation into virus particles. PMID:7474102

  5. Nuclear entry and CRM1-dependent nuclear export of the Rous sarcoma virus Gag polyprotein

    PubMed Central

    Scheifele, Lisa Z.; Garbitt, Rachel A.; Rhoads, Jonathan D.; Parent, Leslie J.

    2002-01-01

    The retroviral Gag polyprotein directs budding from the plasma membrane of infected cells. Until now, it was believed that Gag proteins of type C retroviruses, including the prototypic oncoretrovirus Rous sarcoma virus, were synthesized on cytosolic ribosomes and targeted directly to the plasma membrane. Here we reveal a previously unknown step in the subcellular trafficking of the Gag protein, that of transient nuclear localization. We have identified a targeting signal within the N-terminal matrix domain that facilitates active nuclear import of the Gag polyprotein. We also found that Gag is transported out of the nucleus through the CRM1 nuclear export pathway, based on observations that treatment of virus-expressing cells with leptomycin B resulted in the redistribution of Gag proteins from the cytoplasm to the nucleus. Internal deletion of the C-terminal portion of the Gag p10 region resulted in the nuclear sequestration of Gag and markedly diminished budding, suggesting that the nuclear export signal might reside within p10. Finally, we observed that a previously described matrix mutant, Myr1E, was insensitive to the effects of leptomycin B, apparently bypassing the nuclear compartment during virus assembly. Myr1E has a defect in genomic RNA packaging, implying that nuclear localization of Gag might be involved in viral RNA interactions. Taken together, these findings provide evidence that nuclear entry and egress of the Gag polyprotein are intrinsic components of the Rous sarcoma virus assembly pathway. PMID:11891341

  6. Biochemical evidence of a role for matrix trimerization in HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein incorporation

    PubMed Central

    Novikova, Mariia; Ablan, Sherimay D.; Freed, Eric O.

    2016-01-01

    The matrix (MA) domain of HIV Gag has important functions in directing the trafficking of Gag to sites of assembly and mediating the incorporation of the envelope glycoprotein (Env) into assembling particles. HIV-1 MA has been shown to form trimers in vitro; however, neither the presence nor the role of MA trimers has been documented in HIV-1 virions. We developed a cross-linking strategy to reveal MA trimers in virions of replication-competent HIV-1. By mutagenesis of trimer interface residues, we demonstrated a correlation between loss of MA trimerization and loss of Env incorporation. Additionally, we found that truncating the long cytoplasmic tail of Env restores incorporation of Env into MA trimer-defective particles, thus rescuing infectivity. We therefore propose a model whereby MA trimerization is required to form a lattice capable of accommodating the long cytoplasmic tail of HIV-1 Env; in the absence of MA trimerization, Env is sterically excluded from the assembling particle. These findings establish MA trimerization as an obligatory step in the assembly of infectious HIV-1 virions. As such, the MA trimer interface may represent a novel drug target for the development of antiretrovirals. PMID:26711999

  7. APOBEC3G ubiquitination by Nedd4-1 favors its packaging into HIV-1 particles.

    PubMed

    Dussart, Sylvie; Douaisi, Marc; Courcoul, Marianne; Bessou, Gilles; Vigne, Robert; Decroly, Etienne

    2005-01-21

    APOBEC3G is a cytidine deaminase that limits the replication of many retroviruses. This antiviral host factor is packaged into retrovirus particles, where it targets single-stranded DNA generated during reverse transcription and induces up to 2% of G-to-A mutations, which are lethal for the HIV-1 provirus. Vif protein counteracts this antiviral factor by decreasing its packaging into lentivirus particles. Here, we demonstrate that Nedd4-1, an HECT E3 ubiquitin ligase, interacts with APOBEC3G, through its WW2 and WW3 domains. As a result of this interaction, APOBEC3G undergoes post-translational modification by addition of ubiquitin moieties. Accordingly, we demonstrate that the dominant negative Nedd4-1 C/S form prevents APOBEC3G ubiquitination. Moreover, the packaging of APOBEC3G into Pr55 Gag virus-like particles and into HIV-1 virions is reduced when Nedd4-1 C/S is expressed. During HIV-1 viral production in the presence of APOBEC3G, Nedd4-1 C/S restores partially the infectivity of Deltavif HIV-1. We conclude that the ubiquitination of APOBEC3G by Nedd4-1 favors its targeting to the virus assembly site where APOBEC3G interacts with Gag and is packaged into HIV-1 particles in the absence of Vif.

  8. Structural and Functional Analysis of HIV-1 Coreceptors: Roles of Charged Residues and Posttranslational Modifications on Coreceptor Activity

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-01-01

    mature gag proteins. A host-derived lipid bilayer surrounds the icosahedral capsid. At each of the 72 capsid vertices (121) is a protruding oligomeric...envelope glycoprotein structure (Env) consisting of two noncovalently linked proteins, gp41, the transmembrane protein which is anchored in the lipid ...derivatives, proteins, nucleosides, lipids , phospholipids, multistructural odorants, or retinol. All of the discovered HIV-1 coreceptors except

  9. Implementation of a multiregion hybridization assay to characterize HIV-1 strains detected among injecting drug users in Manipur, India.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, Roni; Sengupta, Satarupa; Mullick, Ranajoy; Singh, N Brajachand; Sarkar, Kamalesh; Chakrabarti, Sekhar

    2009-01-01

    We have implemented the latest technology of a multiregion hybridization assay (MHAbce, version 2) for the molecular characterization of HIV-1 among injecting drug users (IDUs) of Manipur, India. This study provides a more detailed analysis on the basis of probes designed from eight different genomic regions of HIV-1, to achieve a clear picture of HIV-1 genomic diversity in Manipur. Out of 30 samples, 15 were found to be of subtype C, 1 of subtype B, 5 with dual-probe reactivity, 8 with multigenomic recombination pattern and 1 sample showed both dual-probe reactivity and multigenomic variations. In contrast, the heteroduplex mobility assay (HMA) with respect to gag and env genes revealed 21 samples to be of subtype C (gag C/env C), 3 samples of subtype B (gag B/env B) and 6 samples of B/C recombinants (gag C/env B). MHAbce illustrates the occurrence of inter- and intragenomic variants and dual infection in an IDU population from India. It also indicates the possibility of the presence of new circulating recombinant forms of HIV-1 strains, which might have been difficult to trace by HMA alone.

  10. TCR clonotypes modulate the protective effect of HLA class I molecules in HIV-1 infection.

    PubMed

    Chen, Huabiao; Ndhlovu, Zaza M; Liu, Dongfang; Porter, Lindsay C; Fang, Justin W; Darko, Sam; Brockman, Mark A; Miura, Toshiyuki; Brumme, Zabrina L; Schneidewind, Arne; Piechocka-Trocha, Alicja; Cesa, Kevin T; Sela, Jennifer; Cung, Thai D; Toth, Ildiko; Pereyra, Florencia; Yu, Xu G; Douek, Daniel C; Kaufmann, Daniel E; Allen, Todd M; Walker, Bruce D

    2012-06-10

    The human leukocyte antigens HLA-B27 and HLA-B57 are associated with protection against progression of disease that results from infection with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), yet most people with alleles encoding HLA-B27 and HLA-B57 are unable to control HIV-1. Here we found that HLA-B27-restricted CD8(+) T cells in people able to control infection with HIV-1 (controllers) and those who progress to disease after infection with HIV-1 (progressors) differed in their ability to inhibit viral replication through targeting of the immunodominant epitope of group-associated antigen (Gag) of HIV-1. This was associated with distinct T cell antigen receptor (TCR) clonotypes, characterized by superior control of HIV-1 replication in vitro, greater cross-reactivity to epitope variants and enhanced loading and delivery of perforin. We also observed clonotype-specific differences in antiviral efficacy for an immunodominant HLA-B57-restricted response in controllers and progressors. Thus, the efficacy of such so-called 'protective alleles' is modulated by specific TCR clonotypes selected during natural infection, which provides a functional explanation for divergent HIV-1 outcomes.

  11. Broad and potent immune responses to a low dose intradermal HIV-1 DNA boosted with HIV-1 recombinant MVA among healthy adults in Tanzania☆,☆☆

    PubMed Central

    Bakari, Muhammad; Aboud, Said; Nilsson, Charlotta; Francis, Joel; Buma, Deus; Moshiro, Candida; Aris, Eric A.; Lyamuya, Eligius F.; Janabi, Mohamed; Godoy-Ramirez, Karina; Joachim, Agricola; Polonis, Victoria R.; Bråve, Andreas; Earl, Patricia; Robb, Merlin; Marovich, Mary; Wahren, Britta; Pallangyo, Kisali; Biberfeld, Gunnel; Mhalu, Fred; Sandström, Eric

    2016-01-01

    Background We conducted a phase I/II randomized placebo-controlled trial with the aim of exploring whether priming with a low intradermal dose of a multiclade, multigene HIV-1 DNA vaccine could improve the immunogenicity of the same vaccine given intramuscularly prior to boosting with a heterologous HIV-1 MVA among healthy adults in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Methods Sixty HIV-uninfected volunteers were randomized to receive DNA plasmid vaccine 1 mg intradermally (id), n = 20, or 3.8 mg intramuscularly (im), n = 20, or placebo, n = 20, using a needle-free injection device. DNA plasmids encoding HIV-1 genes gp160 subtype A, B, C; rev B; p17/p24 gag A, B and Rtmut B were given at weeks 0, 4 and 12. Recombinant MVA (108 pfu) expressing HIV-1 Env, Gag, Pol of CRF01_AE or placebo was administered im at month 9 and 21. Results The vaccines were well tolerated. Two weeks after the third HIV-DNA injection, 22/38 (58%) vaccinees had IFN-γ ELISpot responses to Gag. Two weeks after the first HIV-MVA boost all 35 (100%) vaccinees responded to Gag and 31 (89%) to Env. Two to four weeks after the second HIV-MVA boost, 28/29 (97%) vaccinees had IFN-γ ELISpot responses, 27 (93%) to Gag and 23 (79%) to Env. The id-primed recipients had significantly higher responses to Env than im recipients. Intracellular cytokine staining for Gag-specific IFN-γ/IL-2 production showed both CD8+ and CD4+ T cell responses. All vaccinees had HIV-specific lymphoproliferative responses. All vaccinees reacted in diagnostic HIV serological tests and 26/29 (90%) had antibodies against gp160 after the second HIV-MVA boost. Furthermore, while all of 29 vaccinee sera were negative for neutralizing antibodies against clade B, C and CRF01 AE pseudoviruses in the TZM-bl neutralization assay, in a PBMC assay, the response rate ranged from 31% to 83% positives, depending upon the clade B or CRF01_AE virus tested. This vaccine approach is safe and highly immunogenic. Low dose, id HIV-DNA priming elicited higher

  12. HIV-1 DNA predicts disease progression and post-treatment virological control.

    PubMed

    Williams, James P; Hurst, Jacob; Stöhr, Wolfgang; Robinson, Nicola; Brown, Helen; Fisher, Martin; Kinloch, Sabine; Cooper, David; Schechter, Mauro; Tambussi, Giuseppe; Fidler, Sarah; Carrington, Mary; Babiker, Abdel; Weber, Jonathan; Koelsch, Kersten K; Kelleher, Anthony D; Phillips, Rodney E; Frater, John

    2014-09-12

    In HIV-1 infection, a population of latently infected cells facilitates viral persistence despite antiretroviral therapy (ART). With the aim of identifying individuals in whom ART might induce a period of viraemic control on stopping therapy, we hypothesised that quantification of the pool of latently infected cells in primary HIV-1 infection (PHI) would predict clinical progression and viral replication following ART. We measured HIV-1 DNA in a highly characterised randomised population of individuals with PHI. We explored associations between HIV-1 DNA and immunological and virological markers of clinical progression, including viral rebound in those interrupting therapy. In multivariable analyses, HIV-1 DNA was more predictive of disease progression than plasma viral load and, at treatment interruption, predicted time to plasma virus rebound. HIV-1 DNA may help identify individuals who could safely interrupt ART in future HIV-1 eradication trials.

  13. Expression of HIV-1 matrix protein p17 and association with B-cell lymphoma in HIV-1 transgenic mice

    PubMed Central

    Carroll, Virginia A.; Lafferty, Mark K.; Marchionni, Luigi; Bryant, Joseph L.; Gallo, Robert C.

    2016-01-01

    HIV-1 infection is associated with increased risk for B-cell lymphomas. How HIV infection promotes the development of lymphoma is unclear, but it may involve chronic B-cell activation, inflammation, and/or impaired immunity, possibly leading to a loss of control of oncogenic viruses and reduced tumor immunosurveillance. We hypothesized that HIV structural proteins may contribute to lymphomagenesis directly, because they can persist long term in lymph nodes in the absence of viral replication. The HIV-1 transgenic mouse Tg26 carries a noninfectious HIV-1 provirus lacking part of the gag-pol region, thus constituting a model for studying the effects of viral products in pathogenesis. Approximately 15% of Tg26 mice spontaneously develop leukemia/lymphoma. We investigated which viral proteins are associated with the development of leukemia/lymphoma in the Tg26 mouse model, and performed microarray analysis on RNA from spleen and lymph nodes to identify potential mechanisms of lymphomagenesis. Of the viral proteins examined, only expression of HIV-1 matrix protein p17 was associated with leukemia/lymphoma development and was highly expressed in bone marrow before disease. The tumor cells resembled pro-B cells, and were CD19+IgM−IgD−CD93+CD43+CD21−CD23−VpreB+CXCR4+. Consistent with the pro-B-cell stage of B-cell development, microarray analysis revealed enrichment of transcripts, including Rag1, Rag2, CD93, Vpreb1, Vpreb3, and Igll1. We confirmed RAG1 expression in Tg26 tumors, and hypothesized that HIV-1 matrix protein p17 may directly induce RAG1 in B cells. Stimulation of human activated B cells with p17 enhanced RAG1 expression in three of seven donors, suggesting that intracellular signaling by p17 may lead to genomic instability and transformation. PMID:27799525

  14. Multiple T-cell responses are associated with better control of acute HIV-1 infection

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Jianping; Zhao, Yan; Peng, Yanchun; Han, Zhen; Liu, Guihai; Qin, Ling; Liu, Sai; Sun, Huanhuan; Wu, Hao; Dong, Tao; Zhang, Yonghong

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) responses play pivotal roles in controlling the replication of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), but the correlation between CTL responses and the progression of HIV-1 infection are controversial on account of HIV immune escape mutations driven by CTL pressure were reported. The acute HIV-1-infected patients from Beijing were incorporated into our study to investigate the effects of CTL response on the progression of HIV-1 infection. A longitudinal study was performed on acute HIV-1-infected patients to clarify the kinetic of T-cell responses, the dynamic of escape mutations, as well as the correlation between effective T-cell response and the progression of HIV infection. Seven human leukocyte antigen-B51+ (HLA-B51+) individuals were screened from 105 acute HIV-1 infectors. The detailed kinetic of HLA-B51-restricted CTL responses was described through blood sampling time points including seroconversion, 3 and 6 months after HIV-1 infection in the 7 HLA-B51+ individuals, by using 16 known HLA-B51 restricted epitopes. Pol743–751 (LPPVVAKEI, LI9), Pol283–289 (TAFTIPSI, TI8), and Gag327–3459 (NANPDCKTI, NI9) were identified as 3 dominant epitopes, and ranked as starting with LI9, followed by TI8 and NI9 in the ability to induce T-cell responses. The dynamics of escape mutations in the 3 epitopes were also found with the same order as T-cell response, by using sequencing for viral clones on blood sampling at seroconversion, 3 and 6 months after HIV-1 infection. We use solid evidence to demonstrate the correlation between T-cell response and HIV-1 mutation, and postulate that multiple T-cell responses might benefit the control of HIV-1 infection, especially in acute infection phase. PMID:27472741

  15. Drug-Based Lead Discovery: The Novel Ablative Antiretroviral Profile of Deferiprone in HIV-1-Infected Cells and in HIV-Infected Treatment-Naive Subjects of a Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Randomized Exploratory Trial

    PubMed Central

    Saxena, Deepti; Spino, Michael; Tricta, Fernando; Connelly, John; Cracchiolo, Bernadette M.; Hanauske, Axel-Rainer; D’Alliessi Gandolfi, Darlene; Mathews, Michael B.; Karn, Jonathan; Holland, Bart; Park, Myung Hee; Pe’ery, Tsafi; Palumbo, Paul E.; Hanauske-Abel, Hartmut M.

    2016-01-01

    cluster (‘polyproline’)-containing proteins, exemplified by Gag/p24, and facilitated by the excess of deoxyhypusine-containing eIF5A, releases the innate apoptotic defense of HIV-infected cells from viral blockade, thus depleting the cellular reservoir of HIV-1 DNA that drives breakthrough and rebound. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrial.gov NCT02191657 PMID:27191165

  16. Drug-Based Lead Discovery: The Novel Ablative Antiretroviral Profile of Deferiprone in HIV-1-Infected Cells and in HIV-Infected Treatment-Naive Subjects of a Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Randomized Exploratory Trial.

    PubMed

    Saxena, Deepti; Spino, Michael; Tricta, Fernando; Connelly, John; Cracchiolo, Bernadette M; Hanauske, Axel-Rainer; D'Alliessi Gandolfi, Darlene; Mathews, Michael B; Karn, Jonathan; Holland, Bart; Park, Myung Hee; Pe'ery, Tsafi; Palumbo, Paul E; Hanauske-Abel, Hartmut M

    2016-01-01

    cluster ('polyproline')-containing proteins, exemplified by Gag/p24, and facilitated by the excess of deoxyhypusine-containing eIF5A, releases the innate apoptotic defense of HIV-infected cells from viral blockade, thus depleting the cellular reservoir of HIV-1 DNA that drives breakthrough and rebound. ClinicalTrial.gov NCT02191657.

  17. Structure of the immature HIV-1 capsid in intact virus particles at 8.8 Å resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schur, Florian K. M.; Hagen, Wim J. H.; Rumlová, Michaela; Ruml, Tomáš; Müller, Barbara; Kräusslich, Hans-Georg; Briggs, John A. G.

    2015-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) assembly proceeds in two stages. First, the 55 kilodalton viral Gag polyprotein assembles into a hexameric protein lattice at the plasma membrane of the infected cell, inducing budding and release of an immature particle. Second, Gag is cleaved by the viral protease, leading to internal rearrangement of the virus into the mature, infectious form. Immature and mature HIV-1 particles are heterogeneous in size and morphology, preventing high-resolution analysis of their protein arrangement in situ by conventional structural biology methods. Here we apply cryo-electron tomography and sub-tomogram averaging methods to resolve the structure of the capsid lattice within intact immature HIV-1 particles at subnanometre resolution, allowing unambiguous positioning of all α-helices. The resulting model reveals tertiary and quaternary structural interactions that mediate HIV-1 assembly. Strikingly, these interactions differ from those predicted by the current model based on in vitro-assembled arrays of Gag-derived proteins from Mason-Pfizer monkey virus. To validate this difference, we solve the structure of the capsid lattice within intact immature Mason-Pfizer monkey virus particles. Comparison with the immature HIV-1 structure reveals that retroviral capsid proteins, while having conserved tertiary structures, adopt different quaternary arrangements during virus assembly. The approach demonstrated here should be applicable to determine structures of other proteins at subnanometre resolution within heterogeneous environments.

  18. Productive HIV-1 Infection of Human Cervical Tissue Ex Vivo is Associated with the Secretory Phase of the Menstrual Cycle

    PubMed Central

    Saba, Elisa; Origoni, Massimo; Taccagni, Gianluca; Ferrari, Davide; Doglioni, Claudio; Nava, Alice; Lisco, Andrea; Grivel, Jean-Charles; Margolis, Leonid; Poli, Guido

    2013-01-01

    Cervical tissue explants (CTE) from 22 HIV-1 seronegative women were exposed to R5 HIV-1 ex vivo. Eight CTE were productively infected in terms of HIV-1 p24Gag release in culture supernatants whereas 14 were not. Nonetheless, both accumulation of HIV-1gag DNA and of p24Gag+ CD4+ T cells and macrophages occurred in both productive and, at lower levels, in nonproductive CTE. Nonproductive CTE differed from productive CTE for higher secretion of CCL3 and CCL5. A post-hoc analysis revealed that all productive CTE were established from women in their secretory phase of the menstrual cycle, whereas nonproductive CTE derived from women either in their secretory (28%) or proliferative (36%) menstrual cycle phases or with an atrophic endometrium (36%). Thus, our results support the epidemiological observation that sexual HIV-1 transmission from males to women as well as from women to men is more efficient during their secretory phase of the menstrual cycle. PMID:23385427

  19. Ectopic expression of anti-HIV-1 shRNAs protects CD8(+) T cells modified with CD4ζ CAR from HIV-1 infection and alleviates impairment of cell proliferation.

    PubMed

    Kamata, Masakazu; Kim, Patrick Y; Ng, Hwee L; Ringpis, Gene-Errol E; Kranz, Emiko; Chan, Joshua; O'Connor, Sean; Yang, Otto O; Chen, Irvin S Y

    2015-07-31

    Chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) are artificially engineered receptors that confer a desired specificity to immune effector T cells. As an HIV-1-specific CAR, CD4ζ CAR has been extensively tested in vitro as well as in clinical trials. T cells modified with this CAR mediated highly potent anti-HIV-1 activities in vitro and were well-tolerated in vivo, but exerted limited effects on viral load and reservoir size due to poor survival and/or functionality of the transduced cells in patients. We hypothesize that ectopic expression of CD4ζ on CD8(+) T cells renders them susceptible to HIV-1 infection, resulting in poor survival of those cells. To test this possibility, highly purified CD8(+) T cells were genetically modified with a CD4ζ-encoding lentiviral vector and infected with HIV-1. CD8(+) T cells were vulnerable to HIV-1 infection upon expression of CD4ζ as evidenced by elevated levels of p24(Gag) in cells and culture supernatants. Concurrently, the number of CD4ζ-modified CD8(+) T cells was reduced relative to control cells upon HIV-1 infection. To protect these cells from HIV-1 infection, we co-expressed two anti-HIV-1 shRNAs previously developed by our group together with CD4ζ. This combination vector was able to suppress HIV-1 infection without impairing HIV-1-dependent effector activities of CD4ζ. In addition, the number of CD4ζ-modified CD8(+) T cells maintained similar levels to that of the control even under HIV-1 infection. These results suggest that protecting CD4ζ-modified CD8(+) T cells from HIV-1 infection is required for prolonged HIV-1-specific immune surveillance.

  20. Low incidence of HIV-1 superinfection even after episodes of unsafe sexual behavior of homosexual men in the Amsterdam Cohort Studies on HIV Infection and AIDS.

    PubMed

    Rachinger, Andrea; Manyenga, Precious; Burger, Judith A; Derks van de Ven, Tom L P; Stolte, Ineke G; Prins, Maria; van 't Wout, Angélique B; Schuitemaker, Hanneke

    2011-06-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) superinfection is infection of an HIV-1 seropositive individual with another HIV-1 strain. The rate at which HIV-1 superinfection occurs might be influenced by sexual behavior. Superinfection might be detected more often by analyzing longitudinal samples collected from time periods of unsafe sexual behavior. Envelope C2-C4 and gag sequences were generated from HIV-1 RNA from longitudinal serum samples that were obtained around self-reported sexual risk periods from 15 homosexual therapy-naïve men who participated in the Amsterdam Cohort Studies on HIV Infection and AIDS. Maximum likelihood phylogenetic analysis was used to determine whether HIV-1 superinfection had occurred. We studied a total of 124 serum samples from 15 patients with a median of 8 samples and of 5.8 person-years of follow-up per patient. Phylogenetic analysis on 907 C2-C4 env and 672 gag sequences revealed no case of HIV-1 superinfection, resulting in a superinfection incidence rate of 0 per 100 person-years [95%CI: 0 - -4.2]. We conclude that HIV-1 superinfection incidence is low in this subgroup of homosexual men who reported unsafe sexual behavior. Additional studies are required to estimate the impact of also other factors, which may determine the risk to acquire HIV-1 superinfection.

  1. The Life-Cycle of the HIV-1 Gag–RNA Complex

    PubMed Central

    Mailler, Elodie; Bernacchi, Serena; Marquet, Roland; Paillart, Jean-Christophe; Vivet-Boudou, Valérie; Smyth, Redmond P.

    2016-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) replication is a highly regulated process requiring the recruitment of viral and cellular components to the plasma membrane for assembly into infectious particles. This review highlights the recent process of understanding the selection of the genomic RNA (gRNA) by the viral Pr55Gag precursor polyprotein, and the processes leading to its incorporation into viral particles. PMID:27626439

  2. Fullerene Derivatives Strongly Inhibit HIV-1 Replication by Affecting Virus Maturation without Impairing Protease Activity.

    PubMed

    Martinez, Zachary S; Castro, Edison; Seong, Chang-Soo; Cerón, Maira R; Echegoyen, Luis; Llano, Manuel

    2016-10-01

    Three compounds (1, 2, and 3) previously reported to inhibit HIV-1 replication and/or in vitro activity of reverse transcriptase were studied, but only fullerene derivatives 1 and 2 showed strong antiviral activity on the replication of HIV-1 in human CD4(+) T cells. However, these compounds did not inhibit infection by single-round infection vesicular stomatitis virus glycoprotein G (VSV-G)-pseudotyped viruses, indicating no effect on the early steps of the viral life cycle. In contrast, analysis of single-round infection VSV-G-pseudotyped HIV-1 produced in the presence of compound 1 or 2 showed a complete lack of infectivity in human CD4(+) T cells, suggesting that the late stages of the HIV-1 life cycle were affected. Quantification of virion-associated viral RNA and p24 indicates that RNA packaging and viral production were unremarkable in these viruses. However, Gag and Gag-Pol processing was affected, as evidenced by immunoblot analysis with an anti-p24 antibody and the measurement of virion-associated reverse transcriptase activity, ratifying the effect of the fullerene derivatives on virion maturation of the HIV-1 life cycle. Surprisingly, fullerenes 1 and 2 did not inhibit HIV-1 protease in an in vitro assay at the doses that potently blocked viral infectivity, suggesting a protease-independent mechanism of action. Highlighting the potential therapeutic relevance of fullerene derivatives, these compounds block infection by HIV-1 resistant to protease and maturation inhibitors. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  3. PI4P5-kinase Ialpha is required for efficient HIV-1 entry and infection of T cells.

    PubMed

    Barrero-Villar, Marta; Barroso-González, Jonathan; Cabrero, J R; Gordón-Alonso, Mónica; Alvarez-Losada, Susana; Muñoz-Fernández, M A; Sánchez-Madrid, Francisco; Valenzuela-Fernández, Agustín

    2008-11-15

    HIV-1 envelope (Env) triggers membrane fusion between the virus and the target cell. The cellular mechanism underlying this process is not well known. Phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP(2)) is known to be important for the late steps of the HIV-1 infection cycle by promoting Gag localization to the plasma membrane during viral assembly, but it has not been implicated in early stages of HIV-1 membrane-related events. In this study, we show that binding of the initial HIV-1 Env-gp120 protein induces PIP(2) production in permissive lymphocytes through the activation of phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate 5-kinase (PI4P5-K) Ialpha. Overexpression of wild-type PI4P5-K Ialpha increased HIV-1 Env-mediated PIP(2) production and enhanced viral replication in primary lymphocytes and CEM T cells, whereas PIP(2) production and HIV-1 infection were both severely reduced in cells overexpressing the kinase-dead mutant D227A (D/A)-PI4P5-K Ialpha. Similar results were obtained with replicative and single-cycle HIV-1 particles. HIV-1 infection was also inhibited by knockdown of endogenous expression of PI4P5-K Ialpha. These data indicate that PI4P5-K Ialpha-mediated PIP(2) production is crucial for HIV-1 entry and the early steps of infection in permissive lymphocytes.

  4. Enrichment of intersubtype HIV-1 recombinants in a dual infection system using HIV-1 strain-specific siRNAs

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    env regions suggest that other mechanisms are at play. Conclusion These findings show that siRNAs can be used as an efficient in vitro tool for enriching recombinants, to facilitate further study on mechanisms of intersubytpe HIV-1 recombination, and to generate replication-competent intersubtype recombinant proteins with a breadth in HIV-1 diversity for future vaccine studies. PMID:21232148

  5. Caveolin-1 mediated uptake via langerin restricts HIV-1 infection in human Langerhans cells.

    PubMed

    van den Berg, Linda M; Ribeiro, Carla M S; Zijlstra-Willems, Esther M; de Witte, Lot; Fluitsma, Donna; Tigchelaar, Wikky; Everts, Vincent; Geijtenbeek, Teunis B H

    2014-12-31

    Human Langerhans cells (LCs) reside in foreskin and vaginal mucosa and are the first immune cells to interact with HIV-1 during sexual transmission. LCs capture HIV-1 through the C-type lectin receptor langerin, which routes the virus into Birbeck granules (BGs), thereby preventing HIV-1 infection. BGs are langerin-positive organelles exclusively present in LCs, however, their origin and function are unknown. Here, we not only show that langerin and caveolin-1 co-localize at the cell membrane and in vesicles but also that BGs are langerin/caveolin-1-positive vesicles are linked to the lysosomal degradation pathway in LCs. Moreover, inhibition of caveolar endocytosis in primary LCs abrogated HIV-1 sequestering into langerin(+) caveolar structures. Notably, both inhibition of caveolar uptake and silencing of caveolar structure protein caveolin-1 resulted in increased HIV-1 integration and subsequent infection. In contrast, inhibition of clathrin-mediated endocytosis did not affect HIV-1 integration, even though HIV-1 uptake was decreased, suggesting that clathrin-mediated endocytosis is not involved in HIV-1 restriction in LCs. Thus, our data strongly indicate that BGs belong to the caveolar endocytosis pathway and that caveolin-1 mediated HIV-1 uptake is an intrinsic restriction mechanism present in human LCs that prevents HIV-1 infection. Harnessing this particular internalization pathway has the potential to facilitate strategies to combat HIV-1 transmission.

  6. Engineering T Cells to Functionally Cure HIV-1 Infection

    PubMed Central

    Leibman, Rachel S; Riley, James L

    2015-01-01

    Despite the ability of antiretroviral therapy to minimize human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) replication and increase the duration and quality of patients' lives, the health consequences and financial burden associated with the lifelong treatment regimen render a permanent cure highly attractive. Although T cells play an important role in controlling virus replication, they are themselves targets of HIV-mediated destruction. Direct genetic manipulation of T cells for adoptive cellular therapies could facilitate a functional cure by generating HIV-1–resistant cells, redirecting HIV-1–specific immune responses, or a combination of the two strategies. In contrast to a vaccine approach, which relies on the production and priming of HIV-1–specific lymphocytes within a patient's own body, adoptive T-cell therapy provides an opportunity to customize the therapeutic T cells prior to administration. However, at present, it is unclear how to best engineer T cells so that sustained control over HIV-1 replication can be achieved in the absence of antiretrovirals. This review focuses on T-cell gene-engineering and gene-editing strategies that have been performed in efforts to inhibit HIV-1 replication and highlights the requirements for a successful gene therapy–mediated functional cure. PMID:25896251

  7. Temporal and spatial organization of ESCRT protein recruitment during HIV-1 budding.

    PubMed

    Bleck, Marina; Itano, Michelle S; Johnson, Daniel S; Thomas, V Kaye; North, Alison J; Bieniasz, Paul D; Simon, Sanford M

    2014-08-19

    HIV-1 virions assemble at the plasma membrane of mammalian cells and recruit the endosomal sorting complex required for transport (ESCRT) machinery to enable particle release. However, little is known about the temporal and spatial organization of ESCRT protein recruitment. Using multiple-color live-cell total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy, we observed that the ESCRT-I protein Tsg101 is recruited together with Gag to the sites of HIV-1 assembly, whereas later-acting ESCRT proteins (Chmp4b and Vps4A) are recruited sequentially, once Gag assembly is completed. Chmp4b, a protein that is required to mediate particle scission, is recruited to HIV-1 assembly sites ∼10 s before the ATPase Vps4A. Using two-color superresolution imaging, we observed that the ESCRT machinery (Tsg101, Alix, and Chmp4b/c proteins) is positioned at the periphery of the nascent virions, with the Tsg101 assemblages positioned closer to the Gag assemblages than Alix, Chmp4b, or Chmp4c. These results are consistent with the notion that the ESCRT machinery is recruited transiently to the neck of the assembling particle and is thus present at the appropriate time and place to mediate fission between the nascent virus and the plasma membrane.

  8. Authentic HIV-1 integrase inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Chenzhong; Marchand, Christophe; Burke, Terrence R; Pommier, Yves; Nicklaus, Marc C

    2010-01-01

    HIV-1 integrase (IN) is indispensable for HIV-1 replication and has become a validated target for developing anti-AIDS agents. In two decades of development of IN inhibition-based anti-HIV therapeutics, a significant number of compounds were identified as IN inhibitors, but only some of them showed antiviral activity. This article reviews a number of patented HIV-1 IN inhibitors, especially those that possess high selectivity for the strand transfer reaction. These compounds generally have a polar coplanar moiety, which is assumed to chelate two magnesium ions in the binding site. Resistance to those compounds, when given to patients, can develop as a result of IN mutations. We refer to those compounds as authentic IN inhibitors. Continued drug development has so far delivered one authentic IN inhibitor to the market (raltegravir in 2007). Current and future attention will be focused on the development of novel authentic IN inhibitors with the goal of overcoming viral resistance. PMID:21426159

  9. Targeting HIV-1 to Fc gamma R on human phagocytes via bispecific antibodies reduces infectivity of HIV-1 to T cells.

    PubMed

    Howell, A L; Guyre, P M; You, K; Fanger, M W

    1994-03-01

    In addition to CD4, the primary receptor to which the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) binds, mononuclear phagocytes (monocytes) express three classes of Fc receptors for immunoglobulin G (Fc gamma R). We have previously shown that infection of monocytes by HIV-1 is inhibited when bispecific antibodies (BsAbs) are used to target the virus to either the type I, type II, or type III Fc gamma R on these cells. Infection of monocytes was not inhibited when HIV-1 was targeted to either human leukocyte antigen class I or CD33. We have extended these studies to examine the ability of BsAbs plus polymorphonuclear leukocytes (neutrophils, PMNs) and monocytes to reduce infectivity of HIV-1 to cells from the human T cell lymphoma line, H9. The production of HIV-1 following interaction of virus with BsAb and phagocytes was determined in an indicator cell assay by mixing BsAb, HIV-1, and phagocytes with uninfected H9 cells. Productive infection of H9 cells was quantitated on subsequent days by measuring p24 gag antigen levels in supernatants by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Our findings show that the addition of interferon-gamma-activated PMNs or monocytes to cultures of HIV-1 plus H9 cells in the absence of BsAb results in a marked reduction in p24 levels equivalent to 85 to 90% of control levels. With the combination of BsAb (anti-Fc gamma RI x anti-gp120) plus IFN-gamma-activated phagocytes, levels of p24 in H9 cultures were below those at culture initiation. These findings demonstrate that IFN-gamma-activated phagocytes can affect the natural course of HIV-1 infection of T cells, a finding of potential clinical importance.

  10. Protease Cleavage Leads to Formation of Mature Trimer Interface in HIV-1 Capsid

    PubMed Central

    Ke, Danxia; Ning, Jiying; DeLucia, Maria; Ahn, Jinwoo; Gronenborn, Angela M.; Aiken, Christopher; Zhang, Peijun

    2012-01-01

    During retrovirus particle maturation, the assembled Gag polyprotein is cleaved by the viral protease into matrix (MA), capsid (CA), and nucleocapsid (NC) proteins. To form the mature viral capsid, CA rearranges, resulting in a lattice composed of hexameric and pentameric CA units. Recent structural studies of assembled HIV-1 CA revealed several inter-subunit interfaces in the capsid lattice, including a three-fold interhexamer interface that is critical for proper capsid stability. Although a general architecture of immature particles has been provided by cryo-electron tomographic studies, the structural details of the immature particle and the maturation pathway remain unknown. Here, we used cryo-electron microscopy (cryoEM) to determine the structure of tubular assemblies of the HIV-1 CA-SP1-NC protein. Relative to the mature assembled CA structure, we observed a marked conformational difference in the position of the CA-CTD relative to the NTD in the CA-SP1-NC assembly, involving the flexible hinge connecting the two domains. This difference was verified via engineered disulfide crosslinking, revealing that inter-hexamer contacts, in particular those at the pseudo three-fold axis, are altered in the CA-SP1-NC assemblies compared to the CA assemblies. Results from crosslinking analyses of mature and immature HIV-1 particles containing the same Cys substitutions in the Gag protein are consistent with these findings. We further show that cleavage of preassembled CA-SP1-NC by HIV-1 protease in vitro leads to release of SP1 and NC without disassembly of the lattice. Collectively, our results indicate that the proteolytic cleavage of Gag leads to a structural reorganization of the polypeptide and creates the three-fold interhexamer interface, important for the formation of infectious HIV-1 particles. PMID:22927821

  11. Control of HIV-1 in Elite Suppressors despite Ongoing Replication and Evolution in Plasma Virus▿

    PubMed Central

    O'Connell, Karen A.; Brennan, Timothy P.; Bailey, Justin R.; Ray, Stuart C.; Siliciano, Robert F.; Blankson, Joel N.

    2010-01-01

    A subset of HIV-1-infected patients known as elite controllers or suppressors (ES) control the virus naturally. We have previously demonstrated sequence discordance between proviral and plasma gag clones in ES, much of which can be attributed to selective pressure from the host (J. R. Bailey, T. M. Williams, R. F. Siliciano, and J. N. Blankson, J. Exp. Med. 203:1357-1369, 2006). However, it is not clear whether ongoing viral replication continues in ES once the control of viremia has been established or whether selective pressure impacts this evolution. The cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) response in ES often targets Gag and frequently is superior to that of HIV-1 progressors, partially due to the HLA class I alleles B*57/5801 and B*27, which are overrepresented in ES. We therefore examined longitudinal plasma and proviral gag sequences from HLA-B*57/5801 and -B*27 ES. Despite the highly conserved nature of gag, we observed clear evidence of evolution in the plasma virus, largely due to synonymous substitutions. In contrast, evolution was rare in proviral clones, suggesting that ongoing replication in ES does not permit the significant reseeding of the latent reservoir. Interestingly, there was little continual evolution in CTL epitopes, and we detected de novo CTL responses to autologous viral mutants. Thus, some ES control viremia despite ongoing replication and evolution. PMID:20444904

  12. Rational Development of Radiopharmaceuticals for HIV-1

    PubMed Central

    Lau, Chuen-Yen; Maldarelli, Frank; Eckelman, William C; Neumann, Ronald D

    2014-01-01

    The global battle against HIV-1 would benefit from a sensitive and specific radiopharmaceutical to localize HIV-infected cells. Ideally, this probe would be able to identify latently infected host cells containing replication competent HIV sequences. Clinical and research applications would include assessment of reservoirs, informing clinical management by facilitating assessment of burden of infection in different compartments, monitoring disease progression and monitoring response to therapy. A “rational” development approach could facilitate efficient identification of an appropriate targeted radiopharmaceutical. Rational development starts with understanding characteristics of the disease that can be effectively targeted and then engineering radiopharmaceuticals to hone in on an appropriate target, which in the case of HIV-1 (HIV) might be an HIV-specific product on or in the host cell, a differentially expressed gene product, an integrated DNA sequence specific enzymatic activity, part of the inflammatory response, or a combination of these. This is different from the current approach that starts with a radiopharmaceutical for a target associated with a disease, mostly from autopsy studies, without a strong rationale for the potential to impact patient care. At present, no targeted therapies are available for HIV latency, although a number of approaches are under study. Here we discuss requirements for a radiopharmaceutical useful in strategies targeting persistently infected cells. The radiopharmaceutical for HIV should be developed based on HIV biology, studied in an animal model and then in humans, and ultimately used in clinical and research settings. PMID:24607432

  13. HIV-1 reservoirs in breast milk and challenges to elimination of breast-feeding transmission of HIV-1.

    PubMed

    Van de Perre, Philippe; Rubbo, Pierre-Alain; Viljoen, Johannes; Nagot, Nicolas; Tylleskär, Thorkild; Lepage, Philippe; Vendrell, Jean-Pierre; Tuaillon, Edouard

    2012-07-18

    By compensating for the relative immaturity of the neonatal immune system, breast milk and breast-feeding prevent deaths in children. Nevertheless, transmission of HIV-1 through breast-feeding is responsible for more than half of new pediatric HIV infections. Recent studies of possible HIV-1 reservoirs in breast milk shed new light on features that influence HIV-1 transmission through breast-feeding. The particular characteristics of breast milk CD4(+) T cells that distinguish them from circulating blood lymphocytes (high frequency of cell activation and expression of memory and mucosal homing markers) facilitate the establishment of HIV-1 replication. Breast milk also contains a plethora of factors with anti-infectious, immunomodulatory, or anti-inflammatory properties that can regulate both viral replication and infant susceptibility. In addition, CD8(+) T lymphocytes, macrophages, and epithelial cells in breast milk can alter the dynamics of HIV-1 transmission. Even during efficient antiretroviral therapy, a residual stable, CD4(+) T cell-associated reservoir of HIV-1 is persistently present in breast milk, a likely source of infection. Only prophylactic treatment in infants--ideally with a long-acting drug, administered for the entire duration of breast-feeding--is likely to protect HIV-exposed babies against all forms of HIV transmission from breast milk, including cell-to-cell viral transfer.

  14. Mutations in the spacer peptide and adjoining sequences in Rous sarcoma virus Gag lead to tubular budding.

    PubMed

    Keller, Paul W; Johnson, Marc C; Vogt, Volker M

    2008-07-01

    All orthoretroviruses encode a single structural protein, Gag, which is necessary and sufficient for the assembly and budding of enveloped virus-like particles from the cell. The Gag proteins of Rous sarcoma virus (RSV) and human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) contain a short spacer peptide (SP or SP1, respectively) separating the capsid (CA) and nucleocapsid (NC) domains. SP or SP1 and the residues immediately upstream are known to be critical for proper assembly. Using mutagenesis and electron microscopy analysis of insect cells or chicken cells overexpressing RSV Gag, we defined the SP assembly domain to include the last 8 residues of CA, all 12 residues of SP, and the first 4 residues of NC. Five- or two-amino acid glycine-rich insertions or substitutions in this critical region uniformly resulted in the budding of abnormal, long tubular particles. The equivalent SP1-containing HIV-1 Gag sequence was unable to functionally replace the RSV sequence in supporting normal RSV spherical assembly. According to secondary structure predictions, RSV and HIV-1 SP/SP1 and adjoining residues may form an alpha helix, and what is likely the functionally equivalent sequence in murine leukemia virus Gag has been inferred by mutational analysis to form an amphipathic alpha helix. However, our alanine insertion mutagenesis did not provide evidence for an amphipathic helix in RSV Gag. Taken together, these results define a short assembly domain between the folded portions of CA and NC, which is essential for formation of the immature Gag shell.

  15. Comprehensive epitope analysis of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-specific T-cell responses directed against the entire expressed HIV-1 genome demonstrate broadly directed responses, but no correlation to viral load.

    PubMed

    Addo, M M; Yu, X G; Rathod, A; Cohen, D; Eldridge, R L; Strick, D; Johnston, M N; Corcoran, C; Wurcel, A G; Fitzpatrick, C A; Feeney, M E; Rodriguez, W R; Basgoz, N; Draenert, R; Stone, David R; Brander, C; Goulder, P J R; Rosenberg, E S; Altfeld, M; Walker, B D

    2003-02-01

    Cellular immune responses play a critical role in the control of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1); however, the breadth of these responses at the single-epitope level has not been comprehensively assessed. We therefore screened peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from 57 individuals at different stages of HIV-1 infection for virus-specific T-cell responses using a matrix of 504 overlapping peptides spanning all expressed HIV-1 proteins in a gamma interferon-enzyme-linked immunospot (Elispot) assay. HIV-1-specific T-cell responses were detectable in all study subjects, with a median of 14 individual epitopic regions targeted per person (range, 2 to 42), and all 14 HIV-1 protein subunits were recognized. HIV-1 p24-Gag and Nef contained the highest epitope density and were also the most frequently recognized HIV-1 proteins. The total magnitude of the HIV-1-specific response ranged from 280 to 25,860 spot-forming cells (SFC)/10(6) PBMC (median, 4,245) among all study participants. However, the number of epitopic regions targeted, the protein subunits recognized, and the total magnitude of HIV-1-specific responses varied significantly among the tested individuals, with the strongest and broadest responses detectable in individuals with untreated chronic HIV-1 infection. Neither the breadth nor the magnitude of the total HIV-1-specific CD8+-T-cell responses correlated with plasma viral load. We conclude that a peptide matrix-based Elispot assay allows for rapid, sensitive, specific, and efficient assessment of cellular immune responses directed against the entire expressed HIV-1 genome. These data also suggest that the impact of T-cell responses on control of viral replication cannot be explained by the mere quantification of the magnitude and breadth of the CD8+-T-cell response, even if a comprehensive pan-genome screening approach is applied.

  16. Developing strategies for HIV-1 eradication

    PubMed Central

    Durand, Christine M.; Blankson, Joel N.; Siliciano, Robert F.

    2014-01-01

    Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) suppresses HIV-1 replication, transforming the outlook for infected patients. However, reservoirs of replication-competent forms of the virus persist during HAART, and when treatment is stopped, high rates of HIV-1 replication return. Recent insights into HIV-1 latency, as well as a report that HIV-1 infection was eradicated in one individual, have renewed interest in finding a cure for HIV-1 infection. Strategies for HIV-1 eradication include gene therapy and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, stimulating host immunity to control HIV-1 replication, and targeting latent HIV-1 in resting memory CD4+ T cells. Future efforts should aim to provide better understanding of how to reconstitute the CD4+ T cell compartment with genetically engineered cells, exert immune control over HIV-1 replication, and identify and eliminate all viral reservoirs. PMID:22867874

  17. Effects of Gag mutation and processing on retroviral dimeric RNA maturation.

    PubMed

    Fu, William; Dang, Que; Nagashima, Kunio; Freed, Eric O; Pathak, Vinay K; Hu, Wei-Shau

    2006-02-01

    After their release from host cells, most retroviral particles undergo a maturation process, which includes viral protein cleavage, core condensation, and increased stability of the viral RNA dimer. Inactivating the viral protease prevents protein cleavage; the resulting virions lack condensed cores and contain fragile RNA dimers. Therefore, protein cleavage is linked to virion morphological change and increased stability of the RNA dimer. However, it is unclear whether protein cleavage is sufficient for mediating virus RNA maturation. We have observed a novel phenotype in a murine leukemia virus capsid mutant, which has normal virion production, viral protein cleavage, and RNA packaging. However, this mutant also has immature virion morphology and contains a fragile RNA dimer, which is reminiscent of protease-deficient mutants. To our knowledge, this mutant provides the first evidence that Gag cleavage alone is not sufficient to promote RNA dimer maturation. To extend our study further, we examined a well-defined human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) Gag mutant that lacks a functional PTAP motif and produces immature virions without major defects in viral protein cleavage. We found that the viral RNA dimer in the PTAP mutant is more fragile and unstable compared with those from wild-type HIV-1. Based on the results of experiments using two different Gag mutants from two distinct retroviruses, we conclude that Gag cleavage is not sufficient for promoting RNA dimer maturation, and we propose that there is a link between the maturation of virion morphology and the viral RNA dimer.

  18. The HIV-1 Nucleocapsid Protein Recruits Negatively Charged Lipids To Ensure Its Optimal Binding to Lipid Membranes

    PubMed Central

    Kempf, Noémie; Postupalenko, Viktoriia; Bora, Saurabh; Didier, Pascal; Arntz, Youri; de Rocquigny, Hugues

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT The HIV-1 Gag polyprotein precursor composed of the matrix (MA), capsid (CA), nucleocapsid (NC), and p6 domains orchestrates virus assembly via interactions between MA and the cell plasma membrane (PM) on one hand and NC and the genomic RNA on the other hand. As the Gag precursor can adopt a bent conformation, a potential interaction of the NC domain with the PM cannot be excluded during Gag assembly at the PM. To investigate the possible interaction of NC with lipid membranes in the absence of any interference from the other domains of Gag, we quantitatively characterized by fluorescence spectroscopy the binding of the mature NC protein to large unilamellar vesicles (LUVs) used as membrane models. We found that NC, either in its free form or bound to an oligonucleotide, was binding with high affinity (∼107 M−1) to negatively charged LUVs. The number of NC binding sites, but not the binding constant, was observed to decrease with the percentage of negatively charged lipids in the LUV composition, suggesting that NC and NC/oligonucleotide complexes were able to recruit negatively charged lipids to ensure optimal binding. However, in contrast to MA, NC did not exhibit a preference for phosphatidylinositol-(4,5)-bisphosphate. These results lead us to propose a modified Gag assembly model where the NC domain contributes to the initial binding of the bent form of Gag to the PM. IMPORTANCE The NC protein is a highly conserved nucleic acid binding protein that plays numerous key roles in HIV-1 replication. While accumulating evidence shows that NC either as a mature protein or as a domain of the Gag precursor also interacts with host proteins, only a few data are available on the possible interaction of NC with lipid membranes. Interestingly, during HIV-1 assembly, the Gag precursor is thought to adopt a bent conformation where the NC domain may interact with the plasma membrane. In this context, we quantitatively characterized the binding of NC, as a free

  19. The HIV-1 capsid protein as a drug target: recent advances and future prospects.

    PubMed

    Domenech, Rosa; Neira, José L

    2013-12-01

    HIV-1, the agent responsible for AIDS, belongs to the retrovirus family. Assembly of the immature HIV-1 capsid occurs through the controlled polymerization of the Gag polyprotein, which is transported to the plasma membrane of infected cells, where morphogenesis of the immature, non-infectious virion occurs. Moreover, the mature capsid of HIV-1 is formed by the assembly of copies of the capsid protein (CA), which results, among other proteins, from cleavage of Gag. The C-terminal domain of CA (CTD) can homodimerize, and most of the dimerization interface is formed by a single α-helix from each monomer. Assembly of the HIV-1 capsid critically depends on CA-CA interactions, including CTD interaction with itself and with the N-terminal domain of CA (NTD). This review will report on recent advances for the search of small organic compounds and peptides that have been designed in the last four years to hamper CA assembly. Most of the molecules have been proved to interact with CA; such molecules aim to disrupt and/or alter the oligomerization capability of CTD and/or NTD.

  20. The PTAP sequence within the p6 domain of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Gag regulates its ubiquitination and MHC class I antigen presentation.

    PubMed

    Hahn, Sabine; Setz, Christian; Wild, Julia; Schubert, Ulrich

    2011-05-15

    Endogenous peptides presented by MHC class I (MHC-I) molecules are mostly derived from de novo synthesized, erroneous proteins, so-called defective ribosomal products (DRiPs), which are rapidly degraded via the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. We have previously shown that the HIV-1 Gag protein represents a bona fide substrate for the DRiP pathway and that the amount of Gag-DRiPs can be enhanced by the introduction of an N-end rule degradation signal, leading to increased MHC-I presentation and immunogenicity of Gag. Based on these findings, we sought to identify a naturally occurring sequence motif within Gag that regulates its entry into the DRiP pathway. As the PTAP late assembly domain motif in the C-terminal p6 domain of Gag has been shown to negatively regulate the ubiquitination of Gag, we analyzed the correlation between ubiquitination and MHC-I presentation of PTAP-deficient Gag. Intriguingly, mutation of PTAP not only reduces the release of virus-like particles, but also increases ubiquitination of Gag and, consistently, enhances MHC-I presentation of a Gag-derived epitope. Although the half-life of the PTAP mutant was only mildly reduced, the entry into the DRiP pathway was significantly increased, as demonstrated by short-term pulse-chase analyses under proteasome inhibition. Collectively, these results indicate that, besides driving virus release, the PTAP motif regulates the entry of Gag into the DRiP pathway and, thus, into the MHC-I pathway. Although there are no naturally occurring PTAP mutants of HIV-1, mutations of PTAP might enhance the immunogenicity of Gag and, thus, be considered for the improvement of vaccine development.

  1. Cleavage of eIF4G by HIV-1 protease: effects on translation.

    PubMed

    Perales, Celia; Carrasco, Luis; Ventoso, Iván

    2003-01-02

    We have recently reported that HIV-1 protease (PR) cleaves the initiation factor of translation eIF4GI [Ventoso et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 98 (2001) 12966-12971]. Here, we analyze the proteolytic activity of HIV-1 PR on eIF4GI and eIF4GII and its implications for the translation of mRNAs. HIV-1 PR efficiently cleaves eIF4GI, but not eIF4GII, in cell-free systems as well as in transfected mammalian cells. This specific proteolytic activity of the retroviral protease on eIF4GI was more selective than that observed with poliovirus 2A(pro). Despite the presence of an intact endogenous eIF4GII, cleavage of eIF4GI by HIV-1 PR was sufficient to impair drastically the translation of capped and uncapped mRNAs. In contrast, poliovirus IRES-driven translation was unaffected or even enhanced by HIV-1 PR after cleavage of eIF4GI. Further support for these in vitro results has been provided by the expression of HIV-1 PR in COS cells from a Gag-PR precursor. Our present findings suggest that eIF4GI intactness is necessary to maintain cap-dependent translation, not only in cell-free systems but also in mammalian cells.

  2. Epigenetic analysis of HIV-1 proviral genomes from infected individuals: predominance of unmethylated CpG's.